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Sample records for depersonalization

  1. Depersonalization in a nonclinical population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trueman, D

    1984-01-01

    The present study assessed the prevalence and characteristics of depersonalization phenomena in a nonclinical population. Undergraduate students (N = 388) responded to a questionnaire soliciting information regarding the experience of depersonalization, age at onset, number, frequency, duration, and intensity of depersonalization experiences, level of pleasantness/unpleasantness, diminution of experiences with and without professional assistance, and relation of depersonalization to other factors. Of the Ss, 34% reported depersonalization. No significant sex differences were noted but relationships between years of experience of depersonalization and intensity, frequency, and number of experiences were significant.

  2. Depersonalization of business in ancient Rome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abatino, B.; Dari-Mattiacci, G.; Perotti, E.C.

    2011-01-01

    A crucial step in economic development is the depersonalization of business, which enables an enterprise to operate as a separate entity from its owners and managers. Until the emergence of a de iure depersonalization of business in the 19th century, business activities were eminently personal, with

  3. Dissociation in virtual reality: depersonalization and derealization

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    Garvey, Gregory P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper looks at virtual worlds such as Second Life7 (SL) as possible incubators of dissociation disorders as classified by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition3 (also known as the DSM-IV). Depersonalization is where "a person feels that he or she has changed in some way or is somehow unreal." Derealization when "the same beliefs are held about one's surroundings." Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID), previously known as multiple personality disorder fits users of Second Life who adopt "in-world" avatars and in effect, enact multiple distinct identities or personalities (known as alter egos or alters). Select questions from the Structured Clinical Interview for Depersonalization (SCI-DER)8 will be discussed as they might apply to the user's experience in Second Life. Finally I would like to consider the hypothesis that rather than a pathological disorder, dissociation is a normal response to the "artificial reality" of Second Life.

  4. Depersonalization: An exploratory factor analysis of the Italian version of the Cambridge Depersonalization Scale.

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    Fagioli, F; Telesforo, L; Dell'Erba, A; Consolazione, M; Migliorini, V; Patanè, M; Boldrini, T; Graziani, R; Nicoletti, F; Fiori-Nastro, P

    2015-07-01

    "Depersonalization" (DP) is a common symptom in the general population and psychiatric patients (Michal et al., 2011 [1]). DP is characterized by an alteration in the experience of the self, so that one feels detached from his or her own mental processes or body (or from the world), feeling as being an outside observer of his or her own self, and loosing the experience of unity and identity (American Psychiatric Association, 2013 [2]). We performed an exploratory factor analysis of the Cambridge Depersonalization Scale Italian version (CDS-IV). We enrolled 149 inpatients and outpatients of psychiatric services located in two Italian regions, Lazio and Campania. Patients were aged between 15 and 65 and diagnosed with schizophrenic, depressive or anxiety disorders. Four factors accounted for 97.4% of the variance. Factor 1 (10, 24, 26, 1, 13, 23, 9, 2, 5, and 11), called "Detachment from the Self", captures experiences of detachment from actions and thoughts. Factor 2 (19, 20, 27, 3, 12, 23, 22, and 11), called "Anomalous bodily experiences", refers to unusual bodily experiences. Factor 3 (7, 28, 25, 6, 9, and 2), named "Numbing", describes the dampening of affects. Factor 4 (14, 17, and 16), named "Temporal blunting", refers to the subjective experience of time. We did not find any specific factor that refers to derealization; this suggests that the constructs of depersonalization/derealization (DP/DR) were strongly related to each other. Our results show that the constructs of DP/DR subsume several psychopathological dimensions; moreover, the above mentioned factors were broadly consistent with prior literature. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Depersonalization/derealization during acute social stress in social phobia.

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    Hoyer, Juergen; Braeuer, David; Crawcour, Stephen; Klumbies, Elisabeth; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2013-03-01

    The present study aimed at investigating how frequently and intensely depersonalization/derealization symptoms occur during a stressful performance situation in social phobia patients vs. healthy controls, as well as testing hypotheses about the psychological predictors and consequences of such symptoms. N=54 patients with social phobia and N=34 control participants without mental disorders were examined prior to, during, and after a standardized social performance situation (Trier Social Stress Test, TSST). An adapted version of the Cambridge Depersonalization Scale was applied along with measures of social anxiety, depression, personality, participants' subjective appraisal, safety behaviours, and post-event processing. Depersonalization symptoms were more frequent in social phobia patients (92%) than in controls (52%). Specifically in patients, they were highly positively correlated with safety behaviours and post-event-processing, even after controlling for social anxiety. The role of depersonalization/derealization in the maintenance of social anxiety should be more thoroughly recognized and explored. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Intergroup differentiation in computer-mediated communication : Effects of depersonalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postmes, T; Spears, R; Lea, M

    Two studies examined intergroup discussions via computer-mediated communication systems. It was hypothesized that depersonalization, in comparison with individuated interaction, would increase the tendency for intergroup differentiation in attitudes and stereotypes, In Study 1, 24 groups

  7. Feeling unreal: a depersonalization disorder update of 117 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeon, Daphne; Knutelska, Margaret; Nelson, Dorothy; Guralnik, Orna

    2003-09-01

    Despite a surge of interest and literature on depersonalization disorder in recent years, a large series of individuals with the disorder has not been described to date. In this report, we systematically elucidate the phenomenology, precipitants, antecedents, comorbidity, and treatment history in such a series. 117 adult subjects with depersonalization disorder (DSM-III-R/DSM-IV criteria) consecutively recruited to a number of depersonalization disorder research studies were administered structured and semistructured diagnostic interviews and the Dissociative Experiences Scale. Data were gathered from 1994 to 2000. The illness had an approximately 1:1 gender ratio with onset around 16 years of age. The course was typically chronic and often continuous. Illness characteristics such as onset, duration, and course were not associated with symptom severity. Mood, anxiety, and personality disorders were frequently comorbid, but none predicted depersonalization severity. The most common immediate precipitants of the disorder were severe stress, depression, panic, marijuana ingestion, and hallucinogen ingestion, and none of these predicted symptom severity. Negative affects, stress, perceived threatening social interaction, and unfamiliar environments were some of the more common factors leading to symptom exacerbation. Conversely, comforting interpersonal interactions, intense emotional or physical stimulation, and relaxation tended to diminish symptom intensity. There were no significant gender differences in the clinical features of the disorder. In this sample, depersonalization tended to be refractory to various medication and psychotherapy treatments. The characteristics of depersonalization disorder found in this sample, the largest described to date, are in good accord with previous literature. The study highlights the need for novel therapeutic approaches to treat depersonalization disorder. Novel medication classes, as well as novel psychotherapeutic techniques

  8. A Preliminary Evaluation of Repeated Exposure for Depersonalization and Derealization

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    Weiner, Elliot; McKay, Dean

    2013-01-01

    Dissociative symptoms including depersonalization and derealization are commonly experienced by individuals suffering from panic disorder or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Few studies have been published investigating the specific treatment of these symptoms in individuals diagnosed with panic disorder or PTSD, despite evidence that the…

  9. Implicit Self-Esteem in Borderline Personality and Depersonalization Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Hedrick, Alexis N.; Berlin, Heather A.

    2012-01-01

    Self-identity is disrupted in people with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and depersonalization disorder (DPD), fluctuating with sudden shifts in affect in BPD and experienced as detached in DPD. Measures of implicit self-esteem, free from conscious control and presentation biases, may highlight how such disruptions of self-concept differentially affect these two populations on an unconscious level. We examined implicit self-esteem using the Implicit Association Test, along with measure...

  10. Depersonalization and individualism: the effect of culture on symptom profiles in panic disorder.

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    Sierra-Siegert, Mauricio; David, Anthony S

    2007-12-01

    It has been proposed that highly individualistic cultures confer vulnerability to depersonalization. To test this idea, we carried out a comprehensive systematic review of published empirical studies on panic disorder, which reported the frequency of depersonalization/derealization during panic attacks. It was predicted that the frequency of depersonalization would be higher in Western cultures and that a significant correlation would be found between the frequency of depersonalization and individualism scores of the participant countries. As predicted, the frequency of depersonalization during panic was significantly lower in nonwestern countries. There was also a significant correlation between frequency of depersonalization and Individualism (rho = 0.68, p individualism. These findings are interpreted in light of recent studies suggesting that individualistic cultures are characterized by hypersensitivity to threat and by an external locus of control. Two features may be relevant in the genesis of depersonalization.

  11. Early elements of the corporate form: depersonalization of business in ancient Rome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abatino, B.; Dari-Mattiacci, G.; Perotti, E.

    2009-01-01

    A crucial step in economic development is the depersonalization of business, which enables an enterprise to operate as a separate entity from its owners and managers. Until the emergence of a de iure depersonalization of business in the 19th century, business activities were eminently personal, with

  12. Conditional reasoning in Asperger's syndrome and depersonalization disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Emma Jane; Dumigan, Rachael; Schoenberg, Poppy; Mauricio, Sierra; Murphy, Declan G; David, Anthony S

    2012-09-01

    Conditional reasoning premises can be systematically manipulated to elicit specific response patterns. This is useful for investigating the reasoning style of people who report clinical symptoms. We administered a standardized conditional reasoning task to 16 participants with a diagnosis of Asperger's syndrome (AS), 16 participants with a diagnosis of depersonalization disorder (DPD), and 32 intelligence-quotient-matched controls. Premises were manipulated for a) context, with some being embedded within extra statements, and b) content, neutral or emotional. Both the AS and DPD participants were less likely to incorporate exceptions to the given premises than the controls, indicating difficulties with mental flexibility, although this effect was less marked in the DPD group. It seems the AS participants were also less influenced than the controls by statements that highlight possible alternative consequences. However, this effect was less robust than that observed with statements detailing exceptions, suggesting it may be because of general problems with executive function rather than difficulties in processing contextual information. We did not observe the expected difference between the DPD participants and the controls when reasoning with emotional premises. Overall, these data suggest that the DPD and AS participants have distinct reasoning styles, which may be of use for interventions based on cognitive change.

  13. Implicit self-esteem in borderline personality and depersonalization disorder

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    Alexis eHedrick

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Self-identity is disrupted in people with borderline personality disorder (BPD and depersonalization disorder (DPD, fluctuating with sudden shifts in affect in BPD and experienced as detached in DPD. Measures of implicit self-esteem, free from conscious control and presentation biases, may highlight how such disruptions of self-concept differentially affect these two populations on an unconscious level. We examined implicit self-esteem using the Implicit Association Test, along with measures of emotion, behavior, and temperament, in BPD (n=18, DPD (n=18, and healthy control (n=35 participants. DPD participants had significantly higher implicit self-esteem and were more harm avoidant than BPD and control participants, while BPD participants had more ‘frontal’ behaviors and impulsivity and less self-directedness and cooperativeness than DPD and control participants. Thus, while BPD and DPD commonly overlap in terms of dissociative symptoms and emotional irregularities, differences in self-esteem, behavior, and temperament can help identify where they diverge in terms of their cognition, behavior, and ultimately underlying neurobiology.

  14. Depersonalization experiences in undergraduates are related to heightened stress cortisol responses.

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    Giesbrecht, Timo; Smeets, Tom; Merckelbach, Harald; Jelicic, Marko

    2007-04-01

    The relationship between dissociative tendencies, as measured with the Dissociative Experiences Scale and its amnesia, absorption/imaginative involvement, and depersonalization/derealization subscales, and HPA axis functioning was studied in 2 samples of undergraduate students (N = 58 and 67). Acute stress was induced by means of the Trier Social Stress Test. Subjective and physiological stress (i.e., cortisol) responses were measured. Individuals high on the depersonalization/derealization subscale of the Dissociative Experiences Scale exhibited more pronounced cortisol responses, while individuals high on the absorption subscale showed attenuated responses. Interestingly, subjective stress experiences, as indicated by the Tension-Anxiety subscale of the Profile of Mood States, were positively related to trait dissociation. The present findings illustrate how various types of dissociation (i.e., depersonalization/derealization, absorption) are differentially related to cortisol stress responses.

  15. Emotional memory and perception of emotional faces in patients suffering from depersonalization disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montagne, B.; Sierra, M.; Medford, N.; Hunter, E.; Baker, D.J.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Haan, E.H.F. de; David, A.S.

    2007-01-01

    Previous work has shown that patients with depersonalization disorder (DPD) have reduced physiological responses to emotional stimuli, which may be related to subjective emotional numbing. This study investigated two aspects of affective processing in 13 patients with DPD according to the DSM-IV

  16. Depersonalization or Cynicism, Efficacy or Inefficacy: What Are the Dimensions of Teacher Burnout?

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    Simbula, Silvia; Guglielmi, Dina

    2010-01-01

    This article seeks to contribute to the ongoing debate on the dimensionality of the burnout syndrome. Specifically, its aims are: (1) to investigate the role of efficacy beliefs using negatively worded inefficacy items instead of positive ones and (2) to establish whether depersonalization and cynicism can be considered two different dimensions of…

  17. Linguistic Means of Depersonalization and Dematerialization in the Descriptions of Subjective Perception of Time

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    Ella V. Nesterik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses linguistic means of depersonalization and dematerialization in the descriptions of subjective perception of time by characters, detects functions, fulfilled by them in such contexts. Subjective perception of time is considered as a text category and is studied in terms of text linguistics

  18. Ideologies of moral exclusion: a critical discursive reframing of depersonalization, delegitimization and dehumanization.

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    Tileagă, Cristian

    2007-12-01

    This paper focuses on some of the issues that arise when one treats notions such as depersonalization, delegitimization and dehumanization as social practices. It emphasizes the importance of: (a) understanding depersonalizing, delegitimizing and dehumanizing constructions as embedded in descriptions of located spatial activities and moral standings in the world and (b) invoking and building a socio-moral order linked to notions of lesser humanity or non-humanity, (spatial) transgression and abjection. These concerns are illustrated by taking talk on Romanies as a case in point from interviews with Romanian middle-class professionals. It is argued that a focus on description rather than explanation might be more effective in understanding the dynamics of ideologies of moral exclusion.

  19. Depersonalization disorder: disconnection of cognitive evaluation from autonomic responses to emotional stimuli.

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    Matthias Michal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with depersonalization disorder (DPD typically complain about emotional detachment. Previous studies found reduced autonomic responsiveness to emotional stimuli for DPD patients as compared to patients with anxiety disorders. We aimed to investigate autonomic responsiveness to emotional auditory stimuli of DPD patients as compared to patient controls. Furthermore, we examined the modulatory effect of mindful breathing on these responses as well as on depersonalization intensity. METHODS: 22 DPD patients and 15 patient controls balanced for severity of depression and anxiety, age, sex and education, were compared regarding 1 electrodermal and heart rate data during a resting period, and 2 autonomic responses and cognitive appraisal of standardized acoustic affective stimuli in two conditions (normal listening and mindful breathing. RESULTS: DPD patients rated the emotional sounds as significantly more neutral as compared to patient controls and standardized norm ratings. At the same time, however, they responded more strongly to acoustic emotional stimuli and their electrodermal response pattern was more modulated by valence and arousal as compared to patient controls. Mindful breathing reduced severity of depersonalization in DPD patients and increased the arousal modulation of electrodermal responses in the whole sample. Finally, DPD patients showed an increased electrodermal lability in the rest period as compared to patient controls. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrated that the cognitive evaluation of emotional sounds in DPD patients is disconnected from their autonomic responses to those emotional stimuli. The increased electrodermal lability in DPD may reflect increased introversion and cognitive control of emotional impulses. The findings have important psychotherapeutic implications.

  20. Association of Neglect-Like Symptoms with Anxiety, Somatization, and Depersonalization in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome.

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    Michal, Matthias; Adler, Julia; Reiner, Iris; Wermke, Andreas; Ackermann, Tatiana; Schlereth, Tanja; Birklein, Frank

    2017-04-01

    Many patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) report some foreignness of the affected limb, which is referred to as "neglect-like symptoms" (NLS). Despite similarities of the NLS reports to symptoms of body image disturbances in mental disorders, no study has been conducted to examine such associations. We investigated 50 patients with CRPS and 45 pain control patients (N = 27, chronic limb pain; N = 18, migraine headache). NLS, anxiety, depression, depersonalization, and somatization were assessed using validated questionnaires. Seventy-two percent of the CRPS patients reported at least one NLS vs 29.6% and 33.3% in the two patient control groups. In limb pain controls, NLS correlated with pain intensity. In CRPS patients, NLS correlated with anxiety (rho = 0.658, P  psychological studies. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  1. Early emotional processing deficits in depersonalization : An exploration with event-related potentials in an undergraduate sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quaedflieg, Conny W. E. M.; Giesbrecht, Timo; Meijer, Ewout; Merckelbach, Harald; de Jong, Peter J.; Thorsteinsson, Haraldur; Smeets, Tom; Simeon, Daphne

    2013-01-01

    Emotional stimuli may draw attention to such an extent that they hamper the processing of subsequent signals, a phenomenon termed emotion-induced blindness (EIB). As depersonalization is associated with self-reported attenuated emotional responses, the present study explored whether individuals

  2. Abnormal Cardiovascular Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Responses to Physical and Emotional Stimuli in Depersonalization Disorder.

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    Andrew Paul Owens

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Depersonalization disorder (DPD is characterized by subjective unreality, disembodiment, emotional numbing and reduced psychogenic sympathoexcitation. 3 related experiments used physical and emotional challenges in 14 DPD participants and 16 controls to elucidate whether the cardiovascular sympathetic (SNS and parasympathetic (PNS nervous systems are implicated in DPD and if blunted DPD sympathoexcitation is peripherally or centrally mediated. Participants completed the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI, Dissociative Experience Scale (DES and Cambridge Depersonalization Scale (CDS. Study I recorded heart rate (HR and blood pressure (BP during 5mins supine baseline, 3mins handgrip (HG, 3mins cold pressor (CP and 5mins 60°head-up tilt (HUT. Study II recorded HR, BP and heart rate variability (HRV during 5mins HUT and unpleasant images. Study III examined HR and BP orienting responses (ORs to HUT and unpleasant, neutral and pleasant images. DPD BAI (p=0.0004, DES (p=.0002 and CDS (p=< 0.0001 scores were higher than controls. The DPD group produced diminished diastolic BP (DBP (p=0.045 increases to HG. Other indices were comparable between groups. DPD participants produced diminished systolic BP (SBP (p=0.003 and DBP (p=0.002 increases, but greater (p=0.004 HR increases to CP. In study II, DPD high frequency HRV (HF-HRV – indicating parasympathetic vagal activity - was reduced (p=0.029. In study III, DPD DBP was higher throughout the 5s duration of HUT/pseudorandom unpleasant image presentation (1s [p=0.002], 2s [p=0.033], 3s [p=0.001], 4s [p=0.009], 5s [p=0.029]. Study I’s BP pressor data supports previous findings of suppressed sympathoexcitatioin DPD. The greater HR increases to CP, decreased HF-HRV in study II, and increased DBP during unpleasant ORs in study III implicates the SNS and PNS in DPD pathophysiology. These studies suggest the cardiovascular autonomic dysregulation in DPD is likely to be centrally-mediated

  3. [Depersonalization syndrome after acquired brain damage. Overview based on 3 case reports and the literature and discussion of etiological models].

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    Paulig, M; Böttger, S; Sommer, M; Prosiegel, M

    1998-12-01

    Depersonalization after brain damage is still only rarely reported and poorly understood. We describe three patients between the ages of 21 and 25 who experienced depersonalization and derealization for periods of 6 weeks to 4 months, two after traumatic brain injury, the third after surgical and radiation treatment of a pineocytoma. Each one believed to be living in a nightmare and thought about committing suicide in order to wake up. One patient developed symptoms as described in Cotard delusion. Aspects of neuroanatomy, psychodynamics, and anthropology are discussed with reference to the literature. Frontal and temporal lesions seem only to play a facilitating role but not to be a necessary condition. There is evidence for additional influence of psychological and premorbid personality factors. Summarizing the current state of information we consider depersonalization with the experience of being in a dream or being dead as a heuristic reaction to brain damage. Similar models have already been discussed in neuropsychological disorders as for instance reduplicative paramnesias, neglect, and anosognosia.

  4. A disembodied man: A case of somatopsychic depersonalization in schizotypal disorder.

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    Zaytseva, Yuliya; Szymanski, Caroline; Gutyrchik, Evgeny; Pechenkova, Ekaterina; Vlasova, Rosa; Wittmann, Marc

    2015-12-01

    In the general concept of self-disturbances in schizophrenia and schizophrenia spectrum disorders, somatopsychic depersonalization (SPD) occupies a special place as it constitutes a syndrome that comprises feelings of detachment from one's own body and mental processes. However, apart from clinical descriptions, to date the pathophysiology of SPD is not fully understood due to the rareness of the syndrome and a lack of experimental studies. In a case study of one patient with schizotypal disorder, we applied a multimodal approach to understanding the SPD phenomena. The patient's clinical profile was identified as disruption of implicit bodily function, accompanied by depressive symptoms. On a neuropsychological level, the patient exhibited impairment in executive functioning, intact tactile perception and kinesthetic praxis. Behavioral tests revealed an altered sense of time but unimpaired self-agency. Furthermore, the patient exhibited a lack of empathy and he had autistic traits, although with a sufficient ability to verbalize his feelings. On the neurobiological level using an active and passive touch paradigm during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we found a hyperconnectivity of the default-mode network and salience network and a hypoconnectivity of the central executive brain networks in the performance of the touch task as well as intact perceptual touch processing emerging from the direct comparisons of the touch conditions. Our data provide evidence for the important role of altered large-brain network functioning in SPD that corresponds to the specific behavioral and neurocognitive phenomena. © 2015 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. Work-load, burnout and mental health of dual-doctor couplesl: Depersonalization as a coping mechanism?

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    Győrffy Zsuzsa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In line with the feminization of medicine the rate of dual-doctor couples among physicians has increased. The aim of this study is to describe the impact of the special stress-load related to medical profession on the members of these couples. Methods: Data in this representative cross-sectional epidemiological study were obtained from online questionnaires completed by 5,607 Hungarian physicians. In the quantitative analysis data of those who lived in a partner relationship were processed: 1,549 physicians with a physician partner versus 3,095 physicians with a non-physician partner. In our descriptive analysis we compared the amount of work-load (number of working hours, workplaces and night shifts, leisure time, and time spent on housework in the two groups. We also analyzed certain indicators of mental health (sleep disorders, signs of depression, psychosomatic symptoms, and perceived stress and the presence of burnout and role conflict. Results: There was no difference in the amount of workload between the two groups. No differences were detected in case of mental health indicators either; however, medium and high level of depersonalization and high level of role conflict was more prevalent among doctors with physician partner. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that having a physician partner was an important risk factor of depersonalization. Conclusions: Developing depersonalization might be a response on the 'double' emotional burden that affects doctors who live in a dual-career partner relationship. Higher prevalence of burnout among dual-physician couples draws the attention to the need for prevention and intervention.

  6. Tracking Potentiating States of Dissociation: An Intensive Clinical Case Study of Sleep, Daydreaming, Mood, and Depersonalization/Derealization

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    Poerio, Giulia L.; Kellett, Stephen; Totterdell, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This study examined in real time the role of sleep and daydreaming as potentiating states for subsequent dissociation in depersonalization/derealization disorder (DDD). Research and theory suggests that dissociation may be exacerbated and maintained by a labile sleep-wake cycle in which “dream-like” mentation intrudes into waking life and fuels dissociative symptoms. We explore and extend this idea by examining the state of daydreaming in dissociation. Daydreaming is a state of consciousness between dreaming and waking cognition that involves stimulus-independent and task-unrelated mentation. We report the results of a unique intensive N = 1 study with an individual meeting diagnostic criteria for DDD. Using experience-sampling methodology, the participant rated (six times daily for 40 days) current daydreaming, mood, and dissociative symptoms. At the start of each day sleep quality and duration was also rated. Daydreaming was reported on 45% of occasions and significantly predicted greater dissociation, in particular when daydreams were repetitive and negative (but not fanciful) in content. These relationships were mediated by feelings of depression and anxiety. Sleep quality but not duration was a negative predictor of daily dissociation and also negatively predicted depression but not anxiety. Findings offer initial evidence that the occurrence and content of daydreams may act as potentiating states for heightened, in the moment, dissociation. The treatment implications of targeting sleep and daydreaming for dissociative disorders are discussed. PMID:27582722

  7. Tracking potentiating states of dissociation: An intensive clinical case study of sleep, daydreaming, mood, and depersonalization/derealization

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    Giulia Lara Poerio

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examined in real time the role of sleep and daydreaming as potentiating states for subsequent dissociation in depersonalization/derealization disorder (DDD. Research and theory suggests that dissociation may be exacerbated and maintained by a labile sleep-wake cycle in which ‘dream-like’ mentation intrudes into waking life and fuels dissociative symptoms. We explore and extend this idea by examining the state of daydreaming in dissociation. Daydreaming is a state of consciousness between dreaming and waking cognition that involves stimulus-independent and task-unrelated mentation. We report the results of a unique intensive N=1 study with an individual meeting diagnostic criteria for DDD. Using experience-sampling methodology, the participant rated (six times daily for 40 days current daydreaming, mood, and dissociative symptoms. At the start of each day sleep quality and duration was also rated. Daydreaming was reported on 45% of occasions and significantly predicted greater dissociation, in particular when daydreams were repetitive and negative (but not fanciful in content. These relationships were mediated by feelings of depression and anxiety. Sleep quality but not duration was a negative predictor of daily dissociation and also negatively predicted depression but not anxiety. Findings offer initial evidence that the occurrence and content of daydreams may act as potentiating states for heightened, in the moment, dissociation. The treatment implications of targeting sleep and daydreaming for dissociative disorders are discussed.

  8. Effect of Cultural Themes on Forming Cotard’s Syndrome: Reporting a Case of Cotard’s Syndrome with Depersonalization and Out of Body Experience Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Ghaffari Nejad, Alireza; Mehdizadeh Zare Anari, Ali; Pouya, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Cotard’s syndrome is a rare psychiatric syndrome. Its core symptom is nihilistic ideation or delusion. Case Report: A female patient with Cotard’s syndrome symptoms associated with out of body experience and depersonalization, and complicated grief was referred for evaluation. She believed that she was killed by a creature named "Aal" in the Persian folklore Conclusions: Cultural and superstitious beliefs could affect the forming of the complex constellation of the patient’s sympto...

  9. Daily Elevations in Dissociative Absorption and Depersonalization in a Nonclinical Sample Are Related to Daily Stress and Psychopathological Symptoms.

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    Soffer-Dudek, Nirit

    2017-01-01

    Dissociative experiences are associated with several psychopathological symptoms and are a hindrance to therapeutic gain. Depersonalization-derealization (DEP-DER) is positively associated with stress and anxiety, while absorption and imaginative involvement (ABS), a tendency for total, immersed attention, is commonly referred to as nonpathological dissociation, although it is positively associated with obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms. Previous studies in the field have been mainly cross-sectional. The present study aimed to examine these associations rigorously and attempted to determine directionality between dissociation and distress. The current study employed both variable-centered (cross-sectional) and person-centered (longitudinal, within-subjects) analyses of the associations of DEP-DER and ABS with distress. Undergraduate students (N = 184) completed trait questionnaires on dissociation, stress, anxiety, depression, and OC symptoms, and n = 78 also completed questionnaires assessing the same constructs daily for 14 days. Multiple regression and multilevel modeling analyses were conducted. In the cross-sectional phase, DEP-DER was uniquely positively related to anxiety and OC symptoms, and ABS was uniquely positively related to OC symptoms. In the daily diary phase, increases in DEP-DER were related to increases in anxiety, depression, OC symptoms, and stress, while increases in ABS were related to increases in OC symptoms and stress. In addition, time-lag analysis showed that ABS tended to temporally precede OC. ABS foretold increases in OC symptoms, at least in this nonclinical sample. Future studies on clinical samples should explore whether ABS should be referred to as "nonpathological" and its possible role in the development or maintenance of clinical-level OCD.

  10. The Depersonalization of Sex

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    Frankl, Viktor E.

    1977-01-01

    Love is frequently interpreted in a reductionistic way as a mere sublimation of sexual drives and instincts which man shares with all the other animals. Such an interpretation blocks a true understanding of all the various human phenomena. (Author)

  11. Controlling Depersonalized Counseling.

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    Balistrieri, Tom

    1982-01-01

    Outlines Gestalt therapy techniques to increase active listening and counselor/client involvement in career counseling. Discusses awareness through dialog, role playing or "presentizing," and experiential "presentizing." Presents a sample dialog as illustration. (RC)

  12. Depersonalization-Derealization Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or witnessing a traumatic event or abuse Severe stress, such as major relationship, financial or work-related issues Depression or anxiety, especially severe or prolonged depression, or anxiety with ...

  13. The Dissociative Subtype of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Among Adolescents: Co-Occurring PTSD, Depersonalization/Derealization, and Other Dissociation Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kristen R; Seng, Julia S; Briggs, Ernestine C; Munro-Kramer, Michelle L; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A; Lee, Robert C; Ford, Julian D

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the co-occurrence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociation in a clinical sample of trauma-exposed adolescents by evaluating evidence for the depersonalization/derealization dissociative subtype of PTSD as defined by the DSM-5 and then examining a broader set of dissociation symptoms. A sample of treatment-seeking, trauma-exposed adolescents 12 to 16 years old (N = 3,081) from the National Child Traumatic Stress Network Core Data Set was used to meet the study objectives. Two models of PTSD/dissociation co-occurrence were estimated using latent class analysis, one with 2 dissociation symptoms and the other with 10 dissociation symptoms. After model selection, groups within each model were compared on demographics, trauma characteristics, and psychopathology. Model A, the depersonalization/derealization model, had 5 classes: dissociative subtype/high PTSD; high PTSD; anxious arousal; dysphoric arousal; and a low symptom/reference class. Model B, the expanded dissociation model, identified an additional class characterized by dissociative amnesia and detached arousal. These 2 models provide new information about the specific ways PTSD and dissociation co-occur and illuminate some differences between adult and adolescent trauma symptom expression. A dissociative subtype of PTSD can be distinguished from PTSD alone in adolescents, but assessing a wider range of dissociative symptoms is needed to fully characterize adolescent traumatic stress responses. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A poetical itinerary of a body in vertigo: the persona of Alejandra Pizarnik and the ontological function of depersonalization of the poetical self

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Kavčič

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we take as our starting point the bond between the corporeal and the word and use this to analyse the process of depersonalization and the creation of the poetical persona in the works of Alejandra Pizarnik. We seek to define the disappearance of the subject engendered by the writing process itself with reference to individual poems by Pizarnik. As a result of the continual disappearance of the subject and of the inadequacy of language, the act of writing can be understood as an unrepeatable experiment as well as a reflection of a failed attempt by the poet to merge the corporeal and the word as well as life and poetry as a post-death experience, since the subject alienates its own corporeality by writing as if deceased. This conceit has the effect of enabling poem to be seen as an eternal invocation of the absent.

  15. Depersonalization and derealization in self-report and clinical interview: The spectrum of borderline personality disorder, dissociative disorders, and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sar, Vedat; Alioğlu, Firdevs; Akyuz, Gamze

    2017-01-01

    Depersonalization (DEP) and derealization (DER) were examined among college students with and without borderline personality disorder (BPD) and/or dissociative disorders (DDs) by self-report and clinician assessment. The Steinberg Depersonalization Questionnaire (SDEPQ), the Steinberg Derealization Questionnaire (SDERQ), the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the screening tool of the BPD section of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-BPD) were administered to 1,301 students. Those with BPD (n = 80) according to the SCID-BPD and 111 non-BPD controls were evaluated using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders by a psychiatrist blind to the diagnosis. Of the participants, 19.7% reported SDEPQ (17.8%) and/or SDERQ (11.0%) scores above cutoff levels and impairment from these experiences. Principal component analysis of 26 items of both scales yielded 4 factors: cognitive-emotional self-detachment, perceptual detachment, bodily self-detachment, and detachment from reality. Participants with concurrent DD and BPD had the highest scores for DEP and DER in the clinical interview and self-report. The total number of BPD criteria was associated with the severity of childhood trauma and dissociation. Both BPD and DD were associated with clinician-assessed and self-reported DER, self-reported DEP, and the cognitive-emotional self-detachment factor. Unlike BPD, DD was associated with clinician-assessed DEP, and BPD was related to the self-reported detachment from reality factor. Although the latter was correlated with the total childhood trauma score, possibly because of dissociative amnesia, clinician-assessed DER was not. Being the closest factor to BPD, the factor of detachment from reality warrants further study.

  16. Depersonalization: physiological or pathological in adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagioli, Francesca; Dell'Erba, Alice; Migliorini, Vanina; Stanghellini, Giovanni

    2015-05-01

    This study analyzed the presence of DP symptoms in a sample of both psychiatric patients and normal subjects, addressing the issue of DP symptoms in adolescence. A total of 267 subjects (149 patients and 118 healthy controls) aged between 14 and 65 years, were assessed by means of CDS, the SCID-I and the K-SADS. The sample was then divided into two subsamples with a cut-off age of 21 years. As expected CDS score was significantly higher in the patient group compared to the healthy control group. As for the age issue, among patients no statistical difference was found comparing subjects over and under 21 years, whereas in the sample of healthy controls, subjects under 21 years reported CDS scores significantly higher. While in adults DP symptoms are frequently associated with mental disorders, in adolescents they could be considered as a quasi-physiological phenomenon. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Personalized and Depersonalized Discourses: Irony and Self-Consciousness in Bécquer's Rimas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecile West-Settle

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer's Rimas have long been read as a prelude to the later twentieth-century texts of Juan Ramón Jiménez and Jorge Guillén. This established reading of the Rimas emphasizes the romantic idealism of Bécquer's poetry and identifies Bécquer as a proto-symbolist poet whose work anticipates "pure" poetry in Spain. An alternate view of the Rimas, one that recognizes the ironic impulses of this poetry, reminds us that Bécquer's poetry and poetics are, rather than single-minded, grounded in paradox and concerned with one of art's central problems, that is to say, with representing what the limitless imagination produces within the limits of language.

  18. Depersonalization of personal data and «big data» technology (bigdata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Churakova E.N.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available the question of the citizens' personal data processing is very important, and the solution for this problem should be the adoption of legislation expressly regulating the activities of personal data operators. The authors considered one of the most effective approaches to personal data protection – anonymization, as well as identified two developments to adoption of legislation. Anonymization not only protects the interests of the state and, first and foremost, the citizens, but it is also a mechanism that will allow advertising, insurance and other companies to improve the quality of their products and services.

  19. A Case Report of Dissociative Neurosis (Depersonalization Disorder) in an Adolescent Treated with Family Therapy and Behavior Modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollinger, Stephen J.

    1983-01-01

    Describes the use of behavioral procedures as part of systems-oriented family therapy for the treatment of an adolescent girl's functional blackouts. Treatment successfully eliminated blackouts without directly addressing clear psychosexual issues. Discusses the case in terms of conceptualizing etiology and treatments and advocates working with…

  20. The Relationship of Role-Based, Task-Based, Boundary-Spanning, and Conflict-Mediating Stress Experienced by New York State Special Education Administrators and Emotional Exhaustion, Depersonalization, and Personal Accomplishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosini, MaryAnn

    2013-01-01

    Given the challenges faced in ensuring the needs of students with disabilities are met in the midst of fiscal constraints, increasing litigation, meeting adequate yearly progress and compliance with State regulations, special education administrators are more at risk for burnout than ever before. Burnout is characterized by a high degree of…

  1. Bağlılık Boyutlarının Tükenmişlik Boyutları Üzerindeki Etkisinin İncelenmesi(An Analysis about The Effects of Commitment Dimensions on The Burnout Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sema POLATCI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of commitment dimensions - affective commitment, continuance commitment, normative commitment- on the burnout dimensions - emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, personal accomplishment. Within this aim a model was developed which handle the dimensions of organizational commitment and burnout. The sample of this study consists of 192 health personnel working in a private hospital. According to the results increase in affective and normative commitment cause decrease in emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, also increase in personal accomplishment. On the other hand increase in continuance commitment causes increase in emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, also decrease in personal accomplishment.

  2. Yoga as a Burnout Preventative for Psychology Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, Genevive

    2011-01-01

    Psychology graduate students experience unique stressors resulting from academic tasks and regular exposure to emotional distress (Stratton, Kellaway, & Rottini, 2007). Pervasive stress may eventually lead to burnout: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment (Maslach, 1986). Burnout impinges on academic…

  3. Job Demands, Burnout, and Teamwork in Healthcare Professionals Working in a General Hospital that Was Analysed At Two Points in Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Mijakoski

    2018-04-01

    CONCLUSION: Actual longitudinal study revealed significantly higher mean values of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization in 2014 that could be explained by significantly increased job demands between analysed points in time.

  4. Validity and reliability of the Structured Clinical Interview for Depersonalization–Derealization Spectrum (SCI-DER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Mula

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Marco Mula, Stefano Pini, Simona Calugi, Matteo Preve, Matteo Masini, Ilaria Giovannini, Ciro Conversano, Paola Rucci, Giovanni B CassanoDepartment of Psychiatry, Neurobiology, Pharmacology and Biotechnologies, University of Pisa, ItalyAbstract: This study evaluates the validity and reliability of a new instrument developed to assess symptoms of depersonalization: the Structured Clinical Interview for the Depersonalization-Derealization Spectrum (SCI-DER. The instrument is based on a spectrum model that emphasizes soft-signs, sub-threshold syndromes as well as clinical and subsyndromal manifestations. Items of the interview include, in addition to DSM-IV criteria for depersonalization, a number of features derived from clinical experience and from a review of phenomenological descriptions. Study participants included 258 consecutive patients with mood and anxiety disorders, 16.7% bipolar I disorder, 18.6% bipolar II disorder, 32.9% major depression, 22.1% panic disorder, 4.7% obsessive compulsive disorder, and 1.5% generalized anxiety disorder; 2.7% patients were also diagnosed with depersonalization disorder. A comparison group of 42 unselected controls was enrolled at the same site. The SCI-DER showed excellent reliability and good concurrent validity with the Dissociative Experiences Scale. It significantly discriminated subjects with any diagnosis of mood and anxiety disorders from controls and subjects with depersonalization disorder from controls. The hypothesized structure of the instrument was confirmed empirically.Keywords: depersonalization, derealization, mood disorders, anxiety disorders

  5. [Analysis of influential factors for job burnout among managers in a joint venture in Guangzhou, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qiu-hong; Jiang, Chao-qiang; Liu, Yi-min; Guo, Jing-yi; Lam, Tai Hing

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the influential factors for job burnout among the managerial staff in a Sino-Japanese joint venture automobile manufacturer in Guangzhou, China. A total of 288 managers in a Sino-Japanese joint venture automobile manufacturer were surveyed using the Occupational Stress Indicator, Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire, and Social Support Rating Scale. On the depersonalization dimension, the male managers had significantly higher scores than the female managers. The scores of emotion exhaustion and depersonalization of MBI showed significant differences among the managers with different levels of occupational stress. The path analysis showed that occupational stress, neuroticism, and psychoticism had negative effects on emotion exhaustion, while job satisfaction and utilization of social support had direct positive effects on emotion exhaustion. Occupational stress, psychoticism, and passive coping style had direct negative effects on depersonalization, while job satisfaction, objective support, and utilization of social support had positive effects on depersonalization. Job satisfaction and active coping style had positive effects on sense of personal accomplishment, while passive coping style had a negative effect on sense of personal accomplishment. Personality exerted its effect on social support through coping style and thus on job satisfaction and job burnout. Male managers have a greater propensity to depersonalization than their female counterparts. High occupational stress is a risk factor for job burnout. Personality, social support, and coping style are influential factors for job burnout.

  6. Job burnout in 159 anesthesiology trainees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesim Cokay Abut

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anesthesiology may be stressful and most anesthesiologists develop mechanisms for coping. However, inexperienced trainee anesthesiologists seem to be vulnerable. We studied stress perception and job burnout in trainee anesthesiologists. Methods: Responses to perceived stress scale (PSS and Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI were evaluated in 159 trainee anesthesiologists. Results: In our results, when perceived stress was increased, emotional exhaustion and depersonalization increased but personal accomplishment decreased, as expected. Perceived stress was very high in the early years of training. There was a negative correlation between age and emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, but positive correlation with personal accomplishment. Female anesthesiologists had higher personal accomplishment, but lower depersonalization points than male anesthesiologists in our study. There was no statistical association between marital status, PSS, and MBI; ≥2 children group had a significant high personal accomplishment but low depersonalization and emotional exhaustion scores. Line regression analysis showed a statistically significant relationship between PSS and emotional exhaustion and between age and depersonalization. Conclusions: Social factors such as gender and number of children affect the work life of our trainees.

  7. Coping, Cognitive Emotion Regulation, and Burnout in Long-Term Care Nursing Staff: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamonti, Patricia; Conti, Elizabeth; Cavanagh, Casey; Gerolimatos, Lindsay; Gregg, Jeffrey; Goulet, Carol; Pifer, Marisa; Edelstein, Barry

    2017-06-01

    Direct care workers (e.g., certified nursing assistants [CNAs]) employed in long-term care (LTC) are particularly vulnerable to the experience of burnout, yet they have received relatively less research attention compared to Licensed Practical Nurses and Registered Nurses. Within the burnout literature, evidence suggests that the deployment of certain coping strategies influences levels of burnout. The current study examined the extent to which coping (e.g., problem-focused, emotion-focused, and dysfunctional coping) and cognitive emotion regulation strategies (e.g., positive reappraisal) predicted burnout after controlling for covariates (age, sleep duration). Fifty-six CNAs were surveyed at four skilled nursing facilities in the United States. Dysfunctional coping was significantly associated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. Among cognitive emotion regulation strategies, positive reappraisal was significantly associated with depersonalization. Shorter sleep duration was associated with significantly greater depersonalization. Findings suggest the need to develop interventions for CNAs aimed at reducing dysfunctional coping strategies and increasing sleep duration.

  8. he Impact of Burnout Level of Employees on Intention to L eave: A Research on the Hotels in Hatay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Aslan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of burnout level of employees on intention to leavein three, four, five-star and boutique hotels in Hatay. The scales developed previously were used to measure the independent variable; emotional exhaustion, personal accomplishment, depersonalization and the dependent variable; intentiontoleave. In this study, judgmental sampling method was used and the employees in three, four, five star and boutique hotels in Hatay were included in the field research. The result of this studying dedicated that employees had lower levels of burnout. The results also showed that sub-dimensions of burnout, emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment significantly associated with intentionto leave. The results also showed that intention to leave increased when emotional exhaustion and depersonalization increased, but reduced when personal accomplishment increased. Consequently, this study pointed out that the burnout level of employees had an effect on intention to leave

  9. Effective leadership in salient groups: revisiting leader-member exchange theory from the perspective of the social identity theory of leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, Michael A; Martin, Robin; Epitropaki, Olga; Mankad, Aditi; Svensson, Alicia; Weeden, Karen

    2005-07-01

    Two studies compared leader-member exchange (LMX) theory and the social identity theory of leadership. Study 1 surveyed 439 employees of organizations in Wales, measuring work group salience, leader-member relations, and perceived leadership effectiveness. Study 2 surveyed 128 members of organizations in India, measuring identification not salience and also individualism/collectivism. Both studies provided good support for social identity predictions. Depersonalized leader-member relations were associated with greater leadership effectiveness among high-than low-salient groups (Study 1) and among high than low identifiers (Study 2). Personalized leadership effectiveness was less affected by salience (Study 1) and unaffected by identification (Study 2). Low-salience groups preferred personalized leadership more than did high-salience groups (Study 1). Low identifiers showed no preference but high identifiers preferred depersonalized leadership (Study 2). In Study 2, collectivists did not prefer depersonalized as opposed to personalized leadership, whereas individualists did, probably because collectivists focus more on the relational self.

  10. Self-handicapping and burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Ahmet

    2012-02-01

    Self-handicapping is a process containing strategies of externalization in which an individual can excuse failure and internalize success. This study investigated the relationship of self-handicapping with measures of burnout. The Self-handicapping Scale and the Maslach Burnout Inventory were administered to 309 university students. Self-handicapping was positively correlated to emotional exhaustion, lowered personal accomplishment, and depersonalization. A structural equation model fit the data well and accounted for 20% of the variance in emotional exhaustion, 14% in lowered personal accomplishment, and 10% in depersonalization.

  11. Burnout contagion among general practitioners.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, A.B.; Schaufeli, W.B.; Sixma, H.J.; Bosveld, W.

    2001-01-01

    This study used a representative sample of 507 general practitioners (GPs) to test the hypothesis that burnout is contagious. Following a two-dimensional conceptualization of burnout, it is assumed that burnout is comprised of emotional exhaustion and negative attitudes (i.e., depersonalization and

  12. Professional Self-Esteem as a Predictor of Teacher Burnout across Iranian and Turkish EFL Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khezerlou, Ebrahim

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed at measuring the perceived Professional Self-esteem, Emotional Exhaustion (EE), Depersonalization (DP), and Personal Accomplishment (PA) of Iranian (n = 230) and Turkish (n = 156) EFL teachers and determining the prediction role of Professional Self-esteem in EE, DP, and PA processes. The Maslach Burnout Inventory-Educators Survey…

  13. "It's Not so Much a Job but a Relationship": A Response to Romer and Walker

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, John

    2013-01-01

    Romer and Walker's "Appreciative Inquiry," which obtained input from 16 capable personal assistants, challenges some influential assumptions about personal assistance and opens a way to think about the demanding work of developing capable and committed personal assistants. Attempts to depersonalize the relationship between people…

  14. A Comparison of Stress and Burnout between Dutch General and Special Education Teachers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. van der Wolf; H.A. Everaert

    2006-01-01

    In this study self-reported stress and burn-out levels between general and special education teachers in the Netherlands are compared. More than eight hundred teachers were assessed with the Utrechtse Burnout Schaal (UBOS-L/MBI) to determine their levels of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization,

  15. Burnout among physicians | Romani | Libyan Journal of Medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Burnout is a common syndrome seen in healthcare workers, particularly physicians who are exposed to a high level of stress at work; it includes emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and low personal accomplishment. Burnout among physicians has garnered significant attention because of the negative impact it ...

  16. Emotional Intelligence and Components of Burnout among Chinese Secondary School Teachers in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, David W.

    2006-01-01

    The relationships among four components of emotional intelligence (emotional appraisal, positive regulation, empathic sensitivity, and positive utilization) and three components of teacher burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment) were investigated in a sample of 167 Chinese secondary school teachers in…

  17. Communal orientation and the burnout syndrome among nurses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Yperen, N.W.; Buunk, Abraham P.; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.

    1992-01-01

    In the present study, burnout symptoms (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment) were hypothesized to occur among male and female nurses who are low in communal orientation and feel they invest more in their relationships with patients than they receive in

  18. Individual and Work-Related Factors Influencing Burnout of Mental Health Professionals: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Nayoung; Kim, Eun Kyoung; Kim, Hyunjung; Yang, Eunjoo; Lee, Sang Min

    2010-01-01

    The current study identifies and assesses individual and work-related factors as correlates of burnout among mental health professionals. Results of a meta-analysis indicate that age and work setting variables are the most significant indicators of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. In terms of level of personal accomplishment, the age…

  19. Trainer Burnout: The Syndrome Explored.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, C. Keith; Judd, Michael R.

    2003-01-01

    The educators' version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory was completed by 40 of 156 in-house trainers. More than one-third experience emotional exhaustion weekly, and almost half feel a lack of personal accomplishment. Subscales of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment correlated with perceptions of organizations'…

  20. Burnout in Hospital Social Workers Who Work with AIDS Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktay, Julianne S.

    1992-01-01

    Surveyed 128 hospital social workers who worked with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients. Found that hospital AIDS social workers had slightly higher rates of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization on Maslach Burnout Inventory but also felt substantially higher level of personal accomplishment. Age, autonomy, and belonging to…

  1. Teacher Burnout in Black and White

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberman, Martin

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses teacher burnout which scholars define as a condition caused by depersonalization, exhaustion, and a diminished sense of accomplishment. A psychological model of how stress leads to burnout describes it as a syndrome resulting from teachers' inability to protect themselves against threats to their self esteem and well-being.…

  2. What Is the Transformational Learning Experience of Secondary Teachers Who Have Dealt with Burnout?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Julius R., I

    2013-01-01

    Burnout is a syndrome consisting of emotional exhaustion (EE) and depersonalization (DPZ) (Yong & Yue, 2007). Teachers who fall victim to burnout are likely to be less sympathetic toward students, have a lower tolerance for classroom disruption, be less apt to prepare adequately for class, and feel less committed and dedicated to their work…

  3. Performance and burnout in intensive care units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijsers, GJ; Schaufeli, WB; LeBlanc, P; Zwerts, C; Miranda, DR

    1995-01-01

    The relationship between three different performance measures and burnout was explored in 20 Dutch Intensive Care Units (ICUs). Burnout (i.e. emotional exhaustion and depersonalization) proved to be significantly related to nurses' perceptions of performance as well as to objectively assessed unit

  4. Contribution of Gender, Marital Status, and Age to English Language Teachers' Burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavy, Seyedehhava; Nimehchisalem, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Teaching is a stressful job and can lead to teachers' burnout. Teachers feel burned out when they experience high levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization but low levels of personal accomplishment (Maslach, 1999). A wealth of research is available on this subject but the findings are inconsistent. The present study surveyed the level…

  5. Do Research Reports in Mainstream Feminist Psychology Journals Reflect Feminist Values?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Richard T.

    1989-01-01

    Examines the social relations of researchers and research participants in feminist psychology. Argues that the conventions governing how psychologists describe their research highlight certain activities and render others invisible. Discusses how the depersonalized writing style generally employed demonstrates a contradiction between ideals and…

  6. IM-Chem: The Use of Instant Messaging to Improve Student Performance and Personalize Large Lecture General Chemistry Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behmke, Derek A.; Atwood, Charles H.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has linked poor student performance with the depersonalized feeling of large lecture courses. Various forms of enhanced communication have been tried that appear to enhance personalization in large courses. For general chemistry classes taught in a 365-seat lecture hall at the University of Georgia, we have attempted to enhance…

  7. Burnout, social support, and coping at work among social workers, psychologists, and nurses: the role of challenge/control appraisals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Zur, Hasida; Michael, Keren

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is twofold: (1) to compare stress appraisals, coping strategies, social resources, and burnout at work between social workers, psychologists and nurses; and (2) to assess the effectiveness of appraisals and support in reducing burnout and enhancing effective coping strategies. Questionnaires containing assessments of work stress appraisals, coping strategies used to deal with problems at work, and social support at work, as well as burnout measures of exhaustion, depersonalization, and accomplishment were completed by 249 female professionals (age range 25-61). No differences were observed between the three professions on most psychological measures, except for the depersonalization outcome of burnout, which was significantly lower among psychologists than among nurses or social workers. High challenge/control appraisal of the job was directly related to all burnout outcomes, contributing to less exhaustion and depersonalization and to more personal accomplishment. The challenge/control appraisal was also negatively associated with emotion-focused coping. By comparison, the stress/load appraisal contributed to more exhaustion at work, while emotion-focused coping contributed to higher depersonalization. Social support was associated with higher challenge/control appraisal, with the latter mediating support effects on burnout. These data suggest that the perception of challenge/control in one's work may be an important factor in preventing work burnout in the three professions tested in the study.

  8. Becoming-it: the neutral in literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle da Silva Forster

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing that the subject's depersonalization in the experience of writing is to some thinkers a crucial aspect of modern literature, the present work aims at an approximation of the proposals of Blanchot, Foucault, Deleuze, Guattari, Barthes and Agamben, in order to observe the transgressive character that stands behind the passage from I to it as indicated by them.

  9. Complex partial seizure, disruptive behaviours and the Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Complex partial seizure is an epileptic seizure which results in impairment of responsiveness or awareness such as altered level of consciousness. Complex partial seizures are often preceded by an aura such as depersonalization, feelings of de javu, jamais vu and fear. The ictal phase of complex partial ...

  10. Burnout development among dentists : a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Brake, H.; Smits, N.; Wicherts, J.M.; Gorter, R.C.; Hoogstraten, J.

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge on the development of burnout among dentists is important for purposes of prevention and intervention. Using a two-wave longitudinal design, this study examined the chronological sequence of the three dimensions of the Maslach Burnout Inventory: emotional exhaustion; depersonalization; and

  11. Dimensions of Teacher Burnout: Relations with Potential Stressors at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaalvik, Einar M.; Skaalvik, Sidsel

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze how four potential stressors in the school environment (discipline problems, time pressure, low student motivation, and value dissonance) were related to dimensions of teacher burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment). Participants were 1145 teachers from grade 1…

  12. Disruptive Innovations for Adjunct Faculty: Common Sense for Common Good

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Policy and practice in higher education today are defined and limited by what many have claimed are "new realities" confronting colleges and universities. Gary Rhoades contends that three of these are embedded in the just-in-time hiring practices, the at-will conditions of work, and the depersonalized curricular delivery models assigned…

  13. Disengaging from Workplace Relationships. A Research Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sias, Patricia M.; Perry, Tara

    2004-01-01

    A randomly-selected sample of 306 adults employed full-time rated how likely individuals would be to use various communication strategies (cost escalation, depersonalization, and state-of-the-relationship talk) to disengage from a workplace relationship (with the target of the deteriorations being a supervisor, a peer coworker, or a subordinate…

  14. Predictors of Burnout among School Administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarros, James C.

    1986-01-01

    Defining burnout as a continuous variable comprising emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment failure, this study explores the relationship between job satisfaction and burnout in 128 school administrators in a large western Canadian city. Findings reveal that administrators' dissatisfaction with workload, status and…

  15. Factors Affecting Role Stress and Burnout among School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willingham, Wendy Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine factors affecting role stress and burnout among practicing school counselors as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Educators Survey (MBI-ES) and the Role Conflict and Ambiguity Scale. The MBI-ES utilizes three subscales to measure burnout: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal…

  16. Trust-distrust Balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jukka, Minna; Blomqvist, Kirsimarja; Li, Peter Ping

    2017-01-01

    notion of "guanxi" as personal ties. In contrast, the Finnish managers' view of trustworthiness was more associated with depersonalized organizational attributes. They emphasized the dimension of integrity, especially promise-keeping. In addition, tentative signs of trust ambivalence, as a balance...... opposites constitute a duality to be managed from the perspective of yin-yang balancing....

  17. The Phenomenon of the Home: Metaphysics of the Innermost (as Illustrated by the Modern Russian Culture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shupletsova, Elena Zh.; Solodov, Andrei V.; Samoilov, Anton O.; Polyakov, Nikita ?.; Pyankova, Anastasia Yu.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the problem under study is based on the influence of the expanding globalization processes that affect the view of life of a modern man: the internal balance is lost due to feeling of chaos, rhythm of life and constant changes. In these conditions there is a tendency to de-humanize the living environment, depersonalization of…

  18. The Experience of Burnout among English Language Teachers in Iran: Self and Other Determinants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Karim; Khezrlou, Sima

    2016-01-01

    Burnout in teachers is an important concern since it adversely impacts their instruction as well as their psychological, mental, and physical health. The present study examined the levels of burnout (i.e. emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment) experienced by Iranian English language teachers. Specifically,…

  19. Special Education Teacher Burnout: A Synthesis of Research from 1979 to 2013

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    Brunsting, Nelson C.; Sreckovic, Melissa A.; Lane, Kathleen Lynne

    2014-01-01

    Teacher burnout occurs when teachers undergoing stress for long periods of time experience emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and lack of personal accomplishment (Maslach, 2003). Outcomes associated with burnout include teacher attrition, teacher health issues, and negative student outcomes. Special educators are at high risk for burnout as…

  20. The Implications of Demographic Variables as Related to Burnout among a Sample of Special Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joy; Dikes, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The attrition rate of highly qualified special education teachers is a pervasive problem in the United States. This study investigated the association between the burnout subscales of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment relative to 10 demographic variables. Sixty-five special education teachers constituted the…

  1. Nurses' practice environment and work-family conflict in relation to burn out: a multilevel modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leineweber, Constanze; Westerlund, Hugo; Chungkham, Holendro Singh; Lindqvist, Rikard; Runesdotter, Sara; Tishelman, Carol

    2014-01-01

    To investigate associations between nurse work practice environment measured at department level and individual level work-family conflict on burnout, measured as emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment among Swedish RNs. A multilevel model was fit with the individual RN at the 1st, and the hospital department at the 2nd level using cross-sectional RN survey data from the Swedish part of RN4CAST, an EU 7th framework project. The data analysed here is based on a national sample of 8,620 RNs from 369 departments in 53 hospitals. Generally, RNs reported high values of personal accomplishment and lower values of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. High work-family conflict increased the risk for emotional exhaustion, but for neither depersonalization nor personal accomplishment. On department level adequate staffing and good leadership and support for nurses reduced the risk for emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. Personal accomplishment was statistically significantly related to staff adequacy. The findings suggest that adequate staffing, good leadership, and support for nurses are crucial for RNs' mental health. Our findings also highlight the importance of hospital managers developing policies and practices to facilitate the successful combination of work with private life for employees.

  2. Born to Burnout: A Meta-Analytic Path Model of Personality, Job Burnout, and Work Outcomes

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    Swider, Brian W.; Zimmerman, Ryan D.

    2010-01-01

    We quantitatively summarized the relationship between Five-Factor Model personality traits, job burnout dimensions (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment), and absenteeism, turnover, and job performance. All five of the Five-Factor Model personality traits had multiple true score correlations of 0.57 with emotional…

  3. Predicting Intraindividual Changes in Teacher Burnout: The Role of Perceived School Environment and Motivational Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernet, Claude; Guay, Frederic; Senecal, Caroline; Austin, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Based on self-determination theory, this study proposes and tests a motivational model of intraindividual changes in teacher burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment). Participants were 806 French-Canadian teachers in public elementary and high schools. Results show that changes in teachers' perceptions…

  4. "It's on the MCAT for a Reason": Premedical Students and the Perceived Utility of Sociology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Lauren D.

    2016-01-01

    Biomedical socialization and premed culture have been shown to promote reductionist and depersonalized approaches to understanding human difference, a serious problem in contemporary health care. In 2015, the Association for American Medical Colleges (AAMC) launched a new version of its Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) that included material…

  5. Vignettes: Implications for LIS Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Allison; Jackson, John; Luo, Lili

    2018-01-01

    Vignettes, brief descriptions of fictional characters and situations, serve as a tool to study people's lives, perceptions, beliefs, and attitudes about specific situations. Although not widely used in library and information science (LIS) research, vignettes can depersonalize responses to controversial situations or behavioral responses related…

  6. Democracy, Community, Responsibility, and Influence in Teacher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlin, C.; Sawada, Daiyo

    1987-01-01

    This paper examines a large undergraduate teacher education program which had as a major goal allaying students' feelings of depersonalization and alienation. Specifically looked at are: (1) processes leading to a sense of community, responsibility, and influence among students and staff and (2) processes countering such development. (Author/MT)

  7. Ways to Improve Undergraduate Education Sought by New Alliance of State Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Scott

    1987-01-01

    Representatives from 12 state universities have formed the Alliance for Undergraduate Education to prove that attention is being paid to undergraduates on their campuses. Participants expect to discuss how to avoid the depersonalization of large campuses and packed undergraduate classrooms. (MLW)

  8. The Teaching of Educational Psychology 1973: Freedom to Choose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripple, Richard E.

    In response to renewed interest in undergraduate instruction and to the undergraduate's participation in a humanistic revolt against depersonalization and "scientism," a new educational psychology course has been instituted at Cornell. The 100 to 150 students of varying purposes and interests who enroll in the course are not a coherent group…

  9. Individual and contextual covariates of burnout: a cross-sectional nationwide study of French teachers

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    Nerrière Eléna

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited information on the covariates of burnout syndrome in French teachers is available. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relative contributions of individual and contextual factors on the three burnout dimensions: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment. Methods The source data come from an epidemiological postal survey on physical and mental health conducted in 2005 among 20,099 education workers (in activity or retired selected at random from the health plan records of the national education system. The response rate was 52.4%. Teachers in activity currently giving classes to students who participated in the survey (n = 3,940 were invited to complete a self-administered questionnaire including the Maslach Burnout Inventory. 2,558 teachers provided complete data (64.9%. Variables associated with high emotional exhaustion (highest quartile of score, high depersonalization (highest quartile, and reduced personal accomplishment (lowest quartile were evaluated using multivariate logistic regression. Studied variables referred to demographic characteristics, socio-professional environment, job dissatisfaction, experienced difficulties at work, and teaching motivations. Results Different variables were associated with each burnout dimension. Female teachers were more susceptible to high emotional exhaustion and reduced personal accomplishment, whereas male teachers were more susceptible to high depersonalization. Elementary school teachers were more susceptible to high emotional exhaustion, but less susceptible to high depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment than their higher school level counterparts. Experienced difficulties with pupils were associated with all three dimensions. A socio-economically underprivileged school neighbourhood was also related to high emotional exhaustion and high depersonalization. Conclusion Programs to enhance teaching environment might

  10. [Prevalence of burnout syndrome and its associated factors in Primary Care staff].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-González, D; Ayechu-Díaz, A; Huarte-Labiano, I

    2015-01-01

    Burnout syndrome is an emerging disease among health professionals. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of occupational burnout among Primary Care staff, as well as to determine the differences in prevalence between family doctors, paediatricians, nurses, administrative-officers, and social-workers, and to evaluate the different related factors. A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted on 178 professionals from 5 different occupational groups in 54 Primary Care centres in Navarre from September to December 2010. An anonymous, self-administered questionnaire that included: the Maslach Burnout Inventory and a questionnaire on socio-demographic and work-related factors. Burnout was detected in 39.3% of staff. Those with higher levels are administrative-officers and family doctors, with an OR compared to nurses of 4.58 and 5.37, respectively in the dimension of emotional exhaustion, 4.98 and 2.87 in depersonalization, and 8.37 for administrative-officers in personal accomplishment. An association was found between burnout and the following factors: to be a male (for the dimensions of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, 25.5 and 31.9%, respectively), to be employed in an urban area (for emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, 20 and 27.8%, respectively), use of psychiatric medication (for emotional exhaustion, 30%), size of patient-quota (for depersonalization, with an average of 1,565 patients), and welfare pressure (for emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, averages of 170.35 and 153.54 patients/week, respectively). About one-third of Primary Care professionals have a high level of burnout, which is mainly associated with the working area, the size of the quota, and professional group, with higher prevalence in administrative-officers and family doctors. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Psicopatologia da despersonalização

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    Darcy M. Uchôa

    1959-09-01

    Full Text Available 1- From a clinical-nosographical point of view depersonalization appear in a pure state (relative, as a neurosis and in the neurosis, as a psychosis and in the psychosis. 2- Depersonalization can be defined as a state in which the patients feels different to what he was formerly in the body-ego, the psychic-ego and in his relation to the outer world. The terminology of Wernicke seems satisfactory: somatopsychic, autopsychic and alopsychic depersonalization (strangeness of the world or disrealization of Mapother-Mayer-Gross. 3- Depersonalization can reach partial aspects or the total body and psychic-ego; alienation or strangeness of this or that organ or part of the body or the whole body; the emotions, ideas, or volitions as the totality of the psyche. In extreme cases there arises the picture of the delusion of negation or phenomena of "double conscience" or multiple personality. 4- Approaching the cases of depersonalization with some neurological ones (hallucination of amputed limbs, anosognosia, autoscopia brings certain explanations as to its neuro-pathogenic mechanisms. But here it is question, as Krapf shows, of instrumental phenomena farther away from the ego than authentic depersonalization (Krapf refers to the cases of disrealization with hemianopsia or hemianosognosia studied by Ehrenwald, von Stöckrt and Krapf. Besides this, the mere considerations of neuro-anatomo-pathological mechanisms (in the case still obscures would not be able to explain the psychodynamic of the depersonalization. 5- In our cases the clinical examination (with many complementary proofs was negative as to the existence of organic affection (in a strict sense of the nervous system. In all of our patients (with much more evidence in the four first ones we feel it is a question of "sickness of the personality" or, more precisely, "sickness of the ego". Very intense endo-psychic conflicts arise and - not being dissolved - impel the ego to the split. The

  12. Health Care Provider Burnout in a United States Military Medical Center During a Period of War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Paul; Millegan, Jeffrey; Delaney, Eileen; Roesch, Scott; Sanders, Martha; Mak, Heather; Mallahan, Leonard; Raducha, Stephanie; Webb-Murphy, Jennifer

    2016-02-01

    Provider burnout can impact efficiency, empathy, and medical errors. Our study examines burnout in a military medical center during a period of war. A survey including the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), deployment history, and work variables was distributed to health care providers. MBI subscale means were calculated and associations between variables were analyzed. Approximately 60% of 523 respondents were active duty and 34% had deployed. MBI subscale means were 19.99 emotional exhaustion, 4.84 depersonalization, and 40.56 personal accomplishment. Frustration over administrative support was associated with high emotional exhaustion and depersonalization; frustration over life/work balance was associated with high emotional exhaustion. Levels of burnout in our sample were similar to civilian medical centers. Sources of frustration were related to administrative support and life/work balance. Deployment had no effect on burnout levels. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  13. Internal and external factors in professional burnout of substance abuse counsellors in Croatia

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    Sanja Tatalović Vorkapić

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: In this study, burnout and its internal and external factors were investigated among substance abuse counsellors (no. = 68 who worked in centres for Prevention and Substance Abuse Treatment (no. = 18 in Croatia. METHODS: Maslach Burnout Inventory was used which measured three burnout dimensions: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment; and questionnaire of internal and external burnout factors. RESULTS: The higher levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, and the higher level of personal accomplishment were determined. Factors such as work conditions, emotions about us and work, work organization and certain personality traits showed significant relationship with three burnout dimensions. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, findings implicated a certain specificity of professional burnout in substance abuse counsellors, and the need for specific design of mental health care for them.

  14. Burnout and occupational participation among dentists with teaching responsibilities in universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huri, Meral; Bağiş, Nilsun; Eren, Hakan; Başibüyük, Onur; Şahin, Sedef; Umaroğlu, Mutlu; Orhan, Kaan

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the levels of burnout and explore the relationships between burnout and occupational participation among dentists with teaching responsibilities. Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) was used to evaluate occupational participation with questions on demographic information among 155 dentists with teaching responsibilities. Age, gender, years of experience, academic position were the factors affecting level of burnout and occupational participation. Occupational performance score was negatively correlated with emotional exhausment (r = -.731) and depersonalization (r = -.693) while positively correlated with personal accomplishment (r = .611). Occupational satisfaction scores were negatively correlated with emotional exhausment (r = -.631) and depersonalization (r = -.625) while positively correlated with personal accomplishment (r = .614). Occupational participation level can effect burnout among dentists with teaching responsibilities. Further studies with a larger sample are needed to investigate these preliminary results deeply.

  15. Nurses’ burnout and counterproductive work behavior in a Nigerian sample: The moderating role of emotional intelligence

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    Leonard I. Ugwu

    Full Text Available This study examined the moderating role of EI in the relationship between burnout and CWB among 401 nurses drawn from various hospitals within South-eastern Nigeria. Three instruments were used for the collection of data, namely: Counterproductive Work Behaviour Checklist, Maslach Burnout Inventory, and Brief Emotional Intelligence scale. Moderated multiple regression results showed that emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment, positively predicted CWB. In addition, EI significantly and negatively predicted CWB. Results also showed that EI moderated the positive relationship between emotional exhaustion and CWB and between depersonalization and CWB such that the positive relationship between these two dimensions of burnout and CWB was stronger for nurses with low EI compared to those with high EI. The implications of the findings and limitations of the study were discussed. Keywords: Nurses, Burnout, Counterproductive work behaviour, Emotional intelligence

  16. [Burnout and job satisfaction among nursing professionals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo-Ferraz, Hugo; Grau-Alberola, Ester; Gil-Monte, Pedro R; García-Juesas, Juan A

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between burnout and job satisfaction among nursing professionals. The sample consisted of 316 staff nurses. The study was longitudinal, and not randomized. The gap between Time 1 (T1) and Time 2 (T2) was one year. Hierarchical regression analysis showed empirical evidence of the significant and negative effect of burnout (i.e., Emotional exhaustion and Depersonalization dimensions) at T1 on job satisfaction in T2. Significant results were also obtained that showed the influence of job satisfaction at T1 on burnout at T2 (i.e., Depersonalization dimension). The study concludes that there is a bidirectional and longitudinal relationship between burnout and job satisfaction. However, longitudinal effects of burnout at T1 on job satisfaction on T2 (i.e., burnout as antecedent of job satisfaction) are stronger than vice-versa (i.e., job satisfaction as antecedent of burnout).

  17. Assessment of pediatric residents burnout in a tertiary academic centre

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    Roaa S. Jamjoom

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study burnout among pediatric residents at King Abdulazaiz University Hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Methods: This is a cross-sectional survey that was administered to all pediatric residents enrolled in the Saudi Paediatric Board program (PGY1-PGY4 in a large tertiary academic hospital in the Western region of Saudi Arabia (King Abdulaziz University Hospital. The survey were sent via E-mail to 50 registered general pediatric residents. Results: Seventy percent of the pediatric residents completed the survey. More than 70% of residents experiencing severe burnout. Forty-three percent suffering emotional exhaustion, 71.8% experiencing depersonalization and 40.6% suffering from low accomplishment. Conclusion: Burnout syndrome appear to be a serious threat to resident well-being in our program. Moreover, pediatric residents in our institute experienced higher levels of depersonalization than their peers nationally and internationally.

  18. The Relationship between Burnout and Trait Emotional Intelligence among Secondary School Teachers in Malaysia

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    Nur Sakinah Thomas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relationship between Burnout and Trait Emotional Intelligence (TEI among 30 secondary school teachers in Malaysia. The participants were administered the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Educator's Survey (MBI-ES which breaks burnout into three subscales: Emotional Exhaustion (EE, Depersonalization (DP, and Personal Accomplishment (PA. The TEIQue-SF self report questionnaire was also used to elicit information on the respondents’ EI. Descriptive Statistics, including mean and standard deviation, was used to analyze the data. Pearson Correlation Analysis was also used to analyze the correlation between the teachers’ Burnout and TEI scores. Guilford’s (1973 Rule of Thumb was used to determine the strength of the relationship. The results showed significant correlation only between Depersonalization (DP and TEI. Implications of the study are discussed, and suggestions are given for further research.

  19. Exploring the Relationship between Burnout and Critical Thinking Skills among Iranian University Professors Teaching TEFL

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    Hossein Khodabakhshzadeh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The profession as a teacher involves experiencing a number of challenges which naturally lead to emotional tiredness and lack of reward, technically known as burnout (Colomeischi, 2015. The goal of the present study was to investigate the relationship between burnout and critical thinking ability. To this end, a sample of 40 professors of Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL filed at a number of universities in Iran was chosen. Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI was employed to assess the participants' burnout level, which is specifically evaluated by measuring three subscales of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal achievement. In addition, the measures of the participants' critical thinking skills were obtained via Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCTA. The Pearson correlation coefficient analysis indicated that emotional exhaustion and depersonalization strongly and negatively correlated with critical thinking ability. However, a strong and positive relationship was found between personal achievement and critical thinking skills.

  20. Burnout in Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery: A Single Academic Center Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geelan-Hansen, Katie; Anne, Samantha; Benninger, Michael S

    2018-05-01

    Burnout in modern medicine is becoming more recognized and researched. The objective in this study is to evaluate burnout in a tertiary care academic institution and compare results among faculty, trainees, and advanced practice practitioners (APPs) in a cross-sectional survey using the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Fifty-two surveys were distributed; 44 participants completed the survey (85%): 25 staff physicians (57%), 14 resident physicians (32%), and 5 nurse practitioners (11%). Staff physicians had low emotional exhaustion, moderate depersonalization, and low result for reduced personal accomplishments; trainees reported low emotional exhaustion, high depersonalization, and moderate reduced personal accomplishment; and nurse practitioners reported moderate on all 3 dimensions. There is overall low burnout in this tertiary care academic center of otolaryngologist providers and no difference in rates among the different groups (trainees, APPs, staff). Measures addressing specific deficiencies among dimensions of burnout would be helpful to prevent disintegration of physician satisfaction into burnout.

  1. The Moderating Role of Job Resourcefulness in the Impact of Work–Family and Family–Work Life Conflict on the Burnout Levels of Travel Agency Employees

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    Yilmaz Akgunduz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the moderating role of job resourcefulness under the influence of work–family and family–work life conflict on the burnout levels of employees. In this con-text, a questionnaire was created using the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI, Work–Family Life Conflict, and Job Resourcefulness Scale. This survey was applied to travel agency employees in Izmir, Turkey, who were selected by using deliberate sampling method. At the end of the data collection period, 220 valid questionnaires were obtained. A hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to test the hypotheses based on the reliability and validity of the scales. Analysis results indicate that resourcefulness reduces detrimental effects of work-family conflict on emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. In addition results also indicate that job resourcefulness reduces detrimental effects of family-work conflict on depersonalization. The implications of these results for future research are also discussed.

  2. Internal and external factors in professional burnout of substance abuse counsellors in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatalović Vorkapić, Sanja; Mustapić, Jelena

    2012-01-01

    In this study, burnout and its internal and external factors were investigated among substance abuse counsellors (no. = 68) who worked in Centres for Prevention and Substance Abuse Treatment (no. = 18) in Croatia. Maslach Burnout Inventory was used which measured three burnout dimensions: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment; and questionnaire of internal and external burnout factors. The higher levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, and the higher level of personal accomplishment were determined. Factors such as work conditions, emotions about us and work, work organization and certain personality traits showed significant relationship with three burnout dimensions. Overall, findings implicated a certain specificity of professional burnout in substance abuse counsellors, and the need for specific design of mental health care for them.

  3. EXPLORING THE RELATIONS BETWEEN STUDENT CYNICISM AND STUDENT BURNOUT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xueyan; Wang, Rongrong; Macdonald, Elizabeth

    2015-08-01

    Research on the negative effects of student cynicism has been limited, especially regarding its relation to student burnout. This study examined the relations among student cynicism (policy cynicism, academic cynicism, social cynicism, and institutional cynicism) and student burnout, as evidenced by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment, in a sample of 276 Chinese undergraduates. Hierarchical multiple regressions showed that four aspects of student cynicism together explained substantial variance in student burnout. Policy cynicism was the strongest contributor to emotional exhaustion. Social cynicism was the primary contributor to depersonalization, and also to reduced personal accomplishment. Student cynicism overall had the strongest relationship with reduced sense of personal achievement. The findings outline the negative functional relations between student cynicism and student burnout.

  4. Dissociation and Alterations in Brain Function and Structure: Implications for Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause-Utz, Annegret; Frost, Rachel; Winter, Dorina; Elzinga, Bernet M

    2017-01-01

    Dissociation involves disruptions of usually integrated functions of consciousness, perception, memory, identity, and affect (e.g., depersonalization, derealization, numbing, amnesia, and analgesia). While the precise neurobiological underpinnings of dissociation remain elusive, neuroimaging studies in disorders, characterized by high dissociation (e.g., depersonalization/derealization disorder (DDD), dissociative identity disorder (DID), dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder (D-PTSD)), have provided valuable insight into brain alterations possibly underlying dissociation. Neuroimaging studies in borderline personality disorder (BPD), investigating links between altered brain function/structure and dissociation, are still relatively rare. In this article, we provide an overview of neurobiological models of dissociation, primarily based on research in DDD, DID, and D-PTSD. Based on this background, we review recent neuroimaging studies on associations between dissociation and altered brain function and structure in BPD. These studies are discussed in the context of earlier findings regarding methodological differences and limitations and concerning possible implications for future research and the clinical setting.

  5. HIV health-care providers' burnout: can organizational culture make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginossar, Tamar; Oetzel, John; Hill, Ricky; Avila, Magdalena; Archiopoli, Ashley; Wilcox, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    One of the major challenges facing those working with people living with HIV (PLWH) is the increased potential for burnout, which results in increased turnover and reduces quality of care provided for PLWH. The goal of this study was to examine the relationship among HIV health-care providers' burnout (emotional exhaustion and depersonalization) and organizational culture including teamwork, involvement in decision-making, and critical appraisal. Health-care providers for PLWH (N = 47) in federally funded clinics in a southwestern state completed a cross-sectional survey questionnaire about their perceptions of organizational culture and burnout. The results of multiple regression analysis indicated that positive organizational culture (i.e., teamwork) was negatively related to emotional burnout (p organizational culture (i.e., critical appraisal) was positively related to depersonalization (p organizational communication interventions might protect HIV health-care providers from burnout.

  6. Working conditions, burnout and stress symptoms in university professors: validating a structural model of the mediating effect of perceived personal competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avargues Navarro, María Luisa; Borda Mas, Mercedes; López Jiménez, Ana María

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study has been to test, with a sample of 193 Professors of the University of Seville, a structural model on the mediating role of personal perceived competence in the appearance of burnout syndrome and stress symptoms under potentially stressful work conditions. The instruments used to evaluate were a socio-demographic and work-related data questionnaire, The Maslach Burnout Inventory (M.B.I.), The Labour Scale of Stress and the Magallanes Stress Scale. The model of strategy implementation and LISREL 8.71 were used. The estimated model was adjusted satisfactorily, ascertaining the mediating effect of perceived competence in the effect exerted by the work conditions studied on the depersonalization and personal fulfillment, as well as in the appearance of stress symptoms. The effect on the emotional exhaustion dimension was not confirmed. The latter also acted on the estimated model as a mediating variable, facilitating the negative impact of stressors on emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment.

  7. profissional em professores do 3º ciclo e ensino secundário

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    A. Rui Gomes

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the data of a study with 127 teachers of a Secondary School in Oporto District, on which different indicators related to work and personal well-being were evaluated (stress, burnout, physical health and professional fulfilment. The results revealed very significant levels of occupational stress (percentages above 30%, 13% burnout prevalence and various physical health problems. Women showed more stress associated with time-limit pressure and amount of work, more complains about clerical work and higher levels of emotional exhaustion and physical problems. As for men, higher tendency for depersonalization was shown. In what concerns professional experience, teachers with more years of practice showed more problems confronting: students’ disciplinary issues, students’ different capacity levels, clerical work, and excessive amount of classes. Finally, teachers with more hours of contact with students assumed less depersonalization and more stress related to students` indiscipline and to the teachers` career statutes.

  8. Comparing Burnout Across Emergency Physicians, Nurses, Technicians, and Health Information Technicians Working for the Same Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Schooley, Benjamin; Hikmet, Neset; Tarcan, Menderes; Yorgancioglu, Gamze

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Studies on the topic of burnout measure the effects of emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization (DP) (negative or cynical attitudes toward work), and reduced sense of personal accomplishment (PA). While the prevalence of burnout in practicing emergency medicine (EM) professionals has been studied, little is known of the prevalence and factors across physicians, nurses, technicians, and health information technicians working for the same institution. The aim of this study was to a...

  9. The impact of job rotation on nurses burnout in Ayatollah Kashani hospital, Tehran: A case study

    OpenAIRE

    M. Shahabi; F. Begdeli; M. Delpasand; P. Raeissi

    2011-01-01

    Background and aims Job burnout is one of the syndromes which is known by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and deterioration of job performance. Due to the negative impact this syndrome on patients, employees, and organization in healthcare settings this issue has drawn attention of many researchers to itself during recent years. Despite the large number of publications in this area however, limited attention has been paid to the factors influencing job burnout. The goal of the presen...

  10. Modern Clinical Research on LSD

    OpenAIRE

    Liechti, Matthias E.

    2017-01-01

    All modern clinical studies using the classic hallucinogen lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in healthy subjects or patients in the last 25 years are reviewed herein. There were five recent studies in healthy participants and one in patients. In a controlled setting, LSD acutely induced bliss, audiovisual synesthesia, altered meaning of perceptions, derealization, depersonalization, and mystical experiences. These subjective effects of LSD were mediated by the 5-HT2A receptor. LSD increased fe...

  11. Burnout among physicians

    OpenAIRE

    Romani, Maya; Ashkar, Khalil

    2014-01-01

    Burnout is a common syndrome seen in healthcare workers, particularly physicians who are exposed to a high level of stress at work; it includes emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and low personal accomplishment. Burnout among physicians has garnered significant attention because of the negative impact it renders on patient care and medical personnel. Physicians who had high burnout levels reportedly committed more medical errors. Stress management programs that range from relaxation to ...

  12. Job demands-resources, burnout and intention to leave the nursing profession: a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdain, Geneviève; Chênevert, Denis

    2010-06-01

    The aims of the paper are to examine the role of burnout in the relationship between stress factors related to nurses' work and social environment and intention to leave the profession and to investigate the nature of the relationship between burnout and intention to leave the nursing profession. A postulate of the job demands-resources model is that two distinct yet related processes contribute to the development of burnout. The energetic process originates from demands and is mainly centered on emotional exhaustion; the motivational process originates from resources and is mainly centered on depersonalization. Moreover, we postulated that the two components of burnout are linked indirectly to intention to leave the profession via psychosomatic complaints, associated with the energetic process, and via professional commitment, associated with the motivational process. The research model was tested on cross-sectional data collected in 2005 from 1636 registered nurses working in hospitals who responded to a self-administrated questionnaire. Demands are the most important determinants of emotional exhaustion and indirectly induce depersonalization via emotional exhaustion, whereas resources mainly predict depersonalization. Moreover, emotional exhaustion and depersonalization are linked to psychosomatic complaints and professional commitment, which are in turn associated with intention to leave the profession. The results suggest that a dual strategy is needed in order to retain nurses within the profession: a decrease in job demands, coupled with an increase in available job resources. In particular, nurses' tasks and role should be restructured to reduce work overload and increase the meaning of their work. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Burnout and Resiliency Among Family Medicine Program Directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Maribeth; Hagan, Helen; Klassen, Rosemary; Yang, Yang; Seehusen, Dean A; Carek, Peter J

    2018-02-01

    Nearly one-half (46%) of physicians report at least one symptom of burnout. Family medicine residency program directors may have similar and potentially unique levels of burnout as well as resiliency. The primary aims of this study were to examine burnout and resiliency among family medicine residency directors and characterize associated factors. The questions used were part of a larger omnibus survey conducted by the Council of Academic Family Medicine (CAFM) Educational Research Alliance (CERA) in 2016. Program and director-specific characteristics were obtained. Symptoms of burnout were assessed using two single-item measures adapted from the full Maslach Burnout Inventory, and level of resiliency was assessed using the Brief Resilience Scale. The overall response rate for the survey was 53.7% (245/465). Symptoms of high emotional exhaustion or high depersonalization were reported in 27.3% and 15.8% of program directors, respectively. More than two-thirds of program directors indicated that they associated themselves with characteristics of resiliency. Emotional exhaustion and depersonalization were significantly correlated with never having personal time, an unhealthy work-life balance, and the inability to stop thinking about work. The presence of financial stress was significantly correlated with higher levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. In contrast, the level of resiliency reported was directly correlated with having a moderate to great amount of personal time, healthy work-life balance, and ability to stop thinking about work, and negatively correlated with the presence of financial stress. Levels of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and resiliency are significantly related to personal characteristics of program directors rather than characteristics of their program.

  14. Regular and problematic leisure-time Internet use in the community: results from a German population-based survey

    OpenAIRE

    Beutel, ME; Brähler, E; Glaesmer, H; Kuss, DJ; Wölfling, K; Müller, KW

    2011-01-01

    In our study, we attempted to identify systematically the use of Internet applications in the German population in order to derive risk factors for problematic use. In a representative survey of the German population, we queried 1,401 women and 1,111 men between the ages of 14 and 94 years by specific questions and standardized questionnaires on depression, anxiety (HADS), and depersonalization (CDS-2). The majority of the German population (55%) used the Internet in their leisure time. Users...

  15. [Burnout Syndrome in Prison Guards, Bucaramanga, Colombia, 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Amaya, Reynaldo Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    Burnout syndrome is defined as a chronic stress response and sustained work environment, characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment. Most studies have included teaching and health personnel. However, there are limitations in the development of studies on prison guards to observe this problem. This study provides some characteristics of prison guards and seeks to highlight the behavior of the constructs of burnout according to demographic and occupational profile. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study on 111 prison guards in the city of Bucaramanga. The Maslach Burnout Inventory was applied, as well as taking ethical considerations into account. A univariate and bivariate analysis was performed on the data. The mean age was 35.8 years, 76% had more than 10 years work experience, 24% have some additional academic activities at work. Only 3.7% had burnout syndrome as such. In emotional exhaustion, 25.2% are classified as high risk, 30% in depersonalization, and 16% personal accomplishment. Within the personal achievement, the group with more than 20 years experience were those who had a critical score (ANOVA χ(2), P=.002). Of those who had a risk score for depersonalization, 67% had worked more than 240 extra hours a month, with a crude odds ratio (OR)=4.66 (P=.033) and age-adjusted OR=4.65 (P=.035). Burnout in this occupational group was not as prevalent as in that found in other publications. In turn, of the three constructs, the most significant was depersonalization and no notable emotional burnout was observed. The most significant work variables were the number of hours worked and work experience. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  16. Psychotherapy and Pharmacotherapy for Patients with Dissociative Identity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Gentile, Julie P.; Dillon, Kristy S.; Gillig, Paulette Marie

    2013-01-01

    There is a wide variety of what have been called “dissociative disorders,” including dissociative amnesia, dissociative fugue, depersonalization disorder, dissociative identity disorder, and forms of dissociative disorder not otherwise specified. Some of these diagnoses, particularly dissociative identity disorder, are controversial and have been questioned by many clinicians over the years. The disorders may be under-diagnosed or misdiagnosed, but many persons who have experienced trauma rep...

  17. Burnout in Cardiac Anesthesiologists: Results From a National Survey in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfilippo, Filippo; Noto, Alberto; Palumbo, Gaetano J; Ippolito, Mariachiara; Gagliardone, Mariapia; Scarlata, Maria; Bignami, Elena; Sangalli, Fabio; Cattaneo, Sergio; Blangetti, Ilaria; Scolletta, Sabino; Locatelli, Alessandro; Tritapepe, Luigi; Lorini, Ferdinando L; Arcadipane, Antonio

    2018-05-16

    There is increasing burnout incidence among medical disciplines, and physicians working in emergency settings seem at higher risk. Cardiac anesthesiology is a stressful anesthesiology subspecialty dealing with high-risk patients. The authors hypothesized a high risk of burnout in cardiac anesthesiologists. National survey conducted on burnout SETTING: Italian cardiac centers. Cardiac anesthesiologists. The authors administered via email an anonymous questionnaire divided into 3 parts. The first 2 parts evaluated workload and private life. The third part consisted of the Maslach Burnout Inventory test with its 3 constituents: high emotional exhaustion, high depersonalization, and low personal accomplishment. The authors measured the prevalence and risk of burnout through the Maslach Burnout Inventory questionnaire and analyzed factors influencing burnout. Among 670 contacts from 71 centers, 382 cardiac anesthesiologists completed the survey (57%). The authors found the following mean Maslach Burnout Inventory values: 14.5 ± 9.7 (emotional exhaustion), 9.1 ± 7.1 (depersonalization), and 33.7 ± 8.9 (personal accomplishment). A rate of 34%, 54%, and 66% of respondents scored in "high" or "moderate-high" risk of burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment, respectively). The authors found that, if offered to change subspecialty, 76% of respondents would prefer to remain in cardiac anesthesiology. This preference and parenthood were the only 2 investigated factors with a protective effect against all components of burnout. Significantly lower burnout scores were found in more experienced anesthesiologists. A relatively high incidence of burnout was found in cardiac anesthesiologists, especially regarding high depersonalization and low personal accomplishment. Nonetheless, most of the respondents would choose to remain in cardiac anesthesiology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Is it Time to Consider the ?Burnout Syndrome? A Distinct Illness?

    OpenAIRE

    Bianchi, Renzo; Schonfeld, Irvin Sam; Laurent, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The “burnout syndrome” has been defined as a combination of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment caused by chronic occupational stress. Although there has been increasing medical interest in burnout over the last decades, it is argued in this paper that the syndrome cannot be elevated to the status of diagnostic category, based on (1) an analysis of the genesis of the burnout construct, (2) a review of the latest literature on burnout-depression overlap...

  19. Burnout Syndrome in Pediatric Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Youbi, Reem A.; Jan, Mohammed M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Burnout is a common work-related syndrome consisting of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and diminished feelings of personal accomplishment. Burnout influences the performance and efficiency of the healthcare professionals and therefore the quality of the care provided. This study aims to assess the burnout rates and potential determinants in pediatrics.Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study involving physicians practicing pediatrics in the Jeddah area of Saudi Arabi...

  20. Ketamine Dependence in an Anesthesiologist: An Occupational Hazard?

    OpenAIRE

    Goyal, Shrigopal; Ambekar, Atul; Ray, Rajat

    2014-01-01

    Substance abuse among medical professionals is a cause for concern. Certain psychotropic substances such as ketamine are at easy dispense to anesthesiologists increasing the likelihood of misuse and dependence and raise several issues including safety of patients. We discuss a case demonstrating ketamine dependence in an anesthesiologist from India. The reported psychotropic effects of ketamine ranged from dissociation and depersonalization to psychotic experiences. There was also development...

  1. Experiencias disociativas: una escala de medida

    OpenAIRE

    Icarán, Eva; Colom, Roberto; Orengo García, Francisco

    1996-01-01

    Dissociation is common to a range of psychopathogical disorders (multiple personality, post-traumatic stress, psychogenic fugue, psychogenic amnesia, depersonalization and derealization syndromes, etc.). A validation of the DES (Dissociative Experiences Scale) developed in the USA by Bernstein and Putnam (1986) is presented in this paper. The translated version of the scale was applied to a sample of 222 undergraduates (normal population) and 17 schizophrenics (inpatient population). Our resu...

  2. Salient Mainstream and Hispanic Values in a Navy Training Environment: An Anthropological Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    nature of personal relationships , over the neutral or depersonalized organizational contacts. They felt that other individuals were more readily...be more in consonance with Anglo/mainstream interactive behavior; it places less im- portance on consanguineally or afinally ascribed connections, and...Triandis notes that values are "conceptions of relationships among abstract categories (e.g., humans, nature, time) which have strong affective components

  3. Burnout and work engagement among teachers: an application of the job demands-resources model

    OpenAIRE

    Simbula, Silvia

    2009-01-01

    The present dissertation focuses on burnout and work engagement among teachers, with especial focus on the Job-Demands Resources Model: Chapter 1 focuses on teacher burnout. It aims to investigate the role of efficacy beliefs using negatively worded inefficacy items instead of positive ones and to establish whether depersonalization and cynism can be considered two different dimensions of the teacher burnout syndrome. Chapter 2 investigates the factorial validity of the instruments u...

  4. Psychotoxic Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    1964-11-16

    halluci- nations , disturbances of body perception, depersonalization symptoms, and a "psychotic" status. Also with the derivatives, the individual...the substance had also local anesthetic properties. After clinical testing, ibogaine was then used as stimulans for neurasthenics and convalescents1 1 3...con- siderably disturbed by this group of substances. The optic halluci- nations consist to a small extent in scenic proceedings of actions, more

  5. What a Shame: Increased Rates of OMS Resident Burnout May Be Related to the Frequency of Shamed Events During Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Michael C; Rao, Sowmya R; Dean, Jason; Salama, Andrew R

    2017-03-01

    Shame is an ineffective tool in residency education that often results in depression, isolation, and worse patient care. This study aimed to assess burnout, depersonalization, and personal achievement levels in current oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMS) residents, to assess the prevalence of the use of shame in OMS residency training, and to determine whether there is a relation between shame exposure and resident burnout, depersonalization, and personal achievement levels. An anonymous 20-question cross-sectional survey was developed incorporating the Maslach Burnout Index and a previously validated shame questionnaire and sent to all OMS program directors affiliated with the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons for distribution among their respective residents in 2016. Univariate analyses were used to determine the distribution of the predictor (shame) and outcome (burnout) by gender and by frequency of shaming events. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to assess the relation of shame to burnout. A 2-sided P value less than .05 was considered statistically significant. Two hundred seventeen responses were received; 82% of respondents were men (n = 178), 95% were 25 to 34 years old (n = 206), and 58% (n = 126) were enrolled in a 4-year program. Frequently shamed residents were more likely to have depression (58 vs 22%; P < .0001), isolation (55 vs 22%; P < .0001), and poor job performance (50 vs 30%; P < .0001). Residents who were frequently shamed were more likely to experience moderate to severe burnout (odds ratio = 4.6; 95% confidence interval, 2.1-10.0; P < .001) and severe depersonalization (odds ratio = 5.1; 95% confidence interval, 2.1-12.0; P < .0001) than residents who had never or infrequently been shamed. There is a clear relation between the number of shame events and burnout and depersonalization levels. It is important to understand the negative impact that the experience of shame has on residents

  6. Evaluating the Correlation Between Burnout Syndrome Dimensions and Mental Health of Cashiers in State Banks of Golestan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SS Mazloomy Mahmoudabad

    2015-07-01

    Results: On the whole, using the MBI subscale, we found low levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization and high levels of reduced sense of personal accomplishment in frequency . The wo variables of burnout and poor mental health were related significantly(p<0.001. Conclusions: Our results suggest that there is a strong correlation between poor mental health and burnout to show that care should be taken to ameliorate the stressful conditions that cashiers face

  7. Job demands, burnout, and engagement among nurses: A multi-level analysis of ORCAB data investigating the moderating effect of teamwork

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, Anthony; Sp?nu, Florina; B?ban, Adriana; Panagopoulou, Efharis

    2015-01-01

    According to the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model, burnout and engagement are psychological reactions that develop when individual characteristics interact with work characteristics. This study tests the JD-R model using multilevel analysis to test the main and moderating effects of teamwork effectiveness among 1156 nurses in 93 departments from seven European countries. Workload, emotional and organizational demands were positively associated with emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, a...

  8. International Business Potential for Analytics of Room Utilization

    OpenAIRE

    Binde, Karl Bernhoff

    2015-01-01

    Many universities worldwide have large campuses which they are trying to maintain and administer in the best way possible. Their infrastructure often includes numerous auditoriums with access to the Internet by the Wi-Fi standard. MazeMap and Cisco have developed a solution which can geographically track Wi-Fi clients within a building. This solution makes it possible to count the number of people in a room through depersonalized data. On an international level, the student numbers are increa...

  9. Implications for Advanced Nursing Practice in the Use of Therapeutic Touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    care units, where reliance on machines and technology have isolated and depersonalized patients. Before the boon of technology in health care, so...adjunctive therapies. Meehan (1990) recommends TT be taught as part of undergraduate or graduate nursing curricula or in a continuing education program of...staff (ANA, 1986). The CNS may serve as a resource person, preceptor and role model to staff Therapeutic Touch 47 nurses and nursing students , or member

  10. Handwashing Practices among Hospital Patients: Knowledge and Perception of Ambulatory Patients and Nursing Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    ORGANIZATION 6b. OFFICE SYMBOL 7a. NAME OF MONITORING ORGANIZATION AFIT STUDENT AT WRIGHT (If applicable) STATE UNIVERSITY AFIT/CIA 6c. ADDRESS (City, State... depersonalized and answers were indicated on a Likert Scale, 5 responses were considered objective. Validity and reliability were established for these 3...College 7 20 Undergraduate Degree 19 54 3 Graduate Degree 3 9 I I I I I I I 57 Table 7 Characteristics of Subsets of Nursinq Personnel Participants I

  11. Computer-Mediated Communication: Decisionmaking and Informal Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-15

    the context of a project called the Computer-Administered Panel Study L (CAPS). Respondents in the project were 96 UNC undergraduate students . The...project consisted of the administration of over 100 questionnaires and experimental units to this panel of undergraduates who reported to weekly sessions...humanely (eg., are more likely to ignore or insult) via the more distant media. Audio-only communications are more likely to be depersonalized

  12. Factors Associated with Student Stress in the U.S. Army - Baylor University Graduate Program in Health Care Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    highly-competitive military system. Academic probation is imposed on any now student who did not have an undergraduate grade point average (GPA) of...DF), and depersonalization intensity (DI). This suggests that students with higher GRE scores exhibited a lower degree of feelings related to these...characteristics, and the levels of stress during the US Army - Baylor University Graduate Program in Health Care Administration. The students were administered

  13. Psychological consequences of aggression in pre-hospital emergency care: cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernaldo-De-Quirós, Mónica; Piccini, Ana T; Gómez, M Mar; Cerdeira, Jose C

    2015-01-01

    Pre-hospital emergency care is a particularly vulnerable setting for workplace violence. However, there is no literature available to date on the psychological consequences of violence in pre-hospital emergency care. To evaluate the psychological consequences of exposure to workplace violence from patients and those accompanying them in pre-hospital emergency care. A retrospective cross-sectional study. 70 pre-hospital emergency care services located in Madrid region. A randomized sample of 441 health care workers (135 physicians, 127 nurses and 179 emergency care assistants). Data were collected from February to May 2012. The survey was divided into four sections: demographic/professional information, level of burnout determined by Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), mental health status using General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) and frequency and type of violent behaviour experienced by staff members. The health care professionals who had been exposed to physical and verbal violence presented a significantly higher percentage of anxiety, emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and burnout syndrome compared with those who had not been subjected to any aggression. Frequency of verbal violence (more than five times) was related to emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. Type of violence (i.e. physical aggression) is especially related to high anxiety levels and frequency of verbal aggression is associated with burnout (emotional exhaustion and depersonalization). Psychological counselling should be made available to professional staff who have been subjected to physical aggression or frequent verbal violence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Professional Burnout and Concurrent Health Complaints in Neonatal Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorobogatova, Natalija; Žemaitienė, Nida; Šmigelskas, Kastytis; Tamelienė, Rasa

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze nurses' professional burnout and health complaints and the relationship between the two components. The anonymous survey included 94 neonatal intensive care nurses from two centers of perinatology. The Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS) was used to evaluate professional burnout; it consisted of 3 components, Emotional Exhaustion, Depersonalization, and Personal Accomplishments, with 22 items in total. Health complaints were evaluated by 21 items, where nurses were asked to report the occurrence of symptoms within the last year. Scale means were presented with standard deviations (SD). Inferential analysis was conducted with multivariate logistic regression, adjusting for age, residence, and work experience. The mean score of professional burnout on the Emotional Exhaustion subscale was 14.4 (SD=7.91), Depersonalization 3.8 (SD=4.75), and Personal Accomplishment 29.1 (SD=10.12). The health assessment revealed that sleeplessness, lack of rest, nervousness, and tiredness were the most common complaints. The regression analysis revealed that tiredness was independently associated with significantly increased odds of professional burnout (OR=4.1). In our study, more than half of the nurses in neonatal intensive care had moderate or high levels of emotional exhaustion, while levels of depersonalization were significantly lower. In contrast, the level of personal accomplishment was low in more than half of the nurses. The most common health complaints were sleep disturbances, nervousness, and tiredness. Tiredness was most strongly associated with professional burnout.

  15. Burnout syndrome in nurses of prehospital rescue team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemeire Pereira Bezerra

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To verify the presence and evaluate the levels of burnout syndrome in nurses of the prehospital rescue team. Methods: A cross-sectional study with a sample of 17 nurses from the prehospital rescue team, by application of the Maslach burnout Inventory and a questionnaire prepared by the authors. Rresults: In the group studied, 76% of the nurses of the prehospital rescue team were female. Ages varied from 30 to 49 years old. As to time already in the profession, 59% reported having worked from five to ten years in prehospital rescue. As to Maslach burnout Inventory subscale means, in the group analyzed of 17 prehospital rescue team nurses, low/moderate level (31.53 of reduced professional accomplishment, low/moderate level (18.41 of emotional exhaustion, and low/moderate level (8.88 of depersonalization were observed. As to dimensions of burnout levels, it was noted that 76.47% of the nurses displayed a low/moderate level of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced professional accomplishment. Cconclusions: It was demonstrated that this sample showed no evidence of burnout syndrome, since its presence is proven only when there are high scores of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced professional accomplishment.

  16. Effort-Reward Imbalance and Burnout Among ICU Nursing Staff: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla Fortunatti, Cristobal; Palmeiro-Silva, Yasna K

    Occupational stress is commonly observed among staff in intensive care units (ICUs). Sociodemographic, organizational, and job-related factors may lead to burnout among ICU health workers. In addition, these factors could modify the balance between efforts done and rewards perceived by workers; consequently, this imbalance could increase levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization and decrease a sense of personal accomplishment. The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between effort-reward imbalance and burnout dimensions (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment) among ICU nursing staff in a university hospital in Santiago, Chile. A convenience sample of 36 registered nurses and 46 nurse aides answered the Maslach Burnout Inventory and Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire and provided sociodemographic and work-related data. Age and effort-reward imbalance were significantly associated with emotional exhaustion in both registered nurses and nurse aides; age was negatively correlated with emotional exhaustion, whereas effort-reward imbalance was positively correlated. Age was negatively associated with depersonalization. None of the predictors were associated with personal accomplishment. This study adds valuable information about relationships of sociodemographic factors and effort-reward imbalance and their impact on dimensions of burnout, particularly on emotional exhaustion.

  17. Contribution of Gender, Marital Status, and Age to English Language Teachers’ Burnout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedehhava Mousavy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Teaching is a stressful job and can lead to teachers’ burnout. Teachers feel burned out when they experience high levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization but low levels of personal accomplishment (Maslach, 1999. A wealth of research is available on this subject but the findings are inconsistent. The present study surveyed the level of burnout among a randomly selected group of English language teachers (n = 315 in Malaysia. It also investigated whether these teachers’ gender, age and marital status could significantly contribute to their burnout levels. Maslach’s Burnout Inventory (Maslach & Jackson, 1986 was used to collect the data. According to the results, the teachers suffered from significantly high levels of burnout in reference to their PA scores. In comparison with the male teachers, female teachers reported significantly higher levels of burnout considering their emotional exhaustion (p = .008, depersonalization (p = .002 and personal accomplishment (p = .000. Additionally, older teachers (aged ≤ 40 were significantly more burned out than their younger colleagues (aged ≥ 30, regarding their depersonalization (p = .001 and personal achievement (p = .000 mean scores. Finally, married teachers indicated significantly higher levels of burnout compared with those who were not married. The study is expected to have useful implications for teachers, administrators, and researchers.

  18. Latent profile analysis and principal axis factoring of the DSM-5 dissociative subtype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frewen, Paul A.; Brown, Matthew F. D.; Steuwe, Carolin; Lanius, Ruth A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective A dissociative subtype has been recognized based on the presence of experiences of depersonalization and derealization in relation to DSM-IV posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the dissociative subtype has not been assessed in a community sample in relation to the revised DSM-5 PTSD criteria. Moreover, the 20-item PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) currently does not assess depersonalization and derealization. Method We therefore evaluated two items for assessing depersonalization and derealization in 557 participants recruited online who endorsed PTSD symptoms of at least moderate severity on the PCL-5. Results A five-class solution identified two PTSD classes who endorsed dissociative experiences associated with either 1) severe or 2) moderate PTSD symptom severity (D-PTSD classes). Those in the severe dissociative class were particularly likely to endorse histories of childhood physical and sexual abuse. A principal axis factor analysis of the symptom list identified six latent variables: 1) Reexperiencing, 2) Emotional Numbing/Anhedonia, 3) Dissociation, 4) Negative Alterations in Cognition & Mood, 5) Avoidance, and 6) Hyperarousal. Conclusions The present results further support the presence of a dissociative subtype within the DSM-5 criteria for PTSD. PMID:25854673

  19. Age as a Risk Factor for Burnout Syndrome in Nursing Professionals: A Meta-Analytic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Urquiza, José L; Vargas, Cristina; De la Fuente, Emilia I; Fernández-Castillo, Rafael; Cañadas-De la Fuente, Guillermo A

    2017-04-01

    Although past research has highlighted the possibility of a direct relationship between the age of nursing professionals and burnout syndrome, results have been far from conclusive. The aim of this study was to conduct a wider analysis of the influence of age on the three dimensions of burnout syndrome (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment) in nurses. We performed a meta-analysis of 51 publications extracted from health sciences and psychology databases that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. There were 47 reports of information on emotional exhaustion in 50 samples, 39 reports on depersonalization for 42 samples, and 31 reports on personal accomplishment in 34 samples. The mean effect sizes indicated that younger age was a significant factor in the emotional exhaustion and depersonalization of nurses, although it was somewhat less influential in the dimension of personal accomplishment. Because of heterogeneity in the effect sizes, moderating variables that might explain the association between age and burnout were also analyzed. Gender, marital status, and study characteristics moderated the relationship between age and burnout and may be crucial for the identification of high-risk groups. More research is needed on other variables for which there were only a small number of studies. Identification of burnout risk factors will facilitate establishment of burnout prevention programs for nurses. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Prevalence of Burnout Syndrome in Emergency Nurses: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Urquiza, Jose Luis; De la Fuente-Solana, Emilia I; Albendín-García, Luis; Vargas-Pecino, Cristina; Ortega-Campos, Elena M; Cañadas-De la Fuente, Guillermo A

    2017-10-01

    To determine the prevalence of burnout (based on the Maslach Burnout Inventory on the 3 dimensions of high Emotional Exhaustion, high Depersonalization, and low Personal Accomplishment) among emergency nurses. A search of the terms "emergency AND nurs* AND burnout" was conducted using the following databases: CINAHL, Cochrane, CUIDEN, IBECS, LILACS, PubMed, ProQuest, PsycINFO, SciELO, and Scopus. Thirteen studies were included for the Maslach Burnout Inventory subscales of Emotional Exhaustion and Depersonalization and 11 studies for the subscale of low Personal Accomplishment. The total sample of nurses was 1566. The estimated prevalence of each subscale was 31% (95% CI, 20-44) for Emotional Exhaustion, 36% (95% CI, 23-51) for Depersonalization, and 29% (95% CI, 15-44) for low Personal Accomplishment. The prevalence of burnout syndrome in emergency nurses is high; about 30% of the sample was affected with at least 1 of the 3 Maslach Burnout Inventory subscales. Working conditions and personal factors should be taken into account when assessing burnout risk profiles of emergency nurses. ©2017 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  1. [Burnout syndrome in medical residents at the General Hospital of Durango, México].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrones-Rodríguez, Jovany Francisco; Cisneros-Pérez, Vicente; Arreola-Rocha, José Jesús

    2016-01-01

    The burnout syndrome is commonly spread among health workers and students, due to the excessive demands they feel on their workspaces. Depersonalization, emotional exhaustion and personal accomplishment are the areas assessed. To determine the prevalence of burnout syndrome in medical residents at the General Hospital of Durango; a descriptive, prolective, cross-sectional study was designed and applied to residents of different specialties of the General Hospital of Durango who agreed to participate, the "Maslach Burnout Inventory" was applied. We surveyed 116 residents, 43.1 % (50) women and 56.89 % (66) men. The overall prevalence was 89.66 % (95 % CI: 82.63- 94.54). Affected in a single area the 48.28 % (95 % CI: 38.90-57.74), in two areas the 35.34 % (95 % CI: 26.69-44.76) and in the three areas 6.03 % (95 % CI: 2.46-12.04). Stratified by areas, high emotional exhaustion was 41.38 % (95 % CI: 32.31-50.90), high depersonalization in 54.31 % (95 % CI: 44.81-63.59), and low personal accomplishment 41.38 % (95 % CI: 32.31-50.90). The prevalence is higher than the reported. The most frequently affected is depersonalization, followed by emotional exhaustion and finally the personal accomplishment. In the areas of Gynecology and obstetrics, Internal medicine, Pediatrics and Orthopedics, the 100 % of the residents are affected.

  2. Burnout syndrome and its prevalence in primary care nursing: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsalve-Reyes, Carolina S; San Luis-Costas, Concepción; Gómez-Urquiza, Jose L; Albendín-García, Luis; Aguayo, Raimundo; Cañadas-De la Fuente, Guillermo A

    2018-05-10

    burnout syndrome is a significant problem in nursing professionals. Although, the unit where nurses work may influence burnout development. Nurses that work in primary care units may be at higher risk of burnout. The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and low personal accomplishment in primary care nurses. We performed a meta-analysis. We searched Pubmed, CINAHL, Scopus, Scielo, Proquest, CUIDEN and LILACS databases up to September 2017 to identify cross-sectional studies assessing primary care nurses' burnout with the Maslach Burnout Inventory were included. The search was done in September 2017. After the search process, n = 8 studies were included in the meta-analysis, representing a total sample of n = 1110 primary care nurses. High emotional exhaustion prevalence was 28% (95% Confidence Interval = 22-34%), high depersonalization was 15% (95% Confidence Interval = 9-23%) and 31% (95% Confidence Interval = 6-66%) for low personal accomplishment. Problems such as emotional exhaustion and low personal accomplishment are very common among primary care nurses, while depersonalization is less prevalent. Primary care nurses are a burnout risk group.

  3. Job satisfaction among nurses: a predictor of burnout levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalliath, Thomas; Morris, Rita

    2002-12-01

    This study assessed the impact of differential levels of job satisfaction on burnout among nurses, hypothesizing that higher levels of job satisfaction predict lower levels of burnout. Social environmental factors of the workplace arising from organizational restructuring cost containment strategies, diminishing resources, and increasing responsibilities, cause highly stressed, burned out nurses to leave the profession. This study used the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) to measure emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment. The job satisfaction scale of Katzell et al was used to measure overall job satisfaction. Statistical tests for significance used were Confirmatory Factor Analysis, Structural Equation Modeling, the chi statistic, Root Mean Square Error of Approximation, Goodness of Fit Index, and Comparative Fit Index. The findings show that job satisfaction has a significant direct negative effect on emotional exhaustion, whereas emotional exhaustion has a direct positive effect on depersonalization. A significant indirect effect was seen of job satisfaction on depersonalization via exhaustion. The path coefficient shows that job satisfaction has both direct and indirect effects on burnout, confirming job satisfaction as a significant predictor of burnout. Collaborative efforts between nurses, administrators, and educators to research and test practical models to improve job satisfaction may work as an antidote to burnout.

  4. Counterproductive work behaviours in response to emotional exhaustion: a moderated mediational approach.

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    Bolton, LaMarcus R; Harvey, Richard D; Grawitch, Matthew J; Barber, Larissa K

    2012-08-01

    Drawing from the conservation of resources framework and self-control principles, we proposed a moderated mediational model through which emotional exhaustion may be linked to counterproductive work behaviours (CWBs). Analyses conducted with 175 Midwestern government workers revealed that both depersonalization (i.e. detachment from one's work, customers or co-workers) and organizational disidentification (i.e. cognitive opposition to an organization) were viable predictors of deviancy. Further, depersonalization and disidentification mediated the relationship between emotional exhaustion and CWBs, although disidentification drove these findings. Lastly, trait self-control moderated most variations of this relationship, in that this mediational model only applied to individuals with low and moderate self-control but not high self-control. Consistent with the conservation of resources framework, this study suggests that in a state of depleted emotional resources, heightened depersonalization and disidentification together provide the necessary levels of psychological/emotional withdrawal and justification for CWBs to emerge. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Faculty Wellness: Educator Burnout among Otolaryngology Graduate Medical Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Katherine R; Spiro, Jeffrey

    2018-06-01

    Objectives Burnout is a well-described psychological construct with 3 aspects: exhaustion, depersonalization, and lack of personal accomplishment. The objective of this study was to assess whether faculty members of an otolaryngology residency program exhibit measurable signs and symptoms of burnout with respect to their roles as medical educators. Study Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Otolaryngology-head and neck surgery residency program. Subjects and Methods Faculty members from an otolaryngology residency program, all of whom are involved in resident education, completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Educators Survey (MBI-ES). The surveys were completed anonymously and scored with the MBI-ES scoring key. Results Twenty-three faculty members completed the MBI-ES, and 16 (69.6%) showed symptoms of burnout, as evidenced by unfavorable scores on at least 1 of the 3 indices (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, or low personal accomplishment). The faculty consistently reported moderate to high personal accomplishment and low depersonalization. There were variable responses in the emotional exhaustion subset, which is typically the first manifestation of the development of burnout. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first application of the MBI-ES to investigate burnout among otolaryngology faculty members as related to their role as medical educators. Discovering symptoms of burnout at an early stage affords a unique and valuable opportunity to intervene. Future investigation is underway into potential causes and solutions.

  6. Burnout After Patient Death: Challenges for Direct Care Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerner, Kathrin; Gleason, Hayley; Jopp, Daniela S

    2017-09-01

    Direct care workers in long-term care can develop close relationships with their patients and subsequently experience significant grief after patient death. Consequences of this experience for employment outcomes have received little attention. To investigate staff, institutional, patient, and grief factors as predictors of burnout dimensions among direct care workers who had experienced recent patient death; determine which specific aspects of these factors are of particular importance; and establish grief as an independent predictor of burnout dimensions. Participants were 140 certified nursing assistants and 80 homecare workers who recently experienced patient death. Data collection involved comprehensive semistructured in-person interviews. Standardized assessments and structured questions addressed staff, patient, and institutional characteristics, grief symptoms and grief avoidance, as well as burnout dimensions (depersonalization, emotional exhaustion, and personal accomplishment). Hierarchical regressions revealed that grief factors accounted for unique variance in depersonalization, over and above staff, patient, and institutional factors. Supervisor support and caregiving benefits were consistently associated with higher levels on burnout dimensions. In contrast, coworker support was associated with a higher likelihood of depersonalization and emotional exhaustion. Findings suggest that grief over patient death plays an overlooked role in direct care worker burnout. High supervisor support and caregiving benefits may have protective effects with respect to burnout, whereas high coworker support may constitute a reflection of burnout. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Effect of psychosocial work environment and job satisfaction on burnout syndrome among specialist physicians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribà-Agüir, Vicenta; Artazcoz, Lucía; Pérez-Hoyos, Santiago

    2008-01-01

    To describe the prevalence of burnout syndrome according to medical specialty and to examine the impact of work psychosocial risk factors, job satisfaction and professional characteristics on burnout syndrome among specialist physicians throughout Spain. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 1,021 Spanish physicians. The outcome variables were the 3 dimensions of burnout syndrome: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment. The explanatory variables were work psychosocial risk factors and job satisfaction evaluated by a stress scale specifically designed for physicians. Adjusted odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated by logistic regression. The probability of high emotional exhaustion and depersonalization were greater in physicians exposed to a high level of contact with suffering and death and to a negative impact of work on home life. The probability of high emotional exhaustion was greater among physicians with a high work overload. The risk of low personal accomplishment was higher among physicians with low professional satisfaction and those without training activities. Dissatisfaction with relationships with patients and relatives had a negative effect on the 3 dimensions of burnout. Psychosocial work environment and job satisfaction have a negative effect on burnout syndrome, especially on emotional exhaustion and depersonalization.

  8. Burnout Among the Clinical Dental Students in the Jordanian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Wala Majid; Al-Ali, Muna H.; Duaibis, Ramzi B.; Oweis, Tamara; Badran, Darwish H.

    2009-01-01

    Background The study aimed to evaluate the level of burnout among the clinical dental students in two Jordanian universities. Methods A total of 307 students from the two schools were surveyed using Maslach Burnout Inventory survey. Scores for the inventory’s subscales were calculated and the mean values for the students’ groups were computed separately. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were carried out and the results were compared at 95% confidence level. Results The results showed that the dental students in both Jordanian universities suffered high levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization compared to reported levels for dental students in other countries. The dental students of the University of Jordan demonstrated a significantly higher (p < 0.05) level of emotional exhaustion than their counterparts in the Jordan University of Science and Technology. Conclusions The findings indicated that dental students in the Jordanian universities presented considerable degrees of burnout manifested by high levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. Studies targeting students health and psychology should be carried out to determine the causes of burnout among dental students. The curricula of the dental schools in the two universities should be accordingly improved to minimize burnout among the students. Keywords Burnout; Emotional exhaustion; Depersonalization; Personal accomplishment; Maslach Burnout Inventory PMID:22461870

  9. Prevalence of burnout syndrome in oncology nursing: A meta-analytic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañadas-De la Fuente, Guillermo A; Gómez-Urquiza, Jose L; Ortega-Campos, Elena M; Cañadas, Gustavo R; Albendín-García, Luis; De la Fuente-Solana, Emilia I

    2018-05-01

    To determine the prevalence of high levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization and low personal accomplishment in nursing professionals in oncology services. A meta-analytical study was performed. The search was carried out in March 2017 in Pubmed, CINAHL, Scopus, Scielo, Proquest, CUIDEN, and LILACS databases. Studies using Maslach Burnout Inventory for the assessment of burnout were included. The total sample of oncology nurses was n = 9959. The total number of included studies was n = 17, with n = 21 samples for the meta-analysis of emotional exhaustion and n = 18 for depersonalization and low personal accomplishment. The prevalence of emotional exhaustion and of depersonalization was 30% (95% CI = 26%-33%) and 15% (95% CI = 9%-23%), respectively, and that of low personal performance was 35% (95% CI = 27%-43%). The are many oncology nurses with emotional exhaustion and low levels of personal accomplishment. The presence and the risk of burnout among these staff members are considerable. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Latent profile analysis and principal axis factoring of the DSM-5 dissociative subtype

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    Paul A. Frewen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A dissociative subtype has been recognized based on the presence of experiences of depersonalization and derealization in relation to DSM-IV posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. However, the dissociative subtype has not been assessed in a community sample in relation to the revised DSM-5 PTSD criteria. Moreover, the 20-item PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5 currently does not assess depersonalization and derealization. Method: We therefore evaluated two items for assessing depersonalization and derealization in 557 participants recruited online who endorsed PTSD symptoms of at least moderate severity on the PCL-5. Results: A five-class solution identified two PTSD classes who endorsed dissociative experiences associated with either 1 severe or 2 moderate PTSD symptom severity (D-PTSD classes. Those in the severe dissociative class were particularly likely to endorse histories of childhood physical and sexual abuse. A principal axis factor analysis of the symptom list identified six latent variables: 1 Reexperiencing, 2 Emotional Numbing/Anhedonia, 3 Dissociation, 4 Negative Alterations in Cognition & Mood, 5 Avoidance, and 6 Hyperarousal. Conclusions: The present results further support the presence of a dissociative subtype within the DSM-5 criteria for PTSD.

  11. Latent profile analysis and principal axis factoring of the DSM-5 dissociative subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frewen, Paul A; Brown, Matthew F D; Steuwe, Carolin; Lanius, Ruth A

    2015-01-01

    A dissociative subtype has been recognized based on the presence of experiences of depersonalization and derealization in relation to DSM-IV posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the dissociative subtype has not been assessed in a community sample in relation to the revised DSM-5 PTSD criteria. Moreover, the 20-item PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) currently does not assess depersonalization and derealization. We therefore evaluated two items for assessing depersonalization and derealization in 557 participants recruited online who endorsed PTSD symptoms of at least moderate severity on the PCL-5. A five-class solution identified two PTSD classes who endorsed dissociative experiences associated with either 1) severe or 2) moderate PTSD symptom severity (D-PTSD classes). Those in the severe dissociative class were particularly likely to endorse histories of childhood physical and sexual abuse. A principal axis factor analysis of the symptom list identified six latent variables: 1) Reexperiencing, 2) Emotional Numbing/Anhedonia, 3) Dissociation, 4) Negative Alterations in Cognition & Mood, 5) Avoidance, and 6) Hyperarousal. The present results further support the presence of a dissociative subtype within the DSM-5 criteria for PTSD.

  12. Dissociation in patients with dissociative seizures: relationships with trauma and seizure symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pick, S; Mellers, J D C; Goldstein, L H

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to extend the current understanding of dissociative symptoms experienced by patients with dissociative (psychogenic, non-epileptic) seizures (DS), including psychological and somatoform types of symptomatology. An additional aim was to assess possible relationships between dissociation, traumatic experiences, post-traumatic symptoms and seizure manifestations in this group. A total of 40 patients with DS were compared with a healthy control group (n = 43), matched on relevant demographic characteristics. Participants completed several self-report questionnaires, including the Multiscale Dissociation Inventory (MDI), Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire-20, Traumatic Experiences Checklist and the Post-Traumatic Diagnostic Scale. Measures of seizure symptoms and current emotional distress (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) were also administered. The clinical group reported significantly more psychological and somatoform dissociative symptoms, trauma, perceived impact of trauma, and post-traumatic symptoms than controls. Some dissociative symptoms (i.e. MDI disengagement, MDI depersonalization, MDI derealization, MDI memory disturbance, and somatoform dissociation scores) were elevated even after controlling for emotional distress; MDI depersonalization scores correlated positively with trauma scores while seizure symptoms correlated with MDI depersonalization, derealization and identity dissociation scores. Exploratory analyses indicated that somatoform dissociation specifically mediated the relationship between reported sexual abuse and DS diagnosis, along with depressive symptoms. A range of psychological and somatoform dissociative symptoms, traumatic experiences and post-traumatic symptoms are elevated in patients with DS relative to healthy controls, and seem related to seizure manifestations. Further studies are needed to explore peri-ictal dissociative experiences in more detail.

  13. Burnout in the staff of a chronic care hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino-Plaza, Maria Jose; Carrera-Hueso, Francisco Javier; Arribas-Boscá, Nuria; Martínez-Asensi, Amparo; Trull-Maravilla, Emilia; Fikri-Benbrahim, Narjis

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of Burnout in a medium or long-stay hospital, to monitor its evolution and to highlight the importance of cut-off points used to avoid distortions in the interpretation of the results. METHODS Two cross-sectional studies (2013–2016) were carried out, applying the Spanish version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory to the staff of a chronic care hospital (n = 323). Result variables were: Burnout prevalence and a high degree of affectation of the subscales and predictor variables: sociodemographic characteristics and factors that trigger and modulate the syndrome. The association between variables was quantified using odds ratio. RESULTS The participation rate went from 31.5% to 39.3%. The professionals presented a mean level of Burnout in both moments, observing a lower degree of affectation of the depersonalization subscales and personal accomplishment in the 2016 cut-off. The average score of the subscales in 2016 was 21.5 for emotional fatigue, 4.7 for depersonalization and 41.7 for personal fulfillment, compared to the values of emotional fatigue = 21.6, depersonalization = 6.9 and personal fulfillment = 36.3 obtained in 2013. The emotional fatigue score was slightly higher than the mean value of the national studies (19.9), while the rest of the values were similar to the mean values of the studies considered. The prevalence of Burnout and the interpretation of the results varied significantly according to the cut-off points considered. In both studies, sociodemographic variables showed little significance, while social support and interpersonal relationships were associated with the degree of burnout among professionals. CONCLUSIONS Our prevalence of Burnout was similar to that of other studies consulted, although the emotional component is more marked in our environment. The interpretation of the results varied significantly according to the cut-off points applied, due to the cross-cultural differences. PMID

  14. [Burnout syndrome in pre-hospital and hospital emergency. Cognitive study in two cohorts of nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchitti, Chiara; Cannizzaro, Giorgia; Rosi, Fabrizio; Maccaroni, Roberto; Menditto, Vincenzo G

    2014-01-01

    Burnout syndrome (BOS) associated with stress has been documented in health care professionals in many specialties. The emergency department and the pre-hospital healthcare services are highly stressful environments. Little is known about the BOS in critical care nursing staff. The objective of the study is to compare the incidence of BOS and its three domains, namely, emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced professional accomplishment, in two cohorts of critical care nurses: a pre-hospital and a hospital emergency service. A survey using a questionnaire (the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, MBI-GS), among nurses of two Italian emergency services has been performed: a hospital emergency service (HES, Emergency Department or "Pronto Soccorso") and a pre-hospital emergency service (PHES, territorial healthcare service or "Centrale Operativa 118"). All 60 nurses surveyed (82% female) filled the questionnaires. BOS-related symptoms have been identified in at least 50% of the nurses in the HES: 50% suffered a medium-high emotional exhaustion, 75% had a medium-high depersonalization and 92.5% had a medium-high reduced professional accomplishment. Among the PEHS nurses, BOS-related symptoms have been identified in at least 60% of the respondents: 60% had a medium-high emotional exhaustion, 70% had a medium-high depersonalization and 95% had a medium-high reduced professional accomplishment. Moreover, the likelihood that a nurse has a severe BOS, that is at least one degree of high burnout or ≥2 degrees of medium burnout, is significantly higher in the group of the PHES than in the HES (90% vs 60%, p nursing staff had a severe BOS. The incidence of BOS appeared to be similar among PHES and HES nurses with a higher trend for the former. Further interventional studies are needed to investigate the determinants of BOS among critical care nurses and the potentially preventive strategies.

  15. Occupational stressors, burnout and coping strategies between hospital and community psychiatric nurses in a Dublin region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTiernan, K; McDonald, N

    2015-04-01

    Burnout negatively impacts the delivery of mental health services. Psychiatric nurses face stressors that are distinct from other nursing specialities. The research was conducted in Ireland and captured a relatively large sample of respondents. The results compared the stressors, coping strategies and burnout levels between hospital and community-based psychiatric nurses. Occupational stress can negatively impact on the well-being of psychiatric nurses, which in turn can lead to poor client care. There is a dearth of published research conducted in Ireland that examines stress within the discipline. A between-groups study, undertaken in February 2011, investigated stressors, burnout and coping strategies between hospital and community-based psychiatric nurses in a Dublin region. Sixty-nine participants (8 males and 61 females), aged between 18 to 60 years voluntarily completed the Mental Health Professional Stress Scale, the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the PsychNurse Methods of Coping Scale. The findings revealed that nurses were operating in a moderately stressful environment. Stressors focused on organizational issues as opposed to client issues. The main stressors identified were lack of resources, workload and organizational structures/processes. Both groups reported average levels of emotional exhaustion, low levels of depersonalization and average levels of personal accomplishment. A Mann-Whitney U-test and Independent Samples t-test found significant differences between hospital and community-based nurses regarding depersonalization and personal accomplishment, respectively. Hospital nurses reported higher depersonalization scores, and community nurses had a greater sense of personal accomplishment. The personal accomplishment scores of hospital nurses were below mental health professional norms. No significant differences emerged regarding coping strategies. Avoidant coping strategies were favoured by both groups. It is recommended that interventions

  16. Burnout and Associated Factors among Iranian Emergency Medicine Practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalili, Mohammad; Sadeghipour Roodsari, Gholamreza; Bassir Nia, Anahita

    2013-09-01

    Emergency physicians are at risk of burnout, which can affect their mental health, as well as patient care. We assessed burnout level among Iranian emergency physicians and investigated demographic, work-related factors and stressors associated with higher burnout. In a cross-sectional study, we surveyed all 188 emergency medicine residents and practitioners in Iran. We measured burnout using 22-item Maslach Burnout Inventory assessing emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment, also demographic factors, work related factors and sources of stress in emergency department using anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive analysis, univariate analysis to evaluate association with higher score of burnout, and multivariate logistic regression analysis to predict high burnout in 3 subscales was performed. Totally, 165 questionnaires were filled (response rate: 88%; mean age: 33.6 years, 91% male). Mean burnout scores were 22.94 for emotional exhaustion (95% CI=20.78-25.01; moderate), 9.3 for depersonalization (95% CI=8.24-10.36; moderate to high), and 31.47 for personal accomplishment (95% CI=29.87-33.07; moderate to high). Frequent reported sources of stress were shortage of equipment, problem with work physical environment, and relationship with other services. All 19 sources of stress were associated with higher score of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization; while twelve out of 19 were significantly associated with lower level of personal accomplishment. In logistic regression model, the significant predictors for high emotional exhaustion were work overload, feeling of insecurity for future career and difficulties to balance professional and private life. Burnout is high among Iranian emergency medicine practitioners and some interventions can be proposed to reduce stress.

  17. Burnout syndrome in physical therapists – Demographic and organizational factors

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    Urszula Pustułka-Piwnik

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Professional burnout results from prolonged exposure to chronic, job-related stressors. According to Christina Maslach, professional burnout is a syndrome of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment. Literature includes a number of reports on burnout syndrome within health service, but hardly ever do they make any references to physiotherapists. The purpose of this study is assessment of the level of professional burnout in a group of physiotherapists and investigating relationships between the indices of burnout syndrome and selected demographic as well as organizational variables. Material and Methods: The study group consisted of 151 physiotherapists with at least 3 years of experience, employed in various health service outposts in Krakow, Poland. The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI was used to measure emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment. A questionnaire for the description of socio-demographic and work characteristics was used as well. Results: Job burnout among the physiotherapists was manifested by an increased emotional exhaustion and decreased sense of personal achievement. Emotional exhaustion was significantly higher among physical therapists working with adults and employed in hospitals, depersonalization was higher among men, hospital workers and employees with seniority from 15 to 19 years, personal accomplishment was decreased among men and less-educated therapists. Conclusions: The study confirmed that indicators of burnout in physiotherapists are significantly associated with selected demographic and organizational variables. It is necessary to undertake a more exhaustive study of burnout in this group of employees, and implement elements of prevention. Med Pr 2014;65(4:453–462

  18. Burnout, coping, and spirituality among internal medicine resident physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolittle, Benjamin R; Windish, Donna M; Seelig, Charles B

    2013-06-01

    Burnout in physicians is common, and studies show a prevalence of 30% to 78%. Identifying constructive coping strategies and personal characteristics that protect residents against burnout may be helpful for reducing errors and improving physician satisfaction. We explored the complex relationships between burnout, behaviors, emotional coping, and spirituality among internal medicine and internal medicine-pediatrics residents. We anonymously surveyed 173 internal medicine and medicine-pediatrics residents to explore burnout, coping, and spiritual attitudes. We used 3 validated survey instruments: the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the Carver Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced (COPE) Inventory, and the Hatch Spiritual Involvement and Beliefs Scale (SIBS). A total of 108 (63%) residents participated, with 31 (28%) reporting burnout. Residents who employed strategies of acceptance, active coping, and positive reframing had lower emotional exhaustion and depersonalization (all, P < .03). Residents who reported denial or disengagement had higher emotional exhaustion and depersonalization scores. Personal accomplishment was positively correlated with the SIBS total score (r  =  +.28, P  =  .003), as well as the internal/fluid domain (r  =  +.32, P  =  .001), existential axes (r  =  +.32, P  =  .001), and humility/personal application domain (r  =  +.23, P  =  .02). The humility/personal application domain also was negatively correlated with emotional exhaustion (r  =  -.20, P  =  .04) and depersonalization (r  =  -.25, P  =  .009). No activity or demographic factor affected any burnout domain. Burnout is a heterogeneous syndrome that affects many residents. We identified a range of emotional and spiritual coping strategies that may have protective benefit.

  19. Burnout Syndrome Among Hemodialysis and Peritoneal Dialysis Nurses.

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    Karakoc, Ayten; Yilmaz, Murvet; Alcalar, Nilufer; Esen, Bennur; Kayabasi, Hasan; Sit, Dede

    2016-11-01

    Burnout, a syndrome with 3 dimensions of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduction of personal accomplishment, is very common among hemodialysis nurses, while data are scarce regarding the prevalence of burnout syndrome (BS) among peritoneal dialysis (PD) nurses. This study aimed to assess and compare demographic and professional characteristics and burnout levels in hemodialysis and PD nurses, and to investigate factors that increase the level of burnout in dialysis nurses. A total of 171 nurses from 44 dialysis centers in Turkey were included in a cross-sectional survey study. Data were collected using a questionnaire defining the social and demographic characteristics and working conditions of the nurses as well as the Maslach Burnout Inventory for assessment of burnout level. There was no significant difference in the level of burnout between the hemodialysis and PD nurses groups. Emotional exhaustion and depersonalization scores were higher among the shift workers, nurses who had problems in interactions with the other team members, and those who wanted to leave the unit, as well as the nurses who would not attend training programs. In addition, male sex, younger age, limited working experience, more than 50 hours of working per week, and working in dialysis not by choice were associated with higher depersonalization scores. Personal accomplishment score was lower among the younger nurses who had problems in their interactions with the doctors, who would not regularly attend training programs, and who felt being medically inadequate. Improving working conditions and relations among colleagues, and also providing further dialysis education are necessary for minimizing burnout syndrome. Burnout reduction programs should mainly focus on younger professionals.

  20. [Psycho-social sources of stress and burnout in schools: research on a sample of Italian teachers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedditzi, Maria Luisa; Nonnis, M

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies show the existence of stress and burnout among teachers. The psycho-social sources of stress and burnout in teachers cover many aspects, often of conflictual nature, affecting the relationship with the school organization, colleagues, parents, students, and many other variables. This study aimed at exploring the incidence of burnout among teachers in primary and secondary schools and to describing the characteristics of burnout taking into account the educational level, the location of the school and the teacher's length of service. Another objective of this study was to identify, among the principal sources of teachers' job stress, those sources that are more able to predict the occurrence of burnout. Among these predictors of stress we considered the personal image of the teacher with respect to the work-family interface and the gap between professional and social status. 882 teachers from the cities of Rome, Bari, Cagliari and Sassari completed the Maslach burnout Inventory (MBI), and an adaptation to the school environment of the OSI (Organizational Stress Indicator, Cooper, Sloan & Williams). The data were analyzed using multiple linear regression and analysis of the multivariate variance. 29.9% of the teachers surveyed presented high levels of emotional exhaustion, 33.8% had the highest scores of depersonalization; 28.3% had a low level of professional achievement; 8.2% of the teachers were in burnout. Interpersonal conflict and personal image were included among the predictors of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. The study highlights the existence of burnout among teachers and the need for prevention, particularly against depersonalization, that affects the quality of both the teacher-student relationship and the teaching-learning process.

  1. Prevalence and associated factors of burnout among military doctors in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhry, M.A.; Khokhar, M.M.; Haq, A.I.U.; Alvi, Z.Z.

    2015-01-01

    To determine the frequency of factors contributing to burnout among military Physicians in Lahore, Pakistan. Study Design: Cross-sectional analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Combined Military Hospital (CMH) Lahore and CMH Lahore Medical and Dental College from March 2014 to September 2014. Methodology: Sample consisted of 133 physicians (n=66) males and n=67 females). Convenient sampling procedure was used. Mashlach Burnout Inventory (MBI) which included 22 questions was used to measure emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment. The questionnaire also elicited information about socio-demographic and work characteristics. Data was entered and analyzed by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 20.0). Chi-square test of significance was used to see the significance of association between age, gender, duration of service in years and working hours per week. p value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: On the MBI, 29 (21.8%) physicians showed high emotional exhaustion, 22 (16.6%) showed high depersonalization and 34 (25.6%) showed low personal accomplishment. Thirty-seven physicians (27.8%) were identified as experiencing a high degree of burnout (high emotional exhaustion and depersonalization and low personal accomplishment). The frequency of high degree of burnout was higher among males (36.4%) as compared to females (17.9%) and this difference was statistically borderline significant (p = 0.057). However, there was statistically significant difference (p = 0.03) of burnout between those working = 41 hours per week as compared to working = 40 hours per week. Conclusion: The prevalence of high degree of burnout in Pakistani military physicians was higher than those reported internationally. Work redesign plans as well as early assessment and intervention may be helpful in the reduction of job burnout in physicians working in military hospitals. (author)

  2. [Burnout in Tunisian medical residents: About 149 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Zid, A; Homri, W; Ben Romdhane, I; Bram, N; Labbane, R

    2017-09-01

    Burnout is a professional psychological chronic stress-induced syndrome defined by three dimensions: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and low personal accomplishment. This syndrome concerns all professions but especially healthcare staff. Numerous studies have attempted to document the impact of work activities on the doctor's mental health. According to the literature, junior doctors are more vulnerable to develop this syndrome. Are to determine the prevalence of severe burnout among residents of different specialties: anesthesiology, general surgery, emergency medicine, psychiatry, basic sciences. The secondary end points are to analyze risk factors, causes and consequences associated with burnout. A cross-sectional study conducted among medical residents working in hospitals located in the governorates of Tunis. Three instruments were used: an anonymous self-administered questionnaire, Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) to assess burnout, and Abstract Beck Depression Inventory to evaluate the intensity of depression. Severe burnout was defined as a severely high level of both emotional exhaustion and depersonalization associated with a severely low level of personal accomplishment. A total of 149 participants (response rate=76.8%) participated in the survey. Among participants, 17.14% (n=26) had a severe burnout. The emergency medicine residents had the highest rate of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization and severe depression. Overall, resident respondents, 31% (n=46), had moderate to severe depression. Among stress factors, those significantly correlated to burnout were: lack of hobbies (Pburnout were: Antecedents of specialty change (P=0.017) and desire for a specialty change (Pburnout was not found. Medical residents in all specialties are at risk of burnout. Nevertheless, this study revealed that some specialties are more exhausting, which is consistent with the results reported in the literature. Moreover, it is shown that several stress factors

  3. Occupational Burnout among School Teachers and some Related Factors in Kashan 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Saberi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Occupational burnout is considered as side effect of occupational stress. It includes some mental, functional, and personal characteristics in which a person has some symptoms of them. Occupational burnout can be caused in all jobs therefore, diminishes performance and utilization, depression and disease. Due to the important role of teachers, this study was conducted to asses the occupational burnout in teachers in Kashan. Methods: This study was carried by Maslach standard questionnaires on 385 teachers and justify teachers under study in three fields: depersonalization, emotional exhaustion, diminished performance, and occupational burnout of was assessed by standard scorning. Results: The results indicated that the majority of school teachers had burnout in both internal and external dimensions in mild level. In this study three dimensions of burnoutwere: Depersonalization(mild84.5%,moderate10.9%,sever4.6%,emotional exhaustion (mild 71.9%, moderate 18%, sever10.1%,diminished performance(mild86.7%,moderate11.1%,sever2.2% negative significant association was founded with increasing age(p=0.002 and duration of work years(p=0.001 and burnout. We founded that positive significant association with increasing educational degree(p<0.05,gender (p<0.01, kind of house(p=0.003, psychological disorders(p=0.02, family dissatisfaction(p=0.031 and teacher’s burnout. Conclusion: It seems that most people under study had mild occupational burnout, and acute occupational burnout was observed in some teachers (depersonalization 15.4%, emotional exhaustion28.1% that need to more attention to them, because the role of teachers in our country is very important.

  4. Occupational Burnout and its Determinants among Personnel of Emergency Medical Services in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bikmoradi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Several observations have addressed high rates of occupational burnout among personnel of emergency medical services (EMSs centers.  Occupational burnout influences EMS personnel's well-being and quality of life. The main objective of this study was to assess burnout and its determinants among Iranian EMS personnel. This study was carried out at all EMS centers in two provinces of Kermanshah and Hamadan located at the west of Iran. The sample consists of 260 personnel (110 in Hamadan and 150 in Kermanshah that were consecutively entered. The information was collected by researcher attendance at their workplaces using a self-administered questionnaire. Occupational-burnout was measured using the Maslach Burnout Inventory. An average of 46.54% of personnel displayed high frequency in the subscale emotional exhaustion, 38.85% displayed high frequency in the subscale depersonalization, and only 2.69% of them displayed high frequency in the subscale incompetence/lack of personal accomplishment. Regarding the severity of burnout, severe emotional exhaustion and depersonalization were detected in an average of 25.39% and 37.69 of the personnel, respectively; while, an average of 97.31% expressed a low level of the lack of personal accomplishment. Frequency and severity of burnout were adversely affected by younger age, single status, history of smoking, lower income, higher work experience, longer shifts, and even work status of the spouse. Iranian EMSs personnel considerably suffered from emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. This should be effectively managed and improved by organizational supports, psychological consultations, and effective management aimed to improve determinants of appearing occupation-related burnout.

  5. An assessment of burnout in undergraduate athletic training education program directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Jessica M; Van Lunen, Bonnie L; Walker, Stacy E; Ismaeli, Zahra C; Oñate, James A

    2009-01-01

    Athletic training education program directors (ATEPDs) often manage their time among students, program administration, and patient care. To assess the level of burnout in ATEPDs and to determine the relationship between burnout and various demographics of ATEPDs. Cross-sectional study. Public and private colleges and universities nationwide. Two hundred forty-nine ATEPDs of undergraduate athletic training education programs accredited by the Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education. We administered the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) to all participants. The MBI consisted of 21 items assessing 3 characteristics of burnout: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment. Another component of the survey requested demographic information about the ATEPDs. We used univariate, multivariate, and factorial analyses of variance with the alpha level set a priori at .05. We also calculated Pearson product moment correlation coefficients. Women had greater emotional exhaustion than men (20.67 +/- 9.43 and 16.47 +/- 9.64, respectively) (P = .001). The difference between tenure-status groups for emotional exhaustion was significant (P = .014), with tenure-track ATEPDs scoring higher on emotional exhaustion than tenured ATEPDs. Pearson product moment correlation coefficients revealed a weak negative relationship among emotional exhaustion and age (r = -0.263, P depersonalization (r = -0.171, P = .007). There was a weak positive relationship between years at current job and personal accomplishment (r = 0.197, P = .002). We found that ATEPDs experienced a moderate form of emotional exhaustion burnout and low depersonalization and personal accomplishment burnout, with women experiencing greater emotional exhaustion than males. Additionally, ATEPDs in tenure-track positions experienced greater emotional exhaustion than tenured ATEPDs. The ATEPDs need to obtain healthy coping strategies early within their directorships to manage components

  6. Prevalencia del síndrome de Burnout en personal de enfermería de una clínica de la ciudad de Ibagué

    OpenAIRE

    José Alonso Andrade Salazar; Yury Maleidy Sanabria Sanabria; María Fernanda Morales Olivera; Jeisson Lizandro Rodríguez Cardoso; Jesús David Oyuela Cortés

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this research paper is to describe the prevalence of burnout syndrome in 33 nurses at Ibague city (Tolima) clinic. A cross sectional descriptive and quantitative model is used, and a Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) questionnaire is applied for its advancement. The results do not show burnout syndrome in the sample, but some scores on the subscales are present, such as emotional exhaustion (93,94% or “low”), depersonalization (78,79% or “low”) and personal accom...

  7. Stress, burnout and health in the clinical period of dental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöhlmann, K; Jonas, I; Ruf, S; Harzer, W

    2005-05-01

    The study examined the extent of stress, burnout and health problems experienced by fourth and fifth year dental students from the three universities of Dresden, Freiburg and Bern. The objectives of the study were to: (i) identify frequent sources of stress and to report the prevalence rates of burnout and health problems in dental students, (ii) determine the rate of students suffering from severe burnout symptoms and (iii) identify stress factors related to the burnout symptoms of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. A total of 161 dental students from Dresden, Freiburg and Bern participated in the study. They completed the Psychosocial Stress Inventory, the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Health Survey Questionnaire. Frequent sources of stress were limitation of leisure time, examination anxiety and the transition stress that was related to the adaptation to the demands of the clinical phase of dental education. Few differences existed between the students of the fourth and the fifth study year. Study-related stress was lowest in Bern and considerably higher in Dresden. Differences of mean levels of burnout symptoms were found only for the burnout dimension of emotional exhaustion. Students from Dresden and Freiburg were more emotionally exhausted than students from Bern, students from Dresden also reported more health problems than students from Bern or Freiburg. Ten per cent of the dental students suffered from severe emotional exhaustion, 17% complained about a severe lack of accomplishment and 28% reported severe depersonalization symptoms. Forty-four per cent of the variance of emotional exhaustion was explained by study-related factors such as lack of leisure time, examination anxiety and transition stress. The only predictor of depersonalization was a lack of social integration, accounting for 3% of the variance. A lack of social integration may be an indicator of low social competence which may cause difficulties in dealing with patients

  8. Historical development of the basic trends of technology criticism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stork, H.

    1992-01-01

    Progress has not only been enthusiastically praised since its beginning, but also comprehensively critisized and opposed. Long is the list of reproaches that have been made; it is said to lead to a rebellion against the God-given natural order; to immoderateness and to the loss of tradition; to the loss of freedom and to depersonalization; to exploitation, pauperism, alienation from work, to environmental destruction. The paper deals with the historical development of two of these reproaches: the religiously motivated criticism of progress and technology, and the complaint about loss of freedom due to progressive changes. (orig./HSCH) [de

  9. Assisted reproductive technologies and the issue of risks to women and embryos: the tip of the iceberg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalline Carvalho Gonçalves Eler

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In assisted reproduction, not everything that is technically possible is ethically acceptable or socially desirable. The impact it has on women and embryos needs to be considered. The risk to women involves the ingestion of hormones, which can cause potentially serious complications. As regards embryos, there are risks of prematurity, low birth weight and other diseases. This article advocates a strong protective guardianship for women and the extracorporeal embryo. Faced with new bioethical dilemmas, the essence of the human being is in question. It is therefore the task of all spheres of knowledge to make a distinction between the personalizing and depersonalizing of human beings.

  10. [Unusual dreams in epileptics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldyrev, A I

    1984-01-01

    The author discusses bizarre dreams characteristic of epileptics and never occurring in normal subjects which have an important practical implication especially for early detection of epilepsy and the prevention of severe forms of the disease. This group of dreams includes vivid nightmares with vital fear, dreams not infrequently transforming into pro-dream states; persistently repeated stereotyped dreams and dreams with invariably the same unpleasant sensations representing an isolated aura of subsequent epileptic attacks. Diagnostically important may also be dreams with the symptoms of derealization and depersonalization, vague dream images and the deja vu phenomenon.

  11. The contended body: the construction of public discourses on women’s body that makes violence possible. A study case in the Italian North East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza Perini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work historically framed the issue of citizenship of women's rights, such as continuing discrimination that continually reproduces itself through the way in which the female body is represented by the media. Stereotypes and prejudices that build the imagination of common sense with respect to the role of women in society reproduce a scenario of extreme depersonalization up to the dehumanization of their body, scenery that makes it possible to consider the violence of that body made object an act possible. Examines some recent cases of femicide long remained under the media spotlight.

  12. Human Person of Human Resource - Education in the Neo-Liberal Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana CĂPUŞAN

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The current trend in education, as in almost all fields of life, is towards an aggressive corporatism which poses as globalization, while trying to apply economic principles to all aspects of life. In the case of education, such an approach is extremely damaging, because it affects the way human beings themselves are seen- as mere resources. This path will lead to a severe depersonalization of society and to new and aggressive social divisions. True globalization (an internationalism which encompasses more than just the economic aspects is the only valid solution.

  13. Model for investigating the benefits of clinical supervision in psychiatric nursing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonge, Henrik; Buus, Niels

    2011-01-01

    with the effectiveness of clinical supervision, as measured by the Manchester Clinical Supervision Scale (MCSS). Furthermore, MCSS scores were associated with benefits, such as increased job satisfaction, vitality, rational coping and less stress, emotional exhaustion, and depersonalization. Multivariate analyses......The objective of this study was to test a model for analysing the possible benefits of clinical supervision. The model suggested a pathway from participation to effectiveness to benefits of clinical supervision, and included possible influences of individual and workplace factors. The study sample...

  14. Burnout among young physicians and its association with physicians' wishes to leave: results of a survey in Saxony, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantenburg, Birte; Luppa, Melanie; König, Hans-Helmut; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about burnout, and its consequences, among German physicians are rising. However, data on burnout among German physicians are scarce. Also, a suspected association between burnout and German physicians' wishes to leave remains to be studied. Therefore, the extent of burnout, and the association between burnout and wishes to leave clinical practice or to go abroad for clinical work was studied in a sample of young physicians in Saxony. In a cross-sectional survey, all physicians ≤40 years and registered with the State Chamber of Physicians of Saxony, Germany (n = 5956) received a paper-pencil questionnaire inquiring about socio-demographics, job satisfaction, and wishes to leave clinical practice or to go abroad for clinical work. Response rate was 40 % (n = 2357). Burnout was measured with the German version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory - Human Services Survey (MBI) consisting of the subscales emotional exhaustion (feeling emotionally drained), depersonalization (feelings of cynicsm) and personal accomplishment (feelings of personal achievement in job). Variables associated with burnout, and the association between burnout and wishes to leave were assessed in multivariate logistic regression analyses. For emotional exhaustion participants reached a mean of 21.3 [standard deviation = 9.74], for depersonalization a mean of 9.9 [5.92], and for personal accomplishment a mean of 36.3 [6.77]. Men exhibited significantly higher depersonalization than women (11.3 [6.11] versus 9 [5.62], p satisfaction with the components "work environment" and "humaneness", were associated with a lower chance for a high degree of burnout on all subscales. Higher emotional exhaustion and lower personal accomplishment were associated with an increased chance of wishing to leave clinical practice. Higher emotional exhaustion and higher depersonalization were associated with an increased chance of wishing to go abroad for clinical work. Preventing physician

  15. The Adoption of Afirmatives Actions to the Prison People as a Way to Limit the Incarceration Negative Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Rapacci Mascarenhas Prado

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering the prison’s reality in Brazil and the negative effects it produces, from depersonalization through acculturation, reaching the stigma, it has been hypothesized that the State must adopt measures to reduce such negative effects on the imprisoned. This work aims to analyze whether the adoption of affirmative action is necessary and feasible to restrict the negative effects of imprisonment, due to the incarcerated vulnerability. Therefore, a literature review was made on the topic, as well as an analysis of affirmative public policies adopted in some Member States to sentenced to prison.

  16. The Relationship Between Job-Related Burnout and Job Satisfaction in Personal Selling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Benazić

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Job burnout is a multidimensional construct that has been linked to a number of negative consequences among which decreased job satisfaction plays an important role. Burnout frequently occurs in client-centered professions, such as the sales profession. There is little research focused on this issue in the sales field, especially outside the USA. The main aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of three burnout components of job satisfaction among salespeople. Present research suggests that emotional exhaustion and personal non-accomplishment negatively influence job satisfaction among salespeople, whereas depersonalization does not.

  17. Job demands, burnout, and engagement among nurses: A multi-level analysis of ORCAB data investigating the moderating effect of teamwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Anthony; Spânu, Florina; Băban, Adriana; Panagopoulou, Efharis

    2015-01-01

    According to the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model, burnout and engagement are psychological reactions that develop when individual characteristics interact with work characteristics. This study tests the JD-R model using multilevel analysis to test the main and moderating effects of teamwork effectiveness among 1156 nurses in 93 departments from seven European countries. Workload, emotional and organizational demands were positively associated with emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and negatively with vigor. Emotional and organizational demands were negatively associated with dedication. Teamwork effectiveness was positively associated with engagement. We found no evidence for the moderating effect of teamwork effectiveness in reducing individual perceptions of demands. PMID:26877971

  18. Forms of destructive relationships among the employees: how many and what the extent of the spread?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolita Vveinhardt

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Destructive behavior at work is one of the most important research topics affecting organizational performance standards and well-being. The article presented a scientific literature analysis and synthesis as well as the authors insight into destructive relationships in the work environment. There a various forms of destructive relationship in a workplace: mobbing, rare bullying, discrimination, nepotism, favoritism, cronyism, social ostracism, social loafing, organizational cynicism, depersonalization and cyber loafing. Destructive relationships shape the work environment has a negative impact on productivity, motivation, job satisfaction, health and promotes resignation. Destructive relationships among employees are explored in various sectors like transport and logistics, restaurants and catering, telecommunications, education and science and others.

  19. An examination of mobbing and burnout of residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikmetaş, Elif; Top, Mehmet; Ergin, Gülpembe

    2011-01-01

    Mobbing and burnout in human resources management are important topics in labor psychology. It is important to research the levels of mobbing and burnout of human resources in the health sector, primarily in doctors. Although there have been some studies on the mobbing and burnout of doctors, there has been a limited number of studies on the relationship between mobbing and burnout in the health sector. This study aims to examine the relationship between mobbing and burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, personal accomplishment) levels of resident doctors at a public university research and training hospital in Turkey and to investigate whether mobbing and burnout levels vary significantly according to gender, marital status, medical branch and age. This study was conducted on resident doctors at the Ondokuz Mayıs University Research and Training Hospital between 01.04.2009 and 30.06.2009. Legal permission for the study was received from the Rector's Office of Ondokuz Mayıs University. The Maslach Burnout Inventory for measuring burnout levels in doctors and the Leymann Inventory of Psychological Terror for measuring doctors' mobbing levels were the research instruments employed. Sampling was not used in this study. The aim was to administer the research instruments to all the residents (the universe of this study consisted of 510 assistant doctors). 52.94 % of residents responded to all of the questions in these instruments. In the data analysis, a t-test, ANOVA, regression analysis and descriptive statistics were used. At the end of the analyses, it was found that the mean mobbing level of residents is 1.97; the mean emotional exhaustion level of residents is 2.97; the mean level of depersonalization is 2.95; and the mean level of personal accomplishment is 2.94. Mobbing and burnout levels of residents vary significantly in terms of medical branch. This study indicated that there are relationships between mobbing, emotional exhaustion

  20. Job demands, burnout, and engagement among nurses: A multi-level analysis of ORCAB data investigating the moderating effect of teamwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Anthony; Spânu, Florina; Băban, Adriana; Panagopoulou, Efharis

    2015-09-01

    According to the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model, burnout and engagement are psychological reactions that develop when individual characteristics interact with work characteristics. This study tests the JD-R model using multilevel analysis to test the main and moderating effects of teamwork effectiveness among 1156 nurses in 93 departments from seven European countries. Workload, emotional and organizational demands were positively associated with emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and negatively with vigor. Emotional and organizational demands were negatively associated with dedication. Teamwork effectiveness was positively associated with engagement. We found no evidence for the moderating effect of teamwork effectiveness in reducing individual perceptions of demands.

  1. Pursuit of excellence in F/H operator performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keelan, B.; Curle, B.

    1996-01-01

    Performance of any fuel handling system is heavily dependent on the performance of the system operators. Sadly, this topic often receives little attention until incidents occur. Darlington has taken a proactive approach designed to reach and maintain excellent operator performance. Expectations and Standards are generated and published. A detailed, goal-oriented, auditable training program, which includes hands-on training modules, ensures operators reach the standards before qualifications are granted. Refresher courses maintain current skills. A depersonalized, computerized reporting system ensures training and standards are updated to match current situations. (author). 1 fig

  2. The Burden of Care and Burnout in Individuals Caring for Patients with Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldızhan, Eren; Ören, Nesibe; Erdoğan, Ayten; Bal, Fatih

    2018-04-21

    Alzheimer's disease imposes a severe burden upon patients and their caregivers. We examined the relationship between the sociodemographic factors, burden of care and burnout level of 120 of 203 professional caregiving staff dealing with Alzheimer's disease patients in eight geriatric care centers in Istanbul/Turkey. The Zarit Caregiver Burden Scale was used to measure the level of burden of care, and the Maslach burnout inventory to measure the level of burnout. High levels of emotional exhaustion were present in 25% of our sample, and depersonalization was found in 30% reduced personal accomplishment was present in 26% of the caregivers.

  3. Strange-face-in-the-mirror illusion and schizotypy during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Badoud, Deborah; Antico, Lia; Caputo, Giovanni B; Eliez, Stephan; Schwartz, Sophie; Debbané, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Patients with schizophrenia can sometimes report strange face illusions when staring at themselves in the mirror; such experiences have been conceptualized as anomalous self-experiences that can be experienced with a varying degree of depersonalization. During adolescence, anomalous self-experiences can also be indicative of increased risk to develop schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. To date however, the Mirror-Gazing test (MGT), an experimentally validated experiment to evaluate the propensity of strange face illusions in nonclinical and clinical adults, has yet to be investigated in an adolescent sample. The first goal of the present study was to examine experimentally induced self-face illusions in a nonclinical sample of adolescents, using the MGT. The second goal was to investigate whether dimensions of adolescent trait schizotypy were differentially related to phenomena arising during the MGT. One hundred and ten community adolescents (59 male) aged from 12 to 19 years (mean age = 16.31, SD age = 1.77) completed the MGT and Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire. The results yielded 4 types of strange face illusions; 2 types of illusions (slight change of light/color [20%] and own face deformation [45.5%]) lacked depersonalization-like phenomena (no identity change), while 2 other types (vision of other identity [27.3%], and vision of non-human identity [7.3%]) contained clear depersonalization-like phenomena. Furthermore, the disorganization dimension of schizotypy associated negatively with time of first illusion (first press), and positively with frequency of illusions during the MGT. Statistically significant differences on positive and disorganized schizotypy were found when comparing groups on the basis of degree of depersonalization-like phenomena (from slight color changes to non-human visions). Similarly to experimentally induced self-face illusions in patients with schizophrenia, such illusions in a group of nonclinical adolescents present

  4. Pursuit of excellence in F/H operator performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keelan, B; Curle, B [Ontario Hydro, Bowmanville (Canada). Darlington Nuclear Generating Station

    1997-12-31

    Performance of any fuel handling system is heavily dependent on the performance of the system operators. Sadly, this topic often receives little attention until incidents occur. Darlington has taken a proactive approach designed to reach and maintain excellent operator performance. Expectations and Standards are generated and published. A detailed, goal-oriented, auditable training program, which includes hands-on training modules, ensures operators reach the standards before qualifications are granted. Refresher courses maintain current skills. A depersonalized, computerized reporting system ensures training and standards are updated to match current situations. (author). 1 fig.

  5. ÇALIŞANLARIN ALGILADIKLARI ÖRGÜTSEL DESTEĞİN TÜKENMİŞLİK DÜZEYLERİ ÜZERİNE ETKİSİ: KAYSERİ İMALAT SANAYİ UYGULAMASI (THE EFFECT OF WORKERS’ PERCEIVED ORGANIZATIONAL SUPPORT ON THEIR BURNOUT: AN APPLICATION ON MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY IN KAYSERİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korhan KARACAOĞLU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to determine the relationship and interactions between workers’ Perceived Organizational Support and their burnout syndrome. The sample of this research is 333 workers of manufactured enterprises in Kayseri Organized Industrial Zone. Data used in this research was gathered by a questionnaire composed of two scales. According to research findings, there is a negative and low correlation between workers’ Perceived Organizational Support and their burnout syndrome and between emotional exhaustion one of the dimensions of burnout syndrome and depersonalization. On the other hand, it was concluded that there is a positive but again weak correlation between low personal accomplishment sense and perceived organizational support.

  6. Investigation of Burnout in Employees Working in a Factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin Aslan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study was performed to determine the burnout levels of employees working in a factory and the factors affecting it. METHOD: This is a cross–sectional study. The study population and sample consisted of 247 employees working in the workshops of a factory located in the a big city center. Data collection was performed using a Personal Information Form and the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI. RESULTS: The mean burnout scores increased (p<0.05 with decreasing age and work years of the employees. The mean Emotional Exhaustion score of the employees who were university graduates were higher than those who were primary school or high school graduates (p<0.05. Mean Emotional Exhaustion and Depersonalization scores of employees with no children were higher than those with children (p<0.05. Mean Emotional Exhaustion and Depersonalization scores of the employees stating that their incomes were much lower/lower than their expenditures were higher compared to those stating that their incomes were equal to their expenditures and those stating that their incomes were higher/much higher than their expenditures (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: The findings of the study indicate that factors such as age, education level, status of having children, economic status, and working years were effective on the burnout levels of the employees while the risk area where the workshop was located did not affect the burnout level. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(5.000: 453-462

  7. Ketamine for pain in adults and children with cancer: a systematic review and synthesis of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredlau, Amy Lee; Thakur, Rajbala; Korones, David Nathan; Dworkin, Robert H

    2013-10-01

    Chronic cancer pain is often refractory and difficult to treat. Ketamine is a medication with evidence of efficacy in the treatment of chronic pain. This article presents a synthesis of the data on ketamine for refractory cancer pain in adults and children. There are five randomized, double-blind, controlled trials of ketamine use in cancer pain that demonstrate improvement in pain for some patients. There are six prospective, uncontrolled trials in cancer pain that also demonstrate improvement in pain scores for some patients. There are no randomized, controlled trials in children with cancer pain, although there are a few studies reflecting improved pain control with ketamine for children with cancer pain. Adverse events for adults on ketamine are most commonly somnolence, feelings of insobriety, nausea/vomiting, hallucinations, depersonalization/derealization, and drowsiness. However, when ketamine is combined with benzodiazepines, feelings of insobriety, hallucinations, and depersonalization/derealization are not reported. Children on ketamine have had few reported adverse effects, which include sedation, anorexia, urinary retention, and myoclonic movements. Recommended ketamine infusion dosages are from 0.05 to 0.5 mg/kg/h (intravenous or subcutaneous). Recommended oral dosages of ketamine are 0.2-0.5 mg/kg/dose two to three times daily with a maximum of 50 mg/dose three times daily. Despite limitations in the breadth and depth of data available, there is evidence that ketamine may be a viable option for treatment-refractory cancer pain. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The Relationship between Job Satisfaction and Burnout among Rehabilitation Personnel of Razi Psychiatric Hospital in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Haghighizadeh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: The study about effective management dimensions in hospital staff performance is important. This study was done to survey the relationship between job satisfaction and burnout in the rehabilitation personnel of Razi Psychiatric Hospital in Tehran. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 77 subjects including psychometrics, general practitioners, specialists, nurses, social workers, occupational therapists and psychologists were selected randomly among rehabilitation staff in Razi Psychiatric Hospital in 2011. The data were collected using Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI and Minnesota Job Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ.The data were analyzed using Pearson’s correlation method. Results: Job satisfaction had an inverse relationship with "emotional exhaustion" and "depersonalization"(p<0.001, but there was not a significant relationship between "personal accomplishment" and "job satisfaction". The mean of emotional exhaustion was 68.18, depersonalization 68.4 and personal accomplishment 29.36. In addition, the results of this study showed that 36.6 percent of rehabilitation team employees in Razi Psychiatric Hospital were satisfied with their jobs. Conclusion: As the results show, it is necessary to perform further research to find the main reasons of intensifying job burnout and then reduce these critical factors leading to personnel dissatisfaction from their jobs and any probable consequence of this dissatisfaction.

  9. Quantification of burnout in emergency nurses: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Cheng, Bin; Zhu, Xiao Ping

    2018-01-17

    Previous studies showed increased levels of absenteeism, drug abuse, depression, and symptoms allied with burnout in emergency nurses. This meta-analysis aimed to quantify the three dimensions of burnout in emergency nurses and estimate the proportion of nurses who experience higher than tolerable levels of burnout. A systematic search was conducted on PubMed, Scielo, Xueshu Baidu and Informa databases with a cut-off time between 1997 and 2017 to retrieve published papers in any language that had estimated the burnout levels in emergency nurses by using MBI scale. We identified a total of 11 eligible studies. The total mean estimate was moderate for emotional exhaustion (25.552), but clearly trending towards higher level, whereas depersonalization (10.383) and lack of personal accomplishment (30.652) showed higher burnouts levels. The proportion of emergency nurses suffering from high emotional exhaustion, high depersonalization, and low personal accomplishment was 40.5%, 44.3%, and 42.7%, respectively. Burnout is detrimental to achieving high-quality healthcare services and causes a loss of productivity. It is high time for nursing leader and management personnel to identify appropriate measures to counteract burnout. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Medical Supplies Shortages and Burnout among Greek Health Care Workers during Economic Crisis: a Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachiotis, George; Kourousis, Christos; Kamilaraki, Maria; Symvoulakis, Emmanouil K.; Dounias, George; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2014-01-01

    Greece has been seriously affected by the economic crisis. In 2011 there were reports of 40% reduction to public hospital budgets. Occasional shortages of medical supplies have been reported in mass media. We attempted to pivotally investigate the frequency of medical supplies shortages in two Greek hospital units of the National Health System and to also assess their possible impact on burnout risk of health care workers. We conducted a cross-sectional study (n=303) of health care workers in two Greek hospitals who were present at the workplace during a casually selected working day (morning shift work). The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used as the measure of burnout. An additional questionnaire was used about demographics, and working conditions (duration of employment, cumulative night shifts, type of hospital including medical supplies shortages and their impact on quality of healthcare. The prevalence of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and low personal accomplishment was 44.5%, 43.2% and 51.5%, respectively. Medical supply shortages were significantly associated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. This finding provides preliminary evidence that austerity has affected health care in Greece. Moreover, the medical supply shortages in Greek hospitals may reflect the unfolding humanitarian crisis of the country. PMID:24688306

  11. Burnout in early course psychosis caregivers: the role of illness beliefs and coping styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwumere, Juliana; Lotey, Gursharan; Schulz, Joerg; James, Gareth; Afsharzadegan, Roya; Harvey, Raythe; Chu Man, Lai; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Raune, David

    2017-06-01

    In occupational settings, burnout is a common response to chronic exposure stressors and has been frequently documented in formal caregivers (i.e. paid psychiatric staff). However, the literature is limited on reports of burnout among informal caregivers and particularly within early psychosis groups. The current study sought to investigate reports of burnout in carers of young adults treated within a specialist early psychosis service and links with key appraisals reported about the illness and coping. Seventy-two carers completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory along with self-report measures of coping styles and illness beliefs. Seventy-eight per cent of carers reported high burnout in at least one of the three key burnout markers (i.e. emotional exhaustion, depersonalization or low personal accomplishment). Seven per cent of carers met full criteria for high burnout across all the three domains. A carer's belief about the negative consequences of the illness for themselves was a significant predictor of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. Low personal accomplishment was linked to a carer's less optimistic beliefs about the illness timeline and fewer reports of adaptive coping. The results provide preliminary support for the importance of asking carers in the early illness phase about their experiences of caregiving. Targeted assessment may serve as a helpful tool to identify and intervene with carers in need of additional support with stress management, use of adaptive coping strategies, and balanced recovery focused information about psychosis. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. Minimizing deviant behavior in healthcare organizations: the effects of supportive leadership and job design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chullen, C Logan; Dunford, Benjamin B; Angermeier, Ingo; Boss, R Wayne; Boss, Alan D

    2010-01-01

    In an era when healthcare organizations are beset by intense competition, lawsuits, and increased administrative costs, it is essential that employees perform their jobs efficiently and without distraction. Deviant workplace behavior among healthcare employees is especially threatening to organizational effectiveness, and healthcare managers must understand the antecedents of such behavior to minimize its prevalence. Deviant employee behavior has been categorized into two major types, individual and organizational, according to the intended target of the behavior. Behavior directed at the individual includes such acts as harassment and aggression, whereas behavior directed at the organization includes such acts as theft, sabotage, and voluntary absenteeism, to name a few (Robinson and Bennett 1995). Drawing on theory from organizational behavior, we examined two important features of supportive leadership, leader-member exchange (LMX) and perceived organizational support (POS), and two important features of job design, intrinsic motivation and depersonalization, as predictors of subsequent deviant behavior in a sample of over 1,900 employees within a large US healthcare organization. Employees who reported weaker perceptions of LMX and greater perceptions of depersonalization were more likely to engage in deviant behavior directed at the individual, whereas employees who reported weaker perceptions of POS and intrinsic motivation were more likely to engage in deviant behavior directed at the organization. These findings give rise to specific prescriptions for healthcare managers to prevent or minimize the frequency of deviant behavior in the workplace.

  13. The connection between illness representations of Alzheimer's disease and burnout among social workers and nurses in nursing homes and hospitals: a mixed-methods investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinan-Altman, Shiri; Werner, Perla; Cohen, Miri

    2016-01-01

    To examine the relationship between Alzheimer's disease (AD) illness representations and burnout among social workers and nurses, based on the self-regulatory model. A mixed-methods study was conducted. First, 327 social workers and nurses completed measures of cognitive and emotional representations, burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, lack of personal accomplishment), role variables, knowledge about AD, emotion-focused coping, problem-focused coping, and demographic and occupational characteristics. Second, interviews were conducted with eight social workers and nurses to uncover their perceptions about AD and their burnout experience. Using structural equation modeling and controlling background variables, findings indicated that emotional representations were associated with burnout while only some of the cognitive illness representations were associated with burnout. While cognitive illness representations were associated directly to burnout, the association between emotional representations and burnout was mediated by emotion-focused coping. The trimmed model showed a good fit of the data and explained 32.2% of the variance in emotion-focused coping, 51% of the variance in emotional exhaustion, 37.7% of the variance in depersonalization, and 22.6% of the variance in lack of personal accomplishment. Interviews demonstrated that AD characteristics were perceived as affecting participants on both personal and professional levels; the participants expressed negative feelings towards AD and stated that these perceptions and feelings had led them to burnout. AD illness representations may be a risk factor for developing burnout. New directions for intervention programs, aiming to reduce burnout, should be examined.

  14. The Prevalence of Job Stress and its Relationship with Burnout Syndrome among the Academic Members of Lorestan University of Medical Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, Hedayat; Jariani, Mojgan; Beiranvand, Shorangiz; Saki, Mandana; Aghajeri, Nasrin; Ebrahimzadeh, Farzad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Burnout syndrome is one of the consequences and the results of occupational or job stress emerged in the form of emotional exhaustion feeling, depersonalization and decrement personal accomplishment. The aim of this study was to determine the occupational stress and its relationship with burnout syndrome in the academic members of Lorestan University of Medical Sciences. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted on 111 of the faculty members via multistage sampling. Data were collected by the questionnaire of Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), and Osipow Occupational Stress Inventory (OSI- R). Data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics as well as analytical statistics such as chi square, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann Whitney tests and Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: The results showed that the most of the participants had a low level of burnout three dimensions including emotional burnout (72.1%), depersonalization (81.1%), and the decrement of personal accomplishment (56.8%). Moreover 79.3% of samples had a low occupational stress, but there was a meaningful relationship between occupational stress and dimensions of burnout syndrome with an exception for the intensity of decrement of personal accomplishment. Conclusion: Academic members were in an appropriate condition concerning burnout syndrome and occupational stress. However by applying some strategies to decrease stress and determining stress resources, we can improve their psychological health of academic members. PMID:26989668

  15. Experiencing professional strains of nurses, radiation engineers and physicians working at the Institute of oncology in Ljubljana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skufca Smrdel, A.C.

    2003-01-01

    Background. Since 1974 the term burnout is used in psychology. Burnout describes the end result of stress and has been described by Maslach comprising three basic components: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and low personal accomplishment. In this paper we would like to describe some aspects of burnout experiences of the employees of the Institute of Oncology in Ljubljana. Subjects and methods. We used Questionnaire of professional stress, created by Zunter Nagy and Kocmur. In our research 137 health workers from four professional groups participated: physicians, graduated nurses, nurses and radiation engineers, representing 38% of all employees. Results. We found out that in the experience the professional stressof all four professional groups is relatively equalized. The most prominent feelings are of fatigue, irritability and work overload. There were no signs of depersonalization - as described by Maslach - reported in our group. In nurses and in radiation engineers a distress is significantly more often displayed due to poorer personal income and poorer material status. Nurses reported significantly more often the intention to change work position (51%), institution (57%) or job (47%). Conclusions. Workstress impacts on the experience and on the thought patterns in those participating in the study. We can describe those signs as burnout signs. However, there are more new questions opening in the future as well as the need to a longitudinal approach to the research of this more and more prominent field. (author)

  16. The relationship between job stress and burnout levels of oncology nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rujnan Tuna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Job stress and burnout levels of oncology nurses increase day-by-day in connection with rapidly increasing cancer cases worldwide as well as in Turkey. The purpose of this study was to establish job stress and burnout levels of oncology nurses and the relationship in between. Methods: The sample of this descriptive study comprised of 189 nurses that are selected by nonprobability sampling method, employed by 11 hospitals in Istanbul. Survey form of 20 questions, Job Stressors Scale and Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI were used during collection of data. Data were evaluated using percentage, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U and Spearman correlation analyses. Results: In the study, there was a positively weak correlation between "Work Role Ambiguity" subdimension of Job Stressors Scale and "Emotional Exhaustion" and "Personal Accomplishment" subdimensions, whereas a positively weak and medium correlation was encountered between "Work Role Conflict" subdimension and "Emotional Exhaustion" and "Depersonalization" subdimensions. A negatively weak correlation was found between "Work Role Overload" subdimension and "Emotional Exhaustion" and "Depersonalization" subdimensions. Conclusion: A significant relationship was established between subdimensions of job stress level and of burnout level, that a lot of oncology nurses who have participated in the study wanted to change their units, because of the high attrition rate.

  17. Occupational burnout among nursing personel

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    Sylwia Wieder-Huszla

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Occupational stress and the related burnout syndrome is undoubtedly one of the most important challenges for public health. Objectives . The objective of the study was identifying occupational burnout among nurses. Material and methods . The questionnaire was responded by 408 professionally active male and female nurses, working in the territory of the West Pomeranian Voivodeship. In the evaluation of occupational burnout the standardized Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI was applied. Results . Mean values of the level of occupational burnout for the study group amounted to 39.3 ± 30.9 with regard to emotional exhaustion, 30.64 ± 27.89 with respect to the depersonalization subscale and 66.26 ± 27.94 – the lowered level of job satisfaction. Conclusions . 1. The studied nursing personnel showed symptoms of occupational burnout in all dimensions of the syndrome, i.e. high levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization as well as low job satisfaction. 2. Individuals with higher education scored lower on the emotional exhaustion scale. 3. Emotional exhaustion is influenced by workplace and position.

  18. [Mediator effect of resilience between burnout and health in nursing staff].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrogante, Óscar

    2014-01-01

    To determine the relationships between 3 burnout dimensions (Emotional Exhaustion, Depersonalization, and Reduced Personal Accomplishment), health (physical and mental health), and resilience, as well as to analyse the mediator role of resilience in relationships between burnout and health in a sample of Nursing staff. A correlational and cross-sectional study with probabilistic sampling was conducted on a sample of 194 Nursing staff of University Hospital of Fuenlabrada (Madrid), and composed of nurses (n=133) and nursing assistants (n=61). MBI-HSS (burnout syndrome), SF-12v1 (physical and mental components of health), 10-Item CD-RISC (resilience), and sociodemographic variables. Correlational analyses showed that mental health was negatively related with 3 burnout dimensions and positively with resilience. Furthermore, physical health was only negatively related with Emotional Exhaustion, and positively with resilience. Mediational analyses revealed that resilience mediated, on one hand, the relationship between Emotional Exhaustion and Depersonalization with mental health (partial mediation) and, on the other hand, the relationship between Reduced Personal Accomplishment and mental health (total mediation). Resilience is not only important to improve the mental health of Nursing staff, but also to buffer and minimize the negative consequences of the occupational stress to which they are at risk, with its most adverse result being signs of burnout. Therefore, resilience training should be promoted to improve nursing clinical practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. [BURNOUT SYNDROME AND STRESS OF NURSING STAFF IN A OURENSE HOSPITAL].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Rodríguez, Anxela; Pérez-Fernandez, Ma Reyes

    2015-02-01

    Set up the stress prevalence and burnout syndrome in different units of nursing staff of the Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Ourense (CHUOU) and analyse which factors cause it. It has been designed a transversal, descriptive study by performing three assessment instruments: questionnaire of social-demographic variables; Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), and Nursing Stress Scale (NSS), to a 117 nursing staff of CHUOU as population. The average age was 39.23 years old and 83.8% were women. The average scoring in the emotional exhaustion dimension was 24.44, in the component of depersonalization was 7.58, and in the personal accomplishment was 34.50. Moreover, 89.7% suffer stress related with work environment. The average score in the dimension of emotional exhaustion was 24.44, the depersonalization of 7.58 and the personal accomplishment of 34.50. The 89.7% suffered from work-related stress. Nursing staff present high burnout syndrome and stress. It has been observed a higher vulnerability to the syndrome from subjects with temporary contract and rotary shift. There has been statistically significant differences in young nursing staff and less career seniority, whom present hiqher stress levels.

  20. Burnout syndrome in nursing assistants of a public hospital in the state of São Paulo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Naiza do Nascimento; de Lucca, Sergio Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The burnout syndrome is a psychosocial phenomenon that arises as a response to chronic interpersonal stressors present at work. There are many aspects that make nursing assistants vulnerable to chronic stress situations that may lead to burnout, highlighting the low degree of autonomy in the healthcare staff and spending more in direct contact with patients. To assess the prevalence of the burnout syndrome in nursing assistants in a public hospital, as well as its association with socio-demographic and professional variables. A socio-demographic and professional questionnaire and the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI-SS) were applied to 534 nursing assistants. The prevalence of burnout syndrome among nursing assistants was 5.9%. High emotional exhaustion was observed in 23.6%, 21.9% showed high depersonalization, and 29.9% low professional achievement. It was found statistically significant associations between emotional exhaustion, job sector and marital status; depersonalization, having children and health problems; low professional achievement and job sector and number of jobs. There was association between job satisfaction and the three dimensions. Professionals working in the health area must pay intense and extended attention to people who are dependent upon others. The intimate contact of the nursing assistants with hard-to-handle patients, as well as being afraid to make mistakes in healthcare are additional chronic stress factors and burnout syndrome cases related in this study.

  1. The Prevalence of Job Stress and its Relationship with Burnout Syndrome among the Academic Members of Lorestan University of Medical Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, Hedayat; Jariani, Mojgan; Beiranvand, Shorangiz; Saki, Mandana; Aghajeri, Nasrin; Ebrahimzadeh, Farzad

    2016-03-01

    Burnout syndrome is one of the consequences and the results of occupational or job stress emerged in the form of emotional exhaustion feeling, depersonalization and decrement personal accomplishment. The aim of this study was to determine the occupational stress and its relationship with burnout syndrome in the academic members of Lorestan University of Medical Sciences. This descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted on 111 of the faculty members via multistage sampling. Data were collected by the questionnaire of Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), and Osipow Occupational Stress Inventory (OSI- R). Data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics as well as analytical statistics such as chi square, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann Whitney tests and Pearson correlation coefficient. The results showed that the most of the participants had a low level of burnout three dimensions including emotional burnout (72.1%), depersonalization (81.1%), and the decrement of personal accomplishment (56.8%). Moreover 79.3% of samples had a low occupational stress, but there was a meaningful relationship between occupational stress and dimensions of burnout syndrome with an exception for the intensity of decrement of personal accomplishment. Academic members were in an appropriate condition concerning burnout syndrome and occupational stress. However by applying some strategies to decrease stress and determining stress resources, we can improve their psychological health of academic members.

  2. Burnout in radiation therapists: the predictive value of selected stressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akroyd, Duane; Caison, Amy; Adams, Robert D.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: As cancer caregivers, radiation therapists experience a variety of stresses that may develop into burnout, which has been demonstrated to impact patient care, employee health, and organizational effectiveness. The purpose of the study was to assess the levels of radiation therapists' burnout at three stages. Additionally, the ability of selected workplace variables to predict each of the three stages of burnout was examined. Methods and Materials: We used descriptive and inferential statistical analyses on reliable and valid instruments, which measured stress, burnout, and social support. Results: Radiation therapists have high levels of the first two stages of burnout: emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. Although personal stress, organizational stress, guidance, reassurance of worth, and work load predicted 50% or more of the variance in emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, their predictive ability for personal accomplishment was low. Conclusion: Efforts to alleviate burnout among radiation therapists within an organization should have positive effects, including increased quality of patient care, improved quality of work life, higher levels of job satisfaction, and commitment and lower staff turnover

  3. Reiki Reduces Burnout Among Community Mental Health Clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosada, Renee M; Rubik, Beverly; Mainguy, Barbara; Plummer, Julie; Mehl-Madrona, Lewis

    2015-08-01

    Clinicians working in community mental health clinics are at high risk for burnout. Burnout is a problem involving emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment. Reiki is a holistic biofield energy therapy beneficial for reducing stress. The purpose of this study was to determine if 30 minutes of healing touch could reduce burnout in community mental health clinicians. We utilized a crossover design to explore the efficacy of Reiki versus sham Reiki, a pseudo treatment designed to mimic true Reiki, as a means to reduce symptoms of burnout. Subjects were randomized to whether they started with Reiki or sham. The Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS) and the Measure Your Medical Outcome Profile Version 2 (MYMOP-2) were used as outcome measures. Multilevel modeling was used to represent the relations among variables. Reiki was statistically significantly better than sham Reiki in reducing burnout among community mental health clinicians (p=0.011). Reiki was significant in reducing depersonalization (pReiki reduced the primary symptom on the MYMOP also only among single people (p=0.03). The effects of Reiki were differentiated from sham Reiki. Reiki could be helpful in community mental health settings for the mental health of the practitioners.

  4. Burnout among Low and High Experienced Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedehhava Mousavy

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Burnout is a serious psychological syndrome that can affect not only an individual’s well-being, but also the functioning of whole organisations, such as schools. It is characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and decreased personal accomplishment.The level of burnout among teachers in the field of education has a negative impact on student success. The present investigation examines the level of burn out among high and low experienced teachers. It focused on a group of English teachers from different nationalities: Iranian, and Malaysian at UPM to examine if there is any relation between burnout and experience level. The sample consisted of 30 English teachers. Two instruments namely, The Maslach Burnout Inventory and Demographic Questionnaire were used to collect data. Data analysis revealed that there is no significant difference in depersonalization and personal accomplishment scores between low and high experienced teachers. But the result of this study also revealed that there is a significant difference in Emotional Exhaustion scores between low and high experienced teachers. Further research is required to explore the roots and the causes of burnout.

  5. The Prevalence of Job Stress and its Relationship with Burnout Syndrome among the Academic Members of Lorestan University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedayat Nazari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Burnout syndrome is one of the consequences and the results of occupational or job stress emerged in the form of emotional exhaustion feeling, depersonalization and decrement personal accomplishment. The aim of this study was to determine the occupational stress and its relationship with burnout syndrome in the academic members of Lorestan University of Medical Sciences. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted on 111 of the faculty members via multistage sampling. Data were collected by the questionnaire of Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI, and Osipow Occupational Stress Inventory (OSI- R. Data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics as well as analytical statistics such as chi square, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann Whitney tests and Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: The results showed that the most of the participants had a low level of burnout three dimensions including emotional burnout (72.1%, depersonalization (81.1%, and the decrement of personal accomplishment (56.8%. Moreover 79.3% of samples had a low occupational stress, but there was a meaningful relationship between occupational stress and dimensions of burnout syndrome with an exception for the intensity of decrement of personal accomplishment. Conclusion: Academic members were in an appropriate condition concerning burnout syndrome and occupational stress. However by applying some strategies to decrease stress and determining stress resources, we can improve their psychological health of academic members.

  6. Assessment of dissociation in Bosnian treatment-seeking refugees in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palic, Sabina; Carlsson, Jessica; Armour, Cherie; Elklit, Ask

    2015-05-01

    Dissociative experiences are common in traumatized individuals, and can sometimes be mistaken for psychosis. It is difficult to identify pathological dissociation in the treatment of traumatized refugees, because there is a lack of systematic clinical descriptions of dissociative phenomena in refugees. Furthermore, we are currently unaware of how dissociation measures perform in this clinical group. To describe the phenomenology of dissociative symptoms in Bosnian treatment-seeking refugees in Denmark. As a part of a larger study, dissociation was assessed systematically in 86 Bosnian treatment-seeking refugees using a semi-structured clinical interview (Structured Interview for Disorders of Extreme Stress-dissociation subscale; SIDES-D) and a self-report scale (Dissociative Experiences Scale; DES). The SIDES-D indicated twice as high prevalence of pathological dissociation as the DES. According to the DES, 30% of the refugees had pathological dissociation 15 years after their resettlement. On the SIDES-D, depersonalization and derealization experiences were the most common. Also, questions about depersonalization and derealization at times elicited reporting of visual and perceptual hallucinations, which were unrelated to traumatic re-experiencing. Questions about personality alteration elicited spontaneous reports of a phenomenon of "split" pre- and post-war identity in the refugee group. Whether this in fact is a dissociative phenomenon, characteristic of severe traumatization in adulthood, needs further examination. Knowledge of dissociative symptoms in traumatized refugees is important in clinical settings to prevent misclassification and to better target psychotherapeutic interventions. Much development in the measurement of dissociation in refugees is needed.

  7. [Comparative study of burnout in Intensive Care and Emergency Care nursing staff].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos Risquez, M I; Godoy Fernández, C; Peñalver Hernández, F; Alonso Tovar, A R; López Alcaraz, F; López Romera, A; Garnés González, S; Salmerón Saura, E; López Real, M D; Ruiz Sánchez, R; Simón Domingo, P; Manzanera Nicolás, J L; Menchón Almagro, M A; Liébanas Bellón, R

    2008-01-01

    To assess and compare the burnout level between Intensive Care Unit and Emergency Unit, and study its association with the sociodemographic and work characteristics of the professionals surveyed. Cross-sectional, descriptive study. Emplacement. Intensive Care Unit of the university hospital Morales Meseguer, Murcia-Spain. STUDIED SAMPLE: 97 nursing professionals: 55 professionals belong to the Emergency Department, and 42 professionals belong to the Intensive Care Department. Two evaluation tools were used: a sociodemographic and work survey, and the Maslach Burnout Inventory, 1986. Quantitative variables expressed as mean +/- SD compared with the Student's T test and qualitative variables compared with the chi2 test. SPSS 12.0(c). The comparative analysis of the burnout dimensions shows that emotional exhaustion level is significantly higher in the intensive care service than in the emergency one (25.45 +/- 11.15 vs 22.09 +/- 10.99) p burnout dimensions do not show significant differences between both departments. The masculine gender obtains a higher score in the depersonalization dimension of burnout (10.12 +/- 5.38) than female one (6.7 +/- 5.21) p burnout levels are moderate to high among the nursing professionals studied. A total of 5.15% of the sample studied achieves a high score in the three dimensions of the burnout syndrome. The intensive care professionals are the most vulnerable to suffering high levels of emotional exhaustion, and the masculine gender is more susceptible to depersonalization attitudes.

  8. Factors associated with burnout syndrome in medical residents of a university hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Alves da Cruz Gouveia

    Full Text Available Summary Objective: To determine the prevalence of burnout syndrome among resident physicians of various specialties and to evaluate associated factors. Method: The Maslach Burnout Inventory questionnaire and a sociodemographic questionnaire were used to evaluate factors associated with the syndrome. Burnout was defined as the association of high emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and low professional achievement. Multivariate analysis was performed after adjustment of the Poisson model with the identification of risk factors and calculation of prevalence ratios (PR. Of the 250 resident physicians registered with Hospital das Clínicas of Pernambuco, 129 participated in the study. Results: In the three domains that characterize burnout syndrome, we found a low level of professional achievement in 94.6% of resident physicians interviewed, a high level of depersonalization in 31.8%, and 59.7% with a high level of emotional exhaustion. The prevalence of burnout was 27.9%. Having suffered a stressful event in the last six months (PR: 8.10; 95CI 1.2-57.2 and being a student of surgical specialty (PR: 1.99; 95CI 1.2-3.3 were independently associated with burnout. Conclusion: The prevalence of burnout found in resident physicians is in accordance with previous Brazilian studies. Residents of surgical specialties and those who suffered some stressful event were identified as susceptible in this study. The early identification of risk factors is fundamental for the implementation of preventive measures against burnout syndrome.

  9. DSM-5's posttraumatic stress disorder with dissociative symptoms: challenges and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorahy, Martin J; van der Hart, Onno

    2015-01-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, formally recognizes a dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; PTSD with dissociative symptoms). This nomenclative move will boost empirical and theoretical efforts to further understand the links between dissociation, trauma, and PTSD. This article examines the empirical literature showing that patients with PTSD can be divided into 2 different groups based on their neurobiology, psychological symptom profile, history of exposure to early relational trauma, and depersonalization/derealization symptoms. It then explores the conceptual and empirical challenges of conceiving 1 of these types as reflecting a "dissociative" type of PTSD. First, this classification is based on the presence of a limited subset of dissociative symptoms (i.e., depersonalization, derealization). This sets aside an array of positive and negative psychoform and somatoform dissociative symptoms that may be related to PTSD. Second, empirical evidence suggests heightened dissociation in PTSD compared to many other disorders, indicating that dissociation is relevant to PTSD more broadly rather than simply to the so-called dissociative subtype. This article sets out important issues to be examined in the future study of dissociation in PTSD, which needs to be informed by solid conceptual understandings of dissociation.

  10. Structural brain aberrations associated with the dissociative subtype of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, J K; Frewen, P; Theberge, J; Lanius, R A

    2016-03-01

    One factor potentially contributing to the heterogeneity of previous results on structural grey matter alterations in adult participants suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is the varying levels of dissociative symptomatology. The aim of this study was therefore to test whether the recently defined dissociative subtype of PTSD characterized by symptoms of depersonalization and derealization is characterized by specific differences in volumetric brain morphology. Whole-brain MRI data were acquired for 59 patients with PTSD. Voxel-based morphometry was carried out to test for group differences between patients classified as belonging (n = 15) vs. not belonging (n = 44) to the dissociative subtype of PTSD. The correlation between dissociation (depersonalization/derealization) severity and grey matter volume was computed. Patients with PTSD classified as belonging to the dissociative subtype exhibited greater grey matter volume in the right precentral and fusiform gyri as well as less volume in the right inferior temporal gyrus. Greater dissociation severity was associated with greater volume in the right middle frontal gyrus. The results of this first whole-brain investigation of specific grey matter volume in dissociative subtype PTSD indentified structural aberrations in regions subserving the processing and regulation of emotional arousal. These might constitute characteristic biomarkers for the dissociative subtype PTSD. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder: rationale, clinical and neurobiological evidence, and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanius, Ruth A; Brand, Bethany; Vermetten, Eric; Frewen, Paul A; Spiegel, David

    2012-08-01

    Clinical and neurobiological evidence for a dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has recently been documented. A dissociative subtype of PTSD is being considered for inclusion in the forthcoming Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (DSM-5) to address the symptoms of depersonalization and derealization found among a subset of patients with PTSD. This article reviews research related to the dissociative subtype including antecedent, concurrent, and predictive validators as well as the rationale for recommending the dissociative subtype. The relevant literature pertaining to the dissociative subtype of PTSD was reviewed. Latent class analyses point toward a specific subtype of PTSD consisting of symptoms of depersonalization and derealization in both veteran and civilian samples of PTSD. Compared to individuals with PTSD, those with the dissociative subtype of PTSD also exhibit a different pattern of neurobiological response to symptom provocation as well as a differential response to current cognitive behavioral treatment designed for PTSD. We recommend that consideration be given to adding a dissociative subtype of PTSD in the revision of the DSM. This facilitates more accurate analysis of different phenotypes of PTSD, assist in treatment planning that is informed by considering the degree of patients' dissociativity, will improve treatment outcome, and will lead to much-needed research about the prevalence, symptomatology, neurobiology, and treatment of individuals with the dissociative subtype of PTSD. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Factors associated with burnout syndrome in medical residents of a university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Pedro Alves da Cruz; Ribeiro, Maria Hosana Chaves; Aschoff, Carlos Alberto de Moura; Gomes, Doris Pires; Silva, Nadine Anita Fonseca da; Cavalcanti, Helton Alexsandro Firmino

    2017-06-01

    To determine the prevalence of burnout syndrome among resident physicians of various specialties and to evaluate associated factors. The Maslach Burnout Inventory questionnaire and a sociodemographic questionnaire were used to evaluate factors associated with the syndrome. Burnout was defined as the association of high emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and low professional achievement. Multivariate analysis was performed after adjustment of the Poisson model with the identification of risk factors and calculation of prevalence ratios (PR). Of the 250 resident physicians registered with Hospital das Clínicas of Pernambuco, 129 participated in the study. In the three domains that characterize burnout syndrome, we found a low level of professional achievement in 94.6% of resident physicians interviewed, a high level of depersonalization in 31.8%, and 59.7% with a high level of emotional exhaustion. The prevalence of burnout was 27.9%. Having suffered a stressful event in the last six months (PR: 8.10; 95CI 1.2-57.2) and being a student of surgical specialty (PR: 1.99; 95CI 1.2-3.3) were independently associated with burnout. The prevalence of burnout found in resident physicians is in accordance with previous Brazilian studies. Residents of surgical specialties and those who suffered some stressful event were identified as susceptible in this study. The early identification of risk factors is fundamental for the implementation of preventive measures against burnout syndrome.

  13. Burnout syndrome prevalence in physiotherapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Sánchez, Blanca; López-Arza, María Victoria González; Montanero-Fernández, Jesús; Varela-Donoso, Enrique; Rodríguez-Mansilla, Juan; Mingote-Adán, José Carlos

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate burnout syndrome in its three aspects, jointly as well as independently, in physiotherapists from the Extremadura region (Spain). Analytic descriptive epidemiological transversal trial in primary care and institutional practice, with physiotherapists practicing in Extremadura who met the inclusion criteria, after having signed an informed consent form. Emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and low professional accomplishment were the outcomes measured. Physiotherapists from Extremadura show a 65.23 point level of burnout syndrome, according to the Maslach Burnout Inventory questionnaire. Therefore, they are positioned in the middle of the rating scale for the syndrome, and very near to the high level at starting score of 66 points. Physiotherapists in Extremadura present moderate scores for the three dimensions of burnout syndrome, namely, emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and low professional accomplishment. For this reason, they are in the moderate level of the syndrome and very near to the high level, which starts at a score of 66 points. No relation between burnout syndrome and age has been found in our study.

  14. The moderating role of cognitive control deficits in the link from emotional dissonance to burnout symptoms and absenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diestel, Stefan; Schmidt, Klaus-Helmut

    2011-07-01

    The present study examines whether cognitive control deficits (CCDs) as a personal vulnerability factor amplify the relationship between emotional dissonance (ED; perceived discrepancy between felt and expressed emotions) and burnout symptoms (emotional exhaustion and depersonalization) as well as absenteeism. CCDs refer to daily failures and impairments of attention regulation, impulse control, and memory. The prediction of the moderator effect of CCDs draws on the argument that portraying emotions which are not genuinely felt is a form of self-regulation taxing and depleting a limited resource capacity. Interindividual differences in the resource capacity are reflected by the measure of CCDs. Drawing on two German samples (one cross-sectional and one longitudinal sample; NTOTAL = 645) of service employees, the present study analyzed interactive effects of ED and CCDs on exhaustion, depersonalization, and two indicators of absenteeism. As was hypothesized, latent moderated structural equation modeling revealed that the adverse impacts of ED on both burnout symptoms and absence behavior were amplified as a function of CCDs. Theoretical and practical implications of the present results will be discussed.

  15. The Many Faces of Dissociation: Opportunities for Innovative Research in Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    It has been claimed that the progress of psychiatry has lagged behind that of other medical disciplines over the last few decades. This may suggest the need for innovative thinking and research in psychiatry, which should consider neglected areas as topics of interest in light of the potential progress which might be made in this regard. This review is concerned with one such field of psychiatry: dissociation and dissociative disorders. Dissociation is the ultimate form of human response to chronic developmental stress, because patients with dissociative disorders report the highest frequency of childhood abuse and/or neglect among all psychiatric disorders. The cardinal feature of dissociation is a disruption in one or more mental functions. Dissociative amnesia, depersonalization, derealization, identity confusion, and identity alterations are core phenomena of dissociative psychopathology which constitute a single dimension characterized by a spectrum of severity. While dissociative identity disorder (DID) is the most pervasive condition of all dissociative disorders, partial representations of this spectrum may be diagnosed as dissociative amnesia (with or without fugue), depersonalization disorder, and other specified dissociative disorders such as subthreshold DID, dissociative trance disorder, acute dissociative disorders, and identity disturbances due to exposure to oppression. In addition to constituting disorders in their own right, dissociation may accompany almost every psychiatric disorder and operate as a confounding factor in general psychiatry, including neurobiological and psycho-pharmacological research. While an anti- dissociative drug does not yet exist, appropriate psychotherapy leads to considerable improvement for many patients with dissociative disorders. PMID:25598819

  16. Nurse teacher stress in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, P; Houghton, D M

    1993-08-01

    Occupational stress among a 60% sample of all nurse tutors in Northern Ireland was investigated by means of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), Maslach Burnout Inventory and a stress questionnaire. Seventy per cent of tutors judged themselves to be worse or much worse than usual on 45% of GHQ items. Significant levels of moderate and high burnout were discovered on the sub-scales of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, with an almost unanimous (95%) report of high burnout arising out of feelings of lack of personal accomplishment. Male nurse tutors reported more frequent and more intense signs of burnout than their female counterparts at a statistically significant level of difference in emotional exhaustion (P = 0.028 and P = 0.003 respectively) and in depersonalization (P work stressor most commonly identified by tutors (72%) was that of experiencing too little time to perform their duties to their satisfaction. The most common request for help to alleviate workplace stress (61%) was for more support and appreciation from their seniors.

  17. Burnout among psychosocial oncologists in Israel: The direct and indirect effects of job demands and job resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinan-Altman, Shiri; Cohen, Miri; Rasmussen, Victoria; Turnell, Adrienne; Butow, Phyllis

    2017-12-19

    Psychosocial oncologists may be particularly vulnerable to burnout. This study aimed to assess burnout among Israeli psychosocial oncologists in relation to the Job Demands-Resources model and the coping strategies model. Participants included 85 of 128 listed psychosocial oncologists currently working with cancer patients. They completed a questionnaire assessing emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, job demands, job resources, work engagement, overcommitment, and perceived value of work. The mean level of burnout was low, whereas 16.3% experienced high levels of emotional exhaustion and only 2.4% experienced high levels of depersonalization. According to mediation analysis, overcommitment, partially mediated job demands-burnout associations, and work engagement mediated the perceived value-burnout association. Job resources and burnout were not related, either directly or indirectly. Significance of results The study extended the Job Demands-Resources model to include perceived value as an additional resource, and work-engagement and overcommitment as coping strategies. Two distinct patterns of associations were found between work characteristics and burnout: the positive-protective pattern (perceived value and work engagement) and the negative pattern (job demands and overcommitment). These two patterns should be considered for further research and for implementing preventive interventions to reduce burnout in the workplace setting.

  18. Burnout syndrome in nurses working in palliative care units: An analysis of associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizo-Baeza, Mercedes; Mendiola-Infante, Susana Virginia; Sepehri, Armina; Palazón-Bru, Antonio; Gil-Guillén, Vicente Francisco; Cortés-Castell, Ernesto

    2018-01-01

    To analyse the association between psychological, labour and demographic factors and burnout in palliative care nursing. There is a lack of published research evaluating burnout in palliative care nursing. This observational cross-sectional study involved 185 palliative care nurses in Mexico. The primary variables were burnout defined by its three dimensions (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment). As secondary variables, psychological, labour and demographic factors were considered. A binary logistic regression model was constructed to determine factors associated with burnout. A total of 69 nurses experienced high emotional exhaustion (37.3%), 65 had high depersonalization (35.1%) and 70 had low personal performance (37.8%). A higher proportion of burnout was found in the participants who were single parents, working >8 hr per day, with a medium/high workload, a lack of a high professional quality of life and a self-care deficit. Our multivariate models were very accurate in explaining burnout in palliative care nurses. These models must be externally validated to predict burnout and prevent future complications of the syndrome accurately. Nurses who present the factors found should be the focus of interventions to reduce work stress. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Burnout Among Chinese Adult Reconstructive Surgeons: Incidence, Risk Factors, and Relationship With Intraoperative Irritability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hanlong; Shao, Hongyi; Zhou, Yixin

    2018-04-01

    Burnout is a major concern in human service occupations, mainly characterizing in emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. There is very limited research dealing with burnout in orthopedic surgeons. Exploring burnout prevalence, risk factors, and intraoperative irritability-related incidences is necessary to improve the quality of life for surgeons. The study population consisted of 202 registered adult reconstructive doctors in China. Burnout was measured using a normalized translated version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Service Survey. Demographics, professional characteristics, and intraoperative irritability-related questions were also collected by electronic questionnaires. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 22.0. The overall rate of burnout was 85.1%. Variables significantly associated with high emotional exhaustion scores included poor sleeping time per day (P = .008), more nights on call per week (P = .048), and absence of research (P = .014). For depersonalization, absence of marriage (P burnout, especially in emotional exhaustion. Residents were the population having the least opportunities to lose temper in operation. Burnout is highly prevalent in Chinese adult reconstructive surgeons, and it had some correlations with irritability. Further research is needed to determine more risk factors and reduce intraoperative irritability-related incidences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. PREVALENCE AND FACTORS AFFECTING BURNOUT AMONG SECONDARY CARE DOCTORS IN BAHRAIN- A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husain Isa Hasan, Yusuf Nooh, Adel Salman Alsayyad

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Burnout isa type of prolonged response to chronic job-related stress appears as a syndrome of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment. Objectives: The present study investigated level of burnout, compare burnout levels in view of demographic factors and to identify the potential risk factors that lead to high level of burnout among secondary care doctors in Ministry of Health in Bahrain kingdom. Methods: The study was carried out in 230 doctors. A questionnaire survey was administered: The level of “burnout” was evaluated using the Maslach Burnout Inventory; socio-demographic variables were collected as well. Results: the mean response rate was 87.8%. The prevalence of the three dimensions of burn out was 43.1% with high emotional exhaustion, 26.7% with high depersonalization and 51.5% reported low personal accomplishment. In general, the profiles of an individual with high burn out were between 30-40 years old Bahraini married physician with no children. Conclusion: a high level burnout was found among the studied population. The study results underline significant relations that were found to link burn out with various socio-demographic variables.

  1. [Burnout in physicians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzthaler, Ilsemarie; Kemmler, Georg; Fleischhacker, W Wolfgang

    2017-06-01

    Burnout is a syndrome characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and low personal accomplishment. The primary objective of this study was to investigate both the prevalence and severity of burnout symptoms in a sample of clinical physicians from different speciality disciplines. A total of 69 clinical physicians ≤55 years who are working at the Medical University/regional Hospital Innsbruck were included into a cross-sectional study. Next to the assessment of sociodemographic and work-related variables the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used to investigate burnout symtoms. Overall, 8.8% of the study population showed high emotional exhaustion with high or moderate depersonalization and low personal accomplishment and therefore had a high risk to develop a burnout syndrom. 11.8% showed a moderade burnout risk. Neither sociodemographic variables nor the degree of educational qualification or speciality discipline had an influence on burnout symptoms. However, there was a positive correlation between scientific activity and personal accomplihment. Our results suggest that the dimension of burnout symtoms among clinical physicians in Austria has be taken seriously. Further research is needed to develop specific programs in terms of burnout prevention and burnout therapy.

  2. Burnout in the Plastic Surgeon: Implications and Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, Christina; Ketteler, Erika; Evans, Gregory

    2017-03-01

    A career as a plastic surgeon is both rewarding and challenging. The road to becoming a surgeon is a long arduous endeavor and can bring significant challenges not only to the surgeon but their family. A study by the American College of Surgeons (ACS) suggested that over 40% of surgeons experience burnout and a recent survey of American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS) showed that more than one-fourth of plastic surgeons have signs of professional burnout. Burnout is a state of physical and mental exhaustion. The three main components of burnout are emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment. Exhaustion occurs as a result of emotional demands. Depersonalization refers to a cynical, negative or a detached response to patient care. The reduced accomplishment refers to a belief that one can no longer work effectively. There has been a recent explosion in the literature characterizing burnout within the surgical profession. Reports of burnout, burnout victims, and burnout syndrome are filling the medical literature, books, blogs, and social media across all different specialties. Burnout in a plastic surgeon has negative and potentially fatal repercussions to the surgeon, their family, their patients, their staff, colleagues, coworkers, and their organization. To date, there are a limited number of publications addressing burnout in the plastic surgery community. The goals of this paper are to review the symptoms of burnout, its effect on plastic surgeons, and discuss potential solutions for burnout prevention and physician wellness.

  3. "Burnout in Medical Oncology Fellows: a Prospective Multicenter Cohort Study in Brazilian Institutions".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubero, Daniel I G; Fumis, Renata Rego Lins; de Sá, Thiago Hérick; Dettino, Aldo; Costa, Felipe Osório; Van Eyll, Brigitte M R H Adam; Beato, Carlos; Peria, Fernanda Maris; Mota, Augusto; Altino, José; Azevedo, Sérgio Jobim; da Rocha Filho, Duílio Reis; Moura, Melba; Lessa, Álvaro Edson Ramos; Del Giglio, Auro

    2016-09-01

    Burnout syndrome is a common occurrence among oncologists. Doctors enrolled in residency programs in clinical oncology are exposed to similar risk factors; however, few data are available in this population. This study assessed the occurrence of burnout and associated factors among first-year residents at Brazilian institutions. The present prospective, multicenter, cohort study was conducted with doctors enrolled in residency programs in clinical oncology at Brazilian institutions affiliated with the public health system. The participants answered a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), Lipp's Stress Inventory, and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), upon admission to the program and 6 and 12 months later. Of 37 eligible residency programs in 2009, 11 (30.6 %) agreed to participate in the study. Fifty-four residents, representing 100 % of new admissions to the participating institutions, were included. Most of the participants met the criteria for severe burnout upon admission to the residency programs (emotional exhaustion in 49.0 % and depersonalization in 64.7 %). The scores on MBI domains emotional exhaustion and depersonalization increased significantly (p burnout increased to 88 % at the end of that first year. The present study found a high prevalence of burnout among doctors enrolled in residency programs in clinical oncology at Brazilian institutions. A large fraction of the participants met the criteria for burnout syndrome upon admission to the program, which suggests that the problem began during the course of the previous residency program in internal medicine.

  4. Job burnout and its relation with personality traits among the midwives working in Isfahan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfahani, Mitra Savabi; Mirzaee, Mahnaz; Boroumandfar, Khadijeh; Abedi, Mohammad Reza

    2012-03-01

    Health-related professionals are at high risk of job burnout which will in turn lead to effects on health services provision. The present study was conducted to define job burnout and its association with personal characteristics among the midwives working in Isfahan, Iran. This descriptive correlational study was performed on 193 midwives working in health centers and hospitals in Isfahan. The participants were selected through cluster random sampling. The data was collected by a researcher-made personal characteristics questionnaire as well as Maslach Burnout Inventory. The data was analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistical tests in SPSS. In the present study, the highest frequencies of job burnout dimensions were for the low levels of emotional exhaustion (58%) and depersonalization (65.8%), and high levels of personal performance (58%). There was a significant inverse association between age and depersonalization (p = 0.02). However, no significant relations were found between job burnout dimensions and variables of marital status, number of children, level of education, and residential status. Although the results of this research showed a low prevalence of job burnout among midwives, the stressful nature of midwifery as a profession necessitates educational intervent.

  5. Hypnosis, hypnotic suggestibility, memory, and involvement in films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Reed; Lynn, Steven Jay; Condon, Liam

    2015-05-01

    Our research extends studies that have examined the relation between hypnotic suggestibility and experiential involvement and the role of an hypnotic induction in enhancing experiential involvement (e.g., absorption) in engaging tasks. Researchers have reported increased involvement in reading (Baum & Lynn, 1981) and music-listening (Snodgrass & Lynn, 1989) tasks during hypnosis. We predicted a similar effect for film viewing: greater experiential involvement in an emotional (The Champ) versus a non-emotional (Scenes of Toronto) film. We tested 121 participants who completed measures of absorption and trait dissociation and the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility and then viewed the two films after either an hypnotic induction or a non-hypnotic task (i.e., anagrams). Experiential involvement varied as a function of hypnotic suggestibility and film clip. Highly suggestible participants reported more state depersonalization than less suggestible participants, and depersonalization was associated with negative affect; however, we observed no significant correlation between hypnotic suggestibility and trait dissociation. Although hypnosis had no effect on memory commission or omission errors, contrary to the hypothesis that hypnosis facilitates absorption in emotionally engaging tasks, the emotional film was associated with more commission and omission errors compared with the non-emotional film. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [Academic achievement, engagement and burnout among first year medical students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez H, Paula; Pérez V, Cristhian; Parra P, Paula; Ortiz M, Liliana; Matus B, Olga; McColl C, Peter; Torres A, Graciela; Meyer K, Andrea

    2015-07-01

    Stress may affect the sense of wellbeing and academic achievement of university students. To assess the relationship of academic engagement and burnout with academic achievement among first year medical students. The Utrecht Work Engagement Scale-Student and Maslach Burnout Inventory Student Survey (MBI-SS) were applied to 277 first year medical students of four universities. Their results were correlated with the grades obtained in the different courses. Moderately high engagement and low burnout levels were detected. There was a high level of satisfaction with studies and a moderate exhaustion level. Academic achievement was associated with the degree of engagement with studies but not with burnout. Conglomerate analysis detected a group of students with high levels of wellbeing, characterized by high levels of academic engagement and low burnout. Other group had moderate levels of engagement and lack of personal fulfilment. Other group, identified as extenuated, had high levels of personal exhaustion and depersonalization. Finally the disassociated group had a low academic engagement, low emotional exhaustion, high levels of depersonalization and lack of personal fulfillment. Academic achievement is associated with the level of engagement with studies but not with burnout.

  7. Underlying construct of empathy, optimism, and burnout in medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojat, Mohammadreza; Vergare, Michael; Isenberg, Gerald; Cohen, Mitchell; Spandorfer, John

    2015-01-29

    This study was designed to explore the underlying construct of measures of empathy, optimism, and burnout in medical students. Three instruments for measuring empathy (Jefferson Scale of Empathy, JSE); Optimism (the Life Orientation Test-Revised, LOT-R); and burnout (the Maslach Burnout Inventory, MBI, which includes three scales of Emotional Exhaustion, Depersonalization, and Personal Accomplishment) were administered to 265 third-year students at Sidney Kimmel (formerly Jefferson) Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University. Data were subjected to factor analysis to examine relationships among measures of empathy, optimism, and burnout in a multivariate statistical model. Factor analysis (principal component with oblique rotation) resulted in two underlying constructs, each with an eigenvalue greater than one. The first factor involved "positive personality attributes" (factor coefficients greater than .58 for measures of empathy, optimism, and personal accomplishment). The second factor involved "negative personality attributes" (factor coefficients greater than .78 for measures of emotional exhaustion, and depersonalization). Results confirmed that an association exists between empathy in the context of patient care and personality characteristics that are conducive to relationship building, and considered to be "positive personality attributes," as opposed to personality characteristics that are considered as "negative personality attributes" that are detrimental to interpersonal relationships. Implications for the professional development of physicians-in-training and in-practice are discussed.

  8. Teachers’ Relationship Closeness with Students as a Resource for Teacher Wellbeing: A Response Surface Analytical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milatz, Anne; Lüftenegger, Marko; Schober, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Teachers’ relationship quality with students has been argued to be an important source of teacher wellbeing. Thus, the current study aimed to investigate to what extent teachers’ relationship closeness toward students, combined with attachment security is a resource protecting against teacher burnout. Eighty-three elementary school teachers reported on their most and least attached student’s relationship closeness, their attachment security and levels of burnout, as measured by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment. Response surface analysis (RSA), enabling researchers to investigate the effect of congruence/incongruence of two predictors on an outcome, revealed that teachers’ depersonalization and emotional exhaustion were lowest when they developed homogenous close relationships toward the students within their classroom and when teachers in general made congruent relationship experiences. No RSA model could be specified for personal accomplishment, even though a correlational analysis revealed that increasing closeness with students fostered teachers’ personal accomplishment. Teachers’ secure attachment experiences were not directly related to burnout, but enhanced their capability to establish close relationships toward their students. Findings suggest that teachers’ relationships toward students are a resource for the teacher’s wellbeing, which highlights once again the importance of student–teacher relationships in education. PMID:26779045

  9. The sense of the body in individuals with spinal cord injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bigna Lenggenhager

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that the basic foundations of the self lie in the brain systems that represent the body. Specific sensorimotor stimulation has been shown to alter the bodily self. However, little is known about how disconnection of the brain from the body affects the phenomenological sense of the body and the self. Spinal cord injury (SCI patients who exhibit massively reduced somatomotor processes below the lesion in the absence of brain damage are suitable for testing the influence of body signals on two important components of the self-the sense of disembodiment and body ownership. We recruited 30 SCI patients and 16 healthy participants, and evaluated the following parameters: (i depersonalization symptoms, using the Cambridge Depersonalization Scale (CDS, and (ii measures of body ownership, as quantified by the rubber hand illusion (RHI paradigm. We found higher CDS scores in SCI patients, which show increased detachment from their body and internal bodily sensations and decreasing global body ownership with higher lesion level. The RHI paradigm reveals no alterations in the illusory ownership of the hand between SCI patients and controls. Yet, there was no typical proprioceptive drift in SCI patients with intact tactile sensation on the hand, which might be related to cortical reorganization in these patients. These results suggest that disconnection of somatomotor inputs to the brain due to spinal cord lesions resulted in a disturbed sense of an embodied self. Furthermore, plasticity-related cortical changes might influence the dynamics of the bodily self.

  10. Burnout and its relationship with personality factors in oncology nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Fuente-Solana, Emilia I; Gómez-Urquiza, José L; Cañadas, Gustavo R; Albendín-García, Luis; Ortega-Campos, Elena; Cañadas-De la Fuente, Guillermo A

    2017-10-01

    To assess burnout levels in oncology nurses, to evaluate at what stage of burnout suffering they are and to analyze the relationship between burnout with personality factors. A quantitative, observational, cross-sectional multicenter study was done. Oncology nurses (n = 101) from the Andalusian Health Service (Andalusia, Spain) were included. The main variables were personality factors, assessed with the NEO-FFI questionnaire, anxiety and depression, assessed with the Educational-Clinical Questionnaire: Anxiety and Depression, and burnout, evaluated with the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Student t-statistic was used for hypothesis contrasts and Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to establish the association between personality factors and burnout. According to the burnout phases model, 29.6% of the sample is in the most severe phases. Emotional exhaustion and depersonalization are positively correlated with neuroticism and negatively correlated with agreeableness, conscientiousness, extraversion and openness. Personal accomplishment has a negative correlation with neuroticism and negative correlations with agreeableness, conscientiousness, extraversion and openness. Finally, emotional exhaustion and depersonalization have a positive correlation with anxiety and depression, while personal accomplishment has a negative correlation with anxiety and depression. A significant number of oncology nurses are in the most severe stages of burnout suffering. Personality factors have a key role in burnout development. The importance of personality factors in burnout development should be taken into account. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The relationship between occupational stress, burnout, and turnover intention among managerial staff from a Sino-Japanese joint venture in Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qiu-Hong; Jiang, Chao-Qiang; Lam, Tai Hing

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the associations between occupational stress, burnout and turnover intention and explore their associated factors among managerial staff in Guangzhou, China. This cross-sectional study recruited 288 managerial employees from a Sino-Japanese joint venture automobile manufacturing enterprise in Guangzhou. The questionnaire included questions about sociodemographic characteristics, smoking, drinking and physical activity and the Chinese versio ns of the Occupational Stress Indicator (OSI), Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire (SCSQ) and Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS). The response rate was 57.6%. Stepwise regression analysis was performed to examine the associations between burnout and occupational stress and turnover intention and related factors. The respondents had a high level burnout on the personal accomplishment subscale and had a high prevalence of turnover intention. Neuroticism, psychoticism, job satisfaction, occupational stress and social support were strong predictors of emotional exhaustion. Psychoticism, passive coping, occupational stress, objective support, utilization of support, male gender and job satisfaction were strong predictors of depersonalization. Active and passive coping and job satisfaction were strong predictors of personal accomplishment. Job dissatisfaction and emotional exhaustion were strong predictors of turnover intention. High occupational stress and low job satisfaction were associated with high burnout, particularly in the emotional exhaustion and depersonalization dimensions. Low job satisfaction and high emotional exhaustion were associated with high turnover intention among employees. Personality traits, social support and coping style were also found to be associated with burnout.

  12. A comparison of burnout among oncology nurses working in adult and pediatric inpatient and outpatient settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Shoni; Lind, Bonnie K; Sorensen, Celeste

    2013-07-01

    To investigate differences in burnout among oncology nurses by type of work setting, coping strategies, and job satisfaction. Descriptive. A metropolitan cancer center. A convenience sample of 74 oncology nurses. Participants completed a demographic data form, the Nursing Satisfaction and Retention Survey, and the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Burnout, coping strategies, job satisfaction, and oncology work setting (inpatient versus outpatient and adult versus pediatric). The participants most often used spirituality and coworker support to cope. Emotional exhaustion was lowest for youngest nurses and highest for outpatient RNs. Personal accomplishment was highest in adult settings. Job satisfaction correlated inversely with emotional exhaustion and the desire to leave oncology nursing. The findings support that the social context within the work environment may impact emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, and that demographics may be more significant in determining burnout than setting. The findings raise questions of whether demographics or setting plays a bigger role in burnout and supports organizational strategies that enhance coworker camaraderie, encourage nurses to discuss high-stress situations, and share ways to manage their emotions in oncology settings. Spirituality and coworker relationships were positive coping strategies among oncology nurses to prevent emotional exhaustion. Nurses who rely on supportive social networks as a coping mechanism have lower levels of depersonalization. Age was inversely related to emotional exhaustion.

  13. Short message service or disService: issues with text messaging in a complex medical environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Robert; Appel, Lora; Morra, Dante; Lo, Vivian; Kitto, Simon; Quan, Sherman

    2014-04-01

    Hospitals today are experiencing major changes in their clinical communication workflows as conventional numeric paging and face-to-face verbal conversations are being replaced by computer mediated communication systems. In this paper, we highlight the importance of understanding this transition and discuss some of the impacts that may emerge when verbal clinical conversations are replaced by short text messages. In-depth interviews (n=108) and non-participatory observation sessions (n=260h) were conducted on the General Internal Medicine wards at five academic teaching hospitals in Toronto, Canada. From our analysis of the qualitative data, we identified two major themes. De-contextualization of complex issues led to an increase in misinterpretation and an increase in back and forth messaging for clarification. Depersonalization of communication was due to less verbal conversations and face-to-face interactions and led to a negative impact on work relationships. Text-based communication in hospital settings led to the oversimplification of messages and the depersonalization of communication. It is important to recognize and understand these unintended consequences of new technology to avoid the negative impacts to patient care and work relationships. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Relation between burnout syndrome and job satisfaction among mental health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogresta, Jelena; Rusac, Silvia; Zorec, Lea

    2008-06-01

    To identify predictors of burnout syndrome, such as job satisfaction and manifestations of occupational stress, in mental health workers. The study included a snowball sample of 174 mental health workers in Croatia. The following measurement instruments were used: Maslach Burnout Inventory, Manifestations of Occupational Stress Survey, and Job Satisfaction Survey. We correlated dimensions of burnout syndrome with job satisfaction and manifestations of occupational stress dimensions. We also performed multiple regression analysis using three dimensions of burnout syndrome--emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that pay and rewards satisfaction (beta=-0.37), work climate (beta=-0.18), advancement opportunities (beta=0.17), the degree of psychological (beta=0.41), and physical manifestations of occupational stress (beta=0.29) were significant predictors of emotional exhaustion (R=0.76; F=30.02; Ppay and rewards satisfaction (beta=0.22) were significant predictors of depersonalization (R=0.57; F=13,01; PSatisfaction with the work climate (beta=-0.20) was a significant predictor of lower levels of personal accomplishment (R=0.20; F=5.06; Pjob satisfaction and manifestations of occupational stress proved to be relevant predictors of burnout syndrome.

  15. “I can't tell whether it's my hand”: a pilot study of the neurophenomenology of body representation during the rubber hand illusion in trauma-related disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Rabellino

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early traumatic experiences are thought to be causal factors in the development of trauma-related dissociative experiences, including depersonalization and derealization. The rubber hand illusion (RHI, a well-known paradigm that measures multi-sensorial integration of a rubber hand into one's own body representation, has been used to investigate alterations in the experience of body ownership and of body representation. Critically, however, it has never been studied in individuals with trauma-related disorders. Objective: To investigate body representation distortions occurring in trauma-related disorders in response to the RHI. Method: The RHI was administered to three individuals with the dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, and subjective, behavioral, cardiovascular and skin conductance responses were recorded. Results: Participants’ subjective experiences of the RHI were differentiated and complex. The illusion was induced following both synchronous and asynchronous brushing and variably evoked subjective distress, depersonalization and derealization experiences, tonic immobility, increased physiological arousal and flashbacks. Conclusions: The present findings point towards the RHI as a strong provocation stimulus that elicits individual patterns of symptom presentation, including experiences of distress and dissociation, in individuals with trauma-related disorders, including the dissociative subtype of PTSD. Highlights of the article:

  16. Assessing the structure and meaningfulness of the dissociative subtype of PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jana; Baník, Gabriel; Dědová, Mária; Mikulášková, Gabriela; Armour, Cherie

    2018-01-01

    Studies conducted in the USA, Canada and Denmark have supported the existence of the dissociative PTSD subtype, characterized primarily by symptoms of depersonalization and derealization. The current study aimed to examine the dissociative PTSD subtype in an Eastern European, predominantly female (83.16%) sample, using an extended set of dissociative symptoms. A latent profile analysis was applied to the PTSD and dissociation data from 689 trauma-exposed university students from Slovakia. Four latent profiles of varying PTSD and dissociation symptomatology were uncovered. They were named non-symptomatic, moderate PTSD, high PTSD and dissociative PTSD. The dissociative PTSD profile showed elevations on depersonalization and derealization, but also the alternative dissociative indicators of gaps in awareness and memory, sensory misperceptions and cognitive and behavioural re-experiencing. The core PTSD symptoms of 'memory impairment' and 'reckless or self-destructive behaviour' were also significantly elevated in the dissociative PTSD profile. Moreover, anxiety and anger predicted membership in the dissociative PTSD profile. The results provide support for the proposal that the dissociative PTSD subtype can be characterized by a variety of dissociative symptoms.

  17. Prevalence of Burnout syndrome in nursing professionals from Orinoquia, Colombia in 2016

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    Oscar Alexander Gutiérrez-Lesmes

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Burnout syndrome is described as an inadequate way of coping with labor stress. The main traits are emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and decreased personal performance. Objective: To determine the prevalence of Burnout syndrome in nursing professionals working in the Colombian Orinoquia. Materials and methods: A transverse analytical study was carried out with sampling by intention. The study population was constituted by 100 nurses and the Maslach Burnout instrument was used. Summary, prevalence and prevalence ratio measurements were calculated with the SPSS program. Results: 90% of the sample studied were women, 53% single, 54% under 28, and 42% without children. The general prevalence of Burnout syndrome was 16%, in the area of hospital care was 25,5% and in areas other than this was 6,1%. In the hospital area, there were greater proportions in emotional fatigue with a 42%, emotional depersonalization with a 38% and lack of personal realization with a 30%. Statistically significant differences for the prevalence of Burnout syndrome in the area of hospital care were found (RP 4,2, IC95% 1, 3-13,7, P 0,008 for professionals under 28 (RP 3,7 IC95% 1,1-12,1, p 0,017. Conclusions: The prevalence of Burnout syndrome is higher in nurses in the hospital area. Being under 28 years of age was associated with a higher prevalence. Nurses classified as sick with Burnout syndrome had to take care of a greater number of patients in their workday.

  18. Oncology staff: burnout, job satisfaction and coping with stress.

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    Guveli, Hulya; Anuk, Dilek; Oflaz, Serap; Guveli, Murat Emin; Yildirim, Nazmiye Kocaman; Ozkan, Mine; Ozkan, Sedat

    2015-08-01

    The oncology staff is at high risk for developing psychological disorders and burnout. In this study, we aimed to evaluate their burnout levels, job satisfaction, psychological statement and ways of coping with stress and the relationship between these variables and their sociodemographic and occupational characteristics. Among all health workers at the Istanbul University Institute, of Oncology, 159 were included in the study. A sociodemographic data form, the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the Minnesota Job Satisfaction Questionnaire, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and the Styles of Coping Inventory-Short Form were used to evaluate burnout and its contributing factors. High levels of 'emotional exhaustion', 'depersonalization' and 'low sense of personal accomplishment' were determined in 30.2%, 8.2% and 44% of all participants, respectively. The variables that affected emotional exhaustion were assessed by logistic regression analysis. Accordingly, the ratio of emotional exhaustion was approximately 10 times higher in those for whom job stress was the most important stress factor compared with those who indicated nonjob stress for each one point increase on the GHQ and depersonalization scores, which were other predictors, with odds ratio (OR) : 1.23, p = 0.006 and OR : 1.67, p burnout,' and a positive correlation was found between maladaptive coping strategies and exhaustion. It is necessary to monitor the psychological status of employees in oncology units with scanning tools such as GHQ to understand their job stress perceptions and to help them develop adaptive coping methods. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Community pharmacists' burnout levels and related factors: an example from Turkey.

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    Calgan, Zeynep; Aslan, Dilek; Yegenoglu, Selen

    2011-02-01

    To determine community pharmacists' burnout levels and prevalences as well as factors associated with burnout. Study was conducted in Ankara, the capital of Turkey. In this cross-sectional study, 251 pharmacists were randomly selected from 1,504 community pharmacists registered in Ankara Chamber of Pharmacists. A questionnaire including questions related to pharmacists' individual and professional characteristics and Maslach Burnout Inventory was administered. The data was collected between February 27 and May 25, 2007. Three Maslach Burnout Inventory subscales (emotional exhaustion-EE, depersonalization-D, and personal accomplishment-PA) scores. Pharmacists' mean emotional exhaustion score was found to be 16.84 (SD: 6.25), depersonalization score was 4 (Range: 0-14), and personal accomplishment score was 22 (Range: 9-32). Of the pharmacists, 1.2% had high level of EE, .8% had high level of D, and 71.3% had high level of inefficacy. Age, marital status, work experience, work contentment, workload, time pressure, stress, and satisfaction with customers were found to be related with pharmacists' burnout levels. It can be useful to monitor pharmacists' burnout levels and prevalences periodically. Interventions on individual and organizational basis were needed to cope with burnout, respond to job demands, minimize the level of chronic stress, and increase work contentment and satisfaction.

  20. Perceived levels of burnout of Veterans Administration therapeutic recreation personnel.

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    Wade-Campbell, K N; Anderson, S C

    1987-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between work-related variables and perceived levels of burnout of therapeutic recreation personnel who work with long-term psychiatric patients in Veterans Administration hospitals. Subjects completed a three-part instrument composed of a demographic questionnaire, the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Work Environment Scale. Of the 511 subjects surveyed, 287 (56%) responded with usable questionnaires. The demographic, job- and profession-related variables were found to be significantly related to burnout. The eta values were somewhat low. The WES variables accounted for 20.9% of the variance in the burnout measures. The WES variables accounted for 20.9% of the variance in the burnout measures. The most salient relationships emerged between the emotional exhaustion and the depersonalization subscales and clarity, supervisor support, involvement, work pressure, autonomy, innovation, peer cohesion, task orientation and physical comfort. In comparison with other groups of human service professionals, therapeutic recreation personnel experienced low levels of emotional exhaustion, moderate levels of depersonalization, and somewhat lower levels of personal accomplishment.

  1. The Boo of Viramontes’s Cafe: Retelling Ghost Stories, Central American Representing Social Death

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    Karina Oliva Alvarado

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Chicana author Helena María Viramontes’s culturally complex “The Cariboo Cafe,” renders a contemporaneous example of social death in the lives of undocumented migrants. Sociologist Orlando Patterson bases “social death” on the “profound natal alienation of the slave” (38 that once cut off from a past and future, promulgates the slave’s desocialization and depersonalization: systems also at play with undocumented Central American immigrants. While Patterson refers to an overt and systemized economic exploitation of a people, the concept remains relevant to this analysis, though symbolic. It examines a three-fold negation through the representational experiences of undocumented immigration, gender, and what Arturo Arias calls Central American “nonentity” (186, in Viramontes’s short story to address Central American differences erased by the utopian desire for reconciliation in Chicana/Latina texts. While social death is originally conceived and applied through “a mode of oppression through which slaves, and by extension those who grew up under the control of Jim Crow society” were coerced through hegemony (JanMohammed 246, its current relevance is allegorical to the conditions that delocalized and depersonalized literary representations of Central Americans. The question is what contemporary hegemonies socially kill the articulation of Central American subjectivities in a Latina/o US imaginary.

  2. Magnitude and risk factors for burnout among primary health care physicians in Asir Province, Saudi Arabia.

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    Al-Sareai, N S; Al-Khaldi, Y M; Mostafa, O A; Abdel-Fattah, M M

    2013-05-01

    Job-related burnout is an occupational hazard for health care professionals. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of burnout and its associated factors among physicians working at primary health care centres in Asir province, Saudi Arabia. In a cross-sectional survey applying the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) with standard cutoffs, 29.5% of respondents reported high emotional exhaustion, 15.7% high depersonalization and 19.7% low personal accomplishment, with 6.3% scoring high in all 3 dimensions. High emotional exhaustion score was associated with younger age, Saudi nationality and salary 15,000-20,000 SR. Physicians who had more working days and those who had longer duration of annual vacation were less likely to report emotional exhaustion. High depersonalization score was associated with Saudi nationality, working for 5-15 years and salary > 20,000 SR. Low personal accomplishment score was associated with younger age, non-Saudi nationality, working for > or =5 years and more annual vacation.

  3. Dissociative features in posttraumatic stress disorder: A latent profile analysis.

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    Műllerová, Jana; Hansen, Maj; Contractor, Ateka A; Elhai, Jon D; Armour, Cherie

    2016-09-01

    The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) characterizes the dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in terms of the individual meeting the criteria for PTSD and additionally reporting symptoms of depersonalization and/or derealization. The current study aimed to examine whether a dissociative PTSD profile may include alternative features of dissociation and whether it could be differentiated from a nondissociative PTSD profile on certain psychopathologies and demographics. Data from 309 trauma-exposed participants, collected through Amazon Mechanical Turk, were subjected to latent profile analysis. Regression analyses were used to examine the predictors of latent classes. Three discrete profiles named Baseline, PTSD, and Dissociative profile were uncovered. All examined features of dissociation were significantly elevated in the Dissociative profile. Anxiety, male sex, being employed, and having a minority racial background significantly predicted the Dissociative profile relative to the PTSD profile. The study points to the importance of alternative symptoms of dissociation in the dissociative PTSD subtype beyond the symptoms of depersonalization and derealization. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Development of burnout over time and the causal order of the three dimensions of burnout among male and female GPs. A three-wave panel study

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    Twellaar Mascha

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A good understanding of the aetiology and development of burnout facilitates its early recognition, prevention and treatment. Since the prevalence and onset of this health problem is thought to differ between men and women, sex must be taken into account. This study aims to assess the prevalence and development of burnout among General Practitioners (GPs. In this population the prevalence of burnout is high. Methods We performed a three-wave longitudinal study (2002, 2004, 2006 in a random sample of Dutch GPs. Data were collected by means of self-report questionnaires including the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Our final sample consisted of 212 GPs of which 128 were male. Data were analyzed by means of SPSS and LISREL. Results Results indicate that about 20% of the GPs is clinically burned out (but still working. For both sexes, burnout decreased after the first wave, but increased again after the second wave. The prevalence of depersonalization is higher among men. With regard to the process of burnout we found that for men burnout is triggered by depersonalization and by emotional exhaustion for women. Conclusions As regards the developmental process of burnout, we found evidence for the fact that the aetiological process of burnout, that is the causal order of the three burnout dimensions, differs between men and women. These sex differences should be taken into account in vocational training and policy development, especially since general practice is feminizing rapidly.

  5. Work-related self-efficacy as a moderator of the impact of a worksite stress management training intervention: Intrinsic work motivation as a higher order condition of effect.

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    Lloyd, Joda; Bond, Frank W; Flaxman, Paul E

    2017-01-01

    Employees with low levels of work-related self-efficacy may stand to benefit more from a worksite stress management training (SMT) intervention. However, this low work-related self-efficacy/enhanced SMT benefits effect may be conditional on employees also having high levels of intrinsic work motivation. In the present study, we examined this proposition by testing three-way, or higher order, interaction effects. One hundred and fifty-three U.K. government employees were randomly assigned to a SMT intervention group (n = 68), or to a waiting list control group (n = 85). The SMT group received three half-day training sessions spread over two and a half months. Findings indicated that there were significant overall reductions in psychological strain, emotional exhaustion and depersonalization in the SMT group, in comparison to the control group. Furthermore, there were significant higher order Group (SMT vs. control) × Time 1 Work-Related Self-Efficacy × Time 1 Intrinsic Work Motivation interactions, such that reductions in emotional exhaustion and depersonalization at certain time points were experienced only by those who had low baseline levels of work-related self-efficacy and high baseline levels of intrinsic work motivation. Implications for work-related self-efficacy theory and research and SMT research and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Burnout and workplace deviance among flight attendants in Taiwan.

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    Liang, Su-Chiun; Hsieh, An-Tien

    2007-10-01

    The relationship between burnout and workplace deviance, identified as a component of job performance, was examined. Burnout was assessed with the Maslach Burnout Inventory which has three dimensions, Emotional Exhaustion, Depersonalization, and Reduced Personal Accomplishment. Workplace deviance was defined as voluntary behavior that violates significant organizational norms and threatens the well-being of an organization, its members, or both. This was assessed with the Workplace Deviance Scale, measuring the extent to which the participants had engaged in workplace deviant behavior such as taking property from work without permission, making fun of someone at work, or cursing at someone at work. Anonymous questionnaires with stamped envelopes were distributed to a sample of 1,470 Taiwanese flight attendants at the Arrival Hall of Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport. A response rate of 22.45% was obtained. After cases with missing data (n = 27) had been eliminated, the sample totaled 303, 17 men and 286 women. The average age was 28.7 yr. (SD = 4.6). Results of hierarchical regression showed that Depersonalization scores were significantly predictive of Workplace Deviance scores but not Emotional Exhaustion and Reduced Personal Accomplishment scores. Possible reasons and implications of these findings were discussed.

  7. Workplace bullying and burnout among healthcare employees: The moderating effect of control-related resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livne, Yael; Goussinsky, Ruhama

    2018-03-01

    Workplace bullying is a widespread and challenging problem in healthcare organizations, bearing negative consequences for individuals and organizations. Drawing on the job demands-resources theory, in this study, we examined the relationship between workplace bullying and burnout among healthcare employees, as well as the moderating role of job autonomy and occupational self-efficacy in this relationship. Using a cross-sectional design with anonymous questionnaires, data were collected from two samples of 309 healthcare employees in a mental health facility, and 105 nurses studying for their bachelor degree in health systems administration. The findings indicated that workplace bullying was positively related to burnout dimensions, and that this relationship was moderated by job autonomy and occupational self-efficacy resources. Job autonomy interacted with workplace bullying in predicting emotional exhaustion and depersonalization; the interaction of bullying with occupational self-efficacy significantly predicted depersonalization. These results underscore the importance of control-related resources in mitigating the harmful effects of workplace bullying on employees. Implications for research and managerial practices are discussed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  8. Dissociative disorders in DSM-5.

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    Spiegel, David; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Lanius, Ruth; Vermetten, Eric; Simeon, Daphne; Friedman, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    The rationale, research literature, and proposed changes to the dissociative disorders and conversion disorder in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) are presented. Dissociative identity disorder will include reference to possession as well as identity fragmentation, to make the disorder more applicable to culturally diverse situations. Dissociative amnesia will include dissociative fugue as a subtype, since fugue is a rare disorder that always involves amnesia but does not always include confused wandering or loss of personality identity. Depersonalization disorder will include derealization as well, since the two often co-occur. A dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), defined by the presence of depersonalization or derealization in addition to other PTSD symptoms, is being recommended, based upon new epidemiological and neuroimaging evidence linking it to an early life history of adversity and a combination of frontal activation and limbic inhibition. Conversion disorder (functional neurological symptom disorder) will likely remain with the somatic symptom disorders, despite considerable dissociative comorbidity.

  9. Predictors of trait dissociation and peritraumatic dissociation induced via cold pressor.

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    Gómez-Pérez, Lydia; López-Martínez, Alicia Eva; Asmundson, Gordon John Glenn

    2013-11-30

    Understanding which factors predict individual dissociative response during stressful situations is important to clarify the nature of dissociation and the mechanisms associated to its use as a coping strategy. The present study examined (1) whether experiential avoidance (EA), anxiety sensitivity (AS), depressive symptoms, and state anxiety concurrently predicted trait dissociation (TD)-absorption, amnesia, depersonalization, and total TD scores-and laboratory induced dissociation (LID); and (2) whether TD and catastrophizing predicted LID. We also examined whether catastrophizing mediated the relationships between both AS and depressive symptoms and LID. A total of 101 female undergraduate students participated in a cold pressor task, which significantly induced dissociation. Results of hierarchical regression analyses showed that AS at Time 1 (9 months before the experimental session), as well as depressive symptoms and catastrophizing at the time of the experiment (Time 2), predicted LID at Time 2. Depressive symptoms at Time 2 predicted total TD, absorption, and amnesia scores. AS at Time 1 and depressive symptoms at Time 2 predicted depersonalization. AS, depressive symptoms, and catastrophizing seem to facilitate the use of dissociative strategies by healthy individuals, even in response to non-traumatic but discomforting stress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Empathy among Medical Students: Is There a Relation with Quality of Life and Burnout?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paro, Helena B. M. S.; Silveira, Paulo S. P.; Perotta, Bruno; Gannam, Silmar; Enns, Sylvia C.; Giaxa, Renata R. B.; Bonito, Rosuita F.; Martins, Mílton A.; Tempski, Patricia Z.

    2014-01-01

    Background We aimed to assess medical students' empathy and its associations with gender, stage of medical school, quality of life and burnout. Method A cross-sectional, multi-centric (22 medical schools) study that employed online, validated, self-reported questionnaires on empathy (Interpersonal Reactivity Index), quality of life (The World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment) and burnout (the Maslach Burnout Inventory) in a random sample of medical students. Results Out of a total of 1,650 randomly selected students, 1,350 (81.8%) completed all of the questionnaires. Female students exhibited higher dispositional empathic concern and experienced more personal distress than their male counterparts (p<0.05; d≥0.5). There were minor differences in the empathic dispositions of students in different stages of their medical training (p<0.05; f<0.25). Female students had slightly lower scores for physical and psychological quality of life than male students (p<0.05; d<0.5). Female students scored higher on emotional exhaustion and lower on depersonalization than male students (p<0.001; d<0.5). Students in their final stage of medical school had slightly higher scores for emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment (p<0.05; f<0.25). Gender (β = 0.27; p<0.001) and perspective taking (β = 0.30; p<0.001) were significant predictors of empathic concern scores. Depersonalization was associated with lower empathic concern (β = −0.18) and perspective taking (β = −0.14) (p<0.001). Personal accomplishment was associated with higher perspective taking (β = 0.21; p<0.001) and lower personal distress (β = −0.26; p<0.001) scores. Conclusions Female students had higher empathic concern and personal distress dispositions. The differences in the empathy scores of students in different stages of medical school were small. Among all of the studied variables, personal accomplishment held the most important

  11. The factors associated with the burnout syndrome and fatigue in Cypriot nurses: a census report

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    Raftopoulos Vasilios

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fatigue and burnout are two concepts often linked in the literature. However, regardless of their commonalities they should be approached as distinct concepts. The current and ever-growing reforms regarding the delivery of nursing care in Cyprus, stress for the development of ways to prevent burnout and effectively manage fatigue that can result from working in stressful clinical environments. Methods To explore the factors associated with the burnout syndrome in Cypriot nurses working in various clinical departments. A random sampling method taking into account geographical location, specialty and type of employment has been used. Results A total of 1,482 nurses (80.4% were females working both in the private and public sectors completed and returned an anonymous questionnaire that included several aspects related to burnout; the MBI scale, questions related to occupational stress, and questions pertaining to self reported fatigue. Two-thirds (65.1% of the nurses believed that their job is stressful with the majority reporting their job as stressful being female nurses (67.7%. Twelve point eight percent of the nurses met Maslach’s criteria for burnout. The prevalence of fatigue in nurses was found 91.9%. The prevalence of fatigue was higher in females (93% than in males (87.5% (p = 0.003. As opposed to the burnout prevalence, fatigue prevalence did not differ among the nursing departments (p = 0.166 and among nurses with a different marital status (p = 0.553. Burnout can be associated adequately knowing if nurses find their job stressful, their age, the level of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. It has been shown that the fatigue may be thought of as a predictor of burnout, but its influence is already accounted by emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. Conclusion The clinical settings in Cyprus appear as stress generating environment for nurses. Nurses working both in the private and public

  12. The impact of job rotation on nurses burnout in Ayatollah Kashani hospital, Tehran: A case study

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    M. Shahabi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims Job burnout is one of the syndromes which is known by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and deterioration of job performance. Due to the negative impact this syndrome on patients, employees, and organization in healthcare settings this issue has drawn attention of many researchers to itself during recent years. Despite the large number of publications in this area however, limited attention has been paid to the factors influencing job burnout. The goal of the present study was to determine the level of job burnout and impacts of job rotation on nurses burnout in Ayatollah Kashani hospital , Tehran.   Methods In order to do this research a historical cohort study was done to determine degree of job burnout among nurses with and without job rotation in Ayatollah Kashani Hospital in Tehran. The number for nurses with job rotation was (n=59 and without job rotation (n=29. Data was collected via a self-report ques tionnaire. Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI was used to assess the job burnout of the subjects.   Results The overall findings revealed that nurses had low level of emotional exhaustion, low level of depersonalization and middle level of declining in personal accomplishment. No significant difference was observed between the job burnout of the tow group of nurses - with and without rotation. In comparing the level of job burnout among the nurses of different wards (i.e. between wards comparison the findings revealed that nurses of the emergency ward, had higher rate of depersonalization (P=0.012. Conclusion The nurses burnout showed to be at the medium level with respect to the personal accomplishment subscale, which seems to require a managerial intervention in this hospital. Apparently job rotation as it is done currently has no significant impact on the nurses’ job burnout in Ayatollah Kashani hospital and these researchers suggest that other alternative approaches to be consider  to be used to improve

  13. Risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder following an industrial disaster in a residential area: A note on the origin of observed gender differences.

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    Spindler, Helle; Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte

    2010-04-01

    Studies indicate that differences in trait anxiety and trauma-related distress may mediate the gender differences observed in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We examined the contributions of gender, trait anxiety, and trauma-related distress to the development of PTSD after an industrial disaster. Three months after a massive explosion in a fireworks factory in Kolding, Denmark, in November 2004, residents in the surrounding area were asked to complete the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire, the General Health Questionnaire, and a questionaire designed for the present study. Using multivariable logistic regression with PTSD as the dependent variable, we examined 4 explanatory models: (1) gender; (2) gender and trait anxiety; (3) gender, trait anxiety, and perceived danger; and (4) gender, trait anxiety, perceived danger, perceived hostility, feeling isolated, depersonalization, and behavioral self-blame. Fifty-one percent (N = 516; 265 women and 251 men) of the area residents participated in the study. The female-to-male ratio of PTSD was 2.4:1. Women experienced significantly more trait anxiety (P < 0.001), feelings of isolation (P < 0.005), and behavioral self-blame (P = 0.018), and less perceived danger (P = 0.034) than did men. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, gender alone predicted 3.7% of the variance in PTSD status (odds ratio [OR] = 2.40; 95% CI, 1.35-4.27; P < 0.005); however, in all other models, gender was not significant. The final model comprised trait anxiety (OR = 1.20; 95% CI, 1.11-1.30; P < 0.001), perceived danger (OR = 4.62; 95% Cl, 2.24-9.50; P < 0.001), perceived hostility (OR = 5.21; 95% CI, 1.93-14.09; P < 0.001), feeling isolated (OR = 3.34; 95% CI, 1.55-7.16; P < 0.002), depersonalization (OR = 2.49; 95% CI, 1.42-4.37; P < 0.001), and behavioral self-blame (OR = 0.46; 95% CI, 0.24-0.86; P = 0.015), explaining 48.9% of the variance in PTSD severity. This cross-sectional study found that gender was no longer associated with PTSD

  14. Cross-cultural differences in relationship- and group-based trust.

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    Yuki, Masaki; Maddux, William W; Brewer, Marilynn B; Takemura, Kosuke

    2005-01-01

    Two experiments explored differences in depersonalized trust (trust toward a relatively unknown target person) across cultures. Based on a recent theoretical framework that postulates predominantly different bases for group behaviors in Western cultures versus Eastern cultures, it was predicted that Americans would tend to trust people primarily based on whether they shared category memberships; however, trust for Japanese was expected to be based on the likelihood of sharing direct or indirect interpersonal links. Results supported these predictions. In both Study 1 (questionnaire study) and Study 2 (online money allocation game), Americans trusted ingroup members more than outgroup members; however, the existence of a potential indirect relationship link increased trust for outgroup members more for Japanese than for Americans. Implications for understanding group processes across cultures are discussed.

  15. Beyond Compassion: Replacing a Blame Culture With Proper Emotional Support and Management; Comment on “Why and How Is Compassion Necessary to Provide Good Quality Healthcare?”

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    Yiannis Gabriel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The absence of compassion, argues the author, is not the cause of healthcare failures but rather a symptom of deeper systemic failures. The clinical encounter arouses strong emotions of anxiety, fear, and anger in patients which are often projected onto the clinicians. Attempts to protect clinicians through various bureaucratic devices and depersonalization of the patient, constitute as Menzies noted in her classic work, social defences, aimed at containing the anxieties of clinicians but ending up in reinforcing these anxieties. Instead of placing additional burdens on clinicians by bureaucratizing and benchmarking compassion, the author argues that proper emotional management and support is a precondition for a healthcare system that offers humane and effective treatment to patients and a humane working environment for those who work in it.

  16. [Nurses and burnout: a survey in an Emergency Department in the Lazio Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleandri, Angela; Sansoni, Julita

    2006-01-01

    Nowadays, burnout represents a growing phenomenon in technologically advanced countries, so much so that there is now abundant literature available on this topic. The aim of our study was to assess the level of burnout in a group of 108 nurses working in an Emergency Department by means of the Maslach Burnout Inventory. This instrument is based on the concept that burnout presents 3 basic features: Emotional Exhaustion (EE), Depersonalization (DP) and Personal Achievement (PA). Results showed that a significant relationship exists between EE and DP, the working environment and the same social-demographic features, while the PA sub-scale was not found to be dependent on any of the social-demographic characteristics.

  17. Relationship of work-family conflict with burnout and marital satisfaction: cross-domain or source attribution relations?

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    Bagherzadeh, Razieh; Taghizadeh, Ziba; Mohammadi, Eesa; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan; Pourreza, Abolghasem; Ebadi, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to examine the relationship between two dimensions of work-family conflict (WFC) with marital satisfaction and burnout in a society in which few studies have been done about the consequences of WFC. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015. Surveys were distributed to 420 employed married women with various jobs living in Bushehr province, Iran. Data were collected using a questionnaire for demographic characteristic, the Netmeyer's WFC questionnaire, Maslach Burnout Inventory: General Survey (MBI-GS), and Enrich maritalsatisfaction questionnaire. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. There was a negatively significant association between work interference with family(WIF) and overall burnout as well as emotional exhaustion (P Family interference with work (FIW) was significantly associated with depersonalization (P marital satisfaction and its subscales were significantly associated with WIF (P marital satisfaction and P work and family conditions can be a useful means to prevent WFC and its consequences.

  18. Burnout and depressive symptoms in intensive care nurses: relationship analysis.

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    Vasconcelos, Eduardo Motta de; Martino, Milva Maria Figueiredo De; França, Salomão Patrício de Souza

    2018-01-01

    To analyze the existence of a relationship between burnout and depressive symptoms among intensive care unit nursing staff. A quantitative, descriptive, cross-sectional study with 91 intensive care nurses. Data collection used a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Maslach Burnout Inventory - Human Services Survey, and the Beck Depression Inventory - I. The Pearson test verified the correlation between the burnout dimension score and the total score from the Beck Depression Inventory. Fisher's exact test was used to analyze whether there is an association between the diseases. Burnout was presented by 14.29% of the nurses and 10.98% had symptoms of depression. The higher the level of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, and the lower professional accomplishment, the greater the depressive symptoms. The association was significant between burnout and depressive symptoms. Nurses with burnout have a greater possibility of triggering depressive symptoms.

  19. Alexithymia and burnout in nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsifaraki, Maria; Tucker, Philip

    2013-11-01

    Although previous studies have indicated an association between alexithymia and burnout, they have not controlled for well-established organizational factors, depression, and coping mechanisms that could confound the relationship. This study investigated the association between alexithymia and occupational burnout. One hundred eighty-three nursing students were assessed up to 3 months before graduating from their program. Alexithymia was measured with the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, occupational burnout was measured with the Maslach Burnout Inventory, work-related factors were measured with the Areas of Worklife Survey, depression was measured with Beck Depression Inventory-II, and coping strategies were measured with the COPE Dispositional Inventory. Hierarchical multiple regressions indicated that externally oriented thinking style was significantly associated with personal accomplishment and depersonalization after adjusting for depression, coping, and work-related factors. The results indicate that only a single aspect of the alexithymia construct serves as a possibly independent predisposing factor for specific burnout dimensions. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. Burnout syndrome indices in Greek intensive care nursing personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanikola, Maria N K; Papathanassoglou, Elizabeth D E; Mpouzika, Meropi; Lemonidou, Chrysoula

    2012-01-01

    Burnout symptoms in Greek intensive care unit (ICU) nurses have not been explored adequately. The aim of this descriptive, correlational study was to investigate the prevalence and intensity of burnout symptoms in Greek ICU nursing personnel and any potential associations with professional satisfaction, as well as with demographic, educational, and vocational characteristics. Findings showed that the overall burnout level reported by Greek ICU nursing personnel was at a moderate to high degree. The most pronounced symptom of burnout was depersonalization, whereas emotional exhaustion was found to be a strong predictor of job satisfaction. This is a factor connected with the nurses' intention to quit the job. It appears that work factors have a more powerful influence over the development of burnout in comparison to personality traits.

  1. Correlates of psychological distress, burnout, and resilience among Chinese female nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZOU, Guiyuan; SHEN, Xiuying; TIAN, Xiaohong; LIU, Chunqin; LI, Guopeng; KONG, Linghua; LI, Ping

    2016-01-01

    The present survey investigated the association between resilience, burnout and psychological distress among Chinese female nurses. A total of 366 female nurses were enrolled in our study. A series of self-reported questionnaires that dispose of the following constructs: psychological distress, burnout, and resilience were estimated. The hierarchical linear regression models were used to evaluate the mediating effect of resilience on the relationship between burnout and psychological distress. Results of the survey showed 85.5% nurses experienced psychological distress. Resilience was negatively related to psychological distress and burnout whereas burnout was positively associated with psychological distress. Mediation analysis revealed that resilience could partially mediate the relationship between the dimensions of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and psychological distress. This study highlights the mediator of resilience between burnout and psychological distress of female nurses. As such, interventions that attend to resilience training may be the focus for future clinical and research endeavors. PMID:27021058

  2. Burnout and nursing work environment in public health institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Lilia de Souza; Sousa, Regina Márcia Cardoso de; Guedes, Erika de Souza; Santos, Mariana Alvina Dos; Turrini, Ruth Natalia Teresa; Cruz, Diná de Almeida Lopes Monteiro da

    2018-01-01

    to identify associations between the Burnout domains and the characteristics of the work environment. cross-sectional study with 745 nurses from 40 public health institutions in São Paulo. Nursing Work Index-Revised (NWI-R) and Maslach Burnout Inventory were used. Similar institutions according to NWI-R were grouped by clustering and the Anova and Bonferroni tests were used in the comparative analyzes. there was significant and moderate correlation between emotional exhaustion and autonomy, control over the environment and organizational support; between reduced personal accomplishment, autonomy and organizational support; and between depersonalization and autonomy. The group that presented the worst conditions in the work environment differed on emotional exhaustion from the group with most favorable traits. emotional exhaustion was the trait of Burnout that was more consistently related to the group of institutions with more unfavorable working conditions regarding autonomy, organizational support and control over the environment.

  3. Depression and suicide risk among nursing professionals: an integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darlan dos Santos Damásio Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE Discussing the factors associated with major depression and suicide risk among nursing professionals. METHOD An integrative review in PubMed/MEDLINE, LILACS, SciELO and BDENF databases, between 2003 and 2015. RESULTS 20 published articles were selected, mostly from between 2012 and 2014, with significant production in Brazil. Nursing professionals are vulnerable to depression when young, married, performing night work and having several jobs, and when they have a high level of education, low family income, work overload, high stress, insufficient autonomy and a sense of professional insecurity and conflict in the family and workrelationship. Suicide risk was correlated with the presence of symptoms of depression, high levels of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and low personal accomplishment; characteristics of Burnout Syndrome. CONCLUSION Suicide risk among nursing professionals is associated with symptoms of depression and correlated with Burnout Syndrome, which can affect work performance.

  4. Burnout in Oncology: a study of Nursing professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Kitze

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To verify if licensed practical nurses and Nursing technicians working at an Oncology department present burnout syndrome. Methods: Data of 21 licensed practical nurses and Nursing technicians who had worked for, at least, one year at the Oncology department of a large hospital in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, were collected. The burnout inventory developed by Maslach and Jackson was used. Rresults: The studied population presented burnout based on scores in each of its three dimensions: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and lack of personal accomplishment. As to burnout symptoms, this study showed that 28.6% of the sample presented high scores in “emotional exhaustion”; 28.6% had high scores in “depersonalization” and 19.1% in lack of “personal accomplishment”. Cconclusions: When compared to other studies with nurses, this sample presented greater burnout.

  5. The Association of Chinese Hospital Work Environment with Nurse Burnout, Job Satisfaction, and Intention to Leave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-feng; You, Li-ming; Liu, Ke; Zheng, Jing; Fang, Jin-bo; Lu, Min-min; Lv, Ai-li; Ma, Wei-guang; Wang, Jian; Wang, Shu-hong; Wu, Xue; Zhu, Xiao-wen; Bu, Xiu-qing

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe nurse burnout, job satisfaction, and intention to leave, and to explore the relationship of work environment to nurse outcomes in a sample of 9,698 nurses from 181 hospitals in China. Nurses reported moderate levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, and high levels of reduced personal accomplishment. Nearly one fifth of the nurses reported high levels of burnout on all three dimensions. Forty-five percent of the nurses were dissatisfied with their current job; these nurses were most dissatisfied with their salary. Five percent of nurses reported intention to leave. Nurses reporting mixed and good work environments were less likely to report high burnout, job dissatisfaction, and intention to leave compared with those in poor work environments. The results suggest that high burnout and low job satisfaction are prominent problems for Chinese nurses, and improving work environment might be an effective strategy for better nurse outcomes in Chinese hospitals. PMID:24345617

  6. Home childbirth: progress or retrocession?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Fróes de Oliveira SANFELICE

    Full Text Available Giving birth at home represents a rising modality of delivery care in the Brazilian society, although in unrepresentative proportion when compared to the number of hospital childbirths. In Brazil, the topic has been broadly discussed by different professional categories, highlighting the safety issue involved in the process. The aim of this theoretical and reflective study was to present a brief overview of the overall care related to home childbirth, also questioning the reality of the contemporary Brazilian obstetric scenario. The scientific literature presents both obstetric and neonatal outcomes as favorable to home childbirth; similar risks when compared to hospital childbirth and higher rates of maternal satisfaction, and these both factors justify its practice. Therefore, a movement of women who are deeply unhappy with the current model of obstetric care is currently observed and they have been opting for home childbirth as a response to institutional violence, fragmentation and depersonalization of hospital care.

  7. SINDROME DE BURNOUT E SUAS CONSEQUENCIAS NOS PROFISSIONAIS DE ENFERMAGEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clecilene Gomes CARVALHO

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Burnout is an English word that refers to something that crashed from exhaustion. It is a problem that affects service professionals, particularly those facing care activities with others, in which the provision of care or service often occurs in situations of emotional changes. The syndrome takes a multidimensional concept, whosemanifestation is characterized by emotional exhaustion, reduced personal accomplishment and depersonalization of the other. Taking into consideration that nurses, technicians and nursing assistants, are a great group with a predisposition to develop the syndrome because they are health professionals who spend more time in contact with the patient and their family members within the work environment emotional situations of constant change, we performed abibliographic review in order to gather information on key risk factors that favor the onset of the Burnout syndrome and its consequences for the individual, organization and society. This work will serve as a subsidy for reflection and discussion, both the professionals involved, as future managers and professionals.

  8. Language Teachers’ Burnout and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboobeh Jamshidirad

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of gender on the three burnout dimensions; emotional exhaustion (EE, depersonalization (DP and personal accomplishment (PA among English language teachers in Malaysia. This study was a quantitative survey study. The Maslach Burnout Inventory-Educators Survey (MBI-ES (Maslach, Jackson, & Schwab, 1986 was used to collect the data to determine the burnout levels of the teachers with respect to its three dimensions. These Data was collected from 28 English language teachers (50% female. Descriptive and inferential statistics including frequency, percentage, means, standard deviations, and t-test were used in the analysis. The results showed that gender was not a predictor of burnout in this sample. The study can have useful implications for educational administrators who deal with language teachers.

  9. The coordination of care across borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kierkegaard, Patrick

    eHealth offers enormous benefits to revolutionise health services, deliver better public services and tackle social challenges. Using eHealth can lead to several benefits, notably, the improvement of the quality, access and efficacy of healthcare such as reductions in clinical errors, cost......Health remains slow. Some of the challenges that is slowing the widespread adoption of eHealth are the technologies unintended and adverse effects on health professionals workflow, legal barriers, fears of depersonalization of healthcare services, high financial costs and difficulties associated......-savings, improved quality of care, avoidance of unnecessary tests, improved work efficiency, reduced waiting times and improvement in the overall efficiency of the healthcare system. Although benefits exists, healthcare organizations have experienced difficulties attaining them and overall adoption of e...

  10. [Burnout in nursing residents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Gianfábio Pimentel; de Barros, Alba Lúcia Bottura Leite; Nogueira-Martins, Luiz Antônio; Zeitoun, Sandra Salloum

    2011-03-01

    Nursing residents may experience physical and emotional exhaustion from the daily life of attending the Program. The aim of this study was to determine the Burnout incidence among Nursing Residents. An investigative, descriptive, analytical, longitudinal-prospective study was conducted with 16 Residents over two years. The Maslach Burnout Inventory was used, translated and validated for Brazil, as well as a sociodemographic/occupational data tool. Of all residents, 17.2% showed high rates in Emotional Exhaustion and Depersonalization; 18.8% showed impaired commitment in Personal Accomplishment, 75% of which belonged to specialty areas, such as Emergency Nursing, Adult and Pediatric Intensive Care. Age and specialty area were positively correlated with Personal Accomplishment. One of the Residents was identified with changes in three subscales of the Maslach Burnout Inventory, thus characterized as a Burnout Syndrome patient. Nursing Residents have profiles of disease. Knowing these factors can minimize health risks of these workers.

  11. Two cases of "cannabis acute psychosis" following the administration of oral cannabis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin Marie

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cannabis is the most commonly used illegal drug and its therapeutic aspects have a growing interest. Short-term psychotic reactions have been described but not clearly with synthetic oral THC, especially in occasional users. Case presentations We report two cases of healthy subjects who were occasional but regular cannabis users without psychiatric history who developed transient psychotic symptoms (depersonalization, paranoid feelings and derealisation following oral administration of cannabis. In contrast to most other case reports where circumstances and blood concentrations are unknown, the two cases reported here happened under experimental conditions with all subjects negative for cannabis, opiates, amphetamines, cocaine, benzodiazepines and alcohol, and therefore the ingested dose, the time-events of effects on behavior and performance as well as the cannabinoid blood levels were documented. Conclusion While the oral route of administration achieves only limited blood concentrations, significant psychotic reactions may occur.

  12. Síndrome de Burnout e estratégias de enfrentamento em professores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vania Mazon

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to verify the existence of association between the dimensions of Burnout Syndrome and confronting strategies in municipal school teachers from an urban area of a north coastland city from Rio Grande do Sul. As research instrument it was used the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI, the Scale COPE &– Confronting Strategies and a questionnaire of social demographic and labour for a characterization of the sample. An aleatory sample with proportionality criterion was made with 93 teachers. The obtained results through the proof of correlation of Pearson reveal that as bigger the use of confronting strategies of moderated coping, emotional support, focus on emotion and mental unattached, bigger is the feeling of Emotional Exhaustion. And as bigger the use of active coping, smaller is the feeling of depersonalization. Using active coping, seek emotional support and to make positive reinterpretation of the stressed situations increase the feeling of professional accomplishment.

  13. Entrepreneurial renaissance cities striving towards an era of rebirth and revival

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book explores the parallels between the Renaissance during the 14th to 16th centuries and the upheavals in human and physical sciences in the 21st Century that herald an insurgent entrepreneurial renaissance. The first Renaissance, conceived and developed in an urban environment, with the Medici family in Florence as pioneers, was a melting pot of art, culture, science and technology. It is in that context that entrepreneurship derived from artisan tradition and, hence, customized, was born to meet the demands and anticipate the needs of individual consumers. Starting with the mechanical technologies of the first industrial revolution, art, culture and science became separated from entrepreneurship. The latter took on Fordist features which depersonalized and, therefore, standardized the producer-consumer relationship. The emerging model of entrepreneurship returns to its origins in customization (e.g., 3D printing technologies, sharing/on-demand economy) strongly linked to the sequence "art-culture-scie...

  14. Cotard syndrome in neurological and psychiatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Bermudez, Jesus; Aguilar-Venegas, Luis C; Crail-Melendez, Daniel; Espinola-Nadurille, Mariana; Nente, Francisco; Mendez, Mario F

    2010-01-01

    The authors describe the frequency and characteristics of Cotard syndrome among neurological and psychiatric inpatients at a tertiary referral center. All inpatients from the National Institute of Neurology of Mexico (March 2007-May 2009) requiring neuropsychiatric consultation were reviewed. Among 1,321 inpatient consultations, 63.7% had neurological disease and one (0.11%) had viral encephalitis and Cotard syndrome. Of inpatients, 36.2% had pure psychiatric disorders and three (0.62%) had Cotard syndrome, associated with psychotic depression, depersonalization, and penile retraction (koro syndrome). This review discusses potential mechanisms for Cotard syndrome, including the role of a perceptual-emotional dissociation in self-misattribution in the deliré des negations.

  15. Female habitual self-mutilators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favazza, A R; Conterio, K

    1989-03-01

    Data are presented on 240 female habitual self-mutilators. The typical subject is a 28-year-old Caucasian who first deliberately harmed herself at age 14. Skin cutting is her usual practice, but she has used other methods such as skin burning and self-hitting, and she has injured herself on at least 50 occasions. Her decision to self-mutilate is impulsive and results in temporary relief from symptoms such as racing thoughts, depersonalization, and marked anxiety. She now has or has had an eating disorder, and may be concerned about her drinking. She has been a heavy utilizer of medical and mental health services, although treatment generally has been unsatisfactory. In desperation over her inability to control her self-mutilative behavior this typical subject has attempted suicide by a drug overdose.

  16. [Burnout syndrome: a "true" cardiovascular risk factor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cursoux, Pauline; Lehucher-Michel, Marie-Pascale; Marchetti, Hélène; Chaumet, Guillaume; Delliaux, Stéphane

    2012-11-01

    The burnout syndrome is characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment in individuals professionally involved with others. The burnout syndrome is poorly recognized, particularly in France, as a distinct nosology from adaptation troubles, stress, depression, or anxiety. Several tools quantifying burnout and emotional exhaustion exist, the most spread is the questionnaire called Maslach Burnout Inventory. The burnout syndrome alters cardiovascular function and its neuroregulation by autonomic nervous system and is associated with: increased sympathetic tone to heart and vessels after mental stress, lowered physiological post-stress vagal rebound to heart, and lowered arterial baroreflex sensitivity. Job strain as burnout syndrome seems to be a real independent cardiovascular risk factor. Oppositely, training to manage emotions could increase vagal tone to heart and should be cardio-protective. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. [Burnout syndrome: diagnosis, principles of treatment, prophylaxis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovchinnikov, Yu V; Palchenkova, M V; Kalachev, O V

    2015-07-01

    Burnout syndrome is a socio-psychological phenomenon of emotional, motivational, and physical exhaustion as a result of chronic occupational stress. It is manifested as long-term emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and diminished personal and professional achievements. Burnout syndrome is common among health care workers, 'due to their high dedication, empathy for suffering patients, and decision-making related to life and health of patients. Personal, role and organizational factors influence on development of burnout. The clinical picture of burnout is multifactorial and can be described as a set of psychosomatic and somatic disorders, symptoms of social dysfunction. Diversity and non-specific symptoms of burnout syndrome determine the need for an interdisciplinary approach to its diagnosis. The leading role in solving problems related to stress and emotional burnout plays psychotherapy. The paper presents diagnostic criteria, risk factors, and methods of prevention and treatment of emotional burnout.

  18. [Evaluation of burnout syndrome among doctors in training at the Ibn Rochd University Hospital, Casablanca].

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kettani, Assiya; Serhier, Zineb; Othmani, Mohammed Bennani; Agoub, Mohamed; Battas, Omar

    2017-01-01

    We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study of a sample of 300 physicians using self-administered questionnaire over the period 2013- 2014. Burnout has been operationally defined through a French translation of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). A total of 191 physicians participated in the study (response rate 63.7%) with a female predominance at 79.1% and an average age of 26.7 years (N = 3). The average scores of sub-dimensions of the MBI: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal fulfilment were (33.7±10.7), (12.2±6.5) and (30.6±8.3) respectively. 31.8% of participants suffered from severe burnout. It was associated with communication problems within the healthcare team (p burnout (p<0.05). These results are consistent with those of previous studies and justify the importance of a prevention program at different levels.

  19. Trends in burnout syndrome and emotional factors: an assessment of anesthesiologists in Southern Brazil, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Patrícia Larrosa; Trentin, Jessica Puchalski; de Avila Quevedo, Luciana

    2016-06-01

    Burnout syndrome (BOS) is the result of chronic stress at work, and is characterized by emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization (DP), and low professional accomplishment. Anesthesiologyis a stressful profession. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of burnout as well as the sociodemographic and working characteristics associated with this syndrome's emotional factors, in anesthesiologists from Southern Brazil. We assessed burnout severity, depressive symptoms, and self-esteem using the Maslach burnout inventory, the Beck depression inventory, and the Rosenberg self-esteem scale, respectively. Of the 198 anesthesiologists included in this study, 48.7% were positive for burnout, 26.9% for EE, 41.3% for DP and 32.7% for low personal accomplishment. Trends in BOS was associated with a younger age, difficulty to conciliate family and work demands, low self-esteem, and depressive symptoms.

  20. [Cognitive impairments accompanying the burnout syndrome - a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedrich, Karin; Weiss, Elisabeth M; Dalkner, Nina; Reininghaus, Eva; Papousek, Ilona; Schwerdtfeger, Andreas; Lackner, Helmut K; Reininghaus, Bernd

    2017-03-01

    The rising prevalence of the burnout syndrome has increasingly moved it into the focus of scientific interest. In addition to emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, particularly reduced personal accomplishment has strong societal and economic effects. In recent years reduced personal accomplishment has increasingly been linked to cognitive impairment. However, up to now only a few studies have objectively assessed cognitive deficits in burnout patients. This article gives an overview of 16 studies which examined cognitive abilities in burnout patients. The findings are partly contradictory, probably due to methodical differences. Consensus has emerged concerning impairments of executive functions, i.a. vigilance, and memory updating and monitoring. Multifactorial causation may underlie the cognitive impairments. Targeted longitudinal studies are necessary in order to identify the affected cognitive functions and be able to make causal inferences on links between the burnout syndrome and specific cognitive impairments.

  1. Thinking in the third person: A mark of expertness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Peeters

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The observation that publication manuals disagree about the desirability to use the third person is explained by arguing that the third person detracts from communication at the surface structural level of linguistic encoding but adds to experts' thinking at the deep structural level of cognitive organization. At the deep level, the third person is defined in terms of processing information defined over relations between entities with the restriction that it is ignored whether relations are reflexive (with self or non-reflexive (with others. Research is reviewed suggesting that reflexivity is not ignored by default, and that ignoring it facilitates a kind of "depersonalized" thinking reminiscent of the natural sciences and expertness. An experiment is reported confirming that perceivers tend to draw inferences that take reflexivity into account, except in a condition where stimulus information is related to the perceivers' expertise. In the latter, condition inferences are drawn in both ways: either ignoring or not ignoring reflexivity.

  2. The role of abusive states of being in interrogation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Frank W

    2013-01-01

    Interrogation, the questioning of persons detained by police, military, or intelligence organizations, is designed to extract information that a subject may resist disclosing. Interrogation techniques are frequently predicated on inducing mental states of despair, dread, dependency, and debility that weaken an individual's resistance. Descriptions of techniques from 2 Central Intelligence Agency training manuals are illustrated by examples from interviews of and writings by Murat Kurnaz, who was held at Guantánamo Bay Detention Camp for 5 years. Interrogation techniques are designed to create a destabilizing sense of shock; undermine an individual's grasp on reality; and provoke internal psychological division, self-conflict, and confusion. The long-term effects of interrogation often include posttraumatic stress disorder as well as states of anxiety, depression, and depersonalization.

  3. Psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy for patients with dissociative identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Julie P; Dillon, Kristy S; Gillig, Paulette Marie

    2013-02-01

    There is a wide variety of what have been called "dissociative disorders," including dissociative amnesia, dissociative fugue, depersonalization disorder, dissociative identity disorder, and forms of dissociative disorder not otherwise specified. Some of these diagnoses, particularly dissociative identity disorder, are controversial and have been questioned by many clinicians over the years. The disorders may be under-diagnosed or misdiagnosed, but many persons who have experienced trauma report "dissociative" symptoms. Prevalence of dissociative disorders is unknown, but current estimates are higher than previously thought. This paper reviews clinical, phenomenological, and epidemiological data regarding diagnosis in general, and illustrates possible treatment interventions for dissociative identity disorder, with a focus on psychotherapy interventions and a review of current psychopharmacology recommendations as part of a comprehensive multidisciplinary treatment plan.

  4. Síndrome de Burnout e estratégias de enfrentamento em professores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vania Mazon

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to verify the existence of association between the dimensions of Burnout Syndrome and confronting strategies in municipal school teachers from an urban area of a north coastland city from Rio Grande do Sul. As research instrument it was used the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI, the Scale COPE - Confronting Strategies and a questionnaire of social demographic and labour for a characterization of the sample. An aleatory sample with proportionality criterion was made with 93 teachers. The obtained results through the proof of correlation of Pearson reveal that as bigger the use of confronting strategies of moderated coping, emotional support, focus on emotion and mental unattached, bigger is the feeling of Emotional Exhaustion. And as bigger the use of active coping, smaller is the feeling of depersonalization. Using active coping, seek emotional support and to make positive reinterpretation of the stressed situations increase the feeling of professional accomplishment.

  5. Burnout and depressive symptoms in intensive care nurses: relationship analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Motta de Vasconcelos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the existence of a relationship between burnout and depressive symptoms among intensive care unit nursing staff. Method: A quantitative, descriptive, cross-sectional study with 91 intensive care nurses. Data collection used a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Maslach Burnout Inventory - Human Services Survey, and the Beck Depression Inventory - I. The Pearson test verified the correlation between the burnout dimension score and the total score from the Beck Depression Inventory. Fisher's exact test was used to analyze whether there is an association between the diseases. Results: Burnout was presented by 14.29% of the nurses and 10.98% had symptoms of depression. The higher the level of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, and the lower professional accomplishment, the greater the depressive symptoms. The association was significant between burnout and depressive symptoms. Conclusion: Nurses with burnout have a greater possibility of triggering depressive symptoms.

  6. [The burn-out syndrome and restoring mental health at the working place].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Joachim; Häfner, Steffen; Kächele, Horst; Wirsching, Michael; Dahlbender, Reiner W

    2003-05-01

    This paper reviews the scientific concepts and the clinical aspects of the burn-out syndrome. According to recent studies, up to 25 % of the German working population appear to suffer from what the Amercan physician and psychoanalyst, Herbert Freudenberger, has designated in 1974 as "burn-out syndrome". Characteristic features of this syndrome are emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and low personal accomplishment. People affected by the burn-out syndrome may suffer from depressive or anxious symptoms, from sleep disorders, chronic pain syndromes, or functional disorders of the cardiovascular or gastrointestinal system. Primary causes of the burnout syndrome include high demand combined with low influence, a high level of engagement without sufficient rewards or gratification, and a low level of social support. Preventive measures against burn-out include Balint-like supervision groups. In cases of a fully developed burn-out syndrome, affected persons should undergo either psychotherapy or a multimodal psychosomatic therapy.

  7. [Prevalence of burnout syndrome in health professionals of an onco-hematological pediatric hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanatta, Aline Bedin; Lucca, Sergio Roberto de

    2015-04-01

    To identify the prevalence of Burnout Syndrome in medical professionals, nurses and nursing technicians working in an Onco-Hematological Pediatric Hospital in São Paulo. An exploratory, descriptive study with cross-sectional design and quantitative approach, with a sample of 188 health professionals. Data were collected using two self-report instruments: the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI-HSS) which is a biosocial data form, and a non-participant observation guide. High depersonalization for nurses (29.8%), low job performance for physicians (27.8%), and of nursing technicians (25.5%). High scores were identified in at least two domains of Burnout in 19.2% of nurses, 16.8% of nursing technicians, and 16.6% of doctors. Health professionals are highly vulnerable to each of the dimensions of Burnout syndrome - namely emotional exhaustion, alienation, and low job performance/satisfaction- in the hospital work.

  8. [Is burnout a syndrome or an occupational disease? Instructions for occupational physicians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirico, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Since Herbert Freudenberger described Burnout Syndrome (BOS) in 1974, thousands of scientific papers have been published on this syndrome and this trend does not seem to diminish. After being internationally known as a syndrome characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment in helping professions, its construct has been criticized, questioned, and subjected to profound modifications. To date, however, in Italy and in many other Countries it is not possible to diagnose this syndrome, because World Health Organization, in its last ICD-10, did not indicate any clinical criteria to diagnose it. Unfortunately, not even in the recent DSM- 5 by American Psychiatric Association, contrary to what was expected, BOS found room as a specific psychiatric disorder. As a consequence, framing this syndrome from a medical-legal point of view is still widely debated from scholars.

  9. Prevalence of Burnout syndrome in health professionals of an onco-hematological pediatric hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Bedin Zanatta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To identify the prevalence of Burnout Syndrome in medical professionals, nurses and nursing technicians working in an Onco-Hematological Pediatric Hospital in São Paulo. METHOD An exploratory, descriptive study with cross-sectional design and quantitative approach, with a sample of 188 health professionals. Data were collected using two self-report instruments: the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI-HSS which is a biosocial data form, and a non-participant observation guide. RESULTS High depersonalization for nurses (29.8%, low job performance for physicians (27.8%, and of nursing technicians (25.5%. High scores were identified in at least two domains of Burnout in 19.2% of nurses, 16.8% of nursing technicians, and 16.6% of doctors. CONCLUSION Health professionals are highly vulnerable to each of the dimensions of Burnout syndrome - namely emotional exhaustion, alienation, and low job performance/satisfaction- in the hospital work.

  10. Personality and emotional intelligence in teacher burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pishghadam, Reza; Sahebjam, Samaneh

    2012-03-01

    This paper aims to investigate the relationship between teacher's personality types, emotional intelligence and burnout and to predict the burnout levels of 147 teachers in the city of Mashhad (Iran). To this end, we have used three inventories: Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), and Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-I). We used Homogeneity Analysis and Multiple Linear Regression to analyze the data. The results exhibited a significant relationship between personality types and emotional intelligence and the three dimensions of burnout. It was indicated that the best predictors for emotional exhaustion were neuroticism and extroversion, for depersonalization were intrapersonal scale of emotional intelligence and agreeableness, and for personal accomplishment were interpersonal scale and conscientiousness. Finally, the results were discussed in the context of teacher burnout.

  11. urnout Research for Members of Practitioners of Accountancy: Practice in the City of Diyarbakır

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Zincirkıran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to determine the level of job burnout of practitioners of accountancy. The study is carried out on 136 practitioners of accountancy that are operating in Diyarbakir. As the scale of job burnout “Maslach Burnout Inventory” consisting of 22 questionshas been used. As a result, practiti oners of accountancy’ the burnout sub-dimensions that make up the overall low level of emotional exhaustion subscale are measured. However this varies depending on age. The personal achievement sense subscale is determined as the size of moderate. However, the depersonalization is found as a high level from age groups point of view. However this varies depending on age. The results are similar with the results of other research that have been done before in different occupation groups.

  12. Study of Some Demographic Properties Influencing the Burnout Levels of Nurses in Public Hospitals by CHAID Analysis

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    Zübeyir BAĞCI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it is aimed to identify the burnout levels of nurses which prevent them from doing their business more efficiently and to examine the effects of various demographic variables on burnout. The data necessary for the research have been gathered from 256 nurses working in public hospitals within borders of central district of Denizli province using “Maslach Burnout Inventory”. They were analyzed by SPSS and CHAID was used as the analysis method. In consequence it has been determined that nurses experience low-level emotional exhaustion, average-level depersonalization and high-level decrease in personal accomplishment. It has also been concluded that burnout levels are affected by demographic properties such as age, marital status, tenure of office, daily workload, education and income level

  13. Effect of emotional dissonance on organizational citizenship behavior: testing the stressor-strain-outcome model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Francis Yue-Lok; Cheung, Ray Yu-Hin

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the stressor-strain-outcome (SSO) model developed by Koeske and Koeske was adopted to examine the mediating effect of burnout between emotional dissonance and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). The study involved 264 full-time Chinese school teachers (82 men, 16 women, and 22 individuals whose genders were not specified; mean age = 34.4 years and SD = 8.09 years). Correlation analysis showed that emotional dissonance is positively related to all three burnout dimensions (i.e., emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and lack of personal accomplishment). Emotional dissonance is also negatively related to OCB toward individuals. Results from structural equation modeling support the SSO model, which states that emotional dissonance first leads to burnout and then to lower OCB. The limitations and implications to the school management, such as provision of emotional regulation training and strengthening of the social network system, were also discussed.

  14. Re-conceptualizing Neurosis as a Degree of Egocentricity: Ethical Issues in Psychological Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Segura, M; Echavarria, M F; Vitz, P C

    2015-10-01

    Psychology's historical rejection of ethics has led to an oversimplification of the origins and treatments of mental disorders. In this article, we present an analysis of how classical neurosis can be reformulated from an ethical and psychological interaction. We focus on the crucial role that egocentricity plays and argue that this term can help to clarify how ego defensive ethical decisions can undermine psychological capacities and contribute to a progressive depersonalization that can result in typical clinical disorders. In Christian anthropology, the virtues, especially humility and love have a crucial role in the positive growth of human affective and cognitive capacities. In addition, the person in his/her nature is endowed with the capacity to transcend the self and to escape egocentricity through self-giving love of God and of others. This capacity of self-giving is diametrically opposed to egocentricity and opens a new way for possible psychological recovery.

  15. [Home childbirth: progress or retrocession?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sanfelice, Clara Fróes Oliveira; Shimo, Antonieta Keiko Kakuda

    2014-03-01

    Giving birth at home represents a rising modality of delivery care in the Brazilian society, although in unrepresentative proportion when compared to the number of hospital childbirths. In Brazil, the topic has been broadly discussed by different professional categories, highlighting the safety issue involved in the process. The aim of this theoretical and reflective study was to present a brief overview of the overall care related to home childbirth, also questioning the reality of the contemporary Brazilian obstetric scenario. The scientific literature presents both obstetric and neonatal outcomes as favorable to home childbirth; similar risks when compared to hospital childbirth and higher rates of maternal satisfaction, and these both factors justify its practice. Therefore, a movement of women who are deeply unhappy with the current model of obstetric care is currently observed and they have been opting for home childbirth as a response to institutional violence,fragmentation and depersonalization of hospital care.

  16. Prosocial motivation, stress and burnout among direct support workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Robert

    2014-03-01

    This study explores whether the desire to engage in work that is beneficial to others moderates the effects of stress on burnout. Based on a survey of 1570 direct support professionals in Ontario, this study conducted linear regression analyses and tested for the interaction effects of prosocial motivation on occupational stress and burnout. Prosocial motivation significantly moderated the association of emotional exhaustion (EE) and role boundary stress with depersonalization (DP). Prosocial motivation also moderated the effects of role ambiguity stress with a direct support worker's sense of personal accomplishment. In contrast, prosocial motivation magnified feelings of EE when interacted with a sense of personal accomplishment. Prosocial motivation plays an important role in explaining the relatively low levels of DP in the sector. The study advances our understanding of the key components of burnout among direct support workers. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The Ethics of Virtual Reality Technology: Social Hazards and Public Policy Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, James S

    2017-09-23

    This article explores four major areas of moral concern regarding virtual reality (VR) technologies. First, VR poses potential mental health risks, including Depersonalization/Derealization Disorder. Second, VR technology raises serious concerns related to personal neglect of users' own actual bodies and real physical environments. Third, VR technologies may be used to record personal data which could be deployed in ways that threaten personal privacy and present a danger related to manipulation of users' beliefs, emotions, and behaviors. Finally, there are other moral and social risks associated with the way VR blurs the distinction between the real and illusory. These concerns regarding VR naturally raise questions about public policy. The article makes several recommendations for legal regulations of VR that together address each of the above concerns. It is argued that these regulations would not seriously threaten personal liberty but rather would protect and enhance the autonomy of VR consumers.

  18. Recovery-oriented services for individuals with mental illness and case managers' experience of professional burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Shane W; Stein, Catherine H

    2013-02-01

    Present cross-sectional study examined perceptions of recovery-oriented services and reports of professional burnout and job satisfaction in a sample of 114 case managers working in community mental health centers across Ohio. The research examined the relative contribution of demographic characteristics, the structure of case management services, and case managers' beliefs about recovery-oriented services in describing their reports of professional burnout and job satisfaction. Regardless of individual characteristics of case managers and reports of the structure of their jobs, case managers who perceived their agency to offer higher levels of recovery-oriented services also reported lower levels of depersonalization and emotional exhaustion at work, and higher levels of professional accomplishment and job satisfaction. Directions for future research in the area are discussed.

  19. Between Bodies and Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keylin, Vadim

    the corporeality of both listening and sound-making activity. At the other end, lie artworks that sonify digitally collected social data – like e.g. #tweetscapes by Anselm Venezian Nehls and Tarik Barri, which translated the activities of German Twitter segment into audiovisual experience. #tweetscapes takes...... the range of affordances – or even “ïnterfaces” – for participation that a sound art works may have. At the one end of this spectrum lie the classic sound sculptures of e.g. Baschet brothers – musical instruments meant for the audience to play. These invite a visceral engagement, emphasizing...... the bodies out of the equation, working instead with the disembodied – and in a way depersonalized – streams of data, nevertheless generated by the participants. Finally, a middle ground can be found in the augmented reality approaches – like those of Kaffe Matthews Sonic Bike rides or Benoit Maubrey...

  20. Factors associated to Burnout Syndrome in High School Teachers in Cali, Colombia [Factores asociados al síndrome de burnout en docentes de colegios de la ciudad de Cali, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Díaz Bambula

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the study was to locate factors related to burnout syndrome in teachers of two formal private and public educational institutions from Cali, Colombia. The syndrome’s dimensions (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced sense of personal accomplishment and their relation to organizational factors, the stress of the role and socio-demographic characteristics of the teachers were described. The Modified Burnout in teachers Questionnaire [CBP-M] was applied to a sample of 82 teachers from one public and one private school. Results show a low level of burnout syndrome in both institutions. An association with the levels of stress of role and organizational factors such as supervision, job conditions and professional worries was found. The socio-demographic characteristics did not show significant relations with the syndrome, with the exception of the level of education in which the teachers give classes

  1. Stres and burnout related to work with special education needs students in elementary school teachers

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    Katja Košir

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the predictive value of elementary school teachers' workplace characteristics on work stress and burnout. Workplace characteristics were defined as job demands and resources, which were further divided into general and specific, related to work with special education needs students. We examined whether variables related to work with special education needs students explained incremental variance in stress and burnout above and beyond general workplace characteristics. Elementary school teachers from all twelve regions of Slovenia (N ranges from 439 to 886 took part in the study. The results have shown that workplace characteristics independently predict a significant amount of variance in stress, emotional exhaustion and depersonalization among teachers. General job demands and specific demands related to special education needs students are the highest and most stable predictors of all three studied criteria. Based on our findings, we suggest several measures which can help to alleviate stress and foster efficient coping strategies.

  2. Can a cognitive-behavioral group-therapy training program for the treatment of child sexual abuse reduce levels of burnout and job-strain in trainees? initial evidence of a brazilian model

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    Bruno Figueiredo Damásio

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the extent to which a professional training program of an evidence-based intervention for the treatment of child and adolescent victims of sexual abuse could reduce strain and burnout levels in trainees. Participants were 30 psychologists, 19 of whom composed the experimental group (G1 and 11 the comparison group (G2. Data collection occurred before and after the training. The results showed that the ‘work demand’ increased for G1 and remained stable for G2, whereas the ‘control at work’ remained stable for G1 while decreasing for G2. Regarding burnout levels, there was a decrease in depersonalization and stabilization in the levels of emotional exhaustion and reduced professional efficacy for G1, whereas for G2, all the burnout indicators significantly increased. These results partially support the perspective that the training program would have an indirect protective effect on the occupational psychopathology levels of the trainees.

  3. Dissociative Tendencies and Traffic Incidents

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    Valle, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the relationship between dissociative experiences and road traffic incidents (crashes and traffic tickets in drivers (n=295 from Mar del Plata (Argentina city. A self-report questionnaire was applied to assess traffic crash involvement and sociodemographic variables. Dissociative tendencies were assessed by a modified version of the DES scale. To examine differences in DES scores tests of the difference of means were applied. Drivers who reported to be previously involved in traffic incidents obtained higher puntuations in the dissociative experiences scale than drivers who did not report such events. This result is observed for the total scale and for the three sub-scales (absorption, amnesia and depersonalization. However, differences appeared mainly for minor damage collisions. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role of dissociative tendencies as a risk factor in road traffic safety.

  4. A neuroscientific account of how vestibular disorders impair bodily self-consciousness

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    Christophe eLopez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The consequences of vestibular disorders on balance, oculomotor control and self-motion perception have been extensively described in humans and animals. More recently, vestibular disorders have been related to cognitive deficits in spatial navigation and memory tasks. Less frequently, abnormal bodily perceptions have been described in patients with vestibular disorders. Altered forms of bodily self-consciousness include distorted body image and body schema, disembodied self-location (out-of-body experience, altered sense of agency, as well as more complex experiences of dissociation and detachment from the self (depersonalization. In this article, I suggest that vestibular disorders create sensory conflict or mismatch in multisensory brain regions, producing perceptual incoherence and abnormal body and self perceptions. This hypothesis is based on recent functional mapping of the human vestibular cortex, showing vestibular projections to the primary and secondary somatosensory cortex and in several multisensory areas found to be crucial for bodily self-consciousness.

  5. Eccentricity dimension of the Dimensional Clinical Personality Inventory: Review and psychometric properties

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    Lucas de Francisco Carvalho

    Full Text Available Abstract We aimed to review of the Eccentricity dimension of the Dimensional Clinical Personality Inventory (IDCP, through two steps. The first one focused on developing new items and the second on testing the psychometric properties in a sample of 225 subjects (70.1% females, aging between 18 and 66 years, mostly undergraduate students (58.9%. The subjects answered the IDCP, and the Brazilian versions of the NEO-PI-R, PID-5 and MIS. The first step resulted in 42 items, which 22 were new. The second step resulted in a composite of 18 items, pooled in six interpretable factors, as Interpersonal detachment, Eccentric style, Paranormality, Persecutory style, Depersonalization and Emotional inexpressiveness, with internal consistency coefficients of .85 for the total score, and between .60 and .82 for the factors. The correlations between instruments revealed consistent and expected relations. The data suggested adequacy of the new Eccentricity dimension of IDCP.

  6. A causal model explaining the relationships governing beliefs, attitudes, and hypnotic responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    The author developed a new scale aimed at measuring beliefs about "hypnotic states" and investigated the influence of such beliefs and attitudes on hypnotic responses in a large sample of Japanese undergraduate students. Exploratory factor analysis of this new questionnaire examining beliefs about hypnotic states yielded four factors: Dissociative or Depersonalized Experience, Loss of Self-Control, Therapeutic Expectation, and Arousing Extraordinary Ability. The results of structural equation modeling showed that Therapeutic Expectation and Arousing Extraordinary Ability influenced hypnotizability through attitudes toward hypnosis, while also directly affecting subjective experiences without mediating attitudes. Present findings suggest that it is more effective to enhance therapeutic expectations than to correct misconceptions about hypnotic states in modification of patients' beliefs before initiating treatment.

  7. Dissociation in undergraduate students: disruptions in executive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesbrecht, Timo; Merckelbach, Harald; Geraerts, Elke; Smeets, Ellen

    2004-08-01

    The concept of dissociation refers to disruptions in attentional control. Attentional control is an executive function. Few studies have addressed the link between dissociation and executive functioning. Our study investigated this relationship in a sample of undergraduate students (N = 185) who completed the Dissociative Experiences Scale and the Random Number Generation Task. We found that minor disruptions in executive functioning were related to a subclass of dissociative experiences, notably dissociative amnesia and the Dissociative Experiences Scale Taxon. However, the two other subscales of the Dissociative Experiences Scale, measuring depersonalization and absorption, were unrelated to executive functioning. Our findings suggest that a failure to inhibit previous responses might contribute to the pathological memory manifestations of dissociation.

  8. [Analysis of Possible Sociodemographic and Occupational Risk Factors and the Prevalence of Professional Exhaustion Syndrome (Burnout) in Mexican Dentists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda Aguilera, Enrique; García de Alba García, Javier E

    2013-06-01

    To determine the prevalence of professional exhaustion syndrome (burnout) in dentists and to analyze possible sociodemographic and occupational risk factors . An observational, descriptive and cross-sectional survey of 203 dental staff of the Metropolitan Zone of Guadalajara, Mexico, from the Mexican Social Security Institute, University of Guadalajara, and those in private practice. A self-reported identification form and the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey were used to gather data. Descriptive statistics and inferential analyzes were performed using SPSS 15.0 support and EpiInfo V6.1. There was an 88.3% response. Professional exhaustion syndrome (burnout) was detected in 52.2% of them. Significant differences were obtained depending on the employment contract. A negative correlation was observed between the subscales emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, and a positive one between the lack of personal accomplishment at work. Professional exhaustion syndrome (burnout) is common (52.2%) for dentists, their possible risk factors: working in a public institution, being male, over 40 years, without a regular partner, and with more than 15 years with a partner, not having children, being a specialist with 10 years or more in an institution and the current job, morning shift, permanent recruitment, and having another job. The involvement of emotional exhaustion behaves like the syndrome. Average levels of the subscales are generally near normal. A negative correlation was found between the subscales emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, and positive between the lack of personal fulfillment at work with the presence of the syndrome. This leads us to consider the need for preventive measures in the workplace and personnel, as well as intervention programs at an individual, social or organizational level to reduce the prevalence found. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  9. Acceleration in the care of older adults: new demands as predictors of employee burnout and engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubicek, Bettina; Korunka, Christian; Ulferts, Heike

    2013-07-01

    This paper introduces the concept of acceleration-related demands in the care of older adults. It examines these new demands and their relation to cognitive, emotional, and physical job demands and to employee well-being. Various changes in the healthcare systems of Western societies pose new demands for healthcare professionals' careers and jobs. In particular today's societal changes give rise to acceleration-related demands, which manifest themselves in work intensification and in increasing requirements to handle new technical equipment and to update one's job-related knowledge. It is, therefore, of interest to investigate the effects of these new demands on the well-being of employees. Survey. Between March-June 2010 the survey was conducted among healthcare professionals involved in care of older adults in Austria. A total of 1498 employees provided data on cognitive, emotional, and physical job demands and on acceleration-related demands. The outcome variables were the core dimensions of burnout (emotional exhaustion and depersonalization) and engagement (vigour and dedication). Hierarchical regression analyses show that acceleration-related demands explain additional variance for exhaustion, depersonalization, vigour, and dedication when controlling for cognitive, emotional, and physical demands. Furthermore, acceleration-related demands associated with increasing requirements to update one's knowledge are related to positive outcomes (vigour and dedication). Acceleration-related demands associated with an increasing work pace are related to negative outcomes such as emotional exhaustion. Results illustrate that new demands resulting from social acceleration generate potential challenges for on-the-job learning and potential risks to employees' health and well-being. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Seniors, risk and rehabilitation: broadening our thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Mary Y; Laliberte Rudman, Debbie; Ceci, Christine; Kessler, Dorothy; McGrath, Colleen; Gardner, Paula; King, Judy; Lanoix, Monique; Malhotra, Ravi

    2017-06-01

    Conceptualizations of risk in seniors' rehabilitation emphasize potential physical injury, functional independence and cost containment, shifting rehabilitation from other considerations essential to promoting a satisfying life. In a two-day multidisciplinary planning meeting we critically examined and discussed alternatives to dominant conceptualizations. Invitees reflected on conceptualizations of risk in stroke rehabilitation and low vision rehabilitation, identified and explored positive and negative implications and generated alternative perspectives to support rehabilitation approaches related to living a good life. Current risk conceptualizations help focus rehabilitation teamwork and make this work publically recognizable and valued. However, they also lead to practice that is depersonalized, decontextualized and restrictive. Further research and practice development initiatives should include the voices of clinicians and seniors to more adequately support meaningfully living, and foster safe spaces for seniors and clinicians to speak candidly, comprehensively and respectfully about risk. To ensure that seniors' rehabilitation targets a satisfying life as defined by seniors, increased focus on the environment and more explicit examination of how cost containment concerns are driving services is also necessary. This work reinforced current concerns about conceptualizations of risk in seniors' rehabilitation and generated ways forward that re-focus rehabilitation more on promoting a satisfying life. Implications for rehabilitation In seniors' rehabilitation, considerations of risk focus on physical injury, functional dependence and cost containment. Focus on provider-defined risk of physical injury limits examination of patient goals and patients' histories of judging and dealing with risk. Focus on functional dependence and cost containment may lead to practice that is depersonalized and decontextualized. Abandonment of ableist and ageist thinking and an

  11. A Thematic Inquiry into the Burnout Experience of Australian Solo-Practicing Clinical Psychologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trent E. Hammond

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Burnout is conceptualized as a syndrome that consists of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and decreased personal accomplishment. Despite the increased frequency and severity of burnout in the Western world, there is limited published research regarding the experiences of clinical psychologists who have had burnout. The present study examines clinical psychologists’ different experiences of burnout in Australia.Design and Methods: In the year 2015, six privately practicing and solo-employed clinical psychologists provided rich qualitative data by participating in semi-structured interviews. Thematic analysis was the method used to analyze clinical psychologists’ natural accounts of their burnout experiences. Using NVivo, emerging themes were identified through coding ‘first order constructs’ and then axial code ‘second order constructs.’Findings: Clinical psychologists indicated that their roles are demanding and a diverse range of symptoms, including the enduring effects of burnout, mental stress, fatigue, decreased personal accomplishment, negative affect, depersonalization, reduced productivity and motivation, and insomnia. They identified precursors of burnout, including excessive workload and hours of work, life stresses, mismanaged workload, and transference. Clinical psychologists suggested that protective factors of burnout include knowledge and years worked in direct care, and trusting and long-term relationships. They indicated that the barriers to overcoming burnout include the fallacy that their clients’ expectations and needs are more important than their own, the financial cost of working in private practice, contemporary knowledge and inadequate education regarding self-care, and time constraints.Discussion and Conclusion: The findings presented in this study provide psychologists and other health professionals with an insight about the burnout experience and inform professionals of the mental

  12. Empathy, Burnout, Demographic Variables and their Relationships in Oncology Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taleghani, Fariba; Ashouri, Elaheh; Saburi, Morteza

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Development of nurse–patient empathic communication in the oncology ward is of great importance for the patients to relieve their psychological stress, however, nursing care of cancer patients is accompanied with high stress and burnout. The present study aimed to define the level of empathy and its association with burnout and some demographic characteristics of oncology nurses. Materials and Methods: This descriptive/correlation study was conducted in a professional cancer treatment center in Isfahan. Through census sampling, 67 oncology nurses were selected. The data collection tools were Jefferson Scale of Nursing Empathy, Maslach Burnout Inventory, and demographic characteristics questionnaire. Results: Mean nurses’ empathy and overall burnout scores were 62.28 out of 100 and 38.8 out of 100, respectively. Score of empathy showed an inverse correlation with overall burnout score (r = −0.189, P = 0.04), depersonalization (r = −0.218, P = 0.02), and personal accomplishment (r = −0.265, P = 0.01). Multiple regression test was used to detect which dimension of burnout was a better predictor for the reduction of empathy score. Results showed that the best predictors were lack of personal accomplishment (P = 0.02), depersonalization (P = 0.04), and emotional exhaustion (P = 0.14), respectively. The most influential demographic factor on empathy was work experience (r = 0.304, P = 0.004). One-way analysis of variance showed that official staff had a higher empathy score (f = 2.39, P = 0.045) and their burnout was lower (f = 2.56, P = 0.04). Conclusions: Results showed a negative relationship between empathy and burnout in oncology nurses. Therefore, nursing support from managers to reduce burnout increases empathic behavior of nurses. PMID:28382057

  13. Empathy, burnout, demographic variables and their relationships in oncology nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Taleghani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Development of nurse–patient empathic communication in the oncology ward is of great importance for the patients to relieve their psychological stress, however, nursing care of cancer patients is accompanied with high stress and burnout. The present study aimed to define the level of empathy and its association with burnout and some demographic characteristics of oncology nurses. Materials and Methods: This descriptive/correlation study was conducted in a professional cancer treatment center in Isfahan. Through census sampling, 67 oncology nurses were selected. The data collection tools were Jefferson Scale of Nursing Empathy, Maslach Burnout Inventory, and demographic characteristics questionnaire. Results: Mean nurses' empathy and overall burnout scores were 62.28 out of 100 and 38.8 out of 100, respectively. Score of empathy showed an inverse correlation with overall burnout score (r = −0.189, P = 0.04, depersonalization (r = −0.218, P = 0.02, and personal accomplishment (r = −0.265, P = 0.01. Multiple regression test was used to detect which dimension of burnout was a better predictor for the reduction of empathy score. Results showed that the best predictors were lack of personal accomplishment (P = 0.02, depersonalization (P = 0.04, and emotional exhaustion (P = 0.14, respectively. The most influential demographic factor on empathy was work experience (r = 0.304, P = 0.004. One-way analysis of variance showed that official staff had a higher empathy score (f = 2.39, P = 0.045 and their burnout was lower (f = 2.56, P = 0.04. Conclusions: Results showed a negative relationship between empathy and burnout in oncology nurses. Therefore, nursing support from managers to reduce burnout increases empathic behavior of nurses.

  14. Empathy, Burnout, Demographic Variables and their Relationships in Oncology Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taleghani, Fariba; Ashouri, Elaheh; Saburi, Morteza

    2017-01-01

    Development of nurse-patient empathic communication in the oncology ward is of great importance for the patients to relieve their psychological stress, however, nursing care of cancer patients is accompanied with high stress and burnout. The present study aimed to define the level of empathy and its association with burnout and some demographic characteristics of oncology nurses. This descriptive/correlation study was conducted in a professional cancer treatment center in Isfahan. Through census sampling, 67 oncology nurses were selected. The data collection tools were Jefferson Scale of Nursing Empathy, Maslach Burnout Inventory, and demographic characteristics questionnaire. Mean nurses' empathy and overall burnout scores were 62.28 out of 100 and 38.8 out of 100, respectively. Score of empathy showed an inverse correlation with overall burnout score ( r = -0.189, P = 0.04), depersonalization ( r = -0.218, P = 0.02), and personal accomplishment ( r = -0.265, P = 0.01). Multiple regression test was used to detect which dimension of burnout was a better predictor for the reduction of empathy score. Results showed that the best predictors were lack of personal accomplishment ( P = 0.02), depersonalization ( P = 0.04), and emotional exhaustion ( P = 0.14), respectively. The most influential demographic factor on empathy was work experience ( r = 0.304, P = 0.004). One-way analysis of variance showed that official staff had a higher empathy score ( f = 2.39, P = 0.045) and their burnout was lower ( f = 2.56, P = 0.04). Results showed a negative relationship between empathy and burnout in oncology nurses. Therefore, nursing support from managers to reduce burnout increases empathic behavior of nurses.

  15. A Thematic Inquiry into the Burnout Experience of Australian Solo-Practicing Clinical Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Trent E.; Crowther, Andrew; Drummond, Sally

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Burnout is conceptualized as a syndrome that consists of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and decreased personal accomplishment. Despite the increased frequency and severity of burnout in the Western world, there is limited published research regarding the experiences of clinical psychologists who have had burnout. The present study examines clinical psychologists’ different experiences of burnout in Australia. Design and Methods: In the year 2015, six privately practicing and solo-employed clinical psychologists provided rich qualitative data by participating in semi-structured interviews. Thematic analysis was the method used to analyze clinical psychologists’ natural accounts of their burnout experiences. Using NVivo, emerging themes were identified through coding ‘first order constructs’ and then axial code ‘second order constructs.’ Findings: Clinical psychologists indicated that their roles are demanding and a diverse range of symptoms, including the enduring effects of burnout, mental stress, fatigue, decreased personal accomplishment, negative affect, depersonalization, reduced productivity and motivation, and insomnia. They identified precursors of burnout, including excessive workload and hours of work, life stresses, mismanaged workload, and transference. Clinical psychologists suggested that protective factors of burnout include knowledge and years worked in direct care, and trusting and long-term relationships. They indicated that the barriers to overcoming burnout include the fallacy that their clients’ expectations and needs are more important than their own, the financial cost of working in private practice, contemporary knowledge and inadequate education regarding self-care, and time constraints. Discussion and Conclusion: The findings presented in this study provide psychologists and other health professionals with an insight about the burnout experience and inform professionals of the mental shortcomings of

  16. Prevalence of burnout syndrome among anesthesiologists in the Federal District

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    Edno Magalhães

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Burnout syndrome is a result of chronic stress, characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and a sense of low professional accomplishment. It affects workers under extreme responsibility or those who care for individuals at risk, including anesthesiologists who distanced themselves from the work, patients and colleagues because they feel safer in maintaining indifference. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of burnout syndrome and the intensity of its components and identify the characteristics of those with the syndrome among anesthesiologists in the Federal District. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was carried out with 241 anesthesiologists enrolled in the Society of Anesthesiology of the Federal District. A self-administered questionnaire was used, which included the Maslach Burnout Inventory, demographic, professional, and leisure data. RESULTS: Of the 134 completed questionnaires (55.8%, there was a predominance of male (65.6%, aged 30-50 years (67.9%. Significant lower levels of job satisfaction (47.7%, depersonalization (28.3%, and emotional exhaustion (23.1% were found. Burnout syndrome showed a prevalence of 10.4%, occurring mainly in men (64.2%, aged 30-50 years (64.2%, with over 10 years of experience (64.2%, working in night shifts (71.4%, sedentary (57.1%, and not taking courses unrelated to medicine (78.5%. Of the participants, 50.7% had at least one of the three criteria to develop the syndrome and only 8.2% have a low risk to manifest it. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of burnout is relevant among anesthesiologists in the Federal District. It is advisable to seek strategies for labor restructuring to reduce stress factors and loss of motivation and increase job satisfaction.

  17. Factores psicosociales del trabajo y Síndrome de Burnout en docentes universitarios, Bluefields, Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Hodgson Suárez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar los factores psicosociales negativos del trabajo percibido por el trabajador, y su relación con el Síndrome de Burnout  en docentes universitarios de la ciudad de Bluefields.El tipo de estudio es cuantitativo, descriptivo, de corte transversal, realizado mediante la aplicación de la escala de factores psicosociales del trabajo académico y el Maslach Burnout Inventory, instrumentos aplicados a 109 docentes. Los resultados revelan la presencia de una alta demanda del  papel académico y desarrollo de la carrera como factor negativo en el ambiente laboral de los docentes, también señala la despersonalización como la dimensión del síndrome de Burnout. Se encontró asociación entre el factor contenido y características de la tarea con la dimensión de despersonalización, así como relación entre papel académico y desarrollo de la carrera con el agotamiento emocional.SummaryThe purpose of this study was to determine the negative psychosocial work factors perceived by the workers, and its relation with Burnout syndrome among university teachers in the city of Bluefields.The study is quantitative, descriptive, cross-sectional, and was made by applying the scale of psychosocial factors of academic work and the Maslach Burnout Inventory, instruments that were applied to 109 teachers. The results reveal a high demand of the academic role and career development as a negative factor in the teachers work environment; it also refers to depersonalization as a dimension of Burnout Syndrome. Among the findings we found association between the factors related to the contents and characteristics of the task with the dimension of depersonalization, as well as relationship between the academic role and career development with emotional exhaustion.

  18. An examination of stress and burnout in certified athletic trainers at division I-a universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, A E; Acevedo, E O; Hebert, E

    2000-04-01

    A growing body of knowledge indicates that too much stress can negatively influence psychological and physical health. A model proposed by Smith to explore personal and situational variables, stress appraisal, and burnout has led to significant understanding of burnout of individuals working in service professions. We examined the relationship of hardiness, social support, and work-related issues relevant to athletic trainers to perceived stress and the relationship of perceived stress to burnout. Correlational analyses were performed to examine the relationships predicted by Smith's model. In addition, we conducted stepwise multiple regression analyses to assess the relative contributions of the personal and situational variables to perceived stress and to examine the relative impact of perceived stress on 3 burnout factors (emotional exhaustion, personal accomplishment, and depersonalization). One hundred eighteen certified athletic trainers working in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I-A intercollegiate settings that maintain a football program. We assessed personal and situational variables using the Hardiness Test, the Social Support Questionnaire, and the Athletic Training Issues Survey, adapted for this study. The Perceived Stress Scale was used to assess stress appraisal, and the Maslach Burnout Inventory was used to assess 3 dimensions of burnout. Our results were in support of Smith's theoretical model of stress and burnout. Athletic trainers who scored lower on hardiness and social support and higher on athletic training issues tended to have higher levels of perceived stress. Furthermore, higher perceived stress scores were related to higher emotional exhaustion and depersonalization and lower levels of personal accomplishment. Our findings examining burnout in Division I athletic trainers were similar to those of other studies investigating coaches and coach-teachers and in support of Smith's theoretical model of stress and burnout.

  19. Validation of the factor structure of the adolescent dissociative experiences scale in a sample of trauma-exposed detained youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerig, Patricia K; Charak, Ruby; Chaplo, Shannon D; Bennett, Diana C; Armour, Cherie; Modrowski, Crosby A; McGee, Andrew B

    2016-09-01

    The inclusion of a dissociative subtype in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM–5 ) criteria for the diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has highlighted the need for valid and reliable measures of dissociative symptoms across developmental periods. The Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale (A-DES) is 1 of the few measures validated for young persons, but previous studies have yielded inconsistent results regarding its factor structure. Further, research to date on the A-DES has been based upon nonclinical samples of youth or those without a known history of trauma. To address these gaps in the literature, the present study investigated the factor structure and construct validity of the A-DES in a sample of highly trauma-exposed youth involved in the juvenile justice system. A sample of 784 youth (73.7% boys) recruited from a detention center completed self-report measures of trauma exposure and the A-DES, a subset of whom (n = 212) also completed a measure of PTSD symptoms. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed a best fitting 3-factor structure comprised of depersonalization or derealization, amnesia, and loss of conscious control, with configural and metric invariance across gender. Logistic regression analyses indicated that the depersonalization or derealization factor effectively distinguished between those youth who did and did not likely meet criteria for a diagnosis of PTSD as well as those with PTSD who did and did not likely meet criteria for the dissociative subtype. These results provide support for the multidimensionality of the construct of posttraumatic dissociation and contribute to the understanding of the dissociative subtype of PTSD among adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved

  20. Varieties of Self Disorder: A Bio-Pheno-Social Model of Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, Louis; Borda, Juan P; Madeira, Luis; Pienkos, Elizabeth; Nelson, Barnaby

    2018-02-05

    The self-disorder model offers a unifying way of conceptualizing schizophrenia's highly diverse symptoms (positive, negative, disorganized), of capturing their distinctive bizarreness, and of conceiving their longitudinal development. These symptoms are viewed as differing manifestations of an underlying disorder of ipseity or core-self: hyper-reflexivity/diminished-self-presence with accompanying disturbances of "grip" or "hold" on reality. Recent revision to this phenomenological theory, in particular distinguishing primary-vs-secondary factors, offers a bio-pheno-social model that is consistent with recent empirical findings and offers several advantages: (1) It helps account for the temporal variations of the symptoms or syndrome, including longitudinal progression, but also the shorter-term, situationally reactive, and sometimes defensive or quasi-intentional variability of symptom-expression that can occur in schizophrenia (consistent with understanding some aspects of ipseity-disturbance as dynamic and mutable, involving shifting attitudes or experiential orientations). (2) It accommodates the overlapping of some key schizophrenic symptoms with certain nonschizophrenic conditions involving dissociation (depersonalization, derealization), including depersonalization disorder and panic disorder, thereby acknowledging both shared and distinguishing symptoms. (3) It integrates recent neurocognitive and neurobiological as well as psychosocial (eg, influence of trauma and culture) findings into a coherent but multi-factorial neuropsychological account. An adequate model of schizophrenia will postulate shared disturbances of core-self experiences that nevertheless can follow several distinct pathways and occur in various forms. Such a model is preferable to uni-dimensional alternatives-whether of schizophrenia or ipseity-disturbance-given its ability to account for distinctive yet varying experiential and neurocognitive abnormalities found in research on

  1. Empathy and burnout of emergency professionals of a health region: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuguero, Oriol; Forné, Carles; Esquerda, Montserrat; Pifarré, Josep; Abadías, María José; Viñas, Joan

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the association between levels of empathy and burnout of emergency professionals in all the assistance levels.A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in the health region of Lleida and the Pyrenees with 100 professionals from the field of Urgency. Participation reached 40.8%. Empathy and burnout were measured using the Spanish versions of the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (JSPE) and Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) respectively. The total MBI score and its 3 dimensions (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment) were analyzed. The JSPE and MBI scores were categorized into tertiles that were identified as "low," "moderate," and "high" levels.The median (interquartile range) was 112 (102-123) and 37 (27-53.5) for the JSPE and MBI scores respectively. Professionals with high burnout (MBI≥47) showed the lowest levels of empathy, that is, JSPE score of 105 (98-114); those with moderate burnout (31≤MBI empathy were associated with the lowest levels of burnout, especially in depersonalization, and to a lesser extent in personal accomplishment. There were no differences in empathy and burnout for any of the other study variables.Our findings suggest that the empathy of emergency professionals is associated with burnout. Hence, reducing professional burnout could help keep emergency professionals' empathy levels high, which in turn would ensure a better quality of care. Nevertheless, it would be necessary to carry out prospective studies to describe the profiles of burnout and empathy as well as their association and evolution.

  2. Burnout among family and general practitioners

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    Ghaida M.J. Al-Shoraian

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Job burnout is an important syndrome that can deplete the emotional health aspects of physicians. Its impacts are reflected both on the physicians and their patients through undermining the performance of physicians and degrading the quality of the administered medical care leading to dissatisfaction of the patients about the medical service. Objectives: This study is formulated to compare the prevalence of high burnout among family physicians and general practitioners and reveal the predictors of high grades of burnout among physicians. Subjects and methods: A cross sectional study was carried out. Out of 378 physicians working in two health regions in Kuwait, 200 physicians returned a filled questionnaire, of these 105 were family physicians and the rest were primary health care physicians. Maslach Burnout Inventory–Human Service Survey tool was used to estimate high degree of burnout on three domains, namely emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment. Results: General practitioners were more likely to suffer from high grades of emotional exhaustion (63.2% than family physicians (19.0%. They also suffered from high grade of depersonalization (65.3% compared with family physicians (27.6%. Those suffering from high grades of personal accomplishment burnout (inverse score constituted 61.1% of primary health care physicians and 33.3% of family physicians. Those suffering from grades for the three burnout domain constituted more than one third of primary health care physicians (36.8% compared with only 5.7% of family physicians. Type of physician job and marital status proved to be significant predictors of high grades of burnout. Conclusion: Burnout is more common among primary care than family physicians. Searching for and eliminating all sources of stress in the primary health care centers in addition to training of these physicians on coping strategies to deal with stress at work seems to be an important

  3. Functional Neuroimaging Correlates of Burnout among Internal Medicine Residents and Faculty Members

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    Steven J Durning

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Burnout is prevalent in residency training and practice and is linked to medical error and suboptimal patient care. However, little is known about how burnout affects clinical reasoning, which is essential to safe and effective care. The aim of this study was to examine how burnout modulates brain activity during clinical reasoning in physicians. Using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI, brain activity was assessed in internal medicine residents (n=10 and board-certified internists (faculty, n=17 from the Uniformed Services University (USU while they answered and reflected upon United States Medical Licensing Examination and American Board of Internal Medicine multiple-choice questions. Participants also completed a validated two-item burnout scale, which includes an item assessing emotional exhaustion and an item assessing depersonalization. Whole brain covariate analysis was used to examine blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD signal during answering and reflecting upon clinical problems with respect to burnout scores. Higher depersonalization scores were associated with less BOLD signal in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and middle frontal gyrus during reflecting on clinical problems and less BOLD signal in the bilateral precuneus while answering clinical problems in residents. Higher emotional exhaustion scores were associated with more right posterior cingulate cortex and middle frontal gyrus BOLD signal in residents. Examination of faculty revealed no significant influence of burnout on brain activity. Residents appear to be more susceptible to burnout effects on clinical reasoning, which may indicate that residents may need both cognitive and emotional support to improve quality of life and to optimize performance and learning. These results inform our understanding of mental stress, cognitive control as well as cognitive load theory.

  4. Correlation of burnout syndrome with specific coping strategies, behaviors, and spiritual attitudes among interns at Yale University, New Haven, USA

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    Benjamin R. Doolittle

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed to determine the correlation of burnout syndrome with specific coping strategies, behaviors, and spiritual attitudes among interns in internal medicine, primary care, and internal medicine/pediatrics residency programs at two institutions. Methods: Intern physicians completed anonymous voluntary surveys prior to starting the internship in June 2009 and in the middle of the internship in February 2010. Three validated survey instruments were used to explore burnout, coping, and spiritual attitudes: the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the COPE Inventory, and the Hatch Spiritual Involvement and Beliefs Scale. The interns were in programs at the Yale University School of Medicine and a Yale-affiliated community hospital, New Haven, Connecticut, USA. Results: The prevalence of self-identified burnout prior to starting the internship was 1/66 (1.5% in June 2009, increasing to 10/53 (18.9% in February 2010 (P<0.0001. From June 2009 to February 2010, the prevalence of high emotional exhaustion increased from 30/66 (45.5% to 45/53 (84.9% (P<0.0001, and that of high depersonalization increased from 42/66 (63.6% to 45/53 (84.9% (P=0.01. Interns who employed the strategies of acceptance and active coping were less likely to experience emotional exhaustion and depersonalization (P<0.05. Perceptions of high personal accomplishment was 75.5% and was positively correlated with total scores on the Hatch Spiritual Involvement and Beliefs Scale, as well as the internal/fluid and existential/meditative domains of that instrument. Specific behaviors did not impact burnout. Conclusion: Burnout increased during the intern year. Acceptance, active coping, and spirituality were correlated with less burnout. Specific behaviors were not correlated with burnout domains.

  5. Correlation of burnout syndrome with specific coping strategies, behaviors, and spiritual attitudes among interns at Yale University, New Haven, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolittle, Benjamin R; Windish, Donna M

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the correlation of burnout syndrome with specific coping strategies, behaviors, and spiritual attitudes among interns in internal medicine, primary care, and internal medicine/pediatrics residency programs at two institutions. Intern physicians completed anonymous voluntary surveys prior to starting the internship in June 2009 and in the middle of the internship in February 2010. Three validated survey instruments were used to explore burnout, coping, and spiritual attitudes: the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the COPE Inventory, and the Hatch Spiritual Involvement and Beliefs Scale. The interns were in programs at the Yale University School of Medicine and a Yale-affiliated community hospital, New Haven, Connecticut, USA. The prevalence of self-identified burnout prior to starting the internship was 1/66 (1.5%) in June 2009, increasing to 10/53 (18.9%) in February 2010 (P<0.0001). From June 2009 to February 2010, the prevalence of high emotional exhaustion increased from 30/66 (45.5%) to 45/53 (84.9%) (P<0.0001), and that of high depersonalization increased from 42/66 (63.6%) to 45/53 (84.9%) (P=0.01). Interns who employed the strategies of acceptance and active coping were less likely to experience emotional exhaustion and depersonalization (P<0.05). Perceptions of high personal accomplishment was 75.5% and was positively correlated with total scores on the Hatch Spiritual Involvement and Beliefs Scale, as well as the internal/fluid and existential/meditative domains of that instrument. Specific behaviors did not impact burnout. Burnout increased during the intern year. Acceptance, active coping, and spirituality were correlated with less burnout. Specific behaviors were not correlated with burnout domains.

  6. [Prevalence of burnout syndrome among anesthesiologists in the Federal District].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Edno; Oliveira, Áurea Carolina Machado de Sousa; Govêia, Catia Sousa; Ladeira, Luis Cláudio Araújo; Queiroz, Daniel Moser; Vieira, Camila Viana

    2015-01-01

    burnout syndrome is a result of chronic stress, characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and sense of low professional accomplishment. It affects workers under extreme responsibility or those who care for individuals at risk, including anesthesiologists who distanced themselves from the work, patients and colleagues because they feel safer in maintaining indifference. evaluate the prevalence of burnout syndrome and the intensity of its components and identify the characteristics of those with the syndrome among anesthesiologists in the Federal District. cross-sectional study with 241 anesthesiologists enrolled in the Society of Anesthesiology of the Federal District. A self-administered questionnaire was used, which included the Maslach Burnout Inventory, demographic, professional, and leisure data. of the 134 completed questionnaires (55.8%), there was a predominance of male (65.6%), aged 30-50 years (67.9%). Significant lower levels of job satisfaction (47.7%), depersonalization (28.3%), and emotional exhaustion (23.1%) were found. Burnout syndrome showed a prevalence of 10.4%, occurring mainly in men (64.2%), aged 30-50 years (64.2%), with over ten years of experience (64.2%), working in night shifts (71.4%), sedentary (57.1%), and not taking courses unrelated to medicine (78.5%). Of the participants, 50.7% had at least one of three criteria to develop the syndrome and only 8.2% have a low risk to manifest it. the prevalence of burnout is relevant among anesthesiologists in the Federal District. It is advisable to seek strategies for labor restructuring to reduce stress factors and loss of motivation and increase job satisfaction. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessment of dissociation among combat-exposed soldiers with and without posttraumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbaros Özdemir

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dissociation is a disruption of and/or discontinuity in the normal, subjective integration of one or more aspects of psychological functioning, including memory, identity, consciousness, perception, and motor control. A limited number of studies investigated combat-related dissociation. Objective: The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between dissociative symptoms and combat-related trauma. Method: This study included 184 individuals, including 84 patients who were exposed to combat and diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD (Group I, 50 subjects who were exposed to combat but were not diagnosed with PTSD (Group II, and 50 healthy subjects without combat exposure (Group III. The participants were evaluated using the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES to determine their total and sub-factor (i.e., amnesia, depersonalization/derealization, and absorption dissociative symptom levels. In addition, Group I and Group II were compared with respect to the relationship between physical injury and DES scores. Results: The mean DES scores (i.e., total and sub-factors of Group I were higher than those of Group II (p30 was highest in Group I, followed by Group II and Group III. When we compared combat-exposed subjects with high total DES scores, Group I had higher scores than Group II. In contrast, no relationship between the presence of bodily injury and total DES scores could be demonstrated. In addition, our results demonstrated that high depersonalization/derealization factor scores were correlated with bodily injury in PTSD patients. A similar relationship was found between high absorption factor scores and bodily injury for Group II. Conclusions: Our results demonstrated that the level of dissociation was significantly higher in subjects with combat-related PTSD than in subjects without combat-related PTSD. In addition, combat-exposed subjects without PTSD also had higher dissociation levels than

  8. Similar cortical but not subcortical gray matter abnormalities in women with posttraumatic stress disorder with versus without dissociative identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalavi, Sima; Vissia, Eline M; Giesen, Mechteld E; Nijenhuis, Ellert R S; Draijer, Nel; Barker, Gareth J; Veltman, Dick J; Reinders, Antje A T S

    2015-03-30

    Neuroanatomical evidence on the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative disorders is still lacking. We acquired brain structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans from 17 patients with dissociative identity disorder (DID) and co-morbid PTSD (DID-PTSD) and 16 patients with PTSD but without DID (PTSD-only), and 32 healthy controls (HC), and compared their whole-brain cortical and subcortical gray matter (GM) morphological measurements. Associations between GM measurements and severity of dissociative and depersonalization/derealization symptoms or lifetime traumatizing events were evaluated in the patient groups. DID-PTSD and PTSD-only patients, compared with HC, had similarly smaller cortical GM volumes of the whole brain and of frontal, temporal and insular cortices. DID-PTSD patients additionally showed smaller hippocampal and larger pallidum volumes relative to HC, and larger putamen and pallidum volumes relative to PTSD-only. Severity of lifetime traumatizing events and volume of the hippocampus were negatively correlated. Severity of dissociative and depersonalization/derealization symptoms correlated positively with volume of the putamen and pallidum, and negatively with volume of the inferior parietal cortex. Shared abnormal brain structures in DID-PTSD and PTSD-only, small hippocampal volume in DID-PTSD, more severe lifetime traumatizing events in DID-PTSD compared with PTSD-only, and negative correlations between lifetime traumatizing events and hippocampal volume suggest a trauma-related etiology for DID. Our results provide neurobiological evidence for the side-by-side nosological classification of PTSD and DID in the DSM-5. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Burnout Among Anesthetists and Intensive Care Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikalauskas, Audrius; Benetis, Rimantas; Širvinskas, Edmundas; Andrejaitienė, Judita; Kinduris, Šarūnas; Macas, Andrius; Padaiga, Žilvinas

    2018-01-01

    Burnout is a syndrome of depersonalization, emotional exhaustion, and low personal accomplishment. Little is known about burnout in physicians. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of burnout among anesthetists and intensive care physicians, and associations between burnout and personal, as well as professional, characteristics. In total, 220 anesthetists and intensive care physicians were contacted by email, asking them to participate in the study. For depression screening the PHQ-2 questionnaire, for problem drinking, CAGE items were used. Burnout was measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Overall, 34% anesthetists and intensive care physicians indicated high levels of emotional exhaustion, 25% indicated high levels of depersonalization, and 38% showed low personal accomplishment. Burnout was found more frequent among subjects with problem drinking (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.5-6.8), depressiveness (OR 10.2, 95% CI 4.6-22.6), cardiovascular disorders (OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.7-7.1), and digestive disorders (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.2-4.0). Some favorite after-work activities positively correlated with burnout, such as sedative medications abuse (OR 4.8, 95% CI 1.8-12.5), alcohol abuse (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.3-4.5), eating more than usual (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.5), and transferring the accumulated stress to relatives (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.4-5.5). In contrast, reading of non-medical literature seemed to have a protective effect (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.2-0.9). Burnout was highly prevalent among anesthetists and intensive care physicians with two fifths of them meeting diagnostic criteria. It was strongly correlated with problem drinking, depressiveness, cardiovascular and digestive disorders, use of sedatives and overeating.

  10. Stress and Burnout Among Residency Program Directors in United States Radiation Oncology Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aggarwal, Sonya [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford, California (United States); Kusano, Aaron S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (United States); Carter, Justin Nathaniel; Gable, Laura [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford, California (United States); Thomas, Charles R. [Department of Radiation Medicine, Knight Cancer Institute, Oregon Health and Sciences University, Portland, Oregon (United States); Chang, Daniel T., E-mail: dtchang@stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford, California (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate stressors among radiation oncology residency program directors (PDs) and determine the prevalence and indicators of burnout. Methods and Materials: An anonymous, online, cross-sectional survey was offered to PDs of US radiation oncology programs in the fall of 2014. Survey content examined individual and program demographics, perceptions surrounding the role of PD, and commonly encountered stressors. Burnout was assessed using the validated Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey. Results: In total, 47 of 88 PDs (53%) responded to the survey. Although 78% of respondents reported feeling “satisfied” or “highly satisfied” with their current role, 85% planned to remain as PD for <5 years. The most commonly cited stressors were satisfying Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education/Residency Review Committee requirements (47%), administrative duties (30%) and resident morale (28%). Three-quarters of respondents were satisfied that they became PDs. Overall, 11% of respondents met criteria for low burnout, 83% for moderate burnout, and 6% for high burnout. Not having served as a PD at a prior institution correlated with high depersonalization (OR 6.75, P=.04) and overall burnout (odds ratio [OR], 15.6; P=.04). Having more years on faculty prior to becoming PD correlated with less emotional exhaustion (OR, 0.44, P=.05) and depersonalization (OR, 0.20, P=.04). Finally, having dedicated time for PD duties correlated with less emotional exhaustion (OR, 0.27, P=.04). Conclusions: Moderate levels of burnout are common in U.S. radiation oncology PDs with regulatory stressors being common. Despite this, many PDs are fulfilled with their role. Longitudinal studies assessing dynamic external factors and their influence on PD burnout would be beneficial.

  11. [Current status of job burnout in in-service sailors from 13 provinces and cities in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, L C; Dai, J J; Wang, H R; Wang, J L; Miao, L Q; Yang, L R

    2017-12-20

    Objective: To investigate the current status of job burnout in in-service sailors, and to provide a basis for the development of intervention measures for job burnout in sailors. Methods: From September 2015 to May 2016, stratified cluster random sampling was used to select 6 172 in-service sailors from 13 provinces and cities as research subjects. General demographic data including age, education background, and household registration and occupational characteristics such as job position, navigating zone, and nature of employment were collected. The Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS) was used to measure the levels of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, low occupational efficiency, and job burnout, and the influencing factors for job burnout were also analyzed. Results: Of all 6 172 in-service sailors, 112 (1.8%) had a positive result in emotional exhaustion, 870 (14.1%) had a positive result in depersonalization, and 3 517 (57.0%) had a positive result in low occupational efficiency. Of all sailors, 63.3% had job burnout, among whom 54.1% had mild burnout, 8.7% had moderate burnout, and 0.5% had severe burnout. There was a significant difference in the score of job burnout between the sailors with different ages, education backgrounds, types of household registration, job positions, navigating zones, ornature of employment ( P burnout in in-service sailors ( P burnout in the sailors with an age of 30-39 years, education background of junior college or above, urban registration, a job position of second mate/third engineer, a navigating zone of coastal lines, orthe nature of employment of freelance sailor. Conclusion: There is a high incidence rate of job burnout among in-service sailors, and the sailors with a young age, urban registration, a navigating zone of coastal lines, or thenature of employment of freelance sailor tend to have low occupational efficiency. Related measures should be adopted for active intervention.

  12. Prevalence of burnout among musculoskeletal radiologists

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    Chew, Felix S.; Porrino, Jack A.; Mulcahy, Hyojeong; Relyea-Chew, Annemarie [University of Washington, Department of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States); Mulcahy, Michael J. [Central Washington University, Department of Sociology, Ellensburg, WA (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Burnout is a job-related psychological syndrome with three aspects: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and perceived lack of personal accomplishment. Burnout is associated with deleterious effects on both workers and their work. When burnout affects physicians, their well-being, longevity, and care of patients are at risk. Recent studies concerning physician burnout treat specialists such as radiologists as one group. We studied burnout in musculoskeletal (MSK) subspecialist radiologists. An institutional review board exemption was obtained. Society of Skeletal Radiology members received invitations to an anonymous survey that included questions from the Maslach Burnout Inventory trademark (MBI) measuring all three aspects of burnout. The response rate was 36.4% (433/1190). The prevalence of emotional exhaustion was 61.7% (255/413), of depersonalization 53.3% (219/411), and of perceived lack of personal accomplishment 39.6% (161/407). Only 19.5% (79/405) of MSK radiologists reported no burnout, while 80.5% (326/405) reported burnout along one or more dimensions. For all three dimensions, the prevalence was higher and the mean severity was worse for private practice compared with academic practice. The prevalence of burnout was affected more by practice setting than by gender. Burnout prevalence and severity also varied systematically with years since completion of training. Among MSK radiologists, we found a much higher prevalence and greater severity of burnout than has been previously reported for radiologists and other physicians. There were differences in prevalence and severity of burnout among practice settings, genders, and longevity cohorts. (orig.)

  13. [Association between burnout syndrome and anxiety in residents and anesthesiologists of the Federal District].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govêia, Catia Sousa; Cruz, Tiago Tolentino Mendes da; Miranda, Denismar Borges de; Guimarães, Gabriel Magalhães Nunes; Ladeira, Luís Cláudio Araújo; Tolentino, Fernanda D'Ávila Sampaio; Amorim, Marco Aurélio Soares; Magalhães, Edno

    2018-03-26

    There is a shortage of studies addressing the association between burnout syndrome and anxiety among anesthesiologists. Identifying the relationship between these two conditions is of fundamental importance for the prevention, follow-up, and treatment of the professionals. Thus, we evaluated the association between burnout syndrome and anxiety in anesthesiologists and residents of anesthesiology in the Federal District. A cross-sectional study using a convenience sample of residents and anesthesiologists from the Federal District. The correlation between State Trait Anxiety Inventory and Burnout Syndrome (Maslach Burnout Inventory) was tested using multiple linear regression analysis, considering a significance level of 5%. Of the 78 completed forms, there were predominance of males (57.69%), mean age of 42 ± 9.7 years for anesthesiologists and 30 ± 2.9 years for residents. Burnout syndrome had a prevalence of 2.43% among anesthesiologists and 2.70% among resident physicians, while a high risk for its manifestation was 21.95% in anesthesiologists and 29.72% in resident physicians. There was a correlation between state-anxiety and the variables burnout emotional exhaustion, burnout depersonalization, and trait-anxiety. Regarding trait-anxiety, there was no statistically significant correlation with other variables. There is association between state-anxiety and the emotional exhaustion dimensions of burnout, burnout depersonalization, and trait-anxiety. The occurrence of anxiety can negatively influence the way the individual faces daily stressors, which may be related to the use of ineffective strategies to cope with stress. Copyright © 2018 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Burnout among middle-grade doctors of tertiary care hospital in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Adnan; Mordy, Ayedh; Anwar, Eram; Saleh, Noha; Rashid, Imran; Saeed, Mona

    2015-01-01

    Burnout Syndrome is a mental condition caused by chronic exposure to work related stress and is identified by the presence of any of the three distinct elements of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and lack of personal accomplishment. Middle grade doctors are the backbone of any tertiary care hospital / medical institution, partaking in unscheduled and inpatient care. The aim of this study was to assess the presence of burnout syndrome in the middle grade doctors in a tertiary care hospital in Saudi Arabia. The study was conducted at the Armed Forces Hospital Southern Region, Khamis Mushyt, from August to October 2012 in departments with at least fifty inpatient admissions per month and with at least five middle grade (Resident, Registrar and Senior Registrar) doctors. The departments were Obstetrics and Gynecology, Internal Medicine, Pediatrics, Emergency, General Surgery and Nephrology. This was a cross sectional descriptive and analytical study using the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Health Services Survey and a self-reported stressor-identifying questionnaire to ascertain possible precursors of, or contributing factors to, Burnout Syndrome. A total of 96 proformas/questionnaires were collected anonymously to maintain confidentiality and burnout syndrome was identified in as high as 88.5% of the respondents with high emotional exhaustion in 68.8%, high depersonalization in 63.6% and low personal accomplishment in 38.5%. The authors concluded that burnout syndrome is high among the middle-grade doctors in this medical facility and that urgent steps are needed to address this problem to ensure that these physicians remain physically and mentally healthy.

  15. Job Burnout among Iranian Elementary School Teachers of Students with Autism: a Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Zarafshan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Teachers often experience burnout and challenges during their active career. Different studies have shown that those directly involved with teaching children with special needs are more subject to burnout. Due to advance screening tools, more children with autism are now diagnosed and involved in special education. The aim of the present study was to investigate the professional burnout in teachers of children with autism compared to teachers of other children with special needs.Methods: Casual Comparative study design was used for this research. Three self-reported measures (Maslach Burnout Inventory, Job Descriptive Index, and General Health Questionnaire were distributed; clustered sampling selection was conducted to select participants. Ninety three female teachers (32 teachers of children with autism, 30 teachers in schools for deaf and 31 for teachers of children with mental retardation from 12 schools located in 4 districts of Tehran were selected. Pearson’s and Spearman’s correlation statistical tests, analysis of variances and regression were used to analyze the results.Results: Results of the current study revealed a significant difference in criterion validity between the three groups of teachers The three groups were different in terms of general health (p=0.010, emotional exhaustion (p=0.005 and depersonalization (p<0.001; however considering other variables no significant differences were observed. Comparison between groups showed that the average scores of teachers of children with autism were significantly higher than teachers of deaf and hard of hearing and mentally retarded children in general health, fatigue, and depersonalization variables. No significant differences were observed in average scores of teachers for mentally retarded and deaf children.Conclusions: Female teachers’ of children with autism are experiencing significantly higher levels of burnout and general mental health problems compared to

  16. The role of BDNF and HPA axis in the neurobiology of burnout syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onen Sertoz, Ozen; Tolga Binbay, Ibrahim; Koylu, Ersin; Noyan, Aysin; Yildirim, Emre; Elbi Mete, Hayriye

    2008-08-01

    Chronic stress is known to affect the HPA axis. The few clinical studies which have been conducted on HPA-axis function in burnout have produced inconsistent results. The etiological relationship between sBDNF and burnout has not yet been studied. The aim of the current study was to investigate the role of BDNF and HPA axis in the neurobiology of burnout. In the current study 37 clinically diagnosed burnout participants were compared with 35 healthy controls in terms of BDNF, HPA axis, burnout symptoms, depression, anxiety and psychosomatic complaints. Basal serum cortisol, sBDNF and cortisol level after 1 mg DST was sampled. We found no significant differences in terms of HPA-axis function (for basal serum cortisol, p=0.592; for cortisol level after 1 mg DST, p=0.921), but we did find lowered sBDNF levels in burnout group (88.66+/-18.15 pg/ml) as compared to healthy controls (102.18+/-20.92 pg/ml) and the difference was statistically significant (p=0.005). Logistic Regression Analysis revealed that emotional exhaustion (p=0.05), depersonalization (p=0.005) and depression (p=0.025) were significantly associated with burnout. sBDNF levels correlated negatively with emotional exhaustion (r=-,268, p=0.026), depersonalization (r=-,333, p=0.005) and correlated positively with competence (r=0.293, p=0.015) sub-scales of burnout inventory. However, there were no significant relationships between cortisol levels and sBDNF levels (r=0.80, p=0.51), depression, anxiety, psychosomatic complaints and burnout inventory. Our results suggest that low BDNF might contribute to the neurobiology of burnout syndrome and it seems to be associated with burnout symptoms including altered mood and cognitive functions.

  17. [Burnout and teamwork in primary care teams].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilà Falgueras, Maite; Cruzate Muñoz, Carlota; Orfila Pernas, Francesc; Creixell Sureda, Joan; González López, María Pilar; Davins Miralles, Josep

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of burnout and the perception of teamwork in Primary Care teams from Barcelona. Multicenter cross-sectional. Primary Health Care Teams from Barcelona. Institut Català de la Salut. All permanent employees or temporary professionals of all categories from 51 teams (N=2398). A total of 879 responses (36.7%) were obtained. The Maslach Burnout Inventory questionnaire, with 3 dimensions, was sent by emotional exhaustion (AE), depersonalization (DP), and personal accomplishment (RP). Burnout is considered present when two or more dimensions scored high marks. Perception of teamwork and evaluation of leaders was evaluated using an ad hoc questionnaire. The prevalence of burnout was17.2% (two or more dimensions affected), and 46.2% had at least one of the three dimensions with a high level. A high level of AE was found in 38.2%, of DP in 23.8%, and 7.7% had low RP. Almost half (49.2%) believe that teamwork is encouraged in their workplace. Social workers overall, have a higher average of dimensions affected at a high level, followed by administrative personnel, dentists, doctors and nurses (p<0.001). Permanent staff have a greater degree of emotional exhaustion (p<0.002). Those who rated their leaders worst and least rated teamwork had more emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and higher level of burnout in general (p<0.001). The level of burnout among professionals is considerable, with differences existing between occupational categories. Teamwork and appreciating their leaders protect from burnout. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. A study of job stress and burnout and related factors in the hospital personnel of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarghouei, Mohammad Reza; Sorbi, Mohammad Hossein; Abarghouei, Mehdi; Bidaki, Reza; Yazdanpoor, Shirin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Job stress has become one of the main factors in reducing efficiency and the loss of human resources that may cause physical and psychological adverse effects in employees. Hospital personnel are facing different stressful events, such as birth, pain and death, in a single day. Hence, identifying the job stress rates and related factors may be effective in offering proper strategies. Therefore, the present research was done to study the rate of job stress and burnout in hospital personnel and compare some of the related factors in hospitals personnel of Yazd, Iran. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 306 hospital personnel (Male: 114, Female: 192) in Yazd in 2015–16. The data were collected using a demographic questionnaire, Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), and Hospital Stress (HSS-35). SPSS-16 software and Pearson-product moment correlation and independent-samples t-test were used for data analysis. Results The mean job stress score was above average. The mean burnout dimensions that were above average included emotional exhaustion (21.7 ± 7.27), depersonalization (9.61 ± 3.74) and personal accomplishment (26.80 ± 6.17). While Pearson correlation revealed a significant positive relationship between job stress, emotional exhaustion, and depersonalization, there was a negative relationship between job stress and personal accomplishment (p hospital personnel is worrying and it has adverse effects on personnel health, effective strategies on physical and mental health, such as employment support and stress management training, seem crucial to enhance physical and psychological health of hospital personnel. PMID:27648189

  19. Prevalence of burnout among musculoskeletal radiologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chew, Felix S.; Porrino, Jack A.; Mulcahy, Hyojeong; Relyea-Chew, Annemarie; Mulcahy, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Burnout is a job-related psychological syndrome with three aspects: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and perceived lack of personal accomplishment. Burnout is associated with deleterious effects on both workers and their work. When burnout affects physicians, their well-being, longevity, and care of patients are at risk. Recent studies concerning physician burnout treat specialists such as radiologists as one group. We studied burnout in musculoskeletal (MSK) subspecialist radiologists. An institutional review board exemption was obtained. Society of Skeletal Radiology members received invitations to an anonymous survey that included questions from the Maslach Burnout Inventory trademark (MBI) measuring all three aspects of burnout. The response rate was 36.4% (433/1190). The prevalence of emotional exhaustion was 61.7% (255/413), of depersonalization 53.3% (219/411), and of perceived lack of personal accomplishment 39.6% (161/407). Only 19.5% (79/405) of MSK radiologists reported no burnout, while 80.5% (326/405) reported burnout along one or more dimensions. For all three dimensions, the prevalence was higher and the mean severity was worse for private practice compared with academic practice. The prevalence of burnout was affected more by practice setting than by gender. Burnout prevalence and severity also varied systematically with years since completion of training. Among MSK radiologists, we found a much higher prevalence and greater severity of burnout than has been previously reported for radiologists and other physicians. There were differences in prevalence and severity of burnout among practice settings, genders, and longevity cohorts. (orig.)

  20. Occupational stressors and coping as determinants of burnout in female hospice nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, N

    2001-02-01

    Stressors, coping and demographic variables were examined as predictors of burnout in a sample of hospice nurses. The study aimed to investigate the level of burnout among hospice nurses; to ascertain which aspects of nursing work were positively or negatively related to burnout; to examine the relative contributions made by these different variables and to suggest individual and organizational interventions to reduce levels of burnout. Eighty-nine female nurses from nine hospices completed a battery of questionnaires comprising the Maslach Burnout Inventory, Nursing Stress Scale, Ways of Coping Scale and a demographic information form. In general, the level of burnout (characterized by high emotional exhaustion, high depersonalization of patients and low personal accomplishment) was found to be low. In multiple regression analyses, 'death and dying', "conflict with staff', 'accepting responsibility' and higher nursing grade contributed to emotional exhaustion. 'Conflict with staff', 'inadequate preparation', 'escape' and reduced 'planful problem-solving' contributed to depersonalization. 'Inadequate preparation', 'escape', reduced 'positive reappraisal' and fewer professional qualifications contributed to lower levels of personal accomplishment. Overall, stressors made the greatest contribution to burnout and demographic factors contributed the least. The importance of not labelling individuals as good and bad 'copers' was discussed, as the effectiveness of a strategy may depend on the situation. It was concluded that the investigation of problem-focused and emotion-focused coping in relation to burnout, was oversimplifying the coping-burnout relationship. Suggestions for stress management included staff training in counselling skills, monitoring staff conflict, implementing stress inoculation training to teach appropriate use of coping skills and finally, monitoring particularly vulnerable groups of hospice staff such as unqualified nursing assistants and

  1. Burnout Among Otolaryngology Residents in Saudi Arabia: A Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrees, Turki; Badri, Motasim; Islam, Tahera; Alqahtani, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    Determine the prevalence of, and associated risk factors for, burnout among otolaryngologist residents in Saudi Arabia. A cross-section study of multicenter hospitals in Saudi Arabia conducted in March 2013. Registered residents in Saudi Otolaryngology Board Program. The Maslach Burnout Inventory was used to measure burnout status. Questions supplementary to the Maslach Burnout Inventory were also included to identify associated potential risk factors such as demographic data, resident satisfaction, and work conditions. Of the initial 123 questionnaires that were distributed, 85 yielded responses, a rate of 69%. The mean age (standard deviation [SD]) of respondents was 29 (2.3) years. Of those, 67% (57/85) were men and 66% (55/85) were married. Resident levels were delineated: level 2, 19%; level 3, 33%; level 4, 29%; and level 5, 19%. The mean number of on-call days/month (SD) was 7 (2), clinics/week (SD) was 3 (1), sleep hours/day (SD) was 6 (1), and operations/week (SD) was 2 (1). The mean emotional exhaustion (EE) and depersonalization scores were high at 29.5 (SD = 9.6) and 10.7 (SD = 6), respectively. The mean personal accomplishment was low at 32.33 (SD = 6). The mean of all subscales did not differ by sex (EE p = 0.5; depersonalization p = 0.09; personal accomplishment p = 0.4). Mean EE differed by marital status, which was 31.2, 31.3, and 25.6 for married, divorced, and single, respectively, analysis of variance test p = 0.045. Burnout prevalence was found to be high among otolaryngologist residents in Saudi Arabia. The associated variables examined in this study should be addressed to decrease this level of burnout and provide residents with a less stressful work environment. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Job Burnout among Iranian Elementary School Teachers of Students with Autism: a Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Ahmadi, Fatemeh; Arsalani, Akram

    2013-01-01

    Objective Teachers often experience burnout and challenges during their active career. Different studies have shown that those directly involved with teaching children with special needs are more subject to burnout. Due to advance screening tools, more children with autism are now diagnosed and involved in special education. The aim of the present study was to investigate the professional burnout in teachers of children with autism compared to teachers of other children with special needs. Methods Casual Comparative study design was used for this research. Three self-reported measures (Maslach Burnout Inventory, Job Descriptive Index, and General Health Questionnaire) were distributed; clustered sampling selection was conducted to select participants. Ninety three female teachers (32 teachers of children with autism, 30 teachers in schools for deaf and 31 for teachers of children with mental retardation) from 12 schools located in 4 districts of Tehran were selected. Pearson's and Spearman's correlation statistical tests, analysis of variances and regression were used to analyze the results. Results Results of the current study revealed a significant difference in criterion validity between the three groups of teachers The three groups were different in terms of general health (p=0.010), emotional exhaustion (p=0.005) and depersonalization (pteachers of children with autism were significantly higher than teachers of deaf and hard of hearing and mentally retarded children in general health, fatigue, and depersonalization variables. No significant differences were observed in average scores of teachers for mentally retarded and deaf children. Conclusions Female teachers’ of children with autism are experiencing significantly higher levels of burnout and general mental health problems compared to teachers of children with other disabilities requiring special education. PMID:23682248

  3. A Thematic Inquiry into the Burnout Experience of Australian Solo-Practicing Clinical Psychologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Trent E; Crowther, Andrew; Drummond, Sally

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Burnout is conceptualized as a syndrome that consists of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and decreased personal accomplishment. Despite the increased frequency and severity of burnout in the Western world, there is limited published research regarding the experiences of clinical psychologists who have had burnout. The present study examines clinical psychologists' different experiences of burnout in Australia. Design and Methods: In the year 2015, six privately practicing and solo-employed clinical psychologists provided rich qualitative data by participating in semi-structured interviews. Thematic analysis was the method used to analyze clinical psychologists' natural accounts of their burnout experiences. Using NVivo, emerging themes were identified through coding 'first order constructs' and then axial code 'second order constructs.' Findings: Clinical psychologists indicated that their roles are demanding and a diverse range of symptoms, including the enduring effects of burnout, mental stress, fatigue, decreased personal accomplishment, negative affect, depersonalization, reduced productivity and motivation, and insomnia. They identified precursors of burnout, including excessive workload and hours of work, life stresses, mismanaged workload, and transference. Clinical psychologists suggested that protective factors of burnout include knowledge and years worked in direct care, and trusting and long-term relationships. They indicated that the barriers to overcoming burnout include the fallacy that their clients' expectations and needs are more important than their own, the financial cost of working in private practice, contemporary knowledge and inadequate education regarding self-care, and time constraints. Discussion and Conclusion: The findings presented in this study provide psychologists and other health professionals with an insight about the burnout experience and inform professionals of the mental shortcomings of working as a solo

  4. Stress and Burnout Among Residency Program Directors in United States Radiation Oncology Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, Sonya; Kusano, Aaron S.; Carter, Justin Nathaniel; Gable, Laura; Thomas, Charles R.; Chang, Daniel T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate stressors among radiation oncology residency program directors (PDs) and determine the prevalence and indicators of burnout. Methods and Materials: An anonymous, online, cross-sectional survey was offered to PDs of US radiation oncology programs in the fall of 2014. Survey content examined individual and program demographics, perceptions surrounding the role of PD, and commonly encountered stressors. Burnout was assessed using the validated Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey. Results: In total, 47 of 88 PDs (53%) responded to the survey. Although 78% of respondents reported feeling “satisfied” or “highly satisfied” with their current role, 85% planned to remain as PD for <5 years. The most commonly cited stressors were satisfying Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education/Residency Review Committee requirements (47%), administrative duties (30%) and resident morale (28%). Three-quarters of respondents were satisfied that they became PDs. Overall, 11% of respondents met criteria for low burnout, 83% for moderate burnout, and 6% for high burnout. Not having served as a PD at a prior institution correlated with high depersonalization (OR 6.75, P=.04) and overall burnout (odds ratio [OR], 15.6; P=.04). Having more years on faculty prior to becoming PD correlated with less emotional exhaustion (OR, 0.44, P=.05) and depersonalization (OR, 0.20, P=.04). Finally, having dedicated time for PD duties correlated with less emotional exhaustion (OR, 0.27, P=.04). Conclusions: Moderate levels of burnout are common in U.S. radiation oncology PDs with regulatory stressors being common. Despite this, many PDs are fulfilled with their role. Longitudinal studies assessing dynamic external factors and their influence on PD burnout would be beneficial.

  5. BURNOUT SYNDROME, JOB SATISFACTION LEVELS AND RELATED FACTORS IN CENTRAL TRABZON PROVINCE PRIMARY HEALTH CENTER WORKERS

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    Asuman YAVUZYILMAZ

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Burnout manifests itself in individuals working in professions involving face-to-face contact with the public in depersonalization towards others, feelings of emotional exhaustion, and reduced feelings of personal achievement and adequacy. The objective in this study was to determine burnout and job satisfaction levels and related factors in primary health center personnel in the central part of the Turkish province of Trabzon. A total of 227 people working in central Trabzon province primary health centers participated in this cross-sectional study, a level of 90.4%. The Maslach Burnout Inventory was used to determine burnout level and the Job Satisfaction Inventory for job satisfaction. Burnout levels in health personnel were high among women (15.06±5.57, married individuals (14.80±5.65 and those dissatisfied with their working conditions (16.80±5.81; physicians (5.00±2.79, those without children (5.19±2.54, those whose spouses were not working (4.69±2.70 and smokers (4.71±3.29 had a high level of depersonalization; and married individuals were determined to have a low personal achievement level (10.24±4.14 (p=0.020, p=0.028, p=0.011, p=0.038, p=0.028, p=0.012 and p=0.010, respectively. In conclusion, gender, marital status, age, satisfaction with working conditions and income level were determined to be related to burnout and job satisfaction. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(1.000: 41-50

  6. BURNOUT SYNDROME, JOB SATISFACTION LEVELS AND RELATED FACTORS IN CENTRAL TRABZON PROVINCE PRIMARY HEALTH CENTER WORKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat TOPBAS

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Burnout manifests itself in individuals working in professions involving face-to-face contact with the public in depersonalization towards others, feelings of emotional exhaustion, and reduced feelings of personal achievement and adequacy. The objective in this study was to determine burnout and job satisfaction levels and related factors in primary health center personnel in the central part of the Turkish province of Trabzon. A total of 227 people working in central Trabzon province primary health centers participated in this cross-sectional study, a level of 90.4%. The Maslach Burnout Inventory was used to determine burnout level and the Job Satisfaction Inventory for job satisfaction. Burnout levels in health personnel were high among women (15.06±5.57, married individuals (14.80±5.65 and those dissatisfied with their working conditions (16.80±5.81; physicians (5.00±2.79, those without children (5.19±2.54, those whose spouses were not working (4.69±2.70 and smokers (4.71±3.29 had a high level of depersonalization; and married individuals were determined to have a low personal achievement level (10.24±4.14 (p=0.020, p=0.028, p=0.011, p=0.038, p=0.028, p=0.012 and p=0.010, respectively. In conclusion, gender, marital status, age, satisfaction with working conditions and income level were determined to be related to burnout and job satisfaction. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(1: 41-50

  7. Chinese Anesthesiologists Have High Burnout and Low Job Satisfaction: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hange; Zuo, Mingzhang; Gelb, Adrian W; Zhang, Biao; Zhao, Xiaohui; Yao, Dongdong; Xia, Di; Huang, Yuguang

    2018-03-01

    The Chinese health care system must meet the needs of 19% of the world's population. Despite recent economic growth, health care resources are unevenly distributed. This creates the potential for job stress and burnout. We therefore conducted a survey among anesthesiologists in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region focusing on job satisfaction and burnout to determine the incidence and associated factors. A large cross-sectional study was performed in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region of China. The anonymous questionnaire was designed to collect and analyze the following information: (1) demographic characteristics and employer information; (2) job satisfaction assessed by Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire; (3) burnout assessed by Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Service Survey; and (4) sleep pattern and physician-patient communication. Surveys were completed and returned from 211 hospitals (response rate 74%) and 2873 anesthesiologists (response rate 70%) during the period of June to August 2015. The overall job satisfaction score of Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire was 65.3 ± 11.5. Among the participants, 69% (95% confidence interval [CI], 67%-71%) met the criteria for burnout. The prevalence of high emotional exhaustion, high depersonalization, and low personal accomplishment was 57% (95% CI, 55%-59%), 49% (95% CI, 47%-51%), and 57% (95% CI, 55%-58%), respectively. Using multivariable logistic regression analysis, we found that age, hospital category, working hours per week, caseload per day, frequency of perceived challenging cases, income, and sleep quality were independent variables associated with burnout. Anesthesiologists with a high level of depersonalization tended to engage in shorter preoperative conversations with patients, provide less information about pain or the procedure, and to have less empathy with them. The anesthesiologists in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region of China expressed a below-average level of job satisfaction, and suffered a

  8. Regular and problematic leisure-time Internet use in the community: results from a German population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutel, Manfred E; Brähler, Elmar; Glaesmer, Heide; Kuss, Daria J; Wölfling, Klaus; Müller, Kai W

    2011-05-01

    In our study, we attempted to identify systematically the use of Internet applications in the German population in order to derive risk factors for problematic use. In a representative survey of the German population, we queried 1,401 women and 1,111 men between the ages of 14 and 94 years by specific questions and standardized questionnaires on depression, anxiety (HADS), and depersonalization (CDS-2). The majority of the German population (55%) used the Internet in their leisure time. Users were younger and had a higher socioeconomic status (education, employment, income). Leisure-time use included e-mail and information search, as well as shopping. Chatting, online communities, games and sex were domains of young, mostly male adults. Overall, 9.3% reported at least one negative consequence of Internet use, especially neglect of recreational activities and problems with family/partner, work or education, and health. Problematic use was associated with longer average daily online times, avoidance of negative emotions, preference for certain applications (gaming, gambling, online sex) and an increased rate of depersonalization. The extent of Internet use per se is not sufficient as an addiction criterion and other negative consequences; rather, specific adverse consequences need to be identified. If the Internet is used excessively to cope with negative affect states and alternative means of coping (e.g., social support, health-promoting behavior) are diminished, a vicious cycle may ensue with increasing stress and reliance on the reinforcing properties of certain online activities that may finally lead to addictive behavior.

  9. Burnout syndrome in nursing undergraduate students

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    Juliana Inhauser Riceti Acioli Barboza

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To classify nursing students on a socio-demographic basisin order to check whether they are acquainted with the meaning ofthe term burnout syndrome; to check for the presence of the burnoutsyndrome and assess its levels in undergraduate nurses. Methods:A cross-section study was carried out of 102 students at the NursingSchool of the Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein. A questionnaire wasmade up by the authors and applied along with the Maslachs BurnoutInventory (MBI. Results: Ninety-five percent of students were female,aged 18 to 50 years, 86% were single and 51% reported having jobs.Most of the surveyed subjects were not acquainted with the termburnout syndrome. Out of the total of 39 students, 56.9% classified thedisease as being psychological and caused by professional stress. Asfor the mean MBI subscales, it was found that a relatively high mean(28.6% referred a low feeling of professional accomplishment, a low/moderate mean (23.09% were emotionally exhausted and (9.176%felt depersonalized, which intrinsically proves the absence of burnoutsyndrome in the sample. As for burnout dimensions, the findingsshowed that 73.5% are at a low/moderate level of emotional exhaustion;70.53% suffer from a low/moderate level of depersonalization; and 76%reported a high feeling of professional accomplishment. Conclusion:High means were found at the dimensions of reduced professionalaccomplishment, which calls for the need to intervene in the caseof these students so that they may recall their primary initiativeconcerning their professional choice.

  10. Efecto del ambiente psicosocial y de la satisfacción laboral en el síndrome de burnout en médicos especialistas Effect of psychosocial work environment and job satisfaction on burnout syndrome among specialist physicians

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    Vicenta Escribà-Agüir

    2008-08-01

    specialist physicians throughout Spain. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 1,021 Spanish physicians. The outcome variables were the 3 dimensions of burnout syndrome: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment. The explanatory variables were work psychosocial risk factors and job satisfaction evaluated by a stress scale specifically designed for physicians. Adjusted odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated by logistic regression. Results: The probability of high emotional exhaustion and depersonalization were greater in physicians exposed to a high level of contact with suffering and death and to a negative impact of work on home life. The probability of high emotional exhaustion was greater among physicians with a high work overload. The risk of low personal accomplishment was higher among physicians with low professional satisfaction and those without training activities. Dissatisfaction with relationships with patients and relatives had a negative effect on the 3 dimensions of burnout. Conclusions: Psychosocial work environment and job satisfaction have a negative effect on burnout syndrome, especially on emotional exhaustion and depersonalization.

  11. [Cenesthopathies: a disorder of background emotions at the crossroads of the cognitive sciences and phenomenology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graux, J; Lemoine, M; Gaillard, P; Camus, V

    2011-10-01

    Cenesthesia and cenesthopathy have played a fundamental role in 19th and early 20th century French and German psychiatry. Cenesthesia refers to the internal, global, implicit and affective perception of one's own body. The concept of cenesthopathy was coined by Dupre and Camus in 1907 to describe a clinical entity characterized by abnormal and strange bodily sensations. In this review, we examine the history of these concepts and the influence they have had on clinical, nosographical and phenomenological psychiatry and on cognitive neuropsychiatry. We performed a narrative review of the published research literature. Classical French and German psychiatrists have written extensively on cenesthesia and cenesthopathy although these notions are no longer in the mainstream of contemporary psychiatry. However, they are still present in contemporary psychiatric nosography in the form of some controversial clinical entities clearly related to cenesthesia such as cenesthetic schizophrenia, hypochondriacal monothematic delusions, or the Capgras and the Cotard syndromes. These clinical entities are all associated with a state of depersonalization. We point out the similarities between Ey's description of the depersonalization syndrome, especially in psychosis, and the characteristics of cenesthesia. Philosophers like Sartre or Merleau-Ponty have developed the concept of cenesthesia, and in particular have added new concepts like "body schema". Similarly, phenomenological psychiatrists like Minkowski or Tellenbach have attempted to describe psychiatric disorders associated with cenesthesia and have also proposed new concepts (i.e. atmospheric sense) in order to understand them better. More recently, cognitive neuropsychiatry has tried to discover the mechanisms, which cause or contribute to the genesis of delusions. The majority of delusion theories developed in cognitive neuropsychiatry consider that the explanation of monothematic delusions involves one or two explanatory

  12. Desgaste profesional en el personal sanitario y su relación con los factores personales y ambientales Burnout syndrome in health workers and relationship with personal and environmental factors

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    Armand Grau

    2005-12-01

    workers and to determine its relationship with personal and environmental factors. Methods: A total of 2290 health workers from five hospitals in the province of Girona (Spain were invited to participate. Interviewees were given a specifically designed questionnaire, a questionnaire on organizational climate, and the Spanish version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory, which includes three scales: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment. Results: Responses were received from 1095 health workers (a response rate of 47.8%. A high level of emotional exhaustion was found in 41.6% of staff members, especially among doctors and nurses; a high level of depersonalization was found in 23%, mainly among doctors, and reduced personal accomplishment was found in 27.9%, mainly among technicians and doctors. Multiple logistic regression revealed that a high level of emotional exhaustion was associated with frequent consumption of tranquilizers or antidepressants, whereas optimism and job satisfaction showed an inverse association. The variables that were inversely associated with a high level of depersonalization were the number of years in the profession, optimism, evaluation of work as being useful and the perception of being valued by others. Reduced personal accomplishment was also inversely associated with optimism, satisfaction with the usefulness of one's work, and satisfaction with teamwork. Conclusions: In view of the results obtained, to reduce professional burnout in hospitals, optimism and a sense of self-worth among individuals should be encouraged and the organizational environment should be improved.

  13. Study of the relationship between nurses’ work environment indices and their burnout aspects in TUMS teaching hospitals

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    M Arab

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available   Background and Aims: In a healthy organization, staff's physical and mental health is as important and considerable as production and productivity. Burnout is a result of long-term tension and stress in the job environment. Its symptoms occur when employees' power and potency is not enough for the job environment demands. Emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and lack of personal accomplishment are three dimensions of burnout. In this survey we studied the nursing job environment considering nurses' participation in hospital affairs, foundation for quality of nursing care, managerial support and leadership, staffing/resource adequacy and collegial nurse-physician relation and their effects on nurses' burnout level.   Methods:   This survey is a cross-sectional, descriptive-analytical study to review of nursing job environment on nurses' burnout dimensions in TUMS (Tehran … general-teaching hospitals in 1386. For this study, 214 nurses (confidence interval %95, powers %80 and attrition %30 were selected randomly. Data were gathered using Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI and Nursing Work Index(NWI questionnaires filled in by studied nurses.   The validity of these questionnaires determined using masters' instructions. To determine the reliability of NWI questionnaire, a pilot study was conducted and its reliability coefficient (Cronbach’s alpha was 0.88. The reliability and internal validity of MBI questionnaire had been proved in previous studies. Data were analyzed by SPSS 11.5 and Logistic regression and Chi-Square test.   Results:   Results show that hospital type and nurses' sex have effects on lack of personal accomplishment frequency and hospital type influences lack of personal accomplishment severity. Depersonalization frequency is effected negatively by decreasing foundation for quality of nursing care (OR=2.326 and lack of managerial support and leadership (OR=4.553 and limited collegial nurse-physician relation (OR=1

  14. BURNOUT EXPERIENCE AMONG TEACHERS: A CASE STUDY

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    Agata Letizia Caruso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Burnout is a psychological syndrome, stemming as a response to chronic interpersonal jobs stressors, characterized by three principal dimensions: Exhaustion (the state of depletion of the individual’s emotional and physical resources due to the difficulties in facing customers’ demands;  Depersonalization (the negative, off-putting and extremely distant  reaction to diverse facets of the job; reduced Personal Accomplishment (referring to  reduced self-esteem concerning competence, achievement and productivity at work. (Maslach and Jackson, 1981. The stream of reforms that has recently changed the Italian School, by favoring educational deregulation and increasing levels of autonomy for school boards, has increased Burnout levels among school teachers, who may feel thorn between their internal expectations (personal beliefs, motivations and professional style and the external pressures emerging not only from students, but also from a more and more demanding school organization, oriented towards efficiency. Various contributions have posited that in the Burnout prevention a pivotal role is played by the Interpersonal Trust at work both among teachers and between teachers and the School Manager (Ceyanes and Slater, 2005; Timms et al., 2006; Van Maele and Van Houtte, 2014, and by a good School Climate perception (Aron and Milicic, 2000; Dorman, 2003; Grayson and Alvarez, 2008. The present contribution aims at analyzing the relation between each of the three aspects of Burnout and, respectively, the diverse facets of Interpersonal Trust and the components of School Climate. Data have been collected by means of a survey encompassing three well-known instruments, namely the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI; Maslach and Jackson, 1981, the Interpersonal Trust at Work (ITW; Cook and Wall, 1980  and the Revised School Level Environment Questionnaire (SLEQ-Revised; Johnson et al., 2007. 120 teachers have been interviewed in six schools of Southern

  15. Factors associated with the burnout syndrome among professionals in pharmaceutical manufacturing industry and marketing 1234

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    Jovanović Vesna R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Certain authors describe some professions in the healthcare industry as the more susceptible ones to developing a burnout syndrome, while others suggest psychosocial aspects of the workplace as the primary cause in its creation, but not the aspects of the job itself. The main objective of the research was to investigate which specific factors were associated with the burnout syndrome among professionals working in pharmaceutical manufacturing industry and marketing. The study was conducted in June of 2016 as a cross-sectional study and it included 75 university educated professionals from the area of pharmaceutical industry and marketing employed in several local as well as internationally renowned pharmaceutical companies located in Belgrade. The participants were surveyed anonymously. The instruments used in the study were: a general socio-demographic questionnaire, an assertiveness self-evaluation questionnaire and the Maslach Burnout Inventory. An analysis of the responses in the burnout syndrome self-evaluation questionnaires showed that the highest level of burnout was expressed through reduced personal accomplishment (53%. The average assertiveness scores were the lowest in the individuals who demonstrated the highest level of emotional exhaustion (p=0.003, depersonalization (p=0.004, and the highest inefficiency on professional accomplishment scale (p=0.001. A statistically significant difference was observed in frequency and extent of emotional exhaustion with respect to respondents' gender (x2=10.779; p<0.05, as well as the line of business (x2=6.493; p<0.05. Levels of depersonalization are influenced by: line of work (x2=5.393; p<0.05, age (p=0.004, total years of service (p=0.009 and years of service in the profession (p=0.006. A sense of reduced personal accomplishment is influenced by a respondents' profession (x2=10.922; p<0.05 and line of business (x2=7.283; p<0.05. The results obtained in this study might help in identifying

  16. A Survey of Headache Medicine Specialists on Career Satisfaction and Burnout.

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    Evans, Randolph W; Ghosh, Kamalika

    2015-01-01

    Physicians report increasing rates of career dissatisfaction and professional burnout, which may be related to the practice environment and subspecialty. There has never been a survey of professional burnout among headache medicine specialists. The aim of the present survey was to learn more about how headache medicine physicians are affected by these issues. An email survey was sent to 749 physician members of the American Headache Society with questions or statements about demographics, professional quality of life and satisfaction, future practice plans, and professional burnout using the Maslach Burnout Inventory. In a sample of 127 headache medicine specialists, 66 (57.4%) physicians reported symptoms of professional burnout reflected by high Emotional Exhaustion and/or high Depersonalization. There is widespread dissatisfaction with work schedules, government regulations, implementation of the Affordable Care Act, insurance company policies, malpractice concerns, patient telephone calls, and compensation. Sixty-two percent of respondents concur that headache medicine is becoming more complicated without patient benefit, 14% concur that headache medicine specialists are fairly compensated, and 59% would go into headache medicine again if they were fourth year medical students. In the next 1 to 3 years, 21.3% plan to cut back on hours, 14.2% plan to cut back on patients seen, and 12.6% plan to switch to a cash practice. Medicine and healthcare are changing in such a way that 33.9% concur that they will accelerate their retirement plans. Headache medicine specialists have one of the highest rates of burnout compared to other physician specialists, which is twice the rate of working adults. Physicians' age and practice environment and experience are related with their career satisfaction and professional burnout. Some attributes of career satisfaction can decrease burnout by reducing emotional exhaustion and depersonalization and by enhancing personal

  17. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HOFSTEDE ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE AND EMPLOYEES JOB BURNOUT IN HOSPITALS OF TEHRAN UNIVERSITY OF MEDICAL SCIENCES 2014-2015.

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    Farzianpour, Fereshteh; Abbasi, Mahya; Foruoshani, Abbas Rahimi; Pooyan, Ebrahim Jafari

    2016-02-01

    Organizational culture plays a supportive role in modification of structure and implementation of new management systems. So, the management of organizational culture with cultural elements recognition plays an important role in improving the efficacy and effectiveness of the organization. On the other hand, the health sector requires healthy and motivated practitioners and staff to achieve these goals. Job burnout as a response to environmental stressors causes some changes in attitude and behavior towards work and work environment, and factors such as organizational culture effect on it. This study aimed to clarify the relationship between organizational culture and employee's burnout. This is a descriptive and cross-sectional study. The study population included all clinical staff (physicians and nurses) and nonclinical (administrative and financial) in hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2014-2015. Among them, 387 participants were selected using simple stratified random sampling. In order to collect the required data, the Maslach Burnout Inventory (1981) and Hofstede's organizational cultural questionnaire (1988) were used. Also Cronbach's alpha obtained 0.836 and 0.913 for them, respectively. In order to analyze the data, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, multiple regression, independent t-test and binomial test were performed using SPSS 20. Results showed that organizational culture in studied population were masculine, collectivism with high uncertainty avoidance and relatively equitable power distance. Mean score for emotional exhaustion was (31.4) and most of participants 315 (40.6%) had average emotional exhaustion. Mean score for depersonalization was (21.16) and most of participants 315 (82.1%) had high depersonalization. Mean score for personal accomplishment was (30.02) and most of participants 280 (73.2%) had high personal accomplishment. Multiple correlation coefficient showed that there is a significant relationship between

  18. Occupational burnout among radiographers, sonographers and radiologists in Australia and New Zealand: Findings from a national survey.

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    Singh, Nabita; Knight, Kellie; Wright, Caroline; Baird, Marilyn; Akroyd, Duane; Adams, Robert D; Schneider, Michal E

    2017-06-01

    Evidence demonstrates that health care professionals are more prone to burnout than other professionals due to the emotionally taxing interactions they have with their patients on a daily basis. The aims of this study were to measure occupational burnout levels among sonographers, radiographers and radiologists and to examine predictors of burnout according to demographic characteristics. A cross-sectional online survey was administered in 2010 to radiographers, sonographers and radiologists who were members of the following professional bodies: Australian Institute of Radiography, Australian Sonographers Association and The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists. The Maslach Burnout Inventory was used to measure burnout levels for each profession. Data were analysed using SPSS Ver 20 (IBM, Chicago, IL, USA) statistical software. A total of 613 radiographers, 121 sonographers and 35 radiologists participated in the survey. Radiographers, sonographers and radiologists had a high mean (±SD) burnout score for emotional exhaustion (39.9 ± 8.5, 42.2 ± 8.5 and 44.9 ± 7.1 respectively) and depersonalization (18.9 ± 5.5, 20.3 ± 5.8 and 20.6 ± 5.6) compared to MBI norms. Radiographers also had low personal achievement (30.8 ± 5.5) compared to MBI norms. Radiographers and sonographers who were male, worked >10 hours overtime and spent <10% of their time training students per week had significantly higher depersonalization scores (p < 0.05). Burnout levels among radiographers, sonographers and radiologists are high and likely to vary according to some demographic and work-related factors. Further research is needed to examine ways to alleviate burnout in these professions so that loss of experienced staff due to burnout can be minimized and quality of patient care can be maintained. © 2016 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  19. Vocation and avocation: leisure activities correlate with professional engagement, but not burnout, in a cross-sectional survey of UK doctors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Sir William Osler suggested in 1899 that avocations (leisure activities) in doctors are related to an increased sense of vocation (professional engagement) and a decreased level of burnout. This study evaluated those claims in a large group of doctors practicing in the UK while taking into account a wide range of background variables. Methods A follow-up questionnaire was sent to 4,457 UK-qualified doctors who had been included in four previous studies of medical school selection and training, beginning in 1980, 1985, 1990 and 1989/1991. A total of 2,845 (63.8%) doctors returned the questionnaire. Questions particularly asked about work engagement, satisfaction with medicine as a career, and personal achievement (Vocation/engagement), stress, emotional exhaustion, and depersonalization (BurnedOut), and 29 different leisure activities (Avocation/Leisure), as well as questions on personality, empathy, work experience, and demography. Results Doctors reporting more Avocation/Leisure activities tended to be women, to have older children, to be less surface-rational, more extravert, more open to experience, less agreeable, and to fantasize more. Doctors who were more BurnedOut tended to be men, to be more sleep-deprived, to report a greater workload and less choice and independence in their work, to have higher neuroticism, lower extraversion and lower agreeableness scores, and to have lower self-esteem. In contrast, doctors with a greater sense of Vocation/engagement, tended to see more patients, to have greater choice and independence at work, to have a deep approach to work, to have a more supportive-receptive work environment, to be more extravert and more conscientious, and to report greater self-esteem. Avocation/Leisure activities correlated significantly with Vocation/engagement, even after taking into account 25 background variables describing demography, work, and personality, whereas BurnedOut showed no significant correlation with Avocation

  20. Qualified and Unqualified (N-R C) mental health nursing staff--minor differences in sources of stress and burnout. A European multi-centre study.

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    Sorgaard, Knut W; Ryan, Peter; Dawson, Ian

    2010-06-14

    Unqualified/non-registered caregivers (N-R Cs) will continue to play important roles in the mental health services. This study compares levels of burnout and sources of stress among qualified and N-R Cs working in acute mental health care. A total of 196 nursing staff --124 qualified staff (mainly nurses) and 72 N-R Cs with a variety of different educational backgrounds--working in acute wards or community mental teams from 5 European countries filled out the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), the Mental Health Professional Scale (MHPSS) and the Psychosocial Work Environment and Stress Questionnaire (PWSQ). (a) The univariate differences were generally small and restricted to a few variables. Only Social relations (N-R Cs being less satisfied) at Work demands (nurses reporting higher demands) were different at the .05 level. (b) The absolute scores both groups was highest on variables that measured feelings of not being able to influence a work situation characterised by great demands and insufficient resources. Routines and educational programs for dealing with stress should be available on a routine basis. (c) Multivariate analyses identified three extreme groups: (i) a small group dominated by unqualified staff with high depersonalization, (ii) a large group that was low on depersonalisation and high on work demands with a majority of qualified staff, and (iii) a small N-R C-dominated group (low depersonalization, low work demands) with high scores on professional self-doubt. In contrast to (ii) the small and N-R C-dominated groups in (i) and (iii) reflected mainly centre-dependent problems. The differences in burnout and sources of stress between the two groups were generally small. With the exception of high work demands the main differences between the two groups appeared to be centre-dependent. High work demands characterized primarily qualified staff. The main implication of the study is that no special measures addressed towards N-R Cs in general with regard

  1. Perceptions of Burnout, Its Prevention, and Its Effect on Patient Care as Described by Oncology Nurses in the Hospital Setting
.

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    Russell, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    To identify overall perceptions of burnout within the inpatient oncology nursing population, how they perceived that burnout affected the care they provided, and how they perceived that burnout could be decreased.
. A quantitative descriptive study using questionnaires to describe perceptions of burnout.
. A university-affiliated hospital using inpatient oncology nurses from three nursing units at University of Pittsburgh Medical Center Presbyterian in Pennsylvania.
. A convenience sample of 61 nurses. 
. Two instruments were used to investigate various aspects about perceptions of burnout among inpatient oncology nurses. Nurses participated on an anonymous voluntary basis by completing these instruments. 
. Perceived burnout, perception of how burnout affects care provided to patients, and strategies to relieve burnout.
. Inpatient oncology nurses report a moderate level of perceived burnout. In addition, this nursing population perceived that this burnout had a negative impact on the care they provided. Nurses believed they experienced burnout because of increased nurse-patient ratios and skipped or shortened lunches or breaks. However, they perceived that burnout could be prevented when adequate resources, collaboration, teamwork, and the support of family and friends existed. 
. As a result of the level of care needed by inpatients with cancer, the association between burnout experienced by nurses and how it can affect care is important to recognize. One such association identified was that a relationship existed between the nurses' interactions with patients' family, friends, or visitors and increased perceptions of burnout and depersonalization. As a result, nurses can experience increased burnout and act in a manner that lacks compassion because of emotional detachment.
. With extremely ill inpatients with cancer, nurses need to be able to manage high levels of demands from patients and their family members to provide quality and

  2. Inteligencia emocional percibida y desgaste laboral en médicos internos de pregrado Perceived emotional intelligence and burnout in undergraduate medicine interns

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    R. Ortiz-Acosta

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Analizar la relación entre los niveles de inteligencia emocional percibida y desgaste laboral en médicos internos de pregrado. Sujetos y métodos: Para ello se utilizó la Trait Meta-Mood Scale, que evalúa la inteligencia emocional percibida, y el inventario de burnout de Maslach, en 44 médicos internos de pregrado de tres hospitales de los Servicios de Salud de Sonora. Resultados: El factor de atención emocional se relaciona negativamente con agotamiento. Claridad correlaciona de manera positiva con reparación emocional y realización personal, y de forma negativa con agotamiento y despersonalización. Reparación de las emociones correlaciona de forma negativa con agotamiento y despersonalización, y de manera positiva con realización personal. Los análisis de regresión revelaron que el desgaste laboral del médico de pregrado se explicaba por una baja atención emocional y falta de claridad en sus emociones. Conclusión: Estos hallazgos evidencian que ciertos factores emocionales deben tenerse en cuenta para explicar el desgaste laboral en el médico interno de pregrado.Aim: To analyze the relationship between the levels of perceived emotional intelligence and burnout in undergraduate medicine interns. Subjects and methods: For this, we used the Trait Meta-Mood Scale, which evaluates perceived emotional intelligence, the Maslach Burnout Inventory, in 44 undergraduate interns from three hospitals of Sonora Health Services. Results: The factor of emotional attention is related negatively with exhaustion. Clarity correlates in a positive way with emotional repair and self-fulfillment; and negatively with exhaustion and depersonalization. Emotional repair correlates in a negative way with exhaustion and depersonalization, and positively to self-fulfillment. Regression analyses showed that burnout in undergraduate interns was explained by a low emotional attention and a lack of clarity in their emotions. Conclusion: Those

  3. Vocation and avocation: leisure activities correlate with professional engagement, but not burnout, in a cross-sectional survey of UK doctors

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    Jonvik Hallgeir

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sir William Osler suggested in 1899 that avocations (leisure activities in doctors are related to an increased sense of vocation (professional engagement and a decreased level of burnout. This study evaluated those claims in a large group of doctors practicing in the UK while taking into account a wide range of background variables. Methods A follow-up questionnaire was sent to 4,457 UK-qualified doctors who had been included in four previous studies of medical school selection and training, beginning in 1980, 1985, 1990 and 1989/1991. A total of 2,845 (63.8% doctors returned the questionnaire. Questions particularly asked about work engagement, satisfaction with medicine as a career, and personal achievement (Vocation/engagement, stress, emotional exhaustion, and depersonalization (BurnedOut, and 29 different leisure activities (Avocation/Leisure, as well as questions on personality, empathy, work experience, and demography. Results Doctors reporting more Avocation/Leisure activities tended to be women, to have older children, to be less surface-rational, more extravert, more open to experience, less agreeable, and to fantasize more. Doctors who were more BurnedOut tended to be men, to be more sleep-deprived, to report a greater workload and less choice and independence in their work, to have higher neuroticism, lower extraversion and lower agreeableness scores, and to have lower self-esteem. In contrast, doctors with a greater sense of Vocation/engagement, tended to see more patients, to have greater choice and independence at work, to have a deep approach to work, to have a more supportive-receptive work environment, to be more extravert and more conscientious, and to report greater self-esteem. Avocation/Leisure activities correlated significantly with Vocation/engagement, even after taking into account 25 background variables describing demography, work, and personality, whereas BurnedOut showed no significant

  4. Physician burnout, work engagement and the quality of patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loerbroks, A; Glaser, J; Vu-Eickmann, P; Angerer, P

    2017-07-01

    Research suggests that burnout in physicians is associated with poorer patient care, but evidence is inconclusive. More recently, the concept of work engagement has emerged (i.e. the beneficial counterpart of burnout) and has been associated with better care. Evidence remains markedly sparse however. To examine the associations of burnout and work engagement with physicians' self-perceived quality of care. We drew on cross-sectional data from physicians in Germany. We used a six-item version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory measuring exhaustion and depersonalization. We employed the nine-item Utrecht Work Engagement Scale to assess work engagement and its subcomponents: vigour, dedication and absorption. We measured physicians' own perceptions of their quality of care by a six-item instrument covering practices and attitudes. We used continuous and categorized dependent and independent variables in linear and logistic regression analyses. There were 416 participants. In multivariable linear regression analyses, increasing burnout total scores were associated with poorer perceived quality of care [unstandardized regression coefficient (b) = 0.45, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.37, 0.54]. This association was stronger for depersonalization (b = 0.37, 95% CI 0.29, 0.44) than for exhaustion (b = 0.26, 95% CI 0.18, 0.33). Increasing work engagement was associated with higher perceived quality care (b for the total score = -0.20, 95% CI -0.28, -0.11). This was confirmed for each subcomponent with stronger associations for vigour (b = -0.21, 95% CI -0.29, -0.13) and dedication (b = -0.16, 95% CI -0.24, -0.09) than for absorption (b = -0.12, 95% CI -0.20, -0.04). Logistic regression analyses yielded comparable results. Physician burnout was associated with self-perceived poorer patient care, while work engagement related to self-reported better care. Studies are needed to corroborate these findings, particularly for work engagement. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford

  5. Burnout Levels and Affecting Factors in Nurses Working in a University Hospital

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    Serkan Özsoylu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It was aimed to determine the burnout level and associated factors in nurses working in a university hospital. Methods: The study was designed as a cross-sectional study. The Maslach Burnout Inventory, 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey were used to assess the level of burnout in nurses working in Erciyes University Faculty of Medicine between April 2017 and May 2017. Results: A total of 44 nurses with the mean age of 30.5 years (range: 22-46 participated in the study. Fourteen (31.8% were working in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU and the remaining 30 (68.2% were working in other departments. 31.8% were in the age group 25-29, 31.8% in the age group 30-34, and 13.6% in the age group 35-39 and, 22.8% of participants were ≥40 years of age. Nurses working in the other departments had higher scores on SF-36 role limitations due to emotional problems scale than PICU nurses (p=0.039. At the same time, PICU nurses were also better in terms of social functioning than nurses working in other departments (p=0.049. It was observed that working in intensive care unit decreased personal goal achievement [odds ratio (OR 2.13,95%, confidence interval (CI 1.21-3.84] 2.13 times and increased depersonalization (OR 1.8, 95%, CI 1.07-3.34 1.8 times. In multiple regression analysis, it was found that working in intensive care unit decreased personal goal achievement (OR 2.07, 95%, CI 1.17-3.74 2.07 times and increased depersonalization (OR 1.76, 95%, CI 1.12-3.21 1.76 times. Conclusion: Nurses working in intensive care units constitute one of the highest risk groups for burnout syndrome due to stressful working conditions as well as intense work environment. For this reason, assessment of burnout in PICU nurses at certain intervals and based on the results obtained, improving working conditions besides providing coping skills training may be suggested.

  6. THE PREVALENCE OF STRESS AND BURNOUT SYNDROME IN HOSPITAL DOCTORS AND FAMILY PHYSICIANS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanetic, Kosana D; Savic, Suzana M; Racic, Maja

    2016-11-01

    Introducti on. Burnout syndrome is the result of chronic emotional stress. It is characterized by high levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, and reduced level of personal accomplishment. The aim of this study was to determine the level of stress and risk ror burnout syndrome in doctors employed in health centers and hospitals, and to investigate the impact of socio-derrdgraphic characteristics on the level of stress and the o ccurrence of burnout syndrome. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the period from October I to December 31, 2015 in three health centers and in the University Clinical Center of the Republic of Srpska. The survey was anonymous. A socio-demographic questionnaire and a questionnaire for self-assessment of the level of stress and Maslach Burnout Inventory were used as research instruments. Out of 151 doctors included in the study, 49% were family physicians, and 51% were hospital doctors. The analysis of responses to questionnaires for self-assessment of stress level revealed that 51.7% of participants had high levels of stress (52.7% of family physicians, 50.6% of doctors working in hospital). A high degree of emotional exhaustion was found in 27.2% of participants (29.7% of fam ily physicians, 24.6% of doctors working in hospital), high depersonalization was found in 23.8% of participants (25.7% of family physicians, 22. 1% of doctors working in hospital), a low level of personal accomplishment was found in 39.7% of participants (37.8% of family physicians. 41.6% of doctors working in hospital). No statistically significant difference regarding stress degree, emotional exhaustion and depersonalizaion and personal accomplishment was found between hospital doctors and family physicians. The physicians aged over 45 years had a significantly (p = 0.030) higher level of emotional exhaustion than their younger colleagues. This study found that there was a high risk of burnout syndrome in physicians in the Republic of Srpska

  7. Depression-Burnout Overlap in Physicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurm, Walter; Vogel, Katrin; Holl, Anna; Ebner, Christoph; Bayer, Dietmar; Mörkl, Sabrina; Szilagyi, Istvan-Szilard; Hotter, Erich; Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter; Hofmann, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background Whether burnout is a distinct phenomenon rather than a type of depression and whether it is a syndrome, limited to three “core” components (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and low personal accomplishment) are subjects of current debate. We investigated the depression-burnout overlap, and the pertinence of these three components in a large, representative sample of physicians. Methods In a cross-sectional study, all Austrian physicians were invited to answer a questionnaire that included the Major Depression Inventory (MDI), the Hamburg Burnout Inventory (HBI), as well as demographic and job-related parameters. Of the 40093 physicians who received an invitation, a total of 6351 (15.8%) participated. The data of 5897 participants were suitable for analysis. Results Of the participants, 10.3% were affected by major depression. Our study results suggest that potentially 50.7% of the participants were affected by symptoms of burnout. Compared to physicians unaffected by burnout, the odds ratio of suffering from major depression was 2.99 (95% CI 2.21–4.06) for physicians with mild, 10.14 (95% CI 7.58–13.59) for physicians with moderate, 46.84 (95% CI 35.25–62.24) for physicians with severe burnout and 92.78 (95% CI 62.96–136.74) for the 3% of participants with the highest HBI_sum (sum score of all ten HBI components). The HBI components Emotional Exhaustion, Personal Accomplishment and Detachment (representing depersonalization) tend to correlate more highly with the main symptoms of major depression (sadness, lack of interest and lack of energy) than with each other. A combination of the HBI components Emotional Exhaustion, Helplessness, Inner Void and Tedium (adj.R2 = 0.92) explained more HBI_sum variance than the three “core” components (adj.R2 = 0.85) of burnout combined. Cronbach’s alpha for Emotional Exhaustion, Helplessness, Inner Void and Tedium combined was 0.90 compared to α = 0.54 for the combination of the three

  8. Vocation and avocation: leisure activities correlate with professional engagement, but not burnout, in a cross-sectional survey of UK doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, I C; Jonvik, Hallgeir; Richards, Peter; Paice, Elisabeth

    2011-08-30

    Sir William Osler suggested in 1899 that avocations (leisure activities) in doctors are related to an increased sense of vocation (professional engagement) and a decreased level of burnout. This study evaluated those claims in a large group of doctors practicing in the UK while taking into account a wide range of background variables. A follow-up questionnaire was sent to 4,457 UK-qualified doctors who had been included in four previous studies of medical school selection and training, beginning in 1980, 1985, 1990 and 1989/1991. A total of 2,845 (63.8%) doctors returned the questionnaire. Questions particularly asked about work engagement, satisfaction with medicine as a career, and personal achievement (Vocation/engagement), stress, emotional exhaustion, and depersonalization (BurnedOut), and 29 different leisure activities (Avocation/Leisure), as well as questions on personality, empathy, work experience, and demography. Doctors reporting more Avocation/Leisure activities tended to be women, to have older children, to be less surface-rational, more extravert, more open to experience, less agreeable, and to fantasize more. Doctors who were more BurnedOut tended to be men, to be more sleep-deprived, to report a greater workload and less choice and independence in their work, to have higher neuroticism, lower extraversion and lower agreeableness scores, and to have lower self-esteem. In contrast, doctors with a greater sense of Vocation/engagement, tended to see more patients, to have greater choice and independence at work, to have a deep approach to work, to have a more supportive-receptive work environment, to be more extravert and more conscientious, and to report greater self-esteem.Avocation/Leisure activities correlated significantly with Vocation/engagement, even after taking into account 25 background variables describing demography, work, and personality, whereas BurnedOut showed no significant correlation with Avocation/Leisure activities. Popular

  9. Prevalence and factors associated with occupational burnout among HIV/AIDS healthcare workers in China: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengxue Qiao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burnout is a psychosomatic syndrome characterized by three dimensions (emotional exhaustion [EE], feelings of depersonalization [DP], and reduced personal accomplishment [PA]. We determined the prevalence of burnout and mental health status between HIV/AIDS healthcare workers and other healthcare workers, and determined the factors associated with burnout of HIV/AIDS healthcare workers. Methods All participants were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire. The participants were recruited from the departments of infectious diseases in four hospitals which treated HIV/AIDS. The questionnaire included demographics, the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS, the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ, and the Trait Coping Style Questionnaire (TCSQ. Results A total of 512 questionnaires were distributed; 501 questionnaires were completed and collected (the response rate was 97.9 %. After eliminating nine invalid questionnaires (1.80 %, 264 physicians and nurses caring for HIV/AIDS and 228 physicians and nurses caring for other infectious diseases provided valid responses (98.2 %. The HIV/AIDS healthcare workers’ scores on the emotional exhaustion (F = 6.350, p = 0.012 and depersonalization dimensions (F = 8.533, p = 0.004 were significantly higher than other healthcare workers. The HIV/AIDS healthcare workers had higher total scores and positive items on the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90 compared with other healthcare workers. Low job satisfaction, serious somatization, interpersonal sensitivity, poor quality of sleep, high psychoticism scores, and use of negative coping styles were frequently associated with burnout. Conclusions Burnout was shown to be highly prevalent in HIV/AIDS healthcare workers, 76.9 % of whom met the accepted criteria for burnout. In addition, compared with other healthcare workers, HIV/AIDS healthcare workers experienced lower

  10. Risk of burnout among early career mental health professionals.

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    Volpe, U; Luciano, M; Palumbo, C; Sampogna, G; Del Vecchio, V; Fiorillo, A

    2014-01-01

    Burnout is a stress-related syndrome that often affects mental health professionals (MHPs) and may have serious consequences on personal well-being as well as on the quality of provided psychiatric care. Established literature shows a high risk to develop burnout among MHPs. Few data are available on the incidence and on the clinical implications of the burnout syndrome in the early phases of MHP professional career. We confirmed the presence of burnout among early career MHPs: early career psychiatrists showed a lower sense of personal accomplishment, while non-medical MHPs tended to have more depersonalization and suffered from higher levels of depression. Specific programmes to identify the presence of the burnout syndrome and to cope with it should be taught within mental health training curricula. Burnout is a stress-related syndrome that often affects professionals working in emotionally loaded and highly interpersonal environments. Mental health professionals (MHPs) are long known to be at high risk to develop the burnout syndrome, but this has rarely been investigated in professionals in an early phase of career. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the presence of the burnout syndrome and of depressive symptoms among early career psychiatrists and 'non-medical' MHPs. One hundred MHPs (including 50 psychiatrists and 50 non-medical MHPs) were screened for the presence of burnout and depression, with the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Beck Depression Inventory - revised, respectively. The relationships of burnout with socio-demographical and professional characteristics were also explored. We confirmed the presence of burnout among both groups of early career MHPs, but psychiatrists had a significantly higher degree of emotional exhaustion and a lower sense of personal accomplishment, while non-medical MHPs adopted more frequently depersonalization as a coping strategy and had higher scores for depression, which is associated with higher level of

  11. Burnout and distress among internal medicine program directors: results of a national survey.

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    West, Colin P; Halvorsen, Andrew J; Swenson, Sara L; McDonald, Furman S

    2013-08-01

    Physician burnout and distress has been described in national studies of practicing physicians, internal medicine (IM) residents, IM clerkship directors, and medical school deans. However, no comparable national data exist for IM residency program directors. To assess burnout and distress among IM residency program directors, and to evaluate relationships of distress with personal and program characteristics and perceptions regarding implementation and consequences of Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) regulations. The 2010 Association of Program Directors in Internal Medicine (APDIM) Annual Survey, developed by the APDIM Survey Committee, was sent in August 2010 to the 377 program directors with APDIM membership, representing 99.0 % of the 381 United States categorical IM residency programs. The 2010 APDIM Annual Survey included validated items on well-being and distress, including questions addressing quality of life, satisfaction with work-life balance, and burnout. Questions addressing personal and program characteristics and perceptions regarding implementation and consequences of ACGME regulations were also included. Of 377 eligible program directors, 282 (74.8 %) completed surveys. Among respondents, 12.4 % and 28.8 % rated their quality of life and satisfaction with work-life balance negatively, respectively. Also, 27.0 % reported emotional exhaustion, 10.4 % reported depersonalization, and 28.7 % reported overall burnout. These rates were lower than those reported previously in national studies of medical students, IM residents, practicing physicians, IM clerkship directors, and medical school deans. Aspects of distress were more common among younger program directors, women, and those reporting greater weekly work hours. Work-home conflicts were common and associated with all domains of distress, especially if not resolved in a manner effectively balancing work and home responsibilities. Associations with program characteristics

  12. Brain functional integration: an epidemiologic study on stress-producing dissociative phenomena

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    Sperandeo R

    2017-12-01

    , significantly correlated to total DES score, were used as covariates. The model consisted of seven explanatory variables (four factors and three covariates explaining 82% of variance. The four significant factors were the presence of borderline and narcissistic personality disorder, substance abuse disorders and psychotic disorders. Significant covariates were psychopathologic traits of anger, psychoticism and obsessiveness. This study, confirming Janet’s theory, explains that, mental disorders and psychopathologic experiences of patients can configure the chronic stress condition that produces functional damage to the adaptive executive system. The symptoms of dissociative depersonalization/derealization and dissociative amnesia can be explained, in large part, through their current and previous psychopathologic experiences. Keywords: mental disorders, personality disorders, amnesia, depersonalization/derealization 

  13. Occupational Burnout levels in Emergency Medicine–a stage 2 nationwide study and analysis

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    Popa, F; Arafat, R; Purcărea, VL; Popa–Velea, O; Bobirnac, G

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The first stage of this nationwide study and analysis of the occupational burnout and psychological risk parameters showed a high consistency of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and low personal accomplishment for doctors working in Emergency Departments and Emergency and Resuscitation Services. These workers were then set in the highest risk group for burnout syndrome and depression. This stageⅡ of our research will focus on those two groups analyzing causal factors, coping mechanisms and possible repercussions of these findings. Material and methods: Demographics: We have issued a total of 272 surveys from which we have received a total of 263 complete and valid ones (n=263, response rate=96, 69%). Instruments: The Maslach Burnout Inventory–Human Services Survey MBI–HSS is an instrument designed to assess the three components of the burnout syndrome: emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization (DP), and reduced personal accomplishment (PA). The COPE questionnaire is a 52 item addressing different ways of coping with stress. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) has been shown to be a reliable measure in assessing the number, types, and duration of depressive symptoms across racial, gender, and age categories. Results and discussion: Results were not correlated with gender, age or marital status, but an important correlation was found with professional experience in the Emergency Departments. We have shown that during the first 4 years of experience, the EE factor has been at a satisfying average of 2.4, this variable rising to an average of 2.85 after another 3 years of work. The same type of correlation was found with the CES–D results. Conclusions: Of the two surveyed groups, the EMD group showed higher values for all risk parameters and low personal accomplishment on the MBI–HSS survey. Also, emotional exhaustion and depression were found to have a powerful correlation with work experience. Coping

  14. Burnout, stress and satisfaction among Australian and New Zealand radiation oncology trainees.

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    Leung, John; Rioseco, Pilar

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the incidence of burnout among radiation oncology trainees in Australia and New Zealand and the stress and satisfaction factors related to burnout. A survey of trainees was conducted in mid-2015. There were 42 Likert scale questions on stress, 14 Likert scale questions on satisfaction and the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey assessed burnout. A principal component analysis identified specific stress and satisfaction areas. Categorical variables for the stress and satisfaction factors were computed. Associations between respondent's characteristics and stress and satisfaction subscales were examined by independent sample t-tests and analysis of variance. Effect sizes were calculated using Cohens's d when significant mean differences were observed. This was also done for respondent characteristics and the three burnout subscales. Multiple regression analyses were performed. The response rate was 81.5%. The principal component analysis for stress identified five areas: demands on time, professional development/training, delivery demands, interpersonal demands and administration/organizational issues. There were no significant differences by demographic group or area of interest after P-values were adjusted for the multiple tests conducted. The principal component analysis revealed two satisfaction areas: resources/professional activities and value/delivery of services. There were no significant differences by demographic characteristics or area of interest in the level of satisfaction after P-values were adjusted for the multiple tests conducted. The burnout results revealed 49.5% of respondents scored highly in emotional exhaustion and/or depersonalization and 13.1% had burnout in all three measures. Multiple regression analysis revealed the stress subscales 'demands on time' and 'interpersonal demands' were associated with emotional exhaustion. 'Interpersonal demands' was also associated with depersonalization and correlated negatively

  15. Burnout in Customer Service Representatives

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    Tariq Jalees

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose and aim of this research was to (1 identify the factors that contributes towards job burnout in sales service representative (2 What are the relationships of these factors (3 To empirically test the relationships of the determinants relating to burnout in customer service representatives. Based on literature survey six different variables related to burnout were identified. The variables were (1 Emotional exhaustion.(2 Reduced personal accomplishment.(3 Job induced tension.(4 Job satisfaction.(5 Workload (6 Job satisfaction.Each of the variables contained 3 sub-variables. Five different hypotheses were developed and tested through techniques such as Z-test, F-test and regression analysis. The questionnaire administered for the study contained 15 questions including personal data. The subject was Moblink company customers sales service representative in Karachi.The valid sample size was 98 drawn through multi-cluster technique. Techniques such as measure of dispersion and measure of central tendencies were used for analyzing the data. Regression, Z-test, and F-test were used for testing the developed hypothesis.According to the respondents’ opinions, the reduced personal accomplishment had a high rating with a mean of 3.75 and job induced tension has the lowest mean of 3.58. The standard deviation of respondents’ opinions was highest for dimension depersonalization and least for dimension work load. This indicates that there is a high polarization of the respondents’ opinions on the dimension depersonalization moral and least on the dimension work load.The Skew nesses for all the dimensions were in negative except the determinants emotional exhaustion and workload. This indicates that the majority of respondents’ opinions on all the dimensions were below the mean except in the case of emotional exhaustion and workload.Five hypotheses were developed and tested:a The hypothesis relating to low level of burnout in customers

  16. [Consciousness and the electroencephalogram].

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    Faber, J; Vladyka, V; Subrt, O

    1991-08-01

    In the course of 12 years the authors subjected to clinical EEG and stereo-EEG (SEEG) 72 patients (66 epileptics with the diagnosis of psychomotor epilepsy and grand mal) and six psychotic patients suffering from schizophrenia. With the exception of five epileptics and two psychotic patients all subjects had epileptic foci in the amygdalohippocampal complex (AHK). After coagulation of these foci marked improvement of the fits and the mental state occurred in half the patients. During EEG and SEEG recording the authors used different activation methods (hyperventilation through the nose and mouth, sleep, listening to music) and above all direct electric stimulation (ES) of one of the AHK. Secondary epileptic foci had, as a rule, more spikes and a lower threshold for ES than primary ones which contained more delta and slow theta waves. The ES led as a rule to an emotional response, such as anxiety and fear, more rarely to illusions, depersonalization and oneiroid hallucinations and twice to a hedonic response of non-sexual character. The purpose of ES was to assess the site from where it is possible to start the original aura or typical parox. The authors considered these foci, consistent with data in the literature, as the leading focus and it was subsequently coagulated. The authors investigated the reactivity and vigility by the patient's response to sound (the patient had to press a button) and by an interview with the patient. It was revealed that in isolated discharges of the spikes and waves in the scalp electrodes, i.e. in the neocortex, reactivity is lacking. In isolated discharges in the AHK the reactivity was satisfactory, but as a rule anxiety developed. It is thus possible to divide consciousness into emotional consciousness with its site in the AHK, i.e. in the limbic system, and rational consciousness which is a function of the neocrotical system. Congenital changes of consciousness such as vigility or sleep are described as "states" of consciousness

  17. [Burnout of general practitioners in Belgium: societal consequences and paths to solutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacenelenbogen, N; Offermans, A M; Roland, M

    2011-09-01

    The definition of burn-out the most often cited and proposed by Maslach and Jackson, clarifies the three cardinal symptoms affecting doctors, namely, emotional exhaustion, with depersonalization of their patients and reduction of the feeling of personal accomplishment. The causes of this phenomenon are relatively well-known: individual psychological factors, stressful factors intrinsic to the medical practice and finally extrinsic factors related to the professional environment and its organization. The purpose of this review is to estimate the prevalence of burnout within the population of Belgian family physicians and to understand both individual and societal consequences. About the method. This is a literature review using databases Medline, Cochrane Library, and the American Psychological Association from 2000 to 2011 with the keywords: primary health care, family practice, burnout, emotional exhaustion, psychological stressors, distress, fatigue, depersonalization, substance and alcohol abuse, depression, well-being, quality of life, job satisfaction, professional efficiency, patient care, physician-patient relations, medical errors, quality of health care, pharmaceutical/health expenditure/statistics-numerical data, obstacles to prevention, health system assessment, medical demography. Selecting of the most relevant articles through the reading of abstracts and then full text reading of 49 selected articles. In conclusion, the exact prevalence of burn-out amongst Belgian general practitioners is not known. From some works, it is estimated that about half of them would be achieved at least in terms of emotional exhaustion. The symptoms related to burn-out are potentially serious: ea depression, alcohol and tobacco abuse and cardiovascular complications. There are also arguments demonstrating the fact that this disorder amongst general practitioners influences negatively the quality of care, their cost, but also medical demography of primary care with as a

  18. Depression-Burnout Overlap in Physicians.

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    Walter Wurm

    Full Text Available Whether burnout is a distinct phenomenon rather than a type of depression and whether it is a syndrome, limited to three "core" components (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and low personal accomplishment are subjects of current debate. We investigated the depression-burnout overlap, and the pertinence of these three components in a large, representative sample of physicians.In a cross-sectional study, all Austrian physicians were invited to answer a questionnaire that included the Major Depression Inventory (MDI, the Hamburg Burnout Inventory (HBI, as well as demographic and job-related parameters. Of the 40093 physicians who received an invitation, a total of 6351 (15.8% participated. The data of 5897 participants were suitable for analysis.Of the participants, 10.3% were affected by major depression. Our study results suggest that potentially 50.7% of the participants were affected by symptoms of burnout. Compared to physicians unaffected by burnout, the odds ratio of suffering from major depression was 2.99 (95% CI 2.21-4.06 for physicians with mild, 10.14 (95% CI 7.58-13.59 for physicians with moderate, 46.84 (95% CI 35.25-62.24 for physicians with severe burnout and 92.78 (95% CI 62.96-136.74 for the 3% of participants with the highest HBI_sum (sum score of all ten HBI components. The HBI components Emotional Exhaustion, Personal Accomplishment and Detachment (representing depersonalization tend to correlate more highly with the main symptoms of major depression (sadness, lack of interest and lack of energy than with each other. A combination of the HBI components Emotional Exhaustion, Helplessness, Inner Void and Tedium (adj.R2 = 0.92 explained more HBI_sum variance than the three "core" components (adj.R2 = 0.85 of burnout combined. Cronbach's alpha for Emotional Exhaustion, Helplessness, Inner Void and Tedium combined was 0.90 compared to α = 0.54 for the combination of the three "core" components.This study demonstrates the

  19. An analysis of the relationship between burnout, socio-demographic and workplace factors and job satisfaction among emergency department health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarcan, Menderes; Hikmet, Neşet; Schooley, Benjamin; Top, Mehmet; Tarcan, Gamze Yorgancıoglu

    2017-04-01

    Burnout among emergency medical practitioners and personnel negatively affects career satisfaction and job performance and can lead to mental health issues, including anxiety, depression, and suicide. This study investigated the relationship between the perceptions of burnout and job satisfaction of those working in two different hospital's emergency departments assessing the effect of burnout dimensions and additional factors (age, position, marital status, annual income, employment type, gender, patient encounters, and household economic well-being) on job satisfaction. This study addresses a gap in the literature of the relationships between a) burnout and job satisfaction of emergency department's health care personnel (physicians, nurses, technicians) and b) the factors that are associated with emergency department employees' job satisfaction. A cross-sectional survey of two hundred and fifty participants was interviewed, using validated instruments (the Maslach Burnout Scale and the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire). Participants include 38 physicians, 89 nurses, and 84 medical technicians, and 39 information technicians. The Maslach Burnout Inventory Scale, which assesses emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization (DP) and personal accomplishment (PA), and the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ), which assesses intrinsic satisfaction (IS), extrinsic satisfaction (ES) and overall satisfaction (OS), were used for data collection. Study findings indicate that significant relationship exists between burnout and job satisfaction; annual income and household economic-well-being had a positive association with job satisfaction, whereas gender, age, education, marital status had no significant effect on any form of satisfaction. Moreover, this study reveals that emotional exhaustion (EE) is a significant predictor of all three dimensions of job satisfaction while depersonalization (DP) had no significant showing. Results of this study suggest that it is

  20. Medición del desgaste laboral en el ramo comercial

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    Marianna Barrios León

    2013-07-01

    Components Extraction and contrast the results with other applications in the area, allowed to determine the existence of five dimensions: 1 Feeling of wear , 2 Emotional Management , 3 Management labor Relations , 4 Affinity in Labor Relations, and 5 depersonalization , which highlights that labor relations are a key factor to perceive the wear and keeps the depersonalization subscale as the initial instrument. From these dimensions can define organizational strategies for improving productivity.

  1. Workplace bullying and mental health among teachers in relation to psychosocial job characteristics and burnout

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    Lina Bernotaite

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of the study has been to assess the associations between psychological distress and exposure to workplace bullying, taking into account possible influence of adverse psychosocial job characteristics and occupational burnout in a sample of Kaunas (Lithuania teachers. Material and Methods: The study sample included 517 teachers from 13 secondary schools and was conducted in 2014. The participants filled in the anonymous questionnaire (response rate 71.3%. Twenty-two-item Negative Acts Questionnaire (H. Hoel and S. Einarsen was used for measuring the exposure to workplace bullying, Goldberg 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12 – psychological distress, Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI – occupational burnout, Karasek Demand-Control questionnaire – psychosocial job stressors. The IBM SPSS Statistics version 20.0 was used for performing the statistical analysis. Associations between psychological distress, exposure to workplace bullying, psychosocial job characteristics and occupational burnout were analyzed in the logistic regression and expressed in terms of odds ratios (OR. Statistical significance was determined using the 95% confidence interval (CI level. Results: Workplace bullying was prevalent among Kaunas teachers (occasional – 8.3%, severe – 2.9%. Twenty-five percent of teachers suffered from psychological distress. High emotional exhaustion was found in 25.6% of them, high depersonalization in 10.6% and low personal achievement in 33.7% of cases. Almost a half of respondents (47.4% reported job strain and 59.6% – low social support at work. Occasional and severe bullying was associated with psychological distress after adjusting to job strain, social support and emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, personal accomplishment (adjusted OR was 3.27, 95% CI: 1.56–6.84 for occasional and 4.98, 95% CI: 1.27–19.62 for severe bullying. Conclusions: Occasional and severe bullying were strong

  2. Workplace bullying and mental health among teachers in relation to psychosocial job characteristics and burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernotaite, Lina; Malinauskiene, Vilija

    2017-06-19

    The objective of the study has been to assess the associations between psychological distress and exposure to workplace bullying, taking into account possible influence of adverse psychosocial job characteristics and occupational burnout in a sample of Kaunas (Lithuania) teachers. The study sample included 517 teachers from 13 secondary schools and was conducted in 2014. The participants filled in the anonymous questionnaire (response rate 71.3%). Twenty-two-item Negative Acts Questionnaire (H. Hoel and S. Einarsen) was used for measuring the exposure to workplace bullying, Goldberg 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) - psychological distress, Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) - occupational burnout, Karasek Demand-Control questionnaire - psychosocial job stressors. The IBM SPSS Statistics version 20.0 was used for performing the statistical analysis. Associations between psychological distress, exposure to workplace bullying, psychosocial job characteristics and occupational burnout were analyzed in the logistic regression and expressed in terms of odds ratios (OR). Statistical significance was determined using the 95% confidence interval (CI) level. Workplace bullying was prevalent among Kaunas teachers (occasional - 8.3%, severe - 2.9%). Twenty-five percent of teachers suffered from psychological distress. High emotional exhaustion was found in 25.6% of them, high depersonalization in 10.6% and low personal achievement in 33.7% of cases. Almost a half of respondents (47.4%) reported job strain and 59.6% - low social support at work. Occasional and severe bullying was associated with psychological distress after adjusting to job strain, social support and emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, personal accomplishment (adjusted OR was 3.27, 95% CI: 1.56-6.84 for occasional and 4.98, 95% CI: 1.27-19.62 for severe bullying). Occasional and severe bullying were strong predictors for psychological distress. Burnout did not mediate those associations. The

  3. Stress ocupacional no ensino: um estudo com professores dos 3º ciclo e ensino secundário Occupational stress in teaching: a study with high school teachers

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    A. Rui Gomes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com 689 professores portugueses, a leccionarem nos terceiro ciclo e ensino secundário. Foram avaliados indicadores de stress, "burnout", saúde física e satisfação profissional. Observaram-se valores significativos de stress ocupacional (perto de 40%, e de "burnout" (10% na exaustão emocional, 3% na baixa realização pessoal e 1% na despersonalização, vários problemas de saúde física e valores de insatisfação profissional perto dos 20%. As análises de regressão múltipla apontaram diferentes variáveis preditoras para as três dimensões do "burnout" (62% de variância explicada na exaustão emocional, 16% na realização pessoal e 13% na despersonalização. As análises discriminantes e "t-test" para amostras independentes demonstraram maior stress ocupacional nas mulheres, nos professores mais velhos, nos profissionais com vínculos profissionais mais precários, nos professores com mais horas de trabalho e com mais alunos em sala de aula. No final, apresentam-se as limitações do estudo e as implicações para a investigação futura.This work was done with 689 Portuguese high school teachers. We evaluated the stress, burnout, physical health and professional fulfilment. The results revealed very significant levels of occupational stress (percentages near 40%, a different frequency of burnout in the three appraised dimensions (10% in emotional exhaustion, 3% in reduced personal accomplishment and 1% in depersonalization, various physical health problems and values of professional dissatisfaction close to 20%. Multiple regression analysis pointed different predictors' variables for the three dimensions of burnout (more than 60% of explained variance for emotional exhaustion, 16% for personal accomplishment and 13% for depersonalization. The discriminant analysis and "t-test" for independent samples allowed us to verify more occupational problems (in different variables in the following groups: women

  4. A National Study on Nurses' Exposure to Occupational Violence in Lebanon: Prevalence, Consequences and Associated Factors.

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    Mohamad Alameddine

    Full Text Available Healthcare institutions have commonly reported exposure of employees, particularly nurses, to high levels of occupational violence. Despite such evidence in the Middle East Region, there is a dearth of national studies that have systematically investigated this phenomenon. This study investigates the prevalence, characteristics, consequences and factors associated with nurses' exposure to occupational violence in Lebanon.A cross-sectional design was utilized to survey a nationally representative sample of 915 nurses registered with the Order of Nurses in Lebanon. Stratified random sampling by governorate was utilized. Individually-mailed questionnaires collected information on exposure to violence, degree of burnout and demographic/professional background. The main outcome variables were exposure to verbal abuse (never, 1-3, 4-9 and 10+ times and physical violence (never, ever over the past 12-months. Descriptive statistics were used to estimate prevalence of violence. Multivariable, binomial and multinomial regression models were carried out to investigate the correlates of exposure to verbal abuse and physical violence, respectively.Response rate was 64.8%. Over the last year, prevalence of nurses' exposure to verbal abuse was 62%, (CI: 58-65% and physical violence was 10%, (CI: 8-13%. Among respondents, 31.7% of nurses indicated likelihood to quit their jobs and 22.3% were undetermined. Furthermore, 54.1% reported high levels of emotional exhaustion and 28.8% reported high levels of depersonalization. Compared to nurses with no exposure to verbal abuse, nurses reporting high exposure had high levels of emotional exhaustion (OR:6.4; CI:1.76-23.32, depersonalization (OR:6.8; CI: 3-15 and intention to quit job (OR:3.9; CI: 1.8-8.3. They further reported absence of anti-violence policies at their institutions (OR: 3; CI: 1.5-6.3. Nurses that were ever exposed to physical violence were more likely to be males (OR: 2.2; CI: 1.1-4.3, working day and

  5. How Many Pages in a Single Word: Alternative Typo-poetics of Surrealist Magazines

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    Biljana Andonovska

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the experimental design, typography and editorial strategies of the rare avant-garde publication Four Pages - Onanism of Death - And So On (1930, published by Oskar Davičo, Đorđe Kostić and Đorđe Jovanović, probably the first Surrealist Edition of the Belgrade surrealist group. Starting from its unconventional format and the way authors (reshape and (misdirect each page in an autonomous fashion, I further analyze the intrinsic interaction between the text, its graphic embodiment and surrounding para-textual elements (illustrations, body text, titles, folding, dating, margins, comments. Special attention is given to the concepts of depersonalization, free association and automatic writing as primary poetical sources for the delinearisation of the reading process and 'emancipation' of the text, its content and syntax as well as its position, direction, and visual materiality on the page. Resisting conventional classifications and simplified distinctions between established print media and genres, this surrealist single-issue placard magazine mixes elements of the poster, magazine, and booklet. Its ambiguous nature leads us toward theoretical discussion of the avant-garde magazine as an autonomous literary genre and original, self-sufficient artwork, as was already suggested by the theory of Russian formalism.

  6. [Burnout and quality of life in medical residents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Miranda, Sergio Emilio; Rodríguez-Gallardo, Gisela Bethsabé; Jiménez-Bernardino, Carlos Alberto; Guerrero-Quintero, Laura Guadalupe

    2013-01-01

    burnout and quality of life are poorly studied phenomena in postgraduate students, and its effects are unknown. The aim was to investigate the relationship between quality of life and burnout in medical residents. a longitudinal study was performed. We included medical residents who began their postgraduate studies in 2010. The Spanish version of the Quality of Life Profile for the Chronically Ill (PLC, according to its initials in German), and the Maslach Burnout Inventory specific to physicians were applied at the beginning, and six and 12 months later. Descriptive statistics were used for nominal variables. Chi-square and ANOVA were applied to numerical variables. we included 45 residents, the average age was 26.9 ± 2.93 years, 18 (40 %) were female and 27 (60 %) were male. The PLC survey found significant decrease in four of the six scales assessed in the three measurements. The Maslach Burnout Inventory found high levels of emotional exhaustion in the three tests, low levels of depersonalization and low personal gains at the beginning, rising at six and 12 months. The most affected specialty was Internal Medicine. burnout and impaired quality of life for residents exist in postgraduate physicians and it is maintained during the first year of residency.

  7. Entrepreneurial stressors as predictors of entrepreneurial burnout.

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    Wei, Xueyan; Cang, Shuangxin; Hisrich, Robert D

    2015-02-01

    Research on the effects of entrepreneurial stressors is limited, especially regarding its relation to the burnout that frequently occurs in the process of starting and growing a venture. The effect of the role of entrepreneurial stressors (workload, competitive comparison, demands-of-knowledge, managing responsibility, and resource requirements) on burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment) was examined in a Chinese sample of entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurial stressors emerged as a significant predictor of burnout in the process of entrepreneurship in a sample of 289 entrepreneurs (63.8% men; M age = 26.2 yr.; 39.6% of their parents have been self-employed). The findings clarify the functional relationship between entrepreneurial stressors and burnout. Entrepreneurial stressors played multiple roles. Managing responsibility was an active contributor to the sense of achievement and to emotional exhaustion. Workload was an active contributor to emotional exhaustion. Demands-of-knowledge negatively affected three of the dimensions of burnout. Theoretical and practical implications for management of the effect of these relationships are discussed.

  8. Job satisfaction and cortisol awakening response in teachers scoring high and low on burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya-Albiol, Luis; Serrano, Miguel Angel; Salvador, Alicia

    2010-11-01

    The burnout syndrome is an important psychosocial risk in the job context, especially in professions with a strong social interaction, as in the case of teaching. High levels of burnout have been related to negative psychological indicators and hormonal alterations. This study compares job satisfaction and the cortisol awakening response (CAR) in teachers scoring high (HB) and low (LB) on burnout. HB teachers showed lower job satisfaction and no significant differences in the CAR when compared with the LB group. The results of the study suggest a general dissatisfaction with work along with a different functioning of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis in HB teachers. Although non significantly, they showed a lower magnitude of the CAR than LB teachers. When considering the whole sample, emotional exhaustion and depersonalization correlated negatively and personal accomplishment positively with each subscale of the job satisfaction questionnaire whereas cortisol levels or CAR did not correlate significantly with both burnout subscales and job satisfaction. These results should be taken into account when working to prevent burnout in teachers, as the modified parameters could be considered indicators of the onset or development of the syndrome.

  9. Career satisfaction and burnout among Ghanaian physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opoku, Samuel T; Apenteng, Bettye A

    2014-03-01

    Thus far, there has been limited inquiry into the factors associated with physician career satisfaction and burnout in Ghana, although the two have been linked to the brain drain problem. The objective of this study was to assess career satisfaction and burnout among physicians practicing in a developing nation, Ghana. A 21-item instrument was used to assess career satisfaction among actively practicing Ghanaian physicians, using items adapted from the Physician Worklife Study survey. Burnout was assessed using the Abbreviated Maslach's Burnout Inventory. Two hundred physicians participated in the online survey from December 2012 to February 2013. Generally, physicians in Ghana expressed moderate overall career satisfaction. However, they were least satisfied with the availability of resources, their compensation and work-life balance. Overall, burnout was low in the study population; however physicians exhibited moderate levels of emotional exhaustion. Career satisfaction was negatively associated with the burnout dimensions of depersonalization, emotional exhaustion and low personal accomplishment. Health policy-makers in Ghana should address issues relating to resource adequacy, compensation and the work-life balance of physicians in order to improve the overall career satisfaction of an already dwindling physician workforce.

  10. Burnout, career satisfaction, and well-being among US neurology residents and fellows in 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Kerry H; Shanafelt, Tait D; Keran, Christopher M; Busis, Neil A; Foster, Laura A; Molano, Jennifer Rose V; O'Donovan, Cormac A; Ratliff, Jeffrey B; Schwarz, Heidi B; Sloan, Jeff A; Cascino, Terrence L

    2017-08-01

    To study prevalence of and factors contributing to burnout, career satisfaction, and well-being in US neurology residents and fellows. A total of 938 US American Academy of Neurology member neurology residents and fellows were surveyed using standardized measures of burnout, career satisfaction, and well-being from January 19 to March 21, 2016. Response rate was 37.7% (354/938); about 2/3 of responders were residents and 1/3 were fellows. Median age of participants was 32 years and 51.1% were female. Seventy-three percent of residents and 55% of fellows had at least one symptom of burnout, the difference largely related to higher scores for depersonalization among residents. For residents, greater satisfaction with work-life balance, meaning in work, and older age were associated with lower risk of burnout; for fellows, greater satisfaction with work-life balance and effective support staff were associated with lower risk of burnout. Trainees experiencing burnout were less likely to report career satisfaction. Career satisfaction was more likely among those reporting meaning in work and more likely for those working in the Midwest compared with the Northeast region. Burnout is common in neurology residents and fellows. Lack of work-life balance and lack of meaning in work were associated with reduced career satisfaction and increased risk of burnout. These results should inform approaches to reduce burnout and promote career satisfaction and well-being in US neurology trainees. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  11. Professional self-esteem as a predictor of teacher burnout across Iranian and Turkish EFL teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Khezerlou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at measuring the perceived Professional Self-esteem, Emotional Exhaustion (EE, Depersonalization (DP, and Personal Accomplishment (PA of Iranian (n = 230 and Turkish (n =156 EFL teachers and determining the prediction role of Professional Self-esteem in EE, DP, and PA processes. The Maslach Burnout Inventory-Educators Survey (MBI-ES was used to measure the perceived burnout levels of the participants, and a shortened English version of Professional Self-esteem Scale developed by Aricak (1999 was employed to measure the participants’ self-esteem perceptions in five dimensions of satisfaction, knowledge development, commitment, adaptation and communication. The internal reliability of the professional self-esteem scale was r = 0.821. The results revealed that professional selfesteem was strongly correlated with EE, DP, and PA burnout. They also showed that EE, DP, and PA processes were better predicted by Satisfaction, Commitment, and Knowledge Development dimensions of Professional Self-esteem in the case of both Iranian and Turkish teachers, respectively. Moreover, the EE and PA prediction variances of Iranian group were greater than that of Turkish group, whereas the DP prediction variance of Turkish group was greater than that of Iranian group. The study highlights the significance of professional self-esteem in education and offers strategies for teachers and authorities to combat burnout for better teacher productivity.

  12. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Fear of Abandonment Moderate the Relation of Intimate Partner Violence to Severity of Dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerubavel, Noga; Messman-Moore, Terri L; DiLillo, David; Gratz, Kim L

    2018-01-01

    Betrayal trauma theory proposes a relation between intimate partner violence (IPV) and dissociation, suggesting that dissociation among victims of IPV may function to restrict awareness of abuse in order to preserve attachments perceived as vital. We investigated two factors that may moderate the relation between IPV and dissociation-childhood sexual abuse (CSA) severity and fear of abandonment-among 348 women currently in a relationship. The relation between frequency of IPV (sexual and physical) and dissociation (amnesia and depersonalization) was moderated by CSA severity and fear of abandonment. Specifically, among women with clinically relevant fear of abandonment, the strength of the relation between IPV and dissociation became stronger as CSA severity increased. This study is the first to demonstrate the moderating roles of fear of abandonment and CSA history in the relation between IPV and dissociation among women. Findings suggest that it may be important to target fear of abandonment in interventions with IPV victims who have a CSA history. Results suggest that fear of abandonment warrants greater attention in research on IPV revictimization.

  13. Dissociative symptomatology in children and adolescents as displayed on psychological testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberg, J L

    1998-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate psychological testing features of children and adolescents with dissociative disorder diagnoses to provide diagnostic information that might facilitate early intervention. The psychological testing protocols of 30 children diagnosed with dissociative disorders were compared with the testing protocols of 30 consecutive admissions to the Sheppard Pratt Hospital who did not receive a dissociative identity disorder (DID; formerly termed multiple personality disorder) or dissociative disorder not otherwise specified (DDNOS) diagnosis. A rater, blind to the diagnosis, scored these protocols for the presence or absence of behavioral and testing response variables hypothesized to discriminate between the dissociative patients and the mixed group of other diagnoses. Behavioral features significantly more common in the dissociative group included forgetting, staring, unusual motor behaviors, dramatic fluctuations, fearful and angry reactions to stimuli, physical complaints during testing, and expressions of internal conflict. Significant indications of dissociation in the test responses included images of multiplicity, malevolent religiosity, dissociative coping, depersonalized imagery, emotional confusion, extreme dichotomization, images of mutilation and torture, and magical transformation. A combination of these behavioral and response variables was able to select 93% of the dissociative sample. These results add support to the discriminant validity of DID and DDNOS as diagnostic categories in childhood and provide clinical information that may be useful for early diagnosis of traumatized children with dissociative pathology.

  14. Psychometric properties of the Dissociative Experiences Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubester, K A; Braun, B G

    1995-04-01

    The test-retest reliability of the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES; Bernstein EM, Putnam FW [1986] Development, reliability, and validity of a dissociation scale. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 174:727-735) in a clinical sample was found to be .93 for the total DES score and .95, .89, and .82 for the three subscale scores of amnesia, depersonalization-derealization, and absorption (dissociative identity disorder [DID], DSM-IV), respectively. Test-retest reliabilities within diagnostic groups of multiple personality disorder, dissociative disorder not otherwise specified, and a general other category of psychiatric diagnoses were obtained for total and subscale scores on the DES. These ranged from .78 to .96. Tests of mean scores across the two test sessions showed the total and subscale scores to be temporally stable. The DES was also found to be highly internally consistent: Cronbach's alphas of .96 and .97 were observed for the total DES scores taken at times 1 and 2, respectively. Construct validity of the DES was demonstrated by differentiation among the subscale scores in a repeated-measures analysis of variance (F[2,154] = 32.03, p < or = .001). Normality and general distribution issues were also addressed and provided a rationale for using the DES with parametric statistics. Reasons why the DES (as it was originally designed) is not appropriate as a dependent measure in outcome research are discussed, along with needed future research. Implications of the findings for the clinical usefulness of the DES as a diagnostic instrument are noted.

  15. Dissociative symptoms and neuroendocrine dysregulation in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bob, Petr; Fedor-Freybergh, Peter; Jasova, Denisa; Bizik, Gustav; Susta, Marek; Pavlat, Josef; Zima, Tomas; Benakova, Hana; Raboch, Jiri

    2008-10-01

    Dissociative symptoms are traditionally attributed to psychological stressors that produce dissociated memories related to stressful life events. Dissociative disorders and dissociative symptoms including psychogenic amnesia, fugue, dissociative identity-disorder, depersonalization, derealization and other symptoms or syndromes have been reported as an epidemic psychiatric condition that may be coexistent with various psychiatric diagnoses such as depression, schizophrenia, borderline personality disorder or anxiety disorders. According to recent findings also the somatic components of dissociation may occur and influence brain, autonomic and neuroendocrine functions. At this time there are only few studies examining neuroendocrine response related to dissociative symptoms that suggest significant dysregulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The aim of the present study is to perform examination of HPA axis functioning indexed by basal cortisol and prolactin and test their relationship to psychic and somatoform dissociative symptoms. Basal cortisol and prolactin and psychic and somatoform dissociative symptoms were assessed in 40 consecutive inpatients with diagnosis of unipolar depression mean age 43.37 (SD=12.21). The results show that prolactin and cortisol as indices of HPA axis functioning manifest significant relationship to dissociative symptoms. Main results represent highly significant correlations obtained by simple regression between psychic dissociative symptoms (DES) and serum prolactin (R=0.55, p=0.00027), and between somatoform dissociation (SDQ-20) and serum cortisol (R=-0.38, p=0.015). These results indicate relationship between HPA-axis reactivity and dissociative symptoms in unipolar depressive patients that could reflect passive coping behavior and disengagement.

  16. Panic disorder: a different perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, A; Beitman, B D

    1998-02-01

    Panic disorder is a chronic and debilitating illness. In this article, we present an algorithm of the diagnosis and treatment of the illness. We place much importance upon the patient variables associated with the treatment decisions. We emphasize strong patient involvement in treatment as a way to become panic free and improve level of functioning. Panic disorder is defined in DSM-IV1 as "The presence of recurrent panic attacks followed by at least one month of persistent concern about having another panic attack, worry about the possible implications or consequences of the panic attack, or a significant behavioral change related to the attacks." A panic attack is defined as "a discrete period of intense fear or discomfort, in which four or more of the following symptoms developed abruptly and reached a peak within 10 minutes." 1) Palpitations, pounding heart or accelerated heart rate; 2) sweating; 3) trembling or shaking; 4) sensations of shortness of breath or smothering; 5) feeling of choking; 6) chest pain or discomfort; 7) nausea or abdominal distress; 8) feeling dizzy, unsteady, light-headed or faint; 9) derealization or depersonalization; 10) fear of losing control or going crazy; 11) fear of dying; 12) paresthesias; 13) chills or hot flashes. The following hypotheses have been used to conceptualize panic disorder from a psychiatrist's perspective.

  17. Schizotypal personality disorder inside and outside the schizophrenic spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgersen, Svenn; Edvardsen, J; Øien, P A; Onstad, S; Skre, I; Lygren, S; Kringlen, E

    2002-03-01

    The concept of schizotypal personality disorder has been heavily discussed since its introduction into the official classification of mental disorders in DSM-III. The aim of this study was to investigate the difference between schizotypal personality disorder within and outside the genetic spectrum of schizophrenia. Schizotypals with and without schizophrenic cotwins and first-degree relatives were compared, with individuals with other mental disorders and no mental disorders as controls. It appeared that only inadequate rapport and odd communication were more pronounced among schizotypals within, compared to schizotypals outside the schizophrenic spectrum. Schizotypals outside the schizophrenic spectrum, however, scored higher than schizotypals inside the schizophrenic spectrum on ideas of reference, suspiciousness, paranoia, social anxiety, self-damaging acts, chronic anger, free-floating anxiety and sensitivity to rejection. Interestingly, the four last features are seldom observed among schizotypals inside the schizophrenic spectrum. Monozygotic non-schizophrenic cotwins of schizophrenics score high on inadequate rapport, odd communication, social isolation and delusions/hallucinations. Monozygotic non-schizophrenic cotwins of schizotypals outside the schizophrenic genetic spectrum score high on illusions, depersonalization, derealization and magical thinking. Negative schizotypal features appear to be inside the schizophrenic spectrum, while positive borderline-like features are outside having another genetic endowment.

  18. Quantifying the quiet epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    During the late 20th century numerical rating scales became central to the diagnosis of dementia and helped transform attitudes about its causes and prevalence. Concentrating largely on the development and use of the Blessed Dementia Scale, I argue that rating scales served professional ends during the 1960s and 1970s. They helped old age psychiatrists establish jurisdiction over conditions such as dementia and present their field as a vital component of the welfare state, where they argued that ‘reliable modes of diagnosis’ were vital to the allocation of resources. I show how these arguments appealed to politicians, funding bodies and patient groups, who agreed that dementia was a distinct disease and claimed research on its causes and prevention should be designated ‘top priority’. But I also show that worries about the replacement of clinical acumen with technical and depersonalized methods, which could conceivably be applied by anyone, led psychiatrists to stress that rating scales had their limits and could be used only by trained experts. PMID:25866448

  19. Quantifying the quiet epidemic: Diagnosing dementia in late 20th-century Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Duncan

    2014-12-01

    During the late 20 th century numerical rating scales became central to the diagnosis of dementia and helped transform attitudes about its causes and prevalence. Concentrating largely on the development and use of the Blessed Dementia Scale, I argue that rating scales served professional ends during the 1960s and 1970s. They helped old age psychiatrists establish jurisdiction over conditions such as dementia and present their field as a vital component of the welfare state, where they argued that 'reliable modes of diagnosis' were vital to the allocation of resources. I show how these arguments appealed to politicians, funding bodies and patient groups, who agreed that dementia was a distinct disease and claimed research on its causes and prevention should be designated 'top priority'. But I also show that worries about the replacement of clinical acumen with technical and depersonalized methods, which could conceivably be applied by anyone, led psychiatrists to stress that rating scales had their limits and could be used only by trained experts.

  20. Psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-Trauma Specific (AAQ-TS): A study with Portuguese Colonial War Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto-Gouveia, José; Carvalho, Teresa; Cunha, Marina; Duarte, Joana; Walser, Robyn D

    2015-10-01

    The Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-Trauma Specific (AAQ-TS) is a self-report measure designed to assess-trauma-related psychological (in)flexibility, as conceptualized in Acceptance and Commitment Therapy. However, there are no studies to date regarding its psychometric properties. This study explores such properties in the Portuguese version of the AAQ-TS, in Portuguese Colonial War Veterans. A Principal Components Analysis (PCA) was conducted in a sample from the general population of war Veterans (N=371). Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) as well as reliability and convergent validity studies were performed in a different sample from the same population (N=312). For the discriminant validity a clinical sample with a war-related PTSD (N=42) and a non-clinical sample without PTSD (N=44) were used. The CFA suggested a re-specified 15-item model with good global adjustment and factorial validity. The AAQ-TS showed internal consistency, a good temporal reliability, convergent validity with psychopathological symptoms (related to PTSD, anxiety, depression and stress) and peritraumatic dissociation (altered awareness and depersonalization/derealization). The questionnaire also discriminates between war Veterans with and without a PTSD diagnosis. The major limitation relates to the samples' characteristics and sampling methods, which can limit the generalization of results. The Portuguese version of the AAQ-TS is a reliable and valid measure to assess experiential avoidance related to trauma in Portuguese Colonial War Veterans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Burnout among nursing staff in accident and emergency and acute medicine: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Mark; Melby, Vidar

    2003-11-01

    This study was designed to identify the prevalence of burnout among nurses working in Accident and Emergency (A & E) and acute medicine, to establish factors that contribute to stress and burnout, to determine the experiences of nurses affected by it and highlight its effects on patient care and to determine if stress and burnout have any effects on individuals outside the clinical setting. A triangulated research design was used incorporating quantitative and qualitative methods. Maslach Burnout Inventory was used. Nurses working in acute medicine experienced higher levels of emotional exhaustion than their A & E counterparts. The overall level of depersonalization was low. High levels of personal accomplishment were experienced less by junior members of staff. Stress and burnout have far reaching effects both for nurses in their clinical practice and personal lives. If nurses continue to work in their current environment without issues being tackled, then burnout will result. The science of nursing does not have to be painful, but by recognition of the existence of stress and burnout we can take the first steps towards their prevention.

  2. [Burnout in Nursing Professionals Performing Overtime Workdays in Emergency and Critical Care Departments. Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañadas-De la Fuente, Guillermo Arturo; Albendín-García, Luis; de la Fuente, Emilia Inmaculada; San Luis, Concepción; Gómez-Urquiza, José Luis; Cañadas, Gustavo Raúl

    2016-09-14

    Burnout syndrome is a disorder that seriously affects people who suffer it, the institutions in which they work and the quality of healthcare. It is of great interest to advance in burnout research for its possible prevention. The aim of this work was to study the levels of burnout syndrome in nurses of emergency department with overtime workdays and to know the relationship between burnout and personality characteristics. Multicenter cross-sectional study with a sample of 1225 emergency nurses from the Andalusian Health Service. Demographic, social and occupational variables were recorded. Burnout was assessed with Maslach Burnout Inventory and personality factors with NEO-Five Factor Inventory. Descriptive analysis of the variables, independent means hypothesis contrast and bayesian analysis were done. 44.1% of nurses who perform overtime workdays have high burnout versus a 38% for those without such overload. These differences have been also found in burnout dimensions, especially in emotional exhaustion (15.3% versus 10.8%) and depersonalization (17.9% versus 11.8%). Overtime workdays performed by emergency nurses seems to have a negative on them and it could also influence the development of burnout syndrome.

  3. [Emergency nursing: "I want to leave my unit... I'm burning"?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos Rísquez, M Isabel; Martínez Cano, Fuensanta; Sabuco Tebar, Emiliana; Lozano Alguacil, Ester; Mateo Perea, Ginés

    2012-05-01

    To determine whether the intent of career mobility is associated with the frequency of job stressors and burnout syndrome experienced by emergency nurses. to assess perceived frequency of job stressors and burnout syndrome prevalence and its possible association with demographic and occupational values of the sample analyzed. We performed a cross-sectional study. We used a survey of sociodemographic and occupational variables, and two validated questionnaires: the "Nursing Stress Scale" validated by Escriba et al. (1999) and the Inventory to assess Burnout Syndrome (MBI-GS, Schaufeli et al., 1996). The total Stress score mean was 32.88 +/- 12.67. There was a Burnout prevalence of 2.34%, while 23.4% of the sample expressed high levels of cynicism/depersonalization. The frequency of job stressors was significantly associated with burnout syndrome dimensions. The frequency of stressors and intention of career mobility were significant predictors of emotional exhaustion and cynicism, while the fixed night shift was associated with lower professional efficacy. This study shows a moderate frequency of job stressors in the unit analyzed, and a low prevalence of Burnout Syndrome. The intention to leave or career mobility is an important predictor of burnout process, so it should be something to take into account by human resource managers, in order to prevent the development of the burnout process in health organizations.

  4. Comparing Burnout Across Emergency Physicians, Nurses, Technicians, and Health Information Technicians Working for the Same Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schooley, Benjamin; Hikmet, Neset; Tarcan, Menderes; Yorgancioglu, Gamze

    2016-03-01

    Studies on the topic of burnout measure the effects of emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization (DP) (negative or cynical attitudes toward work), and reduced sense of personal accomplishment (PA). While the prevalence of burnout in practicing emergency medicine (EM) professionals has been studied, little is known of the prevalence and factors across physicians, nurses, technicians, and health information technicians working for the same institution. The aim of this study was to assess burnout differences across EM professional types.The total population of 250 EM professionals at 2 public urban hospitals in Turkey were surveyed using the Maslach Burnout Inventory and basic social- and work-related demographics. Descriptive statistics, ANOVA, and additional post hoc tests were computed.Findings show that EE and DP scores were high across all occupational groups, while scores on PA were low. There was a statistically significant difference between nurses and medical technicians (P nurses and medical technicians (P Burnout can be high across occupational groups in the emergency department. Burnout is important for EM administrators to assess across human resources. Statistically significant differences across socio-demographic groups vary across occupational groups. However, differences between occupational groups may not be explained effectively by the demographic factors assessed in this or other prior studies. Rather, the factors associated with burnout are incomplete and require further institutional, cultural, and organizational analyses including differentiating between job tasks carried out by each EM job type.

  5. Adaptation resources in subjects with social and psychosomatic disadaptation: a comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyneka Olga S.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article the features of social-relationship systems are analyzed based on the data from a sociopsychological empirical study conducted in two stages (2002 and 2014 on a large sample with the help of g. Kelly’s Repertory grid Technique. A. V. Petrovsky’s three-factor interpersonal-relationships model as interpreted for closed groups by M. Yu. Kondratev and the concept of the closed society as described by Karl Popper provide the foundation for the theoretical hypothesis we tested. The empirical data obtained in 2002 came from 391 participants of different ages who were living in provincial towns in the Nizhny Novgorod region. The elderly respondents (232 people had lived almost all their lives under the Soviet regime; the middle-aged respondents (159 people got their education and started their careers in the USSR. Soviet society is considered to be closed because of its authoritarian and collectivist nature, static social structure, and dogmatic ideology. It is argued that both closed societies and closed groups are characterized by a rigid hierarchical social structure, isolation from other systems, and depersonalization of social relations. We have proved that members of a closed group and citizens of a closed society have similar social-relationship matrices.

  6. Alexithymia and its association with burnout, depression and family support among Greek nursing staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giotakis Konstantinos

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have examined the relation between alexithymia (i.e. the inability to recognize and verbalize emotions and professional burnout. Considering the absence of relevant studies in the Greek scientific literature, the aim of this work was to examine the associations of alexithymia with the three facets of professional burnout, the perception of family support and depression in nursing personnel. Methods The study was performed in one of the largest hospitals in Greece and included 95 nurses. Assessments of alexithymia, burnout, depression and family support were made by means of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory and the Julkunen Family Support Scale, respectively. Student's t-test, Pearson's correlation and stepwise linear regression were used for the evaluation of data. Results Alexithymia was correlated positively with depression, emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, and negatively with sense of family support and personal achievement. Additionally, family support was correlated positively with personal achievement and negatively with depression. Conclusion In the scientific literature there is a debate as to whether alexithymia is a stable personality characteristic or if it is dependent on symptoms of mental disorders. We tried to interpret the associations of alexithymia with professional burnout, depressive symptoms and family support. From this study it appears very likely that alexithymia is directly associated with depression and personal achievement, but also – indirectly – with the sense of family support.

  7. Depersonalisation and schizophrenia: Comparative study of initial and multiple episodes of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque-Luque, Rogelio; Chauca-Chauca, Geli Marie; Alonso-Lobato, Pablo; Jaen-Moreno, M Jose

    2016-01-01

    The phenomena of depersonalisation/derealisation have classically been associated with the initial phases of psychosis, and it is assumed that they would precede (even by years) the onset of clinical psychosis, being much more common in the prodromal and acute phases of the illness. The aims of the present study are to analyse the differences in depersonalisation/derealisation between patients with initial and multiple episodes and the factors that could influence this. A descriptive, controlled and cross-sectional study of 48 patients diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia (20 with an initial episode and 28 with multiple episodes). These patients were assessed using scales such as the Cambridge Depersonalization Scale, the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale, and the Dissociative Experiences Scale. Participants with initial episodes score higher on both the Cambridge Depersonalisation Scale, and the subscale of the Dissociative Experiences Scale that evaluates such experiences. There were no associations between these types of experience and the positive symptoms subscale of the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale. Depersonalisation/derealisation experiences appear with greater frequency, duration and intensity in patients in the early stages of the illnesses, gradually decreasing as they become chronic. Copyright © 2016 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  8. Modern Clinical Research on LSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liechti, Matthias E

    2017-10-01

    All modern clinical studies using the classic hallucinogen lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in healthy subjects or patients in the last 25 years are reviewed herein. There were five recent studies in healthy participants and one in patients. In a controlled setting, LSD acutely induced bliss, audiovisual synesthesia, altered meaning of perceptions, derealization, depersonalization, and mystical experiences. These subjective effects of LSD were mediated by the 5-HT 2A receptor. LSD increased feelings of closeness to others, openness, trust, and suggestibility. LSD impaired the recognition of sad and fearful faces, reduced left amygdala reactivity to fearful faces, and enhanced emotional empathy. LSD increased the emotional response to music and the meaning of music. LSD acutely produced deficits in sensorimotor gating, similar to observations in schizophrenia. LSD had weak autonomic stimulant effects and elevated plasma cortisol, prolactin, and oxytocin levels. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance studies showed that LSD acutely reduced the integrity of functional brain networks and increased connectivity between networks that normally are more dissociated. LSD increased functional thalamocortical connectivity and functional connectivity of the primary visual cortex with other brain areas. The latter effect was correlated with subjective hallucinations. LSD acutely induced global increases in brain entropy that were associated with greater trait openness 14 days later. In patients with anxiety associated with life-threatening disease, anxiety was reduced for 2 months after two doses of LSD. In medical settings, no complications of LSD administration were observed. These data should contribute to further investigations of the therapeutic potential of LSD in psychiatry.

  9. Generational differences in acute care nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widger, Kimberley; Pye, Christine; Cranley, Lisa; Wilson-Keates, Barbara; Squires, Mae; Tourangeau, Ann

    2007-01-01

    Generational differences in values, expectations and perceptions of work have been proposed as one basis for problems and solutions in recruitment and retention of nurses. This study used a descriptive design. A sample of 8207 registered nurses and registered practical nurses working in Ontario, Canada, acute care hospitals who responded to the Ontario Nurse Survey in 2003 were included in this study. Respondents were categorized as Baby Boomers, Generation X or Generation Y based on their birth year. Differences in responses among these three generations to questions about their own characteristics, employment circumstances, work environment and responses to the work environment were explored. There were statistically significant differences among the generations. Baby Boomers primarily worked full-time day shifts. Gen Y tended to be employed in teaching hospitals; Boomers worked more commonly in community hospitals. Baby Boomers were generally more satisfied with their jobs than Gen X or Gen Y nurses. Gen Y had the largest proportion of nurses with high levels of burnout in the areas of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. Baby Boomers had the largest proportion of nurses with low levels of burnout. Nurse managers may be able to capitalize on differences in generational values and needs in designing appropriate interventions to enhance recruitment and retention of nurses.

  10. Comparison of Nurses in Two Different Cultures: Who Experiences More Burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman Özlü, Zeynep; Çay Yayla, Ayşegül; Gümüş, Kenan; Khaghanyrad, Elisha

    2017-06-01

    Although burnout occurs in almost all occupational groups, it is mostly observed in professions requiring face-to-face relationships with people, especially among health care workers who deal constantly with problems and expectations of people. The objective of this study was to determine the burnout levels of nurses working in surgical clinics in two countries. This descriptive study was conducted between June and September 2013. The study's population consisted of 179 nurses working in the surgical clinics of Ataturk University Research Hospital and Iran Urmiyili Shahidmotahari University Hospital. A questionnaire involving descriptive characteristics of nurses and the Maslach Burnout Inventory were used to collect the data. Nurses working in Turkey had higher mean scores of "emotional exhaustion" and "depersonalization," and a higher mean composite score. Nurses working in Iran had higher mean scores of the subscale "personal accomplishment." Although there was a statistically significant difference between both countries in terms of emotional exhaustion and personal accomplishment (P  .05). Nurses working in Turkey experienced more emotional exhaustion and less personal accomplishment compared with nurses working in Iran. In line with this result, improvements in their work environment and conditions are recommended to provide organizational support by fostering job satisfaction, preventing exhaustion by arranging shifts based on workload, and offering psychological counseling services to employees. Copyright © 2016 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Roles of Individual and Organizational Factors in Burnout among Community-Based Mental Health Service Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Amy E.; Albanese, Brian J.; Shapiro, Nicole M.; Aarons, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    Public sector mental health care providers are at high risk for burnout which negatively affects not only provider well-being but also the quality of services for clients and the functioning of organizations. This study examines the influence of demographics, work characteristic, and organizational variables on levels of burnout among child and adolescent mental health service providers operating within a public sector mental health service system. Additionally, given the dearth of research examining differences in burnout levels among mental health sub-disciplines (e.g., social work, psychology, marital and family therapy) and mental health programs (e.g., outpatient, day treatment, Wraparound, case management), analyses were conducted to compare levels of burnout among multiple mental health disciplines and program types. Surveys were completed by 285 providers across 49 mental health programs in a large urban public mental health system. Variables representing dimensions of organizational climate and transformational leadership accounted for the greatest amount of variance in provider reported burnout. Analyses demonstrated significantly lower levels of depersonalization among Wraparound providers compared to traditional case managers. Age was the only demographic variable related to burnout. Additionally, no significant effects were found for provider discipline or for agency tenure and caseload size. Results suggest the need to consider organizational development strategies aimed at creating more functional and less stressful climates and increasing levels of transformational leadership behaviors in order to reduce levels of burnout among clinicians working in public mental health settings for youth and families. PMID:24564442

  12. Detaching reasons from aims: fair play and well-being in soccer as a function of pursuing performance-approach goals for autonomous or controlling reasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Mouratidis, Athanasios; Lens, Willy

    2010-04-01

    In two cross-sectional studies we investigated whether soccer players' well-being (Study 1) and moral functioning (Studies 1 and 2) is related to performance-approach goals and to the autonomous and controlling reasons underlying their pursuit. In support of our hypotheses, we found in Study 1 that autonomous reasons were positively associated with vitality and positive affect, whereas controlling reasons were positively related to negative affect and mostly unrelated to indicators of morality. To investigate the lack of systematic association with moral outcomes, we explored in Study 2 whether performance-approach goals or their underlying reasons would yield an indirect relation to moral outcomes through their association with players' objectifying attitude-their tendency to depersonalize their opponents. Structural equation modeling showed that controlling reasons for performance-approach goals were positively associated with an objectifying attitude, which in turn was positively associated to unfair functioning. Results are discussed within the achievement goal perspective (Elliot, 2005) and self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000).

  13. Hypnosis and pain perception: An Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE) meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Casale, Antonio; Ferracuti, Stefano; Rapinesi, Chiara; De Rossi, Pietro; Angeletti, Gloria; Sani, Gabriele; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Girardi, Paolo

    2015-12-01

    Several studies reported that hypnosis can modulate pain perception and tolerance by affecting cortical and subcortical activity in brain regions involved in these processes. We conducted an Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE) meta-analysis on functional neuroimaging studies of pain perception under hypnosis to identify brain activation-deactivation patterns occurring during hypnotic suggestions aiming at pain reduction, including hypnotic analgesic, pleasant, or depersonalization suggestions (HASs). We searched the PubMed, Embase and PsycInfo databases; we included papers published in peer-reviewed journals dealing with functional neuroimaging and hypnosis-modulated pain perception. The ALE meta-analysis encompassed data from 75 healthy volunteers reported in 8 functional neuroimaging studies. HASs during experimentally-induced pain compared to control conditions correlated with significant activations of the right anterior cingulate cortex (Brodmann's Area [BA] 32), left superior frontal gyrus (BA 6), and right insula, and deactivation of right midline nuclei of the thalamus. HASs during experimental pain impact both cortical and subcortical brain activity. The anterior cingulate, left superior frontal, and right insular cortices activation increases could induce a thalamic deactivation (top-down inhibition), which may correlate with reductions in pain intensity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Burnout in psychiatric nursing: examining the interplay of autonomy, leadership style, and depressive symptoms.

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    Madathil, Renee; Heck, Nicholas C; Schuldberg, David

    2014-06-01

    It is important to consider ways in which nurses can be protected from experiencing the effects of burnout. This study examined the relationships between leadership style of psychiatric nurse supervisors, work role autonomy, and psychological distress in relation to psychiatric nurse burnout. Eighty-nine psychiatric nurses from Montana and New York hospitals completed an online survey that assessed their work-related experiences. Overall, results of this study indicate that the participants were experiencing high levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization when compared to a normative sample of mental health workers. Results also showed that leadership style and work role autonomy are likely to be environmental factors that protect against burnout in nurses. Finally, it was shown that the relationship between depressive symptoms and the burnout component of personal accomplishment may be influenced by nurses' perceptions of the leadership style in their work environment. These findings are important because nurse supervisor leadership styles and amount of autonomy are characteristics of the work environment that may be amenable to change through training and intervention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Quality of working life and burnout among nursing staff in Intensive Care Units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Denise Rodrigues Costa; Paladini, Márcia; Biato, Cleonice; Pais, Juliana Domingues; Oliveira, Adelaine Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    This descriptive-correlational and cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the quality of working life (QWL) and the presence of burnout among nursing professionals working at Intensive Care Units. The sample was composed of 53 nursing professionals from a university hospital located in the city of Londrina-PR, Brazil. Three instruments were used for data collection: socio-demographic and professional characterization, Visual Analogue Scale for QWL and Maslach Burnout Inventory. Data was collected from April to August, 2009. Among the participants, most were auxiliary nurses (52.8%), women (66.0%) and married (67.9%). The average age was of 42.4 years. Regarding assessment of QWL, the average score obtained for the total sample was 71.1 (SD=15.5), showing that workers were satisfied with their QWL. The average for Emotional Exhaustion, Depersonalization and Personal Accomplishment dimensions was 11.4 (SD=7.7), 4.6 (SD=4.1) and 25.0 (SD=5.9), respectively. The QWL for the total sample showed significant association only with Emotional Exhaustion (p=0.000).

  16. Demographics and Personality Factors Associated with Burnout among Nurses in a Singapore Tertiary Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaliwal, Satvinder S.; Ayre, Tracy Carol; Uthaman, Thendral; Fong, Kuan Yok; Tien, Choo Eng; Zhou, Huaqiong; Della, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    Background. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence and extent of burnout among nurses in Singapore and investigate the influence of demographic factors and personal characteristics on the burnout syndrome. Methods. A cross-sectional survey design was adopted. All registered nurses working in Singapore General Hospital were approached to participate. A questionnaire eliciting data on demographics, burnout (measured using the Maslach Burnout Inventory, MBI), and personality profile (measured using the NEO Five-Factor Inventory, NEO-FFI) was used. Results. 1830 nurses out of 3588 responded (response rate: 51%). Results from 1826 respondents were available for analysis. The MBI identified 39% to have high emotional exhaustion (EE, cut-off score of >27), 40% having high depersonalization (DP, cut-off score of >10), and 59% having low personal accomplishment (PA, cut-off score of nurses less than 30 years with high to very high neuroticism were more likely to experience high EE, high DP, and low PA. Conclusion. Younger nurses in Singapore are at increased risk of burnout. Personality traits also played a significant role in the experience of burnout. PMID:27478835

  17. Nurses’ Burnout: The Influence of Leader Empowering Behaviors, Work Conditions, and Demographic Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudallal, Rola H.; Othman, Wafa’a M.; Al Hassan, Nahid F.

    2017-01-01

    Nurse burnout is a widespread phenomenon characterized by a reduction in nurses’ energy that manifests in emotional exhaustion, lack of motivation, and feelings of frustration and may lead to reductions in work efficacy. This study was conducted to assess the level of burnout among Jordanian nurses and to investigate the influence of leader empowering behaviors (LEBs) on nurses’ feelings of burnout in an endeavor to improve nursing work outcomes. A cross-sectional and correlational design was used. Leader Empowering Behaviors Scale and the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) were employed to collect data from 407 registered nurses, recruited from 11 hospitals in Jordan. The Jordanian nurses exhibited high levels of burnout as demonstrated by their high scores for Emotional Exhaustion (EE) and Depersonalization (DP) and moderate scores for Personal Accomplishment (PA). Factors related to work conditions, nurses’ demographic traits, and LEBs were significantly correlated with the burnout categories. A stepwise regression model–exposed 4 factors predicted EE: hospital type, nurses’ work shift, providing autonomy, and fostering participation in decision making. Gender, fostering participation in decision making, and department type were responsible for 5.9% of the DP variance, whereas facilitating goal attainment and nursing experience accounted for 8.3% of the PA variance. This study highlights the importance of the role of nurse leaders in improving work conditions and empowering and motivating nurses to decrease nurses’ feelings of burnout, reduce turnover rates, and improve the quality of nursing care. PMID:28844166

  18. [Burnout and perceived health in Critical Care nursing professionals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos Risquez, M I; Peñalver Hernández, F; Godoy Fernández, C

    2008-01-01

    To assess the level of burnout syndrome in a sample of critical care nursing professionals and analyze its relation with the perception of general health and other sociodemographic and work characteristics. Cross-sectional descriptive study. SITE: Intensive Care Unit of the University Hospital Morales Meseguer, Murcia-Spain. Three evaluation tools were used. These included a sociodemographic and work survey, the validated Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) questionnaires and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) in order to assess professional burnout and the general health condition perceived, respectively. Only 42 out of the 56 questionnaires included in the study were valid. This means an answering rate of 75%. The mean score obtained on the emotional tiredness dimension (25.45 6 11.15) stands out. About 42.9% of the sample presented psychological or psychosomatic symptoms that could require specialized care. Correlation between burnout and general health perception was statistically significant (r = 0.536; p burnout found was moderate to high among critical care nursing professionals. A total of 11.9% of the studied sample had a high score in the 3 dimensions of the burnout syndrome: emotional tiredness, depersonalization, and lack of personal job performance. Burnout and health levels found indicate high vulnerability in the sample studied and the need to establish prevention/intervention programs in this work context.

  19. Positive effects, side effects, and adverse events of clinical holistic medicine. A review of Gerda Boyesen's nonpharmaceutical mind-body medicine (biodynamic body-psychotherapy) at two centers in the United Kingdom and Germany.

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    Allmer, Charlotte; Ventegodt, Søren; Kandel, Isack; Merrick, Joav

    2009-01-01

    To review adverse events of intensive, clinical holistic medicine (CHM) as it is practiced in holistic body-psychotherapy in England and Germany. Gerda Boyesen's "biodynamic body-psychotherapy" (BBP) is an intensive type of holistic mind-body medicine used by Boyesen at two centers. About 13,500 patients were treated during 1985-2005 period and studied for side effects and adverse events. The first author worked closely with Boyesen 1995-2005 with full insight in all aspects of the therapy and provided the data on side-effects. Therapy helped chronic patients with physical, psychological, sexual, psychiatric and existential problems to improve health, ability, and quality of life (NNT (number needed to treat) = 1-3). Effective in the treatment of mentally ill patients (schizophrenia, anxiety, poor mental health, low general ability). For retraumatization, brief reactive psychosis, depression, depersonalization and derealization, implanted memories, side effects from manipulations of the body, suicide/suicide attempts, hospitalization for physical and mental health problem during or 90 days after treatment, NNH (number needed to harm) > 13,500. Intensive, holistic non-drug medicine is helpful for physical, sexual, psychological, psychiatric and existential problems and is completely safe for the patient. The therapeutic value TV = NNH/NNT > 5,000. Altogether about 18,000 patients treated with different subtypes of CHM in four different countries have now been evaluated for effects, side effects and adverse events, with similar results.

  20. Professional burnout, stress and job satisfaction of nursing staff at a university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portero de la Cruz, Silvia; Vaquero Abellán, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    to describe the social and work characteristics of the nursing staff at a tertiary hospital in the Public Health Service of Andalucía, to assess the degree of professional professional burnout and job satisfaction of those professionals and to study the possible relation between the professional burnout variables and the stress and job satisfaction levels on the one hand and social and employment variables on the other. descriptive and cross-sectional study in a sample of 258 baccalaureate and auxiliary nurses. As research instruments, an original and specific questionnaire was used to collect social and employment variables, the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the Nursing Stress Scale and the Font-Roja questionnaire. Descriptive, inferential statistics and multivariate analysis were applied. average scores were found for professional stress and satisfaction, corresponding to 44,23 and 65,46 points, respectively. As regards professional burnout, an average score was found on the emotional exhaustion subscale; a high score for depersonalization and a low score for professional accomplishment. Studies are needed to identify the scores on these subscales in health organizations and to produce knowledge on their interrelations.

  1. Burnout syndrome in nurses in an Intensive Care Unit

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    Faustino Eduardo dos Santos

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify if nurses working in cardiac and general Intensive Care Units are subject to burnout, correlating it with demographic and occupational information. Methods: This is a descriptive exploratory, cross-sectional, prospective and correlational study utilizing  quantitative resources. The sample was composed of 34 nurses who answered the Maslach and Jackson inventory (MBI-HSS, which consists of 22 questions plus a questionnaire on demographic and occupational data. The study was carried out at a large private hospital in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Rresults: Of 34 nurses, nine had high emotional exhaustion, nine high depersonalization, ten had a high score of reduced professional accomplishment (decreased personal fulfillment at work. Most nurses presented alterations in more than one dimension regarding burnout. Cconclusions: The majority of nurses presented burnout and there was a positive correlation between burnout and the variables: sex, advanced professional degrees, time working in nursing, workload and working at more than one hospital.

  2. Professional burnout, stress and job satisfaction of nursing staff at a university hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Portero de la Cruz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to describe the social and work characteristics of the nursing staff at a tertiary hospital in the Public Health Service of Andalucía, to assess the degree of professional professional burnout and job satisfaction of those professionals and to study the possible relation between the professional burnout variables and the stress and job satisfaction levels on the one hand and social and employment variables on the other.METHOD: descriptive and cross-sectional study in a sample of 258 baccalaureate and auxiliary nurses. As research instruments, an original and specific questionnaire was used to collect social and employment variables, the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the Nursing Stress Scale and the Font-Roja questionnaire. Descriptive, inferential statistics and multivariate analysis were applied.RESULTS: average scores were found for professional stress and satisfaction, corresponding to 44,23 and 65,46 points, respectively. As regards professional burnout, an average score was found on the emotional exhaustion subscale; a high score for depersonalization and a low score for professional accomplishment. Studies are needed to identify the scores on these subscales in health organizations and to produce knowledge on their interrelations.

  3. Active Intervention Can Decrease Burnout In Ed Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Rong; Ji, Hong; Li, Jianxin; Zhang, Liyao

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether active intervention can decrease job burnout and improve performance among ED nurses. This study was carried out in the emergency departments of 3 hospitals randomly selected from 8 comprehensive high-level hospitals in Jinan, China. A total of 102 nurses were enrolled and randomly divided into control and intervention groups. For 6 months, nurses in intervention groups were treated with ordinary treatment plus comprehensive management, whereas nurses in the control group were treated with ordinary management, respectively. Questionnaires were sent and collected at baseline and at the end of the study. The Student t test was used to evaluate the effect of comprehensive management in decreasing burnout. All ED nurses showed symptoms of job burnout at different levels. Our data indicated that comprehensive management significantly decreased emotional exhaustion and depersonalization (P burnout in ED nurses and contribute to relieving work-related stress and may further protect against potential mental health problems. Copyright © 2016 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Burnout among nurses working in medical and educational centers in Shahrekord, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddasi, Jaefar; Mehralian, Hossein; Aslani, Yousef; Masoodi, Reza; Amiri, Masoud

    2013-01-01

    Background: Nursing burnout is the main characteristic of job stress that is a delayed reaction to chronic stressful situations in the workplace which could affect nurses who do not have sufficient emotional energy to cope and communicate with different types of patients. There is also sometimes this belief that they do not have the required capabilities for their jobs. The aim of this study was the evaluation of burnout among nurses working in medical and educational centers in Shahrekord. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was performed on 340 nurses working in medical and educational centers in Shahrekord in 2009. Samples were selected using proportionate random sampling. Demographic information and the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) were filled in for all nurses. Results: Burnout was considerable among nurses. The results showed that 34.6, 28.8, and 95.7% of the nurses had emotional exhaustion (EE), high depersonalization (DP), and high reduced personal accomplishment (PA), respectively. The mean scores (± standard deviation) for EE, DP, and PA were 22.77 (12.44), 6.99 (6.23), and 32.20 (9.26), respectively. Conclusions: Our results showed that burnout was noticeable among nurses working in medical and educational centers in Shahrekord. Disproportionate relationship between the number of nurses, workload, and income was the most important factor affecting nursing burnout. Due to the importance of nursing in the health-care system, policy makers should adopt suitable strategies for increasing the satisfaction of nurses. PMID:24403925

  5. Health Professionals Facing Burnout: What Do We Know about Nursing Managers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeb, Jean-Luc; Haberey-Knuessi, Véronique

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To address the degree of burnout in nursing managers in hospitals of Western Switzerland, including comparison with medical managers, and its relationship with personal, work-related, and organizational characteristics. Methods. Statistical analysis of the scores of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey from 257 nursing managers who answered a standardized electronic questionnaire. Results. Nursing managers showed a low degree of burnout, which was similar to that of medical managers. Most of them had a low level of emotional exhaustion and a low level of depersonalization, while personal accomplishment was contrasted. Only 2.3% had a high degree of burnout. These findings challenge the hypothesis of high stress being associated with high burnout, as nursing managers can be supposed to have a highly demanding job due to their intermediary position within the hospital hierarchy. Variations of burnout by personal, work-related, and organizational characteristics mainly concerned emotional exhaustion. Conclusion. Though nursing managers face a highly demanding job, they may benefit from resources (including coping strategies and empowerment) which help counterbalance job stress. Unequal distribution of resources may play a central role when facing burnout.

  6. The impact of caring for persons living with HIV and AIDS on the mental health of nurses in the Limpopo Province

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    M Davhana-Maselesele

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the impact of caring for AIDS sufferers on the mental health of nurses. This assessment was measured against the level of burnout, stress and depression among 174 nurses caring for people living with HIV and AIDS in Limpopo Province, South Africa. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection. The questionnaire incorporated the AIDS Impact Scale (AIS, Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI and the participants’ demographic and professional profiles. Participants were conveniently selected from five selected hospitals in Limpopo Province. The study participants’ valuation using the AIS showed that nurses tended to develop strong bonds and relationships with the patients; felt frustrated by their inability to help the terminally ill AIDS sufferers and were subsequently affected by the death of their patients. Personal accomplishments of the nurses remained high and the levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization levels were low. The BDI showed that over 3 out of 4 nurses were experiencing between mild mood disturbance and extreme depression. Higher average scores were noted for items of the depression scale like sadness, dissatisfaction, fatigue and low level of energy. The findings highlight the need to develop psychological support programmes for nurses caring for AIDS patients and promote the provision of social incentives and recognition of the role of nurses in AIDS care.

  7. Stress, Social Support, and Burnout Among Long-Term Care Nursing Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhead, Erin L; Northrop, Lynn; Edelstein, Barry

    2016-01-01

    Long-term care nursing staff are subject to considerable occupational stress and report high levels of burnout, yet little is known about how stress and social support are associated with burnout in this population. The present study utilized the job demands-resources model of burnout to examine relations between job demands (occupational and personal stress), job resources (sources and functions of social support), and burnout in a sample of nursing staff at a long-term care facility (N = 250). Hierarchical linear regression analyses revealed that job demands (greater occupational stress) were associated with more emotional exhaustion, more depersonalization, and less personal accomplishment. Job resources (support from supervisors and friends or family members, reassurance of worth, opportunity for nurturing) were associated with less emotional exhaustion and higher levels of personal accomplishment. Interventions to reduce burnout that include a focus on stress and social support outside of work may be particularly beneficial for long-term care staff. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Perceptions of stress, burnout, and support systems in pediatric bone marrow transplantation nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Regan; Gormley, Denise K

    2009-12-01

    Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is used to treat various conditions, ranging from immune disorders to many types of cancer. The critical complexity of patients and the environment in which BMT nurses work can lead to stress, burnout, and, ultimately, poor retention. This study aimed to investigate nurses' perceptions of work-related stress and burnout as well as current support systems for nurses. The study included 30 BMT staff nurses from a large pediatric medical center in the midwestern United States. Critical illness or acuity of patients was reported as the most stressful factor; long work hours was the least stressful factor. Most nurses perceived moderate to high levels of emotional exhaustion, and 33% reported moderate levels of depersonalization. Fifty percent perceived high levels of personal accomplishment, despite the critical illness or acuity of their patients, demanding patient families, rotating shifts, short staffing, and caring for dying patients. Most nurses felt that support systems were in place and that staff was accessible, but most respondents were undecided about the helpfulness of the support systems. Results suggest that support systems may significantly affect work satisfaction and feelings of accomplishment for BMT nurses.

  9. Health Professionals Facing Burnout: What Do We Know about Nursing Managers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Luc Heeb

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To address the degree of burnout in nursing managers in hospitals of Western Switzerland, including comparison with medical managers, and its relationship with personal, work-related, and organizational characteristics. Methods. Statistical analysis of the scores of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey from 257 nursing managers who answered a standardized electronic questionnaire. Results. Nursing managers showed a low degree of burnout, which was similar to that of medical managers. Most of them had a low level of emotional exhaustion and a low level of depersonalization, while personal accomplishment was contrasted. Only 2.3% had a high degree of burnout. These findings challenge the hypothesis of high stress being associated with high burnout, as nursing managers can be supposed to have a highly demanding job due to their intermediary position within the hospital hierarchy. Variations of burnout by personal, work-related, and organizational characteristics mainly concerned emotional exhaustion. Conclusion. Though nursing managers face a highly demanding job, they may benefit from resources (including coping strategies and empowerment which help counterbalance job stress. Unequal distribution of resources may play a central role when facing burnout.

  10. Sense of meaning as a predictor of burnout in emergency physicians in Israel: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Itzhak, Shulamit; Dvash, Jonathan; Maor, Maya; Rosenberg, Noa; Halpern, Pinchas

    2015-12-01

    Burnout is common in physicians and particularly acute in emergency physicians. Physician burnout may adversely affect physicians' lives and the quality of care they provide, but much remains unknown about its main contributing factors. The present study evaluated burnout rates and contributing factors in emergency physicians in Israel, specifically focusing on the role of a sense of meaning, which has received little attention in the literature concerning burnout in emergency physicians. A multicenter study, involving a convenience sample of physicians working full-time in the emergency departments of 16 general hospitals in Israel, was conducted. Questionnaires were used to assess burnout, demographic characteristics, professional stress, emotional distress, satisfaction, and quality of professional life, and open-ended questions were used to evaluate subjective perception of job satisfaction. Seventy physicians completed the questionnaires; 71.4% reported significant burnout levels in at least one of the burnout measures, while 82% also reported medium or high levels of competency. Burnout levels were associated with work-life balance, work satisfaction, social support, depressive symptoms, stress, and preoccupying thoughts. Regression analysis yielded two significant factors associated with burnout: worry and a sense of existential meaning derived from work. In addition, 61%, 51%, and 17% of participants exhibited high emotional exhaustion, high depersonalization, and a low sense of personal accomplishment, respectively. These results indicate a high burnout rate in emergency physicians in Israel and highlight relevant positive and negative factors including the importance of addressing existential meaning in designing specific intervention programs to counter burnout.

  11. The relationship between teacher burnout and student motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bo; McCaughtry, Nate; Martin, Jeffrey; Garn, Alex; Kulik, Noel; Fahlman, Mariane

    2015-12-01

    Teacher burnout is regarded as a serious problem in school settings. To date, studies on teachers' stress and burnout have largely centred on teachers' own characteristics, socialization, and behaviours, but few have explored the connection between teachers' burnout and students' motivation via their own perceptions of teachers' behaviour and emotional well-being. This study adopted Maslach et al.'s (2001, Annu. Rev. Psychol., 52, 397) job burnout construct and self-determination theory to investigate the relationships between teachers' burnout and students' autonomous motivation over one-semester physical education classes. A total of 1,302 high school students and their 33 physical education teachers in 20 high schools from two school districts in a major Midwest metropolitan area in the United States. The two school districts were demographically similar. Students and physical education teachers completed questionnaires assessing relevant psychological constructs. There were two time points for collecting students' data. One was at the beginning of a fall semester, and the other was at the end of that semester. Hierarchical linear modelling analyses were conducted. It was revealed that teachers' emotional exhaustion was negatively related to students' perceived teacher autonomy support (TAS); in turn, there was a negative relationship between teachers' feeling of depersonalization and students' autonomous motivation development even when controlling for inadequate TAS. The dimensions of teachers' burnout might play different roles in the transmission from teachers to students. Teachers' status of burnout is an important environmental factor associated with students' quality of motivation. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  12. The mediating effects of coping strategies on the relationship between secondary traumatic stress and burnout in professional caregivers in the UAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Abdalla A R M; Musa, Saif A

    2017-02-01

    Professional caregivers dealing with traumatized victims or mental health clients are at increased risk for developing the same symptoms as persons who are exposed directly to the trauma. This research was aimed at examining the relationship between secondary traumatic stress, burnout and coping strategies in 502 professional caregivers who work in schools, hospitals, charity institutes and welfare centers in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). A further aim was to test the mediating effect of coping on the relationship between burnout and secondary traumatic stress. Measures used in this study were the Professional Quality of Life Questionnaire (ProQOL), The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), The Maslach Burnout Inventory: Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS) and Endler and Parker's Coping Inventory. Task-focused coping, personal accomplishment and compassion satisfaction were negatively associated with secondary traumatic stress. Burnout, emotion-focused and distraction coping were positively related to secondary traumatic stress. Coping partially mediated the relationship between burnout and secondary traumatic stress. There were also significant gender differences in depersonalization and distraction coping. Efforts need to focus on improvement of caregivers' work environments, enhancing their coping skills and professional development.

  13. Burnout and Alcohol Abuse/Dependence Among U.S. Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Eric R; Shanafelt, Tait D; Hasan, Omar; Satele, Daniel V; Dyrbye, Liselotte N

    2016-09-01

    To explore the relationship between alcohol abuse/dependence with burnout and other forms of distress among a national cohort of medical students. In 2012, the authors completed a national survey of medical students from the American Medical Association's Physician Masterfile containing validated items assessing alcohol abuse/dependence, burnout, depression, suicidality, quality of life (QOL), and fatigue. Descriptive and comparative statistical analyses were computed, including chi-square and multivariate logistic regression, to determine relationships between variables. Of the 12,500 students, 4,402 (35.2%) responded. Of these, 1,411 (32.4%) met diagnostic criteria for alcohol abuse/dependence. Students who were burned out (P = .01), depressed (P = .01), or reported low mental (P =.03) or emotional (P = .016) QOL were more likely to have alcohol abuse/dependence. Emotional exhaustion and depersonalization domains of burnout were strongly associated with alcohol abuse/dependence. On multivariate analysis, burnout (OR 1.20; 95% CI 1.05-1.37; P $100,000 (OR 1.27 versus dependence. Burnout was strongly related to alcohol abuse/dependence among sampled medical students and increased educational debt predicted a higher risk. A multifaceted approach addressing burnout, medical education costs, and alcohol use is needed.

  14. Dissociation, Paranormal Belief, and Quality of Life in Older People

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    Tungshan Chou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of religiosity in current health-related literature is mostly based on the traditional Christian belief system. It has been argued that such a measurement approach may misrepresent the true degree of religiosity in Taiwanese people. In this study, religiosity was measured in two ways: self-reported religion type and a qualitatively derived index of religious piety based on principles as suggested by Gries, Su, and Schak to be used in the Taiwanese context. Their effects on dissociation, paranormal belief, and quality of life were juxtaposed for comparison. In addition, the beneficial effect of religious piety was examined in the framework of McClenon’s ritual healing theory. A total of 266 healthy older adults across Taiwan were interviewed by four trained assistants over a 4-month period. Factor scores were used to represent the dissociative tendencies (depersonalization/derealization, forgetfulness, amnesia, and psychological absorption and paranormal belief facets (precognition, psi power, other forms of life, traditional religious belief, superstition, and telepathy. The results showed that older people of high religious piety display better quality of life profiles than their counterparts in the low religious piety group. The effects of self-reported religion type were mainly seen with paranormal beliefs compatible with their religious beliefs, whereas the effects of religious piety were more pronounced in relation to quality of life than dissociation and paranormal belief. The beneficial advantage of dissociation hypothesized by ritual healing theory did not receive empirical support in the nonclinical sample of this study.

  15. [Crisis in the valuation, emotional labor and occupational burnout among teachers of religion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachowska, Bogusława; Starczewski, Karol

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of the relationship between the crisis of values and in the valuation, the strategy of emotional labor, and occupational burnout in the group of lay teachers of religion. In addition, the role of emotional labor as a mediator of the relationship between the crisis of values and burnout was analyzed. Three strategies of emotional labor were considered in the study: surface acting, deep acting, and expression of naturally felt emotions. The study was conducted in a group of 169 lay teachers of religion (males - 24%, females - 76%), using the Questionnaire for Investigating Crisis in Valuation developed by Oleś, the Maslach Burnout Inventory, and the Emotional Labour Scale developed by Diefendorff, Croyle and Gosserand. The crisis of values and in the valuation is an important factor responsible for occupational burnout in the group of lay teachers of religion. Surface acting and expression of naturally felt emotions mediate the relationship between crisis in the valuation and emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and lack of personal accomplishment. Surface acting increases, while the expression of naturally felt emotions decreases occupational burnout. Deep acting is not related with occupational burnout. It is justified to seek factors favoring the expression of naturally felt emotions, and also those reducing surface acting. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  16. Immediate effects of reiki on heart rate variability, cortisol levels, and body temperature in health care professionals with burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Rodríguez, Lourdes; Arroyo-Morales, Manuel; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, Cesar; García-Lafuente, Francisca; García-Royo, Carmen; Tomás-Rojas, Inmaculada

    2011-10-01

    Burnout is a work-related mental health impairment comprising three dimensions: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment. Reiki aims to help replenish and rebalance the body's energetic system, thus stimulating the healing process. The objective of this placebo-controlled, repeated measures, crossover, single-blind, randomized trial was to analyze the immediate effects of Reiki on heart rate variability (HRV), body temperature, and salivary flow rate and cortisol level in health care professionals with burnout syndrome (BS). Participants included 21 health care professionals with BS, who were asked to complete two visits to the laboratory with a 1-week interval between sessions. They were randomly assigned the order in which they would receive a Reiki session applied by an experienced therapist and a placebo treatment applied by a therapist with no knowledge of Reiki, who mimicked the Reiki treatment. Temperature, Holter ECG recordings (standard deviation of the normal-to-normal interval [SDNN], square root of mean squared differences of successive NN intervals [RMSSD], HRV index, low frequency component [LF], and high frequency component [HF]), salivary flow rate and cortisol levels were measured at baseline and postintervention by an assessor blinded to allocation group. SDNN and body temperature were significantly higher after the Reiki treatment than after the placebo. LF was significantly lower after the Reiki treatment. The decrease in the LF domain was associated with the increase in body temperature. These results suggest that Reiki has an effect on the parasympathetic nervous system when applied to health care professionals with BS.

  17. Integrating Compassionate, Collaborative Care (the "Triple C") Into Health Professional Education to Advance the Triple Aim of Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lown, Beth A; McIntosh, Sharrie; Gaines, Martha E; McGuinn, Kathy; Hatem, David S

    2016-03-01

    Empathy and compassion provide an important foundation for effective collaboration in health care. Compassion (the recognition of and response to the distress and suffering of others) should be consistently offered by health care professionals to patients, families, staff, and one another. However, compassion without collaboration may result in uncoordinated care, while collaboration without compassion may result in technically correct but depersonalized care that fails to meet the unique emotional and psychosocial needs of all involved. Providing compassionate, collaborative care (CCC) is critical to achieving the "triple aim" of improving patients' health and experiences of care while reducing costs. Yet, values and skills related to CCC (or the "Triple C") are not routinely taught, modeled, and assessed across the continuum of learning and practice. To change this paradigm, an interprofessional group of experts recently recommended approaches and a framework for integrating CCC into health professional education and postgraduate training as well as clinical care. In this Perspective, the authors describe how the Triple C framework can be integrated and enhance existing competency standards to advance CCC across the learning and practice continuum. They also discuss strategies for partnering with patients and families to improve health professional education and health care design and delivery through quality improvement projects. They emphasize that compassion and collaboration are important sources of professional, patient, and family satisfaction as well as critical aspects of professionalism and person-centered, relationship-based high-quality care.

  18. NETWORK SERVICES FOR DIAGNOSTIC OPTODIGITAL COMPLEX FOR TELEMEDICINE

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    D. S. Kopylov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with a result of the network services development for the optodigital complex for telemedicine diagnostics. This complex is designed for laboratory and clinical tests in health care facilities. Composition of network services includes the following: a client application for database of diagnostic test, a web-service, a web interface, a video server and microimage processing server. Structure of these services makes it possible to combine set of software for transferring depersonalized medical data via the Internet and operating with optodigital devices included in the complex. Complex is consisted of three systems: micro-vision, endoscopic and network. The micro-vision system includes an automated digital microscope with two highly sensitive cameras which can be controlled remotely via the Internet. The endoscopic system gives the possibility to implement video broadcasting to remote users both during diagnostic tests and also off-line after tests. The network system is the core of the complex where network services and application software are functioning, intended for archiving, storage and providing access to the database of diagnostic tests. The following subjects are developed and tested for functional stability: states transfer protocol, commands transfer protocol and video-stream transfer protocol from automated digital microscope and video endoscope. These protocols can work in web browsers on modern mobile devices without additional software.

  19. Burnout and Its Relationships with Alexithymia, Stress, and Social Support among Romanian Medical Students: A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Ovidiu Popa-Velea

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Medical school students often experience emotional difficulties when handling the challenges of their formation, occasionally leading to burnout. In this study, we measured the prevalence of burnout and its relationships with perceived stress, perceived social support, and alexithymia in medical students from the largest academic medical community in Romania. A cross-sectional survey was administered to a randomized sample of 299 preclinical medical students at the University of Medicine in Bucharest. Participants completed four standardized questionnaires. In addition to the assessment of burnout prevalence, stepwise backward regression was used to establish which variables had the highest correlation to burnout components. Further, t-tests were run to assess gender-related differences. Overall, burnout prevalence was 15.05%. Perceived stress was found to be the strongest predictor of emotional exhaustion and lack of accomplishment, while the strongest predictors of depersonalization were low perceived social support (in women and alexithymia (in men. Women appear to be more vulnerable to two of the components of burnout (emotional exhaustion and low personal accomplishment and associate higher perceived stress and alexithymia. These results suggest that interventions addressing academic burnout could benefit from being gender-specific, with focus on key elements, such as perceived stress and alexithymia.

  20. Job satisfaction among urban secondary-school teachers in Namibia

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    Evy George

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available An exploratory study on the role of extrinsic and intrinsic factors in determining job satisfaction amongst urban secondary-school teachers in Namibia was undertaken. Biographical variables pertaining to the teachers' gender, age, marital status, school resources, teaching experience, academic qualifications, and rank were investigated to determine whether these had any significant relevance, or made any notable contribution, to the level of job satisfaction experienced. Also, the correlation between burnout and job satisfaction was investigated to determine the extent to which these two factors are related. A sample of 337 secondary-school teachers randomly selected from 17 government schools, in the Windhoek region of Namibia, voluntarily participated in the study. Results showed significant levels of dissatisfaction pertaining to intrinsic factors of work and, more especially, those factors relating to school area and rank. A significant correlation between levels of burnout and job satisfaction was found, particularly in respect of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, which were shown to correlate with low levels of job satisfaction. Limitations and recommendations pertaining to the study are discussed.

  1. Burnout Syndrome in Pediatric Practice

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    Reem A. Al-Youbi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Burnout is a common work-related syndrome consisting of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and diminished feelings of personal accomplishment. Burnout influences the performance and efficiency of the healthcare professionals and therefore the quality of the care provided. This study aims to assess the burnout rates and potential determinants in pediatrics.Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study involving physicians practicing pediatrics in the Jeddah area of Saudi Arabia was conducted utilizing the Maslach Burnout Inventory in addition to questions regarding work-related and lifestyle-related factors.Results: One hundred and thirty pediatricians (55% females were included with age ranging between 25 and 45 years (mean: 30. Most (46% were consultants and 54% practiced in a university based setting. Burnout scores were abnormal in 107 (82% and in 45 (34% the syndrome was severe. Males were more likely to reach a severe burnout category compared to females (40% vs. 31%; p=0.012. Academic pediatricians working in a university setting were much more likely to experience severe burnout compared to their counterparts working in other hospitals (50% vs. 19%; p=0.0005. Consultants were also more likely to experience severe burnout compared to residents and assistants (46% vs. 27%; p=0.03.Conclusion: At least one third of practicing pediatricians suffer from burnout syndrome. Specific strategies should be developed and implemented to limit and prevent professional burnout.

  2. Burnout and Work Engagement Among US Dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Jean Marie; Kwatra, Japneet; Yansane, Alfa; Tokede, Oluwabunmi; Gorter, Ronald C; Kalenderian, Elsbeth

    2017-06-30

    Burnout is a threat to patient safety. It relates to emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and lack of personal accomplishment. Work engagement conversely composed of levels of vigor, dedication, and absorption in one's profession. The aim of this study was to examine burnout and work engagement among US dentists. This study used the extensively validated Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale to measure burnout in a self-administered survey of 167 US dentists who attended continuing education courses held in Boston, Pittsburg, Iowa City, and Las Vegas. The mean scores on the 3 subscales of Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale were computed. The interscale correlations between the components of burnout and work engagement were assessed using Pearson correlations. We used 1-way analysis of variance and independent 2 sample t tests to examine the relationship between burnout and work engagement across sex and various age categories. Prevalence of burnout in our study population was also computed. We observed that 13.2% of our study population experienced burnout and 16.2% of our study population was highly work engaged. There was a statistically significant, unadjusted association between burnout risk and work engagement (χ = 22.51, P work engagement. In this preliminary study, we observed some evidence of burnout among practicing US dentists. It is imperative that the dental profession understands this and works to promote professional practices that increase work engagement and decrease burnout.

  3. Personal and Environmental Characteristics Predicting Burnout Among Certified Athletic Trainers at National Collegiate Athletic Association Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania, Michelle L; Meyer, Barbara B; Ebersole, Kyle T

    2009-01-01

    Context: Recent research in the health care professions has shown that specific personal and environmental characteristics can predict burnout, which is a negative coping strategy related to stressful situations. Burnout has been shown to result in physiologic (eg, headaches, difficulty sleeping, poor appetite), psychological (eg, increased negative self-talk, depression, difficulty in interpersonal relationships), and behavioral (eg, diminished care, increased absenteeism, attrition) symptoms. Objective: To examine the relationship between selected personal and environmental characteristics and burnout among certified athletic trainers (ATs). Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: A demographic survey that was designed for this study and the Maslach Burnout Inventory–Human Services Survey. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 206 ATs employed at National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) institutions as clinical ATs volunteered. Main Outcome Measure(s): We assessed personal and environmental characteristics of ATs with the demographic survey and measured burnout using the Maslach Burnout Inventory–Human Services Survey. Multiple regression analyses were performed to examine relationships between specific personal and environmental characteristics and each of the 3 subscales of burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, personal accomplishment). Results: Most ATs we surveyed experienced low to average levels of burnout. Personal characteristics predicted 45.5% of the variance in emotional exhaustion (P teachers. The results also support the Cognitive-Affective Model of Athletic Burnout proposed by Smith. Finally, these results indicate new areas of concentration for burnout research and professional practice. PMID:19180220

  4. The Environment of Pedagogic Creativity and its Redusing Factors

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    I. S. Ogonovskaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the issue of pedagogic creativity, its development and existence within the real environment of educational estab- lishments limited by their objective and subjective factors. The research is aimed at investigating the conditions affecting teacher’s creativity, the latter being viewed as an integral characteristic including intellectual and emotional flexibility, imagination, intuition, capability of overcoming the stereotypes, working in nonstandard situations and aspiring for new ways. The research is based on the traditional pedagogic methods of observa- tion and testing, and collective phenomena investigation methods of ques- tionnaires, socio-metrics, etc. The main conclusion concerning the environ- ment of pedagogic creativity reveals its limited nature. In author’s opinion, the systematic outside pressing, freedom restrictions, work depersonalization, alienation of the most talented teachers can adversely affect the creative ap- proach to teacher’s professional activity and quality motivation. The research findings might be of interest to heads of educational es- tablishments and teachers. 

  5. Employee Satisfaction in Hospitals with Afilasyo; Sample of Training and Research Hospital of University of Mugla Sitki Kocman

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    Nazli Ülger

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the factors of which affect the employee satisfaction and has a an important role in giving qualified and efficient servise in Mugla Sitki Koçman University Training and Research Hospital where affiliation is applied. Material and Method: Questionnaire form was made to Mugla Sitki Koçman University Training and Research Hospital employees. The data in the research taken from the questionnaires were transferred to SPSS for analysis. As statistical analysis; reliability analysis and comparative analysis of the average one way analysis of variance (ANOVA analysis was performed. Results: According to results, verbal, mobbing and physical every kind of effect on burn out dimensions and unsatisfied, emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. Additionally, these conditions, has directly effect on job satisfaction and working cooperation. Discussion: There is burn out syndrome between health employees’ different dimensions and levels. As a result, contribute directly to beter patient services will be, it is suggested pay attenion to improve working conditions and welfare of health employees, highlight the importance the employees in terms of institutions and community and development of social status of employees.

  6. Burnout syndrome--assessment of a stressful job among intensive care staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubrilo-Turek, Mirjana; Urek, Roman; Turek, Stjepan

    2006-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the degree of burnout experienced by intensive care staff particularly, in Medical (MICU) and Surgical Intensive Care Units (SICU) General Hospital "Sveti Duh", Zagreb. A sample group of 41 emergency physicians and nurses from MICU and 30 from SICU was tested. The survey included demographic data and Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) scoring test identified by the three main components associated with burnout: emotional exhaustion (MBI-EE), depersonalization (MBI-DEP), and personal accomplishment (MBI-PA) were assessed using 22-item questionnaire. The degrees of burnout were stratified into low, moderate, and high range. Mean total MBI (X +/- SD) were high in both groups: higher for the MICU (65.5 +/- 6.7) than for SICU staff (55.7 +/- 3.8, p burnout represented in a moderate degree. The presence of burnout is a serious phenomenon, because it can lead to psychosomatic complaints, work-associated withdrawal behaviour, and a lower quality of care at intensive care units. Early recognition of burnout phenomenon as a result of prolonged stress and frustration among intensive care staff, contributes to better professional behavior, organizational structure changes in the work environment and better health care quality for critically ill patients.

  7. [Burnout in volunteer health workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argentero, P; Bonfiglio, N S; Pasero, R

    2006-01-01

    While diverse studies carried out in nursing and medical personnel have demonstrated that health workers can be subject to burnout, little effort has been focused on investigating burnout in volunteer hospital workers. The aim of the present study was to verify if burnout exists with volunteer auxiliary personnel and investigate what organizational conditions may favour it. The study was carried out on 80 volunteer workers of the Red Cross of Mortara (PV), subdivided into two categories: those performing emergency interventions and those performing routine services. For the evaluation of burnout, the Italian version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory was used, together with a qualitative type of methodology. A 5-factor multivariate analysis (sex x shift x team x seniority x role), having as dependent variables the three scales of the MBI, showed that the highest values of depersonalization and fulfillment are found in the emergency team, and that subjects with least seniority are those who are least satisfied or fulfilled. The category of team-leader resulted as that with the highest values of emotional burnout, while sex- and shift-based differences were restricted to routine service workers. Despite these differences, findings showed that subjects are minimally affected by problems linked to burnout, although some relational and organizational difficulties emerged with the medical staff that underlie a certain degree of professional dissatisfaction.

  8. AKADEMİSYENLERDE DUYGUSAL ZEKÂ FAKTÖRLERİNİN TÜKENMİŞLİK FAKTÖRLERİ İLE İLİŞKİSİNE YÖNELİK BİR ARAŞTIRMA: KOCAELİ ÜNİVERSİTESİ ÖRNEĞİ (A RESEARCH ABOUT THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE FACTORS AND BURNOUT FACTORS OF ACADEMICIANS: CASE OF KOCAELİ UNIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gönül KONAKAY

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to investigate if there is a relationship between levels of emotional intelligence and burnout among academicians. In this context, for the theoretical part, emotional intelligence and burnout was investigated by reviewing the literature and explaining the relationship between emotional intelligence and burnout was determined as the sub-aim of the study.Emotional intelligence of academicians will be determined as Positive Emotional Evaluation, Positive Emotional Management, and Empathetic Susceptibility dimensions by using Chan’s EI12 scale. It will be investigated if the emotional intelligence of the academicians differs according to the demographic characteristics such as their term of employment, age, gender, title, field of education. Maslach Burnout Scale was used to evaluate the burnout dimension. In this study, the burnout dimensions were determined as Emotional Exhaustion, Personal Achievement, Emotional Toughness, Emotional Softening and Depersonalization. The changes in emotional intelligence and elements of burnout were investigated using the demographic variables. During the research conducted to determine the relationship between emotional intelligence and burnout, t-test, variance analysis, factor analysis, correlation and regression analyses were used to test the hypotheses. The relationship was found between emotional intelligence and burnout.

  9. The relationship between perceived gender judgment and well-being among surgical residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salles, Arghavan; Milam, Laurel; Cohen, Geoffrey; Mueller, Claudia

    2018-02-01

    Physician well-being is a significant problem. Here we explore whether one factor, a resident's concern for being judged by one's gender, influences well-being. Over two years at one institution, we surveyed surgical residents on validated measures of well-being as well as the extent to which they felt they were judged because of their gender (gender judgment). We used correlations and linear regression to investigate the relationships between gender judgment and well-being. There were 193 unique respondents (87% response rate). Women had significantly more concerns about gender judgment than men (M = 2.39, SD = 0.73 vs. M = 1.46, SD = 0.62, t = -9.47, p gender judgment concerns were significantly associated with all three well-being outcomes (Bs -0.34, 0.50, and 0.39, respectively for well-being, emotional exhaustion, and depersonalization, all p gender is significantly associated with worse well-being. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. GENDER-SPECIFIC CLINICAL MANIFESTATION OF UNIPOLAR DEPRESSION

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    Olivera Žikić

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the incidence of depression is twice as often in women than in men. However, data about the clinical picture and the course of the disorder in men and in women are inconsistent. The purpose of our research is to find out if there are any differences in terms of symptomatology and course of unipolar depression in men and in women. The study included 84 subjects affected by unipolar depresson, who were divided in two groups according to the gender: a group of males, comprising 20 subjects and a group of female subjects, that comprised 64 affected persons. We used the general semistructured questionnaire with questions about the course of unipolar depression and sociodemographic data, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL- 90-R, Cambridge Depersonalization Scale (CDS and Beck Anxiety Inventory. Regarding symptoms occurring within unipolar depression, there was no statistically significant gender-specific difference finding. Males tended to somewhat higher frequency of anhedonia and hostility, while females tended to more frequent sleep disturbance and decrease in energy. In terms of the course of disorder, it was found that there was a statistically significant difference in the age at the onset of disorder (M:Ž=43.9:34.72 years and frequency of episodes (males had more frequent episodes. Men and women, affected by unipolar depression differ in terms of the course of unipolar depression, but not in the sense of its clinical manifestation.

  11. Prevalencia del síndrome de Burnout en personal de enfermería de una clínica de la ciudad de Ibagué

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    José Alonso Andrade Salazar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this research paper is to describe the prevalence of burnout syndrome in 33 nurses at Ibague city (Tolima clinic. A cross sectional descriptive and quantitative model is used, and a Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI questionnaire is applied for its advancement. The results do not show burnout syndrome in the sample, but some scores on the subscales are present, such as emotional exhaustion (93,94% or “low”, depersonalization (78,79% or “low” and personal accomplishment (69,70% “high”. Resumen El presente artículo de investigación describe la prevalencia del síndrome de burnout en 33 enfermeros de una clínica de la ciudad de Ibagué (Tolima, Colombia. En su desarrollo, se utilizó un modelo descriptivo-cuantitativo de corte transversal, y se aplicó el Cuestionario de Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI, así como una entrevista estructurada. Los hallazgos no evidencian síndrome de burnout en la muestra, pero se observan puntuaciones en las subescalas de cansancio emocional (93,94% o “bajo”, despersonalización (78,79% o “bajo”, y en la realización personal (69,70% o “alto”.

  12. Endocrine and mood responses to two working days in female teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Miguel Angel; Moya-Albiol, Luís; Salvador, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    Currently, a considerable amount of work stress is present in school teachers, one of the occupational groups with the highest levels of job strain and burnout. As chronic stress produces significant modifications in emotional adjustment and neuroendocrine functioning, we aimed to investigate the role of these work stress constructs in the endocrine and mood responses of a group of female teachers during two working days (WD) at different moments in the academic year. We studied mood as well as levels of cortisol and testosterone, representative of a predominant catabolic or anabolic balance. Our results showed that higher "control" was associated with higher positive mood (p = .028 on WD1 and p = .057 on WD2) and salivary testosterone (Tsal) (p = .022 on WD1), whereas "demands" and "total job strain" were related to negative mood (p = .011 and p = .015, respectively). Participants with higher scores on "total burnout" and "emotional exhaustion" also had higher negative mood (p < .05 in all cases). Depersonalization correlated positively with negative mood (p = .019 and p = .006 on WD1 and WD2, respectively). Finally, personal accomplishment showed an inverse relationship with negative mood (p = .038 on WD2). These results are useful for job risk prevention and interventions that should focus on the control dimension of the job strain questionnaire and on personal accomplishment from the burnout scale.

  13. EMOTIONAL BURNOUT SYNDROME: EFFECT ON CLINICAL INERTIA AND MEDICAL PRACTICE STEREOTYPES

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    R. A. Khokhlov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To estimate the prevalence of burnout in primary care physicians and its influence on medical practice stereotypes and on clinical inertia.Material and Methods. The anonymous single-stage poll was carried out among 184 primary care physicians. The questionnaire included information about sex, age, period and conditions of work, established stereotypes of practices. Burnout was evaluated by Russian analog of Maslach Burnout Inventory. It was defined in high level of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization and low level of personal accomplishment 11 questions were developed to reveal of suboptimal medical practice (for example, “I do not discuss treatment options with patient and do not give full answers to his questions” or “I make diagnostic and treatment errors despite of my professional knowledge and inexperience”.Results. The burnout syndrome (or extreme grade of emotional burnout occurs in 13,1% and high level of emotional burnout – in 49,7% of primary care physicians. Features of suboptimal medical practice are usually found in 24,2% of primary care physicians at least monthly. It expresses more often in improper attitude to paqtients and their problems associated with a disease. Thus, burnout contributes to improper attitude to patients. Professional burnout affects established work stereotypes and can promote development of physician’s clinical inertia.Conclusion. As the burnout is common among primary care physicians, an adequate monitoring and prevention of this state is necessary in medical labour management.

  14. Burnout and young workers

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    Marina Batista Chaves Azevedo de Souza

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This article intends to conduct an analysis of the dimensions of the a model about the burnout syndrome, from the reality of young workers who are doing some vocational courses in the city of Recife/PE. Objective: Description of characteristics of a predetermined population. Still, the research is in a field of research and using content analysis method to discuss the data obtained through interviews that had their questions based on the original questionnaire that were validity (Maslach Burnout Inventory. Method: The study is characterized as exploratory and descriptive, given the need to provide greater familiarity with the relationship between the phenomenon to be studied and the target audience that was wanted to interview. Results: The results indicated that the size of the professional fulfillment is committed to moderate level, the size of depersonalization is not compromised and emotional exhaustion is present in youth work routine. Thus, although not found the burnout itself, there are remarkable risk behaviors that could be generate the syndrome on the future. Conclusion: The results may indicate the need for intervention in the company, in order to allow greater enrichment activities developed by young learners, as well as prevent the emergence of situations that may lead to suffering at work .

  15. A stress management workshop improves residents' coping skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, J D; Sachs, C L

    1991-11-01

    We describe the effectiveness of a stress management workshop designed for physicians. Of the 64 medicine, pediatrics, and medicine-pediatrics residents who agreed to participate in the workshop, the 43 who could be freed from clinical responsibilities constituted the intervention group; the 21 residents who could not be freed from clinical responsibilities were asked to be the nonintervention group. The ESSI Stress Systems Instrument and Maslach Burnout Inventory were administered to control subjects and workshop participants 2 weeks before and 6 weeks after the workshop. The half-day workshops taught management of the stresses of medical practice through: (1) learning and practicing interpersonal skills that increase the availability of social support; (2) prioritization of personal, work, and educational demands; (3) techniques to increase stamina and attend to self-care needs; (4) recognition and avoidance of maladaptive responses; and (5) positive outlook skills. Overall, the ESSI Stress Systems Instrument test scores for the workshop participants improved (+1.27), while the nonintervention group's mean scores declined (-0.65). All 21 individual ESSI Stress Systems Instrument scale items improved for the workshop, compared with eight of 21 items for the nonintervention group. The workshop group improved in the Maslach Burnout Inventory emotional exhaustion scale and deteriorated less than the nonintervention group in the depersonalization scale. We conclude that a modest, inexpensive stress management workshop was received positively, and can lead to significant short-term improvement in stress and burnout test scores for medicine and pediatrics residents.

  16. [Dissociative disorders and affective disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montant, J; Adida, M; Belzeaux, R; Cermolacce, M; Pringuey, D; Da Fonseca, D; Azorin, J-M

    2014-12-01

    The phenomenology of dissociative disorders may be complex and sometimes confusing. We describe here two cases who were initially misdiagnosed. The first case concerned a 61 year-old woman, who was initially diagnosed as an isolated dissociative fugue and was actually suffering from severe major depressive episode. The second case concerned a 55 year-old man, who was suffering from type I bipolar disorder and polyvascular disease, and was initially diagnosed as dissociative fugue in a mooddestabilization context, while it was finally a stroke. Yet dissociative disorders as affective disorder comorbidity are relatively unknown. We made a review on this topic. Dissociative disorders are often studied through psycho-trauma issues. Litterature is rare on affective illness comorbid with dissociative disorders, but highlight the link between bipolar and dissociative disorders. The later comorbidity often refers to an early onset subtype with also comorbid panic and depersonalization-derealization disorder. Besides, unipolar patients suffering from dissociative symptoms have more often cyclothymic affective temperament. Despite the limits of such studies dissociative symptoms-BD association seems to correspond to a clinical reality and further works on this topic may be warranted. Copyright © 2014 L’Encéphale. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  17. Investigating the dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder in a sample of traumatized detained youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Diana C; Modrowski, Crosby A; Kerig, Patricia K; Chaplo, Shannon D

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we tested the validity of a dissociative subtype in a sample of 225 detained adolescents (142 boys, 83 girls) likely meeting full or partial criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Competing theories of dissociation pose controversy regarding dissociation as a taxon versus a continuum, and results of the current study contribute to this debate by providing evidence of distinct group differences between those high and low in dissociation. Mixture modeling revealed 2 groups of youth with differing levels of depersonalization/derealization dissociative symptoms. Differences between the 2 groups of youth were investigated regarding trauma exposure and several posttraumatic reactions: posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), emotion dysregulation, and emotional numbing. Compared with youth classified in the low-dissociation group, youth who exhibited high levels of dissociation demonstrated higher levels of total PTSS, posttraumatic symptom clusters of emotional numbing, intrusion, and associated features, as well as reporting more difficulties with emotion dysregulation. To test theory regarding the factors that increase the likelihood of persistent dissociation, bootstrapped regression analyses were performed to examine the possibility of an indirect effect of peritraumatic dissociation. Results consistent with statistical mediation suggested that the presence of peritraumatic dissociation at the time of trauma may contribute to the continuation of dissociative symptoms as a more generalized pattern. The results of the current study have implications for clinical treatment with traumatized youth. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Medial Cranial Fossa Meningioma Diagnosed as Mixed Anxiety Disorder with Dissociative Symptoms and Vertigo

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    Emin Mehmet Ceylan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Meningiomas are mostly benign tumors of the meninges that may stay clinically silent or present first with psychiatric symptoms only. We present a case of medial cranial fossa meningioma that was first diagnosed as mixed anxiety disorder with dissociative symptoms and vertigo. In light of the intact neurological and vestibular system examination, our patient’s vertigo and depersonalization were firstly addressed as psychosomatic symptoms of the psychiatric syndrome. Despite decreased anxiety and improved mood, dissociative symptoms and vertigo were resistant to treatment which prompted further research yielding a left hemisphere localized meningioma. Resection of meningioma resulted in full remission of the patient proving it to be responsible for the etiology of the psychiatric syndrome and vertigo. We suggest that brain imaging should be performed for patients with late-onset (>50 years psychiatric symptoms and those with treatment resistance. It is important to keep in mind always that medically unexplained symptoms may become explicable with detailed assessment and regular follow-up of the patient.

  19. Dissociative symptoms are associated with reduced neuropsychological performance in patients with recurrent depression and a history of trauma exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frewen, Paul A.; Oremus, Carolina; Lanius, Ruth A.; McKinnon, Margaret C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although preliminary work suggests that dissociative symptoms may impact neuropsychological performance in trauma-exposed populations, the relation between dissociation and cognitive performance has not been explored in patients with depression. Objective The present study examined dissociative symptoms in relation to neuropsychological performance in participants with a primary diagnosis of recurrent major depressive disorder (MDD) and a history of trauma exposure. Method Twenty-three participants with MDD and 20 healthy controls who did not differ in age, sex, education, or IQ were assessed. In addition to a standardized neuropsychological battery assessing frontotemporally mediated cognitive processes, participants completed clinical measures assessing dissociative symptoms, illness severity, and past history of trauma exposure. Results Among participants with MDD, greater severity of derealization was associated with reduced performance on measures of delayed visuospatial recall and recognition on a task of verbal memory recognition. In addition, more severe depersonalization was associated with slower processing speed and a response style lending itself toward better performance in a less active environment. Conclusions These findings point toward dissociative symptoms as a transdiagnostic factor associated with neuropsychological dysfunction in patients with depression and a history of trauma. Limitations and recommendations for future research are discussed. PMID:26927902

  20. The Dissociative Subtype of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Unique Resting-State Functional Connectivity of Basolateral and Centromedial Amygdala Complexes.

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    Nicholson, Andrew A; Densmore, Maria; Frewen, Paul A; Théberge, Jean; Neufeld, Richard Wj; McKinnon, Margaret C; Lanius, Ruth A

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies point towards differential connectivity patterns among basolateral (BLA) and centromedial (CMA) amygdala regions in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as compared with controls. Here we describe the first study to compare directly connectivity patterns of the BLA and CMA complexes between PTSD patients with and without the dissociative subtype (PTSD+DS and PTSD-DS, respectively). Amygdala connectivity to regulatory prefrontal regions and parietal regions involved in consciousness and proprioception were expected to differ between these two groups based on differential limbic regulation and behavioral symptoms. PTSD patients (n=49) with (n=13) and without (n=36) the dissociative subtype and age-matched healthy controls (n=40) underwent resting-state fMRI. Bilateral BLA and CMA connectivity patterns were compared using a seed-based approach via SPM Anatomy Toolbox. Among patients with PTSD, the PTSD+DS group exhibited greater amygdala functional connectivity to prefrontal regions involved in emotion regulation (bilateral BLA and left CMA to the middle frontal gyrus and bilateral CMA to the medial frontal gyrus) as compared with the PTSD-DS group. In addition, the PTSD+DS group showed greater amygdala connectivity to regions involved in consciousness, awareness, and proprioception-implicated in depersonalization and derealization (left BLA to superior parietal lobe and cerebellar culmen; left CMA to dorsal posterior cingulate and precuneus). Differences in amygdala complex connectivity to specific brain regions parallel the unique symptom profiles of the PTSD subgroups and point towards unique biological markers of the dissociative subtype of PTSD.

  1. The Dissociative Subtype of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder: Research Update on Clinical and Neurobiological Features.

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    van Huijstee, Jytte; Vermetten, Eric

    2017-10-21

    Recently, a dissociative subtype of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been included in the DSM-5. This review focuses on the clinical and neurobiological features that distinguish the dissociative subtype of PTSD from non-dissociative PTSD. Clinically, the dissociative subtype of PTSD is associated with high PTSD severity, predominance of derealization and depersonalization symptoms, a more significant history of early life trauma, and higher levels of comorbid psychiatric disorders. Furthermore, PTSD patients with dissociative symptoms exhibit different psychophysiological and neural responses to the recall of traumatic memories. While individuals with non-dissociative PTSD exhibit an increased heart rate, decreased activation of prefrontal regions, and increased activation of the amygdala in response to traumatic reminders, individuals with the dissociative subtype of PTSD show an opposite pattern. It has been proposed that dissociation is a regulatory strategy to restrain extreme arousal in PTSD through hyperinhibition of limbic regions. In this research update, promises and pitfalls in current research studies on the dissociative subtype of PTSD are listed. Inclusion of the dissociative subtype of PTSD in the DSM-5 stimulates research on the prevalence, symptomatology, and neurobiology of the dissociative subtype of PTSD and poses a challenge to improve treatment outcome in PTSD patients with dissociative symptoms.

  2. Childhood Traumatic Experiences, Dissociative Symptoms, and Dissociative Disorder Comorbidity Among Patients With Panic Disorder: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ural, Cenk; Belli, Hasan; Akbudak, Mahir; Tabo, Abdulkadir

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed childhood trauma history, dissociative symptoms, and dissociative disorder comorbidity in patients with panic disorder (PD). A total of 92 psychotropic drug-naive patients with PD, recruited from outpatient clinics in the psychiatry department of a Turkish hospital, were involved in the study. Participants were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders (SCID-D), Dissociation Questionnaire, Panic and Agoraphobia Scale, Panic Disorder Severity Scale, and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Of the patients with PD, 18 (19%) had a comorbid dissociative disorder diagnosis on screening with the SCID-D. The most prevalent disorders were dissociative disorder not otherwise specified, dissociative amnesia, and depersonalization disorders. Patients with a high degree of dissociation symptoms and dissociative disorder comorbidity had more severe PD than those without (p dissociation and PD. Among all of the subscales, the strongest relationship was with childhood emotional abuse. Logistic regression analysis showed that emotional abuse and severity of PD were independently associated with dissociative disorder. In our study, a significant proportion of the patients with PD had concurrent diagnoses of dissociative disorder. We conclude that the predominance of PD symptoms at admission should not lead the clinician to overlook the underlying dissociative process and associated traumatic experiences among these patients.

  3. Relationships among leadership practices, work environments, staff communication and outcomes in long-term care.

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    Tourangeau, Ann; Cranley, Lisa; Spence Laschinger, Heather K; Pachis, Jaime

    2010-11-01

    To examine the role that work relationships have on two long-term care outcomes: job satisfaction and turnover intention. It is easy to overlook the impact that human relations have in shaping work environments that are conducive to organizational effectiveness. Employee job satisfaction and retention are important organizational outcomes. Six hundred and seventy-five nursing and other staff from 26 long-term care facilities were surveyed about their work environments, work group relationships, observed leadership practices, organizational support, job satisfaction and turnover intention. Higher job satisfaction was associated with lower emotional exhaustion burnout, higher global empowerment, higher organizational support, higher psychological empowerment, stronger work group cohesion and higher personal accomplishment. Higher turnover intention was associated with lower job satisfaction, higher emotional exhaustion burnout, more outside job opportunities, weaker work group cohesion, lower personal accomplishment and higher depersonalization. No relationship was found between leadership practices and job satisfaction or turnover intention. Stronger work group relationships, stronger sense of personal accomplishment and lower emotional exhaustion have direct effects on increasing job satisfaction and lowering turnover intention. To retain long-term care staff, attention should be paid to fostering positive work group cohesion, supporting and acknowledging staff accomplishments and minimizing staff burnout. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Impact of Job-Related Well-Being on the Relationship of Self-Efficacy With Burnout

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    Clarissa Pinto Pizarro Freitas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The levels of job-related affective well-being and occupational self-efficacy may act as protective factors against the development of burnout. Therefore, this study investigated the role of positive and negative affect as a mediator in the relations between occupational self-efficacy and the dimensions of burnout. The research participants were 584 professionals (87% female, mean age 37.8 (SD= 10.8. The results of the structural equation modeling analysis indicated that the relations of occupational self-efficacy with emotional exhaustion and depersonalization were completely mediated by positive and negative affect. The relation between occupational self-efficacy and personal accomplishment was partially mediated by positive affect. Occupational self-efficacy was positively associated to positive affect and negatively related to negative affect. This study adds by showing the importance of developing interventions that promote the experience of positive affect and reduction of negative affect in occupational settings as a preventive strategy of burnout.

  5. The coming of age of self-mutilation.

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    Favazza, A R

    1998-05-01

    Self-mutilation (SM), the deliberate, nonsuicidal destruction of one's own body tissue, occurs in such culturally sanctioned practices as tattooing; body piercing; and healing, spiritual, and order-preserving rituals. As a symptom, it has typically been regarded as a manifestation of borderline behavior and misidentified as a suicide attempt. It has begun to attract mainstream media attention, and many more who suffer from it are expected to seek treatment. This review suggests that SM can best be understood as a morbid self-help effort providing rapid but temporary relief from feelings of depersonalization, guilt, rejection, and boredom as well as hallucinations, sexual preoccupations, and chaotic thoughts. Major SM includes infrequent acts such as eye enucleation and castration, commonly associated with psychosis and intoxication. Stereotypic SM includes such acts as head banging and self-biting most often accompanying Tourette's syndrome and severe mental retardation. Superficial/moderate SM includes compulsive acts such as trichotillomania and skin picking and such episodic acts as skin-cutting and burning, which evolve into an axis I syndrome of repetitive impulse dyscontrol with protean symptoms.

  6. CONSUMER BETWEEN OBJECTIVE AND SUBJECTIVE

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    Răzvan Dina

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We live in a society where the consumer, due to the diversity and abundance of products and services whose characteristics are becoming more similar, has to make choices that are increasingly difficult. Another aspect that has led to a profound transformation of the consumer behavior is due to the large volume of information, supplied by the Internet, information which in some cases is not accurate, but is decisively influencing the consumer. In equal measure, the difficulty of making a purchasing decision is caused by the fact that with the opening to the global market, where the products and services were depersonalized, gaining common features, and where the concept of quality tends to no longer relate to the same standards as a few decades ago, having suffered major changes. The quality of products is a fundamental requirement of competitiveness, and quality assessment is a personal right of the consumer, because this is a direct effect of quality of life. (“Fundamentele ştiinţei mărfurilor” Dinu Vasile, 2008

  7. Burnout syndrome in oral and maxillofacial surgeons: a critical analysis.

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    Porto, G G; Carneiro, S C; Vasconcelos, B C; Nascimento, M M; Leal, J L F

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of burnout syndrome among Brazilian oral and maxillofacial surgeons and its relationship with socio-demographic, clinical, and habit variables. The sample of this study comprised 116 surgeons. The syndrome was quantified using the Maslach Burnout Inventory (General Survey), which defines burnout as the triad of high emotional exhaustion, high depersonalization, and low personal accomplishment. The criteria of Grunfeld et al. were used to evaluate the presence of the syndrome (17.2%). No significant differences between the surgeons diagnosed with and without the syndrome were observed according to age (P=0.804), sex (P=0.197), marital status (P=0.238), number of children (P=0.336), years of professional experience (P=0.102), patients attended per day (P=0.735), hours worked per week (P=0.350), use of alcohol (P=0.148), sports practice (P=0.243), hobbies (P=0.161), or vacation period per year (P=0.215). Significant differences occurred in the variables sex in the emotional exhaustion subscale (P=0.002) and use or not of alcohol in the personal accomplishment subscale (P=0.035). Burnout syndrome among Brazilian surgeons is average, showing a low personal accomplishment. Copyright © 2014 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Burnout syndrome in pediatric practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Youbi, Reem A; Jan, Mohammed M

    2013-07-01

    Burnout is a common work-related syndrome consisting of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and diminished feelings of personal accomplishment. Burnout influences the performance and efficiency of the healthcare professionals and therefore the quality of the care provided. This study aims to assess the burnout rates and potential determinants in pediatrics. A cross-sectional, descriptive study involving physicians practicing pediatrics in the Jeddah area of Saudi Arabia was conducted utilizing the Maslach Burnout Inventory in addition to questions regarding work-related and lifestyle-related factors. One hundred and thirty pediatricians (55% females) were included with age ranging between 25 and 45 years (mean: 30). Most (46%) were consultants and 54% practiced in a university based setting. Burnout scores were abnormal in 107 (82%) and in 45 (34%) the syndrome was severe. Males were more likely to reach a severe burnout category compared to females (40% vs. 31%; p=0.012). Academic pediatricians working in a university setting were much more likely to experience severe burnout compared to their counterparts working in other hospitals (50% vs. 19%; p=0.0005). Consultants were also more likely to experience severe burnout compared to residents and assistants (46% vs. 27%; p=0.03). At least one third of practicing pediatricians suffer from burnout syndrome. Specific strategies should be developed and implemented to limit and prevent professional burnout.

  9. Healthy Settings in Hospital - How to Prevent Burnout Syndrome in Nurses: Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friganović, Adriano; Kovačević, Irena; Ilić, Boris; Žulec, Mirna; Krikšić, Valentina; Grgas Bile, Cecilija

    2017-06-01

    Healthy settings involve a holistic and multidisciplinary method that integrates actions towards risk factors. In hospital settings, a high level of stress can lead to depression, anxiety, decreased job satisfaction and lower loyalty to the organization. Burnout syndrome can be defined as physical, psychological and emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and low sense of personal accomplishment. The aim of this literature review was to make systematic literature analysis to provide scientific evidence for the consequences of constant exposure to high levels of stress and for the methods to be used to prevent burnout syndrome among health care workers. The Medline database was searched to identify relevant studies and articles published during the last 15 years. The key words used in this survey were burnout syndrome, prevention, nurses, and healthy settings. The 6 eligible studies were included in literature review. Evidence showed nurses to be exposed to stress and to have symptoms of burnout syndrome. As a result of burnout syndrome, chronic fatigue and reduced working capacity occur, thus raising the risk of adverse events. In conclusion, the occurrence of burnout syndrome is a major problem for hospitals and healthcare system. Action plan for hospital burnout syndrome prevention would greatly reduce the incidence and improve the quality of health care.

  10. Is it Time to Consider the "Burnout Syndrome" A Distinct Illness?

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    Bianchi, Renzo; Schonfeld, Irvin Sam; Laurent, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The "burnout syndrome" has been defined as a combination of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment caused by chronic occupational stress. Although there has been increasing medical interest in burnout over the last decades, it is argued in this paper that the syndrome cannot be elevated to the status of diagnostic category, based on (1) an analysis of the genesis of the burnout construct, (2) a review of the latest literature on burnout-depression overlap, (3) a questioning of the three-dimensional structure of the burnout syndrome, and (4) a critical examination of the notion that burnout is singularized by its job-related character. It turns out that the burnout construct is built on a fragile foundation, both from a clinical and a theoretical standpoint. The current state of science suggests that burnout is a form of depression rather than a differentiated type of pathology. The inclusion of burnout in future disorder classifications is therefore unwarranted. The focus of public health policies dedicated to the management of "burnout" should not be narrowed to the three definitional components of the syndrome but consider its depressive core.

  11. Burnout: evaluation of the efficacy and tolerability of TARGET 1® for professional fatigue syndrome (burnout).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquet, Alain; Grolleau, Adeline; Jove, Jérémy; Lassalle, Régis; Moore, Nicholas

    2015-02-01

    To study the effect of a dietary supplement (TARGET 1®: a combination of casozepine, taurine, Eleutherococcus senticosus and extramel) on burnout symptomatology. A 12-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in workers engaged in professional contact with patients, students or clients. All were affected by burnout syndrome based on a score of ≥4 on the Burnout Measure Scale (BMS-10). The primary outcome measure was the change in the BMS-10 score; secondary outcome measures included the change in the Maslach's Burnout Inventory scale-Human Service Survey (MBI-HSS) score and the Beck Depression Inventory. Five scores were evaluated. Eighty-seven participants were enrolled in the study: 44 received the active formulation (verum group); 43 received placebo. After 12 weeks' supplementation, the placebo group showed significant improvements in scores for BMS-10, MBI-HSS fatigue and the Beck Depression Inventory, but MBI-HSS depersonalization and task management were not improved; the verum group showed significant improvements in all five scores. The verum group consistently showed significantly greater improvements in scores than the placebo group. TARGET 1® significantly improved the symptoms of burnout after 12 weeks' use. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  12. Burnout syndrome during residency in internal medicine and pediatrics in a country without working time directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Duygu Yazgan; Durusu Tanriover, Mine; Unal, Sule; Dizdar, Omer; Kalyoncu, Umut; Karakaya, Jale; Unal, Serhat; Kale, Gulsev

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate burnout syndrome among internal medicine and pediatrics residents in a country that does not have the working time directive (WTD) and also to determine the risk factors and consequent impact on efficient functioning in clinical areas. A 57-item questionnaire was given to internal medicine and pediatrics residents. Responses from 22 pediatrics and 33 internal medicine residents were evaluated. Demographic findings, burnout scores, having hobbies, social activities and reading books unrelated to medicine were similar between the two groups. Six pediatrics residents (27.3 per cent) and 11 (33.3 per cent) internal medicine residents met the criteria for clinically significant burnout. Personal accomplishment scores and reading books unrelated to medicine were found to be related to burnout. Burnout is a syndrome characterized by depersonalization, emotional exhaustion and a low sense of personal accomplishment. It is important to document burnout in countries where WTDs are not implemented. Further studies might demonstrate burnout's effect on patient safety, service quality and physician's performance.

  13. Professional burnout in European young oncologists: results of the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) Young Oncologists Committee Burnout Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, S; Califano, R; Corral, J; de Azambuja, E; De Mattos-Arruda, L; Guarneri, V; Hutka, M; Jordan, K; Martinelli, E; Mountzios, G; Ozturk, M A; Petrova, M; Postel-Vinay, S; Preusser, M; Qvortrup, C; Volkov, M N M; Tabernero, J; Olmos, D; Strijbos, M H

    2017-07-01

    Burnout in health care professionals could have serious negative consequences on quality of patient care, professional satisfaction and personal life. Our aim was to investigate the burnout prevalence, work and lifestyle factors potentially affecting burnout amongst European oncologists ≤40 (YOs). A survey was conducted using the validated Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and additional questions exploring work/lifestyle factors. Statistical analyses were carried out to identify factors associated with burnout. Total of 737 surveys (all ages) were collected from 41 European countries. Countries were divided into six regions. Results from 595 (81%) YOs were included (81% medical oncologists; 52% trainees, 62% women). Seventy-one percent of YOs showed evidence of burnout (burnout subdomains: depersonalization 50%; emotional exhaustion 45; low accomplishment 35%). Twenty-two percent requested support for burnout during training and 74% reported no hospital access to support services. Burnout rates were significantly different across Europe (P women (60% versus 45% P = 0.0001) and low accomplishment was highest in the 26-30 age group (P balance, access to support services, living alone and inadequate vacation time remained independent burnout factors (P balance, access to support services and adequate vacation time may reduce burnout levels. Raising awareness, support and interventional research are needed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Dissociative disorders and possession experiences in Israel: a comparison of opiate use disorder patients, Arab women subjected to domestic violence, and a nonclinical group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somer, Eli; Ross, Colin; Kirshberg, Revital; Bakri, Rana Shawahdy; Ismail, Shefa

    2015-02-01

    This study examined the association between exposure to domestic violence and dissociative symptoms. A sample of 68 Israeli opiate use disorder patients in recovery, 80 battered Arab Israeli women, and 103 respondents from a community sample participated in structured interviews that included the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule (DDIS), the Dissociative Trance Disorder Interview Schedule (DTDIS), and the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES). As predicted, community participants reported significantly less exposure to traumatizing events and lower levels of dissociative psychopathology than individuals sampled from specialized treatment centers. In all, 91% of battered female participants were taxon-positive for dissociative disorder with 1 of every 2 respondents reporting symptoms corresponding to dissociative amnesia and depersonalization disorder, suggesting that this group may be particularly vulnerable to dissociative psychopathology. Extrasensory and paranormal experiences (ESP) and dissociative trance disorder experiences were strongly related to dissociative experiences and features of dissociative identity disorder (DID). These statistical associations suggest that dissociative disorders and ESP/trance experiences may share an underlying construct. Further research is needed on trauma and dissociation among female victims of domestic abuse in patriarchal, collectivist societies, particularly in the Arab world. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  15. Job stressors, personality and burnout in primary school teachers.

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    Kokkinos, Constantinos M

    2007-03-01

    Teaching is considered a highly stressful occupation. Burnout is a negative affective response occurring as a result of chronic work stress. While the early theories of burnout focused exclusively on work-related stressors, recent research adopts a more integrative approach where both environmental and individual factors are studied. Nevertheless, such studies are scarce with teacher samples. The present cross-sectional study sought to investigate the association between burnout, personality characteristics and job stressors in primary school teachers from Cyprus. The study also investigates the relative contribution of these variables on the three facets of burnout - emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment. A representative sample of 447 primary school teachers participated in the study. Teachers completed measures of burnout, personality and job stressors along with demographic and professional data. Surveys were delivered by courier to schools, and were distributed at faculty meetings. Results showed that both personality and work-related stressors were associated with burnout dimensions. Neuroticism was a common predictor of all dimensions of burnout although in personal accomplishment had a different direction. Managing student misbehaviour and time constraints were found to systematically predict dimensions of burnout. Teachers' individual characteristics as well as job related stressors should be taken into consideration when studying the burnout phenomenon. The fact that each dimension of the syndrome is predicted by different variables should not remain unnoticed especially when designing and implementing intervention programmes to reduce burnout in teachers.

  16. Professional interpersonal dynamics and burnout in European transplant surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesse, Michelle T; Abouljoud, Marwan; Eshelman, Anne; De Reyck, Chantal; Lerut, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Burnout within the health professions has become an increasingly important topic. Evidence suggests there are differences in burnout across different countries. Research has yet to examine burnout in transplant surgeons throughout Europe. A cross-sectional survey of transplant surgeons across Europe. Survey included sociodemographics, professional characteristics, frequency and discomfort with difficult patient interactions (PI), decisional autonomy, psychological job demands (PJD), support (coworker, supervisor, and hospital administration), and burnout including emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization (DP), and personal accomplishment (PA). One hundred and eight transplant surgeons provided data; 33 (30.6%) reported high EE, 19 (17.6%) reported high DP, and 29 (26.9%) reported low PA. Three hierarchical multiple linear regressions examined the burnout subscales as outcomes (EE, DP, and PA), and predictors selected based upon theoretical relationships with the outcomes. Greater PJD, greater discomfort in managing difficult PI, and lower levels of perceived supervisor support (SS) predicted greater EE. Only decisional autonomy significantly predicted DP, accounting for a small proportion of the variance. None of the steps for PA were significant. Given prior research on burnout, there were several surprising findings from this study. For example, the relatively low levels of EE compared to U.S. physicians and surgeons. At this time, we can only hypothesize why this finding occurred but there are multiple possible explanations including cultural effects, response bias, or other factors unknown at this time. Research is needed to attempt to clarify these findings. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Power, attraction, and reference in macrolevel social relations: An analysis of closed groups and closed societies based on the psychology of the “Soviet person”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radina Nadezhda K.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article the features of social-relationship systems are analyzed based on the data from a sociopsychological empirical study conducted in two stages (2002 and 2014 on a large sample with the help of g. Kelly’s Repertory grid Technique. A. V. Petrovsky’s three-factor interpersonal-relationships model as interpreted for closed groups by M. Yu. Kondratev and the concept of the closed society as described by Karl Popper provide the foundation for the theoretical hypothesis we tested. The empirical data obtained in 2002 came from 391 participants of different ages who were living in provincial towns in the Nizhny Novgorod region. The elderly respondents (232 people had lived almost all their lives under the Soviet regime; the middle-aged respondents (159 people got their education and started their careers in the USSR. Soviet society is considered to be closed because of its authoritarian and collectivist nature, static social structure, and dogmatic ideology. It is argued that both closed societies and closed groups are characterized by a rigid hierarchical social structure, isolation from other systems, and depersonalization of social relations. We have proved that members of a closed group and citizens of a closed society have similar social-relationship matrices.

  18. The impact of empathy on burnout in medical students: new findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Harscher, Heidi; Desmarais, Nathaly; Dollinger, Robert; Grossman, Seth; Aldana, Scarlett

    2018-03-01

    Research on medical students has shown they are at a higher risk for burnout and that this burnout may become more prevalent as they advance in medical school. The literature, thus far, has not explored the construct of ,emotional empathy and whether this can impact burnout in medical students. Objective: To understand the relationship  between empathy (Empathic Concern [EC] and Personal Distress [PD]) and burnout in medical students. Five successive classes of medical students enrolled at a new medical school were given the Maslach Burnout Inventory and Davis' Interpersonal Reactivity Index  over the course of three successive  years (n = 353).  Two dimensions of  empathy were evaluated to determine if they have an impact on three dimensions of burnout (Emotional Exhaustion/EE, Depersonalization/DP, Personal Accomplishment/PA). data was analyzed using a linear mixed model for each of the three components of burnout based on gender, age, year in medical school, and two types of empathy: EC, and PD.  Conclusion: It was discovered that students with high levels of EC had statistically lower scores of burnout over time while students with high levels of PD empathy showed statistically higher scores of burnout over three years. Implications for these findings are discussed.

  19. Burnout Evaluation and Potential Predictors in a Greek Cohort of Mental Health Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinou, Adamos-Konstantinos; Bonotis, Konstantinos; Sokratous, Maria; Siokas, Vasileios; Dardiotis, Efthimios

    2018-06-01

    Job burnout is one of the most serious occupational health hazards, especially, among mental health nurses. It has been attributed among others to staff shortages, health service changes, poor morale and insufficient employee participation in decision-making. The aim of this study was to measure burnout among mental health nurses, investigate relations between burnout and organizational factors and examine potential predictors of nurses' burnout. Specifically, this study aimed to investigate whether role conflict, role ambiguity, organizational commitment and subsequent job satisfaction could predict each of the three dimensions of burnout. During current cross sectional, the survey was administered to 232 mental health nurses, employed in four private psychiatric clinics in the region of Larissa, Thessaly, Greece in May 2015. Our findings were based on the responses to 78 usable questionnaires. Different statistical analyses, such as correlation analyses, regression analyses and analyses of variance were performed in order to explore possible relations. High emotional exhaustion (EE) accounted for 53.8% of the sample, while high depersonalization (DP) and high personal accomplishment (PA) accounted for 24.4% and 25.6%, respectively. The best predictors of burnout were found to be role conflict, satisfaction with workload, satisfaction with training, role ambiguity, satisfaction with pay and presence of serious family issues. These findings have implications for organizational and individual interventions, indicating that mental health nurses' burnout could be reduced, or even prevented by team building strategies, training, application of operation management, clear instructions and psychological support. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Burnout among healthcare workers at L'Aquila: its prevalence and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, Antonella; Fiasca, Fabiana; Mazzei, Mariachiara; Abbossida, Vincenzo; Bianchini, Valeria

    2017-12-01

    Burnout, which is now recognized as a real problem in terms of its negative outcome on healthcare efficiency, is a stress condition that can be increased by exposure to natural disasters, such as the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake. This study aims to evaluate burnout syndrome, its associated risk factors and stress levels, and the individual coping strategies among healthcare professionals at L'Aquila General Hospital. A cross-sectional study of 190 healthcare workers was conducted. There was a questionnaire for the collection of the socio-demographic, occupational and anamnestic data, and the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the General Health Questionnaire-12 items (GHQ-12) and the Brief COPE were used. The burnout dimensions showed high scores in Emotional Exhaustion (38.95%), in Depersonalization (23.68%) and in lack of Personal Accomplishment (23.16%), along with the presence of moderate to high levels of distress (54.21%). In addition to factors already known to be associated with burnout (job perception and high levels of distress) exposure to an earthquake emerged as a factor independently associated with the syndrome. Adaptive coping strategies such as religiosity showed a significant and negative relationship with burnout. Our research highlights the need for interventions directed at a reduction in workload and work-stressors and an improvement of adaptive coping strategies, especially in a post-disaster workplace.

  1. Occupational burnout in Birjand dentists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khazaie T

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aims: Occupational burnout is a psychological syndrome resulting from continuous tensions which causes absence, conflict, job changing, etc. In spite of much effort done in optimizing the work conditions and satisfying the employed persons, the dentists still suffer from this incident. The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of occupational burnout in Birjand dentists and to provide an approach."nMaterials and Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study by the census method, 38 dentists were investigated using Maslach questionnaire. Average values were compared with chi-square and comparison among the groups was performed by Tukey test using SPSS software. P≤0.05 was considered as the level of significance."nResults: In this study, there were 68.4% men and 31.6% women with average age of 37.9 ±7.6 years and average work experience of 12.5±7.3 years, 15.8% single and 84.2% married. Frequency of exhaustion, intense depersonalization, and intense feeling of being unsuccessful was 21.1%, 81.6%, and 100%, respectively. There were no significant differences between occupation burnout dimensions and the other variable, such as gender, sports, marital status, and workday hours (P>0.05."nConclusion: Protection of this stratum, providing educational programs and creating job variations are necessary for optimizing the work environment. Future studies with more sample size are suggested to determine the effect of factors.

  2. Burnout na clínica psiquiátrica: relato de um caso Burnout in psychiatric practice: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Vieira

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome de burnout, identificada na década de 1970, caracteriza-se por uma tríade de dimensões (exaustão emocional, despersonalização e redução da realização pessoal e é uma condição relacionada à organização do trabalho. Entretanto, não consta nas classificações psiquiátricas. O artigo apresenta o conceito de burnout, estabelece o seu atual status nosológico e introduz uma breve discussão sobre a diferença entre burnout e depressão, a partir do relato de um caso atendido no Instituto de Psiquiatria da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro.The burnout syndrome was first described in the 1970's and is characterized by three dimensions (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment. Burnout is a work organization-related health condition. Nevertheless, it is not part of any psychiatric classification. This article presents the concept of burnout, establishes its nosological status and introduces a brief discussion on the difference between burnout and depression, based on the report of a clinical case treated at Instituto de Psiquiatria da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro.

  3. Structural validity of the Maslach Burnout Inventory and influence of depressive symptoms in banking workplace: Unfastening the occupational conundrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Maria do Socorro da Silva; Wang, Yuan-Pang; Menezes, Paulo Rossi

    2018-06-04

    Burnout and mental disorders have been reported in the financial industry. This study aims to examine the structural validity of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and to investigate the connection between the dimensions of burnout and depressive symptoms in a sample of 1046 bank employees from North Brazil who completed the MBI and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were used to cross-check the factorial structure of the MBI. One-way analysis of variance and correlation analysis were applied to elucidate the relationship between burnout and depressive symptoms. Both 3-factor and 4-factor oblique solutions were plausible EFA models of the burnout syndrome. Results of CFA supported the 19-item 4-factor structure as the best fitting model to data, with two exhaustion factors ("exhausted" and "strained"), depersonalization, and personal accomplishment. The PHQ-9 total score and individual score of depressive items were significantly correlated with all MBI dimensions, notably with the emotional exhaustion dimension. The moderate-to-high correlation observed between burnout and depression suggest the potential utility of the MBI for evaluating burnout among bank employees as well as to point out the need to evaluate systematically the burnout and depressive symptoms given to their potential association. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. The Prevalence of Burnout Among Nursing Home Physicians: An International Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazir, Arif; Smalbrugge, Martin; Moser, Andrea; Karuza, Jurgis; Crecelius, Charles; Hertogh, Cees; Feldman, Sid; Katz, Paul R

    2018-01-01

    Physician burnout is a critical factor influencing the quality of care delivered in various healthcare settings. Although the prevalence and consequences of burnout have been well documented for physicians in various jurisdictions, no studies to date have reported on burnout in the postacute and long-term care setting. In this exploratory study, we sought to quantify the prevalence of burnout among 3 cohorts of physicians, each practicing in nursing homes in the United States (US), Canada, or The Netherlands. International comparisons were solicited to highlight cultural and health system factors potentially impacting burnout levels. Using standard survey techniques, a total of 721 physicians were solicited to participate (Canada 393; US 110; The Netherlands 218). Physicians agreeing to participate were asked to complete the "Maslach Burnout Inventory" using the Survey Monkey platform. A total of 118 surveys were completed from The Netherlands, 59 from Canada, and 65 from the US for response rates of 54%, 15%, and 59%, respectively. While US physicians demonstrated more negative scores in the emotional exhaustion subscale compared with their counterparts in Canada and The Netherlands, there were no meaningful differences on the depersonalization and personal accomplishments subscales. Factors explaining these differences are explored as well as approaches to future research on physician burnout in postacute and long-term care. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Conflitto lavoro/famiglia, burnout e work engagement negli insegnanti: Il ruolo moderatore delle risorse lavorative e personali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Simbula

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study contributes to the literature on the JobDemands-Resources Model in the Italian school context.The aim of this paper is to examine how the interactionbetween work-family conflict (i.e., a typical job demandand opportunities to learn and to develop and self-efficacy(i.e., typical job and personal resources, respectivelyaffect the core dimensions of burnout (exhaustion anddepersonalization and work engagement (vigor and dedication.Hypotheses were tested with a cross-sectionaldesign among 143 teachers of a junior high school in thenorth of Italy. Results of moderated multiple regressionanalysis partially supported the hypotheses as the opportunitiesto learn and to develop buffered against theaversive effects of work-family conflict on depersonalization,whereas self-efficacy moderated the relationshipbetween work-family conflict and vigor. From a practicalviewpoint, our findings suggest that opportunities tolearn and to develop and self-efficacy are important resourcesthat help teachers to reduce the negative effectsrelated to work-family conflict.

  6. Empathy Is a Protective Factor of Burnout in Physicians: New Neuro-Phenomenological Hypotheses Regarding Empathy and Sympathy in Care Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirioux, Bérangère; Birault, François; Jaafari, Nematollah

    2016-01-01

    Burnout is a multidimensional work-related syndrome that is characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization-or cynicism-and diminution of personal accomplishment. Burnout particularly affects physicians. In medicine as well as other professions, burnout occurrence depends on personal, developmental-psychodynamic, professional, and environmental factors. Recently, it has been proposed to specifically define burnout in physicians as "pathology of care relationship." That is, burnout would arise, among the above-mentioned factors, from the specificity of the care relationship as it develops between the physician and the patient. Accordingly, experimental studies and theoretical approaches have suggested that burnout and empathy, which is one of the most important skills in physicians, are closely linked. However, the nature of the relation between burnout and empathy remains not yet understood, as reflected in the variety of theoretical and contradictory hypotheses attempting to causally relate these two phenomena. Firstly, we here question the epistemological problem concerning the modality of the burnout-empathy link. Secondly, we hypothesize that considering the multidimensional features of both burnout and empathy, on one hand, and on the other hand, the distinction between empathy and sympathy enables to overcome these contradictions and, consequently, gives a better understanding of the relationship between burnout and empathy in physicians. Thirdly, we propose that clarifying the link between burnout, empathy and sympathy would enable developing specific training in medical students and continuous professional formation in senior physicians and would potentially contribute to the prevention of burnout in medical care.

  7. Does the Maslach Burnout Inventory correlate with cognitive performance in anesthesia practitioners? A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Francesca Orena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic stress is a common condition among health-care operators, anesthetists in particular. It is known to cause cognitive weakening and pathological outcomes, as the Burnout syndrome. Nevertheless, the impact of clinicians′ health on their performance has received limited attention thus far. Our pilot study, aims at evaluating the influence of burnout on the cognitive performance in a population of anesthesia practitioners. Methods: In 18 practitioners we assessed attention by means of reaction times (RTs, pre- and post-shift, with a five-subtest computerized neuropsychological battery. RTs were controlled for the situational anxiety with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory X1. The burnout level was evaluated with the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI. The three MBI sub-scores (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and professional achievement were combined to obtain two groups according to the burnout score (high and low. Results: Anesthetists showed a significantly worse performance in the fifth test post-shift (P=0.041 than pre-shift. The high-score burnout group reacted slower than the low-score burnout group in three of the five cognitive subtests, without reaching a statistical significance. Nevertheless, our effect size, which is independent from the sample size, is very large (d=1.165. Conclusion: We found that in a population of health-care operators, burnout may affect the cognitive and potentially, the working performance. Qualitative and quantitative measurements should be integrated to ensure a better management of burnout and its consequences in workplaces.

  8. The Relationship Between Burnout Syndrome Among the Medical Staff and Work Conditions in the Polish Healthcare System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Głębocka, Alicja

    2017-01-01

    Psychologists emphasize that people employed in social service organizations are vulnerable to chronic stress and burnout syndrome caused by a close and unsatisfied interpersonal relationship. However, emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and a feeling of diminished personal accomplishment can be attributed to other external factors. One of them is poor living and occupational conditions. According to a report by OECD, the healthcare system in Poland is the worst among the member countries. The aim of the present study was to define the relationship between occupational burnout and the rating of the Polish healthcare system among the medical staff. The study included 224 participants. The Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Dehumanized Behavior and the Głębocka and Rużyczka scale of Behavioral Indicators of Patient's Dehumanization were applied. The evaluations of the healthcare system were also collected. The results demonstrate that physicians were the group of most emotionally exhausted and, simultaneously, most life-satisfied persons, while nurses presented the highest level of dehumanization and the lowest level of satisfaction from life achievements. Only did physicians evaluate the healthcare system as a relatively good one. They were also more tolerant of latent dehumanization. A relationship between the dimensions of burnout and the evaluation of healthcare system were observed. The emotionally exhausted or prone to dehumanization persons were more likely to evaluate the Polish healthcare system negatively.

  9. The prevalence of burnout syndrome in medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson de Cavalcante Almeida

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burnout syndrome (BS is a set of psychological symptoms resulting from the interaction between chronic occupational stress and individual factors. These symptoms include emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and decreased professional satisfaction. BS is manifested in a variety of professions and is prevalent in contexts in which health professionals are required to interact directly with the public. Objective To determine the prevalence of BS among medical students at a university in Ceará State, Brazil. Methods Of the 517 students enrolled in their first to eighth semester in 2013, 376 (72.7% were contacted. A socio-economic evaluation questionnaire and the Maslach Burnout Inventory – Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS were administered. Statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS 20.0. Two groups – burnout/risk and non-burnout – were compared using the chi-square and likelihood ratio tests with a significance level of 5%. Variables with p < 0.20 were included in a multivariate analysis logistical regression model. Results Burnout was detected in 14.9% of the students, and 57.7% showed a risk of developing the syndrome. Logistic regressions showed an association between burnout and “have failed examinations” and “have considered abandoning the course”, p = 0.047 and p < 0.0001, respectively. Discussion Psychopedagogy should be implemented to address the high prevalence of burnout in medical students.

  10. Physician personal characteristics influencing long-term treatment of patients with cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strokova E.V.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the article is to identify the peculiarities of a doctor personality, affecting long-term therapy in patients with cardiovascular diseases. Materials and methods: To determine the type of temperament, the presence and intensity of the syndrome of emotional burnout and capacity for empathy therapists and cardiologists were asked to fill in a number of questionnaires. Each doctor had a group of patients contacting by telephone for a year after the discharge from the hospital. During the telephone contact, the patients were asked about the continuation of their therapy recommended in the hospital, the regularity of therapy, the frequency of absence, and the assessment of a physician by the patients. Results: 35 questionnaires were suitable for interpretation. Through one year after the discharge from the hospital it was able to contact with 147 patients, 18.4% (27 of patients completely stopped the treatment by recommended drugs. Positive assessment of physicians was associated with the continuation of the therapy by recommended drugs and regularity of drug taking (p=0,03. Patients assessed physicians positively more often in cases of low level of emotional state, high level of depersonalization (cynicism and the reduction of personal accomplishment (feeling of professional inefficiency in a doctor. Conclusion: Assessment of physicians by patients is reliably and significantly influenced by continuation of long-term therapy and regularity of drug taking.

  11. Is it time to consider the burnout syndrome a distinct illness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renzo eBianchi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The burnout syndrome has been defined as a combination of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment caused by chronic occupational stress. Although there has been increasing medical interest in burnout over the last decades, it is argued in this paper that the syndrome cannot be elevated to the status of diagnostic category, based on (1 an analysis of the genesis of the burnout construct, (2 a review of the latest literature on burnout-depression overlap, (3 a questioning of the three-dimensional structure of the burnout syndrome, and (4 a critical examination of the notion that burnout is singularized by its job-related character. It turns out that the burnout construct is built on a fragile foundation, both from a clinical and a theoretical standpoint. The current state of science suggests that burnout is a form of depression rather than a differentiated type of pathology. The inclusion of burnout in future disorder classifications is therefore unwarranted. The focus of public health policies dedicated to the management of burnout should not be narrowed to the three definitional components of the syndrome but consider its depressive core.

  12. [Burnout syndrome among medical residents during the influenza A H1N1 sanitary contigency in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austria-Corrales, Fernando; Cruz-Valdés, Beatriz; Herrera-Kiengelher, Loredmy; Vázquez-García, Juan Carlos; Salas-Hernández, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    To measure the degree of stress among medical residents at a Third Level Hospital in Mexico City during the sanitary contingency caused by the AH1N1 influenza virus. A transversal descriptive study with a non-probabilistic sample of 99 medical residents with different fields of specialization related to respiratory medicine. Researchers applied the Maslach Burnout Inventory questionnaire to evaluate three dimensions: emotional fatigue, depersonalization, and personal fulfillment. The survey was self-administered and anonymous, and the study was conducted during the first AH1N1 influenza virus outbreak (April 23 to May 10, 2009). During that period, the hospital underwent a process of reorganization that included cancelling vacation periods for all medical residents and adjusting duty rosters. The highest proportion of medical residents with burnout syndrome was those in their second year of specialization in the area of pneumology. Results also showed that medical residents under 30 years of age had a higher probability of presenting burnout syndrome. No significant differences were found regarding the residents’ place of origin.

  13. Empathy is a protective factor of burnout in physicians: new neuro-phenomenological hypotheses regarding empathy and sympathy in care relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berangere eTHIRIOUX

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Burnout is a multidimensional work-related syndrome that is characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization – or cynicism – and diminution of personal accomplishment. Burnout particularly affects physicians. In medicine as well as other professions, burnout occurrence depends on personal, developmental-psychodynamic, professional and environmental factors. Recently, it has been proposed to specifically define burnout in physicians as pathology of care relationship. That is, burnout would arise, among the above-mentioned factors, from the specificity of the care relationship as it develops between the physician and the patient. Accordingly, experimental studies and theoretical approaches have suggested that burnout and empathy, which is one of the most important skills in physicians, are closely linked. However, the nature of the relation between burnout and empathy remains not yet understood, as reflected in the variety of theoretical and contradictory hypotheses attempting to causally relate these two phenomena. Firstly, we here question the epistemological problem concerning the modality of the burnout-empathy link. Secondly, we hypothesize that considering the multidimensional features of both burnout and empathy, on one hand, and on the other hand, the distinction between empathy and sympathy enables to overcome these contradictions and, consequently, gives a better understanding of the relationship between burnout and empathy in physicians. Thirdly, we propose that clarifying the link between burnout, empathy and sympathy would enable developing specific training in medical students and continuous professional formation in senior physicians and would potentially contribute to the prevention of burnout in medical care.

  14. EMOTIONAL BURNOUT SYNDROME: EFFECT ON CLINICAL INERTIA AND MEDICAL PRACTICE STEREOTYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Khokhlov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To estimate the prevalence of burnout in primary care physicians and its influence on medical practice stereotypes and on clinical inertia.Material and Methods. The anonymous single-stage poll was carried out among 184 primary care physicians. The questionnaire included information about sex, age, period and conditions of work, established stereotypes of practices. Burnout was evaluated by Russian analog of Maslach Burnout Inventory. It was defined in high level of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization and low level of personal accomplishment 11 questions were developed to reveal of suboptimal medical practice (for example, “I do not discuss treatment options with patient and do not give full answers to his questions” or “I make diagnostic and treatment errors despite of my professional knowledge and inexperience”.Results. The burnout syndrome (or extreme grade of emotional burnout occurs in 13,1% and high level of emotional burnout – in 49,7% of primary care physicians. Features of suboptimal medical practice are usually found in 24,2% of primary care physicians at least monthly. It expresses more often in improper attitude to paqtients and their problems associated with a disease. Thus, burnout contributes to improper attitude to patients. Professional burnout affects established work stereotypes and can promote development of physician’s clinical inertia.Conclusion. As the burnout is common among primary care physicians, an adequate monitoring and prevention of this state is necessary in medical labour management.

  15. [Social engineers--providers--bioethicists. Human genetics experts in West-Germany and Denmark between 1950 and 1990].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomaschke, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    The author compares the history of human genetics in the Federal Republic of Germany and Denmark from the 1950s to the 1980s. The paper combines a discourse analysis with the exploration of human genetics experts' subject forms along the lines of current considerations within cultural studies. In the 1950s and 1960s, human geneticists acted in close cooperation with other political, judicial and administrative expert groups. They monitored the 'overall genetic development' of the population and cautioned about 'genetic crises'. Laypersons were supposed to submit to 'objectively reasonable' behavioral patterns--to their own as well as society's benefit. In the 1970s, the experts turned into 'providers' of a 'precise, purely medical, diagnostic service'. The patients mainly appeared as 'de-personalized' sources of a common human demand for 'safe eugenic information'. In the 1980s, the demand and supply paradigm manifested psychological and ethical side effects. Human geneticists became aware of the social and historical interrelations of their research and practices. The results of this study contribute to a more complex understanding of the dominant 'individualization narrative' of human genetics history. In this context, the development in Germany and Denmark displays two complementary forms of a transnational discourse.

  16. The association between workers' employability and burnout in a reorganization context: longitudinal evidence building upon the conservation of resources theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cuyper, Nele; Raeder, Sabine; Van der Heijden, Beatrice I J M; Wittekind, Anette

    2012-04-01

    This longitudinal study probes the relationship between employability and burnout among employees from a company undergoing reorganization. We advanced employability as a personal resource that relates negatively to burnout. We expected that this hypothesis would hold for different operationalizations of employability, including (1) job-related and (2) transferable skills, (3) willingness to change jobs and (4) to develop competences, (5) opportunity awareness, (6) self-esteem, and (7) self-perceived employability (i.e., perceived employment opportunities). In a similar vein, we expected that the hypothesis would hold for the different dimensions of burnout; namely emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment. We used longitudinal Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) to test our hypotheses. Employees from a Swiss company undergoing a major reorganization were surveyed at three times with a total time lag of 19 months (Time 1: N = 287; Time 2: N = 128; Time 3: N = 107). Our results indicate that particularly self-esteem, but also job-related and transferable skills as indicators of one's employability were important predictors of burnout, with all relationships being negative. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Patient health record on a smart card.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naszlady, A; Naszlady, J

    1998-02-01

    A validated health questionnaire has been used for the documentation of a patient's history (826 items) and of the findings from physical examination (591 items) in our clinical ward for 25 years. This computerized patient record has been completed in EUCLIDES code (CEN TC/251) for laboratory tests and an ATC and EAN code listing for the names of the drugs permanently required by the patient. In addition, emergency data were also included on an EEPROM chipcard with a 24 kb capacity. The program is written in FOX-PRO language. A group of 5000 chronically ill in-patients received these cards which contain their health data. For security reasons the contents of the smart card is only accessible by a doctor's PIN coded key card. The personalization of each card was carried out in our health center and the depersonalized alphanumeric data were collected for further statistical evaluation. This information served as a basis for a real need assessment of health care and for the calculation of its cost. Code-combined with an optical card, a completely paperless electronic patient record system has been developed containing all three information carriers in medicine: Texts, Curves and Pictures.

  18. Planning and performing spine surgery with CT/MPR: A primer for radiologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camp, P.; Kerber, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    Few things are more discouraging to a surgeon than the patient who has continued bitter complaints after spine surgery. We often show our discouragement by refusing even to name these patients;instead we depersonalize them, calling them ''failed backs.'' The most common cause of the failed-back syndrome is probably an error in the original decision to operate. Many patients have unsolved psychosocial problems that the surgeon may not recognize. Even though we are critical of this lapse in surgical judgment, the most experienced and cautious physician occasionally makes these mistakes. Not all failed backs are psychosocial in origin. The advent of computerized tomography with multiplanar reconstruction (CT/MPR) has demonstrated several large and important subsets of patients whose operation has failed not for psychosocial reasons but for a lack of appreciation of unrecognized pathology. In a small minority of cases, the surgeon has operated on the wrong interspace. In most, though, important pathology was overlooked and not operated on because the technology to see it was unavailable. In order that the radiologist can better understand the problems encountered by the surgeon, the authors now review the most common of these problems and outline how specific abnormalities are diagnosed and treated. The evaluation of back disease is a complex undertaking, and the partnership between radiologist and surgeon is an essential one

  19. Advantages of video trigger in problem-based learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Lap Ki; Patil, Nivritti G; Chen, Julie Y; Lam, Jamie C M; Lau, Chak S; Ip, Mary S M

    2010-01-01

    Traditionally, paper cases are used as 'triggers' to stimulate learning in problem-based learning (PBL). However, video may be a better medium because it preserves the original language, encourages the active extraction of information, avoids depersonalization of patients and allows direct observation of clinical consultations. In short, it exposes the students to the complexity of actual clinical problems. The study aims to find out whether students and facilitators who are accustomed to paper cases would prefer video triggers or paper cases and the reasons for their preference. After students and facilitators had completed a video PBL tutorial, their responses were measured by a structured questionnaire using a modified Likert scale. A total of 257 students (92%) and 26 facilitators (100%) responded. The majority of students and facilitators considered that using video triggers could enhance the students' observational powers and clinical reasoning, help them to integrate different information and better understand the cases and motivate them to learn. They found PBL using video triggers more interesting and preferred it to PBL using paper cases. Video triggers are preferred by both students and facilitators over paper cases in PBL.

  20. Personal determinants of nurses' burnout in end of life care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, Georgeana; Barbosa, Filipe; Vieira, Margarida

    2014-10-01

    Our aim is to identify socio-demographic, professional exposure to dying, training degree and personal factors relevant to burnout dimensions in nurses coping with death issues. A sample of 360 nurses (response rate 70.6%) from internal medicine, oncology, haematology and palliative care departments of five health institutions answered to a socio-demographic and professional questionnaire, Maslach Burnout Inventory, Death Attitude Profile Scale, Purpose in Life Test and Adult Attachment Scale. No significant differences were found between medical departments in burnout scores except when comparing those with palliative care department which showed significant lesser levels of emotional exhaustion (t = 2.71; p exhaustion and depersonalization are negative, sequentially determined respectively by purpose in life, dependent attachment, fear of death attitude and by purpose in life, dependent attachment, years of professional experience and personal accomplishment by positive purpose on life and secure attachment. We conclude for the protective value of factors such as meaning and purpose in life, secure attachment and attitude towards death, through the various burnout dimensions that shows the need to develop under and postgraduate training strategies in these specific areas. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.