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Sample records for depletion events mdes

  1. Regret causes ego-depletion and finding benefits in the regrettable events alleviates ego-depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hongmei; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Fang; Xu, Yan; Hong, Ying-Yi; Jiang, Jiang

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the hypotheses that experiencing regret would result in ego-depletion, while finding benefits (i.e., "silver linings") in the regret-eliciting events counteracted the ego-depletion effect. Using a modified gambling paradigm (Experiments 1, 2, and 4) and a retrospective method (Experiments 3 and 5), five experiments were conducted to induce regret. Results revealed that experiencing regret undermined performance on subsequent tasks, including a paper-and-pencil calculation task (Experiment 1), a Stroop task (Experiment 2), and a mental arithmetic task (Experiment 3). Furthermore, finding benefits in the regret-eliciting events improved subsequent performance (Experiments 4 and 5), and this improvement was mediated by participants' perceived vitality (Experiment 4). This study extended the depletion model of self-regulation by considering emotions with self-conscious components (in our case, regret). Moreover, it provided a comprehensive understanding of how people felt and performed after experiencing regret and after finding benefits in the events that caused the regret.

  2. Gadolinium depletion event in a CANDU® moderator - causes and recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, D.W.; Price, J.; Swami, D.; Fracalanza, E.; Brett, M.E.; Puzzuoli, F.V.; Garg, A. [Ontario Power Generation, Pickering, Ontario (Canada); Herrmann, O.; Rudolph, A. [Kinectrics Inc., Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Stuart, C.; Glowa, G. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Smee, J. [Niagara Technical Consultants, St. Catharines, Ontario (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Gadolinium nitrate is added to the moderator of CANDU units to maintain the reactor in a guaranteed shutdown state (GSS). In April 2008, after being in stable GSS for over 30 hours, one of Ontario Power Generation's Pickering-B units showed a gradual depletion of the dissolved gadolinium, despite purification being isolated. Further additions of gadolinium stabilized the moderator gadolinium concentration, however, since the root cause of the depletion was not immediately identified, the unit was placed in the drained shutdown state, per established procedures. The cumulative gadolinium depletion amounted to about 3200 grams, the equivalent of about 12 ppm. Analysis showed the presence of oxalate in the moderator water. It is well-known that gadolinium forms a very insoluble oxalate (log K{sub sp} = -29.1). Although sub-micron filtration of water samples did not show the presence of gadolinium particulate, the measured levels of oxalate, 1.2 to 2 ppm, were sufficient to react with 1.4 to 2.4 ppm of gadolinium. The source of oxalate was traced to radiolysis of dissolved CO{sub 2} species. This unit had been experiencing chronic low-level ingress of CO{sub 2} from the Annulus Gas System. Free oxalate ion is normally susceptible to radiolytic breakdown back to CO{sub 2}, but Gd{sup 3+} provides a stable sink for radiogenic oxalate, 2 Gd{sup 3+} + 3 C{sub 2}O{sub 4}{sup 2-} → Gd{sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}. Subsequent testing confirmed that gadolinium oxalate is quite stable with respect to gamma irradiation. Inspections showed well-crystallized gadolinium oxalate deposited on moderator system surfaces. Estimates indicated that about 1200 grams of gadolinium could have deposited on in-core surfaces, including the outside of the calandria tubes. That amount of negative reactivity was a concern, since it would prevent re-start of the unit. OPG, with support from AECL-Chalk River and Kinectrics, embarked on a two-pronged chemistry recovery program aimed at 1

  3. Mid-latitude Ozone Depletion Events Caused by Halogens from the Great Salt Lake in Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fibiger, D. L.; Goldberger, L.; Womack, C.; McDuffie, E. E.; Dube, W. P.; Franchin, A.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Thornton, J. A.; Brown, S. S.

    2017-12-01

    Halogens are highly reactive chemicals and play an important role in atmospheric chemistry. They can be involved in many cycles which influence the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere, including through destruction of ozone (O3). While the influence of halogens on O3 is well documented in the arctic, there are very few observations of O3 depletion driven by halogens in the mid-latitudes. To date, the most comprehensive study observed co-occurring plumes of BrO and depleted O3 near the Dead Sea in 1997. During the Utah Wintertime Fine Particulate Study (UWFPS) in winter 2017, simultaneous measurements of a comprehensive suite of halogen measurements by I- chemical ionization mass spectrometry and O3 from cavity ring-down spectroscopy, both at 1-second time resolution, were taken on a NOAA Twin Otter Aircraft over the Great Salt Lake and in the surrounding valleys. Many O3 depletion events were observed over the lake with O3 values sometimes below the instrument detection limit of 0.5 ppbv. Corresponding increases in BrO and/or ClO were observed. Many of these events were caused by extremely high levels of halogens (up to 1 ppmv Cl2) emitted from the U.S. Magnesium plant on the edge of the lake. The O3 depletion caused by U.S. Magnesium was usually isolated to a distinct vertical layer, but in other cases O3 depletion was vertically mixed and the origin of halogen activation was not immediately clear. The most complete O3 depletion was observed over the lake, but there were smaller events of a few ppbv observed in the adjacent valleys, including the highly populated Salt Lake Valley, with corresponding plumes of BrO and ClO, due to transport from the lake. Additionally, meteorology played a role in the observed O3 depletion. The strongest O3 depletion was observed during inversion events, when there is a low boundary layer and little mixing out of the air above the lake. During non-inversion conditions, only small depletions were observed, covering a much smaller

  4. Gaseous elemental mercury depletion events observed at Cape Point during 2007–2008

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    E.-G. Brunke

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Gaseous mercury in the marine boundary layer has been measured with a 15 min temporal resolution at the Global Atmosphere Watch station Cape Point since March 2007. The most prominent features of the data until July 2008 are the frequent occurrences of pollution (PEs and depletion events (DEs. Both types of events originate mostly within a short transport distance (up to about 100 km, which are embedded in air masses ranging from marine background to continental. The Hg/CO emission ratios observed during the PEs are within the range reported for biomass burning and industrial/urban emissions. The depletion of gaseous mercury during the DEs is in many cases almost complete and suggests an atmospheric residence time of elemental mercury as short as a few dozens of hours, which is in contrast to the commonly used estimate of approximately 1 year. The DEs observed at Cape Point are not accompanied by simultaneous depletion of ozone which distinguishes them from the halogen driven atmospheric mercury depletion events (AMDEs observed in Polar Regions. Nonetheless, DEs similar to those observed at Cape Point have also been observed at other places in the marine boundary layer. Additional measurements of mercury speciation and of possible mercury oxidants are hence called for to reveal the chemical mechanism of the newly observed DEs and to assess its importance on larger scales.

  5. Interplanetary Parameters Leading to Relativistic Electron Enhancement and Persistent Depletion Events at Geosynchronous Orbit and Potential for Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Victor A.; Kim, Hee-Jeong; Lyons, Larry R.; Bortnik, Jacob

    2018-02-01

    We have identified 61 relativistic electron enhancement events and 21 relativistic electron persistent depletion events during 1996 to 2006 from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) 8 and 10 using data from the Energetic Particle Sensor (EPS) >2 MeV fluxes. We then performed a superposed epoch time analysis of the events to find the characteristic solar wind parameters that determine the occurrence of such events, using the OMNI database. We found that there are clear differences between the enhancement events and the persistent depletion events, and we used these to establish a set of threshold values in solar wind speed, proton density and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) Bz that can potentially be useful to predict sudden increases in flux. Persistent depletion events are characterized by a low solar wind speed, a sudden increase in proton density that remains elevated for a few days, and a northward turning of IMF Bz shortly after the depletion starts. We have also found that all relativistic electron enhancement or persistent depletion events occur when some geomagnetic disturbance is present, either a coronal mass ejection or a corotational interaction region; however, the storm index, SYM-H, does not show a strong connection with relativistic electron enhancement events or persistent depletion events. We have tested a simple threshold method for predictability of relativistic electron enhancement events using data from GOES 11 for the years 2007-2010 and found that around 90% of large increases in electron fluxes can be identified with this method.

  6. Sedimentary constraints on the duration of the Marinoan Oxygen-17 Depletion (MOSD) event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killingsworth, Bryan A.; Hayles, Justin A.; Zhou, Chuanming; Bao, Huiming

    2013-10-01

    The ∼635 Ma Marinoan glaciation is marked by dramatic Earth system perturbations. Deposition of nonmass-dependently 17O-depleted sulfate (SO42-) in worldwide postglacial sediments is, thus far, unique to this glaciation. It is proposed that an extremely high-pCO2 atmosphere can result in highly 17O-depleted atmospheric O2, or the Marinoan Oxygen-17 Depletion (MOSD) event. This anomalous 17O signal was imparted to sulfate of oxidative weathering origin. However, 17O-depleted sulfate occurs in limited sedimentary intervals, suggesting that Earth surface conditions conducive to the MOSD had a finite duration. An MOSD duration can, therefore, provide much needed constraint on modeling Earth system responses at that time. Unfortunately, the sulfate 17O record is often sparse or lacks radiometric dates. Here, we report 11 barite layers from a post-Marinoan dolostone sequence at Wushanhu in the South China Block. The 17O depletion fluctuates in magnitude in lower layers but is persistently absent up section, providing the most confident first and last sedimentary appearance of the anomaly. δ13C chemostratigraphy is used to correlate the Wushanhu section to two proximal sections on the same shallow platform that lack barite layers but have published U-Pb dates that occur in dolostone and shale. Assuming a similar pattern and rate for carbonate and shale deposition among the different sections, we estimate the MOSD duration at 0-0.99 My. This number can be further constrained by new radiometric dates from equivalent sequences worldwide, thus underpinning models on the nonsteady-state Earth system response in the immediate aftermath of the Marinoan meltdown.

  7. Vertical structure of Antarctic tropospheric ozone depletion events: characteristics and broader implications

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    A. E. Jones

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The majority of tropospheric ozone depletion event (ODE studies have focussed on time-series measurements, with comparatively few studies of the vertical component. Those that exist have almost exclusively used free-flying balloon-borne ozonesondes and almost all have been conducted in the Arctic. Here we use measurements from two separate Antarctic field experiments to examine the vertical profile of ozone during Antarctic ODEs. We use tethersonde data to probe details in the lowest few hundred meters and find considerable structure in the profiles associated with complex atmospheric layering. The profiles were all measured at wind speeds less than 7 ms−1, and on each occasion the lowest inversion height lay between 10 m and 40 m. We also use data from a free-flying ozonesonde study to select events where ozone depletion was recorded at altitudes >1 km above ground level. Using ERA-40 meteorological charts, we find that on every occasion the high altitude depletion was preceded by an atmospheric low pressure system. An examination of limited published ozonesonde data from other Antarctic stations shows this to be a consistent feature. Given the link between BrO and ODEs, we also examine ground-based and satellite BrO measurements and find a strong association between atmospheric low pressure systems and enhanced BrO that must arise in the troposphere. The results suggest that, in Antarctica, such depressions are responsible for driving high altitude ODEs and for generating the large-scale BrO clouds observed from satellites. In the Arctic, the prevailing meteorology differs from that in Antarctica, but, while a less common effect, major low pressure systems in the Arctic can also generate BrO clouds. Such depressions thus appear to be fundamental when considering the broader influence of ODEs, certainly in Antarctica, such as halogen export and the radiative influence of ozone-depleted air masses.

  8. The potential importance of frost flowers, recycling on snow, and open leads for ozone depletion events

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    M. Piot

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available We present model studies with the one-dimensional model MISTRA to investigate the potential role of frost flowers, recycling on snow, and open leads in the depletion of tropospheric ozone in the Arctic spring. In our model, we assumed frost flower aerosols to be the major source of bromine. We show that a major ozone depletion event can be satisfactorily reproduced only if the recycling on snow of deposited bromine into gas phase bromine is assumed. In the model, this cycling is more efficient than the bromine explosion process and maintains sufficiently high levels of bromine to deplete ozone down to few nmol mol−1 within four days. We assessed the influence of different surface combinations (open lead/frost flowers on the chemistry in the model. Results showed noticeable modifications affecting the composition of aerosols and the deposition velocities. A model run with a series of coupled frost flower fields and open leads, separated by large areas of snow, showed results comparable with field observations. In addition, we studied the effects of modified temperature of either the frost flower field or the ambient airmass. A warmer frost flower field increases the relative humidity and the aerosol deposition rate. The deposition/re-emission process gains in importance, inducing more reactive bromine in the gas phase, and a stronger ozone depletion. A decrease of 1K in airmass temperature shows in our model that the aerosol uptake capacities of all gas phase species substantially increases, leading to enhanced uptake of acids from the gas phase. Consequently, the so-called bromine explosion accelerated and O3 mixing ratios decreased. In our model representation, variations in wind speed affected the aerosol source function and influenced the amount of bromine in the atmosphere and thus the ozone depletion strength. Recent studies have suggested the important role of the precipitation of calcium carbonate (CaCO3

  9. Mercury fluxes over an Australian alpine grassland and observation of nocturnal atmospheric mercury depletion events

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    D. Howard

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerodynamic gradient measurements of the air–surface exchange of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM were undertaken over a 40 ha alpine grassland in Australia's Snowy Mountains region across a 3-week period during the late austral summer. Bi-directional GEM fluxes were observed throughout the study, with overall mean value of 0.2 ± 14.5 ng m−2 h−1 and mean nocturnal fluxes of −1.5 ± 7.8 ng m−2 h−1 compared to diurnal fluxes of 1.8 ± 18.6 ng m−2 h−1. Deposition velocities ranged from −2.2 to 2.9 cm s−1, whilst ambient GEM concentrations throughout the study were 0.59 ± 0.10 ng m−3. Cumulative GEM fluxes correlated well with 24 h running mean soil temperatures, and one precipitation event was shown to have a positive impact on diurnal emission fluxes. The underlying vegetation had largely senesced and showed little stomatal control on fluxes. Nocturnal atmospheric mercury depletion events (NAMDEs were observed concomitant with O3 depletion and dew formation under shallow, stable nocturnal boundary layers. A mass balance box model was able to reproduce ambient GEM concentration patterns during NAMDE and non-NAMDE nights without invoking chemical oxidation of GEM throughout the column, indicating a significant role of surface processes controlling deposition in these events. Surface deposition was enhanced under NAMDE nights, though uptake to dew likely represents less than one-fifth of this enhanced deposition. Instead, enhancement of the surface GEM gradient as a result of oxidation at the surface in the presence of dew is hypothesised to be responsible for a large portion of GEM depletion during these particular events. GEM emission pulses following nights with significant deposition provide evidence for the prompt recycling of 17 % of deposited mercury, with the remaining portion retained in surface sinks. The long-term impacts of any sinks are however likely to be minimal, as

  10. Precipitation of salts in freezing seawater and ozone depletion events: a status report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, S.; Marion, G. M.; von Glasow, R.; Voisin, D.; Bouchez, J.; Savarino, J.

    2008-12-01

    In springtime, the polar marine boundary layer exhibits drastic ozone depletion events (ODEs), associated with elevated bromine oxide (BrO) mixing ratios. The current interpretation of this peculiar chemistry requires the existence of acid and bromide-enriched surfaces to heterogeneously promote and sustain ODEs. Sander et al. (2006) have proposed that calcium carbonate (CaCO3) precipitation in any seawater-derived medium could potentially decrease its alkalinity, making it easier for atmospheric acids such as HNO3 and H2SO4 to acidify it. We performed simulations using the state-of-the-art FREZCHEM model, capable of handling the thermodynamics of concentrated electrolyte solutions, to try to reproduce their results, and found that when ikaite (CaCO3·6H2O) rather than calcite (CaCO3) precipitates, there is no such effect on alkalinity. Given that ikaite has recently been identified in Antarctic brines (Dieckmann et al., 2008), our results show that great caution should be exercised when using the results of Sander et al. (2006), and reveal the urgent need of laboratory investigations on the actual link(s) between bromine activation and the pH of the surfaces on which it is supposed to take place at subzero temperature. In addition, the evolution of the Cl/Br ratio in the brine during freezing was computed using FREZCHEM, taking into account Br substitutions in Cl-containing salts.

  11. A synthesis of atmospheric mercury depletion event chemistry in the atmosphere and snow

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    A. J. Poulain

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available It was discovered in 1995 that, during the spring time, unexpectedly low concentrations of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM occurred in the Arctic air. This was surprising for a pollutant known to have a long residence time in the atmosphere; however conditions appeared to exist in the Arctic that promoted this depletion of mercury (Hg. This phenomenon is termed atmospheric mercury depletion events (AMDEs and its discovery has revolutionized our understanding of the cycling of Hg in Polar Regions while stimulating a significant amount of research to understand its impact to this fragile ecosystem. Shortly after the discovery was made in Canada, AMDEs were confirmed to occur throughout the Arctic, sub-Artic and Antarctic coasts. It is now known that, through a series of photochemically initiated reactions involving halogens, GEM is converted to a more reactive species and is subsequently associated to particles in the air and/or deposited to the polar environment. AMDEs are a means by which Hg is transferred from the atmosphere to the environment that was previously unknown. In this article we review Hg research taken place in Polar Regions pertaining to AMDEs, the methods used to collect Hg in different environmental media, research results of the current understanding of AMDEs from field, laboratory and modeling work, how Hg cycles around the environment after AMDEs, gaps in our current knowledge and the future impacts that AMDEs may have on polar environments. The research presented has shown that while considerable improvements in methodology to measure Hg have been made but the main limitation remains knowing the speciation of Hg in the various media. The processes that drive AMDEs and how they occur are discussed. As well, the role that the snow pack and the sea ice play in the cycling of Hg is presented. It has been found that deposition of Hg from AMDEs occurs at marine coasts and not far inland and that a fraction of the deposited Hg does

  12. Precipitation of salts in freezing seawater and ozone depletion events: a status report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Morin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In springtime, the polar marine boundary layer exhibits drastic ozone depletion events (ODEs, associated with elevated bromine oxide (BrO mixing ratios. The current interpretation of this peculiar chemistry requires the existence of acid and bromide-enriched surfaces to heterogeneously promote and sustain ODEs. Sander et al. (2006 have proposed that calcium carbonate (CaCO3 precipitation in any seawater-derived medium could potentially decrease its alkalinity, making it easier for atmospheric acids such as HNO3 and H2SO4 to acidify it. We performed simulations using the state-of-the-art FREZCHEM model, capable of handling the thermodynamics of concentrated electrolyte solutions, to try to reproduce their results, and found that when ikaite (CaCO3·6H2O rather than calcite (CaCO3 precipitates, there is no such effect on alkalinity. Given that ikaite has recently been identified in Antarctic brines (Dieckmann et al., 2008, our results show that great caution should be exercised when using the results of Sander et al. (2006, and reveal the urgent need of laboratory investigations on the actual link(s between bromine activation and the pH of the surfaces on which it is supposed to take place at subzero temperature. In addition, the evolution of the Cl/Br ratio in the brine during freezing was computed using FREZCHEM, taking into account Br substitutions in Cl–containing salts.

  13. Depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huffer, E.; Nifenecker, H.

    2001-02-01

    This document deals with the physical, chemical and radiological properties of the depleted uranium. What is the depleted uranium? Why do the military use depleted uranium and what are the risk for the health? (A.L.B.)

  14. Sensitivity of the Reaction Mechanism of the Ozone Depletion Events during the Arctic Spring on the Initial Atmospheric Composition of the Troposphere

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    Le Cao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ozone depletion events (ODEs during the Arctic spring have been investigated since the 1980s. It was found that the depletion of ozone is highly associated with the release of halogens, especially bromine containing compounds. These compounds originate from various substrates such as the ice/snow-covered surfaces in Arctic. In the present study, the dependence of the mixing ratios of ozone and principal bromine species during ODEs on the initial composition of the Arctic atmospheric boundary layer was investigated by using a concentration sensitivity analysis. This analysis was performed by implementing a reaction mechanism representing the ozone depletion and halogen release in the box model KINAL (KInetic aNALysis of reaction mechanics. The ratios between the relative change of the mixing ratios of particular species such as ozone and the variation in the initial concentration of each atmospheric component were calculated, which indicate the relative importance of each initial species in the chemical kinetic system. The results of the computations show that the impact of various chemical species is different for ozone and bromine containing compounds during the depletion of ozone. It was found that CH3CHO critically controls the time scale of the complete removal of ozone. However, the rate of the ozone loss and the maximum values of bromine species are only slightly influenced by the initial value of CH3CHO. In addition, according to the concentration sensitivity analysis, the reduction of initial Br2 was found to cause a significant retardant of the ODE while the initial mixing ratio of HBr exerts minor influence on both ozone and bromine species. In addition, it is also interesting to note that the increase of C2H2 would significantly raise the amount of HOBr and Br in the atmosphere while the ozone depletion is hardly changed.

  15. Polar boundary layer bromine explosion and ozone depletion events in the chemistry-climate model EMAC v2.52: implementation and evaluation of AirSnow algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Stefanie; Sinnhuber, Björn-Martin

    2018-03-01

    Ozone depletion events (ODEs) in the polar boundary layer have been observed frequently during springtime. They are related to events of boundary layer enhancement of bromine. Consequently, increased amounts of boundary layer volume mixing ratio (VMR) and vertical column densities (VCDs) of BrO have been observed by in situ observation, ground-based as well as airborne remote sensing, and from satellites. These so-called bromine explosion (BE) events have been discussed serving as a source of tropospheric BrO at high latitudes, which has been underestimated in global models so far. We have implemented a treatment of bromine release and recycling on sea-ice- and snow-covered surfaces in the global chemistry-climate model EMAC (ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry) based on the scheme of Toyota et al. (2011). In this scheme, dry deposition fluxes of HBr, HOBr, and BrNO3 over ice- and snow-covered surfaces are recycled into Br2 fluxes. In addition, dry deposition of O3, dependent on temperature and sunlight, triggers a Br2 release from surfaces associated with first-year sea ice. Many aspects of observed bromine enhancements and associated episodes of near-complete depletion of boundary layer ozone, both in the Arctic and in the Antarctic, are reproduced by this relatively simple approach. We present first results from our global model studies extending over a full annual cycle, including comparisons with Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) satellite BrO VCDs and surface ozone observations.

  16. Polar boundary layer bromine explosion and ozone depletion events in the chemistry–climate model EMAC v2.52: implementation and evaluation of AirSnow algorithm

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    S. Falk

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Ozone depletion events (ODEs in the polar boundary layer have been observed frequently during springtime. They are related to events of boundary layer enhancement of bromine. Consequently, increased amounts of boundary layer volume mixing ratio (VMR and vertical column densities (VCDs of BrO have been observed by in situ observation, ground-based as well as airborne remote sensing, and from satellites. These so-called bromine explosion (BE events have been discussed serving as a source of tropospheric BrO at high latitudes, which has been underestimated in global models so far. We have implemented a treatment of bromine release and recycling on sea-ice- and snow-covered surfaces in the global chemistry–climate model EMAC (ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry based on the scheme of Toyota et al. (2011. In this scheme, dry deposition fluxes of HBr, HOBr, and BrNO3 over ice- and snow-covered surfaces are recycled into Br2 fluxes. In addition, dry deposition of O3, dependent on temperature and sunlight, triggers a Br2 release from surfaces associated with first-year sea ice. Many aspects of observed bromine enhancements and associated episodes of near-complete depletion of boundary layer ozone, both in the Arctic and in the Antarctic, are reproduced by this relatively simple approach. We present first results from our global model studies extending over a full annual cycle, including comparisons with Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME satellite BrO VCDs and surface ozone observations.

  17. The role of bromine and chlorine chemistry for arctic ozone depletion events in Ny-Ålesund and comparison with model calculations

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    M. Martinez

    Full Text Available During the Arctic Tropospheric Ozone Chemistry (ARCTOC campaigns at Ny-Ålesund, Spitsbergen, the role of halogens in the depletion of boundary layer ozone was investigated. In spring 1995 and 1996 up to 30 ppt bromine monoxide were found whenever ozone decreased from normal levels of about 40 ppb. Those main trace gases and others were specifically followed in the UV-VIS spectral region by differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS along light paths running between 20 and 475 m a.s.l.. The daily variation of peroxy radicals closely followed the ozone photolysis rate J(O3(O1D in the absence of ozone depletion most of the time. However, during low ozone events this close correlation was no longer found because the measurement of radicals by chemical amplification (CA turned out to be sensitive to peroxy radicals and ClOx. Large CA signals at night can sometimes definitely be assigned to ClOx and reached up to 2 ppt. Total bromine and iodine were both stripped quantitatively from air by active charcoal traps and measured after neutron activation of the samples. Total bromine increased from background levels of about 15 ppt to a maximum of 90 ppt during an event of complete ozone depletion. For the spring season a strong source of bromine is identified in the pack ice region according to back trajectories. Though biogenic emission sources cannot be completely ruled out, a primary activation of halogenides by various oxidants seems to initiate an efficient autocatalytic process, mainly driven by ozone and light, on ice and perhaps on aerosols. Halogenides residing on pack ice surfaces are continuously oxidised by hypohalogenous acids releasing bromine and chlorine into the air. During transport and especially above open water this air mixes with upper layer pristine air. As large quantities of bromine, often in the form of BrO, have been observed at polar sunrise also around Antarctica, its release

  18. The role of bromine and chlorine chemistry for arctic ozone depletion events in Ny-Ålesund and comparison with model calculations

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    M. Martinez

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available During the Arctic Tropospheric Ozone Chemistry (ARCTOC campaigns at Ny-Ålesund, Spitsbergen, the role of halogens in the depletion of boundary layer ozone was investigated. In spring 1995 and 1996 up to 30 ppt bromine monoxide were found whenever ozone decreased from normal levels of about 40 ppb. Those main trace gases and others were specifically followed in the UV-VIS spectral region by differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS along light paths running between 20 and 475 m a.s.l.. The daily variation of peroxy radicals closely followed the ozone photolysis rate J(O3(O1D in the absence of ozone depletion most of the time. However, during low ozone events this close correlation was no longer found because the measurement of radicals by chemical amplification (CA turned out to be sensitive to peroxy radicals and ClOx. Large CA signals at night can sometimes definitely be assigned to ClOx and reached up to 2 ppt. Total bromine and iodine were both stripped quantitatively from air by active charcoal traps and measured after neutron activation of the samples. Total bromine increased from background levels of about 15 ppt to a maximum of 90 ppt during an event of complete ozone depletion. For the spring season a strong source of bromine is identified in the pack ice region according to back trajectories. Though biogenic emission sources cannot be completely ruled out, a primary activation of halogenides by various oxidants seems to initiate an efficient autocatalytic process, mainly driven by ozone and light, on ice and perhaps on aerosols. Halogenides residing on pack ice surfaces are continuously oxidised by hypohalogenous acids releasing bromine and chlorine into the air. During transport and especially above open water this air mixes with upper layer pristine air. As large quantities of bromine, often in the form of BrO, have been observed at polar sunrise also around Antarctica, its release seems to be a natural phenomenon. The

  19. Depletion of Key Meiotic Genes and Transcriptome-Wide Abiotic Stress Reprogramming Mark Early Preparatory Events Ahead of Apomeiotic Transition

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    Jubin N Shah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Molecular dissection of apomixis - an asexual reproductive mode - is anticipated to solve the enigma of loss of meiotic sex, and to help fixing elite agronomic traits. The Brassicaceae genus Boechera comprises of both sexual and apomictic species, permitting comparative analyses of meiotic circumvention (apomeiosis and parthenogenesis. Whereas previous studies reported local transcriptome changes during these events, it remained unclear whether global changes associated with hybridization, polyploidy and environmental adaptation that arose during evolution of Boechera might hint as (epigenetic regulators of early development prior apomictic initiation. To identify these signatures during vegetative stages, we compared seedling RNA-seq transcriptomes of an obligate triploid apomict and a diploid sexual, both isolated from a drought-prone habitat. Uncovered were several genes differentially expressed between sexual and apomictic seedlings, including homologues of meiotic genes ASYNAPTIC 1 (ASY1 and MULTIPOLAR SPINDLE 1 (MPS1 that were down-regulated in apomicts. An intriguing class of apomict-specific deregulated genes included several NAC transcription factors, homologues of which are known to be transcriptionally reprogrammed during abiotic stress in other plants. Deregulation of both meiotic and stress-response genes during seedling stages might possibly be important in preparation for meiotic circumvention, as similar transcriptional alteration was discernible in apomeiotic floral buds too. Furthermore, we noted that the apomict showed better tolerance to osmotic stress in vitro than the sexual, in conjunction with significant upregulation of a subset of NAC genes. In support of the current model that DNA methylation epigenetically regulates stress, ploidy, hybridization and apomixis, we noted that ASY1, MPS1 and NAC019 homologues were deregulated in Boechera seedlings upon DNA demethylation, and ASY1 in particular seems to be repressed by

  20. The Effects of Acute Dopamine Precursor Depletion on the Cognitive Control Functions of Performance Monitoring and Conflict Processing: An Event-Related Potential (ERP) Study.

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    Larson, Michael J; Clayson, Peter E; Primosch, Mark; Leyton, Marco; Steffensen, Scott C

    2015-01-01

    Studies using medications and psychiatric populations implicate dopamine in cognitive control and performance monitoring processes. However, side effects associated with medication or studying psychiatric groups may confound the relationship between dopamine and cognitive control. To circumvent such possibilities, we utilized a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subjects design wherein participants were administered a nutritionally-balanced amino acid mixture (BAL) and an amino acid mixture deficient in the dopamine precursors tyrosine (TYR) and phenylalanine (PHE) on two separate occasions. Order of sessions was randomly assigned. Cognitive control and performance monitoring were assessed using response times (RT), error rates, the N450, an event-related potential (ERP) index of conflict monitoring, the conflict slow potential (conflict SP), an ERP index of conflict resolution, and the error-related negativity (ERN) and error positivity (Pe), ERPs associated with performance monitoring. Participants were twelve males who completed a Stroop color-word task while ERPs were collected four hours following acute PHE and TYR depletion (APTD) or balanced (BAL) mixture ingestion in two separate sessions. N450 and conflict SP ERP amplitudes significantly differentiated congruent from incongruent trials, but did not differ as a function of APTD or BAL mixture ingestion. Similarly, ERN and Pe amplitudes showed significant differences between error and correct trials that were not different between APTD and BAL conditions. Findings indicate that acute dopamine precursor depletion does not significantly alter cognitive control and performance monitoring ERPs. Current results do not preclude the role of dopamine in these processes, but suggest that multiple methods for dopamine-related hypothesis testing are needed.

  1. The Effects of Acute Dopamine Precursor Depletion on the Cognitive Control Functions of Performance Monitoring and Conflict Processing: An Event-Related Potential (ERP Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Larson

    Full Text Available Studies using medications and psychiatric populations implicate dopamine in cognitive control and performance monitoring processes. However, side effects associated with medication or studying psychiatric groups may confound the relationship between dopamine and cognitive control. To circumvent such possibilities, we utilized a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subjects design wherein participants were administered a nutritionally-balanced amino acid mixture (BAL and an amino acid mixture deficient in the dopamine precursors tyrosine (TYR and phenylalanine (PHE on two separate occasions. Order of sessions was randomly assigned. Cognitive control and performance monitoring were assessed using response times (RT, error rates, the N450, an event-related potential (ERP index of conflict monitoring, the conflict slow potential (conflict SP, an ERP index of conflict resolution, and the error-related negativity (ERN and error positivity (Pe, ERPs associated with performance monitoring. Participants were twelve males who completed a Stroop color-word task while ERPs were collected four hours following acute PHE and TYR depletion (APTD or balanced (BAL mixture ingestion in two separate sessions. N450 and conflict SP ERP amplitudes significantly differentiated congruent from incongruent trials, but did not differ as a function of APTD or BAL mixture ingestion. Similarly, ERN and Pe amplitudes showed significant differences between error and correct trials that were not different between APTD and BAL conditions. Findings indicate that acute dopamine precursor depletion does not significantly alter cognitive control and performance monitoring ERPs. Current results do not preclude the role of dopamine in these processes, but suggest that multiple methods for dopamine-related hypothesis testing are needed.

  2. Derivation of the reduced reaction mechanisms of ozone depletion events in the Arctic spring by using concentration sensitivity analysis and principal component analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Cao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The ozone depletion events (ODEs in the springtime Arctic have been investigated since the 1980s. It is found that the depletion of ozone is highly associated with an auto-catalytic reaction cycle, which involves mostly the bromine-containing compounds. Moreover, bromide stored in various substrates in the Arctic such as the underlying surface covered by ice and snow can be also activated by the absorbed HOBr. Subsequently, this leads to an explosive increase of the bromine amount in the troposphere, which is called the “bromine explosion mechanism”. In the present study, a reaction scheme representing the chemistry of ozone depletion and halogen release is processed with two different mechanism reduction approaches, namely, the concentration sensitivity analysis and the principal component analysis. In the concentration sensitivity analysis, the interdependence of the mixing ratios of ozone and principal bromine species on the rate of each reaction in the ODE mechanism is identified. Furthermore, the most influential reactions in different time periods of ODEs are also revealed. By removing 11 reactions with the maximum absolute values of sensitivities lower than 10 %, a reduced reaction mechanism of ODEs is derived. The onsets of each time period of ODEs in simulations using the original reaction mechanism and the reduced reaction mechanism are identical while the maximum deviation of the mixing ratio of principal bromine species between different mechanisms is found to be less than 1 %. By performing the principal component analysis on an array of the sensitivity matrices, the dependence of a particular species concentration on a combination of the reaction rates in the mechanism is revealed. Redundant reactions are indicated by principal components corresponding to small eigenvalues and insignificant elements in principal components with large eigenvalues. Through this investigation, aside from the 11 reactions identified as

  3. Characteristics of tropospheric ozone depletion events in the Arctic spring: analysis of the ARCTAS, ARCPAC, and ARCIONS measurements and satellite BrO observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-H. Koo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Arctic ozone depletion events (ODEs are caused by halogen catalyzed ozone loss. In situ chemistry, advection of ozone-poor air mass, and vertical mixing in the lower troposphere are important factors affecting ODEs. To better characterize the ODEs, we analyze the combined set of surface, ozonesonde, and aircraft in situ measurements of ozone and bromine compounds during the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS, the Aerosol, Radiation, and Cloud Processes affecting Arctic Climate (ARCPAC, and the Arctic Intensive Ozonesonde Network Study (ARCIONS experiments (April 2008. Tropospheric BrO columns retrieved from satellite measurements and back trajectory calculations are also used to investigate the characteristics of observed ODEs. In situ observations from these field experiments are inadequate to validate tropospheric BrO columns derived from satellite measurements. In view of this difficulty, we construct an ensemble of tropospheric column BrO estimates from two satellite (OMI and GOME-2 measurements and with three independent methods of calculating stratospheric BrO columns. Furthermore, we select analysis methods that do not depend on the absolute magnitude of column BrO, such as time-lagged correlation analysis of ozone and tropospheric column BrO, to understand characteristics of ODEs. Time-lagged correlation analysis between in situ (surface and ozonesonde measurements of ozone and satellite derived tropospheric BrO columns indicates that the ODEs are due to either local halogen-driven ozone loss or short-range (∼1 day transport from nearby regions with ozone depletion. The effect of in situ ozone loss is also evident in the diurnal variation difference between low (10th and 25th percentiles and higher percentiles of surface ozone concentrations at Alert, Canada. Aircraft observations indicate low-ozone air mass transported from adjacent high-BrO regions. Correlation analyses of ozone

  4. Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Karyakin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The 9th ARRCN Symposium 2015 was held during 21st–25th October 2015 at the Novotel Hotel, Chumphon, Thailand, one of the most favored travel destinations in Asia. The 10th ARRCN Symposium 2017 will be held during October 2017 in the Davao, Philippines. International Symposium on the Montagu's Harrier (Circus pygargus «The Montagu's Harrier in Europe. Status. Threats. Protection», organized by the environmental organization «Landesbund für Vogelschutz in Bayern e.V.» (LBV was held on November 20-22, 2015 in Germany. The location of this event was the city of Wurzburg in Bavaria.

  5. Deuterium-depleted water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, Ion; Steflea, Dumitru; Saros-Rogobete, Irina; Titescu, Gheorghe; Tamaian, Radu

    2001-01-01

    Deuterium-depleted water represents water that has an isotopic content smaller than 145 ppm D/(D+H) which is the natural isotopic content of water. Deuterium depleted water is produced by vacuum distillation in columns equipped with structured packing made from phosphor bronze or stainless steel. Deuterium-depleted water, the production technique and structured packing are patents of National Institute of Research - Development for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies at Rm. Valcea. Researches made in the last few years showed the deuterium-depleted water is a biological active product that could have many applications in medicine and agriculture. (authors)

  6. Kinetics of depletion interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, G.A.; Schoot, van der P.P.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    Depletion interactions between colloidal particles dispersed in a fluid medium are effective interactions induced by the presence of other types of colloid. They are not instantaneous but built up in time. We show by means of Brownian dynamics simulations that the static (mean-field) depletion force

  7. Management of depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Large stocks of depleted uranium have arisen as a result of enrichment operations, especially in the United States and the Russian Federation. Countries with depleted uranium stocks are interested in assessing strategies for the use and management of depleted uranium. The choice of strategy depends on several factors, including government and business policy, alternative uses available, the economic value of the material, regulatory aspects and disposal options, and international market developments in the nuclear fuel cycle. This report presents the results of a depleted uranium study conducted by an expert group organised jointly by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency. It contains information on current inventories of depleted uranium, potential future arisings, long term management alternatives, peaceful use options and country programmes. In addition, it explores ideas for international collaboration and identifies key issues for governments and policy makers to consider. (authors)

  8. Halo Star Lithium Depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinsonneault, M. H.; Walker, T. P.; Steigman, G.; Narayanan, Vijay K.

    1999-01-01

    The depletion of lithium during the pre-main-sequence and main-sequence phases of stellar evolution plays a crucial role in the comparison of the predictions of big bang nucleosynthesis with the abundances observed in halo stars. Previous work has indicated a wide range of possible depletion factors, ranging from minimal in standard (nonrotating) stellar models to as much as an order of magnitude in models that include rotational mixing. Recent progress in the study of the angular momentum evolution of low-mass stars permits the construction of theoretical models capable of reproducing the angular momentum evolution of low-mass open cluster stars. The distribution of initial angular momenta can be inferred from stellar rotation data in young open clusters. In this paper we report on the application of these models to the study of lithium depletion in main-sequence halo stars. A range of initial angular momenta produces a range of lithium depletion factors on the main sequence. Using the distribution of initial conditions inferred from young open clusters leads to a well-defined halo lithium plateau with modest scatter and a small population of outliers. The mass-dependent angular momentum loss law inferred from open cluster studies produces a nearly flat plateau, unlike previous models that exhibited a downward curvature for hotter temperatures in the 7Li-Teff plane. The overall depletion factor for the plateau stars is sensitive primarily to the solar initial angular momentum used in the calibration for the mixing diffusion coefficients. Uncertainties remain in the treatment of the internal angular momentum transport in the models, and the potential impact of these uncertainties on our results is discussed. The 6Li/7Li depletion ratio is also examined. We find that the dispersion in the plateau and the 6Li/7Li depletion ratio scale with the absolute 7Li depletion in the plateau, and we use observational data to set bounds on the 7Li depletion in main-sequence halo

  9. Addressing Ozone Layer Depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Access information on EPA's efforts to address ozone layer depletion through regulations, collaborations with stakeholders, international treaties, partnerships with the private sector, and enforcement actions under Title VI of the Clean Air Act.

  10. Control of Single Molecule Fluorescence Dynamics by Stimulated Emission Depletion

    OpenAIRE

    Marsh, R. J.; Osborne, M. A.; Bain, A. J.

    2003-01-01

    The feasibility of manipulating the single molecule absorption-emission cycle using picosecond stimulated emission depletion (STED) is investigated using a stochastic computer simulation. In the simulation the molecule is subjected to repeated excitation and depletion events using time delayed pairs of excitation (PUMP) and depletion (DUMP) pulses derived from a high repetition rate pulsed laser system. The model is used to demonstrate that a significant and even substantial reduction in the ...

  11. Revisiting Antarctic Ozone Depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grooß, Jens-Uwe; Tritscher, Ines; Müller, Rolf

    2015-04-01

    Antarctic ozone depletion is known for almost three decades and it has been well settled that it is caused by chlorine catalysed ozone depletion inside the polar vortex. However, there are still some details, which need to be clarified. In particular, there is a current debate on the relative importance of liquid aerosol and crystalline NAT and ice particles for chlorine activation. Particles have a threefold impact on polar chlorine chemistry, temporary removal of HNO3 from the gas-phase (uptake), permanent removal of HNO3 from the atmosphere (denitrification), and chlorine activation through heterogeneous reactions. We have performed simulations with the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS) employing a recently developed algorithm for saturation-dependent NAT nucleation for the Antarctic winters 2011 and 2012. The simulation results are compared with different satellite observations. With the help of these simulations, we investigate the role of the different processes responsible for chlorine activation and ozone depletion. Especially the sensitivity with respect to the particle type has been investigated. If temperatures are artificially forced to only allow cold binary liquid aerosol, the simulation still shows significant chlorine activation and ozone depletion. The results of the 3-D Chemical Transport Model CLaMS simulations differ from purely Lagrangian longtime trajectory box model simulations which indicates the importance of mixing processes.

  12. Capital expenditure and depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rech, O.; Saniere, A.

    2003-01-01

    In the future, the increase in oil demand will be covered for the most part by non conventional oils, but conventional sources will continue to represent a preponderant share of the world oil supply. Their depletion represents a complex challenge involving technological, economic and political factors. At the same time, there is reason for concern about the decrease in exploration budgets at the major oil companies. (author)

  13. Capital expenditure and depletion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rech, O.; Saniere, A

    2003-07-01

    In the future, the increase in oil demand will be covered for the most part by non conventional oils, but conventional sources will continue to represent a preponderant share of the world oil supply. Their depletion represents a complex challenge involving technological, economic and political factors. At the same time, there is reason for concern about the decrease in exploration budgets at the major oil companies. (author)

  14. Ozone-depleting Substances (ODS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This site includes all of the ozone-depleting substances (ODS) recognized by the Montreal Protocol. The data include ozone depletion potentials (ODP), global warming...

  15. Depleted uranium management alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertzler, T.J.; Nishimoto, D.D.

    1994-08-01

    This report evaluates two management alternatives for Department of Energy depleted uranium: continued storage as uranium hexafluoride, and conversion to uranium metal and fabrication to shielding for spent nuclear fuel containers. The results will be used to compare the costs with other alternatives, such as disposal. Cost estimates for the continued storage alternative are based on a life-cycle of 27 years through the year 2020. Cost estimates for the recycle alternative are based on existing conversion process costs and Capital costs for fabricating the containers. Additionally, the recycle alternative accounts for costs associated with intermediate product resale and secondary waste disposal for materials generated during the conversion process.

  16. Consequences of biome depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvucci, Emiliano

    2013-01-01

    The human microbiome is an integral part of the superorganism together with their host and they have co-evolved since the early days of the existence of the human species. The modification of the microbiome as a result changes in food and social habits of human beings throughout their life history has led to the emergence of many diseases. In contrast with the Darwinian view of nature of selfishness and competence, new holistic approaches are rising. Under these views, the reconstitution of the microbiome comes out as a fundamental therapy for emerging diseases related to biome depletion.

  17. Depleted uranium management alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertzler, T.J.; Nishimoto, D.D.

    1994-08-01

    This report evaluates two management alternatives for Department of Energy depleted uranium: continued storage as uranium hexafluoride, and conversion to uranium metal and fabrication to shielding for spent nuclear fuel containers. The results will be used to compare the costs with other alternatives, such as disposal. Cost estimates for the continued storage alternative are based on a life-cycle of 27 years through the year 2020. Cost estimates for the recycle alternative are based on existing conversion process costs and Capital costs for fabricating the containers. Additionally, the recycle alternative accounts for costs associated with intermediate product resale and secondary waste disposal for materials generated during the conversion process

  18. Podocyte Depletion in Thin GBM and Alport Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickman, Larysa; Hodgin, Jeffrey B; Wang, Su Q; Afshinnia, Farsad; Kershaw, David; Wiggins, Roger C

    2016-01-01

    The proximate genetic cause of both Thin GBM and Alport Syndrome (AS) is abnormal α3, 4 and 5 collagen IV chains resulting in abnormal glomerular basement membrane (GBM) structure/function. We previously reported that podocyte detachment rate measured in urine is increased in AS, suggesting that podocyte depletion could play a role in causing progressive loss of kidney function. To test this hypothesis podometric parameters were measured in 26 kidney biopsies from 21 patients aged 2-17 years with a clinic-pathologic diagnosis including both classic Alport Syndrome with thin and thick GBM segments and lamellated lamina densa [n = 15] and Thin GBM cases [n = 6]. Protocol biopsies from deceased donor kidneys were used as age-matched controls. Podocyte depletion was present in AS biopsies prior to detectable histologic abnormalities. No abnormality was detected by light microscopy at 70% podocyte depletion. Low level proteinuria was an early event at about 25% podocyte depletion and increased in proportion to podocyte depletion. These quantitative data parallel those from model systems where podocyte depletion is the causative event. This result supports a hypothesis that in AS podocyte adherence to the GBM is defective resulting in accelerated podocyte detachment causing progressive podocyte depletion leading to FSGS-like pathologic changes and eventual End Stage Kidney Disease. Early intervention to reduce podocyte depletion is projected to prolong kidney survival in AS.

  19. MOx Depletion Calculation Benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    San Felice, Laurence; Eschbach, Romain; Dewi Syarifah, Ratna; Maryam, Seif-Eddine; Hesketh, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Under the auspices of the NEA Nuclear Science Committee (NSC), the Working Party on Scientific Issues of Reactor Systems (WPRS) has been established to study the reactor physics, fuel performance, radiation transport and shielding, and the uncertainties associated with modelling of these phenomena in present and future nuclear power systems. The WPRS has different expert groups to cover a wide range of scientific issues in these fields. The Expert Group on Reactor Physics and Advanced Nuclear Systems (EGRPANS) was created in 2011 to perform specific tasks associated with reactor physics aspects of present and future nuclear power systems. EGRPANS provides expert advice to the WPRS and the nuclear community on the development needs (data and methods, validation experiments, scenario studies) for different reactor systems and also provides specific technical information regarding: core reactivity characteristics, including fuel depletion effects; core power/flux distributions; Core dynamics and reactivity control. In 2013 EGRPANS published a report that investigated fuel depletion effects in a Pressurised Water Reactor (PWR). This was entitled 'International Comparison of a Depletion Calculation Benchmark on Fuel Cycle Issues' NEA/NSC/DOC(2013) that documented a benchmark exercise for UO 2 fuel rods. This report documents a complementary benchmark exercise that focused on PuO 2 /UO 2 Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel rods. The results are especially relevant to the back-end of the fuel cycle, including irradiated fuel transport, reprocessing, interim storage and waste repository. Saint-Laurent B1 (SLB1) was the first French reactor to use MOx assemblies. SLB1 is a 900 MWe PWR, with 30% MOx fuel loading. The standard MOx assemblies, used in Saint-Laurent B1 reactor, include three zones with different plutonium enrichments, high Pu content (5.64%) in the center zone, medium Pu content (4.42%) in the intermediate zone and low Pu content (2.91%) in the peripheral zone

  20. Riddle of depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    Depleted Uranium (DU) is the waste product of uranium enrichment from the manufacturing of fuel rods for nuclear reactors in nuclear power plants and nuclear power ships. DU may also results from the reprocessing of spent nuclear reactor fuel. Potentially DU has both chemical and radiological toxicity with two important targets organs being the kidney and the lungs. DU is made into a metal and, due to its availability, low price, high specific weight, density and melting point as well as its pyrophoricity; it has a wide range of civilian and military applications. Due to the use of DU over the recent years, there appeared in some press on health hazards that are alleged to be due to DU. In these paper properties, applications, potential environmental and health effects of DU are briefly reviewed

  1. The Toxicity of Depleted Uranium

    OpenAIRE

    Briner, Wayne

    2010-01-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) is an emerging environmental pollutant that is introduced into the environment primarily by military activity. While depleted uranium is less radioactive than natural uranium, it still retains all the chemical toxicity associated with the original element. In large doses the kidney is the target organ for the acute chemical toxicity of this metal, producing potentially lethal tubular necrosis. In contrast, chronic low dose exposure to depleted uranium may not produce a c...

  2. The Toxicity of Depleted Uranium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Briner

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Depleted uranium (DU is an emerging environmental pollutant that is introduced into the environment primarily by military activity. While depleted uranium is less radioactive than natural uranium, it still retains all the chemical toxicity associated with the original element. In large doses the kidney is the target organ for the acute chemical toxicity of this metal, producing potentially lethal tubular necrosis. In contrast, chronic low dose exposure to depleted uranium may not produce a clear and defined set of symptoms. Chronic low-dose, or subacute, exposure to depleted uranium alters the appearance of milestones in developing organisms. Adult animals that were exposed to depleted uranium during development display persistent alterations in behavior, even after cessation of depleted uranium exposure. Adult animals exposed to depleted uranium demonstrate altered behaviors and a variety of alterations to brain chemistry. Despite its reduced level of radioactivity evidence continues to accumulate that depleted uranium, if ingested, may pose a radiologic hazard. The current state of knowledge concerning DU is discussed.

  3. Ego depletion impairs implicit learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kelsey R; Sanchez, Daniel J; Wesley, Abigail H; Reber, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    Implicit skill learning occurs incidentally and without conscious awareness of what is learned. However, the rate and effectiveness of learning may still be affected by decreased availability of central processing resources. Dual-task experiments have generally found impairments in implicit learning, however, these studies have also shown that certain characteristics of the secondary task (e.g., timing) can complicate the interpretation of these results. To avoid this problem, the current experiments used a novel method to impose resource constraints prior to engaging in skill learning. Ego depletion theory states that humans possess a limited store of cognitive resources that, when depleted, results in deficits in self-regulation and cognitive control. In a first experiment, we used a standard ego depletion manipulation prior to performance of the Serial Interception Sequence Learning (SISL) task. Depleted participants exhibited poorer test performance than did non-depleted controls, indicating that reducing available executive resources may adversely affect implicit sequence learning, expression of sequence knowledge, or both. In a second experiment, depletion was administered either prior to or after training. Participants who reported higher levels of depletion before or after training again showed less sequence-specific knowledge on the post-training assessment. However, the results did not allow for clear separation of ego depletion effects on learning versus subsequent sequence-specific performance. These results indicate that performance on an implicitly learned sequence can be impaired by a reduction in executive resources, in spite of learning taking place outside of awareness and without conscious intent.

  4. Depletion of cellular brassinolide decreases embryo production and disrupts the architecture of the apical meristems in Brassica napus microspore-derived embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmonte, Mark; Elhiti, Mohamed; Waldner, Blaine; Stasolla, Claudio

    2010-06-01

    Exogenous applications of brassinolide (BL) increased the number and quality of microspore-derived embryos (MDEs) whereas treatments with brassinazole (BrZ), a BL biosynthetic inhibitor, had the opposite effect. At the optimal concentration (4x10(-6) M) BrZ decreased both embryo yield and conversion to less than half the value of control embryos. Metabolic studies revealed that BL levels had profound effects on glutathione and ascorbate metabolism by altering the amounts of their reduced forms (ASC and GSH) and oxidized forms [dehydroascorbate (DHA), ascorbate free radicals (AFRs), and GSSG]. Applications of BL switched the glutathione and ascorbate pools towards the oxidized forms, thereby lowering the ASC/ASC+DHA+AFR and GSH/GSH+GSSG ratios. These changes were ascribed to the ability of BL to increase the activity of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and decrease that of glutathione reductase (GR). This trend was reversed in a BL-depleted environment, effected by BrZ applications. These metabolic alterations were associated with changes in embryo structure and performance. BL-treated MDEs developed zygotic-like shoot apical meristems (SAMs) whereas embryos treated with BrZ developed abnormal meristems. In the presence of BrZ, embryos either lacked a visible SAM, or formed SAMs in which the meristematic cells showed signs of differentiation, such as vacuolation and storage product accumulation. These abnormalities were accompanied by the lack or misexpression of three meristem marker genes isolated from Brassica napus (denoted as BnSTM, BnCLV1, and BnZLL-1) homologous to the Arabidopsis SHOOTMERISTEMLESS (STM), CLAVATA 1 (CLV1), and ZWILLE (ZLL). The expression of BnSTM and BnCLV1 increased after a few days in cultures in embryos treated with BL whereas an opposite tendency was observed with applications of BrZ. Compared with control embryos where these two genes exhibited abnormal localization patterns, BnSTM and BnCLV1 always localized throughout the subapical domains

  5. Ego Depletion Impairs Implicit Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kelsey R.; Sanchez, Daniel J.; Wesley, Abigail H.; Reber, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Implicit skill learning occurs incidentally and without conscious awareness of what is learned. However, the rate and effectiveness of learning may still be affected by decreased availability of central processing resources. Dual-task experiments have generally found impairments in implicit learning, however, these studies have also shown that certain characteristics of the secondary task (e.g., timing) can complicate the interpretation of these results. To avoid this problem, the current experiments used a novel method to impose resource constraints prior to engaging in skill learning. Ego depletion theory states that humans possess a limited store of cognitive resources that, when depleted, results in deficits in self-regulation and cognitive control. In a first experiment, we used a standard ego depletion manipulation prior to performance of the Serial Interception Sequence Learning (SISL) task. Depleted participants exhibited poorer test performance than did non-depleted controls, indicating that reducing available executive resources may adversely affect implicit sequence learning, expression of sequence knowledge, or both. In a second experiment, depletion was administered either prior to or after training. Participants who reported higher levels of depletion before or after training again showed less sequence-specific knowledge on the post-training assessment. However, the results did not allow for clear separation of ego depletion effects on learning versus subsequent sequence-specific performance. These results indicate that performance on an implicitly learned sequence can be impaired by a reduction in executive resources, in spite of learning taking place outside of awareness and without conscious intent. PMID:25275517

  6. Hsp90 depletion goes wild

    OpenAIRE

    Siegal, Mark L; Masel, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Hsp90 reveals phenotypic variation in the laboratory, but is Hsp90 depletion important in the wild? Recent work from Chen and Wagner in BMC Evolutionary Biology has discovered a naturally occurring Drosophila allele that downregulates Hsp90, creating sensitivity to cryptic genetic variation. Laboratory studies suggest that the exact magnitude of Hsp90 downregulation is important. Extreme Hsp90 depletion might reactivate transposable elements and/or induce aneuploidy, in addition to r...

  7. Ego depletion impairs implicit learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey R Thompson

    Full Text Available Implicit skill learning occurs incidentally and without conscious awareness of what is learned. However, the rate and effectiveness of learning may still be affected by decreased availability of central processing resources. Dual-task experiments have generally found impairments in implicit learning, however, these studies have also shown that certain characteristics of the secondary task (e.g., timing can complicate the interpretation of these results. To avoid this problem, the current experiments used a novel method to impose resource constraints prior to engaging in skill learning. Ego depletion theory states that humans possess a limited store of cognitive resources that, when depleted, results in deficits in self-regulation and cognitive control. In a first experiment, we used a standard ego depletion manipulation prior to performance of the Serial Interception Sequence Learning (SISL task. Depleted participants exhibited poorer test performance than did non-depleted controls, indicating that reducing available executive resources may adversely affect implicit sequence learning, expression of sequence knowledge, or both. In a second experiment, depletion was administered either prior to or after training. Participants who reported higher levels of depletion before or after training again showed less sequence-specific knowledge on the post-training assessment. However, the results did not allow for clear separation of ego depletion effects on learning versus subsequent sequence-specific performance. These results indicate that performance on an implicitly learned sequence can be impaired by a reduction in executive resources, in spite of learning taking place outside of awareness and without conscious intent.

  8. "When the going gets tough, who keeps going?" Depletion sensitivity moderates the ego-depletion effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Stefanie J; Adriaanse, Marieke A; De Vet, Emely; Fennis, Bob M; De Ridder, Denise T D

    2014-01-01

    Self-control relies on a limited resource that can get depleted, a phenomenon that has been labeled ego-depletion. We argue that individuals may differ in their sensitivity to depleting tasks, and that consequently some people deplete their self-control resource at a faster rate than others. In three studies, we assessed individual differences in depletion sensitivity, and demonstrate that depletion sensitivity moderates ego-depletion effects. The Depletion Sensitivity Scale (DSS) was employed to assess depletion sensitivity. Study 1 employs the DSS to demonstrate that individual differences in sensitivity to ego-depletion exist. Study 2 shows moderate correlations of depletion sensitivity with related self-control concepts, indicating that these scales measure conceptually distinct constructs. Study 3 demonstrates that depletion sensitivity moderates the ego-depletion effect. Specifically, participants who are sensitive to depletion performed worse on a second self-control task, indicating a stronger ego-depletion effect, compared to participants less sensitive to depletion.

  9. Isotopic depletion with Monte Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, W.R.; Rathkopf, J.A.

    1996-06-01

    This work considers a method to deplete isotopes during a time- dependent Monte Carlo simulation of an evolving system. The method is based on explicitly combining a conventional estimator for the scalar flux with the analytical solutions to the isotopic depletion equations. There are no auxiliary calculations; the method is an integral part of the Monte Carlo calculation. The method eliminates negative densities and reduces the variance in the estimates for the isotope densities, compared to existing methods. Moreover, existing methods are shown to be special cases of the general method described in this work, as they can be derived by combining a high variance estimator for the scalar flux with a low-order approximation to the analytical solution to the depletion equation

  10. Hsp90 depletion goes wild

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegal Mark L

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hsp90 reveals phenotypic variation in the laboratory, but is Hsp90 depletion important in the wild? Recent work from Chen and Wagner in BMC Evolutionary Biology has discovered a naturally occurring Drosophila allele that downregulates Hsp90, creating sensitivity to cryptic genetic variation. Laboratory studies suggest that the exact magnitude of Hsp90 downregulation is important. Extreme Hsp90 depletion might reactivate transposable elements and/or induce aneuploidy, in addition to revealing cryptic genetic variation. See research article http://wwww.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/12/25

  11. Depletion field focusing in semiconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, M.W.J.; Gelder, Van A.P.

    1996-01-01

    We calculate the three-dimensional depletion field profile in a semiconductor, for a planar semiconductor material with a spatially varying potential upon the surface, and for a tip-shaped semiconductor with a constant surface potential. The nonuniform electric field gives rise to focusing or

  12. Depletion interactions in lyotropic nematics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoot, van der P.P.A.M.

    2000-01-01

    A theoretical study of depletion interactions between pairs of small, globular colloids dispersed in a lyotropic nematic of hard, rodlike particles is presented. We find that both the strength and range of the interaction crucially depends on the configuration of the spheres relative to the nematic

  13. Depleted uranium: an explosive dossier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrillot, B.

    2001-01-01

    This book relates the history of depleted uranium, contemporaneous with the nuclear bomb history. Initially used in nuclear weapons and in experiments linked with nuclear weapons development, this material has been used also in civil industry, in particular in aeronautics. However, its properties made it interesting for military applications all along the 'cold war'. (J.S.)

  14. Global depletion of groundwater resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wada, Y.; Beek, L.P.H. van; van Kempen, C.M.; Reckman, J.W.T.M.; Vasak, S.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2010-01-01

    In regions with frequent water stress and large aquifer systems groundwater is often used as an additional water source. If groundwater abstraction exceeds the natural groundwater recharge for extensive areas and long times, overexploitation or persistent groundwater depletion occurs. Here we

  15. Impact of mineral resource depletion

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brent, AC

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In a letter to the editor, the authors comment on BA Steen's article on "Abiotic Resource Depletion: different perceptions of the problem with mineral deposits" published in the special issue of the International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment...

  16. Depleted depletion drives polymer swelling in poor solvent mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherji, Debashish; Marques, Carlos M; Stuehn, Torsten; Kremer, Kurt

    2017-11-09

    Establishing a link between macromolecular conformation and microscopic interaction is a key to understand properties of polymer solutions and for designing technologically relevant "smart" polymers. Here, polymer solvation in solvent mixtures strike as paradoxical phenomena. For example, when adding polymers to a solvent, such that all particle interactions are repulsive, polymer chains can collapse due to increased monomer-solvent repulsion. This depletion induced monomer-monomer attraction is well known from colloidal stability. A typical example is poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) in water or small alcohols. While polymer collapse in a single poor solvent is well understood, the observed polymer swelling in mixtures of two repulsive solvents is surprising. By combining simulations and theoretical concepts known from polymer physics and colloidal science, we unveil the microscopic, generic origin of this collapse-swelling-collapse behavior. We show that this phenomenon naturally emerges at constant pressure when an appropriate balance of entropically driven depletion interactions is achieved.

  17. Physics of fully depleted CCDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, S E; Bebek, C J; Kolbe, W F; Lee, J S

    2014-01-01

    In this work we present simple, physics-based models for two effects that have been noted in the fully depleted CCDs that are presently used in the Dark Energy Survey Camera. The first effect is the observation that the point-spread function increases slightly with the signal level. This is explained by considering the effect on charge-carrier diffusion due to the reduction in the magnitude of the channel potential as collected signal charge acts to partially neutralize the fixed charge in the depleted channel. The resulting reduced voltage drop across the carrier drift region decreases the vertical electric field and increases the carrier transit time. The second effect is the observation of low-level, concentric ring patterns seen in uniformly illuminated images. This effect is shown to be most likely due to lateral deflection of charge during the transit of the photo-generated carriers to the potential wells as a result of lateral electric fields. The lateral fields are a result of space charge in the fully depleted substrates arising from resistivity variations inherent to the growth of the high-resistivity silicon used to fabricate the CCDs

  18. Comparative Analysis of VERA Depletion Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jinsu; Kim, Wonkyeong; Choi, Sooyoung; Lee, Hyunsuk; Lee, Deokjung

    2016-01-01

    Each code has its own solver for depletion, which can produce different depletion calculation results. In order to produce reference solutions for depletion calculation comparison, sensitivity studies should be preceded for each depletion solver. The sensitivity tests for burnup interval, number of depletion zones, and recoverable energy per fission (Q-value) were performed in this paper. For the comparison of depletion calculation results, usually the multiplication factors are compared as a function of burnup. In this study, new comparison methods have been introduced by using the number density of isotope or element, and a cumulative flux instead of burnup. In this paper, optimum depletion calculation options are determined through the sensitivity study of the burnup intervals and the number of depletion intrazones. Because the depletion using CRAM solver performs well for large burnup intervals, smaller number of burnup steps can be used to produce converged solutions. It was noted that the depletion intra-zone sensitivity is only pin-type dependent. The 1 and 10 depletion intra-zones for the normal UO2 pin and gadolinia rod, respectively, are required to obtain the reference solutions. When the optimized depletion calculation options are used, the differences of Q-values are found to be a main cause of the differences of solutions. In this paper, new comparison methods were introduced for consistent code-to-code comparisons even when different kappa libraries were used in the depletion calculations

  19. Bond rupture between colloidal particles with a depletion interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitaker, Kathryn A.; Furst, Eric M., E-mail: furst@udel.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering and Center for Molecular and Engineering Thermodynamics, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    The force required to break the bonds of a depletion gel is measured by dynamically loading pairs of colloidal particles suspended in a solution of a nonadsorbing polymer. Sterically stabilized poly(methyl methacrylate) colloids that are 2.7 μm diameter are brought into contact in a solvent mixture of cyclohexane-cyclohexyl bromide and polystyrene polymer depletant. The particle pairs are subject to a tensile load at a constant loading rate over many approach-retraction cycles. The stochastic nature of the thermal rupture events results in a distribution of bond rupture forces with an average magnitude and variance that increases with increasing depletant concentration. The measured force distribution is described by the flux of particle pairs sampling the energy barrier of the bond interaction potential based on the Asakura–Oosawa depletion model. A transition state model demonstrates the significance of lubrication hydrodynamic interactions and the effect of the applied loading rate on the rupture force of bonds in a depletion gel.

  20. Issues in Stratospheric Ozone Depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Steven Andrew

    Following the announcement of the discovery of the Antarctic ozone hole in 1985 there have arisen a multitude of questions pertaining to the nature and consequences of polar ozone depletion. This thesis addresses several of these specific questions, using both computer models of chemical kinetics and the Earth's radiation field as well as laboratory kinetic experiments. A coupled chemical kinetic-radiative numerical model was developed to assist in the analysis of in situ field measurements of several radical and neutral species in the polar and mid-latitude lower stratosphere. Modeling was used in the analysis of enhanced polar ClO, mid-latitude diurnal variation of ClO, and simultaneous measurements of OH, HO_2, H_2 O and O_3. Most importantly, such modeling was instrumental in establishing the link between the observed ClO and BrO concentrations in the Antarctic polar vortex and the observed rate of ozone depletion. The principal medical concern of stratospheric ozone depletion is that ozone loss will lead to the enhancement of ground-level UV-B radiation. Global ozone climatology (40^circS to 50^ circN latitude) was incorporated into a radiation field model to calculate the biologically accumulated dosage (BAD) of UV-B radiation, integrated over days, months, and years. The slope of the annual BAD as a function of latitude was found to correspond to epidemiological data for non-melanoma skin cancers for 30^circ -50^circN. Various ozone loss scenarios were investigated. It was found that a small ozone loss in the tropics can provide as much additional biologically effective UV-B as a much larger ozone loss at higher latitudes. Also, for ozone depletions of > 5%, the BAD of UV-B increases exponentially with decreasing ozone levels. An important key player in determining whether polar ozone depletion can propagate into the populated mid-latitudes is chlorine nitrate, ClONO_2 . As yet this molecule is only indirectly accounted for in computer models and field

  1. Exposure to nature counteracts aggression after depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; She, Yihan; Colarelli, Stephen M; Fang, Yuan; Meng, Hui; Chen, Qiuju; Zhang, Xin; Zhu, Hongwei

    2018-01-01

    Acts of self-control are more likely to fail after previous exertion of self-control, known as the ego depletion effect. Research has shown that depleted participants behave more aggressively than non-depleted participants, especially after being provoked. Although exposure to nature (e.g., a walk in the park) has been predicted to replenish resources common to executive functioning and self-control, the extent to which exposure to nature may counteract the depletion effect on aggression has yet to be determined. The present study investigated the effects of exposure to nature on aggression following depletion. Aggression was measured by the intensity of noise blasts participants delivered to an ostensible opponent in a competition reaction-time task. As predicted, an interaction occurred between depletion and environmental manipulations for provoked aggression. Specifically, depleted participants behaved more aggressively in response to provocation than non-depleted participants in the urban condition. However, provoked aggression did not differ between depleted and non-depleted participants in the natural condition. Moreover, within the depletion condition, participants in the natural condition had lower levels of provoked aggression than participants in the urban condition. This study suggests that a brief period of nature exposure may restore self-control and help depleted people regain control over aggressive urges. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Uranium, depleted uranium, biological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Physicists, chemists and biologists at the CEA are developing scientific programs on the properties and uses of ionizing radiation. Since the CEA was created in 1945, a great deal of research has been carried out on the properties of natural, enriched and depleted uranium in cooperation with university laboratories and CNRS. There is a great deal of available data about uranium; thousands of analyses have been published in international reviews over more than 40 years. This presentation on uranium is a very brief summary of all these studies. (author)

  3. "When the going gets tough, who keeps going?" Depletion sensitivity moderates the ego-depletion effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salmon, Stefanie J.; Adriaanse, Marieke A.; De Vet, Emely; Fennis, Bob M.; De Ridder, Denise T D

    2014-01-01

    Self-control relies on a limited resource that can get depleted, a phenomenon that has been labeled ego-depletion. We argue that individuals may differ in their sensitivity to depleting tasks, and that consequently some people deplete their self-control resource at a faster rate than others. In

  4. "When the going gets tough, who keeps going?" : Depletion sensitivity moderates the ego-depletion effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salmon, Stefanie J.; Adriaanse, Marieke A.; De Vet, Emely; Fennis, Bob M.; De Ridder, Denise T. D.

    2014-01-01

    Self-control relies on a limited resource that can get depleted, a phenomenon that has been labeled ego-depletion. We argue that individuals may differ in their sensitivity to depleting tasks, and that consequently some people deplete their self-control resource at a faster rate than others. In

  5. When the Going Gets Tough, Who Keeps Going? Depletion Sensitivity Moderates the Ego-Depletion Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie J. Salmon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Self-control relies on a limited resource that can get depleted, a phenomenon that has been labeled ego-depletion. We argue that individuals may differ in their sensitivity to depleting tasks, and that consequently some people deplete their self-control resource at a faster rate than others. In three studies, we assessed individual differences in depletion sensitivity, and demonstrate that depletion sensitivity moderates ego-depletion effects. The Depletion Sensitivity Scale (DSS was employed to assess depletion sensitivity. Study 1 employs the DSS to demonstrate that individual differences in sensitivity to ego-depletion exist. Study 2 shows moderate correlations of depletion sensitivity with related self-control concepts, indicating that these scales measure conceptually distinct constructs. Study 3 demonstrates that depletion sensitivity moderates the ego-depletion effect. Specifically, participants who are sensitive to depletion performed worse on a second self-control task, indicating a stronger ego-depletion effect, compared to participants less sensitive to depletion.

  6. Characteristics of Solar Wind Density Depletions During Solar Cycles 23 and 24

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keunchan Park

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Solar wind density depletions are phenomena that solar wind density is rapidly decreased and keep the state. They are generally believed to be caused by the interplanetary (IP shocks. However, there are other cases that are hardly associated with IP shocks. We set up a hypothesis for this phenomenon and analyze this study. We have collected the solar wind parameters such as density, speed and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF data related to the solar wind density depletion events during the period from 1996 to 2013 that are obtained with the advanced composition explorer (ACE and the Wind satellite. We also calculate two pressures (magnetic, dynamic and analyze the relation with density depletion. As a result, we found total 53 events and the most these phenomena’s sources caused by IP shock are interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME. We also found that solar wind density depletions are scarcely related with IP shock’s parameters. The solar wind density is correlated with solar wind dynamic pressure within density depletion. However, the solar wind density has an little anti-correlation with IMF strength during all events of solar wind density depletion, regardless of the presence of IP shocks. Additionally, In 47 events of IP shocks, we find 6 events that show a feature of blast wave. The quantities of IP shocks are weaker than blast wave from the Sun, they are declined in a short time after increasing rapidly. We thus argue that IMF strength or dynamic pressure are an important factor in understanding the nature of solar wind density depletion. Since IMF strength and solar wind speed varies with solar cycle, we will also investigate the characteristics of solar wind density depletion events in different phases of solar cycle as an additional clue to their physical nature.

  7. CO Depletion: A Microscopic Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazaux, S. [Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Martín-Doménech, R.; Caro, G. M. Muñoz; Díaz, C. González [Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), Ctra. de Ajalvir, km 4, Torrejón de Ardoz, E-28850 Madrid (Spain); Chen, Y. J. [Department of Physics, National Central University, Jhongli City, 32054, Taoyuan County, Taiwan (China)

    2017-11-10

    In regions where stars form, variations in density and temperature can cause gas to freeze out onto dust grains forming ice mantles, which influences the chemical composition of a cloud. The aim of this paper is to understand in detail the depletion (and desorption) of CO on (from) interstellar dust grains. Experimental simulations were performed under two different (astrophysically relevant) conditions. In parallel, Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations were used to mimic the experimental conditions. In our experiments, CO molecules accrete onto water ice at temperatures below 27 K, with a deposition rate that does not depend on the substrate temperature. During the warm-up phase, the desorption processes do exhibit subtle differences, indicating the presence of weakly bound CO molecules, therefore highlighting a low diffusion efficiency. IR measurements following the ice thickness during the TPD confirm that diffusion occurs at temperatures close to the desorption. Applied to astrophysical conditions, in a pre-stellar core, the binding energies of CO molecules, ranging between 300 and 850 K, depend on the conditions at which CO has been deposited. Because of this wide range of binding energies, the depletion of CO as a function of A{sub V} is much less important than initially thought. The weakly bound molecules, easily released into the gas phase through evaporation, change the balance between accretion and desorption, which result in a larger abundance of CO at high extinctions. In addition, weakly bound CO molecules are also more mobile, and this could increase the reactivity within interstellar ices.

  8. Monoamine depletion by reuptake inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinz M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Marty Hinz1, Alvin Stein2, Thomas Uncini31Clinical Research, NeuroResearch Clinics Inc, Cape Coral, FL; 2Stein Orthopedic Associates, Plantation, FL; 3DBS Labs Inc, Duluth, MN, USABackground: Disagreement exists regarding the etiology of cessation of the observed clinical results with administration of reuptake inhibitors. Traditionally, when drug effects wane, it is known as tachyphylaxis. With reuptake inhibitors, the placebo effect is significantly greater than the drug effect in the treatment of depression and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, leading some to assert that waning of drug effects is placebo relapse, not tachyphylaxis.Methods: Two groups were retrospectively evaluated. Group 1 was composed of subjects with depression and Group 2 was composed of bariatric subjects treated with reuptake inhibitors for appetite suppression.Results: In Group 1, 200 subjects with depression were treated with citalopram 20 mg per day. A total of 46.5% (n = 93 achieved relief of symptoms (Hamilton-D rating score ≤ 7, of whom 37 (39.8% of whom experienced recurrence of depression symptoms, at which point an amino acid precursor formula was started. Within 1–5 days, 97.3% (n = 36 experienced relief of depression symptoms. In Group 2, 220 subjects were treated with phentermine 30 mg in the morning and citalopram 20 mg at 4 pm. In this group, 90.0% (n = 198 achieved adequate appetite suppression. The appetite suppression ceased in all 198 subjects within 4–48 days. Administration of an amino acid precursor formula restored appetite suppression in 98.5% (n = 195 of subjects within 1–5 days.Conclusion: Reuptake inhibitors do not increase the total number of monoamine molecules in the central nervous system. Their mechanism of action facilitates redistribution of monoamines from one place to another. In the process, conditions are induced that facilitate depletion of monoamines. The "reuptake inhibitor monoamine depletion theory" of this paper

  9. Statistical implications in Monte Carlo depletions - 051

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhiwen, Xu; Rhodes, J.; Smith, K.

    2010-01-01

    As a result of steady advances of computer power, continuous-energy Monte Carlo depletion analysis is attracting considerable attention for reactor burnup calculations. The typical Monte Carlo analysis is set up as a combination of a Monte Carlo neutron transport solver and a fuel burnup solver. Note that the burnup solver is a deterministic module. The statistical errors in Monte Carlo solutions are introduced into nuclide number densities and propagated along fuel burnup. This paper is towards the understanding of the statistical implications in Monte Carlo depletions, including both statistical bias and statistical variations in depleted fuel number densities. The deterministic Studsvik lattice physics code, CASMO-5, is modified to model the Monte Carlo depletion. The statistical bias in depleted number densities is found to be negligible compared to its statistical variations, which, in turn, demonstrates the correctness of the Monte Carlo depletion method. Meanwhile, the statistical variation in number densities generally increases with burnup. Several possible ways of reducing the statistical errors are discussed: 1) to increase the number of individual Monte Carlo histories; 2) to increase the number of time steps; 3) to run additional independent Monte Carlo depletion cases. Finally, a new Monte Carlo depletion methodology, called the batch depletion method, is proposed, which consists of performing a set of independent Monte Carlo depletions and is thus capable of estimating the overall statistical errors including both the local statistical error and the propagated statistical error. (authors)

  10. Depleted uranium disposal options evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertzler, T.J.; Nishimoto, D.D.; Otis, M.D.

    1994-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, has chartered a study to evaluate alternative management strategies for depleted uranium (DU) currently stored throughout the DOE complex. Historically, DU has been maintained as a strategic resource because of uses for DU metal and potential uses for further enrichment or for uranium oxide as breeder reactor blanket fuel. This study has focused on evaluating the disposal options for DU if it were considered a waste. This report is in no way declaring these DU reserves a ''waste,'' but is intended to provide baseline data for comparison with other management options for use of DU. To PICS considered in this report include: Retrievable disposal; permanent disposal; health hazards; radiation toxicity and chemical toxicity

  11. High order depletion sensitivity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naguib, K.; Adib, M.; Morcos, H.N.

    2002-01-01

    A high order depletion sensitivity method was applied to calculate the sensitivities of build-up of actinides in the irradiated fuel due to cross-section uncertainties. An iteration method based on Taylor series expansion was applied to construct stationary principle, from which all orders of perturbations were calculated. The irradiated EK-10 and MTR-20 fuels at their maximum burn-up of 25% and 65% respectively were considered for sensitivity analysis. The results of calculation show that, in case of EK-10 fuel (low burn-up), the first order sensitivity was found to be enough to perform an accuracy of 1%. While in case of MTR-20 (high burn-up) the fifth order was found to provide 3% accuracy. A computer code SENS was developed to provide the required calculations

  12. Uranium under its depleted state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This day organised by the SFRP, with the help of the Army Health service, the service of radiation protection of Army and IPSN is an information day to inform the public about the real toxicity of uranium, and its becoming in man and environment, about the risks during the use of depleted uranium and eventual consequences of its dispersion after a conflict, to give information on how is managed the protection of workers (civil or military ones) and what is really the situation of French military personnel in these conflicts. The news have brought to the shore cases of leukemia it is necessary to bring some information to the origin of this disease. (N.C.)

  13. Energetic magnetospheric protons in the plasma depletion layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuselier, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    Interplanetary magnetic field draping against the Earth's dayside subsolar magnetopause creates a region of reduced plasma density and increased magnetic field called the plasma depletion layer. In this region, leakage of energetic ions from the Earth's magnetosphere onto magnetic field lines in the plasma depletion layer can be studied without interference from ions accelerated at the Earth's quasi-parallel bow shock. Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Experiment/Charge Composition Explorer (AMPTE/CCE) observations for 13 plasma depletion layer events are used to determine the characteristics of energetic protons between a few keV/e and ∼100keV/e leaked from the magnetosphere. Results indicate that the leaked proton distributions resemble those in the magnetosphere except that they have lower densities and temperatures and much higher velocities parallel (or antiparallel) and perpendicular to the magnetic field. Compared to the low-energy magnetosheath proton distributions present in the depletion layer, the leaked energetic proton distributions typically have substantially higher flow velocities along the magnetic field indicate that the leaked energetic proton distributions to contribute to the energetic proton population seen upstream and downstream from the quasi-parallel bow shock. However, their contribution is small compared to the contribution from acceleration of protons at the bow shock because the leaked proton densities are on the order of 10 times smaller than the energetic proton densities typically observed in the vicinity of the quasi-parallel bow shock

  14. Are relative depletions altered inside diffuse clouds?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, C.L.

    1988-01-01

    The data of Jenkins, Savage, and Spitzer (1986) were used to analyze interstellar abundances and depletions of Fe, P, Mg, and Mn toward 37 stars, spanning nearly 1.0 (dex) in mean line-of-sight depletion. It was found that the depletions of these elements are linearly correlated and do not show evidence of differences in the rates of depletion or sputtering from one element to another. For a given level of overall depletion, the sightline-to-sightline rms variance in the depletion for each of these elements was less than 0.16 (dex), which is significantly smaller than is the element-to-element variance. The results suggest that, for most diffuse lines of sight, the relative abundances of these elements are set early in the lifetime of the grains and are not altered significantly thereafter. 53 references

  15. Is gas in the Orion nebula depleted

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiello, S.; Guidi, I.

    1978-01-01

    Depletion of heavy elements has been recognized to be important in the understanding of the chemical composition of the interstellar medium. This problem is also relevant to the study of H II regions. In this paper the gaseous depletion in the physical conditions of the Orion nebula is investigated. The authors reach the conclusion that very probably no depletion of heavy elements, due to sticking on dust grains, took place during the lifetime of the Orion nebula. (Auth.)

  16. Tryptophan depletion affects compulsive behaviour in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merchán, A; Navarro, S V; Klein, A B

    2017-01-01

    investigated whether 5-HT manipulation, through a tryptophan (TRP) depletion by diet in Wistar and Lister Hooded rats, modulates compulsive drinking in schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP) and locomotor activity in the open-field test. The levels of dopamine, noradrenaline, serotonin and its metabolite were......-depleted HD Wistar rats, while the LD Wistar and the Lister Hooded rats did not exhibit differences in SIP. In contrast, the TRP-depleted Lister Hooded rats increased locomotor activity compared to the non-depleted rats, while no differences were found in the Wistar rats. Serotonin 2A receptor binding...

  17. High IFN-alpha responses associated with depletion of lymphocytes and natural IFN-producing cells during classical swine fever

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Summerfield, A.; Alves, M.; Ruggli, N.; Bruin, de M.G.M.; McCullough, K.C.

    2006-01-01

    During the acute phase of the viral hemorrhagic disease, classical swine fever (CSF), a severe hematologic depletion in primary lymphoid organs and depletion of peripheral blood T and B lymphocytes are observed. The onset of these pathologic events is before viremia and independent of leukocyte

  18. Mechanism-based biomarker gene sets for glutathione depletion-related hepatotoxicity in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Weihua; Mizukawa, Yumiko; Nakatsu, Noriyuki; Minowa, Yosuke; Yamada, Hiroshi; Ohno, Yasuo; Urushidani, Tetsuro

    2010-01-01

    Chemical-induced glutathione depletion is thought to be caused by two types of toxicological mechanisms: PHO-type glutathione depletion [glutathione conjugated with chemicals such as phorone (PHO) or diethyl maleate (DEM)], and BSO-type glutathione depletion [i.e., glutathione synthesis inhibited by chemicals such as L-buthionine-sulfoximine (BSO)]. In order to identify mechanism-based biomarker gene sets for glutathione depletion in rat liver, male SD rats were treated with various chemicals including PHO (40, 120 and 400 mg/kg), DEM (80, 240 and 800 mg/kg), BSO (150, 450 and 1500 mg/kg), and bromobenzene (BBZ, 10, 100 and 300 mg/kg). Liver samples were taken 3, 6, 9 and 24 h after administration and examined for hepatic glutathione content, physiological and pathological changes, and gene expression changes using Affymetrix GeneChip Arrays. To identify differentially expressed probe sets in response to glutathione depletion, we focused on the following two courses of events for the two types of mechanisms of glutathione depletion: a) gene expression changes occurring simultaneously in response to glutathione depletion, and b) gene expression changes after glutathione was depleted. The gene expression profiles of the identified probe sets for the two types of glutathione depletion differed markedly at times during and after glutathione depletion, whereas Srxn1 was markedly increased for both types as glutathione was depleted, suggesting that Srxn1 is a key molecule in oxidative stress related to glutathione. The extracted probe sets were refined and verified using various compounds including 13 additional positive or negative compounds, and they established two useful marker sets. One contained three probe sets (Akr7a3, Trib3 and Gstp1) that could detect conjugation-type glutathione depletors any time within 24 h after dosing, and the other contained 14 probe sets that could detect glutathione depletors by any mechanism. These two sets, with appropriate scoring

  19. Depleted Uranium and Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faa, Armando; Gerosa, Clara; Fanni, Daniela; Floris, Giuseppe; Eyken, Peter V; Lachowicz, Joanna I; Nurchi, Valeria M

    2018-01-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) is generally considered an emerging pollutant, first extensively introduced into environment in the early nineties in Iraq, during the military operation called "Desert Storm". DU has been hypothesized to represent a hazardous element both for soldiers exposed as well as for the inhabitants of the polluted areas in the war zones. In this review, the possible consequences on human health of DU released in the environment are critically analyzed. In the first part, the chemical properties of DU and the principal civil and military uses are summarized. A concise analysis of the mechanisms underlying absorption, blood transport, tissue distribution and excretion of DU in the human body is the subject of the second part of this article. The following sections deal with pathological condition putatively associated with overexposure to DU. Developmental and birth defects, the Persian Gulf syndrome, and kidney diseases that have been associated to DU are the arguments treated in the third section. Finally, data regarding DU exposure and cancer insurgence will be critically analyzed, including leukemia/lymphoma, lung cancer, uterine cervix cancer, breast cancer, bladder cancer and testicular cancer. The aim of the authors is to give a contribution to the debate on DU and its effects on human health and disease. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. Ozone depletion potentials of halocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karol, I.L.; Kiselev, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    The concept of ozone depletion potential (ODP) is widely used in the evaluation of numerous halocarbons and of their replacements for effects on ozone, but the methods, model assumptions and conditions of ODP calculation have not been analyzed adequately. In this paper, a model study of effects on ozone after the instantaneous releases of various amounts of CH 3 CCl 3 and of CHF 2 Cl(HCFC-22) in the several conditions of the background atmosphere are presented, aimed to understand the main connections of ODP values with the methods of their calculations. To facilitate the ODP computation in numerous versions for long after the releases, the above rather short-lived gases have been used. The variation of released gas global mass from 1 Mt to 1 Gt leads to ODP value increase atmosphere. The same variations are analyzed for the CFC-free atmosphere of 1960s conditions for the anthropogenically loaded atmosphere in the 21st century according to the known IPCC- A scenario (business as usual). Recommendations of proper ways of ODP calculations are proposed for practically important cases

  1. Plutonium in depleted uranium penetrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, J.P.; Leon-Vintro, L.; Smith, K.; Mitchell, P.I.; Zunic, Z.S.

    2002-01-01

    Depleted Uranium (DU) penetrators used in the recent Balkan conflicts have been found to be contaminated with trace amounts of transuranic materials such as plutonium. This contamination is usually a consequence of DU fabrication being carried out in facilities also using uranium recycled from spent military and civilian nuclear reactor fuel. Specific activities of 239+240 Plutonium generally in the range 1 to 12 Bq/kg have been found to be present in DU penetrators recovered from the attack sites of the 1999 NATO bombardment of Kosovo. A DU penetrator recovered from a May 1999 attack site at Bratoselce in southern Serbia and analysed by University College Dublin was found to contain 43.7 +/- 1.9 Bq/kg of 239+240 Plutonium. This analysis is described. An account is also given of the general population radiation dose implications arising from both the DU itself and from the presence of plutonium in the penetrators. According to current dosimetric models, in all scenarios considered likely ,the dose from the plutonium is estimated to be much smaller than that due to the uranium isotopes present in the penetrators. (author)

  2. Depletion sensitivity predicts unhealthy snack purchases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salmon, Stefanie J.; Adriaanse, Marieke A.; Fennis, Bob M.; De Vet, Emely; De Ridder, Denise T D

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present research is to examine the relation between depletion sensitivity - a novel construct referring to the speed or ease by which one's self-control resources are drained - and snack purchase behavior. In addition, interactions between depletion sensitivity and the goal to lose

  3. The Chemistry and Toxicology of Depleted Uranium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney A. Katz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Natural uranium is comprised of three radioactive isotopes: 238U, 235U, and 234U. Depleted uranium (DU is a byproduct of the processes for the enrichment of the naturally occurring 235U isotope. The world wide stock pile contains some 1½ million tons of depleted uranium. Some of it has been used to dilute weapons grade uranium (~90% 235U down to reactor grade uranium (~5% 235U, and some of it has been used for heavy tank armor and for the fabrication of armor-piercing bullets and missiles. Such weapons were used by the military in the Persian Gulf, the Balkans and elsewhere. The testing of depleted uranium weapons and their use in combat has resulted in environmental contamination and human exposure. Although the chemical and the toxicological behaviors of depleted uranium are essentially the same as those of natural uranium, the respective chemical forms and isotopic compositions in which they usually occur are different. The chemical and radiological toxicity of depleted uranium can injure biological systems. Normal functioning of the kidney, liver, lung, and heart can be adversely affected by depleted uranium intoxication. The focus of this review is on the chemical and toxicological properties of depleted and natural uranium and some of the possible consequences from long term, low dose exposure to depleted uranium in the environment.

  4. Deuterium - depleted water. Achievements and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titescu, Gh.; Stefanescu, I.; Saros-Rogobete, I.

    2001-01-01

    Deuterium - depleted water represents water that has an isotopic content lower than 145 ppm D/(D+H) which is the natural isotopic content of water. The research conducted at ICSI Ramnicu Valcea, regarding deuterium - depleted water were completed by the following patents: - technique and installation for deuterium - depleted water production; - distilled water with low deuterium content; - technique and installation for the production of distilled water with low deuterium content; - mineralized water with low deuterium content and technique to produce it. The gold and silver medals won at international salons for inventions confirmed the novelty of these inventions. Knowing that deuterium content of water has a big influence on living organisms, beginning with 1996, the ICSI Ramnicu Valcea, deuterium - depleted water producer, co-operated with Romanian specialized institutes for biological effects' evaluation of deuterium - depleted water. The role of natural deuterium in living organisms was examined by using deuterium - depleted water instead of natural water. These investigations led to the following conclusions: 1. deuterium - depleted water caused a tendency towards the increase of the basal tone, accompanied by the intensification of the vasoconstrictor effects of phenylefrine, noradrenaline and angiotensin; the increase of the basal tone and vascular reactivity produced by the deuterium - depleted water persists after the removal of the vascular endothelium; -2. animals treated with deuterium - depleted water showed an increase of the resistance both to sublethal and to lethal gamma radiation doses, suggesting a radioprotective action by the stimulation of non-specific immune defence mechanism; 3, deuterium - depleted water stimulates immune defence reactions, represented by the opsonic, bactericidal and phagocyte capacity of the immune system, together with increase in the numbers of polymorphonuclear neutrophils; 4. investigations regarding artificial

  5. Interstellar depletion anomalies and ionization potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabak, R.G.

    1979-01-01

    Satellite observations indicate that (1) most elements are depleted from the gas phase when compared to cosmic abundances, (2) some elements are several orders of magnitude more depleted than others, and (3) these depletions vary from cloud to cloud. Since the most likely possibility is that the 'missing' atoms are locked into grains, depletions occur either by accretion onto core particles in interstellar clouds or earlier, during the period of primary grain formation. If the latter mechanism is dominant, then the most important depletion parameter is the condensation temperature of the elements and their various compounds. However, this alone is not sufficient to explain all the observed anomalies. It is shown that electrostatic effects - under a wide variety of conditions- can enormously enhance the capture cross-section of the grain. It is suggested that this mechanism can also account for such anomalies as the apparent 'overabundance' of the alkali metals in the gas phase. (orig.)

  6. Specification for the VERA Depletion Benchmark Suite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kang Seog [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-12-17

    CASL-X-2015-1014-000 iii Consortium for Advanced Simulation of LWRs EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The CASL neutronics simulator MPACT is under development for the neutronics and T-H coupled simulation for the pressurized water reactor. MPACT includes the ORIGEN-API and internal depletion module to perform depletion calculations based upon neutron-material reaction and radioactive decay. It is a challenge to validate the depletion capability because of the insufficient measured data. One of the detoured methods to validate it is to perform a code-to-code comparison for benchmark problems. In this study a depletion benchmark suite has been developed and a detailed guideline has been provided to obtain meaningful computational outcomes which can be used in the validation of the MPACT depletion capability.

  7. Gulf war depleted uranium risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Albert C

    2008-01-01

    US and British forces used depleted uranium (DU) in armor-piercing rounds to disable enemy tanks during the Gulf and Balkan Wars. Uranium particulate is generated by DU shell impact and particulate entrained in air may be inhaled or ingested by troops and nearby civilian populations. As uranium is slightly radioactive and chemically toxic, a number of critics have asserted that DU exposure has resulted in a variety of adverse health effects for exposed veterans and nearby civilian populations. The study described in this paper used mathematical modeling to estimate health risks from exposure to DU during the 1991 Gulf War for both US troops and nearby Iraqi civilians. The analysis found that the risks of DU-induced leukemia or birth defects are far too small to result in an observable increase in these health effects among exposed veterans or Iraqi civilians. The analysis indicated that only a few ( approximately 5) US veterans in vehicles accidentally targeted by US tanks received significant exposure levels, resulting in about a 1.4% lifetime risk of DU radiation-induced fatal cancer (compared with about a 24% risk of a fatal cancer from all other causes). These veterans may have also experienced temporary kidney damage. Iraqi children playing for 500 h in DU-destroyed vehicles are predicted to incur a cancer risk of about 0.4%. In vitro and animal tests suggest the possibility of chemically induced health effects from DU internalization, such as immune system impairment. Further study is needed to determine the applicability of these findings for Gulf War exposure to DU. Veterans and civilians who did not occupy DU-contaminated vehicles are unlikely to have internalized quantities of DU significantly in excess of normal internalization of natural uranium from the environment.

  8. Relativistic nuclear physics: symmetry and the correlation depletion principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldin, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    The author's view on the role of symmetry in fundamental physics is presented. The concept of the 'symmetry of solutions' is analyzed. It is stressed that it is impossible to deduce the basic laws of relativistic nuclear physics from the QCD Lagrangians without recourse to additional hypotheses about the symmetry of solutions (Green functions). The test of these hypotheses is the major prospect of the study of hadron and nuclear collisions. Special importance is given to the Correlation Depletions Principle that makes it possible to construct mathematical models of relativistic nuclear physics, and analyze, by using simple terms, topologically complicated events of nucleus-nucleus collisions. 15 refs., 4 figs

  9. Maximizing percentage depletion in solid minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripp, J.; Grove, H.D.; McGrath, M.

    1982-01-01

    This article develops a strategy for maximizing percentage depletion deductions when extracting uranium or other solid minerals. The goal is to avoid losing percentage depletion deductions by staying below the 50% limitation on taxable income from the property. The article is divided into two major sections. The first section is comprised of depletion calculations that illustrate the problem and corresponding solutions. The last section deals with the feasibility of applying the strategy and complying with the Internal Revenue Code and appropriate regulations. Three separate strategies or appropriate situations are developed and illustrated. 13 references, 3 figures, 7 tables

  10. Fully Depleted Charge-Coupled Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, Stephen E.

    2006-01-01

    We have developed fully depleted, back-illuminated CCDs that build upon earlier research and development efforts directed towards technology development of silicon-strip detectors used in high-energy-physics experiments. The CCDs are fabricated on the same type of high-resistivity, float-zone-refined silicon that is used for strip detectors. The use of high-resistivity substrates allows for thick depletion regions, on the order of 200-300 um, with corresponding high detection efficiency for near-infrared and soft x-ray photons. We compare the fully depleted CCD to the p-i-n diode upon which it is based, and describe the use of fully depleted CCDs in astronomical and x-ray imaging applications

  11. Plasmonic Nanoprobes for Stimulated Emission Depletion Nanoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, Emiliano; Huidobro, Paloma A; Sinclair, Hugo G; Guldbrand, Stina; Peveler, William J; Davies, Timothy; Parrinello, Simona; Görlitz, Frederik; Dunsby, Chris; Neil, Mark A A; Sivan, Yonatan; Parkin, Ivan P; French, Paul M W; Maier, Stefan A

    2016-11-22

    Plasmonic nanoparticles influence the absorption and emission processes of nearby emitters due to local enhancements of the illuminating radiation and the photonic density of states. Here, we use the plasmon resonance of metal nanoparticles in order to enhance the stimulated depletion of excited molecules for super-resolved nanoscopy. We demonstrate stimulated emission depletion (STED) nanoscopy with gold nanorods with a long axis of only 26 nm and a width of 8 nm. These particles provide an enhancement of up to 50% of the resolution compared to fluorescent-only probes without plasmonic components irradiated with the same depletion power. The nanoparticle-assisted STED probes reported here represent a ∼2 × 10 3 reduction in probe volume compared to previously used nanoparticles. Finally, we demonstrate their application toward plasmon-assisted STED cellular imaging at low-depletion powers, and we also discuss their current limitations.

  12. Real depletion in nodal diffusion codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petkov, P.T.

    2002-01-01

    The fuel depletion is described by more than one hundred fuel isotopes in the advanced lattice codes like HELIOS, but only a few fuel isotopes are accounted for even in the advanced steady-state diffusion codes. The general assumption that the number densities of the majority of the fuel isotopes depend only on the fuel burnup is seriously in error if high burnup is considered. The real depletion conditions in the reactor core differ from the asymptotic ones at the stage of lattice depletion calculations. This study reveals which fuel isotopes should be explicitly accounted for in the diffusion codes in order to predict adequately the real depletion effects in the core. A somewhat strange conclusion is that if the real number densities of the main fissionable isotopes are not explicitly accounted for in the diffusion code, then Sm-149 should not be accounted for either, because the net error in k-inf is smaller (Authors)

  13. Depleted UF6 programmatic environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The US Department of Energy has developed a program for long-term management and use of depleted uranium hexafluoride, a product of the uranium enrichment process. As part of this effort, DOE is preparing a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) for the depleted UF 6 management program. This report duplicates the information available at the web site (http://www.ead.anl.gov/web/newduf6) set up as a repository for the PEIS. Options for the web site include: reviewing recent additions or changes to the web site; learning more about depleted UF 6 and the PEIS; browsing the PEIS and related documents, or submitting official comments on the PEIS; downloading all or part of the PEIS documents; and adding or deleting one's name from the depleted UF 6 mailing list

  14. Ecological considerations of natural and depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, W.C.

    1980-01-01

    Depleted 238 U is a major by-product of the nuclear fuel cycle for which increasing use is being made in counterweights, radiation shielding, and ordnance applications. This paper (1) summarizes the pertinent literature on natural and depleted uranium in the environment, (2) integrates results of a series of ecological studies conducted at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) in New Mexico where 70,000 kg of depleted and natural uranium has been expended to the environment over the past 34 years, and (3) synthesizes the information into an assessment of the ecological consequences of natural and depleted uranium released to the environment by various means. Results of studies of soil, plant, and animal communities exposed to this radiation and chemical environment over a third of a century provide a means of evaluating the behavior and effects of uranium in many contexts

  15. Stimulated emission depletion following two photon excitation

    OpenAIRE

    Marsh, R. J.; Armoogum, D. A.; Bain, A. J.

    2002-01-01

    The technique of stimulated emission depletion of fluorescence (STED) from a two photon excited molecular population is demonstrated in the S, excited state of fluorescein in ethylene glycol and methanol. Two photon excitation (pump) is achieved using the partial output of a regeneratively amplified Ti:Sapphire laser in conjunction with an optical parametric amplifier whose tuneable output provides a synchronous depletion (dump) pulse. Time resolved fluorescence intensity and anisotropy measu...

  16. Depleted uranium: A DOE management guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a management challenge and financial liability in the form of 50,000 cylinders containing 555,000 metric tons of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) that are stored at the gaseous diffusion plants. The annual storage and maintenance cost is approximately $10 million. This report summarizes several studies undertaken by the DOE Office of Technology Development (OTD) to evaluate options for long-term depleted uranium management. Based on studies conducted to date, the most likely use of the depleted uranium is for shielding of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) or vitrified high-level waste (HLW) containers. The alternative to finding a use for the depleted uranium is disposal as a radioactive waste. Estimated disposal costs, utilizing existing technologies, range between $3.8 and $11.3 billion, depending on factors such as applicability of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the location of the disposal site. The cost of recycling the depleted uranium in a concrete based shielding in SNF/HLW containers, although substantial, is comparable to or less than the cost of disposal. Consequently, the case can be made that if DOE invests in developing depleted uranium shielded containers instead of disposal, a long-term solution to the UF 6 problem is attained at comparable or lower cost than disposal as a waste. Two concepts for depleted uranium storage casks were considered in these studies. The first is based on standard fabrication concepts previously developed for depleted uranium metal. The second converts the UF 6 to an oxide aggregate that is used in concrete to make dry storage casks

  17. Depleted Bulk Heterojunction Colloidal Quantum Dot Photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Barkhouse, D. Aaron R.

    2011-05-26

    The first solution-processed depleted bulk heterojunction colloidal quantum dot solar cells are presented. The architecture allows for high absorption with full depletion, thereby breaking the photon absorption/carrier extraction compromise inherent in planar devices. A record power conversion of 5.5% under simulated AM 1.5 illumination conditions is reported. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. ANATOMY OF DEPLETED INTERPLANETARY CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocher, M.; Lepri, S. T.; Landi, E.; Zhao, L.; Manchester, W. B. IV, E-mail: mkocher@umich.edu [Department of Climate and Space Sciences and Engineering, University of Michigan, 2455 Hayward Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2143 (United States)

    2017-01-10

    We report a subset of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) containing distinct periods of anomalous heavy-ion charge state composition and peculiar ion thermal properties measured by ACE /SWICS from 1998 to 2011. We label them “depleted ICMEs,” identified by the presence of intervals where C{sup 6+}/C{sup 5+} and O{sup 7+}/O{sup 6+} depart from the direct correlation expected after their freeze-in heights. These anomalous intervals within the depleted ICMEs are referred to as “Depletion Regions.” We find that a depleted ICME would be indistinguishable from all other ICMEs in the absence of the Depletion Region, which has the defining property of significantly low abundances of fully charged species of helium, carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen. Similar anomalies in the slow solar wind were discussed by Zhao et al. We explore two possibilities for the source of the Depletion Region associated with magnetic reconnection in the tail of a CME, using CME simulations of the evolution of two Earth-bound CMEs described by Manchester et al.

  19. EPRI depletion benchmark calculations using PARAGON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucukboyaci, Vefa N.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • PARAGON depletion calculations are benchmarked against the EPRI reactivity decrement experiments. • Benchmarks cover a wide range of enrichments, burnups, cooling times, and burnable absorbers, and different depletion and storage conditions. • Results from PARAGON-SCALE scheme are more conservative relative to the benchmark data. • ENDF/B-VII based data reduces the excess conservatism and brings the predictions closer to benchmark reactivity decrement values. - Abstract: In order to conservatively apply burnup credit in spent fuel pool criticality analyses, code validation for both fresh and used fuel is required. Fresh fuel validation is typically done by modeling experiments from the “International Handbook.” A depletion validation can determine a bias and bias uncertainty for the worth of the isotopes not found in the fresh fuel critical experiments. Westinghouse’s burnup credit methodology uses PARAGON™ (Westinghouse 2-D lattice physics code) and its 70-group cross-section library, which have been benchmarked, qualified, and licensed both as a standalone transport code and as a nuclear data source for core design simulations. A bias and bias uncertainty for the worth of depletion isotopes, however, are not available for PARAGON. Instead, the 5% decrement approach for depletion uncertainty is used, as set forth in the Kopp memo. Recently, EPRI developed a set of benchmarks based on a large set of power distribution measurements to ascertain reactivity biases. The depletion reactivity has been used to create 11 benchmark cases for 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 GWd/MTU and 3 cooling times 100 h, 5 years, and 15 years. These benchmark cases are analyzed with PARAGON and the SCALE package and sensitivity studies are performed using different cross-section libraries based on ENDF/B-VI.3 and ENDF/B-VII data to assess that the 5% decrement approach is conservative for determining depletion uncertainty

  20. Uncertainty Propagation in Monte Carlo Depletion Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Hyung Jin; Kim, Yeong-il; Park, Ho Jin; Joo, Han Gyu; Kim, Chang Hyo

    2008-01-01

    A new formulation aimed at quantifying uncertainties of Monte Carlo (MC) tallies such as k eff and the microscopic reaction rates of nuclides and nuclide number densities in MC depletion analysis and examining their propagation behaviour as a function of depletion time step (DTS) is presented. It is shown that the variance of a given MC tally used as a measure of its uncertainty in this formulation arises from four sources; the statistical uncertainty of the MC tally, uncertainties of microscopic cross sections and nuclide number densities, and the cross correlations between them and the contribution of the latter three sources can be determined by computing the correlation coefficients between the uncertain variables. It is also shown that the variance of any given nuclide number density at the end of each DTS stems from uncertainties of the nuclide number densities (NND) and microscopic reaction rates (MRR) of nuclides at the beginning of each DTS and they are determined by computing correlation coefficients between these two uncertain variables. To test the viability of the formulation, we conducted MC depletion analysis for two sample depletion problems involving a simplified 7x7 fuel assembly (FA) and a 17x17 PWR FA, determined number densities of uranium and plutonium isotopes and their variances as well as k ∞ and its variance as a function of DTS, and demonstrated the applicability of the new formulation for uncertainty propagation analysis that need be followed in MC depletion computations. (authors)

  1. Groundwater Depletion Embedded in International Food Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalin, Carole; Wada, Yoshihide; Kastner, Thomas; Puma, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Recent hydrological modeling and Earth observations have located and quantified alarming rates of groundwater depletion worldwide. This depletion is primarily due to water withdrawals for irrigation, but its connection with the main driver of irrigation, global food consumption, has not yet been explored. Here we show that approximately eleven per cent of non-renewable groundwater use for irrigation is embedded in international food trade, of which two-thirds are exported by Pakistan, the USA and India alone. Our quantification of groundwater depletion embedded in the world's food trade is based on a combination of global, crop-specific estimates of non-renewable groundwater abstraction and international food trade data. A vast majority of the world's population lives in countries sourcing nearly all their staple crop imports from partners who deplete groundwater to produce these crops, highlighting risks for global food and water security. Some countries, such as the USA, Mexico, Iran and China, are particularly exposed to these risks because they both produce and import food irrigated from rapidly depleting aquifers. Our results could help to improve the sustainability of global food production and groundwater resource management by identifying priority regions and agricultural products at risk as well as the end consumers of these products.

  2. Depletion sensitivity predicts unhealthy snack purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Stefanie J; Adriaanse, Marieke A; Fennis, Bob M; De Vet, Emely; De Ridder, Denise T D

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present research is to examine the relation between depletion sensitivity - a novel construct referring to the speed or ease by which one's self-control resources are drained - and snack purchase behavior. In addition, interactions between depletion sensitivity and the goal to lose weight on snack purchase behavior were explored. Participants included in the study were instructed to report every snack they bought over the course of one week. The dependent variables were the number of healthy and unhealthy snacks purchased. The results of the present study demonstrate that depletion sensitivity predicts the amount of unhealthy (but not healthy) snacks bought. The more sensitive people are to depletion, the more unhealthy snacks they buy. Moreover, there was some tentative evidence that this relation is more pronounced for people with a weak as opposed to a strong goal to lose weight, suggesting that a strong goal to lose weight may function as a motivational buffer against self-control failures. All in all, these findings provide evidence for the external validity of depletion sensitivity and the relevance of this construct in the domain of eating behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Groundwater depletion embedded in international food trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalin, Carole; Wada, Yoshihide; Kastner, Thomas; Puma, Michael J.

    2017-03-01

    Recent hydrological modelling and Earth observations have located and quantified alarming rates of groundwater depletion worldwide. This depletion is primarily due to water withdrawals for irrigation, but its connection with the main driver of irrigation, global food consumption, has not yet been explored. Here we show that approximately eleven per cent of non-renewable groundwater use for irrigation is embedded in international food trade, of which two-thirds are exported by Pakistan, the USA and India alone. Our quantification of groundwater depletion embedded in the world’s food trade is based on a combination of global, crop-specific estimates of non-renewable groundwater abstraction and international food trade data. A vast majority of the world’s population lives in countries sourcing nearly all their staple crop imports from partners who deplete groundwater to produce these crops, highlighting risks for global food and water security. Some countries, such as the USA, Mexico, Iran and China, are particularly exposed to these risks because they both produce and import food irrigated from rapidly depleting aquifers. Our results could help to improve the sustainability of global food production and groundwater resource management by identifying priority regions and agricultural products at risk as well as the end consumers of these products.

  4. The new MCNP6 depletion capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fensin, M. L.; James, M. R.; Hendricks, J. S.; Goorley, J. T.

    2012-01-01

    The first MCNP based in-line Monte Carlo depletion capability was officially released from the Radiation Safety Information and Computational Center as MCNPX 2.6.0. Both the MCNP5 and MCNPX codes have historically provided a successful combinatorial geometry based, continuous energy, Monte Carlo radiation transport solution for advanced reactor modeling and simulation. However, due to separate development pathways, useful simulation capabilities were dispersed between both codes and not unified in a single technology. MCNP6, the next evolution in the MCNP suite of codes, now combines the capability of both simulation tools, as well as providing new advanced technology, in a single radiation transport code. We describe here the new capabilities of the MCNP6 depletion code dating from the official RSICC release MCNPX 2.6.0, reported previously, to the now current state of MCNP6. NEA/OECD benchmark results are also reported. The MCNP6 depletion capability enhancements beyond MCNPX 2.6.0 reported here include: (1) new performance enhancing parallel architecture that implements both shared and distributed memory constructs; (2) enhanced memory management that maximizes calculation fidelity; and (3) improved burnup physics for better nuclide prediction. MCNP6 depletion enables complete, relatively easy-to-use depletion calculations in a single Monte Carlo code. The enhancements described here help provide a powerful capability as well as dictate a path forward for future development to improve the usefulness of the technology. (authors)

  5. The New MCNP6 Depletion Capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fensin, Michael Lorne; James, Michael R.; Hendricks, John S.; Goorley, John T.

    2012-01-01

    The first MCNP based inline Monte Carlo depletion capability was officially released from the Radiation Safety Information and Computational Center as MCNPX 2.6.0. Both the MCNP5 and MCNPX codes have historically provided a successful combinatorial geometry based, continuous energy, Monte Carlo radiation transport solution for advanced reactor modeling and simulation. However, due to separate development pathways, useful simulation capabilities were dispersed between both codes and not unified in a single technology. MCNP6, the next evolution in the MCNP suite of codes, now combines the capability of both simulation tools, as well as providing new advanced technology, in a single radiation transport code. We describe here the new capabilities of the MCNP6 depletion code dating from the official RSICC release MCNPX 2.6.0, reported previously, to the now current state of MCNP6. NEA/OECD benchmark results are also reported. The MCNP6 depletion capability enhancements beyond MCNPX 2.6.0 reported here include: (1) new performance enhancing parallel architecture that implements both shared and distributed memory constructs; (2) enhanced memory management that maximizes calculation fidelity; and (3) improved burnup physics for better nuclide prediction. MCNP6 depletion enables complete, relatively easy-to-use depletion calculations in a single Monte Carlo code. The enhancements described here help provide a powerful capability as well as dictate a path forward for future development to improve the usefulness of the technology.

  6. Ego depletion in visual perception: Ego-depleted viewers experience less ambiguous figure reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, Marina C; Stirk, Steven; Hancock, Peter J B

    2017-10-01

    This study examined the effects of ego depletion on ambiguous figure perception. Adults (N = 315) received an ego depletion task and were subsequently tested on their inhibitory control abilities that were indexed by the Stroop task (Experiment 1) and their ability to perceive both interpretations of ambiguous figures that was indexed by reversal (Experiment 2). Ego depletion had a very small effect on reducing inhibitory control (Cohen's d = .15) (Experiment 1). Ego-depleted participants had a tendency to take longer to respond in Stroop trials. In Experiment 2, ego depletion had small to medium effects on the experience of reversal. Ego-depleted viewers tended to take longer to reverse ambiguous figures (duration to first reversal) when naïve of the ambiguity and experienced less reversal both when naïve and informed of the ambiguity. Together, findings suggest that ego depletion has small effects on inhibitory control and small to medium effects on bottom-up and top-down perceptual processes. The depletion of cognitive resources can reduce our visual perceptual experience.

  7. The modality effect of ego depletion: Auditory task modality reduces ego depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiong; Wang, Zhenhong

    2016-08-01

    An initial act of self-control that impairs subsequent acts of self-control is called ego depletion. The ego depletion phenomenon has been observed consistently. The modality effect refers to the effect of the presentation modality on the processing of stimuli. The modality effect was also robustly found in a large body of research. However, no study to date has examined the modality effects of ego depletion. This issue was addressed in the current study. In Experiment 1, after all participants completed a handgrip task, one group's participants completed a visual attention regulation task and the other group's participants completed an auditory attention regulation task, and then all participants again completed a handgrip task. The ego depletion phenomenon was observed in both the visual and the auditory attention regulation task. Moreover, participants who completed the visual task performed worse on the handgrip task than participants who completed the auditory task, which indicated that there was high ego depletion in the visual task condition. In Experiment 2, participants completed an initial task that either did or did not deplete self-control resources, and then they completed a second visual or auditory attention control task. The results indicated that depleted participants performed better on the auditory attention control task than the visual attention control task. These findings suggest that altering task modality may reduce ego depletion. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Sensibility analysis of fuel depletion using different nuclear fuel depletion codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, F.; Velasquez, C.E.; Castro, V.F.; Pereira, C.; Silva, C. A. Mello da

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, the utilization of different nuclear codes to perform the depletion and criticality calculations has been used to simulated nuclear reactors problems. Therefore, the goal is to analyze the sensibility of the fuel depletion of a PWR assembly using three different nuclear fuel depletion codes. The burnup calculations are performed using the codes MCNP5/ORIGEN2.1 (MONTEBURNS), KENO-VI/ORIGEN-S (TRITONSCALE6.0) and MCNPX (MCNPX/CINDER90). Each nuclear code performs the burnup using different depletion codes. Each depletion code works with collapsed energies from a master library in 1, 3 and 63 groups, respectively. Besides, each code uses different ways to obtain neutron flux that influences the depletions calculation. The results present a comparison of the neutronic parameters and isotopes composition such as criticality and nuclides build-up, the deviation in results are going to be assigned to features of the depletion code in use, such as the different radioactive decay internal libraries and the numerical method involved in solving the coupled differential depletion equations. It is also seen that the longer the period is and the more time steps are chosen, the larger the deviation become. (author)

  9. Sensibility analysis of fuel depletion using different nuclear fuel depletion codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, F.; Velasquez, C.E.; Castro, V.F.; Pereira, C.; Silva, C. A. Mello da, E-mail: felipmartins94@gmail.com, E-mail: carlosvelcab@hotmail.com, E-mail: victorfariascastro@gmail.com, E-mail: claubia@nuclear.ufmg.br, E-mail: clarysson@nuclear.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-07-01

    Nowadays, the utilization of different nuclear codes to perform the depletion and criticality calculations has been used to simulated nuclear reactors problems. Therefore, the goal is to analyze the sensibility of the fuel depletion of a PWR assembly using three different nuclear fuel depletion codes. The burnup calculations are performed using the codes MCNP5/ORIGEN2.1 (MONTEBURNS), KENO-VI/ORIGEN-S (TRITONSCALE6.0) and MCNPX (MCNPX/CINDER90). Each nuclear code performs the burnup using different depletion codes. Each depletion code works with collapsed energies from a master library in 1, 3 and 63 groups, respectively. Besides, each code uses different ways to obtain neutron flux that influences the depletions calculation. The results present a comparison of the neutronic parameters and isotopes composition such as criticality and nuclides build-up, the deviation in results are going to be assigned to features of the depletion code in use, such as the different radioactive decay internal libraries and the numerical method involved in solving the coupled differential depletion equations. It is also seen that the longer the period is and the more time steps are chosen, the larger the deviation become. (author)

  10. Depleted uranium and the Gulf War syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Some military personnel involved in the 1991Gulf War have complained of continuing stress-like symptoms for which no obvious cause has been found. These symptoms have at times been attributed to the use of depleted uranium (DU) in shell casings which are believed to have caused toxic effects. Depleted uranium is natural uranium which is depleted in the rarer U-235 isotope. It is a heavy metal and in common with other heavy metals is chemically toxic. It is also slightly radioactive and could give rise to a radiological hazard if dispersed in finely divided form so that it was inhaled. In response to concerns, the possible effects of DU have been extensively studied along with other possible contributors to G ulf War sickness . This article looks at the results of some of the research that has been done on DU. (author)

  11. Self-regulation, ego depletion, and inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, Roy F

    2014-12-01

    Inhibition is a major form of self-regulation. As such, it depends on self-awareness and comparing oneself to standards and is also susceptible to fluctuations in willpower resources. Ego depletion is the state of reduced willpower caused by prior exertion of self-control. Ego depletion undermines inhibition both because restraints are weaker and because urges are felt more intensely than usual. Conscious inhibition of desires is a pervasive feature of everyday life and may be a requirement of life in civilized, cultural society, and in that sense it goes to the evolved core of human nature. Intentional inhibition not only restrains antisocial impulses but can also facilitate optimal performance, such as during test taking. Self-regulation and ego depletion- may also affect less intentional forms of inhibition, even chronic tendencies to inhibit. Broadly stated, inhibition is necessary for human social life and nearly all societies encourage and enforce it. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Department of Energy depleted uranium recycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosinski, F.E.; Butturini, W.G.; Kurtz, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    With its strategic supply of depleted uranium, the Department of Energy is studying reuse of the material in nuclear radiation shields, military hardware, and commercial applications. the study is expected to warrant a more detailed uranium recycle plan which would include consideration of a demonstration program and a program implementation decision. Such a program, if implemented, would become the largest nuclear material recycle program in the history of the Department of Energy. The bulk of the current inventory of depleted uranium is stored in 14-ton cylinders in the form of solid uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ). The radioactive 235 U content has been reduced to a concentration of 0.2% to 0.4%. Present estimates indicate there are about 55,000 UF 6 -filled cylinders in inventory and planned operations will provide another 2,500 cylinders of depleted uranium each year. The United States government, under the auspices of the Department of Energy, considers the depleted uranium a highly-refined strategic resource of significant value. A possible utilization of a large portion of the depleted uranium inventory is as radiation shielding for spent reactor fuels and high-level radioactive waste. To this end, the Department of Energy study to-date has included a preliminary technical review to ascertain DOE chemical forms useful for commercial products. The presentation summarized the information including preliminary cost estimates. The status of commercial uranium processing is discussed. With a shrinking market, the number of chemical conversion and fabrication plants is reduced; however, the commercial capability does exist for chemical conversion of the UF 6 to the metal form and for the fabrication of uranium radiation shields and other uranium products. Department of Energy facilities no longer possess a capability for depleted uranium chemical conversion

  13. Depleted uranium hexafluoride: Waste or resource?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwertz, N.; Zoller, J.; Rosen, R.; Patton, S.; Bradley, C.; Murray, A.

    1995-07-01

    The US Department of Energy is evaluating technologies for the storage, disposal, or re-use of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ). This paper discusses the following options, and provides a technology assessment for each one: (1) conversion to UO 2 for use as mixed oxide duel, (2) conversion to UO 2 to make DUCRETE for a multi-purpose storage container, (3) conversion to depleted uranium metal for use as shielding, (4) conversion to uranium carbide for use as high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) fuel. In addition, conversion to U 3 O 8 as an option for long-term storage is discussed

  14. Depleted uranium processing and fluorine extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laflin, S.T.

    2010-01-01

    Since the beginning of the nuclear era, there has never been a commercial solution for the large quantities of depleted uranium hexafluoride generated from uranium enrichment. In the United States alone, there is already in excess of 1.6 billion pounds (730 million kilograms) of DUF_6 currently stored. INIS is constructing a commercial uranium processing and fluorine extraction facility. The INIS facility will convert depleted uranium hexafluoride and use it as feed material for the patented Fluorine Extraction Process to produce high purity fluoride gases and anhydrous hydrofluoric acid. The project will provide an environmentally friendly and commercially viable solution for DUF_6 tails management. (author)

  15. The Chemistry and Toxicology of Depleted Uranium

    OpenAIRE

    Sidney A. Katz

    2014-01-01

    Natural uranium is comprised of three radioactive isotopes: 238U, 235U, and 234U. Depleted uranium (DU) is a byproduct of the processes for the enrichment of the naturally occurring 235U isotope. The world wide stock pile contains some 1½ million tons of depleted uranium. Some of it has been used to dilute weapons grade uranium (~90% 235U) down to reactor grade uranium (~5% 235U), and some of it has been used for heavy tank armor and for the fabrication of armor-piercing bullets and missiles....

  16. The harzburgites-lherzolite cycle: depletion and refertilization processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, A. H.

    2011-12-01

    Lherzolites or clinopyroxene-rich harzburgites sampled at the ocean floor are now generally interpreted as refractory harzburgites refertilized by melt-rock reaction or melt impregnation at the spreading center, rather than as relatively undepleted bulk upper mantle. The key evidence for a melt refertilization origin is often textural. Critically, the refertilization can mask the underlying very refractory character: oceanic peridotites prior to melt refertilization at the ridge are often too refractory to be simple mantle residues of bulk upper mantle that was melted at the ridge. This suggests that the upper mantle contains large domains that record prior melting histories. This is supported by ancient rhenium-depletion ages that are common in oceanic peridotites. In this presentation, I will discuss some key examples (e.g., Macquarie Island [1], Pindos, Totalp, Lanzarote) of refertilized oceanic peridotites, which all have recorded previous, ancient depletions. I will show the textural and geochemical evidence for melt refertilization. It has often been assumed that melt refertilization occurs by interaction with mantle melts. However, there is now evidence for melt refertilization through a reaction with eclogite-derived melts, probably at the base of the melting column underneath the ridge system. These eclogitic mantle heterogeneities themselves do not normally survive the melting underneath the spreading center, but their isotopic signature can be recognized in the reacted peridotites. In summary, we have moved away from the idea that oceanic mantle rocks are simple melting residues of homogeneous bulk upper mantle. The picture that emerges is a rich and complex one, suggesting that oceanic mantle rocks record dynamic histories of melting and refertilization. In particular, the melting event in refertilized peridotites can be much older than the age of the ridge system at which they are sampled. Many oceanic peridotites contain evidence for a Mesoproterozoic

  17. “When the going gets tough, who keeps going?” Depletion sensitivity moderates the ego-depletion effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salmon, S.J.; Adriaanse, M.A.; Vet, de E.W.M.L.; Fennis, B.M.; Ridder, de D.T.D.

    2014-01-01

    Self-control relies on a limited resource that can get depleted, a phenomenon that has been labeled ego-depletion. We argue that individuals may differ in their sensitivity to depleting tasks, and that consequently some people deplete their self-control resource at a faster rate than others. In

  18. “When the going gets tough, who keeps going?” Depletion sensitivity moderates the ego-depletion effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Stefanie J.; Adriaanse, Marieke A.; De Vet, Emely; Fennis, Bob M.; De Ridder, Denise T. D.

    2014-01-01

    Self-control relies on a limited resource that can get depleted, a phenomenon that has been labeled ego-depletion. We argue that individuals may differ in their sensitivity to depleting tasks, and that consequently some people deplete their self-control resource at a faster rate than others. In three studies, we assessed individual differences in depletion sensitivity, and demonstrate that depletion sensitivity moderates ego-depletion effects. The Depletion Sensitivity Scale (DSS) was employed to assess depletion sensitivity. Study 1 employs the DSS to demonstrate that individual differences in sensitivity to ego-depletion exist. Study 2 shows moderate correlations of depletion sensitivity with related self-control concepts, indicating that these scales measure conceptually distinct constructs. Study 3 demonstrates that depletion sensitivity moderates the ego-depletion effect. Specifically, participants who are sensitive to depletion performed worse on a second self-control task, indicating a stronger ego-depletion effect, compared to participants less sensitive to depletion. PMID:25009523

  19. Evolution of depleted mantle: The lead perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilton, George R.

    1983-07-01

    Isotopic data have established that, compared to estimated bulk earth abundances, the sources of oceanic basaltic lavas have been depleted in large ion lithophile elements for at least several billions of years. Various data on the Tertiary-Mesozoic Gorgona komatiite and Cretaceous Oka carbonatite show that those rocks also sample depleted mantle sources. This information is used by analogy to compare Pb isotopic data from 2.6 billion year old komatiite and carbonatite from the Suomussalmi belt of eastern Finland and Munro Township, Ontario that are with associated granitic rocks and ores that should contain marked crustal components. Within experimental error no differences are detected in the isotopic composition of initial Pb in either of the rock suites. These observations agree closely with Sr and Nd data from other laboratories showing that depleted mantle could not have originated in those areas more than a few tenths of billions of years before the rocks were emplaced. On a world-wide basis the Pb isotope data are consistent with production of depleted mantle by continuous differentiation processes acting over approximately the past 3 billion years. The data show that Pb evolution is more complex than the simpler models derived from the Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd systems. The nature of the complexity is still poorly understood.

  20. Poroelasticity of high porosity chalk under depletion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Katrine Alling; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2013-01-01

    on mechanical test results is found to be low-er than the pretest dynamic Biot coefficient determined from elastic wave propagation for the loading path and with less deviation under depletion. The calculated lateral stress is lower than the experimentally measured lateral stress depending on loading path...

  1. Nitrogen depletion in field red giants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masseron, T.; Lagarde, N.; Miglio, A.

    2017-01-01

    , the behaviour of nitrogen data along the evolution confirms the existence of non-canonical extramixing on the red giant branch (RGB) for all low-mass stars in the field. But more surprisingly, the data indicate that nitrogen has been depleted between the RGB tip and the red clump. This may suggest that some...

  2. Elephant invasion and escalated depletion of environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For decades, elephants' invasion is known to be associated with severe environmental consequences leading to escalated depletion o environmental resources (plants, water, wildlife and soil). This paper examined the effects of elephants' activity on the environmental resources inHong and Gombi Local Government areas ...

  3. Depletion mode pumping of solid state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundinger, D.; Solarz, R.; Beach, R.; Albrecht, G.; Krupke, W.

    1990-01-01

    Depletion mode pumping of solid state lasers is a new concept which offers features that are of interest for many practical applications. In this paper the authors discuss the physical properties and mechanisms that set the design requirements, present model calculations for a practical laser design, and discuss the results of recent experiments

  4. Global Warming: Lessons from Ozone Depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Art

    2010-01-01

    My teaching and textbook have always covered many physics-related social issues, including stratospheric ozone depletion and global warming. The ozone saga is an inspiring good-news story that's instructive for solving the similar but bigger problem of global warming. Thus, as soon as students in my physics literacy course at the University of…

  5. Ozone depleting substances management inventory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Ivan Romero Rodríguez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Context: The care of the ozone layer is an activity that contributes to the planet's environmental stability. For this reason, the Montreal Protocol is created to control the emission of substances that deplete the ozone layer and reduce its production from an organizational point of view. However, it is also necessary to have control of those that are already circulating and those present in the equipment that cannot be replaced yet because of the context of the companies that keep it. Generally, the control mechanisms for classifying the type of substances, equipment and companies that own them, are carried in physical files, spreadsheets and text documents, which makes it difficult to control and manage the data stored in them. Method: The objective of this research is to computerize the process of control of substances that deplete the ozone layer. An evaluation and description of all process to manage Ozone-Depleting Substances (ODS, and its alternatives, is done. For computerization, the agile development methodology SCRUM is used, and for the technological solution tools and free open source technologies are used. Result: As a result of the research, a computer tool was developed that automates the process of control and management of substances that exhaust the ozone layer and its alternatives. Conclusions: The developed computer tool allows to control and manage the ozone-depleting substances and the equipment that use them. It also manages the substances that arise as alternatives to be used for the protection of the ozone layer.

  6. Application of backtracking algorithm to depletion calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Mingyu; Wang Shixi; Yang Yong; Zhang Qiang; Yang Jiayin

    2013-01-01

    Based on the theory of linear chain method for analytical depletion calculations, the burnup matrix is decoupled by the divide and conquer strategy and the linear chain with Markov characteristic is formed. The density, activity and decay heat of every nuclide in the chain then can be calculated by analytical solutions. Every possible reaction path of the nuclide must be considered during the linear chain establishment process. To confirm the calculation precision and efficiency, the algorithm which can cover all the reaction paths and search the paths automatically according to the problem description and precision restrictions should be found. Through analysis and comparison of several kinds of searching algorithms, the backtracking algorithm was selected to establish and calculate the linear chains in searching process using depth first search (DFS) method, forming an algorithm which can solve the depletion problem adaptively and with high fidelity. The complexity of the solution space and time was analyzed by taking into account depletion process and the characteristics of the backtracking algorithm. The newly developed depletion program was coupled with Monte Carlo program MCMG-Ⅱ to calculate the benchmark burnup problem of the first core of China Experimental Fast Reactor (CEFR) and the preliminary verification and validation of the program were performed. (authors)

  7. Event Investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korosec, D.

    2000-01-01

    The events in the nuclear industry are investigated from the license point of view and from the regulatory side too. It is well known the importance of the event investigation. One of the main goals of such investigation is to prevent the circumstances leading to the event and the consequences of the event. The protection of the nuclear workers against nuclear hazard, and the protection of general public against dangerous effects of an event could be achieved by systematic approach to the event investigation. Both, the nuclear safety regulatory body and the licensee shall ensure that operational significant events are investigated in a systematic and technically sound manner to gather information pertaining to the probable causes of the event. One of the results should be appropriate feedback regarding the lessons of the experience to the regulatory body, nuclear industry and general public. In the present paper a general description of systematic approach to the event investigation is presented. The systematic approach to the event investigation works best where cooperation is present among the different divisions of the nuclear facility or regulatory body. By involving management and supervisors the safety office can usually improve their efforts in the whole process. The end result shall be a program which serves to prevent events and reduce the time and efforts solving the root cause which initiated each event. Selection of the proper method for the investigation and an adequate review of the findings and conclusions lead to the higher level of the overall nuclear safety. (author)

  8. [Acute tryptophan depletion in eating disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Marsa, M; Lozano, C; Herranz, A S; Asensio-Vegas, M J; Martín, O; Revert, L; Saiz-Ruiz, J; Carrasco, J L

    2006-01-01

    This work describes the rational bases justifying the use of acute tryptophan depletion technique in eating disorders (ED) and the methods and design used in our studies. Tryptophan depletion technique has been described and used in previous studies safely and makes it possible to evaluate the brain serotonin activity. Therefore it is used in the investigation of hypotheses on serotonergic deficiency in eating disorders. Furthermore, and given the relationship of the dysfunctions of serotonin activity with impulsive symptoms, the technique may be useful in biological differentiation of different subtypes, that is restrictive and bulimic, of ED. 57 female patients with DSM-IV eating disorders and 20 female controls were investigated with the tryptophan depletion test. A tryptophan-free amino acid solution was administered orally after a two-day low tryptophan diet to patients and controls. Free plasma tryptophan was measured at two and five hours following administration of the drink. Eating and emotional responses were measured with specific scales for five hours following the depletion. A study of the basic characteristics of the personality and impulsivity traits was also done. Relationship of the response to the test with the different clinical subtypes and with the temperamental and impulsive characteristics of the patients was studied. The test was effective in considerably reducing plasma tryptophan in five hours from baseline levels (76%) in the global sample. The test was well tolerated and no severe adverse effects were reported. Two patients withdrew from the test due to gastric intolerance. The tryptophan depletion test could be of value to study involvement of serotonin deficits in the symptomatology and pathophysiology of eating disorders.

  9. Analysis of catchments response to severe drought event for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nafiisah

    The run sum analysis method was a sound method which indicates in ... intensity and duration of stream flow depletion between nearby catchments. ... threshold level analysis method, and allows drought events to be described in more.

  10. Health and environmental impact of depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furitsu, Katsumi

    2010-01-01

    Depleted Uranium (DU) is 'nuclear waste' produced from the enrichment process and is mostly made up of 238 U and is depleted in the fissionable isotope 235 U compared to natural uranium (NU). Depleted uranium has about 60% of the radioactivity of natural uranium. Depleted uranium and natural uranium are identical in terms of the chemical toxicity. Uranium's high density gives depleted uranium shells increased range and penetrative power. This density, combined with uranium's pyrophoric nature, results in a high-energy kinetic weapon that can punch and burn through armour plating. Striking a hard target, depleted uranium munitions create extremely high temperatures. The uranium immediately burns and vaporizes into an aerosol, which is easily diffused in the environment. People can inhale the micro-particles of uranium oxide in an aerosol and absorb them mainly from lung. Depleted uranium has both aspects of radiological toxicity and chemical toxicity. The possible synergistic effect of both kinds of toxicities is also pointed out. Animal and cellular studies have been reported the carcinogenic, neurotoxic, immuno-toxic and some other effects of depleted uranium including the damage on reproductive system and foetus. In addition, the health effects of micro/ nano-particles, similar in size of depleted uranium aerosols produced by uranium weapons, have been reported. Aerosolized DU dust can easily spread over the battlefield spreading over civilian areas, sometimes even crossing international borders. Therefore, not only the military personnel but also the civilians can be exposed. The contamination continues after the cessation of hostilities. Taking these aspects into account, DU weapon is illegal under international humanitarian laws and is considered as one of the inhumane weapons of 'indiscriminate destruction'. The international society is now discussing the prohibition of DU weapons based on 'precautionary principle'. The 1991 Gulf War is reportedly the first

  11. Seasonal Accumulation and Depletion of Local Sediment Stores of Four Headwater Catchments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E. Martin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal turbidity patterns and event-level hysteresis analysis of turbidity verses discharge in four 1 km2 headwater catchments in California’s Sierra Nevada indicate localized in-channel sediment sources and seasonal accumulation-depletion patterns of stream sediments. Turbidity signals were analyzed for three years in order to look at the relationships between seasonal turbidity trends, event turbidity patterns, and precipitation type to stream sediment production and transport. Seasonal patterns showed more turbidity events associated with fall and early to mid- winter events than with peak snow-melt. No significant turbidity patterns emerged for periods of snow melt vs. rain. Single event hysteresis loops showed clockwise patterns were dominant suggesting local sediment sources. In successive discharge events, the largest turbidity spike was often associated with the first but not necessarily the largest discharge event-indicating seasonal depletion of local sediment stores. In multi-peaked discharge events, hysteresis loops shifted from clockwise to linear or random patterns suggesting that localized sediment stores are being used up and sufficient flow energy must be reached to start entraining the more consolidated bank/bed sediment or that dominant sediment sources may be shifting to less localized areas such as hill slopes. A conceptual model with phases of accumulation and transport is proposed.

  12. Radon depletion in xenon boil-off gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruenner, S.; Cichon, D.; Lindemann, S.; Undagoitia, T.M.; Simgen, H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    An important background in detectors using liquid xenon for rare event searches arises from the decays of radon and its daughters. We report for the first time a reduction of {sup 222}Rn in the gas phase above a liquid xenon reservoir. We show a reduction factor of >or similar 4 for the {sup 222}Rn concentration in boil-off xenon gas compared to the radon enriched liquid phase. A semiconductor-based α-detector and miniaturized proportional counters are used to detect the radon. As the radon depletion in the boil-off gas is understood as a single-stage distillation process, this result establishes the suitability of cryogenic distillation to separate radon from xenon down to the 10{sup -15} mol/mol level. (orig.)

  13. Magnetic field line draping in the plasma depletion layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibeck, D. G.; Lepping, R. P.; Lazarus, A. J.

    1990-01-01

    Simultaneous IMP 8 solar wind and ISEE 1/2 observations for a northern dawn ISEE 1/2 magnetopause crossing on November 6, 1977. During this crossing, ISEE 1/2 observed quasi-periodic pulses of magnetosheathlike plasma on northward magnetic field lines. The ISEE 1/2 observations were originally interpreted as evidence for strong diffusion of magnetosheath plasma across the magnetopause and the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability at the inner edge of the low-latitude boundary layer. An alternate explanation, in terms of magnetic field merging and flux transfer events, has also been advocated. In this paper, a third interpretation is proposed in terms of quasi-periodic magnetopause motion which causes the satellites to repeatedly exit the magnetosphere and observe draped northward magnetosheath magnetic field lines in the plasma depletion layer.

  14. Parametric Analysis of PWR Spent Fuel Depletion Parameters for Long-Term-Disposal Criticality Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeHart, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    Utilization of burnup credit in criticality safety analysis for long-term disposal of spent nuclear fuel allows improved design efficiency and reduced cost due to the large mass of fissile material that will be present in the repository. Burnup-credit calculations are based on depletion calculations that provide a conservative estimate of spent fuel contents (in terms of criticality potential), followed by criticality calculations to assess the value of the effective neutron multiplication factor (k(sub)eff) for the a spent fuel cask or a fuel configuration under a variety of probabilistically derived events. In order to ensure that the depletion calculation is conservative, it is necessary to both qualify and quantify assumptions that can be made in depletion models

  15. SENTINEL EVENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Robida

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Objective of the article is a two year statistics on sentinel events in hospitals. Results of a survey on sentinel events and the attitude of hospital leaders and staff are also included. Some recommendations regarding patient safety and the handling of sentinel events are given.Methods. In March 2002 the Ministry of Health introduce a voluntary reporting system on sentinel events in Slovenian hospitals. Sentinel events were analyzed according to the place the event, its content, and root causes. To show results of the first year, a conference for hospital directors and medical directors was organized. A survey was conducted among the participants with the purpose of gathering information about their view on sentinel events. One hundred questionnaires were distributed.Results. Sentinel events. There were 14 reports of sentinel events in the first year and 7 in the second. In 4 cases reports were received only after written reminders were sent to the responsible persons, in one case no reports were obtained. There were 14 deaths, 5 of these were in-hospital suicides, 6 were due to an adverse event, 3 were unexplained. Events not leading to death were a suicide attempt, a wrong side surgery, a paraplegia after spinal anaesthesia, a fall with a femoral neck fracture, a damage of the spleen in the event of pleural space drainage, inadvertent embolization with absolute alcohol into a femoral artery and a physical attack on a physician by a patient. Analysis of root causes of sentinel events showed that in most cases processes were inadequate.Survey. One quarter of those surveyed did not know about the sentinel events reporting system. 16% were having actual problems when reporting events and 47% beleived that there was an attempt to blame individuals. Obstacles in reporting events openly were fear of consequences, moral shame, fear of public disclosure of names of participants in the event and exposure in mass media. The majority of

  16. Recurrence formulas for evaluating expansion series of depletion functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukadin, Z.

    1991-01-01

    A high-accuracy analytical method for solving the depletion equations for chains of radioactive nuclides is based on the formulation of depletion functions. When all the arguments of the depletion function are too close to each other, series expansions of the depletion function have to be used. However, the high-accuracy series expressions for the depletion functions of high index become too complicated. Recursion relations are derived which enable an efficient high-accuracy evaluation of the depletion functions with high indices. (orig.) [de

  17. Depleted uranium plasma reduction system study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rekemeyer, P.; Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.; Brown, B.W.

    1994-12-01

    A system life-cycle cost study was conducted of a preliminary design concept for a plasma reduction process for converting depleted uranium to uranium metal and anhydrous HF. The plasma-based process is expected to offer significant economic and environmental advantages over present technology. Depleted Uranium is currently stored in the form of solid UF 6 , of which approximately 575,000 metric tons is stored at three locations in the U.S. The proposed system is preconceptual in nature, but includes all necessary processing equipment and facilities to perform the process. The study has identified total processing cost of approximately $3.00/kg of UF 6 processed. Based on the results of this study, the development of a laboratory-scale system (1 kg/h throughput of UF6) is warranted. Further scaling of the process to pilot scale will be determined after laboratory testing is complete

  18. Depleted uranium hexafluoride: Waste or resource?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwertz, N.; Zoller, J.; Rosen, R.; Patton, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Bradley, C. [USDOE Office of Nuclear Energy, Science, Technology, Washington, DC (United States); Murray, A. [SAIC (United States)

    1995-07-01

    the US Department of Energy is evaluating technologies for the storage, disposal, or re-use of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}). This paper discusses the following options, and provides a technology assessment for each one: (1) conversion to UO{sub 2} for use as mixed oxide duel, (2) conversion to UO{sub 2} to make DUCRETE for a multi-purpose storage container, (3) conversion to depleted uranium metal for use as shielding, (4) conversion to uranium carbide for use as high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) fuel. In addition, conversion to U{sub 3}O{sub 8} as an option for long-term storage is discussed.

  19. Improvements in EBR-2 core depletion calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finck, P.J.; Hill, R.N.; Sakamoto, S.

    1991-01-01

    The need for accurate core depletion calculations in Experimental Breeder Reactor No. 2 (EBR-2) is discussed. Because of the unique physics characteristics of EBR-2, it is difficult to obtain accurate and computationally efficient multigroup flux predictions. This paper describes the effect of various conventional and higher order schemes for group constant generation and for flux computations; results indicate that higher-order methods are required, particularly in the outer regions (i.e. the radial blanket). A methodology based on Nodal Equivalence Theory (N.E.T.) is developed which allows retention of the accuracy of a higher order solution with the computational efficiency of a few group nodal diffusion solution. The application of this methodology to three-dimensional EBR-2 flux predictions is demonstrated; this improved methodology allows accurate core depletion calculations at reasonable cost. 13 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  20. The depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabogal Nelson

    2000-01-01

    The protection of the Earth's ozone layer is of the highest importance to mankind. The dangers of its destruction are by now well known. The depletion of that layer has reached record levels. The Antarctic ozone hole covered this year a record area. The ozone layer is predicted to begin recovery in the next one or two decades and should be restored to pre-1980 levels by 2050. This is the achievement of the regime established by the 1985 Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer and the 1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. The regime established by these two agreements has been revised, and made more effective in London (1990), Copenhagen (1992), Vienna (1995), and Beijing (1999)

  1. Reactor fuel depletion benchmark of TINDER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, W.J.; Oliveira, C.R.E. de; Hecht, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A reactor burnup benchmark of TINDER, coupling MCNP6 to CINDER2008, was performed. • TINDER is a poor candidate for fuel depletion calculations using its current libraries. • Data library modification is necessary if fuel depletion is desired from TINDER. - Abstract: Accurate burnup calculations are key to proper nuclear reactor design, fuel cycle modeling, and disposal estimations. The TINDER code, originally designed for activation analyses, has been modified to handle full burnup calculations, including the widely used predictor–corrector feature. In order to properly characterize the performance of TINDER for this application, a benchmark calculation was performed. Although the results followed the trends of past benchmarked codes for a UO 2 PWR fuel sample from the Takahama-3 reactor, there were obvious deficiencies in the final result, likely in the nuclear data library that was used. Isotopic comparisons versus experiment and past code benchmarks are given, as well as hypothesized areas of deficiency and future work

  2. Optical assessment of phytoplankton nutrient depletion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heath, M.R.; Richardson, Katherine; Kiørboe, Thomas

    1990-01-01

    The ratio of light absorption at 480 and 665 nm by 90% acetone extracts of marine phytoplankton pigments has been examined as a potential indicator of phytoplankton nutritional status in both laboratory and field studies. The laboratory studies demonstrated a clear relationship between nutritiona......-replete and nutrient-depleted cells. The field data suggest that the absorption ratio may be a useful indicator of nutritional status of natural phytoplankton populations, and can be used to augment the interpretation of other data....

  3. The ultimate disposition of depleted uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    Significant amounts of the depleted uranium (DU) created by past uranium enrichment activities have been sold, disposed of commercially, or utilized by defense programs. In recent years, however, the demand for DU has become quite small compared to quantities available, and within the US Department of Energy (DOE) there is concern for any risks and/or cost liabilities that might be associated with the ever-growing inventory of this material. As a result, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), was asked to review options and to develop a comprehensive plan for inventory management and the ultimate disposition of DU accumulated at the gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs). An Energy Systems task team, under the chairmanship of T. R. Lemons, was formed in late 1989 to provide advice and guidance for this task. This report reviews options and recommends actions and objectives in the management of working inventories of partially depleted feed (PDF) materials and for the ultimate disposition of fully depleted uranium (FDU). Actions that should be considered are as follows. (1) Inspect UF{sub 6} cylinders on a semiannual basis. (2) Upgrade cylinder maintenance and storage yards. (3) Convert FDU to U{sub 3}O{sub 8} for long-term storage or disposal. This will include provisions for partial recovery of costs to offset those associated with DU inventory management and the ultimate disposal of FDU. Another recommendation is to drop the term tails'' in favor of depleted uranium'' or DU'' because the tails'' label implies that it is waste.'' 13 refs.

  4. Nuclear Fuel Depletion Analysis Using Matlab Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, F.; Nematollahi, M. R.

    Coupled first order IVPs are frequently used in many parts of engineering and sciences. In this article, we presented a code including three computer programs which are joint with the Matlab software to solve and plot the solutions of the first order coupled stiff or non-stiff IVPs. Some engineering and scientific problems related to IVPs are given and fuel depletion (production of the 239Pu isotope) in a Pressurized Water Nuclear Reactor (PWR) are computed by the present code.

  5. Ozone depletion, greenhouse effect and atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adzersen, K.H.

    1991-01-01

    After describing the causes and effects of ozone depletion and the greenhouse effect, the author discusses the alternative offered by the nuclear industry. In his opinion, a worldwide energy strategy of risk minimisation will not be possible unless efficient energy use is introduced immediately, efficiently and on a reliable basis. Atomic energy is not viewed as an acceptable means of preventing the threatening climate change. (DG) [de

  6. The ultimate disposition of depleted uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemons, T.R. [Uranium Enrichment Organization, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Depleted uranium (DU) is produced as a by-product of the uranium enrichment process. Over 340,000 MTU of DU in the form of UF{sub 6} have been accumulated at the US government gaseous diffusion plants and the stockpile continues to grow. An overview of issues and objectives associated with the inventory management and the ultimate disposition of this material is presented.

  7. Carbon sequestration in depleted oil shale deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Alan K; Carroll, Susan A

    2014-12-02

    A method and apparatus are described for sequestering carbon dioxide underground by mineralizing the carbon dioxide with coinjected fluids and minerals remaining from the extraction shale oil. In one embodiment, the oil shale of an illite-rich oil shale is heated to pyrolyze the shale underground, and carbon dioxide is provided to the remaining depleted oil shale while at an elevated temperature. Conditions are sufficient to mineralize the carbon dioxide.

  8. Barium depletion in hollow cathode emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polk, James E.; Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Capece, Angela M.

    2016-01-01

    Dispenser hollow cathodes rely on a consumable supply of Ba released by BaO-CaO-Al 2 O 3 source material in the pores of a tungsten matrix to maintain a low work function surface. The examination of cathode emitters from long duration tests shows deposits of tungsten at the downstream end that appear to block the flow of Ba from the interior. In addition, a numerical model of Ba transport in the cathode plasma indicates that the Ba partial pressure in the insert may exceed the equilibrium vapor pressure of the dominant Ba-producing reaction, and it was postulated previously that this would suppress Ba loss in the upstream part of the emitter. New measurements of the Ba depletion depth from a cathode insert operated for 8200 h reveal that Ba loss is confined to a narrow region near the downstream end, confirming this hypothesis. The Ba transport model was modified to predict the depletion depth with time. A comparison of the calculated and measured depletion depths gives excellent qualitative agreement, and quantitative agreement was obtained assuming an insert temperature 70 °C lower than measured beginning-of-life values

  9. Event Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to discuss conceptual event modeling within a context of information modeling. Traditionally, information modeling has been concerned with the modeling of a universe of discourse in terms of information structures. However, most interesting universes of discourse...... are dynamic and we present a modeling approach that can be used to model such dynamics.We characterize events as both information objects and change agents (Bækgaard 1997). When viewed as information objects events are phenomena that can be observed and described. For example, borrow events in a library can...

  10. Presence of stratospheric humidity in the ozone column depletion on the west coast of South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Silva, M. Luis; Gutierrez, O. Luis; Morales, S. Luis; Universidad de Chile, Santiago; Torres, C. Arnaldo

    2006-01-01

    The ozone column depletion over the western coast of South America has been previously explained, based on the existence of winds in the area of the depletion, which cause compression and thinning of the ozone layer. However, the presence of humidity and methane transported by these winds to the stratosphere where the ozone depletion is present gives evidence that these compounds also participate in the depletion of the ozone layer. These two compounds, humidity and methane, are analysed during the ozone depletion of January, 1998. It is observed that when humidity presents fluctuations, ozone has fluctuations too. A maximum of humidity corresponds to a minimum of ozone, but there is a shift in altitude between them. This shift is observed in the stratosphere and upper troposphere and corresponds to approximately 500 m. It is important to point out that during this event El Nino was present and the sources of methane are the Amazon forest and the Pacific Ocean. The data for this study was obtained from NASA and HALOE

  11. Depletion of gamma-glutamylcyclotransferase in cancer cells induces autophagy followed by cellular senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Keiko; Matsumura, Kengo; Ii, Hiromi; Kageyama, Susumu; Ashihara, Eishi; Chano, Tokuhiro; Kawauchi, Akihiro; Yoshiki, Tatsuhiro; Nakata, Susumu

    2018-01-01

    Gamma-glutamylcyclotransferase (GGCT) was originally identified as a protein highly expressed in bladder cancer tissues by proteomic analysis, and its higher expression in a variety of cancers compared to normal tissues have been shown. Depletion of GGCT in various cancer cells results in antiproliferative effects both in vitro and in vivo ; thus it is considered a promising therapeutic target. Although it has been shown that knockdown of GGCT induces cellular senescence and non-apoptotic cell death, associated with upregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs) including p21 WAF1/CIP1 , the cellular events that follow GGCT depletion are not fully understood. Here, we show that GGCT depletion induced autophagy in MCF7 breast and PC3 prostate cancer cells. Conversely, overexpression of GGCT in NIH3T3 fibroblast under conditions of serum deprivation inhibited autophagy and increased proliferation. Simultaneous knockdown of autophagy related-protein 5, a critical effector of autophagy, along with GGCT in MCF7 and PC3 cells led to significant attenuation of the multiple cellular responses, including upregulation of CDKIs, increased numbers of senescence-associated β-galactosidase positive senescent cells, and growth inhibition. Furthermore, we show that autophagy-promoting signaling cascades including activation of the AMPK-ULK1 pathway and/or inactivation of the mTORC2-Akt pathway were triggered in GGCT-depleted cells. These results indicate that autophagy plays an important role in the growth inhibition of cancer cells caused by GGCT depletion.

  12. Depletion interaction measured by colloidal probe atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijting, W.K.; Knoben, W.; Besseling, N.A.M.; Leermakers, F.A.M.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the depletion interaction between stearylated silica surfaces in cyclohexane in the presence of dissolved polydimethylsiloxane by means of colloidal probe atomic force microscopy. We found that the range of the depletion interaction decreases with increasing concentration.

  13. Evaluation 2 of B10 depletion in the WH PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sang Won; Woo, Hae Suk; Kim, Sun Doo; Chae, Hee Dong; Myung, Sun Yup; Jang, Ju Kyung

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology to evaluate the B 10 depletion behavior in the pressurized water reactor. And B 10 depletion evaluation is performed based on the prediction program and the measured data of B 10 . The result shows that B 10 depletion during normal operation is not negligible. Therefore, adjustments for this depletion effect should be made to calculate the estimated critical postion(ECP) and determine the boron concentration required to maintain the specified shutdown margin

  14. The depletion potential in one, two and three dimensions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We study the behavior of the depletion potential in binary mixtures of hard particles in one, two, and three dimensions within the framework of a general theory for depletion potential using density functional theory. By doing so we extend earlier studies of the depletion potential in three dimensions to the cases of d ...

  15. 26 CFR 1.642(e)-1 - Depreciation and depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Depreciation and depletion. 1.642(e)-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Estates, Trusts, and Beneficiaries § 1.642(e)-1 Depreciation and depletion. An estate or trust is allowed the deductions for depreciation and depletion, but only to the extent the...

  16. 26 CFR 1.613-1 - Percentage depletion; general rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Percentage depletion; general rule. 1.613-1... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Natural Resources § 1.613-1 Percentage depletion; general rule. (a) In general. In the case of a taxpayer computing the deduction for depletion under section 611...

  17. Potential For Stratospheric Ozone Depletion During Carboniferous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bill, M.; Goldstein, A. H.

    Methyl bromide (CH3Br) constitutes the largest source of bromine atoms to the strato- sphere whereas methyl chloride (CH3Cl) is the most abundant halocarbon in the tro- posphere. Both gases play an important role in stratospheric ozone depletion. For in- stance, Br coupled reactions are responsible for 30 to 50 % of total ozone loss in the polar vortex. Currently, the largest natural sources of CH3Br and CH3Cl appear to be biological production in the oceans, inorganic production during biomass burning and plant production in salt marsh ecosystems. Variations of paleofluxes of CH3Br and CH3Cl can be estimated by analyses of oceanic paleoproductivity, stratigraphic analyses of frequency and distribution of fossil charcoal indicating the occurrence of wildfires, and/or by paleoreconstruction indicating the extent of salt marshes. Dur- ing the lower Carboniferous time (Tournaisian-Visean), the southern margin of the Laurasian continent was characterized by charcoal deposits. Estimation on frequency of charcoal layers indicates that wildfires occur in a range of 3-35 years (Falcon-Lang 2000). This suggests that biomass burning could be an important source of CH3Br and CH3Cl during Tournaisian-Viesan time. During Tounaisian and until Merame- cian carbon and oxygen isotope records have short term oscillations (Bruckschen et al. 1999, Mii et al. 1999). Chesterian time (mid- Carboniferous) is marked by an in- crease in delta18O values ( ~ 2 permil) and an increase of glacial deposit frequency suggesting lower temperatures. The occurrence of glacial deposits over the paleopole suggests polar conditions and the associated special features of polar mete- orology such as strong circumpolar wind in the stratosphere (polar vortex) and polar stratospheric clouds. Thus, conditions leading to polar statospheric ozone depletion can be found. Simultaneously an increase in delta13C values is documented. We interpret the positive shift in delta13C as a result of higher bioproductivity

  18. A modern depleted uranium manufacturing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagula, T.A.

    1995-07-01

    The Specific Manufacturing Capabilities (SMC) Project located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and operated by Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co. (LMIT) for the Department of Energy (DOE) manufactures depleted uranium for use in the U.S. Army MIA2 Abrams Heavy Tank Armor Program. Since 1986, SMC has fabricated more than 12 million pounds of depleted uranium (DU) products in a multitude of shapes and sizes with varying metallurgical properties while maintaining security, environmental, health and safety requirements. During initial facility design in the early 1980's, emphasis on employee safety, radiation control and environmental consciousness was gaining momentum throughout the DOE complex. This fact coupled with security and production requirements forced design efforts to focus on incorporating automation, local containment and computerized material accountability at all work stations. The result was a fully automated production facility engineered to manufacture DU armor packages with virtually no human contact while maintaining security, traceability and quality requirements. This hands off approach to handling depleted uranium resulted in minimal radiation exposures and employee injuries. Construction of the manufacturing facility was complete in early 1986 with the first armor package certified in October 1986. Rolling facility construction was completed in 1987 with the first certified plate produced in the fall of 1988. Since 1988 the rolling and manufacturing facilities have delivered more than 2600 armor packages on schedule with 100% final product quality acceptance. During this period there was an annual average of only 2.2 lost time incidents and a single individual maximum radiation exposure of 150 mrem. SMC is an example of designing and operating a facility that meets regulatory requirements with respect to national security, radiation control and personnel safety while achieving production schedules and product quality

  19. Depleted uranium concrete container feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haelsig, R.T.

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to consider the feasibility of using containers constructed of depleted uranium aggregate concrete (DUCRETE) to store and transport radioactive materials. The method for this study was to review the advantages and disadvantages of DUCRETE containers considering design requirements for potential applications. The author found that DUCRETE is a promising material for onsite storage containers, provided DUCRETE vessels can be certified for one-way transport to disposal sites. The author also found that DUCRETE multipurpose spent nuclear fuel storage/transport packages are technically viable, provided altered temperature acceptance limits can be developed for DUCRETE

  20. Capstone Depleted Uranium Aerosols: Generation and Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkhurst, MaryAnn; Szrom, Fran; Guilmette, Ray; Holmes, Tom; Cheng, Yung-Sung; Kenoyer, Judson L.; Collins, John W.; Sanderson, T. Ellory; Fliszar, Richard W.; Gold, Kenneth; Beckman, John C.; Long, Julie

    2004-10-19

    In a study designed to provide an improved scientific basis for assessing possible health effects from inhaling depleted uranium (DU) aerosols, a series of DU penetrators was fired at an Abrams tank and a Bradley fighting vehicle. A robust sampling system was designed to collect aerosols in this difficult environment and continuously monitor the sampler flow rates. Aerosols collected were analyzed for uranium concentration and particle size distribution as a function of time. They were also analyzed for uranium oxide phases, particle morphology, and dissolution in vitro. The resulting data provide input useful in human health risk assessments.

  1. Depletion of elements in shock-driven gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gondhalekar, P.M.

    1985-01-01

    The depletion of elements in shocked gas in supernova remnants and in interstellar bubbles is examined. It is shown that elements are depleted in varying degrees in gas filaments shocked to velocities up to 200 km s -1 and that large differences in depletions are observed in gas filaments shocked to similar velocities. In the shocked gas the depletion of an element appears to be correlated with the electron density (or the neutral gas density) in the filaments. This correlation, if confirmed, is similar to the correlation between depletion and mean density of gas in the clouds in interstellar space. (author)

  2. Depleted uranium oxides as spent-nuclear-fuel waste-package invert and backfill materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Haire, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    A new technology has been proposed in which depleted uranium, in the form of oxides or silicates, is placed around the outside of the spent nuclear fuel waste packages in the geological repository. This concept may (1) reduce the potential for repository nuclear criticality events and (2) reduce long-term release of radionuclides from the repository. As a new concept, there are significant uncertainties

  3. Microscopic to macroscopic depletion model development for FORMOSA-P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, J.M.; Turinsky, P.J.; Sarsour, H.N.

    1996-01-01

    Microscopic depletion has been gaining popularity with regard to employment in reactor core nodal calculations, mainly attributed to the superiority of microscopic depletion in treating spectral history effects during depletion. Another trend is the employment of loading pattern optimization computer codes in support of reload core design. Use of such optimization codes has significantly reduced design efforts to optimize reload core loading patterns associated with increasingly complicated lattice designs. A microscopic depletion model has been developed for the FORMOSA-P pressurized water reactor (PWR) loading pattern optimization code. This was done for both fidelity improvements and to make FORMOSA-P compatible with microscopic-based nuclear design methods. Needless to say, microscopic depletion requires more computational effort compared with macroscopic depletion. This implies that microscopic depletion may be computationally restrictive if employed during the loading pattern optimization calculation because many loading patterns are examined during the course of an optimization search. Therefore, the microscopic depletion model developed here uses combined models of microscopic and macroscopic depletion. This is done by first performing microscopic depletions for a subset of possible loading patterns from which 'collapsed' macroscopic cross sections are obtained. The collapsed macroscopic cross sections inherently incorporate spectral history effects. Subsequently, the optimization calculations are done using the collapsed macroscopic cross sections. Using this approach allows maintenance of microscopic depletion level accuracy without substantial additional computing resources

  4. Deoxyribonucleoside kinases in mitochondrial DNA depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saada-Reisch, Ann

    2004-10-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion syndromes (MDS) are a heterogeneous group of mitochondrial disorders, manifested by a decreased mtDNA copy number and respiratory chain dysfunction. Primary MDS are inherited autosomally and may affect a single organ or multiple tissues. Mutated mitochondrial deoxyribonucleoside kinases; deoxyguanosine kinase (dGK) and thymidine kinase 2 (TK2), were associated with the hepatocerebral and myopathic forms of MDS respectively. dGK and TK2 are key enzymes in the mitochondrial nucleotide salvage pathway, providing the mitochondria with deoxyribonucleotides (dNP) essential for mtDNA synthesis. Although the mitochondrial dNP pool is physically separated from the cytosolic one, dNP's may still be imported through specific transport. Non-replicating tissues, where cytosolic dNP supply is down regulated, are thus particularly vulnerable to dGK and TK2 deficiency. The overlapping substrate specificity of deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) may explain the relative sparing of muscle in dGK deficiency, while low basal TK2 activity render this tissue susceptible to TK2 deficiency. The precise pathophysiological mechanisms of mtDNA depletion due to dGK and TK2 deficiencies remain to be determined, though recent findings confirm that it is attributed to imbalanced dNTP pools.

  5. Bone marrow scintigraphy in hemopoietic depletion states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortynova, J.; Bakos, K.; Pradacova, J.

    1981-01-01

    Bone marrow scintigraphy was performed in 29 patients with hemopoietic depletion states of various etiology. Two tracers were used for visualization, viz., sup(99m)Tc-sulfur-colloid and 111 InCl 3 ;some patients were examined using both indicators. 111 InCl 3 is bound to transferrin and is adsorbed on the surface of reticulocytes and erythroblasts. A scintillation camera PHO GAMMA SEARLE IV fitted with a moving table and computer CLINCOM were used to obtain whole-body images. The comparison of all scans and marrow puncture smears was done. In patients with aplastic anemia with both hyperplastic or hypoplastic marrow good correlation of bone marrow scans and sternal puncture smears was found. In several cases the scintigraphic examination helped to establish the diagnosis of marrow depletion. A peculiar disadvantage of the imaging method with either sup(99m)Tc-sulfur-colloid or 111 InCl 3 is that it shows the disorders in erythropoietic and reticuloendothelial cells whereas the defects in myelopoietic cell series and platelet precursors are not provable. According to literature data, great attention is paid to the prognostic value of scintigraphic examination in aplastic anemia. (author)

  6. Bone marrow scintigraphy in hemopoietic depletion states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortynova, J. (Ustav Hematologie a Krevni Transfuze, Prague (Czechoslovakia)); Bakos, K.; Pradacova, J. (Karlova Univ., Prague (Czechoslovakia). Biofyzikalni Ustav)

    1981-01-01

    Bone marrow scintigraphy was performed in 29 patients with hemopoietic depletion states of various etiology. Two tracers were used for visualization, viz., sup(99m)Tc-sulfur-colloid and /sup 111/InCl/sub 3/; some patients were examined using both indicators. /sup 111/InCl/sub 3/ is bound to transferrin and is adsorbed on the surface of reticulocytes and erythroblasts. A scintillation camera PHO GAMMA SEARLE IV fitted with a moving table and computer CLINCOM were used to obtain whole-body images. The comparison of all scans and marrow puncture smears was done. In patients with aplastic anemia with both hyperplastic or hypoplastic marrow good correlation of bone marrow scans and sternal puncture smears was found. In several cases the scintigraphic examination helped to establish the diagnosis of marrow depletion. A peculiar disadvantage of the imaging method with either sup(99m)Tc-sulfur-colloid or /sup 111/InCl/sub 3/ is that it shows the disorders in erythropoietic and reticuloendothelial cells whereas the defects in myelopoietic cell series and platelet precursors are not provable. According to literature data, great attention is paid to the prognostic value of scintigraphic examination in aplastic anemia.

  7. Variation in RNA-Seq transcriptome profiles of peripheral whole blood from healthy individuals with and without globin depletion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heesun Shin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The molecular profile of circulating blood can reflect physiological and pathological events occurring in other tissues and organs of the body and delivers a comprehensive view of the status of the immune system. Blood has been useful in studying the pathobiology of many diseases. It is accessible and easily collected making it ideally suited to the development of diagnostic biomarker tests. The blood transcriptome has a high complement of globin RNA that could potentially saturate next-generation sequencing platforms, masking lower abundance transcripts. Methods to deplete globin mRNA are available, but their effect has not been comprehensively studied in peripheral whole blood RNA-Seq data. In this study we aimed to assess technical variability associated with globin depletion in addition to assessing general technical variability in RNA-Seq from whole blood derived samples. RESULTS: We compared technical and biological replicates having undergone globin depletion or not and found that the experimental globin depletion protocol employed removed approximately 80% of globin transcripts, improved the correlation of technical replicates, allowed for reliable detection of thousands of additional transcripts and generally increased transcript abundance measures. Differential expression analysis revealed thousands of genes significantly up-regulated as a result of globin depletion. In addition, globin depletion resulted in the down-regulation of genes involved in both iron and zinc metal ion bonding. CONCLUSIONS: Globin depletion appears to meaningfully improve the quality of peripheral whole blood RNA-Seq data, and may improve our ability to detect true biological variation. Some concerns remain, however. Key amongst them the significant reduction in RNA yields following globin depletion. More generally, our investigation of technical and biological variation with and without globin depletion finds that high-throughput sequencing by RNA

  8. Long-term safety of rituximab induced peripheral B-cell depletion in autoimmune neurological diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anza B Memon

    Full Text Available B-cells play a pivotal role in several autoimmune diseases, including patients with immune-mediated neurological disorders (PIMND, such as neuromyelitis optica (NMO, multiple sclerosis (MS, and myasthenia gravis (MG. Targeting B-cells has been an effective approach in ameliorating both central and peripheral autoimmune diseases. However, there is a paucity of literature on the safety of continuous B-cell depletion over a long period of time.The aim of this study was to examine the long-term safety, incidence of infections, and malignancies in subjects receiving continuous therapy with a B-cell depleting agent rituximab over at least 3 years or longer.This was a retrospective study involving PIMND who received continuous cycles of rituximab infusions every 6 to 9 months for up to 7 years. The incidence of infection related adverse events (AE, serious adverse events (SAE, and malignancies were observed.There were a total of 32 AE and 4 SAE with rituximab treatment. The 3 SAE were noted after 9 cycles (48 months and 1 SAE was observed after 11 cycles (60 months of rituximab. There were no cases of Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML and malignancies observed throughout the treatment period. Rituximab was well tolerated without any serious infusion reactions. Also, rituximab was found to be beneficial in treating PIMND over a 7-year period.This study demonstrates that long-term depletion of peripheral B-cells appears safe and efficacious in treating PIMND. Longer and larger prospective studies with rituximab are needed to carefully ascertain risks associated with chronic B-cell depletion, including malignancies. Recognizing that this is a small, retrospective study, such data nonetheless complement the growing literature documenting the safety and tolerability of B-cell depleting agents in neurological diseases.

  9. Mantle depletion and metasomatism recorded in orthopyroxene in highly depleted peridotites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scott, James; Liu, Jingao; Pearson, D. Graham

    2016-01-01

    Although trace element concentrations in clinopyroxene serve as a useful tool for assessing the depletion and enrichment history of mantle peridotites, this is not applicable for peridotites in which the clinopyroxene component has been consumed (~ 25% partial melting). Orthopyroxene persists in ...

  10. Fusion events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboufirassi, M; Angelique, J.C.; Bizard, G.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R.; Buta, A.; Colin, J.; Cussol, D.; Durand, D.; Genoux-Lubain, A.; Horn, D.; Kerambrun, A.; Laville, J.L.; Le Brun, C.; Lecolley, J.F.; Lefebvres, F.; Lopez, O.; Louvel, M.; Meslin, C.; Metivier, V.; Nakagawa, T.; Peter, J.; Popescu, R.; Regimbart, R.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Tamain, B.; Vient, E.; Wieloch, A.; Yuasa-Nakagawa, K.

    1998-01-01

    The fusion reactions between low energy heavy ions have a very high cross section. First measurements at energies around 30-40 MeV/nucleon indicated no residue of either complete or incomplete fusion, thus demonstrating the disappearance of this process. This is explained as being due to the high amount o energies transferred to the nucleus, what leads to its total dislocation in light fragments and particles. Exclusive analyses have permitted to mark clearly the presence of fusion processes in heavy systems at energies above 30-40 MeV/nucleon. Among the complete events of the Kr + Au reaction at 60 MeV/nucleon the majority correspond to binary collisions. Nevertheless, for the most considerable energy losses, a class of events do occur for which the detected fragments appears to be emitted from a unique source. These events correspond to an incomplete projectile-target fusion followed by a multifragmentation. Such events were singled out also in the reaction Xe + Sn at 50 MeV/nucleon. For the events in which the energy dissipation was maximal it was possible to isolate an isotropic group of events showing all the characteristics of fusion nuclei. The fusion is said to be incomplete as pre-equilibrium Z = 1 and Z = 2 particles are emitted. The cross section is of the order of 25 mb. Similar conclusions were drown for the systems 36 Ar + 27 Al and 64 Zn + nat Ti. A cross section value of ∼ 20 mb was determined at 55 MeV/nucleon in the first case, while the measurement of evaporation light residues in the last system gave an upper limit of 20-30 mb for the cross section at 50 MeV/nucleon

  11. Deuterium-depleted water. Romanian achievements and perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, Ion; Saros-Rogobete, Irina; Titescu, Gheorghe

    2001-01-01

    Deuterium-depleted water has an isotopic content smaller than 145 ppm D/(D+H) which is the natural isotopic content of water. Beginning with 1996 ICSI Rm. Valcea, deuterium-depleted water producer, co-operated with Romanian specialized institutes for biological effect's evaluation of deuterium-depleted water. These investigations lead to the following conclusions: - Deuterium-depleted water caused a tendency towards the increase of the basal tonus, accompanied by the intensification of the vasoconstrictor effects of phenylefrine, noradrenaline and angiotensin; the increase of the basal tonus and vascular reactivity produced by the deuterium-depleted water persist after the removal of the vascular endothelium; - Animals treated with deuterium-depleted water showed an increase of the resistance both to sublethal and to lethal gamma radiation doses, suggesting a radioprotective action; - Deuterium-depleted water stimulates immune defence reactions and increases the numbers of polymorphonuclear neutrophils; - Investigations regarding artificial reproduction of fish with deuterium-depleted water fecundated solutions confirmed favourable influence in embryo growth stage and resistance in subsequent growth stages; - It was studied germination, growth and quantitative character's variability in plants; one can remark the favourable influence of deuterium-depleted water on biological process in plants in various ontogenetic stages; - The deuterium depletion in seawater produces the diminution of the water spectral energy related to an increased metabolism of Tetraselmis Suecica. (authors)

  12. TURTLE 24.0 diffusion depletion code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altomare, S.; Barry, R.F.

    1971-09-01

    TURTLE is a two-group, two-dimensional (x-y, x-z, r-z) neutron diffusion code featuring a direct treatment of the nonlinear effects of xenon, enthalpy, and Doppler. Fuel depletion is allowed. TURTLE was written for the study of azimuthal xenon oscillations, but the code is useful for general analysis. The input is simple, fuel management is handled directly, and a boron criticality search is allowed. Ten thousand space points are allowed (over 20,000 with diagonal symmetry). TURTLE is written in FORTRAN IV and is tailored for the present CDC-6600. The program is core-contained. Provision is made to save data on tape for future reference. (auth)

  13. Tylosin depletion from edible pig tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prats, C; El Korchi, G; Francesch, R; Arboix, M; Pérez, B

    2002-12-01

    The depletion of tylosin from edible pig tissues was studied following 5 days of intramuscular (i.m.) administration of 10 mg/kg of tylosin to 16 crossbreed pigs. Animals were slaughtered at intervals after treatment and samples of muscle, kidney, liver, skin+fat, and injection site were collected and analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Seven days after the completion of treatment, the concentration of tylosin in kidney, skin+fat, and at the injection site was higher than the European Union maximal residue limit (MRL) of 100 microg/kg. Tylosin residues in all tissues were below the quantification limit (50 microg/kg) at 10 and 14 days post-treatment.

  14. Ozone depletion following future volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric Klobas, J.; Wilmouth, David M.; Weisenstein, Debra K.; Anderson, James G.; Salawitch, Ross J.

    2017-07-01

    While explosive volcanic eruptions cause ozone loss in the current atmosphere due to an enhancement in the availability of reactive chlorine following the stratospheric injection of sulfur, future eruptions are expected to increase total column ozone as halogen loading approaches preindustrial levels. The timing of this shift in the impact of major volcanic eruptions on the thickness of the ozone layer is poorly known. Modeling four possible climate futures, we show that scenarios with the smallest increase in greenhouse gas concentrations lead to the greatest risk to ozone from heterogeneous chemical processing following future eruptions. We also show that the presence in the stratosphere of bromine from natural, very short-lived biogenic compounds is critically important for determining whether future eruptions will lead to ozone depletion. If volcanic eruptions inject hydrogen halides into the stratosphere, an effect not considered in current ozone assessments, potentially profound reductions in column ozone would result.

  15. Depleted Reactor Analysis With MCNP-4B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caner, M.; Silverman, L.; Bettan, M.

    2004-01-01

    Monte Carlo neutronics calculations are mostly done for fresh reactor cores. There is today an ongoing activity in the development of Monte Carlo plus burnup code systems made possible by the fast gains in computer processor speeds. In this work we investigate the use of MCNP-4B for the calculation of a depleted core of the Soreq reactor (IRR-1). The number densities as function of burnup were taken from the WIMS-D/4 cell code calculations. This particular code coupling has been implemented before. The Monte Carlo code MCNP-4B calculates the coupled transport of neutrons and photons for complicated geometries. We have done neutronics calculations of the IRR-1 core with the WIMS and CITATION codes in the past Also, we have developed an MCNP model of the IRR-1 standard fuel for a criticality safety calculation of a spent fuel storage pool

  16. Kinetic depletion model for pellet ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuteev, Boris V.

    2001-11-01

    A kinetic model for depletion effect, which determines pellet ablation when the pellet passes a rational magnetic surface, is formulated. The model predicts a moderate decrease of the ablation rate compared with the earlier considered monoenergy versions [1, 2]. For typical T-10 conditions the ablation rate reduces by a reactor of 2.5 when the 1-mm pellet penetrates through the plasma center. A substantial deceleration of pellets -about 15% per centimeter of low shire rational q region; is predicted. Penetration for Low Field Side and High Field Side injections is considered taking into account modification of the electron distribution function by toroidal magnetic field. It is shown that Shafranov shift and toroidal effects yield the penetration length for HFS injection higher by a factor of 1.5. This fact should be taken into account when plasma-shielding effects on penetration are considered. (author)

  17. Pathogenic lysosomal depletion in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehay, Benjamin; Bové, Jordi; Rodríguez-Muela, Natalia; Perier, Celine; Recasens, Ariadna; Boya, Patricia; Vila, Miquel

    2010-09-15

    Mounting evidence suggests a role for autophagy dysregulation in Parkinson's disease (PD). The bulk degradation of cytoplasmic proteins (including α-synuclein) and organelles (such as mitochondria) is mediated by macroautophagy, which involves the sequestration of cytosolic components into autophagosomes (AP) and its delivery to lysosomes. Accumulation of AP occurs in postmortem brain samples from PD patients, which has been widely attributed to an induction of autophagy. However, the cause and pathogenic significance of these changes remain unknown. Here we found in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine mouse model of PD that AP accumulation and dopaminergic cell death are preceded by a marked decrease in the amount of lysosomes within dopaminergic neurons. Lysosomal depletion was secondary to the abnormal permeabilization of lysosomal membranes induced by increased mitochondrial-derived reactive oxygen species. Lysosomal permeabilization resulted in a defective clearance and subsequent accumulation of undegraded AP and contributed directly to neurodegeneration by the ectopic release of lysosomal proteases into the cytosol. Lysosomal breakdown and AP accumulation also occurred in PD brain samples, where Lewy bodies were strongly immunoreactive for AP markers. Induction of lysosomal biogenesis by genetic or pharmacological activation of lysosomal transcription factor EB restored lysosomal levels, increased AP clearance and attenuated 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium-induced cell death. Similarly, the autophagy-enhancer compound rapamycin attenuated PD-related dopaminergic neurodegeneration, both in vitro and in vivo, by restoring lysosomal levels. Our results indicate that AP accumulation in PD results from defective lysosomal-mediated AP clearance secondary to lysosomal depletion. Restoration of lysosomal levels and function may thus represent a novel neuroprotective strategy in PD.

  18. Is Ego Depletion Real? An Analysis of Arguments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friese, Malte; Loschelder, David D; Gieseler, Karolin; Frankenbach, Julius; Inzlicht, Michael

    2018-03-01

    An influential line of research suggests that initial bouts of self-control increase the susceptibility to self-control failure (ego depletion effect). Despite seemingly abundant evidence, some researchers have suggested that evidence for ego depletion was the sole result of publication bias and p-hacking, with the true effect being indistinguishable from zero. Here, we examine (a) whether the evidence brought forward against ego depletion will convince a proponent that ego depletion does not exist and (b) whether arguments that could be brought forward in defense of ego depletion will convince a skeptic that ego depletion does exist. We conclude that despite several hundred published studies, the available evidence is inconclusive. Both additional empirical and theoretical works are needed to make a compelling case for either side of the debate. We discuss necessary steps for future work toward this aim.

  19. Depletion-induced biaxial nematic states of boardlike particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belli, S; Van Roij, R; Dijkstra, M

    2012-01-01

    With the aim of investigating the stability conditions of biaxial nematic liquid crystals, we study the effect of adding a non-adsorbing ideal depletant on the phase behavior of colloidal hard boardlike particles. We take into account the presence of the depletant by introducing an effective depletion attraction between a pair of boardlike particles. At fixed depletant fugacity, the stable liquid-crystal phase is determined through a mean-field theory with restricted orientations. Interestingly, we predict that for slightly elongated boardlike particles a critical depletant density exists, where the system undergoes a direct transition from an isotropic liquid to a biaxial nematic phase. As a consequence, by tuning the depletant density, an easy experimental control parameter, one can stabilize states of high biaxial nematic order even when these states are unstable for pure systems of boardlike particles. (paper)

  20. Influence of the stratospheric humidity and methane on the ozone column depletion over the western side of South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Silva, L.; Morales, L.; Cordero, R.R.

    2009-01-01

    The ozone column depletion over the western side of South America has been previously explained as a consequence of winds in the area of the depletion, which lead to the compression and thinning of the ozone layer. However, humidity and methane (originated in the Amazon forest and the Pacific Ocean) transported by these winds toward the stratosphere may also have a role in the ozone depletion. Oxidation of methane generates additional humidity, which in turn reacts with ozone, destroying it. Humidity and methane levels were measured by NASA and HALOE during an ozone depletion event (January 1998) that occurred along with El Nino. By analyzing these measurements, we found that, at different altitudes, changes in the humidity seem to be associated with changes in the ozone such that an increment of humidity may lead to an ozone depletion. Moreover, we found that during the event, the sum 2CH4+H2O was roughly constant only at altitudes lower than 50 km; the ratio CH4/H2O exhibited an exponential decay with the altitude that may allow assessing the generation mechanism of stratospheric humidity from methane.

  1. Glutathione depletion in tissues after administration of buthionine sulphoximine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minchinton, A.I.; Rojas, A.; Smith, A.; Soranson, J.A.; Shrieve, D.C.; Jones, N.R.; Bremner, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    Buthionine sulphoximine (BSO) an inhibitor of glutathione (GSH) biosynthesis, was administered to mice in single and repeated doses. The resultant pattern of GSH depletion was studied in liver, kidney, skeletal muscle and three types of murine tumor. Liver and kidney exhibited a rapid depletion of GSH. Muscle was depleted to a similar level, but at a slower rate after a single dose. All three tumors required repeated administration of BSO over several days to obtain a similar degree of depletion to that shown in the other tissues

  2. Research on using depleted uranium as nuclear fuel for HWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jiahua; Chen Zhicheng; Bao Borong

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of our work is to find a way for application of depleted uranium in CANDU reactor by using MOX nuclear fuel of depleted U and Pu instead of natural uranium. From preliminary evaluation and calculation, it was shown that MOX nuclear fuel consisting of depleted uranium enrichment tailings (0.25% 235 U) and plutonium (their ratio 99.5%:0.5%) could replace natural uranium in CANDU reactor to sustain chain reaction. The prospects of application of depleted uranium in nuclear energy field are also discussed

  3. Producing, Importing, and Exporting Ozone-Depleting Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overview page provides links to information on producing, importing, and exporting ozone-depleting substances, including information about the HCFC allowance system, importing, labeling, recordkeeping and reporting.

  4. Gas generation matrix depletion quality assurance project plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is to provide the necessary expertise, experience, equipment and instrumentation, and management structure to: Conduct the matrix depletion experiments using simulated waste for quantifying matrix depletion effects; and Conduct experiments on 60 cylinders containing simulated TRU waste to determine the effects of matrix depletion on gas generation for transportation. All work for the Gas Generation Matrix Depletion (GGMD) experiment is performed according to the quality objectives established in the test plan and under this Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP)

  5. Improving quantum efficiency and spectral resolution of a CCD through direct manipulation of the depletion region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Craig; Ambrosi, Richard M.; Abbey, Tony; Godet, Olivier; O'Brien, R.; Turner, M. J. L.; Holland, Andrew; Pool, Peter J.; Burt, David; Vernon, David

    2008-07-01

    Future generations of X-ray astronomy instruments will require position sensitive detectors in the form of charge-coupled devices (CCDs) for X-ray spectroscopy and imaging with the ability to probe the X-ray universe with greater efficiency. This will require the development of CCDs with structures that will improve their quantum efficiency over the current state of the art. The quantum efficiency improvements would have to span a broad energy range (0.2 keV to >15 keV). These devices will also have to be designed to withstand the harsh radiation environments associated with orbits that extend beyond the Earth's magnetosphere. This study outlines the most recent work carried out at the University of Leicester focused on improving the quantum efficiency of an X-ray sensitive CCD through direct manipulation of the device depletion region. It is also shown that increased spectral resolution is achieved using this method due to a decrease in the number of multi-pixel events. A Monte Carlo and analytical models of the CCD have been developed and used to determine the depletion depths achieved through variation of the device substrate voltage, Vss. The models are also used to investigate multi-pixel event distributions and quantum efficiency as a function of depletion depth.

  6. How Ego Depletion Affects Sexual Self-Regulation: Is It More Than Resource Depletion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolet, Kevin; Rouleau, Joanne-Lucine; Benbouriche, Massil; Carrier Emond, Fannie; Renaud, Patrice

    2015-12-21

    Rational thinking and decision making are impacted when in a state of sexual arousal. The inability to self-regulate arousal can be linked to numerous problems, like sexual risk taking, infidelity, and sexual coercion. Studies have shown that most men are able to exert voluntary control over their sexual excitation with various levels of success. Both situational and dispositional factors can influence self-regulation achievement. The goal of this research was to investigate how ego depletion, a state of low self-control capacity, interacts with personality traits-propensities for sexual excitation and inhibition-and cognitive absorption, to cause sexual self-regulation failure. The sexual responses of 36 heterosexual males were assessed using penile plethysmography. They were asked to control their sexual arousal in two conditions, with and without ego depletion. Results suggest that ego depletion has opposite effects based on the trait sexual inhibition, as individuals moderately inhibited showed an increase in performance while highly inhibited ones showed a decrease. These results challenge the limited resource model of self-regulation and point to the importance of considering how people adapt to acute and high challenging conditions.

  7. Metallographic Characterization of Wrought Depleted Uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsyth, Robert Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hill, Mary Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-02-14

    Metallographic characterization was performed on wrought depleted uranium (DU) samples taken from the longitudinal and transverse orientations from specific locations on two specimens. Characterization of the samples included general microstructure, inclusion analysis, grain size analysis, and microhardness testing. Comparisons of the characterization results were made to determine any differences based on specimen, sample orientation, or sample location. In addition, the characterization results for the wrought DU samples were also compared with data obtained from the metallographic characterization of cast DU samples previously characterized. No differences were observed in microstructure, inclusion size, morphology, and distribution, or grain size in regard to specimen, location, or orientation for the wrought depleted uranium samples. However, a small difference was observed in average hardness with regard to orientation at the same locations within the same specimen. The longitudinal samples were slightly harder than the transverse samples from the same location of the same specimen. This was true for both wrought DU specimens. Comparing the wrought DU sample data with the previously characterized cast DU sample data, distinct differences in microstructure, inclusion size, morphology and distribution, grain size, and microhardness were observed. As expected, the microstructure of the wrought DU samples consisted of small recrystallized grains which were uniform, randomly oriented, and equiaxed with minimal twinning observed in only a few grains. In contrast, the cast DU microstructure consisted of large irregularly shaped grains with extensive twinning observed in most grains. Inclusions in the wrought DU samples were elongated, broken and cracked and light and dark phases were observed in some inclusions. The mean inclusion area percentage for the wrought DU samples ranged from 0.08% to 0.34% and the average density from all wrought DU samples was 1.62E+04/cm

  8. Simulations and observations of plasma depletion, ion composition, and airglow emissions in two auroral ionospheric depletion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yau, A.W.; Whalen, B.A.; Harris, F.R.; Gattinger, R.L.; Pongratz, M.B.; Bernhardt, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    In an ionospheric depletion experiment where chemically reactive vapors such as H 2 O and CO 2 are injected into the O + dominant F region to accelerate the plasma recombination rate and to reduce the plasma density, the ion composition in the depleted region is modified, and photometric emissions are produced. We compare in situ ion composition, density, and photometric measurements from two ionospheric depletion experiments with predictions from chemical modeling. The two injections, Waterhole I and III, were part of an auroral perturbation experiment and occurred in different ambient conditions. In both injections a core region of greater than fivefold plasma depletion was observed over roughly-equal5-km diameter within seconds of the injection, surrounded by an outer region of less drastic and slower depletion. In Waterhole I the plasma density was depleted tenfold over a 30-km diamter region after 2 min. The ambient O + density was drastically reduced, and the molecular O + 2 abundance was enhanced fivehold in the depletion region. OH airglow emission associated with the depletion was observed with a peak emission intensity of roughly-equal1 kR. In Waterhole III the ambient density was a decade lower, and the plasma depletion was less drastic, being twofold over 30 km after 2 min. The airglow emissions were also much less intense and below measurement sensitivity (30 R for the OH 306.4-nm emission; 50 R for the 630.0-nm emission)

  9. Too Depleted to Try? Testing the Process Model of Ego Depletion in the Context of Unhealthy Snack Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Ashleigh; Kemps, Eva; Moffitt, Robyn

    2016-11-01

    The process model proposes that the ego depletion effect is due to (a) an increase in motivation toward indulgence, and (b) a decrease in motivation to control behaviour following an initial act of self-control. In contrast, the reflective-impulsive model predicts that ego depletion results in behaviour that is more consistent with desires, and less consistent with motivations, rather than influencing the strength of desires and motivations. The current study sought to test these alternative accounts of the relationships between ego depletion, motivation, desire, and self-control. One hundred and fifty-six undergraduate women were randomised to complete a depleting e-crossing task or a non-depleting task, followed by a lab-based measure of snack intake, and self-report measures of motivation and desire strength. In partial support of the process model, ego depletion was related to higher intake, but only indirectly via the influence of lowered motivation. Motivation was more strongly predictive of intake for those in the non-depletion condition, providing partial support for the reflective-impulsive model. Ego depletion did not affect desire, nor did depletion moderate the effect of desire on intake, indicating that desire may be an appropriate target for reducing unhealthy behaviour across situations where self-control resources vary. © 2016 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  10. Transient Treg depletion enhances therapeutic anti‐cancer vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aston, Wayne J.; Chee, Jonathan; Khong, Andrea; Cleaver, Amanda L.; Solin, Jessica N.; Ma, Shaokang; Lesterhuis, W. Joost; Dick, Ian; Holt, Robert A.; Creaney, Jenette; Boon, Louis; Robinson, Bruce; Lake, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Regulatory T cells (Treg) play an important role in suppressing anti‐ immunity and their depletion has been linked to improved outcomes. To better understand the role of Treg in limiting the efficacy of anti‐cancer immunity, we used a Diphtheria toxin (DTX) transgenic mouse model to specifically target and deplete Treg. Methods Tumor bearing BALB/c FoxP3.dtr transgenic mice were subjected to different treatment protocols, with or without Treg depletion and tumor growth and survival monitored. Results DTX specifically depleted Treg in a transient, dose‐dependent manner. Treg depletion correlated with delayed tumor growth, increased effector T cell (Teff) activation, and enhanced survival in a range of solid tumors. Tumor regression was dependent on Teffs as depletion of both CD4 and CD8 T cells completely abrogated any survival benefit. Severe morbidity following Treg depletion was only observed, when consecutive doses of DTX were given during peak CD8 T cell activation, demonstrating that Treg can be depleted on multiple occasions, but only when CD8 T cell activation has returned to base line levels. Finally, we show that even minimal Treg depletion is sufficient to significantly improve the efficacy of tumor‐peptide vaccination. Conclusions BALB/c.FoxP3.dtr mice are an ideal model to investigate the full therapeutic potential of Treg depletion to boost anti‐tumor immunity. DTX‐mediated Treg depletion is transient, dose‐dependent, and leads to strong anti‐tumor immunity and complete tumor regression at high doses, while enhancing the efficacy of tumor‐specific vaccination at low doses. Together this data highlight the importance of Treg manipulation as a useful strategy for enhancing current and future cancer immunotherapies. PMID:28250921

  11. Enriched but not depleted uranium affects central nervous system in long-term exposed rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houpert, Pascale; Lestaevel, Philippe; Bussy, Cyrill; Paquet, François; Gourmelon, Patrick

    2005-12-01

    Uranium is well known to induce chemical toxicity in kidneys, but several other target organs, such as central nervous system, could be also affected. Thus in the present study, the effects on sleep-wake cycle and behavior were studied after chronic oral exposure to enriched or depleted uranium. Rats exposed to 4% enriched uranium for 1.5 months through drinking water, accumulated twice as much uranium in some key areas such as the hippocampus, hypothalamus and adrenals than did control rats. This accumulation was correlated with an increase of about 38% of the amount of paradoxical sleep, a reduction of their spatial working memory capacities and an increase in their anxiety. Exposure to depleted uranium for 1.5 months did not induce these effects, suggesting that the radiological activity induces the primary events of these effects of uranium.

  12. Tylosin depletion in edible tissues of turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesissa, C; De Liguoro, M; Santi, A; Capolongo, F; Biancotto, G

    1999-10-01

    The depletion of tylosin residues in edible turkey tissues was followed after 3 days of administration of tylosin tartrate at 500 mg l-1 in drinking water, to 30 turkeys. Immediately after the end of the treatment (day 0) and at day 1, 3, 5 and 10 of withdrawal, six turkeys (three males and three females) per time were sacrificed and samples of edible tissues were collected. Tissue homogenates were extracted, purified and analysed by HPLC according to a method previously published for the analysis of tylosin residues in pig tissues. In all tissues, tylosin residues were already below the detection limits of 50 micrograms kg-1 at time zero. However, in several samples of tissues (skin + fat, liver, kidney, muscle), from the six turkeys sacrificed at that time, one peak corresponding to an unknown tylosin equivalent was detected at measurable concentrations. The identification of this unknown compound was performed by LC-MS/MS analysis of the extracts from incurred samples. The mass fragmentation of the compound was consistent with the structure of tylosin D (the alcoholic derivative of tylosin A), the major metabolite of tylosin previously recovered and identified in tissues and/or excreta from treated chickens, cattle and pigs.

  13. Recirculating cooling water solute depletion models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, W.T.

    1990-01-01

    Chromates have been used for years to inhibit copper corrosion in the plant Recirculating Cooling Water (RCW) system. However, chromates have become an environmental problem in recent years both in the chromate removal plant (X-616) operation and from cooling tower drift. In response to this concern, PORTS is replacing chromates with Betz Dianodic II, a combination of phosphates, BZT, and a dispersant. This changeover started with the X-326 system in 1989. In order to control chemical concentrations in X-326 and in systems linked to it, we needed to be able to predict solute concentrations in advance of the changeover. Failure to predict and control these concentrations can result in wasted chemicals, equipment fouling, or increased corrosion. Consequently, Systems Analysis developed two solute concentration models. The first simulation represents the X-326 RCW system by itself; and models the depletion of a solute once the feed has stopped. The second simulation represents the X-326, X-330, and the X-333 systems linked together by blowdown. This second simulation represents the concentration of a solute in all three systems simultaneously. 4 figs

  14. Decommissioning plan depleted uranium manufacturing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernhardt, D.E.; Pittman, J.D.; Prewett, S.V.

    1987-01-01

    Aerojet Ordnance Tennessee, Inc. (Aerojet) is decommissioning its California depleted uranium (DU) manufacturing facility. Aerojet has conducted manufacturing and research and development activities at the facility since 1977 under a State of California Source Materials License. The decontamination is being performed by a contractor selector for technical competence through competitive bid. Since the facility will be released for uncontrolled use it will be decontaminated to levels as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). In order to fully apply the principles of ALARA, and ensure the decontamination is in full compliance with appropriate guides, Aerojet has retained Rogers and Associaties Engineering Corporation (RAE) to assist in the decommissioning. RAE has assisted in characterizing the facility and preparing contract bid documents and technical specifications to obtain a qualified decontamination contractor. RAE will monitor the decontamination work effort to assure the contractor's performance complies with the contract specifications and the decontamination plan. The specifications require a thorough cleaning and decontamination of the facility, not just sufficient cleaning to meet the numeric cleanup criteria

  15. Optimal Allocation of Sampling Effort in Depletion Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    We consider the problem of designing a depletion or removal survey as part of estimating animal abundance for populations with imperfect capture or detection rates. In a depletion survey, animals are captured from a given area, counted, and withheld from the population. This proc...

  16. NOMAD: a nodal microscopic analysis method for nuclear fuel depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajic, H.L.; Ougouag, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    Recently developed assembly homogenization techniques made possible very efficient global burnup calculations based on modern nodal methods. There are two possible ways of modeling the global depletion process: macroscopic and microscopic depletion models. Using a microscopic global depletion approach NOMAD (NOdal Microscopic Analysis Method for Nuclear Fuel Depletion), a multigroup, two- and three-dimensional, multicycle depletion code was devised. The code uses the ILLICO nodal diffusion model. The formalism of the ILLICO methodology is extended to treat changes in the macroscopic cross sections during a depletion cycle without recomputing the coupling coefficients. This results in a computationally very efficient method. The code was tested against a well-known depletion benchmark problem. In this problem a two-dimensional pressurized water reactor is depleted through two cycles. Both cycles were run with 1 x 1 and 2 x 2 nodes per assembly. It is obvious that the one node per assembly solution gives unacceptable results while the 2 x 2 solution gives relative power errors consistently below 2%

  17. Effect of greenhouse gas emissions on stratospheric ozone depletion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velders GJM; LLO

    1997-01-01

    The depletion of the ozone layer is caused mainly by the increase in emissions of chlorine- and bromine-containing compounds like CFCs, halons, carbon tetrachloride, methyl chloroform and methyl bromide. Emissions of greenhouse gases can affect the depletion of the ozone layer through atmospheric

  18. Ego Depletion Does Not Interfere With Working Memory Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ranjit K; Göritz, Anja S

    2018-01-01

    Ego depletion happens if exerting self-control reduces a person's capacity to subsequently control themselves. Previous research has suggested that ego depletion not only interferes with subsequent self-control but also with working memory. However, recent meta-analytical evidence casts doubt onto this. The present study tackles the question if ego depletion does interfere with working memory performance. We induced ego depletion in two ways: using an e-crossing task and using a Stroop task. We then measured working memory performance using the letter-number sequencing task. There was no evidence of ego depletion interfering with working memory performance. Several aspects of our study render this null finding highly robust. We had a large and heterogeneous sample of N = 1,385, which provided sufficient power. We deployed established depletion tasks from two task families (e-crossing task and Stroop), thus making it less likely that the null finding is due to a specific depletion paradigm. We derived several performance scores from the working memory task and ran different analyses to maximize the chances of finding an effect. Lastly, we controlled for two potential moderators, the implicit theories about willpower and dispositional self-control capacity, to ensure that a possible effect on working memory is not obscured by an interaction effect. In sum, this experiment strengthens the position that ego depletion works but does not affect working memory performance.

  19. Event Index - a LHCb Event Search System

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00392208; Kazeev, Nikita; Redkin, Artem

    2015-12-23

    LHC experiments generate up to $10^{12}$ events per year. This paper describes Event Index - an event search system. Event Index's primary function is quickly selecting subsets of events from a combination of conditions, such as the estimated decay channel or stripping lines output. Event Index is essentially Apache Lucene optimized for read-only indexes distributed over independent shards on independent nodes.

  20. Analysis and Application of Whey Protein Depleted Skim Milk Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hanne

    homogenisation (UHPH). The microfiltration will result in a milk fraction more or less depleted from whey protein, and could probably in combination with UHPH treatment contribute to milk fractions and cheeses with novel micro and macrostructures. These novel fractions could be used as new ingredients to improve......-destructive methods for this purpose. A significant changed structure was observed in skim milk depleted or partly depleted for whey protein, acidified and UHPH treated. Some of the properties of the UHPH treated skim milk depleted from whey protein observed in this study support the idea, that UHPH treatment has...... this. LF-NMR relaxation were utilised to obtain information about the water mobility (relaxation time), in diluted skim milk systems depleted from whey protein. Obtained results indicate that measuring relaxation times with LF-NMR could be difficult to utilize, since no clear relationship between...

  1. Barium depletion study on impregnated cathodes and lifetime prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roquais, J.M.; Poret, F.; Doze, R. le; Ricaud, J.L.; Monterrin, A.; Steinbrunn, A.

    2003-01-01

    In the thermionic cathodes used in cathode ray-tubes (CRTs), barium is the key element for the electronic emission. In the case of the dispenser cathodes made of a porous tungsten pellet impregnated with Ba, Ca aluminates, the evaporation of Ba determines the cathode lifetime with respect to emission performance in the CRT. The Ba evaporation results in progressive depletion of the impregnating material inside the pellet. In the present work, the Ba depletion with time has been extensively characterized over a large range of cathode temperature. Calculations using the depletion data allowed modeling of the depletion as a function of key parameters. The link between measured depletion and emission in tubes has been established, from which an end-of-life criterion was deduced. Taking modeling into account, predicting accelerated life-tests were performed using high-density maximum emission current (MIK)

  2. The Abiotic Depletion Potential: Background, Updates, and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauran van Oers

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Depletion of abiotic resources is a much disputed impact category in life cycle assessment (LCA. The reason is that the problem can be defined in different ways. Furthermore, within a specified problem definition, many choices can still be made regarding which parameters to include in the characterization model and which data to use. This article gives an overview of the problem definition and the choices that have been made when defining the abiotic depletion potentials (ADPs for a characterization model for abiotic resource depletion in LCA. Updates of the ADPs since 2002 are also briefly discussed. Finally, some possible new developments of the impact category of abiotic resource depletion are suggested, such as redefining the depletion problem as a dilution problem. This means taking the reserves in the environment and the economy into account in the reserve parameter and using leakage from the economy, instead of extraction rate, as a dilution parameter.

  3. Human podocyte depletion in association with older age and hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puelles, Victor G; Cullen-McEwen, Luise A; Taylor, Georgina E; Li, Jinhua; Hughson, Michael D; Kerr, Peter G; Hoy, Wendy E; Bertram, John F

    2016-04-01

    Podocyte depletion plays a major role in the development and progression of glomerulosclerosis. Many kidney diseases are more common in older age and often coexist with hypertension. We hypothesized that podocyte depletion develops in association with older age and is exacerbated by hypertension. Kidneys from 19 adult Caucasian American males without overt renal disease were collected at autopsy in Mississippi. Demographic data were obtained from medical and autopsy records. Subjects were categorized by age and hypertension as potential independent and additive contributors to podocyte depletion. Design-based stereology was used to estimate individual glomerular volume and total podocyte number per glomerulus, which allowed the calculation of podocyte density (number per volume). Podocyte depletion was defined as a reduction in podocyte number (absolute depletion) or podocyte density (relative depletion). The cortical location of glomeruli (outer or inner cortex) and presence of parietal podocytes were also recorded. Older age was an independent contributor to both absolute and relative podocyte depletion, featuring glomerular hypertrophy, podocyte loss, and thus reduced podocyte density. Hypertension was an independent contributor to relative podocyte depletion by exacerbating glomerular hypertrophy, mostly in glomeruli from the inner cortex. However, hypertension was not associated with podocyte loss. Absolute and relative podocyte depletion were exacerbated by the combination of older age and hypertension. The proportion of glomeruli with parietal podocytes increased with age but not with hypertension alone. These findings demonstrate that older age and hypertension are independent and additive contributors to podocyte depletion in white American men without kidney disease. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Barium Depletion in Hollow Cathode Emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polk, James E.; Capece, Angela M.; Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira

    2009-01-01

    The effect of tungsten erosion, transport and redeposition on the operation of dispenser hollow cathodes was investigated in detailed examinations of the discharge cathode inserts from an 8200 hour and a 30,352 hour ion engine wear test. Erosion and subsequent re-deposition of tungsten in the electron emission zone at the downstream end of the insert reduces the porosity of the tungsten matrix, preventing the ow of barium from the interior. This inhibits the interfacial reactions of the barium-calcium-aluminate impregnant with the tungsten in the pores. A numerical model of barium transport in the internal xenon discharge plasma shows that the barium required to reduce the work function in the emission zone can be supplied from upstream through the gas phase. Barium that flows out of the pores of the tungsten insert is rapidly ionized in the xenon discharge and pushed back to the emitter surface by the electric field and drag from the xenon ion flow. This barium ion flux is sufficient to maintain a barium surface coverage at the downstream end greater than 0.6, even if local barium production at that point is inhibited by tungsten deposits. The model also shows that the neutral barium pressure exceeds the equilibrium vapor pressure of the impregnant decomposition reaction over much of the insert length, so the reactions are suppressed. Only a small region upstream of the zone blocked by tungsten deposits is active and supplies the required barium. These results indicate that hollow cathode failure models based on barium depletion rates in vacuum dispenser cathodes are very conservative.

  5. Biological effects of deuterium - depleted water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, I.; Titescu, Gh.; Croitoru, Cornelia; Saros-Rogobete, Irina

    2000-01-01

    Deuterium-depleted water (DDW) is represented by water that has an isotopic content smaller than 145 ppm D/(D + H). DDW production technique consists in the separation of deuterium from water by a continuous distillation process under pressure of about 133.3 mbar. The water used as raw material has a isotopic content of 145 ppm D/(D + H) and can be demineralized water, distillated water or condensed-steam. DDW results as a distillate with an isotopic deuterium content of 15-80 ppm, depending on the level we want to achieve. Beginning with 1996 the Institute of Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies, DDW producer, co-operated with Romanian specialized institutes for studying the biological effects of DDW. The role of naturally occurring D in living organisms was examined by using DDW instead of natural water. These investigations led to the following conclusions: - DDW caused a tendency towards the increase of the basal tone, accompanied by the intensification of the vasoconstrictor effects of phenylefrine, noradrenaline and angiotensin; the increase of the basal tone and vascular reactivity produced by the DDW persists after the removal of the vascular endothelium; - Animals treated with DDW showed an increase of the resistance both to sublethal and lethal gamma radiation doses, suggesting a radioprotective action by the stimulation of non-specific immune defense mechanisms; - DDW stimulates immuno-defense reactions represented by the opsonic, bactericidal and phagocyte capacity of the immune system together with an increase in the number of poly-morphonuclear neutrophils; - Investigations regarding artificial reproduction of fish with DDW fecundated solutions confirmed favorable influence in embryo growth stage and resistance and following growth stages; - It was studied germination, growth and quantitative character variability in plants; one can remark the favorable influence of DDW on biological processes in plants in various ontogenetic stages. (authors)

  6. Interstellar Silicon Depletion and the Ultraviolet Extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ajay; Li, Aigen

    2018-01-01

    Spinning small silicate grains were recently invoked to account for the Galactic foreground anomalous microwave emission. These grains, if present, will absorb starlight in the far ultraviolet (UV). There is also renewed interest in attributing the enigmatic 2175 Å interstellar extinction bump to small silicates. To probe the role of silicon in the UV extinction, we explore the relations between the amount of silicon required to be locked up in silicates [Si/H]dust and the 2175 Å bump or the far-UV extinction rise, based on an analysis of the extinction curves along 46 Galactic sightlines for which the gas-phase silicon abundance [Si/H]gas is known. We derive [Si/H]dust either from [Si/H]ISM - [Si/H]gas or from the Kramers- Kronig relation which relates the wavelength-integrated extinction to the total dust volume, where [Si/H]ISM is the interstellar silicon reference abundance and taken to be that of proto-Sun or B stars. We also derive [Si/H]dust from fi�tting the observed extinction curves with a mixture of amorphous silicates and graphitic grains. We fi�nd that in all three cases [Si/H]dust shows no correlation with the 2175 Å bump, while the carbon depletion [C/H]dust tends to correlate with the 2175 Å bump. This supports carbon grains instead of silicates as the possible carrier of the 2175 Å bump. We also �find that neither [Si/H]dust nor [C/H]dust alone correlates with the far-UV extinction, suggesting that the far-UV extinction is a combined effect of small carbon grains and silicates.

  7. Deuterium depleted water. Romanian achievements and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, Ioan; Steflea, Dumitru; Titescu, Gheorghe; Tamaian, Radu

    2002-01-01

    The deuterium depleted water (DDW) is microbiologically pure distilled water with a deuterium content lower than that of natural waters which amounts to 140 - 150 ppm D/(D+H); variations depend on geographical zone and altitude. The procedure of obtaining DDW is based on isotopic separation of natural water by vacuum distillation. Isotope concentration can be chosen within 20 to 120 ppm D/(D+H). The ICSI at Rm. Valcea has patented the procedure and equipment for the production of DDW. According to the document SF-01-2002/INC-DTCI - ICSI Rm. Valcea, the product has a D/(D+H) isotope concentration of 25 ± 5. Studies and research for finding the effects and methods of application in different fields were initiated and developed in collaboration with different institutes in Romania. The following important results obtained so far could be mentioned: - absence of toxicity upon organisms; - activation of vascular reactivity; - enhancement of defence capacity of the organism through non-specific immunity activation; - increase of salmonid reproduction capacity and enhancement of the adaptability of alevins to the environmental conditions; - radioprotective effect to ionizing radiation; - maintaining meat freshness through osmotic shock; - stimulation of growth of aquatic macrophytes; - enhancement of culture plant development in certain ontogenetic stages. Mostly, the results and practical applications of the research were patented and awarded with gold medals at international invention fairs. At present, research-development programmes are undergoing to find active biological features of DDW in fighting cancer, on one hand, and its applicability as food additive of pets or performing animals, on the other hand

  8. Clinical case of Mitochondrial DNA Depletion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Degtyareva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reports clinical case of early neonatal manifestation of a rare genetic disease – mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome, confirmed in laboratory in Russia. Mutations of FBXL4, which encodes an orphan mitochondrial F-box protein, involved in the maintenance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA, ultimately leading to disruption of mtDNA replication and decreased activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes. It’s a reason of abnormalities in clinically affected tissues, most of all the muscular system and the brain. In our case hydronephrosis on the right, subependimal cysts of the brain, partial intestinal obstruction accompanied by polyhydramnios were diagnosed antenatal. Baby’s condition at birth was satisfactory and worsened dramatically towards the end of the first day of life. Clinical presentation includes sepsis-like symptom complex, neonatal depression, muscular hypotonia, persistent decompensated lactic acidosis, increase in the concentration of mitochondrial markers in blood plasma and urine, and changes in the basal ganglia of the brain. Imaging of the brain by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI demonstrated global volume loss particularly the subcortical and periventricular white matter with significant abnormal signal in bilateral basal ganglia and brainstem with associated delayed myelination. Differential diagnosis was carried out with hereditary diseases that occur as a «sepsis-like» symptom complex, accompanied by lactic acidosis: a group of metabolic disorders of amino acids, organic acids, β-oxidation defects of fatty acids, respiratory mitochondrial chain disorders and glycogen storage disease. The diagnosis was confirmed after sequencing analysis of 62 mytochondrial genes by NGS (Next Generation Sequencing. Reported disease has an unfavorable prognosis, however, accurate diagnosis is very important for genetic counseling and helps prevent the re-birth of a sick child in the family.

  9. Simulating events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferretti, C; Bruzzone, L [Techint Italimpianti, Milan (Italy)

    2000-06-01

    The Petacalco Marine terminal on the Pacific coast in the harbour of Lazaro Carclenas (Michoacan) in Mexico, provides coal to the thermoelectric power plant at Pdte Plutarco Elias Calles in the port area. The plant is being converted from oil to burn coal to generate 2100 MW of power. The article describes the layout of the terminal and equipment employed in the unloading, coal stacking, coal handling areas and the receiving area at the power plant. The contractor Techint Italimpianti has developed a software system, MHATIS, for marine terminal management which is nearly complete. The discrete event simulator with its graphic interface provides a real-type decision support system for simulating changes to the terminal operations and evaluating impacts. The article describes how MHATIS is used. 7 figs.

  10. Event generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, D.; Gulminelli, F.; Lopez, O.; Vient, E.

    1998-01-01

    The results concerning the heavy ion collision simulations at Fermi energies by means of phenomenological models obtained in the last two years ar presented. The event generators are essentially following the phase of elaboration of analysis methods of data obtained by INDRA or NAUTILUS 4 π multidetectors. To identify and correctly quantify a phenomenon or a physical quantity it is necessary to verify by simulation the feasibility and validity of the analysis and also to estimate the bias introduced by the experimental filter. Many studies have shown this, for instance: the determination of the collision reaction plan for flow studies, determination of kinematical characteristics of the quasi-projectiles, and the excitation energy measurement stored in the hot nuclei. To Eugene, the currently utilised generator, several improvements were added: introduction of space-time correlations between the different products emitted in the decay of excited nuclei by calculating the trajectories of the particles in the final phase of the reaction; taking into account in the decay cascade of the discrete levels of the lighter fragments; the possibility of the schematically description of the explosion of the nucleus by simultaneous emission of multi-fragments. Thus, by comparing the calculations with the data relative to heavy systems studied with the NAUTILUS assembly it was possible to extract the time scales in the nuclear fragmentation. The utilisation of these event generators was extended to the analysis of INDRA data concerning the determination of the vaporization threshold in the collisions Ar + Ni and also the research of the expansion effects in the collisions Xe + Sn at 50 MeV/u

  11. Events diary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    as Imperial College, the Royal Albert Hall, the Royal College of Art, the Natural History and Science Museums and the Royal Geographical Society. Under the heading `Shaping the future together' BA2000 will explore science, engineering and technology in their wider cultural context. Further information about this event on 6 - 12 September may be obtained from Sandra Koura, BA2000 Festival Manager, British Association for the Advancement of Science, 23 Savile Row, London W1X 2NB (tel: 0171 973 3075, e-mail: sandra.koura@britassoc.org.uk ). Details of the creating SPARKS events may be obtained from creating.sparks@britassoc.org.uk or from the website www.britassoc.org.uk . Other events 3 - 7 July, Porto Alegre, Brazil VII Interamerican conference on physics education: The preparation of physicists and physics teachers in contemporary society. Info: IACPE7@if.ufrgs.br or cabbat1.cnea.gov.ar/iacpe/iacpei.htm 27 August - 1 September, Barcelona, Spain GIREP conference: Physics teacher education beyond 2000. Info: www.blues.uab.es/phyteb/index.html

  12. Long-term groundwater depletion in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konikow, Leonard F.

    2015-01-01

    The volume of groundwater stored in the subsurface in the United States decreased by almost 1000 km3 during 1900–2008. The aquifer systems with the three largest volumes of storage depletion include the High Plains aquifer, the Mississippi Embayment section of the Gulf Coastal Plain aquifer system, and the Central Valley of California. Depletion rates accelerated during 1945–1960, averaging 13.6 km3/year during the last half of the century, and after 2000 increased again to about 24 km3/year. Depletion intensity is a new parameter, introduced here, to provide a more consistent basis for comparing storage depletion problems among various aquifers by factoring in time and areal extent of the aquifer. During 2001–2008, the Central Valley of California had the largest depletion intensity. Groundwater depletion in the United States can explain 1.4% of observed sea-level rise during the 108-year study period and 2.1% during 2001–2008. Groundwater depletion must be confronted on local and regional scales to help reduce demand (primarily in irrigated agriculture) and/or increase supply.

  13. Associative Interactions in Crowded Solutions of Biopolymers Counteract Depletion Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Joost; Foschepoth, David; te Brinke, Esra; Boersma, Arnold J; Imamura, Hiromi; Rivas, Germán; Heus, Hans A; Huck, Wilhelm T S

    2015-10-14

    The cytosol of Escherichia coli is an extremely crowded environment, containing high concentrations of biopolymers which occupy 20-30% of the available volume. Such conditions are expected to yield depletion forces, which strongly promote macromolecular complexation. However, crowded macromolecule solutions, like the cytosol, are very prone to nonspecific associative interactions that can potentially counteract depletion. It remains unclear how the cytosol balances these opposing interactions. We used a FRET-based probe to systematically study depletion in vitro in different crowded environments, including a cytosolic mimic, E. coli lysate. We also studied bundle formation of FtsZ protofilaments under identical crowded conditions as a probe for depletion interactions at much larger overlap volumes of the probe molecule. The FRET probe showed a more compact conformation in synthetic crowding agents, suggesting strong depletion interactions. However, depletion was completely negated in cell lysate and other protein crowding agents, where the FRET probe even occupied slightly more volume. In contrast, bundle formation of FtsZ protofilaments proceeded as readily in E. coli lysate and other protein solutions as in synthetic crowding agents. Our experimental results and model suggest that, in crowded biopolymer solutions, associative interactions counterbalance depletion forces for small macromolecules. Furthermore, the net effects of macromolecular crowding will be dependent on both the size of the macromolecule and its associative interactions with the crowded background.

  14. ISOGEN: Interactive isotope generation and depletion code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkata Subbaiah, Kamatam

    2016-01-01

    ISOGEN is an interactive code for solving first order coupled linear differential equations with constant coefficients for a large number of isotopes, which are produced or depleted by the processes of radioactive decay or through neutron transmutation or fission. These coupled equations can be written in a matrix notation involving radioactive decay constants and transmutation coefficients, and the eigenvalues of thus formed matrix vary widely (several tens of orders), and hence no single method of solution is suitable for obtaining precise estimate of concentrations of isotopes. Therefore, different methods of solutions are followed, namely, matrix exponential method, Bateman series method, and Gauss-Seidel iteration method, as was followed in the ORIGEN-2 code. ISOGEN code is written in a modern computer language, VB.NET version 2013 for Windows operating system version 7, which enables one to provide many interactive features between the user and the program. The output results depend on the input neutron database employed and the time step involved in the calculations. The present program can display the information about the database files, and the user has to select one which suits the current need. The program prints the 'WARNING' information if the time step is too large, which is decided based on the built-in convergence criterion. Other salient interactive features provided are (i) inspection of input data that goes into calculation, (ii) viewing of radioactive decay sequence of isotopes (daughters, precursors, photons emitted) in a graphical format, (iii) solution of parent and daughter products by direct Bateman series solution method, (iv) quick input method and context sensitive prompts for guiding the novice user, (v) view of output tables for any parameter of interest, and (vi) output file can be read to generate new information and can be viewed or printed since the program stores basic nuclide concentration unlike other batch jobs. The sample

  15. Development of the point-depletion code DEPTH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    She, Ding; Wang, Kan; Yu, Ganglin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The DEPTH code has been developed for the large-scale depletion system. ► DEPTH uses the data library which is convenient to couple with MC codes. ► TTA and matrix exponential methods are implemented and compared. ► DEPTH is able to calculate integral quantities based on the matrix inverse. ► Code-to-code comparisons prove the accuracy and efficiency of DEPTH. -- Abstract: The burnup analysis is an important aspect in reactor physics, which is generally done by coupling of transport calculations and point-depletion calculations. DEPTH is a newly-developed point-depletion code of handling large burnup depletion systems and detailed depletion chains. For better coupling with Monte Carlo transport codes, DEPTH uses data libraries based on the combination of ORIGEN-2 and ORIGEN-S and allows users to assign problem-dependent libraries for each depletion step. DEPTH implements various algorithms of treating the stiff depletion systems, including the Transmutation trajectory analysis (TTA), the Chebyshev Rational Approximation Method (CRAM), the Quadrature-based Rational Approximation Method (QRAM) and the Laguerre Polynomial Approximation Method (LPAM). Three different modes are supported by DEPTH to execute the decay, constant flux and constant power calculations. In addition to obtaining the instantaneous quantities of the radioactivity, decay heats and reaction rates, DEPTH is able to calculate the integral quantities by a time-integrated solver. Through calculations compared with ORIGEN-2, the validity of DEPTH in point-depletion calculations is proved. The accuracy and efficiency of depletion algorithms are also discussed. In addition, an actual pin-cell burnup case is calculated to illustrate the DEPTH code performance in coupling with the RMC Monte Carlo code

  16. Geophysical events

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a summary of SEAN Bulletin, 13(3), March 31, 1988, a publication of the Smithsonian Institution's Scientific Event Alert Network. The complete bulletin is available in the microfiche edition of Eos as a microfiche supplement or as a paper reprint. For the microfiche, order document E88-002 at $2.50 (U.S.) by writing to AGU Orders, 2000 Florida Avenue, N.W., Washington, DC 20009 or by calling toll free on 800-424-2488. For the paper reprint, order SEAN Bulletin (giving volume and issue numbers and issue date) through the same address; the price is $3.50 for one copy of each issue number for those who do not have a deposit account, $2 for those who do; additional copies of each issue number are $1. Subscriptions to SEAN Bulletin are also available from AGU-Orders; the price is $18 for 12 monthly issues mailed to a U.S. address, $28 if mailed elsewhere, and must be prepaid.

  17. A Re-Os Study of Depleted Trench Peridotites from Northern Mariana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, T.; Snow, J. E.; Heri, A. R.; Brandon, A. D.; Ishizuka, O.

    2017-12-01

    Trench peridotites provide information about the influence of subduction initiation on the extent of mantle wedge melting. They preserve melting records throughout subduction history, and as a result, likely experience multiple melt extraction events leading to successive depletion of melt/fluid mobile major and trace elements. To track melting histories of trench peridotites, Re-Os and PGEs can be used as reliable tracers to constrain early melt extraction or re-fertilization events. The Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc, being the largest intra-oceanic subduction system, provides an excellent area to study the formation of supra-subduction zone mantle and crust. Residual peridotite (harzburgite and dunite) samples were collected by dredging from the landward slope of the northern Mariana Trench. The samples are serpentinized to various extents (typical of abyssal peridotites), leaving behind relict grains of spinel, enstatite and olivine embedded within a serpentine matrix along with occasional interstitial diopside. Major element analyses of primary minerals reveal a wide range of variations in Cr# of spinels from 0.31-0.85 indicating 16-20% of melt fraction with dunites apparently experiencing the highest amount of partial melting. For Re-Os and PGE geochemistry, samples with high amounts of spinel (>4 vol %) and variable Cr# were chosen. Initial results show that bulk rock 187Os/188Os ratios range from 0.1113 to 0.1272. All of the samples are sub-chondritic, but in some cases, they are more radiogenic than average abyssal peridotites. Os abundances vary from 1-9 ppb. Sub-chondritic values can be attributed to the samples having evolved from a Re-depleted mantle source indicating a previous melt-extraction event. The cpx-harzburgites, having lower Cr# ( 0.4) are more radiogenic than ultra depleted dunites (Cr# 0.8), which might indicate preferential removal of Os during an apparent higher degree of partial melting experienced by dunites. The higher 187Os/188Os ratios of

  18. The enhancements and testing for the MCNPX depletion capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fensin, M. L.; Hendricks, J. S.; Anghaie, S.

    2008-01-01

    Monte Carlo-linked depletion methods have gained recent interest due to the ability to more accurately model true system physics and better track the evolution of temporal nuclide inventory by simulating the actual physical process. The integration of INDER90 into the MCNPX Monte Carlo radiation transport code provides a completely self-contained Monte- Carlo-linked depletion capability in a single Monte Carlo code that is compatible with most nuclear criticality (KCODE) particle tracking features in MCNPX. MCNPX depletion tracks all necessary reaction rates and follows as many isotopes as cross section data permits in order to achieve a highly accurate temporal nuclide inventory solution. We describe here the depletion methodology dating from the original linking of MONTEBURNS and MCNP to the first public release of the integrated capability (MCNPX 2. 6.B, June, 2006) that has been reported previously. Then we further detail the many new depletion capability enhancements since then leading to the present capability. The H.B. Robinson benchmark calculation results are also reported. The new MCNPX depletion capability enhancements include: (1) allowing the modeling of as large a system as computer memory capacity permits; (2) tracking every fission product available in ENDF/B VII. 0; (3) enabling depletion in repeated structures geometries such as repeated arrays of fuel pins; (4) including metastable isotopes in burnup; and (5) manually changing the concentrations of key isotopes during different time steps to simulate changing reactor control conditions such as dilution of poisons to maintain criticality during burnup. These enhancements allow better detail to model the true system physics and also improve the robustness of the capability. The H.B. Robinson benchmark calculation was completed in order to determine the accuracy of the depletion solution. Temporal nuclide computations of key actinide and fission products are compared to the results of other

  19. Challenges dealing with depleted uranium in Germany - Reuse or disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, Kai D.

    2007-01-01

    During enrichment large amounts of depleted Uranium are produced. In Germany every year 2.800 tons of depleted uranium are generated. In Germany depleted uranium is not classified as radioactive waste but a resource for further enrichment. Therefore since 1996 depleted Uranium is sent to ROSATOM in Russia. However it still has to be dealt with the second generation of depleted Uranium. To evaluate the alternative actions in case a solution has to be found in Germany, several studies have been initiated by the Federal Ministry of the Environment. The work that has been carried out evaluated various possibilities to deal with depleted uranium. The international studies on this field and the situation in Germany have been analyzed. In case no further enrichment is planned the depleted uranium has to be stored. In the enrichment process UF 6 is generated. It is an international consensus that for storage it should be converted to U 3 O 8 . The necessary technique is well established. If the depleted Uranium would have to be characterized as radioactive waste, a final disposal would become necessary. For the planned Konrad repository - a repository for non heat generating radioactive waste - the amount of Uranium is limited by the licensing authority. The existing license would not allow the final disposal of large amounts of depleted Uranium in the Konrad repository. The potential effect on the safety case has not been roughly analyzed. As a result it may be necessary to think about alternatives. Several possibilities for the use of depleted uranium in the industry have been identified. Studies indicate that the properties of Uranium would make it useful in some industrial fields. Nevertheless many practical and legal questions are open. One further option may be the use as shielding e.g. in casks for transport or disposal. Possible techniques for using depleted Uranium as shielding are the use of the metallic Uranium as well as the inclusion in concrete. Another

  20. Depletion interaction of casein micelles and an exocellular polysaccharide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuinier, R.; Ten Grotenhuis, E.; Holt, C.; Timmins, P. A.; de Kruif, C. G.

    1999-07-01

    Casein micelles become mutually attractive when an exocellular polysaccharide produced by Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris NIZO B40 (hereafter called EPS) is added to skim milk. The attraction can be explained as a depletion interaction between the casein micelles induced by the nonadsorbing EPS. We used three scattering techniques (small-angle neutron scattering, turbidity measurements, and dynamic light scattering) to measure the attraction. In order to connect the theory of depletion interaction with experiment, we calculated structure factors of hard spheres interacting by a depletion pair potential. Theoretical predictions and all the experiments showed that casein micelles became more attractive upon increasing the EPS concentration.

  1. Climate change, ozone depletion and the impact on ultraviolet exposure of human skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diffey, Brian

    2004-01-01

    For 30 years there has been concern that anthropogenic damage to the Earth's stratospheric ozone layer will lead to an increase of solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation reaching the Earth's surface, with a consequent adverse impact on human health, especially to the skin. More recently, there has been an increased awareness of the interactions between ozone depletion and climate change (global warming), which could also impact on human exposure to terrestrial UV. The most serious effect of changing UV exposure of human skin is the potential rise in incidence of skin cancers. Risk estimates of this disease associated with ozone depletion suggest that an additional peak incidence of 5000 cases of skin cancer per year in the UK would occur around the mid-part of this century. Climate change, which is predicted to lead to an increased frequency of extreme temperature events and high summer temperatures, will become more frequent in the UK. This could impact on human UV exposure by encouraging people to spend more time in the sun. Whilst future social trends remain uncertain, it is likely that over this century behaviour associated with climate change, rather than ozone depletion, will be the largest determinant of sun exposure, and consequent impact on skin cancer, of the UK population. (topical review)

  2. Quantifying Modern Recharge and Depletion Rates of the Nubian Aquifer in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mohamed; Abdelmohsen, Karem

    2018-02-01

    Egypt is currently seeking additional freshwater resources to support national reclamation projects based mainly on the Nubian aquifer groundwater resources. In this study, temporal (April 2002 to June 2016) Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE)-derived terrestrial water storage (TWSGRACE) along with other relevant datasets was used to monitor and quantify modern recharge and depletion rates of the Nubian aquifer in Egypt (NAE) and investigate the interaction of the NAE with artificial lakes. Results indicate: (1) the NAE is receiving a total recharge of 20.27 ± 1.95 km3 during 4/2002-2/2006 and 4/2008-6/2016 periods, (2) recharge events occur only under excessive precipitation conditions over the Nubian recharge domains and/or under a significant rise in Lake Nasser levels, (3) the NAE is witnessing a groundwater depletion of - 13.45 ± 0.82 km3/year during 3/2006-3/2008 period, (4) the observed groundwater depletion is largely related to exceptional drought conditions and/or normal baseflow recession, and (5) a conjunctive surface water and groundwater management plan needs to be adapted to develop sustainable water resources management in the NAE. Findings demonstrate the use of global monthly TWSGRACE solutions as a practical, informative, and cost-effective approach for monitoring aquifer systems across the globe.

  3. Time-on-task effects in children with and without ADHD: depletion of executive resources or depletion of motivation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekkers, Tycho J; Agelink van Rentergem, Joost A; Koole, Alette; van den Wildenberg, Wery P M; Popma, Arne; Bexkens, Anika; Stoffelsen, Reino; Diekmann, Anouk; Huizenga, Hilde M

    2017-12-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are characterized by deficits in their executive functioning and motivation. In addition, these children are characterized by a decline in performance as time-on-task increases (i.e., time-on-task effects). However, it is unknown whether these time-on-task effects should be attributed to deficits in executive functioning or to deficits in motivation. Some studies in typically developing (TD) adults indicated that time-on-task effects should be interpreted as depletion of executive resources, but other studies suggested that they represent depletion of motivation. We, therefore, investigated, in children with and without ADHD, whether there were time-on-task effects on executive functions, such as inhibition and (in)attention, and whether these were best explained by depletion of executive resources or depletion of motivation. The stop-signal task (SST), which generates both indices of inhibition (stop-signal reaction time) and attention (reaction time variability and errors), was administered in 96 children (42 ADHD, 54 TD controls; aged 9-13). To differentiate between depletion of resources and depletion of motivation, the SST was administered twice. Half of the participants was reinforced during second task performance, potentially counteracting depletion of motivation. Multilevel analyses indicated that children with ADHD were more affected by time-on-task than controls on two measures of inattention, but not on inhibition. In the ADHD group, reinforcement only improved performance on one index of attention (i.e., reaction time variability). The current findings suggest that time-on-task effects in children with ADHD occur specifically in the attentional domain, and seem to originate in both depletion of executive resources and depletion of motivation. Clinical implications for diagnostics, psycho-education, and intervention are discussed.

  4. Depletion of atmospheric gaseous elemental mercury by plant uptake at Mt. Changbai, Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Fu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available There exists observational evidence that gaseous elemental mercury (GEM can be readily removed from the atmosphere via chemical oxidation followed by deposition in the polar and sub-polar regions, free troposphere, lower stratosphere, and marine boundary layer under specific environmental conditions. Here we report GEM depletions in a temperate mixed forest at Mt. Changbai, Northeast China. The strong depletions occurred predominantly at night during the leaf-growing season and in the absence of gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM enrichment (GOM  <  3 pg m−3. Vertical gradients of decreasing GEM concentrations from layers above to under forest canopy suggest in situ loss of GEM to forest canopy at Mt. Changbai. Foliar GEM flux measurements showed that the foliage of two predominant tree species is a net sink of GEM at night, with a mean flux of −1.8 ± 0.3 ng m2 h−1 over Fraxinus mandshurica (deciduous tree species and −0.1 ± 0.2 ng m2 h−1 over Pinus Koraiensis (evergreen tree species. Daily integrated GEM δ202Hg, Δ199Hg, and Δ200Hg at Mt. Changbai during 8–18 July 2013 ranged from −0.34 to 0.91 ‰, from −0.11 to −0.04 ‰ and from −0.06 to 0.01 ‰, respectively. A large positive shift in GEM δ202Hg occurred during the strong GEM depletion events, whereas Δ199Hg and Δ200Hg remained essentially unchanged. The observational findings and box model results show that uptake of GEM by forest canopy plays a predominant role in the GEM depletion at Mt. Changbai forest. Such depletion events of GEM are likely to be a widespread phenomenon, suggesting that the forest ecosystem represents one of the largest sinks ( ∼ 1930 Mg of atmospheric Hg on a global scale.

  5. T cell depleted haploidentical transplantation: positive selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Aversa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Interest in mismatched transplantation arises from the fact that a suitable one-haplotype mismatched donor is immediately available for virtually all patients, particularly for those who urgently need an allogenic transplant. Work on one haplotype-mismatched transplants has been proceeding for over 20 years all over the world and novel transplant techniques have been developed. Some centres have focused on the conditioning regimens and post transplant immune suppression; others have concentrated on manipulating the graft which may be a megadose of extensively T celldepleted or unmanipulated progenitor cells. Excellent engraftment rates are associated with a very low incidence of acute and chronic GVHD and regimen-related mortality even in patients who are over 50 years old. Overall, event-free survival and transplant-related mortality compare favourably with reports on transplants from sources of stem cells other than the matched sibling.

  6. Utilization of Alternate Propellants to Reduce Stratospheric Ozone Depletion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lewis, David

    1994-01-01

    There is continuing concern about the depletion of the ozone layer. Recently it has been determined that effluents from rockets exhausts contain chemical species that can be classified as Potentially Ozone Reactive Chemicals (PORCs...

  7. Mycobacterial antigens stimulate rheumatoid mononuclear cells to cartilage proteoglycan depletion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilbrink, B.; Bijlsma, J. W.; Huber-Bruning, O.; van Roy, J. L.; den Otter, W.; van Eden, W.

    1990-01-01

    In a coculture with porcine articular cartilage explants unstimulated blood mononuclear cells (BMC) from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but not from healthy controls, induced proteoglycan depletion of dead cartilage. Specific stimulation of the RA BMC with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MT),

  8. Hyperspectral stimulated emission depletion microscopy and methods of use thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timlin, Jerilyn A; Aaron, Jesse S

    2014-04-01

    A hyperspectral stimulated emission depletion ("STED") microscope system for high-resolution imaging of samples labeled with multiple fluorophores (e.g., two to ten fluorophores). The hyperspectral STED microscope includes a light source, optical systems configured for generating an excitation light beam and a depletion light beam, optical systems configured for focusing the excitation and depletion light beams on a sample, and systems for collecting and processing data generated by interaction of the excitation and depletion light beams with the sample. Hyperspectral STED data may be analyzed using multivariate curve resolution analysis techniques to deconvolute emission from the multiple fluorophores. The hyperspectral STED microscope described herein can be used for multi-color, subdiffraction imaging of samples (e.g., materials and biological materials) and for analyzing a tissue by Forster Resonance Energy Transfer ("FRET").

  9. Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome presenting with ataxia and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laila Selim

    2012-07-24

    Jul 24, 2012 ... Sequencing analysis of the TK2 gene revealed no sequence variation. ... the pathogenesis of the myopathic form of mitochondrial depletion syndrome should be ..... [39,40]. However, the biochemical evidence of deficiency of.

  10. Importance of energetic solar protons in ozone depletion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephenson, J A.E.; Scourfield, M W.J. [Natal Univ., Durban (South Africa). Space Physics Research Inst.

    1991-07-11

    CHLORINE-catalysed depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer has commanded considerable attention since 1985, when Farman et al. observed a decrease of 50% in the total column ozone over Antarctica in the austral spring. Here we examine the depletion of stratospheric ozone caused by the reaction of ozone with nitric oxide generated by energetic solar protons, associated with solar flares. During large solar flares in March 1989, satellite observations indicated that total column ozone was depleted by {approx} 9% over {approx} 20% of the total area between the South Pole and latitude 70{sup o}S. Chlorine-catalysed ozone depletion takes place over a much larger area, but our results indicate that the influence of solar protons on atmospheric ozone concentrations should not be ignored. (author).

  11. Lagopedo: two F-region ionospheric depletion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pongratz, M.B.; Smith, G.M.; Sutherland, C.D.; Zinn, J.

    1977-01-01

    A significant depletion of ionospheric plasma was produced by a chemical release experiment in the F-layer ionosphere over Hawaii. The results of measurements of the hole produced in the ionospheric plasma are reported

  12. Importance of energetic solar protons in ozone depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson, J.A.E.; Scourfield, M.W.J.

    1991-01-01

    CHLORINE-catalysed depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer has commanded considerable attention since 1985, when Farman et al. observed a decrease of 50% in the total column ozone over Antarctica in the austral spring. Here we examine the depletion of stratospheric ozone caused by the reaction of ozone with nitric oxide generated by energetic solar protons, associated with solar flares. During large solar flares in March 1989, satellite observations indicated that total column ozone was depleted by ∼ 9% over ∼ 20% of the total area between the South Pole and latitude 70 o S. Chlorine-catalysed ozone depletion takes place over a much larger area, but our results indicate that the influence of solar protons on atmospheric ozone concentrations should not be ignored. (author)

  13. Adding trend data to Depletion-Based Stock Reduction Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Bayesian model of Depletion-Based Stock Reduction Analysis (DB-SRA), informed by a time series of abundance indexes, was developed, using the Sampling Importance...

  14. AFSC/REFM: Pacific cod Localized Depletion Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Localized Depletion study for Pacific cod 2001-2005. Study was conducted using cod pot gear to measure localized abundance of Pacific cod inside and...

  15. Radioactive reconnaissance in area of utilization ammunition of depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortuna, D.; Dimitrijevic, D.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper are presented methods of radioactive reconnaissance and taking of samples in area of utilization ammunition of depleted uranium during the armed aggression of NATO to Yugoslavia (author)

  16. Trace Element Abundances in Eucrite Basalts: Enrichment or Depletion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, N. R.

    2018-05-01

    It is not clear how incompatible trace element (ITE) variation in eucrite basalts originated. Here, mechanisms for relative ITE enrichment or depletion are experimentally evaluated in an attempt to reconcile the Stannern and main group eucrites.

  17. Depletion of GGA1 and GGA3 mediates post-injury elevation of BACE1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kendall R.; Kang, Eugene L.; Whalen, Michael J.; Shen, Yong; Tesco, Giuseppina

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the most robust environmental risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Compelling evidence is accumulating that a single event of TBI is associated with increased levels of Aβ. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. We report here that the BACE1 interacting protein, GGA3, is depleted while BACE1 levels increase in the acute phase post-injury (48hrs) in a mouse model of TBI. We further demonstrated the role of GGA3 in the regulation of BACE1 in vivo by showing that BACE1 levels are increased in the brain of GGA3 null mice. We next found that head trauma potentiates BACE1 elevation in GGA3 null mice in the acute phase post-TBI and discovered that GGA1, a GGA3 homologue, is a novel caspase-3 substrate depleted at 48 hrs post-TBI. Moreover, GGA1 silencing potentiates BACE1 elevation induced by GGA3 deletion in neurons in vitro indicating that GGA1 and GGA3 synergistically regulate BACE1. Accordingly, we found that levels of both GGA1 and GGA3 are depleted while BACE1 levels are increased in a series of post-mortem AD brains. Finally, we show that GGA3 haploinsufficiency results in sustained elevation of BACE1 and Aβ levels while GGA1 levels are restored in the subacute phase (7 days) post-injury. In conclusion, our data indicate that depletion of GGA1 and GGA3 engender a rapid and robust elevation of BACE1 in the acute phase post-injury. However, the efficient disposal of the acutely accumulated BACE1 solely depends on GGA3 levels in the sub-acute phase of injury. PMID:22836275

  18. Depletion of GGA1 and GGA3 mediates postinjury elevation of BACE1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kendall R; Kang, Eugene L; Whalen, Michael J; Shen, Yong; Tesco, Giuseppina

    2012-07-25

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the most robust environmental risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Compelling evidence is accumulating that a single event of TBI is associated with increased levels of Aβ. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. We report here that the BACE1 interacting protein, GGA3, is depleted while BACE1 levels increase in the acute phase after injury (48 h) in a mouse model of TBI. We further demonstrated the role of GGA3 in the regulation of BACE1 in vivo by showing that BACE1 levels are increased in the brain of GGA3-null mice. We next found that head trauma potentiates BACE1 elevation in GGA3-null mice in the acute phase after TBI, and discovered that GGA1, a GGA3 homolog, is a novel caspase-3 substrate depleted at 48 h after TBI. Moreover, GGA1 silencing potentiates BACE1 elevation induced by GGA3 deletion in neurons in vitro, indicating that GGA1 and GGA3 synergistically regulate BACE1. Accordingly, we found that levels of both GGA1 and GGA3 are depleted while BACE1 levels are increased in a series of postmortem AD brains. Finally, we show that GGA3 haploinsufficiency results in sustained elevation of BACE1 and Aβ levels while GGA1 levels are restored in the subacute phase (7 d) after injury. In conclusion, our data indicate that depletion of GGA1 and GGA3 engender a rapid and robust elevation of BACE1 in the acute phase after injury. However, the efficient disposal of the acutely accumulated BACE1 solely depends on GGA3 levels in the subacute phase of injury.

  19. Metabolite Depletion Affects Flux Profiling of Cell Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, A.; Haanstra, J. R.; Teusink, B.

    2018-01-01

    Quantifying the rate of consumption and release of metabolites (i.e., flux profiling) has become integral to the study of cancer. The fluxes as well as the growth of the cells may be affected by metabolite depletion during cultivation.......Quantifying the rate of consumption and release of metabolites (i.e., flux profiling) has become integral to the study of cancer. The fluxes as well as the growth of the cells may be affected by metabolite depletion during cultivation....

  20. Cholinergic depletion and basal forebrain volume in primary progressive aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolien Schaeverbeke

    2017-01-01

    In the PPA group, only LV cases showed decreases in AChE activity levels compared to controls. Surprisingly, a substantial number of SV cases showed significant AChE activity increases compared to controls. BF volume did not correlate with AChE activity levels in PPA. To conclude, in our sample of PPA patients, LV but not SV was associated with cholinergic depletion. BF atrophy in PPA does not imply cholinergic depletion.

  1. Enhanced J/psi suppression due to gluon depletion

    OpenAIRE

    Hwa, R. C.; Pisut, J.; Pisutova, N.

    1997-01-01

    The nonlinear effect of gluon depletion in the collision of large nuclei can be large. It is due to multiple scatterings among comoving partons initiated by primary scattering of partons in the colliding nuclei. The effect can give rise to substantial suppression of $J/\\psi$ production in very large nuclei, even if the linear depletion effect is insignificant for the collisions of nuclei of smaller sizes. This mechanism offers a natural explanation of the enhanced suppression in the Pb-Pb dat...

  2. Phenomenological Evidence for Gluon Depletion in pA Collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Hwa, R. C.; Pisut, J.; Pisutova, N.

    2000-01-01

    The data of J/psi suppression at large x_F in pA collisions are used to infer the existence of gluon depletion as the projectile proton traverses the nucleus. The modification of the gluon distribution is studied by use of a convolution equation whose non-perturbative splitting function is determined phenomenologically. The depletion factor at x_1=0.8 is found to be about 25% at A=100.

  3. Retrieval of buried depleted uranium from the T-1 trench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burmeister, M.; Castaneda, N.; Hull, C.; Barbour, D.; Quapp, W.J.

    1998-01-01

    The Trench 1 remediation project will be conducted this year to retrieve depleted uranium and other associated materials from a trench at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site. The excavated materials will be segregated and stabilized for shipment. The depleted uranium will be treated at an offsite facility which utilizes a novel approach for waste minimization and disposal through utilization of a combination of uranium recycling and volume efficient uranium stabilization

  4. Depletion optimization of lumped burnable poisons in pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodah, Z.H.

    1982-01-01

    Techniques were developed to construct a set of basic poison depletion curves which deplete in a monotonical manner. These curves were combined to match a required optimized depletion profile by utilizing either linear or non-linear programming methods. Three computer codes, LEOPARD, XSDRN, and EXTERMINATOR-2 were used in the analyses. A depletion routine was developed and incorporated into the XSDRN code to allow the depletion of fuel, fission products, and burnable poisons. The Three Mile Island Unit-1 reactor core was used in this work as a typical PWR core. Two fundamental burnable poison rod designs were studied. They are a solid cylindrical poison rod and an annular cylindrical poison rod with water filling the central region.These two designs have either a uniform mixture of burnable poisons or lumped spheroids of burnable poisons in the poison region. Boron and gadolinium are the two burnable poisons which were investigated in this project. Thermal self-shielding factor calculations for solid and annular poison rods were conducted. Also expressions for overall thermal self-shielding factors for one or more than one size group of poison spheroids inside solid and annular poison rods were derived and studied. Poison spheroids deplete at a slower rate than the poison mixture because each spheroid exhibits some self-shielding effects of its own. The larger the spheroid, the higher the self-shielding effects due to the increase in poison concentration

  5. Assessment Of Depleted Uranium Contamination In Selective IRAQI Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, A.A.; Hussien, A.Sh.M.; Tawfiq, N.F.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this research was to measure the radiation exposure rates in three selected Locations in southren part of Iraq (two in Nassireya, and one in Amara) resulted from the existence of depleted uranium in soil and metal pieces have been taken from destroyed tank and study mathmatically the concentration of Depleted Uranium by its dispersion from soil surface by winds and rains from 2003 to 2007. The exposure rates were measured using inspector device, while depleted uranium concentration in soil samples and tank's matal pieces were detected with Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors(SSNTDs). The wind and rain effects were considered in the calculation of dispersion effect on depleted uranium concentration in soil, where the wind effect were calculated with respect to the sites nature and soil conditions, and rain effect with respect to dispersive-convective equation for radionuclide in soil. The results obtained for the exposure rates were high near the penetrated surfac, moderate and low in soil and metal pices. The Depleted Uranium concentration in soil and metal pieces have the highest value in Nassireya. The results from dispersion calculation (wind & rain) showed that the depleted uranium concentration in 2008 will be less than the danger level and in allowable contamination range

  6. NKT cell depletion in humans during early HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Caroline S; Kelleher, Anthony D; Finlayson, Robert; Godfrey, Dale I; Kent, Stephen J

    2014-08-01

    Natural killer T (NKT) cells bridge across innate and adaptive immune responses and have an important role in chronic viral infections such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). NKT cells are depleted during chronic HIV infection, but the timing, drivers and implications of this NKT cell depletion are poorly understood. We studied human peripheral blood NKT cell levels, phenotype and function in 31 HIV-infected subjects not on antiretroviral treatment from a mean of 4 months to 2 years after HIV infection. We found that peripheral CD4(+) NKT cells were substantially depleted and dysfunctional by 4 months after HIV infection. The depletion of CD4(+) NKT cells was more marked than the depletion of total CD4(+) T cells. Further, the early depletion of NKT cells correlated with CD4(+) T-cell decline, but not HIV viral levels. Levels of activated CD4(+) T cells correlated with the loss of NKT cells. Our studies suggest that the early loss of NKT cells is associated with subsequent immune destruction during HIV infection.

  7. Yield, utilization, storage and ultimate storage of depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aumueller, L.; Hermann, J.

    1977-11-01

    More than 80% of the uranium leaving uranium enrichment plants is depleted to a residual content of about 0,25% U 235. Due to the present ineconomical further depletion to the technically possible residual content of 0,1% U 235, the so-called 'tails' are first of all stored. The quantity of stored depleted uranium in the FRG should be about 100.000 t by the year 2000. It represents a strategic reserve for future energy supply regardless of profitableness. The study analysis the conceivable possible uses for the tails quantity considered. These are, besides further depletion whose profitableness is considered, also the use as breeder material in breeder reactors and the use in the non-nuclear field. The main part of the study deals with the various storage possibilities of the depleted uranium in oxidic or fluoride form. A comparison of costs of alternative storage concepts showed a clear advantage for the storage of UF 6 in 48 inch containers already in use. The conceivable accidents in storing are analyzed and measures to reduce the consequences are discussed. Finally, the problems of ultimate storage for the remaining waste after further depletion or use are investigated and the costs arising here are also estimated. (RB) [de

  8. Muscle glycogen depletion patterns during draught work in Standardbred horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, M

    1989-03-01

    Muscle fibre recruitment was investigated during draught loaded exercise by studying glycogen depletion patterns from histochemical stains of muscle biopsies from the gluteus and semitendinosus muscles. Three Standardbred trotters performed several intervals of draught loaded exercise on a treadmill with 34 kp at a trot (7 m/sec) and with 34 and 80 kp, respectively at a walk (2m/sec). Exercise was continued until the horses were unwilling to continue. Glycogen depletion was seen in all three fibre types when trotting with 34 kp for 5 or 10 mins. When an equal weight resistance was pulled at a walk, glycogen depletion was first seen in type I fibres only, then followed by a small percentage of type IIA fibres after at least 1 h. When 80 kp was pulled at a walk both type I and IIA fibres showed glycogen depletion, and after at least 30 mins exercise a small percentage of type IIB fibres was also depleted. These results indicate that the muscle fibres are depleted, in order, from type I through IIA to IIB as the intensity or duration of draught work increases.

  9. Lithium depletion and rotation in main-sequence stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balachandran, S.

    1990-01-01

    Lithium abundances were measured in nearly 200 old disk-population F stars to examine the effects of rotational braking on the depletion of Li. The sample was selected to be slightly evolved off the main sequence so that the stars have completed all the Li depletion they will undergo on the main sequence. A large scatter in Li abundances in the late F stars is found, indicating that the Li depletion is not related to age and spectral type alone. Conventional depletion mechanisms like convective overshoot and microscopic diffusion are unable to explain Li depletion in F stars with thin convective envelopes and are doubly taxed to explain such a scatter. No correlation is found between Li abundance and the present projected rotational velocity and some of the most rapid rotators are undepleted, ruling out meridional circulation as the cause of Li depletion. There is a somewhat larger spread in Li abundances in the spun-down late F stars compared to the early F stars which should remain rotationally unaltered on the main sequence. 85 refs

  10. Genetics Home Reference: MPV17-related hepatocerebral mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... DNA depletion syndrome MPV17-related hepatocerebral mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable ... collapse boxes. Description MPV17 -related hepatocerebral mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome is an inherited disorder that can cause ...

  11. Depressive and anxiety disorders in epilepsy: do they differ in their potential to worsen common antiepileptic drug-related adverse events?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanner, Andres M; Barry, John J; Gilliam, Frank; Hermann, Bruce; Meador, Kimford J

    2012-06-01

    To compare the effect of anxiety disorders, major depressive episodes (MDEs), and subsyndromic depressive episodes (SSDEs) on antiepileptic drug (AED)-related adverse events (AEs) in persons with epilepsy (PWE). The study included 188 consecutive PWE from five U.S. outpatient epilepsy clinics, all of whom underwent structured interviews (SCID) to identify current and past mood disorders and other current Axis I psychiatric diagnoses according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) criteria. A diagnosis of SSDE was made in patients with total Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) scores >12 or the Centers of Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) > 16 (in the absence of any DSM diagnosis of mood disorder. The presence and severity of AEs was measured with the Adverse Event Profile (AEP). Compared to asymptomatic patients (n = 103), the AEP scores of patients with SSDE (n = 26), MDE only (n = 10), anxiety disorders only (n = 21), or mixed MDE/anxiety disorders (n = 28) were significantly higher, suggesting more severe AED-related AEs. Univariate analyses revealed that having persistent seizures in the last 6 months and taking antidepressants was associated with more severe AEs. Post hoc analyses, however, showed that these differences were accounted for by the presence of a depressive and/or anxiety disorders. Depressive and anxiety disorders worsen AED-related AEs even when presenting as a subsyndromic type. These data suggest that the presence of psychiatric comorbidities must be considered in their interpretation, both in clinical practice and AED drug trials. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2012 International League Against Epilepsy.

  12. Coordinated airborne and satellite measurements of equatorial plasma depletions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, E.J.; Brinton, H.C.; Buchau, J.; Moore, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    A series of experiments was conducted in December 1979 to investigate the structure of plasma depletions in the low latitude, nightime ionosphere. The measurements included all sky imaging photometer (ASIP), ionosonde and amplitude scintillation observations from the AFGL Airborne Ionospheric Observatory (AIO), and in situ ion density measurements from the Atmosphere Explorer (AE-E) Bennett Ion Mass Spectrometer (BIMS). The AIO performed two flights along the Ascension Island (-18 0 MLAT) magnetic meridian: one in the southern hemisphere and one near the Ascension conjugate point in the northern hemisphere. During these flights, measurements from the AE-E satellite at 434 km altitude are compared with simultaneous remote ionospheric measurements from the AIO. Density biteouts of approximately one order of magnitude in the dominant ion O + , were mapped to lower altitudes along magnetic field lines for comparison with 6300-A and 7774-A O I airglow depletions. Because of the different airglow production mechanisms (dissociative recombination of O +2 for 6300 A and radiative recombination of O + for 7774 A) the 6300-A depletions reflect plasma depletions near the bottomside of the F layer, while those at 7774 A are located near the peak of the layer. The O + biteouts map directly into the 7774-A airglow depletions in the same hemisphere and also when traced into the opposite hemisphere, which indicates magnetic flux tube alignment over north-south distances of approx.2220 km. The 6300-A (bottomside) depletions are wider in longitude than the 7774-A (F-peak) depletions near the equatorward edge of the Appleton anomaly. This difference in topside and bottomside structure is used to infer large-scale structure near the anomaly and to relate this to structure, commonly observed near the magnetic equator by the ALTAIR radar

  13. Ego depletion decreases trust in economic decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainsworth, Sarah E.; Baumeister, Roy F.; Vohs, Kathleen D.; Ariely, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Three experiments tested the effects of ego depletion on economic decision making. Participants completed a task either requiring self-control or not. Then participants learned about the trust game, in which senders are given an initial allocation of $10 to split between themselves and another person, the receiver. The receiver receives triple the amount given and can send any, all, or none of the tripled money back to the sender. Participants were assigned the role of the sender and decided how to split the initial allocation. Giving less money, and therefore not trusting the receiver, is the safe, less risky response. Participants who had exerted self-control and were depleted gave the receiver less money than those in the non-depletion condition (Experiment 1). This effect was replicated and moderated in two additional experiments. Depletion again led to lower amounts given (less trust), but primarily among participants who were told they would never meet the receiver (Experiment 2) or who were given no information about how similar they were to the receiver (Experiment 3). Amounts given did not differ for depleted and non-depleted participants who either expected to meet the receiver (Experiment 2) or were led to believe that they were very similar to the receiver (Experiment 3). Decreased trust among depleted participants was strongest among neurotics. These results imply that self-control facilitates behavioral trust, especially when no other cues signal decreased social risk in trusting, such as if an actual or possible relationship with the receiver were suggested. PMID:25013237

  14. Vaccine Adverse Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Biologics Evaluation & Research Vaccine Adverse Events Vaccine Adverse Events Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... in the primary immunization series in infants Report Adverse Event Report a Vaccine Adverse Event Contact FDA ( ...

  15. Neutron irradiation test of depleted CMOS pixel detector prototypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandić, I.; Cindro, V.; Gorišek, A.; Hiti, B.; Kramberger, G.; Mikuž, M.; Zavrtanik, M.; Hemperek, T.; Daas, M.; Hügging, F.; Krüger, H.; Pohl, D.-L.; Wermes, N.; Gonella, L.

    2017-01-01

    Charge collection properties of depleted CMOS pixel detector prototypes produced on p-type substrate of 2 kΩ cm initial resistivity (by LFoundry 150 nm process) were studied using Edge-TCT method before and after neutron irradiation. The test structures were produced for investigation of CMOS technology in tracking detectors for experiments at HL-LHC upgrade. Measurements were made with passive detector structures in which current pulses induced on charge collecting electrodes could be directly observed. Thickness of depleted layer was estimated and studied as function of neutron irradiation fluence. An increase of depletion thickness was observed after first two irradiation steps to 1 · 10 13 n/cm 2 and 5 · 10 13 n/cm 2 and attributed to initial acceptor removal. At higher fluences the depletion thickness at given voltage decreases with increasing fluence because of radiation induced defects contributing to the effective space charge concentration. The behaviour is consistent with that of high resistivity silicon used for standard particle detectors. The measured thickness of the depleted layer after irradiation with 1 · 10 15 n/cm 2 is more than 50 μm at 100 V bias. This is sufficient to guarantee satisfactory signal/noise performance on outer layers of pixel trackers in HL-LHC experiments.

  16. OZONE DEPLETING SUBSTANCES ELIMINATION MANAGEMENT: THE SUCCESS STORY OF MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Matlievska

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Man, with its activities, produces and uses substances that have negative impact on the environment and the human health, and can cause an economic damage. Consequently, they have a great impact on quality of life. Among the most harmful chemicals are Ozone Depleting Substances that are subject of regulation with international conventions. This Paper supports the fact that each country has to undertake national efforts for ozone depleting substances reduction and elimination. In that respect, the general objective of the Paper is to present the Macedonian unique experience regarding its efforts to reduce or eliminate these substances. The following two aspects were subject to the research: national legislation which regulates the Ozone Depleting Substances import and export as well as the implementation of the projects that resulted with the elimination of Ozone Depleting Substances quantities in the period 1995 – 2010. The research outcomes confirm the starting research hypothesis i.e. that with adequately created and implemented national action, the amount of Ozone Depleting Substances consumption can dramatically fall.

  17. Examining depletion theories under conditions of within-task transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Gene A; Lau, Kevin K H; Wingert, Kimberly M; Ball, B Hunter; Blais, Chris

    2017-07-01

    In everyday life, mental fatigue can be detrimental across many domains including driving, learning, and working. Given the importance of understanding and accounting for the deleterious effects of mental fatigue on behavior, a growing body of literature has studied the role of motivational and executive control processes in mental fatigue. In typical laboratory paradigms, participants complete a task that places demand on these self-control processes and are later given a subsequent task. Generally speaking, decrements to subsequent task performance are taken as evidence that the initial task created mental fatigue through the continued engagement of motivational and executive functions. Several models have been developed to account for negative transfer resulting from this "ego depletion." In the current study, we provide a brief literature review, specify current theoretical approaches to ego-depletion, and report an empirical test of current models of depletion. Across 4 experiments we found minimal evidence for executive control depletion along with strong evidence for motivation mediated ego depletion. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. The Physical Origin of Long Gas Depletion Times in Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semenov, Vadim A.; Kravtsov, Andrey V.; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.

    2017-08-18

    We present a model that elucidates why gas depletion times in galaxies are long compared to the time scales of the processes driving the evolution of the interstellar medium. We show that global depletion times are not set by any "bottleneck" in the process of gas evolution towards the star-forming state. Instead, depletion times are long because star-forming gas converts only a small fraction of its mass into stars before it is dispersed by dynamical and feedback processes. Thus, complete depletion requires that gas transitions between star-forming and non-star-forming states multiple times. Our model does not rely on the assumption of equilibrium and can be used to interpret trends of depletion times with the properties of observed galaxies and the parameters of star formation and feedback recipes in galaxy simulations. In particular, the model explains the mechanism by which feedback self-regulates star formation rate in simulations and makes it insensitive to the local star formation efficiency. We illustrate our model using the results of an isolated $L_*$-sized disk galaxy simulation that reproduces the observed Kennicutt-Schmidt relation for both molecular and atomic gas. Interestingly, the relation for molecular gas is close to linear on kiloparsec scales, even though a non-linear relation is adopted in simulation cells. This difference is due to stellar feedback, which breaks the self-similar scaling of the gas density PDF with the average gas surface density.

  19. The use of Depletion Methods to assess Mediterranean cephalopod stocks under the current EU Data Collection Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. KELLER

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fuelled by the raising importance of cephalopod fisheries in Europe, there have been demands from scientists and stakeholders for their assessment and management. However, little has been done to improve the data collection in order to analyse cephalopod populations under the EU Data Collection Framework (DCF. While the DCF allows member states to design flexible national sampling programmes, it establishes the minimum data requirements (MDR each state is obliged to fulfil. In this study, it was investigated whether such MDR currently set by the DCF allow the application of depletion models (DMs to assess European cephalopod stocks. Squid and cuttlefish fisheries from the western Mediterranean were used as a case study. This exercise sheds doubt on the suitability of the MDR to properly assess and manage cephalopod stocks by means of DMs. Owing to the high plasticity of life-history traits in cephalopod populations, biological parameters should be estimated during the actual depletion period of the fished stocks, in contrast with the triennial sampling established by the DCF. In order to accurately track the depletion event, the rapid growth rates of cephalopods implies that their populations should be monitored at shorter time scales (ideally weekly or biweekly instead of quarterly as required by the DCF. These measures would not demand additional resources of the ongoing DCF, but a redistribution of sampling efforts during the depletion period. Such changes in the sampling scheme could be designed and undertaken by the member states or directly integrated as requirements.

  20. Resource depletion promotes automatic processing: implications for distribution of practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheel, Matthew H

    2010-12-01

    Recent models of cognition include two processing systems: an automatic system that relies on associative learning, intuition, and heuristics, and a controlled system that relies on deliberate consideration. Automatic processing requires fewer resources and is more likely when resources are depleted. This study showed that prolonged practice on a resource-depleting mental arithmetic task promoted automatic processing on a subsequent problem-solving task, as evidenced by faster responding and more errors. Distribution of practice effects (0, 60, 120, or 180 sec. between problems) on rigidity also disappeared when groups had equal time on resource-depleting tasks. These results suggest that distribution of practice effects is reducible to resource availability. The discussion includes implications for interpreting discrepancies in the traditional distribution of practice effect.

  1. Local condensate depletion at trap center under strong interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukalov, V. I.; Yukalova, E. P.

    2018-04-01

    Cold trapped Bose-condensed atoms, interacting via hard-sphere repulsive potentials are considered. Simple mean-field approximations show that the condensate distribution inside a harmonic trap always has the shape of a hump with the maximum condensate density occurring at the trap center. However, Monte Carlo simulations at high density and strong interactions display the condensate depletion at the trap center. The explanation of this effect of local condensate depletion at trap center is suggested in the frame of self-consistent theory of Bose-condensed systems. The depletion is shown to be due to the existence of the anomalous average that takes into account pair correlations and appears in systems with broken gauge symmetry.

  2. Electrophoretic analysis of cyanide depletion by Pseudomonas alcaligenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaugg, S E; Davidson, R A; Walker, J C; Walker, E B

    1997-02-01

    Bacterial-facilitated depletion of cyanide is under development for remediation of heap leach operations in the gold mining industry. Capillary electrophoresis was found to be a powerful tool for quantifying cyanide depletion. Changes in cyanide concentration in aqueous suspensions of Pseudomonas alcaligenes bacteria and cyanide at elevated pH were easily monitored by capillary electrophoresis. The resulting data can be used to study rates of cyanide depletion by this strain of bacteria. Concentrations of these bacteria at 10(5) cells/mL were found to reduce cyanide from 100 ppm to less than 8 ppm in four days. In addition, other ions of interest in cyanide metabolism, such as formate, can be simultaneously analyzed. Direct UV detection of cyanide at 192 nm further simplifies the analytical method for these ions.

  3. Emittance increase caused by core depletion in collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, R

    2009-01-01

    A new effect is presented, which changes the emittance during colliding-beam operation in circular colliders. If the initial transverse distribution is Gaussian, the collision probability is much higher for particles in the core of the beam than in the tails. When small-amplitude particles are removed, the remaining ones therefore have a larger transverse emittance. This effect, called core depletion, may cause a decrease in luminosity. An approximate analytic model is developed to study the effect and benchmarked against a multiparticle tracking simulation. Finally, the time evolution of the intensity and emittances of a Pb bunch in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is calculated, taking into account also other processes than collisions. The results show that integrated luminosity drops by 3--4% if core depletion is taken into account. It is also found that core depletion causes the transverse emittance to be larger when more experiments are active. This observation could be checked against experimenta...

  4. International aspects of restrictions of ozone-depleting substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, S.C.

    1989-10-01

    This report summarizes international efforts to protect stratospheric ozone. Also included in this report is a discussion of activities in other countries to meet restrictions in the production and use of ozone-depleting substances. Finally, there is a brief presentation of trade and international competitiveness issues relating to the transition to alternatives for the regulated chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and halons. The stratosphere knows no international borders. Just as the impact of reduced stratospheric ozone will be felt internationally, so protection of the ozone layer is properly an international effort. Unilateral action, even by a country that produces and used large quantities of ozone-depleting substances, will not remedy the problem of ozone depletion if other countries do not follow suit. 32 refs., 7 tabs.

  5. Pump depletion effects in thermal degenerate four-wave mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guha, S.; Chen, W.

    1987-01-01

    Characteristics such as a large magnitude of nonlinearity, fast response, broadband operation, and easy availability make absorbing liquids attractive candidates for performing phase conjugation of optical beams by degenerate four-wave mixing. The coupled-wave equations describing the interaction of four optical fields in an absorbing medium have been solved previously for the case of no pump depletion and no self-action of any of the beams. When studying phase conjugation oscillation, however, the effect of depletion of the pump beams on the phase conjugate reflectivity must be considered. Moreover, in absorbing media the self-action effects are always present. The coupled-wave equations, including the self-action terms for all four waves involved, are derived here for the first time to the authors' knowledge. For the case of small absorption, these equations are solved analytically, and the effect of pump depletion on phase conjugate reflectivity R is determined. In the absence of the pump depletion, R is proportional to tan 2 (Ql), where Ql is a dimensionless gain parameter characterizing the nonlinear medium and the input pump power. When pump depletion and self-action are included, R does not go to infinity when Ql equals odd multiples of π2. Instead R takes on values dependent on the probe ratio q 1 , which is the ratio of the input probe irradiance to the input pump irradiance. The authors find that the maximum value for R is 1q 1 . They also find that for Ql close to odd multiples of π2, the reflectivity is significantly reduced from the value obtained by ignoring pump depletion, even for probe ratios as small as one-tenth of 1%. Experimental confirmation of this theory, using an argon-ion laser as the pump and carbon tetrachloride mixed with a dye as the absorbing medium, is in progress and is reported

  6. Erythrocyte depletion from bone marrow: performance evaluation after 50 clinical-scale depletions with Spectra Optia BMC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim-Wanner, Soo-Zin; Bug, Gesine; Steinmann, Juliane; Ajib, Salem; Sorg, Nadine; Poppe, Carolin; Bunos, Milica; Wingenfeld, Eva; Hümmer, Christiane; Luxembourg, Beate; Seifried, Erhard; Bonig, Halvard

    2017-08-11

    Red blood cell (RBC) depletion is a standard graft manipulation technique for ABO-incompatible bone marrow (BM) transplants. The BM processing module for Spectra Optia, "BMC", was previously introduced. We here report the largest series to date of routine quality data after performing 50 clinical-scale RBC-depletions. Fifty successive RBC-depletions from autologous (n = 5) and allogeneic (n = 45) BM transplants were performed with the Spectra Optia BMC apheresis suite. Product quality was assessed before and after processing for volume, RBC and leukocyte content; RBC-depletion and stem cell (CD34+ cells) recovery was calculated there from. Clinical engraftment data were collected from 26/45 allogeneic recipients. Median RBC removal was 98.2% (range 90.8-99.1%), median CD34+ cell recovery was 93.6%, minimum recovery being 72%, total product volume was reduced to 7.5% (range 4.7-23.0%). Products engrafted with expected probability and kinetics. Performance indicators were stable over time. Spectra Optia BMC is a robust and efficient technology for RBC-depletion and volume reduction of BM, providing near-complete RBC removal and excellent CD34+ cell recovery.

  7. Molecular dynamics study of lubricant depletion by pulsed laser heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Young Woo; Rosenkranz, Andreas; Talke, Frank E.

    2018-05-01

    In this study, molecular dynamics simulations were performed to numerically investigate the effect of pulsed laser heating on lubricant depletion. The maximum temperature, the lubricant depletion width, the number of evaporated lubricant beads and the number of fragmented lubricant chains were studied as a function of laser peak power, pulse duration and repetition rate. A continuous-wave laser and a square pulse laser were simulated and compared to a Gaussian pulse laser. With increasing repetition rate, pulsed laser heating was found to approach continuous-wave laser heating.

  8. Choice and ego-depletion: the moderating role of autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller, Arlen C; Deci, Edward L; Ryan, Richard M

    2006-08-01

    The self-regulatory strength model maintains that all acts of self-regulation, self-control, and choice result in a state of fatigue called ego-depletion. Self-determination theory differentiates between autonomous regulation and controlled regulation. Because making decisions represents one instance of self-regulation, the authors also differentiate between autonomous choice and controlled choice. Three experiments support the hypothesis that whereas conditions representing controlled choice would be egodepleting, conditions that represented autonomous choice would not. In Experiment 3, the authors found significant mediation by perceived self-determination of the relation between the choice condition (autonomous vs. controlled) and ego-depletion as measured by performance.

  9. Depleted uranium determination at the Novi Sad low level facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bikit, I.; Slivka, J.; Krmar, M.; Veskovic, M.; Conkic, Lj.; Varga, E.

    2002-01-01

    Natural uranium determination in environmental samples at the low-level gamma-spectroscopy laboratory of the Faculty of Science in Novi Sad has more than 20 years long tradition. When the issue of depleted uranium emerged the experimental advantages of the measuring equipment (GMX type of HPGe detector with enhanced efficiency below 100 keV, and iron low level shielding) where fully exploited. A detection technique selective for depleted uranium was developed. The details of this method together with the results for about 100 samples (soil, plants, water, food) are presented, and discussed. (author)

  10. Nuclear data for actinide production and depletion calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    The status of nuclear cross section data required for actinide depletion calculations in thermal reactors is summarized, and recommendations are made for future work. The primary fertile and fissile nuclides ( 232 Th, 233 U, 235 U, 238 U, and 239 Pu) are not reviewed. Nuclear data for the transactinium mass region are, with few exceptions, reasonably complete and adequate for current thermal-reactor depletion calculations. There is a real need, however, for well-documented reactor production studies to use as benchmarks for data testing. 3 figures, 6 tables

  11. Impact and mitigation of stratospheric ozone depletion by chemical rockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcdonald, A.J.

    1992-03-01

    The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) conducted a workshop in conjunction with the 1991 AIAA Joint Propulsion Conference in Sacramento, California, to assess the impact of chemical rocket propulsion on the environment. The workshop included recognized experts from the fields of atmospheric physics and chemistry, solid rocket propulsion, liquid rocket propulsion, government, and environmental agencies, and representatives from several responsible environmental organizations. The conclusion from this workshop relative to stratospheric ozone depletion was that neither solid nor liquid rocket launchers have a significant impact on stratospheric ozone depletion, and that there is no real significant difference between the two

  12. ROLE OF NUCLEONIC FERMI SURFACE DEPLETION IN NEUTRON STAR COOLING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, J. M.; Zuo, W. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Lombardo, U. [Universita di Catania and Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (INFN), Catania I-95123 (Italy); Zhang, H. F. [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2016-01-20

    The Fermi surface depletion of beta-stable nuclear matter is calculated to study its effects on several physical properties that determine the neutron star (NS) thermal evolution. The neutron and proton Z factors measuring the corresponding Fermi surface depletions are calculated within the Brueckner–Hartree–Fock approach, employing the AV18 two-body force supplemented by a microscopic three-body force. Neutrino emissivity, heat capacity, and in particular neutron {sup 3}PF{sub 2} superfluidity, turn out to be reduced, especially at high baryonic density, to such an extent that the cooling rates of young NSs are significantly slowed.

  13. The depletion of aqueous nitrous acid in packed towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Counce, R.M.; Crawford, D.B.

    1987-01-01

    The depletion of aqueous nitrous acid was studied at 298 0 K and at slightly greater than atmospheric pressure. Solutions containing nitrous and nitric acids were contacted with nitrogen in towers packed with 6- and 13-mm Intalox saddles. The results indicate the existence of two depletion mechanisms for the conditions studied - liquid-phase decomposition and direct desorption of nitrous acid. Models based on mass-transfer and chemical-kinetic information are presented to explain the experimental results. 24 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Long-term management and use of depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Max, A.

    2001-01-01

    The products resulting from the process of enrichment of natural uranium, or reprocessed uranium, are enriched uranium products as the light fraction and depleted uranium (uranium tails) as the heavy fraction. If the source material is natural uranium, the mass ratios of uranium products and uranium tails can be derived relatively easily from the required enrichment level of the uranium product (product assay (% of U-235)) and the selected depletion level of the uranium tails (tails assay (% of U-235)). The paper discusses among other aspects the dependence of the tails mass on the required enrichment level of the relevant uranium product, for various tails assays. (orig./CB) [de

  15. Monte carlo depletion analysis of SMART core by MCNAP code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Jong Sung; Sim, Hyung Jin; Kim, Chang Hyo; Lee, Jung Chan; Ji, Sung Kyun

    2001-01-01

    Depletion an analysis of SMART, a small-sized advanced integral PWR under development by KAERI, is conducted using the Monte Carlo (MC) depletion analysis program, MCNAP. The results are compared with those of the CASMO-3/ MASTER nuclear analysis. The difference between MASTER and MCNAP on k eff prediction is observed about 600pcm at BOC, and becomes smaller as the core burnup increases. The maximum difference bet ween two predict ions on fuel assembly (FA) normalized power distribution is about 6.6% radially , and 14.5% axially but the differences are observed to lie within standard deviation of MC estimations

  16. Risks associated to the depleted uranium in the piercing shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Following the complaints lodged by military personnel against the consequences of the utilization of depleted uranium in weapons during the Balkans war (1995-1999), the governments of six concerned countries asked information to the NATO. In this paper the IPSN gives its own opinion on this problem: the characteristics of the uranium and the depleted uranium, the impacts of the shell fires on the human and the environment. To establish the risks in terms of leukemia and the liabilities the IPSN advises more biological tests and more information on the shells utilization. (A.L.B.)

  17. A new memory effect (MSD) in fully depleted SOI MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawedin, M.; Cristoloveanu, S.; Yun, J. G.; Flandre, D.

    2005-09-01

    We demonstrate that the transconductance and drain current of fully depleted MOSFETs can display an interesting time-dependent hysteresis. This new memory effect, called meta-stable dip (MSD), is mainly due to the long carrier generation lifetime in the silicon film. Our parametric analysis shows that the memory window can be adjusted in view of practical applications. Various measurement conditions and devices with different doping, front oxide and silicon film thicknesses are systematically explored. The MSD effect can be generalized to several fully depleted CMOS technologies. The MSD mechanism is discussed and validated by two-dimensional simulations results.

  18. Depletion policies for oil-exporting developing economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stournaras, Y A

    1984-01-01

    The fact that most oil-exporting countries are developing economies has important implications for oil supply which have not been properly taken into account in the literature on exhaustible resource depletion. The way in which depletion policies are affected by trade uncertainty, given the high degree of the major oil exporters' 'dependence' on crude oil revenues, by investment time lags which delay the exploitation of (some of) these countries' comparative advantage in a petroleum based development, and by ideological objections to the ideal of a rentier society and to foreign capital are examined.

  19. The manufacturing of depleted uranium biological shield components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metelkin, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    The unique combination of the physical and mechanical properties of uranium made it possible to manufacture biological shield components of transport package container (TPC) for transportation nuclear power plant irradiated fuel and radionuclides of radiation diagnostic instruments. Protective properties are substantially dependent on the nature radionuclide composition of uranium, that why I recommended depleted uranium after radiation chemical processing. Depleted uranium biological shield (DUBS) has improved specific mass-size characteristics compared to a shield made of lead, steel or tungsten. Technological achievements in uranium casting and machining made it possible to manufacture DUBS components of TPC up to 3 tons of mass and up to 2 metres of the maximum size. (authors)

  20. 26 CFR 1.611-1 - Allowance of deduction for depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Allowance of deduction for depletion. 1.611-1... depletion. (a) Depletion of mines, oil and gas wells, other natural deposits, and timber—(1) In general... mines, oil and gas wells, other natural deposits, and timber, a reasonable allowance for depletion. In...

  1. Topology of Event Horizon

    OpenAIRE

    Siino, Masaru

    1997-01-01

    The topologies of event horizons are investigated. Considering the existence of the endpoint of the event horizon, it cannot be differentiable. Then there are the new possibilities of the topology of the event horizon though they are excluded in smooth event horizons. The relation between the topology of the event horizon and the endpoint of it is revealed. A torus event horizon is caused by two-dimensional endpoints. One-dimensional endpoints provide the coalescence of spherical event horizo...

  2. Depletion of energy or depletion of knowledge alternative use of energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arslan, M.

    2011-01-01

    This research paper is about the depletion of Energy resources being a huge problem facing the world at this time. As available energy sources are coming to a shortage and measures are be taken in order to conserve the irreplaceable energy resources that leads to sustainability and fair use of energy sources for future generations. Alternative energy sources are being sought; however no other energy source is able to provide even a fraction of energy as that of fossil fuels. Use of the alternative energy resources like wind corridors (Sindh and Baluchistan), fair use of Hydro energy (past monsoon flooding can produce enough energy that may available for next century). Uranium Resources which are enough for centuries energy production in Pakistan (Dhok Pathan Formation) lying in Siwalick series from Pliocene to Pleistocene. Among all of these, my focus is about energy from mineral fuels like Uranium from Sandstone hosted deposits in Pakistan (Siwalik Series in Pakistan). A number of uranium bearing mineralized horizons are present in the upper part of the Dhok Pathan Formation. These horizons have secondary uranium mineral carnotite and other ores. Uranium mineralization is widely distributed throughout the Siwaliks The purpose of this paper was to introduce the use of alternative energy sources in Pakistan which are present in enough amounts by nature. Pakistan is blessed with wealth of natural resources. Unfortunately, Pakistan is totally depending on non renewable energy resource. There are three main types of fossil fuels: coal, oil and natural gas. After food, fossil fuel is humanity's most important source of energy. Pakistan is among the most gas dependent economies of the world. Use of fossil fuel for energy will not only increase the demand of more fossils but it has also extreme effects on climate as well as direct and indirect effects to humans. These entire remedial thinking can only be possible if you try to use alternative energy resources rather than

  3. Separation of Hepatitis C genotype 4a into IgG-depleted and IgG-enriched fractions reveals a unique quasispecies profile.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moreau, Isabelle

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) circulates in an infected individual as a heterogeneous mixture of closely related viruses called quasispecies. The E1\\/E2 region of the HCV genome is hypervariable (HVR1) and is targeted by the humoral immune system. Hepatitis C virions are found in two forms: antibody associated or antibody free. The objective of this study was to investigate if separation of Hepatitis C virions into antibody enriched and antibody depleted fractions segregates quasispecies populations into distinctive swarms. RESULTS: A HCV genotype 4a specimen was fractionated into IgG-depleted and IgG-enriched fractions by use of Albumin\\/IgG depletion spin column. Clonal analysis of these two fractions was performed and then compared to an unfractionated sample. Following sequence analysis it was evident that the antibody depleted fraction was significantly more heterogeneous than the antibody enriched fraction, revealing a unique quasispecies profile. An in-frame 3 nt insertion was observed in 26% of clones in the unfractionated population and in 64% of clones in the IgG-depleted fraction. In addition, an in-frame 3 nt indel event was observed in 10% of clones in the unfractionated population and in 9% of clones in the IgG-depleted fraction. Neither of these latter events, which are rare occurrences in genotype 4a, was identified in the IgG-enriched fraction. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the homogeneity of the IgG-enriched species is postulated to represent a sequence that was strongly recognised by the humoral immune system at the time the sample was obtained. The heterogeneous nature of the IgG-depleted fraction is discussed in the context of humoral escape.

  4. Potentially lethal effects of astrophysical high energy explosive events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarauza, Dario; Martin, Osmel; Rolando Cardenas

    2007-01-01

    In this work we compare the biological extinction risks posed by different types of high energy explosive events, if they occur at distances close enough to inhabited planets. These events are several kinds of supernovae and gamma ray bursts. We mainly consider the ozone depletion, leaving other effects, as photon retransmission and muon showers, for future work. In order to estimate the damage on ozonosphere, we use a simple analytical model for ozone depletion. We also mention some hints to look for the signatures of these events on Earth biogeochemical record, and evaluate the possibility of applying these results to the astrobiologically interesting sample of stars gathered by Porto de Mello, del Peloso and Ghezzi. (Author)

  5. Event segmentation ability uniquely predicts event memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Jesse Q; Zacks, Jeffrey M; Hambrick, David Z; Zacks, Rose T; Kurby, Christopher A; Bailey, Heather R; Eisenberg, Michelle L; Beck, Taylor M

    2013-11-01

    Memory for everyday events plays a central role in tasks of daily living, autobiographical memory, and planning. Event memory depends in part on segmenting ongoing activity into meaningful units. This study examined the relationship between event segmentation and memory in a lifespan sample to answer the following question: Is the ability to segment activity into meaningful events a unique predictor of subsequent memory, or is the relationship between event perception and memory accounted for by general cognitive abilities? Two hundred and eight adults ranging from 20 to 79years old segmented movies of everyday events and attempted to remember the events afterwards. They also completed psychometric ability tests and tests measuring script knowledge for everyday events. Event segmentation and script knowledge both explained unique variance in event memory above and beyond the psychometric measures, and did so as strongly in older as in younger adults. These results suggest that event segmentation is a basic cognitive mechanism, important for memory across the lifespan. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Uninstructed BIAT faking when ego depleted or in normal state: differential effect on brain and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Wanja; Schindler, Sebastian; Englert, Christoph; Brand, Ralf; Kissler, Johanna

    2016-05-03

    Deception can distort psychological tests on socially sensitive topics. Understanding the cerebral processes that are involved in such faking can be useful in detection and prevention of deception. Previous research shows that faking a brief implicit association test (BIAT) evokes a characteristic ERP response. It is not yet known whether temporarily available self-control resources moderate this response. We randomly assigned 22 participants (15 females, 24.23 ± 2.91 years old) to a counterbalanced repeated-measurements design. Participants first completed a Brief-IAT (BIAT) on doping attitudes as a baseline measure and were then instructed to fake a negative doping attitude both when self-control resources were depleted and non-depleted. Cerebral activity during BIAT performance was assessed using high-density EEG. Compared to the baseline BIAT, event-related potentials showed a first interaction at the parietal P1, while significant post hoc differences were found only at the later occurring late positive potential. Here, significantly decreased amplitudes were recorded for 'normal' faking, but not in the depletion condition. In source space, enhanced activity was found for 'normal' faking in the bilateral temporoparietal junction. Behaviorally, participants were successful in faking the BIAT successfully in both conditions. Results indicate that temporarily available self-control resources do not affect overt faking success on a BIAT. However, differences were found on an electrophysiological level. This indicates that while on a phenotypical level self-control resources play a negligible role in deliberate test faking the underlying cerebral processes are markedly different.

  7. The Influence of Agreeableness and Ego Depletion on Emotional Responding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Anna J; Crowell, Adrienne L; Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Schmeichel, Brandon J

    2017-10-01

    Agreeable individuals report more intense withdrawal-oriented negative emotions across aversive situations. Two studies tested the hypothesis that self-regulatory depletion (i.e., ego depletion) moderates the relationship between trait Agreeableness and negative emotional responding. Ego depletion was manipulated using a writing task. Emotional responding was measured with startle eye-blink responses (Study 1, N = 71) and self-reported valence, arousal, and empathic concern (Study 2, N = 256) during emotional picture viewing. Trait Agreeableness was measured using a questionnaire. In Study 1, Agreeableness predicted especially large startle responses during aversive images and especially small startles during appetitive images. After exercising self-control, the relationship between startle magnitudes and Agreeableness decreased. In Study 2, Agreeableness predicted more empathic concern for aversive images, which in turn predicted heightened self-reported negative emotions. After exercising self-control, the relationship between Agreeableness and empathic concern decreased. Agreeable individuals exhibit heightened negative emotional responding. Ego depletion reduced the link between Agreeableness and negative emotional responding in Study 1 and moderated the indirect effect of Agreeableness on negative emotional responding via empathic concern in Study 2. Empathic concern appears to be a resource-intensive process underlying heightened responding to aversive stimuli among agreeable persons. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Monte Carlo simulation in UWB1 depletion code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovecky, M.; Prehradny, J.; Jirickova, J.; Skoda, R.

    2015-01-01

    U W B 1 depletion code is being developed as a fast computational tool for the study of burnable absorbers in the University of West Bohemia in Pilsen, Czech Republic. In order to achieve higher precision, the newly developed code was extended by adding a Monte Carlo solver. Research of fuel depletion aims at development and introduction of advanced types of burnable absorbers in nuclear fuel. Burnable absorbers (BA) allow the compensation of the initial reactivity excess of nuclear fuel and result in an increase of fuel cycles lengths with higher enriched fuels. The paper describes the depletion calculations of VVER nuclear fuel doped with rare earth oxides as burnable absorber based on performed depletion calculations, rare earth oxides are divided into two equally numerous groups, suitable burnable absorbers and poisoning absorbers. According to residual poisoning and BA reactivity worth, rare earth oxides marked as suitable burnable absorbers are Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, Ho and Er, while poisoning absorbers include Sc, La, Lu, Y, Ce, Pr and Tb. The presentation slides have been added to the article

  9. Depletion and the dynamics in colloid-polymer mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuinier, R.; Fan, T.H.; Taniguchi, T.

    2015-01-01

    The status of work on the influence of nonadsorbing polymers on depletion dynamics in colloidal dispersions is reviewed. In the past focus has been paid to equilibrium properties of colloid-polymer mixtures. In practice the dynamical behaviour is equally important. Dynamic properties including

  10. Depletion of heterogeneous source species pools predicts future invasion rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew M. Liebhold; Eckehard G. Brockerhoff; Mark Kimberley; Jacqueline Beggs

    2017-01-01

    Predicting how increasing rates of global trade will result in new establishments of potentially damaging invasive species is a question of critical importance to the development of national and international policies aimed at minimizing future invasions. Centuries of historical movement and establishment of invading species may have depleted the supply of species...

  11. ISODEP, A Fuel Depletion Analysis Code for Predicting Isotopic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The trend of results was found to be consistent with those obtained by analytical and other numerical methods. Discovery and Innovation Vol. 13 no. 3/4 December (2001) pp. 184-195. KEY WORDS: depletion analysis, code, research reactor, simultaneous equations, decay of nuclides, radionuclitides, isotope. Résumé

  12. Efficient characterization of fuel depletion in boiling water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.H.

    1980-01-01

    An efficient fuel depletion method for boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel assemblies has been developed for fuel cycle analysis. A computer program HISTORY based on this method was designed to carry out accurate and rapid fuel burnup calculation for the fuel assembly. It has been usefully employed to study the depletion characteristics of the fuel assemblies for the preparation of nodal code input data and the fuel management study. The adequacy and the effectiveness of the assessment of this method used in HISTORY were demonstrated by comparing HISTORY results with more detailed CASMO results. The computing cost of HISTORY typically has been less than one dollar for the fuel assembly-level depletion calculations over the full life of the assembly, in contrast to more than $1000 for CASMO. By combining CASMO and HISTORY, a large number of expensive CASMO calculations can be replaced by inexpensive HISTORY. For the depletion calculations via CASMO/HISTORY, CASMO calculations are required only for the reference conditions and just at the beginning of life for other cases such as changes in void fraction, control rod condition and temperature. The simple and inexpensive HISTORY is sufficienty accurate and fast to be used in conjunction with CASMO for fuel cycle analysis and some BWR design calculations

  13. Ozone Layer Depletion: A Review | Eze | Nigerian Journal of Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, the future behaviour of Ozone will also be affected by the changing atmospheric abundances of methane, nitrous oxide, water vapour, sulphate aerosol, and changing climate. KEY WORDS: Ozone Layer Depletion, Bioeffects, Protection. Nigerian Journal of Health and Biomedical Sciences Vol.4(1) 2005: 67-71 ...

  14. Vitamin D depletion aggravates hypertension and target-organ damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise Bjørkholt; Przybyl, Lukasz; Haase, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We tested the controversial hypothesis that vitamin D depletion aggravates hypertension and target-organ damage by influencing renin. METHODS AND RESULTS: Four-week-old double-transgenic rats (dTGR) with excess angiotensin (Ang) II production due to overexpression of the human renin (h......REN) and angiotensinogen (hAGT) genes received vitamin D-depleted (n=18) or standard chow (n=15) for 3 weeks. The depleted group had very low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (mean±SEM; 3.8±0.29 versus 40.6±1.19 nmol/L) and had higher mean systolic BP at week 5 (158±3.5 versus 134.6±3.7 mm Hg, P....6±3.3 versus 162.3±3.8 mm Hg, PVitamin D depletion led to increased relative heart weights and increased serum creatinine concentrations. Furthermore, the mRNAs of natriuretic peptides, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, hREN, and r...

  15. Arterial diameter during central volume depletion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Helle Klingenberg; Madsen, P; Matzen, S

    1995-01-01

    The luminal diameter of the radial artery was followed by high frequency ultrasound during 50 degrees head-up tilt-induced central volume depletion in ten healthy subjects of whom six were tilted twice and pretreated with the serotonin receptor antagonist methysergide or placebo following a double...

  16. Rapid fish stock depletion in previously unexploited seamounts: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rapid fish stock depletion in previously unexploited seamounts: the case of Beryx splendens from the Sierra Leone Rise (Gulf of Guinea) ... A spectral analysis and red-noise spectra procedure (REDFIT) algorithm was used to identify the red-noise spectrum from the gaps in the observed time-series of catch per unit effort by ...

  17. Apoptosis and T cell depletion during feline infectious peritonitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horzinek, M.C.; Haagmans, B.L.; Egberink, H.F.

    1996-01-01

    Cats that have succumbed to feline infectious peritonitis, an immune- mediated disease caused by variants of feline coronaviruses, show apoptosis and T-cell depletion in their lymphoid organs. The ascitic fluid that develops in the course of the condition causes apoptosis in vitro but only in

  18. American big dirty secret. About the depleted uranium weapons reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    From International organizations point of view, as the WHO, the hazard of the depleted uranium weapons use, is more and more obvious for the environment and the people health. The author shows how the USA military Government seems not really ''clean'' on this situation and denounces the danger of such a policy. (A.L.B.)

  19. Energizing and depletion of neutrals by a collisional plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruchtman, A

    2008-01-01

    Neutral depletion can significantly affect the steady state of low temperature plasmas. Recent theoretical analyses predicted previously unexpected effects of neutral depletion in both collisional and collisionless regimes. In this paper we address the effect of the energy deposited in the neutral gas by a collisional plasma. The fraction of power deposited in the neutrals is shown to be independent of the amount of power. The first case we address is of a thermalized neutral gas. It is shown that a low heat conductivity of the neutral gas is followed by a high neutral temperature that results in a high neutral depletion even if the plasma pressure is small. In the second case neutrals are accelerated through charge exchange with ions leading to what we call neutral pumping, which is equivalent to ion pumping in a collisionless plasma. Neutral depletion is found in the second case for both a closed system (no net mass flow) and an open system (a finite mass flow). A thruster that employs a collisional plasma and pumped neutrals is compared with the thruster analyzed before that employs collisionless plasma.

  20. Avoidance goal pursuit depletes self-regulatory resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oertig, D.; Schüler, J.; Schnelle, J.; Brandstätter, V.; Roskes, M.; Elliot, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Research on the strength model of self-regulation is burgeoning, but little empirical work has focused on the link between distinct types of daily goal pursuit and the depletion of self-regulatory resources. Here we conducted two studies on the link between avoidance goals and resource

  1. Avoidance goal pursuit depletes self-regulatory resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oertig, Daniela; Schüler, Julia; Schnelle, Jessica; Brandstätter, Veronika; Roskes, Marieke; Elliot, Andrew J.

    Objective: Research on the strength model of self-regulation is burgeoning, but little empirical work has focused on the link between distinct types of daily goal pursuit and the depletion of self-regulatory resources. The authors conducted two studies on the link between avoidance goals and

  2. Optimal reload and depletion method for pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, D.H.

    1984-01-01

    A new method has been developed to automatically reload and deplete a PWR so that both the enriched inventory requirements during the reactor cycle and the cost of reloading the core are minimized. This is achieved through four stepwise optimization calculations: 1) determination of the minimum fuel requirement for an equivalent three-region core model, 2) optimal selection and allocation of fuel requirement for an equivalent three-region core model, 2) optimal selection and allocation of fuel assemblies for each of the three regions to minimize the cost of the fresh reload fuel, 3) optimal placement of fuel assemblies to conserve regionwise optimal conditions and 4) optimal control through poison management to deplete individual fuel assemblies to maximize EOC k/sub eff/. Optimizing the fuel cost of reloading and depleting a PWR reactor cycle requires solutions to two separate optimization calculations. One of these minimizes the enriched fuel inventory in the core by optimizing the EOC k/sub eff/. The other minimizes the cost of the fresh reload cost. Both of these optimization calculations have now been combined to provide a new method for performing an automatic optimal reload of PWR's. The new method differs from previous methods in that the optimization process performs all tasks required to reload and deplete a PWR

  3. Specific depletion of mature T lymphocytes from human bone marrow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler, C; Møller, J; Plesner, T

    1989-01-01

    An effective method for specific depletion of mature T lymphocytes from human bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMC) with preservation of prethymic T cells and natural killer (NK) cells is presented. The BMMC were incubated with F101.01, a monoclonal antibody recognizing an epitope of the T...

  4. Enhanced Monte-Carlo-Linked Depletion Capabilities in MCNPX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fensin, Michael L.; Hendricks, John S.; Anghaie, Samim

    2006-01-01

    As advanced reactor concepts challenge the accuracy of current modeling technologies, a higher-fidelity depletion calculation is necessary to model time-dependent core reactivity properly for accurate cycle length and safety margin determinations. The recent integration of CINDER90 into the MCNPX Monte Carlo radiation transport code provides a completely self-contained Monte-Carlo-linked depletion capability. Two advances have been made in the latest MCNPX capability based on problems observed in pre-released versions: continuous energy collision density tracking and proper fission yield selection. Pre-released versions of the MCNPX depletion code calculated the reaction rates for (n,2n), (n,3n), (n,p), (n,a), and (n,?) by matching the MCNPX steady-state 63-group flux with 63-group cross sections inherent in the CINDER90 library and then collapsing to one-group collision densities for the depletion calculation. This procedure led to inaccuracies due to the miscalculation of the reaction rates resulting from the collapsed multi-group approach. The current version of MCNPX eliminates this problem by using collapsed one-group collision densities generated from continuous energy reaction rates determined during the MCNPX steady-state calculation. MCNPX also now explicitly determines the proper fission yield to be used by the CINDER90 code for the depletion calculation. The CINDER90 code offers a thermal, fast, and high-energy fission yield for each fissile isotope contained in the CINDER90 data file. MCNPX determines which fission yield to use for a specified problem by calculating the integral fission rate for the defined energy boundaries (thermal, fast, and high energy), determining which energy range contains the majority of fissions, and then selecting the appropriate fission yield for the energy range containing the majority of fissions. The MCNPX depletion capability enables complete, relatively easy-to-use depletion calculations in a single Monte Carlo code

  5. Ozone depletion, related UVB changes and increased skin cancer incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, R. P.

    1998-03-01

    Stratospheric ozone at middle latitudes shows a seasonal variation of about +/-20%, a quasi-biennial oscillation of 1-10% range and a long-term variation in which the level was almost steady up to about 1979 and declined thereafter to the present day by about 10%. These variations are expected to be reflected in solar UVB observed at the ground, but in an opposite direction. Thus UVB should have had a long-term increase of about 10-20%, which should cause an increase in skin cancer incidence of about 20-40%. Skin cancer incidence has increased all over the world, e.g. about 90% in USA during 1974-1990. It is popularly believed that this increase in skin cancer incidence is related to the recent ozone depletion. This seems to be incorrect, for two reasons. Firstly, the observed skin cancer increase is too large (90%) compared with the expected value (40%) from ozone depletion. Secondly, cancer does not develop immediately after exposure to solar UVB. The sunburns may occur within hours; but cancer development and detection may take years, even decades. Hence the observed skin cancer increase since 1974 (no data available for earlier periods) must have occurred due to exposure to solar UVB in the 1950s and 1960s, when there was no ozone depletion. Thus, the skin cancer increase must be attributed to harmful solar UVB levels existing even in the 1960s, accentuated later not by ozone depletion (which started only much later, by 1979) but by other causes, such as a longer human life span, better screening, increasing tendencies of sunbathing at beaches, etc., in affluent societies. On the other hand, the recent ozone depletion and the associated UVB increases will certainly take their toll; only that the effects will not be noticed now but years or decades from now. The concern for the future expressed in the Montreal Protocol for reducing ozone depletion by controlling CFC production is certainly justified, especially because increased UVB is harmful to animal and

  6. MCOR - Monte Carlo depletion code for reference LWR calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puente Espel, Federico, E-mail: fup104@psu.edu [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Pennsylvania State University (United States); Tippayakul, Chanatip, E-mail: cut110@psu.edu [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Pennsylvania State University (United States); Ivanov, Kostadin, E-mail: kni1@psu.edu [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Pennsylvania State University (United States); Misu, Stefan, E-mail: Stefan.Misu@areva.com [AREVA, AREVA NP GmbH, Erlangen (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    Research highlights: > Introduction of a reference Monte Carlo based depletion code with extended capabilities. > Verification and validation results for MCOR. > Utilization of MCOR for benchmarking deterministic lattice physics (spectral) codes. - Abstract: The MCOR (MCnp-kORigen) code system is a Monte Carlo based depletion system for reference fuel assembly and core calculations. The MCOR code is designed as an interfacing code that provides depletion capability to the LANL Monte Carlo code by coupling two codes: MCNP5 with the AREVA NP depletion code, KORIGEN. The physical quality of both codes is unchanged. The MCOR code system has been maintained and continuously enhanced since it was initially developed and validated. The verification of the coupling was made by evaluating the MCOR code against similar sophisticated code systems like MONTEBURNS, OCTOPUS and TRIPOLI-PEPIN. After its validation, the MCOR code has been further improved with important features. The MCOR code presents several valuable capabilities such as: (a) a predictor-corrector depletion algorithm, (b) utilization of KORIGEN as the depletion module, (c) individual depletion calculation of each burnup zone (no burnup zone grouping is required, which is particularly important for the modeling of gadolinium rings), and (d) on-line burnup cross-section generation by the Monte Carlo calculation for 88 isotopes and usage of the KORIGEN libraries for PWR and BWR typical spectra for the remaining isotopes. Besides the just mentioned capabilities, the MCOR code newest enhancements focus on the possibility of executing the MCNP5 calculation in sequential or parallel mode, a user-friendly automatic re-start capability, a modification of the burnup step size evaluation, and a post-processor and test-matrix, just to name the most important. The article describes the capabilities of the MCOR code system; from its design and development to its latest improvements and further ameliorations. Additionally

  7. MCOR - Monte Carlo depletion code for reference LWR calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puente Espel, Federico; Tippayakul, Chanatip; Ivanov, Kostadin; Misu, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Introduction of a reference Monte Carlo based depletion code with extended capabilities. → Verification and validation results for MCOR. → Utilization of MCOR for benchmarking deterministic lattice physics (spectral) codes. - Abstract: The MCOR (MCnp-kORigen) code system is a Monte Carlo based depletion system for reference fuel assembly and core calculations. The MCOR code is designed as an interfacing code that provides depletion capability to the LANL Monte Carlo code by coupling two codes: MCNP5 with the AREVA NP depletion code, KORIGEN. The physical quality of both codes is unchanged. The MCOR code system has been maintained and continuously enhanced since it was initially developed and validated. The verification of the coupling was made by evaluating the MCOR code against similar sophisticated code systems like MONTEBURNS, OCTOPUS and TRIPOLI-PEPIN. After its validation, the MCOR code has been further improved with important features. The MCOR code presents several valuable capabilities such as: (a) a predictor-corrector depletion algorithm, (b) utilization of KORIGEN as the depletion module, (c) individual depletion calculation of each burnup zone (no burnup zone grouping is required, which is particularly important for the modeling of gadolinium rings), and (d) on-line burnup cross-section generation by the Monte Carlo calculation for 88 isotopes and usage of the KORIGEN libraries for PWR and BWR typical spectra for the remaining isotopes. Besides the just mentioned capabilities, the MCOR code newest enhancements focus on the possibility of executing the MCNP5 calculation in sequential or parallel mode, a user-friendly automatic re-start capability, a modification of the burnup step size evaluation, and a post-processor and test-matrix, just to name the most important. The article describes the capabilities of the MCOR code system; from its design and development to its latest improvements and further ameliorations

  8. Radiosensitization of mouse skin by oxygen and depletion of glutathione

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, Graham; Joiner, Michael; Joiner, Barbara; Johns, Helen; Denekamp, Juliana

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) and shape of the oxygen sensitization curve of mouse foot skin, the extent to which glutathione (GSH) depletion radiosensitized skin, and the dependence of such sensitization on the ambient oxygen tension. Methods and Materials: The feet of WHT mice were irradiated with single doses of 240 kVp x-rays while mice were exposed to carbogen or gases with oxygen/nitrogen mixtures containing 8-100% O 2 . The anoxic response was obtained by occluding the blood supply to the leg of anesthetized mice with a tourniquet, surrounding the foot with nitrogen, and allowing the mice to breathe 10% O 2 . Further experiments were performed to assess the efficacy of this method to obtain an anoxic response. Radiosensitivity of skin was assessed using the acute skin-reaction assay. Glutathione levels were modified using two schedules of dl-buthionine sulphoximine (BSO) and diethylmaleate (DEM), which were considered to produce extensive and intermediate levels of GSH depletion in the skin of the foot during irradiation. Results: Carbogen caused the greatest radiosensitization of skin, with a reproducible enhancement of 2.2 relative to the anoxic response. The OER of 2.2 is lower than other reports for mouse skin. This may indicate that the extremes of oxygenation were not produced, although there was no direct evidence for this. When skin radiosensitivity was plotted against the logarithm of the oxygen tension in the ambient gas, a sigmoid curve with a K value of 17-21% O 2 in the ambient gas was obtained. Depletion of GSH caused minimal radiosensitization when skin was irradiated under anoxic or well-oxygenated conditions. Radiosensitization by GSH depletion was maximal at intermediate oxygen tensions of 10-21% O 2 in the ambient gas. Increasing the extent of GSH depletion led to increasing radiosensitization, with sensitization enhancement ratios of 1.2 and 1.1, respectively, for extensive and intermediate levels of GSH

  9. Development of an Application Programming Interface for Depletion Analysis (APIDA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lago, Daniel; Rahnema, Farzad

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • APIDA an Application Programming Interface tool for Depletion Analysis. • APIDA employs a matrix exponential method and a linear chain method. • A burnup solver to couple to neutron transport solvers in lattice depletion or reactor core analysis codes. - Abstract: A new utility has been developed with extensive capabilities in identifying nuclide decay and transmutation characteristics, allowing for accurate and efficient tracking of the change in isotopic concentrations in nuclear reactor fuel over time when coupled with a transport solution method. This tool, named the Application Programming Interface for Depletion Analysis (APIDA), employs both a matrix exponential method and a linear chain method to solve for the end-of-time-step nuclide concentrations for all isotopes relevant to nuclear reactors. The Chebyshev Rational Approximation Method (CRAM) was utilized to deal with the ill-conditioned matrices generated during lattice depletion calculations, and a complex linear chain solver was developed to handle isotopes reduced from the burnup matrix due to either radioactive stability or a sufficiently low neutron-induced reaction cross section. The entire tool is housed in a robust but simple application programming interface (API). The development of this API allows other codes, particularly numerical neutron transport solvers, to incorporate APIDA as the burnup solver in a lattice depletion code or reactor core analysis code in memory, without the need to write or read from the hard disk. The APIDA code was benchmarked using several decay and transmutation chains. Burnup solutions produced by APIDA were shown to provide material concentrations comparable to the analytically solved Bateman equations – well below 0.01% relative error for even the most extreme cases using isotopes with vastly different decay constants. As a first order demonstration of the API, APIDA was coupled with the transport solver in the SERPENT code for a fuel pin

  10. Compared studies of natural and artificial deuterium depleted water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butnaru, Gallia; Mihacea, Sorina; Sirbovan, Alina; Butnariu, H.; Titescu, Gh.

    2001-01-01

    The biological influence of the deuterium on animals was studied insensitively in the last years. When animal cell cultures were analyzed it turned out an inhibition of the development, due to the reduced deuterium concentration. In the in vivo experiments a decreasing of the number of tumoral cells was pointed out when performing the depleted water treatment. It is obvious that the presence of deuterium in water is necessary for the development, especially for the tumoral cell proliferation. The aim of this work was to establish influence of the natural and artificial deuterium depleted water on the vegetal organisms development. For this purpose, the developmental stages of Lactuca sativa L. growth were followed. The experimental data were compared with the data obtained with distilled water. The birch, wine sap and some fruit juices are considered 'natural depleted' water sources because their deuterium content is smaller in comparison to natural water (D 2 =150 ppm). The effect of artificial deuterium depleted water (29 ppm D 2 ) was analyzed in comparison to three types of wine saps, which also have a reduced deuterium concentration (125-130 ppm D 2 ). If the deuterium depleted water was used, the germination percent and the root and shoot length were higher compared to control in the first stages. In wine sap it had a negative effect on germination and development. After three days the plants were transferred to soil and their development was followed. The foliage area was larger for all of the experimental variants compared to control. The differences were without significance when deuterium depleted water was tested but they were high and very significant in case of wine sap. The experiment pointed out a stimulative effect of the artificial deuterium depleted water. In case of wine sap the effect was negative when the contact was direct, but the growth was stimulated after the stress cessation. The first ontogenetic stages were represented by direct action

  11. Depletion of compounds from thin oil films in seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brakstad, O.G.; Faksness, L.G.; Melbye, A.G.

    2002-01-01

    When oil is spilled on water, the oil compounds distribute between droplets and water-soluble phases in the water column. Some small organic acids, phenols, BTEX, and aromatic compounds will dissolve completely, but larger polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and alkanes will remain in the droplet fraction. The biodegradation of droplets occurs at the oil-water interface. A method for immobilizing the oil films onto hydrophobic surfaces was developed in order to obtain a stable oil surface during the biodegradation period. A test system was also established to determine the depletion of oil compounds from the oil phase, including both abiotic and biotic processes. Three North Sea oils were used in the study. Two were paraffinic oils rich in n-alkanes and aromatic compounds, and one was asphalthenic which was richer in branched alkanes and PAH. The biodegradation period was 2 months at 13 degrees C. Samples from the water and thin film on the fabric was analyzed for carbon 10 and carbon 36 by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection. Semi-volatile organic compounds were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results indicated that the depletion process for alkanes was completely caused by biodegradation, while aromatic compounds were depleted by abiotic dissolution as well as by biodegradation. The system has potential for determining oil depletion processes under controlled surface-to-volume conditions, such as thin oil films and dispersed oil droplets. In addition, the system can be used to determine the depletion process in flow-through systems. 13 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs

  12. The health hazards of depleted uranium munitions. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Depleted uranium is a toxic and weakly radioactive metal used for a variety of purposes. Perhaps its most controversial use is in battlefield munitions, where it can be widely dispersed in the form of fine particles and shrapnel that may enter the bodies of combatants and others through inhalation, ingestion or wounding. It is a matter of legitimate public concern whether the use of this material in this way could create unacceptable health hazards or damage to the environment. The objective of our study has been to provide the best scientific understanding of the ways in which the material may be distributed, how it may be taken up by humans, and the potential implications for health. For politicians, any hazards to health have to be balanced against the military advantages that the use of these munitions confers. We have not tried to reach a judgment on these political issues, but we believe that a better scientific understanding of the extent of the hazards will make it easier for these wider questions to be addressed in a more objective way. This report is the first of two, and addresses the likely levels of exposure to depleted uranium, the resulting radiological risks, and the lessons to be learned from epidemiological studies. Our second report will address toxicological risks and environmental issues. So far, we conclude that risks from radiation are low for most soldiers on the battlefield, and for civilians who later return to the area. However, there are uncertainties about the maximal levels of exposure to depleted uranium on the battlefield, and there may be circumstances in which a few soldiers are exposed to levels of depleted uranium that result in a significant risk to health. Further studies are needed to determine the levels of exposure to depleted uranium that might occur on the battlefield and to judge whether such higher risks are likely to occur in practice

  13. Hybrid microscopic depletion model in nodal code DYN3D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilodid, Y.; Kotlyar, D.; Shwageraus, E.; Fridman, E.; Kliem, S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new hybrid method of accounting for spectral history effects is proposed. • Local concentrations of over 1000 nuclides are calculated using micro depletion. • The new method is implemented in nodal code DYN3D and verified. - Abstract: The paper presents a general hybrid method that combines the micro-depletion technique with correction of micro- and macro-diffusion parameters to account for the spectral history effects. The fuel in a core is subjected to time- and space-dependent operational conditions (e.g. coolant density), which cannot be predicted in advance. However, lattice codes assume some average conditions to generate cross sections (XS) for nodal diffusion codes such as DYN3D. Deviation of local operational history from average conditions leads to accumulation of errors in XS, which is referred as spectral history effects. Various methods to account for the spectral history effects, such as spectral index, burnup-averaged operational parameters and micro-depletion, were implemented in some nodal codes. Recently, an alternative method, which characterizes fuel depletion state by burnup and 239 Pu concentration (denoted as Pu-correction) was proposed, implemented in nodal code DYN3D and verified for a wide range of history effects. The method is computationally efficient, however, it has applicability limitations. The current study seeks to improve the accuracy and applicability range of Pu-correction method. The proposed hybrid method combines the micro-depletion method with a XS characterization technique similar to the Pu-correction method. The method was implemented in DYN3D and verified on multiple test cases. The results obtained with DYN3D were compared to those obtained with Monte Carlo code Serpent, which was also used to generate the XS. The observed differences are within the statistical uncertainties.

  14. Aqueous Colloid + Polymer Depletion System for Confocal Microscopy and Rheology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Nayoung; Umanzor, Esmeralda J.; Conrad, Jacinta C.

    2018-05-01

    We developed a model depletion system with colloidal particles that were refractive index- and density-matched to 80 (w/w)% glycerol in water, and characterized the effect of interparticle interactions on the structure and dynamics of non-equilibrium phases. 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl methacrylate-co-tert-butyl methacrylate copolymer particles were synthesized following Kodger et al. (Sci. Rep. 5, 14635 (2015)). Particles were dispersed in glycerol/water solutions to generate colloidal suspensions with good control over electrostatic interactions and a moderately high background viscosity of 55 mPa-s. To probe the effects of charge screening and depletion attractions on the suspension phase behavior, we added NaCl and polyacrylamide (M_w = 186 kDa) at various concentrations to particle suspensions formulated at volume fractions of phi = 0.05 and 0.3 and imaged the suspensions using confocal microscopy. The particles were nearly hard spheres at a NaCl concentration of 20 mM, but aggregated when the concentration of NaCl was further increased. Changes in the particle structure and dynamics with increasing concentration of the depletant polyacrylamide followed the trends expected from earlier experiments on depletion-driven gelation. Additionally, we measured the viscosity and corrected first normal stress difference of suspensions formulated at phi = 0.4 with and without added polymer. The solvent viscosity was suitable for rheology measurements without the onset of instabilities such as secondary flows or edge fracture. These results validate this system as an alternative to one common model system, suspensions of poly(methyl methacrylate) particles and polystyrene depletants in organic solvents, for investigating phase behavior and flow properties in attractive colloidal suspensions.

  15. Creatine pretreatment protects cortical axons from energy depletion in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hua; Goldberg, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    Creatine is a natural nitrogenous guanidino compound involved in bioenergy metabolism. Although creatine has been shown to protect neurons of the central nervous system (CNS) from experimental hypoxia/ischemia, it remains unclear if creatine may also protect CNS axons, and if the potential axonal protection depends on glial cells. To evaluate the direct impact of creatine on CNS axons, cortical axons were cultured in a separate compartment from their somas and proximal neurites using a modified two-compartment culture device. Axons in the axon compartment were subjected to acute energy depletion, an in vitro model of white matter ischemia, by exposure to 6 mM sodium azide for 30 min in the absence of glucose and pyruvate. Energy depletion reduced axonal ATP by 65%, depolarized axonal resting potential, and damaged 75% of axons. Application of creatine (10 mM) to both compartments of the culture at 24 h prior to energy depletion significantly reduced axonal damage by 50%. In line with the role of creatine in the bioenergy metabolism, this application also alleviated the axonal ATP loss and depolarization. Inhibition of axonal depolarization by blocking sodium influx with tetrodotoxin also effectively reduced the axonal damage caused by energy depletion. Further study revealed that the creatine effect was independent of glial cells, as axonal protection was sustained even when creatine was applied only to the axon compartment (free from somas and glial cells) for as little as 2 h. In contrast, application of creatine after energy depletion did not protect axons. The data provide the first evidence that creatine pretreatment may directly protect CNS axons from energy deficiency. PMID:22521466

  16. Depleted uranium hexafluoride: The source material for advanced shielding systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quapp, W.J.; Lessing, P.A. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cooley, C.R. [Department of Technology, Germantown, MD (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a management challenge and financial liability problem in the form of 50,000 cylinders containing 555,000 metric tons of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) that are stored at the gaseous diffusion plants. DOE is evaluating several options for the disposition of this UF{sub 6}, including continued storage, disposal, and recycle into a product. Based on studies conducted to date, the most feasible recycle option for the depleted uranium is shielding in low-level waste, spent nuclear fuel, or vitrified high-level waste containers. Estimates for the cost of disposal, using existing technologies, range between $3.8 and $11.3 billion depending on factors such as the disposal site and the applicability of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Advanced technologies can reduce these costs, but UF{sub 6} disposal still represents large future costs. This paper describes an application for depleted uranium in which depleted uranium hexafluoride is converted into an oxide and then into a heavy aggregate. The heavy uranium aggregate is combined with conventional concrete materials to form an ultra high density concrete, DUCRETE, weighing more than 400 lb/ft{sup 3}. DUCRETE can be used as shielding in spent nuclear fuel/high-level waste casks at a cost comparable to the lower of the disposal cost estimates. Consequently, the case can be made that DUCRETE shielded casks are an alternative to disposal. In this case, a beneficial long term solution is attained for much less than the combined cost of independently providing shielded casks and disposing of the depleted uranium. Furthermore, if disposal is avoided, the political problems associated with selection of a disposal location are also avoided. Other studies have also shown cost benefits for low level waste shielded disposal containers.

  17. Long-Term Maintenance Therapy Using Rituximab-Induced Continuous B-Cell Depletion in Patients with ANCA Vasculitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergraft, William F.; Cortazar, Frank B.; Wenger, Julia; Murphy, Andrew P.; Rhee, Eugene P.; Laliberte, Karen A.; Niles, John L.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Remission in the majority of ANCA vasculitis patients is not sustained after a single course of rituximab, and risk of relapse warrants development of a successful strategy to ensure durable remission. Design, setting, participants, & measurements A retrospective analysis of ANCA vasculitis patients who underwent maintenance therapy using rituximab-induced continuous B-cell depletion for up to 7 years was performed. Maintenance therapy with rituximab was initiated after achieving remission or converting from other prior maintenance therapy. Continuous B-cell depletion was achieved in all patients by scheduled rituximab administration every 4 months. Disease activity, serologic parameters, adverse events, and survival were examined. Results In the study, 172 patients (mean age=60 years, 55% women, 57% myeloperoxidase–ANCA) treated from April of 2006 to March of 2013 underwent continuous B-cell depletion with rituximab. Median remission maintenance follow-up time was 2.1 years. Complete remission (Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score [BVAS]=0) was achieved in all patients. Major relapse (BVAS≥3) occurred in 5% of patients and was associated with weaning of other immunosuppression drugs. Remission was reinduced in all patients. Survival mirrored survival of a general age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched United States population. Conclusion This analysis provides evidence for long-term disease control using continuous B-cell depletion. This treatment strategy in ANCA vasculitis patients also seems to result in survival rates comparable with rates in a matched reference population. These findings suggest that prospective remission maintenance treatment trials using continuous B-cell depletion are warranted. PMID:24626432

  18. Evidence for a role of transporter-mediated currents in the depletion of brain serotonin induced by serotonin transporter substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Michael H; Bulling, Simon; Benaderet, Tova S; Saha, Kusumika; Ayestas, Mario A; Partilla, John S; Ali, Syed F; Stockner, Thomas; Rothman, Richard B; Sandtner, Walter; Sitte, Harald H

    2014-05-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SERT) substrates like fenfluramine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine cause long-term depletion of brain 5-HT, while certain other substrates do not. The 5-HT deficits produced by SERT substrates are dependent upon transporter proteins, but the exact mechanisms responsible are unclear. Here, we compared the pharmacology of several SERT substrates: fenfluramine, d-fenfluramine, 1-(m-chlorophenyl)piperazine (mCPP) and 1-(m-trifluoromethylphenyl)piperainze (TFMPP), to establish relationships between acute drug mechanisms and the propensity for long-term 5-HT depletions. In vivo microdialysis was carried out in rat nucleus accumbens to examine acute 5-HT release and long-term depletion in the same subjects. In vitro assays were performed to measure efflux of [(3)H]5-HT in rat brain synaptosomes and transporter-mediated ionic currents in SERT-expressing Xenopus oocytes. When administered repeatedly to rats (6 mg/kg, i.p., four doses), all drugs produce large sustained elevations in extracellular 5-HT (>5-fold) with minimal effects on dopamine. Importantly, 2 weeks after dosing, only rats exposed to fenfluramine and d-fenfluramine display depletion of brain 5-HT. All test drugs evoke fluoxetine-sensitive efflux of [(3)H]5-HT from synaptosomes, but d-fenfluramine and its bioactive metabolite d-norfenfluramine induce significantly greater SERT-mediated currents than phenylpiperazines. Our data confirm that drug-induced 5-HT release probably does not mediate 5-HT depletion. However, the magnitude of transporter-mediated inward current may be a critical factor in the cascade of events leading to 5-HT deficits. This hypothesis warrants further study, especially given the growing popularity of designer drugs that target SERT.

  19. Randomised comparison of leucocyte-depleted versus buffy-coat-poor blood transfusion and complications after colorectal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L S; Kissmeyer-Nielsen, P; Wolff, B

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Allogeneic blood transfusion is associated with an increased frequency of postoperative infection. We studied whether such events can be avoided by the intraoperative and postoperative use of leucocyte-depleted blood. METHODS: 589 consecutive patients scheduled for elective colorectal...... surgery were randomised to receive buffy-coat poor (n = 299) or filtered leucocyte-depleted red-cells (n = 290) when transfusion was indicated. 260 patients actually received blood transfusion. Three patients were excluded from analysis. FINDINGS: The 142 patients randomised to and transfused with buffy......-coat-poor blood had a significantly higher frequency of wound infections and intra-abdominal abscesses than the 155 patients who were allocated to this group but who were not transfused. (12 vs 1%, p blood also had a significantly...

  20. Potential benefits and impacts on the CRWMS transportation system of filling spent fuel shipping casks with depleted uranium silicate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, R.B.; Forsberg, C.W.; DeHart, M.D.; Childs, K.W.; Tang, J.S.

    1996-01-01

    A new technology, the Depleted Uranium Silicate COntainer Fill System (DUSCOFS), is proposed to improve the performance and reduce the uncertainties of geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF), thus reducing both radionuclide release rates from the waste package and the potential for repository nuclear criticality events. DUSCOFS may also provide benefits for SNF storage and transport if it is loaded into the container early in the waste management cycle. Assessments have been made of the benefits to be derived by placing depleted uranium silicate (DUS) glass into SNF containers for enhancing repository performance assessment and controlling criticality over geologic times in the repository. Also, the performance, benefits, and impacts which can be derived if the SNF is loaded into a multi-purpose canister with DUS glass at a reactor site have been assessed. The DUSCOFS concept and the benefits to the waste management cycle of implementing DUSCOFS early in the cycle are discussed in this paper

  1. Inhibition of protein kinase C affects on mode of synaptic vesicle exocytosis due to cholesterol depletion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, Alexey M., E-mail: fysio@rambler.ru; Zakyrjanova, Guzalija F., E-mail: guzik121192@mail.ru; Yakovleva, Anastasia A., E-mail: nastya1234qwer@mail.ru; Zefirov, Andrei L., E-mail: zefiroval@rambler.ru

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • We examine the involvement of PKC in MCD induced synaptic vesicle exocytosis. • PKC inhibitor does not decrease the effect MCD on MEPP frequency. • PKC inhibitor prevents MCD induced FM1-43 unloading. • PKC activation may switch MCD induced exocytosis from kiss-and-run to a full mode. • Inhibition of phospholipase C does not lead to similar change in exocytosis. - Abstract: Previous studies demonstrated that depletion of membrane cholesterol by 10 mM methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MCD) results in increased spontaneous exocytosis at both peripheral and central synapses. Here, we investigated the role of protein kinase C in the enhancement of spontaneous exocytosis at frog motor nerve terminals after cholesterol depletion using electrophysiological and optical methods. Inhibition of the protein kinase C by myristoylated peptide and chelerythrine chloride prevented MCD-induced increases in FM1-43 unloading, whereas the frequency of spontaneous postsynaptic events remained enhanced. The increase in FM1-43 unloading still could be observed if sulforhodamine 101 (the water soluble FM1-43 quencher that can pass through the fusion pore) was added to the extracellular solution. This suggests a possibility that exocytosis of synaptic vesicles under these conditions could occur through the kiss-and-run mechanism with the formation of a transient fusion pore. Inhibition of phospholipase C did not lead to similar change in MCD-induced exocytosis.

  2. Uranium bioaccumulation and biological disorders induced in zebrafish (Danio rerio) after a depleted uranium waterborne exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barillet, Sabrina; Adam-Guillermin, Christelle; Palluel, Olivier; Porcher, Jean-Marc; Devaux, Alain

    2011-01-01

    Because of its toxicity and its ubiquity within aquatic compartments, uranium (U) represents a significant hazard to aquatic species such as fish. In a previous study, we investigated some biological responses in zebrafish either exposed to depleted or to enriched U (i.e., to different radiological activities). However, results required further experiments to better understand biological responses. Moreover, we failed to clearly demonstrate a significant relationship between biological effects and U radiological activity. We therefore chose to herein examine U bioaccumulation and induced effects in zebrafish according to a chemical dose-response approach. Results showed that U is highly bioconcentrated in fish, according to a time- and concentration-dependent model. Additionally, hepatic antioxidant defenses, red blood cells DNA integrity and brain acetylcholinesterase activity were found to be significantly altered. Generally, the higher the U concentration, the sooner and/or the greater the effect, suggesting a close relationship between accumulation and effect. - Research highlights: → Depleted U bioconcentration factor is of about 1000 in zebrafish exposed to 20 μg/L. → Hepatic antioxidant disorders are noticed as soon as the first hours of exposure. → DNA damage is induced in red blood cells after 20 d of exposure to 500 μg DU/L. → The brain cholinergic system (AChE activity) is impacted. - This study demonstrates that U is highly bioaccumulated in fish, resulting in biological disorders such as hepatic oxidative stress as well as genotoxic and neurotoxic events.

  3. Uranium bioaccumulation and biological disorders induced in zebrafish (Danio rerio) after a depleted uranium waterborne exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barillet, Sabrina, E-mail: sabrina.barillet@free.f [Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, IRSN (Institute for Radiological protection and Nuclear Safety), DEI/SECRE/LRE, Cadarache, Bat 186, BP 3, 13115 St-Paul-Lez-Durance cedex (France); Adam-Guillermin, Christelle, E-mail: christelle.adam-guillermin@irsn.f [Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, IRSN (Institute for Radiological protection and Nuclear Safety), DEI/SECRE/LRE, Cadarache, Bat 186, BP 3, 13115 St-Paul-Lez-Durance cedex (France); Palluel, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.palluel@ineris.f [Ecotoxicological Risk Assessment Unit, INERIS (National Institute for Industrial Environment and Risks), Parc technologique ALATA, 60 550 Verneuil-en-Halatte (France); Porcher, Jean-Marc, E-mail: jean-marc.porcher@ineris.f [Ecotoxicological Risk Assessment Unit, INERIS (National Institute for Industrial Environment and Risks), Parc technologique ALATA, 60 550 Verneuil-en-Halatte (France); Devaux, Alain, E-mail: alain.devaux@entpe.f [Universite de Lyon, INRA, EFPA-SA, Environmental Science Laboratory (LSE), ENTPE, 69518 Vaulx en Velin cedex (France)

    2011-02-15

    Because of its toxicity and its ubiquity within aquatic compartments, uranium (U) represents a significant hazard to aquatic species such as fish. In a previous study, we investigated some biological responses in zebrafish either exposed to depleted or to enriched U (i.e., to different radiological activities). However, results required further experiments to better understand biological responses. Moreover, we failed to clearly demonstrate a significant relationship between biological effects and U radiological activity. We therefore chose to herein examine U bioaccumulation and induced effects in zebrafish according to a chemical dose-response approach. Results showed that U is highly bioconcentrated in fish, according to a time- and concentration-dependent model. Additionally, hepatic antioxidant defenses, red blood cells DNA integrity and brain acetylcholinesterase activity were found to be significantly altered. Generally, the higher the U concentration, the sooner and/or the greater the effect, suggesting a close relationship between accumulation and effect. - Research highlights: Depleted U bioconcentration factor is of about 1000 in zebrafish exposed to 20 {mu}g/L. Hepatic antioxidant disorders are noticed as soon as the first hours of exposure. DNA damage is induced in red blood cells after 20 d of exposure to 500 {mu}g DU/L. The brain cholinergic system (AChE activity) is impacted. - This study demonstrates that U is highly bioaccumulated in fish, resulting in biological disorders such as hepatic oxidative stress as well as genotoxic and neurotoxic events.

  4. Electrolyte transport in distal colon of sodium-depleted rats: Effect of sodium repletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turnamian, S.G.; Binder, H.J.

    1988-01-01

    Dietary sodium depletion increases plasma aldosterone level and, as a result, induces amiloride-sensitive electrogenic sodium absorption and electrogenic potassium secretion and stimulates Na + -K + -ATPase activity in rat distal colon, while inhibiting electroneutral sodium chloride absorption. To assess the events that occur as the aldosterone-stimulated colon reverts to normal, unidirectional 22 Na and 36 Cl fluxes were measured under voltage-clamp conditions across isolated distal colonic mucosa of rats that were initially dietary sodium depleted for 7 days and then sodium repleted for varying periods of time before the study. Within 8 h of dietary sodium repletion, plasma aldosterone level and Na + -K + -ATPase activity declined to normal, amiloride-sensitive electrogenic sodium absorption decreased by >90%, and active electrogenic potassium secretion also decreased markedly. In contrast, electroneutral sodium chloride absorption did not completely return to levels seen in normal animals until ∼64-68 h. These results demonstrate that maintenance of electrogenic sodium absorption and potassium secretion are directly dependent on elevated plasma aldosterone levels. The inhibition of electroneutral sodium absorption, although initiated by excess aldosterone, persists after normalization of the plasma aldosterone level, thereby implying that the inhibition is dependent on additional factor(s)

  5. Understanding the slow depletion of memory CD4+ T cells in HIV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Yates

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The asymptomatic phase of HIV infection is characterised by a slow decline of peripheral blood CD4(+ T cells. Why this decline is slow is not understood. One potential explanation is that the low average rate of homeostatic proliferation or immune activation dictates the pace of a "runaway" decline of memory CD4(+ T cells, in which activation drives infection, higher viral loads, more recruitment of cells into an activated state, and further infection events. We explore this hypothesis using mathematical models.Using simple mathematical models of the dynamics of T cell homeostasis and proliferation, we find that this mechanism fails to explain the time scale of CD4(+ memory T cell loss. Instead it predicts the rapid attainment of a stable set point, so other mechanisms must be invoked to explain the slow decline in CD4(+ cells.A runaway cycle in which elevated CD4(+ T cell activation and proliferation drive HIV production and vice versa cannot explain the pace of depletion during chronic HIV infection. We summarize some alternative mechanisms by which the CD4(+ memory T cell homeostatic set point might slowly diminish. While none are mutually exclusive, the phenomenon of viral rebound, in which interruption of antiretroviral therapy causes a rapid return to pretreatment viral load and T cell counts, supports the model of virus adaptation as a major force driving depletion.

  6. In vivo dendritic cell depletion reduces breeding efficiency, affecting implantation and early placental development in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krey, Gesa; Frank, Pierre; Shaikly, Valerie; Barrientos, Gabriela; Cordo-Russo, Rosalia; Ringel, Frauke; Moschansky, Petra; Chernukhin, Igor V; Metodiev, Metodi; Fernández, Nelson; Klapp, Burghard F; Arck, Petra C; Blois, Sandra M

    2008-09-01

    Implantation of mammalian embryos into their mother's uterus ensures optimal nourishment and protection throughout development. Complex molecular interactions characterize the implantation process, and an optimal synchronization of the components of this embryo-maternal dialogue is crucial for a successful reproductive outcome. In the present study, we investigated the role of dendritic cells (DC) during implantation process using a transgenic mouse system (DTRtg) that allows transient depletion of CD11c+ cells in vivo through administration of diphtheria toxin. We observed that DC depletion impairs the implantation process, resulting in a reduced breeding efficiency. Furthermore, the maturity of uterine natural killer cells at dendritic cell knockout (DCKO) implantation sites was affected as well; as demonstrated by decreased perforin expression and reduced numbers of periodic-acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive cells. This was accompanied by disarrangements in decidual vascular development. In the present study, we were also able to identify a novel DC-dependent protein, phosphatidylinositol transfer protein beta (PITPbeta), involved in implantation and trophoblast development using a proteomic approach. Indeed, DCKO mice exhibited substantial anomalies in placental development, including hypocellularity of the spongiotrophoblast and labyrinthine layers and reduced numbers of trophoblast giant cells. Giant cells also down-regulated their expression of two characteristic markers of trophoblast differentiation, placental lactogen 1 and proliferin. In view of these findings, dendritic cells emerge as possible modulators in the orchestration of events leading to the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy.

  7. Evaluation of acute tryptophan depletion and sham depletion with a gelatin-based collagen peptide protein mixture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenbæk, Dea Siggaard; Einarsdottir, H S; Goregliad-Fjaellingsdal, T

    2016-01-01

    Acute Tryptophan Depletion (ATD) is a dietary method used to modulate central 5-HT to study the effects of temporarily reduced 5-HT synthesis. The aim of this study is to evaluate a novel method of ATD using a gelatin-based collagen peptide (CP) mixture. We administered CP-Trp or CP+Trp mixtures...

  8. The influence of ego depletion on sprint start performance in athletes without track and field experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, Chris; Persaud, Brittany N; Oudejans, Raôul R D; Bertrams, Alex

    2015-01-01

    We tested the assumption that ego depletion would affect the sprint start in a sample of N = 38 athletes without track and field experience in an experiment by applying a mixed between- (depletion vs. non-depletion) within- (T1: before manipulation of ego depletion vs. T2: after manipulation of ego depletion) subjects design. We assumed that ego depletion would increase the possibility for a false start, as regulating the impulse to initiate the sprinting movement too soon before the starting signal requires self-control. In line with our assumption, we found a significant interaction as there was only a significant increase in the number of false starts from T1 to T2 for the depletion group while this was not the case for the non-depletion group. We conclude that ego depletion has a detrimental influence on the sprint start in athletes without track and field experience.

  9. Event dependent sampling of recurrent events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Tine Kajsa; Andersen, Per Kragh; Angst, Jules

    2010-01-01

    The effect of event-dependent sampling of processes consisting of recurrent events is investigated when analyzing whether the risk of recurrence increases with event count. We study the situation where processes are selected for study if an event occurs in a certain selection interval. Motivation...... retrospective and prospective disease course histories are used. We examine two methods to correct for the selection depending on which data are used in the analysis. In the first case, the conditional distribution of the process given the pre-selection history is determined. In the second case, an inverse...

  10. Dynamic transcriptomic profiles of zebrafish gills in response to zinc depletion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunningham Phil

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zinc deficiency is detrimental to organisms, highlighting its role as an essential micronutrient contributing to numerous biological processes. To investigate the underlying molecular events invoked by zinc depletion we performed a temporal analysis of transcriptome changes observed within the zebrafish gill. This tissue represents a model system for studying ion absorption across polarised epithelial cells as it provides a major pathway for fish to acquire zinc directly from water whilst sharing a conserved zinc transporting system with mammals. Results Zebrafish were treated with either zinc-depleted (water = 2.61 μg L-1; diet = 26 mg kg-1 or zinc-adequate (water = 16.3 μg L-1; diet = 233 mg kg-1 conditions for two weeks. Gill samples were collected at five time points and transcriptome changes analysed in quintuplicate using a 16K oligonucleotide array. Of the genes represented the expression of a total of 333 transcripts showed differential regulation by zinc depletion (having a fold-change greater than 1.8 and an adjusted P-value less than 0.1, controlling for a 10% False Discovery Rate. Down-regulation was dominant at most time points and distinct sets of genes were regulated at different stages. Annotation enrichment analysis revealed that 'Developmental Process' was the most significantly overrepresented Biological Process GO term (P = 0.0006, involving 26% of all regulated genes. There was also significant bias for annotations relating to development, cell cycle, cell differentiation, gene regulation, butanoate metabolism, lysine degradation, protein tyrosin phosphatases, nucleobase, nucleoside and nucleotide metabolism, and cellular metabolic processes. Within these groupings genes associated with diabetes, bone/cartilage development, and ionocyte proliferation were especially notable. Network analysis of the temporal expression profile indicated that transcription factors foxl1, wt1, nr5a1, nr6a1, and especially

  11. Terrestrial ozone depletion due to a Milky Way gamma-ray burst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Brian C.

    Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) are short, incredibly powerful astrophysical events which produce a flux of radiation detectable across the observable universe. A GRB within our own galaxy could cause major damage to the Earth's biosphere. Rate estimates suggest that at least one GRB has occurred within a dangerous range (about 2 kpc) in the last billion years. The gamma radiation from such a burst would quickly deplete much of the Earth's protective ozone layer, allowing an increase in solar UVB radiation reaching the surface. This radiation is harmful to life, causing sunburn and damaging DNA. In addition, NO 2 produced in the atmosphere would cause a decrease in visible sunlight reaching the surface and could cause global cooling. Nitric acid rain could stress portions of the biosphere, but the increased nitrate deposition could be helpful to land plants. We have used a two-dimensional atmospheric model to investigate the effects on the Earth's atmosphere of a GRB. We have simulated bursts delivering a range of fluences, at various latitudes, at the equinoxes and solstices, and at different times of day. We have computed DNA damage caused by increased solar UVB radiation, reduction in solar visible light due to NO 2 opacity; and deposition of nitrates through rainout of HNO 3 . For a "typical" burst in the last billion years, we find globally averaged ozone depletion up to 38%. Localized depletion reaches as much as 74%. Significant global depletion (at least 10%) persists up to about 7 years after the burst. Our results depend strongly on time of year and latitude over which the burst occurs. We find DNA damage of up to 16 times the normal annual global average, with greatest damage occurring at low to mid latitudes. We find reductions in visible sunlight of a few percent, primarily in the polar regions. Nitrate deposition similar to or slightly greater than that currently caused by lightning is also observed. We find support in our results for the hypothesis that the

  12. Cholesterol depletion of enterocytes. Effect on the Golgi complex and apical membrane trafficking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gert Helge; Niels-Christiansen, L L; Thorsen, Evy

    2000-01-01

    Intestinal brush border enzymes, including aminopeptidase N and sucrase-isomaltase, are associated with "rafts" (membrane microdomains rich in cholesterol and sphingoglycolipids). To assess the functional role of rafts in the present work, we studied the effect of cholesterol depletion on apical......, the rates of the Golgi-associated complex glycosylation and association with rafts of newly synthesized aminopeptidase N were reduced, and less of the enzyme had reached the brush border membrane after 2 h of labeling. In contrast, the basolateral Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase was neither missorted nor raft......-associated. Our results implicate the Golgi complex/trans-Golgi network in raft formation and suggest a close relationship between this event and apical membrane trafficking....

  13. CRDIAC: Coupled Reactor Depletion Instrument with Automated Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, Steven K.

    2012-01-01

    When modeling the behavior of a nuclear reactor over time, it is important to understand how the isotopes in the reactor will change, or transmute, over that time. This is especially important in the reactor fuel itself. Many nuclear physics modeling codes model how particles interact in the system, but do not model this over time. Thus, another code is used in conjunction with the nuclear physics code to accomplish this. In our code, Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) codes and the Multi Reactor Transmutation Analysis Utility (MRTAU) were chosen as the codes to use. In this way, MCNP would produce the reaction rates in the different isotopes present and MRTAU would use cross sections generated from these reaction rates to determine how the mass of each isotope is lost or gained. Between these two codes, the information must be altered and edited for use. For this, a Python 2.7 script was developed to aid the user in getting the information in the correct forms. This newly developed methodology was called the Coupled Reactor Depletion Instrument with Automated Controls (CRDIAC). As is the case in any newly developed methodology for modeling of physical phenomena, CRDIAC needed to be verified against similar methodology and validated against data taken from an experiment, in our case AFIP-3. AFIP-3 was a reduced enrichment plate type fuel tested in the ATR. We verified our methodology against the MCNP Coupled with ORIGEN2 (MCWO) method and validated our work against the Post Irradiation Examination (PIE) data. When compared to MCWO, the difference in concentration of U-235 throughout Cycle 144A was about 1%. When compared to the PIE data, the average bias for end of life U-235 concentration was about 2%. These results from CRDIAC therefore agree with the MCWO and PIE data, validating and verifying CRDIAC. CRDIAC provides an alternative to using ORIGEN-based methodology, which is useful because CRDIAC's depletion code, MRTAU, uses every available isotope in its depletion

  14. Nitric oxide and DOPAC-induced cell death: from GSH depletion to mitochondrial energy crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Carla; Barbosa, Rui M; Almeida, Leonor; Laranjinha, João

    2011-09-01

    The molecular mechanisms inherent to cell death associated with Parkinson's disease are not clearly understood. Diverse pathways, sequence of events and models have been explored in several studies. Recently, we have proposed an integrative mechanism, encompassing the interaction of nitric oxide (•NO) and a major dopamine metabolite, dihydroxyphenylacetic (DOPAC), leading to a synergistic mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death that may be operative in PD. In this study, we have studied the sequence of events underlying the mechanisms of cell death in PC12 cells exposed to •NO and DOPAC in terms of: a) free radical production; b) modulation by glutathione (GSH); c) energetic status and d) outer membrane mitochondria permeability. Using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) it is shown the early production of oxygen free radicals followed by a depletion of GSH reflected by an increase of GSSG/GSH ratio in the cells treated with the mixture of •NO/DOPAC, as compared with the cells individually exposed to each of the stimulus. Glutathione ethyl ester (GSH-EE) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) may rescue cells from death, increasing GSH content and preventing ATP loss in cells treated with the mixture DOPAC/•NO but failed to exert similar effects in the cells challenged only with •NO. The depletion of GSH is accompanied by a decreased activity of mitochondrial complex I. At a later stage, the concerted action of DOPAC and •NO include a rise in the ratio Bax/Bcl-2, an observation not evident when cells were exposed only to •NO. The results support a free radical-induced pathway leading to cell death involving the concerted action of DOPAC and •NO and the critical role of GSH in maintaining a functional mitochondria. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Event generators for address event representation transmitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Gotarredona, Rafael; Serrano-Gotarredona, Teresa; Linares Barranco, Bernabe

    2005-06-01

    Address Event Representation (AER) is an emergent neuromorphic interchip communication protocol that allows for real-time virtual massive connectivity between huge number neurons located on different chips. By exploiting high speed digital communication circuits (with nano-seconds timings), synaptic neural connections can be time multiplexed, while neural activity signals (with mili-seconds timings) are sampled at low frequencies. Also, neurons generate 'events' according to their activity levels. More active neurons generate more events per unit time, and access the interchip communication channel more frequently, while neurons with low activity consume less communication bandwidth. In a typical AER transmitter chip, there is an array of neurons that generate events. They send events to a peripheral circuitry (let's call it "AER Generator") that transforms those events to neurons coordinates (addresses) which are put sequentially on an interchip high speed digital bus. This bus includes a parallel multi-bit address word plus a Rqst (request) and Ack (acknowledge) handshaking signals for asynchronous data exchange. There have been two main approaches published in the literature for implementing such "AER Generator" circuits. They differ on the way of handling event collisions coming from the array of neurons. One approach is based on detecting and discarding collisions, while the other incorporates arbitration for sequencing colliding events . The first approach is supposed to be simpler and faster, while the second is able to handle much higher event traffic. In this article we will concentrate on the second arbiter-based approach. Boahen has been publishing several techniques for implementing and improving the arbiter based approach. Originally, he proposed an arbitration squeme by rows, followed by a column arbitration. In this scheme, while one neuron was selected by the arbiters to transmit his event out of the chip, the rest of neurons in the array were

  16. Event-by-event jet quenching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fries, R.J.; Rodriguez, R.; Ramirez, E.

    2010-08-14

    High momentum jets and hadrons can be used as probes for the quark gluon plasma (QGP) formed in nuclear collisions at high energies. We investigate the influence of fluctuations in the fireball on jet quenching observables by comparing propagation of light quarks and gluons through averaged, smooth QGP fireballs with event-by-event jet quenching using realistic inhomogeneous fireballs. We find that the transverse momentum and impact parameter dependence of the nuclear modification factor R{sub AA} can be fit well in an event-by-event quenching scenario within experimental errors. However the transport coefficient {cflx q} extracted from fits to the measured nuclear modification factor R{sub AA} in averaged fireballs underestimates the value from event-by-event calculations by up to 50%. On the other hand, after adjusting {cflx q} to fit R{sub AA} in the event-by-event analysis we find residual deviations in the azimuthal asymmetry v{sub 2} and in two-particle correlations, that provide a possible faint signature for a spatial tomography of the fireball. We discuss a correlation function that is a measure for spatial inhomogeneities in a collision and can be constrained from data.

  17. Event-by-event jet quenching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, R. [Cyclotron Institute and Physics Department, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Fries, R.J., E-mail: rjfries@comp.tamu.ed [Cyclotron Institute and Physics Department, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); RIKEN/BNL Research Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Ramirez, E. [Physics Department, University of Texas El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States)

    2010-09-27

    High momentum jets and hadrons can be used as probes for the quark gluon plasma (QGP) formed in nuclear collisions at high energies. We investigate the influence of fluctuations in the fireball on jet quenching observables by comparing propagation of light quarks and gluons through averaged, smooth QGP fireballs with event-by-event jet quenching using realistic inhomogeneous fireballs. We find that the transverse momentum and impact parameter dependence of the nuclear modification factor R{sub AA} can be fit well in an event-by-event quenching scenario within experimental errors. However the transport coefficient q extracted from fits to the measured nuclear modification factor R{sub AA} in averaged fireballs underestimates the value from event-by-event calculations by up to 50%. On the other hand, after adjusting q to fit R{sub AA} in the event-by-event analysis we find residual deviations in the azimuthal asymmetry v{sub 2} and in two-particle correlations, that provide a possible faint signature for a spatial tomography of the fireball. We discuss a correlation function that is a measure for spatial inhomogeneities in a collision and can be constrained from data.

  18. Event-by-event fluctuations at SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Appelshauser, Harald; Adamova, D.; Agakichiev, G.; Belaga, V.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Castillo, A.; Cherlin, A.; Damjanovic, S.; Dietel, T.; Dietrich, L.; Drees, A.; Esumi, S.I.; Filimonov, K.; Fomenko, K.; Fraenkel, Z.; Garabatos, C.; Glassel, P.; Hering, G.; Holeczek, J.; Kushpil, V.; Lenkeit, B.; Ludolphs, W.; Maas, A.; Marn, A.; Milosevic, J.; Milov, A.; Miskowiec, D.; Panebrattsev, Yu.; Petchenova, O.; Petracek, V.; Pfeiffer, A.; Rak, J.; Ravinovich, I.; Rehak, P.; Schmitz, W.; Schukraft, J.; Sedykh, S.; Shimansky, S.; Slvova, J.; Stachel, J.; Sumbera, M.; Tilsner, H.; Tserruya, Itzhak; Wessels, J.P.; Wienold, T.; Windelband, B.; Wurm, J.P.; Xie, W.; Yurevich, S.; Yurevich, V.; Appelshauser, Harald; Sako, Hiro

    2005-01-01

    Results on event-by-event fluctuations of the mean transverse momentum and net charge in Pb-Au collisions, measured by the CERES Collaboration at CERN-SPS, are presented. We discuss the centrality and beam energy dependence and compare our data to cascade calculations.

  19. Dietary phosphorus depletion in sheep: Longterm effects on bone structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breves, G.; Prokop, M.

    1990-01-01

    Experiments were performed on 6 sheep from 8 months old to study effects of dietary phosphorus depletion on bone structure. Sheep were given a semisynthetic diet of chopped straw and pellets for 38 weeks. Mean daily P in the diet was 0.97 g and 3 sheep were given additional NaH2PO4.H2O, increasing daily P supply to 4.5 g (controls). Bone density was estimated photometrically within the laterodistal metaphysis of the foreleg and standardized by a copper step wedge. Metacarpal cortical thickness was also measured. Cortical thickness and bone density started to decrease about 4 weeks after start of P depletion. The trabecular structure of the distal radius was coarser and less dense with reduced cross-linking between trabeculae

  20. Is depleted uranium a threat to health and the environment?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This issue has come to the fore in recent years now that Norwegian military personnel have been sent to regions of the world where ammunition made of depleted uranium has been used. A number of surveys have been conducted in the Balkans, so far indicating no health hazards to people present in these areas. However, the latest international surveys show that contamination may be long-lasting. Tonje Sekse represented the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority at the United Nations Environment Programme's (UNEP) inspection tour to Serbia and Montenegro in the autumn of 2001. The report, entitled ''Depleted uranium in Serbia and Montenegro - Post-Conflict Environmental Assessment in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia'' was published by UNEP in March 2002.(author)

  1. Performance Analysis of Depleted Oil Reservoirs for Underground Gas Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. C.I.C. Anyadiegwu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The performance of underground gas storage in depleted oil reservoir was analysed with reservoir Y-19, a depleted oil reservoir in Southern region of the Niger Delta. Information on the geologic and production history of the reservoir were obtained from the available field data of the reservoir. The verification of inventory was done to establish the storage capacity of the reservoir. The plot of the well flowing pressure (Pwf against the flow rate (Q, gives the deliverability of the reservoir at various pressures. Results of the estimated properties signified that reservoir Y-19 is a good candidate due to its storage capacity and its flow rate (Q of 287.61 MMscf/d at a flowing pressure of 3900 psig

  2. Muscle glycogen depletion and lactate concentration during downhill skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesch, P; Larsson, L; Eriksson, A; Karlsson, J

    1978-01-01

    Skilled and unskilled skiers were studied during downhill skiing. Muscle glycogen and muscle lactate concentrations in the vastus lateralis muscle were determined following different skiing conditions. Heavy glycogen utilization was found in the groups studied during a day of skiing. The skilled and unskilled skiers differed with respect to selective glycogen depletion pattern and the skilled subjects demonstrated greater depletion of slow twitch fibers than the unskilled subjects. Lactate concentrations ranged from approximately 5-26 mmoles x kg-1 wet muscle after approximately one minute of maximal skiing. This wide range was not found to be related to the level of skiing proficiency. However, skiing with varyingly angled boots, resulting in different knee angles, did affect lactate concentration. Lactate concentration was positively correlated to individual muscle fiber composition expressed as a percent of fast twitch fibers. The results suggest more pronounced involvement of aerobic energy metabolism in skilled skiers than in unskilled skiers.

  3. Energetic particle pressure in intense ESP events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lario, D.; Decker, R. B.; Roelof, E. C.; Viñas, A.-F.

    2015-09-01

    We study three intense energetic storm particle (ESP) events in which the energetic particle pressure PEP exceeded both the pressure of the background thermal plasma Pth and the pressure of the magnetic field PB. The region upstream of the interplanetary shocks associated with these events was characterized by a depression of the magnetic field strength coincident with the increase of the energetic particle intensities and, when plasma measurements were available, a depleted solar wind density. The general feature of cosmic-ray mediated shocks such as the deceleration of the upstream background medium into which the shock propagates is generally observed. However, for those shocks where plasma parameters are available, pressure balance is not maintained either upstream of or across the shock, which may result from the fact that PEP is not included in the calculation of the shock parameters.

  4. Fully depleted back-illuminated p-channel CCD development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bebek, Chris J.; Bercovitz, John H.; Groom, Donald E.; Holland, Stephen E.; Kadel, Richard W.; Karcher, Armin; Kolbe, William F.; Oluseyi, Hakeem M.; Palaio, Nicholas P.; Prasad, Val; Turko, Bojan T.; Wang, Guobin

    2003-07-08

    An overview of CCD development efforts at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is presented. Operation of fully-depleted, back-illuminated CCD's fabricated on high resistivity silicon is described, along with results on the use of such CCD's at ground-based observatories. Radiation damage and point-spread function measurements are described, as well as discussion of CCD fabrication technologies.

  5. Uranium and the use of depleted uranium in weaponry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roussel, R.

    2000-01-01

    In this brief report the author shows that the use of shells involving a load of depleted uranium might lead to lasting hazards to civil population and environment. These hazards come from the part of the shell that has been dispersed as contaminating radioactive dusts. The author describes some features of radioactivity and highlights the role of Uranium-238 as a provider of energy to the planet. (A.C.)

  6. Effects of deuterium depleted water on reproduction of Rainbow fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, Ion; Saros-Rogobete, Irina; Titescu, Gheorghe; Caraus, Ion; Pricop, Ferdinand

    2001-01-01

    The paper refers to an isotopic composition used to prepare fecundating solutions for artificial reproduction of fish. The solution is constituted as a mixture of deuterium depleted water and natural water (whose isotopic concentration is of 85-90 ppm D/(D+H)) in which we can add activating and energizing substances. This fecundating solution ensures an improved fecundating level of fish roe, increase life index in the next growth up stages and increase fish resistance at special medium conditions. (authors)

  7. Effective fiber hypertrophy in satellite cell-depleted skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, John J.; Mula, Jyothi; Miyazaki, Mitsunori; Erfani, Rod; Garrison, Kelcye; Farooqui, Amreen B.; Srikuea, Ratchakrit; Lawson, Benjamin A.; Grimes, Barry; Keller, Charles; Van Zant, Gary; Campbell, Kenneth S.; Esser, Karyn A.; Dupont-Versteegden, Esther E.; Peterson, Charlotte A.

    2011-01-01

    An important unresolved question in skeletal muscle plasticity is whether satellite cells are necessary for muscle fiber hypertrophy. To address this issue, a novel mouse strain (Pax7-DTA) was created which enabled the conditional ablation of >90% of satellite cells in mature skeletal muscle following tamoxifen administration. To test the hypothesis that satellite cells are necessary for skeletal muscle hypertrophy, the plantaris muscle of adult Pax7-DTA mice was subjected to mechanical overload by surgical removal of the synergist muscle. Following two weeks of overload, satellite cell-depleted muscle showed the same increases in muscle mass (approximately twofold) and fiber cross-sectional area with hypertrophy as observed in the vehicle-treated group. The typical increase in myonuclei with hypertrophy was absent in satellite cell-depleted fibers, resulting in expansion of the myonuclear domain. Consistent with lack of nuclear addition to enlarged fibers, long-term BrdU labeling showed a significant reduction in the number of BrdU-positive myonuclei in satellite cell-depleted muscle compared with vehicle-treated muscle. Single fiber functional analyses showed no difference in specific force, Ca2+ sensitivity, rate of cross-bridge cycling and cooperativity between hypertrophied fibers from vehicle and tamoxifen-treated groups. Although a small component of the hypertrophic response, both fiber hyperplasia and regeneration were significantly blunted following satellite cell depletion, indicating a distinct requirement for satellite cells during these processes. These results provide convincing evidence that skeletal muscle fibers are capable of mounting a robust hypertrophic response to mechanical overload that is not dependent on satellite cells. PMID:21828094

  8. Gamma-ray line intensities for depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, C.E.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements of the gamma-ray line intensities from depleted uranium allowed us to determine which of two conflicting previous experiments was correct. For the 1001-keV line we obtain a branching ratio of 0.834 +- 0.007, in good agreement with one of the previous experiments. A table compares our intensities for several lines with those obtained in previous experiments. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  9. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) depleted uranium waste boxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, W.A.

    1997-08-27

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) allows the one-time shipment of ten metal boxes and one wooden box containing depleted uranium material from the Fast Flux Test Facility to the burial grounds in the 200 West Area for disposal. This SEP provides the analyses and operational controls necessary to demonstrate that the shipment will be safe for the onsite worker and the public.

  10. Assessment of the Risks from Imbedded Fragments of Depleted Uranium

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    for chronic kidney toxicity; the impact of fibrotic encapsulation , if it occurs; and the chemical form of the imbedded fragment. The potential for...Effects of Depleted Uranium Imbedded in Tissue Reference: Brigadier General Ronald R. Blanck (SGPS-PSP) letter of 26 February 1992 In response to your...the muscle and fatty tissue will probably occur and will occur in all other tissue types that elicit similar cellular responses to foreign bodies. It

  11. Bromine measurements in ozone depleted air over the Arctic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Neuman

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In situ measurements of ozone, photochemically active bromine compounds, and other trace gases over the Arctic Ocean in April 2008 are used to examine the chemistry and geographical extent of ozone depletion in the arctic marine boundary layer (MBL. Data were obtained from the NOAA WP-3D aircraft during the Aerosol, Radiation, and Cloud Processes affecting Arctic Climate (ARCPAC study and the NASA DC-8 aircraft during the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS study. Fast (1 s and sensitive (detection limits at the low pptv level measurements of BrCl and BrO were obtained from three different chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS instruments, and soluble bromide was measured with a mist chamber. The CIMS instruments also detected Br2. Subsequent laboratory studies showed that HOBr rapidly converts to Br2 on the Teflon instrument inlets. This detected Br2 is identified as active bromine and represents a lower limit of the sum HOBr + Br2. The measured active bromine is shown to likely be HOBr during daytime flights in the arctic. In the MBL over the Arctic Ocean, soluble bromide and active bromine were consistently elevated and ozone was depleted. Ozone depletion and active bromine enhancement were confined to the MBL that was capped by a temperature inversion at 200–500 m altitude. In ozone-depleted air, BrO rarely exceeded 10 pptv and was always substantially lower than soluble bromide that was as high as 40 pptv. BrCl was rarely enhanced above the 2 pptv detection limit, either in the MBL, over Alaska, or in the arctic free troposphere.

  12. Health and environmental problems of using depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matousek, J.

    2006-01-01

    In the 1970's, a core of depleted uranium (DU) began to be introduced into the break through anti-tank munitions to enhance their effectiveness. The health and environmental threats of DU stem from the pyrophoric character of the core, burnt when penetrating armour to an aerosol of uranium oxides deposited in tissues after inhalation or ingestion. Their delayed effects are due to internal alpha irradiation by daughter products and toxicity of uranium. (authors)

  13. Radiation survey and decontamination of cape Arza from depleted uranium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukotić Perko

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the action of NATO A-10 airplanes in 1999, the cape Arza, Serbia and Montenegro was contaminated by depleted uranium. The clean-up operations were undertaken at the site, and 242 uranium projectiles and their 49 larger fragments were removed from the cape. That is about 85% of the total number of projectiles by which Arza was contaminated. Here are described details of the applied procedures and results of the soil radioactivity measurements after decontamination.

  14. Application of depletion perturbation theory to fuel cycle burnup analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    Over the past several years static perturbation theory methods have been increasingly used for reactor analysis in lieu of more detailed and costly direct computations. Recently, perturbation methods incorporating time dependence have also received attention, and several authors have demonstrated their applicability to fuel burnup analysis. The objective of the work described here is to demonstrate that a time-dependent perturbation method can be easily and accurately applied to realistic depletion problems

  15. Future emission scenarios for chemicals that may deplete stratospheric ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammitt, J.K; Camm, Frank; Mooz, W.E.; Wolf, K.A.; Bamezai, Anil; Connel, P.S.; Wuebbles, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    Scenarios are developed for long-term future emissions of seven of the most important manmade chemicals that may deplete ozone and the corresponding effect on stratospheric ozone concentrations is calculated using a one-dimensional atmospheric model. The scenarios are based on detailed analysis of the markets for products that use these chemicals and span a central 90% probability interval for the chemicals joint effect on calculated ozone abundance, assuming no additional regulations. (author). 22 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  16. Apoptosis and T cell depletion during feline infectious peritonitis

    OpenAIRE

    Horzinek, M.C.; Haagmans, B.L.; Egberink, H.F.

    1996-01-01

    Cats that have succumbed to feline infectious peritonitis, an immune- mediated disease caused by variants of feline coronaviruses, show apoptosis and T-cell depletion in their lymphoid organs. The ascitic fluid that develops in the course of the condition causes apoptosis in vitro but only in activated T cells. Since feline infectious peritonitis virus does not infect T cells, and viral proteins did not inhibit T-cell proliferation, we postulate that soluble mediators released during the infe...

  17. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) depleted uranium waste boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormick, W.A.

    1997-01-01

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) allows the one-time shipment of ten metal boxes and one wooden box containing depleted uranium material from the Fast Flux Test Facility to the burial grounds in the 200 West Area for disposal. This SEP provides the analyses and operational controls necessary to demonstrate that the shipment will be safe for the onsite worker and the public

  18. Frost Induces Respiration and Accelerates Carbon Depletion in Trees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Or Sperling

    Full Text Available Cellular respiration depletes stored carbohydrates during extended periods of limited photosynthesis, e.g. winter dormancy or drought. As respiration rate is largely a function of temperature, the thermal conditions during such periods may affect non-structural carbohydrate (NSC availability and, ultimately, recovery. Here, we surveyed stem responses to temperature changes in 15 woody species. For two species with divergent respirational response to frost, P. integerrima and P. trichocarpa, we also examined corresponding changes in NSC levels. Finally, we simulated respiration-induced NSC depletion using historical temperature data for the western US. We report a novel finding that tree stems significantly increase respiration in response to near freezing temperatures. We observed this excess respiration in 13 of 15 species, deviating 10% to 170% over values predicted by the Arrhenius equation. Excess respiration persisted at temperatures above 0 °C during warming and reoccurred over multiple frost-warming cycles. A large adjustment of NSCs accompanied excess respiration in P. integerrima, whereas P. trichocarpa neither excessively respired nor adjusted NSCs. Over the course of the years included in our model, frost-induced respiration accelerated stem NSC consumption by 8.4 mg (glucose eq. cm(-3 yr(-1 on average in the western US, a level of depletion that may continue to significantly affect spring NSC availability. This novel finding revises the current paradigm of low temperature respiration kinetics.

  19. Frost Induces Respiration and Accelerates Carbon Depletion in Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, Or; Earles, J Mason; Secchi, Francesca; Godfrey, Jessie; Zwieniecki, Maciej A

    2015-01-01

    Cellular respiration depletes stored carbohydrates during extended periods of limited photosynthesis, e.g. winter dormancy or drought. As respiration rate is largely a function of temperature, the thermal conditions during such periods may affect non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) availability and, ultimately, recovery. Here, we surveyed stem responses to temperature changes in 15 woody species. For two species with divergent respirational response to frost, P. integerrima and P. trichocarpa, we also examined corresponding changes in NSC levels. Finally, we simulated respiration-induced NSC depletion using historical temperature data for the western US. We report a novel finding that tree stems significantly increase respiration in response to near freezing temperatures. We observed this excess respiration in 13 of 15 species, deviating 10% to 170% over values predicted by the Arrhenius equation. Excess respiration persisted at temperatures above 0 °C during warming and reoccurred over multiple frost-warming cycles. A large adjustment of NSCs accompanied excess respiration in P. integerrima, whereas P. trichocarpa neither excessively respired nor adjusted NSCs. Over the course of the years included in our model, frost-induced respiration accelerated stem NSC consumption by 8.4 mg (glucose eq.) cm(-3) yr(-1) on average in the western US, a level of depletion that may continue to significantly affect spring NSC availability. This novel finding revises the current paradigm of low temperature respiration kinetics.

  20. Regional strategies for the accelerating global problem of groundwater depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeschbach-Hertig, Werner; Gleeson, Tom

    2012-12-01

    Groundwater--the world's largest freshwater resource--is critically important for irrigated agriculture and hence for global food security. Yet depletion is widespread in large groundwater systems in both semi-arid and humid regions of the world. Excessive extraction for irrigation where groundwater is slowly renewed is the main cause of the depletion, and climate change has the potential to exacerbate the problem in some regions. Globally aggregated groundwater depletion contributes to sea-level rise, and has accelerated markedly since the mid-twentieth century. But its impacts on water resources are more obvious at the regional scale, for example in agriculturally important parts of India, China and the United States. Food production in such regions can only be made sustainable in the long term if groundwater levels are stabilized. To this end, a transformation is required in how we value, manage and characterize groundwater systems. Technical approaches--such as water diversion, artificial groundwater recharge and efficient irrigation--have failed to balance regional groundwater budgets. They need to be complemented by more comprehensive strategies that are adapted to the specific social, economic, political and environmental settings of each region.

  1. Depletion region surface effects in electron beam induced current measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haney, Paul M.; Zhitenev, Nikolai B. [Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Yoon, Heayoung P. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Gaury, Benoit [Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Maryland NanoCenter, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2016-09-07

    Electron beam induced current (EBIC) is a powerful characterization technique which offers the high spatial resolution needed to study polycrystalline solar cells. Current models of EBIC assume that excitations in the p-n junction depletion region result in perfect charge collection efficiency. However, we find that in CdTe and Si samples prepared by focused ion beam (FIB) milling, there is a reduced and nonuniform EBIC lineshape for excitations in the depletion region. Motivated by this, we present a model of the EBIC response for excitations in the depletion region which includes the effects of surface recombination from both charge-neutral and charged surfaces. For neutral surfaces, we present a simple analytical formula which describes the numerical data well, while the charged surface response depends qualitatively on the location of the surface Fermi level relative to the bulk Fermi level. We find that the experimental data on FIB-prepared Si solar cells are most consistent with a charged surface and discuss the implications for EBIC experiments on polycrystalline materials.

  2. Selection of a management strategy for depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patton, S.; Hanrahan, E.; Bradley, C. Jnr.

    1995-01-01

    A consequence of the uranium enrichment process is the accumulation of a significant amount of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ). Currently, in the United States approximately 560 000 tonnes of the material are stored at three different sites. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has recently initiated a programme to consider alternative strategies for the cost-effective and environmentally safe long-term management of this inventory of depleted UF 6 . The programme involves a technology and engineering assessment of proposed management options (which are: use/reuse, conversion, storage, or disposal) and an analysis of the potential environmental impacts and life-cycle costs of alternative management strategies. The information obtained from the studies will be used by the DOE to select a preferred long-term management strategy. Because of its provisions for considering a wide range of relevant issues and involving the public, this programme has become a model for future DOE materials disposition programmes. This paper presents an overview of the Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Programme. Technical findings of the programme to date are presented, and major issues involved in selecting and implementing a management strategy are discussed. (author)

  3. Feeling depleted and powerless: the construal-level mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junha; Lee, Sujin; Rua, Tuvana

    2015-04-01

    Individuals exercise self-control daily to achieve desired goals; at the same time, people engage in social interaction daily and influence (feel powerful) or are influenced (feel powerless) by others. Does controlling the self have an unforeseen consequence for people's perception of their capacity to control others? Five studies-one correlational and four experimental-demonstrate that ego depletion from prior self-control determines one's personal sense of power; low-level, concrete mental construals account for this relationship. Our results showed that people with higher trait self-control reported a greater sense of power (Study 1). People who had depleted their self-control-related regulatory resources (vs. those who had not) experienced a lower sense of power (Study 2). The relationship between ego depletion and low sense of power was mediated by construal level (Study 3) and observed only when low-level, concrete construals were present, but not under high-level, abstract construals (Studies 4 and 5). © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  4. MEASURING Be DEPLETION IN COOL STARS WITH EXOPLANETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado Mena, E.; Israelian, G.; Gonzalez Hernandez, J. I.; Rebolo, R.; Santos, N. C.

    2011-01-01

    We present new UVES spectra of a sample of 14 mostly cool unevolved stars with planetary companions with the aim of studying possible differences in Be abundance with respect to stars without detected planets. We determine Be abundances for these stars that show an increase in Be depletion as we move to lower temperatures. We carry out a differential analysis of spectra of analog stars with and without planets to establish a possible difference in Be content. While for hot stars no measurable difference is found in Be, for the only cool (T eff ∼ 5000 K) planet-host star with several analogs in the sample we find enhanced Be depletion by 0.25 dex. This is a first indication that the extra-depletion of Li in solar-type stars with planets may also happen for Be, but shifted toward lower temperatures (T eff < 5500 K) due to the depth of the convective envelopes. The processes that take place in the formation of planetary systems may affect the mixing of material inside their host stars and hence the abundances of light elements.

  5. Accounting for Depletion of Oil and Gas Resources in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, Jamal, E-mail: jortman@ukm.my; Jafari, Yaghoob, E-mail: yaghoob.jafari@gmail.com [Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Faculty of Economics and Management (Malaysia)

    2012-12-15

    Since oil and gas are non-renewable resources, it is important to identify the extent to which they have been depleted. Such information will contribute to the formulation and evaluation of appropriate sustainable development policies. This paper provides an assessment of the changes in the availability of oil and gas resources in Malaysia by first compiling the physical balance sheet for the period 2000-2007, and then assessing the monetary balance sheets for the said resource by using the Net Present Value method. Our findings show serious reduction in the value of oil reserves from 2001 to 2005, due to changes in crude oil prices, and thereafter the depletion rates decreased. In the context of sustainable development planning, albeit in the weak sustainability sense, it will be important to ascertain if sufficient reinvestments of the estimated resource rents in related or alternative capitals are being attempted by Malaysia. For the study period, the cumulative resource rents were to the tune of RM61 billion. Through a depletion or resource rents policy, the estimated quantum may guide the identification of a reinvestment threshold (after considering needed capital investment for future development of the industry) in light of ensuring the future productive capacity of the economy at the time when the resource is exhausted.

  6. Depletion of solar wind plasma near a planetary boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwan, B.J.; Wolf, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    A mathematical model is presented that describes the squeezing of solar wind plasma out along interplanetary magnetic field lines in the region between the bow shock and the effective planetary boundary (in the case of the earth, the magnetopause). In the absence of local magnetic merging the squeezing process should create a 'depletion layer,' a region of very low plasma density just outside the magnetopause. Numerical solutions are obtained for the dimensionless magnetohydrodynamic equations describing this depletion process for the case where the solar wind magnetic field is perpendicular to the solar wind flow direction. For the case of the earth with a magnetopause standoff distance of 10 R/subE/, the theory predicts that the density should be reduced by a factor > or =2 in a layer about 700--1300 km thick if M/subA/, the Alfven Mach number in the solar wind, is equal to 8. The layer thickness should vary as M/subA/ -2 and should be approximately uniform for a large area of the magnetopause around the subsolar point. Computed layer thicknesses are somewhat smaller than those derived from Lees' axisymmetric model. Depletion layers should develop fully only where magnetic merging is locally unimportant. Scaling of the model calculations to Venus and Mars suggest layer thicknesses about 1/10 and 1/15 those of the earth, respectively, neglecting diffusion and ionospheric effects

  7. Accounting for Depletion of Oil and Gas Resources in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, Jamal; Jafari, Yaghoob

    2012-01-01

    Since oil and gas are non-renewable resources, it is important to identify the extent to which they have been depleted. Such information will contribute to the formulation and evaluation of appropriate sustainable development policies. This paper provides an assessment of the changes in the availability of oil and gas resources in Malaysia by first compiling the physical balance sheet for the period 2000–2007, and then assessing the monetary balance sheets for the said resource by using the Net Present Value method. Our findings show serious reduction in the value of oil reserves from 2001 to 2005, due to changes in crude oil prices, and thereafter the depletion rates decreased. In the context of sustainable development planning, albeit in the weak sustainability sense, it will be important to ascertain if sufficient reinvestments of the estimated resource rents in related or alternative capitals are being attempted by Malaysia. For the study period, the cumulative resource rents were to the tune of RM61 billion. Through a depletion or resource rents policy, the estimated quantum may guide the identification of a reinvestment threshold (after considering needed capital investment for future development of the industry) in light of ensuring the future productive capacity of the economy at the time when the resource is exhausted.

  8. Glutathione depletion by valproic acid in sandwich-cultured rat hepatocytes: Role of biotransformation and temporal relationship with onset of toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiang, Tony K.L.; Teng Xiaowei; Surendradoss, Jayakumar; Karagiozov, Stoyan; Abbott, Frank S.; Chang, Thomas K.H.

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted in sandwich-cultured rat hepatocytes to investigate the chemical basis of glutathione (GSH) depletion by valproic acid (VPA) and evaluate the role of GSH depletion in VPA toxicity. Among the synthetic metabolites of VPA investigated, 4-ene-VPA and (E)-2,4-diene-VPA decreased cellular levels of total GSH, but only (E)-2,4-diene-VPA was more effective and more potent than the parent drug. The in situ generated, cytochrome P450-dependent 4-ene-VPA did not contribute to GSH depletion by VPA, as suggested by the experiment with a cytochrome P450 inhibitor, 1-aminobenzotriazole, to decrease the formation of this metabolite. In support of a role for metabolites, alpha-F-VPA and octanoic acid, which do not undergo biotransformation to form a 2,4-diene metabolite, CoA ester, or glucuronide, did not deplete GSH. A time course experiment showed that GSH depletion did not occur prior to the increase in 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein (a marker of oxidative stress), the decrease in [2-(4-iodophenyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-(2,4-disulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium] (WST-1) product formation (a marker of cell viability), or the increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release (a marker of necrosis) in VPA-treated hepatocytes. In conclusion, the cytochrome P450-mediated 4-ene-VPA pathway does not play a role in the in situ depletion of GSH by VPA, and GSH depletion is not an initiating event in VPA toxicity in sandwich-cultured rat hepatocytes.

  9. Episodes, events, and models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeet eKhemlani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe a novel computational theory of how individuals segment perceptual information into representations of events. The theory is inspired by recent findings in the cognitive science and cognitive neuroscience of event segmentation. In line with recent theories, it holds that online event segmentation is automatic, and that event segmentation yields mental simulations of events. But it posits two novel principles as well: first, discrete episodic markers track perceptual and conceptual changes, and can be retrieved to construct event models. Second, the process of retrieving and reconstructing those episodic markers is constrained and prioritized. We describe a computational implementation of the theory, as well as a robotic extension of the theory that demonstrates the processes of online event segmentation and event model construction. The theory is the first unified computational account of event segmentation and temporal inference. We conclude by demonstrating now neuroimaging data can constrain and inspire the construction of process-level theories of human reasoning.

  10. Decontamination of Cape Arza (Montenegro) from depleted Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukotich, P.; Kovachevich, M.; Vasich, V.; Ristich, N.

    2002-01-01

    On May 30, 1999, NATO A-10 aircrafts attacked Cape Arza, a very attractive touring area on peninsula Lustica, at the entrance of Boka Kotorska Bay, in Montenegro. They fired anti-armour rounds with penetrators made of depleted uranium. Such an armour-penetrating round has a length of 173 mm and a diameter of 30 mm. The bullet has an aluminium case (jacket) and inside it a conical DU penetrator. The length of the penetrator itself is 95 mm, and the diameter of its base is 16 mm. The penetrator weight is 292 g. According to the data reported by NATO (NATO, 2001), the total number of rounds fired against Cape Arza was 480. As to the data on combat mix of the A-10 aircraft gun, 300 (UNEP, 2001) or 400 (UNEP, 2001; FAS) of these rounds where with DU penetrators, and the rest with a classical charge. This means that Cape Arza was contaminated with 90 or 120 kg of DU, or with a radioactivity of (3.5 - 4.7) · 10 9 Bq. Depleted uranium is a waste product of the process of uranium enrichment in 2 35U isotope, for use in nuclear reactors or in nuclear weapons. The isotopic composition of depleted uranium is (Harley et al., 1999): (99.7 - 99.8) % of 2 38U , (0.2 - 0.3) % of 2 35U , 0.001 % of 2 34U , and only traces of 2 34T h, 2 34P a and 2 31T h. If traces of the isotopes 2 36U , 2 39P u and 2 40P u are also present, as it is the case with DU from Cape Arza (UNEP, 2002), the depleted uranium is obtained by reprocessing of spent nuclear reactor fuel. The activity concentration of depleted uranium is 39.42 · 10 6 Bq/kg. Most of it comes from 2 38U and its decay products 2 34T h and 2 34P a which are in radioactive equilibrium (12.27 · 10 6 Bq/kg per each of them), and the less part from 2 35U and 2 31T h (0.16 · 10 6 Bq/kg per each) (UNEP, 1999), while the activity concentration of 2 36U , 2 39P u and 2 40P u is below 100 Bq/kg (UNEP, 2001)

  11. Leukocyte depletion results in improved lung function and reduced inflammatory response after cardiac surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, YJ; Boonstra, PW; vanOeveren, W

    Leukocyte depletion during cardiopulmonary bypass has been demonstrated in animal experiments to improve pulmonary function, Conflicting results have been reported, however, with clinical depletion by arterial line filter of leukocytes at the beginning of cardiopulmonary bypass. In this study, we

  12. The study of necessity of verification-methods for Depleted Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J. B.; Ahn, S. H.; Ahn, G. H.; Chung, S. T.; Shin, J. S.

    2006-01-01

    ROK has tried to establish management system for depleted uranium from 2004, and ROK achieved some results in this field including management software, management skill, and the list of company using the nuclear material. But, the studies for the depleted uranium are insufficient exclude the studies of KAERI. In terms of SSAC, we have to study more about whether the depleted uranium is really dangerous material or not and how is the depleted uranium diverted to the nuclear weapon. The depleted uranium was controlled by the item counting in the national system for the small quantity nuclear material. We don't have unique technical methods to clarify the depleted uranium on-the-spot inspection not laboratory scale. Therefore, I would like to suggest of the necessity of the verification methods for depleted uranium. Furthermore, I would like to show you the methods of the verification of the depleted uranium in national system up to now

  13. Ly6G-mediated depletion of neutrophils is dependent on macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, Kevin W; Dekitani, Ken; Nielsen, Travis B; Pantapalangkoor, Paul; Spellberg, Brad

    2016-01-01

    Antibody-mediated depletion of neutrophils is commonly used to study neutropenia. However, the mechanisms by which antibodies deplete neutrophils have not been well defined. We noticed that mice deficient in complement and macrophages had blunted neutrophil depletion in response to anti-Ly6G monoclonal antibody (MAb) treatment. In vitro, exposure of murine neutrophils to anti-Ly6G MAb in the presence of plasma did not result in significant depletion of cells, either in the presence or absence of complement. In vivo, anti-Ly6G-mediated neutrophil depletion was abrogated following macrophage depletion, but not complement depletion, indicating a requirement for macrophages to induce neutropenia by this method. These results inform the use and limitations of anti-Ly6G antibody as an experimental tool for depleting neutrophils in various immunological settings.

  14. Nature gives us strength: exposure to nature counteracts ego-depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Jason T; Lau, Shun

    2015-01-01

    Previous research rarely investigated the role of physical environment in counteracting ego-depletion. In the present research, we hypothesized that exposure to natural environment counteracts ego-depletion. Three experiments were conducted to test this hypothesis. In Experiment 1, initially depleted participants who viewed pictures of nature scenes showed greater persistence on a subsequent anagram task than those who were given a rest period. Experiment 2 expanded upon this finding by showing that natural environment enhanced logical reasoning performance after ego-depleting task. Experiment 3 adopted a two- (depletion vs. no-depletion) -by-two (nature exposure vs. urban exposure) factorial design. We found that nature exposure moderated the effect of depletion on anagram task performance. Taken together, the present studies offer a viable and novel strategy to mitigate the negative impacts of ego-depletion.

  15. Dynamics of Charged Events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachas, Constantin; Bunster, Claudio; Henneaux, Marc

    2009-01-01

    In three spacetime dimensions the world volume of a magnetic source is a single point, an event. We make the event dynamical by regarding it as the imprint of a flux-carrying particle impinging from an extra dimension. This can be generalized to higher spacetime dimensions and to extended events. We exhibit universal observable consequences of the existence of events and argue that events are as important as particles or branes. We explain how events arise on the world volume of membranes in M theory, and in a Josephson junction in superconductivity.

  16. The global event system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winans, J.

    1994-01-01

    The support for the global event system has been designed to allow an application developer to control the APS event generator and receiver boards. This is done by the use of four new record types. These records are customized and are only supported by the device support modules for the APS event generator and receiver boards. The use of the global event system and its associated records should not be confused with the vanilla EPICS events and the associated event records. They are very different

  17. Effects of solar proton events on dayglow observed by the TIMED/SABER satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hong; Xu, Jiyao; Smith, Anne K.; Chen, Guang-Ming

    2017-07-01

    The effect of solar proton events on the daytime O2 and OH airglows and ozone and atomic oxygen concentrations in the mesosphere is studied using data from the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER). Five events occurred in September 2005, December 2006, March 2012, May 2013, and June 2015 that satisfy two criteria: the maximum proton fluxes are larger than 1000 pfu, and daytime data in the high latitude region are available from SABER. The event in December 2006 is studied in detail, and the effects of all five events are compared in brief. The results indicate that all four parameters in the mesosphere decrease during the events. During the event in 2006, the maximum depletions of O2 and OH dayglow emission rates and ozone and atomic oxygen volume mixing ratios at 70 km are respectively 31.6%, 37.0%, 42.4%, and 38.9%. The effect of the solar proton event changes with latitude, longitude, and altitude. The depletions due to the stronger events are larger on average than those due to the weaker events. The depletions of both dayglow emission rates are weaker than those of ozone and atomic oxygen. The responses of O2 and OH nightglow emissions around their peak altitudes to the SPEs are not as strong and regular as those for dayglow in the mesosphere.

  18. Shiga toxin 1 interaction with enterocytes causes apical protein mistargeting through the depletion of intracellular galectin-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laiko, Marina; Murtazina, Rakhilya; Malyukova, Irina [Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Zhu, Chengru; Boedeker, Edgar C. [Department of Medicine, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Gutsal, Oksana [Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); O' Malley, Robert; Cole, Robert N. [Department of Biochemistry, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Tarr, Phillip I. [Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States); Murray, Karen F. [Department of Pediatrics, Children' s Hospital and Regional Medical Center, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); Kane, Anne [The Tufts New England Medical Center, Boston, MA 02111 (United States); Donowitz, Mark [Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Kovbasnjuk, Olga, E-mail: okovbas1@jhmi.edu [Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Shiga toxins (Stx) 1 and 2 are responsible for intestinal and systemic sequelae of infection by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC). However, the mechanisms through which enterocytes are damaged remain unclear. While secondary damage from ischemia and inflammation are postulated mechanisms for all intestinal effects, little evidence excludes roles for more primary toxin effects on intestinal epithelial cells. We now document direct pathologic effects of Stx on intestinal epithelial cells. We study a well-characterized rabbit model of EHEC infection, intestinal tissue and stool samples from EHEC-infected patients, and T84 intestinal epithelial cells treated with Stx1. Toxin uptake by intestinal epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo causes galectin-3 depletion from enterocytes by increasing the apical galectin-3 secretion. This Shiga toxin-mediated galectin-3 depletion impairs trafficking of several brush border structural proteins and transporters, including villin, dipeptidyl peptidase IV, and the sodium-proton exchanger 2, a major colonic sodium absorptive protein. The mistargeting of proteins responsible for the absorptive function might be a key event in Stx1-induced diarrhea. These observations provide new evidence that human enterocytes are directly damaged by Stx1. Conceivably, depletion of galectin-3 from enterocytes and subsequent apical protein mistargeting might even provide a means whereby other pathogens might alter intestinal epithelial absorption and produce diarrhea.

  19. Event by event physics in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Christakoglou, Panos

    2009-01-01

    Fluctuations of thermodynamic quantities are fundamental for the study of the QGP phase transition. The ALICE experiment is well suited for precise event-by-event measurements of various quantities. In this article, we review the capabilities of ALICE to study the fluctuations of several key observables such as the net charge, the temperature, and the particle ratios. Among the observables related to correlations, we review the balance functions and the long range correlations.

  20. 26 CFR 1.1502-44 - Percentage depletion for independent producers and royalty owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Percentage depletion for independent producers...-44 Percentage depletion for independent producers and royalty owners. (a) In general. The sum of the percentage depletion deductions for the taxable year for all oil or gas property owned by all members, plus...

  1. Comparative evaluation of seven commercial products for human serum enrichment/depletion by shotgun proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisanu, Salvatore; Biosa, Grazia; Carcangiu, Laura; Uzzau, Sergio; Pagnozzi, Daniela

    2018-08-01

    Seven commercial products for human serum depletion/enrichment were tested and compared by shotgun proteomics. Methods were based on four different capturing agents: antibodies (Qproteome Albumin/IgG Depletion kit, ProteoPrep Immunoaffinity Albumin and IgG Depletion Kit, Top 2 Abundant Protein Depletion Spin Columns, and Top 12 Abundant Protein Depletion Spin Columns), specific ligands (Albumin/IgG Removal), mixture of antibodies and ligands (Albumin and IgG Depletion SpinTrap), and combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (ProteoMiner beads), respectively. All procedures, to a greater or lesser extent, allowed an increase of identified proteins. ProteoMiner beads provided the highest number of proteins; Albumin and IgG Depletion SpinTrap and ProteoPrep Immunoaffinity Albumin and IgG Depletion Kit resulted the most efficient in albumin removal; Top 2 and Top 12 Abundant Protein Depletion Spin Columns decreased the overall immunoglobulin levels more than other procedures, whereas specifically gamma immunoglobulins were mostly removed by Albumin and IgG Depletion SpinTrap, ProteoPrep Immunoaffinity Albumin and IgG Depletion Kit, and Top 2 Abundant Protein Depletion Spin Columns. Albumin/IgG Removal, a resin bound to a mixture of protein A and Cibacron Blue, behaved less efficiently than the other products. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. 26 CFR 1.612-3 - Depletion; treatment of bonus and advanced royalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Depletion; treatment of bonus and advanced... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Natural Resources § 1.612-3 Depletion; treatment... the payee as a cost depletion deduction in respect of the bonus an amount equal to that proportion of...

  3. Depleted Nanocrystal-Oxide Heterojunctions for High-Sensitivity Infrared Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-28

    Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: 4.3 Electronic Sensing - Depleted Nanocrystal- Oxide Heterojunctions for High...reviewed journals: Final Report: 4.3 Electronic Sensing - Depleted Nanocrystal- Oxide Heterojunctions for High-Sensitivity Infrared Detection Report Title...PERCENT_SUPPORTEDNAME FTE Equivalent: Total Number: 1 1 Final Progress Report Project title: Depleted Nanocrystal- Oxide Heterojunctions for High

  4. The consequences and hazards of depleted uranium weapons used by US army since gulf war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Yongze

    1999-01-01

    Military equipment and development of depleted uranium weapon in USA, the depleted uranium weapon used in gulf war by USA army, personnel irradiation in the gulf war, and the protection in the gulf war are introduced. The radioactivity, radioactive characteristics, chemical toxicity and hazard of the depleted uranium are also introduced

  5. Implantation of a new calculation method of fuel depletion in the CITHAM code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarenga, M.A.B.

    1985-01-01

    It is evaluated the accuracy of the linear aproximation method used in the CITHAN code to obtain the solution of depletion equations. Results are compared with the Benchmark problem. The convenience of depletion chain before criticality calculations is analysed. The depletion calculation was modified using linear combination technic of linear chains. (M.C.K.) [pt

  6. Conferences and Events

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    André Lavoie

    2016-06-14

    Jun 14, 2016 ... Approved by the Management Executive Committee. - 1 - ... Event ‒ represents activities related to IDRC operations and may include both ... Events include business meetings; corporate, branch or divisional management.

  7. Initiating events frequency determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simic, Z.; Mikulicic, V.; Vukovic, I.

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes work performed for the Nuclear Power Station (NPS). Work is related to the periodic initiating events frequency update for the Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA). Data for all relevant NPS initiating events (IE) were reviewed. The main focus was on events occurring during most recent operating history (i.e., last four years). The final IE frequencies were estimated by incorporating both NPS experience and nuclear industry experience. Each event was categorized according to NPS individual plant examination (IPE) initiating events grouping approach. For the majority of the IE groups, few, or no events have occurred at the NPS. For those IE groups with few or no NPS events, the final estimate was made by means of a Bayesian update with general nuclear industry values. Exceptions are rare loss-of-coolant-accidents (LOCA) events, where evaluation of engineering aspects is used in order to determine frequency.(author)

  8. Advertising Effectiveness In Events

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Sushilkumar

    2012-01-01

    Confronted with decreasing effectiveness of the classic marketing communications, events have become an increasingly popular alternative for marketers. Events constitute one of the most exciting and fastest growing forms of leisure and business. With time, the decreasing effectiveness of classical marketing communications boosted the use of events for marketing and making brand awareness. Event marketing is seen as the unique opportunity to integrate the firm’s communication activities like p...

  9. A Mosque event

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kirsten; Neergaard, Maja de; Koefoed, Lasse Martin

    2017-01-01

    and public imaginations attached to it. And they are connected to a specific event – the opening of the mosque. In the first part, a conceptual framework is presented bringing together literature on three notions: encounters, visibility and the event. Following this, the paper explores the opening event...

  10. On semirecurrent events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvurechenskij, A.

    1984-01-01

    In some problems of the mathematical theory of particle counters, film or filmless measurements of track ionization in high energy physics,queueing theory, random walks, etc., the classes of emirecurrent and m-semirecurrent events, which generalize the recurrent events and the recurrent events with delay, appeared. In the paper their basic properties, and some relationships between them are shown

  11. Selection of a management strategy for depleted uranium hexafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patton, S.E.; Hanrahan, E.J.; Bradley, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    A consequence of the uranium enrichment process used in the United States (US) is the accumulation of a significant amount of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ). Currently, approximately 560,000 metric tons of the material are stored at three different sites. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has recently initiated a program to consider alternative strategies for the cost-effective and environmentally safe long-term management of this inventory of depleted UF 6 . The program involves a technology and engineering assessment of proposed management options (use/reuse, conversion, storage, or disposal) and an analysis of the potential environmental impacts and life-cycle costs of alternative management strategies. The information obtained from the studies will be used by the DOE to select a preferred long-term management strategy. The selection and implementation of a management strategy will involve consideration of a number of important issues such as environmental, health, and safety effects; the balancing of risks versus costs in a context of reduced government spending; socioeconomic implications, including effects on the domestic and international uranium industry; the technical status of proposed uses or technologies; and public involvement in the decision making process. Because of its provisions for considering a wide range of relevant issues and involving the public, this program has become a model for future DOE materials disposition programs. This paper presents an overview of the Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program. Technical findings of the program to date are presented, and major issues involved in selecting and implementing a management strategy are discussed

  12. Depleted-Heterojunction Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Pattantyus-Abraham, Andras G.

    2010-06-22

    Colloidal quantum dot (CQD) photovoltaics combine low-cost solution processability with quantum size-effect tunability to match absorption with the solar spectrum. Rapid recent advances in CQD photovoltaics have led to impressive 3.6% AM1.5 solar power conversion efficiencies. Two distinct device architectures and operating mechanisms have been advanced. The first-the Schottky device-was optimized and explained in terms of a depletion region driving electron-hole pair separation on the semiconductor side of a junction between an opaque low-work-function metal and a p-type CQD film. The second-the excitonic device-employed a CQD layer atop a transparent conductive oxide (TCO) and was explained in terms of diffusive exciton transport via energy transfer followed by exciton separation at the type-II heterointerface between the CQD film and the TCO. Here we fabricate CQD photovoltaic devices on TCOs and show that our devices rely on the establishment of a depletion region for field-driven charge transport and separation, and that they also exploit the large bandgap of the TCO to improve rectification and block undesired hole extraction. The resultant depletedheterojunction solar cells provide a 5.1% AM1.5 power conversion efficiency. The devices employ infrared-bandgap size-effect-tuned PbS CQDs, enabling broadband harvesting of the solar spectrum. We report the highest opencircuit voltages observed in solid-state CQD solar cells to date, as well as fill factors approaching 60%, through the combination of efficient hole blocking (heterojunction) and very small minority carrier density (depletion) in the large-bandgap moiety. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  13. L-Tryptophan depletion bioreactor, a possible cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Bambauer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The cancer therapeutic strategies knownto date are not adequate for all cancer patients. Most of them are followed by a high rate of side effects and complications. The L-tryptophan depletion bioreactor is described as a possible new method of cancer therapy. L-tryptophan is an essential amino acid which has been recognized as an important cancer nutrient and its removal can lead to destruction of the tumour. Normal human cells or tumor cells cannot synthesize L-tryptophan and therefore tumor resistance is unlikely to develop. L-tryptophan is also a constituent for different bio-molecules such as Serotonin, Melatonin, and is needed for other synthesis processes in the cell growth. L-tryptophan degrading enzymes with 3 iso-enzymes called tryptophan side chain oxydase (TSO I, II, III were isolated. The 3 iso-enzymes can be differentiated by tryptic digestion. They have different molecular weights with different effectivenesses. All the TSO enzymes have heme that can catalyze essentially similar reactions involving L-tryptophan as a substrate. The most effective TSO is the type TSO III. A column which contained TSO as a bioreactor was integrated in a plasmapheresis unit and tested it in different animals. In sheep and rabbits L-tryptophan depletion in plasma was shown at 95% and 100% rates respectively by a single pass through the bioreactor. The results in immune supprimized rats with tumors were impressive, too. In 20 different tumor cell lines there were different efficacies. Brest cancer and medulloblastoma showed the greatest efficacy of L-tryptophan degrading. The gene technology of TSO production from Pseudomonas is associated with formation of endotoxins. This disadvantage can be prevented by different washing procedures or by using fungal sources for the TSO production. TSO III is developed to treat cancer diseases successfully, and has low side effects. A combination of L-tryptophan depletion with all available cancer therapies is

  14. Depletion mapping and constrained optimization to support managing groundwater extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fienen, Michael N.; Bradbury, Kenneth R.; Kniffin, Maribeth; Barlow, Paul M.

    2018-01-01

    Groundwater models often serve as management tools to evaluate competing water uses including ecosystems, irrigated agriculture, industry, municipal supply, and others. Depletion potential mapping—showing the model-calculated potential impacts that wells have on stream baseflow—can form the basis for multiple potential management approaches in an oversubscribed basin. Specific management approaches can include scenarios proposed by stakeholders, systematic changes in well pumping based on depletion potential, and formal constrained optimization, which can be used to quantify the tradeoff between water use and stream baseflow. Variables such as the maximum amount of reduction allowed in each well and various groupings of wells using, for example, K-means clustering considering spatial proximity and depletion potential are considered. These approaches provide a potential starting point and guidance for resource managers and stakeholders to make decisions about groundwater management in a basin, spreading responsibility in different ways. We illustrate these approaches in the Little Plover River basin in central Wisconsin, United States—home to a rich agricultural tradition, with farmland and urban areas both in close proximity to a groundwater-dependent trout stream. Groundwater withdrawals have reduced baseflow supplying the Little Plover River below a legally established minimum. The techniques in this work were developed in response to engaged stakeholders with various interests and goals for the basin. They sought to develop a collaborative management plan at a watershed scale that restores the flow rate in the river in a manner that incorporates principles of shared governance and results in effective and minimally disruptive changes in groundwater extraction practices.

  15. Self-Regulatory Capacities Are Depleted in a Domain-Specific Manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Rzepus, Anneka; Beste, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Performing an act of self-regulation such as making decisions has been suggested to deplete a common limited resource, which impairs all subsequent self-regulatory actions (ego depletion theory). It has however remained unclear whether self-referred decisions truly impair behavioral control even in seemingly unrelated cognitive domains, and which neurophysiological mechanisms are affected by these potential depletion effects. In the current study, we therefore used an inter-individual design to compare two kinds of depletion, namely a self-referred choice-based depletion and a categorization-based switching depletion, to a non-depleted control group. We used a backward inhibition (BI) paradigm to assess the effects of depletion on task switching and associated inhibition processes. It was combined with EEG and source localization techniques to assess both behavioral and neurophysiological depletion effects. The results challenge the ego depletion theory in its current form: Opposing the theory's prediction of a general limited resource, which should have yielded comparable effects in both depletion groups, or maybe even a larger depletion in the self-referred choice group, there were stronger performance impairments following a task domain-specific depletion (i.e., the switching-based depletion) than following a depletion based on self-referred choices. This suggests at least partly separate and independent resources for various cognitive control processes rather than just one joint resource for all self-regulation activities. The implications are crucial to consider for people making frequent far-reaching decisions e.g., in law or economy.

  16. Effect of acrolein and glutathione depleting agents on thioredoxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xianmei; Wu Xuli; Choi, Young Eun; Kern, Julie C.; Kehrer, James P.

    2004-01-01

    Acrolein is a widespread environmental pollutant that reacts rapidly with nucleophiles, especially cellular thiols. In addition to glutathione (GSH), thioredoxin (Trx) and thioredoxin reductase (TR) contain thiol groups and may react with electrophiles. In the present study, A549 cells treated with 5-25 μM acrolein for 30 min lost cellular Trx activity in a dose-dependent fashion. Over 90% of Trx activity was lost at concentrations of 25 μM or greater. In contrast, Trx protein content, as assessed by western blotting, was not altered immediately after the 30 min acrolein treatment. Both Trx activity and protein levels increased 4 h after the acrolein treatment. However, Trx activity remained below control levels at 24 h. A similar dose-response relationship was seen with TR in A549 cells exposed to acrolein. There was, however, a rapid recovery of TR activity such that it attained normal levels by 4 h after doses ≤75 μM acrolein. Diethyl maleate (DEM), a common but not highly specific, agent used to deplete GSH, also inactivated Trx. A 2 h exposure of A549 cells to 1 mM DEM depleted cellular GSH by ∼50% and diminished Trx activity by over 67%. Lower DEM doses (0.125 mM and 0.25 mM) for 1 h had no significant effect on GSH but significantly decreased Trx activity 12 and 23%, respectively. Similar to immediately after acrolein exposure, DEM did not affect Trx protein levels. A Trx-1-GFP fusion protein was transfected into A549 cells. While the fusion protein was expressed, the Trx component was inactive by the insulin reducing assay. In summary, Trx and TR are inactivated by acrolein. In addition, the GSH depleting agent DEM inactivates Trx somewhat more effectively than it depletes GSH. The Trx-1-GFP fusion protein, while readily expressed, appears to have little or no activity, perhaps because the small size of Trx-1 (12 kDa) is affected by the larger GFP

  17. Numerical Simulation of Ionospheric Electron Concentration Depletion by Rocket Exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yong; Shi Jiaming; Yuan Zhongcai

    2011-01-01

    In terms of the diffusive process of the gases injected from rocket exhaust into the ionosphere and the relevant chemical reactions between the gases and the composition of ionosphere, the modifications in ionosphere caused by the injected hydrogen and carbon dioxide gas from the rocket exhaust are investigated. The results show that the diffusive process of the injected gases at the ionospheric height is very fast, and the injected gases can lead to a local depletion of electron concentration in the F-region. Furthermore, the plasma 'hole' caused by carbon dioxide is larger, deeper and more durable than that by the hydrogen. (astrophysics and space plasma)

  18. [Cystinosis : Diagnosis, cystine-depleting therapy, and transition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufeld, Jessica; Weber, Lutz T; Kurschat, Christine; Canaan-Kuehl, Sima; Brand, Eva; Oh, Jun; Pape, Lars

    2018-04-18

    This article presents a case of cystinosis in a young man. Diagnosis of the disease and the problem of transition to adult care are described. Cystinosis is a rare lysosomal storage disease with first manifestation in early childhood presenting as renal Fanconi syndrome. Without treatment, the disease leads to severe health impairment. Due to the rarity of the disease, a correct diagnosis is often delayed. Without treatment, cystinosis often leads to end-stage renal failure, blindness, hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus, and rickets. Cystine-depleting therapy with cysteamine significantly improves mortality and quality of life.

  19. Processing and Applications of Depleted Uranium Alloy Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-09-01

    ammunition, weapons, gyrorotors, and ballast. Depleted uranium used in fly- wheel devices, nuclear fuel casks, and ammunition could consume a significant...from straight in the range of 0,002 to 0.060-inch TIR (total indicated runout ) with an average of 0.025-inch TIR.* Solution heat treatment of the as-cast...an envelope thickness of 0.050 inch to allow for runout and to clean up surface imperfections. The runout resulting from heat treatment was in the

  20. Uranium, depleted uranium, biological effects; Uranium, uranium appauvri, effets biologiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Physicists, chemists and biologists at the CEA are developing scientific programs on the properties and uses of ionizing radiation. Since the CEA was created in 1945, a great deal of research has been carried out on the properties of natural, enriched and depleted uranium in cooperation with university laboratories and CNRS. There is a great deal of available data about uranium; thousands of analyses have been published in international reviews over more than 40 years. This presentation on uranium is a very brief summary of all these studies. (author)

  1. Microstructure of depleted uranium under uniaxial strain conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zurek, A.K.; Embury, J.D.; Kelly, A.; Thissell, W.R.; Gustavsen, R.L.; Vorthman, J.E.; Hixson, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    Uranium samples of two different purities were used for spall strength measurements. Samples of depleted uranium were taken from very high purity material (38 ppM carbon) and from material containing 280 ppM C. Experimental conditions were chosen to effectively arrest the microstructural damage at two places in the development to full spall separation. Samples were soft recovered and characterized with respect to the microstructure and the form of damage. This allowed determination of the dependence of spall mechanisms on stress level, stress state, and sample purity. This information is used in developing a model to predict the mode of fracture

  2. Method for depleting BWRs using optimal control rod patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taner, M.S.; Levine, S.H.; Hsiao, M.Y.

    1991-01-01

    Control rod (CR) programming is an essential core management activity for boiling water reactors (BWRs). After establishing a core reload design for a BWR, CR programming is performed to develop a sequence of exposure-dependent CR patterns that assure the safe and effective depletion of the core through a reactor cycle. A time-variant target power distribution approach has been assumed in this study. The authors have developed OCTOPUS to implement a new two-step method for designing semioptimal CR programs for BWRs. The optimization procedure of OCTOPUS is based on the method of approximation programming and uses the SIMULATE-E code for nucleonics calculations

  3. Depleted uranium storage and disposal trade study: Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hightower, J.R.; Trabalka, J.R.

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to: identify the most desirable forms for conversion of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6) for extended storage, identify the most desirable forms for conversion of DUF6 for disposal, evaluate the comparative costs for extended storage or disposal of the various forms, review benefits of the proposed plasma conversion process, estimate simplified life-cycle costs (LCCs) for five scenarios that entail either disposal or beneficial reuse, and determine whether an overall optimal form for conversion of DUF6 can be selected given current uncertainty about the endpoints (specific disposal site/technology or reuse options)

  4. Tungsten versus depleted uranium for armour-piercing penetrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.K.

    1983-01-01

    Tungsten alloys have been widely used in the production of armour-piercing (AP) penetrators for defense purposes for the past 40 years. In recent years, however, depleted uranium (DU) has also been utilised for this application. Both materials exhibit high density and strength, two properties necessary for kinetic-energy projectiles to penetrate armour on tanks and other vehicles. The facts, however, support the view that tungsten can and should be utilised as the primary material for most armour-defeating ordnance applications. (author)

  5. Depleted uranium storage and disposal trade study: Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hightower, J.R.; Trabalka, J.R.

    2000-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to: identify the most desirable forms for conversion of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6) for extended storage, identify the most desirable forms for conversion of DUF6 for disposal, evaluate the comparative costs for extended storage or disposal of the various forms, review benefits of the proposed plasma conversion process, estimate simplified life-cycle costs (LCCs) for five scenarios that entail either disposal or beneficial reuse, and determine whether an overall optimal form for conversion of DUF6 can be selected given current uncertainty about the endpoints (specific disposal site/technology or reuse options).

  6. The pseudo-harmonics method applied to depletion calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, F.C. da; Amaral, J.A.C.; Thome, Z.D.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, a new method for performing depletion calculations, based on the use of the Pseudo-Harmonics perturbation method, was developed. The fuel burnup was considered as a global perturbation and the multigroup difusion equations were rewriten in such a way as to treat the soluble boron concentration as the eigenvalue. By doing this, the critical boron concentration can be obtained by a perturbation method. A test of the new method was performed for a H 2 O-colled, D 2 O-moderated reactor. Comparison with direct calculation showed that this method is very accurate and efficient. (author) [pt

  7. Storage and uses alternatives of depleted UF6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, S.; Dotto, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    The U-enrichment of the Angra-1 pellets (Brazil) have generated about 792 ton of depleted-U, which is nowadays beeing stored by URENCO. The possible sending of this compound to Brazil, added to the fact that in the future, NUCLEI (Nuclebras Enriquecimento Isotopico) itself will generate it, reopens the discussion of the destination of this compound. In this context, the necessity, interest and viability aspects of a reconvertion plant of UF 6 in Brazil are getting important and are, in what follows, breafly discussed. (author) [pt

  8. Depleted-Uranium Weapons: the Whys and Wherefores

    OpenAIRE

    Gsponer, Andre

    2003-01-01

    The only military application in which depleted-uranium (DU) alloys out-perform present-day tungsten alloys is long-rod penetration into a main battle-tank's armor. However, this advantage is only on the order of 10%, and it disappears when the comparison is made in terms of actual lethality of complete anti-tank systems instead of laboratory-type steel penetration capability. Therefore, new micro- and nano-engineered tungsten alloys may soon out-perform DU alloys, enabling the production of ...

  9. Study and application of microscopic depletion model in core simulator of COSINE project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Xiaoyu; Wang Su; Yan Yuhang; Liu Zhanquan; Chen Yixue; Huang Kai

    2013-01-01

    Microscopic depletion correction is one of the commonly used techniques that could improve the historical effect and attain higher precision of diffusion calculation and alleviate the inaccuracy caused by historical effect. Core simulator of COSINE project (core and system integrated engine for design and analysis) has developed a hybrid macroscopic-microscopic depletion model to track important isotopes during each depletion history and correct the macro cross sections. The basic theory was discussed in this paper. The effect and results of microscopic depletion correction were also analyzed. The preliminary test results demonstrate that the microscopic depletion model is effective and practicable for improving the precision of core calculation. (authors)

  10. Fluid Volume Expansion and Depletion in Hemodialysis Patients Lack Association with Clinical Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Kalainy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Achievement of normal volume status is crucial in hemodialysis (HD, since both volume expansion and volume contraction have been associated with adverse outcome and events. Objectives: The objectives of this study are to assess the prevalence of fluid volume expansion and depletion and to identify the best clinical parameter or set of parameters that can predict fluid volume expansion in HD patients. Design: This study is cross-sectional. Setting: This study was conducted in three hemodialysis units. Patients: In this study, there are 194 HD patients. Methods: Volume status was assessed by multifrequency bio-impedance spectroscopy (The Body Composition Monitor, Fresenius prior to the mid-week HD session. Results: Of all patients, 48 % ( n = 94 were volume-expanded and 9 % of patients were volume-depleted ( n = 17. Interdialytic weight gain was not different between hypovolemic, normovolemic, and hypervolemic patients. Fifty percent of the volume-expanded patients were hypertensive. Paradoxical hypertension was very common (31 % of all patients; its incidence was not different between patient groups. Intradialytic hypotension was relatively common and was more frequent among hypovolemic patients. Multivariate regression analysis identified only four predictors for volume expansion (edema, lower BMI, higher SBP, and smoking. None of these parameters displayed both a good sensitivity and specificity. Limitations: The volume assessment was performed once. Conclusions: The study indicates that volume expansion is highly prevalent in HD population and could not be identified using clinical parameters alone. No clinical parameters were identified that could reliably predict volume status. This study shows that bio-impedance can assist to determine volume status. Volume status, in turn, is not related to intradialytic weight gain and is unable to explain the high incidence of paradoxical hypertension.

  11. The Influence of Chronic Ego Depletion on Goal Adherence: An Experience Sampling Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ligang; Tao, Ting; Fan, Chunlei; Gao, Wenbin; Wei, Chuguang

    2015-01-01

    Although ego depletion effects have been widely observed in experiments in which participants perform consecutive self-control tasks, the process of ego depletion remains poorly understood. Using the strength model of self-control, we hypothesized that chronic ego depletion adversely affects goal adherence and that mental effort and motivation are involved in the process of ego depletion. In this study, 203 students reported their daily performance, mental effort, and motivation with respect to goal directed behavior across a 3-week time period. People with high levels of chronic ego depletion were less successful in goal adherence than those with less chronic ego depletion. Although daily effort devoted to goal adherence increased with chronic ego depletion, motivation to adhere to goals was not affected. Participants with high levels of chronic ego depletion showed a stronger positive association between mental effort and performance, but chronic ego depletion did not play a regulatory role in the effect of motivation on performance. Chronic ego depletion increased the likelihood of behavior regulation failure, suggesting that it is difficult for people in an ego-depletion state to adhere to goals. We integrate our results with the findings of previous studies and discuss possible theoretical implications.

  12. Event-by-Event Observables and Fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    In this talk the status and open questions of the phenomenological description of all the stages of a heavy ion reaction are highlighted. Special emphasis is put on event-by-event fluctuations and associated observables. The first part is concentrated on high RHIC and LHC energies and the second part reviews the challenges for modeling heavy ion reactions at lower beam energies in a more realistic fashion. Overall, the main conclusion is that sophisticated theoretical dynamical approaches that describe many observables in the same framework are essential for the quantitative understanding of the properties of hot and dense nuclear matter

  13. Gamma spectrometric determination of depleted Uranium in Yugoslavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantelic, G.; Eremic Savkovic, M.; Javorina, L.; Tanaskovic, I.; Vuletic, V.; Milacic, S.

    2002-01-01

    The radiation protection is very important interdisciplinary research field due to the presence of the radiation in daily life. The systematic examination of radioactive contamination of various environmental samples was established forty years ago in the Institute of Occupational and Radiological Health Dr Dragomir Karajovic for the sake of preventive protection of population and environment from the harmful effect of ionizing radiation. The global sources of radionuclide contamination in our country are the fallout due to previous nuclear testing and the deposition of radionuclides from the region of Chernobyl accident. The contents of radionuclides were determined in aerosol, soil, fallout (wet and dry deposition), rivers, lakes, drinking water, human and animal food. The samples were collected in several locations of the Republic of Serbia and in regular time intervals, according to methods determined by the regulation. The regulations and the monitoring programs were updated after the Chernobyl accident. In the recent time, after the NATO aggression, we analyzed depleted uranium content in the environmental samples. We used high-resolution gamma spectrometry measurements, because of their simplicity and accuracy. Aims of the control were to asses the increase of radioactivity above the natural levels in the immediate and near vicinity of the bomb craters, to asses the corresponding effect of changed natural radioactivity on the health of the population living in these places and finding unexploded depleted uranium bullets

  14. Experimental depletion of different renal interstitial cell populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohman, S.O.; Sundelin, B.; Forsum, U.; Tribukait, B.

    1988-01-01

    To define different populations of renal interstitial cells and investigate some aspects of their function, we studied the kidneys of normal rats and rats with hereditary diabetes insipidus (DI, Brattleboro) after experimental manipulations expected to alter the number of interstitial cells. DI rats showed an almost complete loss of interstitial cells in their renal papillae after treatment with a high dose of vasopressin. In spite of the lack of interstitial cells, the animals concentrated their urine to the same extent as vasopressin-treated normal rats, indicating that the renomedullary interstitial cells do not have an important function in concentrating the urine. The interstitial cells returned nearly to normal within 1 week off vasopressin treatment, suggesting a rapid turnover rate of these cells. To further distinguish different populations of interstitial cells, we studied the distribution of class II MHC antigen expression in the kidneys of normal and bone-marrow depleted Wistar rats. Normal rats had abundant class II antigen-positive interstitial cells in the renal cortex and outer medulla, but not in the inner medulla (papilla). Six days after 1000 rad whole body irradiation, the stainable cells were almost completely lost, but electron microscopic morphometry showed a virtually unchanged volume density of interstitial cells in the cortex and outer medulla, as well as the inner medulla. Thus, irradiation abolished the expression of the class II antigen but caused no significant depletion of interstitial cells

  15. Ozone-depleting-substance control and phase-out plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickels, J.M.; Brown, M.J.

    1994-07-01

    Title VI of the Federal Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 requires regulation of the use and disposal of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) (e.g., Halon, Freon). Several important federal regulations have been promulgated that affect the use of such substances at the Hanford Site. On April 23, 1993, Executive Order (EO) 12843, Procurement Requirements and Policies for Federal Agencies for Ozone-Depleting Substances (EPA 1993) was issued for Federal facilities to conform to the new US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations implementing the Clean Air Act of 1963 (CAA), Section 613, as amended. To implement the requirements of Title VI the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL), issued a directive to the Hanford Site contractors on May 25, 1994 (Wisness 1994). The directive assigns Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) the lead in coordinating the development of a sitewide comprehensive implementation plan to be drafted by July 29, 1994 and completed by September 30, 1994. The implementation plan will address several areas where immediate compliance action is required. It will identify all current uses of ODSs and inventories, document the remaining useful life of equipment that contains ODS chemicals, provide a phase-out schedule, and provide a strategy that will be implemented consistently by all the Hanford Site contractors. This plan also addresses the critical and required elements of Federal regulations, the EO, and US Department of Energy (DOE) guidance. This plan is intended to establish a sitewide management system to address the clean air requirements

  16. Separation and recovery method for depleted uranium from spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imoto, Yoshie; Fujita, Reiko.

    1993-01-01

    Spent oxide fuels are reduced in a molten salt of CaCl 2 -CaF 2 to convert them into metals, then melted in an Fe-U bath disposed in an electrolytic refining vessel and brought into contact with molten Mg, to extract transuranium elements and rare earth elements contained in the Fe-U bath as metals in the molten Mg. Then molten Mg is removed and the residue is brought into contact with KCl-LiCl molten salt and electrolyzed using the Fe-U as an anode. Then, uranium is recovered by deposition on an iron cathode disposed in chloride electrolytes of the electrolytic refining vessel. Uranium and transuranium elements can be thus separated and, for example, depleted uranium for use in blanket fuels can be recovered easily. This can greatly reduce the temporary storage amount of depleted uranium, to eliminate requirement for a large-scaled facility used exclusively for storing uranium and long time management for uranium. (T.M.)

  17. Acute serotonin depletion releases motivated inhibition of response vigour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Ouden, Hanneke E M; Swart, Jennifer C; Schmidt, Kristin; Fekkes, Durk; Geurts, Dirk E M; Cools, Roshan

    2015-04-01

    The neurotransmitter serotonin has long been implicated in the motivational control of behaviour. Recent theories propose that the role of serotonin can be understood in terms of an interaction between a motivational and a behavioural activation axis. Experimental support for these ideas, however, has been mixed. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the role of serotonin (5HT) in behavioural vigour as a function of incentive motivation. We employed dietary acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) to lower the 5HT precursor tryptophan during the performance of a speeded visual discrimination task. Feedback valence and feedback probability were manipulated independently and cued prior to target onset. On feedback trials, fast correct responses led to either reward or avoidance of punishment, while slow or incorrect responses led to reward omission or punishment. We show that behavioural responding is inhibited under high incentive motivation (i.e. high-feedback probability) at baseline 5HT levels and that lowering these leads to behavioural disinhibition, while leaving accuracy unaffected. Surprisingly, there were no differential effects of motivational valence, with 5HT depletion releasing behavioural inhibition under both appetitive and aversive motivation. Our findings extend current theories on the role of 5HT in behavioural inhibition by showing that reductions in serotonin lead to increased behavioural vigour only if there is a motivational drive to inhibit behaviour at baseline.

  18. Depletion GPT-free sensitivity analysis for reactor eigenvalue problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, C.; Abdel-Khalik, H.

    2013-01-01

    This manuscript introduces a novel approach to solving depletion perturbation theory problems without the need to set up or solve the generalized perturbation theory (GPT) equations. The approach, hereinafter denoted generalized perturbation theory free (GPT-Free), constructs a reduced order model (ROM) using methods based in perturbation theory and computes response sensitivity profiles in a manner that is independent of the number or type of responses, allowing for an efficient computation of sensitivities when many responses are required. Moreover, the reduction error from using the ROM is quantified in the GPT-Free approach by means of a Wilks' order statistics error metric denoted the K-metric. Traditional GPT has been recognized as the most computationally efficient approach for performing sensitivity analyses of models with many input parameters, e.g. when forward sensitivity analyses are computationally intractable. However, most neutronics codes that can solve the fundamental (homogenous) adjoint eigenvalue problem do not have GPT capabilities unless envisioned during code development. The GPT-Free approach addresses this limitation by requiring only the ability to compute the fundamental adjoint. This manuscript demonstrates the GPT-Free approach for depletion reactor calculations performed in SCALE6 using the 7x7 UAM assembly model. A ROM is developed for the assembly over a time horizon of 990 days. The approach both calculates the reduction error over the lifetime of the simulation using the K-metric and benchmarks the obtained sensitivities using sample calculations. (authors)

  19. Adult mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome with mild manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Finsterer

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome (MDS is usually a severe disorder of infancy or childhood, due to a reduced copy number of mtDNA molecules. MDS with only mild, non-specific clinical manifestations and onset in adulthood has not been reported. A 47-year-old Caucasian female with short stature and a history of migraine, endometriosis, Crohn’s disease, C-cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland, and a family history positive for mitochondrial disorder (2 sisters, aunt, niece, developed day-time sleepiness, exercise intolerance, and myalgias in the lower-limb muscles since age 46y. She slept 9-10 hours during the night and 2 hours after lunch daily. Clinical exam revealed sore neck muscles, bilateral ptosis, and reduced Achilles tendon reflexes exclusively. Blood tests revealed hyperlipidemia exclusively. Nerve conduction studies, needle electromyography, and cerebral and spinal magnetic resonance imaging were non-informative. Muscle biopsy revealed detached lobulated fibers with subsarcolemmal accentuation of the NADH and SDH staining. Real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed depletion of the mtDNA down to 9% of normal. MDS may be associated with a mild phenotype in adults and may not significantly progress during the first year after onset. In an adult with hypersomnia, severe tiredness, exercise intolerance, and a family history positive for mitochondrial disorder, a MDS should be considered.

  20. Characterization of Prochlorococcus clades from iron-depleted oceanic regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusch, Douglas B; Martiny, Adam C; Dupont, Christopher L; Halpern, Aaron L; Venter, J Craig

    2010-09-14

    Prochlorococcus describes a diverse and abundant genus of marine photosynthetic microbes. It is primarily found in oligotrophic waters across the globe and plays a crucial role in energy and nutrient cycling in the ocean ecosystem. The abundance, global distribution, and availability of isolates make Prochlorococcus a model system for understanding marine microbial diversity and biogeochemical cycling. Analysis of 73 metagenomic samples from the Global Ocean Sampling expedition acquired in the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans revealed the presence of two uncharacterized Prochlorococcus clades. A phylogenetic analysis using six different genetic markers places the clades close to known lineages adapted to high-light environments. The two uncharacterized clades consistently cooccur and dominate the surface waters of high-temperature, macronutrient-replete, and low-iron regions of the Eastern Equatorial Pacific upwelling and the tropical Indian Ocean. They are genetically distinct from each other and other high-light Prochlorococcus isolates and likely define a previously unrecognized ecotype. Our detailed genomic analysis indicates that these clades comprise organisms that are adapted to iron-depleted environments by reducing their iron quota through the loss of several iron-containing proteins that likely function as electron sinks in the photosynthetic pathway in other Prochlorococcus clades from high-light environments. The presence and inferred physiology of these clades may explain why Prochlorococcus populations from iron-depleted regions do not respond to iron fertilization experiments and further expand our understanding of how phytoplankton adapt to variations in nutrient availability in the ocean.

  1. Use of 60 ppm deuterium depleted water in companionship animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balint, Emilia; Manolescu, N.; Cranganu, D.; Militaru, Manuela; Pop, Aneta; Codreanu, M.; Panait, Marieta; Lastofka, D.

    2004-01-01

    There are presented the results of studies on the effects of deuterium depleted water in companionship animals. Based on these results, a new product was realized, 'Aqua Forte' that is a deuterium depleted potable water (60 ppm deuterium) with beneficial effects in animal's health maintaining. Aqua forte has prophylactic properties (in preventing diseases related to immune system) and therapeutic properties, as adjuvant in various therapeutic programs. The mechanism of action takes place at the cellular metabolism level by replacing the constitutional and free water of 150 ppm deuterium, this resulting in the stimulation of the immune cellular system and also of resistance at the onset of some pathological states. The non-specific stimulation implies performing both the humoral mediated immune reactions and of those cellularly mediated. Aqua forte is recommended in: - the feeding of the young weaned animals, the action being of growth stimulation, and increasing of the resistance against some diseases specific to the age; - as an adjuvant in some chronic diseases (hepatitis, pancreatitis, dermatological diseases, osteoarthropaties, hepato-renal syndrome, renal insufficiency, after surgical interventions, in antitumoral therapy); - in the feeding of the old animals for the quality of life improvement. (authors)

  2. International regime formation: Ozone depletion and global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busmann, N.E.

    1994-03-01

    Two theoretical perspectives, neorealism and neoliberal institutionalism, dominate in international relations. An assessment is made of whether these perspectives provide compelling explanations of why a regime with specific targets and timetables was formed for ozone depletion, while a regime with such specificity was not formed for global climate change. In so doing, the assumptions underlying neorealism and neoliberal institutionalism are examined. A preliminary assessment is offered of the policymaking and institutional bargaining process. Patterns of interstate behavior are evolving toward broader forms of cooperation, at least with regard to global environmental issues, although this process is both slow and cautious. State coalitions on specific issues are not yet powerful enough to create a strong community of states in which states are willing to devolve power to international institutions. It is shown that regime analysis is a useful analytic framework, but it should not be mistaken for theory. Regime analysis provides an organizational framework offering a set of questions regarding the principles and norms that govern cooperation and conflict in an issue area, and whether forces independent of states exist which affect the scope of state behavior. An examination of both neorealism and neoliberal institutionalism, embodied by four approaches to regime formation, demonstrates that neither has sufficient scope to account for contextual dynamics in either the ozone depletion or global climate change regime formation processes. 261 refs

  3. Hormetic effect induced by depleted uranium in zebrafish embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, C.Y.P.; Cheng, S.H.; Yu, K.N.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Studied hormetic effect induced by uranium (U) in embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio). • Hormesis observed at 24 hpf for exposures to 10 μg/l of depleted U (DU). • Hormesis not observed before 30 hpf for exposures to 100 μg/l of DU. • Hormetic effect induced in zebrafish embryos in a dose-and time-dependent manner. - Abstract: The present work studied the hormetic effect induced by uranium (U) in embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio) using apoptosis as the biological endpoint. Hormetic effect is characterized by biphasic dose-response relationships showing a low-dose stimulation and a high-dose inhibition. Embryos were dechorionated at 4 h post fertilization (hpf), and were then exposed to 10 or 100 μg/l depleted uranium (DU) in uranyl acetate solutions from 5 to 6 hpf. For exposures to 10 μg/l DU, the amounts of apoptotic signals in the embryos were significantly increased at 20 hpf but were significantly decreased at 24 hpf, which demonstrated the presence of U-induced hormesis. For exposures to 100 μg/l DU, the amounts of apoptotic signals in the embryos were significantly increased at 20, 24 and 30 hpf. Hormetic effect was not shown but its occurrence between 30 and 48 hpf could not be ruled out. In conclusion, hormetic effect could be induced in zebrafish embryos in a concentration- and time-dependent manner.

  4. Temperature dependent simulation of diamond depleted Schottky PIN diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hathwar, Raghuraj; Dutta, Maitreya; Chowdhury, Srabanti; Goodnick, Stephen M.; Koeck, Franz A. M.; Nemanich, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Diamond is considered as an ideal material for high field and high power devices due to its high breakdown field, high lightly doped carrier mobility, and high thermal conductivity. The modeling and simulation of diamond devices are therefore important to predict the performances of diamond based devices. In this context, we use Silvaco ® Atlas, a drift-diffusion based commercial software, to model diamond based power devices. The models used in Atlas were modified to account for both variable range and nearest neighbor hopping transport in the impurity bands associated with high activation energies for boron doped and phosphorus doped diamond. The models were fit to experimentally reported resistivity data over a wide range of doping concentrations and temperatures. We compare to recent data on depleted diamond Schottky PIN diodes demonstrating low turn-on voltages and high reverse breakdown voltages, which could be useful for high power rectifying applications due to the low turn-on voltage enabling high forward current densities. Three dimensional simulations of the depleted Schottky PIN diamond devices were performed and the results are verified with experimental data at different operating temperatures

  5. Temperature dependent simulation of diamond depleted Schottky PIN diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathwar, Raghuraj; Dutta, Maitreya; Koeck, Franz A. M.; Nemanich, Robert J.; Chowdhury, Srabanti; Goodnick, Stephen M.

    2016-06-01

    Diamond is considered as an ideal material for high field and high power devices due to its high breakdown field, high lightly doped carrier mobility, and high thermal conductivity. The modeling and simulation of diamond devices are therefore important to predict the performances of diamond based devices. In this context, we use Silvaco® Atlas, a drift-diffusion based commercial software, to model diamond based power devices. The models used in Atlas were modified to account for both variable range and nearest neighbor hopping transport in the impurity bands associated with high activation energies for boron doped and phosphorus doped diamond. The models were fit to experimentally reported resistivity data over a wide range of doping concentrations and temperatures. We compare to recent data on depleted diamond Schottky PIN diodes demonstrating low turn-on voltages and high reverse breakdown voltages, which could be useful for high power rectifying applications due to the low turn-on voltage enabling high forward current densities. Three dimensional simulations of the depleted Schottky PIN diamond devices were performed and the results are verified with experimental data at different operating temperatures

  6. Temperature dependent simulation of diamond depleted Schottky PIN diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hathwar, Raghuraj; Dutta, Maitreya; Chowdhury, Srabanti; Goodnick, Stephen M. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-8806 (United States); Koeck, Franz A. M.; Nemanich, Robert J. [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-8806 (United States)

    2016-06-14

    Diamond is considered as an ideal material for high field and high power devices due to its high breakdown field, high lightly doped carrier mobility, and high thermal conductivity. The modeling and simulation of diamond devices are therefore important to predict the performances of diamond based devices. In this context, we use Silvaco{sup ®} Atlas, a drift-diffusion based commercial software, to model diamond based power devices. The models used in Atlas were modified to account for both variable range and nearest neighbor hopping transport in the impurity bands associated with high activation energies for boron doped and phosphorus doped diamond. The models were fit to experimentally reported resistivity data over a wide range of doping concentrations and temperatures. We compare to recent data on depleted diamond Schottky PIN diodes demonstrating low turn-on voltages and high reverse breakdown voltages, which could be useful for high power rectifying applications due to the low turn-on voltage enabling high forward current densities. Three dimensional simulations of the depleted Schottky PIN diamond devices were performed and the results are verified with experimental data at different operating temperatures.

  7. Hormetic effect induced by depleted uranium in zebrafish embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, C.Y.P. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Cheng, S.H., E-mail: bhcheng@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Biomedical Sciences, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Yu, K.N., E-mail: peter.yu@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • Studied hormetic effect induced by uranium (U) in embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio). • Hormesis observed at 24 hpf for exposures to 10 μg/l of depleted U (DU). • Hormesis not observed before 30 hpf for exposures to 100 μg/l of DU. • Hormetic effect induced in zebrafish embryos in a dose-and time-dependent manner. - Abstract: The present work studied the hormetic effect induced by uranium (U) in embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio) using apoptosis as the biological endpoint. Hormetic effect is characterized by biphasic dose-response relationships showing a low-dose stimulation and a high-dose inhibition. Embryos were dechorionated at 4 h post fertilization (hpf), and were then exposed to 10 or 100 μg/l depleted uranium (DU) in uranyl acetate solutions from 5 to 6 hpf. For exposures to 10 μg/l DU, the amounts of apoptotic signals in the embryos were significantly increased at 20 hpf but were significantly decreased at 24 hpf, which demonstrated the presence of U-induced hormesis. For exposures to 100 μg/l DU, the amounts of apoptotic signals in the embryos were significantly increased at 20, 24 and 30 hpf. Hormetic effect was not shown but its occurrence between 30 and 48 hpf could not be ruled out. In conclusion, hormetic effect could be induced in zebrafish embryos in a concentration- and time-dependent manner.

  8. Including environmental concerns in management strategies for depleted uranium hexafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, M.; Avci, H.I.; Bradley, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    One of the major programs within the Office of Nuclear Energy, Science, and Technology of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is the depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF 6 ) management program. The program is intended to find a long-term management strategy for the DUF 6 that is currently stored in approximately 46,400 cylinders at Paducah, KY; Portsmouth, OH; and Oak Ridge, TN, USA. The program has four major components: technology assessment, engineering analysis, cost analysis, and the environmental impact statement (EIS). From the beginning of the program, the DOE has incorporated the environmental considerations into the process of strategy selection. Currently, the DOE has no preferred alternative. The results of the environmental impacts assessment from the EIS, as well as the results from the other components of the program, will be factored into the strategy selection process. In addition to the DOE's current management plan, other alternatives continued storage, reuse, or disposal of depleted uranium, will be considered in the EIS. The EIS is expected to be completed and issued in its final form in the fall of 1997

  9. Evidence and Mechanisms of Fat Depletion in Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebadi, Maryam; Mazurak, Vera C.

    2014-01-01

    The majority of cancer patients experience wasting characterized by muscle loss with or without fat loss. In human and animal models of cancer, body composition assessment and morphological analysis reveals adipose atrophy and presence of smaller adipocytes. Fat loss is associated with reduced quality of life in cancer patients and shorter survival independent of body mass index. Fat loss occurs in both visceral and subcutaneous depots; however, the pattern of loss has been incompletely characterized. Increased lipolysis and fat oxidation, decreased lipogenesis, impaired lipid depositionand adipogenesis, as well as browning of white adipose tissue may underlie adipose atrophy in cancer. Inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) produced by the tumor or adipose tissue may also contribute to adipose depletion. Identifying the mechanisms and time course of fat mass changes in cancer may help identify individuals at risk of adipose depletion and define interventions to circumvent wasting. This review outlines current knowledge of fat mass in cancer and illustrates the need for further studies to assess alterations in visceral and subcutaneous adipose depots and possible mechanisms for loss of fat during cancer progression. PMID:25415607

  10. Using molybdenum depleted in 95Mo in UMo fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakker, K.; Wijtsma, F.; Bos, A.; Mol, C.; Rakhorst, H.; Bretscher, M.; Hofman, G.; Snelgrove, J.

    2002-01-01

    In recent years significant interest was gained in UMo fuel to be used in Material Test Reactors. This interest was induced by the fact that UMo fuel is mechanically stable, even at high uranium concentrations and high U-burnup. These properties are required in order to use Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) and still be able to achieve high flux and burnup values and, thus, to facilitate the conversion from High Enriched Uranium (HEU) to LEU. Neutronics computations have shown that, although the Mo concentration in UMo fuel is not very high (about 5 - 10w%), the neutron absorption cross sections of natural Mo are sufficiently high to have a considerable negative impact on the reactivity of this UMo fuel. In the present research the neutron absorption cross sections of natural Mo are discussed and the option to reduce the cross section of molybdenum by depleting the Mo in 95 Mo is described. Finally the economic consequences of using Mo depleted in 95 Mo are briefly discussed

  11. Reverse depletion method for PWR core reload design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downar, T.J.; Kim, Y.J.

    1985-01-01

    Low-leakage fuel management is currently practiced in over half of all pressurized water reactor (PWR) cores. Prospects for even greater use of in-board fresh fuel loading are good as utilities seek to reduce core vessel fluence, mitigate pressurized thermal shock concerns, and extend vessel lifetime. Consequently, large numbers of burnable poison (BP) pins are being used to control the power peaking at the in-board fresh fuel positions. This has presented an additional complexity to the core reload design problem. In addition to determining the best location of each assembly in the core, the designer must concurrently determine the distribution of BP pins in the fresh fuel. A procedure was developed that utilizes the well-known Haling depletion to achieve an end-of-cycle (EOC) core state where the assembly pattern is configured in the absence of all control poison. This effectively separates the assembly assignment and BP distribution problems. Once an acceptable pattern at EOC is configured, the burnable and soluble poison required to control the power and core excess reactivity are solved for as unknown variables while depleting the cycle in reverse from the EOC exposure distribution to the beginning of cycle. The methods developed were implemented in an approved light water reactor licensing code to ensure the validity of the results obtained and provide for the maximum utility to PWR core reload design

  12. Depleted uranium instead of lead in munitions: the lesser evil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jargin, Sergei V

    2014-03-01

    Uranium has many similarities to lead in its exposure mechanisms, metabolism and target organs. However, lead is more toxic, which is reflected in the threshold limit values. The main potential hazard associated with depleted uranium is inhalation of the aerosols created when a projectile hits an armoured target. A person can be exposed to lead in similar ways. Accidental dangerous exposures can result from contact with both substances. Encountering uranium fragments is of minor significance because of the low penetration depth of alpha particles emitted by uranium: they are unable to penetrate even the superficial keratin layer of human skin. An additional cancer risk attributable to the uranium exposure might be significant only in case of prolonged contact of the contaminant with susceptible tissues. Lead intoxication can be observed in the wounded, in workers manufacturing munitions etc; moreover, lead has been documented to have a negative impact on the intellectual function of children at very low blood concentrations. It is concluded on the basis of the literature overview that replacement of lead by depleted uranium in munitions would be environmentally beneficial or largely insignificant because both lead and uranium are present in the environment.

  13. Depleted uranium instead of lead in munitions: the lesser evil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jargin, Sergei V

    2014-01-01

    Uranium has many similarities to lead in its exposure mechanisms, metabolism and target organs. However, lead is more toxic, which is reflected in the threshold limit values. The main potential hazard associated with depleted uranium is inhalation of the aerosols created when a projectile hits an armoured target. A person can be exposed to lead in similar ways. Accidental dangerous exposures can result from contact with both substances. Encountering uranium fragments is of minor significance because of the low penetration depth of alpha particles emitted by uranium: they are unable to penetrate even the superficial keratin layer of human skin. An additional cancer risk attributable to the uranium exposure might be significant only in case of prolonged contact of the contaminant with susceptible tissues. Lead intoxication can be observed in the wounded, in workers manufacturing munitions etc; moreover, lead has been documented to have a negative impact on the intellectual function of children at very low blood concentrations. It is concluded on the basis of the literature overview that replacement of lead by depleted uranium in munitions would be environmentally beneficial or largely insignificant because both lead and uranium are present in the environment. (opinion)

  14. Role of depletion on the dynamics of a diffusing forager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bénichou, O; Chupeau, M; Redner, S

    2016-01-01

    We study the dynamics of a starving random walk in general spatial dimension d . This model represents an idealized description for the fate of an unaware forager whose motion is not affected by the presence or absence of resources. The forager depletes its environment by consuming resources and dies if it wanders too long without finding food. In the exactly solvable case of one dimension, we explicitly derive the average lifetime of the walk and the distribution for the number of distinct sites visited by the walk at the instant of starvation. We also give a heuristic derivation for the averages of these two quantities. We tackle the complex but ecologically relevant case of two dimensions by an approximation in which the depleted zone is assumed to always be circular and which grows incrementally each time the walk reaches the edge of this zone. Within this framework, we derive a lower bound for the scaling of the average lifetime and number of distinct sites visited at starvation. We also determine the asymptotic distribution of the number of distinct sites visited at starvation. Finally, we solve the case of high spatial dimensions within a mean-field approach. (paper)

  15. The scale analysis sequence for LWR fuel depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermann, O.W.; Parks, C.V.

    1991-01-01

    The SCALE (Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation) code system is used extensively to perform away-from-reactor safety analysis (particularly criticality safety, shielding, heat transfer analyses) for spent light water reactor (LWR) fuel. Spent fuel characteristics such as radiation sources, heat generation sources, and isotopic concentrations can be computed within SCALE using the SAS2 control module. A significantly enhanced version of the SAS2 control module, which is denoted as SAS2H, has been made available with the release of SCALE-4. For each time-dependent fuel composition, SAS2H performs one-dimensional (1-D) neutron transport analyses (via XSDRNPM-S) of the reactor fuel assembly using a two-part procedure with two separate unit-cell-lattice models. The cross sections derived from a transport analysis at each time step are used in a point-depletion computation (via ORIGEN-S) that produces the burnup-dependent fuel composition to be used in the next spectral calculation. A final ORIGEN-S case is used to perform the complete depletion/decay analysis using the burnup-dependent cross sections. The techniques used by SAS2H and two recent applications of the code are reviewed in this paper. 17 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

  16. Antisickling effects of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poillon, W N; Kim, B C; Labotka, R J; Hicks, C U; Kark, J A

    1995-06-01

    Elevation of 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) in sickle erthrocytes (SS RBCs) and concomitant acidification of the cell interior promote polymerization by decreasing the solubility (csat) of deoxyhemoglobin S. The antisickling effect of 2,3-DPG depletion was evaluated after activation of the 2,3-DPG phosphatase activity of bisphosphoglycerate mutase by glycolate-2-phosphate, leading to rapid loss of intracellular 2,3-DPG. To ensure its maximal reduction in a physiologic medium, isosmotic CO2/bicarbonate-buffered saline, pH 7.0, was used. Substitution of K+ for Na+ as the major extracellular cation suppressed K:Cl cotransport, prevented cell shrinkage, and allowed demonstration of the full antisickling effect of 2,3-DPG depletion. The modest effect on solubility per se of removing intraerythrocytic 2,3-DPG (delta Csat = 1.6 g/dL) was amplified into a much larger antisickling effect by interaction with three other cellular variables affecting solubility and polymer content (intracellular pH, O2 saturation, and mean cell hemoglobin concentration). Acting in concert, these four antisickling effects (three solubilizing, one osmotic) reduced polymer fraction of glycolate-treated SS RBCs by 32% to 63%, with a concomitant decrease in sickling of 46% to 95% at the nominal pO2 of the microcirculation (20 mm Hg). A decrement in sickling of this magnitude should significantly ameliorate the vasoocclusive severity of sickle cell disease.

  17. B-cell-depleting Therapy in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Casals, Manuel; Sanz, Iñaki; Bosch, Xavier; Stone, John H.; Khamashta, Munther A.

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of a new class of agents (B-cell-depleting therapies) has opened a new era in the therapeutic approach to systemic lupus erythematosus, with belimumab being the first drug licensed for use in systemic lupus erythematosus in more than 50 years. Four agents deserve specific mention: rituximab, ocrelizumab, epratuzumab, and belimumab. Controlled trials have shown negative results for rituximab, promising results for epratuzumab, and positive results for belimumab. Despite these negative results, rituximab is the most-used agent in patients who do not respond or are intolerant to standard therapy and those with life-threatening presentations. B-cell-depleting agents should not be used in patients with mild disease and should be tailored according to individual patient characteristics, including ethnicity, organ involvement, and the immunological profile. Forthcoming studies of B-cell-directed strategies, particularly data from investigations of off-label rituximab use and postmarketing studies of belimumab, will provide new insights into the utility of these treatments in the routine management of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. PMID:22444096

  18. Radiological air quality in a depleted uranium (DU) storage vault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, T.; Cucchiara, A.L.

    1999-01-01

    The radiological air quality of two storage vaults, one with depleted uranium (DU) and one without, was evaluated and compared. The intent of the study was to determine if the presence of stored DU would significantly contribute to the gaseous/airborne radiation level compared to natural background. Both vaults are constructed out of concrete and are dimensionally similar. The vaults are located on the first floor of the same building. Neither vault has air supply or air exhaust. The doors to both vaults remained closed during the evaluation period, except for brief and infrequent access by the operational group. One vault contained 700 KG of depleted uranium, and the other vault contained documents inside of file cabinets. Radon detectors and giraffe air samplers were used to gather data on the quantity of gaseous/airborne radionuclides in both vaults. The results of this study indicated that there was no significant difference in the quantity of gaseous/airborne radionuclides in the two vaults. This paper gives a discussion of the effects of the stored DU on the air quality, and poses several theories supporting the results

  19. Depleted and natural uranium: chemistry and toxicological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, Elena; Abu-Qare, Aquel; Flaherty, Meghan; Garofolo, Melissa; Rincavage, Heather; Abou-Donia, Mohamed

    2004-01-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) is a by-product from the chemical enrichment of naturally occurring uranium. Natural uranium is comprised of three radioactive isotopes: (238)U, (235)U, and (234)U. This enrichment process reduces the radioactivity of DU to roughly 30% of that of natural uranium. Nonmilitary uses of DU include counterweights in airplanes, shields against radiation in medical radiotherapy units and transport of radioactive isotopes. DU has also been used during wartime in heavy tank armor, armor-piercing bullets, and missiles, due to its desirable chemical properties coupled with its decreased radioactivity. DU weapons are used unreservedly by the armed forces. Chemically and toxicologically, DU behaves similarly to natural uranium metal. Although the effects of DU on human health are not easily discerned, they may be produced by both its chemical and radiological properties. DU can be toxic to many bodily systems, as presented in this review. Most importantly, normal functioning of the kidney, brain, liver, and heart can be affected by DU exposure. Numerous other systems can also be affected by DU exposure, and these are also reviewed. Despite the prevalence of DU usage in many applications, limited data exist regarding the toxicological consequences on human health. This review focuses on the chemistry, pharmacokinetics, and toxicological effects of depleted and natural uranium on several systems in the mammalian body. A section on risk assessment concludes the review.

  20. Radiosensitization of CHO cells by the combination of glutathione depletion and low concentrations of oxygen: The effect of different levels of GSH depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, E.P.; Epp, E.R.; Zachgo, E.A.; Biaglow, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    Recently, the authors have examined the effect of GSH depletion by BSO on CHO cells equilibrated with oxygen at various concentrations (0.05-4.0%) and irradiated with 50 kVp x-rays. This is of interest because of the uncertain radiosensitizing effect GSH depletion may have on cells equilibrated with low oxygen concentrations. GSH depletion (0.1 mM BSO/24 hrs reduced [GSH] ≅ 10% of control) enhanced the radiosensitizing action of moderate (0.4-4.0%) concentrations of oxygen, i.e., GSH depletion reduced the [O/sub 2/] necessary to achieve an equivalent ER by ≅ 2-3 fold. However, GSH depletion was much more effective as a rediosensitizer when cells were equilibrated with low (<0.4%) concentrations of oxygen, i.e., GSH depletion reduced the [O/sub 2/] necessary to achieve an equivalent ER by 8-10 fold. Furthermore, while the addition of exogenous 5 mM GSH restored the ER to that observed when GSH was not depleted, the intracellular [GSH] was not increased. The results of these studies carried out at different levels of GSH depletion are presented

  1. Fully depleted CMOS pixel sensor development and potential applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudot, J.; Kachel, M. [Universite de Strasbourg, IPHC, 23 rue du Loess 67037 Strasbourg (France); CNRS, UMR7178, 67037 Strasbourg (France)

    2015-07-01

    CMOS pixel sensors are often opposed to hybrid pixel sensors due to their very different sensitive layer. In standard CMOS imaging processes, a thin (about 20 μm) low resistivity epitaxial layer acts as the sensitive volume and charge collection is mostly driven by thermal agitation. In contrast, the so-called hybrid pixel technology exploits a thick (typically 300 μm) silicon sensor with high resistivity allowing for the depletion of this volume, hence charges drift toward collecting electrodes. But this difference is fading away with the recent availability of some CMOS imaging processes based on a relatively thick (about 50 μm) high resistivity epitaxial layer which allows for full depletion. This evolution extents the range of applications for CMOS pixel sensors where their known assets, high sensitivity and granularity combined with embedded signal treatment, could potentially foster breakthrough in detection performances for specific scientific instruments. One such domain is the Xray detection for soft energies, typically below 10 keV, where the thin sensitive layer was previously severely impeding CMOS sensor usage. Another application becoming realistic for CMOS sensors, is the detection in environment with a high fluence of non-ionizing radiation, such as hadron colliders. However, when considering highly demanding applications, it is still to be proven that micro-circuits required to uniformly deplete the sensor at the pixel level, do not mitigate the sensitivity and efficiency required. Prototype sensors in two different technologies with resistivity higher than 1 kΩ, sensitive layer between 40 and 50 μm and featuring pixel pitch in the range 25 to 50 μm, have been designed and fabricated. Various biasing architectures were adopted to reach full depletion with only a few volts. Laboratory investigations with three types of sources (X-rays, β-rays and infrared light) demonstrated the validity of the approach with respect to depletion, keeping a

  2. Identifying jet quantum numbers event by event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teper, M.J.

    1979-12-01

    A method is proposed to identify the parton that gives rise to any particular jet. The method improves with the number of particles in the jet, and should indicate which of the jets in a three jet event at PETRA is the gluon jet. (author)

  3. Soundscapes, events, resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mubi Brighenti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Put it bluntly, a soundscape is the sonic counterpart, or component, of landscape. From such minimal assumption, some interesting consequences follow: just as landscape is far from being a simple stage-set upon which events take place, soundscape, too, is itself evental, i.e., it consists of events. Not only because its nature, far from being acoustics is always ‘psychoacoustics’, as Murray Schafer (1977/1994 first argued. Processes of environmental perception are of course there.

  4. Operating experience in processing of differently sourced deeply depleted uranium oxide and production of deeply depleted uranium metal ingots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manna, S.; Ladola, Y.S.; Sharma, S.; Chowdhury, S.; Satpati, S.K.; Roy, S.B.

    2009-01-01

    Uranium Metal Plant (UMP) of BARC had first time experience on production of three Depleted Uranium Metal (DUM) ingots of 76kg, 152kg and 163kg during March 1991. These ingots were produced by processing depleted uranyl nitrate solution produced at Plutonium Plant (PP), Trombay. In recent past Uranium Metal Plant (UMP), Uranium Extraction Division (UED), has been assigned to produce tonnage quantity of Deeply DUM (DDUM) from its oxide obtained from PP, PREFRE and RMP, BARC. This is required for shielding the high radioactive source of BHABHATRON Tele-cobalt machine, which is used for cancer therapy. The experience obtained in processing of various DDU oxides is being utilized for design of large scale DDU-metal plant under XIth plan project. The physico- chemical characteristics like morphology, density, flowability, reactivity, particle size distribution, which are having direct effect on reactivity of the powders of the DDU oxide powder, were studied and the shop-floor operational experience in processing of different oxide powder were obtained and recorded. During campaign trials utmost care was taken to standardized all operating conditions using the same equipment which are in use for natural uranium materials processing including safety aspects both with respect to radiological safety and industrial safety. Necessary attention and close monitoring were specially arranged and maintained for the safety aspects during the trial period. In-house developed pneumatic transport system was used for powder transfer and suitable dust arresting system was used for reduction of powder carry over

  5. The corrosion of depleted uranium in terrestrial and marine environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toque, C.; Milodowski, A.E.; Baker, A.C.

    2014-01-01

    Depleted Uranium alloyed with titanium is used in armour penetrating munitions that have been fired in a number of conflict zones and testing ranges including the UK ranges at Kirkcudbright and Eskmeals. The study presented here evaluates the corrosion of DU alloy cylinders in soil on these two UK ranges and in the adjacent marine environment of the Solway Firth. The estimated mean initial corrosion rates and times for complete corrosion range from 0.13 to 1.9 g cm −2 y −1 and 2.5–48 years respectively depending on the particular physical and geochemical environment. The marine environment at the experimental site was very turbulent. This may have caused the scouring of corrosion products and given rise to a different geochemical environment from that which could be easily duplicated in laboratory experiments. The rate of mass loss was found to vary through time in one soil environment and this is hypothesised to be due to pitting increasing the surface area, followed by a build up of corrosion products inhibiting further corrosion. This indicates that early time measurements of mass loss or corrosion rate may be poor indicators of late time corrosion behaviour, potentially giving rise to incorrect estimates of time to complete corrosion. The DU alloy placed in apparently the same geochemical environment, for the same period of time, can experience very different amounts of corrosion and mass loss, indicating that even small variations in the corrosion environment can have a significant effect. These effects are more significant than other experimental errors and variations in initial surface area. -- Highlights: ► In-situ experiments were conducted to evaluate corrosion rates of depleted uranium. ► Samples were corroded in marine sediments, open sea water and two terrestrial soils. ► The depleted uranium titanium alloy corroded fastest in the marine environments. ► Rates of mass loss can vary through time if corrosion products are not removed.

  6. Features, Events, and Processes: Disruptive Events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. King

    2004-01-01

    The primary purpose of this analysis is to evaluate seismic- and igneous-related features, events, and processes (FEPs). These FEPs represent areas of natural system processes that have the potential to produce disruptive events (DE) that could impact repository performance and are related to the geologic processes of tectonism, structural deformation, seismicity, and igneous activity. Collectively, they are referred to as the DE FEPs. This evaluation determines which of the DE FEPs are excluded from modeling used to support the total system performance assessment for license application (TSPA-LA). The evaluation is based on the data and results presented in supporting analysis reports, model reports, technical information, or corroborative documents that are cited in the individual FEP discussions in Section 6.2 of this analysis report

  7. Features, Events, and Processes: Disruptive Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. King

    2004-03-31

    The primary purpose of this analysis is to evaluate seismic- and igneous-related features, events, and processes (FEPs). These FEPs represent areas of natural system processes that have the potential to produce disruptive events (DE) that could impact repository performance and are related to the geologic processes of tectonism, structural deformation, seismicity, and igneous activity. Collectively, they are referred to as the DE FEPs. This evaluation determines which of the DE FEPs are excluded from modeling used to support the total system performance assessment for license application (TSPA-LA). The evaluation is based on the data and results presented in supporting analysis reports, model reports, technical information, or corroborative documents that are cited in the individual FEP discussions in Section 6.2 of this analysis report.

  8. Implications of stratospheric ozone depletion upon plant production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teramura, A.H.

    1990-01-01

    An increase in the amount of UV-B radiation reaching the earth's surface is identified as the major factor of concern to result from stratospheric ozone depletion. UV radiation is believed to have wide ranging effects on plant physiology and biochemistry. In screening studies of > 300 species and cultivars, > 50% have shown sensitivity to UV radiation. The most sensitive plant families appear to be Leguminosae, Cucurbitaceae and Cruciferae. The need for a better understanding of the effects of UV radiation on crop plant physiology and particularly of the repair and protective mechanisms developed by some species is stressed. This paper was presented at a colloquium on Implications of global climate changes on horticultural cropping practices and production in developing countries held at the 86th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Horticultural Science at Tulsa, Oklahoma, on 2 Aug. 1989

  9. First tests with fully depleted PN-CCD's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strueder, L.; Lutz, G.; Sterzik, M.; Holl, P.; Kemmer, J.; Prechtel, U.; Ziemann, T.; Rehak, P.

    1987-01-01

    We have fabricated 280 μm thick fully depletable pn CCD's on high resistivity silicon (/rho/ ∼ 2.5 kΩcm). Its operation is based on the semiconductor drift chamber principle proposed by Gatti and Rheak. They are designed as energy and position sensitive radiation detector for (minimum) ionizing particles and X-ray imaging. Two dimensional semiconductor device modeling demonstrates the basic charge transer mechanisms. Prototypes of the detectors have been tested in static and dynamic conditions. A preliminary charge transfer inefficiency was determined to 6 x 10/sup/minus/3/. The charge loss during the transfer is discussed and as a consequence we have developed an improved design for a second fabrication iteration which is now being produced. 4 refs., 15 figs

  10. Depleting adult dentate gyrus neurogenesis increases cocaine-seeking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deroche-Gamonet, Véronique; Revest, Jean-Michel; Fiancette, Jean-François; Balado, Eric; Koehl, Muriel; Grosjean, Noëlle; Abrous, Djoher Nora; Piazza, Pier-Vincenzo

    2018-03-05

    The hippocampus is the main locus for adult dentate gyrus (DG) neurogenesis. A number of studies have shown that aberrant DG neurogenesis correlates with many neuropsychiatric disorders, including drug addiction. Although clear causal relationships have been established between DG neurogenesis and memory dysfunction or mood-related disorders, evidence of the causal role of DG neurogenesis in drug-seeking behaviors has not been established. Here we assessed the role of new DG neurons in cocaine self-administration using an inducible transgenic approach that selectively depletes adult DG neurogenesis. Our results show that transgenic mice with decreased adult DG neurogenesis exhibit increased motivation to self-administer cocaine and a higher seeking response to cocaine-related cues. These results identify adult hippocampal neurogenesis as a key factor in vulnerability to cocaine addiction.

  11. Deoxynucleoside salvage enzymes and tissue specific mitochondrial DNA depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L

    2010-06-01

    Adequate mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copies are required for normal mitochondria function and reductions in mtDNA copy number due to genetic alterations cause tissue-specific mtDNA depletion syndrome (MDS). There are eight nuclear genes, directly or indirectly involved in mtDNA replication and mtDNA precursor synthesis, which have been identified as the cause of MDS. However, the tissue specific pathology of these nuclear gene mutations is not well understood. Here, mtDNA synthesis, mtDNA copy number control, and mtDNA turnover, as well as the synthesis of mtDNA precursors in relation to the levels of salvage enzymes are discussed. The question why MDS caused by TK2 and p53R2 mutations are predominantly muscle specific while dGK deficiency affected mainly liver will be addressed.

  12. Depleted uranium: Metabolic disruptor?; Uranium appauvri: perturbateur metabolique?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souidi, Maamar; Dublineau, Isabelle; Lestaevel, Philippe [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire - IRSN, Direction de la radioprotection de l' homme, Laboratoire de radiotoxicologie experimentale, Service de radiobiologie et d' epidemiologie, BP 17, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses cedex (France)

    2011-11-15

    The presence of uranium in the environment can lead to long-term contamination of the food chain and of water intended for human consumption and thus raises many questions about the scientific and societal consequences of this exposure on population health. Although the biological effects of chronic low-level exposure are poorly understood, results of various recent studies show that contamination by depleted uranium (DU) induces subtle but significant biological effects at the molecular level in organs including the brain, liver, kidneys and testicles. For the first time, it has been demonstrated that DU induces effects on several metabolic pathways, including those metabolizing vitamin D, cholesterol, steroid hormones, acetylcholine and xenobiotics. This evidence strongly suggests that DU might well interfere with many metabolic pathways. It might thus contribute, together with other man-made substances in the environment, to increased health risks in some regions. (authors)

  13. Electrolyte depletion in white-nose syndrome bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryan, Paul M; Meteyer, Carol Uphoff; Blehert, David S; Lorch, Jeffrey M; Reeder, DeeAnn M; Turner, Gregory G; Webb, Julie; Behr, Melissa; Verant, Michelle; Russell, Robin E; Castle, Kevin T

    2013-04-01

    The emerging wildlife disease white-nose syndrome is causing widespread mortality in hibernating North American bats. White-nose syndrome occurs when the fungus Geomyces destructans infects the living skin of bats during hibernation, but links between infection and mortality are underexplored. We analyzed blood from hibernating bats and compared blood electrolyte levels to wing damage caused by the fungus. Sodium and chloride tended to decrease as wing damage increased in severity. Depletion of these electrolytes suggests that infected bats may become hypotonically dehydrated during winter. Although bats regularly arouse from hibernation to drink during winter, water available in hibernacula may not contain sufficient electrolytes to offset winter losses caused by disease. Damage to bat wings from G. destructans may cause life-threatening electrolyte imbalances.

  14. Deuterium-depleted water. Short history and news

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, Ioan; Tamaian, Radu; Titescu, Gheorghe

    2002-01-01

    Deuterium-depleted water represents water that has an isotopic content lower than 144 ppm D/(D+H) which is the natural isotopic content of water. DDW is a non-toxic product. Knowing that deuterium content of water has a significant influence on living organisms, since 1996 NIR-DCIT ICSTI at Rm. Valcea cooperated with Romanian specialized instititutes for biological effects' evaluation of DDW. The investigations lead to the conclusion that DDW caused a tendency towards the increase of the basal tone, accompanied by the intensification of the vasoconstrictor effects. Animals teated with DDW showed an increase of the resistance both to sub lethal and to lethal gamma radiation doses. DDW stimulates immune defense reactions. Investigations regarding artificial reproduction of fish with DDW fecundated solutions confirmed favorable influence in embryo growth stage and resistance in next growth stages. One can remark the favourable influence of DDW on biological process in plants in various ontogenetic stages. (authors)

  15. Active volume studies with depleted and enriched BEGe detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturm, Katharina von [Eberhard Karls Universitaet Tuebingen (Germany); Universita degli Studi di Padova, Padua (Italy); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    The Gerda experiment is currently taking data for the search of the 0νββ decay in {sup 76}Ge. In 2013, 30 newly manufactured Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) diodes will be deployed which will double the active mass within Gerda. These detectors were fabricated from high-purity germanium enriched in {sup 76}Ge and tested in the HADES underground laboratory, owned by SCK.CEN, in Mol, Belgium. As the BEGes are source and detector at the same time, one crucial parameter is their active volume which directly enters into the evaluation of the half-life. This talk illustrates the dead layer and active volume determination of prototype detectors from depleted germanium as well as the newly produced detectors from enriched material, using gamma spectroscopy methods and comparing experimental results to Monte-Carlo simulations. Recent measurements and their results are presented, and systematic effects are discussed.

  16. Electrolyte depletion in white-nose syndrome bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryan, Paul M.; Meteyer, Carol Uphoff; Blehert, David S.; Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Reeder, DeeAnn M.; Turner, Gregory G.; Webb, Julie; Behr, Melissa; Verant, Michelle L.; Russell, Robin E.; Castle, Kevin T.

    2013-01-01

    The emerging wildlife disease white-nose syndrome is causing widespread mortality in hibernating North American bats. White-nose syndrome occurs when the fungus Geomyces destructans infects the living skin of bats during hibernation, but links between infection and mortality are underexplored. We analyzed blood from hibernating bats and compared blood electrolyte levels to wing damage caused by the fungus. Sodium and chloride tended to decrease as wing damage increased in severity. Depletion of these electrolytes suggests that infected bats may become hypotonically dehydrated during winter. Although bats regularly arouse from hibernation to drink during winter, water available in hibernacula may not contain sufficient electrolytes to offset winter losses caused by disease. Damage to bat wings from G. destructans may cause life-threatening electrolyte imbalances.

  17. Climate variability, rice production and groundwater depletion in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Alok

    2018-03-01

    This paper modeled the proximate determinants of rice outputs and groundwater depths in 27 Indian states during 1980-2010. Dynamic random effects models were estimated by maximum likelihood at state and well levels. The main findings from models for rice outputs were that temperatures and rainfall levels were significant predictors, and the relationships were quadratic with respect to rainfall. Moreover, nonlinearities with respect to population changes indicated greater rice production with population increases. Second, groundwater depths were positively associated with temperatures and negatively with rainfall levels and there were nonlinear effects of population changes. Third, dynamic models for in situ groundwater depths in 11 795 wells in mainly unconfined aquifers, accounting for latitudes, longitudes and altitudes, showed steady depletion. Overall, the results indicated that population pressures on food production and environment need to be tackled via long-term healthcare, agricultural, and groundwater recharge policies in India.

  18. Depleted uranium and radiation - induced lung cancer and leukaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mould, R.F.

    2002-01-01

    Reports of leukaemias and other cancers among servicemen who took part in the 1991 Gulf war or in the more recent operations in the Balkans are of continuing interest, as is the possibility, however slight, that depleted uranium (DU) is one of the causative factors. This commentary includes the results of a UK epidemiological study on the mortality of Gulf war veterans and , although not containing information on DU exposure, gives data on overall levels of mortality and therefore carries more weight than anecdotal reports. Also included are brief summaries on radiation-induced lung cancer in uranium workers as well as radiation-induced leukaemia in Japanese atomic bomb survivors and patients ankylosing spondylitis treated using x-rays. This commentary concludes with a critique of Iraqi cancer statistics as well as giving information on environmental contamination in Kosovo and the use of DU ammunition. (author)

  19. Alkali depletion and ion-beam mixing in glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, G.W.

    1983-01-01

    Ion-implantation-induced alkali depletion in simple alkali-silicate glasses (12M 2 O.88SiO 2 ) has been studied for implantations at room temperature and near 77K. Results are consistent with a mechanism for alkali removal, by heavy ion bombardment, based on radiation-enhanced migration and preferential removal of alkali from the outermost layers. Similar results were obtained for mixed-alkali glasses ((12-x)Cs 2 .O.xM 2 O.88SiO 2 ) where, in addition, a mixed-alkali effect may also be operative. Some preliminary experiments with ion implantation through thin Al films on SiO 2 glass and on a phosphate glass show that inter-diffusion takes place and suggest that this ion-mixing technique may be a useful method for altering the physical properties of glass surfaces

  20. The potentiality of depleted water to modify the tomatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butnaru, Gallia; Blidar, A.; Titescu, Gh.; Stefanescu, I.

    2004-01-01

    The possibility to improve the tomatoes bio-productivity parameters was tested using H 2 O-d and deuterium depleted water (DDW). There are presented the results obtained by seeds moisten before sowing. The plants vegetation until the first harvest and the fruits production and quality were studied. Making use of DDW has the following advantages: -accessibility, as the practical work is easy and economical; - nonpolluting, making use of the plants own bio-productive resources thus promoting the ecological agriculture. The effects registered during the experiments are: - seeds germination rhythm was faster in DDW conditions; - plants productivity was increased; - the capacity of light energetic convertibility was enhanced in the stress condition; - DDW seems to act as a 'helper' in the critical life cycle periods. (authors)

  1. Antifouling efficacy of a controlled depletion paint formulation with acetophenone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangmok Jung

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Biofouling is an inevitable problem that occurs continually on marine fishing vessels and other small crafts. The nature of the antifouling (AF coatings used to prevent biofouling on these small vessels is of great environmental concern. Therefore, the efficacy of a non-toxic AF candidate, acetophenone, was evaluated in preliminary laboratory assays using marine bacteria, diatom and Ulva spores. At a low concentration of 100 μg cm–2 of acetophenone, spore attachment of a green fouling alga was significantly reduced (p < 0.01. Similarly, 40% acetophenone coatings significantly inhibited diatom attachment. This new non-toxic AF agent was incorporated into controlled depletion paint (CDP. Fouling coverage (%, biomass, and fouling resistance (% were estimated. On CDP coatings made with acetophenone (40%, a significant decrease in fouling biomass was estimated (p < 0.01.

  2. Images of the dark soliton in a depleted condensate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dziarmaga, Jacek; Karkuszewski, Zbyszek P; Sacha, Krzysztof

    2003-01-01

    The dark soliton created in a Bose-Einstein condensate becomes grey in the course of time evolution because its notch fills up with depleted atoms. This is the result of quantum mechanical calculations which describe the output of many experimental repetitions of creation of the stationary soliton, and its time evolution terminated by a destructive density measurement. However, such a description is not suitable to predict the outcome of a single realization of the experiment where two extreme scenarios and many combinations thereof are possible: one will see either (1) a displaced dark soliton without any atoms in the notch, but with a randomly displaced position, or (2) a grey soliton with a fixed position, but a random number of atoms filling its notch. In either case the average over many realizations will reproduce the mentioned quantum mechanical result. In this paper we use N-particle wavefunctions, which follow from the number-conserving Bogoliubov theory, to settle this issue

  3. PP005. Vitamin D depletion aggravates hypertension in transgenic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørkholt Andersen, Louise; Herse, Florian; Christesen, Henrik Thybo

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Vitamin D may ameliorate hypertension and kidney disease through genomic and extra-genomic pathways. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of vitamin D in a transgenic rat model of angiotensin II-mediated hypertensive organ failure. METHODS: In 4-week-old age-matched rats overexpress......INTRODUCTION: Vitamin D may ameliorate hypertension and kidney disease through genomic and extra-genomic pathways. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of vitamin D in a transgenic rat model of angiotensin II-mediated hypertensive organ failure. METHODS: In 4-week-old age-matched rats...... determined once weekly. After three weeks, animals were sacrificed. Heart tissue was examined for atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) by RT-PCR. RESULTS: The vitamin D depleted group had higher blood pressure at week 1 (mean difference 23.4mmHg, 95% CI 9.1-37.7) and tended...

  4. Characterization of depleted uranium oxides fabricated using different processing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastings, E.P.; Lewis, C.; FitzPatrick, J.; Rademacher, D.; Tandon, L.

    2008-01-01

    Identifying both physical and chemical characteristics of Special Nuclear Material (SNM) production processes is the corner stone of nuclear forensics. Typically, processing markers are based on measuring an interdicted sample's bulk chemical properties, such as the elemental or isotopic composition, or focusing on the chemical and physical morphology of only a few particles. Therefore, it is imperative that known SNM processes be fully characterized from bulk to trace level for each particle size range. This report outlines a series of particle size measurements and fractionation techniques that can be applied to a bulk SNM powders, categorizing both chemical and physical properties in discrete particle size fractions. This will be demonstrated by characterizing the process signatures of a series of different depleted uranium oxides prepared at increasing firing temperatures (350-1100 deg C). Results will demonstrate how each oxides' material density, particle size distribution, and morphology varies. (author)

  5. Electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves in the plasma depletion layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Richard E.; Hudson, Mary K.; Fuselier, Stephen A.; Anderson, Brian J.

    1993-01-01

    Results of a study of the theoretical properties of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves which occur in the plasma depletion layer are presented. The analysis assumes a homogeneous plasma with the characteristics which were measured by the AMPTE/CCE satellite at 1450-1501 UT on October 5, 1984. Waves were observed in the Pc 1 frequency range below the hydrogen gyrofrequency, and these waves are identified as EMIC waves. The higher-frequency instability is driven by the temperature anisotropy of the H(+) ions, while the lower-frequency instability is driven by the temperature anisotropy of the He(2+) ions. It is argued that the higher-frequency waves will have k roughly parallel to B(0) and will be left-hand polarized, while the lower frequency wave band will have k oblique to B(0) and will be linearly polarized, in agreement with observations.

  6. Electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves observed in the plasma depletion layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B. J.; Fuselier, S. A.; Murr, D.

    1991-01-01

    Observations from AMPTE/CCE in the earth's magnetosheath on October 5, 1984 are presented to illustrate 0.1 - 4.0 Hz magnetic field pulsations in the subsolar plasma depletion layer (PDL) for northward sheath field during a magnetospheric compression. The PDL is unambiguously identified by comparing CCE data with data from IRM in the upstream solar wind. Pulsations in the PDL are dominated by transverse waves with F/F(H+) 1.0 or less and a slot in spectral power at F/F(H+) = 0.5. The upper branch is left hand polarized while the lower branch is linearly polarized. In the sheath the proton temperature anisotropy is about 0.6 but it is about 1.7 in the PDL during wave occurrence. The properties and correlation of waves with increased anisotropy indicate that they are electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves.

  7. Depleted uranium as a by product of nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlic, M.

    2000-01-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) has been used during the War in Yugoslavia in the year 1999 by NATO forces, as well as in Bosnia and Gulf War. In Yugoslavia it has been used in two modalities: as ammunition (mostly caliber 30 mm) and as a part of cruise missiles (counterweight penetrator). Total amount of DU in Yugoslavia was about 10 tons. DU is a by product of nuclear technology and represents low-level nuclear waste. Therefore it should be stored. But, because of military application it is in the environment where it could react chemo toxically or radio toxically and so endanger people and animals. This paper contains all relevant technology parameters of DU created as a by product, DU physical and chemical properties, DU ammunition effects, environmental DU transport, and estimation of consequences on people and environment

  8. Special Issue: Planar Fully-Depleted SOI technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allibert, F.; Hiramoto, T.; Nguyen, B. Y.

    2016-03-01

    We are in the era of mobile computing with smart handheld devices and remote data storage "in the cloud," with devices that are almost always on and driven by needs of high data transmission rate, instant access/connection and long battery life. With all the ambitious requirements for better performance with lower power consumption, the SoC solution must also be cost-effective in order to capture the large, highly-competitive consumer mobile and wearable markets. The Fully-Depleted SOI device/circuit is a unique option that can satisfy all these requirements and has made tremendous progress in development for various applications and adoption by foundries, integrated device manufacturers (IDM), and fabless companies in the last 3 years.

  9. Examination of disks from the IPNS depleted uranium target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strain, R.V.; Carpenter, J.M.

    1995-10-01

    This report describes the results of examining the Zircaloy-2 clad depleted uranium disks from the Intense Pulse Neutron Source (IPNS) Target. That target operated from August, 1981 to June, 1988 and from September, 1991 to September, 1992 at 450 MeV, pulsing at 30 Hz with a time average proton current of about 15 microA. The target was removed from service when the presence of fission products ( 135 Xe) in the coolant cover gas indicated a failure in the Zircaloy-2 cladding. Altogether, the target had absorbed about 240 mA hours of proton current, and endured between 50,000 and 100,000 thermal cycles. The purpose of the examination was to assess the condition of the disks and determine the cause of the cladding failure. The results of visual, gamma ray scanning, and destructive metallurgical examination of two disks are described

  10. Depleted CMOS pixels for LHC proton–proton experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wermes, N.

    2016-01-01

    While so far monolithic pixel detectors have remained in the realm of comparatively low rate and radiation applications outside LHC, new developments exploiting high resistivity substrates with three or four well CMOS process options allow reasonably large depletion depths and full CMOS circuitry in a monolithic structure. This opens up the possibility to target CMOS pixel detectors also for high radiation pp-experiments at the LHC upgrade, either in a hybrid-type fashion or even fully monolithic. Several pixel matrices have been prototyped with high ohmic substrates, high voltage options, and full CMOS electronics. They were characterized in the lab and in test beams. An overview of the necessary development steps and different approaches as well as prototype results are presented in this paper.

  11. Acid Dissolution of Depleted Uranium from Catalyst using Microwave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Jin Hyun; Jeong, Seong Gi; Park, Kwang Heon [Kyunghee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    The separation process of uranium is one of the most important fields in nuclear industry because uranium is used primary in nuclear power plants. Uranium ores are treated by either acid or alkaline reagents. Uranium can be dissolved by acid or alkaline solutions. There are two oxidation states in which the hexavalent form, the oxide of which is UO{sub 3}, and the tetravalent form, the oxide of which is UO{sub 2}. However, depleted uranium(DU) has also been used as a catalyst in specialized chemical reaction such as ammoxidation. The preferred catalyst for propylene oxidation with ammonia was a uranium oxide-antimony oxide composition. The active phase of catalyst was known as USbO{sub 5} and USb{sub 3}O{sub 10}. There is pentavalent form. Waste catalyst containing DU was generated and stored in chemical industry. In this work, we removed DU from catalyst by acid dissolution

  12. Monitoring bioremediation of weathered diesel NAPL using oxygen depletion profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, G.B.; Johnston, C.D.; Patterson, B.M.; Barber, C.; Bennett, M.

    1995-01-01

    Semicontinuous logging of oxygen concentrations at multiple depths has been used to evaluate the progress of an in situ bioremediation trial at a site contaminated by weathered diesel nonaqueous-phase liquid (NAPL). The evaluation trial consisted of periodic addition of nutrients and aeration of a 100-m 2 trial plot. During the bioremediation trial, aeration was stopped periodically, and decreases in dissolved and gaseous oxygen concentrations were monitored using data loggers attached to in situ oxygen sensors placed at multiple depths above and within a thin NAPL-contaminated zone. Oxygen usage rate coefficients were determined by fitting zero- and first-order rate equations to the oxygen depletion curves. For nutrient-amended sites within the trial plot, estimates of oxygen usage rate coefficients were significantly higher than estimates from unamended sites. These rates also converted to NPL degradation rates, comparable to those achieved in previous studies, despite the high concentrations and weathered state of the NAPL at this test site

  13. Calculation of depletion with optimal distribution of initial control poison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro Lobo, P.D. de.

    1978-03-01

    The spatial depletion equations are linearized within the time intervals and their solution is obtained by modal analysis. At the beginning of life an optimal poison distribution that maximizes neutron economy and the corresponding flux is determined. At the start of the subsequent time steps the flux distributions are obtained by pertubation method in relation to the start of the previous time steps. The problem was studied with constant poison distribution in order to evaluate the influence of the poison at the beginning of life. The results obtained by the modal expansion techniques are satisfactory. However, the optimization of the initial distribution of the control poison does not indicate any significant effect on the core life [pt

  14. Effects of intense stratospheric ionisation events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, G.C.; McAfee, J.R.; Crutzen, P.J.

    1978-01-01

    High levels of ionising radiation in the Earth's stratosphere will lead to increased concentrations of nitrogen oxides and decreased concentrations of ozone. Changes in the surface environment will include an increased level, of biologically harmful UV radiation, caused by the ozone depletion, and a decreased level of visible solar radiation, due to the presence of major enhancements in the stratospheric concentration of nitrogen dioxide. These changes have been studied quantitatively, using the passage of the Solar System through a supernova remnant shell as an example. Some of the potential environmental changes are a substantial global cooling, abnormally dry conditions, a reduction in global photosynthesis and a large increase in the flux of atmospheric fixed nitrogen to the surface of the Earth. Such events might have been the cause of mass extinctions in the distant past. (Author)

  15. Safeguards summary event list (SSEL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, J.J.; MacMurdy, P.H.

    1980-12-01

    The List contains nine categories of events involving NRC licensed material or licensees. It is deliberately broad in scope for two main reasons. First, the list is designed to serve as a reference document. It is as complete and accurate as possible. Second, the list is intended to provide as broad a perspective of the nature of licensee-related events as possible. The nine categories of events are as follows: bomb-related events; intrusion events; missing and/or allegedly stolen events; transportation-related events; vandalism events; arson events; firearms-related events; sabotage events; and miscellaneous events

  16. Multi-scale entropic depletion phenomena in polymer liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Debapriya [Department of Materials Science, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Schweizer, Kenneth S., E-mail: kschweiz@illinois.edu [Department of Materials Science, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2015-06-07

    We apply numerical polymer integral equation theory to study the entropic depletion problem for hard spheres dissolved in flexible chain polymer melts and concentrated solutions over an exceptionally wide range of polymer radius of gyration to particle diameter ratios (R{sub g}/D), particle-monomer diameter ratios (D/d), and chain lengths (N) including the monomer and oligomer regimes. Calculations are performed based on a calibration of the effective melt packing fraction that reproduces the isobaric dimensionless isothermal compressibility of real polymer liquids. Three regimes of the polymer-mediated interparticle potential of mean force (PMF) are identified and analyzed in depth. (i) The magnitude of the contact attraction that dominates thermodynamic stability scales linearly with D/d and exhibits a monotonic and nonperturbative logarithmic increase with N ultimately saturating in the long chain limit. (ii) A close to contact repulsive barrier emerges that grows linearly with D/d and can attain values far in excess of thermal energy for experimentally relevant particle sizes and chain lengths. This raises the possibility of kinetic stabilization of particles in nanocomposites. The barrier grows initially logarithmically with N, attains a maximum when 2R{sub g} ∼ D/2, and then decreases towards its asymptotic long chain limit as 2R{sub g} ≫ D. (iii) A long range (of order R{sub g}) repulsive, exponentially decaying component of the depletion potential emerges when polymer coils are smaller than, or of order, the nanoparticle diameter. Its amplitude is effectively constant for 2R{sub g} ≤ D. As the polymer becomes larger than the particle, the amplitude of this feature decreases extremely rapidly and becomes negligible. A weak long range and N-dependent component of the monomer-particle pair correlation function is found which is suggested to be the origin of the long range repulsive PMF. Implications of our results for thermodynamics and miscibility are

  17. Correlates of bushmeat in markets and depletion of wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fa, John E; Olivero, Jesus; Farfán, Miguel Á; Márquez, Ana L; Duarte, Jesús; Nackoney, Janet; Hall, Amy; Dupain, Jef; Seymour, Sarah; Johnson, Paul J; Macdonald, David W; Real, Raimundo; Vargas, Juan M

    2015-06-01

    We used data on number of carcasses of wildlife species sold in 79 bushmeat markets in a region of Nigeria and Cameroon to assess whether species composition of a market could be explained by anthropogenic pressures and environmental variables around each market. More than 45 mammal species from 9 orders were traded across all markets; mostly ungulates and rodents. For each market, we determined median body mass, species diversity (game diversity), and taxa that were principal contributors to the total number of carcasses for sale (game dominance). Human population density in surrounding areas was significantly and negatively related to the percentage ungulates and primates sold in markets and significantly and positively related to the proportion of rodents. The proportion of carnivores sold was higher in markets with high human population densities. Proportion of small-bodied mammals (markets increased as human population density increased, but proportion of large-bodied mammals (>10 kg) decreased as human population density increased. We calculated an index of game depletion (GDI) for each market from the sum of the total number of carcasses traded per annum and species, weighted by the intrinsic rate of natural increase (rmax ) of each species, divided by individuals traded in a market. The GDI of a market increased as the proportion of fast-reproducing species (highest rmax ) increased and as the representation of species with lowest rmax (slow-reproducing) decreased. The best explanatory factor for a market's GDI was anthropogenic pressure-road density, human settlements with >3000 inhabitants, and nonforest vegetation. High and low GDI were significantly differentiated by human density and human settlements with >3000 inhabitants. Our results provided empirical evidence that human activity is correlated with more depleted bushmeat faunas and can be used as a proxy to determine areas in need of conservation action. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  18. Influence of deuterium-depleted water on living organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, I.; Titescu, Gh.; Croitoru, Cornelia; Saros-Rogobete, Irina

    2000-01-01

    Deuterium-depleted water (DDW) production technique consists in the separation of deuterium from water by means of an continuos distillation process under a pressure value of about 133,3 mbar. Water that is used as basic material has an isotopic content of 144 ppm D/(D+H). DDW results as distillate with an isotopic deuterium content of 15-80 ppm, depending on the level we want to achieve. Beginning with 1996 NIR and DCIT Rm. Valcea, which is a DDW producer, co-operated with Romanian specialised institutes for biological effects' evaluation of DDW. These investigations led to the next conclusions: - DDW caused a tendency towards the increase of the basal tone, accompanied by the intensification of the vasoconstrictor effects of phenylefrine, noradrenaline and angiotensin; the increase of the basal tonus and vascular reactivity produced by the DDW persist after the removal of the vascular endothelium; - Animals treated with DDW showed an increase of the resistance both to sublethal and to lethal gamma radiation doses, suggesting a radioprotective action by the stimulation of non-specific immune defence mechanisms; - DDW stimulate immune defence reactions, represented by the opsonic, bactericidal and phagocyte capacity of the immune system, together with increase in the numbers of polymorphonuclear neutrophils; - Investigations regarding artificial reproduction of fish with DDW fecundated solutions confirmed favourable influence in embryo growth stage and resistance in next growth stages; - It was studied germination, growth and quantitative characters' variability at plants; one can remark the favourable influence of DDW on biological process at plants in various ontogenic stages. Further investigations are needed in order to establish the influence of deuterium-depleted water on living organisms. (authors)

  19. Improved radiation tolerance of MAPS using a depleted epitaxial layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorokhov, A., E-mail: Andrei.Dorokhov@IReS.in2p3.f [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien (IPHC), 23 rue du loess, BP 28, 67037 Strasbourg (France); Bertolone, G.; Baudot, J.; Brogna, A.S.; Colledani, C.; Claus, G.; De Masi, R. [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien (IPHC), 23 rue du loess, BP 28, 67037 Strasbourg (France); Deveaux, M. [Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Senckenberganlage 31, 60325 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Doziere, G.; Dulinski, W. [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien (IPHC), 23 rue du loess, BP 28, 67037 Strasbourg (France); Fontaine, J.-C. [Groupe de Recherche en Physique des Hautes Energies (GRPHE), Universite de Haute Alsace, 61, rue Albert Camus, 68093 Mulhouse (France); Goffe, M.; Himmi, A.; Hu-Guo, Ch.; Jaaskelainen, K.; Koziel, M.; Morel, F.; Santos, C.; Specht, M.; Valin, I. [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien (IPHC), 23 rue du loess, BP 28, 67037 Strasbourg (France)

    2010-12-11

    Tracking performance of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) developed at IPHC (Turchetta, et al., 2001) have been extensively studied (Winter, et al., 2001; Gornushkin, et al., 2002) . Numerous sensor prototypes, called MIMOSA, were fabricated and tested since 1999 in order to optimise the charge collection efficiency and power dissipation, to minimise the noise and to increase the readout speed. The radiation tolerance was also investigated. The highest fluence tolerable for a 10{mu}m pitch device was found to be {approx}10{sup 13}n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}, while it was only 2x10{sup 12}n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2} for a 20{mu}m pitch device. The purpose of this paper is to show that the tolerance to non-ionising radiation may be extended up to O(10{sup 14}) n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}. This goal relies on a fabrication process featuring a 15{mu}m thin, high resistivity ({approx}1k{Omega}cm) epitaxial layer. A sensor prototype (MIMOSA-25) was fabricated in this process to explore its detection performance. The depletion depth of the epitaxial layer at standard CMOS voltages (<5V) is similar to the layer thickness. Measurements with m.i.p.s show that the charge collected in the seed pixel is at least twice larger for the depleted epitaxial layer than for the undepleted one, translating into a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of {approx}50. Tests after irradiation have shown that this excellent performance is maintained up to the highest fluence considered (3x10{sup 13}n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}), making evidence of a significant extension of the radiation tolerance limits of MAPS.

  20. Nitrite uptake by nitrogen-depleted wheat seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, W A; Johnson, R E; Volk, R J

    1974-01-01

    Intact, 14-day-old nitrogen-depleted wheat (Triticum vulgare cv. Blueboy) seedlings were exposed to solutions of 0.5 mM KNO/sub 2/, 0.05 mM CaSO/sub 4/ and 1 mM sodium 2-(N-morpholino)-ethanesulfonate, pH 6.1. Nitrite uptake was determined from depletion of the ambient solution or from incorporation of /sup 15/N in the tissue. An initial nitrite uptake shoulder was followed by a relatively slow uptake rate which subsequently increased to a substantially greater rate. This accelerated phase was maintained through 24 h. Nitrite accumulated to a slight extent in the root tissues during the first few hours but declined to low values when the accelerated rate was fully developed, indicating an increase in nitrite reductase activity paralleling the increase in nitrite uptake capacity. About 50% of the nitrogen absorbed as nitrite was translocated to the shoots by 9 to 12 h. Development of the accelerated nitrite uptake rate was restricted in excised roots, in intact plants kept in darkness, by 400 ..mu..g puromycin ml/sup -1/ and by 1 mM L-ethionine. When puromycin and L-ethionine were added after the accelerated phase had been initiated, their effects were not as detrimental as when they were added at first exposure to KNO/sub 2/. The two inhibitors restricted translocation more than uptake. The data indicate an involvement of protein synthesis and a requirement for movement of a substance from shoots to roots for maximal development of the accelerated nitrite uptake phase. A requirement for protein synthesis in the transport of soluble organic nitrogen from roots to shoots is also suggested.

  1. Depletion-of-Battery Attack: Specificity, Modelling and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakhov, Vladimir; Koo, Insoo

    2018-06-06

    The emerging Internet of Things (IoT) has great potential; however, the societal costs of the IoT can outweigh its benefits. To unlock IoT potential, there needs to be improvement in the security of IoT applications. There are several standardization initiatives for sensor networks, which eventually converge with the Internet of Things. As sensor-based applications are deployed, security emerges as an essential requirement. One of the critical issues of wireless sensor technology is limited sensor resources, including sensor batteries. This creates a vulnerability to battery-exhausting attacks. Rapid exhaustion of sensor battery power is not only explained by intrusions, but can also be due to random failure of embedded sensor protocols. Thus, most wireless sensor applications, without tools to defend against rash battery exhausting, would be unable to function during prescribed times. In this paper, we consider a special type of threat, in which the harm is malicious depletion of sensor battery power. In contrast to the traditional denial-of-service attack, quality of service under the considered attack is not necessarily degraded. Moreover, the quality of service can increase up to the moment of the sensor set crashes. We argue that this is a distinguishing type of attack. Hence, the application of a traditional defense mechanism against this threat is not always possible. Therefore, effective methods should be developed to counter the threat. We first discuss the feasibility of rash depletion of battery power. Next, we propose a model for evaluation of energy consumption when under attack. Finally, a technique to counter the attack is discussed.

  2. Depletion-of-Battery Attack: Specificity, Modelling and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Shakhov

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The emerging Internet of Things (IoT has great potential; however, the societal costs of the IoT can outweigh its benefits. To unlock IoT potential, there needs to be improvement in the security of IoT applications. There are several standardization initiatives for sensor networks, which eventually converge with the Internet of Things. As sensor-based applications are deployed, security emerges as an essential requirement. One of the critical issues of wireless sensor technology is limited sensor resources, including sensor batteries. This creates a vulnerability to battery-exhausting attacks. Rapid exhaustion of sensor battery power is not only explained by intrusions, but can also be due to random failure of embedded sensor protocols. Thus, most wireless sensor applications, without tools to defend against rash battery exhausting, would be unable to function during prescribed times. In this paper, we consider a special type of threat, in which the harm is malicious depletion of sensor battery power. In contrast to the traditional denial-of-service attack, quality of service under the considered attack is not necessarily degraded. Moreover, the quality of service can increase up to the moment of the sensor set crashes. We argue that this is a distinguishing type of attack. Hence, the application of a traditional defense mechanism against this threat is not always possible. Therefore, effective methods should be developed to counter the threat. We first discuss the feasibility of rash depletion of battery power. Next, we propose a model for evaluation of energy consumption when under attack. Finally, a technique to counter the attack is discussed.

  3. Depleted uranium residual radiological risk assessment for Kosovo sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durante, Marco; Pugliese, Mariagabriella

    2003-01-01

    During the recent conflict in Yugoslavia, depleted uranium rounds were employed and were left in the battlefield. Health concern is related to the risk arising from contamination of areas in Kosovo with depleted uranium penetrators and dust. Although chemical toxicity is the most significant health risk related to uranium, radiation exposure has been allegedly related to cancers among veterans of the Balkan conflict. Uranium munitions are considered to be a source of radiological contamination of the environment. Based on measurements and estimates from the recent Balkan Task Force UNEP mission in Kosovo, we have estimated effective doses to resident populations using a well-established food-web mathematical model (RESRAD code). The UNEP mission did not find any evidence of widespread contamination in Kosovo. Rather than the actual measurements, we elected to use a desk assessment scenario (Reference Case) proposed by the UNEP group as the source term for computer simulations. Specific applications to two Kosovo sites (Planeja village and Vranovac hill) are described. Results of the simulations suggest that radiation doses from water-independent pathways are negligible (annual doses below 30 μSv). A small radiological risk is expected from contamination of the groundwater in conditions of effective leaching and low distribution coefficient of uranium metal. Under the assumptions of the Reference Case, significant radiological doses (>1 mSv/year) might be achieved after many years from the conflict through water-dependent pathways. Even in this worst-case scenario, DU radiological risk would be far overshadowed by its chemical toxicity

  4. Bacterial reduction by cell salvage washing and leukocyte depletion filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Jonathan H; Tuohy, Marion J; Hobson, Donna F; Procop, Gary

    2003-09-01

    Blood conservation techniques are being increasingly used because of the increased cost and lack of availability of allogeneic blood. Cell salvage offers great blood savings opportunities but is thought to be contraindicated in a number of areas (e.g., blood contaminated with bacteria). Several outcome studies have suggested the safety of this technique in trauma and colorectal surgery, but many practitioners are still hesitant to apply cell salvage in the face of frank bacterial contamination. This study was undertaken to assess the efficacy of bacterial removal when cell salvage was combined with leukocyte depletion filtration. Expired packed erythrocytes were obtained and inoculated with a fixed amount of a stock bacteria (Escherichia coli American Type Culture Collections [ATCC] 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, or Bacteroides fragilis ATCC 25285) in amounts ranging from 2,000 to 4,000 colony forming units/ml. The blood was processed via a cell salvage machine. The washed blood was then filtered using a leukocyte reduction filter. The results for blood taken during each step of processing were compared using a repeated-measures design. Fifteen units of blood were contaminated with each of the stock bacteria. From the prewash sample to the postfiltration sample, 99.0%, 99.6%, 100%, and 97.6% of E. coli, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, and B. fragilis were removed, respectively. Significant but not complete removal of contaminating bacteria was seen. An increased level of patient safety may be added to cell salvage by including a leukocyte depletion filter when salvaging blood that might be grossly contaminated with bacteria.

  5. Precious Metals in Automotive Technology: An Unsolvable Depletion Problem?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Bardi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the second half of the 20th century, various devices have been developed in order to reduce the emissions of harmful substances at the exhaust pipe of combustion engines. In the automotive field, the most diffuse and best known device of this kind is the “three way” catalytic converter for engines using the Otto cycle designed to abate the emissions of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and unburnt hydrocarbons. These catalytic converters can function only by means of precious metals (mainly platinum, rhodium and palladium which exist in a limited supply in economically exploitable ores. The recent increase in prices of all mineral commodities is already making these converters significantly expensive and it is not impossible that the progressive depletion of precious metals will make them too expensive for the market of private cars. The present paper examines how this potential scarcity could affect the technology of road transportation worldwide. We argue that the supply of precious metals for automotive converters is not at risk in the short term, but that in the future it will not be possible to continue using this technology as a result of increasing prices generated by progressive depletion. Mitigation methods such as reducing the amounts of precious metals in catalysts, or recycling them can help but cannot be considered as a definitive solution. We argue that precious metal scarcity is a critical factor that may determine the future development of road transportation in the world. As the problem is basically unsolvable in the long run, we must explore new technologies for road transportation and we conclude that it is likely that the clean engine of the future will be electric and powered by batteries.

  6. Histone h1 depletion impairs embryonic stem cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunzhe; Cooke, Marissa; Panjwani, Shiraj; Cao, Kaixiang; Krauth, Beth; Ho, Po-Yi; Medrzycki, Magdalena; Berhe, Dawit T; Pan, Chenyi; McDevitt, Todd C; Fan, Yuhong

    2012-01-01

    Pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are known to possess a relatively open chromatin structure; yet, despite efforts to characterize the chromatin signatures of ESCs, the role of chromatin compaction in stem cell fate and function remains elusive. Linker histone H1 is important for higher-order chromatin folding and is essential for mammalian embryogenesis. To investigate the role of H1 and chromatin compaction in stem cell pluripotency and differentiation, we examine the differentiation of embryonic stem cells that are depleted of multiple H1 subtypes. H1c/H1d/H1e triple null ESCs are more resistant to spontaneous differentiation in adherent monolayer culture upon removal of leukemia inhibitory factor. Similarly, the majority of the triple-H1 null embryoid bodies (EBs) lack morphological structures representing the three germ layers and retain gene expression signatures characteristic of undifferentiated ESCs. Furthermore, upon neural differentiation of EBs, triple-H1 null cell cultures are deficient in neurite outgrowth and lack efficient activation of neural markers. Finally, we discover that triple-H1 null embryos and EBs fail to fully repress the expression of the pluripotency genes in comparison with wild-type controls and that H1 depletion impairs DNA methylation and changes of histone marks at promoter regions necessary for efficiently silencing pluripotency gene Oct4 during stem cell differentiation and embryogenesis. In summary, we demonstrate that H1 plays a critical role in pluripotent stem cell differentiation, and our results suggest that H1 and chromatin compaction may mediate pluripotent stem cell differentiation through epigenetic repression of the pluripotency genes.

  7. Features, Events, and Processes: Disruptive Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Sanchez

    2004-11-08

    The purpose of this analysis report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of the disruptive events features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling used to support the total system performance assessment for license application (TSPA-LA). A screening decision, either ''Included'' or ''Excluded,'' is given for each FEP, along with the technical basis for screening decisions. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at 10 CFR 63.114 (d), (e), and (f) [DIRS 156605]. The FEPs addressed in this report deal with both seismic and igneous disruptive events, such as fault displacements through the repository and an igneous intrusion into the repository. For included FEPs, this analysis summarizes the implementation of the FEP in TSPA-LA (i.e., how the FEP is included). For excluded FEPs, this analysis provides the technical basis for exclusion from TSPA-LA (i.e., why the FEP is excluded). Previous versions of this report were developed to support the total system performance assessments (TSPA) for various prior repository designs. This revision addresses the repository design for the license application (LA).

  8. Features, Events, and Processes: Disruptive Events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P. Sanchez

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of the disruptive events features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling used to support the total system performance assessment for license application (TSPA-LA). A screening decision, either ''Included'' or ''Excluded,'' is given for each FEP, along with the technical basis for screening decisions. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at 10 CFR 63.114 (d), (e), and (f) [DIRS 156605]. The FEPs addressed in this report deal with both seismic and igneous disruptive events, such as fault displacements through the repository and an igneous intrusion into the repository. For included FEPs, this analysis summarizes the implementation of the FEP in TSPA-LA (i.e., how the FEP is included). For excluded FEPs, this analysis provides the technical basis for exclusion from TSPA-LA (i.e., why the FEP is excluded). Previous versions of this report were developed to support the total system performance assessments (TSPA) for various prior repository designs. This revision addresses the repository design for the license application (LA)

  9. Human Performance Event Database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trager, E. A.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe several aspects of a Human Performance Event Database (HPED) that is being developed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. These include the background, the database structure and basis for the structure, the process for coding and entering event records, the results of preliminary analyses of information in the database, and plans for the future. In 1992, the Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) within the NRC decided to develop a database for information on human performance during operating events. The database was needed to help classify and categorize the information to help feedback operating experience information to licensees and others. An NRC interoffice working group prepared a list of human performance information that should be reported for events and the list was based on the Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP) that had been developed by the NRC as an aid in investigating events. The structure of the HPED was based on that list. The HPED currently includes data on events described in augmented inspection team (AIT) and incident investigation team (IIT) reports from 1990 through 1996, AEOD human performance studies from 1990 through 1993, recent NRR special team inspections, and licensee event reports (LERs) that were prepared for the events. (author)

  10. The Agency of Event

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicholas, Paul; Tamke, Martin; Riiber, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the notion of agency within event-based models. We present an event-based modeling approach that links interdependent generative, analytic and decision making sub-models within a system of exchange. Two case study projects demonstrate the underlying modeling concepts and metho...

  11. Intermediate mass dimuon events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, H.-G.

    1985-01-01

    We report the observation of 67 dimuon events at the CERN p anti p collider with the UA1 detector. The events will be interpreted in terms of the Drell-Yan mechanism, J/PSI and UPSILON decays and heavy flavour production. (author)

  12. The Blayais event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This document provides the main events occurred to the Blayais installation during the year 2000. For each events, the detailed chronology, the situation analysis, the crisis management and the public information are provided. Some recommendations are also provided by the nuclear safety authorities. (A.L.B.)

  13. Depletion of interstellar elements and the interaction between gas and dust in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snow, T.P. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Recent data obtained with Copernicus, combined with new results from the literature, indicate that the depletions of interstellar elements may depend on cloud density in a simple way. This is expected if the depletions are due to accretion of gas particles onto grains under presently existing conditions, but is not expected if the depletions take place during the grain formation process, before mixing into the interstellar medium. The suggestion that depletion occurs via accretion may be supported by the existence of a good correlation between depletions and first ionization potentials of the elements, since the latter quantity determines to a great extent the chemical and physical properties, and hence possibly the sticking coefficient, of each species. If the grains do not carry large positive charges, then ion-grain encounters may be important not only in creating the depletions, but also in determining ionization equilibrium, particularly if a large population of very small grains is present

  14. Achieving high-efficiency emission depletion nanoscopy by employing cross relaxation in upconversion nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Qiuqiang; Liu, Haichun; Wang, Baoju; Wu, Qiusheng; Pu, Rui; Zhou, Chao; Huang, Bingru; Peng, Xingyun; Ågren, Hans; He, Sailing

    2017-10-20

    Stimulated emission depletion microscopy provides a powerful sub-diffraction imaging modality for life science studies. Conventionally, stimulated emission depletion requires a relatively high light intensity to obtain an adequate depletion efficiency through only light-matter interaction. Here we show efficient emission depletion for a class of lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles with the assistance of interionic cross relaxation, which significantly lowers the laser intensity requirements of optical depletion. We demonstrate two-color super-resolution imaging using upconversion nanoparticles (resolution ~ 66 nm) with a single pair of excitation/depletion beams. In addition, we show super-resolution imaging of immunostained cytoskeleton structures of fixed cells (resolution ~ 82 nm) using upconversion nanoparticles. These achievements provide a new perspective for the development of photoswitchable luminescent probes and will broaden the applications of lanthanide-doped nanoparticles for sub-diffraction microscopic imaging.

  15. The Effect of Implicit Preferences on Food Consumption: Moderating Role of Ego Depletion and Impulsivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Zhu, Jinglei; Hu, Yi; Fang, Yuan; Wang, Guosen; Cui, Xianghua; Wang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Ego depletion has been found to moderate the effect of implicit preferences on food consumption, such that implicit preferences predict consumption only under a depleted state. The present study tested how trait impulsivity impacts the effect of implicit preferences on food consumption in a depleted condition. Trait impulsivity was measured by means of self-report and a stop signal task. Results showed that both self-reported impulsivity and behavioral impulsivity moderated the ‘depletion and then eating according to implicit preferences’ effect, albeit in different ways. Participants high in self-reported impulsivity and low in behavioral impulsivity were more vulnerable to the effect of depletion on eating. The implications of these results for extant theories are discussed. Future research is needed to verify whether or not trait impulsivity is associated with vulnerability to depletion across different self-control domains. PMID:27881966

  16. Coupling effects of depletion interactions in a three-sphere colloidal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Ze-Shun; Dai Gang; Gao Hai-Xia; Xiao Chang-Ming

    2013-01-01

    In a three-sphere system, the middle sphere is acted upon by two opposite depletion forces from the other two spheres. It is found that, in this system, the two depletion forces are coupled with each other and result in a strengthened depletion force. So the difference of the depletion forces of the three-sphere system and its corresponding two two-sphere systems is introduced to describe the coupling effect of the depletion interactions. The numerical results obtained by Monte-Carlo simulations show that this coupling effect is affected by both the concentration of small spheres and the geometrical confinement. Meanwhile, it is also found that the mechanisms of the coupling effect and the effect on the depletion force from the geometry factor are the same. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  17. Depletion interactions in two-dimensional colloid-polymer mixtures: molecular dynamics simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Soon-Chul; Seong, Baek-Seok; Suh, Soong-Hyuck

    2009-01-01

    The depletion interactions acting between two hard colloids immersed in a bath of polymers, in which the interaction potentials include the soft repulsion/attraction, are extensively studied by using the molecular dynamics simulations. The collision frequencies and collision angle distributions for both incidental and reflection conditions are computed to study the dynamic properties of the colloidal mixtures. The depletion effect induced by the polymer-polymer and colloid-polymer interactions are investigated as well as the size ratio of the colloid and polymer. The simulated results show that the strong depletion interaction between two hard colloids appears for the highly asymmetric hard-disc mixtures. The attractive depletion force at contact becomes deeper and the repulsive barrier becomes wider as the asymmetry in size ratio increases. The strong polymer-polymer attraction leads to the purely attractive depletion interaction between two hard colloids, whereas the purely repulsive depletion interaction is induced by the strong colloid-polymer attraction.

  18. Threshold stoichiometry for beam induced nitrogen depletion of SiN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmers, H.; Weijers, T.D.M.; Elliman, R.G.; Uribasterra, J.; Whitlow, H.J.; Sarwe, E.-L.

    2002-01-01

    Measurements of the stoichiometry of silicon nitride films as a function of the number of incident ions using heavy ion elastic recoil detection (ERD) show that beam-induced nitrogen depletion depends on the projectile species, the beam energy, and the initial stoichiometry. A threshold stoichiometry exists in the range 1.3>N/Si≥1, below which the films are stable against nitrogen depletion. Above this threshold, depletion is essentially linear with incident fluence. The depletion rate correlates non-linearly with the electronic energy loss of the projectile ion in the film. Sufficiently long exposure of nitrogen-rich films renders the mechanism, which prevents depletion of nitrogen-poor films, ineffective. Compromising depth-resolution, nitrogen depletion from SiN films during ERD analysis can be reduced significantly by using projectile beams with low atomic numbers

  19. Linking the collisional history of the main asteroid belt to its dynamical excitation and depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottke, William F.; Durda, Daniel D.; Nesvorný, David; Jedicke, Robert; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Vokrouhlický, David; Levison, Harold F.

    2005-12-01

    The main belt is believed to have originally contained an Earth mass or more of material, enough to allow the asteroids to accrete on relatively short timescales. The present-day main belt, however, only contains ˜5×10 Earth masses. Numerical simulations suggest that this mass loss can be explained by the dynamical depletion of main belt material via gravitational perturbations from planetary embryos and a newly-formed Jupiter. To explore this scenario, we combined dynamical results from Petit et al. [Petit, J. Morbidelli, A., Chambers, J., 2001. The primordial excitation and clearing of the asteroid belt. Icarus 153, 338-347] with a collisional evolution code capable of tracking how the main belt undergoes comminution and dynamical depletion over 4.6 Gyr [Bottke, W.F., Durda, D., Nesvorny, D., Jedicke, R., Morbidelli, A., Vokrouhlický, D., Levison, H., 2005. The fossilized size distribution of the main asteroid belt. Icarus 175, 111-140]. Our results were constrained by the main belt's size-frequency distribution, the number of asteroid families produced by disruption events from diameter D>100 km parent bodies over the last 3-4 Gyr, the presence of a single large impact crater on Vesta's intact basaltic crust, and the relatively constant lunar and terrestrial impactor flux over the last 3 Gyr. We used our model to set limits on the initial size of the main belt as well as Jupiter's formation time. We find the most likely formation time for Jupiter was 3.3±2.6 Myr after the onset of fragmentation in the main belt. These results are consistent with the estimated mean disk lifetime of 3 Myr predicted by Haisch et al. [Haisch, K.E., Lada, E.A., Lada, C.J., 2001. Disk frequencies and lifetimes in young clusters. Astrophys. J. 553, L153-L156]. The post-accretion main belt population, in the form of diameter D≲1000 km planetesimals, was likely to have been 160±40 times the current main belt's mass. This corresponds to 0.06-0.1 Earth masses, only a small fraction

  20. Depletion length and space charge layer capacitance in doped semiconductor nanoshpere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nersesyan, S R; Petrosyan, S G

    2012-01-01

    The depletion length in a semiconductor nanosphere depends not only on the material parameters but on the nanosphere radius as well. For this reason, the depletion length does not present a universal characteristic length for all spherical interfaces. The difference from the standard flat model caused by the surface curvature is significant for a structure with the depletion length comparable to the radius of a nanosphere. We show that the depletion layer capacitance in a nanosphere becomes quite sensitive to the light intensity when, as a result of increasing optical generation rate, the surface potential barrier height is decreased and becomes very small. (paper)