WorldWideScience

Sample records for dependent surveillance-broadcast ads-b

  1. Security and Hyper-accurate Positioning Monitoring with Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lightning Ridge Technologies, working in collaboration with The Innovation Laboratory, Inc., extend Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) into a safe,...

  2. Security and Hyper-accurate Positioning Monitoring with Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lightning Ridge Technologies, LLC, working in collaboration with The Innovation Laboratory, Inc., extend Automatic Dependent Surveillance ? Broadcast (ADS-B) into a...

  3. Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast Verification and Validation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Automatic Dependent Surveillance ? Broadcast (ADS-B) is an emerging Communications, Navigation, and Surveillance (CNS) technology that will vastly expand the state...

  4. Air Traffic Control Capabilities: Opportunity to Utilize Automated Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) Equipment on Aircraft for Military Air Traffic Control and Command and Control in Combat and Humanitarian Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    1 Emma, Australian in World First For Nationwide ADS-B Coverage, 1. 2 Babbitt , Automatic Dependent...Operational Use of ADS-B, 1. 10 Babbitt , Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast, 54. 11 HQ FAA/ATO, ADS-B Frequently Asked Questions, 1. 12...HQ FAA/ATO, Surveillance and Broadcast Services, 1. 13 NATO NATMC CNS Group, Draft NATO Position on ADS-B, 1-2. 14 Babbitt , Automatic Dependent

  5. 75 FR 30159 - Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) Out Performance Requirements To Support Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... Organisation for Civil Aviation Equipment EUROCONTROL--European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation... of the ADS-B Out Message Elements 6. Conforming Amendments and Editorial Changes D. Differences... Accuracy and Integrity Changes H. Performance Requirements--Availability 1. Preflight Determination of...

  6. A Reinforcement Learning Model Equipped with Sensors for Generating Perception Patterns: Implementation of a Simulated Air Navigation System Using ADS-B (Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast) Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez de Toledo, Santiago; Anguera, Aurea; Barreiro, José M; Lara, Juan A; Lizcano, David

    2017-01-19

    Over the last few decades, a number of reinforcement learning techniques have emerged, and different reinforcement learning-based applications have proliferated. However, such techniques tend to specialize in a particular field. This is an obstacle to their generalization and extrapolation to other areas. Besides, neither the reward-punishment (r-p) learning process nor the convergence of results is fast and efficient enough. To address these obstacles, this research proposes a general reinforcement learning model. This model is independent of input and output types and based on general bioinspired principles that help to speed up the learning process. The model is composed of a perception module based on sensors whose specific perceptions are mapped as perception patterns. In this manner, similar perceptions (even if perceived at different positions in the environment) are accounted for by the same perception pattern. Additionally, the model includes a procedure that statistically associates perception-action pattern pairs depending on the positive or negative results output by executing the respective action in response to a particular perception during the learning process. To do this, the model is fitted with a mechanism that reacts positively or negatively to particular sensory stimuli in order to rate results. The model is supplemented by an action module that can be configured depending on the maneuverability of each specific agent. The model has been applied in the air navigation domain, a field with strong safety restrictions, which led us to implement a simulated system equipped with the proposed model. Accordingly, the perception sensors were based on Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) technology, which is described in this paper. The results were quite satisfactory, and it outperformed traditional methods existing in the literature with respect to learning reliability and efficiency.

  7. A Reinforcement Learning Model Equipped with Sensors for Generating Perception Patterns: Implementation of a Simulated Air Navigation System Using ADS-B (Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Álvarez de Toledo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, a number of reinforcement learning techniques have emerged, and different reinforcement learning-based applications have proliferated. However, such techniques tend to specialize in a particular field. This is an obstacle to their generalization and extrapolation to other areas. Besides, neither the reward-punishment (r-p learning process nor the convergence of results is fast and efficient enough. To address these obstacles, this research proposes a general reinforcement learning model. This model is independent of input and output types and based on general bioinspired principles that help to speed up the learning process. The model is composed of a perception module based on sensors whose specific perceptions are mapped as perception patterns. In this manner, similar perceptions (even if perceived at different positions in the environment are accounted for by the same perception pattern. Additionally, the model includes a procedure that statistically associates perception-action pattern pairs depending on the positive or negative results output by executing the respective action in response to a particular perception during the learning process. To do this, the model is fitted with a mechanism that reacts positively or negatively to particular sensory stimuli in order to rate results. The model is supplemented by an action module that can be configured depending on the maneuverability of each specific agent. The model has been applied in the air navigation domain, a field with strong safety restrictions, which led us to implement a simulated system equipped with the proposed model. Accordingly, the perception sensors were based on Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B technology, which is described in this paper. The results were quite satisfactory, and it outperformed traditional methods existing in the literature with respect to learning reliability and efficiency.

  8. A Reinforcement Learning Model Equipped with Sensors for Generating Perception Patterns: Implementation of a Simulated Air Navigation System Using ADS-B (Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast) Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez de Toledo, Santiago; Anguera, Aurea; Barreiro, José M.; Lara, Juan A.; Lizcano, David

    2017-01-01

    Over the last few decades, a number of reinforcement learning techniques have emerged, and different reinforcement learning-based applications have proliferated. However, such techniques tend to specialize in a particular field. This is an obstacle to their generalization and extrapolation to other areas. Besides, neither the reward-punishment (r-p) learning process nor the convergence of results is fast and efficient enough. To address these obstacles, this research proposes a general reinforcement learning model. This model is independent of input and output types and based on general bioinspired principles that help to speed up the learning process. The model is composed of a perception module based on sensors whose specific perceptions are mapped as perception patterns. In this manner, similar perceptions (even if perceived at different positions in the environment) are accounted for by the same perception pattern. Additionally, the model includes a procedure that statistically associates perception-action pattern pairs depending on the positive or negative results output by executing the respective action in response to a particular perception during the learning process. To do this, the model is fitted with a mechanism that reacts positively or negatively to particular sensory stimuli in order to rate results. The model is supplemented by an action module that can be configured depending on the maneuverability of each specific agent. The model has been applied in the air navigation domain, a field with strong safety restrictions, which led us to implement a simulated system equipped with the proposed model. Accordingly, the perception sensors were based on Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) technology, which is described in this paper. The results were quite satisfactory, and it outperformed traditional methods existing in the literature with respect to learning reliability and efficiency. PMID:28106849

  9. ADS-B- Automatic Dependent Surveillance- Broadcast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borivoj Galović

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The CU/Tent system of air traffic is facing many drawbacksand problems that restrict its further development and makes itdifficult to follow the trends of increase in the traffic volume.By means of their technology, the systems such as ADS-8create rhe basis for further building, upgrading, improving anddeveloping of a completely new concept of the air traffic system.Through their functions they fully fit into and support the basicfunctions of communication, navigation and swveillancewhich form the basis of the new concept that needs to be implementedas soon as possible.

  10. Satellite single-axis attitude determination based on Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kaixing; Sun, Xiucong; Huang, Hai; Wang, Xinsheng; Ren, Guangwei

    2017-10-01

    The space-based Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) is a new technology for air traffic management. The satellite equipped with spaceborne ADS-B system receives the broadcast signals from aircraft and transfers the message to ground stations, so as to extend the coverage area of terrestrial-based ADS-B. In this work, a novel satellite single-axis attitude determination solution based on the ADS-B receiving system is proposed. This solution utilizes the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) measurement of the broadcast signals from aircraft to determine the boresight orientation of the ADS-B receiving antenna fixed on the satellite. The basic principle of this solution is described. The feasibility study of this new attitude determination solution is implemented, including the link budget and the access analysis. On this basis, the nonlinear least squares estimation based on the Levenberg-Marquardt method is applied to estimate the single-axis orientation. A full digital simulation has been carried out to verify the effectiveness and performance of this solution. Finally, the corresponding results are processed and presented minutely.

  11. A Simulation of the Reception of Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast Signals in Low Earth Orbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Van Der Pryt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B is an air traffic surveillance technology in which aircraft transmit position and identification. The development of space-based ADS-B will allow precise control of aircraft in areas that are not covered by radar, such as oceanic regions and high latitudes. The Royal Military College of Canada has developed a spaceborne ADS-B receiver scheduled to fly on the Canadian Advanced Nanospace eXperiment-7 (CanX-7 satellite. The payload is planned to collect data over the North Atlantic region, which will then be compared to truth data provided by air traffic services. A model was created to determine power levels arriving at the satellite to provide confidence in the ADS-B receiver and antenna proposed for CanX-7. The model takes into account neutral atmosphere and ionospheric effects, aircraft-satellite geometry, and antenna radiation patterns. A simulation was run by inserting real aircraft data from the North Atlantic Track System into the model and placing the satellite at altitudes of 400, 600, and 800 km. Results of the simulation indicate that power received at the satellite, ranging between −98.5 dBm and −103 dBm for the selected altitudes, will be sufficient to successfully conduct the mission.

  12. Evaluation of ADS-B Surveillance Data to Identify Flight Operations with Reduced Safety Margin in the National Airspace System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As part of the FAA's plans for modernization of the Air Traffic Control (ATC) system, Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) will be the basis of the...

  13. Study of ADS-B Data Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jun; LIU Wei; ZHU Yanbo

    2011-01-01

    In western China,the terrain and meteorological conditions are so complex that it is not suitable to construct new radar stations.Automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast(ADS-B) is a totally new surveillance method,so before practically applied and operated in China,abundant tests and evaluations are necessary to validate the performance of ADS-B and guarantee the operational security.During the flight tests,we collect the data of radar,ADS-B and high accuracy position and compare the performance of ADS-B with radar based on high accuracy position.To solve the asynchronous problem among radar data,ADS-B data and real-time kinematic(RTK) data caused by different update rates,this article proposes the technique of synchronizing multi-surveil- lance data by extrapolating from the data of low update rate to high update rate according to velocity and heading.Meanwhile,because radar data,ADS-B data and RTK data are expressed in different coordinates and cannot be compared each other,this article provides a method to unifying the coordinates of multi-surveillance data.By the analysis and evaluation,we can conclude that the performance of ADS-B is better than radar.

  14. Protection Method for Data Communication between ADS-B Sensor and Next-Generation Air Traffic Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seoung-Hyeon Lee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Communications, Navigation, Surveillance/Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM systems utilize digital technologies, satellite systems, and various levels of automation to facilitate seamless global air traffic management. Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B, the core component of CNS/ATM, broadcasts important monitoring information, such as the location, altitude, and direction of aircraft, to the ground. However, ADS-B data are transmitted in an unencrypted (or unprotected communication channel between ADS-B sensors and Air Traffic Control (ATC. Consequently, these data are vulnerable to security threats, such as spoofing, eavesdropping, and data modification. In this paper, we propose a method that protects the ADS-B data transmitted between ADS-B sensors and ATC using Simple Public Key Infrastructure (SPKI certificates and symmetric cryptography. The SPKI certificates are used to grant transmission authorization to the ADS-B sensors, while symmetric cryptography is used to encrypt/decrypt the ADS-B data transmitted between the ADS-B sensors and ATC. The proposed security framework comprises an ADS-B sensor authentication module, an encrypted data processing module, and an ADS-B sensor information management module. We believe that application of the proposed security framework to CNS/ATM will enable it to effectively obviate security threats, such as ground station flood denial, ground station target ghost injection, and ADS-B data modification.

  15. The Flying Laboratory for the Observation of ADS-B Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Francis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast (ADS-B is a system in which aircraft continually transmit their identity and GPS-derived navigational information. ADS-B networks for air traffic monitoring have already been implemented in areas around the world, but ground stations cannot be installed in midocean and are difficult to maintain in the Arctic, leaving a coverage gap for oceanic and high latitude airspace. A potential solution for worldwide tracking of aircraft is through the monitoring of aircraft-transmitted ADS-B signals using satellite-borne receivers. To investigate this possibility, a high altitude balloon experiment was carried out in June 2009 to determine if ADS-B signals can be detected from near space. The Flying Laboratory for the Observation of ADS-B Transmissions (FLOAT was the first stratospheric platform to collect ADS-B data. The FLOAT mission successfully demonstrated the reception of ADS-B signals from near space, paving the way to the development of a space-based ADS-B system.

  16. Runway Incursion Prevention System ADS-B and DGPS Data Link Analysis Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmerman, J.; Jones, Denise R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A Runway Incursion Prevention System (RIPS) was tested at the Dallas - Ft. Worth International Airport in October 2000. The system integrated airborne and ground components to provide both pilots and controllers with enhanced situational awareness, supplemental guidance cues, a real-time display of traffic information, and warning of runway incursions in order to prevent runway incidents while also improving operational capability. Rockwell Collins provided and supported a prototype Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) system using 1090 MHz and a prototype Differential GPS (DGPS) system onboard the NASA Boeing 757 research aircraft. This report describes the Rockwell Collins contributions to the RIPS flight test, summarizes the development process, and analyzes both ADS-B and DGPS data collected during the flight test. In addition, results are report on interoperability tests conducted between the NASA Advanced General Aviation Transport Experiments (AGATE) ADS-B flight test system and the NASA Boeing 757 ADS-B system.

  17. EBAA: An efficient broadcast authentication scheme for ADS-B communication based on IBS-MR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Haomiao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast (ADS-B systems can broadcast satellite-based aircraft position, identification, etc., periodically, and are now on track to replace radar to become the backbone of next-generation air traffic management (ATM systems. However, ADS-B systems suffer severe cyber-security problems due to the broadcast-type data link and the lack of designed-in security measures. Especially, since ADS-B messages are unauthenticated, it is easy to insert fake aircraft into a system via spoofing or insertion of false messages. Unfortunately, the authentication for ADS-B messages has not yet been well studied. In this paper, based on identity-based signature with message recovery (IBS-MR, an efficient broadcast authentication scheme for ADS-B messages is proposed. The security analysis demonstrates that the scheme can achieve authenticity and integrity of ADS-B broadcast messages, as well as adaptive evolution of broadcasters’ private keys. The performance evaluation shows that the scheme is computationally efficient for typical avionics devices with limited resources. Furthermore, the scheme achieves low communication overhead since broadcast messages can be recovered from signatures, and thus it is suitable for low-bandwidth ADS-B data link.

  18. ADS-B and multilateration sensor fusion algorithm for air traffic control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Mengchen

    Air traffic is expected to increase rapidly in the next decade. But, the current Air Traffic Control (ATC) system does not meet the demand of the future safety and efficiency. The Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) is a transformation program for the ATC system in the United States. The latest estimates by Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) show that by 2018 NextGen will reduce total delays in flight by 35 percent and provide 23 billion dollars in cumulative benefits. A satellite-based technology called the Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) system is one of the most important elements in NextGen. FAA expects that ADS-B systems will be available in the National Airspace System (NAS) by 2020. However, an alternative surveillance system is needed due to vulnerabilities that exist in ADS-B systems. Multilateration has a high accuracy performance and is believed to be an ideal back-up strategy for ADS-B systems. Thus, in this study, we develop the ADS-B and multilateration sensor fusion algorithm for aircraft tracking applications in ATC. The algorithm contains a fault detection function for ADS-B information monitoring by using Trajectory Change Points reports from ADS-B and numerical vectors from a hybrid estimation algorithm. We consider two types of faults in the ADS-B measurement model to show that the algorithm is able to deal with the bad data from ADS-B systems and automatically select good data from multilateration systems. We apply fuzzy logic concepts and generate time variant parameters during the fusion process. The parameters play a role of weights for combining data from different sensors. The algorithm performance is validated through two aircraft tracking examples.

  19. EBAA:An effcient broadcast authentication scheme for ADS-B communication based on IBS-MR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Haomiao; Huang Rongshun; Wang Xiaofen; Deng Jiang; Chen Ruidong

    2014-01-01

    Automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast (ADS-B) systems can broadcast satellite-based aircraft position, identification, etc., periodically, and are now on track to replace radar to become the backbone of next-generation air traffic management (ATM) systems. However, ADS-B systems suffer severe cyber-security problems due to the broadcast-type data link and the lack of designed-in security measures. Especially, since ADS-B messages are unauthenticated, it is easy to insert fake aircraft into a system via spoofing or insertion of false messages. Unfortu-nately, the authentication for ADS-B messages has not yet been well studied. In this paper, based on identity-based signature with message recovery (IBS-MR), an efficient broadcast authentication scheme for ADS-B messages is proposed. The security analysis demonstrates that the scheme can achieve authenticity and integrity of ADS-B broadcast messages, as well as adaptive evolution of broadcasters’ private keys. The performance evaluation shows that the scheme is computationally efficient for typical avionics devices with limited resources. Furthermore, the scheme achieves low communication overhead since broadcast messages can be recovered from signatures, and thus it is suitable for low-bandwidth ADS-B data link.

  20. Quasi-ADS-B Based UAV Conflict Detection and Resolution to Manned Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin E. Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A Conflict Detection and Resolution (CD&R system for manned/unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV based on Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B concept is designed and verified in this paper. The 900 MHz XBee-Pro is selected as data transponder to broadcast flight information among participating aircraft in omnirange. Standard Compact Position Report (CPR format packet data are automatically broadcasted by ID sequencing under Quasi-ADS-B mechanism. Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA monitoring checks the designated time slot and reallocates the conflict ID. This mechanism allows the transponder to effectively share data with multiple aircraft in near airspace. The STM32f103 microprocessor is designed to handle RF, GPS, and flight data with Windows application on manned aircraft and ground control station simultaneously. Different conflict detection and collision avoidance algorithms can be implemented into the system to ensure flight safety. The proposed UAV/CD&R using Quasi-ADS-B transceiver is tested using ultralight aircraft flying at 100–120 km/hr speed in small airspace for mission simulation. The proposed hardware is also useful to additional applications to mountain hikers for emergency search and rescue. The fundamental function by the proposed UAV/CD&R using Quasi-ADS-B is verified with effective signal broadcasting for surveillance and efficient collision alert and avoidance performance to low altitude flights.

  1. Evidence toward an expanded international civil aviation organization (ICAO) concept of a single unified global communication navigation surveillance air traffic management (CNS/ATM) system: A quantitative analysis of ADS-B technology within a CNS/ATM system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Gregory S.

    This research dissertation summarizes research done on the topic of global air traffic control, to include technology, controlling world organizations and economic considerations. The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) proposed communication, navigation, surveillance, air traffic management system (CNS/ATM) plan is the basis for the development of a single global CNS/ATM system concept as it is discussed within this study. Research will be evaluated on the efficacy of a single technology, Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) within the scope of a single global CNS/ATM system concept. ADS-B has been used within the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Capstone program for evaluation since the year 2000. The efficacy of ADS-B was measured solely by using National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) data relating to accident and incident rates within the Alaskan airspace (AK) and that of the national airspace system (NAS).

  2. 基于ADS-B的便携式空情侦测系统技术方案研究%Study of the Portable Air Situation Detection System Technological Program on ADS-B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟军; 马彦恒; 董健; 任新涛

    2012-01-01

    针对目前雷达训练缺乏调度,难以检验训练效果的问题,通过分析广播式自动相关监视(ADS-B)的技术特点,提出基于ADS-B的便携式空情侦测系统的总体技术方案,并对其关键技术进行阐述.该系统通过侦收民航飞机广播的高精度目标参数,实现空情监视,提供指挥员进行训练调度;通过比对雷达测量结果,检验训练效果.%As the radar training is lack of scheduling currently and the difficulty to test the training effect .by analyzing the technical characteristics of the Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast(ADS-B) .proposing the overall technical program of the portable air situation detection system on ADS-B and elaborating its key technologies. The system achieves the air situation monitoring and guides the commander to make traning schedule through detecing and receiving the high-precision target parameters broadcasted by civil aircraft. By comparing the results of radar measurement to test the training results.

  3. Trilateration-based localization algorithm for ADS-B radar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ming-Shih

    Rapidly increasing growth and demand in various unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) have pushed governmental regulation development and numerous technology research advances toward integrating unmanned and manned aircraft into the same civil airspace. Safety of other airspace users is the primary concern; thus, with the introduction of UAV into the National Airspace System (NAS), a key issue to overcome is the risk of a collision with manned aircraft. The challenge of UAV integration is global. As automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast (ADS-B) system has gained wide acceptance, additional exploitations of the radioed satellite-based information are topics of current interest. One such opportunity includes the augmentation of the communication ADS-B signal with a random bi-phase modulation for concurrent use as a radar signal for detecting other aircraft in the vicinity. This dissertation provides detailed discussion about the ADS-B radar system, as well as the formulation and analysis of a suitable non-cooperative multi-target tracking method for the ADS-B radar system using radar ranging techniques and particle filter algorithms. In order to deal with specific challenges faced by the ADS-B radar system, several estimation algorithms are studied. Trilateration-based localization algorithms are proposed due to their easy implementation and their ability to work with coherent signal sources. The centroid of three most closely spaced intersections of constant-range loci is conventionally used as trilateration estimate without rigorous justification. In this dissertation, we address the quality of trilateration intersections through range scaling factors. A number of well-known triangle centers, including centroid, incenter, Lemoine point (LP), and Fermat point (FP), are discussed in detail. To the author's best knowledge, LP was never associated with trilateration techniques. According our study, LP is proposed as the best trilateration estimator thanks to the

  4. Application of an ADS-B Sense and Avoid Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, Ricardo; Kotcher, Robert; Cavalin, Moshe; Dandachy, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Armstrong Flight Research Center in Edwards, California is leading a program aimed towards integrating unmanned aircraft system into the national airspace system (UAS in the NAS). The overarching goal of the program is to reduce technical barriers associated with related safety issues as well as addressing challenges that will allow UAS routine access to the national airspace. This research paper focuses on three novel ideas: (1) A design of an integrated UAS equipped with Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast that constructs a more accurate state-based airspace model; (2) The use of Stratway Algorithm in a real-time environment; and (3) The verification and validation of sense and avoid performance and usability test results which provide a pilot's perspective on how our system will benefit the UAS in the NAS program for both piloted and unmanned aircraft.

  5. Derived Weather State Information via ADS-B Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Innovation Laboratory, Inc, proposes to use Automatic Dependent Surveillance – Broadcast (ADS-B) information as the basis of atmospheric wave and turbulence...

  6. Design and Characterization of a Secure Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    of Engineering and Management Air Force Institute of Technology Air University Air Education and Training Command in Partial Fulfillment of the...such as AES unsuitable. Format- preserving encryption, a technique already in use on small message sizes such as credit card numbers, provides a...HDL coding. Your prior industry experience and sound development methods were essential to successful design and analysis, both in the classroom and

  7. Exploiting the Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast System via False Target Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    IEEE Xplore . 8. Hal Stoen. (2001) VFR Flight. Retrieved February 15, 2012 from http://stoenworks.com/vfr%20flight.html 9. Cohen, B., & Smith, A...7. Gilbert, G. (1973). Historical development of the air traffic control system. IEEE Transactions on Communications, 364-375. Retrieved from...1998. Proceedings., 17th DASC. the AIAA/ IEEE /SAE,2 F44/1- F44/8 vol.2. 10. Livack, G. S., McDaniel, J. I., Battiste, V., & Johnson, W. W. (2000

  8. ADS-B Technologies Use and Appropriation at CETAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Flórez-Zuluaga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Air transport has been growing over the last few years, and for this reason, maintaining the safety and improving navigation systems support is a constant challenge in congested airspace. An alternative that has been accepted worldwide because of its advantageous costs and benefits, involves the integration of satellite navigation systems with autonomous broadcasting systems on aircraft, which have allowed to extend situational awareness into areas without coverage of CNS/ATM systems, through an automatic dependent surveillance aircraft system called ADS-B network which allows flight profile sharing with nearby aircraft and ground stations indifferently. This system is being integrated with the monitoring and control systems of many countries, in response to the need of maintaining the air safety in increasingly trafficked airspaces, allowing better use of routes and decreasing operational costs of companies. The Colombian Air Force, through its Technological Development Center for Defense CETAD, is working on understanding and adapting this technology to utilize it in military operations.

  9. ERROR-CONTROL CODING OF ADS-B MESSAGES FOR IRIDIUM SATELLITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Kharchenko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available For modelling of ADS-B messages transmitting on the base of low-orbit satellite constellation Іrіdіum the model of a communication channel “Aircraft - Satellite - Ground Station” was built using MATLAB Sіmulіnk. This model allowed to investigate dependences of the Bit Error Rate on a type of  signal coding/decoding, ratio Eb/N0 and satellite repeater gain

  10. ADS-B地面站的规划与建设%Planning and Construction of ADS-B Ground Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张智强

    2011-01-01

    随着广播式自动相关监视(ADS-B)技术的推广应用,作为ADS-B体系的组成部分的ADS-B地面站已经成为保障ADS-B使用效能的重要环节。在探讨ADS-B基本理论的基础上,对ADS-B地面站的架构、功能、规划与建设等方面进行了分析,并提出了相关设计方法和理念。%With the broadened application of automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast(ADS-B) technology,ADS-B ground station,as a constituent part of the ADS-B system,has become an important link in ensuring the efficacy of ADS-B.Based on the ADS-B basic theory,the architecture,function,planning,and construction of ADS-B ground station are analyzed,and the related design methods and concepts are presented.

  11. An ADS-B derived ATC linked ER System for NextGen Safety Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Phase I verified ADS-B-ER feasibility-based on compatibility with the ADS-B operational standards and design specs, bandwidth and the iPAD EFB capability for...

  12. 简述ADS-B IN技术在中国的应用前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国锋

    2012-01-01

    ADS-B是未来航空监视的主要手段,它的主要功能可以分为ADS-B IN与ADS-B OUT两个方面.ADS-B OUT用于向外广播飞行器自身的位置等信息;ADS-B IN用于接收来自其它飞行器以及地面的交通信息,帮助飞行员更好地了解周围环境情况.目前在中国,ADS-B OUT技术已经获得了初步应用,而ADS-B IN技术却丝毫没有获得应用.该文介绍了ADS-B技术的基本概念以及在中国的应用现状,着重介绍了ADS-B IN技术在国外的发展与应用.在此基础上指出了ADS-B IN技术在中国的应用前景,并在飞机防撞系统、辅助进近、交通态势感知以及小型航天器的应用等几个方面分别进行了论述.

  13. Measurement of Contrails Using ADS-B Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Voráček

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Air transport contributes to climate changes not only by greenhouse gas production but also because of production of contrails. The effect of contrails is less scientifically understood compared to greenhouse gases according to IPCC [3]. In order to be able to research the effect of contrails on the atmosphere, it is necessary to identify their realistic frequency of occurrence and to define the relationship between their occurrence and other factors. The effort to identify and monitor contrails and their dependence on the type of air traffic is the objective of SGS project.

  14. An ADS-B Emergency Respone System for NextGen Airspace Safety Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — FAA NextGencontrollers can employ the ADS-B datalink to send aircraft flight plans guiding the around traffic conflicts that the on-board system hasn't seen or...

  15. MODELING OF SATELLITE CHANNEL FOR TRANSMISSION OF ADS-B MESSAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В.П. Харченко

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available  For surveillance over air traffic the system for reception of ADS-B signals was built. For this purpose the antenna, the receiver of ADS-B signals, the decoder were made and the software for computer was installed. Airplanes on a distance up to 160 km and heights up to 12 000 m were observed. This system has small "blind funnel" and allows to trace airplanes practically "over itself". The system is used in educational process and for performance of student's scientific researches.

  16. Mode S and ADS-B as a Source of Clear-Air Turbulence Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopeć, Jacek; Kwiatkowski, Kamil; de Haan, Siebren; Malinowski, Szymon

    2016-04-01

    Clear-Air Turbulence (CAT) beside being the most common cause for commercial aircraft incidents in the cruise phase is a complex physical phenomenon. CAT is an effect of various underlying physical mechanisms such as different kinds of hydrodynamic instabilities or large scale forcing. In order to properly understand and correctly forecast it one needs a significant amount of observation data. Up to date the best available observations are the in-situ EDR (from eddy dissipation rate - a measure of turbulence intensity). Those observations are reported every ~1 min of flight (roughly every 15 km). Yet their availability is limited by the willingness of the airlines to cooperate in adjusting on-board software. However there is a class of data that can be accessed more freely. In this communication we present and discuss a feasibility analysis of the three methods of processing Mode S/ADS-B messages into viable turbulence measurements. The Mode S/ADS-B messages are unrestricted navigational data broadcast by most of the commercial aircraft. The unique characteristic of this data is a very high temporal resolution. This allows to employ processing which results in obtaining turbulence information characterized by spatial resolution comparable with the best available data sources. Moreover due to using Mode-S/ASS-B data, the number of aircraft that are providing observations increases significantly. The methods are either using simple positioning information available in the ADS-B or high-resolution wind information from the Mode S. The paper is largely based on the results of the methods application to the data originating from DELICAT flight campaign that took place in 2013. The flight campaign was conducted using NLR operated Cessna Citation II. The reference Mode-S/ADS-B data partly overlapping with the research flights were supplied by the KNMI. Analysis shows very significant potential of the Mode-S wind based methods. J. M. Kopeć, K. Kwiatkowski, S. de Haan, and

  17. Apropiación y uso tecnologías ADS-B en el CETAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Flórez-Zuluaga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El transporte aéreo ha venido creciendo en los últimos años, motivo por el cual mantener la seguridad y mejorar el sistema de apoyo a la navegación son retos constantes en el espacio aéreo más congestionado. Una alternativa que ha sido aceptada, a nivel mundial, como ventajosa por sus costos y sus prestaciones, implica la integración de los sistemas satelitales de navegación con sistemas de radiodifusión autónomos en las aeronaves, que han permitido extender la alerta situacional a áreas en las que no se cuenta con cobertura de sistemas CNS/ATM a través de un sistema ADS-B de vigilancia automático dependiente de la aeronave que permite compartir su perfil de vuelo, con aeronaves cercanas y con estaciones de tierra indistintamente. Este sistema se está integrando a los sistemas de vigilancia y control de muchos países, como respuesta a la necesidad de mantener la seguridad aérea en espacios aéreos cada vez más transitados, lo que ha permitido una mejor utilización de las rutas y la disminución de costos operacionales a las empresas. La Fuerza Aérea Colombiana a través del Centro de Desarrollo Tecnológico para la Defensa - CETAD, está trabajando en entender y adaptar esta tecnología para poder explotarla en operaciones militares.

  18. Retrieving clear-air turbulence information from regular commercial aircraft using Mode-S and ADS-B broadcast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Kopeć

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Navigational information broadcast by commercial aircraft in the form of Mode-S and ADS-B messages can be considered a new and valid source of upper air turbulence measurements. A set of three processing methods is proposed and analysed using a quality record of turbulence encounters made by a research aircraft. The proposed methods are based on processing the vertical acceleration or the background wind into the eddy dissipation rate. All the necessary parameters are conveyed in the Mode-S/ADS-B messages. The comparison of the results of application of the processing against a reference eddy dissipation rate obtained using on-board accelerometer indicate a significant potential of those methods. The advantages and limitation of the presented approaches are discussed.

  19. sUAS Position Estimation and Fusion in GPS-Degraded and GPS-Denied Environments using an ADS-B Transponder and Local Area Multilateration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Robert Sherman

    An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and a manned aircraft are tracked using ADS-B transponders and the Local Area Multilateration System (LAMS) in simulated GPS-degraded and GPS-denied environments. Several position estimation and fusion algorithms are developed for use with the Autonomous Flight Systems Laboratory (AFSL) TRansponder based Position Information System (TRAPIS) software. At the lowest level, these estimation and fusion algorithms use raw information from ADS-B and LAMS data streams to provide aircraft position estimates to the ground station user. At the highest level, aircraft position is estimated using a discrete time Kalman filter with real-time covariance updates and fusion involving weighted averaging of ADS-B and LAMS positions. Simulation and flight test results are provided, demonstrating the feasibility of incorporating an ADS-B transponder on a commercially-available UAS and maintaining situational awareness of aircraft positions in GPS-degraded and GPS-denied environments.

  20. The oxpA5 mutation of Aspergillus nidulans is an allele of adB, the gene encoding adenylosuccinate synthetase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribard, C; Scazzocchio, C; Oestreicher, N

    2001-12-01

    The oxpA5 mutation in Aspergillus nidulans results in a pleiotropic phenotype, including resistance to oxypurinol and partial constitutivity of the enzymes of purine catabolism. Here we show that the oxpA5 mutation is an allele of adB, the gene encoding adenylosuccinate synthetase (ASS). Cloning, sequencing and characterisation of the adB gene are reported in this paper. In vivo complementation tests indicate that the oxpA5 mutation is a partial loss-of-function mutation, and altered kinetic parameters of the ASS could account for the pleiotropic phenotype of the oxpA5 mutant. The transcriptional regulation of adB presents some interesting features, including increased gene expression in the presence of ammonium and of AMP, the final product of purine biosynthesis. The adB gene is located adjacent to helA, a newly identified gene coding for a putative RNA helicase.

  1. Developing an Onboard Traffic-Aware Flight Optimization Capability for Near-Term Low-Cost Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, David J.; Ballin, Mark G.; Koczo, Stefan, Jr.; Vivona, Robert A.; Henderson, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    The concept of Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR) combines Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) IN and airborne automation to enable user-optimal in-flight trajectory replanning and to increase the likelihood of Air Traffic Control (ATC) approval for the resulting trajectory change request. TASAR is designed as a near-term application to improve flight efficiency or other user-desired attributes of the flight while not impacting and potentially benefiting ATC. Previous work has indicated the potential for significant benefits for each TASAR-equipped aircraft. This paper will discuss the approach to minimizing TASAR's cost for implementation and accelerating readiness for near-term implementation.

  2. 基于ADS-B最小安全间隔评估研究%Research of Minimum Flight Safety Interval Evaluation Based on ADS-B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李平; 傅强

    2013-01-01

    本文以广播自动监视技术(ADS-B)为主导,从监视系统的监视精度、作用范围和安全间隔入手,采用改进型Reich模型为基础,建立碰撞区和临近区、模型的延迟误差区、航迹固有偏差区的综合模型,结合国际民航组织的飞行安全指标,进行综合概率评估.进一步缩小ADS-B的碰撞最小飞行安全间隔,最后整合尾流安全区,进行航路流量预测.

  3. In-Trail Procedure Air Traffic Control Procedures Validation Simulation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartrand, Ryan C.; Hewitt, Katrin P.; Sweeney, Peter B.; Graff, Thomas J.; Jones, Kenneth M.

    2012-01-01

    In August 2007, Airservices Australia (Airservices) and the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) conducted a validation experiment of the air traffic control (ATC) procedures associated with the Automatic Dependant Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) In-Trail Procedure (ITP). ITP is an Airborne Traffic Situation Awareness (ATSA) application designed for near-term use in procedural airspace in which ADS-B data are used to facilitate climb and descent maneuvers. NASA and Airservices conducted the experiment in Airservices simulator in Melbourne, Australia. Twelve current operational air traffic controllers participated in the experiment, which identified aspects of the ITP that could be improved (mainly in the communication and controller approval process). Results showed that controllers viewed the ITP as valid and acceptable. This paper describes the experiment design and results.

  4. Multi-Sensor Fusion with Interacting Multiple Model Filter for Improved Aircraft Position Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changho Lee

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO has decided to adopt Communications, Navigation, and Surveillance/Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM as the 21st century standard for navigation. Accordingly, ICAO members have provided an impetus to develop related technology and build sufficient infrastructure. For aviation surveillance with CNS/ATM, Ground-Based Augmentation System (GBAS, Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B, multilateration (MLAT and wide-area multilateration (WAM systems are being established. These sensors can track aircraft positions more accurately than existing radar and can compensate for the blind spots in aircraft surveillance. In this paper, we applied a novel sensor fusion method with Interacting Multiple Model (IMM filter to GBAS, ADS-B, MLAT, and WAM data in order to improve the reliability of the aircraft position. Results of performance analysis show that the position accuracy is improved by the proposed sensor fusion method with the IMM filter.

  5. Automation and Systems Issues in Air Traffic Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela STROE

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is dedicated to the study and analysis of a successfully designed control system in ATM. The aircraft's motion is affected by other factors, besides the pilot controls in the form of external disturbances, such as wind, and internal errors, due to unmodelled dynamics, tracking error and system noise. Navigation equipment tracks the exact real-time location of the aircraft in 4D space and provides feedback to both the pilot in the cockpit and ATC via ADS-B. ATM was expressed as a large, decentralized, dynamic, variable size, infinite horizon, multi-parameter, constrained, nonlinear, non-causal, non-convex, multi-objective, high-dimensionality, hybrid (continuous and combinatorial, optimal control problem. Rapidly increasing growth and demand in CNS/ATM, the advanced scheme for ATM, ADS-B system which is based on digital communication is being implemented in the field of surveillance. ADS-B is a radically new technology that is redefining the paradigm of CNS in ATM today. Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B is the next generation air surveillance system which supplants and complements the limitations of conventional radar, since conventional ATM radar systems will reach their limits soon due to the increases in air traffic.

  6. NASA Research For Instrument Approaches To Closely Spaced Parallel Runways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Dawn M.; Perry, R. Brad

    2000-01-01

    Within the NASA Aviation Systems Capacity Program, the Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) Project is addressing airport capacity enhancements during instrument meteorological condition (IMC). The Airborne Information for Lateral Spacing (AILS) research within TAP has focused on an airborne centered approach for independent instrument approaches to closely spaced parallel runways using Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) and Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) technologies. NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), working in partnership with Honeywell, Inc., completed in AILS simulation study, flight test, and demonstration in 1999 examining normal approaches and potential collision scenarios to runways with separation distances of 3,400 and 2,500 feet. The results of the flight test and demonstration validate the simulation study.

  7. A 3-Dimensional Cockpit Display with Traffic and Terrain Information for the Small Aircraft Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    UijtdeHaag, Maarten; Thomas, Robert; Rankin, James R.

    2004-01-01

    The report discusses the architecture and the flight test results of a 3-Dimensional Cockpit Display of Traffic and terrain Information (3D-CDTI). The presented 3D-CDTI is a perspective display format that combines existing Synthetic Vision System (SVS) research and Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) technology to improve the pilot's situational awareness. The goal of the 3D-CDTI is to contribute to the development of new display concepts for NASA's Small Aircraft Transportation System research program. Papers were presented at the PLANS 2002 meeting and the ION-GPS 2002 meeting. The contents of this report are derived from the results discussed in those papers.

  8. 多点相关定位技术与ADS-B技术的分析比较--以民用航空监视领域的应用为例%The Analysis and Comparison of Multi Point Correlation Positioning Technology and ADS-B Technology--A Case Study in the Field of Civil Aviation Surveillance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宝海

    2015-01-01

    近年来,随着民用航空运输事业的持续发展以及民航技术的不断创新和发展,航空领域呈现出前所未有的发展形势,传统的监视手段一次雷达(PSR)和二次雷达(SSR)由于其自身的诸多局限性,已无法满足航空运输及空中交通管制的需求,因此监视新技术,如多点相关定位技术(MLAT)和广播式自动相关监视(ADS-B)技术得到了快速发展,并在民航领域逐步实施。%In recent years, with the constant innovation and development of the sustainable development of civil aviation industry and civil aviation technology, aviation showing unprecedented development situation, traditional means of surveillance radar (PSR) and secondary radar (SSR) due to its many limitations, has been unable to meet the demand for air transport and air trafifc control, so monitoring of new technologies, such as multi-point positioning techniques (MLAT) and broadcast automatic dependent surveillance (ADS-B) technology has been rapid development, and in the ifeld of civil aviation carried out step by step.

  9. A User Guide for Smoothing Air Traffic Radar Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Ralph E.; Paielli, Russell A.

    2014-01-01

    Matlab software was written to provide smoothing of radar tracking data to simulate ADS-B (Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast) data in order to test a tactical conflict probe. The probe, called TSAFE (Tactical Separation-Assured Flight Environment), is designed to handle air-traffic conflicts left undetected or unresolved when loss-of-separation is predicted to occur within approximately two minutes. The data stream that is down-linked from an aircraft equipped with an ADS-B system would include accurate GPS-derived position and velocity information at sample rates of 1 Hz. Nation-wide ADS-B equipage (mandated by 2020) should improve surveillance accuracy and TSAFE performance. Currently, position data are provided by Center radar (nominal 12-sec samples) and Terminal radar (nominal 4.8-sec samples). Aircraft ground speed and ground track are estimated using real-time filtering, causing lags up to 60 sec, compromising performance of a tactical resolution tool. Offline smoothing of radar data reduces wild-point errors, provides a sample rate as high as 1 Hz, and yields more accurate and lag-free estimates of ground speed, ground track, and climb rate. Until full ADS-B implementation is available, smoothed radar data should provide reasonable track estimates for testing TSAFE in an ADS-B-like environment. An example illustrates the smoothing of radar data and shows a comparison of smoothed-radar and ADS-B tracking. This document is intended to serve as a guide for using the smoothing software.

  10. The Effects of Commercial Airline Traffic on LSST Observing Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Rose; Claver, Charles; Stubbs, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is a ten-year survey that will map the southern sky in six different filters 800 times before the end of its run. In this paper, we explore the primary effect of airline traffic on scheduling the LSST observations in addition to the secondary effect of condensation trails, or contrails, created by the presence of the aircraft. The large national investment being made in LSST implies that small improvments observing efficiency through aircraft and contrail avoidance can result in a significant improvement in the quality of the survey and its science. We have used the Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) signals received from commercial aircraft to monitor and record activity over the LSST site. We installed a ADS-B ground station on Cerro Pachón, Chile consiting of a1090Mhz antenna on the Andes Lidar Observatory feeding a RTL2832U software defined radio. We used dump1090 to convert the received ADS-B telementry into Basestation format, where we found that during the busiest time of the night there were only 4 signals being received each minute on average, which will have very small direct effect, if any, on the LSST observing scheduler. As part of future studies we will examin the effects of contrals on LSST observations. Gibson was supported by the NOAO/KPNO Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Program which is funded by the National Science Foundation Research Experience for Undergraduates Program (AST-1262829).

  11. Proof-of-Concept of a Networked Validation Environment for Distributed Air/Ground NextGen Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisham, James; Larson, Natalie; Nelson, Justin; Reed, Joshua; Suggs, Marvin; Underwood, Matthew; Papelis, Yiannis; Ballin, Mark G.

    2013-01-01

    The National Airspace System (NAS) must be improved to increase capacity, reduce flight delays, and minimize environmental impacts of air travel. NASA has been tasked with aiding the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in NAS modernization. Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) is an enabling technology that is fundamental to realization of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). Despite the 2020 FAA mandate requiring ADS-B Out equipage, airspace users are lacking incentives to equip with the requisite ADS-B avionics. A need exists to validate in flight tests advanced concepts of operation (ConOps) that rely on ADS-B and other data links without requiring costly equipage. A potential solution is presented in this paper. It is possible to emulate future data link capabilities using the existing in-flight Internet and reduced-cost test equipment. To establish proof-of-concept, a high-fidelity traffic operations simulation was modified to include a module that simulated Internet transmission of ADS-B messages. An advanced NASA ConOp, Flight Deck Interval Management (FIM), was used to evaluate technical feasibility. A preliminary assessment of the effects of latency and dropout rate on FIM was performed. Flight hardware that would be used by proposed test environment was connected to the simulation so that data transfer from aircraft systems to test equipment could be verified. The results indicate that the FIM ConOp, and therefore, many other advanced ConOps with equal or lesser response characteristics and data requirements, can be evaluated in flight using the proposed concept.

  12. Integration of forward-looking infrared (FLIR) and traffic information for moving obstacle detection with integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhen; Vana, Sudha; Bhattacharya, Sumit; Uijt de Haag, Maarten

    2009-05-01

    This paper discusses the integration of Forward-looking Infrared (FLIR) and traffic information from, for example, the Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) or the Traffic Information Service-Broadcast (TIS-B). The goal of this integration method is to obtain an improved state estimate of a moving obstacle within the Field-of-View of the FLIR with added integrity. The focus of the paper will be on the approach phase of the flight. The paper will address methods to extract moving objects from the FLIR imagery and geo-reference these objects using outputs of both the onboard Global Positioning System (GPS) and the Inertial Navigation System (INS). The proposed extraction method uses a priori airport information and terrain databases. Furthermore, state information from the traffic information sources will be extracted and integrated with the state estimates from the FLIR. Finally, a method will be addressed that performs a consistency check between both sources of traffic information. The methods discussed in this paper will be evaluated using flight test data collected with a Gulfstream V in Reno, NV (GVSITE) and simulated ADS-B.

  13. Benefits of Using Pairwise Trajectory Management in the Central East Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartrand, Ryan; Ballard, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Pairwise Trajectory Management (PTM) is a concept that utilizes airborne and ground-based capabilities to enable airborne spacing operations in oceanic regions. The goal of PTM is to use enhanced surveillance, along with airborne tools, to manage the spacing between aircraft. Due to the enhanced airborne surveillance of Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) information and reduced communication, the PTM minimum spacing distance will be less than distances currently required of an air traffic controller. Reduced minimum distance will increase the capacity of aircraft operations at a given altitude or volume of airspace, thereby increasing time on desired trajectory and overall flight efficiency. PTM is designed to allow a flight crew to resolve a specific traffic conflict (or conflicts), identified by the air traffic controller, while maintaining the flight crew's desired altitude. The air traffic controller issues a PTM clearance to a flight crew authorized to conduct PTM operations in order to resolve a conflict for the pair (or pairs) of aircraft (i.e., the PTM aircraft and a designated target aircraft). This clearance requires the flight crew of the PTM aircraft to use their ADS-B-enabled onboard equipment to manage their spacing relative to the designated target aircraft to ensure spacing distances that are no closer than the PTM minimum distance. When the air traffic controller determines that PTM is no longer required, the controller issues a clearance to cancel the PTM operation.

  14. Ionospheric Sounding Opportunities Using Signal Data From Preexisting Amateur Radio And Other Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushley, A. C.; Noel, J. M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Amateur radio and other transmissions used for dedicated purposes, such as the Automatic Packet Reporting System (APRS) and Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B), are signals that exist for another reason, but can be used for ionospheric sounding. Whether mandated and government funded or voluntarily constructed and operated, these networks provide data that can be used for scientific and operational purposes which rely on space weather data. Given the current state of the global economic environment and fiscal consequences to scientific research funding in Canada, these types of networks offer an innovative solution with preexisting hardware for more real-time and archival space-weather data to supplement current methods, particularly for data assimilation, modelling and forecasting. Furthermore, mobile ground-based transmitters offer more flexibility for deployment than stationary receivers. Numerical modelling has demonstrated that APRS and ADS-B signals are subject to Faraday rotation (FR) as they pass through the ionosphere. Ray tracingtechniques were used to determine the characteristics of individual waves, including the wave path and the state of polarization. The modelled FR was computed and converted to total electron content (TEC) along the raypaths. TEC data can be used as input for computerized ionospheric tomography (CIT) in order to reconstruct electron density maps of the ionosphere.

  15. Cubesat Constellation Design for Air Traffic Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Sreeja; Rios, Joseph Lucio; Gerhardt, David; Pham, Camvu

    2015-01-01

    Suitably equipped global and local air traffic can be tracked. The tracking information may then be used for control from ground-based stations by receiving the Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) signal. The ADS-B signal, emitted from the aircraft's Mode-S transponder, is currently tracked by terrestrial based receivers but not over remote oceans or sparsely populated regions such as Alaska or the Pacific Ocean. Lack of real-time aircraft time/location information in remote areas significantly hinders optimal planning and control because bigger "safety bubbles" (lateral and vertical separation) are required around the aircraft until they reach radar-controlled airspace. Moreover, it presents a search-and-rescue bottleneck. Aircraft in distress, e.g. Air France AF449 that crashed in 2009, take days to be located or cannot be located at all, e.g. Malaysia Airlines MH370 in 2014. In this paper, we describe a tool for designing a constellation of small satellites which demonstrates, through high-fidelity modeling based on simulated air traffic data, the value of space-based ADS-B monitoring and provides recommendations for cost-efficient deployment of a constellation of small satellites to increase safety and situational awareness in the currently poorly-served surveillance area of Alaska. Air traffic data has been obtained from the Future ATM Concepts Evaluation Tool (FACET), developed at NASA Ames Research Center, simulated over the Alaskan airspace over a period of one day. The simulation is driven by MATLAB with satellites propagated and coverage calculated using AGI's Satellite ToolKit(STK10).

  16. Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR) Concept of Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Aircrews submit trajectory change requests to air traffic control (ATC) to better achieve the operator's preferred business trajectory. Requests are currently made with limited information and are often denied because the change is not compatible with traffic. Also, request opportunities can be overlooked due to lack of automation that advises aircrews of trajectory changes that improve flight time, fuel burn, and other objectives. The Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR) concept leverages Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) surveillance information to advise the aircrew of beneficial trajectory changes that are probed for traffic compatibility prior to issuing the request to ATC. This document describes the features, benefits, and limitations of TASAR automation hosted on an Electronic Flight Bag. TASAR has two modes: (1) auto mode that continuously assesses opportunities for improving the performance of the flight and (2) manual mode that probes trajectory changes entered by aircrews for conflicts and performance objectives. The roles and procedures of the aircrew and ATC remain unchanged under TASAR.

  17. An augmented reality binocular system (ARBS) for air traffic controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulbrook, Jim E.; Ruffner, John W.; Labbe, Roger

    2008-04-01

    The primary means by which air traffic tower controllers obtain information is through direct out-thewindow viewing, although a considerable amount of time is spent looking at electronic displays and other information sources inside the tower cab. The Air Force Research Laboratory sponsored the development of a prototype Augmented Reality Binocular System (ARBS) that enhances tower controller performance, situation awareness, and safety. The ARBS is composed of a virtual binocular (VB) that displays real-time imagery from high resolution telephoto cameras and sensors mounted on pan/tilt units (PTUs). The selected PTU tracks to the movement of the VB, which has an inertial heading and elevation sensor. Relevant airfield situation text and graphic depictions that identify airfield features are overlaid on the imagery. In addition, the display is capable of labeling and tracking vehicles on which an Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) system has been installed. The ARBS provides air traffic controllers and airfield security forces with the capability to orient toward, observe, and conduct continuous airfield operations and surveillance/security missions from any number of viewing aspects in limited visibility conditions. In this paper, we describe the ARBS in detail, discuss the results of a Usability Test of the prototype ARBS, and discuss ideas for follow-on efforts to develop the ARBS to a fieldable level.

  18. Pairwise Trajectory Management (PTM): Concept Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kenneth M.; Graff, Thomas J.; Chartrand, Ryan C.; Carreno, Victor; Kibler, Jennifer L.

    2017-01-01

    Pairwise Trajectory Management (PTM) is an Interval Management (IM) concept that utilizes airborne and ground-based capabilities to enable the implementation of airborne pairwise spacing capabilities in oceanic regions. The goal of PTM is to use airborne surveillance and tools to manage an "at or greater than" inter-aircraft spacing. Due to the precision of Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) information and the use of airborne spacing guidance, the PTM minimum spacing distance will be less than distances a controller can support with current automation systems that support oceanic operations. Ground tools assist the controller in evaluating the traffic picture and determining appropriate PTM clearances to be issued. Avionics systems provide guidance information that allows the flight crew to conform to the PTM clearance issued by the controller. The combination of a reduced minimum distance and airborne spacing management will increase the capacity and efficiency of aircraft operations at a given altitude or volume of airspace. This paper provides an overview of the proposed application, description of a few key scenarios, high level discussion of expected air and ground equipment and procedure changes, overview of a potential flight crew human-machine interface that would support PTM operations and some initial PTM benefits results.

  19. A safety assessment methodology applied to CNS/ATM-based air traffic control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vismari, Lucio Flavio, E-mail: lucio.vismari@usp.b [Safety Analysis Group (GAS), School of Engineering at University of Sao Paulo (Poli-USP), Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto, Trav.3, n.158, Predio da Engenharia de Eletricidade, Sala C2-32, CEP 05508-900, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Batista Camargo Junior, Joao, E-mail: joaocamargo@usp.b [Safety Analysis Group (GAS), School of Engineering at University of Sao Paulo (Poli-USP), Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto, Trav.3, n.158, Predio da Engenharia de Eletricidade, Sala C2-32, CEP 05508-900, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-07-15

    In the last decades, the air traffic system has been changing to adapt itself to new social demands, mainly the safe growth of worldwide traffic capacity. Those changes are ruled by the Communication, Navigation, Surveillance/Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM) paradigm , based on digital communication technologies (mainly satellites) as a way of improving communication, surveillance, navigation and air traffic management services. However, CNS/ATM poses new challenges and needs, mainly related to the safety assessment process. In face of these new challenges, and considering the main characteristics of the CNS/ATM, a methodology is proposed at this work by combining 'absolute' and 'relative' safety assessment methods adopted by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) in ICAO Doc.9689 , using Fluid Stochastic Petri Nets (FSPN) as the modeling formalism, and compares the safety metrics estimated from the simulation of both the proposed (in analysis) and the legacy system models. To demonstrate its usefulness, the proposed methodology was applied to the 'Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcasting' (ADS-B) based air traffic control system. As conclusions, the proposed methodology assured to assess CNS/ATM system safety properties, in which FSPN formalism provides important modeling capabilities, and discrete event simulation allowing the estimation of the desired safety metric.

  20. Nicotine Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicotine dependence Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Nicotine dependence ― also called tobacco dependence ― is an addiction to tobacco products caused by the drug nicotine. Nicotine dependence means you can't stop using the substance, ...

  1. A Common Communications, Navigation and Surveillance Infrastructure for Accommodating Space Vehicles in the Next Generation Air Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanSuetendael, RIchard; Hayes, Alan; Birr, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Suborbital space flight and space tourism are new potential markets that could significantly impact the National Airspace System (NAS). Numerous private companies are developing space flight capabilities to capture a piece of an emerging commercial space transportation market. These entrepreneurs share a common vision that sees commercial space flight as a profitable venture. Additionally, U.S. space exploration policy and national defense will impose significant additional demands on the NAS. Air traffic service providers must allow all users fair access to limited airspace, while ensuring that the highest levels of safety, security, and efficiency are maintained. The FAA's Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) will need to accommodate spacecraft transitioning to and from space through the NAS. To accomplish this, space and air traffic operations will need to be seamlessly integrated under some common communications, navigation and surveillance (CNS) infrastructure. As part of NextGen, the FAA has been developing the Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) which utilizes the Global Positioning System (GPS) to track and separate aircraft. Another key component of NextGen, System-Wide Information Management/ Network Enabled Operations (SWIM/NEO), is an open architecture network that will provide NAS data to various customers, system tools and applications. NASA and DoD are currently developing a space-based range (SBR) concept that also utilizes GPS, communications satellites and other CNS assets. The future SBR will have very similar utility for space operations as ADS-B and SWIM has for air traffic. Perhaps the FAA, NASA, and DoD should consider developing a common space-based CNS infrastructure to support both aviation and space transportation operations. This paper suggests specific areas of research for developing a CNS infrastructure that can accommodate spacecraft and other new types of vehicles as an integrated part of NextGen.

  2. Performance of Airborne Precision Spacing Under Realistic Wind Conditions and Limited Surveillance Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, Frederick; Santos, Michel; Krueger, William; Houston, Vincent E.

    2011-01-01

    With the expected worldwide increase of air traffic during the coming decade, both the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA's) Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen), as well as Eurocontrol's Single European Sky ATM Research (SESAR) program have, as part of their plans, air traffic management (ATM) solutions that can increase performance without requiring time-consuming and expensive infrastructure changes. One such solution involves the ability of both controllers and flight crews to deliver aircraft to the runway with greater accuracy than they can today. Previous research has shown that time-based spacing techniques, wherein the controller assigns a time spacing to each pair of arriving aircraft, can achieve this goal by providing greater runway delivery accuracy and producing a concomitant increase in system-wide performance. The research described herein focuses on one specific application of time-based spacing, called Airborne Precision Spacing (APS), which has evolved over the past ten years. This research furthers APS understanding by studying its performance with realistic wind conditions obtained from atmospheric sounding data and with realistic wind forecasts obtained from the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) short-range weather forecast. In addition, this study investigates APS performance with limited surveillance range, as provided by the Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) system, and with an algorithm designed to improve APS performance when ADS-B surveillance data is unavailable. The results presented herein quantify the runway threshold delivery accuracy of APS under these conditions, and also quantify resulting workload metrics such as the number of speed changes required to maintain spacing.

  3. Performance of Airborne Precision Spacing Under Realistic Wind Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, Frederick; Santos, Michel; Krueger, William; Houston, Vincent E.

    2011-01-01

    With the expected worldwide increase of air traffic during the coming decade, both the Federal Aviation Administration s (FAA s) Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen), as well as Eurocontrol s Single European Sky ATM Research (SESAR) program have, as part of their plans, air traffic management solutions that can increase performance without requiring time-consuming and expensive infrastructure changes. One such solution involves the ability of both controllers and flight crews to deliver aircraft to the runway with greater accuracy than is possible today. Previous research has shown that time-based spacing techniques, wherein the controller assigns a time spacing to each pair of arriving aircraft, is one way to achieve this goal by providing greater runway delivery accuracy that produces a concomitant increase in system-wide performance. The research described herein focuses on a specific application of time-based spacing, called Airborne Precision Spacing (APS), which has evolved over the past ten years. This research furthers APS understanding by studying its performance with realistic wind conditions obtained from atmospheric sounding data and with realistic wind forecasts obtained from the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) short-range weather forecast. In addition, this study investigates APS performance with limited surveillance range, as provided by the Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) system, and with an algorithm designed to improve APS performance when an ADS-B signal is unavailable. The results presented herein quantify the runway threshold delivery accuracy of APS un-der these conditions, and also quantify resulting workload metrics such as the number of speed changes required to maintain spacing.

  4. CubeSat constellation design for air traffic monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Sreeja; Rios, Joseph L.; Gerhardt, David; Pham, Camvu

    2016-11-01

    Suitably equipped global and local air traffic can be tracked. The tracking information may then be used for control from ground-based stations by receiving the Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) signal. In this paper, we describe a tool for designing a constellation of small satellites which demonstrates, through high-fidelity modeling based on simulated air traffic data, the value of space-based ADS-B monitoring. It thereby provides recommendations for cost-efficient deployment of a constellation of small satellites to increase safety and situational awareness in the currently poorly-served surveillance area of Alaska. Air traffic data were obtained from NASA's Future ATM Concepts Evaluation Tool, for the Alaskan airspace over one day. The results presented were driven by MATLAB and the satellites propagated and coverage calculated using AGI's Satellite Tool. While Ad-hoc and precession spread constellations have been quantitatively evaluated, Walker constellations show the best performance in simulation. Sixteen satellites in two perpendicular orbital planes are shown to provide more than 99% coverage over representative Alaskan airspace and the maximum time gap where any airplane in Alaska is not covered is six minutes, therefore meeting the standard set by the International Civil Aviation Organization to monitor every airplane at least once every fifteen minutes. In spite of the risk of signal collision when multiple packets arrive at the satellite receiver, the proposed constellation shows 99% cumulative probability of reception within four minutes when the airplanes are transmitting every minute, and at 100% reception probability if transmitting every second. Data downlink can be performed using any of the three ground stations of NASA Earth Network in Alaska.

  5. Path Dependency

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Setterfield

    2015-01-01

    Path dependency is defined, and three different specific concepts of path dependency – cumulative causation, lock in, and hysteresis – are analyzed. The relationships between path dependency and equilibrium, and path dependency and fundamental uncertainty are also discussed. Finally, a typology of dynamical systems is developed to clarify these relationships.

  6. Active dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, R F

    1995-02-01

    Although dependency has long been associated with passivity, weakness, and submissiveness, a review of the empirical literature reveals that, in certain situations and settings, dependent persons actually exhibit a variety of active, assertive behaviors. In this article, I: a) trace the historical roots of the dependency-passivity link; b) review empirical studies from developmental, social, and clinical psychology which indicate that, in certain circumstances, dependency is associated with active, assertive behavior on the part of the dependent person; c) offer an alternative conceptual model of dependency that accounts for the entire range of behaviors-both passive and active-that are exhibited by the dependent person; and d) discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic implications of this alternative conceptual model of dependency.

  7. Dependent Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasiunas, Vaidas; Mezini, Mira; Ostermann, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    Virtual classes allow nested classes to be refined in subclasses. In this way nested classes can be seen as dependent abstractions of the objects of the enclosing classes. Expressing dependency via nesting, however, has two limitations: Abstractions that depend on more than one object cannot...... be modeled and a class must know all classes that depend on its objects. This paper presents dependent classes, a generalization of virtual classes that expresses similar semantics by parameterization rather than by nesting. This increases expressivity of class variations as well as the flexibility...... of their modularization. Besides, dependent classes complement multi-methods in scenarios where multi-dispatched abstractions rather than multi-dispatched method are needed. They can also be used to express more precise signatures of multi-methods and even extend their dispatch semantics. We present a formal semantics...

  8. Dependency Parsing

    CERN Document Server

    Kubler, Sandra; Nivre, Joakim

    2009-01-01

    Dependency-based methods for syntactic parsing have become increasingly popular in natural language processing in recent years. This book gives a thorough introduction to the methods that are most widely used today. After an introduction to dependency grammar and dependency parsing, followed by a formal characterization of the dependency parsing problem, the book surveys the three major classes of parsing models that are in current use: transition-based, graph-based, and grammar-based models. It continues with a chapter on evaluation and one on the comparison of different methods, and it close

  9. [Affective dependency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M

    2013-01-01

    Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy.

  10. Path Dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mogens Ove

    Begrebet Path Dependence blev oprindelig udviklet inden for New Institutionel Economics af bl.a. David, Arthur og North. Begrebet har spredt sig vidt i samfundsvidenskaberne og undergået en udvikling. Dette paper propagerer for at der er sket så en så omfattende udvikling af begrebet, at man nu kan...... tale om 1. og 2. generation af Path Dependence begrebet. Den nyeste udvikling af begrebet har relevans for metodologi-diskusionerne i relation til Keynes...

  11. Preliminary Benefits Assessment of Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Jeff; Idris, Husni; Wing, David J.

    2012-01-01

    While en route, aircrews submit trajectory change requests to air traffic control (ATC) to better meet their objectives including reduced delays, reduced fuel burn, and passenger comfort. Aircrew requests are currently made with limited to no information on surrounding traffic. Consequently, these requests are uninformed about a key ATC objective, ensuring traffic separation, and therefore less likely to be accepted than requests informed by surrounding traffic and that avoids creating conflicts. This paper studies the benefits of providing aircrews with on-board decision support to generate optimized trajectory requests that are probed and cleared of known separation violations prior to issuing the request to ATC. These informed requests are referred to as traffic aware strategic aircrew requests (TASAR) and leverage traffic surveillance information available through Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) In capability. Preliminary fast-time simulation results show increased benefits with longer stage lengths since beneficial trajectory changes can be applied over a longer distance. Also, larger benefits were experienced between large hub airports as compared to other airport sizes. On average, an aircraft equipped with TASAR reduced its travel time by about one to four minutes per operation and fuel burn by about 50 to 550 lbs per operation depending on the objective of the aircrew (time, fuel, or weighted combination of time and fuel), class of airspace user, and aircraft type. These preliminary results are based on analysis of approximately one week of traffic in July 2012 and additional analysis is planned on a larger data set to confirm these initial findings.

  12. Predicting Pilot Behavior in Medium Scale Scenarios Using Game Theory and Reinforcement Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Yildiray; Agogino, Adrian; Brat, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    Effective automation is critical in achieving the capacity and safety goals of the Next Generation Air Traffic System. Unfortunately creating integration and validation tools for such automation is difficult as the interactions between automation and their human counterparts is complex and unpredictable. This validation becomes even more difficult as we integrate wide-reaching technologies that affect the behavior of different decision makers in the system such as pilots, controllers and airlines. While overt short-term behavior changes can be explicitly modeled with traditional agent modeling systems, subtle behavior changes caused by the integration of new technologies may snowball into larger problems and be very hard to detect. To overcome these obstacles, we show how integration of new technologies can be validated by learning behavior models based on goals. In this framework, human participants are not modeled explicitly. Instead, their goals are modeled and through reinforcement learning their actions are predicted. The main advantage to this approach is that modeling is done within the context of the entire system allowing for accurate modeling of all participants as they interact as a whole. In addition such an approach allows for efficient trade studies and feasibility testing on a wide range of automation scenarios. The goal of this paper is to test that such an approach is feasible. To do this we implement this approach using a simple discrete-state learning system on a scenario where 50 aircraft need to self-navigate using Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) information. In this scenario, we show how the approach can be used to predict the ability of pilots to adequately balance aircraft separation and fly efficient paths. We present results with several levels of complexity and airspace congestion.

  13. Research Of Airborne Precision Spacing to Improve Airport Arrival Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmore, Bryan E.; Baxley, Brian T.; Murdoch, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    In September 2004, the European Organization for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL) and the United States Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) signed a Memorandum of Cooperation to mutually develop, modify, test, and evaluate systems, procedures, facilities, and devices to meet the need for safe and efficient air navigation and air traffic control in the future. In the United States and Europe, these efforts are defined within the architectures of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) Program and Single European Sky Air Traffic Management Research (SESAR) Program respectively. Both programs have identified Airborne Spacing as a critical component, with Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) as a key enabler. Increased interest in reducing airport community noise and the escalating cost of aviation fuel has led to the use of Continuous Descent Arrival (CDA) procedures to reduce noise, emissions, and fuel usage compared to current procedures. To provide these operational enhancements, arrival flight paths into terminal areas are planned around continuous vertical descents that are closer to an optimum trajectory than those in use today. The profiles are designed to be near-idle descents from cruise altitude to the Final Approach Fix (FAF) and are typically without any level segments. By staying higher and faster than conventional arrivals, CDAs also save flight time for the aircraft operator. The drawback is that the variation of optimized trajectories for different types and weights of aircraft requires the Air Traffic Controller to provide more airspace around an aircraft on a CDA than on a conventional arrival procedure. This additional space decreases the throughput rate of the destination airport. Airborne self-spacing concepts have been developed to increase the throughput at high-demand airports by managing the inter-arrival spacing to be more precise and consistent using on-board guidance. It has been proposed that the

  14. Multibeam monopulse radar for airborne sense and avoid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorwara, Ashok; Molchanov, Pavlo

    2016-10-01

    The multibeam monopulse radar for Airborne Based Sense and Avoid (ABSAA) system concept is the next step in the development of passive monopulse direction finder proposed by Stephen E. Lipsky in the 80s. In the proposed system the multibeam monopulse radar with an array of directional antennas is positioned on a small aircaraft or Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS). Radar signals are simultaneously transmitted and received by multiple angle shifted directional antennas with overlapping antenna patterns and the entire sky, 360° for both horizontal and vertical coverage. Digitizing of amplitude and phase of signals in separate directional antennas relative to reference signals provides high-accuracy high-resolution range and azimuth measurement and allows to record real time amplitude and phase of reflected from non-cooperative aircraft signals. High resolution range and azimuth measurement provides minimal tracking errors in both position and velocity of non-cooperative aircraft and determined by sampling frequency of the digitizer. High speed sampling with high-accuracy processor clock provides high resolution phase/time domain measurement even for directional antennas with wide Field of View (FOV). Fourier transform (frequency domain processing) of received radar signals provides signatures and dramatically increases probability of detection for non-cooperative aircraft. Steering of transmitting power and integration, correlation period of received reflected signals for separate antennas (directions) allows dramatically decreased ground clutter for low altitude flights. An open architecture, modular construction allows the combination of a radar sensor with Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B), electro-optic, acoustic sensors.

  15. Дослідження трафіку ADS-B повідомлень при передачі через супутниковий канал зв’язку

    OpenAIRE

    Kharchenko, Volodymyr; National Aviation University, Kyiv, Ukraine; Ningbo University of Technology, Ningbo, Zhejiang, China; Bo, Wang; Ningbo University of Technology, China; Grekhov, Andrii; National Aviation University; Kovalenko, Marina; National Aviation University

    2014-01-01

    Для моделювання передачі ADS-B повідомлень за допомогою низкоорбитального сузір'я супутників Іrіdіum звикористанням програмного комплексу NetCracker Professіonal 4.1 побудовано оригінальні моделікомунікаційного каналу «Літаки-Супутники-Наземні станції». Вивчено вплив кількості літаків і супутників насереднє завантаження каналу донизу і час передачі повідомлень. Розглянуто різні архітектури телекомуніка-ційних каналів: тільки з міжсупутниковими зв'язками та зв’язками «Супутник-Земля-Супутник»....

  16. An ADS-B derived ATC linked ER System for NextGen Safety Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Munro offer an innovatiive, intelligent, fully integrated hardware and software cockpit system solution for handling many General Aviation (GA) and UAV emergencies...

  17. See-and-Avoid Collision Avoidance Using ADS-B Signal and Radar Sensing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — IAI proposes an innovative collision avoidance radar and communication technology to detect and track both cooperative and non-cooperative targets. The system...

  18. See-and-Avoid Collision Avoidance Using ADS-B Signal and Radar Sensing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — IAI proposes an innovative solution to enable unrestricted flight in low-altitude airspace for small aircrafts This solution includes an L-band RF transceiver-sensor...

  19. Design of a Ground Monitoring and Control System for General Aviation Based on Multilink Communication%基于多链路通信的通用航空地面监控系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李恒; 何东林; 张益; 赵泽西; 邓胜吉

    2016-01-01

    China' s domestic general aviation is facing the problems of single communication means and be-ing lack of moving target monitoring data. To solve above problems,a multilink general aviation communi-cation monitoring system is presented which is based on the combination of automatic dependent surveil-lance - broadcast ( ADS-B ) link, Beidou link and mobile communication link. As one of the important components of this system,the general aviation ground monitoring and control system is responsible for re-ceiving three links data,general aviation aircraft data processing and collection,aircraft conflict detection, intelligent distribution of general aviation aircraft information and so on. At the same time,in consideration of ground surveillance requirements of seamless,immediate,accurate and continuous monitoring for general a-viation aircraft,multilink automatic handover and fusion is proposed. Real general aviation airport data test results prove that general aviation ground monitoring and control system can process three links data quickly and provide real-time,continuous and seamless aircraft monitoring service for general aviation customers.%针对国内通用航空通信手段单一、活动目标监视数据匮乏的问题,提出了一种基于广播式自动相关监视( ADS-B)链路、“北斗”链路、移动通信链路的多链路通用航空(通航)通信监视系统。通航地面监控系统作为该系统中重要组成之一,承担着多链路数据接收、通航飞机信息处理和收集、航空器冲突检测、通航飞机信息智能分发等重要工作。考虑到地面对通航飞机飞行轨迹的无缝、及时、精确、连续的监视需求,提出了一种多链路自动切换与融合技术。通航机场现场测试证明:通航地面监控系统能够快速有效地处理3种链路数据,为通航用户提供实时、连续、无缝的通航飞机监视服务。

  20. A Performance Assessment of an Airborne Separation Assistance System Using Realistic Complex Traffic Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeremy C.; Bussink, Frank J. L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results from a study that investigates the performance of a tactical Airborne Separation Assistance System (ASAS) in en route airspace, under varying demand levels, with realistic traffic flows. The ASAS concept studied here allows flight crews of equipped aircraft to perform separation from other air traffic autonomously. This study addresses the tactical aspects of an ASAS using aircraft state data (i.e. position and velocity) to detect and resolve projected conflicts. In addition, use of a conflict prevention system helps ASAS-equipped aircraft avoid maneuvers that may cause new conflicts. ASAS-capable aircraft are equipped with satellite-based navigation and Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) for transmission and receipt of aircraft state data. In addition to tactical conflict detection and resolution (CD&R), a complete, integrated ASAS is likely to incorporate a strategic CD&R component with a longer look-ahead time, using trajectory intent information. A system-wide traffic flow management (TFM) component, located at the FAA command center helps aircraft to avoid regions of excessive traffic density and complexity. A Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS), as used today is the system of last resort. This integrated approach avoids sole reliance on the use of the tactical CD&R studied here, but the tactical component remains a critical element of the complete ASAS. The focus of this paper is to determine to what extent the proposed tactical component of ASAS alone can maintain aircraft separation at demand levels up to three times that of current traffic. The study also investigates the effect of mixing ASAS-equipped aircraft with unequipped aircraft (i.e. current day) that do not have the capability to self-separate. Position and velocity data for unequipped aircraft needs to be available to ASASequipped. Most likely, for this future concept, state data would be available from instrument flight rules (IFR

  1. LDF (Lag Dependence Functions)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    LDF (Lag Dependence Functions) is an S-PLUS library for identification of non-linear dependencies in univariate time series. The methods can be considered generalizations of the tools applicable for linear time series.......LDF (Lag Dependence Functions) is an S-PLUS library for identification of non-linear dependencies in univariate time series. The methods can be considered generalizations of the tools applicable for linear time series....

  2. [Evaluating tobacco dependance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etter, Jean-François

    2006-11-29

    Good science needs good measurement instruments, and this is also true for the study of tobacco dependence. In this paper, we present and criticize the most frequently used instrument, the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence. This test, published 28 years ago, does not reflect current definitions of dependence. Several alternative approaches to the measurement of tobacco dependence are discussed, and more recent instruments are presented.

  3. LDF (Lag Dependence Functions)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    LDF (Lag Dependence Functions) is an S-PLUS library for identification of non-linear dependencies in univariate time series. The methods can be considered generalizations of the tools applicable for linear time series.......LDF (Lag Dependence Functions) is an S-PLUS library for identification of non-linear dependencies in univariate time series. The methods can be considered generalizations of the tools applicable for linear time series....

  4. Hierarchies in Dependence Logic

    CERN Document Server

    Durand, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    We study fragments of dependence logic defined either by restricting the number k of universal quantifiers or the width of dependence atoms in formulas. We find the sublogics of existential second-order logic corresponding to these fragments of dependence logic. We also show that these both ways of defining fragments of dependence logic give rise to a hierarchy in expressive power with respect to k.

  5. [Dependence disorders in psychopathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, L; Sztulman, H

    1999-01-01

    Research concerning the psychopathological aspects of dependence implicates a wide range of behaviors reassembled under the term of "dependence behaviors": sexual, medical, alcoholic and tobacco dependencies. Speech samples of dependent subjects show that encountering the object of dependence (product, element, ...) introduces a particular form of organized psychological processes. According to several authors, psychopathological dependence can be attributed to: early personality development; failures in the separation-individuation processes; disorders in mother-infant interactions; and a deficit in the psychological functioning of the subjects. For psychopathology, the dependence cannot be reduced to physiological dependence on the product but is understood rather in terms of a complex process indicative of either specific or non-specific suffering which is addressed by abused substance that represents a solution--the effects of which constitute the addictive process. Understanding this process requires an analysis of the psychopathological dependence from a triple meta-psychological viewpoint (topographical, dynamic, economic). Such analysis allows for a psychoanalytical theoretical interpretation of dependence based on three models: pleasure, narcissism and stress reduction. At the same time, the analysis extends the examination of psychopathological dependence towards issues concerning the body. Such body issues are critically placed between the biological and the psychological processes.

  6. Systems dependability assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Aubry, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    Presents recent developments of probabilistic assessment of systems dependability based on stochastic models, including graph theory, finite state automaton and language theory, for both dynamic and hybrid contexts.

  7. Dependent Probability Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, William F.; Shiflett, Ray C.; Shultz, Harris

    2008-01-01

    The mathematical model used to describe independence between two events in probability has a non-intuitive consequence called dependent spaces. The paper begins with a very brief history of the development of probability, then defines dependent spaces, and reviews what is known about finite spaces with uniform probability. The study of finite…

  8. Decisions Concerning Directional Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Eye, Alexander; DeShon, Richard P.

    2012-01-01

    In this rejoinder, von Eye and DeShon discuss the decision strategies proposed in their original article ("Directional Dependence in Developmental Research," this issue), as well as the ones proposed by the authors of the commentary (Pornprasertmanit and Little, "Determining Directional Dependency in Causal Associations," this issue). In addition,…

  9. The Politics of Dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cockburn, Patrick Joseph

    The central claim of this book is that thinking about ‘dependence’ should be at the core of political theory principally because it helps us to think about issues of economic justice. Unlike political theories that either condemn or celebrate dependence, the book argues that dependence is an ines...

  10. Interactive Visualization of Dependencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Camilo Arango; Bischof, Walter F.; Hoover, H. James

    2012-01-01

    We present an interactive tool for browsing course requisites as a case study of dependency visualization. This tool uses multiple interactive visualizations to allow the user to explore the dependencies between courses. A usability study revealed that the proposed browser provides significant advantages over traditional methods, in terms of…

  11. Multidimensional extremal dependence coefficients

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    Extreme values modeling has attracting the attention of researchers in diverse areas such as the environment, engineering, or finance. Multivariate extreme value distributions are particularly suitable to model the tails of multidimensional phenomena. The analysis of the dependence among multivariate maxima is useful to evaluate risk. Here we present new multivariate extreme value models, as well as, coefficients to assess multivariate extremal dependence.

  12. Interactive Visualization of Dependencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Camilo Arango; Bischof, Walter F.; Hoover, H. James

    2012-01-01

    We present an interactive tool for browsing course requisites as a case study of dependency visualization. This tool uses multiple interactive visualizations to allow the user to explore the dependencies between courses. A usability study revealed that the proposed browser provides significant advantages over traditional methods, in terms of…

  13. Dependence and Fundamentality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Zylstra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available I argue that dependence is neither necessary nor sufficient for relative fundamentality. I then introduce the notion of 'likeness in nature' and provide an account of relative fundamentality in terms of it and the notion of dependence. Finally, I discuss some puzzles that arise in Aristotle's Categories, to which the theory developed is applied.

  14. Gradle dependency management

    CERN Document Server

    Ikkink, Hubert Klein

    2015-01-01

    If you work on Java projects, use Gradle as a build automation tool, and you use dependencies in your project, this is the book for you. Additionally, if you want to deploy your project artifacts as dependencies for other developers using Gradle, you've found the right book.

  15. Adam Smith and dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozler, Sule

    2012-06-01

    The focus of this paper is the works and life of Adam Smith, who is widely recognized as the father and founder of contemporary economics. Latent content analysis is applied to his seminal text in economics, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776). The results reveal that Smith considers dependence on others a problem and sees the solution to this problem in impersonalized interdependence. In addition, his views on social dependency and personal dependency, reflected in his Lectures on Jurisprudence (1963) and The Theory of Moral Sentiments (1759), are analyzed. This analysis suggests a central tension between dependence and independence in Smith's writings. The personal dependency patterns he exhibited in his life, which also suggest a tension between dependence and independence, are identified through a reading of his biographies. Based on insights from psychoanalytic literature, this paper proposes that developing the ideas in the Wealth of Nations was part of Smith's creative solution to this tension. In particular, his solution to one individual's dependence on another was through a system of impersonalized interdependence. In other words, Smith defended against his personal dependence through his economic theorizing.

  16. Visual dependence and BPPV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, K; Bronstein, A M; Faldon, M E; Mandalà, M; Murray, K; Silove, Y

    2012-06-01

    The increased visual dependence noted in some vestibular patients may be secondary to their vertigo. We examine whether a single, brief vertigo attack, such as in benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), modifies visual dependency. Visual dependency was measured before and after the Hallpike manoeuvre with (a) the Rod and Frame and the Rod and Disc techniques whilst seated and (b) the postural sway induced by visual roll-motion stimulation. Three subject groups were studied: 20 patients with BPPV (history and positive Hallpike manoeuvre; PosH group), 20 control patients (history of BPPV but negative Hallpike manoeuvre; NegH group) and 20 normal controls. Our findings show that while both patient groups showed enhanced visual dependency, the PosH and the normal control group decreased visual dependency on repetition of the visual tasks after the Hallpike manoeuvre. NegH patients differed from PosH patients in that their high visual dependency did not diminish on repetition of the visual stimuli; they scored higher on the situational characteristic questionnaire ('visual vertigo' symptoms) and showed higher incidence of migraine. We conclude that long term vestibular symptoms increase visual dependence but a single BPPV attack does not increase it further. Repetitive visual motion stimulation induces adaptation in visual dependence in peripheral vestibular disorders such as BPPV. A positional form of vestibular migraine may underlie the symptoms of some patients with a history of BPPV but negative Hallpike manoeuvre. The finding that they have non adaptable increased visual dependency may explain visuo-vestibular symptoms in this group and, perhaps more widely, in patients with migraine.

  17. Evaluation of Airborne Precision Spacing in a Human-in-the-Loop Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmore, Bryan E.; Abbott, Terence S.; Capron, William R.

    2005-01-01

    A significant bottleneck in the current air traffic system occurs at the runway. Expanding airports and adding new runways will help solve this problem; however, this comes with significant costs: financially, politically and environmentally. A complementary solution is to safely increase the capacity of current runways. This can be achieved by precisely spacing aircraft at the runway threshold, with a resulting reduction in the spacing bu er required under today s operations. At NASA's Langley Research Center, the Airspace Systems program has been investigating airborne technologies and procedures that will assist the flight crew in achieving precise spacing behind another aircraft. A new spacing clearance allows the pilot to follow speed cues from a new on-board guidance system called Airborne Merging and Spacing for Terminal Arrivals (AMSTAR). AMSTAR receives Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) reports from an assigned, leading aircraft and calculates the appropriate speed for the ownship to fly to achieve the desired spacing interval, time- or distance-based, at the runway threshold. Since the goal is overall system capacity, the speed guidance algorithm is designed to provide system-wide benefits and stability to a string of arriving aircraft. An experiment was recently performed at the NASA Langley Air Traffic Operations Laboratory (ATOL) to test the flexibility of Airborne Precision Spacing operations under a variety of operational conditions. These included several types of merge and approach geometries along with the complementary merging and in-trail operations. Twelve airline pilots and four controllers participated in this simulation. Performance and questionnaire data were collected from a total of eighty-four individual arrivals. The pilots were able to achieve precise spacing with a mean error of 0.5 seconds and a standard deviation of 4.7 seconds. No statistically significant di erences in spacing performance were found between in

  18. The NASA Langley Research Center's Unmanned Aerial System Surrogate Research Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Charles T., III; Jessup, Artie; Jones, Frank; Joyce, Claude; Sugden, Paul; Verstynen, Harry; Mielnik, John

    2010-01-01

    Research is needed to determine what procedures, aircraft sensors and other systems will be required to allow Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) to safely operate with manned aircraft in the National Airspace System (NAS). The NASA Langley Research Center has transformed a Cirrus Design SR22 general aviation (GA) aircraft into a UAS Surrogate research aircraft to serve as a platform for UAS systems research, development, flight testing and evaluation. The aircraft is manned with a Safety Pilot and systems operator that allows for flight operations almost anywhere in the NAS without the need for a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Certificate of Authorization (COA). The UAS Surrogate can be controlled from a modular, transportable ground station like a true UAS. The UAS Surrogate is able to file and fly in the NAS with normal traffic and is a better platform for real world UAS research and development than existing vehicles flying in restricted ranges or other sterilized airspace. The Cirrus Design SR22 aircraft is a small, singleengine, four-place, composite-construction aircraft that NASA Langley acquired to support NASA flight-research programs like the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Project. Systems were installed to support flight test research and data gathering. These systems include: separate research power; multi-function flat-panel displays; research computers; research air data and inertial state sensors; video recording; data acquisition; data-link; S-band video and data telemetry; Common Airborne Instrumentation System (CAIS); Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B); instrumented surfaces and controls; and a systems operator work station. The transformation of the SR22 to a UAS Surrogate was accomplished in phases. The first phase was to modify the existing autopilot to accept external commands from a research computer that was connected by redundant data-link radios to a ground control station. An electro-mechanical auto

  19. Simulation Research Framework with Embedded Intelligent Algorithms for Analysis of Multi-Target, Multi-Sensor, High-Cluttered Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, Nicholas P.

    The National Air Space (NAS) can be easily described as a complex aviation system-of-systems that seamlessly works in harmony to provide safe transit for all aircraft within its domain. The number of aircraft within the NAS is growing and according the FAA, "[o]n any given day, more than 85,000 flights are in the skies in the United States...This translates into roughly 5,000 planes in the skies above the United States at any given moment. More than 15,000 federal air traffic controllers in airport traffic control towers, terminal radar approach control facilities and air route traffic control centers guide pilots through the system". The FAA is currently rolling out the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) to handle projected growth while leveraging satellite-based navigation for improved tracking. A key component to instantiating NextGen lies in the equipage of Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B), a performance based surveillance technology that uses GPS navigation for more precise positioning than radars providing increased situational awareness to air traffic controllers. Furthermore, the FAA is integrating UAS into the NAS, further congesting the airways and information load on air traffic controllers. The expected increase in aircraft density due to NextGen implementation and UAS integration will require innovative algorithms to cope with the increase data flow and to support air traffic controllers in their decision-making. This research presents a few innovative algorithms to support increased aircraft density and UAS integration into the NAS. First, it is imperative that individual tracks are correlated prior to fusing to ensure a proper picture of the environment is correct. However, current approaches do not scale well as the number of targets and sensors are increased. This work presents a fuzzy clustering design to hierarchically break the problem down into smaller subspaces prior to correlation. This approach provides

  20. Improving Loop Dependence Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Nicklas Bo; Karlsson, Sven

    2017-01-01

    Programmers can no longer depend on new processors to have significantly improved single-thread performance. Instead, gains have to come from other sources such as the compiler and its optimization passes. Advanced passes make use of information on the dependencies related to loops. We improve...... the quality of that information by reusing the information given by the programmer for parallelization. We have implemented a prototype based on GCC into which we also add a new optimization pass. Our approach improves the amount of correctly classified dependencies resulting in 46% average improvement...

  1. Dependencies in Formal Mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Alama, Jesse; Urban, Josef

    2011-01-01

    Dependencies in formal mathematical texts, large coherent formal libraries and proof assistants are introduced as an emerging research topic, analyzed from foundational, semantic, computational, and pragmatic perspectives, and put to practical use in computer-assisted mathematics. Two different approaches to dependency computation are implemented over two major proof assistants with different type disciplines, and a large-scale experimental comparison is provided based on large Coq and Mizar formal libraries. Apart from theoretical discussions, importance of dependency analysis for advanced automation of computer-assisted reasoning, and for efficient proof analysis and theory refactoring in substantial mathematical domains are experimentally demonstrated.

  2. Security of Dependable Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Naveed; Jensen, Christian D.

    2011-01-01

    Security and dependability are crucial for designing trustworthy systems. The approach “security as an add-on” is not satisfactory, yet the integration of security in the development process is still an open problem. Especially, a common framework for specifying dependability and security is very...... much needed. There are many pressing challenges however; here, we address some of them. Firstly, security for dependable systems is a broad concept and traditional view of security, e.g., in terms of confidentiality, integrity and availability, does not suffice. Secondly, a clear definition of security...... in the dependability context is not agreed upon. Thirdly, security attacks cannot be modeled as a stochastic process, because the adversary’s strategy is often carefully planned. In this chapter, we explore these challenges and provide some directions toward their solutions....

  3. Apache Maven dependency management

    CERN Document Server

    Lalou, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    An easy-to-follow, tutorial-based guide with chapters progressing from basic to advanced dependency management.If you are working with Java or Java EE projects and you want to take advantage of Maven dependency management, then this book is ideal for you. This book is also particularly useful if you are a developer or an architect. You should be well versed with Maven and its basic functionalities if you wish to get the most out of this book.

  4. Saving, dependency and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, A C; Schmidt, R M

    1996-01-01

    This study examines the impact of dependency on savings between 65 less developed countries (LDCs) and 23 developed countries over time and cross-sectionally since 1960. The study tests a modified Leff model and the Mason life-cycle framework. Empirical estimates address potential simultaneity between savings and output growth. The price indices of Summers and Heston are used because each country's national accounts are converted from nominal into purchasing-power variables. This eliminates the problems with using exchange rates which vary systematically by level of development with a "true" index of purchasing power. Savings (S/Y) is the percentage share of gross national saving in gross domestic product. Ygr is the growth of per capita income. Y/N gr is the growth in the per capita gross domestic product. Analysis is based on ordinary least squares (OLS) and two-stage least squares techniques, treatment for heteroscedascity, aggregation periods, several definitions of savings, different country samples, and aged dependency and youth dependency. Findings support the Mason variable-growth life-cycle framework that shows that changes in demographic factors accounted for a large part of savings. The relationships in the modified Leff-type model were weak, with the exception of the mildly negative youth and elderly dependency impact in the 1980s. The rate of growth of youth dependency was negative and significant in all cross-sections for the full sample, all panel estimates for both LDCs and the full sample, and in the 1980s for LDCs. In the OLS model, life-cycle effects were weaker, but direct dependency effects were stronger. S/Y over time became slightly more sensitive to changes in life cycle impacts but less sensitive to youth dependency. Demography's impact on savings over time is attributed to the increase in the pace of youth dependency decline and secondarily to its increasing sensitivity to life-cycle effects.

  5. Loperamide dependence and abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Ryan; Heiner, Jason; Villarreal, Joshua; Strote, Jared

    2015-05-02

    Loperamide is a common over-the-counter antidiarrheal considered safe in a broad range of dosages and thought devoid of abuse potential. We describe the first case of a patient with loperamide dependence due to misuse of its opiate-like effects achieved by chronic massive oral ingestions. A 26-year-old man who was taking 800 mg of loperamide per day presented requesting detoxification referral. Loperamide has potential for euphoric effects and information on how to facilitate such effects is easily available. It is important for physicians to be aware of the potential for misuse of and dependence on loperamide, with symptoms mimicking opiate use.

  6. Anticonvulsants for cocaine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minozzi, Silvia; Cinquini, Michela; Amato, Laura; Davoli, Marina; Farrell, Michael F; Pani, Pier Paolo; Vecchi, Simona

    2015-04-17

    Cocaine dependence is a major public health problem that is characterised by recidivism and a host of medical and psychosocial complications. Although effective pharmacotherapy is available for alcohol and heroin dependence, none is currently available for cocaine dependence, despite two decades of clinical trials primarily involving antidepressant, anticonvulsivant and dopaminergic medications. Extensive consideration has been given to optimal pharmacological approaches to the treatment of individuals with cocaine dependence, and both dopamine antagonists and agonists have been considered. Anticonvulsants have been candidates for use in the treatment of addiction based on the hypothesis that seizure kindling-like mechanisms contribute to addiction. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of anticonvulsants for individuals with cocaine dependence. We searched the Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group Trials Register (June 2014), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2014, Issue 6), MEDLINE (1966 to June 2014), EMBASE (1988 to June 2014), the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (1982 to June 2014), Web of Science (1991 to June 2014) and the reference lists of eligible articles. All randomised controlled trials and controlled clinical trials that focus on the use of anticonvulsant medications to treat individuals with cocaine dependence. We used the standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. We included a total of 20 studies with 2068 participants. We studied the anticonvulsant drugs carbamazepine, gabapentin, lamotrigine, phenytoin, tiagabine, topiramate and vigabatrin. All studies compared anticonvulsants versus placebo. Only one study had one arm by which the anticonvulsant was compared with the antidepressant desipramine. Upon comparison of anticonvulsant versus placebo, we found no significant differences for any of the efficacy and safety measures. Dropouts: risk ratio (RR) 0.95, 95

  7. State Dependence in Unemployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Nisar

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the extent state dependence among unemployed immigrants in a dynamic discrete choice framework. Three alternative methodologies are employed to control for the problem of the initial condition. The empirical findings show that there is a considerable correlation between the un...

  8. Path dependence and creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garud, Raghu; Karnøe, Peter

    the place of agency in these theories that take history so seriously. In the end, they are as interested in path creation and destruction as they are in path dependence. This book is compiled of both theoretical and empirical writing. It shows relatively well-known industries such as the automobile...

  9. The Alpino Dependency Treebank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Beek, L; Bouma, G; Malouf, R; van Noord, G; Theune, M; Nijholt, A; Hondorp, H

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we present the Alpino Dependency Treebank and the tools that we have developed to facilitate the annotation process. Annotation typically starts with parsing a sentence with the Alpino parser, a wide coverage parser of Dutch text, The number of parses that is generated is reduced throu

  10. Measurement dependent locality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pütz, Gilles; Gisin, Nicolas

    2016-05-01

    The demonstration and use of Bell-nonlocality, a concept that is fundamentally striking and is at the core of applications in device independent quantum information processing, relies heavily on the assumption of measurement independence, also called the assumption of free choice. The latter cannot be verified or guaranteed. In this paper, we consider a relaxation of the measurement independence assumption. We briefly review the results of Pütz et al (2014 Phys. Rev. Lett. 113 190402), which show that with our relaxation, the set of so-called measurement dependent local (MDL) correlations is a polytope, i.e. it can be fully described using a finite set of linear inequalities. Here we analyze this polytope, first in the simplest case of two parties with binary inputs and outputs, for which we give a full characterization. We show that partially entangled states are preferable to the maximally entangled state when dealing with measurement dependence in this scenario. We further present a method which transforms any Bell-inequality into an MDL inequality and give valid inequalities for the case of arbitrary number of parties as well as one for arbitrary number of inputs. We introduce the assumption of independent sources in the measurement dependence scenario and give a full analysis for the bipartite scenario with binary inputs and outputs. Finally, we establish a link between measurement dependence and another strong hindrance in certifying nonlocal correlations: nondetection events.

  11. Reference-Dependent Sympathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Deborah A.

    2010-01-01

    Natural disasters and other traumatic events often draw a greater charitable response than do ongoing misfortunes, even those that may cause even more widespread misery, such as famine or malaria. Why is the response disproportionate to need? The notion of reference dependence critical to Prospect Theory (Kahneman & Tversky, 1979) maintains that…

  12. Reference-Dependent Sympathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Deborah A.

    2010-01-01

    Natural disasters and other traumatic events often draw a greater charitable response than do ongoing misfortunes, even those that may cause even more widespread misery, such as famine or malaria. Why is the response disproportionate to need? The notion of reference dependence critical to Prospect Theory (Kahneman & Tversky, 1979) maintains that…

  13. Aspects, Dependencies, and Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chitchyan, R; Fabry, J.; Bergmans, Lodewijk; Südholt, M.; Consel, C.

    2007-01-01

    For Aspect-Oriented Software Development (AOSD) the topic of Aspects, Dependencies and Interactions is of high importance across the whole range of development activities – from requirements engineering through to language design. Aspect interactions must be adequately addressed all across the softw

  14. State Dependence in Unemployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Nisar

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the extent state dependence among unemployed immigrants in a dynamic discrete choice framework. Three alternative methodologies are employed to control for the problem of the initial condition. The empirical findings show that there is a considerable correlation between...

  15. ADS-B in Progress%ADS-B的进展与未来系统构型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李自俊

    2009-01-01

    国际航空界正在联手推进广播式自动相关监视(ADS-B)技术的应用。美国、欧洲以及中国都在进行相关的试验和验证。目前ADS-B系统有通用访问电台数据链(UAT)和1090兆赫S模式扩展电文数据链(1090ES)两种格式,目前人们正在试验在地面基站以双数据链系统构型扩展ADS-B系统的使用。

  16. Secure ADS-B: Towards Airborne Communications Security in the Federal Aviation Administration’s Next Generation Air Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Global Positioning System ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization IFF Identification Friend or Foe IFR Instrument Flight Rules IMO...Instrument Flight Rules ( IFR ). Under VFR, typically used by General Aviation (GA) aircraft operating under 18,000 feet, the pilot is primarily responsible...for seeing other aircraft and maintaining safe separation. This ceiling is also known as Flight Level 180 (FL180). Under IFR , used by commercial and

  17. The B-Li System. Calorimetric and Theoretical Studies / Układ B-Li. Badania Kalorymetryczne I Teoretyczne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dębski A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The standard enthalpy of formation of the B78Li22 alloy was measured with the use of the water reaction calorimetric method at 25 °C (298 K. An X-ray diffraction study of the prepared sample was conducted. The obtained diffraction pattern was different from the patterns for the B3Li and B14Li3 phases. The standard enthalpy of formation obtained for the B78Li22 alloy was -39.0 ± 0.7 kJ/mole of atoms. This value corresponds well with the formation enthalpies of the phases from the boron-lithium system. Theoretical calculations of the standard enthalpy of formation were conducted for the B78Li22 alloy and the phases from B-Li system, which were investigated earlier. A discussion of the deviations observed between both sets of data (experimental and calculated was performed. Additionally, DTA studies were performed for 14 alloys of the concentrations from 40 to 100 at. % of Li.

  18. Comparing dependent robust correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Rand R

    2016-11-01

    Let r1 and r2 be two dependent estimates of Pearson's correlation. There is a substantial literature on testing H0  : ρ1  = ρ2 , the hypothesis that the population correlation coefficients are equal. However, it is well known that Pearson's correlation is not robust. Even a single outlier can have a substantial impact on Pearson's correlation, resulting in a misleading understanding about the strength of the association among the bulk of the points. A way of mitigating this concern is to use a correlation coefficient that guards against outliers, many of which have been proposed. But apparently there are no results on how to compare dependent robust correlation coefficients when there is heteroscedasicity. Extant results suggest that a basic percentile bootstrap will perform reasonably well. This paper reports simulation results indicating the extent to which this is true when using Spearman's rho, a Winsorized correlation or a skipped correlation.

  19. Observer dependent geometries

    CERN Document Server

    Hohmann, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    From general relativity we have learned the principles of general covariance and local Lorentz invariance, which follow from the fact that we consider observables as tensors on a spacetime manifold whose geometry is modeled by a Lorentzian metric. Approaches to quantum gravity, however, hint towards a breaking of these symmetries and the possible existence of more general, non-tensorial geometric structures. Possible implications of these approaches are non-tensorial transformation laws between different observers and an observer-dependent notion of geometry. In this work we review two different frameworks for observer dependent geometries, which may provide hints towards a quantization of gravity and possible explanations for so far unexplained phenomena: Finsler spacetimes and Cartan geometry on observer space. We discuss their definitions, properties and applications to observers, field theories and gravity.

  20. Myofilament length dependent activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Tombe, Pieter P.; Mateja, Ryan D.; Tachampa, Kittipong; Mou, Younss Ait; Farman, Gerrie P.; Irving, Thomas C. (IIT); (Loyola)

    2010-05-25

    The Frank-Starling law of the heart describes the interrelationship between end-diastolic volume and cardiac ejection volume, a regulatory system that operates on a beat-to-beat basis. The main cellular mechanism that underlies this phenomenon is an increase in the responsiveness of cardiac myofilaments to activating Ca{sup 2+} ions at a longer sarcomere length, commonly referred to as myofilament length-dependent activation. This review focuses on what molecular mechanisms may underlie myofilament length dependency. Specifically, the roles of inter-filament spacing, thick and thin filament based regulation, as well as sarcomeric regulatory proteins are discussed. Although the 'Frank-Starling law of the heart' constitutes a fundamental cardiac property that has been appreciated for well over a century, it is still not known in muscle how the contractile apparatus transduces the information concerning sarcomere length to modulate ventricular pressure development.

  1. Cyber Network Mission Dependencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-18

    Technology applications 12 5 VMs allow one host to belong to multiple VLANs 14 6 Asset recommendation system mockup 15 7 Perturbative mapping may...extended list of critical assets based on communications patterns and software dependencies. Once vulnerabilities have been assessed, AMMO produces a...status of not just network machines, but also software tools, network connections, server room conditions, and many other mission parameters. From this

  2. ARL Arabic Dependency Treebank

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-10

    Detection for Modern Standard Arabic to English MT” (Tratz, 2014). The LDC is one of the foremost sources of annotated data used in computational... vowel diacritic—the typical indicator of genitive case—was not written, the DET label would appear on one line with the Al definite determiner, the... English dependency label scheme (de Marneffe & Manning, 2008). However, this is to not to say that they may always be interpreted identically. Also

  3. Dependence, Risk, and Vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    B2 has a great deal. The measurement strategy outlined here will gauge A’s import depen- dence on B2 as greater than A’s import dependence on B1 . One...pp 25 Doctrines: One More Time." 43 pp., Jan 1960. Glee. Devid V.; Hsoi. Ih-Chses: Nu,n, Welter A. AD AOIl 192 PP 283 mnd Penn, David A.. "A Clas of

  4. MEASURING PATH DEPENDENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Juhasz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available While risk management gained popularity during the last decades even some of the basic risk types are still far out of focus. One of these is path dependency that refers to the uncertainty of how we reach a certain level of total performance over time. While decision makers are careful in accessing how their position will look like the end of certain periods, little attention is given how they will get there through the period. The uncertainty of how a process will develop across a shorter period of time is often “eliminated” by simply choosing a longer planning time interval, what makes path dependency is one of the most often overlooked business risk types. After reviewing the origin of the problem we propose and compare seven risk measures to access path. Traditional risk measures like standard deviation of sub period cash flows fail to capture this risk type. We conclude that in most cases considering the distribution of the expected cash flow effect caused by the path dependency may offer the best method, but we may need to use several measures at the same time to include all the optimisation limits of the given firm

  5. Dependent rational providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, Kyle B

    2011-04-01

    Provider claims to conscientious objection have generated a great deal of heated debate in recent years. However, the conflicts that arise when providers make claims to the "conscience" are only a subset of the more fundamental challenges that arise in health care practice when patients and providers come into conflict. In this piece, the author provides an account of patient-provider conflict from within the moral tradition of St. Thomas Aquinas. He argues that the practice of health care providers should be understood as a form of practical reasoning and that this practical reasoning must necessarily incorporate both "moral" and "professional" commitments. In order to understand how the practical reasoning of provider should account for the needs and commitments of the patient and vice versa, he explores the account of dependence provided by Alasdair MacIntyre in his book Dependent Rational Animals. MacIntyre argues that St. Thomas' account of practical reasoning should be extended and adapted to account for the embodied vulnerability of all humans. In light of this insight, providers must view patients not only as the subjects of their moral reflection but also as fellow humans upon whom the provider depends for feedback on the effectiveness and relevance of her practical reasoning. The author argues that this account precludes responsive providers from adopting either moral or professional conclusions on the appropriateness of interventions outside the individual circumstances that arise in particular situations. The adoption of this orientation toward patients will neither eradicate provider-patient conflict nor compel providers to perform interventions to which they object. But this account does require that providers attend meaningfully to the suffering of patients and seek feedback on whether their intervention has effectively addressed that suffering.

  6. [Pyridoxine dependent seizures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, K N; Ostergaard, J R; Møller, S M

    1994-10-17

    Pyridoxine dependent seizures is a rare autosomal recessive disorder. Its manifestations are intractable epilepsy leading to death in status epilepticus. Treatment with pyridoxine prevents the seizures and normalizes the EEG. Early diagnosis is important for the intellectual outcome. In Denmark, the disease has occurred in a child of healthy Tamil immigrants, who are first cousins. The child's case story is described and points to awareness of increased occurrence of rare autosomal recessive disorders in immigrants from cultures with traditional consanguinity. We suggest giving a pyridoxine test dosis to all cases of severe epilepsy and status epilepticus in infants younger than 18 months.

  7. Megadose bromazepam dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastide, Anaïs; de Codt, Aloïse; Monhonval, Pauline; Bongaerts, Xavier; Tecco, Juan Martin

    2016-09-01

    Benzodiazepines (BZDs) are among the most widely prescribed drugs in developed countries. Since BZDs can produce tolerance and dependence even in a short time, their use is recommended for a very limited time. However, these recommendations have been largely disregarded. The chronic use of BZDs causes a number of serious side effects, i.e. cognitive impairment, falls, traffic accidents, dependence and tolerance. We present the case of a 37 years old woman taking daily doses of 220 mg of bromazepam. The patient's anxiety, depression and cognitive status were evaluated with a battery of questionnaires. A sleep laboratory test was performed in search of sleep apneas and sleepiness during the day. A Cerebral PET SCAN was executed in search of altered cerebral metabolism. Blood concentrations of bromazepam reached 7800 μg/L. Questionnaire evaluations showed significant depression and anxiety but only moderate cognitive impairment. Oxygen saturation was normal throughout the Sleep lab test, respiratory events were very few and sleepiness was moderate with an average latency of 9 minutes. Brain cortical glucose consumption was homogeneously slightly reduced. With doses of bromazepan reaching 15 times the toxic dose, anxiety remained high. Cognition, sleepiness, respiratory sleep events and brain metabolism remained remarkably close to normal.

  8. Velocity dependant splash behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlett, C. A. E.; Shirtcliffe, N. J.; McHale, G.; Ahn, S.; Doerr, S. H.; Bryant, R.; Newton, M. I.

    2012-04-01

    Extreme soil water repellency can occur in nature via condensation of volatile organic compounds released during wildfires and can lead to increased erosion rate. Such extreme water repellent soil can be classified as superhydrophobic and shares similar chemical and topographical features to specifically designed superhydrophobic surfaces. Previous studies using high speed videography to investigate single droplet impact behaviour on artificial superhydrophobic have revealed three distinct modes of splash behaviour (rebound, pinned and fragmentation) which are dependent on the impact velocity of the droplet. In our studies, using high-speed videography, we show that such splash behaviour can be replicated on fixed 'model' water repellent soils (hydrophobic glass beads/particles). We show that the type of splash behaviour is dependent on both the size and chemical nature of the fixed particles. The particle shape also influences the splash behaviour as shown by drop impact experiments on fixed sand samples. We have also studied soil samples, as collected from the field, which shows that the type of droplet splash behaviour can lead to enhanced soil particle transport.

  9. Strong near-epoch dependence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Zhengyan

    2004-01-01

    We introduce a new class of dependent sequences of random variables, which is a subclass of near-epoch dependent sequences, but can also be approximated by mixing sequences. For this kind of sequences of random variables, we call them strong nearepoch dependent sequences, a p-order, p > 2, (maximum) moment inequality is established under weaker dependence sizes.

  10. [Frequency dependance of compliance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayrard, P

    1975-01-01

    Resistance of peripheral or "small" airways is only a small part of the total pulmonary resistance (Raw). Even considerable obstruction in these airways will have little effect on total resistance. Conversely this will lead to inequality in the time constants of units in parallel, and dynamic lung compliance (C dyn) shall fall as respiratory frequence increases. C dyn is measured from simultaneous recordings of transpulmonary pressure (esophageal balloon) and volume obtained from a volume displacement plethysmograph. If Raw and static compliance are found to be normal, the frequency dependance of compliance will result from peripheral airway obstruction only. Early stages of chronic airway obstruction can be established by this method. However this appear not suitable for wide-scale studies.

  11. Helicity dependent parton distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Scopetta, Sergio; 10.4249/scholarpedia.10226

    2011-01-01

    The helicity dependent parton distributions describe the number density of partons with given longitudinal momentum x and given polarization in a hadron polarized longitudinally with respect to its motion. After the discovery, more than 70 years ago, that the proton is not elementary, the observation of Bjorken scaling in the late 1960s lead to the idea of hadrons containing almost pointlike constituents, the partons. Since then, Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) has played a crucial role in our understanding of hadron structure. Through DIS experiments it has been possible to link the partons to the quarks, and to unveil the presence of other pointlike constituents, the gluons, which lead into a dynamical theory of quarks and gluons - quantum chromodynamics (QCD). Polarized DIS, i.e. the collision of a longitudinally polarized lepton beam on a polarized target (either longitudinally or transversely polarized), provides a complementary information regarding the structure of the nucleon. Whereas ordinary DIS pro...

  12. Chemical Dependence and Personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Sancineto da Silva Nunes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relationships between chemical dependency and personalitystructure in a Brazilian sample. Participants were college students (n=35 and patients of a drug recovery center (n= 48. Two personality scales based on the Big-5 Model were used to measure Extraversion and Agreeableness. A semi-structured interview was used to identify events in the patients' life histories that might support specific classifications. Participants' scores were also compared to Brazilian normative samples. The results showed significant differences between clinical and non-clinical groups in Agreeableness, but not in Extraversion. Logistic regression analyses were conducted using scales and interview aspects for predicting group membership. The model showed 92.1% general predictive power. Results pointed to the advantage of using both interview and objective techniques to assess individuals with antisocial personality symptoms.

  13. Anticonvulsants for alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pani, Pier Paolo; Trogu, Emanuela; Pacini, Matteo; Maremmani, Icro

    2014-02-13

    Alcohol dependence is a major public health problem that is characterised by recidivism and a host of medical and psychosocial complications. Besides psychosocial interventions, different pharmacological interventions have been or currently are under investigation through Cochrane systematic reviews. The primary aim of the review is to assess the benefits/risks of anticonvulsants for the treatment of alcohol dependence. We searched the Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group Trials Register (October 2013), PubMed (1966 to October 2013), EMBASE (1974 to October 2013) and CINAHL (1982 to October 2013). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) comparing anticonvulsants alone or in association with other drugs and/or psychosocial interventions versus placebo, no treatment and other pharmacological or psychosocial interventions. We used standard methodological procedures as expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. A total of 25 studies were included in the review (2641 participants). Most participants were male, with an average age of 44 years. Anticonvulsants were compared with placebo (17 studies), other medications (seven studies) and no medication (two studies). The mean duration of the trials was 17 weeks (range four to 52 weeks). The studies took place in the USA, Europe, South America, India and Thailand. Variation was reported in the characteristics of the studies, including their design and the rating instruments used. For many key outcomes, the risk of bias associated with unclear or unconcealed allocation and lack of blinding affected the quality of the evidence.Anticonvulsants versus placebo: For dropouts (16 studies, 1675 participants, risk ratio (RR) 0.94, 95% confidence interval (Cl) 0.74 to 1.19, moderate-quality evidence) and continuous abstinence (eight studies, 634 participants, RR 1.21, 95% Cl 95% 0.97 to 1.52, moderate-quality evidence), results showed no evidence of differences. Moderate-quality evidence suggested that

  14. Acamprosate for alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Rösner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alcohol dependence is among the main leading health risk factors in most developed and developing countries. Therapeutic success of psychosocial programs for relapse prevention is moderate, but could potentially be increased by an adjuvant treatment with the glutamate antagonist acamprosate. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness and tolerability of acamprosate in comparison to placebo and other pharmacological agents. CRITERIA FOR CONSIDERING STUDIES FOR THIS REVIEW: We searched the Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group (CDAG Specialized Register, PubMed, Embase and CINAHL in January 2009 and inquired manufacturers and researchers for unpublished trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: All double-blind randomised controlled trials (RCTs which compare the effects of acamprosate with placebo or active control on drinking-related outcomes. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently extracted data. Trial quality was assessed by one author and cross-checked by a second author. Individual patient data (IPD meta-analyses were used to verify the primary effectiveness outcomes. MAIN RESULTS: 24 RCTs with 6915 participants fulfilled the criteria of inclusion and were included in the review. Compared to placebo, acamprosate was shown to significantly reduce the risk of any drinking RR 0.86 (95% CI 0.81 to 0.91; NNT 9.09 (95% CI 6.66 to 14.28 and to significantly increase the cumulative abstinence duration MD 10.94 (95% CI 5.08 to 16.81, while secondary outcomes (gamma-glutamyltransferase, heavy drinking did not reach statistical significance. Diarrhea was the only side effect that was more frequently reported under acamprosate than placebo RD 0.11 (95% 0.09 to 0.13; NNTB 9.09 (95% CI 7.69 to 11.11. Effects of industry-sponsored trials RR 0.88 (95% 0.80 to 0.97 did not significantly differ from those of non-profit funded trials RR 0.88 (95% CI 0.81 to 0.96. In addition, the linear regression test did not indicate a significant risk of

  15. Density dependent neurodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halnes, Geir; Liljenström, Hans; Arhem, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The dynamics of a neural network depends on density parameters at (at least) two different levels: the subcellular density of ion channels in single neurons, and the density of cells and synapses at a network level. For the Frankenhaeuser-Huxley (FH) neural model, the density of sodium (Na) and potassium (K) channels determines the behaviour of a single neuron when exposed to an external stimulus. The features of the onset of single neuron oscillations vary qualitatively among different regions in the channel density plane. At a network level, the density of neurons is reflected in the global connectivity. We study the relation between the two density levels in a network of oscillatory FH neurons, by qualitatively distinguishing between three regions, where the mean network activity is (1) spiking, (2) oscillating with enveloped frequencies, and (3) bursting, respectively. We demonstrate that the global activity can be shifted between regions by changing either the density of ion channels at the subcellular level, or the connectivity at the network level, suggesting that different underlying mechanisms can explain similar global phenomena. Finally, we model a possible effect of anaesthesia by blocking specific inhibitory ion channels.

  16. Context-dependent generalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jordan A; Ivry, Richard B

    2013-01-01

    The pattern of generalization following motor learning can provide a probe on the neural mechanisms underlying learning. For example, the breadth of generalization to untrained regions of space after visuomotor adaptation to targets in a restricted region of space has been attributed to the directional tuning properties of neurons in the motor system. Building on this idea, the effect of different types of perturbations on generalization (e.g., rotation vs. visual translation) have been attributed to the selection of differentially tuned populations. Overlooked in this discussion is consideration of how the context of the training environment may constrain generalization. Here, we explore the role of context by having participants learn a visuomotor rotation or a translational shift in two different contexts, one in which the array of targets were presented in a circular arrangement and the other in which they were presented in a rectilinear arrangement. The perturbation and environments were either consistent (e.g., rotation with circular arrangement) or inconsistent (e.g., rotation with rectilinear arrangement). The pattern of generalization across the workspace was much more dependent on the context of the environment than on the perturbation, with broad generalization for the rectilinear arrangement for both types of perturbations. Moreover, the generalization pattern for this context was evident, even when the perturbation was introduced in a gradual manner, precluding the use of an explicit strategy. We describe how current models of generalization might be modified to incorporate these results, building on the idea that context provides a strong bias for how the motor system infers the nature of the visuomotor perturbation and, in turn, how this information influences the pattern of generalization.

  17. Context-dependent Generalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan A Taylor

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The pattern of generalization following motor learning can provide a probe on the neural mechanisms underlying learning. For example, the breadth of generalization to untrained regions of space after visuomotor adaptation to targets in a restricted region of space has been attributed to the directional tuning properties of neurons in the motor system. Building on this idea, the effect of different types of perturbations on generalization (e.g., rotation versus visual translation have been attributed to the selection of differentially tuned populations. Overlooked in this discussion is consideration of how the context of the training environment may constrain generalization. Here, we explore the role of context by having participants learn a visuomotor rotation or a translational shift in two different contexts, one in which the array of targets were presented in a circular arrangement and the other in which they were presented in a rectilinear arrangement. The perturbation and environments were either consistent (e.g., rotation with circular arrangement or inconsistent (e.g., rotation with rectilinear arrangement. The pattern of generalization across the workspace was much more dependent on the context of the environment than on the perturbation, with broad generalization for the rectilinear arrangement for both types of perturbations. Moreover, the generalization pattern for this context was evident, even when the perturbation was introduced in a gradual manner, precluding the use of an explicit strategy. We describe how current models of generalization might be modified to incorporate these results, building on the idea that context provides a strong bias for how the motor system infers the nature of the visuomotor perturbation and, in turn, how this information influences the pattern of generalization.

  18. Texting Dependence, iPod Dependence, and Delay Discounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, F Richard; Weatherly, Jeffrey N

    2016-01-01

    We gave 127 undergraduates questionnaires about their iPod and texting dependence and 2 hypothetical delay discounting scenarios related to free downloaded songs and free texting for life. Using regression analyses we found that when iPod dependence was the dependent variable, Text2-excessive use, Text4-psychological and behavioral symptoms, iPod2-excessive use, and iPod3-relationship disruption were significant predictors of discounting. When texting dependence was the dependent variable, Text4-psychological and behavioral symptoms and iPod3-relationship disruption were significant predictors of discounting. These are the first data to show that delay discounting relates to certain aspects of social media, namely iPod and texting dependence. These data also show that across these 2 dependencies, both psychological and behavioral symptoms and relationship disruptions are affected.

  19. Air Traffic Management Technology Demostration Phase 1 (ATD) Interval Management for Near-Term Operations Validation of Acceptability (IM-NOVA) Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibler, Jennifer L.; Wilson, Sara R.; Hubbs, Clay E.; Smail, James W.

    2015-01-01

    The Interval Management for Near-term Operations Validation of Acceptability (IM-NOVA) experiment was conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center (LaRC) in support of the NASA Airspace Systems Program's Air Traffic Management Technology Demonstration-1 (ATD-1). ATD-1 is intended to showcase an integrated set of technologies that provide an efficient arrival solution for managing aircraft using Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) surveillance, navigation, procedures, and automation for both airborne and ground-based systems. The goal of the IMNOVA experiment was to assess if procedures outlined by the ATD-1 Concept of Operations were acceptable to and feasible for use by flight crews in a voice communications environment when used with a minimum set of Flight Deck-based Interval Management (FIM) equipment and a prototype crew interface. To investigate an integrated arrival solution using ground-based air traffic control tools and aircraft Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) tools, the LaRC FIM system and the Traffic Management Advisor with Terminal Metering and Controller Managed Spacing tools developed at the NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) were integrated into LaRC's Air Traffic Operations Laboratory (ATOL). Data were collected from 10 crews of current 757/767 pilots asked to fly a high-fidelity, fixed-based simulator during scenarios conducted within an airspace environment modeled on the Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW) Terminal Radar Approach Control area. The aircraft simulator was equipped with the Airborne Spacing for Terminal Area Routes (ASTAR) algorithm and a FIM crew interface consisting of electronic flight bags and ADS-B guidance displays. Researchers used "pseudo-pilot" stations to control 24 simulated aircraft that provided multiple air traffic flows into the DFW International Airport, and recently retired DFW air traffic controllers served as confederate Center, Feeder, Final

  20. Open systems dependability dependability engineering for ever-changing systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tokoro, Mario

    2015-01-01

    The book describes a fundamentally new approach to software dependability, considering a software system as an ever-changing system due to changes in service objectives, users' requirements, standards and regulations, and to advances in technology. Such a system is viewed as an Open System since its functions, structures, and boundaries are constantly changing. Thus, the approach to dependability is called Open Systems Dependability. The DEOS technology realizes Open Systems Dependability. It puts more emphasis on stakeholders' agreement and accountability achievement for business/service cont

  1. A case of etizolam dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Etizolam is a thienodiazepine anxiolytic which is said to have lower dependence potential than other benzodiazepines. We report a case of etizolam dependence in a young male with social anxiety disorder and moderate depression. This case report highlights the fact that the same caution be exercised while prescribing etizolam with respect to its potential to cause dependence as with any other benzodiazepine.

  2. Inter-dependence not Over-dependence: Reducing Urban Transport Energy Dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, Michael James; Rodrigues da Silva, Antonio Nelson

    2007-07-01

    A major issue of concern in today's world is urban transport energy dependence and energy supply security. In an energy inter-dependent world, energy over-dependence brings risks to urban transport systems. Many urban areas are over-dependent on finite petroleum resources for transport. New technology and the development and integration of renewable resources into transport energy systems may reduce some of the current transport energy dependence of urban areas. However, the most effective means of reducing energy dependence is to first design urban areas for this condition. An urban policy framework is proposed that requires transport energy dependence to be measured and controlled in the urban development process. A new tool has been created for this purpose, the Transport Energy Specification (TES), which measures transport energy dependence of urban areas. This creates the possibility for cities to regulate urban development with respect to energy dependence. Trial assessments were performed in Germany, New Zealand and Brazil; initial analysis by transport and government professionals shows promise of this tool being included into urban policy. The TES combined with a regulatory framework has the potential to significantly reduce transport energy consumption and dependence in urban areas in the future. (auth)

  3. The Copenhagen Dependency Treebank (CDT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høeg Müller, Henrik; Korzen, Iørn

    2014-01-01

    the fundamentals of how CDT is marked up with semantic relations in accordance with the dependency principles governing the annotation on the other levels of CDT. Specifically, focus will be on how Generative Lexicon (GL) theory has been incorporated into the unitary theoretical dependency framework of CDT...

  4. Time-Dependent BPS Skyrmions

    CERN Document Server

    Ioannidou, Theodora

    2016-01-01

    An extended version of the BPS Skyrme model that admits time-dependent solutions is discussed. Initially, by introducing a power law at the original potential term of the BPS Skyrme model the existence, stability and structure of the corresponding solutions is investigated. Then, the frequencies and half-lifes of the radial oscillations of the constructed time-dependent solutions are determined.

  5. Two Generations of Path Dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mogens Ove

      Even if there is no fully articulated and generally accepted theory of Path Dependence it has eagerly been taken up across a wide range of social sciences - primarily coming from economics. Path Dependence is most of all a metaphor that offers reason to believe, that some political, social...

  6. Dependency in Critically Ill Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumei Yang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available By necessity, critically ill patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs have a high level of dependency, which is linked to a variety of negative feelings, such as powerlessness. However, the term dependency is not well defined in the critically ill patients. The concept of “dependency” in critically ill patients was analyzed using a meta-synthesis approach. An inductive process described by Deborah Finfgeld-Connett was used to analyze the data. Overarching themes emerged that reflected critically ill patients’ experience and meaning of being in dependency were (a antecedents: dependency in critically ill patients was a powerless and vulnerable state, triggered by a life-threatening crisis; (b attributes: the characteristic of losing “self” was featured by dehumanization and disembodiment, which can be alleviated by a “self”-restoring process; and (c outcomes: living with dependency and coping with dependency. The conceptual model explicated here may provide a framework for understanding dependency in critically ill patients.

  7. Dependency in Critically Ill Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumei Yang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available By necessity, critically ill patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs have a high level of dependency, which is linked to a variety of negative feelings, such as powerlessness. However, the term dependency is not well defined in the critically ill patients. The concept of “dependency” in critically ill patients was analyzed using a meta-synthesis approach. An inductive process described by Deborah Finfgeld-Connett was used to analyze the data. Overarching themes emerged that reflected critically ill patients’ experience and meaning of being in dependency were (a antecedents: dependency in critically ill patients was a powerless and vulnerable state, triggered by a life-threatening crisis; (b attributes: the characteristic of losing “self” was featured by dehumanization and disembodiment, which can be alleviated by a “self”-restoring process; and (c outcomes: living with dependency and coping with dependency. The conceptual model explicated here may provide a framework for understanding dependency in critically ill patients.

  8. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mikkel; Vedtofte, Louise; Holst, Jens Juul

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the glucose dependency of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) effects on insulin and glucagon release in 10 healthy male subjects ([means ± SEM] aged 23 ± 1 years, BMI 23 ± 1 kg/m2, and HbA1c 5.5 ± 0.1%). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Saline or physiological doses....... In contrast, GIP increases glucagon levels during fasting and hypoglycemic conditions, where it has little or no effect on insulin secretion. Thus, GIP seems to be a physiological bifunctional blood glucose stabilizer with diverging glucose-dependent effects on the two main pancreatic glucoregulatory hormones....

  9. Topology optimised wavelength dependent splitters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, K. K.; Burgos Leon, J.; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn

    A photonic crystal wavelength dependent splitter has been constructed by utilising topology optimisation1. The splitter has been fabricated in a silicon-on-insulator material (Fig. 1). The topology optimised wavelength dependent splitter demonstrates promising 3D FDTD simulation results....... This complex photonic crystal structure is very sensitive against small fabrication variations from the expected topology optimised design. A wavelength dependent splitter is an important basic building block for high-performance nanophotonic circuits. 1J. S. Jensen and O. Sigmund, App. Phys. Lett. 84, 2022...

  10. A Theory of Service Dependency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Neovius

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Service composition has become commonplace nowadays, in large part due to the increased complexity of software and supporting networks. Composition can be of many types, for instance sequential, prioritising, non-deterministic. However, a fundamental feature of the services to be composed consists in their dependencies with respect to each other. In this paper we propose a theory of service dependency, modelled around a dependency operator in the Action Systems formalism. We analyze its properties, composition behaviour, and refinement conditions with accompanying examples.

  11. Mastering Ninject for dependency injection

    CERN Document Server

    Baharestani, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Mastering Ninject for Dependency Injection teaches you the most powerful concepts of Ninject in a simple and easy-to-understand format using lots of practical examples, diagrams, and illustrations.Mastering Ninject for Dependency Injection is aimed at software developers and architects who wish to create maintainable, extensible, testable, and loosely coupled applications. Since Ninject targets the .NET platform, this book is not suitable for software developers of other platforms. Being familiar with design patterns such as singleton or factory would be beneficial, but no knowledge of depende

  12. Topology optimised wavelength dependent splitters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, K. K.; Burgos Leon, J.; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn;

    A photonic crystal wavelength dependent splitter has been constructed by utilising topology optimisation1. The splitter has been fabricated in a silicon-on-insulator material (Fig. 1). The topology optimised wavelength dependent splitter demonstrates promising 3D FDTD simulation results....... This complex photonic crystal structure is very sensitive against small fabrication variations from the expected topology optimised design. A wavelength dependent splitter is an important basic building block for high-performance nanophotonic circuits. 1J. S. Jensen and O. Sigmund, App. Phys. Lett. 84, 2022...

  13. ANABOLIC ANDROGENIC STEROIDS AND DEPENDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IHSAN SARI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Anabolic androgenic steroids are used for sportive, cosmetic, therapeutic and occupational reasons and there are many side effects reported (George, 2005; Nieminen et al., 1996; O'Sullivan et al., 2000. Prevalence of anabolic steroids’ use also indicates the importance of this topic. Moreover, it is now known that use of anabolic steroids could lead to dependence which could be psychological or/and physiological (Copeland et al., 2000. It isimportant to know about all aspects of anabolic steroids including dependence. Therefore, this study has attempted to give an insight into use of anabolic steroids and dependence. The discussion will focus on prevalence, reasons, and side effects of use and physiological and psychological dependence

  14. Modeling Dependencies in Critical Infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuijs, A.H.; Luiijf, H.A.M.; Klaver, M.H.A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a model for expressing critical infrastructure dependencies. The model addresses the limitations of existing approaches with respect to clarity of definition, support for quality and the influence of operating states of critical infrastructures and environmental factors.

  15. Trust, dependence and interorganizational systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ibrahim, M.K.M.

    2006-01-01

    Organizations form interorganizational relationships and utilize information technology to improve performance. This thesis discusses the influences of dependence and different types of trust on the use of interorganizational systems and subsequently the attainment of strategic benefits. The finding

  16. On time dependent Ekman transports

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roed, L.P

    1973-01-01

    One of the most cited papers in ocean current theories is the paper by Ekman (1905). Here we take his paper as a starting point for computing time dependent solutions for the integrated velocities or the transports.

  17. Alcohol dependence--classificatory considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesch, O M; Ades, J; Badawy, A; Pelc, I; Sasz, H

    1993-01-01

    The term alcoholism or alcohol dependence has acquired a broad range of meanings. The Plinius Maior Society herewith presents new classificatory considerations and suggests additional recording of special dimensions according to the individual hypothesis and design of a study.

  18. Time-Dependent Lagrangian Biomechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Ivancevic, Tijana T

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present the time-dependent generalization of an 'ordinary' autonomous human musculo-skeletal biomechanics. We start with the configuration manifold of human body, given as a set of its all active degrees of freedom (DOF). This is a Riemannian manifold with a material metric tensor given by the total mass-inertia matrix of the human body segments. This is the base manifold for standard autonomous biomechanics. To make its time-dependent generalization, we need to extend it with a real time axis. On this extended configuration space we develop time-dependent biomechanical Lagrangian dynamics, using derived jet spaces of velocities and accelerations, as well as the underlying geometric evolution of the mass-inertia matrix. Keywords: Human time-dependent biomechanics, configuration manifold, jet spaces, geometric evolution

  19. Spatial dependence of extreme rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radi, Noor Fadhilah Ahmad; Zakaria, Roslinazairimah; Satari, Siti Zanariah; Azman, Muhammad Az-zuhri

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to model the spatial extreme daily rainfall process using the max-stable model. The max-stable model is used to capture the dependence structure of spatial properties of extreme rainfall. Three models from max-stable are considered namely Smith, Schlather and Brown-Resnick models. The methods are applied on 12 selected rainfall stations in Kelantan, Malaysia. Most of the extreme rainfall data occur during wet season from October to December of 1971 to 2012. This period is chosen to assure the available data is enough to satisfy the assumption of stationarity. The dependence parameters including the range and smoothness, are estimated using composite likelihood approach. Then, the bootstrap approach is applied to generate synthetic extreme rainfall data for all models using the estimated dependence parameters. The goodness of fit between the observed extreme rainfall and the synthetic data is assessed using the composite likelihood information criterion (CLIC). Results show that Schlather model is the best followed by Brown-Resnick and Smith models based on the smallest CLIC's value. Thus, the max-stable model is suitable to be used to model extreme rainfall in Kelantan. The study on spatial dependence in extreme rainfall modelling is important to reduce the uncertainties of the point estimates for the tail index. If the spatial dependency is estimated individually, the uncertainties will be large. Furthermore, in the case of joint return level is of interest, taking into accounts the spatial dependence properties will improve the estimation process.

  20. Dependência de drogas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Garcia-Mijares

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O texto discute três teorias atuais de dependência de drogas: a Teoria Comportamental da dependência como escolha de Heyman, a Teoria da Sensibilização do incentivo de Robinson e Berridge, e a Teoria Neurobiológica da dependência como escolha, de Kalivas. Todas concordam em caracterizar a dependência como resultante de processos de aprendizagem em que droga e estímulos associados a seus efeitos adquirem controle potente sobre o comportamento. Diferenciam-se quanto aos processos de aprendizagem envolvidos. A Teoria Comportamental enfatiza componentes operantes e sustenta que o consumo repetido de drogas diminui o valor reforçador de atividades concorrentes. A Teoria da Sensibilização enfatiza componentes respondentes, propondo a dependência como resultado da sensibilização da potência eliciadora de estímulos condicionados aos efeitos da droga. A Teoria Neurobiológica integra as duas primeiras, descrevendo as mudanças no circuito do reforço que acontecem no processo de dependência.

  1. Extracting Credible Dependencies for Averaged One-Dependence Estimator Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LiMin Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Of the numerous proposals to improve the accuracy of naive Bayes (NB by weakening the conditional independence assumption, averaged one-dependence estimator (AODE demonstrates remarkable zero-one loss performance. However, indiscriminate superparent attributes will bring both considerable computational cost and negative effect on classification accuracy. In this paper, to extract the most credible dependencies we present a new type of seminaive Bayesian operation, which selects superparent attributes by building maximum weighted spanning tree and removes highly correlated children attributes by functional dependency and canonical cover analysis. Our extensive experimental comparison on UCI data sets shows that this operation efficiently identifies possible superparent attributes at training time and eliminates redundant children attributes at classification time.

  2. Frequency dependent changes in NMDAR-dependent synaptic plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind eKumar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The NMDAR-dependent synaptic plasticity is thought to mediate several forms of learning, and can be induced by spike trains containing a small number of spikes occurring with varying rates and timing, as well as with oscillations. We computed the influence of these variables on the plasticity induced at a single NMDAR containing synapse using a reduced model that was analytically tractable, and these findings were confirmed using detailed, multi-compartment model. In addition to explaining diverse experimental results about the rate and timing dependence of synaptic plasticity, the model made several novel and testable predictions. We found that there was a preferred frequency for inducing long-term potentiation (LTP such that higher frequency stimuli induced lesser LTP, decreasing as 1/f when the number of spikes in the stimulus was kept fixed. Among other things, the preferred frequency for inducing LTP varied as a function of the distance of the synapse from the soma. In fact, same stimulation frequencies could induce LTP or LTD depending on the dendritic location of the synapse. Next, we found that rhythmic stimuli induced greater plasticity then irregular stimuli. Furthermore, brief bursts of spikes significantly expanded the timing dependence of plasticity. Finally, we found that in the ~5-15Hz frequency range both rate- and timing-dependent plasticity mechanisms work synergistically to render the synaptic plasticity most sensitive to spike-timing. These findings provide computational evidence that oscillations can have a profound influence on the plasticity of an NMDAR-dependent synapse, and show a novel role for the dendritic morphology in this process.

  3. A Finite Axiomatization of G-Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Paolini, Gianluca

    2015-01-01

    We show that a form of dependence known as G-dependence (originally introduced by Grelling) admits a very natural finite axiomatization, as well as Armstrong relations. We also give an explicit translation between functional dependence and G-dependence.

  4. The psychobiology of nicotine dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. K. Balfour

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available There is abundant evidence to show that nicotine is the principal addictive component of tobacco smoke. The results of laboratory studies have shown that nicotine has many of the behavioural and neurobiological properties of a drug of dependence. This article focuses on the evidence that nicotine has the rewarding and reinforcing properties typical of an addictive drug and that these properties are mediated, in part, by its effects on mesolimbic dopamine neurones. However, in many experimental models of dependence, nicotine has relatively weak reinforcing properties that do not appear to explain adequately the powerful addiction to tobacco smoke experienced by many habitual smokers. Some of the reasons for this conundrum will be covered herein. This article focuses on the hypothesis that sensory stimuli and other pharmacologically active components in tobacco smoke play a pivotal role in the addiction to nicotine when it is inhaled in tobacco smoke. The article will discuss the evidence that dependence upon tobacco smoke reflects a complex interaction between nicotine and the components of the smoke, which are mediated by complementary effects of nicotine on the dopamine projections to the shell and core subdivisions of the accumbens. It will also discuss the extent to which the complexity of the dependence explains why nicotine replacement therapy does not provide a completely satisfying aid to smoking cessation and speculate on the properties treatments should exhibit if they are to provide a better treatment for tobacco dependence than those currently available.

  5. Complexity of validity for propositional dependence logics

    OpenAIRE

    Jonni Virtema

    2014-01-01

    We study the validity problem for propositional dependence logic, modal dependence logic and extended modal dependence logic. We show that the validity problem for propositional dependence logic is NEXPTIME-complete. In addition, we establish that the corresponding problem for modal dependence logic and extended modal dependence logic is NEXPTIME-hard and in NEXPTIME^NP.

  6. Dependency Structures for Statistical Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Nguyen

    2012-01-01

    Dependency structures represent a sentence as a set of dependency relations. Normally the dependency structures from a tree connect all the words in a sentence. One of the most defining characters of dependency structures is the ability to bring long distance dependency between words to local dependency structures. Another the main attraction of…

  7. Anabolic steroid abuse and dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brower, Kirk J

    2002-10-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are mainly used to treat androgen deficiency syndromes and, more recently, catabolic states such as AIDS-associated wasting. There is no evidence in the reviewed literature that AAS abuse or dependence develops from the therapeutic use of AAS. Conversely, 165 instances of AAS dependence have been reported among weightlifters and bodybuilders who, as part of their weight training regimens, chronically administered supraphysiologic doses, often including combinations of injected and oral AAS as well as other drugs of abuse. A new model is proposed in which both the "myoactive" and psychoactive effects of AAS contribute to the development of AAS dependence. The adverse consequences of AAS are reviewed, as well as their assessment by means of a history and physical, mental status examination, and laboratory testing. When patients with AAS use disorders are compared with patients with other substance use disorders, both similarities and differences become apparent and have implications for treatment.

  8. On Dependability of Computing Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Shiyi

    1999-01-01

    With the rapid development and wideapplications of computing systems on which more reliance has been put, adependable system will be much more important than ever. This paper isfirst aimed at giving informal but precise definitions characterizingthe various attributes of dependability of computing systems and thenthe importance of (and the relationships among) all the attributes areexplained.Dependability is first introduced as a global concept which subsumes theusual attributes of reliability, availability, maintainability, safetyand security. The basic definitions given here are then commended andsupplemented by detailed material and additional explanations in thesubsequent sections.The presentation has been structured as follows so as to attract thereader's attention to the important attributions of dependability.* Search for a few number of concise concepts enabling thedependability attributes to be expressed as clearly as possible.* Use of terms which are identical or as close as possible tothose commonly used nowadays.This paper is also intended to provoke people's interest in designing adependable computing system.

  9. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mikkel Bring

    2016-01-01

    The hormones glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are secreted by enteroendocrine cells in the intestinal mucosa in response to nutrient ingestion. They are called incretin hormones because of their ability to enhance insulin secretion. However...... the blood glucose levels. In Study 3, we also used stable glucose isotopes to estimate the endogenous glucose production and assessed symptoms and cognitive function during hypoglycaemia. The results from the three studies indicate that GIP has effects on insulin and glucagon responses highly dependent upon...... glucose to prevent hypoglycaemia. In conclusion, the studies position GIP as a bifunctional blood glucose stabilising hormone that glucose-dependently regulates insulin and glucagon responses in humans....

  10. Dependence logic theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kontinen, Juha; Väänänen, Jouko; Vollmer, Heribert

    2016-01-01

    In this volume, different aspects of logics for dependence and independence are discussed, including both the logical and computational aspects of dependence logic, and also applications in a number of areas, such as statistics, social choice theory, databases, and computer security. The contributing authors represent leading experts in this relatively new field, each of whom was invited to write a chapter based on talks given at seminars held at the Schloss Dagstuhl Leibniz Center for Informatics in Wadern, Germany (in February 2013 and June 2015) and an Academy Colloquium at the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (March 2014). Altogether, these chapters provide the most up-to-date look at this developing and highly interdisciplinary field and will be of interest to a broad group of logicians, mathematicians, statisticians, philosophers, and scientists. Topics covered include a comprehensive survey of many propositional, modal, and first-order variants of dependence logic; new results concerning ...

  11. Developing Tests of Visual Dependency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindrat, Alexandra N.

    2011-01-01

    Astronauts develop neural adaptive responses to microgravity during space flight. Consequently these adaptive responses cause maladaptive disturbances in balance and gait function when astronauts return to Earth and are re-exposed to gravity. Current research in the Neuroscience Laboratories at NASA-JSC is focused on understanding how exposure to space flight produces post-flight disturbances in balance and gait control and developing training programs designed to facilitate the rapid recovery of functional mobility after space flight. In concert with these disturbances, astronauts also often report an increase in their visual dependency during space flight. To better understand this phenomenon, studies were conducted with specially designed training programs focusing on visual dependency with the aim to understand and enhance subjects ability to rapidly adapt to novel sensory situations. The Rod and Frame test (RFT) was used first to assess an individual s visual dependency, using a variety of testing techniques. Once assessed, subjects were asked to perform two novel tasks under transformation (both the Pegboard and Cube Construction tasks). Results indicate that head position cues and initial visual test conditions had no effect on an individual s visual dependency scores. Subjects were also able to adapt to the manual tasks after several trials. Individual visual dependency correlated with ability to adapt manual to a novel visual distortion only for the cube task. Subjects with higher visual dependency showed decreased ability to adapt to this task. Ultimately, it was revealed that the RFT may serve as an effective prediction tool to produce individualized adaptability training prescriptions that target the specific sensory profile of each crewmember.

  12. Amplitude dependent closest tune approach

    CERN Document Server

    Tomas Garcia, Rogelio; Franchi, Andrea; Maclean, Ewen Hamish; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    Recent observations in the LHC point to the existence of an amplitude dependent closest tune approach. However this dynamical behavior and its underlying mechanism remain unknown. This effect is highly relevant for the LHC as an unexpectedly closest tune approach varying with amplitude modifies the frequency content of the beam and, hence, the Landau damping. Furthermore the single particle stability would also be affected by this effect as it would modify how particles with varying amplitudes approach and cross resonances. We present analytic derivations that lead to a mechanism generating an amplitude dependent closest tune approach.

  13. Time-Dependent Lagrangian Biomechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Ivancevic, Tijana T.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present the time-dependent generalization of an 'ordinary' autonomous human musculo-skeletal biomechanics. We start with the configuration manifold of human body, given as a set of its all active degrees of freedom (DOF). This is a Riemannian manifold with a material metric tensor given by the total mass-inertia matrix of the human body segments. This is the base manifold for standard autonomous biomechanics. To make its time-dependent generalization, we need to extend it wit...

  14. Models for dependent time series

    CERN Document Server

    Tunnicliffe Wilson, Granville; Haywood, John

    2015-01-01

    Models for Dependent Time Series addresses the issues that arise and the methodology that can be applied when the dependence between time series is described and modeled. Whether you work in the economic, physical, or life sciences, the book shows you how to draw meaningful, applicable, and statistically valid conclusions from multivariate (or vector) time series data.The first four chapters discuss the two main pillars of the subject that have been developed over the last 60 years: vector autoregressive modeling and multivariate spectral analysis. These chapters provide the foundational mater

  15. Waveform-dependent absorbing metasurfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Wakatsuchi, Hiroki; Rushton, Jeremiah J; Sievenpiper, Daniel F

    2014-01-01

    We present the first use of a waveform-dependent absorbing metasurface for high-power pulsed surface currents. The new type of nonlinear metasurface, composed of circuit elements including diodes, is capable of storing high power pulse energy to dissipate it between pulses, while allowing propagation of small signals. Interestingly, the absorbing performance varies for high power pulses but not for high power continuous waves (CWs), since the capacitors used are fully charged up. Thus, the waveform dependence enables us to distinguish various signal types (i.e. CW or pulse) even at the same frequency, which potentially creates new kinds of microwave technologies and applications.

  16. Sparsity considerations for dependent observations

    CERN Document Server

    Alquier, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive introduction for the study of L1-penalized estimators in the context of dependent observations. We define a general $\\ell_{1}$-penalized estimator for solving problems of stochastic optimization. This estimator turns out to be the LASSO in the regression estimation setting. Powerful theoretical guarantees on the statistical performances of the LASSO were provided in recent papers, however, they usually only deal with the iid case. Here, we study our estimator under various dependence assumptions.

  17. Epistemic dependence in interdisciplinary groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hanne; Wagenknecht, Susann

    2013-01-01

    ignores the issue of differences in background knowledge, or it focuses explicitly on conflicting background knowledge. In this paper we provide an analysis of the interplay between epistemic dependence between individual experts with different areas of expertise. We analyze the cooperative activity...

  18. Directional Dependence in Developmental Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Eye, Alexander; DeShon, Richard P.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we discuss and propose methods that may be of use to determine direction of dependence in non-normally distributed variables. First, it is shown that standard regression analysis is unable to distinguish between explanatory and response variables. Then, skewness and kurtosis are discussed as tools to assess deviation from…

  19. Glucose-dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mikkel B; Calanna, Salvatore; Holst, Jens Juul

    2014-01-01

    CONTEXT: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have clinically relevant disturbances in the effects of the hormone glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP). OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the importance of the prevailing plasma glucose levels for the effect of GIP on responses...

  20. Benzodiazepine use, abuse, and dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'brien, Charles P

    2005-01-01

    Although benzodiazepines are invaluable in the treatment of anxiety disorders, they have some potential for abuse and may cause dependence or addiction. It is important to distinguish between addiction to and normal physical dependence on benzodiazepines. Intentional abusers of benzodiazepines usually have other substance abuse problems. Benzodiazepines are usually a secondary drug of abuse-used mainly to augment the high received from another drug or to offset the adverse effects of other drugs. Few cases of addiction arise from legitimate use of benzodiazepines. Pharmacologic dependence, a predictable and natural adaptation of a body system long accustomed to the presence of a drug, may occur in patients taking therapeutic doses of benzodiazepines. However, this dependence, which generally manifests itself in withdrawal symptoms upon the abrupt discontinuation of the medication, may be controlled and ended through dose tapering, medication switching, and/or medication augmentation. Due to the chronic nature of anxiety, long-term low-dose benzodiazepine treatment may be necessary for some patients; this continuation of treatment should not be considered abuse or addiction.

  1. Definition of a Dependent Child

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    The Department of Human Resources wishes to remind members of the personnel that, under the provisions of § 6 of Administrative Circular No. 5 “Dependent child”, in the case of a child over 18 years of age the status of dependent child comes to an end once a course of studies is completed. Consequently, the payment of the dependent child allowance and the child's membership of the CERN Health Insurance Scheme terminate with effect from the last day of the month in which the course of study concerned ends. In this connection, members of the personnel are reminded that children who are no longer dependent according to the Staff Rules and Regulations and who are less than 26 years of age can nevertheless opt for membership of the normal health insurance under the terms and conditions laid down in the CERN Health Insurance Rules. The Department of Human Resources also wishes to remind members of the personnel that, pursuant to Article R IV 1.17 of the Staff Regulations, a member of the personnel is requ...

  2. Network-timing-dependent plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent eDelattre

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bursts of activity in networks of neurons are thought to convey salient information and drive synaptic plasticity. Here we report that network bursts also exert a profound effect on Spike-Timing-Dependent Plasticity (STDP. In acute slices of juvenile rat somatosensory cortex we paired a network burst, which alone induced long-term depression (LTD, with STDP-induced long-term potentiation and depression (LTP and LTD. We observed that STDP-induced LTP was either unaffected, blocked or flipped into LTD by the network burst, and that STDP-induced LTD was either saturated or flipped into LTP, depending on the relative timing of the network burst with respect to spike coincidences of the STDP event. We hypothesized that network bursts flip STDP-induced LTP to LTD by depleting resources needed for LTP and therefore developed a resource-dependent STDP learning rule. In a model neural network under the influence of the proposed resource-dependent STDP rule, we found that excitatory synaptic coupling was homeostatically regulated to produce power law distributed burst amplitudes reflecting self-organized criticality, a state that ensures optimal information coding.

  3. Network-timing-dependent plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delattre, Vincent; Keller, Daniel; Perich, Matthew; Markram, Henry; Muller, Eilif B

    2015-01-01

    Bursts of activity in networks of neurons are thought to convey salient information and drive synaptic plasticity. Here we report that network bursts also exert a profound effect on Spike-Timing-Dependent Plasticity (STDP). In acute slices of juvenile rat somatosensory cortex we paired a network burst, which alone induced long-term depression (LTD), with STDP-induced long-term potentiation (LTP) and LTD. We observed that STDP-induced LTP was either unaffected, blocked or flipped into LTD by the network burst, and that STDP-induced LTD was either saturated or flipped into LTP, depending on the relative timing of the network burst with respect to spike coincidences of the STDP event. We hypothesized that network bursts flip STDP-induced LTP to LTD by depleting resources needed for LTP and therefore developed a resource-dependent STDP learning rule. In a model neural network under the influence of the proposed resource-dependent STDP rule, we found that excitatory synaptic coupling was homeostatically regulated to produce power law distributed burst amplitudes reflecting self-organized criticality, a state that ensures optimal information coding.

  4. Temperature dependence of surface nanobubbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkelaar, R.P.; Seddon, James Richard Thorley; Zandvliet, Henricus J.W.; Lohse, Detlef

    2012-01-01

    The temperature dependence of nanobubbles was investigated experimentally using atomic force microscopy. By scanning the same area of the surface at temperatures from 51 °C to 25 °C it was possible to track geometrical changes of individual nanobubbles as the temperature was decreased.

  5. Spin dependent proton structure functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Florian, D.; Garcia Canal, C.A. [Laboratorio de Fisica Teorica, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de La Plata C.C. 67-1900 La Plata (Argentina); Sassot, R. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab. 1 1428 Bs.As. (Argentina)

    1996-02-01

    We address the issue of gluon contributions to the polarized deep inelastic asymmetries. Particularly, of their effects in the scale dependence induced by the usual leading order Altarelli-Parisi evolution equations and those arising from fixed order {alpha}{sub {ital s}} and {alpha}{sup 2}{sub {ital s}} evolution approximations. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  6. Sibling Dependence, Uncertainty and Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lilleør, Helene Bie

    investigates the effects of future income uncertainty on sibling dependence in the schooling decisions of rural households in developing countries. Schooling tends to direct skills towards future urban employment, whereas traditional rural education or on-farm learning-by-doing tends to direct skills towards...... to a three period setting. This allows me to explore the natural sequentiality in the schooling decision of older and younger siblings. The model can generate testable empirical implications, which can be taken to any standard cross-sectional data set. I find empirical evidence of negative sibling dependence...... in the educational decision, which is consistent with a human capital portfolio theory of risk diversification and which cannot be explained by sibling rivalry over scarce resources for credit constrained households. The paper thus provides a complementary explanation to why enrolment rates in developing countries...

  7. Spatially dependent electromagnetically induced transparency

    CERN Document Server

    Radwell, Neal; Piccirillo, Bruno; Barnett, Stephen M; Franke-Arnold, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have seen vast progress in the generation and detection of structured light, with potential applications in high capacity optical data storage and continuous variable quantum technologies. Here we measure the transmission of structured light through cold rubidium atoms and observe regions of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). We use q-plates to generate a probe beam with azimuthally varying phase and polarisation structure, and its right and left circular polarisation components provide the probe and control of an EIT transition. We observe an azimuthal modulation of the absorption profile that is dictated by the phase and polarisation structure of the probe laser. Conventional EIT systems do not exhibit phase sensitivity. We show, however, that a weak transverse magnetic field closes the EIT transitions, thereby generating phase dependent dark states which in turn lead to phase dependent transparency, in agreement with our measurements.

  8. Context-dependent metabolic networks

    CERN Document Server

    Beguerisse-Díaz, Mariano; Oyarzún, Diego; Picó, Jesús; Barahona, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    Cells adapt their metabolism to survive changes in their environment. We present a framework for the construction and analysis of metabolic reaction networks that can be tailored to reflect different environmental conditions. Using context-dependent flux distributions from Flux Balance Analysis (FBA), we produce directed networks with weighted links representing the amount of metabolite flowing from a source reaction to a target reaction per unit time. Such networks are analyzed with tools from network theory to reveal salient features of metabolite flows in each biological context. We illustrate our approach with the directed network of the central carbon metabolism of Escherichia coli, and study its properties in four relevant biological scenarios. Our results show that both flow and network structure depend drastically on the environment: networks produced from the same metabolic model in different contexts have different edges, components, and flow communities, capturing the biological re-routing of metab...

  9. Frequency-dependent heat capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrens, Claus Flensted

    and as a thermometer. The aim of the work is to improve and understand this planar heater experiment. I find: • Carbon has advantages as heater material over the traditionally used metal (nickel) heaters. • The thermal coupling to the surrounding temperature bath should not be made through the liquid but through......The frequency–dependent heat capacity of super-cooled glycerol near the glass transition is measured using the 3w detection technique. An electrical conducting thin film with a temperature–dependent electrical resistance is deposited on a substrate. The thin film is used simultaneously as a heater...... the substrate. • Edge effects, as a result of the finite size of the heater, play an important role. The traditionally way of dealing with these effects are not entirely correct. • The Cole–Davidson function with bCD...

  10. Dependability in Aggregation by Averaging

    CERN Document Server

    Jesus, Paulo; Almeida, Paulo Sérgio

    2010-01-01

    Aggregation is an important building block of modern distributed applications, allowing the determination of meaningful properties (e.g. network size, total storage capacity, average load, majorities, etc.) that are used to direct the execution of the system. However, the majority of the existing aggregation algorithms exhibit relevant dependability issues, when prospecting their use in real application environments. In this paper, we reveal some dependability issues of aggregation algorithms based on iterative averaging techniques, giving some directions to solve them. This class of algorithms is considered robust (when compared to common tree-based approaches), being independent from the used routing topology and providing an aggregation result at all nodes. However, their robustness is strongly challenged and their correctness often compromised, when changing the assumptions of their working environment to more realistic ones. The correctness of this class of algorithms relies on the maintenance of a funda...

  11. Quantifier Elimination by Dependency Sequents

    CERN Document Server

    Goldberg, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    We consider the problem of existential quantifier elimination for Boolean formulas in Conjunctive Normal Form (CNF). We present a new method for solving this problem called Derivation of Dependency-Sequents (DDS). A Dependency-sequent (D-sequent) is used to record that a set of quantified variables is redundant under a partial assignment. We show that D-sequents can be resolved to obtain new, non-trivial D-sequents. We also show that DDS is compositional, i.e. if our input formula is a conjunction of independent formulas, DDS automatically recognizes and exploits this information. We introduce an algorithm based on DDS and present experimental results demonstrating its potential.

  12. State-Dependent Molecular Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciann-Dong Yang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new mixed quantum mechanics (QM—molecular mechanics (MM approach, where MM is replaced by quantum Hamilton mechanics (QHM, which inherits the modeling capability of MM, while preserving the state-dependent nature of QM. QHM, a single mechanics playing the roles of QM and MM simultaneously, will be employed here to derive the three-dimensional quantum dynamics of diatomic molecules. The resulting state-dependent molecular dynamics including vibration, rotation and spin are shown to completely agree with the QM description and well match the experimental vibration-rotation spectrum. QHM can be incorporated into the framework of a mixed quantum-classical Bohmian method to enable a trajectory interpretation of orbital-spin interaction and spin entanglement in molecular dynamics.

  13. Geographic Luck and Dependency Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ziheng Liu

    2015-01-01

    Economic disparity is a huge global issue nowadays which threatens the economic justice and thus in some sense decides the fate of human be-ing,especially those from developing countries.This essay analyzes economic disparity by using Geographic Luck and Dependency Theory.None of the two theories could explain the economic disparity individually.China,Britain and Iran are used as three examples to support the thesis.

  14. Metallicity dependence of HMXB populations

    CERN Document Server

    Douna, V M; Mirabel, I F; Pedrosa, S E

    2015-01-01

    High-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs) might have contributed a non-negligible fraction of the energy feedback to the interstellar and intergalactic media at high redshift, becoming important sources for the heating and ionization history of the Universe. However, the importance of this contribution depends on the hypothesized increase in the number of HMXBs formed in low-metallicity galaxies and in their luminosities. In this work we test the aforementioned hypothesis, and quantify the metallicity dependence of HMXB population properties. We compile from the literature a large set of data on the sizes and X-ray luminosities of HMXB populations in nearby galaxies with known metallicities and star formation rates. We use Bayesian inference to fit simple Monte Carlo models that describe the metallicity dependence of the size and luminosity of the HMXB populations. We find that HMXBs are typically ten times more numerous per unit star formation rate in low-metallicity galaxies (12 + log(O/H) < 8, namely < 20% so...

  15. Non-transfusion-dependent thalassemias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musallam, Khaled M; Rivella, Stefano; Vichinsky, Elliott; Rachmilewitz, Eliezer A

    2013-06-01

    Non-transfusion-dependent thalassemias include a variety of phenotypes that, unlike patients with beta (β)-thalassemia major, do not require regular transfusion therapy for survival. The most commonly investigated forms are β-thalassemia intermedia, hemoglobin E/β-thalassemia, and α-thalassemia intermedia (hemoglobin H disease). However, transfusion-independence in such patients is not without side effects. Ineffective erythropoiesis and peripheral hemolysis, the hallmarks of disease process, lead to a variety of subsequent pathophysiologies including iron overload and hypercoagulability that ultimately lead to a number of serious clinical morbidities. Thus, prompt and accurate diagnosis of non-transfusion-dependent thalassemia is essential to ensure early intervention. Although several management options are currently available, the need to develop more novel therapeutics is justified by recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms of disease. Such efforts require wide international collaboration, especially since non-transfusion-dependent thalassemias are no longer bound to low- and middle-income countries but have spread to large multiethnic cities in Europe and the Americas due to continued migration.

  16. Non-transfusion-dependent thalassemias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musallam, Khaled M.; Rivella, Stefano; Vichinsky, Elliott; Rachmilewitz, Eliezer A.

    2013-01-01

    Non-transfusion-dependent thalassemias include a variety of phenotypes that, unlike patients with beta (β)-thalassemia major, do not require regular transfusion therapy for survival. The most commonly investigated forms are β-thalassemia intermedia, hemoglobin E/β-thalassemia, and α-thalassemia intermedia (hemoglobin H disease). However, transfusion-independence in such patients is not without side effects. Ineffective erythropoiesis and peripheral hemolysis, the hallmarks of disease process, lead to a variety of subsequent pathophysiologies including iron overload and hypercoagulability that ultimately lead to a number of serious clinical morbidities. Thus, prompt and accurate diagnosis of non-transfusion-dependent thalassemia is essential to ensure early intervention. Although several management options are currently available, the need to develop more novel therapeutics is justified by recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms of disease. Such efforts require wide international collaboration, especially since non-transfusion-dependent thalassemias are no longer bound to low- and middle-income countries but have spread to large multiethnic cities in Europe and the Americas due to continued migration. PMID:23729725

  17. Genetics Home Reference: pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... PDF Open All Close All Description Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy is a condition that involves seizures beginning in ...

  18. Nicotine dependence and psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salín-Pascual, Rafael J; Alcocer-Castillejos, Natasha V; Alejo-Galarza, Gabriel

    2003-01-01

    Nicotine addiction is the single largest preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in the Western World. Smoking is not any more just a bad habit, but a substance addiction problem. The pharmacological aspects of nicotine show that this substance has a broad distribution in the different body compartnents, due mainly to its lipophilic characteristic. There are nicotinic receptors as members of cholinergic receptors' family. They are located in neuromuscular junction and in the central nervous system (CNS). Although they are similar, pentameric structure with an ionic channel to sodium, there are some differences in the protein chains characteristics. Repeated administration of nicotine in rats, results in the sensitization phenomenon, which produces increase in the behavioral locomotor activity response. It has been found that most psychostimulants-induced behavioral sensitization through a nicotine receptor activation. Nicotine receptors in CNS are located mainly in presynaptic membrane and in that way they regulated the release of several neurotransmitters, among them acetylcholine, dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine. In some activities like sleep-wake cycle, nicotine receptors have a functional significance. Nicotine receptor stimulation promotes wake time, reduces both, total sleep time and rapid eye movement sleep (REMS). About nicotine dependence, this substance full fills all the criteria for dependence and withdrawal syndrome. There are some people that have more vulnerability for to become nicotine dependent, those are psychiatric patients. Among them schizophrenia, major depression, anxiety disorders and attention deficit disorder, represent the best example in this area. Nicotine may have some beneficial effects, among them are some neuroprotective effects in disorders like Parkinson's disease, and Gilles de la Tourette' syndrome. Also there are several evidences that support the role of nicotine in cognitive improvement functions like attention

  19. Tobacco Dependence: Nursing Care Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Miguel García

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco dependence is a major risk factor for health that requires a correct approach by all health workers. Nursing plays a key role both in identifying smokers, as in the systematic advice to quit smoking, or assist in smoking quit. This work presents three standardized care plans that enable the nursing work in accordance with a methodology and using a standardized language that allows both continuity of care such as research and development of knowledge nurse: Care plan to smoker in precontemplation stage; Care plan to smoker in contemplation stage; Care plan to smoker in preparation/action stage.

  20. Lomotil (diphenoxylate dependence in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aseem Mehra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lomotil (diphenoxylate atropine combination has been in use as an antidiarrhoeal agent. Due to presence of opioid (diphenoxylate, there are chances of abuse. The reports of abuse of lomotil have been few in published literature. This chart review aimed to evaluate the characteristics of patients with dependence on lomotil coming to our centre. Materials and Methods: This retrospective chart review was conducted at the Drug De-addiction and Treatment Centre of PGIMER, Chandigarh, India. The records of patients who had presented to the centre with dependence on Lomotil in the last five years were identified, and clinical details were extracted from the records. Results: We identified 41 patients who had presented to our centre with dependence upon lomotil as the primary substance of abuse. The cases were typically married and employed males, educated up to 10 th grade, belonging to a rural Sikh extended or joint family. Most of the patients had taken other opioids too. The number of tablets taken in a day varied from 3- to 250 (median 25. The reasons of initiation were to relieve withdrawals, as a cheap substitute opioid, curiosity, and on suggestion of friends. Conclusion: Lomotil is a medication with a potential of abuse and regulatory controls are required to prevent escalation of misuse of this easily available prescription drug. Lomotil (diphenoxylate and atropine combination has been used since a long time as an anti-diarrheal agent. Reports of abuse of diphenoxylate had surfaced. We present a series of 41 cases of opioid dependence presenting with the use of the diphenoxylate as the primary substance. The cases were typically married and employed males, educated up to 10 th grade, belonging to a rural Sikh extended or joint family. Most of the patients had taken other opioids too. The number of tablets taken in a day varied from 3 to 250 (median 25. The reasons of initiation of diphenoxylate were to relieve withdrawals, as a

  1. Caregiver burden in dependent elderly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mauricio Ocampo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the frequency and the associated factors with the presence of care burden imposed by dependent elderly of Buenaventura, Valle; Colombia. Design: A pilot cross-sectional study. Patients and methods: Between March and May of 2006, data were collected on 35 over 60 years old patients who live in the community of Buenaventura, with a score in the Barthel index Results: The mean age and the standard deviation of the patient group was 78.9±10 years. There was a larger proportion of women (68.5%. In the care givers, the regular age and the standard deviation was 49.4±18.8 years, where 91% were women. It was found that for 54.2% of the caregivers there was no burden at all, 40% of them had a minimum burden and the others a greater burden. Bivariate analysis between the care giver’s burden and the number of chronic disease, the score on the minimental test, elderly depression and the family APGAR, resulted in statistic association (p Conclusions: There is an association between aged people, dependent in basic common day activities related with physical aspects, and care giver’s burden. Being the caregivers mostly family members, further studies must be focused on identifying and realizing interventions to prevent or limit the decrease of declining mental health and loss of life quality and the consequent increase of the care giver’s burden.

  2. Time dependence of immersion freezing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Welti

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The time dependence of immersion freezing was studied for temperatures between 236 K and 243 K. Droplets with single immersed, size-selected 400 nm and 800 nm kaolinite particles were produced at 300 K, cooled down to supercooled temperatures typical for mixed-phase cloud conditions, and the fraction of frozen droplets with increasing residence time was detected. To simulate the conditions of immersion freezing in mixed-phase clouds we used the Zurich Ice Nucleation Chamber (ZINC and its vertical extension, the Immersion Mode Cooling chAmber (IMCA. We observed that the frozen fraction of droplets increased with increasing residence time in the chamber. This suggests that there is a time dependence of immersion freezing and supports the importance of a stochastic component in the ice nucleation process. The rate at which droplets freeze was observed to decrease towards higher temperatures and smaller particle sizes. Comparison of the laboratory data with four different ice nucleation models, three based on classical nucleation theory with different representations of the particle surface properties and one singular, suggest that the classical, stochastic approach combined with a distribution of contact angles is able to reproduce the ice nucleation observed in these experiments most accurately. Using the models to calculate the increase in frozen fraction at typical mixed-phase cloud temperatures over an extended period of time, yields an equivalent effect of −1 K temperature shift and an increase in time scale by a factor of ~10.

  3. View Dependent Sequential Point Trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Cheng Wang; Feng Wei; En-Hua Wu

    2006-01-01

    Sequential point trees provide the state-of-the-art technique for rendering point models, by re-arranging hierarchical points sequentially according to geometric errors running on GPU for fast rendering. This paper presents a view dependent method to augment sequential point trees by embedding the hierarchical tree structures in the sequential list of hierarchical points. By the method, two kinds of indices are constructed to facilitate the points rendering in an order mostly from near to far and from coarse to fine. As a result, invisible points can be culled view-dependently in high efficiency for hardware acceleration, and at the same time, the advantage of sequential point trees could be still fully taken. Therefore, the new method can run much faster than the conventional sequential point trees, and the acceleration can be highly promoted particularly when the objects possess complex occlusion relationship and viewed closely because invisible points would be in a high percentage of the points at finer levels.

  4. Voltage Dependence of Supercapacitor Capacitance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szewczyk Arkadiusz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Electronic Double-Layer Capacitors (EDLC, called Supercapacitors (SC, are electronic devices that are capable to store a relatively high amount of energy in a small volume comparing to other types of capacitors. They are composed of an activated carbon layer and electrolyte solution. The charge is stored on electrodes, forming the Helmholtz layer, and in electrolyte. The capacitance of supercapacitor is voltage- dependent. We propose an experimental method, based on monitoring of charging and discharging a supercapacitor, which enables to evaluate the charge in an SC structure as well as the Capacitance-Voltage (C-V dependence. The measurement setup, method and experimental results of charging/discharging commercially available supercapacitors in various voltage and current conditions are presented. The total charge stored in an SC structure is proportional to the square of voltage at SC electrodes while the charge on electrodes increases linearly with the voltage on SC electrodes. The Helmholtz capacitance increases linearly with the voltage bias while a sublinear increase of total capacitance was found. The voltage on SC increases after the discharge of electrodes due to diffusion of charges from the electrolyte to the electrodes. We have found that the recovery voltage value is linearly proportional to the initial bias voltage value.

  5. Correlated-Data Fusion and Cooperative Aiding in GNSS-Stressed or Denied Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtarzadeh, Hamid

    , and BCInf filter measurement update equations. Furthermore, characteristics important to the proper implementation of CI and BCInf in practice are discussed. A new covariance normalization step is proposed as necessary to properly apply CI or BCInf. Lastly, both centralized and decentralized implementations of cooperative aiding are analyzed and evaluated using experimental data in the three applications. In the commercial aviation study aircraft are simulated to use their Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) and Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) systems to cooperatively aid their on board INS during a 60 min GPS outage in the national airspace. An availability study of cooperative navigation as proposed in this work around representative United States airports is performed. Availabilities between 70-100% were common at major airports like LGA and MSP in a 30 nmi radius around the airport during morning to evening hours. A GPS-denied navigation system for small UAVs based on cooperative information sharing is described. Experimentally collected flight data from 7 small UAV flights are played-back to evaluate the performance of the navigation system. The results show that the most effective of the architectures can lead to 5+ minutes of navigation without GPS maintaining position errors less than 200 m (1-sigma). The automotive case study considers 15 minutes of automotive traffic (2,000 + vehicles) driving through a half-mile stretch of highway without access to GPS. Automotive radar coupled with Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) protocol are used to implement cooperative aiding to a low-cost 2-D INS on board each vehicle. The centralized system achieves an order of magnitude reduction in uncertainty by aggressively aiding the INS on board each vehicle. The proposed CI-based decentralized estimator is demonstrated to be conservative and maintain consistency. A quantitative analysis of bandwidth requirements shows that the proposed

  6. Airborne Trajectory Management (ABTM): A Blueprint for Greater Autonomy in Air Traffic Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, William B.; Wing, David

    2017-01-01

    of efficiency in air travel that it does. But it is also true that sixty years of the "radar religion" (i.e., reliance on radar-based command and control) has produced several generations of ATM system operators and researchers who believe that introducing automation within the existing functional structure of ATM is the only way to "modernize" the system. Even NextGen, which began as a proposal for "transformational" change in the way ATC is performed, has morphed over the last decade and a half to become just the inclusion of Global Positioning System (GPS) for navigation, Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) for surveillance, and Data Communications (Data Comm) for communications, while still operating in rigidly structured airspace with human controllers being responsible for separation and traffic flow management (TFM) within defined sectors of airspace, using the same horizontal separation standards that have been in use since raw primary radar was introduced in the 1950s. No system as massive as the current NAS ATM can be replaced with a better system while simultaneously meeting the transportation and other aviation needs of the nation. A new generation of more flexible operations must emerge and yet coexist in harmony with the current operation (i.e., share the same airspace without segregation), thereby enabling a long-term transformation to take place in the way increasing numbers of flights are handled. Market forces will be the ultimate driver of this transformation, and investment realities mandate that real benefits must accrue to the first operators to adopt these new capabilities. In fact, the kinds of missions envisioned in the emerging world of UAS operations, unachievable under conventional ATM, demand that this transformation take place. Airborne Trajectory Management (ABTM) is proposed as a series of transformational steps leading to vastly increased flexibility in flight operations and capacity in the airspace to accommodate many

  7. Analysis of Critical Infrastructure Dependencies and Interdependencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petit, Frederic [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Verner, Duane [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Brannegan, David [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Buehring, William [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dickinson, David [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Guziel, Karen [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Haffenden, Rebecca [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Phillips, Julia [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Peerenboom, James [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The report begins by defining dependencies and interdependencies and exploring basic concepts of dependencies in order to facilitate a common understanding and consistent analytical approaches. Key concepts covered include; Characteristics of dependencies: upstream dependencies, internal dependencies, and downstream dependencies; Classes of dependencies: physical, cyber, geographic, and logical; and Dimensions of dependencies: operating environment, coupling and response behavior, type of failure, infrastructure characteristics, and state of operations From there, the report proposes a multi-phase roadmap to support dependency and interdependency assessment activities nationwide, identifying a range of data inputs, analysis activities, and potential products for each phase, as well as key steps needed to progress from one phase to the next. The report concludes by outlining a comprehensive, iterative, and scalable framework for analyzing dependencies and interdependencies that stakeholders can integrate into existing risk and resilience assessment efforts.

  8. Risk Analyses and Studies on ADS-B System%ADS-B系统的原理分析与风险研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡飞

    2011-01-01

    ADS-B技术是下一代空中交通管制技术的重要组成部分,与传统雷达技术相比,它具有可靠性高、成本低等优点.本文简要介绍了ADS-B的基本概念,并以基于UAT数据链的ADS-B系统为例,对ADS-B系统的原理进行了分析.同时,指出了ADS-B系统运行过程中存在的系统风险.

  9. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mikkel Bring

    2016-01-01

    glucagon secretion are essential contributors to the hyperglycaemia that characterise patients with type 2 diabetes. Moreover, the near absence of a well-timed glucagon response contributes to an increased risk of hypoglycaemia in patients with type 1 diabetes. The overall aim of this PhD thesis...... insulin secretion (Study 3). The investigations in the three mentioned study populations have been described in three original articles. The employed study designs were in randomised, placebo-controlled, crossover set-up, in which the same research subject is subjected to several study days thereby acting...... the blood glucose levels. In Study 3, we also used stable glucose isotopes to estimate the endogenous glucose production and assessed symptoms and cognitive function during hypoglycaemia. The results from the three studies indicate that GIP has effects on insulin and glucagon responses highly dependent upon...

  10. Your morals depend on language.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Costa

    Full Text Available Should you sacrifice one man to save five? Whatever your answer, it should not depend on whether you were asked the question in your native language or a foreign tongue so long as you understood the problem. And yet here we report evidence that people using a foreign language make substantially more utilitarian decisions when faced with such moral dilemmas. We argue that this stems from the reduced emotional response elicited by the foreign language, consequently reducing the impact of intuitive emotional concerns. In general, we suggest that the increased psychological distance of using a foreign language induces utilitarianism. This shows that moral judgments can be heavily affected by an orthogonal property to moral principles, and importantly, one that is relevant to hundreds of millions of individuals on a daily basis.

  11. Chameleons with Field Dependent Couplings

    CERN Document Server

    Brax, Philippe; Mota, David F; Nunes, Nelson J; Winther, Hans A

    2010-01-01

    Certain scalar-tensor theories exhibit the so-called chameleon mechanism, whereby observational signatures of scalar fields are hidden by a combination of self-interactions and interactions with ambient matter. Not all scalar-tensor theories exhibit such a chameleon mechanism, which has been originally found in models with inverse power run-away potentials and field independent couplings to matter. In this paper we investigate field-theories with field-dependent couplings and a power-law potential for the scalar field. We show that the theory indeed is a chameleon field theory. We find the thin-shell solution for a spherical body and investigate the consequences for E\\"ot-Wash experiments, fifth-force searches and Casimir force experiments. Requiring that the scalar-field evades gravitational tests, we find that the coupling is sensitive to a mass-scale which is of order of the Hubble scale today.

  12. Linkage analysis in alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windemuth, C; Hahn, A; Strauch, K; Baur, M P; Wienker, T F

    1999-01-01

    Alcohol dependence often is a familial disorder and has a genetic component. Research in causative factors of alcoholism is coordinated by a multi-center program, COGA [The Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism, Begleiter et al., 1995]. We analyzed a subset of the COGA family sample, 84 pedigrees of Caucasian ancestry comprising 745 persons, 339 of whom are affected according to DSM-III-R and Feighner criteria. Using parametric and nonparametric methods, evidence for linkage was found on chromosome 1 (near markers D1S532, D1S1588, and D1S534), as well as on chromosome 15 (near marker D15S642). Other regions of the genome showed suggestive evidence for contributing loci. Related findings are discussed in recent publications investigating linkage in humans [Reich et al., 1998] and mice [Melo et al., 1996].

  13. Chemical Potential Dependence of Vertices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Yu; ZHANG Yan-Bin; SUN Wei-Min; ZONG Hong-Shi

    2008-01-01

    Based on the rainbow-ladder approximation of the Dyson-Schwinger equations and the assumption of the analyticity of the fermion-boson vertex in the neighborhood of zero chemical potential (μ = 0) and neglecting the μ-dependence of the dressed gluon propagator, we apply the method in [Phys. Rev. C 71 (2005) 015205] of studying the dressed quark propagator at finite chemical potential to prove that the general fermion-boson vertex at finite μ can also be obtained from the one at μ=0 by a simple shift of variables. Using this result we extend the results of [Phys. Lett. B 420 (1998) 267] to the situation of finite chemical potential and show that under the approximations we have taken, the Gell-Mann-Oakes-Renner relation also holds at finite chemical potential.

  14. Nuclear Dependence of Charm Production

    CERN Document Server

    Blanco-Covarrubias, A

    2009-01-01

    With data taken by SELEX, which accumulated data during the 1996-1997 fixed target run at Fermilab, we study the production of charmed hadrons on copper and carbon targets with Sigma-, p, pi-, and pi+ beams. Parameterizing the production cross section A^alpha, A being the atomic number, we determine alpha for D+, D0, Ds+, D+(2010), Lambda_c+, and their respective anti-particles, as a function of their transverse momentum pt and scaled longitudinal momentum xF. Within our statistics there is no dependence of alpha on xF for any charm species for the interval 0.1

  15. Interpersonal dependency in alcoholic and obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, J K

    1995-06-01

    While psychological conflict about dependency needs of alcoholic and obese persons has been widely observed, few studies have examined differences in dependency characteristics between these clinical groups. The Interpersonal Dependency Inventory was administered to 22 alcoholic and 8 morbidly obese men in intensive treatment for alcohol and obesity. The original hypothesis that alcoholic and obese men would show similar dependency needs was supported. Dependency correlates of personality may serve as useful predictor variables in the clinical treatment of alcoholic and obese persons.

  16. Human-in-the-Loop Assessment of Alternative Clearances in Interval Management Arrival Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Wilson, Sara R.; Swieringa, Kurt A.; Johnson, William C.; Roper, Roy D.; Hubbs, Clay E.; Goess, Paul A.; Shay, Richard F.

    2016-01-01

    Interval Management Alternative Clearances (IMAC) was a human-in-the-loop simulation experiment conducted to explore the Air Traffic Management (ATM) Technology Demonstration (ATD-1) Concept of Operations (ConOps), which combines advanced arrival scheduling, controller decision support tools, and aircraft avionics to enable multiple time deconflicted, efficient arrival streams into a high-density terminal airspace. Interval Management (IM) is designed to support the ATD-1 concept by having an "Ownship" (IM-capable) aircraft achieve or maintain a specific time or distance behind a "Target" (preceding) aircraft. The IM software uses IM clearance information and the Ownship data (route of flight, current location, and wind) entered by the flight crew, and the Target aircraft's Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast state data, to calculate the airspeed necessary for the IM-equipped aircraft to achieve or maintain the assigned spacing goal.

  17. Sequence-dependent nucleosome positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ho-Ryun; Vingron, Martin

    2009-03-13

    Eukaryotic DNA is organized into a macromolecular structure called chromatin. The basic repeating unit of chromatin is the nucleosome, which consists of two copies of each of the four core histones and DNA. The nucleosomal organization and the positions of nucleosomes have profound effects on all DNA-dependent processes. Understanding the factors that influence nucleosome positioning is therefore of general interest. Among the many determinants of nucleosome positioning, the DNA sequence has been proposed to have a major role. Here, we analyzed more than 860,000 nucleosomal DNA sequences to identify sequence features that guide the formation of nucleosomes in vivo. We found that both a periodic enrichment of AT base pairs and an out-of-phase oscillating enrichment of GC base pairs as well as the overall preference for GC base pairs are determinants of nucleosome positioning. The preference for GC pairs can be related to a lower energetic cost required for deformation of the DNA to wrap around the histones. In line with this idea, we found that only incorporation of both signal components into a sequence model for nucleosome formation results in maximal predictive performance on a genome-wide scale. In this manner, one achieves greater predictive power than published approaches. Our results confirm the hypothesis that the DNA sequence has a major role in nucleosome positioning in vivo.

  18. Oral alterations among chemical dependents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela Vanessa COLODEL

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It has been daily observed a significant increase ofchemical dependent individuals, as well as the lack of depth on thisissue in the dentistry area. Nevertheless many times the dentalclinicians are the first professionals to diagnose possible alterations,which appear due to the consumption of tobacco, alcohol and other illicit drugs. Objectives: To make a literature review of oral alterations and to identify them on a specific group of persons, which are addicted to different types of drugs. Material and methods: The clinical history of the selected individuals was added to the answers of a questionnaire,comprising the data of the present research. Results: Besides other minor soft tissue alterations, a high prevalence of caries and periodontal diseases were found in the studied population. Conclusion: It was concluded that the role of the dental clinician is very important to the health rehabilitation of drug addicts, individuals with physical and mental disorders that need specific oral care, which sometimes is neglected.

  19. Sucrose dependent translational dynamics in Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, M.

    2011-01-01

    Sucrose dependent translational dynamics Gene expression is regulated at several different levels starting from chromatin remodeling and transcription in the nucleus to translation and post-translational modifications in the cytosol. Depending on the gene and circumstances, different regulatory mech

  20. Component Dependency in object-Oriented Software

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Guo Yu; Srini Ramaswamy

    2007-01-01

    Component dependency is an important software measure. It is directly related to software understandability,maintainability, and reusability. Two important parameters in describing component dependency are the type of couplingbetween two components and the type of the dependent component. Depending upon the different types of coupling and thetype of the dependent components, there can be different effects on component maintenance and component reuse. In thispaper, we divide dependent components into three types. We then classify various component dependencies and analyzetheir effects on maintenance and reuse. Based on the classification, we present a dependency metric and validate it on 11open-source Java components. Our study shows that a strong correlation exists between the measurement of the dependencyof the component and the effort to reuse the component. This indicates that the classification of component dependencyand the suggested metric could be further used to represent other external software quality factors.

  1. Pyridoxine-dependent seizures and microcephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hüseyin; Kardaş, Fatih; Büyükavci, Mustafa; Karakelleoğlu, Cahit

    2004-09-01

    Pyridoxine dependency is a rare autosomal-recessive disorder causing intractable seizures in neonates and infants. This case report describes an infant with pyridoxine-dependent seizures with microcephaly and discusses a probable pathogenetic mechanism of microcephaly in this condition.

  2. A Different Approach to Dependence Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Pier Alda; Raffinetti, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on a statistical tool for dependence analysis in scientific research. Starting from a recent index of concordance for a multiple linear regression model, a coefficient suitable in catching any monotonic dependence relationship between a dependent variable and an independent variable is derived and discussed. Given its interpretation in terms of monotonic dependence, it is called monotonic dependence coefficient (MDC). It is appropriate to all contexts where the dependent variable is quantitative (continuous or discrete) and the independent variable is at least of ordinal nature; tied data are also allowed. MDC's adequacy is validated through Monte Carlo simulations led by taking into account different scenarios of dependence. Finally, an application to real data is provided to stress MDC's capability of detecting dependence relationships between two variables, even if some pieces of information about original data are lost.

  3. Tools and Patterns for Dependable Concurrent Software

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jovanovic, D.S.; Broenink, Johannes F.

    2005-01-01

    First, we give reasons for choosing a process-oriented approach for building complex concurrent systems. Upon a brief review of dependability attributes of software-supported systems, means for increasing dependability in process-oriented architectures are illustrated

  4. Maintainence treatment of opioid dependence with tramadol

    OpenAIRE

    Siddharth Sarkar; Mohit Varshney; Vaibhav Patil; Rakesh Lal

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although tramadol has been used in the management of acute withdrawal in patients with opioid dependence, its use for maintenance treatment as a harm reduction approach has not been assessed systematically. This case series describes patients with opioid dependence who were treated with tramadol for long-term maintenance. Methods: Patients with opioid dependence who received treatment at the National Drug Dependence Treatment Centre of All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New ...

  5. Fuzzy Functional Dependencies and Bayesian Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU WeiYi(刘惟一); SONG Ning(宋宁)

    2003-01-01

    Bayesian networks have become a popular technique for representing and reasoning with probabilistic information. The fuzzy functional dependency is an important kind of data dependencies in relational databases with fuzzy values. The purpose of this paper is to set up a connection between these data dependencies and Bayesian networks. The connection is done through a set of methods that enable people to obtain the most information of independent conditions from fuzzy functional dependencies.

  6. Defining benzodiazepine dependence: The confusion persists

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    Little consensus exists on the risk of benzodiazepine (BZD) dependence. We investigated how often BZD dependence and related concepts have been defined in the literature on BZD effects in humans. In addition, the definitions of BZD dependence were compared in order to assess the similarity of contents. From a total of 250 papers (published between 1988 and 1991) 51 provided 126 dependence-related definitions. Six studies referred to the DSM definitions and one to the WHO definition. The obsol...

  7. The dynamics of cannabis use and dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pol, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Young adults who often smoke cannabis are at higher risk of dependence, but most do not become dependent. This thesis examined the question: Which frequent cannabis users are/become/stay dependent, and seek treatment, and which do not? It was answered with a three-year prospective cohort of 600 youn

  8. The dynamics of cannabis use and dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pol, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Young adults who often smoke cannabis are at higher risk of dependence, but most do not become dependent. This thesis examined the question: Which frequent cannabis users are/become/stay dependent, and seek treatment, and which do not? It was answered with a three-year prospective cohort of 600 youn

  9. Defining benzodiazepine dependence: The confusion persists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linsen, S.M.; Zitman, F.G.; Breteler, M.H.M.

    1995-01-01

    Little consensus exists on the risk of benzodiazepine (BZD) dependence. We investigated how often BZD dependence and related concepts have been defined in the literature on BZD effects in humans. In addition, the definitions of BZD dependence were compared in order to assess the similarity of conten

  10. Energy Dependence of the Intermodule Widening Correction

    CERN Document Server

    Mcblane, Neil Fraser

    2017-01-01

    This project looked to investigate the energy dependence of the ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeter Intermodule Widening correction factors. A clear energy dependence was observed, with possible parameterisations of the dependency were briefly explored. In addition, official correction factors were validated on a new software release.

  11. Jealousy, Gender, Sex Roles, and Dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Margaret E.; And Others

    One hundred adults ages 18 to 42 completed measures of jealousy and dependency in romantic relationships and of sex role traditionalism. Traditionalism and jealousy were correlated, as predicted, but dependency and jealousy were not. For men, but not for women, traditionalism and jealousy were positively correlated. Dependency and traditionalism…

  12. Pharmacological treatments for tobacco dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. O. Fagerström

    2008-12-01

    development for the treatment of tobacco dependence are cannabinoid antagonists, immunotherapy against nicotine, monoaminooxidase inhibitors, dopamine receptor D3 receptor antagonists and partial agonists, glutamatergic and GABA-ergic compounds and novel selective nicotine cholinergic receptor agonists and antagonists.

  13. DEPENDENCE ANALYSIS FOR UML CLASS DIAGRAMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Fangjun; Yi Tong

    2004-01-01

    Though Unified Modeling Language (UML) has been widely used in software development, the major problems confronted lie in comprehension and testing. Dependence analysis is an important approach to analyze, understand, test and maintain programs. A new kind of dependence analysis method for UML class diagrams is developed. A set of dependence relations is definedcorresponding to the relations among classes. Thus, the dependence graph of UML class diagram can be constructed from these dependence relations. Based on this model, both slicing and measurement coupling are further given as its two applications.

  14. Holographic Complexity for Time-Dependent Backgrounds

    CERN Document Server

    Momeni, Davood; Bahamonde, Sebastian; Myrzakulov, Ratbay

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we will analyse the holographic complexity for time-dependent asymptotically $AdS$ geometries. We will first use a covariant zero mean curvature slicing of the time-dependent bulk geometries, and then use this co-dimension one spacelike slice of the bulk spacetime to define a co-dimension two minimal surface. The time-dependent holographic complexity will be defined using the volume enclosed by this minimal surface. This time-dependent holographic complexity will reduce to the usual holographic complexity for static geometries. We will analyse the time-dependence as a perturbation of the asymptotically $AdS$ geometries. Thus, we will obtain time-dependent asymptotically $AdS$ geometries, and we will calculate the holographic complexity for such a time-dependent geometries.

  15. Dynamic Dependence and Diversification in Corporate Credit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Jacobs, Kris; Jin, Xisong

    We characterize dependence and tail dependence in corporate credit using a new class of dynamic copula models which can capture dynamic dependence and asymmetry in large samples of firms. We also document important differences between the dependence dynamics for credit spreads and equity returns....... Modeling a decade of weekly CDS spreads for 215 firms, we find that copula correlations are highly time-varying and persistent, and that they increase significantly in the financial crisis and have remained high since. Perhaps most importantly, tail dependence of CDS spreads increases even more than copula...... correlations during the crisis and remains high as well. The most important shocks to credit dependence occur in August of 2007 and in August of 2011, but interestingly these dates are not associated with significant changes to median credit spreads. The decrease in diversification potential caused...

  16. Telugu dependency parsing using different statistical parsers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Venkata Seshu Kumari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we explore different statistical dependency parsers for parsing Telugu. We consider five popular dependency parsers namely, MaltParser, MSTParser, TurboParser, ZPar and Easy-First Parser. We experiment with different parser and feature settings and show the impact of different settings. We also provide a detailed analysis of the performance of all the parsers on major dependency labels. We report our results on test data of Telugu dependency treebank provided in the ICON 2010 tools contest on Indian languages dependency parsing. We obtain state-of-the art performance of 91.8% in unlabeled attachment score and 70.0% in labeled attachment score. To the best of our knowledge ours is the only work which explored all the five popular dependency parsers and compared the performance under different feature settings for Telugu.

  17. Passion and dependency in online shopping activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chih-Chien; Yang, Hui-Wen

    2007-04-01

    This study examines the influence of harmonious passion (HP) and obsessive passion (OP) to online shopping dependency. The results show that both HP and OP might lead to online shopping dependency and online shoppers with OP are more dependent on online shopping activities. In addition, this study also found out that HP and OP could be denoted as a sequence of different intensities of passion, where HP might be a necessity of OP.

  18. [Vitamin D dependency and its treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitanaka, Sachiko

    2016-02-01

    Vitamin D dependency is classified to vitamin D-dependent rickets type 1 which shows defective 1,25(OH)(2)D production, and vitamin D-dependent rickets type 2 which shows end-organ unresponsiveness to 1,25(OH)(2)D. Recent advance in the molecular analysis of these diseases revealed variety in the presentation and in the inheritance patterns. Molecular diagnosis would be preferable for adequate therapy especially in type 2.

  19. Polysomnographic Sleep Dysregulation in Cocaine Dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin M. Valladares

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Insomnia and sleep disturbance are associated with declines in health functioning, alongwith increases in mortality risk. Given the prominence of reported sleep disturbance incocaine-dependent subjects and persistence into recovery, understanding the natureand severity of these disturbances in this population may help to identify relevantpathways that contribute to the increased mortality in cocaine dependence. Polysomnography provides a means of objectively characterizing sleep and, in turn, sleep disturbances. Few studies have used polysomnography to evaluate sleep incocaine-dependent persons, yet these studies have the potential to advance treatmentsthat will ultimately reduce morbidity in cocaine-dependent subjects.

  20. Two Generations of Path Dependence in Economics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mogens Ove

    2010-01-01

    Even if there is no fully articulated and generally accepted theory of Path Dependence it has eagerly been taken up across a wide range of social sciences – primarily coming from economics. Path Dependence is most of all a metaphor that offers reason to believe, that some political, social...... or economic processes have multiple possible paths of outcomes, rather than a unique path of equilibria. The selection among outcomes may depend on contingent choices or events – outcomes of path-dependent processes require a very relevant study – a perception of history....

  1. Concentration-Dependent Carbon Diffusivity in Austenite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaoting; Michal, Gary M.; Ernst, Frank; Kahn, Harold; Heuer, Arthur H.

    2014-08-01

    The diffusion coefficient of carbon in austenite depends on the local carbon concentration. This concentration dependence is particularly noticeable during low-temperature "paraequilibrium" carburization. A critical review of the extensive literature on this topic reveals that an early paper by Asimow provides an excellent description of this substantial concentration dependence. The present analysis suggests that the marked concentration dependence of carbon diffusivity is most likely due to interstitial carbon decreasing the activation energy for carbon jumps from one interstitial site to its neighbor.

  2. Warming: mechanism and latitude dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkin, Yury

    2010-05-01

    flows distribution with respect the Earth's hemispheres in first caused by eccentric position of the Earth core with respect to the mantle (displaced in present geological epoch in direction to Brasil). Of course the asymmetric distribution of heat loss is a long-term phenomenon in the geological history. But in present epoch due to drift of the core to the North we must observe some increasing of the heat flow of the Northern hemisphere and decreasing of the heat flow of the Southern hemisphere. In reality mentioned changes of heat flows are contrast (asymmetrical) and can have general tendency of increasing heat flows in both hemispheres (due to activization of relative oscillations of the core and mantle relatively polar axis). Contrast secular warming of Northern and Southern hemispheres of the Earth in present epoch. Dependence of warming from latitude. And warm flows are asymmetrically, more intensively warm is redistributed in northern hemisphere of the Earth and less intensively in a southern hemisphere. From here it follows, that the phenomenon of more intensive warming up of northern hemisphere, rather than southern in present period should be observed. Data of climatic observations (in first temperature trends for various latitude belts). More detailed analysis shows, that the phenomenon of warming in different form is shown in various latitudinal belts of the Earth. This phenomenon is more clearly shown in latitudinal belts further situated on latitude from South Pole, i.e. in high northern latitudes. Really, the trend of increase of temperature in northern hemisphere is characterized by greater rate, than a trend of temperature in a southern hemisphere. And not only trend components of temperatures increase with increasing of latitudes from southern pole to northern pole, but also amplitudes of decade fluctuations of temperature in high northern breadthes are more bigger than in southern hemisphere. Thus again it is necessary to expect a contrast and

  3. Bohr Hamiltonian with time-dependent potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, L.; Hassanabadi, H.; Sobhani, H.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, Bohr Hamiltonian has been studied with the time-dependent potential. Using the Lewis-Riesenfeld dynamical invariant method appropriate dynamical invariant for this Hamiltonian has been constructed and the exact time-dependent wave functions of such a system have been derived due to this dynamical invariant.

  4. Structural completeness in propositional logics of dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iemhoff, Rosalie; Yang, Fan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we prove that three of the main propositional logics of dependence (including propositional dependence logic and inquisitive logic), none of which is structural, are structurally complete with respect to a class of substitutions under which the logics are closed. We obtain an analogous

  5. Empirical Evaluation of Directional-Dependence Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoemmes, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Testing of directional dependence is a method to infer causal direction that recently has attracted some attention. Previous examples by e.g. von Eye and DeShon (2012a) and extensive simulation studies by Pornprasertmanit and Little (2012) have demonstrated that under specific assumptions, directional-dependence tests can recover the true causal…

  6. E. coli survival in waters: temperature dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowing the survival rates of water-borne Escherichia coli is important for evaluating microbial contamination and in making appropriate management decisions. E. coli survival rates are dependent on temperature; this dependency is routinely expressed using an analog of the Q10 model. This suggestion...

  7. Stress Testing with Student's t Dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J.W.G. Kole (Erik); C.G. Koedijk (Kees); M.J.C.M. Verbeek (Marno)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractIn this study we propose the use of the Student's t dependence function to model dependence between asset returns when conducting stress tests. To properly include stress testing in a risk management system, it is important to have accurate information about the (joint) probabilities of

  8. A Delicate Balance of Different Dependencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Benedikte

    of balancing different dependencies. In this perspective, Greenland is the case in extremis. The prospect of Greenland seceding from the Kingdom of Denmark relies upon it becoming embedded in the “international community of sovereign nation states” thus balancing different dependencies ‐ while also...

  9. Questions and dependency in intuitionistic logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciardelli, Ivano; Iemhoff, Rosalie; Yang, Fan

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the logic of questions and dependencies has been investigated in the closely related frameworks of inquisitive logic and dependence logic. These investigations have assumed classical logic as the background logic of statements, and added formulas expressing questions and

  10. Guarded dependent type theory with coinductive types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bizjak, Aleš; Grathwohl, Hans Bugge; Clouston, Ranald;

    2015-01-01

    We present guarded dependent type theory, gDTT, an extensional dependent type theory with a later' modality and clock quantifiers for programming and proving with guarded recursive and coinductive types. The later modality is used to ensure the productivity of recursive definitions in a modular...

  11. Stress Testing with Student's t Dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J.W.G. Kole (Erik); C.G. Koedijk (Kees); M.J.C.M. Verbeek (Marno)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractIn this study we propose the use of the Student's t dependence function to model dependence between asset returns when conducting stress tests. To properly include stress testing in a risk management system, it is important to have accurate information about the (joint) probabilities of

  12. Dependent Children and Suicide of Married Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Conrad M.; Gibbs, James O.

    1979-01-01

    Single suicides and married suicides with dependent children were compared to similar groups in the general population. Married people with dependent children experienced the lowest average suicide rate, but had a larger mean number of children than the population as a whole. (Author)

  13. Two Generations of Path Dependence in Economics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mogens Ove

    2010-01-01

    Even if there is no fully articulated and generally accepted theory of Path Dependence it has eagerly been taken up across a wide range of social sciences – primarily coming from economics. Path Dependence is most of all a metaphor that offers reason to believe, that some political, social...

  14. Water Temperature Dependence of Single Bubble Sonoluminescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilgenfeldt, Sascha; Lohse, Detlef; Moss, William C.

    1998-01-01

    The strong dependence of the intensity of single bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL) on water temperature observed in experiment can be accounted for by the temperature dependence of the material constants of water, most essentially of the viscosity, of the argon solubility in water, and of the vapor

  15. Competing risks and time-dependent covariates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortese, Giuliana; Andersen, Per K

    2010-01-01

    Time-dependent covariates are frequently encountered in regression analysis for event history data and competing risks. They are often essential predictors, which cannot be substituted by time-fixed covariates. This study briefly recalls the different types of time-dependent covariates...

  16. Machine scheduling with resource dependent processing times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigoriev, A.; Sviridenko, M.; Uetz, Marc Jochen

    We consider machine scheduling on unrelated parallel machines with the objective to minimize the schedule makespan. We assume that, in addition to its machine dependence, the processing time of any job is dependent on the usage of a discrete renewable resource, e.g. workers. A given amount of that

  17. Assessment of Dependency, Agreeableness, and Their Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Jennifer Ruth; Edmundson, Maryanne; Widiger, Thomas A.

    2009-01-01

    Agreeableness is central to the 5-factor model conceptualization of dependency. However, 4 meta-analyses of the relationship of agreeableness with dependency have failed to identify a consistent relationship. It was the hypothesis of the current study that these findings might be due in part to an emphasis on the assessment of adaptive, rather…

  18. Resource Abundance and Resource Dependence in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ji, K.; Magnus, J.R.; Wang, W.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reconsiders the ‘curse of resources’ hypothesis for the case of China, and distinguishes between resource abundance, resource rents, and resource dependence. Resource abundance and resource rents are shown to be approximately equivalent, and their association with resource dependence vari

  19. Escherichia coli survival in waters: Temperature dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowing the survival rates of water-borne Escherichia coli is important in evaluating microbial contamination and making appropriate management decisions. E. coli survival rates are dependent on temperature, a dependency that is routinely expressed using an analogue of the Q10 mo...

  20. Alcoholism, Field Dependency and Organic Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Patricia; Kahn, Marvin W.

    Although research has suggested that field dependency is a relatively stable characteristic of alcoholics, the results have been confounded by the use of different measures and different time intervals. To investigate the degree of organic brain impairment and its association with measured field dependency amongst alcoholics, 41 male alcoholics,…

  1. EFFECTS OF MELATONIN ON MORPHINE DEPENDENCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEIYiming; YUChangxi; XIEJieming

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the effects of melatonin (MT) on morphine dependence. METHODS: Morphine hydrochloride was administered (sc) to mice for 8 days to establish morphine dependence model. Withdrawal syndromes were precipitated by naloxone (ip). Different doses of MT were given either before or after the model established. Isolated guinea-pig ileums

  2. Sequential dependencies in magnitude scaling of loudness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joshi, Suyash Narendra; Jesteadt, Walt

    2013-01-01

    B were used to program the sone-potentiometer. The knob settings systematically influenced the form of the loudness function. Time series analysis was used to assess the sequential dependencies in the data, which increased with increasing exponent and were greatest for the log-law. It would be possible......, therefore, to choose knob properties that minimized these dependencies. When the sequential dependencies were removed from the data, the slope of the loudness functions did not change, but the variability decreased. Sequential dependencies were only present when the level of the tone on the previous trial...... was higher than on the current trial. According to the attention band hypothesis[Green and Luce, 1974, Perception & Psychophysics] these dependencies arise from a process similar to selective attention, but observations of rapid adaptation of neurons in the inferior colliculus based on stimulus level...

  3. Inter-organizational linkages and resource dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rod B. McNaughton

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined the relationship between inter-industry, inter-corporate ownership (ICO patterns and inter-industry resource exchange patterns. Using data from Statistics Canada, this paper reveals a positive association between the degree of ICO linkages and the degree of input–output dependence among Canadian industry groups. This provides empirical support for the primary assertion of resource dependence theory: that corporations employ ICO linkages to manage their input–output dependence resulting from recurrent resource exchanges. This research differs from extant tests of resource dependence in that it uses data for the population of firms (over a size threshold in Canada and includes all forms of interdependence between enterprises. The findings suggest scenarios in which corporations can adopt ICO linkages to manage resource dependence and reduce transaction costs.

  4. Management of benzodiazepine misuse and dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Jonathan; Murnion, Bridin

    2015-10-01

    There are well-recognised harms from long-term use of benzodiazepines. These include dependency, cognitive decline and falls. It is important to prevent and recognise benzodiazepine dependence. A thorough risk assessment guides optimal management and the necessity for referral. The management of dependence involves either gradual benzodiazepine withdrawal or maintenance treatment. Prescribing interventions, substitution, psychotherapies and pharmacotherapies can all contribute. Unless the patient is elderly, it is helpful to switch to a long-acting benzodiazepine in both withdrawal and maintenance therapy. The dose should be gradually reduced over weeks to lower the risk of seizures. Harms from drugs such as zopiclone and zolpidem are less well characterised. Dependence is managed in the same manner as benzodiazepine dependence.

  5. [Bilateral dependency and the minimal group paradigm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, N; Yamagishi, T; Kiyonari, T

    1996-06-01

    Two experiments examined the effect of illusion of control on in-group favoritism found in the minimal group situation (Tajfel, Billig, Bundy, & Flament, 1971). In bilateral dependency condition, each member made allocation decisions for in-group as well as out-group participants. It was exactly the same situation used in the original studies under the minimal group paradigm, and the subjects knew that their reward allocation too depended on others' decisions. In contrast, in unilateral dependency condition, the subjects made allocation decisions knowing that theirs were not dependent on others' decisions. In Experiment 1, an in-group bias in reward distribution was found in the bilateral dependency condition, but not in the unilateral condition. In Experiment 2, it was found that only those who felt illusion of control exhibited such an in-group bias. Results of the experiments therefore confirmed that illusion of control explained in-group favoritism, as Karp, Jin, Yamagishi, and Shinotsuka (1993) originally hypothesized.

  6. Isospin dependent properties of asymmetric nuclear matter

    CERN Document Server

    Chowdhury, P Roy; Samanta, C

    2009-01-01

    The density dependence of nuclear symmetry energy is determined from a systematic study of the isospin dependent bulk properties of asymmetric nuclear matter using the isoscalar and the isovector components of density dependent M3Y interaction. The incompressibility $K_\\infty$ for the symmetric nuclear matter, the isospin dependent part $K_{asy}$ of the isobaric incompressibility and the slope $L$ are all in excellent agreement with the constraints recently extracted from measured isotopic dependence of the giant monopole resonances in even-A Sn isotopes, from the neutron skin thickness of nuclei and from analyses of experimental data on isospin diffusion and isotopic scaling in intermediate energy heavy-ion collisions. This work provides a fundamental basis for the understanding of nuclear matter under extreme conditions, and validates the important empirical constraints obtained from recent experimental data.

  7. Bimodal lipid substrate dependence of phosphatidylinositol kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, B R

    1990-07-24

    Phosphatidylinositol (PI) kinase activity was solubilized from rat liver microsomes and partially purified by chromatography on hydroxyapatite and Reactive Green 19-Superose. Examination of the ATP dependence using a mixed micellar assay gave a Km of 120 microM. The dependence of reaction rate on PI was more complicated. PI kinase bound a large amount of Triton X-100, and as expected for a micelle-associated enzyme utilizing a micelle-associated lipid substrate, the reaction rate was dependent on the micellar mole fraction, PI/(PI + Triton X-100), with a Km of 0.02 (unitless). Activity showed an additional dependence on bulk PI concentration at high micelle dilution. These results demonstrated two kinetically distinguishable steps leading to formation of a productive PI/enzyme(/ATP) complex. The rate of the first step, which probably represents exchange of PI from the bulk micellar pool into enzyme-containing micelles, depends on bulk PI concentration. The rate of the second step, association of PI with enzyme within a single micelle, depends on the micellar mole fraction of PI. Depression of the apparent Vmax at low ionic strength suggested that electrostatic repulsion between negatively charged PI/Triton X-100 mixed micelles inhibits PI exchange, consistent with a model in which intermicellar PI exchange depends on micellar collisions.

  8. KPNA3 Variation Is Associated with Schizophrenia, Major Depression, Opiate Dependence and Alcohol Dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles P. Morris

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available KPNA3 is a gene that has been linked to schizophrenia susceptibility. In this study we investigated the possible association between KPNA3 variation and schizophrenia. To investigate a wider role of KPNA3 across psychiatric disorders we also analysed major depression, PTSD, nicotine dependent, alcohol dependent and opiate dependent cohorts. Using a haplotype block-based gene-tagging approach we genotyped six KPNA3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in 157 schizophrenia patients, 121 post-traumatic stress disorder patients, 120 opiate dependent patients, 231 alcohol dependent patients, 147 nicotine dependent patients and 266 major depression patients. One SNP rs2273816 was found to be significantly associated with schizophrenia, opiate dependence and alcohol dependence at the genotype and allele level. Major depression was also associated with rs2273816 but only at the allele level. Our study suggests that KPNA3 may contribute to the genetic susceptibility to schizophrenia as well as other psychiatric disorders.

  9. Implicit and self-attributed dependency needs in dependent and histrionic personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, R F

    1998-08-01

    Theorists speculate that dependent personality disorder (DPD) and histrionic personality disorder (HPD) are both associated with high levels of implicit (i.e., unconscious) dependency needs but speculate that only DPD is associated with high levels of self-attributed (i.e., conscious) dependency needs. To test this hypothesis, 444 undergraduates (236 women and 208 men) completed the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-Revised (PDQ-R), along with widely used measures of implicit dependency needs (the Rorschach Oral Dependency Scale; ROD), and self-attributed dependency needs (the Interpersonal Dependency Inventory; IDI). Correlational analyses and comparisons of IDI and ROD scores in participants scoring above and below the PDQ-R DPD and HPD thresholds supported theorists' speculations regarding implicit and self-attributed dependency needs in DPD and HPD. Implications of these results are discussed, and suggestions for future studies are offered.

  10. An Empirically Motivated Reinterpretation of Dependency Grammar

    CERN Document Server

    Covington, M A

    1994-01-01

    Dependency grammar is usually interpreted as equivalent to a strict form of X--bar theory that forbids the stacking of nodes of the same bar level (e.g., N' immediately dominating N' with the same head). But adequate accounts of _one_--anaphora and of the semantics of multiple modifiers require such stacking and accordingly argue against dependency grammar. Dependency grammar can be salvaged by reinterpreting its claims about phrase structure, so that modifiers map onto binary--branching X--bar trees rather than ``flat'' ones.

  11. Dependency injection with AngularJS

    CERN Document Server

    Knol, Alex

    2013-01-01

    This book is a practical, hands-on approach to using dependency injection and implementing test-driven development using AngularJS. Dependency Injection with AngularJS is aimed at developers who are aware of AngularJS but need to get started with using it in real life applications. Also, developers who want to get into test-driven development with AngularJS can use this book as practical guide. Even if you know about dependency injection, it can serve as a good reference on how it is used within AngularJS. Readers are expected to have some experience with JavaScript.

  12. Dispositivos de Controlo das Dependências

    OpenAIRE

    Basilio, António João Pinheiro

    2008-01-01

    Os dispositivos de controlo e as dependências, com ou sem substância (a droga, o álcool, o jogo, etc.), são o objecto principal da nossa pesquisa. Em suma, como caracterizar as metamorfoses que se verificam actualmente nos dispositivos de controlo das toxicodependências e qual a relação entre estas metamorfoses e os actuais debates sobre as dependências em geral? Esta dissertação debruça-se sobre alguns dos dispositivos de controlo das dependências, em Portugal, (2000-2006), atrav...

  13. RELATIONAL ASPECTS OF RELATIONAL DATABASE DEPENDENCIES

    OpenAIRE

    Okuma, Hitomi; Kawahara, Yasuo

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a relational treatment of inference rules for functional and multivalued dependencies in relational databases, to show the soundness and the completeness of the inference rules in Dedekind categories, which also cover the fuzzy case.

  14. [Drug dependence on benzodiazepines and antidepressants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbanck, P

    2009-09-01

    Since years, the concepts of drug abuse and drug dependence changed, due to new knowledge coming from the neurosciences. Specifically, the role of a brain structure called "reward circuit" was emphasized. Therefore, the diagnosis criteria for abuse and dependence on drugs are presently defined mostly from a behavioral point of view: both in animal models and in clinical situations, it was stressed the importance of drug-seeking behavior and of the loss of control of the consumption. The occurrence of a pharmacological dependence is in fact of concern for only some of addictive drugs. According to these new criteria, dependence on benzodiazepines or antidepressants is certainly not frequent, even if withdrawal manifestations can occur after a long-term exposition. Furthermore, it is important to keep in mind the risk for non-medical use of benzodiazepines in persons with illicit drug use.

  15. Buprenorphine Sublingual and Buccal (opioid dependence)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... buprenorphine and naloxone are used to treat opioid dependence (addiction to opioid drugs, including heroin and narcotic ... as ketoconazole (Nizoral); medications for anxiety such as benzodiazepines; cyclobenzaprine (Amrix); dextromethorphan (found in many cough medications; ...

  16. ALCHEMIC: Advanced time-dependent chemical kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, Dmitry A.

    2017-08-01

    ALCHEMIC solves chemical kinetics problems, including gas-grain interactions, surface reactions, deuterium fractionization, and transport phenomena and can model the time-dependent chemical evolution of molecular clouds, hot cores, corinos, and protoplanetary disks.

  17. Codependency: a disorder separate from chemical dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, P E; Gaborit, M

    1992-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between codependency (an excessive preoccupation with the lives, feelings, and problems of others), chemical dependency of a significant other, and depression. The Significant Others' Drug Use Survey (SODS) determined whether the subject was in a relationship with a significant other at risk of being chemically dependent. Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to assess depression. Two hypotheses were tested: first, that codependency exists independently of chemical dependency and, second, that codependent people tend to be more depressed than non-codependents. Results supported the first hypothesis, but not the second. A significant correlation between depression and having a significant other likely to be chemically dependent was observed. The usefulness of the concept of codependency is discussed with proposals for subsequent research.

  18. POME-copula for hydrological dependence analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D.; Wang, D.; Wang, L.; Chen, Y.; Chen, X.; Gu, S.

    2015-05-01

    Hydrological multivariate analysis has been widely studied using copula-based modelling, in which marginal distribution inference is one of the key issues. The main object of this study is to discuss the applicability of the principle of maximum entropy (POME) in marginal distribution inference, thus to develop a POME-copula framework to analyse the dependence of hydrological variables. Marginal distributions are derived with the POME approach before bivariate copulas constructed with corresponding parameters estimated by the dependence of the derived margins. The proposed POME-copula has been employed in hydrological dependence analyses, with the annual maximum streamflow and water level collected from the Yangtze River, and the monthly streamflow from the Yellow River. Results show that the POME-copula method performs well in capturing dependence patterns of various hydrological variables.

  19. Path dependence and independent utility regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Christian Lyhne; Skovgaard Poulsen, Lauge

    2007-01-01

    The establishment of the Danish independent regulatory authorities for the energy and telecommunications sectors was based upon EU directives as part of their liberalisation process. Following the concepts of transaction costs and path dependency this article analyses differences in independence...

  20. Work Disability Benefits? Depends on the Doc

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163275.html Work Disability Benefits? Depends on the Doc International study found ... widely varying opinions about whether claimants for work disability benefits should get those benefits, researchers report. After ...

  1. Frequency dependence of the subharmonic Shapiro steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekić, Jasmina; Ivić, Zoran

    2011-05-01

    Frequency dependence of the subharmonic Shapiro steps has been studied in the ac driven overdamped Frenkel-Kontorova model with deformable substrate potential. As potential gets deformed, in addition to the harmonic steps, subharmonic steps appear in the number and size that increase as the frequency of the external force increases. It was found that size of both harmonic and subharmonic steps strongly depend on the frequency where in the high-amplitude limit oscillatory dependence appears. When expressed as a function of period these oscillations of the step size with frequency have the same form as the oscillations of the step size with amplitude. Deformation of the potential has strong influence on these oscillations, and as in the case of amplitude dependence, with the increase of deformation, the same three distinctive types of behavior have been classified.

  2. EDTA-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbayram, Sinan; Dogan, Murat; Akgun, Cihangir; Caksen, Hüseyin; Oner, Ahmet Faik

    2011-10-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia (PTCP) is the phenomenon of a spurious low platelet count due to antiplatelet antibodies that cause platelet clumping in blood anticoagulated with EDTA. The aggregation of platelets in EDTA-dependent PTCP is usually prevented by other anticoagulants, such as sodium citrate or heparin. EDTA-dependent PTCP has never been associated with hemorrhagic diathesis or platelet dysfunction. In this article, a 10-year-old boy with EDTA- and heparin-dependent PTCP is presented because of rare presentation. We report that EDTA and heparin can induce platelet clumping, and thus spuriously low platelet counts. However, aggregation of platelets was not detected in blood samples with sodium citrate, and platelet count was normal.

  3. Measuring extremal dependencies in web graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volkovich, Y.; Litvak, Nelli; Zwart, B.

    We analyze dependencies in power law graph data (Web sample, Wikipedia sample and a preferential attachment graph) using statistical inference for multivariate regular variation. The well developed theory of regular variation is widely applied in extreme value theory, telecommunications and

  4. Investigating Dependences in Packet-queues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Weihua(曹卫华); Girigi Deogratias; Wu Min

    2004-01-01

    Many packet communication networks carry several classes of traffic,each with its own service characteristics. The packet arrival processes from each source are also often bursty (highly variable),which can contribute to long packet delay. Ssociated dependence among successive service times and between service times and inter arrival times also can be for packet queues involving variable packet lengths. These dependence effects are demonstrated analytically by considering a multi class single server queue with batch Poisson arrival process.

  5. Density Dependence of Nuclear Symmetry Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Behera, B; Tripathy, S K

    2016-01-01

    High density behaviour of nuclear symmetry energy is studied on the basis of a stiffest density dependence of asymmetric contribution to energy per nucleon in charge neutral $n+p+e+\\mu$ matter under beta equilibrium. The density dependence of nuclear symmetry energy obtained in this way is neither very stiff nor soft at high densities and is found to be in conformity with recent observations of neutron stars

  6. Traffic Management in Motorcycle Dependent Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Khuat, Viet Hung

    2007-01-01

    Many Asian cities, such as Hanoi, Bangkok, and Taipei, experience a special situation, the so-called motorcycle dependence. In these cities, urban transport system is dominated by the motorcycle. This domination influences urban form and land use pattern of the cities by remaining and growing of many two-wheeler accessed only blocks and motorcycle-based land uses. Nowadays, people in motorcycle dependent cities (MDCs) are quickly shifting to travelling by car instead of motorcycle. Under the ...

  7. Functional and Dysfunctional rumination in alcohol dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Grynberg, Delphine; Briane, Yasmine; Timary, Philippe De; Maurage, Pierre; 16th International Society of Addiction Medicine Annual Meeting

    2014-01-01

    Previous findings have shown that rumination predicts alcohol abuse independently of depression. However, the literature does not inform about the relationships between alcohol dependence and functional and dysfunctional rumination. It has indeed been suggested that there exist a functional form of rumination(concrete thinking) and a dysfunctional form of rumination (abstract thinking). In this study, our aim is to evaluate if alcohol dependence is similarly associated with functional/constru...

  8. [Prevalence and Therapy of Crystal Methamphetamine Dependence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyka, Michael; Koller, Gabi; Proebstl, Lisa; Kamp, Felicia; Franke, Andreas; Schmidt, Peggy; Baumgärtner, Gerd; Schacht-Jablonowsky, Maik; Sievert, Annegret; Straif, Maximilian; Hamdorf, Willem

    2017-02-01

    Following a short overview on the epidemiology and clinical correlates of amphetamine abuse and dependence, with special emphasis on metamphetamine ("crystal"), current treatment concepts and recent results of therapy research are discussed. The efficacy of two inpatient treatment models for methamphetamine dependence are currently studied in a study funded by the German Ministry of health. The study concept is given and possible implications are discussed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Pyridoxine dependent epilepsy: a suggestive electroclinical pattern

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    AIMS—To determine if there is an electroencephalographic pattern suggestive of pyridoxine dependent epilepsy that could be used to improve the chances of early diagnosis.
METHODS—A retrospective study was made of all the clinical records and electroencephalograms of neonates identified with pyridoxine dependent seizures between 1983 and 1994, at this hospital. Neonates whose seizures began after more than 28 days of life were excluded; in all, five patients from four fami...

  10. Renormalization Scheme Dependence and Renormalization Group Summation

    CERN Document Server

    McKeon, D G C

    2016-01-01

    We consider logarithmic contributions to the free energy, instanton effective action and Laplace sum rules in QCD that are a consequence of radiative corrections. Upon summing these contributions by using the renormalization group, all dependence on the renormalization scale parameter mu cancels. The renormalization scheme dependence in these processes is examined, and a renormalization scheme is found in which the effect of higher order radiative corrections is absorbed by the behaviour of the running coupling.

  11. Dependability analysis of WRT54GL router

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawkowski, Piotr; DzieŻyc, Marcin

    2016-09-01

    The paper presents the methodology, techniques and achieved results of dependability analysis of popular WRT54GL router using complex Software Implemented Fault Injection (SWIFI) system. Several problems and their solutions are discussed and presented, for instance, the SWIFI in embedded system, high controllability over the injected faults and observability of their effects, and the automation of the experiments. They are presented on the background of the achieved dependability results.

  12. Energy-dependent variability from accretion flows

    OpenAIRE

    Zdziarski, Andrzej A.

    2005-01-01

    We develop a formalism to calculate energy-dependent fractional variability (rms) in accretion flows. We consider rms spectra resulting from radial dependencies of the level of local variability (as expected from propagation of disturbances in accretion flows) assuming the constant shape of the spectrum emitted at a given radius. We consider the cases when the variability of the flow is either coherent or incoherent between different radial zones. As example local emission, we consider blackb...

  13. Density dependence of nuclear symmetry energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, B.; Routray, T. R.; Tripathy, S. K.

    2016-10-01

    High density behavior of nuclear symmetry energy is studied on the basis of the stiffest density dependence of asymmetric contribution to energy per nucleon in charge neutral n + p + e + μ matter under beta equilibrium. The density dependence of nuclear symmetry energy obtained in this way is neither very stiff nor soft at high densities and is found to be in conformity with recent observations of neutron stars.

  14. Affective Dependence and Aggression: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Petruccelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Emotionally dependent subjects may engage in controlling, restrictive, and aggressive behaviours, which limit their partner’s autonomy. The underlying causes of such behaviours are not solely based on levels of aggression, but act as a mean of maintaining the subject’s own sense of self-worth, identity, and general functioning. Objective. The aim of the paper is to explore the correlation between affective dependency and reactive/proactive aggression and to evaluate individual differences as predisposing factors for aggressive behaviour and emotional dependency. Methods. The Spouse-Specific Dependency Scale (SSDS and the Reactive Proactive Questionnaire (RPQ were administered to a sample of 3375 subjects. Results. In the whole sample, a positive correlation between emotional dependency and proactive aggression was identified. Differences with regard to sex, age group, and geographical distribution were evidenced for the scores of the different scales. Conclusion. A fundamental distinction between reactive and proactive aggression was observed, anchoring proactive aggression more strictly to emotional dependency. Sociocultural and demographical variables, together with the previous structuring of attachment styles, help to determine the scope, frequency, and intensity of the demands made to the partner, as well as to feed the fears of loss, abandonment, or betrayal.

  15. Maintainence Treatment of Opioid Dependence with Tramadol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Siddharth; Varshney, Mohit; Patil, Vaibhav; Lal, Rakesh

    2017-08-01

    Although tramadol has been used in the management of acute withdrawal in patients with opioid dependence, its use for maintenance treatment as a harm reduction approach has not been assessed systematically. This case series describes patients with opioid dependence who were treated with tramadol for long-term maintenance. Patients with opioid dependence who received treatment at the National Drug Dependence Treatment Centre of All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, were included in the study. Patients who received at least 6 months of tramadol and had follow-up adherence of more than 80% were included in the case series. A total of 25 cases were included, all of whom were males. The types of opioids being taken at the time of initiation of tramadol were natural opiates (poppy husk and raw opium), followed by heroin. The median dose of tramadol at initiation and maintenance was 300 mg/day. Nineteen patients were able to achieve complete abstinence to other opiates on tramadol. Tramadol may be an effective option in the long-term management of patients with opioid dependence. Further studies are required for establishing the efficacy of tramadol for agonist management of patients with opioid dependence.

  16. [Health Technology Dependency: A Concept Analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Miao-Yi; Chen, Ting-Yu; Kao, Chi-Wen

    2016-02-01

    Health technology dependence is a widely recognized concept that refers to the utilization of technology, including drugs, equipment, instruments, and related devices, to compensate for a physical disability or to prevent the progression of a disability. Although technology may significantly prolong the life of a patient, technology may also increase the psychological pressure of these patients and the burdens of their caregivers. There is a current dearth of related research and discussions related to the concept of "health technology dependency". Therefore, the present paper uses the strategies of concept analysis described by Walker & Avant (2010) to analyze this concept. The characteristic definition of health technology dependence addresses individuals who: (1) currently live with health technology, (2) may perceive physical or psychological burdens due to health technology, and (3) feel physical and psychological well-being when coping positively with their health technology dependency and, further, regard health technology as a part of their body. Further, the present paper uses case examples to help analyze the general concept. It is hoped that nurses may better understand the concept of "health technology dependency", consider the concerns of health-technology-dependent patients and their families, and develop relevant interventions to promote the well-being of these patients and their families.

  17. Poverty and resource dependence in rural India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narain, Urvashi [Resources for the Future,1616 P St. NW, 20036 Washington, DC (United States); Gupta, Shreekant [Department of Economics, Delhi School of Economics, University of Delhi, 110007 Delhi (India); Van ' t Veld, Klaas [University of Wyoming, Department of Economics and Finance, Dept 3985, 1000 E. University Ave, 82071 Laramie, Wyoming (United States)

    2008-05-15

    Previous studies of rural households in developing countries have tended to find that the dependence of these households on common-pool resources declines with income. Our study of households in Jhabua, India, finds a more complex relationship. Using the share of resource income in total long-run or 'permanent' income as our dependence measure - which we argue is more appropriate than the short-run income-based measure commonly used in the literature - we find that for households that collect any resources at all, dependence exhibits a U-shaped relationship with income. That is, the poorest and richest households depend more on resources than households with intermediate incomes. The poorest and richest households are also found to be least likely to collect, however, indicating that resource use at the income extremes is bimodal - either zero or above average. Moreover, the observed trends for resources as a whole are not mirrored in those for individual resources. Dependence on fuelwood and dung declines with income, for example, while dependence on fodder and construction wood increases. These findings suggest that common-pool resources are a productive source of income not just for the poor but also for the rich, and that improvements in the stocks of these resources can potentially form the basis of poverty reduction efforts in these economies. (author)

  18. Integrating models that depend on variable data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, A. T.; Hill, M. C.

    2016-12-01

    Models of human-Earth systems are often developed with the goal of predicting the behavior of one or more dependent variables from multiple independent variables, processes, and parameters. Often dependent variable values range over many orders of magnitude, which complicates evaluation of the fit of the dependent variable values to observations. Many metrics and optimization methods have been proposed to address dependent variable variability, with little consensus being achieved. In this work, we evaluate two such methods: log transformation (based on the dependent variable being log-normally distributed with a constant variance) and error-based weighting (based on a multi-normal distribution with variances that tend to increase as the dependent variable value increases). Error-based weighting has the advantage of encouraging model users to carefully consider data errors, such as measurement and epistemic errors, while log-transformations can be a black box for typical users. Placing the log-transformation into the statistical perspective of error-based weighting has not formerly been considered, to the best of our knowledge. To make the evaluation as clear and reproducible as possible, we use multiple linear regression (MLR). Simulations are conducted with MatLab. The example represents stream transport of nitrogen with up to eight independent variables. The single dependent variable in our example has values that range over 4 orders of magnitude. Results are applicable to any problem for which individual or multiple data types produce a large range of dependent variable values. For this problem, the log transformation produced good model fit, while some formulations of error-based weighting worked poorly. Results support previous suggestions fthat error-based weighting derived from a constant coefficient of variation overemphasizes low values and degrades model fit to high values. Applying larger weights to the high values is inconsistent with the log

  19. Sensory processing disorders among substance dependents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batya Engel-Yeger

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: (1 To compare sensory processing patterns as expressed in daily life between substance dependents and typical controls; (2 profile the prevalence of sensory processing disorders (SPD among substance dependents; and (3 examine gender effect on SPD within and between groups. Methods: Two hundred ninety people aged 19-64 participated in this study. The study group included 145 individuals who lived in the community or took part in an outpatient program because of addiction to drugs/alcohol and had been clean for over three months. The control group included 145 individuals who were not exposed to drugs or alcohol on a regular basis and did not suffer from addictive behavior. All participants filled a demographic questionnaire. Those who met the inclusion criteria completed the Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile (AASP so that their sensory processing patterns could be assessed. Results: When comparing both groups, the study group showed greater sensory sensitivity and significantly higher prevalence of SPD. Significant group/gender interaction was found in regard to sensation seeking. Discussion: SPD among substance dependents may be expressed in daily life by either hypersensitivity or hyposensitivity. The behavioral outcomes reflected by the AASP support neurophysiological manifestations about SPD of substance dependents. The evaluation process of substance dependents should refer to their sensory processing abilities. In case SPD is diagnosed, Occupational Therapy and specific sensory–based interventions should be considered in order to fit the specific needs of individuals and enhance their performance, meaningful participation, and quality of life.

  20. [Benzodiazepine dependence: causalities and treatment options].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberlein, A; Bleich, S; Kornhuber, J; Hillemacher, T

    2009-01-01

    Benzodiazepines are very often prescribed because of their anxiolytic, sedative and hypnotic properties. However, long term treatment is associated with development of benzodiazepine dependence. Besides development of physical dependence, which is linked to a typical benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome when drug intake is discontinued, also behavioural addiction to benzodiazepines has been described. Benzodiazepines are known to enhance GABAergic neurotransmission. Counter regulation of enhanced GABAergic neurotransmission by enhancement of glutamatergic neurotransmission is thought to be one reason underlying the typical symptoms of benzodiazepine withdrawal. Also alterations in the expression of neuropeptides like Corticotropin Releasing Hormone and Neuropeptide Y are thought to be involved in the development of benzodiazepine dependence. However, until today the knowledge of neural mechanisms underlying the development of benzodiazepine dependence remains incomplete. Because even long term treatment with small doses of benzodiazepines is associated with adverse reactions like cognitive dysfunctions withdrawal from benzodiazepines should be aimed. Anticonvulsants and antidepressants seem to reduce the intensity of benzodiazepine withdrawal and to enhance long term prognosis of dependence.

  1. The Hourglass Effect in Hierarchical Dependency Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Sabrin, Kaeser M

    2016-01-01

    Many hierarchically modular systems are structured in a way that resembles a bow-tie or hourglass. This "hourglass effect" means that the system generates many outputs from many inputs through a relatively small number of intermediate modules that are critical for the operation of the entire system (the waist of the hourglass). We investigate the hourglass effect in general (not necessarily layered) hierarchical dependency networks. Our analysis focuses on the number of source-to-target dependency paths that traverse each vertex, and it identifies the core of a dependency network as the smallest set of vertices that collectively cover almost all dependency paths. We then examine if a given network exhibits the hourglass property or not, comparing its core size with a "flat" (i.e., non-hierarchical) network that preserves the source dependencies of each target in the original network. As a possible explanation for the hourglass effect, we propose the Reuse Preference (RP) model that captures the bias of new mo...

  2. Marijuana dependence: not just smoke and mirrors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Divya; Schlosburg, Joel E; Wiebelhaus, Jason M; Lichtman, Aron H

    2011-01-01

    Marijuana (Cannabis sativa) is the most commonly used illicit drug worldwide as well as in the Unites States. Prolonged use of marijuana or repeated administration of its primary psychoactive constituent, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), can lead to physical dependence in humans and laboratory animals. The changes that occur with repeated cannabis use include alterations in behavioral, physiological, and biochemical responses. A variety of withdrawal responses occur in cannabis-dependent individuals: anger, aggression, irritability, anxiety and nervousness, decreased appetite or weight loss, restlessness, and sleep difficulties with strange dreams. But the long half-life and other pharmacokinetic properties of THC result in delayed expression of withdrawal symptoms, and because of the lack of contiguity between drug cessation and withdrawal responses the latter are not readily recognized as a clinically relevant syndrome. Over the past 30 years, a substantial body of clinical and laboratory animal research has emerged supporting the assertion that chronic exposure to cannabinoids produces physical dependence and may contribute to drug maintenance in cannabis-dependent individuals. However, no medications are approved to treat cannabis dependence and withdrawal. In this review, we describe preclinical and clinical research that supports the existence of a cannabinoid withdrawal syndrome. In addition, we review research evaluating potential pharmacotherapies (e.g., THC, a variety of antidepressant drugs, and lithium) to reduce cannabis withdrawal responses and examine how expanded knowledge about the regulatory mechanisms in the endocannabinoid system may lead to promising new therapeutic targets.

  3. Visual dependency and dizziness after vestibular neuritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sian Cousins

    Full Text Available Symptomatic recovery after acute vestibular neuritis (VN is variable, with around 50% of patients reporting long term vestibular symptoms; hence, it is essential to identify factors related to poor clinical outcome. Here we investigated whether excessive reliance on visual input for spatial orientation (visual dependence was associated with long term vestibular symptoms following acute VN. Twenty-eight patients with VN and 25 normal control subjects were included. Patients were enrolled at least 6 months after acute illness. Recovery status was not a criterion for study entry, allowing recruitment of patients with a full range of persistent symptoms. We measured visual dependence with a laptop-based Rod-and-Disk Test and severity of symptoms with the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI. The third of patients showing the worst clinical outcomes (mean DHI score 36-80 had significantly greater visual dependence than normal subjects (6.35° error vs. 3.39° respectively, p = 0.03. Asymptomatic patients and those with minor residual symptoms did not differ from controls. Visual dependence was associated with high levels of persistent vestibular symptoms after acute VN. Over-reliance on visual information for spatial orientation is one characteristic of poorly recovered vestibular neuritis patients. The finding may be clinically useful given that visual dependence may be modified through rehabilitation desensitization techniques.

  4. Dependent indefinites and their post-suppositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Henderson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of a new scope puzzle that arises through the interaction of two lesser-studied constructions, dependent indefinites and verbal pluractionality. The result is a novel account of dependent indefinites that correctly predicts their grammaticality with pluractionals by recognizing two ways of establishing the covariation they require: (i true distributive quantifiers, and (ii pluractional operators that structure thematic dependencies. The core insight is that both routes, while compositionally different, lead to similar output structures in Dynamic Plural Logic (DPlL (van den Berg 1996 or its closely related alternatives (Brasoveanu 2008, Nouwen 2003, which is what dependent indefinites constrain. The analysis not only permits a better understanding of dependent indefinites in Kaqchikel, an endangered and understudied Mayan language of highland Guatemala, but it clarifies their place in a crosslinguistic typology of similar expressions (e.g., Balusu 2006, Choe 1987, Farkas 1997a, 2002, Yanovich 2005. Along the way we produce the first description and analysis of these phenomena in Kaqchikel. http://dx.doi.org/10.3765/sp.7.6 BibTeX info

  5. Percolation on networks with conditional dependence group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wang

    Full Text Available Recently, the dependence group has been proposed to study the robustness of networks with interdependent nodes. A dependence group means that a failed node in the group can lead to the failures of the whole group. Considering the situation of real networks that one failed node may not always break the functionality of a dependence group, we study a cascading failure model that a dependence group fails only when more than a fraction β of nodes of the group fail. We find that the network becomes more robust with the increasing of the parameter β. However, the type of percolation transition is always first order unless the model reduces to the classical network percolation model, which is independent of the degree distribution of the network. Furthermore, we find that a larger dependence group size does not always make the networks more fragile. We also present exact solutions to the size of the giant component and the critical point, which are in agreement with the simulations well.

  6. Flavin-Dependent Enzymes in Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Wojcieszyńska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Statistical studies have demonstrated that various agents may reduce the risk of cancer’s development. One of them is activity of flavin-dependent enzymes such as flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMOGS-OX1, FAD-dependent 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and flavin-dependent monoamine oxidase. In the last decade, many papers concerning their structure, reaction mechanism and role in the cancer prevention were published. In our work, we provide a more in-depth analysis of flavin-dependent enzymes and their contribution to the cancer prevention. We present the actual knowledge about the glucosinolate synthesized by flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMOGS-OX1 and its role in cancer prevention, discuss the influence of mutations in FAD-dependent 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase on the cancer risk, and describe FAD as an important cofactor for the demethylation of histons. We also present our views on the role of riboflavin supplements in the prevention against cancer.

  7. On Capital Dependent Dynamics of Knowledge

    CERN Document Server

    Szydlowski, M; Szydlowski, Marek; Krawiec, Adam

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of growth models in terms of dynamical system theory. We analyse some forms of knowledge and its influence on economic growth. We assume that the rate of change of knowledge depends on both the rate of change of physical and human capital. First, we study model with constant savings. The model with optimised behaviour of households is also considered. We show that the model where the rate of change of knowledge depends only on the rate of change of physical capital can be reduced to the form of the two-dimensional autonomous dynamical system. All possible evolutional paths and the stability of solutions in the phase space are discussed in details. We obtain that the rate of growth of capital, consumption and output are greater in the case of capital dependent rate of change of knowledge.

  8. Temperature Dependence of Factors Controlling Isoprene Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Bryan N.; Yoshida, Yasuko; Damon, Megan R.; Douglass, Anne R.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the relationship of variability in the formaldehyde (HCHO) columns measured by the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) to isoprene emissions in the southeastern United States for 2005-2007. The data show that the inferred, regional-average isoprene emissions varied by about 22% during summer and are well correlated with temperature, which is known to influence emissions. Part of the correlation with temperature is likely associated with other causal factors that are temperature-dependent. We show that the variations in HCHO are convolved with the temperature dependence of surface ozone, which influences isoprene emissions, and the dependence of the HCHO column to mixed layer height as OMI's sensitivity to HCHO increases with altitude. Furthermore, we show that while there is an association of drought with the variation in HCHO, drought in the southeastern U.S. is convolved with temperature.

  9. Velocity dependence of friction of confined polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, V.N.; Persson, B.N.J.

    2009-01-01

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: (a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate, and (b) polymer sliding on polymer. We discuss the velocity dependence of the frictional...... cases the frictional shear stress increases monotonically with the sliding velocity. For polymer sliding on polymer [case (b)] the friction is much larger, and the velocity dependence is more complex. For hydrocarbons with molecular lengths from 60 to 140 C-atoms, the number of monolayers of lubricant...... shows no dependence on the sliding velocity, and for the shortest hydrocarbon (20 C-atoms) the frictional shear stress increases nearly linearly with the sliding velocity....

  10. Time-Dependent Transport in Nanoscale Devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhi-Dong; ZHANG Jin-Yu; YU Zhi-Ping

    2009-01-01

    A method for simulating ballistic time-dependent device transport,which solves the time-dependent SchrSdinger equation using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method together with Poisson's equation,is described in detail The effective mass SchrSdinger equation is solved. The continuous energy spectrum of the system is discretized using adaptive mesh,resulting in energy levels that sample the density-of-states.By calculating time evolution of wavefunctions at sampled energies,time-dependent transport characteristics such as current and charge density distributions are obtained.Simulation results in a uanowire and a coaxially gated carbon nanotube field-effect transistor (CNTFET) are presented.Transient effects,e.g.,finite rising time,are investigated in these devices.

  11. Seasonal Dependence in the Solar Neutrino Flux

    CERN Document Server

    De Holanda, P C; González-Garciá, M Concepción; Valle, José W F

    1999-01-01

    MSW solutions of the solar neutrino problem predict a seasonal dependence of the zenith angle distribution of the event rates, due to the non-zero latitude at the Super-Kamiokande site. We calculate this seasonal dependence and compare it with the expectations in the no-oscillation case as well as just-so scenario, in the light of the latest Super-Kamiokande 708-day data. The seasonal dependence can be sizeable in the large mixing angle MSW solution and would be correlated with the day-night effect. This may be used to discriminate between MSW and just-so scenarios and should be taken into account in refined fits of the data.

  12. Endothelium-dependent relaxation of blood vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hynes, M.R.

    1987-01-01

    Dilation of blood vessels in response to a large number of agents has been shown to be dependent on an intact vascular endothelium. The present studies examine some aspects of endothelium-dependent vasodilation in blood vessels of the rabbit and rat. Using the rabbit ear artery and the subtype-selective muscarinic antagonist pirenzepine, muscarinic receptors of the endothelium and smooth muscle cells were shown to be of the low affinity M/sub 2/ subtype. Inhibition of (/sup 3/H)(-)quinuclidinyl benzilate was used to determine affinity for the smooth muscle receptors while antagonism of methacholine induced vasodilation yielded the endothelial cell receptor affinity. The effect of increasing age (1-27 months) on endothelium-dependent relaxation was studied in aortic rings, perfused tail artery and perfused mesenteric bed of the Fisher 344 rat. The influence of endothelium on contractile responses was examined using the perfused caudal artery.

  13. Livelihood strategies, environmental dependency and rural poverty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walelign, Solomon Zena

    2016-01-01

    This article attempts to explore the nexus between rural households’ environmental dependency, poverty and livelihood strategies. Households’ income from each livelihood activities formed the basis for categorizing households according to livelihood strategies. The principal component analysis......, agglomerative hierarchical and the k-means cluster analysis were employed to determine the four livelihood clusters and to assign households to the identified livelihood strategies. Households’ environmental dependency, poverty and asset holding were compared across the strategies, and the determinants...... of livelihood choice were analyzed using multinomial logit model. The results indicate the existence of marked differences in environmental dependency, rural poverty and asset endowments across the livelihood groups. Household’s total saving, access to credit, production implements, business cost, exposure...

  14. Studies of Current Dependent Effects at ANKA

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, A S; Huttel, E; Pérez, F; Pont, M; Zimmermann, Frank

    2004-01-01

    The ANKA electron storage ring is operated at energies between 0.5 and 2.5 GeV. A major requirement for a synchrotron light source, such as ANKA, is to achieve a high beam current. A multitude of mostly impedance related effects depend on either bunch or total beam current. This paper gives an overview over the various beam studies performed at ANKA in this context, specifically the observation of current dependent detuning, the determination of the bunch length change with current from a measurement of the ratio between coherent and incoherent synchrotron tune and an assessment of the effective longitudinal loss factor from the current dependent horizontal closed orbit distortion.

  15. Pulsar braking: Time dependent moment of inertia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanec, Martin

    2017-08-01

    Pulsars rotate with extremely stable rotational frequency enabling one to measure its first and second time derivatives. These observed values can be combined to the so-called braking index. However observed values of braking index differ from the theoretical value of 3 corresponding to braking by magnetic dipole radiation being the dominant theoretical model. Such a difference can be explained by contribution of other mechanism like pulsar wind or quadrupole radiation, or by time dependency of magnetic field or moment of inertia. In this presentation we focus on influence of time dependent moment of inertia on the braking index. We will also discuss possible physical models for time-dependence of moment of inertia.

  16. Integrating Standard Dependency Schemes in QCSP Solvers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-Wei Jin; Fei-Fei Ma; Jian Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Quantified constraint satisfaction problems (QCSPs) are an extension to constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs) with both universal quantifiers and existential quantifiers.In this paper we apply variable ordering heuristics and integrate standard dependency schemes in QCSP solvers.The technique can help to decide the next variable to be assigned in QCSP solving.We also introduce a new factor into the variable ordering heuristics:a variable's dep is the number of variables depending on it.This factor represents the probability of getting more candidates for the next variable to be assigned.Experimental results show that variable ordering heuristics with standard dependency schemes and the new factor dep can improve the performance of QCSP solvers.

  17. Distance dependence of fluorescence resonance energy transfer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R S Swathi; K L Sebastian

    2009-09-01

    Deviations from the usual -6 dependence of the rate of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) on the distance between the donor and the acceptor have been a common scenario in the recent times. In this paper, we present a critical analysis of the distance dependence of FRET, and try to illustrate the non--6 type behaviour of the rate for the case of transfer from a localized electronic excitation on the donor, a dye molecule to three different energy acceptors with delocalized electronic excitations namely, graphene, a two-dimensional semiconducting sheet and the case of such a semiconducting sheet rolled to obtain a nanotube. We use simple analytic models to understand the distance dependence in each case.

  18. Quintessential Scale Dependence from Separate Universe Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Chiang, Chi-Ting; Hu, Wayne; LoVerde, Marilena

    2016-01-01

    By absorbing fluctuations into a local background, separate universe simulations provide a powerful technique to characterize the response of small-scale observables to the long-wavelength density fluctuations, for example those of the power spectrum and halo mass function which lead to the squeezed-limit $n$-point function and halo bias, respectively. Using quintessence dark energy as the paradigmatic example, we extend these simulation techniques to cases where non-gravitational forces in other sectors establish a Jeans scale across which the growth of density fluctuations becomes scale dependent. By characterizing the separate universes with matching background expansion histories, we show that the power spectrum and mass function responses depend on whether the long-wavelength mode is above or below the Jeans scale. Correspondingly, the squeezed bispectrum and halo bias also become scale dependent. Models of bias that are effectively local in the density field at a single epoch, initial or observed, canno...

  19. Environmental dependence in the ellipsoidal collapse model

    CERN Document Server

    Desjacques, Vincent

    2007-01-01

    N-body simulations have demonstrated a correlation between the properties of haloes and their environment. In this paper, we assess whether the ellipsoidal collapse model can produce a similar dependence. First, we explore the statistical correlation that originates from Gaussian initial conditions. We derive analytic expressions for a number of joint statistics of the shear tensor and estimate the sensitivity of the local characteristics of the shear to the global geometry of the large scale environment. Next, we concentrate on the dynamical aspect of the environmental dependence using a simplified model that takes into account the interaction between a collapsing halo and its environment. We find that the tidal force exerted by the surrounding mass distribution causes haloes embedded in overdense regions to virialize earlier. An effective density threshold whose shape depends on the large scale density provides a good description of this environmental effect. We show that, using this approach, a correlation...

  20. Robust classification using mixtures of dependency networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gámez, José A.; Mateo, Juan L.; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre

    2008-01-01

    Dependency networks have previously been proposed as alternatives to e.g. Bayesian networks by supporting fast algorithms for automatic learning. Recently dependency networks have also been proposed as classification models, but as with e.g. general probabilistic inference, the reported speed......-ups are often obtained at the expense of accuracy. In this paper we try to address this issue through the use of mixtures of dependency networks. To reduce learning time and improve robustness when dealing with data sparse classes, we outline methods for reusing calculations across mixture components. Finally......, the proposed model is empirically compared to other state-of-the-art classifiers, both in terms of accuracy and learning time....

  1. Drug Craving Terminology among Opiate Dependents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoomeh Maarefvand

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Drug craving is defined as an urge to continue substance abuse. Drug dependents use different terms to express their subjective feeling of craving. This study was an attempt to generate an understanding of craving terminology among different groups of Persian speaking Iranian opiate dependents.Method:Terms used for the meaning of drug craving were listed by 36 ex-opiate dependents in focus group discussion meetings in the first phase of the study. These terms were composed from Craving Terms Questionnaire. In the second phase, 120 subjects in 3 groups of opiate dependents and a group of Current Opiate Abusers rated usage frequency of each term in the questionnaire under a Twelve-Step Program, Methadone Maintenance, and Other Abstinence-based Programs.Results:Eighty nine terms were categorized in stimulation and triggering, attention bias and obsession, decision making difficulty, information processing impairment, withdrawal induction, drug euphoric experience, mental urge, motor control problem, negative valancing and stigmatizing. Terms for the three categories of mental urge, attention bias and obsession and motor control problem were used more than others. Patients in Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT group used different categories of craving terms in comparison to other groups. Abstinent cases reported higher total score for craving terms in comparison to other groups in Twelve-Step Program and other abstinence-based programs.Conclusion:Each craving-related term is associated with some aspects of the multidimensional concept of craving. A drug-craving thesaurus could provide a better understanding of craving nature from a drug dependent point of view. There are differences among abstinence vs. maintenance based treated opiate dependents in using craving terms. Addiction therapists will benefit from accessing drug dependents’ lexicon to assess and create therapeutic alliance with their clients.

  2. Dependence of Isoscaling Parameters on Nucleon-Nucleon Cross Section and Momentum-Dependent Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XING Yong-Zhong; HAO Huan-Feng; LIU Xiao-Bin; FANG Yu-Tian; LIU Bao-Yi

    2007-01-01

    @@ Influences of the isospin dependence of the in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross section and the momentum-dependent interaction (MDI) on the isotope scaling are investigated by using the isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics model (IQMD). The results show that both the isospin dependence of the in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross section and the momentum-dependent interaction affect the isoscaling parameters appreciably and independently. The influence caused by the isospin dependence of two-body collision is relatively larger than that from the MDI in the mean field. Aiming at exploring the implication of isoscaling behaviour, which the statistical equilibrium in the reaction is reached, the statistical properties in the mass distribution and the kinetic energy distribution of the fragments simulated by IQMD are presented.

  3. Linear representation of energy-dependent Hamiltonians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Znojil, Miloslav

    2004-05-01

    Quantum mechanics abounds in models with Hamiltonian operators which are energy-dependent. A linearization of the underlying Schrödinger equation with H= H( E) is proposed here via an introduction of a doublet of separate energy-independent representatives K and L of the respective right and left action of H( E). Both these new operators are non-Hermitian so that our formalism admits a natural extension to non-Hermitian initial H( E)s. Its applicability may range from pragmatic phenomenology and variational calculations (where all the subspace-projected effective operators depend on energy by construction) up to perturbation theory and quasi-exact constructions.

  4. Does melissa officinalis cause withdrawal or dependence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Kadir; Akgönül, Mehmet; Demirdaş, Arif; Akpınar, Abdullah

    2015-02-01

    Melissa officinalis is a medical and aromatic plant that is used for its hypnotic, sedative, and spasmolytic effects. This report presents a case study of30-year-old patient who was admitted to an emergency department with restlessness, tremor, distractibility, and sweating following a discontinuation of Melissa officinalis consumption. In this case, withdrawal symptoms may be related to the dependence effect caused by long-term use of Melissa officinalis. Although Melissa officinalis, a plant, is preferred by many patients as an alternative to pharmaceutical drugs, patients should be made aware that it may have a risk of dependency and can lead to withdrawal symptoms.

  5. Trusted Anomaly Detection with Context Dependency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Xin-guang; YAN Mei-feng

    2006-01-01

    Anomaly detection of privileged processes is one of the most important means to safeguard the host and system security. The key problem for improving detection performance is to identify local behavior of the short sequences in traces of system calls accurately. An alternative modeling method was proposed based on the typical pattern matching of short sequences, which builds upon the concepts of short sequences with context dependency and the specially designed aggregation algorithm. The experimental results indicate that the modeling method considering the context dependency improves clearly the sensitive decision threshold as compared with the previous modeling method.

  6. State Dependence in Unemployment among Danish Immigrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Nisar

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the extent state dependence among unemployed Danish immigrants in a dynamic discrete choice framework. Three alternative methodologies are employed to control for the problem of the initial condition. The empirical findings show that there is a considerable correlation between...... the unobserved individual heterogeneity and the initial condition and that the degree of state dependence is overstated if we do not address this problem. The results show that an individual who was unemployed at period “t-1” has 6.5 percentage points higher probability of being unemployed again at period t...

  7. State Dependence in Unemployment among Danish Immigrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Nisar

    This study examines the extent state dependence among unemployed Danish immigrants in a dynamic discrete choice framework. Three alternative methodologies are employed to control for the problem of the initial condition. The empirical findings show that there is a considerable correlation between...... the unobserved individual heterogeneity and the initial condition and that the degree of state dependence is overstated if we do not address this problem. The results show that an individual who was unemployed at period "t-1" has 6.5 percentage points higher probability of being unemployed again at period t...

  8. Modeling local dependence in longitudinal IRT models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Maja Olsbjerg; Christensen, Karl Bang

    2015-01-01

    Measuring change in a latent variable over time is often done using the same instrument at several time points. This can lead to dependence between responses across time points for the same person yielding within person correlations that are stronger than what can be attributed to the latent...... variable. Ignoring this can lead to biased estimates of changes in the latent variable. In this paper we propose a method for modeling local dependence in the longitudinal 2PL model. It is based on the concept of item splitting, and makes it possible to correctly estimate change in the latent variable....

  9. Temperature dependence of thermopower in molecular junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngsang; Lenert, Andrej; Meyhofer, Edgar; Reddy, Pramod

    2016-07-01

    The thermoelectric properties of molecular junctions are of considerable interest due to their promise for efficient energy conversion. While the dependence of thermoelectric properties of junctions on molecular structure has been recently studied, their temperature dependence remains unexplored. Using a custom built variable temperature scanning tunneling microscope, we measured the thermopower and electrical conductance of individual benzenedithiol junctions over a range of temperatures (100 K-300 K). We find that while the electrical conductance is independent of temperature, the thermopower increases linearly with temperature, confirming the predictions of the Landauer theory.

  10. Spin Dependent Collision of Ultracold Metastable Atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Uetake, Satoshi; Doyle, John M; Takahashi, Yoshiro

    2015-01-01

    Spin-polarized metastable atoms of ultracold ytterbium are trapped at high density and their inelastic collisional properties are measured. We reveal that in collisions of Yb(3P2) with Yb(1S0) there is relatively weak inelastic loss, but with a significant spin-dependence consistent with Zeeman sublevel changes as being the dominant decay process. This is in strong contrast to our observations of Yb(3P2)-Yb(3P2) collisional loss, which are, at low field, much more rapid and have essentially no spin dependence. Our results give a guideline to use the 3P2 states in many possible applications.

  11. Sustained-release naltrexone for opioid dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobmaier, P; Kornør, H; Kunøe, N; Bjørndal, A

    2008-04-16

    Naltrexone is an opioid antagonist which effectively blocks heroin effects. Since opioid dependence treatment with naltrexone tablets suffers from high dropout rates, several depot injections and implants are under investigation. Sustained-release formulations are claimed to be effective, but a systematic review of the literature is lacking. To evaluate the effectiveness of sustained-release naltrexone for opioid dependence and its adverse effects in different study populations. The following databases were searched from their inception to November 2007: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, LILACS, PsycINFO, ISI Web of Science, trial database at http://clinicaltrials.gov, available NIDA monographs, CPDD and AAAP conference proceedings. The reference lists of identified studies, published reviews and relevant web sides were searched manually. Study authors and drug companies were contacted to obtain any unpublished material or missing data. To evaluate effectiveness only RCTs were included. To evaluate safety, any clinical trial reporting adverse effects was assessed. Treatment condition was extended to include alcohol dependent subjects and healthy volunteers. Reviewers independently evaluated the reports, rated methodological quality and extracted data. Analyses were performed separately for opioid dependent, alcohol dependent and healthy participants. Foe effectiveness, one report met inclusion criteria. Two dosages of naltrexone depot injections (192 and 384 mg) were compared to placebo. High-dose significantly increased days in treatment compared to placebo (WMD 21.00, 95% CI 10.68 to 31.32, p<0.0001). High-dose compared to low-dose significantly increased days in treatment (WMD 12.00, 95% CI 1.69 to 22.31, p=0.02). Number of patients retained in treatment did not show significant differences between groups. For adverse effects, seventeen reports met inclusion criteria analyses, six were RCTs. Side effects were significantly

  12. Mode-dependent characterization of photonic lanterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dawei; Fu, Songnian; Cao, Zizheng; Tang, Ming; Liu, Deming; Giles, Ian; Koonen, Ton; Okonkwo, Chigo

    2016-05-15

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a simple method for characterizing the power transfer matrix of photonic lanterns (PLs) used for mode division multiplexing (MDM) transmission. Due to the optical reflection arising at output facet of the few-mode fiber (FMF), we are able to detect the power at the individual single-mode fiber (SMF) input port and exploit a series of equations based on the theory of energy conservation to obtain mode-dependent characteristics of the PL, including the property of mode selectivity, insertion loss (IL), and channel-dependent loss (CDL). The proposed method is experimentally verified for both the mode selective and the nonmode selective photonic lanterns.

  13. Measuring Class Cohesion Based on Dependence Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-Qiang Chen; Bao-Wen Xu; Yu-Ming Zhou

    2004-01-01

    Classes are the basic modules in object-oriented (OO) software, which consist of attributes and methods. Thus, in OO environment, the cohesion is mainly about the tightness of the attributes and methods of classes. This paper discusses the relationships between attributes and attributes, attributes and methods, methods and methods of a class based on dependence analysis. Then the paper presents methods to compute these dependencies. Based on these, the paper proposes a method to measure the class cohesion, which satisfies the properties that a good measurement should have. The approach overcomes the limitations of previous class cohesion measures, which consider only one or two of the three relationships in a class.

  14. Investigations of Low Temperature Time Dependent Cracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Sluys, W A; Robitz, E S; Young, B A; Bloom, J

    2002-09-30

    The objective of this project was to investigate metallurgical and mechanical phenomena associated with time dependent cracking of cold bent carbon steel piping at temperatures between 327 C and 360 C. Boiler piping failures have demonstrated that understanding the fundamental metallurgical and mechanical parameters controlling these failures is insufficient to eliminate it from the field. The results of the project consisted of the development of a testing methodology to reproduce low temperature time dependent cracking in laboratory specimens. This methodology was used to evaluate the cracking resistance of candidate heats in order to identify the factors that enhance cracking sensitivity. The resultant data was integrated into current available life prediction tools.

  15. Benzodiazepines consumption: does dependence vary with age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérardin, Marie; Victorri-Vigneau, Caroline; Guerlais, Marylène; Guillou-Landreat, Morgane; Grall-Bronnec, Marie; Jolliet, Pascale

    2014-09-01

    We have compared two groups of chronic benzodiazepines (or zolpidem/zopiclone) users: "Seniors," aged 65 years or more, and "Adults," aged less than 65 years. The study took place in the Pays de Loire region. The questionnaire assesses dependence based on items from the DSM-IV. The analysis was based on 176 Senior questionnaires and 212 Adult questionnaires. Whereas Senior patients take benzodiazepines routinely with little negative consequences, Adults suffer from underlying psychological trouble, mention a higher consumption than planned, which causes negative consequences. 35.2% of Seniors are dependent on benzodiazepines versus 49.8% of Adults.

  16. Two Dimensional Cahn-Hilliard Equation with Concentration Dependent Mobility and Gradient Dependent Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG RUI; YIN JING-XUE; WANG LIANG-WEI

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we consider the initial boundary value problem of CahnHilliard equation with concentration dependent mobility and gradient dependent potential. By the Lp type estimates and the theory of Morrey spaces, we prove the H(o)der continuity of the solutions. Then we obtain the existence of global classical solutions. The present work can be viewed as an extension to the previous work on the Cahn-Hilliard equation with concentration dependent mobility and potential.

  17. Environmental Enrichment Modifies the PKA-Dependence of Hippocampal LTP and Improves Hippocampus-Dependent Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Duffy, Steven N.; Craddock, Kenneth J.; Abel, Ted; Nguyen, Peter V.

    2001-01-01

    cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is critical for the expression of some forms of long-term potentiation (LTP) in area CA1 of the mouse hippocampus and for hippocampus-dependent memory. Exposure to spatially enriched environments can modify LTP and improve behavioral memory in rodents, but the molecular bases for the enhanced memory performance seen in enriched animals are undefined. We tested the hypothesis that exposure to a spatially enriched environment may alter the PKA dependence of h...

  18. Affective temperaments in nicotine-dependent and non-nicotine-dependent individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Włodzimierz Oniszczenko

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background One of the smoking risk factors influencing nicotine dependency may be human personality; however, few studies have examined the association between Akiskal’s affective temperaments and smoking in adults. Our study aims to evaluate the associations between nicotine dependence and affective temperaments using the TEMPS-A. Participants and procedure The sample in this study consisted of 678 healthy Caucasian adults aged from 17 to 69 years, including 134 self-declared nicotine-dependent subjects (89 females and 45 males and 544 self-declared non-nicotine-dependent subjects (352 females and 192 males. The Polish version of the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A was used to assess affective temperaments (depressive, cyclothymic, hyperthymic, irritable and anxious. Results Nicotine-dependent individuals scored higher on cyclothymic, irritable and anxious temperaments than non-nicotine-dependents (no significant differences with regard to depressive and hyperthymic temperaments. Among the nicotine-dependent individuals, females scored higher on anxious temperaments than males (no differences with regard to the other affective temperaments, and among the non-nicotine-dependent individuals, females exhibited more depressive, cyclothymic and anxious temperaments than males, while males exhibited more hyperthymic temperaments than females. Conclusions The results suggest that affective, cyclothymic and irritable temperaments in both genders and anxious temperaments in females may be predictors of nicotine dependence in adults.

  19. Oppor tunistic maintenance for multi-component systems considering structural dependence and economic dependence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junbao Geng; Michael Azarian; Michael Pecht

    2015-01-01

    Although opportunistic maintenance strategies are widely used for multi-component systems, al opportunistic mainte-nance strategies only consider economic dependence and do not take structural dependence into account. An opportunistic main-tenance strategy is presented for a multi-component system that considers both structural dependence and economic dependence. The cost relation and time relation among components based on structural dependence are developed. The maintenance strategy for each component of a multi-component system involves one of five maintenance actions, namely, no-maintenance, a minimal maintenance action, an imperfect maintenance action, a perfect maintenance action, and a replacement action. The maintenance action is determined by the virtual age of the component, the life expectancy of the component, and the age threshold values. Monte Carlo simulation is designed to obtain the optimal oppor-tunistic maintenance strategy of the system over its lifetime. The simulation result reveals that the minimum maintenance cost with a strategy that considers structural dependence is less than that with a strategy that does not consider structural dependence. The availability with a strategy that considers structural dependence is greater than that with a strategy that does not consider structural dependence under the same conditions.

  20. Reading Comprehension Depends on Language Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfetti, Charles A.

    A corollary of the principle that reading comprehension depends on language comprehension is that word skill plus language comprehension skill produces reading comprehension skill. This corollary points to word decoding as being the major source of differences in skilled reading. Various data supporting this claim have been collected from…

  1. Genetic relationship between schizophrenia and nicotine dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, J.; Bacanu, S.A.; Yu, H.; Zhao, Z.; Jia, P.; Kendler, K.S.; Kranzler, H.R.; Gelernter, J.; Farrer, L.; Minica, C.C.; Pool, R.; Milaneschi, Y.; Boomsma, D.I.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Tyndale, R.F.; Ware, J.J.; Vink, J.M.; Kaprio, J.; Munafò, M.R.; Chen, X.

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that most schizophrenia patients smoke cigarettes. There are different hypotheses postulating the underlying mechanisms of this comorbidity. We used summary statistics from large meta-analyses of plasma cotinine concentration (COT), Fagerström test for nicotine dependence (FTND) and

  2. Limited dependent variable models for panel data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charlier, E.

    1997-01-01

    Many economic phenomena require limited variable models for an appropriate treatment. In addition, panel data models allow the inclusion of unobserved individual-specific effects. These models are combined in this thesis. Distributional assumptions in the limited dependent variable models are

  3. Event dependent sampling of recurrent events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Tine Kajsa; Andersen, Per Kragh; Angst, Jules;

    2010-01-01

    retrospective and prospective disease course histories are used. We examine two methods to correct for the selection depending on which data are used in the analysis. In the first case, the conditional distribution of the process given the pre-selection history is determined. In the second case, an inverse-probability...

  4. Strongly Scale-dependent Non-Gaussianity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riotto, Antonio; Sloth, Martin Snoager

    2010-01-01

    We discuss models of primordial density perturbations where the non-Gaussianity is strongly scale-dependent. In particular, the non-Gaussianity may have a sharp cut-off and be very suppressed on large cosmological scales, but sizeable on small scales. This may have an impact on probes of non...

  5. Infliximab dependency in children with Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duricova, D; Pedersen, N; Lenicek, M

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently, infliximab dependency has been described. AIM: To assess frequency of ID in 82 consecutive Crohn's disease children treated with infliximab 2000-2006 and to describe clinical and genetic predictors of long-term infliximab response. METHODS: A phenotype model of infliximab...

  6. Non-linear dependences in finance

    CERN Document Server

    Chicheportiche, Rémy

    2013-01-01

    The thesis is composed of three parts. Part I introduces the mathematical and statistical tools that are relevant for the study of dependences, as well as statistical tests of Goodness-of-fit for empirical probability distributions. I propose two extensions of usual tests when dependence is present in the sample data and when observations have a fat-tailed distribution. The financial content of the thesis starts in Part II. I present there my studies regarding the "cross-sectional" dependences among the time series of daily stock returns, i.e. the instantaneous forces that link several stocks together and make them behave somewhat collectively rather than purely independently. A calibration of a new factor model is presented here, together with a comparison to measurements on real data. Finally, Part III investigates the temporal dependences of single time series, using the same tools and measures of correlation. I propose two contributions to the study of the origin and description of "volatility clustering"...

  7. Pyridoxine-Dependent Seizures and MRI Abnormality

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1996-01-01

    An infant with pyridoxine-dependent seizures and MRI, PET, and EEG evidence of diffuse structural or functional brain disease is reported from the University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM, and the UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA.

  8. On Channels with Action-Dependent States

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmadi, Behzad

    2012-01-01

    Action-dependent channels model scenarios in which transmission takes place in two successive phases. In the first phase, the encoder selects an "action" sequence, with the twofold aim of conveying information to the receiver and of affecting in a desired way the state of the channel to be used in the second phase. In the second phase, communication takes place in the presence the mentioned action-dependent state. In this work, two extensions of the original action-dependent channel are studied. In the first, the decoder is interested in estimating not only the message, but also the state sequence within an average per-letter distortion. Under the constraint of common knowledge (i.e., the decoder's estimate of the state must be recoverable also at the encoder) and assuming non-causal state knowledge at the encoder in the second phase, we obtain a single-letter characterization of the achievable rate-distortion-cost trade-off. In the second extension, we study an action-dependent degraded broadcast channel. Un...

  9. Correlates of baclofen effectiveness in alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lekhansh Shukla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol dependence is a global concern. Baclofen has shown promise as an anti-craving agent but its efficiency remains to be settled. We reviewed 549 male cases diagnosed with alcohol dependence who received Acamprosate (201 or Baclofen (348. ′Time to first drink′ was compared between two groups and multiple regression analysis was done in baclofen group to identify correlates of effectiveness. There was a significant difference in outcome measure between Baclofen (M = 4.44, SD = 3.75 and Acamprosate group (M = 3.73, SD = 2.19; t (547 = 2.45, P = 0.01. Initial regression analysis with six predictor variables (average daily alcohol units, current age, age at onset of dependence, family history, duration of dependence and dose of baclofen in mg/day showed significant correlation of outcome variable with only two predictor variables - dose of baclofen and average daily intake. Using the hierarchical method it was found that ′dose of baclofen′ and ′average alcohol intake′ explain a significant amount of variance in ′time to first drink′. [F (1, 345 = 182.8, P < 0.001, R2 = 0.52, R2 adjusted = 0.51]. This information can be used to select patients in long term longitudinal studies and may explain variable results seen in clinical trials of baclofen done earlier.

  10. Kernel parameter dependence in spatial factor analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2010-01-01

    feature space via the kernel function and then performing a linear analysis in that space. In this paper we shall apply a kernel version of maximum autocorrelation factor (MAF) [7, 8] analysis to irregularly sampled stream sediment geochemistry data from South Greenland and illustrate the dependence...

  11. The dependency and contingency of politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantafillou, Peter

    2016-01-01

    differences which make any analytical synthesis both a difficult and a questionable endeavour. In particular, whereas historical institutionalism seeks to explain the present in terms of its dependence on past events, genealogy seeks to provoke the present by demonstrating its historical contingency. In spite...

  12. Practical Reflection and Metaprogramming for Dependent Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, David Raymond

    2016-01-01

    to program in these embedded languages. Interpreters and compilers must always take these invariants into account at each stage, and authors of embedded languages must work hard to relieve users of the burden of proving these properties. Idris is a dependently typed functional programming language whose...

  13. Measuring extremal dependencies in web graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volkovich, Y.; Litvak, Nelli; Zwart, B.

    2008-01-01

    We analyze dependencies in power law graph data (Web sample, Wikipedia sample and a preferential attachment graph) using statistical inference for multivariate regular variation. The well developed theory of regular variation is widely applied in extreme value theory, telecommunications and mathemat

  14. Activity Therapy Services and Chemical Dependency Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Mark R.; Townsley, Robin K.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses how music, occupational, and recreation therapies can contribute to comprehensive treatment programs for chemical dependency. Sees prime contribution of activity therapy as lying in nature of experiential education, applying insight gained in counseling sessions and discussion groups to practical real-life situations. (Author/NB)

  15. TRANSPORTATION INEQUALITIES FOR WEAKLY DEPENDENT SEQUENCES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Yutao

    2011-01-01

    In[3],they gave necessary and sufficient condition for T1C and then as applications T1C for weakly dependent sequences was established.In this note,based on Gozlan-Léonard characterization for W1H-inequalities,we extends this result to W1Hinequalities.

  16. Proton energy dependence of slow neutron intensity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teshigawara, Makoto; Harada, Masahide; Watanabe, Noboru; Kai, Tetsuya; Sakata, Hideaki; Ikeda, Yujiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Ooi, Motoki [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    The choice of the proton energy is an important issue for the design of an intense-pulsed-spallation source. The optimal proton beam energy is rather unique from a viewpoint of the leakage neutron intensity but no yet clear from the slow-neutron intensity view point. It also depends on an accelerator type. Since it is also important to know the proton energy dependence of slow-neutrons from the moderators in a realistic target-moderator-reflector assembly (TMRA). We studied on the TMRA proposed for Japan Spallation Neutron Source. The slow-neutron intensities from the moderators per unit proton beam power (MW) exhibit the maximum at about 1-2 GeV. At higher proton energies the intensity per MW goes down; at 3 and 50 GeV about 0.91 and 0.47 times as low as that at 1 GeV. The proton energy dependence of slow-neutron intensities was found to be almost the same as that of total neutron yield (leakage neutrons) from the same bare target. It was also found that proton energy dependence was almost the same for the coupled and decoupled moderators, regardless the different moderator type, geometry and coupling scheme. (author)

  17. Evaluation Framework for Dependable Mobile Learning Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensassi, Manel; Laroussi, Mona

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the dependability analysis is to predict inconsistencies and to reveal ambiguities and incompleteness in the designed learning scenario. Evaluation, in traditional learning design, is generally planned after the execution of the scenario. In mobile learning, this stage becomes too difficult and expensive to apply due to the complexity…

  18. Diagnostic accuracy of the care dependency scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Ate; Tiesinga, LJ; Plantinga, L; Dassen, TWN; Veltman, G.

    2005-01-01

    Aim. This paper reports an investigation of the diagnostic accuracy of the Care Dependency Scale (CDS). Background. Assessment tools can be described in terms of diagnostic accuracy, or the ability to correctly classify subjects into clinically relevant subgroups. Diagnostic accuracy can be determin

  19. Identifying dependability requirements for space software systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Toshiro Yano

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Computer systems are increasingly used in space, whether in launch vehicles, satellites, ground support and payload systems. Software applications used in these systems have become more complex, mainly due to the high number of features to be met, thus contributing to a greater probability of hazards related to software faults. Therefore, it is fundamental that the specification activity of requirements have a decisive role in the effort of obtaining systems with high quality and safety standards. In critical systems like the embedded software of the Brazilian Satellite Launcher, ambiguity, non-completeness, and lack of good requirements can cause serious accidents with economic, material and human losses. One way to assure quality with safety, reliability and other dependability attributes may be the use of safety analysis techniques during the initial phases of the project in order to identify the most adequate dependability requirements to minimize possible fault or failure occurrences during the subsequent phases. This paper presents a structured software dependability requirements analysis process that uses system software requirement specifications and traditional safety analysis techniques. The main goal of the process is to help to identify a set of essential software dependability requirements which can be added to the software requirement previously specified for the system. The final results are more complete, consistent, and reliable specifications.

  20. Dependency in Hydrological Extreme Value Analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Boniphace, Edwin

    2012-01-01

    Contents Dedication i Acknowledgments iii Contents v List of Figures vii 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Extreme value theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.2 Sum plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.3 Quantile-quantile plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.4 Impact of dependence in data on qq-plots . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.5 Scope of this thesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 ...

  1. Cost of Oil Dependence: A 2000 Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, D.L.; Tishchishyna, N.I.

    2000-05-01

    Oil dependence remains a potentially serious economic and strategic problem for the United States. This report updates previous estimates of the costs of oil dependence to the U.S. economy and introduces several methodological enhancements. Estimates of the costs to the U.S. economy of the oil market upheavals of the last 30 years are in the vicinity of $7 trillion, present value 1998 dollars, about as large as the sum total of payments on the national debt over the same period. Simply adding up historical costs in 1998 dollars without converting to present value results in a Base Case cost estimate of $3.4 trillion. Sensitivity analysis indicates that cost estimates are sensitive to key parameters. A lower bound estimate of $1.7 trillion and an upper bound of $7.1 trillion (not present value) indicate that the costs of oil dependence have been large under almost any plausible set of assumptions. These cost estimates do not include military, strategic or political costs associated with U.S. and world dependence on oil imports.

  2. Costs of Oil Dependence: A 2000 Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, D.L.

    2000-05-17

    Oil dependence remains a potentially serious economic and strategic problem for the United States. This report updates previous estimates of the costs of oil dependence to the U.S. economy and introduces several methodological enhancements. Estimates of the costs to the U.S. economy of the oil market upheavals of the last 30 years are in the vicinity of $7 trillion, present value 1998 dollars, about as large as the sum total of payments on the national debt over the same period. Simply adding up historical costs in 1998 dollars without converting to present value results in a Base Case cost estimate of $3.4 trillion. Sensitivity analysis indicates that cost estimates are sensitive to key parameters. A lower bound estimate of $1.7 trillion and an upper bound of $7.1 trillion (not present value) indicate that the costs of oil dependence have been large under almost any plausible set of assumptions. These cost estimates do not include military, strategic or political costs associated with U.S. and world dependence on oil imports.

  3. Smartphone dependence classification using tensor factorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yejin; Yook, In Hye; Yu, Hwanjo; Kim, Dai-Jin

    2017-01-01

    Excessive smartphone use causes personal and social problems. To address this issue, we sought to derive usage patterns that were directly correlated with smartphone dependence based on usage data. This study attempted to classify smartphone dependence using a data-driven prediction algorithm. We developed a mobile application to collect smartphone usage data. A total of 41,683 logs of 48 smartphone users were collected from March 8, 2015, to January 8, 2016. The participants were classified into the control group (SUC) or the addiction group (SUD) using the Korean Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale for Adults (S-Scale) and a face-to-face offline interview by a psychiatrist and a clinical psychologist (SUC = 23 and SUD = 25). We derived usage patterns using tensor factorization and found the following six optimal usage patterns: 1) social networking services (SNS) during daytime, 2) web surfing, 3) SNS at night, 4) mobile shopping, 5) entertainment, and 6) gaming at night. The membership vectors of the six patterns obtained a significantly better prediction performance than the raw data. For all patterns, the usage times of the SUD were much longer than those of the SUC. From our findings, we concluded that usage patterns and membership vectors were effective tools to assess and predict smartphone dependence and could provide an intervention guideline to predict and treat smartphone dependence based on usage data. PMID:28636614

  4. The Price of Welfare Dependency: Children Pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rebecca M.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses child poverty, the causes of high poverty rates among children, and proposals and programs aimed at reforming Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC). Proposes another approach to providing cash benefits to children in the form of a children's allowance or refundable tax credit similar to programs in other industrialized nations.…

  5. Frequency-Dependent Streaming Potentials: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Jouniaux

    2012-01-01

    which both formation factor and permeability are measured, is predicted to depend on the permeability as inversely proportional to the permeability. We review the experimental setups built to be able to perform dynamic measurements. And we present some measurements and calculations of the dynamic streaming potential.

  6. Some pharmacological aspects of drug dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesher, G B

    1975-12-06

    The self-administration of drugs to achieve altered states of consciousness is recognized as normal human behaviour. Community attitudes towards drug use vary according to the drug and often bear little relationship to the known pharmacological and toxicological effects of the drug. For an objective assessment of the potential dangers associated with drug use, a distinction is made between drug use and drug abuse. It is stressed that the progression from drug use to drug abuse involves social and psychological factors in addition to the pharmacological factors which are outlined in this paper. The sequential development of drug dependency is described under the headings: Induction; continued consumption; compulsive consumption; withdrawal; abstinence; reinduction. Man uses psychotropic drugs because he finds the effects rewarding. Some experimental models to explore the neurophysiological basis of the reward are described. Experiments employing inhibitors of protein synthesis suggest that the phenomena of tolerance and physical dependence involve the synthesis of new protein. It has been suggested that the new protein might be new receptor molecules for the drug or neurotransmitter substances. These new receptors might constitute a "drug memory" and provide a possible explanation for high relapse rate of drug dependent subjects. A pharmacological basis for the methadone maintenance programme of management of narcotic dependent subjects is briefly outlined.

  7. Efficient bootstrap with weakly dependent processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bravo, Francesco; Crudu, Federico

    2012-01-01

    The efficient bootstrap methodology is developed for overidentified moment conditions models with weakly dependent observation. The resulting bootstrap procedure is shown to be asymptotically valid and can be used to approximate the distributions of t-statistics, the J-statistic for overidentifying

  8. Eye metrics for task-dependent automation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imants, P.; Greef, T.E. de

    2014-01-01

    Future air traffic is expected to grow increasingly, opening up a gap for task dependent automation and adaptive interfaces, helping the Air Traffic Controller to cope with fluctuating workloads. One of the challenging factors in the application of such intelligent systems concerns the question what

  9. Externally definable sets and dependent pairs

    CERN Document Server

    Chernikov, Artem

    2010-01-01

    We prove that externally definable sets in first order NIP theories have honest definitions, giving a new proof of Shelah's expansion theorem. Also we discuss a weak notion of stable embeddedness true in this context. Those results are then used to prove a general theorem on dependent pairs, which in particular answers a question of Baldwin and Benedikt on naming an indiscernible sequence.

  10. CONTINUOUS DEPENDENCE FOR A BACKWARD PARABOLIC PROBLEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘继军

    2003-01-01

    We consider a backward parabolic problem arising in the description of the behavior of the toroidal part of the magenetic field in a dynamo problem. In our backward time problem, the media parameters are spatial distributed and the boundary conditions are of the Robin type. For this ill-posed problem, we prove that the solution depends continuously on the initial-time geometry.

  11. Scale dependent inference in landscape genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel A. Cushman; Erin L. Landguth

    2010-01-01

    Ecological relationships between patterns and processes are highly scale dependent. This paper reports the first formal exploration of how changing scale of research away from the scale of the processes governing gene flow affects the results of landscape genetic analysis. We used an individual-based, spatially explicit simulation model to generate patterns of genetic...

  12. Dutch Cross Serial Dependencies in HPSG

    CERN Document Server

    Rentier, G

    1994-01-01

    We present an analysis of Dutch cross serial dependencies in Head-driven Phrase Structure Grammar. Arguably, our analysis differs from other analyses in that we do not refer to `additional' mechanisms (e.g., sequence union, head wrapping): just standard structure sharing, an immediate dominance schema and a linear precedence rule.

  13. Colloidal solitary waves with temperature dependent compressibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, A.; Marchant, T. R.

    2014-05-01

    Spatial solitary waves which form in colloidal suspensions of dielectric nanoparticles are considered. The interactions, or compressibility, of the colloidal particles, is modelled using a series in the particle density, or packing fraction, where the virial, or series, coefficients depend on the type of particle interaction model. Both the theoretical hard disk and sphere repulsive models, and a model with temperature dependent compressibility, are considered. Experimental results show that particle interactions can be temperature dependent and either repulsive or attractive in nature, so we model the second virial coefficient using a physically realistic temperature power law. One- and two-dimensional semi-analytical colloidal solitary wave solutions are found. Trial functions, based on the form of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation soliton, are used, together with averaging, to develop the semi-analytical solutions. When the background packing fraction is low, the one-dimensional solitary waves have three solutions branches (with a bistable regime) while the two-dimensional solitary waves have two solution branches, with a single stable branch. The temperature dependent second virial coefficient results in changes to the solitary wave properties and the parameter space, in which multiple solutions branches occur. An excellent comparison is found between the semi-analytical and numerical solutions.

  14. Dose-dependent galactorrhea with quetiapine

    OpenAIRE

    Sethi, Sujata; Sharma, Manisha; Malik, Amit

    2010-01-01

    Quetiapine is an atypical antipsychotic agent with minimal propensity to induce hyperprolactinemia in standard therapeutic dosages. Despite that quetiapine is considered to be a prolactin-sparing atypical antipsychotic, hyperprolactinemia with related side effects may rarely be encountered in susceptible individuals. We report a case of quetiapine-induced hyperprolactinemia and galactorrhea in an adult female, which was dose-dependent.

  15. Differential Geometry of Time-Dependent Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Giachetta, G; Sardanashvily, G

    1997-01-01

    The usual formulations of time-dependent mechanics start from a given splitting $Y=R\\times M$ of the coordinate bundle $Y\\to R$. From physical viewpoint, this splitting means that a reference frame has been chosen. Obviously, such a splitting is broken under reference frame transformations and time-dependent canonical transformations. Our goal is to formulate time-dependent mechanics in gauge-invariant form, i.e., independently of any reference frame. The main ingredient in this formulation is a connection on the bundle $Y\\to R$ which describes an arbitrary reference frame. We emphasize the following peculiarities of this approach to time-dependent mechanics. A phase space does not admit any canonical contact or presymplectic structure which would be preserved under reference frame transformations, whereas the canonical Poisson structure is degenerate. A Hamiltonian fails to be a function on a phase space. In particular, it can not participate in a Poisson bracket so that the evolution equation is not reduced...

  16. Efficient bootstrap with weakly dependent processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bravo, Francesco; Crudu, Federico

    2012-01-01

    The efficient bootstrap methodology is developed for overidentified moment conditions models with weakly dependent observation. The resulting bootstrap procedure is shown to be asymptotically valid and can be used to approximate the distributions of t-statistics, the J-statistic for overidentifying

  17. Stress Disrupts Context-Dependent Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabe, Lars; Bohringer, Andreas; Wolf, Oliver T.

    2009-01-01

    Memory is facilitated when the retrieval context resembles the learning context. The brain structures underlying contextual influences on memory are susceptible to stress. Whether stress interferes with context-dependent memory is still unknown. We exposed healthy adults to stress or a control procedure before they learned an object-location task…

  18. Organizational Change, Absenteeism, and Welfare Dependency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roed, Knut; Fevang, Elisabeth

    2007-01-01

    Based on Norwegian register data, we set up a multivariate mixed proportional hazard model (MMPH) to analyze nurses' pattern of work, sickness absence, nonemployment, and social insurance dependency from 1992 to 2000, and how that pattern was affected by workplace characteristics. The model is estimated by means of the nonparametric…

  19. Assessment of seismic loss dependence using copula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goda, Katsuichiro; Ren, Jiandong

    2010-07-01

    The catastrophic nature of seismic risk is attributed to spatiotemporal correlation of seismic losses of buildings and infrastructure. For seismic risk management, such correlated seismic effects must be adequately taken into account, since they affect the probability distribution of aggregate seismic losses of spatially distributed structures significantly, and its upper tail behavior can be of particular importance. To investigate seismic loss dependence for two closely located portfolios of buildings, simulated seismic loss samples, which are obtained from a seismic risk model of spatially distributed buildings by taking spatiotemporally correlated ground motions into account, are employed. The characterization considers a loss frequency model that incorporates one dependent random component acting as a common shock to all buildings, and a copula-based loss severity model, which facilitates the separate construction of marginal loss distribution functions and nonlinear copula function with upper tail dependence. The proposed method is applied to groups of wood-frame buildings located in southwestern British Columbia. Analysis results indicate that the dependence structure of aggregate seismic losses can be adequately modeled by the right heavy tail copula or Gumbel copula, and that for the considered example, overall accuracy of the proposed method is satisfactory at probability levels of practical interest (at most 10% estimation error of fractiles of aggregate seismic loss). The developed statistical seismic loss model may be adopted in dynamic financial analysis for achieving faster evaluation with reasonable accuracy.

  20. Smartphone dependence classification using tensor factorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jingyun; Rho, Mi Jung; Kim, Yejin; Yook, In Hye; Yu, Hwanjo; Kim, Dai-Jin; Choi, In Young

    2017-01-01

    Excessive smartphone use causes personal and social problems. To address this issue, we sought to derive usage patterns that were directly correlated with smartphone dependence based on usage data. This study attempted to classify smartphone dependence using a data-driven prediction algorithm. We developed a mobile application to collect smartphone usage data. A total of 41,683 logs of 48 smartphone users were collected from March 8, 2015, to January 8, 2016. The participants were classified into the control group (SUC) or the addiction group (SUD) using the Korean Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale for Adults (S-Scale) and a face-to-face offline interview by a psychiatrist and a clinical psychologist (SUC = 23 and SUD = 25). We derived usage patterns using tensor factorization and found the following six optimal usage patterns: 1) social networking services (SNS) during daytime, 2) web surfing, 3) SNS at night, 4) mobile shopping, 5) entertainment, and 6) gaming at night. The membership vectors of the six patterns obtained a significantly better prediction performance than the raw data. For all patterns, the usage times of the SUD were much longer than those of the SUC. From our findings, we concluded that usage patterns and membership vectors were effective tools to assess and predict smartphone dependence and could provide an intervention guideline to predict and treat smartphone dependence based on usage data.

  1. Pharmacotherapeutic Treatment of Alcohol Dependence: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Erin; Goodwin, Lloyd R., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Pharmacotherapy medications can reduce the likelihood of relapse, decrease craving intensity and severity of withdrawal symptoms, and bolster the likelihood of achieving and maintaining recovery goals for many individuals seeking recovery from alcohol dependence. An overview of the benefits and concerns of integrating pharmacotherapeutic…

  2. Areca nut chewing and dependency syndrome: Is the dependence comparable to smoking? a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafique Kashif

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Areca nut is the seed of fruit oriental palm known as Areca catechu. Many adverse effects of nut chewing have been well documented in the medical literature. As these nuts are mixed with some other substances like tobacco and flavouring agents, it has been hypothesized that it might also cause some dependency symptoms among its users. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate dependency syndrome among areca nut users with and without tobacco additives and compare it with dependency associated with cigarette smoking among the male Pakistani population. Methods This was an observational cross sectional study carried out on healthy individuals, who were users of any one of the three products (areca nut only, areca nut with tobacco additives, cigarette smokers. Participants were selected by convenience sampling of people coming to hospital to seek a free oral check up. Information was collected about the socio-demographic profile, pattern of use and symptoms of dependency using the DSM-IV criteria for substance dependence. We carried out multiple logistic regressions to investigate association between socio-demographic profile, pattern of substance use and dependency syndrome. Results We carried out final analysis on 851 individuals, of which 36.8% (n = 314 were areca nut users, 28.4% (n = 242 were the chewers of areca with tobacco additives and 34.7% (n = 295 were regular cigarette smokers. Multivariate analyses showed that individuals using areca nut with tobacco additives were significantly more likely to have dependency syndrome (OR = 2.17, 95% CI 1.39-3.40 while cigarette smokers were eight times more likely to have dependency syndrome as compared to areca nut only users. Conclusions Areca nut use with and without tobacco additives was significantly associated with dependency syndrome. In comparison to exclusive areca nut users, the smokers were eight times more likely to develop dependence while areca nut

  3. Economic Dependency and Depression in Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charchit P. Mehta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aging has become greatest challenge globally. In developing countries including India elderly population (persons aged 60 years and above is projected to outpace the rich world resulting in 50-80 percent of them expected to be staying in resource constraint countries. By 2050 of the total population more than 20 percent will be elderly. Depressive illness associated with dementia is one of the important problems in elderly. With increase in longevity there will be sharp rise in old age dependency ratio which can drain the resources in any country due to expenditure on health, social security and education. Aim & Objectives: The present study was carried out to assess the extent of degree of depression in elderly and study the associated factors like economic dependency. Material and Methods: Randomly selected subjects were administered the questionnaire of Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS, in the Geriatric Clinic of a tertiary care hospital, to categorize them based on the scores, into mild, moderate and severe. Some of the factors were studied and analysed to nd out their association with depression like working status, socioeconomic status and economic dependency. Results: Proportion of elderly having depression was 52.4% with females outnumbering males. Depression seems to be more in those elderly who were not working, were from low socioeconomic status and not having pension as 38.6% who had no pension were depressed. Moderate to severe depression was more in economically dependent (20% as compared to those who were independent nancially. Conclusion: Economic dependency seems to be important associated factor responsible for depression in elderly along with other factors like socioeconomic status, pension status etc. Implementation of adequate health services and social security system is needed to prevent the marginalization of elderly.

  4. Salivary exoglycosidases as markers of alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Chojnowska, Sylwia; Zalewska, Anna; Zwierz, Krzysztof; Szulc, Agata; Szajda, Sławomir Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    Some salivary markers of alcohol abuse/dependence have been proposed so far: aminotransferases, gamma-glutamyltransferase, ethanol, ethyl glucuronide, ethyl sulfate, sialic acid, β-hexosaminidase A, oral peroxidase, methanol, diethylene/ethylene glycol, α-amylase, clusterin, haptoglobin, heavy/light chains of immunoglobulins and transferrin. To investigate the effect of chronic alcohol drinking and smoking on the activity (pKat/ml) and output (pKat/min) of salivary lysosomal exoglycosidases: α-fucosidase (FUC), α-mannosidase (MAN), β-galactosidase (GAL), and β-glucuronidase (GLU), and their applicability as markers of alcohol dependence. The activity of FUC, MAN, GAL and GLU was measured colorimetrically in the saliva of healthy social drinkers, alcohol-dependent non-smokers and alcohol-dependent smokers. We observed an increased salivary activity of FUC, GAL, GLU and MAN, as well as an increased output of GAL and GLU, in comparison with controls. The highest increase in the activity/output was found in salivary GLU and MAN (GLU, even 7- to 18-fold), and the least in GAL. We found an excellent sensitivity and specificity and a high accuracy (measured by the area under the ROC curve) for salivary FUC, GLU and MAN activities. The salivary GLU activity positively correlated with the number of days of last alcohol intoxication. Salivary activity of FUC, GAL and MAN, but not GLU, positively correlated with the periodontal parameters such as gingival index and papilla bleeding index. Although we found an excellent sensitivity and specificity as well as a high accuracy for the salivary activity of FUC, GLU and MAN, the GLU activity seems to be mostly applicable as a marker of chronic alcohol drinking (alcohol dependence). © The Author 2014. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  5. Dissociative disorders among alcohol-dependent inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evren, Cuneyt; Sar, Vedat; Karadag, Figen; Tamar Gurol, Defne; Karagoz, Mustafa

    2007-08-30

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of dissociative disorders among inpatients with alcohol dependency. The Dissociative Experiences Scale was used to screen 111 alcohol-dependent patients consecutively admitted to the inpatient unit of a dependency treatment center. Subgroups of 29 patients who scored 30.0 or above and 25 patients who scored below 10.0 were then evaluated with the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule and the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders. The interviewers were blind to the Dissociative Experiences Scale scores. Of the 54 patients evaluated, 10 (9.0% of the original 111) patients had a dissociative disorder. A considerable number of the remaining patients reported a high level of dissociative experiences. Among the dissociative disorder group, nine patients had dissociative disorder not otherwise specified and one patient had depersonalization disorder. Female gender, younger age, history of suicide attempt, childhood emotional and sexual abuse, and neglect were more frequent in the dissociative disorder group than among non-dissociative patients. The dissociative disorder group also had somatization disorder, borderline personality disorder, and lifetime major depression more frequently. For 9 of the 10 dissociative patients, dissociative symptoms started before the onset of alcohol use. Although the probability of having a comorbid dissociative disorder was not higher among alcohol-dependent inpatients than among the general psychiatric inpatients, the dissociative subgroup had distinct features. Many patients without a dissociative disorder diagnosis (predominantly men) provided hints of subtle dissociative psychopathology. Implications of comorbid dissociative disorders and dissociative experiences on prevention and treatment of alcohol dependency and the importance of gender-specific characteristics in this relationship require further study.

  6. 3-Dimensional Cahn-Hilliard Equation with Concentration Dependent Mobility and Gradient Dependent Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui HUANG; Yang CAO

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the initial boundary value problem of Cahn-Hilliard equation with concentration dependent mobility and gradient dependent potential. By the energy method and the theory of Campanato spaces, we prove the existence and the uniqueness of classical solutions in 3-dimensional space.

  7. Assessment of Benzodiazepine dependence in alcohol and drug dependent outpatients: A research report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kan, C.C.; Breteler, M.H.M.; Ven, A.H.G.S. van der; Timmermans, M.A.Y.; Zitman, F.G.

    2001-01-01

    In this study on 99 outpatients who were being treated for alcohol and/or drug dependence and also using benzodiazepines (BZDs), prevalence rates of DSM-III-R and ICD-10 substance dependence diagnoses were ascertained and scalability, reliability and validity of the scales of the Benzodiazepine Depe

  8. Variants of opioid system genes are associated with non-dependent opioid use and heroin dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randesi, Matthew; van den Brink, Wim; Levran, Orna; Blanken, Peter; Butelman, Eduardo R; Yuferov, Vadim; da Rosa, Joel Correa; Ott, Jurg; van Ree, Jan M; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Heroin addiction is a chronic, relapsing brain disease. Genetic factors are involved in the development of drug addiction. The aim of this study was to determine whether specific variants in genes of the opioid system are associated with non-dependent opioid use and heroin dependence.

  9. Time-Dependent Behaviors of Granite: Loading-Rate Dependence, Creep, and Relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiba, K.; Fukui, K.

    2016-07-01

    To assess the long-term stability of underground structures, it is important to understand the time-dependent behaviors of rocks, such as their loading-rate dependence, creep, and relaxation. However, there have been fewer studies on crystalline rocks than on tuff, mudstone, and rock salt, because the high strength of crystalline rocks makes the detection of their time-dependent behaviors much more difficult. Moreover, studies on the relaxation, temporal change of stress and strain (TCSS) conditions, and relations between various time-dependent behaviors are scarce for not only granites, but also other rocks. In this study, previous reports on the time-dependent behaviors of granites were reviewed and various laboratory tests were conducted using Toki granite. These tests included an alternating-loading-rate test, creep test, relaxation test, and TCSS test. The results showed that the degree of time dependence of Toki granite is similar to other granites, and that the TCSS resembles the stress-relaxation curve and creep-strain curve. A viscoelastic constitutive model, proposed in a previous study, was modified to investigate the relations between the time-dependent behaviors in the pre- and post-peak regions. The modified model reproduced the stress-strain curve, creep, relaxation, and the results of the TCSS test. Based on a comparison of the results of the laboratory tests and numerical simulations, close relations between the time-dependent behaviors were revealed quantitatively.

  10. Cascading failures in coupled networks with both inner-dependency and inter-dependency links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Run-Ran; Li, Ming; Jia, Chun-Xiao; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2016-05-04

    We study the percolation in coupled networks with both inner-dependency and inter-dependency links, where the inner- and inter-dependency links represent the dependencies between nodes in the same or different networks, respectively. We find that when most of dependency links are inner- or inter-ones, the coupled networks system is fragile and makes a discontinuous percolation transition. However, when the numbers of two types of dependency links are close to each other, the system is robust and makes a continuous percolation transition. This indicates that the high density of dependency links could not always lead to a discontinuous percolation transition as the previous studies. More interestingly, although the robustness of the system can be optimized by adjusting the ratio of the two types of dependency links, there exists a critical average degree of the networks for coupled random networks, below which the crossover of the two types of percolation transitions disappears, and the system will always demonstrate a discontinuous percolation transition. We also develop an approach to analyze this model, which is agreement with the simulation results well.

  11. Incorporating Pass-Phrase Dependent Background Models for Text-Dependent Speaker verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarkar, Achintya Kumar; Tan, Zheng-Hua

    2017-01-01

    -dependent. We show that the proposed method significantly reduces the error rates of text-dependent speaker verification for the non-target types: target-wrong and impostor-wrong while it maintains comparable TD-SV performance when impostors speak a correct utterance with respect to the conventional system...

  12. Sleep-dependent motor memory consolidation in older adults depends on task demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudberg, Christel; Wulff, Katharina; Johansen-Berg, Heidi

    2015-03-01

    It is often suggested that sleep-dependent consolidation of motor learning is impaired in older adults. The current study challenges this view and suggests that the degree of motor consolidation seen with sleep in older age groups depends on the kinematic demands of the task. We show that, when tested with a classic sequence learning task, requiring individuated finger movements, older adults did not show sleep-dependent consolidation. By contrast, when tested with an adapted sequence learning task, in which movements were performed with the whole hand, sleep-dependent motor improvement was observed in older adults. We suggest that age-related decline in fine motor dexterity may in part be responsible for the previously described deficit in sleep-dependent motor consolidation with aging.

  13. Tolerance – a Culturally Dependent Concept?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trond Jørgensen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents research on Japanese interpretations of the first article of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights as a point of departure for discussing how the Japanese cultural contexts present an alternative understanding of tolerance to the Western liberal. According to Rainer Forst, tolerance is a normatively dependent concept (Forst 2010. This implies that the specific cultural values or the ‘normative context’ and environment become relevant. Since the praxis of tolerance always takes place in a specific cultural and moral environment, the cultural context influences how tolerance is carried out in practice as well as the norms defining its limits. Japanese informants held that cultural norms and values in Japan differ somewhat from those in the West. They perceived the human rights discourse as culturally dependent and culturally marked and clearly considered the first article of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights to be a product of Western thought. It states that ‘All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in the spirit of brotherhood’ (United Nations 1948. While the role of tolerance in Western political philosophy seems to be attached to liberal values of autonomy and freedom, the Confucian-influenced environment in Japan places more emphasis on inter-dependency, cultivation, and learning social rules and proper-place-occupation as bases for moral conduct and deserving of respect. According to the Japanese informants, people are not ‘born with rights’ or ‘born free and equal’. Maintaining harmony, consensus, and proper behaviour according to relationships and hierarchy creates a different kind of setting for tolerance. The inter-dependent perspectives of Japanese culture may restrain freedom and can thus be expected to limit toleration of divergent views or behaviour. The culture-specific perception of

  14. Epidemiology of tobacco use and dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovino, G A; Henningfield, J E; Tomar, S L; Escobedo, L G; Slade, J

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the epidemiology of tobacco use and dependence can be used to guide research initiatives, intervention programs, and policy decisions. Both the reduction in the prevalence of smoking among US adults and black adolescents and the decline in per capita consumption are encouraging. These changes have probably been influenced by factors operating at the individual (e.g., school-based prevention programs and cessation programs) and environmental (e.g., mass media educational strategies, the presence of smoke-free laws and policies, and the price of tobacco products) levels (for a discussion of these factors, see, e.g., refs. 2, 48, 52, 183, and 184). The lack of progress among adolescents, especially whites and males, and the high risk for experimenters of developing tobacco dependence present cause for great concern (48, 183-186). In addition to those discussed above, several areas of research can be recommended. 1. Better understanding of the clustering of tobacco use with the use of other drugs, other risk behaviors, and other psychiatric disorders could better illuminate the causal processes involved, as well as the special features of the interventions needed to prevent and treat tobacco dependence. 2. To better understand population needs, trend analyses of prevalence, initiation, and cessation should, whenever possible, incorporate standardized measures of these other risk factors. Future research should compare the effect of socioeconomic status variables on measures of smoking behavior among racial/ethnic groups in the United States. 3. For reasons that may be genetic, environmental, or both, some persons do not progress beyond initial experimentation with tobacco use (2, 48, 183, 187-192), but about one-third to one-half of those who experiment with cigarettes become regular users (48, 193, 194). Factors, both individual and environmental, that can influence the susceptibility of individuals to tobacco dependence need further attention. 4. To

  15. Inhalant Dependence and its Medical Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Hamid Boztaş

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The term of inhalants is used for matters easily vapors. Inhalants are preferred for rapid, positive reinforcement and mild high effects. Products including inhalants are cheap, accessible, legal substances and are prevalently used in community. The prevalence of inhalant use in secondary schools in Turkey is about 5.1%. Inhalant substance dependence is generally observed within 14-15 age group. Age at first use could be as low as 5 to 6 years of age. Substance dependence is more probable in adults working in substance existing places. Inhalant usage is common in disadvantaged groups, children living in street, people with history of crimes, prison, depression, suicide, antisocial attitudes and conflict of family, history of abuse, violence and any other drug dependence and isolated populations. Inhalants are absorbed from lungs, after performing their quick and short effect metabolized by cytochrom P450 enzyme system except inhalant nitrites group which has a depressing effect like alcohol. In chronic use general atrophy, ventricular dilatation and wide sulcus were shown in cerebrum, cerebellum and pons by monitoring brain. Defects are mostly in periventricular, subcortical regions and in white matter. Demyelinization, hyperintensity, callosal slimming and wearing off in white and gray matter margins was also found. Ravages of brain shown by brain monitorisation are more and serious in inhalant dependence than in other dependences. It is important to decrease use of inhalants. Different approaches should be used for subcultures and groups in prevention. Prohibiting all the matters including inhalant is not practical as there are too many substances including inhalants. Etiquettes showing harmful materials can be used but this approach can also lead the children and adolescents recognize these substances easily.. Despite determintal effects of inhalant dependence, there are not yet sufficient number of studies conducted on prevention and

  16. Stress Dependence of Transformation Plastic Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tatsuo Inoue

    2004-01-01

    Transformation plasticity is known to play an important role in the course of heat treatment processes, and so affect the results of heat treatment simulations, which means that the transformation plasticity coefficient is necessary to be identifies. The authors developed a new method by use of four-point bending system of a beam to identify transformation plasticity coefficient taking advantage of its easiness and high accuracy compared with other conventional methods like tension test, etc., and identified the coefficient for four kinds of steels; plane carbon steel, Cr-steel, Cr-Mo steel and bearing steel. In this paper, further experimental data are presented for the steels if the coefficient Kp during pearlite transformation depend on the applied stress. Obtained results reveals that the stress dependence of Kp is rather trivial except for uncertain tendency detected in plane carbon steel. The relation between the Kp and carbon content included is

  17. Frequency Dependent Negative Resistance-A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Susan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Inductors are bulky and costly but reducing the size of the inductors reduces the quality factor. There is also a fundamental limitation of using inductor that it cannot be suitable for the micro miniature structure and integrated circuits applications. Because of these limitations, inductors cannot be used in most of the analog circuit applications. Hence simulated inductors are used as an alternative. In case the simulated inductor becomes floating some linear transformation is used which results in the formation of a new D element called the Frequency Dependent Negative Resistance (FDNR. This paper presents an overview of the basic circuits of simulating the Frequency Dependent Negative Resistance and its various applications in analog circuits in the place of floating inductor.

  18. Syntactic dependency parsers for biomedical-NLP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Raphael; Elhadad, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Syntactic parsers have made a leap in accuracy and speed in recent years. The high order structural information provided by dependency parsers is useful for a variety of NLP applications. We present a biomedical model for the EasyFirst parser, a fast and accurate parser for creating Stanford Dependencies. We evaluate the models trained in the biomedical domains of EasyFirst and Clear-Parser in a number of task oriented metrics. Both parsers provide stat of the art speed and accuracy in the Genia of over 89%. We show that Clear-Parser excels at tasks relating to negation identification while EasyFirst excels at tasks relating to Named Entities and is more robust to changes in domain.

  19. Frequency-dependent streaming potentials: a review

    CERN Document Server

    Jouniaux, Laurence; 10.1155/2012/648781

    2012-01-01

    The interpretation of seismoelectric observations involves the dynamic electrokinetic coupling, which is related to the streaming potential coefficient. We describe the different models of the frequency-dependent streaming potential, mainly the Packard's and the Pride's model. We compare the transition frequency separating low-frequency viscous flow and high-frequency inertial flow, for dynamic permeability and dynamic streaming potential. We show that the transition frequency, on a various collection of samples for which both formation factor and permeability are measured, is predicted to depend on the permeability as inversely proportional to the permeability. We review the experimental setups built to be able to perform dynamic measurements. And we present some measurements and calculations of the dynamic streaming potential.

  20. Scale Dependence of Spatiotemporal Intermittence of Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Prasun K.; Siddani, Ravi K.

    2011-01-01

    It is a common experience that rainfall is intermittent in space and time. This is reflected by the fact that the statistics of area- and/or time-averaged rain rate is described by a mixed distribution with a nonzero probability of having a sharp value zero. In this paper we have explored the dependence of the probability of zero rain on the averaging space and time scales in large multiyear data sets based on radar and rain gauge observations. A stretched exponential fannula fits the observed scale dependence of the zero-rain probability. The proposed formula makes it apparent that the space-time support of the rain field is not quite a set of measure zero as is sometimes supposed. We also give an ex.planation of the observed behavior in tenus of a simple probabilistic model based on the premise that rainfall process has an intrinsic memory.

  1. Reducing US Oil Dependence Using Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoub, Fadi; Arnaout, Georges M.

    2011-01-01

    People across the world are addicted to oil; as a result, the instability of oil prices and the shortage of oil reserves have influenced human behaviors and global businesses. Today, the United States makes up only 5% of the global population but consumes 25% of the. world total energy. Most of this energy is generated from fossil fuels in the form of electricity. The contribution of this paper is to examine the possibilities of replacing fossil fuel with renewable energies to generate electricity as well as to examine other methods to reduce oil and gas consumption. We propose a system dynamics model in an attempt to predict the future US dependence on fossil fuels by using renewable energy resources such as, nuclear, wind, solar, and hydro powers. Based on the findings of our model, the study expects to provide insights towards promising solutions of the oil dependency problem.

  2. Size-dependent melting of Bi nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, E. A.; Efremov, M. Yu.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Z.; Allen, L. H.

    2005-02-01

    Nanocalorimetry was used to investigate the melting of Bi nanoparticles. The particles were formed by evaporating Bi onto a silicon nitride substrate, which was then heated. The particles self-assemble into truncated spherical particles. Below 5-nm average film thickness, mean particle sizes increased linearly with deposition thickness but increased rapidly for 10-nm-thick films. As expected, small particles were found to exhibit size-dependent melting temperatures less than the bulk melting temperature (e.g., ΔT =67K for a 3-nm radius particle). The measured melting temperatures for particles below ˜7nm in radius, however, were ˜50K above the value predicted by the homogeneous melting model. We discuss this discrepancy in terms of a possible size-dependent crystal structure change and the superheating of the solid phase.

  3. Benzodiazepine dependence: focus on withdrawal syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Authier, N; Balayssac, D; Sautereau, M; Zangarelli, A; Courty, P; Somogyi, A A; Vennat, B; Llorca, P-M; Eschalier, A

    2009-11-01

    Benzodiazepines are potentially addictive drugs: psychological and physical dependence can develop within a few weeks or years of regular or repeated use. The socioeconomic costs of the present high level of long-term benzodiazepine use are considerable. These consequences could be minimised if prescriptions for long-term benzodiazepines were decreased. However, many physicians continue to prescribe benzodiazepines and patients wishing to withdraw receive little advice or support. Particular care should be taken in prescribing benzodiazepines for vulnerable patients such as elderly persons, pregnant women, children, alcohol- or drug-dependent patients and patients with comorbid psychiatric disorders. The following update gives recent research results on the withdrawal pathophysiology and practical information in order to treat or prevent benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome.

  4. Benford's Law and Continuous Dependent Random Variables

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Thealexa; Miller, Steven J; Ronan, Ryan; Strauch, Frederick W

    2011-01-01

    Many systems exhibit a digit bias. For example, the first digit base 10 of the Fibonacci numbers, or of $2^n$, equals 1 not 10% or 11% of the time, as one would expect if all digits were equally likely, but about 30% of the time. This phenomenon, known as Benford's Law, has many applications, ranging from detecting tax fraud for the IRS to analyzing round-off errors in computer science. The central question is determining which data sets follow Benford's law. Inspired by natural processes such as particle decay, our work examines models for the decomposition of conserved quantities. We prove that in many instances the distribution of lengths of the resulting pieces converges to Benford behavior as the number of divisions grow. The main difficulty is that the resulting random variables are dependent, which we handle by a careful analysis of the dependencies and tools from Fourier analysis to obtain quantified convergence rates.

  5. Analysis of frequency dependent pump light absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlmuth, Matthias; Pflaum, Christoph

    2011-03-01

    Simulations have to accurately model thermal lensing in order to help improving resonator design of diode pumped solid state lasers. To this end, a precise description of the pump light absorption is an important prerequisite. In this paper, we discuss the frequency dependency of the pump light absorption in the laser crystal and its influence on the simulated laser performance. The results show that the pump light absorption has to include the spectral overlap of the emitting pump source and the absorbing laser material. This information can either be used for a fully frequency dependent absorption model or, at least in the shown examples, to compute an effective value for an exponential Beer-Lambert law of absorption. This is particularly significant at pump wavelengths coinciding with a peak of absorption. Consequences for laser stability and performance are analyzed for different pump wavelengths in a Nd:YAG laser.

  6. Generalized Parametrization Dependence in Quantum Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Gies, Holger; Lippoldt, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    We critically examine the gauge, and field-parametrization dependence of renormalization group flows in the vicinity of non-Gau\\ss{}ian fixed points in quantum gravity. While physical observables are independent of such calculational specifications, the construction of quantum gravity field theories typically relies on off-shell quantities such as $\\beta$ functions and generating functionals and thus face potential stability issues with regard to such generalized parametrizations. We analyze a two-parameter class of covariant gauge conditions, the role of momentum-dependent field rescalings and a class of field parametrizations. Using the product of Newton and cosmological constant as an indicator, the principle of minimum sensitivity identifies stationary points in this parametrization space which show a remarkable insensitivity to the parametrization. In the most insensitive cases, the quantized gravity system exhibits a non-Gau\\ss{}ian UV stable fixed point, lending further support to asymptotically free q...

  7. Quantification of Seepage in Groundwater Dependent Wetlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Ole; Beven, Keith; Jensen, Jacob Birk

    2017-01-01

    Restoration and management of groundwater dependent wetlands require tools for quantifying the groundwater seepage process. A method for determining point estimates of the groundwater seepage based on water level observations is tested. The study is based on field data from a Danish rich fen...... to investigate the uncertainties of parameters and model results. Two different model structures are presented. One is using the physically based model code HYDRUS nek et al. 2009) which solves the 1D unsaturated flow problem. In this case five parameters from the Van Genuchten retention model are examined...... has been predicted. Both models suffer from the fundamental problem that no reliable observations for the predicted variable (seepage rate) exist. Thus the trust in the model therefore depends on the ability to reproduce water level observations. Assuming that the results can be fully validated...

  8. Asymmetry Dependence of the Nuclear Caloric Curve

    CERN Document Server

    McIntosh, Alan B; Cammarata, Paul; Hagel, Kris; Heilborn, Lauren; Kohley, Zachary; Mabiala, Justin; May, Larry W; Marini, Paola; Raphelt, Andrew; Souliotis, George A; Wuenschel, Sara; Zarrella, Andrew; Yennello, Sherry J

    2012-01-01

    A basic feature of the nuclear equation of state is not yet understood: the dependence of the nuclear caloric curve on the neutron-proton asymmetry. Predictions of theoretical models differ on the magnitude and even the sign of this dependence. In this work, the nuclear caloric curve is examined for fully reconstructed quasi-projectiles around mass A=50. The caloric curve extracted with the momentum quadrupole fluctuation thermometer shows that the temperature varies linearly with quasi-projectile asymmetry (N-Z)/A. An increase in asymmetry of 0.15 units corresponds to a decrease in temperature on the order of 1 MeV. These results also highlight the importance of a full quasi-projectile reconstruction in the study of thermodynamic properties of hot nuclei.

  9. Temperature Dependence of Atomic Decay Rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian-Jun; CHENG Ze

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the decay rate of an atom in a two-dimensional optical microcavity in which there exists a Bose-Einstein condensation of photons. It is found that below the critical temperature Tc, the atomic decay rate depends on the absolute temperature T. Especially, at absolute zero temperature almost all photons are in the condensate state, and the atom can be approximately treated as if it is in vacuum.%We investigate the decay rate of an atom in a two-dimensional optical microcavity in which there exists a BoseEinstein condensation of photons.It is found that below the critical temperature To,the atomic decay rate depends on the absolute temperature T.Especially,at absolute zero temperature almost all photons are in the condensate state,and the atom can be approximately treated as if it is in vacuum.

  10. Dynamics-dependent symmetries in Newtonian mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Holland, Peter

    2014-01-01

    We exhibit two symmetries of one-dimensional Newtonian mechanics whereby a solution is built from the history of another solution via a generally nonlinear and complex potential-dependent transformation of the time. One symmetry intertwines the square roots of the kinetic and potential energies and connects solutions of the same dynamical problem (the potential is an invariant function). The other symmetry connects solutions of different dynamical problems (the potential is a scalar function). The existence of corresponding conserved quantities is examined using Noethers theorem and it is shown that the invariant-potential symmetry is correlated with energy conservation. In the Hamilton-Jacobi picture the invariant-potential transformation provides an example of a field-dependent symmetry in point mechanics. It is shown that this transformation is not a symmetry of the Schroedinger equation.

  11. Quantification of Seepage in Groundwater Dependent Wetlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Ole; Beven, Keith; Jensen, Jacob Birk

    2017-01-01

    Restoration and management of groundwater dependent wetlands require tools for quantifying the groundwater seepage process. A method for determining point estimates of the groundwater seepage based on water level observations is tested. The study is based on field data from a Danish rich fen....... Therefore secondly a much simpler mass balance approach is used with lumped descriptions of the most important hydrological processes controlling water level and groundwater inflow to the system. The water level dynamics are here described and bracketed nicely and a dynamic description of the seepage rate...... the dynamic description of groundwater seepage can be very useful in future studies of the links between seepage, soil water chemistry and vegetation in groundwater dependent terrestrial ecosystems....

  12. Size-Dependent Raman Shifts for nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yukun; Zhao, Xinmei; Yin, Penggang; Gao, Faming

    2016-04-22

    Raman spectroscopy is a very sensitive tool for probing semiconductor nanocrystals. The underlying mechanism behind the size-dependent Raman shifts is still quite controversial. Here we offer a new theoretical method for the quantum confinement effects on the Raman spectra of semiconductor nanocrystals. We propose that the shift of Raman spectra in nanocrystals can result from two overlapping effects: the quantum effect shift and surface effect shift. The quantum effect shift is extracted from an extended Kubo formula, the surface effect shift is determined via the first principles calculations. Fairly good prediction of Raman shifts can be obtained without the use of any adjustable parameter. Closer analysis shows that the size-dependent Raman shifts in Si nanocrystals mainly result from the quantum effect shifts. For nanodiamond, the proportion of surface effect shift in Raman shift is up to about 40%. Such model can also provide a good baseline for using Raman spectroscopy as a tool to measure size.

  13. Studies on thiamine diphosphate-dependent enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeper, F J; Hawksley, D; Mann, S; Perez Melero, C; Wood, M D H

    2005-08-01

    The 3-deaza analogue of TPP (thiamine diphosphate), a close mimic of the ylid intermediate, has been synthesized and is an extremely potent inhibitor of a variety of TPP-dependent enzymes, binding much more tightly than TPP itself. Results using deazaTPP complexed with the E1 subunit of PDH (pyruvate dehydrogenase) have led to a novel proposal about the mechanism of this enzyme. The 2-substituted forms of deazaTPP, which mimic other intermediates in the catalytic mechanism, can also be synthesized and 2-(1-hydroxyethyl)deazaTPP is also an extremely potent inhibitor of PDC (pyruvate decarboxylase). Attachment of such 2-substituents is expected to be a way to introduce selectivity in the inhibition of various TPP-dependent enzymes.

  14. Time-dependent species sensitivity distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, David R; Billoir, Elise

    2013-02-01

    Time is a central component of toxicity assessments. However, current ecotoxicological practice marginalizes time in concentration-response (C-R) modeling and species sensitivity distribution (SSD) analyses. For C-R models, time is invariably fixed, and toxicity measures are estimated from a function fitted to the data at that time. The estimated toxicity measures are used as inputs to the SSD modeling phase, which similarly avoids explicit recognition of the temporal component. The present study extends some commonly employed probability models for SSDs to derive theoretical results that characterize the time-dependent nature of hazardous concentration (HCx) values. The authors' results show that even from very simple assumptions, more complex patterns in the SSD time dependency can be revealed.

  15. Indentation Depth Dependent Mechanical Behavior in Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Alisafaei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Various experimental studies have revealed size dependent deformation of materials at micro and submicron length scales. Among different experimental methods, nanoindentation testing is arguably the most commonly applied method of studying size effect in various materials where increases in the hardness with decreasing indentation depth are usually related to indentation size effects. Such indentation size effects have been observed in both metals and polymers. While the indentation size effects in metals are widely discussed in the literature and are commonly attributed to geometrically necessary dislocations, for polymer the experimental results are far sparser and there does not seem to be a common ground for their rationales. The indentation size effects of polymers are addressed in this paper, where their depth dependent deformation is reviewed along with the rationale provided in the literature.

  16. Time-Dependent Erosion of Ion Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirz, Richard E.; Anderson, John R.; Katz, Ira; Goebel, Dan M.

    2008-01-01

    The accurate prediction of thruster life requires time-dependent erosion estimates for the ion optics assembly. Such information is critical to end-of-life mechanisms such as electron backstreaming. CEX2D was recently modified to handle time-dependent erosion, double ions, and multiple throttle conditions in a single run. The modified code is called "CEX2D-t". Comparisons of CEX2D-t results with LDT and ELT post-tests results show good agreement for both screen and accel grid erosion including important erosion features such as chamfering of the downstream end of the accel grid and reduced rate of accel grid aperture enlargement with time.

  17. Dependency-aware unequal erasure protection codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BOUABDALLAH Amine; LACAN Jér(o)me

    2006-01-01

    Classical unequal erasure protection schemes split data to be protected into classes which are encoded independently.The unequal protection scheme presented in this paper is based on an erasure code which encodes all the data together according to the existing dependencies. A simple algorithm generates dynamically the generator matrix of the erasure code according to the packets streams structure, i.e., the dependencies between the packets, and the rate of the code. This proposed erasure code was applied to a packetized MPEG4 stream transmitted over a packet erasure channel and compared with other classical protection schemes in terms of PSNR and MOS. It is shown that the proposed code allows keeping a high video quality-level in a larger packet loss rate range than the other protection schemes.

  18. Spatially dependent Kondo effect in Quantum Corrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Enrico; Morr, Dirk K.

    2007-03-01

    We study the Kondo screening of a single magnetic impurity placed inside a quantum corral consisting of non-magnetic impurities on the surface of a metallic host system. We show that the spatial structure of the corral's eigenmodes leads to a spatially dependent Kondo effect whose signatures are experimentally measurable spatial variations of the Kondo temperature, TK, and of the critical Kondo coupling, Jcr. Moreover we find that the screening of the magnetic impurity is accompanied by the formation of multiple Kondo resonances with characteristic spatial patterns that provide further experimental signatures of the spatially dependent Kondo effect. Our results demonstrate that quantum corrals provide new possibilities to manipulate and explore the Kondo effect.

  19. Asymptotic theory of weakly dependent random processes

    CERN Document Server

    Rio, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    Presenting tools to aid understanding of asymptotic theory and weakly dependent processes, this book is devoted to inequalities and limit theorems for sequences of random variables that are strongly mixing in the sense of Rosenblatt, or absolutely regular. The first chapter introduces covariance inequalities under strong mixing or absolute regularity. These covariance inequalities are applied in Chapters 2, 3 and 4 to moment inequalities, rates of convergence in the strong law, and central limit theorems. Chapter 5 concerns coupling. In Chapter 6 new deviation inequalities and new moment inequalities for partial sums via the coupling lemmas of Chapter 5 are derived and applied to the bounded law of the iterated logarithm. Chapters 7 and 8 deal with the theory of empirical processes under weak dependence. Lastly, Chapter 9 describes links between ergodicity, return times and rates of mixing in the case of irreducible Markov chains. Each chapter ends with a set of exercises. The book is an updated and extended ...

  20. Energy-dependent variability from accretion flows

    CERN Document Server

    Zdziarski, A A

    2005-01-01

    We develop a formalism to calculate energy-dependent fractional variability (rms) in accretion flows. We consider rms spectra resulting from radial dependencies of the level of local variability (as expected from propagation of disturbances in accretion flows) assuming the constant shape of the spectrum emitted at a given radius. We consider the cases when the variability of the flow is either coherent or incoherent between different radial zones. As example local emission, we consider blackbody, Wien and thermal Comptonization spectra. In addition to numerical results, we present a number of analytical formulae for the resulting rms. We also find an analytical formula for the disc Wien spectrum, which we find to be a very good approximation to the disc blackbody. We compare our results to the rms spectrum observed in an ultrasoft state of GRS 1915+105.

  1. The multiplex dependency structure of financial markets

    CERN Document Server

    Musmeci, Nicoló; Aste, Tomaso; Di Matteo, Tiziana; Latora, Vito

    2016-01-01

    We propose here a multiplex network approach to investigate simultaneously different types of dependency in complex data sets. In particular, we consider multiplex networks made of four layers corresponding respectively to linear, non-linear, tail, and partial correlations among a set of financial time series. We construct the sparse graph on each layer using a standard network filtering procedure, and we then analyse the structural properties of the obtained multiplex networks. The study of the time evolution of the multiplex constructed from financial data uncovers important changes in intrinsically multiplex properties of the network, and such changes are associated with periods of financial stress. We observe that some features are unique to the multiplex structure and would not be visible otherwise by the separate analysis of the single-layer networks corresponding to each dependency measure.

  2. Event dependent sampling of recurrent events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Tine Kajsa; Andersen, Per Kragh; Angst, Jules

    2010-01-01

    The effect of event-dependent sampling of processes consisting of recurrent events is investigated when analyzing whether the risk of recurrence increases with event count. We study the situation where processes are selected for study if an event occurs in a certain selection interval. Motivation...... retrospective and prospective disease course histories are used. We examine two methods to correct for the selection depending on which data are used in the analysis. In the first case, the conditional distribution of the process given the pre-selection history is determined. In the second case, an inverse......-probability-of-selection weighting scheme is suggested. The ability of the methods to correct for the bias due to selection is investigated with simulations. Furthermore, the methods are applied to affective disease data from a register-based study (Kessing et al. Br J Psychiatry 185:372-377, 2004a) and from a long-term clinical...

  3. Spin-dependent optics with metasurfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Shiyi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Optical spin-Hall effect (OSHE is a spin-dependent transportation phenomenon of light as an analogy to its counterpart in condensed matter physics. Although being predicted and observed for decades, this effect has recently attracted enormous interests due to the development of metamaterials and metasurfaces, which can provide us tailor-made control of the light-matter interaction and spin-orbit interaction. In parallel to the developments of OSHE, metasurface gives us opportunities to manipulate OSHE in achieving a stronger response, a higher efficiency, a higher resolution, or more degrees of freedom in controlling the wave front. Here, we give an overview of the OSHE based on metasurface-enabled geometric phases in different kinds of configurational spaces and their applications on spin-dependent beam steering, focusing, holograms, structured light generation, and detection. These developments mark the beginning of a new era of spin-enabled optics for future optical components.

  4. Sustainability Index with Integrated Indicator Dependencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Wagenhals

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is a growing concern worldwide. While companies used to focus on financial performance, now the focus has shifted to considering envi- ronmental and social performance as well. This trend is not only based on ‘image’, but recent research has proven that a complex approach regarding sustainability could significantly increase a company’s performance. The selection of sustainability indicators as well as the development of sustainabil- ity frameworks has been analysed by researchers already. The authors argue that interdependencies exist between different sustainability indicators and concepts. To address this issue, the fuzzy set method has been used and integrated into as- sessment methods, making it possible to develop a sustainability index which is able to consider the dependencies of the integrated variables. The proposed method can prove that indicator dependencies have a significant influence on the sustain - ability performance of a company and therefore on its overall performance.

  5. Evolution variable dependence of jet substructure

    CERN Document Server

    Sakaki, Yasuhito

    2015-01-01

    Studies on jet substructure have evolved significantly in recent years. Jet substructure is essentially determined by QCD radiations and non-perturbative effects. Predictions of jet substructure are usually different among Monte Carlo event generators, and are governed by the parton shower algorithm implemented. For leading logarithmic parton shower, even though one of the core variables is the evolution variable, its choice is not unique. We examine evolution variable dependence of the jet substructure by developing a parton shower generator that interpolates between different evolution variables using a parameter $\\alpha$. Jet shape variables and associated jet rates for quark and gluon jets are used to demonstrate the $\\alpha$-dependence of the jet substructure. We find angular ordered shower predicts wider jets, while relative transverse momentum ($p_{\\bot}$) ordered shower predicts narrower jets. This is qualitatively in agreement with the missing phase space of $p_{\\bot}$ ordered showers. Such differenc...

  6. Spin-dependent optics with metasurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shiyi; Wang, Jiarong; Liu, Fu; Zhang, Shuang; Yin, Xiaobo; Li, Jensen

    2017-01-01

    Optical spin-Hall effect (OSHE) is a spin-dependent transportation phenomenon of light as an analogy to its counterpart in condensed matter physics. Although being predicted and observed for decades, this effect has recently attracted enormous interests due to the development of metamaterials and metasurfaces, which can provide us tailor-made control of the light-matter interaction and spin-orbit interaction. In parallel to the developments of OSHE, metasurface gives us opportunities to manipulate OSHE in achieving a stronger response, a higher efficiency, a higher resolution, or more degrees of freedom in controlling the wave front. Here, we give an overview of the OSHE based on metasurface-enabled geometric phases in different kinds of configurational spaces and their applications on spin-dependent beam steering, focusing, holograms, structured light generation, and detection. These developments mark the beginning of a new era of spin-enabled optics for future optical components.

  7. Pulse Phase Dependence of the Magnetar Bursts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chetana Jain; Anjan Dutta; Biswajit Paul

    2007-12-01

    We report here results from a study of X-ray bursts from 3 magnetar candidates (SGR 1806–20, SGR 1900+14 and AXP 1E 2259+586). We have searched for a pulse phase dependence of the X-ray burst rate from these sources. X-ray light curves were obtained with the Proportional Counter Array on-board the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer during the periods of intense burst activity in these sources. On detailed analysis of the three sources, we found a very significant burst rate for all pulsar phases. However, some locations appear to produce bursts slightly more often, rendering the non-isotropic distribution. Only in the case of SGR 1900+14, there is a clear pulse phase dependence of burst rate.

  8. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TOBACCO DEPENDENCE AND SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayan Widhidewi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco dependence in schizophrenia patients is a problem that got more concern, withfew treatment options. Peoples with schizophrenia have a prevalence rate of cigarettesmoking two until four times higher than the general population. Consequently, patientsalso have a lower smoking quit rate than the general population. Tobacco dependence inthis population may complicate symptoms and also has adverse physiological effects onpatients. Besides that, patients with schizophrenia tend to smoke more heavily thansmokers in general population. This can increased smoking-related morbidity andmortality and impose a significant financial burden on patients. Recent studiesdemonstrated that patients with schizophrenia smoke before the onset of the illness andalso start smoking earlier than the average population. Patients become psychotic earlierthan patients who do not smoke, and require higher dose of anti-psychotic medications.

  9. Scale dependent superconductor-insulator transition

    OpenAIRE

    D. Kowal; Ovadyahu, Z.

    2007-01-01

    We study the disorder driven superconductor to insulator transition in amorphous films of high carrier-concentration indium-oxide. Using thin films with various sizes and aspect ratios we show that the `critical' sheet-resistance $R_{{\\small \\square}}$ depends systematically on sample geometry; superconductivity disappears when $R_{{\\small \\square}}$ exceeds $\\approx6 $k$\\Omega$ in large samples. On the other hand, wide and sufficiently short samples of the same batch exhibit superconductivit...

  10. Phase dependent interference effects on atomic excitation

    CERN Document Server

    Jha, Pankaj K; Sautenkov, Vladimir A; Rostovtsev, Yuri V; Scully, Marlan O

    2011-01-01

    We present an experimental and theoretical study of phase-dependent interference effects in multi-photon excitation under bichromatic radio-frequency (rf) field. Using an intense rf pulse, we study the interference between the three-photon and one-photon transition between the Zeeman sub-levels of the ground state of $^{87}$Rb that allows us to determine the carrier-envelope phase of the fields even for long pulses.

  11. Blind source separation dependent component analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Xiang, Yong; Yang, Zuyuan

    2015-01-01

    This book provides readers a complete and self-contained set of knowledge about dependent source separation, including the latest development in this field. The book gives an overview on blind source separation where three promising blind separation techniques that can tackle mutually correlated sources are presented. The book further focuses on the non-negativity based methods, the time-frequency analysis based methods, and the pre-coding based methods, respectively.

  12. Change of MMP dependent on temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudyk, Svetlana Nikolayevna; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen; Akwansa, Eugene

    2008-01-01

    substantially depend on temperature, - at  temperature 50oC the distance between A and B is longer, - at temperature 70oC the A-B part of curve is smooth and scarcely seen.      The observations made are important for determination of MMP. If point A is taken as MMP instead of point B, it is a big...

  13. Time-dependent problems and difference methods

    CERN Document Server

    Gustafsson, Bertil; Oliger, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Praise for the First Edition "". . . fills a considerable gap in the numerical analysis literature by providing a self-contained treatment . . . this is an important work written in a clear style . . . warmly recommended to any graduate student or researcher in the field of the numerical solution of partial differential equations."" -SIAM Review Time-Dependent Problems and Difference Methods, Second Edition continues to provide guidance for the analysis of difference methods for computing approximate solutions to partial differential equations for time-de

  14. Guarded dependent type theory with coinductive types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bizjak, Aleš; Grathwohl, Hans Bugge; Clouston, Ranald

    2016-01-01

    , type based, way. Clock quantifiers are used for controlled elimination of the later modality and for encoding coinductive types using guarded recursive types. Key to the development of gDTT are novel type and term formers involving what we call delayed substitutions’. These generalise the applicative...... functor rules for the later modality considered in earlier work, and are crucial for programming and proving with dependent types. We show soundness of the type theory with respect to a denotational model....

  15. Heavy context dependence --- decisions of underground soldiers

    CERN Document Server

    Kułakowski, K; Krawczyk, M J

    2015-01-01

    An attempt is made to simulate the disclosure of underground soldiers in terms of theory of networks. The coupling mechanism between the network nodes is the possibility that a disclosed soldier is going to disclose also his acquaintances. We calculate the fraction of disclosed soldiers as dependent on the fraction of those who, once disclosed, reveal also their colleagues. The simulation is immersed in the historical context of the Polish Home Army under the communist rule in 1946-49.

  16. Accelerated neuroregulation for therapy of opiate dependency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sunatrio

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute weaning from chronic opioid abuse during general anesthesia is usually followed by adrenergic outflow effects. This article is to report our experience with accelerated neuroregulation that reverses the physical and psychological dependency. After a comprehensive psychological and medical examination, 361 heroin dependent patients were admitted to ICU to be hospitalized for a full 24 or 36 hours, including a 6 hour pre-procedure medication process (solbutamol, clonidine, diazepam, ranitidine, omeprazole, vitamin C, octreotide, and ondansetron. Anesthesia was induced with midazolam and propofol iv and maintained with propofol infusion. Naltrexon, clonidine, octreotide, and diazepam were then administered. Anesthesia was maintained for 3 ½ - 5 hours depending on severity of withdrawal symptoms precipitated by naltrexone. Analgetics and sedatives were given as needed afterwards. Upon discharge on the following day, patient was prescribed a regimen of oral naltrexone for 10-12 months. All 361 patients were successfully detoxified without any adverse anesthetic events. The side effects encountered were fatigue, insomnia, drowsy, shivering, abdominal pain, nausea, diarrhoea, myalgia, goose bumps and uncomfortable feeling. In most of the patients these symptoms disappeared without any treatment. Symptomatic treatments were needed in 32.7% of patients. In all 166 patients who completed their naltrexone maintenance treatment, craving disappeared in the 10th month. The main problem was the low patient compliance to oral naltrexone, so that only 45.9% of the patients completed their therapy. Conclusion: Accelerated neuroregulation which includes naltrexone maintenance treatment (10-12 months was highly effective to detoxify and to abolish craving in the heroin dependent patients. (Med J Indones 2004; 13: 53-8Keywords: detoxification, craving management

  17. Coasting cosmologies with time dependent cosmological constant

    CERN Document Server

    Pimentel, L O; Pimentel, Luis O.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of a time dependent cosmological constant is considered in a family of scalar tensor theories. Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmological models for vacumm and perfect fluid matter are found. They have a linear expansion factor, the so called coasting cosmology, the gravitational "constant" decreace inversely with time; this model satisfy the Dirac hipotesis. The cosmological "constant" decreace inversely with the square of time, therefore we can have a very small value for it at present time.

  18. Dependence of electromagnetically induced transparency on temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Feng; Guo Rui-Min; Li Lu-Ming; Yang Dong-Hai; Chen Xu-Zong

    2004-01-01

    @@ We performed an experimental study on the dependence of the linewidth of electromagetically induced transparency (EIT) on the temperature of medium in a A-type configuration using caesium vapour. We found that the transparent window is narrowed in the EIT whose two ground levels are composed of two hyperfine levels, and broadened in the case when the two ground levels are degenerated Zeeman sublevels, as the temperature of vapour cell is increased. The explanation for the phenomena is given qualitatively.

  19. Field dependence-independence of basketball referees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabernero, B; Márquez, S

    1999-06-01

    This study examined the field dependence-independence of basketball referees. A total of 205 subjects (nonathletes, athletes active in individual or team sports, and referees) completed the Group Embedded Figures Test. Analysis indicated no significant differences among referees due to age, group, or number of years officiating. Statistically significant lower scores were obtained by team-sport players and referees than by nonathletes. Mean scores of team-sport players and referees did not differ significantly.

  20. dependent time-delay: Stability and stabilizability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. K. Boukas

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers stochastic stability and stochastic stabilizability of linear discrete-time systems with Markovian jumps and mode-dependent time-delays. Linear matrix inequality (LMI techniques are used to obtain sufficient conditions for the stochastic stability and stochastic stabilizability of this class of systems. A control design algorithm is also provided. A numerical example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the obtained theoretical results.

  1. Temperature dependence of photoconductivity of color centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakhno, V.D. (AN SSSR, Moscow. Nauchno-Vychislitel' nyj Tsentr)

    A method to calculate thermal activation energy ..delta..E from photoconductivity of colour centres taking into account its temperature dependence is suggested. Comparison of ..delta..E for ionic crystals (KCl, KBr, KI, RbCl), prepared by theoretical and experimental ways is made. It is shown, that the calculated values of ..delta..E are close to the experimental ones and can be used to calculate values, the experimental data for which are absent.

  2. Temperature Dependence of Hydrogen Adsorption Isotherms

    OpenAIRE

    Tibus, Stefan; Klier, Jürgen; Leiderer, Paul

    2005-01-01

    In the past it has already been shown that adsorption isotherms of liquid or solid films are not described completely by the Frenkel-Halsey-Hill theory. Substrate roughness as well as thermal fluctuations have to be taken into account in understanding the adsorption behavior. The inclusion of thermal fluctuations into the adsorption theory has already been addressed and proven to provide an explanation for the deviations found in many experiments. However, a resulting temperature dependence ...

  3. [Dependent relative: Effects on family health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada Fernández, M Eugenia; Gil Lacruz, Ana I; Gil Lacruz, Marta; Viñas López, Antonio

    2017-04-18

    The purpose of this work is to analyse the effects on informal caregiver's health and lifestyle when living with a dependent person at home. A comparison will be made between this situation and other situations involving commitment of time and energy, taking into account gender and age differences in each stage of the life cycle. Cross-sectional study analysing secondary data. The method used for collecting information is the computer assisted personal interview carried out in selected homes by the Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equality. The study included 19,351 participants aged over 25 years who completed the 2011-2012 Spanish National Health Survey. This research is based on demographic information obtained from a Spanish National Health Survey (2011/12). Using an empirical framework, the Logit model was select and the data reported as odds ratio. The estimations were repeated independently by sub-groups of age and gender. The study showed that the health of people who share their lives with a dependent person is worse than those who do not have any dependent person at home (they are 5 times at higher risk of developing health problems). The study found that being a woman, advance age, low educational level and does not work, also has an influence. Being a caregiver reduces the likelihood of maintaining a healthy lifestyle through physical exercise, relaxation, or eating a balanced diet. Living with a dependent person reduces the likelihood of maintaining healthy lifestyles and worsens the state of health of family members. Significant differences in gender and age were found. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Transformation of time dependence to linear algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menšík, Miroslav

    2005-10-01

    Reduced density matrix and memory function in the Nakajima-Zwanzig equation are expanded in properly chosen basis of special functions. This trick completely transforms time dependence to linear algebra. Then, the master equation for memory function is constructed and expanded in the same basis functions. For the model of a simple harmonic oscillator it is shown that this trick introduces infinite partial summation of the memory function in the system-bath interaction.

  5. Strongly Scale-dependent Non-Gaussianity

    CERN Document Server

    Riotto, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    We discuss models of primordial density perturbations where the non-Gaussianity is strongly scale-dependent. In particular, the non-Gaussianity may have a sharp cut-off and be very suppressed on large cosmological scales, but sizeable on small scales. This may have an impact on probes of non-Gaussianity in the large-scale structure and in the cosmic microwave background radiation anisotropies.

  6. Temperature dependent extension of a hysteresis model

    OpenAIRE

    Sixdenier, Fabien; MESSAL, Oualid; Hilal, Alaa; Martin, Christian; Raulet, Marie-Ange

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Some soft magnetic materials (like ferrites but not only) are strongly dependent of the temperature. In order to predict their behaviour in electrical devices, engineers need hysteresis models able to take into account the temperature. This paper is an attempt to take into account the temperature in an existing model of hysteresis through its parameters. Variations of some parameters are issued from Weiss’s works and others have to be fitted numerically. Simulation res...

  7. Chronic Heroin Dependence Leading to Adrenal Insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam Das

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Opioids have been the mainstay for pain relief and palliation over a long period of time. They are commonly abused by drug addicts and such dependence usually imparts severe physiologic effects on multiple organ systems. The negative impact of opioids on the endocrine system is poorly understood and often underestimated. We describe a patient who developed severe suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA axis leading to secondary adrenal insufficiency due to long standing abuse of opioids.

  8. Biperiden Dependence: Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Espi Martinez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Anticholinergic drugs are frequently used in psychiatry for the prophylaxis and treatment of extrapiramidal symptoms caused by neuroleptics. Abuse of anticholinergic agents has been reported in patients with psychotic disorders, on treatment with neuroleptics, and polysubstance use disorders. We are reporting the case of a patient who presented with hypoactive delirium as a consequence of biperiden dependence. The clinician must pay special attention to detect anticholinergic misuse in patients presenting with delirium of unknown cause.

  9. Pyridoxine dependent epilepsy with iatrogenic sensory neuronopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, R S; Brown, W F

    1995-02-01

    An 18-year-old man was treated from birth with chronic high dose pyridoxine (vitamin B6) up to 2000 mg per day for pyridoxine-dependent seizures. Within two years of onset of treatment, he developed a sensory neuropathy which did not progress over the following 16 years. Electrophysiological studies were consistent with a pure sensory neuronopathy expressed as centripetal degeneration of processes of the dorsal root ganglion cells.

  10. Multisensory temporal integration: Task and stimulus dependencies

    OpenAIRE

    Stevenson, Ryan A.; Wallace, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    The ability of human sensory systems to integrate information across the different modalities provides a wide range of behavioral and perceptual benefits. This integration process is dependent upon the temporal relationship of the different sensory signals, with stimuli occurring close together in time typically resulting in the largest behavior changes. The range of temporal intervals over which such benefits are seen is typically referred to as the temporal binding window (TBW). Given the i...

  11. Robust frame-dependent video watermarking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliman, Matthew J.; Macy, William W.; Yeung, Minerva M.

    2000-05-01

    In this paper, we describe some of the problems associated with watermarking key management, with particular attention to the case of video. We also describe a possible solution to the problem, which is that of image-dependent watermarking, and briefly discuss some of the possible advantages to be gained from adopting such an approach. The paper also presents a simple, efficient means of robustly extracting bits from a video sequence. The algorithm has applications to secure, oblivious video watermark detection.

  12. On scale dependence of QCD string operators

    CERN Document Server

    Kivel, N A

    1999-01-01

    We have obtained a general solution of evolution equations for QCD twist-2 string operators in form of expansion over complete set of orthogonal eigenfunctions of evolution kernels in coordinate-space representation. In the leading logarithmic approximation the eigenfunctions can be determined using constraints imposed by conformal symmetry. Explicit formulae for the LO scale-dependence of quark and gluon twist-2 string operators are given.

  13. Gauge dependence in Chern-Simons theory

    CERN Document Server

    Dilkes, F A; McKeon, D G C; Sherry, T N

    1996-01-01

    We compute the contribution to the modulus of the one-loop effective action in pure non-Abelian Chern-Simons theory in an arbitrary covariant gauge. We find that the results are dependent on both the gauge parameter (\\alpha) and the metric required in the gauge fixing. A contribution arises that has not been previously encountered; it is of the form (\\alpha / \\sqrt{p^2}) \\epsilon _{\\mu \\lambda \

  14. Influence of Sensory Dependence on Postural Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Patricia A.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Fiedler, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    The current project is part of an NSBRI funded project, "Development of Countermeasures to Aid Functional Egress from the Crew Exploration Vehicle Following Long-Duration Spaceflight." The development of this countermeasure is based on the use of imperceptible levels of electrical stimulation to the balance organs of the inner ear to assist and enhance the response of a person s sensorimotor function. These countermeasures could be used to increase an astronaut s re-adaptation rate to Earth s gravity following long-duration space flight. The focus of my project is to evaluate and examine the correlation of sensory preferences for vision and vestibular systems. Disruption of the sensorimotor functions following space flight affects posture, locomotion and spatial orientation tasks in astronauts. The Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT), the Rod and Frame Test (RFT) and the Computerized Dynamic Posturography Test (CDP) are measurements used to examine subjects visual and vestibular sensory preferences. The analysis of data from these tasks will assist in relating the visual dependence measures recognized in the GEFT and RFT with vestibular dependence measures recognized in the stability measures obtained during CDP. Studying the impact of sensory dependence on the performance in varied tasks will help in the development of targeted countermeasures to help astronauts readapt to gravitational changes after long duration space flight.

  15. Socio-emotional factors in alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyashini Lahiri Tikka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alcohol-dependent patients are traditionally believed to have insecure attachment styles, higher anger expression, and lower self-esteem. There is a need to study them together. Aim: To understand the relationships amongst various of the socio-emotional factors. Materials and Methods: Forty male patients with Alcohol dependence syndrome and 40 matched healthy controls (General Health Questionnaire-12 score <3 were compared on attachment styles (on Relationship Scale Questionnaire, anger domains (on State Trait Anger Expression Inventory, and self-esteem (on Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale. Statistics and Analysis: Comparison using independent samples t test and chi square test; correlation using Pearson′s correlation coefficient. Results: Patients had significantly higher anger expression, ′anger in′ and ′anger out,′ and lower self-esteem than healthy controls. Severity of alcohol dependence had significant correlation with ′anger out,′ and self-esteem had significant negative correlation with anger expression. Conclusion: The present study suggests that the socio-emotional factors studied are developmentally linked to each other.

  16. Addiction and dependence in DSM-V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Charles

    2011-05-01

    As preparations for the fifth revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) are under way, this paper focuses upon changes proposed for the substance use disorders section. It briefly outlines the history behind the current nomenclature, and the selection of the term 'dependence' over 'addiction' in earlier versions of the DSM. The term 'dependence', while used in past decades to refer to uncontrolled drug-seeking behavior, has an alternative meaning--the physiological adaptation that occurs when medications acting on the central nervous system are ingested with rebound when the medication is abruptly discontinued. These dual meanings have led to confusion and may have propagated current clinical practices related to under-treatment of pain, as physicians fear creating an 'addiction' by prescribing opioids. In part to address this problem, a change proposed for DSM-V is to alter the chapter name to 'Addiction and Related Disorders', which will include disordered gambling. The specific substance use disorders may be referred to as 'alcohol use' or 'opioid use' disorders. The criteria for the disorders are likely to remain similar, with the exception of removal of the 'committing illegal acts' criterion and addition of a 'craving' criterion. The other major change relates to the elimination of the abuse/dependence dichotomy, given the lack of data supporting an intermediate stage. These changes are anticipated to improve clarification and diagnosis and treatment of substance use and related disorders.

  17. Communication imperialism and dependency: a conceptual clarification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, P S

    1988-01-01

    Communications imperialism has to do with the domination of a country's media activities by another. The ownership, structure, distribution or content of the media in 1 country are affected by pressures from media interests of another country or group out of proportion with those of that country. To determine if this is happening we should consider the country's policies, the private sector;s efforts to export communications elements, and actions of the dominant country against the dominated. The 4 aspects of international media in this situation are television program exportation, foreign ownership and control of media distribution, the infringement of capital opinions on other societies, and the transfer of commercialism and broadcasting norms. In addition to the software and hardware and the other forms of communication such as satellites, computers, and transportation of the mass media, there are the cultural effects on the developing countries. In the case of involuntary of voluntary dependency of the recipient country, the effect of the unbalanced international communication can be harmful or beneficial. Communication dependency may not be harmful to the culture of the recipient country. In determining the theory of unbalanced international communications 3 factors should be considered. There are: the role of the interacting countries, the nature of the dependency of the recipient country, and the beneficial or harmful effect of unbalanced communication pattern on that country.

  18. Quintessential scale dependence from separate universe simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Chi-Ting; Li, Yin; Hu, Wayne; LoVerde, Marilena

    2016-12-01

    By absorbing fluctuations into a local background, separate universe simulations provide a powerful technique to characterize the response of small-scale observables to the long-wavelength density fluctuations, for example those of the power spectrum and halo mass function which lead to the squeezed-limit n -point function and halo bias, respectively. Using quintessence dark energy as the paradigmatic example, we extend these simulation techniques to cases where non-gravitational forces in other sectors establish a Jeans scale across which the growth of density fluctuations becomes scale dependent. By characterizing the separate universes with matching background expansion histories, we show that the power spectrum and mass function responses depend on whether the long-wavelength mode is above or below the Jeans scale. Correspondingly, the squeezed bispectrum and halo bias also become scale dependent. Models of bias that are effectively local in the density field at a single epoch, initial or observed, cannot describe this effect which highlights the importance of temporal nonlocality in structure formation. Validated by these quintessence tests, our techniques are applicable to a wide range of models where the complex dynamics of additional fields affect the clustering of matter in the linear regime and it would otherwise be difficult to simulate their impact in the nonlinear regime.

  19. Microtubule self-organisation depends upon gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabony, J.; Pochon, N.; Papaseit, C.

    2001-01-01

    The molecular processes by which gravity is transduced into biological systems are poorly, if at all, understood. Under equilibrium conditions, chemical and biochemical structures do not depend upon gravity. It has been proposed that biological systems might show a gravity dependence by way of the bifurcation properties of certain types of non-linear chemical reactions that are far-from-equilibrium. We have found that in-vitro preparations of microtubules, an important element of the cellular cytoskeleton, show this type of behaviour. On earth, the solutions show macroscopic self-ordering, and the morphology of the structures that form depend upon the orientation of the sample with respect to gravity at a critical moment at an early stage in the development of the self-organised state. An experiment carried out in a sounding rocket, showed that as predicted by theories of this type, no self-organisation occurs when the microtubules are assembled under low gravity conditions. This is an experimental demonstration of how a very simple biochemical system, containing only two molecules, can be gravity sensitive. At a molecular level this behaviour results from an interaction of gravity with macroscopic concentration and density fluctuations that arise from the processes of microtubule contraction and elongation.

  20. Pyridoxine and pyridoxalphosphate-dependent epilepsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plecko, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    To date we know of four inborn errors of autosomal recessive inheritance that lead to vitamin B6-dependent seizures. Among these, pyridoxine-dependent seizures due to antiquitin deficiency is by far the most common, although exact incidence data are lacking. In PNPO deficiency, samples have to be collected prior to treatment, while PDE, hyperprolinemia type II and congenital HPP can be diagnosed while on vitamin B6 supplementation. A vitamin B6 withdrawal for diagnostic purposes is nowadays only indicated in patients with a clear vitamin B6 response but normal biochemical work-up. In the presence of therapy-resistant neonatal seizures, early consideration of a vitamin B6 trial over 3 consecutive days is crucial in order to prevent irreversible brain damage. While PLP would be effective in all four disorders, pyridoxine fails to treat seizures in PNPO deficiency. As PLP is unlicensed within Europe and North America, pyridoxine is widely used as the first line drug, but if it is ineffective it should be followed by a trial with PLP, especially in neonates. As severe apnea has been described in responders, resuscitation equipment should be at hand during a first pyridoxine/PLP administration. Patients and parents have to be informed about the lifelong dependency and recurrence risks in forthcoming pregnancies.

  1. Velocity Dependence of Friction of Confined Hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, Vladimir N.; Persson, Bo N. J.

    2010-01-01

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon “polymer” solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: (a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate and (b) polymer sliding on polymer. We discuss the velocity dependence of the f......We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon “polymer” solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: (a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate and (b) polymer sliding on polymer. We discuss the velocity dependence...... in the polymer film is always close to the thermostat temperature. In the first setup (a), for hydrocarbons with molecular lengths from 60 to 1400 carbon atoms, the shear stresses are nearly independent of molecular length, but for the shortest hydrocarbon C20H42 the frictional shear stress is lower. In all...... cases the frictional shear stress increases monotonically with the sliding velocity. For polymer sliding on polymer (case b) the friction is much larger, and the velocity dependence is more complex. For hydrocarbons with molecular lengths from 60 to 140 C atoms, the number of monolayers of lubricant...

  2. The biodiversity-dependent ecosystem service debt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbell, Forest; Tilman, David; Polasky, Stephen; Loreau, Michel

    2015-02-01

    Habitat destruction is driving biodiversity loss in remaining ecosystems, and ecosystem functioning and services often directly depend on biodiversity. Thus, biodiversity loss is likely creating an ecosystem service debt: a gradual loss of biodiversity-dependent benefits that people obtain from remaining fragments of natural ecosystems. Here, we develop an approach for quantifying ecosystem service debts, and illustrate its use to estimate how one anthropogenic driver, habitat destruction, could indirectly diminish one ecosystem service, carbon storage, by creating an extinction debt. We estimate that c. 2-21 Pg C could be gradually emitted globally in remaining ecosystem fragments because of plant species loss caused by nearby habitat destruction. The wide range for this estimate reflects substantial uncertainties in how many plant species will be lost, how much species loss will impact ecosystem functioning and whether plant species loss will decrease soil carbon. Our exploratory analysis suggests that biodiversity-dependent ecosystem service debts can be globally substantial, even when locally small, if they occur diffusely across vast areas of remaining ecosystems. There is substantial value in conserving not only the quantity (area), but also the quality (biodiversity) of natural ecosystems for the sustainable provision of ecosystem services. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  3. Heart rate dependency of JT interval sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnatkova, Katerina; Johannesen, Lars; Vicente, Jose; Malik, Marek

    2017-08-09

    Little experience exists with the heart rate correction of J-Tpeak and Tpeak-Tend intervals. In a population of 176 female and 176 male healthy subjects aged 32.3±9.8 and 33.1±8.4years, respectively, curve-linear and linear relationship to heart rate was investigated for different sections of the JT interval defined by the proportions of the area under the vector magnitude of the reconstructed 3D vectorcardiographic loop. The duration of the JT sub-section between approximately just before the T peak and almost the T end was found heart rate independent. Most of the JT heart rate dependency relates to the beginning of the interval. The duration of the terminal T wave tail is only weakly heart rate dependent. The Tpeak-Tend is only minimally heart rate dependent and in studies not showing substantial heart rate changes does not need to be heart rate corrected. For any correction formula that has linear additive properties, heart rate correction of JT and JTpeak intervals is practically the same as of the QT interval. However, this does not apply to the formulas in the form of Int/RR(a) since they do not have linear additive properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Time Dependent CP Violation in Charm

    CERN Document Server

    Inguglia, Gianluca

    2012-01-01

    A model which describes the time-dependent CP formalism in $D^0$ decays has recently been proposed. There it has been highlighted a possible measurement of the angle $\\beta_c$, in the charm unitarity triangle, using the decays $D^0\\to K^+ K^-$ and $D^0\\to \\pi^+ \\pi^-$, and a measurement of the mixing phase $\\phi_{MIX}$. The same method can be used to measure the value of the parameter $x$, one of the two parameters defining charm mixing. We numerically evaluate the impact of a time-dependent analysis in terms of the possible outcomes from present and future experiments. We consider the scenarios of correlated $D^0$ mesons production at the center of mass energy of the $\\Psi(3770)$ at Super$B$, uncorrelated production at the center of mass energy of the $\\Upsilon(4S)$ at Super$B$ and Belle II, and LHCb. Recently a hint of direct CP violation in charm decays was reported by the LHCb collaboration, we estimate the rate of time-dependent asymmetry that could be achieved using their available data, and we generali...

  5. Dissipative time-dependent quantum transport theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Yam, Chi Yung; Chen, GuanHua

    2013-04-28

    A dissipative time-dependent quantum transport theory is developed to treat the transient current through molecular or nanoscopic devices in presence of electron-phonon interaction. The dissipation via phonon is taken into account by introducing a self-energy for the electron-phonon coupling in addition to the self-energy caused by the electrodes. Based on this, a numerical method is proposed. For practical implementation, the lowest order expansion is employed for the weak electron-phonon coupling case and the wide-band limit approximation is adopted for device and electrodes coupling. The corresponding hierarchical equation of motion is derived, which leads to an efficient and accurate time-dependent treatment of inelastic effect on transport for the weak electron-phonon interaction. The resulting method is applied to a one-level model system and a gold wire described by tight-binding model to demonstrate its validity and the importance of electron-phonon interaction for the quantum transport. As it is based on the effective single-electron model, the method can be readily extended to time-dependent density functional theory.

  6. Time dependent mean-field games

    KAUST Repository

    Gomes, Diogo A.

    2014-01-06

    We consider time dependent mean-field games (MFG) with a local power-like dependence on the measure and Hamiltonians satisfying both sub and superquadratic growth conditions. We establish existence of smooth solutions under a certain set of conditions depending both on the growth of the Hamiltonian as well as on the dimension. In the subquadratic case this is done by combining a Gagliardo-Nirenberg type of argument with a new class of polynomial estimates for solutions of the Fokker-Planck equation in terms of LrLp- norms of DpH. These techniques do not apply to the superquadratic case. In this setting we recur to a delicate argument that combines the non-linear adjoint method with polynomial estimates for solutions of the Fokker-Planck equation in terms of L1L1-norms of DpH. Concerning the subquadratic case, we substantially improve and extend the results previously obtained. Furthermore, to the best of our knowledge, the superquadratic case has not been addressed in the literature yet. In fact, it is likely that our estimates may also add to the current understanding of Hamilton-Jacobi equations with superquadratic Hamiltonians.

  7. Temperature dependence of commercially available diode detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Amarjit S; Zhu, Timothy C

    2002-04-01

    Temperature dependence of commercially available n- and p-type diodes were studied experimentally under both high instantaneous dose rate (pulsed) and low dose rate (continuous) radiation. The sensitivity versus temperature was measured at SSD = 80 or 100 cm, 10 x 10 cm2, and 5 cm depth in a 30 x 30 x 30 cm3 water phantom between 10 degrees C and 35 degrees C. The response was linear for all the diode detectors. The temperature coefficient (or sensitivity variation with temperature, svwt) was dose rate independent for preirradiated diodes. They were (0.30 +/- 0.01)%/degrees C, (0.36 +/- 0.03)%/degrees C, and (0.29 +/- 0.08)%/degrees C for QED p-type, EDP p-type, and Isorad n-type diodes, respectively. The temperature coefficient for unirradiated n-type diodes was different under low dose rate [(0.16 to 0.45)%/degrees C, continuous, cobalt] and high instantaneous dose rate [(0.07 +/- 0.02)%/degrees C, pulsed radiation]. Moreover, the temperature coefficient varies among individual diodes. Similarly, the temperature coefficient for a special unirradiated QED p-type diode was different under low dose rate (0.34%/degrees C, cobalt) and high instantaneous dose rate [(0.26 +/- 0.01)%/degrees C, pulsed radiation]. Sufficient preirradiation can eliminate dose rate dependence of the temperature coefficient. On the contrary, preirradiation cannot eliminate dose rate dependence of the diode sensitivity itself.

  8. Regression analysis using dependent Polya trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schörgendorfer, Angela; Branscum, Adam J

    2013-11-30

    Many commonly used models for linear regression analysis force overly simplistic shape and scale constraints on the residual structure of data. We propose a semiparametric Bayesian model for regression analysis that produces data-driven inference by using a new type of dependent Polya tree prior to model arbitrary residual distributions that are allowed to evolve across increasing levels of an ordinal covariate (e.g., time, in repeated measurement studies). By modeling residual distributions at consecutive covariate levels or time points using separate, but dependent Polya tree priors, distributional information is pooled while allowing for broad pliability to accommodate many types of changing residual distributions. We can use the proposed dependent residual structure in a wide range of regression settings, including fixed-effects and mixed-effects linear and nonlinear models for cross-sectional, prospective, and repeated measurement data. A simulation study illustrates the flexibility of our novel semiparametric regression model to accurately capture evolving residual distributions. In an application to immune development data on immunoglobulin G antibodies in children, our new model outperforms several contemporary semiparametric regression models based on a predictive model selection criterion. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Road rage among drug dependent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavidez, Daniela C; Flores, Antonio Marcos; Fierro, Inmaculada; Alvarez, F Javier

    2013-01-01

    The consumption of alcohol, cocaine and cannabis is associated with aggressive behaviour, being a victim of injuries from various causes, and suffering traffic accidents. On the other hand, there is a significant association between road rage and traffic accidents, yet this has not been studied in persons suffering a substance dependence disorder. This study analyses the prevalence of road rage in substance dependent patients undergoing treatment. 100 patients randomly selected at an outpatient treatment centre were included in the study. 63% of the patients had experienced road rage in the year prior to the interview, and 18% were serious perpetrators. There was a higher frequency among drivers and those who were starting treatment for cocaine and cocaine+heroin. The study shows that road rage is very frequent among patients with disorders due to substance dependence who are undergoing treatment, in particular the most severe form ("serious perpetrators"). Special attention should be addressed to the issue of driving and road rage during the treatment of these patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. DEPENDABILITY AND RELIABILITY OF MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Stere PARIS

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturing systems are characterized by three fundamental properties: performance, cost, and dependability. The analysis of a system from the pure performance viewpoint tends to be optimistic since it ignores the failure/repair behaviour in the system. On the other hand, pure availability analysis tends to be too conservative since performance considerations are not taken into account. They improve product quality and reduce production losses. Dependability of a manufacturing system is the ability to deliver service (products that can justifiably be trusted. Performance engineering addresses sustainability along with other factors like quality, reliability, maintainability and safety. The current paper introduces a framework for the fault analysis of production process, and the availability evaluation especially in the Flexible Manufacturing Systems (FMS’s. Generally, computing dependability measures of repairable systems with usual failure and repair processes is difficult, through either analytical or numerical methods. Mathematical models and application software for this kind of problems are in good stead. Recent advances in neural networks show that they can be used in applications that involve predictions, including the manufacturing.

  11. Dependence of fusion on isospin dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Godbey, K; Simenel, C

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new microscopic approach to calculate the dependence of fusion barriers and cross-sections on isospin dynamics. The method is based on the time-dependent Hartree-Fock theory and the isoscalar and isovector properties of the energy density functional (EDF). The contribution to the fusion barriers originating from the isoscalar and isovector parts of the EDF is calculated. It is shown that for non-symmetric systems the isovector dynamics influence the sub-barrier fusion cross-sections. For most systems this results in an enhancement of the sub-barrier cross-sections, while for others we observe differing degrees of hindrance. We use this approach to provide an explanation of recently measured fusion cross sections which show a surprising enhancement at low $E_\\mathrm{c.m.}$ energies for the system $^{40}$Ca+$^{132}$Sn as compared to the more neutron-rich system $^{48}$Ca+$^{132}$Sn, and discuss the dependence of sub-barrier fusion cross-sections on transfer.

  12. Environmental enrichment modifies the PKA-dependence of hippocampal LTP and improves hippocampus-dependent memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, S N; Craddock, K J; Abel, T; Nguyen, P V

    2001-01-01

    cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is critical for the expression of some forms of long-term potentiation (LTP) in area CA1 of the mouse hippocampus and for hippocampus-dependent memory. Exposure to spatially enriched environments can modify LTP and improve behavioral memory in rodents, but the molecular bases for the enhanced memory performance seen in enriched animals are undefined. We tested the hypothesis that exposure to a spatially enriched environment may alter the PKA dependence of hippocampal LTP. Hippocampal slices from enriched mice showed enhanced LTP following a single burst of 100-Hz stimulation in the Schaffer collateral pathway of area CA1. In slices from nonenriched mice, this single-burst form of LTP was less robust and was unaffected by Rp-cAMPS, an inhibitor of PKA. In contrast, the enhanced LTP in enriched mice was attenuated by Rp-cAMPS. Enriched slices expressed greater forskolin-induced, cAMP-dependent synaptic facilitation than did slices from nonenriched mice. Enriched mice showed improved memory for contextual fear conditioning, whereas memory for cued fear conditioning was unaffected following enrichment. Our data indicate that exposure of mice to spatial enrichment alters the PKA dependence of LTP and enhances one type of hippocampus-dependent memory. Environmental enrichment can transform the pharmacological profile of hippocampal LTP, possibly by altering the threshold for activity-dependent recruitment of the cAMP-PKA signaling pathway following electrical and chemical stimulation. We suggest that experience-dependent plasticity of the PKA dependence of hippocampal LTP may be important for regulating the efficacy of hippocampus-based memory.

  13. US oil dependency and energy security; Dependance petroliere et securite energetique americaine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, P. [Institut francais des Relations Internationals, 75 - Paris (France)]|[Universite Pierre Mendes-France-IEPE-CNRS, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2002-07-01

    The three papers of this document were written in the framework of a seminar organized the 30 may 2002 by the IFRI in the framework of its program Energy and Climatic Change. The first presentation deals with the american oil policy since 1980 (relation between the oil dependence and the energy security, the Reagan oil policy, the new oil policy facing the increase of the dependence). The second one deals with the US energy security (oil security, domestic energy security, policy implications). The last presentation is devoted to the US oil dependence in a global context and the problems and policies of international energy security. (A.L.B.)

  14. Pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-dependent catalytic antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramatikova, Svetlana; Mouratou, Barbara; Stetefeld, Jörg; Mehta, Perdeep K; Christen, Philipp

    2002-11-01

    Strategies for expanding the catalytic scope of antibodies include the incorporation of inorganic or organic cofactors into their binding sites. An obvious choice is pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP), which is probably the most versatile organic cofactor of enzymes. Monoclonal antibodies against the hapten N(alpha)-(5'-phosphopyridoxyl)-L-lysine, a stable analog of the covalent coenzyme-substrate adducts were screened by a competition ELISA for binding of the PLP-amino acid Schiff base adduct. The Schiff base with its C4'-N alpha double bond is, in contrast to the hapten, a planar compound and is an obligatory intermediate in all PLP-dependent reactions of amino acids. This highly discriminating screening step eliminated all but 5 of 24 hapten-binding antibodies. The five remaining antibodies were tested for catalysis of the PLP-dependent alpha,beta-elimination reaction of beta-chloroalanine. Antibody 15A9 complied with this selection criterion and catalyzed in addition the cofactor-dependent transamination reaction of hydrophobic D-amino acids and oxo acids (k(cat)'=0.42 min(-1) with D-alanine at 25 degrees C). Homology modeling together with alanine scanning yielded a 3D model of Fab 15A9. The striking analogy between antibody 15A9 and PLP-dependent enzymes includes the following features: (1) The binding sites accommodate the planar coenzyme-amino acid adduct. (2) The bond at C alpha to be broken lies together with the C alpha-N bond in a plane orthogonal to the plane of coenzyme and imine bond. (3) The alpha-carboxylate group of the substrate is bound by an arginine residue. (4) The coenzyme-substrate adduct assumes a cisoid conformation. (5) PLP markedly contributes to catalytic efficiency, being a 10(4) times more efficient amino group acceptor than pyruvate. The protein moiety, however, ensures reaction as well as substrate specificity, and further accelerates the reaction (in 15A9 k(cat (Ab x PLP))'/k(cat (PLP))'=5 x 10(3)). The analogies of antibody 15A9 with

  15. [Dependence on benzodiazepines. Clinical and biological aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelissolo, A; Bisserbe, J C

    1994-01-01

    The high rate of benzodiazepines (BZD) consumption has been repeatedly confirmed by epidemiological surveys in most major western world countries. In a recent french survey 7% of chronic users of BZD (use in 5/7 days for the last 12 months) were found the general population (17% in the population aged above 65). It has been suggested that the high BZD consumption rate could be related to dependence. The existence of BZD dependence was described in the early sixties with very high dose of chlordiazepoxide but it has become a real concern for the medical community since the late seventies with increasing number of reports of withdrawal symptoms. The extend of the actual rate of withdrawal symptoms at BZD tapering is still very controversial and according to the different studies it varies from 39 to 90%. The between studies difference in parameters such as: the patient populations (psychopathology, treatment duration), the type of tapering employed (duration, nature of the medical and psychological support) and the used operational criteria for withdrawal definition most likely explain this wide variation in the rate of occurrence of withdrawal manifestations. According to the American Psychiatric Association Task Force on Benzodiazepine Dependence, Toxicity and Abuse three type of pathological events can happen after treatment discontinuation: rebound, withdrawal syndrome and recurrence. The rebound consists in the early and transitory reappearance of the anxiety symptoms pre-existing to the treatment but in an exacerbated from; the withdrawal syndrome associates the resurgence of the pre-existing anxiety symptoms and new symptoms as sensory disturbances (metallic taste, hyperosmia, cutaneous exacerbated sensitivity, photophobia...) nausea, headache, motor disturbance in some rare cases depersonalization, paranoid reaction, confusion, convulsion. Rebound or withdrawal syndrome appearance delay varies from hours to few days according mostly to compounds elimination

  16. Genetics Home Reference: pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5'-phosphate-dependent epilepsy pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent epilepsy Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... All Close All Description Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent epilepsy is a condition that involves seizures beginning soon ...

  17. Computing Resolution-Path Dependencies in Linear Time

    CERN Document Server

    Slivovsky, Friedrich

    2012-01-01

    The alternation of existential and universal quantifiers in a quantified boolean formula (QBF) generates dependencies among variables that must be respected when evaluating the formula. Dependency schemes provide a general framework for representing such dependencies. Since it is generally intractable to determine dependencies exactly, a set of potential dependencies is computed instead, which may include false positives. Among the schemes proposed so far, resolution-path dependencies introduce the fewest spurious dependencies. In this work, we describe an algorithm that detects resolution-path dependencies in linear time, resolving a problem posed by Van Gelder (CP 2011)

  18. Density-dependent prophylaxis and condition-dependent immune function in Lepidopteran larvae: a multivariate approach

    OpenAIRE

    Cotter, Sheena; Hails, R. S.; Cory, J S; Wilson, K.

    2004-01-01

    1. The risk of parasitism and infectious disease is expected to increase with population density as a consequence of positive density-dependent transmission rates. Therefore, species that encounter large fluctuations in population density are predicted to exhibit plasticity in their immune system, such that investment in costly immune defences is adjusted to match the probability of exposure to parasites and pathogens (i.e. density-dependent prophylaxis).

  19. Involvement of IRF4 dependent dendritic cells in T cell dependent colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pool, Lieneke; Rivollier, Aymeric Marie Christian; Agace, William Winston

    of chronic intestinal inflammation remains unclear. In the current study we used the CD45RBhi T cell transfer model of colitis to determine the role of IRF4 dependent DCs in intestinal inflammation. In this model naïve CD4+ T cells when transferred into RAG-/- mice, proliferate and expand in response...... these results suggest an important role for Irf4 dependent DCs in T cell driven colitis....

  20. Cardiac Fas-dependent and mitochondria-dependent apoptosis after chronic cocaine abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Cher-Ming; Tsai, Shiow-Chwen; Kuo, Chia-Hua; Ting, Hua; Lee, Shin-Da

    2014-04-09

    To evaluate whether chronic cocaine abuse will increase cardiac Fas-dependent and mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathways, thirty-two male Wistar rats at 3-4 months of age were randomly divided into a vehicle-treated group (phosphate-buffered saline, PBS, 0.5 mL, SQ per day) and a cocaine-treated group (Cocaine, 10 mg/kg, SQ per day). After 3 months of treatment, the excised left ventricles were measured by H&E staining, Western blotting, DAPI staining and TUNEL assays. More cardiac TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells were observed in the Cocaine group than the PBS group. Protein levels of TNF-alpha, Fas ligand, Fas death receptor, FADD, activated caspase-8, and activated caspase-3 (Fas-dependent apoptosis) extracted from excised hearts in the Cocaine group were significantly increased, compared to the PBS group. Protein levels of cardiac Bax, cytosolic cytochrome c, t-Bid-to-Bid, Bak-to-Bcl-xL, Bax-to-Bcl-2 ratio, activated caspase-9, and activated caspase-3 (mitochondria-dependent apoptosis) were significantly increased in the Cocaine group, compared to the PBS group. Chronic cocaine exposure appeared to activate the cardiac Fas-dependent and mitochondria-dependent apoptosis, which may indicate a possible mechanism for the development of cardiac abnormalities in humans with chronic cocaine abuse.

  1. Cardiac Fas-Dependent and Mitochondria-Dependent Apoptosis after Chronic Cocaine Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cher-Ming Liou

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate whether chronic cocaine abuse will increase cardiac Fas-dependent and mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathways, thirty-two male Wistar rats at 3–4 months of age were randomly divided into a vehicle-treated group (phosphate-buffered saline, PBS, 0.5 mL, SQ per day and a cocaine-treated group (Cocaine, 10 mg/kg, SQ per day. After 3 months of treatment, the excised left ventricles were measured by H&E staining, Western blotting, DAPI staining and TUNEL assays. More cardiac TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells were observed in the Cocaine group than the PBS group. Protein levels of TNF-alpha, Fas ligand, Fas death receptor, FADD, activated caspase-8, and activated caspase-3 (Fas-dependent apoptosis extracted from excised hearts in the Cocaine group were significantly increased, compared to the PBS group. Protein levels of cardiac Bax, cytosolic cytochrome c, t-Bid-to-Bid, Bak-to-Bcl-xL, Bax-to-Bcl-2 ratio, activated caspase-9, and activated caspase-3 (mitochondria-dependent apoptosis were significantly increased in the Cocaine group, compared to the PBS group. Chronic cocaine exposure appeared to activate the cardiac Fas-dependent and mitochondria-dependent apoptosis, which may indicate a possible mechanism for the development of cardiac abnormalities in humans with chronic cocaine abuse.

  2. The Comparison of Maladaptive Schema and Lifestyles in Drug Dependence and Non-Drug Dependence People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahideh Purmohammad

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to compare early maladaptive schemas and life styles in drug dependences and normal population to recognize their role in drug dependence. Due to their importance in interpretation of special situations, cognitive schemas and life styles have a significant role in cognitive theories. Methods: The method of this research were post-facto and sectional styles. The population were included of 100 drug dependence adults and 100 non-drug dependence who were selected by at-reach methods. Young early maladaptive schema-short form and Basic Adlerian scales for interpersonal success-adult form questionnaires were used. Findings: the results showed that there were significant differences between early maladaptive schemas and life styles in groups under research. Conclusion: the study showed that drug dependence people suffer from high levels of early maladaptive schemas and their life styles are maladaptive. As a result, in prediction of dependence to drug and in treating it too much attention must be given to cognitive factors.

  3. Comparison of striatal dopamine transporter levels in chronic heroin-dependent and methamphetamine-dependent subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jie; Liu, Xing Dang; Han, Mei; Lv, Rong Bin; Wang, Yuan Kai; Zhang, Guang Ming; Li, Yu

    2017-01-01

    To compare the effects of heroin and methamphetamine (METH) addiction on dopamine transporters (DATs) in the same dose and duration, we assessed DAT levels in the striatum by (99m) Tc-TRODAT-1 single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) brain images in people with heroin and METH dependence. We recruited 21 healthy human controls, 23 heroin-dependent subjects and 25 METH abusers. The heroin- and METH-dependent subjects exhibited negative urine toxicology after undergoing physiological detoxification. All subjects underwent SPECT brain imaging, and specific tracer uptake ratios (SURs) were assessed bilaterally in the regions of interest. A significant SUR reduction in heroin-dependent subjects and METH-dependent subjects compared with healthy controls was found in the left striatum, right striatum, left caudate nucleus, right caudate nucleus, left putamen and right putamen. There were no significant differences in the heroin group and METH group for the left striatum, right striatum, left caudate nucleus, right caudate nucleus, left putamen and right putamen. The scores of craving, HAMA (Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale), in heroin abusers were lower than in the METH abusers. Our results show that people with heroin and METH dependence who are currently abstinent had lower DAT levels in the striatum than healthy controls. There were no differences in striatal DAT in heroin and METH users. These results suggest that chronic heroin and METH abuse appears to produce similar effects in striatal DAT in humans. METH users may have more serious craving and anxiety symptoms than heroin users with prolonged abstinence.

  4. Facilitation of calcium-dependent potassium current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, S H

    1994-12-01

    The activation of Ca-dependent K+ current, Ic, was studied in macropatches on the cell bodies of molluscan neurons. When a depolarizing voltage-clamp pulse was applied repeatedly, Ic facilitated in a manner that resembled the facilitation of synaptic transmitter release. Facilitation was characterized by an increase in Ic amplitude, a progressive increase in instantaneous outward current, and a decrease in utilization time. Experiments were done to investigate the mechanism responsible for Ic facilitation. Facilitation was reduced by microinjection of an exogenous Ca2+ buffer into the cytoplasm, indicating that facilitation is a Ca(2+)-dependent process. It was also reduced at elevated temperatures. Conversely, facilitation was greatly potentiated by blocking the Na/Ca exchange mechanism. It is concluded that the facilitation of Ca-dependent K+ current results from the accumulation of Ca2+ at the inner face of the membrane during the repeated activation of Ca2+ channels by depolarization. The Ca2+ indicator fluo-3 was used in fluorescence imaging experiments to measure changes in [Ca]i near the cell membrane during repeated depolarizing pulses and the interpretation of these results was aided by numerical simulations of Ca2+ accumulation, diffusion, and buffering in the peripheral cytoplasm. These experiments showed that the time course of Ic facilitation matches the time course of Ca2+ accumulation at the membrane. It was found that the strength of Ic facilitation varies among patches on the same neuron, suggesting that the accumulation of Ca2+ is not uniform along the inner surface of the membrane and that gradients in [Ca]i develop and are maintained during trains of depolarizing pulses. Potential mechanisms that may lead to local differences in Ca2+ accumulation and Ic facilitation are discussed.

  5. GABA systems, benzodiazepines, and substance dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Robert J

    2003-01-01

    Alterations in the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor complex and GABA neurotransmission influence the reinforcing and intoxicating effects of alcohol and benzodiazepines. Chronic modulation of the GABA(A)-benzodiazepine receptor complex plays a major role in central nervous system dysregulation during alcohol abstinence. Withdrawal symptoms stem in part from a decreased GABAergic inhibitory function and an increase in glutamatergic excitatory function. GABA(A) receptors play a role in both reward and withdrawal phenomena from alcohol and sedative-hypnotics. Although less well understood, GABA(B) receptor complexes appear to play a role in inhibition of motivation and diminish relapse potential to reinforcing drugs. Evidence suggests that long-term alcohol use and concomitant serial withdrawals permanently alter GABAergic function, down-regulate benzodiazepine binding sites, and in preclinical models lead to cell death. Benzodiazepines have substantial drawbacks in the treatment of substance use-related disorders that include interactions with alcohol, rebound effects, alcohol priming, and the risk of supplanting alcohol dependency with addiction to both alcohol and benzodiazepines. Polysubstance-dependent individuals frequently self-medicate with benzodiazepines. Selective GABA agents with novel mechanisms of action have anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, and reward inhibition profiles that have potential in treating substance use and withdrawal and enhancing relapse prevention with less liability than benzodiazepines. The GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen has promise in relapse prevention in a number of substance dependence disorders. The GABA(A) and GABA(B) pump reuptake inhibitor tiagabine has potential for managing alcohol and sedative-hypnotic withdrawal and also possibly a role in relapse prevention.

  6. Time-dependent Dyson orbital theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritsenko, O V; Baerends, E J

    2016-08-21

    Although time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) has become the tool of choice for real-time propagation of the electron density ρ(N)(t) of N-electron systems, it also encounters problems in this application. The first problem is the neglect of memory effects stemming from the, in TDDFT virtually unavoidable, adiabatic approximation, the second problem is the reliable evaluation of the probabilities P(n)(t) of multiple photoinduced ionization, while the third problem (which TDDFT shares with other approaches) is the reliable description of continuum states of the electrons ejected in the process of ionization. In this paper time-dependent Dyson orbital theory (TDDOT) is proposed. Exact TDDOT equations of motion (EOMs) for time-dependent Dyson orbitals are derived, which are linear differential equations with just static, feasible potentials of the electron-electron interaction. No adiabatic approximation is used, which formally resolves the first TDDFT problem. TDDOT offers formally exact expressions for the complete evolution in time of the wavefunction of the outgoing electron. This leads to the correlated probability of single ionization P(1)(t) as well as the probabilities of no ionization (P(0)(t)) and multiple ionization of n electrons, P(n)(t), which formally solves the second problem of TDDFT. For two-electron systems a proper description of the required continuum states appears to be rather straightforward, and both P(1)(t) and P(2)(t) can be calculated. Because of the exact formulation, TDDOT is expected to reproduce a notorious memory effect, the "knee structure" of the non-sequential double ionization of the He atom.

  7. Light-dependent electrogenic activity of cyanobacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Pisciotta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cyanobacteria account for 20-30% of Earth's primary photosynthetic productivity and convert solar energy into biomass-stored chemical energy at the rate of approximately 450 TW [1]. These single-cell microorganisms are resilient predecessors of all higher oxygenic phototrophs and can be found in self-sustaining, nitrogen-fixing communities the world over, from Antarctic glaciers to the Sahara desert [2]. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we show that diverse genera of cyanobacteria including biofilm-forming and pelagic strains have a conserved light-dependent electrogenic activity, i.e. the ability to transfer electrons to their surroundings in response to illumination. Naturally-growing biofilm-forming photosynthetic consortia also displayed light-dependent electrogenic activity, demonstrating that this phenomenon is not limited to individual cultures. Treatment with site-specific inhibitors revealed the electrons originate at the photosynthetic electron transfer chain (P-ETC. Moreover, electrogenic activity was observed upon illumination only with blue or red but not green light confirming that P-ETC is the source of electrons. The yield of electrons harvested by extracellular electron acceptor to photons available for photosynthesis ranged from 0.05% to 0.3%, although the efficiency of electron harvesting likely varies depending on terminal electron acceptor. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The current study illustrates that cyanobacterial electrogenic activity is an important microbiological conduit of solar energy into the biosphere. The mechanism responsible for electrogenic activity in cyanobacteria appears to be fundamentally different from the one exploited in previously discovered electrogenic bacteria, such as Geobacter, where electrons are derived from oxidation of organic compounds and transported via a respiratory electron transfer chain (R-ETC [3], [4]. The electrogenic pathway of cyanobacteria might be exploited to

  8. Generalized Orienteering Problem with Resource Dependent Rewards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    Feb. 2008. [15] G. Laporte and S. Martello. The selective traveling salesman problem . Discrete Applied Math- ematics, 26:193–207, 1990. [16] H. D...the following convex NLP produces the minimum travel distance between them. Problem D δ∗i,j = min t ||(ρi + (t− τi)ui)− (ρj + (t− τj)uj)|| s.t. max...Generalized Orienteering Problem with Resource Dependent Rewards Jesse Pietz, Johannes O. Royset Operations Research Department, Naval Postgraduate

  9. Valence-Dependent Belief Updating: Computational Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmanovic, Bojana; Rigoux, Lionel

    2017-01-01

    People tend to update beliefs about their future outcomes in a valence-dependent way: they are likely to incorporate good news and to neglect bad news. However, belief formation is a complex process which depends not only on motivational factors such as the desire for favorable conclusions, but also on multiple cognitive variables such as prior beliefs, knowledge about personal vulnerabilities and resources, and the size of the probabilities and estimation errors. Thus, we applied computational modeling in order to test for valence-induced biases in updating while formally controlling for relevant cognitive factors. We compared biased and unbiased Bayesian models of belief updating, and specified alternative models based on reinforcement learning. The experiment consisted of 80 trials with 80 different adverse future life events. In each trial, participants estimated the base rate of one of these events and estimated their own risk of experiencing the event before and after being confronted with the actual base rate. Belief updates corresponded to the difference between the two self-risk estimates. Valence-dependent updating was assessed by comparing trials with good news (better-than-expected base rates) with trials with bad news (worse-than-expected base rates). After receiving bad relative to good news, participants' updates were smaller and deviated more strongly from rational Bayesian predictions, indicating a valence-induced bias. Model comparison revealed that the biased (i.e., optimistic) Bayesian model of belief updating better accounted for data than the unbiased (i.e., rational) Bayesian model, confirming that the valence of the new information influenced the amount of updating. Moreover, alternative computational modeling based on reinforcement learning demonstrated higher learning rates for good than for bad news, as well as a moderating role of personal knowledge. Finally, in this specific experimental context, the approach based on reinforcement

  10. Chinese Statistical Parser Based on Semantic Dependencies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李涓子; 王作英

    2002-01-01

    A new tagging method is presented to build a Chinese semantic corpus. The method characterizes the sentence meaning as a linear sequence of dependency relationships which are the semantic or syntactic relationships between words in the sentence. This representation method is used to build a Chinese statistical parser model to understand the sentence meaning. Specific experiments on automatic telephone switchboard conversations show that the proposed parser has a precision of 80%. This work provides a foundation for building a large-scale Chinese semantic corpus and for research on understanding modeling of the Chinese language.

  11. Queues with waiting time dependent service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekker, R.; Koole, G. M.; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by service levels in terms of the waiting-time distribution seen, for instance, in call centers, we consider two models for systems with a service discipline that depends on the waiting time. The first model deals with a single server that continuously adapts its service rate based...... on the waiting time of the first customer in line. In the second model, one queue is served by a primary server which is supplemented by a secondary server when the waiting of the first customer in line exceeds a threshold. Using level crossings for the waiting-time process of the first customer in line, we...

  12. Shear viscosity of liquid mixtures Mass dependence

    CERN Document Server

    Kaushal, R

    2002-01-01

    Expressions for zeroth, second, and fourth sum rules of transverse stress autocorrelation function of two component fluid have been derived. These sum rules and Mori's memory function formalism have been used to study shear viscosity of Ar-Kr and isotopic mixtures. It has been found that theoretical result is in good agreement with the computer simulation result for the Ar-Kr mixture. The mass dependence of shear viscosity for different mole fraction shows that deviation from ideal linear model comes even from mass difference in two species of fluid mixture. At higher mass ratio shear viscosity of mixture is not explained by any of the emperical model.

  13. Kernel score statistic for dependent data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malzahn, Dörthe; Friedrichs, Stefanie; Rosenberger, Albert; Bickeböller, Heike

    2014-01-01

    The kernel score statistic is a global covariance component test over a set of genetic markers. It provides a flexible modeling framework and does not collapse marker information. We generalize the kernel score statistic to allow for familial dependencies and to adjust for random confounder effects. With this extension, we adjust our analysis of real and simulated baseline systolic blood pressure for polygenic familial background. We find that the kernel score test gains appreciably in power through the use of sequencing compared to tag-single-nucleotide polymorphisms for very rare single nucleotide polymorphisms with <1% minor allele frequency.

  14. Effect of stress on field dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarris, V; Heineken, E; Peters, H

    1976-08-01

    60 subjects were tested in the rod-and-frame test under flicker conditions (stress). As compared to scores in a control situation (no flicker), the rod-and-frame scores were large under stress and increased monotonically during the session. Futhermore, both intra- and interindividual variability of rod-and-frame performance changed under stress conditions in a consistent manner. The general results, which clearly point to a reliable influence of stress on field dependency, are discussed within the methodological framework of Witkin's theory of perception and personality.

  15. Isotopic Dependence of the Nuclear Caloric Curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfienti, C.; Adrich, P.; Aumann, T.; Bacri, C. O.; Barczyk, T.; Bassini, R.; Bianchin, S.; Boiano, C.; Botvina, A. S.; Boudard, A.; Brzychczyk, J.; Chbihi, A.; Cibor, J.; Czech, B.; de Napoli, M.; Ducret, J.-É.; Emling, H.; Frankland, J. D.; Hellström, M.; Henzlova, D.; Immè, G.; Iori, I.; Johansson, H.; Kezzar, K.; Lafriakh, A.; Le Fèvre, A.; Le Gentil, E.; Leifels, Y.; Lühning, J.; Łukasik, J.; Lynch, W. G.; Lynen, U.; Majka, Z.; Mocko, M.; Müller, W. F. J.; Mykulyak, A.; Orth, H.; Otte, A. N.; Palit, R.; Pawłowski, P.; Pullia, A.; Raciti, G.; Rapisarda, E.; Sann, H.; Schwarz, C.; Simon, H.; Sümmerer, K.; Trautmann, W.; Tsang, M. B.; Verde, G.; Volant, C.; Wallace, M.; Weick, H.; Wiechula, J.; Wieloch, A.; Zwiegliński, B.

    2009-04-01

    The A/Z dependence of projectile fragmentation at relativistic energies has been studied with the ALADIN forward spectrometer at SIS. A stable beam of Sn124 and radioactive beams of La124 and Sn107 at 600 MeV per nucleon have been used in order to explore a wide range of isotopic compositions. Chemical freeze-out temperatures are found to be nearly invariant with respect to the A/Z of the produced spectator sources, consistent with predictions for expanded systems. Small Coulomb effects (ΔT≈0.6MeV) appear for residue production near the onset of multifragmentation.

  16. Isotopic Dependence of the Nuclear Caloric Curve

    CERN Document Server

    Sfienti, C; Aumann, T; Bacri, C O; Barczyk, T; Bassini, R; Bianchin, S; Boiano, C; Botvina, A S; Boudard, A; Brzychczyk, J; Chbihi, A; Cibor, J; Czech, B; De Napoli, M; Ducret, J -E; Emling, H; Frankland, J D; Hellström, M; Henzlova, D; Imme, G; Iori, I; Johansson, H; Kezzar, K; Lafriakh, A; Le Fèvre, A; Gentil, E Le; Leifels, Y; Lühning, J; Lukasik, J; Lynch, W G; Lynen, U; Majka, Z; Mocko, M; Müller, W F J; Mykulyak, A; Orth, H; Otte, A N; Palit, R; Pawlowski, P; Pullia, A; Raciti, G; Rapisarda, E; Sann, H; Schwarz, C; Simon, H; Sümmerer, K; Trautmann, W; Tsang, M B; Verde, G; Volant, C; Wallace, M; Weick, H; Wiechula, J; Wieloch, A; Zwieglinski, B

    2009-01-01

    The A/Z dependence of projectile fragmentation at relativistic energies has been studied with the ALADIN forward spectrometer at SIS. A stable beam of 124Sn and radioactive beams of 124La and 107Sn at 600 MeV per nucleon have been used in order to explore a wide range of isotopic compositions. Chemical freeze-out temperatures are found to be nearly invariant with respect to the A/Z of the produced spectator sources, consistent with predictions for expanded systems. Small Coulomb effects (\\Delta T \\approx 0.6 MeV) appear for residue production near the onset of multifragmentation.

  17. Dependable control systems with Internet of Things.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tri; Ha, Q P

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents an Internet of Things (IoT)-enabled dependable control system (DepCS) for continuous processes. In a DepCS, an actuator and a transmitter form a regulatory control loop. Each processor inside such actuator and transmitter is designed as a computational platform implementing the feedback control algorithm. The connections between actuators and transmitters via IoT create a reliable backbone for a DepCS. The centralized input-output marshaling system is not required in DepCSs. A state feedback control synthesis method for DepCS applying the self-recovery constraint is presented in the second part of the paper.

  18. Mass Dependence of Disappearance of Transverse Flow

    CERN Document Server

    Sood, A D; Sood, Aman D.; Puri, Rajeev K.

    2004-01-01

    A complete theoretical study is presented for the disappearance of flow, for the first time, by analyzing 15 reactions with masses between 47 and 476 units. We demonstrate that the effect of nucleon-nucleon cross-section reduces to insignificant level for heavier colliding nuclei in agreement with previous studies. A stiff equation of state with nucleon-nucleon cross-sections of 35-40 mb is able to explain all the measured balance energies within few percent. A power law is also given for the mass dependence of the disappearance of flow which is in excellent agreement with experimental data.

  19. Gravity-Dependent Transport in Industrial Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrach, Simon; Kamotani, Yasuhiro

    1996-01-01

    Gravity dependent transport phenomena in various industrial processes are investigated in order to indicate new directions for micro-gravity research that enhance the commercial success of the space program. The present article describes the commercialization possibilities of such topics associated with physicochemical transport phenomena. The topics are: coating flow, rotating electrochemical system, and convection in low Plandtl number fluids. The present study is directed to understand these phenomena, and to develop a knowledge base for their applications with emphasis to a micro-gravity environment.

  20. Temperature dependence of DC SQUID magnetometer performances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granata, C. E-mail: c.granata@cib.na.cnr.it; Monaco, A.; Di Russo, C.; Lissitski, M.P.; Russo, M

    2004-05-01

    We report experimental results on temperature dependence of the main characteristics of fully integrated DC SQUID magnetometers realized on niobium technology. At T=4.2 K the sensor shown a white magnetic field noise spectral density of 2.9 fT/Hz{sup 1/2}. A slow increase of the field noise (about 20%) was observed with increasing temperature up to 5 K, giving a considerable tolerance of the working temperature of niobium magnetometers in some innovative multichannel systems for magnetoencephalography.