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Sample records for dependent regulator ider

  1. Mechanism of Iron-Dependent Repressor (IdeR Activation and DNA Binding: A Molecular Dynamics and Protein Structure Network Study.

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    Soma Ghosh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Metalloproteins form a major class of enzymes in the living system that are involved in crucial biological functions such as catalysis, redox reactions and as 'switches' in signal transductions. Iron dependent repressor (IdeR is a metal-sensing transcription factor that regulates free iron concentration in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. IdeR is also known to promote bacterial virulence, making it an important target in the field of therapeutics. Mechanistic details of how iron ions modulate IdeR such that it dimerizes and binds to DNA is not understood clearly. In this study, we have performed molecular dynamic simulations and integrated it with protein structure networks to study the influence of iron on IdeR structure and function. A significant structural variation between the metallated and the non-metallated system is observed. Our simulations clearly indicate the importance of iron in stabilizing its monomeric subunit, which in turn promotes dimerization. However, the most striking results are obtained from the simulations of IdeR-DNA complex in the absence of metals, where at the end of 100ns simulations, the protein subunits are seen to rapidly dissociate away from the DNA, thereby forming an excellent resource to investigate the mechanism of DNA binding. We have also investigated the role of iron as an allosteric regulator of IdeR that positively induces IdeR-DNA complex formation. Based on this study, a mechanistic model of IdeR activation and DNA binding has been proposed.

  2. ArrayIDer: automated structural re-annotation pipeline for DNA microarrays

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    McCarthy Fiona M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systems biology modeling from microarray data requires the most contemporary structural and functional array annotation. However, microarray annotations, especially for non-commercial, non-traditional biomedical model organisms, are often dated. In addition, most microarray analysis tools do not readily accept EST clone names, which are abundantly represented on arrays. Manual re-annotation of microarrays is impracticable and so we developed a computational re-annotation tool (ArrayIDer to retrieve the most recent accession mapping files from public databases based on EST clone names or accessions and rapidly generate database accessions for entire microarrays. Results We utilized the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Centre 13K chicken cDNA array – a widely-used non-commercial chicken microarray – to demonstrate the principle that ArrayIDer could markedly improve annotation. We structurally re-annotated 55% of the entire array. Moreover, we decreased non-chicken functional annotations by 2 fold. One beneficial consequence of our re-annotation was to identify 290 pseudogenes, of which 66 were previously incorrectly annotated. Conclusion ArrayIDer allows rapid automated structural re-annotation of entire arrays and provides multiple accession types for use in subsequent functional analysis. This information is especially valuable for systems biology modeling in the non-traditional biomedical model organisms.

  3. Morphology, cytogenetics, and survival in myelodysplasia with del(20q) or ider(20q): a multicenter study.

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    Mullier, François; Daliphard, Sylvie; Garand, Richard; Dekeyser, Mélanie; Cornet, Yvan; Luquet, Isabelle; Talmant, Pascaline; Richebourg, Steven; Jamar, Mauricette; Dogné, Jean-Michel; Chatelain, Christian; Michaux, Lucienne; Chatelain, Bernard

    2012-02-01

    Isochromosome of the long arm of chromosome 20 with interstitial loss of material [ider(20q)] is a rare cytogenetic abnormality reported in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), with neither specific morphological pattern nor clear prognostic significance. The aim of this retrospective multicentric study is to compare the peripheral blood and bone marrow morphology of MDS patients with ider(20q) (n = 13) and del(20q) (n = 21) and controls (n = 47) in order to investigate whether the ider(20q) harbors specific morphological features. The secondary objective is to compare the outcome of patients from both groups. This study performed on the largest cohort of MDS patients with ider(20q) is the first that identifies specific morphological features (hypogranulated and vacuolized neutrophils and neutrophil erythrophagocytosis) allowing the identification of this cytogenetic abnormality with high sensitivity (70%) and specificity (85.7%). Suspected ider(20q) by morphology should therefore support targeted FISH tests in case of non informative karyotype. This combined approach will allow a better estimation of the prevalence of this underdiagnozed entity. The overall survival and progression-free survival did not statistically differ in both groups. However, hypogranulated and vacuolized neutrophils were significantly associated with survival.

  4. Epigenetic regulation of estrogen-dependent memory

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    Fortress, Ashley M.; Frick, Karyn M.

    2014-01-01

    Hippocampal memory formation is highly regulated by post-translational histone modifications and DNA methylation. Accordingly, these epigenetic processes play a major role in the effects of modulatory factors, such as sex steroid hormones, on hippocampal memory. Our laboratory recently demonstrated that the ability of the potent estrogen 17β-estradiol (E2) to enhance hippocampal-dependent novel object recognition memory in ovariectomized female mice requires ERK-dependent histone H3 acetylation and DNA methylation in the dorsal hippocampus. Although these data provide valuable insight into the chromatin modifications that mediate the memory-enhancing effects of E2, epigenetic regulation of gene expression is enormously complex. Therefore, more research is needed to fully understand how E2 and other hormones employ epigenetic alterations to shape behavior. This review discusses the epigenetic alterations shown thus far to regulate hippocampal memory, briefly reviews the effects of E2 on hippocampal function, and describes in detail our work on epigenetic regulation of estrogenic memory enhancement. PMID:24878494

  5. Propiedades Psicométricas del Inventario de Depresión Estado Rasgo (IDER con una muestra de población general colombiana

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    Diana María Agudelo Vélez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study provides information regarding the psychometric properties of the IDER (Inventario de Depresión Estado/Rasgo with a non-clinical Colombian sample (N= 1043. Data for validity and reliability are reported. The findings are similar to data obtained with Spanish, American, and Chilean samples. Data from exploratory and confirmatory factorial analyses confirm the bifactorial structure (dysthymia and euthymia of the instrument. Reliability levels range from .71 to .86. The convergent validity indexes in relation to the CBD are moderate and significant (.59. On the other hand, correlations with the STAI and STAXI-2, as measures of discriminant validity, were lower, although still significant (between .25 and .38 for anxiety and between .25 and .43 for anger. Women obtained higher scores than men, similar to previous studies. The findings from this new sample confirm the adequate psychometric properties of the instrument. Nevertheless, it is important to note that the IDER is valuable as a measure of negative negativity but not as a diagnostic instrument for depression.

  6. CAML regulates Bim-dependent thymocyte death

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    Edgar, Contessa E.; Lindquist, Lonn D.; McKean, David L.; Strasser, Andreas; Bram, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    Appropriate control of apoptosis during T lymphocyte differentiation is critical for destruction of T cells bearing potentially autoreactive or useless immuno-receptors, and for survival of those T cells bearing antigen receptors that may recognize foreign proteins. Despite the well-established importance of thymocyte survival, the exact signals regulating thymocyte apoptosis have not been fully elucidated. Here, we show that thymocytes lacking the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein CAML failed to undergo normal T cell development and exhibited dramatically increased rates of apoptosis. In vitro, CAML-deficient thymocytes accumulated high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and underwent abnormally accelerated death in response to several cytotoxic stimuli, including treatment with etoposide, cytokine deprivation or Fas ligation. Although neither p53 deletion nor loss of Fas rescued the survival and continued development of CAML-deficient thymocytes, removal of the pro-apoptotic BH3-only Bcl-2 family member Bim significantly restored their survival. This work reveals CAML to be a critically important regulator of ROS- and Bim-dependent thymocyte death. PMID:20300112

  7. Path dependence and independent utility regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Christian Lyhne; Skovgaard Poulsen, Lauge

    2007-01-01

    The establishment of the Danish independent regulatory authorities for the energy and telecommunications sectors was based upon EU directives as part of their liberalisation process. Following the concepts of transaction costs and path dependency this article analyses differences in independence...

  8. Role of endocannabinoids in regulating drug dependence

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    Daniela Parolaro

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Daniela Parolaro, Daniela Vigano’, Natalia Realini, Tiziana RubinoNeuroscience Center, DBSF, University of Insubria, Busto Arsizio, ItalyAbstract: This review will discuss the latest knowledge of how the endocannabinoid system might be involved in treating addiction to the most common illicit drugs. Experimental models are providing increasing evidence for the pharmacological management of endocannabinoid signaling not only to block the direct reinforcing effects of cannabis, opioids, nicotine and ethanol, but also for preventing relapse to the various drugs of abuse, including opioids, cocaine, nicotine, alcohol and metamphetamine. Preclinical and clinical studies suggest that the endocannabinoid system can be manipulated by the CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716A, that might constitute a new generation of compounds for treating addiction across different classes of abused drugs.Keywords: Endocannabinoids, drug dependence, opioids, nicotine, alcohol, psychostimulants

  9. NOX2-dependent regulation of inflammation.

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    Singel, Kelly L; Segal, Brahm H

    2016-04-01

    NADPH oxidase (NOX) isoforms together have multiple functions that are important for normal physiology and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of a broad range of diseases, including atherosclerosis, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. The phagocyte NADPH oxidase (NOX2) is critical for antimicrobial host defence. Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an inherited disorder of NOX2 characterized by severe life-threatening bacterial and fungal infections and by excessive inflammation, including Crohn's-like inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). NOX2 defends against microbes through the direct antimicrobial activity of reactive oxidants and through activation of granular proteases and generation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). NETosis involves the breakdown of cell membranes and extracellular release of chromatin and neutrophil granular constituents that target extracellular pathogens. Although the immediate effects of oxidant generation and NETosis are predicted to be injurious, NOX2, in several contexts, limits inflammation and injury by modulation of key signalling pathways that affect neutrophil accumulation and clearance. NOX2 also plays a role in antigen presentation and regulation of adaptive immunity. Specific NOX2-activated pathways such as nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a transcriptional factor that induces antioxidative and cytoprotective responses, may be important therapeutic targets for CGD and, more broadly, diseases associated with excessive inflammation and injury.

  10. Redox-dependent regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling

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    David E. Heppner

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent cell signaling represents a unique feature of multicellular organisms, and is important in regulation of cell differentiation and specialized cell functions. Multicellular organisms also contain a diverse family of NADPH oxidases (NOXs that have been closely linked with tyrosine kinase-based cell signaling and regulate tyrosine phosphorylation via reversible oxidation of cysteine residues that are highly conserved within many proteins involved in this signaling pathway. An example of redox-regulated tyrosine kinase signaling involves the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, a widely studied receptor system with diverse functions in normal cell biology as well as pathologies associated with oxidative stress such as cancer. The purpose of this Graphical Redox Review is to highlight recently emerged concepts with respect to NOX-dependent regulation of this important signaling pathway.

  11. ALKBH4-dependent demethylation of actin regulates actomyosin dynamics

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    Li, M.-M.; Shi, Y.; Niu, Y.

    2013-01-01

    and midbody via association with methylated actin. ALKBH4-mediated regulation of actomyosin dynamics is completely dependent on its catalytic activity. Disorganization of cleavage furrow components and multinucleation associated with ALKBH4 deficiency can all be restored by reconstitution with wild...

  12. Small systems and regulator dependence in relativistic hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Spalinski, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Consistent theories of hydrodynamics necessarily include nonhydrodynamic modes, which can be viewed as a regulator necessary to ensure causality. Under many circumstances the choice of regulator is not relevant, but this is not always the case. In particular, for sufficiently small systems (such as those arising in pA or pp collisions) such dependence may be inevitable. We address this issue in the context of M\\"uller-Israel-Stewart theory of relativistic hydrodynamics. In this case, by demanding that the nonhydrodynamic modes do not dominate, we find that regulator dependence becomes inevitable only for multiplicities $dN/dY$ of the order of a few. This conclusion supports earlier studies based on hydrodynamic simulations of small systems, at the same time providing a simple physical picture of how hydrodynamics can be reliable even in such seemingly extreme conditions.

  13. Auxin regulates SNARE-dependent vacuolar morphology restricting cell size.

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    Löfke, Christian; Dünser, Kai; Scheuring, David; Kleine-Vehn, Jürgen

    2015-03-05

    The control of cellular growth is central to multicellular patterning. In plants, the encapsulating cell wall literally binds neighbouring cells to each other and limits cellular sliding/migration. In contrast to its developmental importance, growth regulation is poorly understood in plants. Here, we reveal that the phytohormone auxin impacts on the shape of the biggest plant organelle, the vacuole. TIR1/AFBs-dependent auxin signalling posttranslationally controls the protein abundance of vacuolar SNARE components. Genetic and pharmacological interference with the auxin effect on vacuolar SNAREs interrelates with auxin-resistant vacuolar morphogenesis and cell size regulation. Vacuolar SNARE VTI11 is strictly required for auxin-reliant vacuolar morphogenesis and loss of function renders cells largely insensitive to auxin-dependent growth inhibition. Our data suggests that the adaptation of SNARE-dependent vacuolar morphogenesis allows auxin to limit cellular expansion, contributing to root organ growth rates.

  14. Differential age-dependent import regulation by signal peptides.

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    Yi-Shan Teng

    Full Text Available Gene-specific, age-dependent regulations are common at the transcriptional and translational levels, while protein transport into organelles is generally thought to be constitutive. Here we report a new level of differential age-dependent regulation and show that chloroplast proteins are divided into three age-selective groups: group I proteins have a higher import efficiency into younger chloroplasts, import of group II proteins is nearly independent of chloroplast age, and group III proteins are preferentially imported into older chloroplasts. The age-selective signal is located within the transit peptide of each protein. A group III protein with its transit peptide replaced by a group I transit peptide failed to complement its own mutation. Two consecutive positive charges define the necessary motif in group III signals for older chloroplast preference. We further show that different members of a gene family often belong to different age-selective groups because of sequence differences in their transit peptides. These results indicate that organelle-targeting signal peptides are part of cells' differential age-dependent regulation networks. The sequence diversity of some organelle-targeting peptides is not a result of the lack of selection pressure but has evolved to mediate regulation.

  15. Ubiquitination-dependent mechanisms regulate synaptic growth and function.

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    DiAntonio, A; Haghighi, A P; Portman, S L; Lee, J D; Amaranto, A M; Goodman, C S

    2001-07-26

    The covalent attachment of ubiquitin to cellular proteins is a powerful mechanism for controlling protein activity and localization. Ubiquitination is a reversible modification promoted by ubiquitin ligases and antagonized by deubiquitinating proteases. Ubiquitin-dependent mechanisms regulate many important processes including cell-cycle progression, apoptosis and transcriptional regulation. Here we show that ubiquitin-dependent mechanisms regulate synaptic development at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Neuronal overexpression of the deubiquitinating protease fat facets leads to a profound disruption of synaptic growth control; there is a large increase in the number of synaptic boutons, an elaboration of the synaptic branching pattern, and a disruption of synaptic function. Antagonizing the ubiquitination pathway in neurons by expression of the yeast deubiquitinating protease UBP2 (ref. 5) also produces synaptic overgrowth and dysfunction. Genetic interactions between fat facets and highwire, a negative regulator of synaptic growth that has structural homology to a family of ubiquitin ligases, suggest that synaptic development may be controlled by the balance between positive and negative regulators of ubiquitination.

  16. Cell fate determination by ubiquitin-dependent regulation of translation

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    Werner, Achim; Iwasaki, Shintaro; McGourty, Colleen; Medina-Ruiz, Sofia; Teerikorpi, Nia; Fedrigo, Indro; Ingolia, Nicholas T.; Rape, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Metazoan development depends on accurate execution of differentiation programs that allow pluripotent stem cells to adopt specific fates 1. Differentiation requires changes to chromatin architecture and transcriptional networks, yet whether other regulatory events support cell fate determination is less well understood. Here, we have identified the vertebrate-specific ubiquitin ligase CUL3KBTBD8 as an essential regulator of neural crest specification. CUL3KBTBD8 monoubiquitylates NOLC1 and its paralog TCOF1, whose mutation underlies the neurocristopathy Treacher Collins Syndrome 2,3. Ubiquitylation drives formation of a TCOF1-NOLC1 platform that connects RNA polymerase I with ribosome modification enzymes and remodels the translational program of differentiating cells in favor of neural crest specification. We conclude that ubiquitin-dependent regulation of translation is an important feature of cell fate determination. PMID:26399832

  17. TonB-dependent transporters: regulation, structure, and function.

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    Noinaj, Nicholas; Guillier, Maude; Barnard, Travis J; Buchanan, Susan K

    2010-01-01

    TonB-dependent transporters (TBDTs) are bacterial outer membrane proteins that bind and transport ferric chelates, called siderophores, as well as vitamin B(12), nickel complexes, and carbohydrates. The transport process requires energy in the form of proton motive force and a complex of three inner membrane proteins, TonB-ExbB-ExbD, to transduce this energy to the outer membrane. The siderophore substrates range in complexity from simple small molecules such as citrate to large proteins such as serum transferrin and hemoglobin. Because iron uptake is vital for almost all bacteria, expression of TBDTs is regulated in a number of ways that include metal-dependent regulators, σ/anti-σ factor systems, small RNAs, and even a riboswitch. In recent years, many new structures of TBDTs have been solved in various states, resulting in a more complete understanding of siderophore selectivity and binding, signal transduction across the outer membrane, and interaction with the TonB-ExbB-ExbD complex. However, the transport mechanism is still unclear. In this review, we summarize recent progress in understanding regulation, structure, and function in TBDTs and questions remaining to be answered.

  18. Understanding leptin-dependent regulation of skeletal homeostasis

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    Motyl, Katherine J.; Rosen, Clifford J.

    2012-01-01

    Despite growing evidence for adipose tissue regulation of bone mass, the role of the adipokine leptin in bone remodeling remains controversial. The majority of in vitro studies suggest leptin enhances osteoblastic proliferation and differentiation while inhibiting adipogenic differentiation from marrow stromal cells. Alternatively, some evidence demonstrates either no effect or a pro-apoptotic action of leptin on stromal cells. Similarly, in vivo work has demonstrated both positive and negative effects of leptin on bone mass. Most of the literature supports the idea that leptin suppresses bone mass by acting in the brainstem to reduce serotonin-dependent sympathetic signaling from the ventromedial hypothalamus to bone. However, other studies have found partly or entirely contrasting actions of leptin. Recently one study found a significant effect of surgery alone with intracerebroventricular administration of leptin, a technique crucial for understanding centrally-mediated leptin regulation of bone. Thus, two mainstream hypotheses for the role of leptin on bone emerge: 1) direct regulation through increased osteoblast proliferation and differentiation and 2) indirect suppression of bone formation through a hypothalamic relay. At the present time, it remains unclear whether these effects are relevant in only extreme circumstances (i.e. models with complete deficiency) or play an important homeostatic role in the regulation of peak bone acquisition and skeletal remodeling. Ultimately, determining the actions of leptin on the skeleton will be critical for understanding how the obesity epidemic may be impacting the prevalence of osteoporosis. PMID:22534195

  19. EBF2 regulates osteoblast-dependent differentiation of osteoclasts

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    Kieslinger, Matthias; Folberth, Stephanie; Dobreva, Gergana;

    2005-01-01

    of osteoclast differentiation. We find that mice homozygous for a targeted inactivation of Ebf2 show reduced bone mass and an increase in the number of osteoclasts. These defects are accompanied by a marked downregulation of the osteoprotegerin (Opg) gene, encoding a RANK decoy receptor. EBF2 binds to sequences...... in the Opg promoter and transactivates the Opg promoter in synergy with the Wnt-responsive LEF1/TCF:beta-catenin pathway. Taken together, these data identify EBF2 as a regulator of RANK-RANKL signaling and osteoblast-dependent differentiation of osteoclasts....

  20. BMP signaling regulates satellite cell-dependent postnatal muscle growth.

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    Stantzou, Amalia; Schirwis, Elija; Swist, Sandra; Alonso-Martin, Sonia; Polydorou, Ioanna; Zarrouki, Faouzi; Mouisel, Etienne; Beley, Cyriaque; Julien, Anaïs; Le Grand, Fabien; Garcia, Luis; Colnot, Céline; Birchmeier, Carmen; Braun, Thomas; Schuelke, Markus; Relaix, Frédéric; Amthor, Helge

    2017-08-01

    Postnatal growth of skeletal muscle largely depends on the expansion and differentiation of resident stem cells, the so-called satellite cells. Here, we demonstrate that postnatal satellite cells express components of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling machinery. Overexpression of noggin in postnatal mice (to antagonize BMP ligands), satellite cell-specific knockout of Alk3 (the gene encoding the BMP transmembrane receptor) or overexpression of inhibitory SMAD6 decreased satellite cell proliferation and accretion during myofiber growth, and ultimately retarded muscle growth. Moreover, reduced BMP signaling diminished the adult satellite cell pool. Abrogation of BMP signaling in satellite cell-derived primary myoblasts strongly diminished cell proliferation and upregulated the expression of cell cycle inhibitors p21 and p57 In conclusion, these results show that BMP signaling defines postnatal muscle development by regulating satellite cell-dependent myofiber growth and the generation of the adult muscle stem cell pool. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Cyclin-dependent kinase 9 activity regulates neutrophil spontaneous apoptosis.

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    Keqing Wang

    Full Text Available Neutrophils are the most abundant leukocyte and play a central role in the immune defense against rapidly dividing bacteria. However, they are also the shortest lived cell in the blood with a lifespan in the circulation of 5.4 days. The mechanisms underlying their short lifespan and spontaneous entry into apoptosis are poorly understood. Recently, the broad range cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK inhibitor R-roscovitine was shown to increase neutrophil apoptosis, implicating CDKs in the regulation of neutrophil lifespan. To determine which CDKs were involved in regulating neutrophil lifespan we first examined CDK expression in human neutrophils and found that only three CDKs: CDK5, CDK7 and CDK9 were expressed in these cells. The use of CDK inhibitors with differing selectivity towards the various CDKs suggested that CDK9 activity regulates neutrophil lifespan. Furthermore CDK9 activity and the expression of its activating partner cyclin T1 both declined as neutrophils aged and entered apoptosis spontaneously. CDK9 is a component of the P-TEFb complex involved in transcriptional regulation and its inhibition will preferentially affect proteins with short half-lives. Treatment of neutrophils with flavopiridol, a potent CDK9 inhibitor, increased apoptosis and caused a rapid decline in the level of the anti-apoptotic protein Mcl-1, whilst Bcl2A was unaffected. We propose that CDK9 activity is a key regulator of neutrophil lifespan, preventing apoptosis by maintaining levels of short lived anti-apoptotic proteins such as Mcl-1. Furthermore, as inappropriate inhibition of neutrophil apoptosis contributes to chronic inflammatory diseases such as Rheumatoid Arthritis, CDK9 represents a novel therapeutic target in such diseases.

  2. Dicer-dependent pathways regulate chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation.

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    Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Lu, Jun; Cobb, Bradley S; Rodda, Stephen J; McMahon, Andrew P; Schipani, Ernestina; Merkenschlager, Matthias; Kronenberg, Henry M

    2008-02-12

    Small noncoding RNAs, microRNAs (miRNAs), bind to messenger RNAs through base pairing to suppress gene expression. Despite accumulating evidence that miRNAs play critical roles in various biological processes across diverse organisms, their roles in mammalian skeletal development have not been demonstrated. Here, we show that Dicer, an essential component for biogenesis of miRNAs, is essential for normal skeletal development. Dicer-null growth plates show a progressive reduction in the proliferating pool of chondrocytes, leading to severe skeletal growth defects and premature death of mice. The reduction of proliferating chondrocytes in Dicer-null growth plates is caused by two distinct mechanisms: decreased chondrocyte proliferation and accelerated differentiation into postmitotic hypertrophic chondrocytes. These defects appear to be caused by mechanisms downstream or independent of the Ihh-PTHrP signaling pathway, a pivotal signaling system that regulates chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation. Microarray analysis of Dicer-null chondrocytes showed limited expression changes in miRNA-target genes, suggesting that, in the majority of cases, chondrocytic miRNAs do not directly regulate target RNA abundance. Our results demonstrate the critical role of the Dicer-dependent pathway in the regulation of chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation during skeletal development.

  3. Cyclin-dependent kinases regulate apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells.

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    Bhattacharya, Sujoy; Ray, Ramesh M; Johnson, Leonard R

    2014-03-01

    Homeostasis of the gastrointestinal epithelium is dependent upon a balance between cell proliferation and apoptosis. Cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) are well known for their role in cell proliferation. Previous studies from our group have shown that polyamine-depletion of intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6) decreases cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2) activity, increases p53 and p21Cip1 protein levels, induces G1 arrest, and protects cells from camptothecin (CPT)-induced apoptosis. Although emerging evidence suggests that members of the Cdk family are involved in the regulation of apoptosis, their roles directing apoptosis of IEC-6 cells are not known. In this study, we report that inhibition of Cdk1, 2, and 9 (with the broad range Cdk inhibitor, AZD5438) in proliferating IEC-6 cells triggered DNA damage, activated p53 signaling, inhibited proliferation, and induced apoptosis. By contrast, inhibition of Cdk2 (with NU6140) increased p53 protein and activity, inhibited proliferation, but had no effect on apoptosis. Notably, AZD5438 sensitized, whereas, NU6140 rescued proliferating IEC-6 cells from CPT-induced apoptosis. However, in colon carcinoma (Caco-2) cells with mutant p53, treatment with either AZD5438 or NU6140 blocked proliferation, albeit more robustly with AZD5438. Both Cdk inhibitors induced apoptosis in Caco-2 cells in a p53-independent manner. In serum starved quiescent IEC-6 cells, both AZD5438 and NU6140 decreased TNF-α/CPT-induced activation of p53 and, consequently, rescued cells from apoptosis, indicating that sustained Cdk activity is required for apoptosis of quiescent cells. Furthermore, AZD5438 partially reversed the protective effect of polyamine depletion whereas NU6140 had no effect. Together, these results demonstrate that Cdks possess opposing roles in the control of apoptosis in quiescent and proliferating cells. In addition, Cdk inhibitors uncouple proliferation from apoptosis in a p53-dependent manner.

  4. RNF8-dependent histone modifications regulate nucleosome removal during spermatogenesis.

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    Lu, Lin-Yu; Wu, Jiaxue; Ye, Lin; Gavrilina, Galina B; Saunders, Thomas L; Yu, Xiaochun

    2010-03-16

    During spermatogenesis, global nucleosome removal occurs where histones are initially replaced by transition proteins and subsequently by protamines. This chromatin reorganization is thought to facilitate the compaction of the paternal genome into the sperm head and to protect the DNA from damaging agents. Histone ubiquitination has been suggested to be important for sex chromosome inactivation during meiotic prophase and nucleosome removal at postmeiotic stages. However, the mechanisms regulating these ubiquitin-mediated processes are unknown. In this study, we investigate the role of the ubiquitin ligase RNF8 during spermatogenesis and find that RNF8-deficient mice are proficient in meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI) but deficient in global nucleosome removal. Moreover, we show that RNF8-dependent histone ubiquitination induces H4K16 acetylation, which may be an initial step in nucleosome removal. Thus, our results show that RNF8 plays an important role during spermatogenesis through histone ubiquitination, resulting in trans-histone acetylation and global nucleosome removal.

  5. Regulated O2 activation in flavin-dependent monooxygenases.

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    Frederick, Rosanne E; Mayfield, Jeffery A; DuBois, Jennifer L

    2011-08-17

    Flavin-dependent monooxygenases (FMOs) are involved in important biosynthetic pathways in diverse organisms, including production of the siderophores used for the import and storage of essential iron in serious pathogens. We have shown that the FMO from Aspergillus fumigatus, an ornithine monooxygenase (Af-OMO), is mechanistically similar to its well-studied distant homologues from mammalian liver. The latter are highly promiscuous in their choice of substrates, while Af-OMO is unusually specific. This presents a puzzle: how do Af-OMO and other FMOs of the biosynthetic classes achieve such specificity? We have discovered substantial enhancement in the rate of O(2) activation in Af-OMO in the presence of L-arginine, which acts as a small molecule regulator. Such protein-level regulation could help explain how this and related biosynthetic FMOs manage to couple O(2) activation and substrate hydroxylation to each other and to the appropriate cellular conditions. Given the essentiality of Fe to Af and the avirulence of the Af-OMO gene knock out, inhibitors of Af-OMO are likely to be drug targets against this medically intractable pathogen.

  6. Annexin A2 regulates TRPA1-dependent nociception.

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    Avenali, Luca; Narayanan, Pratibha; Rouwette, Tom; Cervellini, Ilaria; Sereda, Michael; Gomez-Varela, David; Schmidt, Manuela

    2014-10-29

    The transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1) channel is essential for vertebrate pain. Even though TRPA1 activation by ligands has been studied extensively, the molecular machinery regulating TRPA1 is only poorly understood. Using an unbiased proteomics-based approach we uncovered the physical association of Annexin A2 (AnxA2) with native TRPA1 in mouse sensory neurons. AnxA2 is enriched in a subpopulation of sensory neurons and coexpressed with TRPA1. Furthermore, we observe an increase of TRPA1 membrane levels in cultured sensory neurons from AnxA2-deficient mice. This is reflected by our calcium imaging experiments revealing higher responsiveness upon TRPA1 activation in AnxA2-deficient neurons. In vivo these findings are associated with enhanced nocifensive behaviors specifically in TRPA1-dependent paradigms of acute and inflammatory pain, while heat and mechanical sensitivity as well as TRPV1-mediated pain are preserved in AnxA2-deficient mice. Our results support a model whereby AnxA2 limits the availability of TRPA1 channels to regulate nociceptive signaling in vertebrates.

  7. Magnitude-dependent response of osteoblasts regulated by compressive stress

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    Shen, Xiao-qing; Geng, Yuan-ming; Liu, Ping; Huang, Xiang-yu; Li, Shu-yi; Liu, Chun-dong; Zhou, Zheng; Xu, Ping-ping

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the role of magnitude in adaptive response of osteoblasts exposed to compressive stress. Murine primary osteoblasts and MC3T3-E1 cells were exposed to compressive stress (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 g/cm2) in 3D culture. Cell viability was evaluated, and expression levels of Runx2, Alp, Ocn, Rankl, and Opg were examined. ALP activity in osteoblasts and TRAP activity in RAW264.7 cells co-cultured with MC3T3-E1 cells were assayed. Results showed that compressive stress within 5.0 g/cm2 did not influence cell viability. Both osteoblastic and osteoblast-regulated osteoclastic differentiation were enhanced at 2 g/cm2. An increase in stress above 2 g/cm2 did not enhance osteoblastic differentiation further but significantly inhibited osteoblast-regualted osteoclastic differentiation. This study suggested that compressive stress regulates osteoblastic and osteoclastic differentiation through osteoblasts in a magnitude-dependent manner. PMID:28317941

  8. Androgen-Dependent Regulation of Human MUC1 Mucin Expression

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    Stephen Mitchell

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available MUC1 mucin is transcriptionally regulated by estrogen, progesterone, and glucocorticoids. Our objective was to determine whether androgen receptor. (20AR activation regulates expression of MUC1. The following breast and prostatic cell lines were phenotyped and grouped according to AR and MUC1protein expression: 1 AR+MUCi + [DAR17+19. (20AR transfectants of DU-145, ZR-75-1, MDA-MB-453, and T47D]; 2 AR-MUCi+ [DZeoi. (20AR- vector control, DU-145, BT20, MDA-MB231, and MCF7]; 3 AIR +MUCi -. (20LNCaP and LNCaP-r. Cell proliferation was determined using the MTT assay in the presence of synthetic androgen R1881, 0.1 pM to 1 µM. Cell surface MUC1expression was determined by flow cytometry in the presence or absence of oestradiol, medroxy progesterone acetate or R1881, with and without 4 hydroxy-flutamide. (204-OH, a nonsteroidal AR antagonist. The functional significance of MUC1expression was investigated with a cell-cell aggregation assay. Only AR+ MUC1 + cell lines showed a significant increase in MUC1expression with AR activation. (20P. (20range =.01 to .0001, reversed in the presence of 4-OHF. Cell proliferation was unaffected. Increased expression of MUC1was associated with a significant. (20P. (20range =.002 to .001 reduction in cell-cell adhesion. To our knowledge, this is the first description of androgen-dependent regulation of MUC1mucin. This is also functionally associated with decreased cell-cell adhesion, a recognised feature of progressive malignancy. These findings have important implications for physiological and pathological processes.

  9. Concentration and length dependence of DNA looping in transcriptional regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Han

    Full Text Available In many cases, transcriptional regulation involves the binding of transcription factors at sites on the DNA that are not immediately adjacent to the promoter of interest. This action at a distance is often mediated by the formation of DNA loops: Binding at two or more sites on the DNA results in the formation of a loop, which can bring the transcription factor into the immediate neighborhood of the relevant promoter. These processes are important in settings ranging from the historic bacterial examples (bacterial metabolism and the lytic-lysogeny decision in bacteriophage, to the modern concept of gene regulation to regulatory processes central to pattern formation during development of multicellular organisms. Though there have been a variety of insights into the combinatorial aspects of transcriptional control, the mechanism of DNA looping as an agent of combinatorial control in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes remains unclear. We use single-molecule techniques to dissect DNA looping in the lac operon. In particular, we measure the propensity for DNA looping by the Lac repressor as a function of the concentration of repressor protein and as a function of the distance between repressor binding sites. As with earlier single-molecule studies, we find (at least two distinct looped states and demonstrate that the presence of these two states depends both upon the concentration of repressor protein and the distance between the two repressor binding sites. We find that loops form even at interoperator spacings considerably shorter than the DNA persistence length, without the intervention of any other proteins to prebend the DNA. The concentration measurements also permit us to use a simple statistical mechanical model of DNA loop formation to determine the free energy of DNA looping, or equivalently, the for looping.

  10. Dnase1L3 Regulates Inflammasome-Dependent Cytokine Secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilan Shi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric-onset systemic lupus erythematosus arises in humans and mice lacking the endonuclease Dnase1L3. When Dnase1L3 is absent, DNA from circulating apoptotic bodies is not cleared, leading to anti-DNA antibody production. Compared to early anti-DNA and anti-chromatin responses, other autoantibody responses and general immune activation in Dnase1L3−/− mice are greatly delayed. We investigated the possibility that immune activation, specifically inflammasome activation, is regulated by Dnase1L3. Here, we report that Dnase1L3 inhibition blocked both NLR family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3 and NLRC4 inflammasome-mediated release of high-mobility group box 1 protein and IL-1β. In contrast to IL-1β release, Dnase1L3 inhibition only mildly impaired NLRP3-dependent pyroptosis, as measured by propidium iodide uptake or LDH release. Mechanistically, we found that Dnase1L3 was needed to promote apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase activation and recruitment domain (ASC nuclear export and speck formation. Our results demonstrate that Dnase1L3 inhibition separates cytokine secretion from pyroptosis by targeting ASC. These findings suggest that Dnase1L3 is necessary for cytokine secretion following inflammasome activation.

  11. Physiological roles of Regulated Ire1 Dependent Decay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina S. Coelho

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Ire1 is an important transducer of the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR that is activated by the accumulation of misfolded proteins in the Endoplamic Reticulum (ER stress. Activated Ire1 mediates the splicing of an intron from the mRNA of Xbp1, causing a frame-shift during translation and introducing a new carboxyl domain in the Xbp1 protein, which only then becomes a fully functional transcription factor. Studies using cell culture systems demonstrated that Ire1 also promotes the degradation of mRNAs encoding mostly ER-targeted proteins, to reduce the load of incoming ER client proteins during ER stress. This process was called RIDD (regulated Ire1-dependent decay, but its physiological significance remained poorly characterized beyond cell culture systems. Here we review several recent studies that have highlighted the physiological roles of RIDD in specific biological paradigms, such as photoreceptor differentiation in Drosophila or mammalian liver and endocrine pancreas function. These studies demonstrate the importance of RIDD in tissues undergoing intense secretory function and highlight the physiologic role of RIDD during UPR activation in cells and organisms.

  12. Growth phase-dependent gene regulation in vivo in Sulfolobus solfataricus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DeYoung, M.; Oost, van der J.

    2011-01-01

    Ribosomal genes are strongly regulated dependent on growth phase in all organisms, but this regulation is poorly understood in Archaea. Moreover, very little is known about growth phase-dependent gene regulation in Archaea. SSV1-based lacS reporter gene constructs containing the Sulfolobus 16S/23S r

  13. Rig safety depends on equipment, regulations, and personnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, T.R. Jr.; Tait, S. (Sedco Forex, Aberdeen (GB)); Mumford, G. (Sedco Forex, Montrouge (FR))

    1990-03-05

    The authors discuss how improvements that can increase rig safety can be made in equipment, regulations, and stabilized personnel levels. With regard to equipment, exposure to material handling must be reduced through automation, and well-control technology must be improved by enhanced use of computers and better systems to handle gas. According to this analysis, regulations are needed that are global in scope and have had their costs-to-benefits fully and fairly assessed. Self regulation must be used effectively throughout the industry. Job security and wages should be made adequate to maintain an experienced, motivated, and safe work force.

  14. Regulation of GLUT4 and Insulin-Dependent Glucose Flux

    OpenAIRE

    Ann Louise Olson

    2012-01-01

    GLUT4 has long been known to be an insulin responsive glucose transporter. Regulation of GLUT4 has been a major focus of research on the cause and prevention of type 2 diabetes. Understanding how insulin signaling alters the intracellular trafficking of GLUT4 as well as understanding the fate of glucose transported into the cell by GLUT4 will be critically important for seeking solutions to the current rise in diabetes and metabolic disease.

  15. Tissue- and isoform-specific phytochrome regulation of light-dependent anthocyanin accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Phytochromes regulate light- and sucrose-dependent anthocyanin synthesis and accumulation in many plants. Mesophyll-specific phyA alone has been linked to the regulation of anthocyanin accumulation in response to far-red light in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, multiple mesophyll-localized phytochromes were implicated in the photoregulation of anthocyanin accumulation in red-light conditions. Here, we report a role for mesophyll-specific phyA in blue-light-dependent regulation of anthocyanin l...

  16. Growth Phase dependent gene regulation in Bordetella bronchiseptica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordetellae are Gram negative bacterial respiratory pathogens. Bordetella pertussis, the causative agent of whooping cough, is a human-restricted variant of Bordetella bronchiseptica, which infects a broad range of mammals causing chronic and often asymptomatic infections. Growth phase dependent gen...

  17. Exercise-Dependent Regulation of NK Cells in Cancer Protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, Manja; Hojman, Pernille

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are the most responsive immune cells to exercise, displaying an acute mobilization to the circulation during physical exertion. Recently, exercise-dependent mobilization of NK cells was found to play a central role in exercise-mediated protection against cancer. Here, we...... review the link between exercise and NK cell function, focusing on circulating exercise factors and additional effects, including vascularization, hypoxia, and body temperature in mediating the effects on NK cell functionality. Exercise-dependent mobilization and activation of NK cells provides...... a mechanistic explanation for the protective effect of exercise on cancer, and we propose that exercise represents a potential strategy as adjuvant therapy in cancer, by improving NK cell recruitment and infiltration in solid tumors....

  18. Intracellular calcium levels can regulate Importin-dependent nuclear import

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Ly-Huynh, Jennifer D.; Jans, David A., E-mail: David.Jans@monash.edu

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • High intracellular calcium inhibits Impα/β1- or Impβ1-dependent nuclear protein import. • The effect of Ca{sup 2+} on nuclear import does not relate to changes in the nuclear pore. • High intracellular calcium can result in mislocalisation of Impβ1, Ran and RCC1. - Abstract: We previously showed that increased intracellular calcium can modulate Importin (Imp)β1-dependent nuclear import of SRY-related chromatin remodeling proteins. Here we extend this work to show for the first time that high intracellular calcium inhibits Impα/β1- or Impβ1-dependent nuclear protein import generally. The basis of this relates to the mislocalisation of the transport factors Impβ1 and Ran, which show significantly higher nuclear localization in contrast to various other factors, and RCC1, which shows altered subnuclear localisation. The results here establish for the first time that intracellular calcium modulates conventional nuclear import through direct effects on the nuclear transport machinery.

  19. TOR-dependent post-transcriptional regulation of autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guowu; McQuiston, Travis; Bernard, Amélie; Park, Yoon-Dong; Qiu, Jin; Vural, Ali; Zhang, Nannan; Waterman, Scott R; Blewett, Nathan H; Myers, Timothy G; Maraia, Richard J; Kehrl, John H; Uzel, Gulbu; Klionsky, Daniel J; Williamson, Peter R

    2015-01-01

    Regulation of autophagy is required to maintain cellular equilibrium and prevent disease. While extensive study of post-translational mechanisms has yielded important insights into autophagy induction, less is known about post-transcriptional mechanisms that could potentiate homeostatic control. In our study, we showed that the RNA-binding protein, Dhh1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Vad1 in the pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans is involved in recruitment and degradation of key autophagy mRNAs. In addition, phosphorylation of the decapping protein Dcp2 by the target of rapamycin (TOR), facilitates decapping and degradation of autophagy-related mRNAs, resulting in repression of autophagy under nutrient-replete conditions. The post-transcriptional regulatory process is conserved in both mouse and human cells and plays a role in autophagy-related modulation of the inflammasome product IL1B. These results were then applied to provide mechanistic insight into autoimmunity of a patient with a PIK3CD/p110δ gain-of-function mutation. These results thus identify an important new post-transcriptional mechanism of autophagy regulation that is highly conserved between yeast and mammals.

  20. Insights into Cdc13 Dependent Telomere Length Regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M Mason; E Skordalakes

    2011-12-31

    Cdc13 is a single stranded telomere binding protein that specifically localizes to the telomere ends of budding yeasts and is essential for cell viability. It caps the ends of chromosomes thus preventing chromosome end-to-end fusions and exonucleolytic degradation, events that could lead to genomic instability and senescence, the hallmark of aging. Cdc13 is also involved in telomere length regulation by recruiting or preventing access of telomerase to the telomeric overhang. Recruitment of telomerase to the telomeres for G-strand extension is required for continuous cell division, while preventing its access to the telomeres through capping the chromosome ends prevents mitotic events that could lead to cell immortality, the hall mark of carcinogenesis. Cdc13 and its putative homologues human CTC1 and POT1 are therefore key to many biological processes directly associated with life extension and cancer prevention and can be viewed as an ideal target for cancer and age related therapies.

  1. Redox regulation of cysteine-dependent enzymes in neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttmann, Rodney P; Powell, Tamara J

    2012-01-01

    Evidence of increased oxidative stress has been found in various neurodegenerative diseases and conditions. While it is unclear whether oxidative stress is a cause or effect, protein, lipid, and DNA have all been found to be susceptible to oxidant-induced modifications that alter their function. Results of clinical trials based on the oxidative-stress theory have been mixed, though data continues to indicate that prevention of high levels of oxidative stress is beneficial for health and increases longevity. Due to the highly reactive nature of the sulfhydryl group, the focus of this paper is on the impact of oxidative stress on cysteine-dependent enzymes and how oxidative stress may contribute to neurological dysfunction through this selected group of proteins.

  2. Redox Regulation of Cysteine-Dependent Enzymes in Neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney P. Guttmann

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence of increased oxidative stress has been found in various neurodegenerative diseases and conditions. While it is unclear whether oxidative stress is a cause or effect, protein, lipid, and DNA have all been found to be susceptible to oxidant-induced modifications that alter their function. Results of clinical trials based on the oxidative-stress theory have been mixed, though data continues to indicate that prevention of high levels of oxidative stress is beneficial for health and increases longevity. Due to the highly reactive nature of the sulfhydryl group, the focus of this paper is on the impact of oxidative stress on cysteine-dependent enzymes and how oxidative stress may contribute to neurological dysfunction through this selected group of proteins.

  3. Time-dependent regulation of yeast glycolysis upon nitrogen starvation depends on cell history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eunen, K.; Dool, P.; Canelas, A. B.; Kiewiet, J.; Bouwman, J.; van Gulik, W. M.; Westerhoff, H. V.; Bakker, B. M.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated how the glycolytic flux was regulated in time upon nitrogen starvation of cells with different growth histories. We have compared cells grown in glucose-limited chemostat cultures under respiratory conditions (low dilution rate of 0.1/h) to cells grown under r

  4. β-Arrestin-Dependent Dopaminergic Regulation of Calcium Channel Activity in the Axon Initial Segment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sungchil; Ben-Shalom, Roy; Ahn, Misol; Liptak, Alayna T; van Rijn, Richard M; Whistler, Jennifer L; Bender, Kevin J

    2016-08-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) initiate a variety of signaling cascades, depending on effector coupling. β-arrestins, which were initially characterized by their ability to "arrest" GPCR signaling by uncoupling receptor and G protein, have recently emerged as important signaling effectors for GPCRs. β-arrestins engage signaling pathways that are distinct from those mediated by G protein. As such, arrestin-dependent signaling can play a unique role in regulating cell function, but whether neuromodulatory GPCRs utilize β-arrestin-dependent signaling to regulate neuronal excitability remains unclear. Here, we find that D3 dopamine receptors (D3R) regulate axon initial segment (AIS) excitability through β-arrestin-dependent signaling, modifying CaV3 voltage dependence to suppress high-frequency action potential generation. This non-canonical D3R signaling thereby gates AIS excitability via pathways distinct from classical GPCR signaling pathways.

  5. The regulation of SIRT2 function by cyclin-dependent kinases affects cell motility.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pandithage, R.; Lilischkis, R.; Harting, K.; Wolf, A.; Jedamzik, B.; Luscher-Firzlaff, J.; Vervoorts, J.; Lasonder, E.; Kremmer, E.; Knoll, B.; Luscher, B.

    2008-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) fulfill key functions in many cellular processes, including cell cycle progression and cytoskeletal dynamics. A limited number of Cdk substrates have been identified with few demonstrated to be regulated by Cdk-dependent phosphorylation. We identify on protein express

  6. Siglec-F-dependent negative regulation of allergen-induced eosinophilia depends critically on the experimental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Sarah J; Richards, Hannah E; Crocker, Paul R

    2014-07-01

    Siglec-8 and siglec-F are paralogous membrane proteins expressed on human and murine eosinophils respectively. They bind similar sialylated and sulphated glycans and mediate eosinophil apoptosis when cross-linked with antibodies or glycan ligands. In models of allergic eosinophilic airway inflammation, siglec-F was shown previously to be important for negatively regulating eosinophilia. It was proposed that this was due to siglec-F-dependent apoptosis, triggered via engagement with ligands that are upregulated on bronchial epithelium. Our aim was to further investigate the functions of siglec-F by comparing two commonly used models of ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation that differ in the dose and route of administration of ovalbumin. In confirmation of published results, siglec-F-deficient mice had enhanced lung tissue eosinophilia in response to intranasal ovalbumin delivered every other day. However, following aerosolised ovalbumin delivered daily, there was no influence of siglec-F deficiency on lung eosinophilia. Expression of siglec-F ligands in lung tissues was similar in both models of allergen induced inflammation. These data demonstrate that siglec-F-dependent regulation of eosinophilia is subtle and depends critically on the model used. The findings also indicate that mechanisms other than ligand-induced apoptosis may be important in siglec-F-dependent suppression of eosinophilia. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Regulation of active site coupling in glutamine-dependent NAD[superscript +] synthetase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaRonde-LeBlanc, Nicole; Resto, Melissa; Gerratana, Barbara; (Maryland)

    2009-05-21

    NAD{sup +} is an essential metabolite both as a cofactor in energy metabolism and redox homeostasis and as a regulator of cellular processes. In contrast to humans, Mycobacterium tuberculosis NAD{sup +} biosynthesis is absolutely dependent on the activity of a multifunctional glutamine-dependent NAD{sup +} synthetase, which catalyzes the ATP-dependent formation of NAD{sup +} at the synthetase domain using ammonia derived from L-glutamine in the glutaminase domain. Here we report the kinetics and structural characterization of M. tuberculosis NAD{sup +} synthetase. The kinetics data strongly suggest tightly coupled regulation of the catalytic activities. The structure, the first of a glutamine-dependent NAD{sup +} synthetase, reveals a homooctameric subunit organization suggesting a tight dependence of catalysis on the quaternary structure, a 40-{angstrom} intersubunit ammonia tunnel and structural elements that may be involved in the transfer of information between catalytic sites.

  8. mTORC1-Induced HK1-Dependent Glycolysis Regulates NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Seok Moon

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1 regulates activation of immune cells and cellular energy metabolism. Although glycolysis has been linked to immune functions, the mechanisms by which glycolysis regulates NLRP3 inflammasome activation remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that mTORC1-induced glycolysis provides an essential mechanism for NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Moreover, we demonstrate that hexokinase 1 (HK1-dependent glycolysis, under the regulation of mTORC1, represents a critical metabolic pathway for NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Downregulation of glycolysis by inhibition of Raptor/mTORC1 or HK1 suppressed both pro-IL-1β maturation and caspase-1 activation in macrophages in response to LPS and ATP. These results suggest that upregulation of HK1-dependent glycolysis by mTORC1 regulates NLRP3 inflammasome activation.

  9. Comprehensive Analysis of PPARa-Dependent Regulation of Hepatic Lipid Metabolism by Expression Profiling

    OpenAIRE

    Rakhshandehroo, M.; Sanderson-Kjellberg, L.M.; Matilainen, M.; Stienstra, R.

    2007-01-01

    PPARa is a ligand-activated transcription factor involved in the regulation of nutrient metabolism and inflammation. Although much is already known about the function of PPARa in hepatic lipid metabolism, many PPARa-dependent pathways and genes have yet to be discovered. In order to obtain an overview of PPARa-regulated genes relevant to lipid metabolism, and to probe for novel candidate PPAR¿ target genes, livers from several animal studies in which PPARa was activated and/or disabled were a...

  10. Comprehensive Analysis of PPARα-Dependent Regulation of Hepatic Lipid Metabolism by Expression Profiling

    OpenAIRE

    Rakhshandehroo, Maryam; Sanderson, Linda M.; Matilainen, Merja; Stienstra, Rinke; Carlberg, Carsten; Philip J de Groot; Müller, Michael; Kersten, Sander

    2007-01-01

    PPARα is a ligand-activated transcription factor involved in the regulation of nutrient metabolism and inflammation. Although much is already known about the function of PPARα in hepatic lipid metabolism, many PPARα-dependent pathways and genes have yet to be discovered. In order to obtain an overview of PPARα-regulated genes relevant to lipid metabolism, and to probe for novel candidate PPARα target genes, livers from several animal studies in which PPARα was activated and/or disabled were a...

  11. Regulation of the type Mb sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporter expression in the intestine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin WANG; Yulong YIN

    2009-01-01

    Phosphate (Pi) plays important roles in growth, development, bone mineralization, energy metabolism, nucleic acid synthesis, cell signaling, and acid-base regulation. The rate of intestinal absorption of Pi is a major determinant of Pi homeostasis. The type lib sodium- dependent Pi cotransporter (NaPi-Iib) is responsible for intestinal Pi absorption. Many physiological factors regulate the rate of Pi absorption via modulating the expression of NaPi-Iib in the intestine. In this review, we summarize the role of these factors in the regulation of NaPi-Iib expression in the intestine.

  12. CDPK1, a calcium-dependent protein kinase, regulates transcriptional activator RSG in response to gibberellins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Masaru; Yuasa, Takashi; Takahashi, Yohsuke; Ishida, Sarahmi

    2009-05-01

    The homeostasis of gibberellins (GAs) is maintained by negative-feedback regulation in plant cells. REPRESSION OF SHOOT GROWTH (RSG) is a transcriptional activator with a basic Leu zipper domain suggested to contribute GA feedback regulation by the transcriptional regulation of genes encoding GA biosynthetic enzymes. The 14-3-3 signaling proteins negatively regulate RSG by sequestering it in the cytoplasm in response to GAs. The phosphorylation on Ser-114 of RSG is essential for 14-3-3 binding of RSG; however, the kinase that catalyzes the reaction is unknown. Recently a Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase (CDPK) was identified as an RSG kinase that promotes 14-3-3 binding of RSG by phosphorylation of the Ser-114 of RSG. Our results suggest that CDPK decodes the Ca(2+) signal produced by GAs and regulates the intracellular localization of RSG in plant cells.

  13. Role of Hfq in iron-dependent and -independent gene regulation in Neisseria meningitidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellin, J R; McClure, Ryan; Lopez, Delia; Green, Olivia; Reinhard, Bjorn; Genco, Caroline

    2010-08-01

    In Neisseria meningitidis, iron-responsive gene regulation is mediated primarily by the ferric uptake regulator (Fur) protein. When complexed with iron, Fur represses gene expression by preventing transcription initiation. Fur can also indirectly activate gene expression via the repression of regulatory small RNAs (sRNA). One such Fur- and iron-regulated sRNA, NrrF, was previously identified in N. meningitidis and shown to repress expression of the sdhA and sdhC genes encoding subunits of the succinate dehydrogenase complex. In the majority of Gram-negative bacteria, sRNA-mediated regulation requires a cofactor RNA-binding protein (Hfq) for proper gene regulation and stabilization. In this study, we examined the role of Hfq in NrrF-mediated regulation of the succinate dehydrogenase genes in N. meningitidis and the effect of an hfq mutation on iron-responsive gene regulation more broadly. We first demonstrated that the stability of NrrF, as well as the regulation of sdhC and sdhA in vivo, was unaltered in the hfq mutant. Secondly, we established that iron-responsive gene regulation of the Fur-regulated sodB gene was dependent on Hfq. Finally, we demonstrated that in N. meningitidis, Hfq functions in a global manner to control expression of many ORFs and intergenic regions via iron-independent mechanisms. Collectively these studies demonstrate that in N. meningitidis, iron- and NrrF-mediated regulation of sdhC and sdhA can occur independently of Hfq, although Hfq functions more globally to control regulation of other N. meningitidis genes primarily by iron-independent mechanisms.

  14. Calcium-dependent phosphorylation regulates neuronal stability and plasticity in a highly precise pacemaker nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Andrew A; Macleod, Gregory T; Zakon, Harold H

    2011-07-01

    Specific types of neurons show stable, predictable excitability properties, while other neurons show transient adaptive plasticity of their excitability. However, little attention has been paid to how the cellular pathways underlying adaptive plasticity interact with those that maintain neuronal stability. We addressed this question in the pacemaker neurons from a weakly electric fish because these neurons show a highly stable spontaneous firing rate as well as an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-dependent form of plasticity. We found that basal firing rates were regulated by a serial interaction of conventional and atypical PKC isoforms and that this interaction establishes individual differences within the species. We observed that NMDA receptor-dependent plasticity is achieved by further activation of these kinases. Importantly, the PKC pathway is maintained in an unsaturated baseline state to allow further Ca(2+)-dependent activation during plasticity. On the other hand, the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent phosphatase calcineurin does not regulate baseline firing but is recruited to control the duration of the NMDA receptor-dependent plasticity and return the pacemaker firing rate back to baseline. This work illustrates how neuronal plasticity can be realized by biasing ongoing mechanisms of stability (e.g., PKC) and terminated by recruiting alternative mechanisms (e.g., calcineurin) that constrain excitability. We propose this as a general model for regulating activity-dependent change in neuronal excitability.

  15. Endocytic regulation of voltage-dependent potassium channels in the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kuniaki; Norota, Ikuo; Obara, Yutaro

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the regulation of cardiac ion channels is critical for the prevention of arrhythmia caused by abnormal excitability. Ion channels can be regulated by a change in function (qualitative) and a change in number (quantitative). Functional changes have been extensively investigated for many ion channels including cardiac voltage-dependent potassium channels. By contrast, the regulation of ion channel numbers has not been widely examined, particularly with respect to acute modulation of ion channels. This article briefly summarizes stimulus-induced endocytic regulation of major voltage-dependent potassium channels in the heart. The stimuli known to cause their endocytosis include receptor activation, drugs, and low extracellular [K(+)], following which the potassium channels undergo either clathrin-mediated or caveolin-mediated endocytosis. Receptor-mediated endocytic regulation has been demonstrated for Kv1.2, Kv1.5, KCNQ1 (Kv7.1), and Kv4.3, while drug-induced endocytosis has been demonstrated for Kv1.5 and hERG. Low [K(+)](o)-induced endocytosis might be unique for hERG channels, whose electrophysiological characteristics are known to be under strong influence of [K(+)](o). Although the precise mechanisms have not been elucidated, it is obvious that major cardiac voltage-dependent potassium channels are modulated by endocytosis, which leads to changes in cardiac excitability.

  16. Regulators of cyclin-dependent kinases are crucial for maintaining genome integrity in S phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Halfdan; Nähse, Viola; Larsen, Marie Sofie Yoo;

    2010-01-01

    are important negative regulators of CDK1 and -2. Strikingly, WEE1 depletion rapidly induced DNA damage in S phase in newly replicated DNA, which was accompanied by a marked increase in single-stranded DNA. This DNA damage is dependent on CDK1 and -2 as well as the replication proteins MCM2 and CDT1 but not CDC...

  17. CD1-dependent regulation of chronic central nervous system inflammation in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teige, Anna; Teige, Ingrid; Lavasani, Shahram

    2004-01-01

    The existence of T cells restricted for the MHC I-like molecule CD1 is well established, but the function of these cells is still obscure; one implication is that CD1-dependent T cells regulate autoimmunity. In this study, we investigate their role in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EA...

  18. Blimp-1-Dependent IL-10 Production by Tr1 Cells Regulates TNF-Mediated Tissue Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes de Oca, Marcela; Kumar, Rajiv; de Labastida Rivera, Fabian; Amante, Fiona H; Sheel, Meru; Faleiro, Rebecca J.; Bunn, Patrick T.; Best, Shannon E.; Beattie, Lynette; Ng, Susanna S.; Edwards, Chelsea L.; Muller, Werner; Cretney, Erika; Nutt, Stephen L.; Smyth, Mark J.; Haque, Ashraful; Hill, Geoffrey R.; Sundar, Shyam; Kallies, Axel; Engwerda, Christian R.

    2016-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is critical for controlling many intracellular infections, but can also contribute to inflammation. It can promote the destruction of important cell populations and trigger dramatic tissue remodeling following establishment of chronic disease. Therefore, a better understanding of TNF regulation is needed to allow pathogen control without causing or exacerbating disease. IL-10 is an important regulatory cytokine with broad activities, including the suppression of inflammation. IL-10 is produced by different immune cells; however, its regulation and function appears to be cell-specific and context-dependent. Recently, IL-10 produced by Th1 (Tr1) cells was shown to protect host tissues from inflammation induced following infection. Here, we identify a novel pathway of TNF regulation by IL-10 from Tr1 cells during parasitic infection. We report elevated Blimp-1 mRNA levels in CD4+ T cells from visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients, and demonstrate IL-12 was essential for Blimp-1 expression and Tr1 cell development in experimental VL. Critically, we show Blimp-1-dependent IL-10 production by Tr1 cells prevents tissue damage caused by IFNγ-dependent TNF production. Therefore, we identify Blimp-1-dependent IL-10 produced by Tr1 cells as a key regulator of TNF-mediated pathology and identify Tr1 cells as potential therapeutic tools to control inflammation. PMID:26765224

  19. Comprehensive Analysis of PPARa-Dependent Regulation of Hepatic Lipid Metabolism by Expression Profiling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rakhshandehroo, M.; Sanderson-Kjellberg, L.M.; Matilainen, M.; Stienstra, R.

    2007-01-01

    PPARa is a ligand-activated transcription factor involved in the regulation of nutrient metabolism and inflammation. Although much is already known about the function of PPARa in hepatic lipid metabolism, many PPARa-dependent pathways and genes have yet to be discovered. In order to obtain an overvi

  20. Explaining density-dependent regulation in earthworm populations using life-history analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kammenga, J.E.; Spurgeon, D.J.; Svendsen, C.; Weeks, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    At present there is little knowledge about how density regulates population growth rate and to what extent this is determined by life-history patterns. We compared density dependent population consequences in the Nicholsonian sense based oil experimental observations and life-history modeling for

  1. Blimp-1-Dependent IL-10 Production by Tr1 Cells Regulates TNF-Mediated Tissue Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes de Oca, Marcela; Kumar, Rajiv; de Labastida Rivera, Fabian; Amante, Fiona H; Sheel, Meru; Faleiro, Rebecca J; Bunn, Patrick T; Best, Shannon E; Beattie, Lynette; Ng, Susanna S; Edwards, Chelsea L; Muller, Werner; Cretney, Erika; Nutt, Stephen L; Smyth, Mark J; Haque, Ashraful; Hill, Geoffrey R; Sundar, Shyam; Kallies, Axel; Engwerda, Christian R

    2016-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is critical for controlling many intracellular infections, but can also contribute to inflammation. It can promote the destruction of important cell populations and trigger dramatic tissue remodeling following establishment of chronic disease. Therefore, a better understanding of TNF regulation is needed to allow pathogen control without causing or exacerbating disease. IL-10 is an important regulatory cytokine with broad activities, including the suppression of inflammation. IL-10 is produced by different immune cells; however, its regulation and function appears to be cell-specific and context-dependent. Recently, IL-10 produced by Th1 (Tr1) cells was shown to protect host tissues from inflammation induced following infection. Here, we identify a novel pathway of TNF regulation by IL-10 from Tr1 cells during parasitic infection. We report elevated Blimp-1 mRNA levels in CD4+ T cells from visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients, and demonstrate IL-12 was essential for Blimp-1 expression and Tr1 cell development in experimental VL. Critically, we show Blimp-1-dependent IL-10 production by Tr1 cells prevents tissue damage caused by IFNγ-dependent TNF production. Therefore, we identify Blimp-1-dependent IL-10 produced by Tr1 cells as a key regulator of TNF-mediated pathology and identify Tr1 cells as potential therapeutic tools to control inflammation.

  2. Physiological framework for the regulation of quorum sensing-dependent public goods in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellbye, Brett; Schuster, Martin

    2014-03-01

    Many bacteria possess cell density-dependent quorum-sensing (QS) systems that often regulate cooperative secretions involved in host-microbe or microbe-microbe interactions. These secretions, or "public goods," are frequently coregulated by stress and starvation responses. Here we provide a physiological rationale for such regulatory complexity in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Using minimal-medium batch and chemostat cultures, we comprehensively characterized specific growth rate-limiting macronutrients as key triggers for the expression of extracellular enzymes and metabolites directly controlled by the las and rhl QS systems. Expression was unrelated to cell density, depended on the secreted product's elemental composition, and was induced only when the limiting nutrient was not also a building block of the product; rhl-dependent products showed the strongest response, caused by the largely las-independent induction of the regulator RhlR and its cognate signal. In agreement with the prominent role of the rhl system, slow growth inverted the las-to-rhl signal ratio, previously considered a characteristic distinguishing between planktonic and biofilm lifestyles. Our results highlight a supply-driven, metabolically prudent regulation of public goods that minimizes production costs and thereby helps stabilize cooperative behavior. Such regulation would be beneficial for QS-dependent public goods that act broadly and nonspecifically, and whose need cannot always be accurately assessed by the producing cell. Clear differences in the capacities of the las and rhl systems to integrate starvation signals help explain the existence of multiple QS systems in one cell.

  3. Phosphorylation of linker histones regulates ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling enzymes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horn, P.J.; Carruthers, L.M.; Logie, C.; Hill, D.A.; Solomon, M.J.; Wade, P.A.; Imbalzano, A.N.; Hansen, J.; Peterson, C.L.

    2002-01-01

    Members of the ATP-dependent family of chromatin remodeling enzymes play key roles in the regulation of transcription, development, DNA repair and cell cycle control. We find that the remodeling activities of the ySWI/SNF, hSWI/SNF, xMi-2 and xACF complexes are nearly abolished by incorporation of l

  4. Herp regulates Hrd1-mediated ubiquitylation in a ubiquitin-like domain-dependent manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kny, Melanie; Standera, Sybille; Hartmann-Petersen, Rasmus

    2011-01-01

    in ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD) and interacts directly with the ubiquitin ligase Hrd1, which is found in high molecular mass complexes of the ER membrane. Here we present the first evidence that Herp regulates Hrd1-mediated ubiquitylation in a ubiquitin-like (UBL) domain-dependent manner. We...

  5. PKCζ regulates Notch receptor routing and activity in a Notch signaling-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöqvist, Marika; Antfolk, Daniel; Ferraris, Saima; Rraklli, Vilma; Haga, Cecilia; Antila, Christian; Mutvei, Anders; Imanishi, Susumu Y; Holmberg, Johan; Jin, Shaobo; Eriksson, John E; Lendahl, Urban; Sahlgren, Cecilia

    2014-04-01

    Activation of Notch signaling requires intracellular routing of the receptor, but the mechanisms controlling the distinct steps in the routing process is poorly understood. We identify PKCζ as a key regulator of Notch receptor intracellular routing. When PKCζ was inhibited in the developing chick central nervous system and in cultured myoblasts, Notch-stimulated cells were allowed to undergo differentiation. PKCζ phosphorylates membrane-tethered forms of Notch and regulates two distinct routing steps, depending on the Notch activation state. When Notch is activated, PKCζ promotes re-localization of Notch from late endosomes to the nucleus and enhances production of the Notch intracellular domain, which leads to increased Notch activity. In the non-activated state, PKCζ instead facilitates Notch receptor internalization, accompanied with increased ubiquitylation and interaction with the endosomal sorting protein Hrs. Collectively, these data identify PKCζ as a key regulator of Notch trafficking and demonstrate that distinct steps in intracellular routing are differentially modulated depending on Notch signaling status.

  6. Geometry and dynamics of activity-dependent homeostatic regulation in neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olypher, Andrey V; Prinz, Astrid A

    2010-06-01

    To maintain activity in a functional range, neurons constantly adjust membrane excitability to changing intra- and extracellular conditions. Such activity-dependent homeostatic regulation (ADHR) is critical for normal processing of the nervous system and avoiding pathological conditions. Here, we posed a homeostatic regulation problem for the classical Morris-Lecar (ML) model. The problem was motivated by the phenomenon of the functional recovery of stomatogastric neurons in crustaceans in the absence of neuromodulation. In our study, the regulation of the ionic conductances in the ML model depended on the calcium current or the intracellular calcium concentration. We found an asymptotic solution to the problem under the assumption of slow regulation. The solution provides a full account of the regulation in the case of correlated or anticorrelated changes of the maximal conductances of the calcium and potassium currents. In particular, the solution shows how the target and parameters of the regulation determine which perturbations of the conductances can be compensated by the ADHR. In some cases, the sets of compensated initial perturbations are not convex. On the basis of our analysis we formulated specific questions for subsequent experimental and theoretical studies of ADHR.

  7. A C. elegans model of nicotine-dependent behavior: regulation by TRP-family channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhaoyang; Li, Wei; Ward, Alex; Piggott, Beverly J; Larkspur, Erin R; Sternberg, Paul W; Xu, X Z Shawn

    2006-11-03

    Nicotine, the primary addictive substance in tobacco, induces profound behavioral responses in mammals, but the underlying genetic mechanisms are not well understood. Here we develop a C. elegans model of nicotine-dependent behavior. We show that worms exhibit behavioral responses to nicotine that parallel those observed in mammals, including acute response, tolerance, withdrawal, and sensitization. These nicotine responses require nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) family genes that are known to mediate nicotine dependence in mammals, suggesting functional conservation of nAChRs in nicotine responses. Importantly, we find that mutant worms lacking TRPC (transient receptor potential canonical) channels are defective in their response to nicotine and that such a defect can be rescued by a human TRPC channel, revealing an unexpected role for TRPC channels in regulating nicotine-dependent behavior. Thus, C. elegans can be used to characterize known genes as well as to identify new genes regulating nicotine responses.

  8. A C. elegans model of nicotine-dependent behavior: regulation by TRP family channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhaoyang; Li, Wei; Ward, Alex; Piggott, Beverly J.; Larkspur, Erin R.; Sternberg, Paul W.; Shawn Xu, X. Z.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Nicotine, the primary addictive substance in tobacco, induces profound behavioral responses in mammals, but the underlying genetic mechanisms are not well understood. Here we develop a C. elegans model of nicotine-dependent behavior. We show that worms exhibit behavioral responses to nicotine that parallel those observed in mammals, including acute response, tolerance, withdrawal and sensitization. These nicotine responses require nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) family genes that are known to mediate nicotine dependence in mammals, suggesting functional conservation of nAChRs in nicotine responses. Importantly, we find that mutant worms lacking TRPC (transient-receptor-potential canonical) channels are defective in response to nicotine and that such a defect can be rescued by a human TRPC channel, revealing an unexpected role for TRPC channels in regulating nicotine-dependent behavior. Thus, C. elegans can be used to characterize known genes as well as to identify new genes regulating nicotine responses. PMID:17081982

  9. Possible Role of Histone H1 in the Regulation of Furin-dependent Proprotein Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinbo HAN; Jianxin GU; Chengwu CHI

    2007-01-01

    Histone H1 and its C-terminal lysine rich fragments were recently found to be potent inhibitors of furin,a mammalian proprotein convertase.However,its role in the regulation of furin-dependent proprotein processing remains unclear.Here we report that histone H1 efficiently blocks furin-dependent pro-von Willebrand factor(pro-vWF)processing in a dose-dependent manner.Coimmunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence studies confirmed that histone H1 could interact with furin,and the interaction mainly took place on the cell surface.We noted that histone H1 was released from cells undergoing necrosis and apoptosis induced by H2O2.Our findings suggested that histone H1 might be involved in extracellular and/or intracellular furin regulation.

  10. Phosphorylation-dependent regulation of plant chromatin and chromatin-associated proteins

    KAUST Repository

    Bigeard, Jean

    2014-07-10

    In eukaryotes, most of the DNA is located in the nucleus where it is organized with histone proteins in a higher order structure as chromatin. Chromatin and chromatin-associated proteins contribute to DNA-related processes such as replication and transcription as well as epigenetic regulation. Protein functions are often regulated by PTMs among which phosphorylation is one of the most abundant PTM. Phosphorylation of proteins affects important properties, such as enzyme activity, protein stability, or subcellular localization. We here describe the main specificities of protein phosphorylation in plants and review the current knowledge on phosphorylation-dependent regulation of plant chromatin and chromatin-associated proteins. We also outline some future challenges to further elucidate protein phosphorylation and chromatin regulation.

  11. The AAA+ ATPase, Thorase Regulates AMPA Receptor-Dependent Synaptic Plasticity and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianmin; Wang, Yue; Chi, Zhikai; Keuss, Matthew J.; Pai, Ying-Min Emily; Kang, Ho Chul; Shin, Jooho; Bugayenko, Artem; Wang, Hong; Xiong, Yulan; Pletnikov, Mikhail V.; Mattson, Mark P.; Dawson, Ted M.; Dawson, Valina L.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The synaptic insertion or removal of AMPA receptors (AMPAR) plays critical roles in the regulation of synaptic activity reflected in the expression of long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). The cellular events underlying this important process in learning and memory are still being revealed. Here we describe and characterize the AAA+ ATPase, Thorase, that regulates the expression of surface AMPAR. In an ATPase-dependent manner Thorase mediates the internalization of AMPAR by disassembling the AMPAR-GRIP1 complex. Following genetic deletion of Thorase, the internalization of AMPAR is substantially reduced, leading to increased amplitudes of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents, enhancement of LTP and elimination of LTD. These molecular events are expressed as deficits in learning and memory in Thorase null mice. This study identifies an AAA+ ATPase that plays a critical role in regulating the surface expression of AMPAR and thereby regulates synaptic plasticity and learning and memory. PMID:21496646

  12. The Phosphorylation-Dependent Regulation of Mitochondrial Proteins in Stress Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Kanamaru

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To maintain cellular homeostasis, cells are equipped with precise systems that trigger the appropriate stress responses. Mitochondria not only provide cellular energy but also integrate stress response signaling pathways, including those regulating cell death. Several lines of evidence suggest that the mitochondrial proteins that function in this process, such as Bcl-2 family proteins in apoptosis and phosphoglycerate mutase family member 5 (PGAM5 in necroptosis, are regulated by several kinases. It has also been suggested that the phosphorylation-dependent regulation of mitochondrial fission machinery, dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1, facilitates appropriate cellular stress responses. However, mitochondria themselves are also damaged by various stresses. To avoid the deleterious effects exerted by damaged mitochondria, cells remove these mitochondria in a selective autophagic degradation process called mitophagy. Interestingly, several kinases, such as PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1 in mammals and stress-responsive mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinases in yeast, have recently been shown to be involved in mitophagy. In this paper, we focus on the phosphorylation-dependent regulation of mitochondrial proteins and discuss the roles of this regulation in the mitochondrial and cellular stress responses.

  13. RNA-processing protein TDP-43 regulates FOXO-dependent protein quality control in stress response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Protein homeostasis is critical for cell survival and functions during stress and is regulated at both RNA and protein levels. However, how the cell integrates RNA-processing programs with post-translational protein quality control systems is unknown. Transactive response DNA-binding protein (TARDBP/TDP-43 is an RNA-processing protein that is involved in the pathogenesis of major neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and frontotemporal dementia (FTD. Here, we report a conserved role for TDP-43, from C. elegans to mammals, in the regulation of protein clearance via activation of FOXO transcription factors. In response to proteotoxic insults, TDP-43 redistributes from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, promoting nuclear translocation of FOXOs and relieving an inhibition of FOXO activity in the nucleus. The interaction between TDP-43 and the FOXO pathway in mammalian cells is mediated by their competitive binding to 14-3-3 proteins. Consistent with FOXO-dependent protein quality control, TDP-43 regulates the levels of misfolded proteins. Therefore, TDP-43 mediates stress responses and couples the regulation of RNA metabolism and protein quality control in a FOXO-dependent manner. The results suggest that compromising the function of TDP-43 in regulating protein homeostasis may contribute to the pathogenesis of related neurodegenerative diseases.

  14. RNA-Processing Protein TDP-43 Regulates FOXO-Dependent Protein Quality Control in Stress Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Baldie, Gerard; Periz, Goran; Wang, Jiou

    2014-01-01

    Protein homeostasis is critical for cell survival and functions during stress and is regulated at both RNA and protein levels. However, how the cell integrates RNA-processing programs with post-translational protein quality control systems is unknown. Transactive response DNA-binding protein (TARDBP/TDP-43) is an RNA-processing protein that is involved in the pathogenesis of major neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Here, we report a conserved role for TDP-43, from C. elegans to mammals, in the regulation of protein clearance via activation of FOXO transcription factors. In response to proteotoxic insults, TDP-43 redistributes from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, promoting nuclear translocation of FOXOs and relieving an inhibition of FOXO activity in the nucleus. The interaction between TDP-43 and the FOXO pathway in mammalian cells is mediated by their competitive binding to 14-3-3 proteins. Consistent with FOXO-dependent protein quality control, TDP-43 regulates the levels of misfolded proteins. Therefore, TDP-43 mediates stress responses and couples the regulation of RNA metabolism and protein quality control in a FOXO-dependent manner. The results suggest that compromising the function of TDP-43 in regulating protein homeostasis may contribute to the pathogenesis of related neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25329970

  15. Morphogenesis signaling components influence cell cycle regulation by cyclin dependent kinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bevis Brooke J

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The yeast cell cycle is largely controlled by the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK Cdc28. Recent evidence suggests that both CDK complex stability as well as function during mitosis is determined by precise regulation of Swe1, a CDK inhibitory kinase and cyclin binding partner. A model of mitotic progression has been provided by study of filamentous yeast. When facing nutrient-limited conditions, Ras2-mediated PKA and MAPK signaling cascades induce a switch from round to filamentous morphology resulting in delayed mitotic progression. Results To delineate how the dimorphic switch contributes to cell cycle regulation, temperature sensitive cdc28 mutants exhibiting constitutive filamentation were subjected to epistasis analyses with RAS2 signaling effectors. It was found that Swe1-mediated inhibitory tyrosine phosphorylation of Cdc28 during filamentous growth is in part mediated by Ras2 activation of PKA, but not Kss1-MAPK, signaling. This pathway is further influenced by Cks1, a conserved CDK-binding partner of elusive function with multiple proposed roles in CDK activation, transcriptional regulation and ubiquitin-mediated proteasome degradation. Conclusion The dynamic balance between Cks1- and Swe1-dependent regulation of Cdc28 and, thereby, the timing of mitosis during yeast dimorphism is regulated in part by Ras2/cAMP-mediated PKA signaling, a key pathway controlling filamentous growth.

  16. Role of glutathione, glutathione transferase, and glutaredoxin in regulation of redox-dependent processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinina, E V; Chernov, N N; Novichkova, M D

    2014-12-01

    Over the last decade fundamentally new features have been revealed for the participation of glutathione and glutathione-dependent enzymes (glutathione transferase and glutaredoxin) in cell proliferation, apoptosis, protein folding, and cell signaling. Reduced glutathione (GSH) plays an important role in maintaining cellular redox status by participating in thiol-disulfide exchange, which regulates a number of cell functions including gene expression and the activity of individual enzymes and enzyme systems. Maintaining optimum GSH/GSSG ratio is essential to cell viability. Decrease in the ratio can serve as an indicator of damage to the cell redox status and of changes in redox-dependent gene regulation. Disturbance of intracellular GSH balance is observed in a number of pathologies including cancer. Consequences of inappropriate GSH/GSSG ratio include significant changes in the mechanism of cellular redox-dependent signaling controlled both nonenzymatically and enzymatically with the participation of isoforms of glutathione transferase and glutaredoxin. This review summarizes recent data on the role of glutathione, glutathione transferase, and glutaredoxin in the regulation of cellular redox-dependent processes.

  17. Oxytocin ameliorates the immediate myocardial injury in heart transplant through down regulation of the neutrophil dependent myocardial apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Fadhil Al-Amran

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Oxytocin ameliorates myocardial injury in heart transplant through down-regulation the myocardial inflammatory response, reactive oxygen species, and neutrophil-dependant myocardial apoptosis.

  18. A single nucleotide change affects fur-dependent regulation of sodB in H. pylori.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth M Carpenter

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is a significant human pathogen that has adapted to survive the many stresses found within the gastric environment. Superoxide Dismutase (SodB is an important factor that helps H. pylori combat oxidative stress. sodB was previously shown to be repressed by the Ferric Uptake Regulator (Fur in the absence of iron (apo-Fur regulation [1]. Herein, we show that apo regulation is not fully conserved among all strains of H. pylori. apo-Fur dependent changes in sodB expression are not observed under iron deplete conditions in H. pylori strains G27, HPAG1, or J99. However, Fur regulation of pfr and amiE occurs as expected. Comparative analysis of the Fur coding sequence between G27 and 26695 revealed a single amino acid difference, which was not responsible for the altered sodB regulation. Comparison of the sodB promoters from G27 and 26695 also revealed a single nucleotide difference within the predicted Fur binding site. Alteration of this nucleotide in G27 to that of 26695 restored apo-Fur dependent sodB regulation, indicating that a single base difference is at least partially responsible for the difference in sodB regulation observed among these H. pylori strains. Fur binding studies revealed that alteration of this single nucleotide in G27 increased the affinity of Fur for the sodB promoter. Additionally, the single base change in G27 enabled the sodB promoter to bind to apo-Fur with affinities similar to the 26695 sodB promoter. Taken together these data indicate that this nucleotide residue is important for direct apo-Fur binding to the sodB promoter.

  19. Comprehensive Analysis of PPARα-Dependent Regulation of Hepatic Lipid Metabolism by Expression Profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Rakhshandehroo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available PPARα is a ligand-activated transcription factor involved in the regulation of nutrient metabolism and inflammation. Although much is already known about the function of PPARα in hepatic lipid metabolism, many PPARα-dependent pathways and genes have yet to be discovered. In order to obtain an overview of PPARα-regulated genes relevant to lipid metabolism, and to probe for novel candidate PPARα target genes, livers from several animal studies in which PPARα was activated and/or disabled were analyzed by Affymetrix GeneChips. Numerous novel PPARα-regulated genes relevant to lipid metabolism were identified. Out of this set of genes, eight genes were singled out for study of PPARα-dependent regulation in mouse liver and in mouse, rat, and human primary hepatocytes, including thioredoxin interacting protein (Txnip, electron-transferring-flavoprotein β polypeptide (Etfb, electron-transferring-flavoprotein dehydrogenase (Etfdh, phosphatidylcholine transfer protein (Pctp, endothelial lipase (EL, Lipg, adipose triglyceride lipase (Pnpla2, hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL, Lipe, and monoglyceride lipase (Mgll. Using an in silico screening approach, one or more PPAR response elements (PPREs were identified in each of these genes. Regulation of Pnpla2, Lipe, and Mgll, which are involved in triglyceride hydrolysis, was studied under conditions of elevated hepatic lipids. In wild-type mice fed a high fat diet, the decrease in hepatic lipids following treatment with the PPARα agonist Wy14643 was paralleled by significant up-regulation of Pnpla2, Lipe, and Mgll, suggesting that induction of triglyceride hydrolysis may contribute to the anti-steatotic role of PPARα. Our study illustrates the power of transcriptional profiling to uncover novel PPARα-regulated genes and pathways in liver.

  20. Comprehensive Analysis of PPARα-Dependent Regulation of Hepatic Lipid Metabolism by Expression Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhshandehroo, Maryam; Sanderson, Linda M.; Matilainen, Merja; Stienstra, Rinke; Carlberg, Carsten; de Groot, Philip J.; Müller, Michael; Kersten, Sander

    2007-01-01

    PPARα is a ligand-activated transcription factor involved in the regulation of nutrient metabolism and inflammation. Although much is already known about the function of PPARα in hepatic lipid metabolism, many PPARα-dependent pathways and genes have yet to be discovered. In order to obtain an overview of PPARα-regulated genes relevant to lipid metabolism, and to probe for novel candidate PPARα target genes, livers from several animal studies in which PPARα was activated and/or disabled were analyzed by Affymetrix GeneChips. Numerous novel PPARα-regulated genes relevant to lipid metabolism were identified. Out of this set of genes, eight genes were singled out for study of PPARα-dependent regulation in mouse liver and in mouse, rat, and human primary hepatocytes, including thioredoxin interacting protein (Txnip), electron-transferring-flavoprotein β polypeptide (Etfb), electron-transferring-flavoprotein dehydrogenase (Etfdh), phosphatidylcholine transfer protein (Pctp), endothelial lipase (EL, Lipg), adipose triglyceride lipase (Pnpla2), hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL, Lipe), and monoglyceride lipase (Mgll). Using an in silico screening approach, one or more PPAR response elements (PPREs) were identified in each of these genes. Regulation of Pnpla2, Lipe, and Mgll, which are involved in triglyceride hydrolysis, was studied under conditions of elevated hepatic lipids. In wild-type mice fed a high fat diet, the decrease in hepatic lipids following treatment with the PPARα agonist Wy14643 was paralleled by significant up-regulation of Pnpla2, Lipe, and Mgll, suggesting that induction of triglyceride hydrolysis may contribute to the anti-steatotic role of PPARα. Our study illustrates the power of transcriptional profiling to uncover novel PPARα-regulated genes and pathways in liver. PMID:18288265

  1. Comprehensive analysis of PPARalpha-dependent regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism by expression profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhshandehroo, Maryam; Sanderson, Linda M; Matilainen, Merja; Stienstra, Rinke; Carlberg, Carsten; de Groot, Philip J; Müller, Michael; Kersten, Sander

    2007-01-01

    PPARalpha is a ligand-activated transcription factor involved in the regulation of nutrient metabolism and inflammation. Although much is already known about the function of PPARalpha in hepatic lipid metabolism, many PPARalpha-dependent pathways and genes have yet to be discovered. In order to obtain an overview of PPARalpha-regulated genes relevant to lipid metabolism, and to probe for novel candidate PPARalpha target genes, livers from several animal studies in which PPARalpha was activated and/or disabled were analyzed by Affymetrix GeneChips. Numerous novel PPARalpha-regulated genes relevant to lipid metabolism were identified. Out of this set of genes, eight genes were singled out for study of PPARalpha-dependent regulation in mouse liver and in mouse, rat, and human primary hepatocytes, including thioredoxin interacting protein (Txnip), electron-transferring-flavoprotein beta polypeptide (Etfb), electron-transferring-flavoprotein dehydrogenase (Etfdh), phosphatidylcholine transfer protein (Pctp), endothelial lipase (EL, Lipg), adipose triglyceride lipase (Pnpla2), hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL, Lipe), and monoglyceride lipase (Mgll). Using an in silico screening approach, one or more PPAR response elements (PPREs) were identified in each of these genes. Regulation of Pnpla2, Lipe, and Mgll, which are involved in triglyceride hydrolysis, was studied under conditions of elevated hepatic lipids. In wild-type mice fed a high fat diet, the decrease in hepatic lipids following treatment with the PPARalpha agonist Wy14643 was paralleled by significant up-regulation of Pnpla2, Lipe, and Mgll, suggesting that induction of triglyceride hydrolysis may contribute to the anti-steatotic role of PPARalpha. Our study illustrates the power of transcriptional profiling to uncover novel PPARalpha-regulated genes and pathways in liver.

  2. Cell-fate determination by ubiquitin-dependent regulation of translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Achim; Iwasaki, Shintaro; McGourty, Colleen A; Medina-Ruiz, Sofia; Teerikorpi, Nia; Fedrigo, Indro; Ingolia, Nicholas T; Rape, Michael

    2015-09-24

    Metazoan development depends on the accurate execution of differentiation programs that allow pluripotent stem cells to adopt specific fates. Differentiation requires changes to chromatin architecture and transcriptional networks, yet whether other regulatory events support cell-fate determination is less well understood. Here we identify the ubiquitin ligase CUL3 in complex with its vertebrate-specific substrate adaptor KBTBD8 (CUL3(KBTBD8)) as an essential regulator of human and Xenopus tropicalis neural crest specification. CUL3(KBTBD8) monoubiquitylates NOLC1 and its paralogue TCOF1, the mutation of which underlies the neurocristopathy Treacher Collins syndrome. Ubiquitylation drives formation of a TCOF1-NOLC1 platform that connects RNA polymerase I with ribosome modification enzymes and remodels the translational program of differentiating cells in favour of neural crest specification. We conclude that ubiquitin-dependent regulation of translation is an important feature of cell-fate determination.

  3. The human adaptor SARM negatively regulates adaptor protein TRIF-dependent Toll-like receptor signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carty, Michael; Goodbody, Rory; Schröder, Martina; Stack, Julianne; Moynagh, Paul N; Bowie, Andrew G

    2006-10-01

    Toll-like receptors discriminate between different pathogen-associated molecules and activate signaling cascades that lead to immune responses. The specificity of Toll-like receptor signaling occurs by means of adaptor proteins containing Toll-interleukin 1 receptor (TIR) domains. Activating functions have been assigned to four TIR adaptors: MyD88, Mal, TRIF and TRAM. Here we characterize a fifth TIR adaptor, SARM, as a negative regulator of TRIF-dependent Toll-like receptor signaling. Expression of SARM blocked gene induction 'downstream' of TRIF but not of MyD88. SARM associated with TRIF, and 'knockdown' of endogenous SARM expression by interfering RNA led to enhanced TRIF-dependent cytokine and chemokine induction. Thus, the fifth mammalian TIR adaptor SARM is a negative regulator of Toll-like receptor signaling.

  4. A heme-binding domain controls regulation of ATP-dependent potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Mark J; Kapetanaki, Sofia M; Chernova, Tatyana; Jamieson, Andrew G; Dorlet, Pierre; Santolini, Jérôme; Moody, Peter C E; Mitcheson, John S; Davies, Noel W; Schmid, Ralf; Raven, Emma L; Storey, Nina M

    2016-04-01

    Heme iron has many and varied roles in biology. Most commonly it binds as a prosthetic group to proteins, and it has been widely supposed and amply demonstrated that subtle variations in the protein structure around the heme, including the heme ligands, are used to control the reactivity of the metal ion. However, the role of heme in biology now appears to also include a regulatory responsibility in the cell; this includes regulation of ion channel function. In this work, we show that cardiac KATP channels are regulated by heme. We identify a cytoplasmic heme-binding CXXHX16H motif on the sulphonylurea receptor subunit of the channel, and mutagenesis together with quantitative and spectroscopic analyses of heme-binding and single channel experiments identified Cys628 and His648 as important for heme binding. We discuss the wider implications of these findings and we use the information to present hypotheses for mechanisms of heme-dependent regulation across other ion channels.

  5. Mapping Condition-Dependent Regulation of Lipid Metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jewett, Michael Christopher; Workman, Christopher; Nookaew, Intawat

    2013-01-01

    levels, and lipid levels are currently lacking. Here, we map condition-dependent regulation controlling lipid metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by measuring 5636 mRNAs, 50 metabolites, 97 lipids, and 57 13C-reaction fluxes in yeast using a three-factor full-factorial design. Correlation analysis...... across eight environmental conditions revealed 2279 gene expression level-metabolite/lipid relationships that characterize the extent of transcriptional regulation in lipid metabolism relative to major metabolic hubs within the cell. To query this network, we developed integrative methods for correlation......Lipids play a central role in cellular function as constituents of membranes, as signaling molecules, and as storage materials. Although much is known about the role of lipids in regulating specific steps of metabolism, comprehensive studies integrating genome-wide expression data, metabolite...

  6. Spatial regulation of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase during chemotactic cell migration

    OpenAIRE

    Howe, Alan K.; Baldor, Linda C.; Hogan, Brian P.

    2005-01-01

    Historically, the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) has a paradoxical role in cell motility, having been shown to both facilitate and inhibit actin cytoskeletal dynamics and cell migration. In an effort to understand this dichotomy, we show here that PKA is regulated in subcellular space during cell migration. Immunofluorescence microscopy and biochemical enrichment of pseudopodia showed that type II regulatory subunits of PKA and PKA activity are enriched in protrusive cellular structures ...

  7. The human adaptor SARM negatively regulates adaptor protein TRIF–dependent Toll-like receptor signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Carty, Michael; Goodbody, Rory; Schröder, Michael; Stack, Julianne; Moynagh, Paul N.; Bowie, Andrew G.

    2006-01-01

    Toll-like receptors discriminate between different pathogen-associated molecules and activate signaling cascades that lead to immune responses. The specificity of Toll-like receptor signaling occurs by means of adaptor proteins containing Toll–interleukin 1 receptor (TIR) domains. Activating functions have been assigned to four TIR adaptors: MyD88, Mal, TRIF and TRAM. Here we characterize a fifth TIR adaptor, SARM, as a negative regulator of TRIF-dependent Toll-like receptor signalin...

  8. HIV-1 matrix dependent membrane targeting is regulated by Gag mRNA trafficking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Jin

    Full Text Available Retroviral Gag polyproteins are necessary and sufficient for virus budding. Productive HIV-1 Gag assembly takes place at the plasma membrane. However, little is known about the mechanisms by which thousands of Gag molecules are targeted to the plasma membrane. Using a bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC assay, we recently reported that the cellular sites and efficiency of HIV-1 Gag assembly depend on the precise pathway of Gag mRNA export from the nucleus, known to be mediated by Rev. Here we describe an assembly deficiency in human cells for HIV Gag whose expression depends on hepatitis B virus (HBV post-transcriptional regulatory element (PRE mediated-mRNA nuclear export. PRE-dependent HIV Gag expressed well in human cells, but assembled with slower kinetics, accumulated intracellularly, and failed to associate with a lipid raft compartment where the wild-type Rev-dependent HIV-1 Gag efficiently assembles. Surprisingly, assembly and budding of PRE-dependent HIV Gag in human cells could be rescued in trans by co-expression of Rev-dependent Gag that provides correct membrane targeting signals, or in cis by replacing HIV matrix (MA with other membrane targeting domains. Taken together, our results demonstrate deficient membrane targeting of PRE-dependent HIV-1 Gag and suggest that HIV MA function is regulated by the trafficking pathway of the encoding mRNA.

  9. Copper response regulator1-dependent and -independent responses of the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii transcriptome to dark anoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemschemeier, Anja; Casero, David; Liu, Bensheng; Benning, Christoph; Pellegrini, Matteo; Happe, Thomas; Merchant, Sabeeha S

    2013-09-01

    Anaerobiosis is a stress condition for aerobic organisms and requires extensive acclimation responses. We used RNA-Seq for a whole-genome view of the acclimation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to anoxic conditions imposed simultaneously with transfer to the dark. Nearly 1.4 × 10(3) genes were affected by hypoxia. Comparing transcript profiles from early (hypoxic) with those from late (anoxic) time points indicated that cells activate oxidative energy generation pathways before employing fermentation. Probable substrates include amino acids and fatty acids (FAs). Lipid profiling of the C. reinhardtii cells revealed that they degraded FAs but also accumulated triacylglycerols (TAGs). In contrast with N-deprived cells, the TAGs in hypoxic cells were enriched in desaturated FAs, suggesting a distinct pathway for TAG accumulation. To distinguish transcriptional responses dependent on copper response regulator1 (CRR1), which is also involved in hypoxic gene regulation, we compared the transcriptomes of crr1 mutants and complemented strains. In crr1 mutants, ~40 genes were aberrantly regulated, reaffirming the importance of CRR1 for the hypoxic response, but indicating also the contribution of additional signaling strategies to account for the remaining differentially regulated transcripts. Based on transcript patterns and previous results, we conclude that nitric oxide-dependent signaling cascades operate in anoxic C. reinhardtii cells.

  10. Drosophila genome-wide RNAi screen identifies multiple regulators of HIF-dependent transcription in hypoxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Dekanty

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs are a family of evolutionary conserved alpha-beta heterodimeric transcription factors that induce a wide range of genes in response to low oxygen tension. Molecular mechanisms that mediate oxygen-dependent HIF regulation operate at the level of the alpha subunit, controlling protein stability, subcellular localization, and transcriptional coactivator recruitment. We have conducted an unbiased genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi screen in Drosophila cells aimed to the identification of genes required for HIF activity. After 3 rounds of selection, 30 genes emerged as critical HIF regulators in hypoxia, most of which had not been previously associated with HIF biology. The list of genes includes components of chromatin remodeling complexes, transcription elongation factors, and translational regulators. One remarkable hit was the argonaute 1 (ago1 gene, a central element of the microRNA (miRNA translational silencing machinery. Further studies confirmed the physiological role of the miRNA machinery in HIF-dependent transcription. This study reveals the occurrence of novel mechanisms of HIF regulation, which might contribute to developing novel strategies for therapeutic intervention of HIF-related pathologies, including heart attack, cancer, and stroke.

  11. Drosophila genome-wide RNAi screen identifies multiple regulators of HIF-dependent transcription in hypoxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Dekanty

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs are a family of evolutionary conserved alpha-beta heterodimeric transcription factors that induce a wide range of genes in response to low oxygen tension. Molecular mechanisms that mediate oxygen-dependent HIF regulation operate at the level of the alpha subunit, controlling protein stability, subcellular localization, and transcriptional coactivator recruitment. We have conducted an unbiased genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi screen in Drosophila cells aimed to the identification of genes required for HIF activity. After 3 rounds of selection, 30 genes emerged as critical HIF regulators in hypoxia, most of which had not been previously associated with HIF biology. The list of genes includes components of chromatin remodeling complexes, transcription elongation factors, and translational regulators. One remarkable hit was the argonaute 1 (ago1 gene, a central element of the microRNA (miRNA translational silencing machinery. Further studies confirmed the physiological role of the miRNA machinery in HIF-dependent transcription. This study reveals the occurrence of novel mechanisms of HIF regulation, which might contribute to developing novel strategies for therapeutic intervention of HIF-related pathologies, including heart attack, cancer, and stroke.

  12. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 regulates PSD-95 ubiquitination in neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchetta, Michael J; Lam, TuKiet T; Jones, Stephen N; Morabito, Maria A

    2011-08-17

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) and its activator p35 have been implicated in drug addiction, neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's, learning and memory, and synapse maturation and plasticity. However, the molecular mechanisms by which Cdk5 regulates synaptic plasticity are still unclear. PSD-95 is a major postsynaptic scaffolding protein of glutamatergic synapses that regulates synaptic strength and plasticity. PSD-95 is ubiquitinated by the ubiquitin E3 ligase Mdm2, and rapid and transient PSD-95 ubiquitination has been implicated in NMDA receptor-induced AMPA receptor endocytosis. Here we demonstrate that genetic or pharmacological reduction of Cdk5 activity increases the interaction of Mdm2 with PSD-95 and enhances PSD-95 ubiquitination without affecting PSD-95 protein levels in vivo in mice, suggesting a nonproteolytic function of ubiquitinated PSD-95 at synapses. We show that PSD-95 ubiquitination correlates with increased interaction with β-adaptin, a subunit of the clathrin adaptor protein complex AP-2. This interaction is increased by genetic reduction of Cdk5 activity or NMDA receptor stimulation and is dependent on Mdm2. Together these results support a function for Cdk5 in regulating PSD-95 ubiquitination and its interaction with AP-2 and suggest a mechanism by which PSD-95 may regulate NMDA receptor-induced AMPA receptor endocytosis.

  13. Transcriptional Regulation of Cystathionine-γ-Lyase in Endothelial Cells by NADPH Oxidase 4-Dependent Signaling*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Rajesh K.; Murray, Thomas V. A.; Prysyazhna, Oleksandra; Martin, Daniel; Burgoyne, Joseph R.; Santos, Celio; Eaton, Philip; Shah, Ajay M.; Brewer, Alison C.

    2016-01-01

    The gasotransmitter, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is recognized as an important mediator of endothelial cell homeostasis and function that impacts upon vascular tone and blood pressure. Cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) is the predominant endothelial generator of H2S, and recent evidence suggests that its transcriptional expression is regulated by the reactive oxygen species, H2O2. However, the cellular source of H2O2 and the redox-dependent molecular signaling pathway that modulates this is not known. We aimed to investigate the role of Nox4, an endothelial generator of H2O2, in the regulation of CSE in endothelial cells. Both gain- and loss-of-function experiments in human endothelial cells in vitro demonstrated Nox4 to be a positive regulator of CSE transcription and protein expression. We demonstrate that this is dependent upon a heme-regulated inhibitor kinase/eIF2α/activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) signaling module. ATF4 was further demonstrated to bind directly to cis-regulatory sequences within the first intron of CSE to activate transcription. Furthermore, CSE expression was also increased in cardiac microvascular endothelial cells, isolated from endothelial-specific Nox4 transgenic mice, compared with wild-type littermate controls. Using wire myography we demonstrate that endothelial-specific Nox4 transgenic mice exhibit a hypo-contractile phenotype in response to phenylephrine that was abolished when vessels were incubated with a CSE inhibitor, propargylglycine. We, therefore, conclude that Nox4 is a positive transcriptional regulator of CSE in endothelial cells and propose that it may in turn contribute to the regulation of vascular tone via the modulation of H2S production. PMID:26620565

  14. Global regulator SATB1 recruits beta-catenin and regulates T(H2 differentiation in Wnt-dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimple Notani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In vertebrates, the conserved Wnt signalling cascade promotes the stabilization and nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin, which then associates with the lymphoid enhancer factor/T cell factor proteins (LEF/TCFs to activate target genes. Wnt/beta -catenin signalling is essential for T cell development and differentiation. Here we show that special AT-rich binding protein 1 (SATB1, the T lineage-enriched chromatin organizer and global regulator, interacts with beta-catenin and recruits it to SATB1's genomic binding sites. Gene expression profiling revealed that the genes repressed by SATB1 are upregulated upon Wnt signalling. Competition between SATB1 and TCF affects the transcription of TCF-regulated genes upon beta-catenin signalling. GATA-3 is a T helper type 2 (T(H2 specific transcription factor that regulates production of T(H2 cytokines and functions as T(H2 lineage determinant. SATB1 positively regulated GATA-3 and siRNA-mediated knockdown of SATB1 downregulated GATA-3 expression in differentiating human CD4(+ T cells, suggesting that SATB1 influences T(H2 lineage commitment by reprogramming gene expression. In the presence of Dickkopf 1 (Dkk1, an inhibitor of Wnt signalling, GATA-3 is downregulated and the expression of signature T(H2 cytokines such as IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13 is reduced, indicating that Wnt signalling is essential for T(H2 differentiation. Knockdown of beta-catenin also produced similar results, confirming the role of Wnt/beta-catenin signalling in T(H2 differentiation. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that SATB1 recruits beta-catenin and p300 acetyltransferase on GATA-3 promoter in differentiating T(H2 cells in a Wnt-dependent manner. SATB1 coordinates T(H2 lineage commitment by reprogramming gene expression. The SATB1:beta-catenin complex activates a number of SATB1 regulated genes, and hence this study has potential to find novel Wnt responsive genes. These results demonstrate that SATB1

  15. Metal-dependent gene regulation in the causative agent of Lyme disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan eTroxell

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb is the causative agent of Lyme disease transmitted to humans by ticks of the Ixodes spp. Bb is a unique bacterial pathogen because it does not require iron (Fe2+ for its metabolism. Bb encodes a ferritin-like Dps homolog called NapA (also called BicA, which can bind Fe or copper (Cu2+, and a manganese (Mn2+ transport protein, BmtA; both proteins are required for colonization of the tick vector, but BmtA is also required for the murine host. This demonstrates that Bb’s metal homeostasis is a critical facet of the complex enzootic life cycle between the arthropod and murine hosts. Although metals are known to influence the expression of virulence determinants during infection, it is unknown how or if metals regulate virulence in Bb. Recent evidence demonstrates that Bb modulates the intracellular Mn2+ and zinc (Zn2+ content and, in turn, these metals regulate gene expression through influencing the Ferric Uptake Regulator (Fur homolog Borrelia Oxidative Stress Regulator (BosR. This mini-review focuses on the burgeoning study of metal-dependent gene regulation within Bb.

  16. Mapping condition-dependent regulation of lipid metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewett, Michael C; Workman, Christopher T; Nookaew, Intawat; Pizarro, Francisco A; Agosin, Eduardo; Hellgren, Lars I; Nielsen, Jens

    2013-11-06

    Lipids play a central role in cellular function as constituents of membranes, as signaling molecules, and as storage materials. Although much is known about the role of lipids in regulating specific steps of metabolism, comprehensive studies integrating genome-wide expression data, metabolite levels, and lipid levels are currently lacking. Here, we map condition-dependent regulation controlling lipid metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by measuring 5636 mRNAs, 50 metabolites, 97 lipids, and 57 (13)C-reaction fluxes in yeast using a three-factor full-factorial design. Correlation analysis across eight environmental conditions revealed 2279 gene expression level-metabolite/lipid relationships that characterize the extent of transcriptional regulation in lipid metabolism relative to major metabolic hubs within the cell. To query this network, we developed integrative methods for correlation of multi-omics datasets that elucidate global regulatory signatures. Our data highlight many characterized regulators of lipid metabolism and reveal that sterols are regulated more at the transcriptional level than are amino acids. Beyond providing insights into the systems-level organization of lipid metabolism, we anticipate that our dataset and approach can join an emerging number of studies to be widely used for interrogating cellular systems through the combination of mathematical modeling and experimental biology.

  17. Metal-dependent gene regulation in the causative agent of Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troxell, Bryan; Yang, X Frank

    2013-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) is the causative agent of Lyme disease transmitted to humans by ticks of the Ixodes spp. Bb is a unique bacterial pathogen because it does not require iron (Fe(2+)) for its metabolism. Bb encodes a ferritin-like Dps homolog called NapA (also called BicA), which can bind Fe or copper (Cu(2+)), and a manganese (Mn(2+)) transport protein, Borrelia metal transporter A (BmtA); both proteins are required for colonization of the tick vector, but BmtA is also required for the murine host. This demonstrates that Bb's metal homeostasis is a critical facet of the complex enzootic life cycle between the arthropod and murine hosts. Although metals are known to influence the expression of virulence determinants during infection, it is unknown how or if metals regulate virulence in Bb. Recent evidence demonstrates that Bb modulates the intracellular Mn(2+) and zinc (Zn(2+)) content and, in turn, these metals regulate gene expression through influencing the Ferric Uptake Regulator (Fur) homolog Borrelia Oxidative Stress Regulator (BosR). This mini-review focuses on the burgeoning study of metal-dependent gene regulation within Bb.

  18. Keratin-dependent regulation of Aire and gene expression in skin tumor keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Ryan P; DePianto, Daryle J; Jacob, Justin T; Han, Minerva C; Chung, Byung-Min; Batazzi, Adriana S; Poll, Brian G; Guo, Yajuan; Han, Jingnan; Ong, SuFey; Zheng, Wenxin; Taube, Janis M; Čiháková, Daniela; Wan, Fengyi; Coulombe, Pierre A

    2015-08-01

    Expression of the intermediate filament protein keratin 17 (K17) is robustly upregulated in inflammatory skin diseases and in many tumors originating in stratified and pseudostratified epithelia. We report that autoimmune regulator (Aire), a transcriptional regulator, is inducibly expressed in human and mouse tumor keratinocytes in a K17-dependent manner and is required for timely onset of Gli2-induced skin tumorigenesis in mice. The induction of Aire mRNA in keratinocytes depends on a functional interaction between K17 and the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein hnRNP K. Further, K17 colocalizes with Aire protein in the nucleus of tumor-prone keratinocytes, and each factor is bound to a specific promoter region featuring an NF-κB consensus sequence in a relevant subset of K17- and Aire-dependent proinflammatory genes. These findings provide radically new insight into keratin intermediate filament and Aire function, along with a molecular basis for the K17-dependent amplification of inflammatory and immune responses in diseased epithelia.

  19. Elmo2 Is a Regulator of Insulin-dependent Glut4 Membrane Translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yingmin; Côté, Jean-François; Du, Keyong

    2016-07-29

    Elmo2, a member of the Elmo protein family, has been implicated in the regulation of Rac1 and Akt activation. Recently, we found that Elmo2 specifically interacts with ClipR-59. Because Akt and Rac1 have been implicated in insulin dependent Glut4 membrane translocation, we hypothesize here that Elmo2 may play a role in insulin-dependent Glut4 membrane translocation. Accordingly, we found that overexpression of Elmo2 enhanced, whereas its knockdown suppressed, insulin-dependent Glut4 membrane translocation in both 3T3-L1 adipocytes and L6 skeletal muscle cells. We also examined whether Elmo2 contributes to the insulin-mediated activation of Rac1 and Akt. We found that Elmo2 is required for insulin-induced Rac1 GTP loading, but not AKT activation, in L6 cells induced by insulin. Instead, Elmo2 is required to promote the insulin-induced membrane association of Akt. Together, our studies demonstrate that Elmo2 is a new regulator of insulin-dependent Glut4 membrane translocation through modulating Rac1 activity and Akt membrane compartmentalization.

  20. Regulation of μ and δ opioid receptor functions: involvement of cyclin-dependent kinase 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudry, H; Mercier-Blais, A-A; Delaygue, C; Lavoie, C; Parent, J-L; Neugebauer, W; Gendron, L

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Phosphorylation of δ opioid receptors (DOP receptors) by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) was shown to regulate the trafficking of this receptor. Therefore, we aimed to determine the role of CDK5 in regulating DOP receptors in rats treated with morphine or with complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). As μ (MOP) and DOP receptors are known to be co-regulated, we also sought to determine if CDK5-mediated regulation of DOP receptors also affects MOP receptor functions. Experimental Approach The role of CDK5 in regulating opioid receptors in CFA- and morphine-treated rats was studied using roscovitine as a CDK inhibitor and a cell-penetrant peptide mimicking the second intracellular loop of DOP receptors (C11-DOPri2). Opioid receptor functions were assessed in vivo in a series of behavioural experiments and correlated by measuring ERK1/2 activity in dorsal root ganglia homogenates. Key Results Chronic roscovitine treatment reduced the antinociceptive and antihyperalgesic effects of deltorphin II (Dlt II) in morphine- and CFA-treated rats respectively. Repeated administrations of C11-DOPri2 also robustly decreased Dlt II-induced analgesia. Interestingly, DAMGO-induced analgesia was significantly increased by roscovitine and C11-DOPri2. Concomitantly, in roscovitine-treated rats the Dlt II-induced ERK1/2 activation was decreased, whereas the DAMGO-induced ERK1/2 activation was increased. An acute roscovitine treatment had no effect on Dlt II- or DAMGO-induced analgesia. Conclusions and Implications Together, our results demonstrate that CDK5 is a key player in the regulation of DOP receptors in morphine- and CFA-treated rats and that the regulation of DOP receptors by CDK5 is sufficient to modulate MOP receptor functions through an indirect process. PMID:25598508

  1. Disrupted regulation of social exclusion in alcohol-dependence: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurage, Pierre; Joassin, Frédéric; Philippot, Pierre; Heeren, Alexandre; Vermeulen, Nicolas; Mahau, Pierre; Delperdange, Christel; Corneille, Olivier; Luminet, Olivier; de Timary, Philippe

    2012-08-01

    Alcohol-dependence is associated with cognitive and biological alterations, and also with interpersonal impairments. Although overwhelming in clinical settings and involved in relapse, these social impairments have received little attention from researchers. Particularly, brain alterations related to social exclusion have not been explored in alcohol-dependence. Our primary purpose was to determine the neural correlates of social exclusion feelings in this population. In all, 44 participants (22 abstinent alcohol-dependent patients and 22 paired controls) played a virtual game ('cyberball') during fMRI recording. They were first included by other players, then excluded, and finally re-included. Brain areas involved in social exclusion were identified and the functional connectivity between these areas was explored using psycho-physiological interactions (PPI). Results showed that while both groups presented dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) activations during social exclusion, alcohol-dependent participants exhibited increased insula and reduced frontal activations (in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex) as compared with controls. Alcohol-dependence was also associated with persistent dACC and parahippocampal gyrus activations in re-inclusion. PPI analyses showed reduced frontocingulate connectivity during social exclusion in alcohol-dependence. Alcohol-dependence is thus linked with increased activation in areas eliciting social exclusion feelings (dACC-insula), and with impaired ability to inhibit these feelings (indexed by reduced frontal activations). Altered frontal regulation thus appears implied in the interpersonal alterations observed in alcohol-dependence, which seem reinforced by impaired frontocingulate connectivity. This first exploration of the neural correlates of interpersonal problems in alcohol-dependence could initiate the development of a social neuroscience of addictive states.

  2. Sector-dependent versus standard renormalization of Pauli-Villars-regulated light-front QED

    CERN Document Server

    Chabysheva, S S

    2009-01-01

    We consider quantum electrodynamics quantized on the light front in Feynman gauge and regulated in the ultraviolet by the inclusion of massive, negative-metric Pauli--Villars (PV) particles in the Lagrangian. The eigenstate of the electron is approximated by a Fock-state expansion truncated to include one photon. The Fock-state wave functions are computed from the fundamental Hamiltonian eigenvalue problem and used to calculate the anomalous magnetic moment. Two methods of renormalization are considered: a sector-dependent renormalization, where the bare parameters of the Lagrangian are allowed to depend on the Fock sectors between which the particular Hamiltonian term acts, and a standard renormalization, where the bare parameters are the same for all sectors. Both methods are shown to require some care with respect to ultraviolet divergences; neither method can allow all PV masses to be taken to infinity. In addition, the sector-dependent approach suffers from an infrared divergence that requires a nonzero ...

  3. Stochastic seasonality and nonlinear density-dependent factors regulate population size in an African rodent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leirs, Herwig; Steneth, Nils Chr.; Nichols, James D.

    1997-01-01

    no information on actual demographic rates(9,10). Here we report on both density-dependent and density-independent effects in a murid rodent pest species, the multimammute rat Mastomys natalensis (Smith, 1834), using statistical capture-recapture models, Both effects occur simultaneously, but we also demonstrate......Ecology has long been troubled by the controversy over how populations are regulated(1,2). Some ecologists focus on the role of environmental effects, whereas others argue that density-dependent feedback mechanisms are central(3-6). The relative importance of both processes is still hotly debated......, but clear examples of both processes acting in the same population are rare(7,8). Key-factor analysis (regression of population changes on possible causal factors) and time-series analysis are often used to investigate the presence of density dependence, but such approaches may be biased and provide...

  4. Deficits in Emotion-Regulation Skills Predict Alcohol Use during and after Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Alcohol Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berking, Matthias; Margraf, Matthias; Ebert, David; Wupperman, Peggilee; Hofmann, Stefan G.; Junghanns, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Objective: As emotion regulation is widely considered to be a primary motive in the misuse of alcohol, our aim in the study was to investigate whether deficits in adaptive emotion-regulation skills maintain alcohol dependence (AD). Method: A prospective study investigated whether emotion-regulation skills were associated with AD and whether these…

  5. Transport, metabolism, and endosomal trafficking-dependent regulation of intestinal fructose absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Chirag; Douard, Veronique; Yu, Shiyan; Gao, Nan; Ferraris, Ronaldo P

    2015-09-01

    Dietary fructose that is linked to metabolic abnormalities can up-regulate its own absorption, but the underlying regulatory mechanisms are not known. We hypothesized that glucose transporter (GLUT) protein, member 5 (GLUT5) is the primary fructose transporter and that fructose absorption via GLUT5, metabolism via ketohexokinase (KHK), as well as GLUT5 trafficking to the apical membrane via the Ras-related protein-in-brain 11 (Rab11)a-dependent endosomes are each required for regulation. Introducing fructose but not lysine and glucose solutions into the lumen increased by 2- to 10-fold the heterogeneous nuclear RNA, mRNA, protein, and activity levels of GLUT5 in adult wild-type mice consuming chow. Levels of GLUT5 were >100-fold that of candidate apical fructose transporters GLUTs 7, 8, and 12 whose expression, and that of GLUT 2 and the sodium-dependent glucose transporter protein 1 (SGLT1), was not regulated by luminal fructose. GLUT5-knockout (KO) mice exhibited no facilitative fructose transport and no compensatory increases in activity and expression of SGLT1 and other GLUTs. Fructose could not up-regulate GLUT5 in GLUT5-KO, KHK-KO, and intestinal epithelial cell-specific Rab11a-KO mice. The fructose-specific metabolite glyceraldehyde did not increase GLUT5 expression. GLUT5 is the primary transporter responsible for facilitative absorption of fructose, and its regulation specifically requires fructose uptake and metabolism and normal GLUT5 trafficking to the apical membrane. © FASEB.

  6. Estrogen Receptor-Dependent Regulation of Dendritic Cell Development and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laffont, Sophie; Seillet, Cyril; Guéry, Jean-Charles

    2017-01-01

    Autoimmunity, infectious diseases and cancer affect women and men differently. Because they tend to develop more vigorous adaptive immune responses than men, women are less susceptible to some infectious diseases but also at higher risk of autoimmunity. The regulation of immune responses by sex-dependent factors probably involves several non-redundant mechanisms. A privileged area of study, however, concerns the role of sex steroid hormones in the biology of innate immune cells, especially dendritic cells (DCs). In recent years, our understanding of the lineage origin of DC populations has expanded, and the lineage-committing transcription factors shaping peripheral DC subsets have been identified. Both progenitor cells and mature DC subsets express estrogen receptors (ERs), which are ligand-dependent transcription factors. This suggests that estrogens may contribute to the reported sex differences in immunity by regulating DC biology. Here, we review the recent literature and highlight evidence that estrogen-dependent activation of ERα regulates the development or the functional responses of particular DC subsets. The in vitro model of GM-CSF-induced DC differentiation shows that CD11c+ CD11bint Ly6cneg cells depend on ERα activation by estrogen for their development, and for the acquisition of competence to activate naive CD4+ T lymphocytes and mount a robust pro-inflammatory cytokine response to CD40 stimulation. In this model, estrogen signaling in conjunction with GM-CSF is necessary to promote early interferon regulatory factor (Irf)-4 expression in macrophage-DC progenitors and their subsequent differentiation into IRF-4hi CD11c+ CD11bint Ly6cneg cells, closely related to the cDC2 subset. The Flt3L-induced model of DC differentiation in turn shows that ERα signaling promotes the development of conventional DC (cDC) and plasmacytoid DC (pDC) with higher capability of pro-inflammatory cytokine production in response to TLR stimulation. Likewise, cell

  7. ARF regulates the stability of p16 protein via REGγ-dependent proteasome degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takashi; Wang, Jingqiang; Al-Ahmadie, Hikmat; Abate-Shen, Cory

    2013-08-01

    The cell-cycle regulatory gene INK4A-ARF (CDKN2A) has two alternative transcripts that produce entirely different proteins, namely p14(ARF) and p16, which have complementary functions as regulators of p53 and pRB tumor suppressor pathways, respectively. The unusual organization of INK4A-ARF has long led to speculation of a need for coordinated regulation of p14(ARF) and p16. We now show that p14(ARF) (ARF) regulates the stability of p16 protein in human cancer cell lines, as well as in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). In particular, ARF promotes rapid degradation of p16 protein, which is mediated by the proteasome and, more specifically, by interaction of ARF with one of its subunits, REGγ. Furthermore, this ARF-dependent destabilization of p16 can be abrogated by knockdown of REGγ or by pharmacologic blockade of its nuclear export. Thus, our findings have uncovered a novel crosstalk of 2 key tumor suppressors mediated by a REGγ-dependent mechanism. The ability of ARF to control p16 stability may influence cell-cycle function. The ability of ARF to control p16 stability may influence cell cycle function. Visual Overview: http://mcr.aacrjournals.org/content/current. ©2013 AACR.

  8. The Developmental Intestinal Regulator ELT-2 Controls p38-Dependent Immune Responses in Adult C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Dena H S; Twumasi-Boateng, Kwame; Kang, Hae Sung; Carlisle, Jolie A; Hanganu, Alexandru; Lai, Ty Yu-Jen; Shapira, Michael

    2015-05-01

    GATA transcription factors play critical roles in cellular differentiation and development. However, their roles in mature tissues are less understood. In C. elegans larvae, the transcription factor ELT-2 regulates terminal differentiation of the intestine. It is also expressed in the adult intestine, where it was suggested to maintain intestinal structure and function, and where it was additionally shown to contribute to infection resistance. To study the function of elt-2 in adults we characterized elt-2-dependent gene expression following its knock-down specifically in adults. Microarray analysis identified two ELT-2-regulated gene subsets: one, enriched for hydrolytic enzymes, pointed at regulation of constitutive digestive functions as a dominant role of adult elt-2; the second was enriched for immune genes that are induced in response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. Focusing on the latter, we used genetic analyses coupled to survival assays and quantitative RT-PCR to interrogate the mechanism(s) through which elt-2 contributes to immunity. We show that elt-2 controls p38-dependent gene induction, cooperating with two p38-activated transcription factors, ATF-7 and SKN-1. This demonstrates a mechanism through which the constitutively nuclear elt-2 can impact induced responses, and play a dominant role in C. elegans immunity.

  9. The Developmental Intestinal Regulator ELT-2 Controls p38-Dependent Immune Responses in Adult C. elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dena H S Block

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available GATA transcription factors play critical roles in cellular differentiation and development. However, their roles in mature tissues are less understood. In C. elegans larvae, the transcription factor ELT-2 regulates terminal differentiation of the intestine. It is also expressed in the adult intestine, where it was suggested to maintain intestinal structure and function, and where it was additionally shown to contribute to infection resistance. To study the function of elt-2 in adults we characterized elt-2-dependent gene expression following its knock-down specifically in adults. Microarray analysis identified two ELT-2-regulated gene subsets: one, enriched for hydrolytic enzymes, pointed at regulation of constitutive digestive functions as a dominant role of adult elt-2; the second was enriched for immune genes that are induced in response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. Focusing on the latter, we used genetic analyses coupled to survival assays and quantitative RT-PCR to interrogate the mechanism(s through which elt-2 contributes to immunity. We show that elt-2 controls p38-dependent gene induction, cooperating with two p38-activated transcription factors, ATF-7 and SKN-1. This demonstrates a mechanism through which the constitutively nuclear elt-2 can impact induced responses, and play a dominant role in C. elegans immunity.

  10. Estrogen Receptor Alpha (ESR1-Dependent Regulation of the Mouse Oviductal Transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katheryn L Cerny

    Full Text Available Estrogen receptor-α (ESR1 is an important transcriptional regulator in the mammalian oviduct, however ESR1-dependent regulation of the transcriptome of this organ is not well defined, especially at the genomic level. The objective of this study was therefore to investigate estradiol- and ESR1-dependent regulation of the transcriptome of the oviduct using transgenic mice, both with (ESR1KO and without (wild-type, WT a global deletion of ESR1. Oviducts were collected from ESR1KO and WT littermates at 23 days of age, or ESR1KO and WT mice were treated with 5 IU PMSG to stimulate follicular development and the production of ovarian estradiol, and the oviducts collected 48 h later. RNA extracted from whole oviducts was hybridized to Affymetrix Genechip Mouse Genome 430-2.0 arrays (n = 3 arrays per genotype and treatment or reverse transcribed to cDNA for analysis of the expression of selected mRNAs by real-time PCR. Following microarray analysis, a statistical two-way ANOVA and pairwise comparison (LSD test revealed 2428 differentially expressed transcripts (DEG's, P < 0.01. Genotype affected the expression of 2215 genes, treatment (PMSG affected the expression of 465 genes, and genotype x treatment affected the expression of 438 genes. With the goal of determining estradiol/ESR1-regulated function, gene ontology (GO and bioinformatic pathway analyses were performed on DEG's in the oviducts of PMSG-treated ESR1KO versus PMSG-treated WT mice. Significantly enriched GO molecular function categories included binding and catalytic activity. Significantly enriched GO cellular component categories indicated the extracellular region. Significantly enriched GO biological process categories involved a single organism, modulation of a measurable attribute and developmental processes. Bioinformatic analysis revealed ESR1-regulation of the immune response within the oviduct as the primary canonical pathway. In summary, a transcriptomal profile of estradiol- and

  11. Regulation of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 1 and isochorismate synthase gene expression in Arabidopsis.

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    Lydia J R Hunter

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RDRs function in anti-viral silencing in Arabidopsis thaliana and other plants. Salicylic acid (SA, an important defensive signal, increases RDR1 gene expression, suggesting that RDR1 contributes to SA-induced virus resistance. In Nicotiana attenuata RDR1 also regulates plant-insect interactions and is induced by another important signal, jasmonic acid (JA. Despite its importance in defense RDR1 regulation has not been investigated in detail. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In Arabidopsis, SA-induced RDR1 expression was dependent on 'NON-EXPRESSER OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES 1', indicating regulation involves the same mechanism controlling many other SA- defense-related genes, including pathogenesis-related 1 (PR1. Isochorismate synthase 1 (ICS1 is required for SA biosynthesis. In defensive signal transduction RDR1 lies downstream of ICS1. However, supplying exogenous SA to ics1-mutant plants did not induce RDR1 or PR1 expression to the same extent as seen in wild type plants. Analysing ICS1 gene expression using transgenic plants expressing ICS1 promoter:reporter gene (β-glucuronidase constructs and by measuring steady-state ICS1 transcript levels showed that SA positively regulates ICS1. In contrast, ICS2, which is expressed at lower levels than ICS1, is unaffected by SA. The wound-response hormone JA affects expression of Arabidopsis RDR1 but jasmonate-induced expression is independent of CORONATINE-INSENSITIVE 1, which conditions expression of many other JA-responsive genes. Transiently increased RDR1 expression following tobacco mosaic virus inoculation was due to wounding and was not a direct effect of infection. RDR1 gene expression was induced by ethylene and by abscisic acid (an important regulator of drought resistance. However, rdr1-mutant plants showed normal responses to drought. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: RDR1 is regulated by a much broader range of phytohormones than previously thought

  12. Thiamin diphosphate-dependent enzymes: from enzymology to metabolic regulation, drug design and disease models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunik, Victoria I; Tylicki, Adam; Lukashev, Nikolay V

    2013-12-01

    Bringing a knowledge of enzymology into research in vivo and in situ is of great importance in understanding systems biology and metabolic regulation. The central metabolic significance of thiamin (vitamin B1 ) and its diphosphorylated derivative (thiamin diphosphate; ThDP), and the fundamental differences in the ThDP-dependent enzymes of metabolic networks in mammals versus plants, fungi and bacteria, or in health versus disease, suggest that these enzymes are promising targets for biotechnological and medical applications. Here, the in vivo action of known regulators of ThDP-dependent enzymes, such as synthetic structural analogs of the enzyme substrates and thiamin, is analyzed in light of the enzymological data accumulated during half a century of research. Mimicking the enzyme-specific catalytic intermediates, the phosphonate analogs of 2-oxo acids selectively inhibit particular ThDP-dependent enzymes. Because of their selectivity, use of these compounds in cellular and animal models of ThDP-dependent enzyme malfunctions improves the validity of the model and its predictive power when compared with the nonselective and enzymatically less characterized oxythiamin and pyrithiamin. In vitro studies of the interaction of thiamin analogs and their biological derivatives with potential in vivo targets are necessary to identify and attenuate the analog selectivity. For both the substrate and thiamin synthetic analogs, in vitro reactivities with potential targets are highly relevant in vivo. However, effective concentrations in vivo are often higher than in vitro studies would suggest. The significance of specific inihibition of the ThDP-dependent enzymes for the development of herbicides, antibiotics, anticancer and neuroprotective strategies is discussed.

  13. DksA-dependent transcriptional regulation in Salmonella experiencing nitrosative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A Crawford

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Redox-based signaling is fundamental to the capacity of bacteria to sense, and respond to, nitrosative and oxidative stress encountered in natural and host environments. The conserved RNA polymerase regulatory protein DksA is a thiol-based sensor of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species. DksA-dependent transcriptional control promotes antinitrosative and antioxidative defenses that contribute to Salmonella pathogenesis. The specific adaptive changes mediated by DksA in response to reactive species, however, have not been elucidated. Herein, we characterize DksA-dependent changes in gene expression in Salmonella enterica experiencing nitrosative stress. Genome-wide expression analysis of wild-type and delta-dksA Salmonella exposed to the nitric oxide (•NO donor DETA NONOate demonstrated •NO- and DksA-dependent regulatory control of 427 target genes. Transcriptional changes centered primarily on genes encoding aspects of cellular metabolism. Several antioxidants and oxidoreductases important in redox buffering, •NO detoxification, and damage repair were also observed to be up-regulated in an •NO- and DksA-dependent manner. Compared to wild-type bacteria, •NO-treated delta-dksA Salmonella exhibited a de-repression of genes encoding components of iron homeostasis and failed to activate sulfur assimilation and cysteine biosynthetic operons. As cysteine is integral to efficient antinitrosative and antioxidative defense and repair programs, we further examined the redox-responsive transcriptional control of cysteine biosynthesis by DksA. These investigations revealed that the activation of genes comprising cysteine biosynthesis also occurs in response to hydrogen peroxide, is dependent upon the redox-sensing zinc finger domain of DksA, and requires the transcriptional regulator CysB. Our observations demonstrate that DksA mediates global adaptation to nitrosative stress in Salmonella and provide unique insight into a novel regulatory mechanism

  14. Characterization of light-dependent regulation of state transitions in gymnosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Amy S; Kertho, Albert; Nguyen, Mary

    2016-03-01

    The goal of this study was to characterize the light-dependent regulation of state transitions in gymnosperms. Two species of conifer were examined: eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) and white spruce [Picea glauca (Moench) Voss], as well as the angiosperm pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. subsp. pepo). Both diurnal time courses in the field and manipulated light experiments in growth chambers were conducted. Results from chlorophyll fluorescence analysis indicated that pumpkin was able to use a larger fraction of absorbed light to drive photochemistry and retain a lower reduction state at a given light intensity relative to the conifers. Results from western blots using anti-phosphothreonine demonstrate that in field conditions, conifers maintained higher light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) phosphorylation than pumpkin; however, this was likely due to a more variable light environment. Manipulated light experiments showed that general patterns of light-dependent LHCII phosphorylation were similar in conifers and pumpkin, with low levels of LHCII phosphorylation occurring in darkness and maximal levels occurring in low light conditions. However, high light-dependent dephosphorylation of LHCIII appears to be regulated differently in conifers, with conifers maintaining phosphorylation of LHCII proteins at higher excitation pressure compared with pumpkin. Additionally, spruce needles maintained relatively high phosphorylation of LHCII even in very high light conditions. Our results suggest that this difference in dephosphorylation of LHCII may be due to differences in the stromal redox status in spruce relative to pine and pumpkin.

  15. Distinct regulation of activity-dependent transcription of immediate early genes in cultured rat cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuchi, Mamoru; Sanabe, Tomofumi; Watanabe, Toshifumi; Kubota, Takane; Tabuchi, Akiko; Tsuda, Masaaki

    2017-08-26

    The activity-regulated expression of immediate early genes (IEGs) contributes to long-lasting neuronal functions underlying long-term memory. However, their response properties following neuronal activity are unique and remain poorly understood. To address this knowledge gap, here we further investigated the response properties of two representative IEGs, c-fos and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf). Treatment of cultured cortical cells with KCl produces a depolarization process that results in the increase of intracellular calcium concentration in a KCl concentration-dependent manner. Consistent with this increase, c-fos expression was induced in a KCl concentration-dependent manner. In contrast, however, Bdnf expression was optimally activated by both 25 and 50 mM concentration of KCl. Similar results were observed when the cells were treated with okadaic acid, which inhibits protein phosphatases and elicits the hyper-phosphorylation of signaling molecules. Thus, Bdnf expression is strictly regulated by a neuronal activity threshold in an all or nothing manner, whereas c-fos expression is activated in a neuronal activity-dependent manner. Our findings also suggest that these differential responses might be due to the presence or absence of a TATA box. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. pH-dependent regulation of electron transport and ATP synthesis in chloroplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, Alexander N

    2013-10-01

    This review is focused on pH-dependent mechanisms of regulation of photosynthetic electron transport and ATP synthesis in chloroplasts. The light-induced acidification of the thylakoid lumen is known to decelerate the plastoquinol oxidation by the cytochrome b 6 f complex, thus impeding the electron flow between photosystem II and photosystem I. Acidification of the lumen also triggers the dissipation of excess energy in the light-harvesting antenna of photosystem II, thereby protecting the photosynthetic apparatus against a solar stress. After brief description of structural and functional organization of the chloroplast electron transport chain, our attention is focused on the nature of the rate-limiting step of electron transfer between photosystem II and photosystem I. In the context of pH-dependent mechanism of photosynthetic control in chloroplasts, the mechanisms of plastoquinol oxidation by the cytochrome b 6 f complex have been considered. The light-induced alkalization of stroma is another factor of pH-dependent regulation of electron transport in chloroplasts. Alkalization of stroma induces activation of the Bassham-Benson-Calvin cycle reactions, thereby promoting efflux of electrons from photosystem I to NADP(+). The mechanisms of the light-induced activation of ATP synthase are briefly considered.

  17. Glutamate-Dependent BMAL1 Regulation in Cultured Bergmann Glia Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi-Castañeda, Donají; Waliszewski, Stefan M; Zepeda, Rossana C; Hernández-Kelly, Luisa C R; Caba, Mario; Ortega, Arturo

    2015-05-01

    Glutamate, the major excitatory amino acid, activates a wide variety of signal transduction cascades. This neurotransmitter is involved in photic entrainment of circadian rhythms, which regulate physiological and behavioral functions. The circadian clock in vertebrates is based on a transcription-translation feedback loop in which Brain and muscle aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT)-like protein 1 (BMAL1) acts as transcriptional activator of others clock genes. This protein is expressed in nearly all suprachiasmatic nucleus neurons, as well as in the granular layer of the cerebellum. In this context, we decided to investigate the role of glutamate in the molecular mechanisms involved in the processes of transcription/translation of BMAL1 protein. To this end, primary cultures of chick cerebellar Bergmann glial cells were stimulated with glutamatergic ligands and we found that BMAL1 levels increased in a dose- and time dependent manner. Additionally, we studied the phosphorylation of serine residues in BMAL1 under glutamate stimulation and we were able to detect an increase in the phosphorylation of this protein. The increased expression of BMAL1 is most probably the result of a stabilization of the protein after it has been phosphorylated by the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and/or the Ca(2+)/diacylglycerol dependent protein kinase. The present results strongly suggest that glutamate participates in regulating BMAL1 in glial cells and that these cells might prove to be important in the control of circadian rhythms in the cerebellum.

  18. A TonB-dependent receptor regulates antifungal HSAF biosynthesis in Lysobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruping; Xu, Huiyong; Du, Liangcheng; Chou, Shan-Ho; Liu, Hongxia; Liu, Youzhou; Liu, Fengquan; Qian, Guoliang

    2016-05-31

    Lysobacter species are Gram-negative bacteria that are emerging as new sources of antibiotics, including HSAF (Heat Stable Antifungal Factor), which was identified from L. enzymogenes with a new mode of action. LesR, a LuxR solo, was recently shown to regulate the HSAF biosynthesis via an unidentified mechanism in L. enzymogenes OH11. Here, we used a comparative proteomic approach to identify the LesR targets and found that LesR influenced the expression of 33 proteins belonging to 10 functional groups, with 9 proteins belonging to the TBDR (TonB-Dependent Receptor) family. The fundamental role of bacterial TBDR in nutrient uptake motivates us to explore their potential regulation on HSAF biosynthesis which is also modulated by nutrient condition. Six out of 9 TBDR coding genes were individually in-frame deleted. Phenotypic and gene-expression assays showed that TBDR7, whose level was lower in a strain overexpressing lesR, was involved in regulating HSAF yield. TBDR7 was not involved in the growth, but played a vital role in transcribing the key HSAF biosynthetic gene. Taken together, the current lesR-based proteomic study provides the first report that TBDR7 plays a key role in regulating antibiotic (HSAF) biosynthesis, a function which has never been found for TBDRs in bacteria.

  19. Regulation of MAP kinase-dependent apoptotic pathway: implication of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumbayev, Vadim V; Yasinska, Inna M

    2005-04-15

    Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling cascades are multi-functional signaling networks that influence cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, and cellular responses to stress. Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) is a MAP kinase kinase kinase that triggers apoptogenic kinase cascade leading to the phosphorylation/activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases and p38-MAP kinase, which are responsible for inducing apoptotic cell death. This pathway plays a pivotal role in transduction of signals from different apoptotic stimuli. In the present review, we summarized the recent evidence concerning MAP kinase-dependent apoptotic pathway and its regulation in the mammalian cells and organism in vivo. We have shown that the key messengers of regulation of this pathway are the reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. The role of protein oxidation and S-nitrosation in induction of apoptotic cell death via ASK1 is discussed. Also we have outlined other recently discovered signal transduction processes involved in the regulation of ASK1 activity and downstream pathway.

  20. Trefoil factor 3 peptide regulates migration via a Twist-dependent pathway in gastric cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qianqian; Gao, Jian; Li, Honglin; Guo, Wendong; Mao, Qi; Gao, Enhui; Zhu, Ya-qin

    2013-08-16

    Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) is a member of the TFF-domain peptide family and essential in regulating cell migration and maintaining mucosal integrity in gastrointestinal tract. However, the role of TFF3 and its downstream regulating mechanisms in cancer cell migration remain unclear. We previously reported that TFF3 prolonged the up-regulation of Twist protein to modulate IL-8 secretion in intestinal epithelial cells. In this study, we investigated the role of Twist protein in TFF3-induced migration of SGC7901 cells. While Twist was activated by TFF3, siRNA-mediated knockdown of Twist abolished TFF3-induced cell migration. Furthermore, the migration related marker CK-8 as well as ZO-1 and MMP-9 was also regulated by TFF3 via a Twist-dependent mechanism. Our study suggests that Twist, as an important potential downstream effector, plays a key role in TFF3-modulated metastasis in gastric cancer and can be a promising therapeutic target against intestinal-type gastric cancer.

  1. Density-dependent intraspecific aggression regulates survival in northern Yellowstone wolves (Canis lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubaynes, Sarah; MacNulty, Daniel R; Stahler, Daniel R; Quimby, Kira A; Smith, Douglas W; Coulson, Tim

    2014-11-01

    Understanding the population dynamics of top-predators is essential to assess their impact on ecosystems and to guide their management. Key to this understanding is identifying the mechanisms regulating vital rates. Determining the influence of density on survival is necessary to understand the extent to which human-caused mortality is compensatory or additive. In wolves (Canis lupus), empirical evidence for density-dependent survival is lacking. Dispersal is considered the principal way in which wolves adjust their numbers to prey supply or compensate for human exploitation. However, studies to date have primarily focused on exploited wolf populations, in which density-dependent mechanisms are likely weak due to artificially low wolf densities. Using 13 years of data on 280 collared wolves in Yellowstone National Park, we assessed the effect of wolf density, prey abundance and population structure, as well as winter severity, on age-specific survival in two areas (prey-rich vs. prey-poor) of the national park. We further analysed cause-specific mortality and explored the factors driving intraspecific aggression in the prey-rich northern area of the park. Overall, survival rates decreased during the study. In northern Yellowstone, density dependence regulated adult survival through an increase in intraspecific aggression, independent of prey availability. In the interior of the park, adult survival was less variable and density-independent, despite reduced prey availability. There was no effect of prey population structure in northern Yellowstone, or of winter severity in either area. Survival was similar among yearlings and adults, but lower for adults older than 6 years. Our results indicate that density-dependent intraspecific aggression is a major driver of adult wolf survival in northern Yellowstone, suggesting intrinsic density-dependent mechanisms have the potential to regulate wolf populations at high ungulate densities. When low prey availability or high

  2. Mechanism of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II regulation of AMPA receptor gating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Anders S; Jenkins, Meagan A; Banke, Tue G

    2011-01-01

    The function, trafficking and synaptic signaling of AMPA receptors are tightly regulated by phosphorylation. Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) phosphorylates the GluA1 AMPA receptor subunit at Ser831 to increase single-channel conductance. We show that CaMKII increases the conductance...... of native heteromeric AMPA receptors in mouse hippocampal neurons through phosphorylation of Ser831. In addition, co-expression of transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory proteins (TARPs) with recombinant receptors is required for phospho-Ser831 to increase conductance of heteromeric GluA1-GluA2 receptors...... the frequency of openings to larger conductances rather than altering unitary conductance. Together, these findings suggest that CaMKII phosphorylation of GluA1-Ser831 decreases the activation energy for an intrasubunit conformational change that regulates the conductance of the receptor when the channel pore...

  3. Ca2+-Dependent Regulations and Signaling in Skeletal Muscle: From Electro-Mechanical Coupling to Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Gehlert

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium (Ca2+ plays a pivotal role in almost all cellular processes and ensures the functionality of an organism. In skeletal muscle fibers, Ca2+ is critically involved in the innervation of skeletal muscle fibers that results in the exertion of an action potential along the muscle fiber membrane, the prerequisite for skeletal muscle contraction. Furthermore and among others, Ca2+ regulates also intracellular processes, such as myosin-actin cross bridging, protein synthesis, protein degradation and fiber type shifting by the control of Ca2+-sensitive proteases and transcription factors, as well as mitochondrial adaptations, plasticity and respiration. These data highlight the overwhelming significance of Ca2+ ions for the integrity of skeletal muscle tissue. In this review, we address the major functions of Ca2+ ions in adult muscle but also highlight recent findings of critical Ca2+-dependent mechanisms essential for skeletal muscle-regulation and maintenance.

  4. Leptin stimulates pituitary prolactin release through an extracellular signal-regulated kinase-dependent pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tipsmark, Christian K; Strom, Christina N; Bailey, Sean T

    2008-01-01

    Leptin was initially identified as a regulator of appetite and weight control centers in the hypothalamus, but appears to be involved in a number of physiological processes. This study was carried out to examine the possible role of leptin in regulating prolactin (PRL) release using the teleost...... pituitary model system. This advantageous system allows isolation of a nearly pure population of lactotropes in their natural, in situ aggregated state. The rostral pars distalis were dissected from tilapia pituitaries and exposed to varying concentrations of leptin (0, 1, 10, 100 nM) for 1 h. Release...... of PRL was stimulated by leptin in a potent and concentration-dependent manner. A time-course experiment showed that the strongest response in PRL release with leptin occurs within the first hour (approximately sixfold), and stimulation was sustained after 16 h (approximately twofold). Many...

  5. Regulation of Toll-like receptors-dependent inflammatory response 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Kowalczyk

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptors (TLRs are a pivotal part of our innate immune response. They recognize a wide variety of pathogens and instigate an immune response, thus facilitating the removal of the disease-causing agent. Due to the intense nature of this response its strict control is of keyimportance, as a prolonged inflammatory signal leads to carcinogenesis and autoimmune disorders. The signaling cascade initiated by the activated TLR is complex and consists of multiple stages. It involves a variety of adaptor proteins, protein kinases and effector transcription factors. The number of stages in this process enables many possible checkpoints and ways of regulation. Signal modulation involves differentiated expression of TLRs, splicing variants of their adaptorproteins, enzymes modifying proteins engaged in the cascade and many more. This review focuses on endogenous factors responsible for controlling the TLR-dependent inflammatory response as well as on pharmacological therapies designed for regulating the innate immune response.  

  6. The Golgi apparatus regulates cGMP-dependent protein kinase I compartmentation and proteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Shin; Chen, Jingsi; Cornog, Katherine H; Zhang, Huili; Roberts, Jesse D

    2015-06-01

    cGMP-dependent protein kinase I (PKGI) is an important effector of cGMP signaling that regulates vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) phenotype and proliferation. PKGI has been detected in the perinuclear region of cells, and recent data indicate that proprotein convertases (PCs) typically resident in the Golgi apparatus (GA) can stimulate PKGI proteolysis and generate a kinase fragment that localizes to the nucleus and regulates gene expression. However, the role of the endomembrane system in PKGI compartmentation and processing is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that PKGI colocalizes with endoplasmic reticulum (ER), ER-Golgi intermediate compartment, GA cisterna, and trans-Golgi network proteins in pulmonary artery SMC and cell lines. Moreover, PKGI localizes with furin, a trans-Golgi network-resident PC known to cleave PKGI. ER protein transport influences PKGI localization because overexpression of a constitutively inactive Sar1 transgene caused PKGI retention in the ER. Additionally, PKGI appears to reside within the GA because PKGI immunoreactivity was determined to be resistant to cytosolic proteinase K treatment in live cells. The GA appears to play a role in PKGI proteolysis because overexpression of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor-associated cGMP kinase substrate, not only tethered heterologous PKGI-β to the ER and decreased its localization to the GA, but also diminished PKGI proteolysis and nuclear translocation. Also, inhibiting intra-GA protein transport with monensin was observed to decrease PKGI cleavage. These studies detail a role for the endomembrane system in regulating PKGI compartmentation and proteolysis. Moreover, they support the investigation of mechanisms regulating PKGI-dependent nuclear cGMP signaling in the pulmonary vasculature with Golgi dysfunction.

  7. Experience-dependent regulation of TrkB isoforms in rodent visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, Bethany K; Turrigiano, Gina G

    2009-04-01

    Within primary visual cortex (V1), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling through its high-affinity receptor TrkB is important for normal development and experience-dependent plasticity. TrkB is expressed in several alternatively spliced isoforms, including full-length TrkB (TrkB.FL), and several truncated isoforms (TrkB.T1, TrkB.T2, and TrkB.T4) that lack the intracellular tyrosine kinase domain. These isoforms are important components of BDNF signaling, yet little is known about the developmental or experience-dependent regulation of their expression. Using immunohistochemistry, we found TrkB.FL and TrkB.T1 expressed in interneurons and pyramidal neurons within V1, but not in cortical astrocytes. We used real-time PCR to quantify the changes in mRNA expression of BDNF, the four TrkB isoforms, and the low-affinity receptor P75NTR during normal development, and in response to visual deprivation at two different ages. BDNF expression increased between postnatal days 10 (P10) and P30, and was rapidly down-regulated by 3 days of visual deprivation during both the pre-critical period (P14-P17) and the critical period (P18-P21). Over the same developmental period, expression of each TrkB isoform was regulated independently; TrkB.T1 increased, TrkB.FL and TrkB.T2 decreased, and TrkB.T4 showed transient changes. Neither brief visual deprivation nor prolonged dark-rearing induced changes in either TrkB.FL or TrkB.T1 expression. However, TrkB.T4 expression was reduced by brief visual deprivation, whereas TrkB.T4, TrkB.T2 and P75(NTR) were up-regulated by prolonged dark-rearing into the critical period. Our data indicate that TrkB isoform expression can be selectively regulated by visual experience, and may contribute to experience-dependent cortical plasticity.

  8. Plasma cell differentiation is coupled to division-dependent DNA hypomethylation and gene regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barwick, Benjamin G; Scharer, Christopher D; Bally, Alexander P R; Boss, Jeremy M

    2016-10-01

    The epigenetic processes that regulate antibody-secreting plasma cells are not well understood. Here, analysis of plasma cell differentiation revealed DNA hypomethylation of 10% of CpG loci that were overrepresented at enhancers. Inhibition of DNA methylation enhanced plasma cell commitment in a cell-division-dependent manner. Analysis of B cells differentiating in vivo stratified by cell division revealed a fivefold increase in mRNA transcription coupled to DNA hypomethylation. Demethylation occurred first at binding motifs for the transcription factors NF-κB and AP-1 and later at those for the transcription factors IRF and Oct-2 and was coincident with activation and differentiation gene-expression programs in a cell-division-dependent manner. These data provide mechanistic insight into cell-division-coupled transcriptional and epigenetic reprogramming and suggest that DNA hypomethylation reflects the cis-regulatory history of plasma cell differentiation.

  9. The dependence of neuronal encoding efficiency on Hebbian plasticity and homeostatic regulation of neurotransmitter release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, Faramarz; Moustafa, Ahmed A.

    2015-01-01

    Synapses act as information filters by different molecular mechanisms including retrograde messenger that affect neuronal spiking activity. One of the well-known effects of retrograde messenger in presynaptic neurons is a change of the probability of neurotransmitter release. Hebbian learning describe a strengthening of a synapse between a presynaptic input onto a postsynaptic neuron when both pre- and postsynaptic neurons are coactive. In this work, a theory of homeostatic regulation of neurotransmitter release by retrograde messenger and Hebbian plasticity in neuronal encoding is presented. Encoding efficiency was measured for different synaptic conditions. In order to gain high encoding efficiency, the spiking pattern of a neuron should be dependent on the intensity of the input and show low levels of noise. In this work, we represent spiking trains as zeros and ones (corresponding to non-spike or spike in a time bin, respectively) as words with length equal to three. Then the frequency of each word (here eight words) is measured using spiking trains. These frequencies are used to measure neuronal efficiency in different conditions and for different parameter values. Results show that neurons that have synapses acting as band-pass filters show the highest efficiency to encode their input when both Hebbian mechanism and homeostatic regulation of neurotransmitter release exist in synapses. Specifically, the integration of homeostatic regulation of feedback inhibition with Hebbian mechanism and homeostatic regulation of neurotransmitter release in the synapses leads to even higher efficiency when high stimulus intensity is presented to the neurons. However, neurons with synapses acting as high-pass filters show no remarkable increase in encoding efficiency for all simulated synaptic plasticity mechanisms. This study demonstrates the importance of cooperation of Hebbian mechanism with regulation of neurotransmitter release induced by rapid diffused retrograde

  10. Expansion of the Tetracycline-Dependent Regulation Toolbox for Helicobacter pylori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehnal, Miriam; Liao, Tingting; Stubbs, Keith A.; Marshall, Barry J.; Benghezal, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to gain greater understanding of the biology and infection processes of Helicobacter pylori, we have expanded the functionality of the tetracycline-dependent gene regulation (tet) system to provide more improved and versatile genetic control and facilitate the generation of conditional mutants to study essential genes. Second-generation tetracycline-responsive H. pylori uPtetO5 promoters were based on the mutated core ureA promoter. Single point mutations at either the ribosomal binding site or the start codon were introduced to shift the regulatory range of three uPtetO5 derivatives. All promoters were tested for regulation by TetR and revTetR using dapD, a gene essential to peptidoglycan biosynthesis, as a reporter. All tet promoters were effectively regulated by both TetR and revTetR, and their regulation windows overlapped so as to cover a broad range of expression levels. tet promoters uPtetO5m1 and uPtetO5m2 could be sufficiently silenced by both TetR and revTetR so that the conditional mutants could not grow in the absence of diaminopimelic acid (DAP). Furthermore, through the use of these inducible promoters, we reveal that insufficient DAP biosynthesis results in viable cells with altered morphology. Overall, the development and optimization of tet regulation for H. pylori will not only permit the study of essential genes but also facilitate investigations into gene dosage effects on H. pylori physiology. PMID:26362986

  11. MT1-MMP-dependent invasion is regulated by TI-VAMP/VAMP7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Anika; Le Dez, Gaëlle; Poincloux, Renaud; Recchi, Chiara; Nassoy, Pierre; Rottner, Klemens; Galli, Thierry; Chavrier, Philippe

    2008-06-24

    Proteolytic degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) is one intrinsic property of metastatic tumor cells to breach tissue barriers and to disseminate into different tissues. This process is initiated by the formation of invadopodia, which are actin-driven, finger-like membrane protrusions. Yet, little is known on how invadopodia are endowed with the functional machinery of proteolytic enzymes [1, 2]. The key protease MT1-MMP (membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase) confers proteolytic activity to invadopodia and thus invasion capacity of cancer cells [3-6]. Here, we report that MT1-MMP-dependent matrix degradation at invadopodia is regulated by the v-SNARE TI-VAMP/VAMP7, hence providing the molecular inventory mediating focal degradative activity of cancer cells. As observed by TIRF microscopy, MT1-MMP-mCherry and GFP-VAMP7 were simultaneously detected at proteolytic sites. Functional ablation of VAMP7 decreased the ability of breast cancer cells to degrade and invade in a MT1-MMP-dependent fashion. Moreover, the number of invadopodia was dramatically decreased in VAMP7- and MT1-MMP-depleted cells, indicative of a positive-feedback loop in which the protease as a cargo of VAMP7-targeted transport vesicles regulates maturation of invadopodia. Collectively, these data point to a specific role of VAMP7 in delivering MT1-MMP to sites of degradation, maintaining the functional machinery required for invasion.

  12. Osteoblastic regulation of B lymphopoiesis is mediated by Gs{alpha}-dependent signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Joy Y; Purton, Louise E; Rodda, Stephen J; Chen, Min; Weinstein, Lee S; McMahon, Andrew P; Scadden, David T; Kronenberg, Henry M

    2008-11-04

    Osteoblasts play an increasingly recognized role in supporting hematopoietic development and recently have been implicated in the regulation of B lymphopoiesis. Here we demonstrate that the heterotrimeric G protein alpha subunit G(s)alpha is required in cells of the osteoblast lineage for normal postnatal B lymphocyte production. Deletion of G(s)alpha early in the osteoblast lineage results in a 59% decrease in the percentage of B cell precursors in the bone marrow. Analysis of peripheral blood from mutant mice revealed a 67% decrease in the number of circulating B lymphocytes by 10 days of age. Strikingly, other mature hematopoietic lineages are not decreased significantly. Mice lacking G(s)alpha in cells of the osteoblast lineage exhibit a reduction in pro-B and pre-B cells. Furthermore, interleukin (IL)-7 expression is attenuated in G(s)alpha-deficient osteoblasts, and exogenous IL-7 is able to restore B cell precursor populations in the bone marrow of mutant mice. Finally, the defect in B lymphopoiesis can be rescued by transplantation into a WT microenvironment. These findings confirm that osteoblasts are an important component of the B lymphocyte niche and demonstrate in vivo that G(s)alpha-dependent signaling pathways in cells of the osteoblast lineage extrinsically regulate bone marrow B lymphopoiesis, at least partially in an IL-7-dependent manner.

  13. Osteoblastic regulation of B lymphopoiesis is mediated by Gsα-dependent signaling pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Joy Y.; Purton, Louise E.; Rodda, Stephen J.; Chen, Min; Weinstein, Lee S.; McMahon, Andrew P.; Scadden, David T.; Kronenberg, Henry M.

    2008-01-01

    Osteoblasts play an increasingly recognized role in supporting hematopoietic development and recently have been implicated in the regulation of B lymphopoiesis. Here we demonstrate that the heterotrimeric G protein α subunit Gsα is required in cells of the osteoblast lineage for normal postnatal B lymphocyte production. Deletion of Gsα early in the osteoblast lineage results in a 59% decrease in the percentage of B cell precursors in the bone marrow. Analysis of peripheral blood from mutant mice revealed a 67% decrease in the number of circulating B lymphocytes by 10 days of age. Strikingly, other mature hematopoietic lineages are not decreased significantly. Mice lacking Gsα in cells of the osteoblast lineage exhibit a reduction in pro-B and pre-B cells. Furthermore, interleukin (IL)-7 expression is attenuated in Gsα-deficient osteoblasts, and exogenous IL-7 is able to restore B cell precursor populations in the bone marrow of mutant mice. Finally, the defect in B lymphopoiesis can be rescued by transplantation into a WT microenvironment. These findings confirm that osteoblasts are an important component of the B lymphocyte niche and demonstrate in vivo that Gsα-dependent signaling pathways in cells of the osteoblast lineage extrinsically regulate bone marrow B lymphopoiesis, at least partially in an IL-7-dependent manner. PMID:18957542

  14. Structural basis for gene regulation by a B12-dependent photoreceptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Marco; Fernández-Zapata, Jésus; Polanco, María Carmen; Ortiz-Guerrero, Juan Manuel; Chen, Percival Yang-Ting; Kang, Gyunghoon; Padmanabhan, S; Elías-Arnanz, Montserrat; Drennan, Catherine L

    2015-10-22

    Photoreceptor proteins enable organisms to sense and respond to light. The newly discovered CarH-type photoreceptors use a vitamin B12 derivative, adenosylcobalamin, as the light-sensing chromophore to mediate light-dependent gene regulation. Here we present crystal structures of Thermus thermophilus CarH in all three relevant states: in the dark, both free and bound to operator DNA, and after light exposure. These structures provide visualizations of how adenosylcobalamin mediates CarH tetramer formation in the dark, how this tetramer binds to the promoter -35 element to repress transcription, and how light exposure leads to a large-scale conformational change that activates transcription. In addition to the remarkable functional repurposing of adenosylcobalamin from an enzyme cofactor to a light sensor, we find that nature also repurposed two independent protein modules in assembling CarH. These results expand the biological role of vitamin B12 and provide fundamental insight into a new mode of light-dependent gene regulation.

  15. CREB-Dependent Regulation of GAD65 Transcription by BDNF/TrkB in Cortical Interneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Huertas, Carlos; Rico, Beatriz

    2011-04-01

    In the cerebral cortex, the functional output of projection neurons is fine-tuned by inhibitory neurons present in the network, which use γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) as their main neurotransmitter. Previous studies have suggested that the expression levels of the rate-limiting GABA synthetic enzyme, GAD65, depend on brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)/TrkB activation. However, the molecular mechanisms by which this neurotrophic factor and its receptor controls GABA synthesis are still unknown. Here, we show a direct regulation of the GAD65 gene by BDNF-TrkB signaling via CREB in cortical interneurons. Conditional ablation of TrkB in cortical interneurons causes a cell-autonomous decrease in the synaptically enriched GAD65 protein and its transcripts levels, suggesting that transcriptional regulation of the GAD65 gene is altered. Dissection of the intracellular pathway that underlies this process revealed that BDNF/TrkB signaling controls the transcription of GAD65 in a Ras-ERK-CREB-dependent manner. Our study reveals a novel molecular mechanism through which BDNF/TrkB signaling may modulate the maturation and function of cortical inhibitory circuits.

  16. Marburgvirus Hijacks Nrf2-Dependent Pathway by Targeting Nrf2-Negative Regulator Keap1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Page

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Marburg virus (MARV has a high fatality rate in humans, causing hemorrhagic fever characterized by massive viral replication and dysregulated inflammation. Here, we demonstrate that VP24 of MARV binds Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1, a negative regulator of nuclear transcription factor erythroid-derived 2 (Nrf2. Binding of VP24 to Keap1 Kelch domain releases Nrf2 from Keap1-mediated inhibition promoting persistent activation of a panoply of cytoprotective genes implicated in cellular responses to oxidative stress and regulation of inflammatory responses. Increased expression of Nrf2-dependent genes was demonstrated both during MARV infection and upon ectopic expression of MARV VP24. We also show that Nrf2-deficient mice can control MARV infection when compared to lethal infection in wild-type animals, indicating that Nrf2 is critical for MARV infection. We conclude that VP24-driven activation of the Nrf2-dependent pathway is likely to contribute to dysregulation of host antiviral inflammatory responses and that it ensures survival of MARV-infected cells despite these responses.

  17. Structural basis for gene regulation by a B12-dependent photoreceptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Marco; Fernández-Zapata, Jésus; Polanco, María Carmen; Ortiz-Guerrero, Juan Manuel; Chen, Percival Yang-Ting; Kang, Gyunghoon; Padmanabhan, S.; Elías-Arnanz, Montserrat; Drennan, Catherine L.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Photoreceptor proteins enable organisms to sense and respond to light. The newly discovered CarH-type photoreceptors use a vitamin B12 derivative, adenosylcobalamin, as the light-sensing chromophore to mediate light-dependent gene regulation. Here, we present crystal structures of Thermus thermophilus CarH in all three relevant states: in the dark, both free and bound to operator DNA, and after light exposure. These structures provide a visualization of how adenosylcobalamin mediates CarH tetramer formation in the dark, how this tetramer binds to the promoter −35 element to repress transcription, and how light exposure leads to a large-scale conformational change that activates transcription. In addition to the remarkable functional repurposing of adenosylcobalamin from an enzyme cofactor to a light sensor, we find that nature also repurposed two independent protein modules in assembling CarH. These results expand the biological role of vitamin B12 and provide fundamental insight into a new mode of light-dependent gene regulation. PMID:26416754

  18. TALE activators regulate gene expression in a position- and strand-dependent manner in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhde-Stone, Claudia; Cheung, Edna; Lu, Biao

    2014-01-24

    Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) are a class of transcription factors that are readily programmable to regulate gene expression. Despite their growing popularity, little is known about binding site parameters that influence TALE-mediated gene activation in mammalian cells. We demonstrate that TALE activators modulate gene expression in mammalian cells in a position- and strand-dependent manner. To study the effects of binding site location, we engineered TALEs customized to recognize specific DNA sequences located in either the promoter or the transcribed region of reporter genes. We found that TALE activators robustly activated reporter genes when their binding sites were located within the promoter region. In contrast, TALE activators inhibited the expression of reporter genes when their binding sites were located on the sense strand of the transcribed region. Notably, this repression was independent of the effector domain utilized, suggesting a simple blockage mechanism. We conclude that TALE activators in mammalian cells regulate genes in a position- and strand-dependent manner that is substantially different from gene activation by native TALEs in plants. These findings have implications for optimizing the design of custom TALEs for genetic manipulation in mammalian cells.

  19. Regulation of mitochondrial function by voltage dependent anion channels in ethanol metabolism and the Warburg effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemasters, John J; Holmuhamedov, Ekhson L; Czerny, Christoph; Zhong, Zhi; Maldonado, Eduardo N

    2012-06-01

    Voltage dependent anion channels (VDAC) are highly conserved proteins that are responsible for permeability of the mitochondrial outer membrane to hydrophilic metabolites like ATP, ADP and respiratory substrates. Although previously assumed to remain open, VDAC closure is emerging as an important mechanism for regulation of global mitochondrial metabolism in apoptotic cells and also in cells that are not dying. During hepatic ethanol oxidation to acetaldehyde, VDAC closure suppresses exchange of mitochondrial metabolites, resulting in inhibition of ureagenesis. In vivo, VDAC closure after ethanol occurs coordinately with mitochondrial uncoupling. Since acetaldehyde passes through membranes independently of channels and transporters, VDAC closure and uncoupling together foster selective and more rapid oxidative metabolism of toxic acetaldehyde to nontoxic acetate by mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase. In single reconstituted VDAC, tubulin decreases VDAC conductance, and in HepG2 hepatoma cells, free tubulin negatively modulates mitochondrial membrane potential, an effect enhanced by protein kinase A. Tubulin-dependent closure of VDAC in cancer cells contributes to suppression of mitochondrial metabolism and may underlie the Warburg phenomenon of aerobic glycolysis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: VDAC structure, function, and regulation of mitochondrial metabolism.

  20. Keap1 redox-dependent regulation of doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress response in cardiac myoblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordgren, Kendra K.S., E-mail: knordgre@d.umn.edu; Wallace, Kendall B., E-mail: kwallace@d.umn.edu

    2014-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a widely prescribed treatment for a broad scope of cancers, but clinical utility is limited by the cumulative, dose-dependent cardiomyopathy that occurs with repeated administration. DOX-induced cardiotoxicity is associated with the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidation of lipids, DNA and proteins. A major cellular defense mechanism against such oxidative stress is activation of the Keap1/Nrf2-antioxidant response element (ARE) signaling pathway, which transcriptionally regulates expression of antioxidant genes such as Nqo1 and Gstp1. In the present study, we address the hypothesis that an initial event associated with DOX-induced oxidative stress is activation of the Keap1/Nrf2-dependent expression of antioxidant genes and that this is regulated through drug-induced changes in redox status of the Keap1 protein. Incubation of H9c2 rat cardiac myoblasts with DOX resulted in a time- and dose-dependent decrease in non-protein sulfhydryl groups. Associated with this was a near 2-fold increase in Nrf2 protein content and enhanced transcription of several of the Nrf2-regulated down-stream genes, including Gstp1, Ugt1a1, and Nqo1; the expression of Nfe2l2 (Nrf2) itself was unaltered. Furthermore, both the redox status and the total amount of Keap1 protein were significantly decreased by DOX, with the loss of Keap1 being due to both inhibited gene expression and increased autophagic, but not proteasomal, degradation. These findings identify the Keap1/Nrf2 pathway as a potentially important initial response to acute DOX-induced oxidative injury, with the primary regulatory events being the oxidation and autophagic degradation of the redox sensor Keap1 protein. - Highlights: • DOX caused a ∼2-fold increase in Nrf2 protein content. • DOX enhanced transcription of several Nrf2-regulated down-stream genes. • Redox status and total amount of Keap1 protein were significantly decreased by DOX. • Loss of Keap1 protein was due to

  1. S-nitrosylation-dependent proteasomal degradation restrains Cdk5 activity to regulate hippocampal synaptic strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Fu, Wing-Yu; Fu, Amy K Y; Ip, Nancy Y

    2015-10-27

    Precise regulation of synaptic strength requires coordinated activity and functions of synaptic proteins, which is controlled by a variety of post-translational modification. Here we report that S-nitrosylation of p35, the activator of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5), by nitric oxide (NO) is important for the regulation of excitatory synaptic strength. While blockade of NO signalling results in structural and functional synaptic deficits as indicated by reduced mature dendritic spine density and surface expression of glutamate receptor subunits, phosphorylation of numerous synaptic substrates of Cdk5 and its activity are aberrantly upregulated following reduced NO production. The results show that the NO-induced reduction in Cdk5 activity is mediated by S-nitrosylation of p35, resulting in its ubiquitination and degradation by the E3 ligase PJA2. Silencing p35 protein in hippocampal neurons partially rescues the NO blockade-induced synaptic deficits. These findings collectively demonstrate that p35 S-nitrosylation by NO signalling is critical for regulating hippocampal synaptic strength.

  2. Phosphorylation-dependent down-regulation of apolipoprotein A5 by insulin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, Maxine; Helleboid-Chapman, Audrey; Jakel, Heidelinde; Rommens, Corinne; Martin, Genevieve; Duran-Sandoval, Daniel; Staels, Bart; Rubin, Edward M.; Pennacchio, Len A.; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Fruchart-Najib, Jamila; Fruchart, Jean-Charles

    2004-02-15

    The apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) gene has been shown to be important in lowering plasma triglyceride levels. Since several studies have shown that hyperinsulinemia is associated with hypertriglyceridemia, we sought to determine whether APOA5 gene is regulated by insulin. We show here that cell and mouse treatments with insulin down-regulated APOA5 expression in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, we determined that insulin decreases APOA5 promoter activity and subsequent deletion analyses revealed an E-box-containing fragment. We showed that Upstream Stimulatory Factors, USF1/USF2, bind to the identified E-box in the APOA5 promoter. Moreover, in cotransfection studies, USF1 stimulates APOA5 promoter activity. The treatment with insulin reduces the binding of USF1/USF2 to APOA5 promoter. The inhibition of PI3K pathway with wortmannin abolished the insulin s effect on APOA5 gene transcription. Using oligoprecipitation method of USF from nuclear extracts, we demonstrated that phosphorylated USF1 failed to bind to APOA5 promoter. This indicates that the APOA5 gene transrepression by insulin involves a phosphorylation of USF through PI3K, that modulate their binding to APOA5 promoter and results in APOA5 down-regulation. The effect of exogenous hyperinsulinemia in healthy men shows a decrease of the plasma ApoAV level. These data suggest a potential mechanism involving APOA5 gene in hypertriglyceridemia associated with hyperinsulinemia.

  3. Ohgata, the Single Drosophila Ortholog of Human Cereblon, Regulates Insulin Signaling-dependent Organismic Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Satoru; Sawamura, Naoya; Voelzmann, André; Broemer, Meike; Asahi, Toru; Hoch, Michael

    2016-11-25

    Cereblon (CRBN) is a substrate receptor of the E3 ubiquitin ligase complex that is highly conserved in animals and plants. CRBN proteins have been implicated in various biological processes such as development, metabolism, learning, and memory formation, and their impairment has been linked to autosomal recessive non-syndromic intellectual disability and cancer. Furthermore, human CRBN was identified as the primary target of thalidomide teratogenicity. Data on functional analysis of CRBN family members in vivo, however, are still scarce. Here we identify Ohgata (OHGT), the Drosophila ortholog of CRBN, as a regulator of insulin signaling-mediated growth. Using ohgt mutants that we generated by targeted mutagenesis, we show that its loss results in increased body weight and organ size without changes of the body proportions. We demonstrate that ohgt knockdown in the fat body, an organ analogous to mammalian liver and adipose tissue, phenocopies the growth phenotypes. We further show that overgrowth is due to an elevation of insulin signaling in ohgt mutants and to the down-regulation of inhibitory cofactors of circulating Drosophila insulin-like peptides (DILPs), named acid-labile subunit and imaginal morphogenesis protein-late 2. The two inhibitory proteins were previously shown to be components of a heterotrimeric complex with growth-promoting DILP2 and DILP5. Our study reveals OHGT as a novel regulator of insulin-dependent organismic growth in Drosophila.

  4. MK-STYX, a catalytically inactive phosphatase regulating mitochondrially dependent apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, Natalie M; Lanning, Nathan J; Klomp, Jeff A; Tait, Stephen W; Xu, Yong; Dykema, Karl J; Murphy, Leon O; Gaither, L Alex; Xu, H Eric; Furge, Kyle A; Green, Douglas R; MacKeigan, Jeffrey P

    2011-04-01

    Evasion of apoptosis is a significant problem affecting an array of cancers. In order to identify novel regulators of apoptosis, we performed an RNA interference (RNAi) screen against all kinases and phosphatases in the human genome. We identified MK-STYX (STYXL1), a catalytically inactive phosphatase with homology to the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphatases. Despite this homology, MK-STYX knockdown does not significantly regulate MAPK signaling in response to growth factors or apoptotic stimuli. Rather, RNAi-mediated knockdown of MK-STYX inhibits cells from undergoing apoptosis induced by cellular stressors activating mitochondrion-dependent apoptosis. This MK-STYX phenotype mimics the loss of Bax and Bak, two potent guardians of mitochondrial apoptotic potential. Similar to loss of both Bax and Bak, cells without MK-STYX expression are unable to release cytochrome c. Proapoptotic members of the BCL-2 family (Bax, Bid, and Bim) are unable to trigger cytochrome c release in MK-STYX-depleted cells, placing the apoptotic deficiency at the level of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP). MK-STYX was found to localize to the mitochondria but is neither released from the mitochondria upon apoptotic stress nor proximal to the machinery currently known to control MOMP, indicating that MK-STYX regulates MOMP using a distinct mechanism.

  5. Steroidogenic Factor 1 in the Ventromedial Nucleus of the Hypothalamus Regulates Age-Dependent Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinyua, Ann W.; Yang, Dong Joo; Chang, Inik; Kim, Ki Woo

    2016-01-01

    The ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) is important for the regulation of whole body energy homeostasis and lesions in the VMH are reported to result in massive weight gain. The nuclear receptor steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) is a known VMH marker as it is exclusively expressed in the VMH region of the brain. SF-1 plays a critical role not only in the development of VMH but also in its physiological functions. In this study, we generated prenatal VMH-specific SF-1 KO mice and investigated age-dependent energy homeostasis regulation by SF-1. Deletion of SF-1 in the VMH resulted in dysregulated insulin and leptin homeostasis and late onset obesity due to increased food intake under normal chow and high fat diet conditions. In addition, SF-1 ablation was accompanied by a marked reduction in energy expenditure and physical activity and this effect was significantly pronounced in the aged mice. Taken together, our data indicates that SF-1 is a key component in the VMH-mediated regulation of energy homeostasis and implies that SF-1 plays a protective role against metabolic stressors including aging and high fat diet. PMID:27598259

  6. mTORC1-dependent AMD1 regulation sustains polyamine metabolism in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabala-Letona, Amaia; Arruabarrena-Aristorena, Amaia; Martín-Martín, Natalia; Fernandez-Ruiz, Sonia; Sutherland, James D; Clasquin, Michelle; Tomas-Cortazar, Julen; Jimenez, Jose; Torres, Ines; Quang, Phong; Ximenez-Embun, Pilar; Bago, Ruzica; Ugalde-Olano, Aitziber; Loizaga-Iriarte, Ana; Lacasa-Viscasillas, Isabel; Unda, Miguel; Torrano, Verónica; Cabrera, Diana; van Liempd, Sebastiaan M; Cendon, Ylenia; Castro, Elena; Murray, Stuart; Revandkar, Ajinkya; Alimonti, Andrea; Zhang, Yinan; Barnett, Amelia; Lein, Gina; Pirman, David; Cortazar, Ana R; Arreal, Leire; Prudkin, Ludmila; Astobiza, Ianire; Valcarcel-Jimenez, Lorea; Zuñiga-García, Patricia; Fernandez-Dominguez, Itziar; Piva, Marco; Caro-Maldonado, Alfredo; Sánchez-Mosquera, Pilar; Castillo-Martín, Mireia; Serra, Violeta; Beraza, Naiara; Gentilella, Antonio; Thomas, George; Azkargorta, Mikel; Elortza, Felix; Farràs, Rosa; Olmos, David; Efeyan, Alejo; Anguita, Juan; Muñoz, Javier; Falcón-Pérez, Juan M; Barrio, Rosa; Macarulla, Teresa; Mato, Jose M; Martinez-Chantar, Maria L; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; Aransay, Ana M; Marks, Kevin; Baselga, José; Tabernero, Josep; Nuciforo, Paolo; Manning, Brendan D; Marjon, Katya; Carracedo, Arkaitz

    2017-07-06

    Activation of the PTEN-PI3K-mTORC1 pathway consolidates metabolic programs that sustain cancer cell growth and proliferation. Here we show that mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) regulates polyamine dynamics, a metabolic route that is essential for oncogenicity. By using integrative metabolomics in a mouse model and human biopsies of prostate cancer, we identify alterations in tumours affecting the production of decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine (dcSAM) and polyamine synthesis. Mechanistically, this metabolic rewiring stems from mTORC1-dependent regulation of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase 1 (AMD1) stability. This novel molecular regulation is validated in mouse and human cancer specimens. AMD1 is upregulated in human prostate cancer with activated mTORC1. Conversely, samples from a clinical trial with the mTORC1 inhibitor everolimus exhibit a predominant decrease in AMD1 immunoreactivity that is associated with a decrease in proliferation, in line with the requirement of dcSAM production for oncogenicity. These findings provide fundamental information about the complex regulatory landscape controlled by mTORC1 to integrate and translate growth signals into an oncogenic metabolic program.

  7. Experience-Dependent Regulation of Dentate Gyrus Excitability by Adult-Born Granule Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun Hye; Burghardt, Nesha S; Dvorak, Dino; Hen, René; Fenton, André A

    2015-08-19

    Behavioral studies have established a role for adult-born dentate granule cells in discriminating between similar memories. However, it is unclear how these cells mediate memory discrimination. Excitability is enhanced in maturing adult-born neurons, spurring the hypothesis that the activity of these cells "directly" encodes and stores memories. An alternative hypothesis posits that maturing neurons "indirectly" contribute to memory encoding by regulating excitation-inhibition balance. We evaluated these alternatives by using dentate-sensitive active place avoidance tasks to assess experience-dependent changes in dentate field potentials in the presence and absence of neurogenesis. Before training, X-ray ablation of adult neurogenesis-reduced dentate responses to perforant-path stimulation and shifted EPSP-spike coupling leftward. These differences were unchanged after place avoidance training with the shock zone in the initial location, which both groups learned to avoid equally well. In contrast, sham-treated mice decreased dentate responses and shifted EPSP-spike coupling leftward after the shock zone was relocated, whereas X-irradiated mice failed to show these changes in dentate function and were impaired on this test of memory discrimination. During place avoidance, excitation-inhibition coupled neural synchrony in dentate local field potentials was reduced in X-irradiated mice, especially in the θ band. The difference was most prominent during conflict learning, which is impaired in the X-irradiated mice. These findings indicate that maturing adult-born neurons regulate both functional network plasticity in response to memory discrimination and dentate excitation-inhibition coordination. The most parsimonious interpretation of these results is that adult neurogenesis indirectly regulates hippocampal information processing. Adult-born neurons in the hippocampal dentate gyrus are important for flexibly using memories, but the mechanism is controversial. Using

  8. Nutritional regulation of genome-wide association obesity genes in a tissue-dependent manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoganathan Piriya

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have recently identified several new genetic variants associated with obesity. The majority of the variants are within introns or between genes, suggesting they affect gene expression, although it is not clear which of the nearby genes they affect. Understanding the regulation of these genes will be key to determining the role of these variants in the development of obesity and will provide support for a role of these genes in the development of obesity. Methods We examined the expression of 19 GWAS obesity genes in the brain and specifically the hypothalamus, adipose tissue and liver of mice by real-time quantitative PCR. To determine whether these genes are nutritionally regulated, as may be expected for genes affecting obesity, we compared tissues from fasting and non-fasting animals and tissues from mice consuming a high fat high sucrose diet in comparison to standard rodent chow. Results We found complex, tissue-dependent patterns of nutritional regulation of most of these genes. For example, Bat2 expression was increased ~10-fold in the brain of fed mice but was lower or unchanged in the hypothalamus and adipose tissue. Kctd15 expression was upregulated in the hypothalamus, brain and adipose tissue of fed mice and downregulated by high fat feeding in liver, adipose tissue and the hypothalamus but not the remainder of the brain. Sh2b1 expression in the brain and Faim2 expression in adipose tissue were specifically increased >20-fold in fed mice. Tmem18 expression in adipose tissue but not the brain was reduced 80% by high fat feeding. Few changes in the expression of these genes were observed in liver. Conclusions These data show nutritional regulation of nearly all these GWAS obesity genes, particularly in the brain and adipose tissue, and provide support for their role in the development of obesity. The complex patterns of nutritional and tissue-dependent regulation also highlight

  9. Nutritional regulation of genome-wide association obesity genes in a tissue-dependent manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have recently identified several new genetic variants associated with obesity. The majority of the variants are within introns or between genes, suggesting they affect gene expression, although it is not clear which of the nearby genes they affect. Understanding the regulation of these genes will be key to determining the role of these variants in the development of obesity and will provide support for a role of these genes in the development of obesity. Methods We examined the expression of 19 GWAS obesity genes in the brain and specifically the hypothalamus, adipose tissue and liver of mice by real-time quantitative PCR. To determine whether these genes are nutritionally regulated, as may be expected for genes affecting obesity, we compared tissues from fasting and non-fasting animals and tissues from mice consuming a high fat high sucrose diet in comparison to standard rodent chow. Results We found complex, tissue-dependent patterns of nutritional regulation of most of these genes. For example, Bat2 expression was increased ~10-fold in the brain of fed mice but was lower or unchanged in the hypothalamus and adipose tissue. Kctd15 expression was upregulated in the hypothalamus, brain and adipose tissue of fed mice and downregulated by high fat feeding in liver, adipose tissue and the hypothalamus but not the remainder of the brain. Sh2b1 expression in the brain and Faim2 expression in adipose tissue were specifically increased >20-fold in fed mice. Tmem18 expression in adipose tissue but not the brain was reduced 80% by high fat feeding. Few changes in the expression of these genes were observed in liver. Conclusions These data show nutritional regulation of nearly all these GWAS obesity genes, particularly in the brain and adipose tissue, and provide support for their role in the development of obesity. The complex patterns of nutritional and tissue-dependent regulation also highlight the difficulty that may be

  10. Fibronectin matrix polymerization regulates smooth muscle cell phenotype through a Rac1 dependent mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Shi

    Full Text Available Smooth muscle cells are maintained in a differentiated state in the vessel wall, but can be modulated to a synthetic phenotype following injury. Smooth muscle phenotypic modulation is thought to play an important role in the pathology of vascular occlusive diseases. Phenotypically modulated smooth muscle cells exhibit increased proliferative and migratory properties that accompany the downregulation of smooth muscle cell marker proteins. Extracellular matrix proteins, including fibronectin, can regulate the smooth muscle phenotype when used as adhesive substrates. However, cells produce and organize a 3-dimensional fibrillar extracellular matrix, which can affect cell behavior in distinct ways from the protomeric 2-dimensional matrix proteins that are used as adhesive substrates. We previously showed that the deposition/polymerization of fibronectin into the extracellular matrix can regulate the deposition and organization of other extracellular matrix molecules in vitro. Further, our published data show that the presence of a fibronectin polymerization inhibitor results in increased expression of smooth muscle cell differentiation proteins and inhibits vascular remodeling in vivo. In this manuscript, we used an in vitro cell culture system to determine the mechanism by which fibronectin polymerization affects smooth muscle phenotypic modulation. Our data show that fibronectin polymerization decreases the mRNA levels of multiple smooth muscle differentiation genes, and downregulates the levels of smooth muscle α-actin and calponin proteins by a Rac1-dependent mechanism. The expression of smooth muscle genes is transcriptionally regulated by fibronectin polymerization, as evidenced by the increased activity of luciferase reporter constructs in the presence of a fibronectin polymerization inhibitor. Fibronectin polymerization also promotes smooth muscle cell growth, and decreases the levels of actin stress fibers. These data define a Rac1

  11. Voltage-dependent metabolic regulation of Kv2.1 channels in pancreatic beta-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Masashi; Nakata, Masanori; Yamato, Shiho; Dezaki, Katsuya; Sugawara, Hitoshi; Ishikawa, San-e; Kawakami, Masanobu; Yada, Toshihiko; Kakei, Masafumi

    2010-05-28

    Voltage-gated potassium channels (Kv channels) play a crucial role in formation of action potentials in response to glucose stimulation in pancreatic beta-ells. We previously reported that the Kv channel is regulated by glucose metabolism, particularly by MgATP. We examined whether the regulation of Kv channels is voltage-dependent and mechanistically related with phosphorylation of the channels. In rat pancreatic beta-cells, suppression of glucose metabolism with low glucose concentrations of 2.8mM or less or by metabolic inhibitors decreased the Kv2.1-channel activity at positive membrane potentials, while increased it at potentials negative to -10 mV, suggesting that modulation of Kv channels by glucose metabolism is voltage-dependent. Similarly, in HEK293 cells expressing the recombinant Kv2.1 channels, 0mM but not 10mM MgATP modulated the channel activity in a manner similar to that in beta-cells. Both steady-state activation and inactivation kinetics of the channel were shifted toward the negative potential in association with the voltage-dependent modulation of the channels by cytosolic dialysis of alkaline phosphatase in beta-cells. The modulation of Kv-channel current-voltage relations were also observed during and after glucose-stimulated electrical excitation. These results suggest that the cellular metabolism including MgATP production and/or channel phosphorylation/dephosphorylation underlie the physiological modulation of Kv2.1 channels during glucose-induced insulin secretion.

  12. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor mediates the activity-dependent regulation of inhibition in neocortical cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, L C; DeWan, A; Lauer, H M; Turrigiano, G G

    1997-06-15

    The excitability of cortical circuits is modulated by interneurons that release the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA. In primate and rodent visual cortex, activity deprivation leads to a decrease in the expression of GABA. This suggests that activity is able to adjust the strength of cortical inhibition, but this has not been demonstrated directly. In addition, the nature of the signal linking activity to GABA expression has not been determined. Activity is known to regulate the expression of the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and BDNF has been shown to influence the phenotype of GABAergic interneurons. We use a culture system from postnatal rat visual cortex to test the hypothesis that activity is regulating the strength of cortical inhibition through the regulation of BDNF. Cultures were double-labeled against GABA and the neuronal marker MAP2, and the percentage of neurons that were GABA-positive was determined. Blocking spontaneous activity in these cultures reversibly decreased the number of GABA-positive neurons without affecting neuronal survival. Voltage-clamp analysis of inhibitory currents demonstrated that activity blockade also decreased GABA-mediated inhibition onto pyramidal neurons and raised pyramidal neuron firing rates. All of these effects were prevented by incubation with BDNF during activity blockade, but not by neurotrophin 3 or nerve growth factor. Additionally, blockade of neurotrophin signaling mimicked the effects of activity blockade on GABA expression. These data suggest that activity regulates cortical inhibition through a BDNF-dependent mechanism and that this neurotrophin plays an important role in the control of cortical excitability.

  13. Regulation of a Myb transcription factor by cyclin-dependent kinase 2 in Giardia lamblia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Chao-Cheng; Su, Li-Hsin; Huang, Yu-Chang; Pan, Yu-Jiao; Sun, Chin-Hung

    2012-02-03

    The protozoan Giardia lamblia parasitizes the human small intestine to cause diseases. It undergoes differentiation into infectious cysts by responding to intestinal stimulation. How the activated signal transduction pathways relate to encystation stimulation remain largely unknown. During encystation, genes encoding cyst wall proteins (CWPs) are coordinately up-regulated by a Myb2 transcription factor. Because cell differentiation is linked to cell cycle regulation, we tried to understand the role of cell cycle regulators, cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks), in encystation. We found that the recombinant Myb2 was phosphorylated by Cdk-associated complexes and the levels of phosphorylation increased significantly during encystation. We have identified a putative cdk gene (cdk2) by searching the Giardia genome database. Cdk2 was found to localize in the cytoplasm with higher expression during encystation. Interestingly, overexpression of Cdk2 resulted in a significant increase of the levels of cwp gene expression and cyst formation. In addition, the Cdk2-associated complexes can phosphorylate Myb2 and the levels of phosphorylation increased significantly during encystation. Mutations of important catalytic residues of Cdk2 resulted in a significant decrease of kinase activity and ability of inducing cyst formation. Addition of a Cdk inhibitor, purvalanol A, significantly decreased the Cdk2 kinase activity and the levels of cwp gene expression and cyst formation. Our results suggest that the Cdk2 pathway may be involved in phosphorylation of Myb2, leading to activation of the Myb2 function and up-regulation of cwp genes during encystation. The results provide insights into the use of Cdk inhibitory drugs in disruption of Giardia differentiation into cysts.

  14. THE FORMATION OF ENTS ADAPTIVE REACTIONS DEPENDING ON THE TYPE OF PSYCHO-VEGETATIVE REGULATION

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    E. M. Kazin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the students (12 to 15 years old examination was to identify the integrative criteria of assessing the nature of the functional relationships between the parameters of the psychosocial and physiological adaptation of students, depending on age, individual-typological peculiarities of vegetative regulation, personal potential at different stages of school education.The study of the characteristics of vegetative regulation of the cardiovascular system was made with a help of an automatic cardiac-rhythm programs. The research of psychophysiological parameters was fulfiled using an automatic complex. The measurement of the speed of simple visual-motor reaction (PSMR, reaction to a moving object (WFD, the level of functional mobility of nervous processes (WFP and health brain (DDM were made before. Features psychosocial adaptation was analyzed using 8-color Luscher test.All examinee were divided into three groups on the basis of the statistical characteristics of the cardiac rhythm by the tone source autonomic tone: “vagotonia” (with a predominance of parasympathetic sistems, “somatotonic” (with domination of the sympatholytic effects, “atonic” (balanced type of vegetative nervous system.Based on the analysis of psychodynamic, neurodynamic and vegetative functions showed that students with initial vagotonies tone are characterized by high levels of situational and personal anxiety, low psychosocial adaptation, decreased activity of neurodynamic functions and psychodynamic processes in the learning dynamics, whereas the individuals with dominance of sympatotonics type regulation have high level of neurodynamic processes, psychosocial adaptation, against the background of significant stress mechanisms of vegetative regulation.Students with initial vegetative tone demonstrate a sufficient level of psychosocial adaptation, activity psychodynamic and neuromotor processes, accompanied by the preservation of the functionality of

  15. The dependence of neuronal encoding efficiency on Hebbian plasticity and homeostatic regulation of neurotransmitter release

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    Faramarz eFaghihi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Synapses act as information filters by different molecular mechanisms including retrograde messenger that affect neuronal spiking activity. One of the well-known effects of retrograde messenger in presynaptic neurons is a change of the probability of neurotransmitter release. Hebbian learning describe a strengthening of a synapse between a presynaptic input onto a postsynaptic neuron when both pre- and postsynaptic neurons are coactive. In this work, a theory of homeostatic regulation of neurotransmitter release by retrograde messenger and Hebbian plasticity in neuronal encoding is presented. Encoding efficiency was measured for different synaptic conditions. In order to gain high encoding efficiency, the spiking pattern of a neuron should be dependent on the intensity of the input and show low levels of noise. In this work, we represent spiking trains as zeros and ones (corresponding to non-spike or spike in a time bin, respectively as words with length equal to three. Then the frequency of each word (here eight words is measured using spiking trains. These frequencies are used to measure neuronal efficiency in different conditions and for different parameter values. Results show that neurons that have synapses acting as band-pass filters show the highest efficiency to encode their input when both Hebbian mechanism and homeostatic regulation of neurotransmitter release exist in synapses. Specifically, the integration of homeostatic regulation of feedback inhibition with Hebbian mechanism and homeostatic regulation of neurotransmitter release in the synapses leads to even higher efficiency when high stimulus intensity is presented to the neurons. However, neurons with synapses acting as high-pass filters show no remarkable increase in encoding efficiency for all simulated synaptic plasticity mechanisms.

  16. Pacemaker neuron and network oscillations depend on a neuromodulator-regulated linear current

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    Shunbing Zhao

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Linear leak currents have been implicated in the regulation of neuronal excitability, generation of neuronal and network oscillations, and network state transitions. Yet, few studies have directly tested the dependence of network oscillations on leak currents or explored the role of leak currents on network activity. In the oscillatory pyloric network of decapod crustaceans neuromodulatory inputs are necessary for pacemaker activity. A large subset of neuromodulators is known to activate a single voltage-gated inward current IMI, which has been shown to regulate the rhythmic activity of the network and its pacemaker neurons. Using the dynamic clamp technique, we show that the crucial component of IMI for the generation of oscillatory activity is only a close-to-linear portion of the current-voltage relationship. The nature of this conductance is such that the presence or the absence of neuromodulators effectively regulates the amount of leak current and the input resistance in the pacemaker neurons. When deprived of neuromodulatory inputs, pyloric oscillations are disrupted; yet, a linear reduction of the total conductance in a single neuron within the pacemaker group recovers not only the pacemaker activity in that neuron, but also leads to a recovery of oscillations in the entire pyloric network. The recovered activity produces proper frequency and phasing that is similar to that induced by neuromodulators. These results show that the passive properties of pacemaker neurons can significantly affect their capacity to generate and regulate the oscillatory activity of an entire network, and that this feature is exploited by neuromodulatory inputs.

  17. Calcium Co-regulates Oxidative Metabolism and ATP Synthase-dependent Respiration in Pancreatic Beta Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchi, Umberto; Thevenet, Jonathan; Hermant, Aurelie; Dioum, Elhadji; Wiederkehr, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial energy metabolism is essential for glucose-induced calcium signaling and, therefore, insulin granule exocytosis in pancreatic beta cells. Calcium signals are sensed by mitochondria acting in concert with mitochondrial substrates for the full activation of the organelle. Here we have studied glucose-induced calcium signaling and energy metabolism in INS-1E insulinoma cells and human islet beta cells. In insulin secreting cells a surprisingly large fraction of total respiration under resting conditions is ATP synthase-independent. We observe that ATP synthase-dependent respiration is markedly increased after glucose stimulation. Glucose also causes a very rapid elevation of oxidative metabolism as was followed by NAD(P)H autofluorescence. However, neither the rate of the glucose-induced increase nor the new steady-state NAD(P)H levels are significantly affected by calcium. Our findings challenge the current view, which has focused mainly on calcium-sensitive dehydrogenases as the target for the activation of mitochondrial energy metabolism. We propose a model of tight calcium-dependent regulation of oxidative metabolism and ATP synthase-dependent respiration in beta cell mitochondria. Coordinated activation of matrix dehydrogenases and respiratory chain activity by calcium allows the respiratory rate to change severalfold with only small or no alterations of the NAD(P)H/NAD(P)+ ratio. PMID:24554722

  18. Pyruvate kinase is a dosage-dependent regulator of cellular amino acid homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüning, Nana-Maria; Feichtinger, René; Krüger, Antje; Wamelink, Mirjam; Lehrach, Hans; Tate, Stephen; Neureiter, Daniel; Kofler, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    The glycolytic enzyme pyruvate kinase (PK) is required for cancer development, and has been implicated in the metabolic transition from oxidative to fermentative metabolism, the Warburg effect. However, the global metabolic response that follows changes in PK activity is not yet fully understood. Using shotgun proteomics, we identified 31 yeast proteins that were regulated in a PK-dependent manner. Selective reaction monitoring confirmed that their expression was dependent on PK isoform, level and activity. Most of the PK targets were amino acid metabolizing enzymes or factors of protein translation, indicating that PK plays a global regulatory role in biosynthethic amino acid metabolism. Indeed, we found strongly altered amino acid profiles when PK levels were changed. Low PK levels increased the cellular glutamine and glutamate concentrations, but decreased the levels of seven amino acids including serine and histidine. To test for evolutionary conservation of this PK function, we quantified orthologues of the identified PK targets in thyroid follicular adenoma, a tumor characterized by high PK levels and low respiratory activity. Aminopeptidase AAP-1 and serine hydroxymethyltransferase SHMT1 both showed PKM2- concentration dependence, and were upregulated in the tumor. Thus, PK expression levels and activity were important for maintaining cellular amino acid homeostasis. Mediating between energy production, ROS clearance and amino acid biosynthesis, PK thus plays a central regulatory role in the metabolism of proliferating cells. PMID:23154538

  19. Role of purinergic P2X4 receptors in regulating striatal dopamine homeostasis and dependent behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoja, Sheraz; Shah, Vivek; Garcia, Damaris; Asatryan, Liana; Jakowec, Michael W; Davies, Daryl L

    2016-10-01

    Purinergic P2X4 receptors (P2X4Rs) belong to the P2X superfamily of ion channels regulated by ATP. We recently demonstrated that P2X4R knockout (KO) mice exhibited deficits in sensorimotor gating, social interaction, and ethanol drinking behavior. Dopamine (DA) dysfunction may underlie these behavioral changes, but there is no direct evidence for P2X4Rs' role in DA neurotransmission. To test this hypothesis, we measured markers of DA function and dependent behaviors in P2X4R KO mice. P2X4R KO mice exhibited altered density of pre-synaptic markers including tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine transporter; post-synaptic markers including dopamine receptors and phosphorylation of downstream targets including dopamine and cyclic-AMP regulated phosphoprotein of 32 kDa and cyclic-AMP-response element binding protein in different parts of the striatum. Ivermectin, an allosteric modulator of P2X4Rs, significantly affected dopamine and cyclic AMP regulated phosphoprotein of 32 kDa and extracellular regulated kinase1/2 phosphorylation in the striatum. Sensorimotor gating deficits in P2X4R KO mice were rescued by DA antagonists. Using the 6-hydroxydopamine model of DA depletion, P2X4R KO mice exhibited an attenuated levodopa (L-DOPA)-induced motor behavior, whereas ivermectin enhanced this behavior. Collectively, these findings identified an important role for P2X4Rs in maintaining DA homeostasis and illustrate how this association is important for CNS functions including motor control and sensorimotor gating. We propose that P2X4 receptors (P2X4Rs) regulate dopamine (DA) homeostasis and associated behaviors. Pre-synaptic and post-synaptic DA markers were significantly altered in the dorsal and ventral striatum of P2X4R KO mice, implicating altered DA neurotransmission. Sensorimotor gating deficits in P2X4R KO mice were rescued by DA antagonists. Ivermectin (IVM), a positive modulator of P2X4Rs, enhanced levodopa (L-DOPA)-induced motor behavior. These studies highlight potential

  20. Activity-Dependent Bidirectional Regulation of GAD Expression in a Homeostatic Fashion Is Mediated by BDNF-Dependent and Independent Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanno-Iijima, Yoko; Tanaka, Masami; Iijima, Takatoshi

    2015-01-01

    Homeostatic synaptic plasticity, or synaptic scaling, is a mechanism that tunes neuronal transmission to compensate for prolonged, excessive changes in neuronal activity. Both excitatory and inhibitory neurons undergo homeostatic changes based on synaptic transmission strength, which could effectively contribute to a fine-tuning of circuit activity. However, gene regulation that underlies homeostatic synaptic plasticity in GABAergic (GABA, gamma aminobutyric) neurons is still poorly understood. The present study demonstrated activity-dependent dynamic scaling in which NMDA-R (N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor) activity regulated the expression of GABA synthetic enzymes: glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 and 67 (GAD65 and GAD67). Results revealed that activity-regulated BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) release is necessary, but not sufficient, for activity-dependent up-scaling of these GAD isoforms. Bidirectional forms of activity-dependent GAD expression require both BDNF-dependent and BDNF-independent pathways, both triggered by NMDA-R activity. Additional results indicated that these two GAD genes differ in their responsiveness to chronic changes in neuronal activity, which could be partially caused by differential dependence on BDNF. In parallel to activity-dependent bidirectional scaling in GAD expression, the present study further observed that a chronic change in neuronal activity leads to an alteration in neurotransmitter release from GABAergic neurons in a homeostatic, bidirectional fashion. Therefore, the differential expression of GAD65 and 67 during prolonged changes in neuronal activity may be implicated in some aspects of bidirectional homeostatic plasticity within mature GABAergic presynapses.

  1. Endothelial PDGF-CC regulates angiogenesis-dependent thermogenesis in beige fat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Takahiro; Hosaka, Kayoko; Lim, Sharon; Fischer, Carina; Honek, Jennifer; Yang, Yunlong; Andersson, Patrik; Nakamura, Masaki; Näslund, Erik; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo; Sun, Meili; Iwamoto, Hideki; Li, Xuri; Liu, Yizhi; Samani, Nilesh J.; Cao, Yihai

    2016-01-01

    Cold- and β3-adrenoceptor agonist-induced sympathetic activation leads to angiogenesis and UCP1-dependent thermogenesis in mouse brown and white adipose tissues. Here we show that endothelial production of PDGF-CC during white adipose tissue (WAT) angiogenesis regulates WAT browning. We find that genetic deletion of endothelial VEGFR2, knockout of the Pdgf-c gene or pharmacological blockade of PDGFR-α impair the WAT-beige transition. We further show that PDGF-CC stimulation upregulates UCP1 expression and acquisition of a beige phenotype in differentiated mouse WAT-PDGFR-α+ progenitor cells, as well as in human WAT-PDGFR-α+ adipocytes, supporting the physiological relevance of our findings. Our data reveal a paracrine mechanism by which angiogenic endothelial cells modulate adipocyte metabolism, which may provide new targets for the treatment of obesity and related metabolic diseases. PMID:27492130

  2. Structure-dependent water transport across nanopores of carbon nanotubes: toward selective gating upon temperature regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kuiwen; Wu, Huiying

    2015-04-28

    Determining water structure in nanopores and its influence on water transport behaviour is of great importance for understanding and regulating the transport across nanopores. Here we report an ultrafast-slow flow transition phenomenon for water transport across nanopores of carbon nanotubes owing to the change in water structure in nanopores induced by temperature. By performing extensive molecular dynamics simulations, we show the dependence of water transport behaviours on water structures. Our results indicate that owing to the change in water structure in nanopores, water flux across nanopores with certain pore sizes decreases sharply (nearly 3 orders of magnitude) with the decreasing temperature. This phenomenon is very sensitive to the pore size. The threshold temperatures for the occurrence of the ultrafast-slow flow transition for water transport are also determined for various pore sizes. These findings suggest a novel protocol for selective gating of water and proton conduction across nanopores and temperature-controlled drug release.

  3. Sonic hedgehog regulates its own receptor on postcrossing commissural axons in a glypican1-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nicole H; Stoeckli, Esther T

    2013-08-07

    Upon reaching their intermediate target, the floorplate, commissural axons acquire responsiveness to repulsive guidance cues, allowing the axons to exit the midline and adopt a contralateral, longitudinal trajectory. The molecular mechanisms that regulate this switch from attraction to repulsion remain poorly defined. Here, we show that the heparan sulfate proteoglycan Glypican1 (GPC1) is required as a coreceptor for the Shh-dependent induction of Hedgehog-interacting protein (Hhip) in commissural neurons. In turn, Hhip is required for postcrossing axons to respond to a repulsive anteroposterior Shh gradient. Thus, Shh is a cue with dual function. In precrossing axons it acts as an attractive guidance molecule in a transcription-independent manner. At the same time, Shh binds to GPC1 to induce the expression of its own receptor, Hhip, which mediates the repulsive response of postcrossing axons to Shh. Our study characterizes a molecular mechanism by which navigating axons switch their responsiveness at intermediate targets.

  4. An ERK-dependent pathway to Noxa expression regulates apoptosis by platinum-based chemotherapeutic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, C; Brumatti, G; Elgendy, M; Brunet, M; Martin, S J

    2010-12-09

    Cisplatin is a widely used cancer chemotherapeutic that promotes DNA damage-associated apoptosis. Although platinum compounds are known to form DNA adducts and provoke DNA damage, the molecular mechanism of cisplatin-induced cell death remains unclear. In this article, we show that the BH3-only protein Noxa is strongly transcriptionally upregulated in response to cisplatin and related platinum compounds. Cisplatin-induced Noxa expression was ERK dependent, but p53 independent, and inhibition of ERK activation markedly attenuated cisplatin-induced cell death, as well as Noxa expression. Furthermore, siRNA-mediated ablation of Noxa expression also inhibited cisplatin-induced cell death and permitted clonogenic survival. These observations reveal a novel ERK-regulated route to Noxa expression that is important for the cell killing activity of platinum-based chemotherapeutic drugs.

  5. Ligand-induced TCR down-regulation is not dependent on constitutive TCR cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, Jes; Menné, Charlotte; Lauritsen, Jens Peter H

    2002-01-01

    TCR internalization takes place both in resting T cells as part of constitutive TCR cycling, after PKC activation, and during TCR triggering. It is still a matter of debate whether these pathways represent distinct pathways. Thus, some studies have indicated that ligand-induced TCR internalization......, we next studied ligand-induced internalization in cells with abolished constitutive TCR cycling. We found that ligand-induced TCR internalization was not dependent on constitutive TCR internalization. Likewise, constitutive internalization and recycling of the TCR were independent of an intact ligand...... is regulated by mechanisms distinct from those involved in constitutive internalization, whereas other studies have suggested that the ligand-induced TCR internalization pathway is identical with the constitutive pathway. To resolve this question, we first identified requirements for constitutive TCR cycling...

  6. Cl--Dependent HCO3- Transport by Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator

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    Choi JY

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis (CF affects the function of multiple organs. The inability to maintain luminal hydration of ducts leads to their plugging and destruction of the affected organs. An exacerbating problem is the acidic pH of the fluid produced by CF patients' secretory glands. This is best documented for pancreatic secretion. Alkaline fluid secretion requires vectorial transport of electrolytes and of HCO(3(-. The mechanism of HCO(3(- secretion by cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR expressing cells is not well understood. In the present communication we discuss results suggesting that CFTR itself can transport large amounts of HCO(3(- and that HCO(3(- transport by CFTR is mediated by a coupled, Cl(--dependent process that is different from a simple HCO(3(- conductance.

  7. MicroRNA-dependent regulation of transcription in non-small cell lung cancer.

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    Sonia Molina-Pinelo

    Full Text Available Squamous cell lung cancer (SCC and adenocarcinoma are the most common histological subtypes of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, and have been traditionally managed in the clinic as a single entity. Increasing evidence, however, illustrates the biological diversity of these two histological subgroups of lung cancer, and supports the need to improve our understanding of the molecular basis beyond the different phenotypes if we aim to develop more specific and individualized targeted therapy. The purpose of this study was to identify microRNA (miRNA-dependent transcriptional regulation differences between SCC and adenocarcinoma histological lung cancer subtypes. In this work, paired miRNA (667 miRNAs by TaqMan Low Density Arrays (TLDA and mRNA profiling (Whole Genome 44 K array G112A, Agilent was performed in tumor samples of 44 NSCLC patients. Nine miRNAs and 56 mRNAs were found to be differentially expressed in SCC versus adenocarcinoma samples. Eleven of these 56 mRNA were predicted as targets of the miRNAs identified to be differently expressed in these two histological conditions. Of them, 6 miRNAs (miR-149, miR-205, miR-375, miR-378, miR-422a and miR-708 and 9 target genes (CEACAM6, CGN, CLDN3, ABCC3, MLPH, ACSL5, TMEM45B, MUC1 were validated by quantitative PCR in an independent cohort of 41 lung cancer patients. Furthermore, the inverse correlation between mRNAs and microRNAs expression was also validated. These results suggest miRNA-dependent transcriptional regulation differences play an important role in determining key hallmarks of NSCLC, and may provide new biomarkers for personalized treatment strategies.

  8. Cyclic mononucleotide- and Clr-dependent gene regulation in Sinorhizobium meliloti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krol, Elizaveta; Klaner, Christina; Gnau, Petra; Kaever, Volkhard; Essen, Lars-Oliver; Becker, Anke

    2016-10-01

    To identify physiological processes affected by cAMP in the plant-symbiotic nitrogen-fixing α-proteobacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti Rm2011, cAMP levels were artificially increased by overexpression of its cognate adenylate/guanylate cyclase gene cyaJ. This resulted in high accumulation of cAMP in the culture supernatant, decreased swimming motility and increased production of succinoglycan, an exopolysaccharide involved in host invasion. Weaker, similar phenotypic changes were induced by overexpression of cyaB and cyaG1. Effects on swimming motility and succinoglycan production were partially dependent on clr encoding a cyclic AMP receptor-like protein. Transcriptome profiling of an cyaJ-overexpressing strain identified 72 upregulated and 82 downregulated genes. A considerable number of upregulated genes are related to polysaccharide biosynthesis and osmotic stress response. These included succinoglycan biosynthesis genes, genes of the putative polysaccharide synthesis nodP2-exoF3 cluster and feuN, the first gene of the operon encoding the FeuNPQ regulatory system. Downregulated genes were mostly related to respiration, central metabolism and swimming motility. Promoter-probe studies in the presence of externally added cAMP revealed 18 novel Clr-cAMP-regulated genes. Moreover, the addition of cGMP into the growth medium also promoted clr-dependent gene regulation. In vitro binding of Clr-cAMP and Clr-cGMP to the promoter regions of SMc02178, SMb20906,SMc04190, SMc00925, SMc01136 and cyaF2 required the DNA motif (A/C/T)GT(T/C)(T/C/A)C (N4) G(G/A)(T/A)ACA. Furthermore, SMc02178, SMb20906,SMc04190and SMc00653 promoters were activated by Clr-cAMP/cGMP in Escherichia coli as heterologous host. These findings suggest direct activation of these 7 genes by Clr-cAMP/cGMP.

  9. Essential role of TGF-beta/Smad pathway on statin dependent vascular smooth muscle cell regulation.

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    Juan Rodríguez-Vita

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase inhibitors (also called statins exert proven beneficial effects on cardiovascular diseases. Recent data suggest a protective role for Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF-beta in atherosclerosis by regulating the balance between inflammation and extracellular matrix accumulation. However, there are no studies about the effect of statins on TGF-beta/Smad pathway in atherosclerosis and vascular cells. METHODOLOGY: In cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs statins enhanced Smad pathway activation caused by TGF-beta. In addition, statins upregulated TGF-beta receptor type II (TRII, and increased TGF-beta synthesis and TGF-beta/Smad-dependent actions. In this sense, statins, through Smad activation, render VSMCs more susceptible to TGF-beta induced apoptosis and increased TGF-beta-mediated ECM production. It is well documented that high doses of statins induce apoptosis in cultured VSMC in the presence of serum; however the precise mechanism of this effect remains to be elucidated. We have found that statins-induced apoptosis was mediated by TGF-beta/Smad pathway. Finally, we have described that RhoA inhibition is a common intracellular mechanisms involved in statins effects. The in vivo relevance of these findings was assessed in an experimental model of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E deficient mice: Treatment with Atorvastatin increased Smad3 phosphorylation and TRII overexpression, associated to elevated ECM deposition in the VSMCs within atheroma plaques, while apoptosis was not detected. CONCLUSIONS: Statins enhance TGF-beta/Smad pathway, regulating ligand levels, receptor, main signaling pathway and cellular responses of VSMC, including apoptosis and ECM accumulation. Our findings show that TGF-beta/Smad pathway is essential for statins-dependent actions in VSMCs.

  10. A pair of pharyngeal gustatory receptor neurons regulates caffeine-dependent ingestion in Drosophila larvae

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    Jaekyun Choi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The sense of taste is an essential chemosensory modality that enables animals to identify appropriate food sources and control feeding behavior. In particular, the recognition of bitter taste prevents animals from feeding on harmful substances. Feeding is a complex behavior comprised of multiple steps, and food quality is continuously assessed. We here examined the role of pharyngeal gustatory organs in ingestion behavior. As a first step, we constructed a gustatory receptor-to-neuron map of the larval pharyngeal sense organs, and examined corresponding gustatory receptor neuron projections in the larval brain. Out of 22 candidate bitter compounds, we found 14 bitter compounds that elicit inhibition of ingestion in a dose-dependent manner. We provide evidence that certain pharyngeal gustatory receptor neurons are necessary and sufficient for the ingestion response of larvae to caffeine. Additionally, we show that a specific pair of pharyngeal gustatory receptor neurons, DP1, responds to caffeine by calcium imaging. In this study we show that a specific pair of gustatory receptor neurons in the pharyngeal sense organs coordinates caffeine sensing with regulation of behavioral responses such as ingestion. Our results indicate that in Drosophila larvae, the pharyngeal gustatory receptor neurons have a major role in sensing food palatability to regulate ingestion behavior. The pharyngeal sense organs are prime candidates to influence ingestion due to their position in the pharynx, and they may act as first level sensors of ingested food.

  11. Myelopoiesis is regulated by osteocytes through Gsα-dependent signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulzele, Keertik; Krause, Daniela S.; Panaroni, Cristina; Saini, Vaibhav; Barry, Kevin J.; Liu, Xiaolong; Lotinun, Sutada; Baron, Roland; Bonewald, Lynda; Feng, Jian Q.; Chen, Min; Weinstein, Lee S.; Wu, Joy Y.; Kronenberg, Henry M.; Scadden, David T.

    2013-01-01

    Hematopoietic progenitors are regulated in their respective niches by cells of the bone marrow microenvironment. The bone marrow microenvironment is composed of a variety of cell types, and the relative contribution of each of these cells for hematopoietic lineage maintenance has remained largely unclear. Osteocytes, the most abundant yet least understood cells in bone, are thought to initiate adaptive bone remodeling responses via osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Here we report that these cells regulate hematopoiesis, constraining myelopoiesis through a Gsα-mediated mechanism that affects G-CSF production. Mice lacking Gsα in osteocytes showed a dramatic increase in myeloid cells in bone marrow, spleen, and peripheral blood. This hematopoietic phenomenon was neither intrinsic to the hematopoietic cells nor dependent on osteoblasts but was a consequence of an altered bone marrow microenvironment imposed by Gsα deficiency in osteocytes. Conditioned media from osteocyte-enriched bone explants significantly increased myeloid colony formation in vitro, which was blocked by G-CSF–neutralizing antibody, indicating a critical role of osteocyte-derived G-CSF in the myeloid expansion. PMID:23160461

  12. Cell cycle-dependent regulation of Aurora kinase B mRNA by the Microprocessor complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Eunsun; Seong, Youngmo; Seo, Jae Hong; Kwon, Young-Soo; Song, Hoseok

    2014-03-28

    Aurora kinase B regulates the segregation of chromosomes and the spindle checkpoint during mitosis. In this study, we showed that the Microprocessor complex, which is responsible for the processing of the primary transcripts during the generation of microRNAs, destabilizes the mRNA of Aurora kinase B in human cells. The Microprocessor-mediated cleavage kept Aurora kinase B at a low level and prevented premature entrance into mitosis. The cleavage was reduced during mitosis leading to the accumulation of Aurora kinase B mRNA and protein. In addition to Aurora kinase B mRNA, the processing of other primary transcripts of miRNAs were also decreased during mitosis. We found that the cleavage was dependent on an RNA helicase, DDX5, and the association of DDX5 and DDX17 with the Microprocessor was reduced during mitosis. Thus, we propose a novel mechanism by which the Microprocessor complex regulates stability of Aurora kinase B mRNA and cell cycle progression.

  13. PS Dependent APP Cleavage Regulates Glucosylceramide Synthase and is Affected in Alzheimer's Disease

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    Marcus O.W. Grimm

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gangliosides were found to be associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD. Here we addressed a potential function of γ-secretase (presenilin dependent cleavage of the amyloid-precursor-protein (APP in the regulation of ganglioside de novo synthesis. Methods: To identify a potential role of γ-secretase and APP in ganglioside de novo synthesis we used presenilin (PS deficient and APP deficient cells and mouse brains, mutated PS as well as transgenic mice and AD post mortem brains. Changes in glucosylceramide synthase (GCS activity were identified by incorporation of radiolabeled UDP-glucose in glucosylceramide, changes in gene expression via real-time PCR and Western blot analysis. Alterations in ganglioside levels were determined by thin layer chromatography and mass spectrometry. Results: We found that PS and APP deficiency, in vitro and in vivo, resulted in increased GCS gene expression, elevated enzyme activity and thus increased glucosylceramide and total ganglioside level. Using a specific γ-secretase inhibitor revealed that PS proteolytic activity alters ganglioside homeostasis. By the use of mutated PS causing early onset AD in cell culture and transgenic mice we found that GCS is increased in AD, further substantiated by the use of AD post mortem brains, suffering from sporadic AD. Conclusion: APP processing regulates ganglioside de novo synthesis and is affected in AD.

  14. Regulation of Ceramide Synthase by Casein Kinase 2-dependent Phosphorylation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresques, Tara; Niles, Brad; Aronova, Sofia; Mogri, Huzefa; Rakhshandehroo, Taha; Powers, Ted

    2015-01-01

    Complex sphingolipids are important components of eukaryotic cell membranes and, together with their biosynthetic precursors, including sphingoid long chain bases and ceramides, have important signaling functions crucial for cell growth and survival. Ceramides are produced at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane by a multicomponent enzyme complex termed ceramide synthase (CerS). In budding yeast, this complex is composed of two catalytic subunits, Lac1 and Lag1, as well as an essential regulatory subunit, Lip1. Proper formation of ceramides by CerS has been shown previously to require the Cka2 subunit of casein kinase 2 (CK2), a ubiquitous enzyme with multiple cellular functions, but the precise mechanism involved has remained unidentified. Here we present evidence that Lac1 and Lag1 are direct targets for CK2 and that phosphorylation at conserved positions within the C-terminal cytoplasmic domain of each protein is required for optimal CerS activity. Our data suggest that phosphorylation of Lac1 and Lag1 is important for proper localization and distribution of CerS within the ER membrane and that phosphorylation of these sites is functionally linked to the COP I-dependent C-terminal dilysine ER retrieval pathway. Together, our data identify CK2 as an important regulator of sphingolipid metabolism, and additionally, because both ceramides and CK2 have been implicated in the regulation of cancer, our findings may lead to an enhanced understanding of their relationship in health and disease. PMID:25429105

  15. Regulation of ceramide synthase by casein kinase 2-dependent phosphorylation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresques, Tara; Niles, Brad; Aronova, Sofia; Mogri, Huzefa; Rakhshandehroo, Taha; Powers, Ted

    2015-01-16

    Complex sphingolipids are important components of eukaryotic cell membranes and, together with their biosynthetic precursors, including sphingoid long chain bases and ceramides, have important signaling functions crucial for cell growth and survival. Ceramides are produced at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane by a multicomponent enzyme complex termed ceramide synthase (CerS). In budding yeast, this complex is composed of two catalytic subunits, Lac1 and Lag1, as well as an essential regulatory subunit, Lip1. Proper formation of ceramides by CerS has been shown previously to require the Cka2 subunit of casein kinase 2 (CK2), a ubiquitous enzyme with multiple cellular functions, but the precise mechanism involved has remained unidentified. Here we present evidence that Lac1 and Lag1 are direct targets for CK2 and that phosphorylation at conserved positions within the C-terminal cytoplasmic domain of each protein is required for optimal CerS activity. Our data suggest that phosphorylation of Lac1 and Lag1 is important for proper localization and distribution of CerS within the ER membrane and that phosphorylation of these sites is functionally linked to the COP I-dependent C-terminal dilysine ER retrieval pathway. Together, our data identify CK2 as an important regulator of sphingolipid metabolism, and additionally, because both ceramides and CK2 have been implicated in the regulation of cancer, our findings may lead to an enhanced understanding of their relationship in health and disease.

  16. Ethylene-dependent/ethylene-independent ABA regulation of tomato plants colonized by arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Rodríguez, José Ángel; León-Morcillo, Rafael; Vierheilig, Horst; Ocampo, Juan Antonio; Ludwig-Müller, Jutta; García-Garrido, José Manuel

    2011-04-01

    We investigated the relationship between ABA and ethylene regulating the formation of the arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) symbiosis in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants and tried to define the specific roles played by each of these phytohormones in the mycorrhization process. We analysed the impact of ABA biosynthesis inhibition on mycorrhization by Glomus intraradices in transgenic tomato plants with an altered ethylene pathway. We also studied the effects on mycorrhization in sitiens plants treated with the aminoethoxyvinyl glycine hydrochloride (AVG) ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor and supplemented with ABA. In addition, the expression of plant and fungal genes involved in the mycorrhization process was studied. ABA biosynthesis inhibition qualitatively altered the parameters of mycorrhization in accordance with the plant's ethylene perception and ethylene biosynthesis abilities. Inhibition of ABA biosynthesis in wild-type plants negatively affected all the mycorrhization parameters studied, while tomato mutants impaired in ethylene synthesis only showed a reduced arbuscular abundance in mycorrhizal roots. Inhibition of ethylene synthesis in ABA-deficient sitiens plants increased the intensity of mycorrhiza development, while ABA application rescued arbuscule abundance in the root's mycorrhizal zones. The results of our study show an antagonistic interaction between ABA and ethylene, and different roles of each of the two hormones during AM formation. This suggests that a dual ethylene-dependent/ethylene-independent mechanism is involved in ABA regulation of AM formation. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. Activity-dependent regulation of T-type calcium channels by submembrane calcium ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazade, Magali; Bidaud, Isabelle; Lory, Philippe; Chemin, Jean

    2017-01-21

    Voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels are involved in numerous physiological functions and various mechanisms finely tune their activity, including the Ca(2+) ion itself. This is well exemplified by the Ca(2+)-dependent inactivation of L-type Ca(2+) channels, whose alteration contributes to the dramatic disease Timothy Syndrome. For T-type Ca(2+) channels, a long-held view is that they are not regulated by intracellular Ca(2+). Here we challenge this notion by using dedicated electrophysiological protocols on both native and expressed T-type Ca(2+) channels. We demonstrate that a rise in submembrane Ca(2+) induces a large decrease in T-type current amplitude due to a hyperpolarizing shift in the steady-state inactivation. Activation of most representative Ca(2+)-permeable ionotropic receptors similarly regulate T-type current properties. Altogether, our data clearly establish that Ca(2+) entry exerts a feedback control on T-type channel activity, by modulating the channel availability, a mechanism that critically links cellular properties of T-type Ca(2+) channels to their physiological roles.

  18. Genotype-dependent regulation of drought-responsive genes in tolerant and sensitive sugarcane cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Manassés Daniel; de Oliveira Silva, Roberta Lane; Ferreira Neto, José Ribamar Costa; Benko-Iseppon, Ana Maria; Kido, Ederson Akio

    2017-10-30

    Drought is the most damaging among the major abiotic stresses. Transcriptomic studies allow a global overview of expressed genes, providing the basis for molecular markers development. Here, the HT-SuperSAGE technique allowed the evaluation of four drought-tolerant cultivars and four-sensitive cultivars, after 24h of irrigation suppression. We identified 9831 induced unitags from roots of the tolerant cultivars with different regulations by the -sensitive cultivars after the applied stress. These unitags allowed a proposal of 15 genes, whose expressed profiles were validated by RT-qPCR, evaluating each cultivar independently. These genes covered broad metabolic processes: ethylene stress attenuation (ACCD); root growth (β-EXP8); protein degradation [ubiquitination pathway (E2, 20SPβ4); plant proteases (AP, C13)]; oxidative detoxification (TRX); fatty acid synthesis (ACC); amino acid transport (AAT), and carbohydrate metabolism [glycolysis (PFK, TPI, FBA); TCA cycle (LDP, MDH); pentose phosphate pathway (TKT)]. The expressed profiles showed a genotype-dependent regulation of the target genes. Two drought-tolerant cultivars (SP83-2847; CTC6) presented each one, nine of the induced genes. Among the -sensitive cultivars, CTC13 induced only one, while SP90-1636 induced two genes. These genes should help breeders to identify accessions managing drought stress tolerance responses, showing better ethylene stress attenuation, energy allocation, amino acid transport, and protein homeostasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Emotion self-regulation and empathy depend upon longer stimulus exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikezawa, Satoru; Corbera, Silvia; Wexler, Bruce E

    2014-10-01

    Observation of others in pain induces positive elevation (pain effect) in late event-related potentials (ERP). This effect is associated with top-down attention regulating processes. It has previously been shown that stimulus exposure duration can affect top-down attentional modulation of response to threat-related stimuli. We investigated the effect of exposure duration on ERP response to others in pain. Two late ERP components, P3 and late positive potentials (LPP), from 18 healthy people were measured while they viewed pictures of hands in painful or neutral situations for either 200 or 500 ms, during two task conditions (pain judgment and counting hands). P3 and LPP pain effects during the pain judgment condition were significantly greater with 500 ms than 200 ms stimulus presentation. Ours is the first study to suggest that engagement of empathy-related self-regulatory processes reflected in late potentials requires longer exposure to the pain-related stimulus. Although this is important information about the relationship between early sensory and subsequent brain processing, and about engagement of self-regulatory processes, the neural basis of this time-dependence remains unclear. It might be important to investigate the relationship between stimulus duration and empathic response in clinical populations where issues of self-regulation, empathic response and speed of information processing exist.

  20. Phosphorylation-dependent regulation of nuclear localization and functions of integrin-linked kinase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acconcia, Filippo; Barnes, Christopher J.; Singh, Rajesh R.; Talukder, Amjad H.; Kumar, Rakesh

    2007-01-01

    Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is a phosphorylated protein that regulates physiological processes that overlap with those regulated by p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1). Here we report the possible role of ILK phosphorylation by PAK1 in ILK-mediated signaling and intracellular translocation. We found that PAK1 phosphorylates ILK at threonine-173 and serine-246 in vitro and in vivo. Depletion of PAK1 decreased the levels of endogenous ILK phosphorylation in vivo. Mutation of PAK1 phosphorylation sites on ILK to alanine reduced cell motility and cell proliferation. Biochemical fractionation, confocal microscopy, and chromatin-interaction analyses of human cells revealed that ILK localizes predominantly in the cytoplasm but also resides in the nucleus. Transfection of MCF-7 cells with point mutants ILK-T173A, ILK-S246A, or ILK-T173A; S246A (ILK-DM) altered ILK localization. Selective depletion of PAK1 dramatically increased the nuclear and focal point accumulation of ILK, further demonstrating a role for PAK1 in ILK translocation. We also identified functional nuclear localization sequence and nuclear export sequence motifs in ILK, delineated an apparently integral role for ILK in maintaining normal nuclear integrity, and established that ILK interacts with the regulatory region of the CNKSR3 gene chromatin to negatively modulate its expression. Together, these results suggest that ILK is a PAK1 substrate, undergoes phosphorylation-dependent shuttling between the cell nucleus and cytoplasm, and interacts with gene-regulatory chromatin. PMID:17420447

  1. Hippo signaling regulates microprocessor and links cell-density-dependent miRNA biogenesis to cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Masaki; Triboulet, Robinson; Mohseni, Morvarid; Schlegelmilch, Karin; Shrestha, Kriti; Camargo, Fernando D; Gregory, Richard I

    2014-02-27

    Global downregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) is commonly observed in human cancers and can have a causative role in tumorigenesis. The mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon remain poorly understood. Here, we show that YAP, the downstream target of the tumor-suppressive Hippo-signaling pathway regulates miRNA biogenesis in a cell-density-dependent manner. At low cell density, nuclear YAP binds and sequesters p72 (DDX17), a regulatory component of the miRNA-processing machinery. At high cell density, Hippo-mediated cytoplasmic retention of YAP facilitates p72 association with Microprocessor and binding to a specific sequence motif in pri-miRNAs. Inactivation of the Hippo pathway or expression of constitutively active YAP causes widespread miRNA suppression in cells and tumors and a corresponding posttranscriptional induction of MYC expression. Thus, the Hippo pathway links contact-inhibition regulation to miRNA biogenesis and may be responsible for the widespread miRNA repression observed in cancer.

  2. α8β1 integrin regulates nutrient absorption through an Mfge8-PTEN dependent mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifeh-Soltani, Amin; Ha, Arnold; Podolsky, Michael J; McCarthy, Donald A; McKleroy, William; Azary, Saeedeh; Sakuma, Stephen; Tharp, Kevin M; Wu, Nanyan; Yokosaki, Yasuyuki; Hart, Daniel; Stahl, Andreas; Atabai, Kamran

    2016-01-01

    Coordinated gastrointestinal smooth muscle contraction is critical for proper nutrient absorption and is altered in a number of medical disorders. In this work, we demonstrate a critical role for the RGD-binding integrin α8β1 in promoting nutrient absorption through regulation of gastrointestinal motility. Smooth muscle-specific deletion and antibody blockade of α8 in mice result in enhanced gastric antral smooth muscle contraction, more rapid gastric emptying, and more rapid transit of food through the small intestine leading to malabsorption of dietary fats and carbohydrates as well as protection from weight gain in a diet-induced model of obesity. Mechanistically, ligation of α8β1 by the milk protein Mfge8 reduces antral smooth muscle contractile force by preventing RhoA activation through a PTEN-dependent mechanism. Collectively, our results identify a role for α8β1 in regulating gastrointestinal motility and identify α8 as a potential target for disorders characterized by hypo- or hyper-motility. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13063.001 PMID:27092791

  3. Regulation of Serine-Threonine Kinase Akt Activation by NAD+-Dependent Deacetylase SIRT7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Akt pathway is a central regulator that promotes cell survival in response to extracellular signals. Depletion of SIRT7, an NAD+-dependent deacetylase that is the least-studied sirtuin, is known to significantly increase Akt activity in mice through unknown mechanisms. In this study, we demonstrate that SIRT7 depletion in breast cancer cells results in Akt hyper-phosphorylation and increases cell survival following genotoxic stress. Mechanistically, SIRT7 specifically interacts with and deacetylates FKBP51 at residue lysines 28 and 155 (K28 and K155, resulting in enhanced interactions among FKBP51, Akt, and PHLPP, as well as Akt dephosphorylation. Mutating both lysines to arginines abolishes the effect of SIRT7 on Akt activity through FKBP51 deacetylation. Finally, energy stress strengthens SIRT7-mediated effects on Akt dephosphorylation through FKBP51 and thus sensitizes cancer cells to cytotoxic agents. These results reveal a direct role of SIRT7 in Akt regulation and raise the possibility of using the glucose analog 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG as a chemo-sensitizing agent.

  4. N-Acetyl Cysteine Inhibits Endothelin-1-Induced ROS Dependent Cardiac Hypertrophy through Superoxide Dismutase Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobia Mushtaq

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Oxidative stress down regulates antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD and contributes to the development of cardiac hypertrophy. N-Acetyl cysteine (NAC can enhance the SOD activity, so the aim of this study is to highlight the inhibitory role of NAC against endothelin-1 (ET-1-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study at QAU from January, 2013 to March, 2013. ET-1 (50 μg/kg and NAC (50 mg/kg were given intraperitoneally to 6-day old neonatal rats in combination or alone. All rats were sacrificed 15 days after the final injection. Histological analysis was carried out to observe the effects caused by both drugs. Reactive oxygen species (ROS analysis and SOD assay were also carried out. Expression level of hypertrophic marker, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP, was detected by western blotting. Results: Our findings showed that ET-1-induced cardiac hypertrophy leading towards heart failure was due to the imbalance of different parameters including free radical-induced oxidative stress and antioxidative enzymes such as SOD. Furthermore NAC acted as an antioxidant and played inhibitory role against ROS-dependent hypertrophy via regulatory role of SOD as a result of oxidative response associated with hypertrophy. Conclusion: ET-1-induced hypertrophic response is associated with increased ROS production and decreased SOD level, while NAC plays a role against free radicals-induced oxidative stress via SOD regulation.

  5. Cyclic nucleotide dependent dephosphorylation of regulator of G-protein signaling 18 in human platelets.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gegenbauer, Kristina

    2013-11-01

    Regulator of G-protein signaling 18 (RGS18) is a GTPase-activating protein that turns off Gq signaling in platelets. RGS18 is regulated by binding to the adaptor protein 14-3-3 via phosphorylated serine residues S49 and S218 on RGS18. In this study we confirm that thrombin, thromboxane A2, or ADP stimulate the interaction of RGS18 and 14-3-3 by increasing the phosphorylation of S49. Cyclic AMP- and cyclic GMP-dependent kinases (PKA, PKG) inhibit the interaction of RGS18 and 14-3-3 by phosphorylating S216. To understand the effect of S216 phosphorylation we studied the phosphorylation kinetics of S49, S216, and S218 using Phos-tag gels and phosphorylation site-specific antibodies in transfected cells and in platelets. Cyclic nucleotide-induced detachment of 14-3-3 from RGS18 coincides initially with double phosphorylation of S216 and S218. This is followed by dephosphorylation of S49 and S218. Dephosphorylation of S49 and S218 might be mediated by protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) which is linked to RGS18 by the regulatory subunit PPP1R9B (spinophilin). We conclude that PKA and PKG induced S216 phosphorylation triggers the dephosphorylation of the 14-3-3 binding sites of RGS18 in platelets.

  6. Spatial regulation of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase during chemotactic cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Alan K; Baldor, Linda C; Hogan, Brian P

    2005-10-04

    Historically, the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) has a paradoxical role in cell motility, having been shown to both facilitate and inhibit actin cytoskeletal dynamics and cell migration. In an effort to understand this dichotomy, we show here that PKA is regulated in subcellular space during cell migration. Immunofluorescence microscopy and biochemical enrichment of pseudopodia showed that type II regulatory subunits of PKA and PKA activity are enriched in protrusive cellular structures formed during chemotaxis. This enrichment correlates with increased phosphorylation of key cytoskeletal substrates for PKA, including the vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) and the protein tyrosine phosphatase containing a PEST motif. Importantly, inhibition of PKA activity or its ability to interact with A kinase anchoring proteins inhibited the activity of the Rac GTPase within pseudopodia. This effect correlated with both decreased guanine nucleotide exchange factor activity and increased GTPase activating protein activity. Finally, inhibition of PKA anchoring, like inhibition of total PKA activity, inhibited pseudopod formation and chemotactic cell migration. These data demonstrate that spatial regulation of PKA via anchoring is an important facet of normal chemotactic cell movement.

  7. Progesterone receptor-dependent regulation of genes in the oviducts of female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akison, Lisa K; Boden, Michael J; Kennaway, David J; Russell, Darryl L; Robker, Rebecca L

    2014-08-15

    Oviducts play a critical role in gamete and embryo transport, as well as supporting early embryo development. Progesterone receptor (PGR) is a transcription factor highly expressed in oviductal cells, while its activating ligand, progesterone, surges to peak levels as ovulation approaches. Progesterone is known to regulate oviduct cilia beating and muscular contractions in vitro, but how PGR may mediate this in vivo is poorly understood. We used PGR null mice to identify genes potentially regulated by PGR in the oviducts during the periovulatory period. Histologically, oviducts from PGR null mice showed no gross structural or morphological defects compared with normal littermates. However, microarray analysis of oviducts at 8 h posthuman chorionic gonadotropin revealed >1,000 PGR-dependent genes. Using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) we selected 10 genes for validation based on their potential roles in oocyte/embryo transport and support. Eight genes were confirmed to be downregulated (Adamts1, Itga8, Edn3, Prlr, Ptgfr, Des, Myocd, and Actg2) and one upregulated (Agtr2) in PGR null oviducts. Expression of these genes was also assessed in oviducts of naturally cycling mice during ovulation and day 1 and day 4 of pregnancy. Adamts1, Itga8, Edn3, Prlr, and Ptgfr were significantly upregulated in oviducts at ovulation/mating. However, most genes showed basal levels of expression at other times. The exceptions were Prlr and Ptgfr, which showed pulsatile increases on day 1 and/or day 4 of pregnancy. This is the first, comprehensive study to elucidate putative PGR-regulated genes in the oviduct and reveals key downstream targets potentially mediating oocyte and embryo transport. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Differential regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors in neuroblastoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiao, Lan [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun 130021 (China); Paul, Pritha; Lee, Sora [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Qiao, Jingbo [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Wang, Yongsheng [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun 130021 (China); Chung, Dai H., E-mail: dai.chung@vanderbilt.edu [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States)

    2013-05-31

    Highlights: •GRP-R signaling differentially regulated the expression of p21 and p27. •Silencing GRP/GRP-R downregulated p21, while p27 expression was upregulated. •Inhibition of GRP/GRP-R signaling enhanced PTEN expression, correlative to the increased expression of p27. •PTEN and p27 co-localized in cytoplasm and silencing PTEN decreased p27 expression. -- Abstract: Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) and its receptor (GRP-R) are highly expressed in undifferentiated neuroblastoma, and they play critical roles in oncogenesis. We previously reported that GRP activates the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway to promote DNA synthesis and cell cycle progression in neuroblastoma cells. Conversely, GRP-R silencing induces cell cycle arrest. Here, we speculated that GRP/GRP-R signaling induces neuroblastoma cell proliferation via regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors. Surprisingly, we found that GRP/GRP-R differentially induced expressions of p21 and p27. Silencing GRP/GRP-R decreased p21, but it increased p27 expressions in neuroblastoma cells. Furthermore, we found that the intracellular localization of p21 and p27 in the nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments, respectively. In addition, we found that GRP/GRP-R silencing increased the expression and accumulation of PTEN in the cytoplasm of neuroblastoma cells where it co-localized with p27, thus suggesting that p27 promotes the function of PTEN as a tumor suppressor by stabilizing PTEN in the cytoplasm. GRP/GRP-R regulation of CDK inhibitors and tumor suppressor PTEN may be critical for tumoriogenesis of neuroblastoma.

  9. Palmitoylethanolamide regulates development of intestinal radiation injury in a mast cell dependent manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junru; Zheng, Junying; Kulkarni, Ashwini; Wang, Wen; Garg, Sarita; Prather, Paul L.; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background Mast cells and neuroimmune interactions regulate the severity of intestinal radiation mucositis, a dose-limiting toxicity during radiation therapy of abdominal malignancies. Aims Because endocannabinoids regulate intestinal inflammation, we investigated the effect of the cannabimimetic, palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), in a mast competent (+/+) and mast cell deficient (Ws/Ws) rat model. Methods Rats underwent localized, fractionated intestinal irradiation and received daily injections with vehicle or PEA from 1 day before until 2 weeks after radiation. Intestinal injury was assessed non-invasively by luminol bioluminescence, and, at 2 weeks, by histology, morphometry, and immunohistochemical analysis, gene expression analysis, and pathway analysis. Results Compared to +/+ rats, Ws/Ws rats sustained more intestinal structural injury (p=0.01), mucosal damage (p=0.02), neutrophil infiltration (p=0.0003), and collagen deposition (p=0.004). PEA reduced structural radiation injury (p=0.02), intestinal wall thickness (p=0.03), collagen deposition (p=0.03), and intestinal inflammation (p=0.02) in Ws/Ws rats, but not in +/+ rats. PEA inhibited mast cell-derived cellular immune response and anti-inflammatory IL-6 and IL-10 signaling, and activated the prothrombin pathway in +/+ rats. In contrast, while PEA suppressed non-mast cell derived immune responses, it increased anti-inflammatory IL-10 and IL-6 signaling and decreased activation of the prothrombin pathway in Ws/Ws rats. Conclusions These data demonstrate that the absence of mast cells exacerbate radiation enteropathy by mechanisms that likely involve the coagulation system, anti-inflammatory cytokine signaling, and the innate immune system; and that these mechanisms are regulated by PEA in a mast cell-dependent manner. The endocannabinoid system should be explored as target for mitigating intestinal radiation injury. PMID:24848354

  10. Phosphoinositide binding differentially regulates NHE1 Na+/H+ exchanger-dependent proximal tubule cell survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Jawdeh, Bassam G; Khan, Shenaz; Deschênes, Isabelle; Hoshi, Malcolm; Goel, Monu; Lock, Jeffrey T; Shinlapawittayatorn, Krekwit; Babcock, Gerald; Lakhe-Reddy, Sujata; DeCaro, Garren; Yadav, Satya P; Mohan, Maradumane L; Naga Prasad, Sathyamangla V; Schilling, William P; Ficker, Eckhard; Schelling, Jeffrey R

    2011-12-01

    Tubular atrophy predicts chronic kidney disease progression, and is caused by proximal tubular epithelial cellcaused by proximal tubular epithelial cell (PTC) apoptosis. The normally quiescent Na(+)/H(+) exchanger-1 (NHE1) defends against PTC apoptosis, and is regulated by PI(4,5)P(2) binding. Because of the vast array of plasma membrane lipids, we hypothesized that NHE1-mediated cell survival is dynamically regulated by multiple anionic inner leaflet phospholipids. In membrane overlay and surface plasmon resonance assays, the NHE1 C terminus bound phospholipids with low affinity and according to valence (PIP(3) > PIP(2) > PIP = PA > PS). NHE1-phosphoinositide binding was enhanced by acidic pH, and abolished by NHE1 Arg/Lys to Ala mutations within two juxtamembrane domains, consistent with electrostatic interactions. PI(4,5)P(2)-incorporated vesicles were distributed to apical and lateral PTC domains, increased NHE1-regulated Na(+)/H(+) exchange, and blunted apoptosis, whereas NHE1 activity was decreased in cells enriched with PI(3,4,5)P(3), which localized to basolateral membranes. Divergent PI(4,5)P(2) and PI(3,4,5)P(3) effects on NHE1-dependent Na(+)/H(+) exchange and apoptosis were confirmed by selective phosphoinositide sequestration with pleckstrin homology domain-containing phospholipase Cδ and Akt peptides, PI 3-kinase, and Akt inhibition in wild-type and NHE1-null PTCs. The results reveal an on-off switch model, whereby NHE1 toggles between weak interactions with PI(4,5)P(2) and PI(3,4,5)P(3). In response to apoptotic stress, NHE1 is stimulated by PI(4,5)P(2), which leads to PI 3-kinase activation, and PI(4,5)P(2) phosphorylation. The resulting PI(3,4,5)P(3) dually stimulates sustained, downstream Akt survival signaling, and dampens NHE1 activity through competitive inhibition and depletion of PI(4,5)P(2).

  11. Vitamin B12–dependent taurine synthesis regulates growth and bone mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman-Garcia, Pablo; Quiros-Gonzalez, Isabel; Mottram, Lynda; Lieben, Liesbet; Sharan, Kunal; Wangwiwatsin, Arporn; Tubio, Jose; Lewis, Kirsty; Wilkinson, Debbie; Santhanam, Balaji; Sarper, Nazan; Clare, Simon; Vassiliou, George S.; Velagapudi, Vidya R.; Dougan, Gordon; Yadav, Vijay K.

    2014-01-01

    Both maternal and offspring-derived factors contribute to lifelong growth and bone mass accrual, although the specific role of maternal deficiencies in the growth and bone mass of offspring is poorly understood. In the present study, we have shown that vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency in a murine genetic model results in severe postweaning growth retardation and osteoporosis, and the severity and time of onset of this phenotype in the offspring depends on the maternal genotype. Using integrated physiological and metabolomic analysis, we determined that B12 deficiency in the offspring decreases liver taurine production and associates with abrogation of a growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor 1 (GH/IGF1) axis. Taurine increased GH-dependent IGF1 synthesis in the liver, which subsequently enhanced osteoblast function, and in B12-deficient offspring, oral administration of taurine rescued their growth retardation and osteoporosis phenotypes. These results identify B12 as an essential vitamin that positively regulates postweaning growth and bone formation through taurine synthesis and suggests potential therapies to increase bone mass. PMID:24911144

  12. Vitamin B₁₂-dependent taurine synthesis regulates growth and bone mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman-Garcia, Pablo; Quiros-Gonzalez, Isabel; Mottram, Lynda; Lieben, Liesbet; Sharan, Kunal; Wangwiwatsin, Arporn; Tubio, Jose; Lewis, Kirsty; Wilkinson, Debbie; Santhanam, Balaji; Sarper, Nazan; Clare, Simon; Vassiliou, George S; Velagapudi, Vidya R; Dougan, Gordon; Yadav, Vijay K

    2014-07-01

    Both maternal and offspring-derived factors contribute to lifelong growth and bone mass accrual, although the specific role of maternal deficiencies in the growth and bone mass of offspring is poorly understood. In the present study, we have shown that vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency in a murine genetic model results in severe postweaning growth retardation and osteoporosis, and the severity and time of onset of this phenotype in the offspring depends on the maternal genotype. Using integrated physiological and metabolomic analysis, we determined that B12 deficiency in the offspring decreases liver taurine production and associates with abrogation of a growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor 1 (GH/IGF1) axis. Taurine increased GH-dependent IGF1 synthesis in the liver, which subsequently enhanced osteoblast function, and in B12-deficient offspring, oral administration of taurine rescued their growth retardation and osteoporosis phenotypes. These results identify B12 as an essential vitamin that positively regulates postweaning growth and bone formation through taurine synthesis and suggests potential therapies to increase bone mass.

  13. CREB Regulates Experience-Dependent Spine Formation and Enlargement in Mouse Barrel Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabella Pignataro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Experience modifies synaptic connectivity through processes that involve dendritic spine rearrangements in neuronal circuits. Although cAMP response element binding protein (CREB has a key function in spines changes, its role in activity-dependent rearrangements in brain regions of rodents interacting with the surrounding environment has received little attention so far. Here we studied the effects of vibrissae trimming, a widely used model of sensory deprivation-induced cortical plasticity, on processes associated with dendritic spine rearrangements in the barrel cortex of a transgenic mouse model of CREB downregulation (mCREB mice. We found that sensory deprivation through prolonged whisker trimming leads to an increased number of thin spines in the layer V of related barrel cortex (Contra in wild type but not mCREB mice. In the barrel field controlling spared whiskers (Ipsi, the same trimming protocol results in a CREB-dependent enlargement of dendritic spines. Last, we demonstrated that CREB regulates structural rearrangements of synapses that associate with dynamic changes of dendritic spines. Our findings suggest that CREB plays a key role in dendritic spine dynamics and synaptic circuits rearrangements that account for new brain connectivity in response to changes in the environment.

  14. Topoisomerase 1 Regulates Gene Expression in Neurons through Cleavage Complex-Dependent and -Independent Mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela M Mabb

    Full Text Available Topoisomerase 1 (TOP1 inhibitors, including camptothecin and topotecan, covalently trap TOP1 on DNA, creating cleavage complexes (cc's that must be resolved before gene transcription and DNA replication can proceed. We previously found that topotecan reduces the expression of long (>100 kb genes and unsilences the paternal allele of Ube3a in neurons. Here, we sought to evaluate overlap between TOP1cc-dependent and -independent gene regulation in neurons. To do this, we utilized Top1 conditional knockout mice, Top1 knockdown, the CRISPR-Cas9 system to delete Top1, TOP1 catalytic inhibitors that do not generate TOP1cc's, and a TOP1 mutation (T718A that stabilizes TOP1cc's. We found that topotecan treatment significantly alters the expression of many more genes, including long neuronal genes, immediate early genes, and paternal Ube3a, when compared to Top1 deletion. Our data show that topotecan has a stronger effect on neuronal transcription than Top1 deletion, and identifies TOP1cc-dependent and -independent contributions to gene expression.

  15. Mitochondrial Sirt3 supports cell proliferation by regulating glutamine-dependent oxidation in renal cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jieun; Koh, Eunjin; Lee, Yu Shin; Lee, Hyun-Woo; Kang, Hyeok Gu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Brain Korea 21 PLUS Project for Medical Sciences, Institute of Genetic Science, Integrated Genomic Research Center for Metabolic Regulation, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Young Eun; Han, Woong Kyu [Department of Urology, Urological Science Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Kyung Hwa [Department of Urology, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Seongnam 463-712 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyung-Sup, E-mail: KYUNGSUP59@yuhs.ac [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Brain Korea 21 PLUS Project for Medical Sciences, Institute of Genetic Science, Integrated Genomic Research Center for Metabolic Regulation, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-03

    Clear cell renal carcinoma (RCC), the most common malignancy arising in the adult kidney, exhibits increased aerobic glycolysis and low mitochondrial respiration due to von Hippel-Lindau gene defects and constitutive hypoxia-inducible factor-α expression. Sirt3 is a major mitochondrial deacetylase that mediates various types of energy metabolism. However, the role of Sirt3 as a tumor suppressor or oncogene in cancer depends on cell types. We show increased Sirt3 expression in the mitochondrial fraction of human RCC tissues. Sirt3 depletion by lentiviral short-hairpin RNA, as well as the stable expression of the inactive mutant of Sirt3, inhibited cell proliferation and tumor growth in xenograft nude mice, respectively. Furthermore, mitochondrial pyruvate, which was used for oxidation in RCC, might be derived from glutamine, but not from glucose and cytosolic pyruvate, due to depletion of mitochondrial pyruvate carrier and the relatively high expression of malic enzyme 2. Depletion of Sirt3 suppressed glutamate dehydrogenase activity, leading to impaired mitochondrial oxygen consumption. Our findings suggest that Sirt3 plays a tumor-progressive role in human RCC by regulating glutamine-derived mitochondrial respiration, particularly in cells where mitochondrial usage of cytosolic pyruvate is severely compromised. -- Highlights: •Sirt3 is required for the maintenance of RCC cell proliferation. •Mitochondrial usage of cytosolic pyruvate is severely compromised in RCC. •Sirt3 supports glutamine-dependent oxidation in RCC.

  16. GABAergic synaptic transmission regulates calcium influx during spike-timing dependent plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor Balena

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Coincident pre- and postsynaptic activity of hippocampal neurons alters the strength of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABAA-mediated inhibition through a Ca2+-dependent regulation of cation-chloride cotransporters. This long-term synaptic modulation is termed GABAergic spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP. In the present study, we examined whether the properties of the GABAergic synapses themselves modulate the required postsynaptic Ca2+ influx during GABAergic STDP induction. To do this we first identified GABAergic synapses between cultured hippocampal neurons based on their relatively long decay time constants and their reversal potentials which lay close to the resting membrane potential. GABAergic STDP was then induced by coincidentally (± 1 ms firing the pre- and postsynaptic neurons at 5 Hz for 30 seconds, while postsynaptic Ca2+ was imaged with the Ca2+-sensitive fluorescent dye Fluo4-AM. In all cases, the induction of GABAergic STDP increased postsynaptic Ca2+ above resting levels. We further found that the magnitude of this increase correlated with the amplitude and polarity of the GABAergic postsynaptic current (GPSC; hyperpolarizing GPSCs reduced the Ca2+ influx in comparison to both depolarizing GPSCs, and postsynaptic neurons spiked alone. This relationship was influenced by both the driving force for Cl- and GABAA conductance (which had positive correlations with the Ca2+ influx. The spike-timing order during STDP induction did not influence the correlation between GPSC amplitude and Ca2+ influx, which is likely accounted for by the symmetrical GABAergic STDP window.

  17. Light-Dependent Regulation of Sleep and Wake States by Prokineticin 2 in Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shijia; Reichert, Sabine; Singh, Chanpreet; Oikonomou, Grigorios; Rihel, Jason; Prober, David A

    2017-07-05

    Light affects sleep and wake behaviors by providing an indirect cue that entrains circadian rhythms and also by inducing a direct and rapid regulation of behavior. While circadian entrainment by light is well characterized at the molecular level, mechanisms that underlie the direct effect of light on behavior are largely unknown. In zebrafish, a diurnal vertebrate, we found that both overexpression and mutation of the neuropeptide prokineticin 2 (Prok2) affect sleep and wake behaviors in a light-dependent but circadian-independent manner. In light, Prok2 overexpression increases sleep and induces expression of galanin (galn), a hypothalamic sleep-inducing peptide. We also found that light-dependent, Prok2-induced sedation requires prokineticin receptor 2 (prokr2) and is strongly suppressed in galn mutants. These results suggest that Prok2 antagonizes the direct wake-promoting effect of light in zebrafish, in part through the induction of galn expression in the hypothalamus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Local Adaptation of Sun-Exposure-Dependent Gene Expression Regulation in Human Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Ryosuke; Fraser, Hunter B.

    2016-01-01

    Sun-exposure is a key environmental variable in the study of human evolution. Several skin-pigmentation genes serve as classical examples of positive selection, suggesting that sun-exposure has significantly shaped worldwide genomic variation. Here we investigate the interaction between genetic variation and sun-exposure, and how this impacts gene expression regulation. Using RNA-Seq data from 607 human skin samples, we identified thousands of transcripts that are differentially expressed between sun-exposed skin and non-sun-exposed skin. We then tested whether genetic variants may influence each individual’s gene expression response to sun-exposure. Our analysis revealed 10 sun-exposure-dependent gene expression quantitative trait loci (se-eQTLs), including genes involved in skin pigmentation (SLC45A2) and epidermal differentiation (RASSF9). The allele frequencies of the RASSF9 se-eQTL across diverse populations correlate with the magnitude of solar radiation experienced by these populations, suggesting local adaptation to varying levels of sunlight. These results provide the first examples of sun-exposure-dependent regulatory variation and suggest that this variation has contributed to recent human adaptation. PMID:27760139

  19. Gibberellic acid and cGMP-dependent transcriptional regulation in arabidopsis thaliana

    KAUST Repository

    Bastian, René

    2010-03-01

    An ever increasing amount of transcriptomic data and analysis tools provide novel insight into complex responses of biological systems. Given these resources we have undertaken to review aspects of transcriptional regulation in response to the plant hormone gibberellic acid (GA) and its second messenger guanosine 3\\',5\\'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) in Arabidopsis thaliana, both wild type and selected mutants. Evidence suggests enrichment of GA-responsive (GARE) elements in promoters of genes that are transcriptionally upregulated in response to cGMP but downregulated in a GA insensitive mutant (ga1-3). In contrast, in the genes upregulated in the mutant, no enrichment in the GARE is observed suggesting that GARE motifs are diagnostic for GA-induced and cGMP-dependent transcriptional upregulation. Further, we review how expression studies of GA-dependent transcription factors and transcriptional networks based on common promoter signatures derived from ab initio analyses can contribute to our understanding of plant responses at the systems level. © 2010 Landes Bioscience.

  20. Surface chemistry dependent "switch" regulates the trafficking and therapeutic performance of drug-loaded carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Manasmita; Singh, Raman Preet; Datir, Satyajit R; Jain, Sanyog

    2013-04-17

    The present study explores the possibility of exploiting surface functionality as one of the key regulators for modulating the intracellular trafficking and therapeutic performance of drug loaded carbon nanotubes (CNTs). In line with that approach, a series of biofunctionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (f-CNTs 1-6) decorated with various functional molecules including antifouling polymer (PEG), tumor recognition modules (folic acid/hyaluronic acid/estradiol), and fluorophores (rhodamine B isothiocyanate/Alexa Fluor) were synthesized. By loading different anticancer agents (methotrexate (MTX), doxorubicin (DOX), and paclitaxel (PTX)) onto each functionalized CNT preparation, we tried to elucidate how the surface functional molecules associated with each f-CNT influence their therapeutic potential. We observed that antiproliferative or apoptotic activity of drug-loaded CNTs critically depends on their mechanistic pathway of cellular internalization and intracellular trafficking, which in turn had an intimate rapport with their surface chemistry. To our knowledge, for the first time, we have embarked on the possibility of using a surface chemistry dependent "switch" to remote-control the second and third order targeting of chemotherapeutic agents supramolecularly complexed/adsorbed on CNTs, which in turn is expected to benefit the development of futuristic nanobots for cancer theranostics.

  1. pH-Dependent Population Shift Regulates BACE1 Activity and Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Christopher R; Shen, Jana

    2015-08-05

    BACE1, a major therapeutic target for treatment of Alzheimer's disease, functions within a narrow pH range. Despite tremendous effort and progress in the development of BACE1 inhibitors, details of the underlying pH-dependent regulatory mechanism remain unclear. Here we elucidate the pH-dependent conformational mechanism that regulates BACE1 activity using continuous constant-pH molecular dynamics (MD). The simulations reveal that BACE1 mainly occupies three conformational states and that the relative populations of the states shift according to pH. At intermediate pH, when the catalytic dyad is monoprotonated, a binding-competent state is highly populated, while at low and high pH a Tyr-inhibited state is dominant. Our data provide strong evidence supporting conformational selection as a major mechanism for substrate and peptide-inhibitor binding. These new insights, while consistent with experiment, greatly extend the knowledge of BACE1 and have implications for further optimization of inhibitors and understanding potential side effects of targeting BACE1. Finally, the work highlights the importance of properly modeling protonation states in MD simulations.

  2. Spermatid cyst polarization in Drosophila depends upon apkc and the CPEB family translational regulator orb2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuwa Xu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mature Drosophila sperm are highly polarized cells--on one side is a nearly 2 mm long flagellar tail that comprises most of the cell, while on the other is the sperm head, which carries the gamete's genetic information. The polarization of the sperm cells commences after meiosis is complete and the 64-cell spermatid cyst begins the process of differentiation. The spermatid nuclei cluster to one side of the cyst, while the flagellar axonemes grows from the other. The elongating spermatid bundles are also polarized with respect to the main axis of the testis; the sperm heads are always oriented basally, while the growing tails extend apically. This orientation within the testes is important for transferring the mature sperm into the seminal vesicles. We show here that orienting cyst polarization with respect to the main axis of the testis depends upon atypical Protein Kinase C (aPKC, a factor implicated in polarity decisions in many different biological contexts. When apkc activity is compromised in the male germline, the direction of cyst polarization within this organ is randomized. Significantly, the mechanisms used to spatially restrict apkc activity to the apical side of the spermatid cyst are different from the canonical cross-regulatory interactions between this kinase and other cell polarity proteins that normally orchestrate polarization. We show that the asymmetric accumulation of aPKC protein in the cyst depends on an mRNA localization pathway that is regulated by the Drosophila CPEB protein Orb2. orb2 is required to properly localize and activate the translation of apkc mRNAs in polarizing spermatid cysts. We also show that orb2 functions not only in orienting cyst polarization with respect to the apical-basal axis of the testis, but also in the process of polarization itself. One of the orb2 targets in this process is its own mRNA. Moreover, the proper execution of this orb2 autoregulatory pathway depends upon apkc.

  3. Control of the neurovascular coupling by nitric oxide-dependent regulation of astrocytic Ca2+ signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Francisco Muñoz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal activity must be tightly coordinated with blood flow to keep proper brain function, which is achieved by a mechanism known as neurovascular coupling. Then, an increase in synaptic activity leads to a dilation of local parenchymal arterioles that matches the enhanced metabolic demand. Neurovascular coupling is orchestrated by astrocytes. These glial cells are located between neurons and the microvasculature, with the astrocytic endfeet ensheathing the vessels, which allows fine intercellular communication. The neurotransmitters released during neuronal activity reach astrocytic receptors and trigger a Ca2+ signaling that propagates to the endfeet, activating the release of vasoactive factors and arteriolar dilation. The astrocyte Ca2+ signaling is coordinated by gap junction channels and hemichannels formed by connexins (Cx43 and Cx30 and channels formed by pannexins (Panx-1. The neuronal activity-initiated Ca2+ waves are propagated among neighboring astrocytes directly via gap junctions or through ATP release via connexin hemichannels or pannexin channels. In addition, Ca2+ entry via connexin hemichannels or pannexin channels may participate in the regulation of the astrocyte signaling-mediated neurovascular coupling. Interestingly, nitric oxide (NO can activate connexin hemichannel by S-nitrosylation and the Ca2+-dependent NO-synthesizing enzymes endothelial NO synthase (eNOS and neuronal NOS (nNOS are expressed in astrocytes. Therefore, the astrocytic Ca2+ signaling triggered in neurovascular coupling may activate NO production, which, in turn, may lead to Ca2+ influx through hemichannel activation. Furthermore, NO release from the hemichannels located at astrocytic endfeet may contribute to the vasodilation of parenchymal arterioles. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms involved in the regulation of the astrocytic Ca2+ signaling that mediates neurovascular coupling, with a special emphasis in the possible participation of NO in

  4. Crystal Structure of Human Cyclin K, A Positive Regulator of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek,K.; Brown, R.; Birrane, G.; Ladias, J.

    2007-01-01

    K and the closely related cyclins T1, T2a, and T2b interact with cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9) forming multiple nuclear complexes, referred to collectively as positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb). Through phosphorylation of the C-terminal domain of the RNA polymerase II largest subunit, distinct P-TEFb species regulate the transcriptional elongation of specific genes that play central roles in human physiology and disease development, including cardiac hypertrophy and human immunodeficiency virus-1 pathogenesis. We have determined the crystal structure of human cyclin K (residues 11-267) at 1.5 {angstrom} resolution, which represents the first atomic structure of a P-TEFb subunit. The cyclin K fold comprises two typical cyclin boxes with two short helices preceding the N-terminal box. A prominent feature of cyclin K is an additional helix (H4a) in the first cyclin box that obstructs the binding pocket for the cell-cycle inhibitor p27{sup Kip1}. Modeling of CDK9 bound to cyclin K provides insights into the structural determinants underlying the formation and regulation of this complex. A homology model of human cyclin T1 generated using the cyclin K structure as a template reveals that the two proteins have similar structures, as expected from their high level of sequence identity. Nevertheless, their CDK9-interacting surfaces display significant structural differences, which could potentially be exploited for the design of cyclin-targeted inhibitors of the CDK9-cyclin K and CDK9-cyclin T1 complexes.

  5. TLR4 has a TP53-dependent dual role in regulating breast cancer cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haricharan, Svasti; Brown, Powel

    2015-06-23

    Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death, and it is important to understand pathways that drive the disease to devise effective therapeutic strategies. Our results show that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) drives breast cancer cell growth differentially based on the presence of TP53, a tumor suppressor. TP53 is mutationally inactivated in most types of cancer and is mutated in 30-50% of diagnosed breast tumors. We demonstrate that TLR4 activation inhibits growth of TP53 wild-type cells, but promotes growth of TP53 mutant breast cancer cells by regulating proliferation. This differential effect is mediated by changes in tumor cell cytokine secretion. Whereas TLR4 activation in TP53 mutant breast cancer cells increases secretion of progrowth cytokines, TLR4 activation in TP53 wild-type breast cancer cells increases type I IFN (IFN-γ) secretion, which is both necessary and sufficient for mediating TLR4-induced growth inhibition. This study identifies a novel dichotomous role for TLR4 as a growth regulator and a modulator of tumor microenvironment in breast tumors. These results have translational relevance, demonstrating that TP53 mutant breast tumor growth can be suppressed by pharmacologic TLR4 inhibition, whereas TLR4 inhibitors may in fact promote growth of TP53 wild-type tumors. Furthermore, using data generated by The Cancer Genome Atlas consortium, we demonstrate that the effect of TP53 mutational status on TLR4 activity may extend to ovarian, colon, and lung cancers, among others, suggesting that the viability of TLR4 as a therapeutic target depends on TP53 status in many different tumor types.

  6. TgCDPK3 Regulates Calcium-Dependent Egress of Toxoplasma gondii from Host Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, James M.; Whitehead, Lachlan; van Dooren, Giel G.; Tonkin, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    The phylum Apicomplexa comprises a group of obligate intracellular parasites of broad medical and agricultural significance, including Toxoplasma gondii and the malaria-causing Plasmodium spp. Key to their parasitic lifestyle is the need to egress from an infected cell, actively move through tissue, and reinvade another cell, thus perpetuating infection. Ca2+-mediated signaling events modulate key steps required for host cell egress, invasion and motility, including secretion of microneme organelles and activation of the force-generating actomyosin-based motor. Here we show that a plant-like Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase (CDPK) in T. gondii, TgCDPK3, which localizes to the inner side of the plasma membrane, is not essential to the parasite but is required for optimal in vitro growth. We demonstrate that TgCDPK3, the orthologue of Plasmodium PfCDPK1, regulates Ca2+ ionophore- and DTT-induced host cell egress, but not motility or invasion. Furthermore, we show that targeting to the inner side of the plasma membrane by dual acylation is required for its activity. Interestingly, TgCDPK3 regulates microneme secretion when parasites are intracellular but not extracellular. Indeed, the requirement for TgCDPK3 is most likely determined by the high K+ concentration of the host cell. Our results therefore suggest that TgCDPK3's role differs from that previously hypothesized, and rather support a model where this kinase plays a role in rapidly responding to Ca2+ signaling in specific ionic environments to upregulate multiple processes required for gliding motility. PMID:23226109

  7. Androgens regulate Hedgehog signalling and proliferation in androgen-dependent prostate cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirab, Nanor; Terry, Stéphane; Giton, Frank; Caradec, Josselin; Chimingqi, Mihelaiti; Moutereau, Stéphane; Vacherot, Francis; de la Taille, Alexandre; Kouyoumdjian, Jean-Claude; Loric, Sylvain

    2012-09-15

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is androgen sensitive in its development and progression to metastatic disease. Hedgehog (Hh) pathway activation is important in the initiation and growth of various carcinomas including PCa. We and others have observed aberrations of Hh pathway during the progression of PCa to the castration-resistant state. The involvement of androgen signalling in Hh pathway activation, however, remains largely elusive. Here we investigate the direct role of androgen signalling on Hh pathway. We examined the effect of Dihydrosterone (DHT), antiandrogen, bicalutamide, and Hh pathway inhibitor, KAAD-cyclopamine in four human prostate cell lines (two cancerous: LNCaP, VCaP, and two normal: PNT2 and PNT2-ARm which harbours a mutant version of androgen receptor (AR) that is commonly found in LNCaP). Cell proliferation as well as Hh pathway members (SHH, IHH, DHH, GLI, PTCH) mRNA expression levels were assessed. We showed that KAAD-cyclopamine decreased cell proliferation of DHT-stimulated LNCaP, VCaP and PNT2-ARm cells. SHH expression was found to be downregulated by DHT in all AR posititve cells. The negative effect of DHT on SHH expression was counteracted when cells were treated by bicalutamide. Importantly, KAAD-cyclopamine treatment seemed to inhibit AR activity. Moreover, bicalutamide as well as KAAD-cyclopamine treatments induced GLI and PTCH expression in VCaP and PNT2-ARm. Our results suggest that Hh pathway activity can be regulated by androgen signalling. Specifically, we show that the DHT-induced inhibition of Hh pathway is AR dependent. The mutual interaction between these two pathways might be important in the regulation of cell proliferation in PCa.

  8. Prolyl hydroxylase-1 regulates hepatocyte apoptosis in an NF-κB-dependent manner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzpatrick, Susan F.; Fábián, Zsolt; Schaible, Bettina; Lenihan, Colin R.; Schwarzl, Thomas [School of Medicine and Medical Science, The Conway Institute, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 Ireland (Ireland); Rodriguez, Javier [Systems Biology Ireland, University College Dublin, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Zheng, Xingnan; Li, Zongwei [Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Tambuwala, Murtaza M. [School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ulster University, Coleraine, BT52 1SA, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Higgins, Desmond G.; O' Meara, Yvonne [School of Medicine and Medical Science, The Conway Institute, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 Ireland (Ireland); Slattery, Craig [School of Biomolecular and Biomedical Science, The Conway Institute, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 Ireland (Ireland); Manresa, Mario C. [School of Medicine and Medical Science, The Conway Institute, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 Ireland (Ireland); Fraisl, Peter; Bruning, Ulrike [Laboratory of Angiogenesis and Vascular Metabolism, Department of Oncology, University of Leuven, Vesalius Research Center, VIB, B-3000 (Belgium); Baes, Myriam [Laboratory for Cell Metabolism, Department of Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences, KU Leuven (Belgium); Carmeliet, Peter; Doherty, Glen [Laboratory of Angiogenesis and Vascular Metabolism, Department of Oncology, University of Leuven, Vesalius Research Center, VIB, B-3000 (Belgium); Kriegsheim, Alex von [Systems Biology Ireland, University College Dublin, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Cummins, Eoin P. [School of Medicine and Medical Science, The Conway Institute, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 Ireland (Ireland); and others

    2016-06-03

    Hepatocyte death is an important contributing factor in a number of diseases of the liver. PHD1 confers hypoxic sensitivity upon transcription factors including the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB). Reduced PHD1 activity is linked to decreased apoptosis. Here, we investigated the underlying mechanism(s) in hepatocytes. Basal NF-κB activity was elevated in PHD1{sup −/−} hepatocytes compared to wild type controls. ChIP-seq analysis confirmed enhanced binding of NF-κB to chromatin in regions proximal to the promoters of genes involved in the regulation of apoptosis. Inhibition of NF-κB (but not knock-out of HIF-1 or HIF-2) reversed the anti-apoptotic effects of pharmacologic hydroxylase inhibition. We hypothesize that PHD1 inhibition leads to altered expression of NF-κB-dependent genes resulting in reduced apoptosis. This study provides new information relating to the possible mechanism of therapeutic action of hydroxylase inhibitors that has been reported in pre-clinical models of intestinal and hepatic disease. -- Highlights: •Genetic ablation of PHD1 upregulates NF-kappaB (NF-κB) in hepatocytes. •Activation of NF-κB leads to differential DNA-binding of p50/p65 and results in differential regulation of apoptotic genes. •We identified proline 191 in the beta subunit of the I-kappaB kinase as a target for PHD1-mediated hydroxylation. •Blockade of prolyl-4-hydroxylases has been found cytoprotective in liver cells.

  9. High Glucose Enhances Isoflurane-Induced Neurotoxicity by Regulating TRPC-Dependent Calcium Influx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, ZhongJie; Ma, ChangQing; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, QingGuo; Xu, Rui; Zhang, HongFei; Lei, HongYi; Xu, ShiYuan

    2017-01-06

    Isoflurane is a commonly used inhalational anesthetic that can induce neurotoxicity via elevating cytosolic calcium (Ca(2+)). High glucose regulates the expression of a family of non-selective cation channels termed transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels that may contribute to Ca(2+) influx. In the present study, we investigated whether high glucose enhances isoflurane-induced neurotoxicity by regulating TRPC-dependent Ca(2+) influx. First, we evaluated toxic damage in mice primary cultured hippocampal neurons and human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y cells) after hyperglycemia and isoflurane exposure. Next, we investigated cytosolic Ca(2+) concentrations, TRPC mRNA expression levels and tested the effect of the TRPC channel blocker SKF96365 on cytosolic Ca(2+) levels in cells treated with high glucose or/and isoflurane. Finally, we employed knocked down TRPC6 to demonstrate the role of TRPC in high glucose-mediated enhancement of isoflurane-induced neurotoxicity. The results showed that high glucose could enhance isoflurane-induecd toxic damage in primary hippocampal neurons and SH-SY5Y cells. High glucose enhanced the isoflurane-induced increase of cytosolic Ca(2+) in SH-SY5Y cells. High glucose elevated TRPC mRNA expression, especially that of TRPC6. SKF96365 and knock down of TRPC6 were able to inhibit the high glucose-induced increase of cytosolic Ca(2+) and decrease isoflurane-induced neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells cultured with high glucose. Our findings indicate that high glucose could elevate TRPC expression, thus increasing Ca(2+) influx and enhancing isoflurane-induced neurotoxicity.

  10. Differential Regulation of Duplicate Light-Dependent Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductases in the Diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather M Hunsperger

    Full Text Available Diatoms (Bacilliariophyceae encode two light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductases (POR1 and POR2 that catalyze the penultimate step of chlorophyll biosynthesis in the light. Algae live in dynamic environments whose changing light levels induce photoacclimative metabolic shifts, including altered cellular chlorophyll levels. We hypothesized that the two POR proteins may be differentially adaptive under varying light conditions. Using the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum as a test system, differences in POR protein abundance and por gene expression were examined when this organism was grown on an alternating light:dark cycles at different irradiances; exposed to continuous light; and challenged by a significant decrease in light availability.For cultures maintained on a 12h light: 12h dark photoperiod at 200μE m-2 s-1 (200L/D, both por genes were up-regulated during the light and down-regulated in the dark, though por1 transcript abundance rose and fell earlier than that of por2. Little concordance occurred between por1 mRNA and POR1 protein abundance. In contrast, por2 mRNA and POR2 protein abundances followed similar diurnal patterns. When 200L/D P. tricornutum cultures were transferred to continuous light (200L/L, the diurnal regulatory pattern of por1 mRNA abundance but not of por2 was disrupted, and POR1 but not POR2 protein abundance dropped steeply. Under 1200μE m-2 s-1 (1200L/D, both por1 mRNA and POR1 protein abundance displayed diurnal oscillations. A compromised diel por2 mRNA response under 1200L/D did not impact the oscillation in POR2 abundance. When cells grown at 1200L/D were then shifted to 50μE m-2 s-1 (50L/D, por1 and por2 mRNA levels decreased swiftly but briefly upon light reduction. Thereafter, POR1 but not POR2 protein levels rose significantly in response to this light stepdown.Given the sensitivity of diatom por1/POR1 to real-time light cues and adherence of por2/POR2 regulation to the diurnal cycle, we suggest

  11. Regulation of the intersubunit ammonia tunnel in Mycobacterium tuberculosis glutamine-dependent NAD[superscript +] synthetase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuenchor, Watchalee; Doukov, Tzanko I.; Resto, Melissa; Chang, Andrew; Gerratana, Barbara (SSRL); (Maryland)

    2012-08-31

    Glutamine-dependent NAD{sup +} synthetase is an essential enzyme and a validated drug target in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (mtuNadE). It catalyses the ATP-dependent formation of NAD{sup +} from NaAD{sup +} (nicotinic acid-adenine dinucleotide) at the synthetase active site and glutamine hydrolysis at the glutaminase active site. An ammonia tunnel 40 {angstrom} (1 {angstrom} = 0.1 nm) long allows transfer of ammonia from one active site to the other. The enzyme displays stringent kinetic synergism; however, its regulatory mechanism is unclear. In the present paper, we report the structures of the inactive glutaminase C176A variant in an apo form and in three synthetase-ligand complexes with substrates (NaAD{sup +}/ATP), substrate analogue {l_brace}NaAD{sup +}/AMP-CPP (adenosine 5'-[{alpha},{beta}-methylene]triphosphate){r_brace} and intermediate analogues (NaAD{sup +}/AMP/PPi), as well as the structure of wild-type mtuNadE in a product complex (NAD{sup +}/AMP/PPi/glutamate). This series of structures provides snapshots of the ammonia tunnel during the catalytic cycle supported also by kinetics and mutagenesis studies. Three major constriction sites are observed in the tunnel: (i) at the entrance near the glutaminase active site; (ii) in the middle of the tunnel; and (iii) at the end near the synthetase active site. Variation in the number and radius of the tunnel constrictions is apparent in the crystal structures and is related to ligand binding at the synthetase domain. These results provide new insight into the regulation of ammonia transport in the intermolecular tunnel of mtuNadE.

  12. CCR7 and IRF4-dependent dendritic cells regulate lymphatic collecting vessel permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Stoyan; Scallan, Joshua P; Kim, Ki-Wook; Werth, Kathrin; Johnson, Michael W; Saunders, Brian T; Wang, Peter L; Kuan, Emma L; Straub, Adam C; Ouhachi, Melissa; Weinstein, Erica G; Williams, Jesse W; Briseño, Carlos; Colonna, Marco; Isakson, Brant E; Gautier, Emmanuel L; Förster, Reinhold; Davis, Michael J; Zinselmeyer, Bernd H; Randolph, Gwendalyn J

    2016-04-01

    Lymphatic collecting vessels direct lymph into and from lymph nodes (LNs) and can become hyperpermeable as the result of a previous infection. Enhanced permeability has been implicated in compromised immunity due to reduced flow of lymph and immune cells to LNs, which are the primary site of antigen presentation to T cells. Presently, very little is known about the molecular signals that affect lymphatic collecting vessel permeability. Here, we have shown that lymphatic collecting vessel permeability is controlled by CCR7 and that the chronic hyperpermeability of collecting vessels observed in Ccr7-/- mice is followed by vessel fibrosis. Reexpression of CCR7 in DCs, however, was sufficient to reverse the development of such fibrosis. IFN regulatory factor 4-positive (IRF4+) DCs constitutively interacted with collecting lymphatics, and selective ablation of this DC subset in Cd11c-Cre Irf4fl/fl mice also rendered lymphatic collecting vessels hyperpermeable and fibrotic. Together, our data reveal that CCR7 plays multifaceted roles in regulating collecting vessel permeability and fibrosis, with one of the key players being IRF4-dependent DCs.

  13. Phosphorylation-dependent protein interactions at the spindle midzone mediate cell cycle regulation of spindle elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khmelinskii, Anton; Roostalu, Johanna; Roque, Helio; Antony, Claude; Schiebel, Elmar

    2009-08-01

    The metaphase-to-anaphase transition is one of the most dramatic and highly regulated steps in cell division. At anaphase onset the protease separase dissolves sister chromatid cohesion. Simultaneously, the mitotic spindle elongates as interpolar microtubules (iMTs) slide apart at the spindle midzone, ensuring chromosome segregation. However, it remains unclear how spindle elongation is coordinated with cell cycle progression. Here we demonstrate that phosphorylation of the midzone organizer Ase1 controls localization and function of Cin8, a kinesin-5 that slides iMTs relative to each other. Phosphorylation of Ase1 by Cdk1 (cyclin-dependent kinase) inhibits Cin8 binding to iMTs, preventing bending and collapse of the metaphase spindle. In anaphase Ase1 dephosphorylation by the separase-activated phosphatase Cdc14 is necessary and sufficient for Cin8 recruitment to the midzone, where it drives spindle elongation. Our results reveal that sliding forces at the midzone are activated by separase and explain how spindle elongation is triggered with anaphase entry.

  14. Mitochondria-Mediated Protein Regulation Mechanism of Polymorphs-Dependent Inhibition of Nanoselenium on Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ge; Guo, Yuming; Yang, Gai; Yang, Lin; Ma, Xiaoming; Wang, Kui; Zhu, Lin; Sun, Jiaojiao; Wang, Xiaobing; Zhang, Hua

    2016-08-01

    The present study was (i) to prepare two types of selenium nanoparticles, namely an amorphous form of selenium quantum dots (A-SeQDs) and a crystalline form of selenium quantum dots (C-SeQDs); and (ii) to investigate the nano-bio interactions of A-SeQDs and C-SeQDs in MCF-7, HepG2, HeLa, NIH/3T3, L929 cells and BRL-3A cells. It was found that A-SeQDs could induce the mitochondria-mediated apoptosis, necrosis and death of cells, while C-SeQDs had much weaker effects. This polymorphs-dependent anti-proliferative activity of nano-selenium was scarcely reported. Further investigation demonstrated that A-SeQDs could differentially regulate 61 proteins and several pathways related to stress response, protein synthesis, cell migration and cell cycle, including “p38 MAPK Signaling”, “p53 Signaling”, “14-3-3-mediated Signaling”, “p70S6K Signaling” and “Protein Ubiquitination Pathway”. This was the first report to demonstrate the involvement of protein synthesis and post-translational modification pathways in the anti-proliferative activity associated with NMs. Compared with previously fragmentary studies, this study use a nanomics approach combining bioinformatics and proteomics to systematically investigate the nano-bio interactions of selenium nanoparticles in cancer cells.

  15. Berberine regulates neurite outgrowth through AMPK-dependent pathways by lowering energy status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jiaqi; Cao, Yuanzhao; Cheng, Kuoyuan; Xu, Bo; Wang, Tianchang; Yang, Qi; Yang, Qin [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, Department of Chemical Biology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Feng, Xudong, E-mail: xudong.feng@childrens.harvard.edu [Department of Medicine, Children' s Hospital Boston, Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Ave, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Xia, Qing, E-mail: xqing@hsc.pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, Department of Chemical Biology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China)

    2015-06-10

    As a widely used anti-bacterial agent and a metabolic inhibitor as well as AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator, berberine (BBR) has been shown to cross the blood–brain barrier. Its efficacy has been investigated in various disease models of the central nervous system. Neurite outgrowth is critical for nervous system development and is a highly energy-dependent process regulated by AMPK-related pathways. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of BBR on AMPK activation and neurite outgrowth in neurons. The neurite outgrowth of primary rat cortical neurons at different stages of polarization was monitored after exposure of BBR. Intracellular energy level, AMPK activation and polarity-related pathways were also inspected. The results showed that BBR suppressed neurite outgrowth and affected cytoskeleton stability in the early stages of neuronal polarization, which was mediated by lowered energy status and AMPK activation. Liver kinase B1 and PI3K–Akt–GSK3β signaling pathways were also involved. In addition, mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum stress contributed to the lowered energy status induced by BBR. This study highlighted the knowledge of the complex activities of BBR in neurons and corroborated the significance of energy status during the neuronal polarization. - Highlights: • BBR inhibited neurite outgrowth in early stages of neuronal development. • Lowered neuronal energy status was induced by BBR treatment. • Neuronal energy stress induced by BBR activated AMPK-related pathways. • BBR induced mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum stress.

  16. Calnexin-dependent regulation of tunicamycin-induced apoptosis in breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delom, F; Emadali, A; Cocolakis, E; Lebrun, J-J; Nantel, A; Chevet, E

    2007-03-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has evolved specific mechanisms to ensure protein folding as well as the maintenance of its own homeostasis. When these functions are not achieved, specific ER stress signals are triggered to activate either adaptive or apoptotic responses. Here, we demonstrate that MCF-7 cells are resistant to tunicamycin-induced apoptosis. We show that the expression level of the ER chaperone calnexin can directly influence tunicamycin sensitivity in this cell line. Interestingly, the expression of a calnexin lacking the chaperone domain (DeltaE) partially restores their sensitivity to tunicamycin-induced apoptosis. Indeed, we show that DeltaE acts as a scaffold molecule to allow the cleavage of Bap31 and thus generate the proapoptotic p20 fragment. Utilizing the ability of MCF-7 cells to resist tunicamycin-induced apoptosis, we have characterized a molecular mechanism by which calnexin regulates ER-stress-mediated apoptosis in a manner independent of its chaperone functions but dependent of its binding to Bap31.

  17. Oit1/Fam3D, a gut-secreted protein displaying nutritional status-dependent regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, Nicole J W; IJssennagger, Noortje; Oosterink, Els; Keshtkar, Shohreh; Hooiveld, Guido J E J; Mensink, Ronald P; Hammer, Sebastiaan; Smit, Johannes W A; Müller, Michael; van der Meer, Roelof

    2012-11-01

    Oncoprotein-induced transcript 1 (Oit1) was previously identified as a dietary fat-induced gene in the small intestine of C57Bl/6J mice. In this study, we further characterized Oit1 and its human ortholog family with sequence similarity 3, member D (Fam3D), on the messenger RNA as well as the protein level. Oit1 and Fam3D were found to be predominantly expressed in the gastrointestinal tract of mice and humans, respectively. Dietary fat induced a clear and acute up-regulation of Oit1, especially in the jejunum, whereas fasting led to a reduced gene expression in the small intestine. Regarding protein expression, we found a remarkable pattern of Oit1 along the longitudinal axis of the intestine, a predominant villus-restricted expression in the proximal small intestine and a more pronounced crypt expression in the distal parts of the intestine. Using transfection experiments, we confirmed secretion of the Oit1 protein, as was predicted by a signal peptide sequence. Detection of Oit1 and Fam3D in plasma samples indicated that both proteins are secreted to the basolateral site of enterocytes. Moreover, in human plasma samples, we also found an effect of nutritional status on Fam3D levels, with a postprandial elevation and a reduction after fasting. In conclusion, Oit1 and Fam3D are gut-derived proteins that are expressed and secreted in a nutritional status-dependent manner.

  18. Redox regulation of cGMP-dependent protein kinase Iα in the cardiovascular system

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    Oleksandra ePrysyazhna

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Elevated levels of oxidants in biological systems have been historically referred to as oxidative stress, a choice of words that perhaps conveys an imbalanced view of reactive oxygen species in cell and tissues. The term stress suggests a harmful role, whereas a contemporary view is that oxidants are also crucial for the maintenance of homeostasis or adaptive signaling that can actually limit injury. This regulatory role for oxidants is achieved in part by them inducing oxidative post-translational modifications of proteins which may alter their function or interactions. Such mechanisms allow changes in cell oxidant levels to be coupled to regulated alterations in enzymatic function (i.e. signal transduction, which enables redox signaling. In this review we focus on the role of cGMP-dependent protein kinase Iα (PKG disulfide dimerisation, an oxidative modification that is induced by oxidants that directly activates the enzyme, discussing how this impacts on the cardiovascular system. Additionally, how this oxidative activation of PKG may coordinate with or differ from classical activation of this kinase by cGMP will also be considered.

  19. MEK-dependent IL-8 induction regulates the invasiveness of triple-negative breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangmin; Lee, Jeongmin; Jeon, Myeongjin; Lee, Jeong Eon; Nam, Seok Jin

    2016-04-01

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8) serves as a prognostic marker for breast cancer, and its expression level correlates with metastatic breast cancer and poor prognosis. Here, we investigated the levels of IL-8 expression in a variety of breast cancer cells and the regulatory mechanism of IL-8 in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. Our results showed that IL-8 expression correlated positively with overall survival in basal-type breast cancer patients. The levels of IL-8 mRNA expression and protein secretion were significantly increased in TNBC cells compared with non-TNBC cells. In addition, the invasiveness of the TNBC cells was dramatically increased by IL-8 treatment and then augmented invasion-related proteins such as matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 or MMP-9. We observed that elevated IL-8 mRNA expression and protein secretion were suppressed by a specific MEK1/2 inhibitor, UO126. In contrast, the overexpression of constitutively active MEK significantly increased the level of IL-8 mRNA expression in BT474 non-TNBC cells. Finally, we investigated the effect of UO126 on the tumorigenecity of TNBC cells. Our results showed that anchorage-independent growth, cell invasion, and cell migration were also decreased by UO126 in TNBC cells. As such, we demonstrated that IL-8 expression is regulated through MEK/ERK-dependent pathways in TNBC cells. A diversity of MEK blockers, including UO126, may be promising for treating TNBC patients.

  20. Drosophila MOF regulates DIAP1 and induces apoptosis in a JNK dependent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushpavalli, Sreerangam N C V L; Sarkar, Arpita; Ramaiah, M Janaki; Koteswara Rao, G; Bag, Indira; Bhadra, Utpal; Pal-Bhadra, Manika

    2016-03-01

    Histone modulations have been implicated in various cellular and developmental processes where in Drosophila Mof is involved in acetylation of H4K16. Reduction in the size of larval imaginal discs is observed in the null mutants of mof with increased apoptosis. Deficiency involving Hid, Reaper and Grim [H99] alleviated mof (RNAi) induced apoptosis in the eye discs. mof (RNAi) induced apoptosis leads to activation of caspases which is suppressed by over expression of caspase inhibitors like P35 and Diap1 clearly depicting the role of caspases in programmed cell death. Also apoptosis induced by knockdown of mof is rescued by JNK mutants of bsk and tak1 indicating the role of JNK in mof (RNAi) induced apoptosis. The adult eye ablation phenotype produced by ectopic expression of Hid, Rpr and Grim, was restored by over expression of Mof. Accumulation of Mof at the Diap1 promoter 800 bp upstream of the transcription start site in wild type larvae is significantly higher (up to twofolds) compared to mof (1) mutants. This enrichment coincides with modification of histone H4K16Ac indicating an induction of direct transcriptional up regulation of Diap1 by Mof. Based on these results we propose that apoptosis triggered by mof (RNAi) proceeds through a caspase-dependent and JNK mediated pathway.

  1. "Glucose and ethanol-dependent transcriptional regulation of the astaxanthin biosynthesis pathway in Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous"

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    Cifuentes Víctor

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous is one of the most promising and economically attractive natural sources of astaxanthin. The biosynthesis of this valuable carotenoid is a complex process for which the regulatory mechanisms remain mostly unknown. Several studies have shown a strong correlation between the carbon source present in the medium and the amount of pigments synthesized. Carotenoid production is especially low when high glucose concentrations are used in the medium, while a significant increase is observed with non-fermentable carbon sources. However, the molecular basis of this phenomenon has not been established. Results In this work, we showed that glucose caused transcriptional repression of the three genes involved in the synthesis of astaxanthin from geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate in X. dendrorhous, which correlates with a complete inhibition of pigment synthesis. Strikingly, this regulatory response was completely altered in mutant strains that are incapable of synthesizing astaxanthin. However, we found that addition of ethanol caused the induction of crtYB and crtS gene expression and promoted de novo synthesis of carotenoids. The induction of carotenogenesis was noticeable as early as 24 h after ethanol addition. Conclusion For the first time, we demonstrated that carbon source-dependent regulation of astaxanthin biosynthesis in X. dendrorhous involves changes at the transcriptional level. Such regulatory mechanism provides an explanation for the strong and early inhibitory effect of glucose on the biosynthesis of this carotenoid.

  2. Regulation of dendritogenesis by ZBP1 depends on its phosphorylation at Ser181

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    Anna Sara Urbanska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Zipcode Binding Protein 1 (ZBP1 is one of proteins involved in local translation, a mechanism present in polarized cells, enabling rapid, localized protein synthesis in response to extracellular stimuli. It was previously shown that in neurons, processes coordinated by ZBP1 are indispensable for proper axonal growth cone and spine formation. We recently showed that developing neurons with overexpressed or knockdown ZBP1 cannot obtain proper morphology. We also proved that phosphorylation of ZBP1 by Src kinase is needed for proper dendritic branching [1]. Subsequently, we asked a question about other regulators of ZBP1 during dendritogenesis. Now, we demonstrate that ZBP1 is effectively phosphorylated in vitro by mTOR kinase. We took advantage of recently published data regarding potential mTOR-dependent phosphorylation sites in ZBP1 i.e. Ser181 [2] and examined role of this phosphorylation in (i dendritic arborization and (ii cellular distribution of ZBP1. To address these questions, we constructed non-phosphorable (S181A and phosphomimicking (S181E mutants of ZBP1 fused to GFP. We observed that S181E but not S181A reversed morphological deficits caused by ZBP1 knockdown. Another observation was that distribution along the dendrites of non-phosphorable mutant was more even than distribution of wild type ZBP1, which is denser at the dendritic branching points. Thus, we concluded that Ser181 phosphorylation is involved in ZBP1 functions during dendritic growth.

  3. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ-Dependent Regulation of Lipolytic Nodes and Metabolic Flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carobbio, Stefania; Velagapudi, Vidya R.; Barbarroja, Nuria; Moreno-Navarrete, Jose Maria; Tinahones, Francisco Jose; Fernandez-Real, Jose Manuel; Orešič, Matej

    2012-01-01

    Optimal lipid storage and mobilization are essential for efficient adipose tissue. Nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) regulates adipocyte differentiation and lipid deposition, but its role in lipolysis and dysregulation in obesity is not well defined. This investigation aimed to understand the molecular impact of dysfunctional PPARγ on the lipolytic axis and to explore whether these defects are also confirmed in common forms of human obesity. For this purpose, we used the P465L PPARγ mouse as a model of dysfunctional PPARγ that recapitulates the human pparγ mutation (P467L). We demonstrated that defective PPARγ impairs catecholamine-induced lipolysis. This abnormal lipolytic response is exacerbated by a state of positive energy balance in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice. We identified the protein kinase A (PKA) network as a PPARγ-dependent regulatory node of the lipolytic response. Specifically, defective PPARγ is associated with decreased basal expression of prkaca (PKAcatα) and d-akap1, the lipase genes Pnplaz (ATGL) and Lipe (HSL), and lipid droplet protein genes fsp27 and adrp in vivo and in vitro. Our data indicate that PPARγ is required for activation of the lipolytic regulatory network, dysregulation of which is an important feature of obesity-induced insulin resistance in humans. PMID:22310664

  4. Abiotic surface sensing and biofilm-dependent regulation of gene expression in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigent-Combaret, C; Vidal, O; Dorel, C; Lejeune, P

    1999-10-01

    To get further information on bacterial surface sensing and biofilm-dependent regulation of gene expression in Escherichia coli K-12, random insertion mutagenesis with Mu dX, a mini-Mu carrying the promoterless lacZ gene, was performed with an ompR234 adherent strain, and a simple screen was developed to assess changes in gene expression in biofilm cells versus planktonic cells. This screen revealed that major changes in the pattern of gene expression occur during biofilm development: the transcription of 38% of the genes was affected within biofilms. Different cell functions were more expressed in sessile bacteria: the OmpC porin, the high-affinity transport system of glycine betaine (encoded by the proU operon), the colanic acid exopolysaccharide (wca locus, formerly called cps), tripeptidase T (pepT), and the nickel high-affinity transport system (nikA). On the other hand, the syntheses of flagellin (fliC) and of a putative protein of 92 amino acids (f92) were both reduced in biofilms. Such a genetic reprogramming of gene expression in biofilms seems to result from changes in multiple environmental physicochemical conditions. In this work, we show that bacteria within biofilms encounter higher-osmolarity conditions, greater oxygen limitation, and higher cell density than in the liquid phase.

  5. Negative density dependence regulates two tree species at later life stage in a temperate forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiefeng Piao

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have demonstrated that tree survival is influenced by negative density dependence (NDD and differences among species in shade tolerance could enhance coexistence via resource partitioning, but it is still unclear how NDD affects tree species with different shade-tolerance guilds at later life stages. In this study, we analyzed the spatial patterns for trees with dbh (diameter at breast height ≥2 cm using the pair-correlation g(r function to test for NDD in a temperate forest in South Korea after removing the effects of habitat heterogeneity. The analyses were implemented for the most abundant shade-tolerant (Chamaecyparis obtusa and shade-intolerant (Quercus serrata species. We found NDD existed for both species at later life stages. We also found Quercus serrata experienced greater NDD compared with Chamaecyparis obtusa. This study indicates that NDD regulates the two abundant tree species at later life stages and it is important to consider variation in species' shade tolerance in NDD study.

  6. Negative density dependence regulates two tree species at later life stage in a temperate forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Tiefeng; Chun, Jung Hwa; Yang, Hee Moon; Cheon, Kwangil

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that tree survival is influenced by negative density dependence (NDD) and differences among species in shade tolerance could enhance coexistence via resource partitioning, but it is still unclear how NDD affects tree species with different shade-tolerance guilds at later life stages. In this study, we analyzed the spatial patterns for trees with dbh (diameter at breast height) ≥2 cm using the pair-correlation g(r) function to test for NDD in a temperate forest in South Korea after removing the effects of habitat heterogeneity. The analyses were implemented for the most abundant shade-tolerant (Chamaecyparis obtusa) and shade-intolerant (Quercus serrata) species. We found NDD existed for both species at later life stages. We also found Quercus serrata experienced greater NDD compared with Chamaecyparis obtusa. This study indicates that NDD regulates the two abundant tree species at later life stages and it is important to consider variation in species' shade tolerance in NDD study.

  7. Proteasome-dependent degradation of replisome components regulates faithful DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseaulin, Laura C; Noguchi, Chiaki; Noguchi, Eishi

    2013-08-15

    The replication machinery, or the replisome, collides with a variety of obstacles during the normal process of DNA replication. In addition to damaged template DNA, numerous chromosome regions are considered to be difficult to replicate owing to the presence of DNA secondary structures and DNA-binding proteins. Under these conditions, the replication fork stalls, generating replication stress. Stalled forks are prone to collapse, posing serious threats to genomic integrity. It is generally thought that the replication checkpoint functions to stabilize the replisome and replication fork structure upon replication stress. This is important in order to allow DNA replication to resume once the problem is solved. However, our recent studies demonstrated that some replisome components undergo proteasome-dependent degradation during DNA replication in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Our investigation has revealed the involvement of the SCF(Pof3) (Skp1-Cullin/Cdc53-F-box) ubiquitin ligase in replisome regulation. We also demonstrated that forced accumulation of the replisome components leads to abnormal DNA replication upon replication stress. Here we review these findings and present additional data indicating the importance of replisome degradation for DNA replication. Our studies suggest that cells activate an alternative pathway to degrade replisome components in order to preserve genomic integrity.

  8. TDP-1/TDP-43 Regulates Stress Signaling and Age-Dependent Proteotoxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccaro, Alexandra; Tauffenberger, Arnaud; Ash, Peter E. A.; Carlomagno, Yari; Petrucelli, Leonard; Parker, J. Alex

    2012-01-01

    TDP-43 is a multifunctional nucleic acid binding protein linked to several neurodegenerative diseases including Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and Frontotemporal Dementia. To learn more about the normal biological and abnormal pathological role of this protein, we turned to Caenorhabditis elegans and its orthologue TDP-1. We report that TDP-1 functions in the Insulin/IGF pathway to regulate longevity and the oxidative stress response downstream from the forkhead transcription factor DAF-16/FOXO3a. However, although tdp-1 mutants are stress-sensitive, chronic upregulation of tdp-1 expression is toxic and decreases lifespan. ALS–associated mutations in TDP-43 or the related RNA binding protein FUS activate the unfolded protein response and generate oxidative stress leading to the daf-16–dependent upregulation of tdp-1 expression with negative effects on neuronal function and lifespan. Consistently, deletion of endogenous tdp-1 rescues mutant TDP-43 and FUS proteotoxicity in C. elegans. These results suggest that chronic induction of wild-type TDP-1/TDP-43 by cellular stress may propagate neurodegeneration and decrease lifespan. PMID:22792076

  9. Localization-Dependent and -Independent Roles of SLX4 in Regulating Telomeres

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    Jamie S.J. Wilson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available SLX4, a scaffold for structure-specific DNA repair nucleases, is important for several types of DNA repair. Many repair proteins bind to sites of DNA damage, resulting in subnuclear “foci,” but SLX4 forms foci in human cells even without DNA damage. Using several approaches, we show that most, but not all, SLX4 foci localize to telomeres in a range of human cell lines irrespective of the mechanisms used to maintain telomere length. The SLX1 Holliday-junction-processing enzyme is recruited to telomeres by SLX4, and SLX4, in turn, is recruited by a motif that binds to the shelterin subunit TRF2 directly. We also show that TRF2-dependent recruitment of SLX4 prevents telomere damage. Furthermore, SLX4 prevents telomere lengthening and fragility in a manner that appears to be independent of telomere association. These findings reveal that SLX4 plays multiple roles in regulating telomere homeostasis.

  10. Regulation of autophagy and chloroquine sensitivity by oncogenic RAS in vitro is context-dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Michael J; Gamez, Graciela; Menke, Christina; Hernandez, Ariel; Thorburn, Jacqueline; Gidan, Freddi; Staskiewicz, Leah; Morgan, Shellie; Cummings, Christopher; Maycotte, Paola; Thorburn, Andrew

    2014-10-01

    Chloroquine (CQ) is an antimalarial drug and late-stage inhibitor of autophagy currently FDA-approved for use in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases. Based primarily on its ability to inhibit autophagy, CQ and its derivative, hydroxychloroquine, are currently being investigated as primary or adjuvant therapy in multiple clinical trials for cancer treatment. Oncogenic RAS has previously been shown to regulate autophagic flux, and cancers with high incidence of RAS mutations, such as pancreatic cancer, have been described in the literature as being particularly susceptible to CQ treatment, leading to the hypothesis that oncogenic RAS makes cancer cells dependent on autophagy. This autophagy "addiction" suggests that the mutation status of RAS in tumors could identify patients who would be more likely to benefit from CQ therapy. Here we show that RAS mutation status itself is unlikely to be beneficial in such a patient selection because oncogenic RAS does not always promote autophagy addiction. Moreover, oncogenic RAS can have opposite effects on both autophagic flux and CQ sensitivity in different cells. Finally, for any given cell type, the positive or negative effect of oncogenic RAS on autophagy does not necessarily predict whether RAS will promote or inhibit CQ-mediated toxicity. Thus, although our results confirm that different tumor cell lines display marked differences in how they respond to autophagy inhibition, these differences can occur irrespective of RAS mutation status and, in different contexts, can either promote or reduce chloroquine sensitivity of tumor cells.

  11. The Eag domain regulates the voltage-dependent inactivation of rat Eag1 K+ channels.

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    Ting-Feng Lin

    Full Text Available Eag (Kv10 and Erg (Kv11 belong to two distinct subfamilies of the ether-à-go-go K+ channel family (KCNH. While Erg channels are characterized by an inward-rectifying current-voltage relationship that results from a C-type inactivation, mammalian Eag channels display little or no voltage-dependent inactivation. Although the amino (N-terminal region such as the eag domain is not required for the C-type inactivation of Erg channels, an N-terminal deletion in mouse Eag1 has been shown to produce a voltage-dependent inactivation. To further discern the role of the eag domain in the inactivation of Eag1 channels, we generated N-terminal chimeras between rat Eag (rEag1 and human Erg (hERG1 channels that involved swapping the eag domain alone or the complete cytoplasmic N-terminal region. Functional analyses indicated that introduction of the homologous hERG1 eag domain led to both a fast phase and a slow phase of channel inactivation in the rEag1 chimeras. By contrast, the inactivation features were retained in the reverse hERG1 chimeras. Furthermore, an eag domain-lacking rEag1 deletion mutant also showed the fast phase of inactivation that was notably attenuated upon co-expression with the rEag1 eag domain fragment, but not with the hERG1 eag domain fragment. Additionally, we have identified a point mutation in the S4-S5 linker region of rEag1 that resulted in a similar inactivation phenotype. Biophysical analyses of these mutant constructs suggested that the inactivation gating of rEag1 was distinctly different from that of hERG1. Overall, our findings are consistent with the notion that the eag domain plays a critical role in regulating the inactivation gating of rEag1. We propose that the eag domain may destabilize or mask an inherent voltage-dependent inactivation of rEag1 K+ channels.

  12. Role for calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in the p75-mediated regulation of sympathetic cholinergic transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Slonimsky, John D.; Mattaliano, Mark D.; Moon, Jung-Il; Leslie C. Griffith; Birren, Susan J.

    2006-01-01

    Neurotrophins regulate sympathetic neuron cotransmission by modulating the activity-dependent release of norepinephrine and acetylcholine. Nerve growth factor promotes excitatory noradrenergic transmission, whereas brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), acting through the p75 receptor, increases inhibitory cholinergic transmission. This regulation of corelease by target-derived factors leads to the functional modulation of myocyte beat rate in neuron–myocyte cocultures. Calcium/calmodulin-...

  13. Ethylene regulates Apple (Malus x domestica) fruit softening through a dose x time-dependent mechanism and through differential sensitivities and dependencies of cell wall-modifying genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Hilary S; Gunaseelan, Kularajathevan; Muddumage, Ratnasiri; Tacken, Emma J; Putterill, Jo; Johnston, Jason W; Schaffer, Robert J

    2014-05-01

    In fleshy fruit species that have a strong requirement for ethylene to ripen, ethylene is synthesized autocatalytically, producing increasing concentrations as the fruits ripen. Apple fruit with the ACC OXIDASE 1 (ACO1) gene suppressed cannot produce ethylene autocatalytically at ripening. Using these apple lines, an ethylene sensitivity dependency model was previously proposed, with traits such as softening showing a high dependency for ethylene as well as low sensitivity. In this study, it is shown that the molecular control of fruit softening is a complex process, with different cell wall-related genes being independently regulated and exhibiting differential sensitivities to and dependencies on ethylene at the transcriptional level. This regulation is controlled through a dose × time mechanism, which results in a temporal transcriptional response that would allow for progressive cell wall disassembly and thus softening. This research builds on the sensitivity dependency model and shows that ethylene-dependent traits can progress over time to the same degree with lower levels of ethylene. This suggests that a developmental clock measuring cumulative ethylene controls the fruit ripening process.

  14. DJ-1-dependent regulation of oxidative stress in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE.

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    Karen G Shadrach

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: DJ-1 is found in many tissues, including the brain, where it has been extensively studied due to its association with Parkinson's disease. DJ-1 functions as a redox-sensitive molecular chaperone and transcription regulator that robustly protects cells from oxidative stress. METHODOLOGY: Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cultures were treated with H2O2 for various times followed by biochemical and immunohistological analysis. Cells were transfected with adenoviruses carrying the full-length human DJ-1 cDNA and a mutant construct, which has the cysteine residues at amino acid 46, 53 and 106 mutated to serine (C to S prior to stress experiments. DJ-1 localization, levels of expression and reactive oxygen species (ROS generation were also analyzed in cells expressing exogenous DJ-1 under baseline and oxidative stress conditions. The presence of DJ-1 and oxidized DJ-1 was evaluated in human RPE total lysates. The distribution of DJ-1 was assessed in AMD and non-AMD cryosectionss and in isolated human Bruch's membrane (BM/choroid from AMD eyes. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: DJ-1 in RPE cells under baseline conditions, displays a diffuse cytoplasmic and nuclear staining. After oxidative challenge, more DJ-1 was associated with mitochondria. Increasing concentrations of H2O2 resulted in a dose-dependent increase in DJ-1. Overexpression of DJ-1 but not the C to S mutant prior to exposure to oxidative stress led to significant decrease in the generation of ROS. DJ-1 and oxDJ-1 intensity of immunoreactivity was significantly higher in the RPE lysates from AMD eyes. More DJ-1 was localized to RPE cells from AMD donors with geographic atrophy and DJ-1 was also present in isolated human BM/choroid from AMD eyes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: DJ-1 regulates RPE responses to oxidative stress. Most importantly, increased DJ-1 expression prior to oxidative stress leads to decreased generation of ROS, which will be relevant for future studies of AMD since oxidative

  15. SAP-independent and -dependent regulation of innate T cell development involving SLAMF receptors

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    Jaime eDe Calisto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM-associated protein (SAP plays an essential role in the immune system mediating the function of several members of the SLAM family (SLAMF of receptors, whose expression is essential for T, NK, and B cell responses. Additionally, the expression of SAP in double-positive (DP thymocytes is mandatory for natural killer T (NKT cells and, in mouse, for innate CD8+ T cell development. To date, only two members of the SLAMF of receptors, Slamf1 and Slamf6, have been shown to positively cooperate during NKT cell differentiation in mouse. However, it is less clear whether other members of this family may also participate in the development of these innate T cells. Here, we show that Slamf[1+6]-/- and Slamf[1+5+6]-/- B6 mice have an approximately 70% reduction of NKT cells compared to wild-type (WT B6 mice. Unexpectedly, the proportion of innate CD8+ T cells slightly increased in the Slamf[1+5+6]-/-, but not in the Slamf[1+6]-/- strain, suggesting that Slamf5 may function as a negative regulator of innate CD8+ T cell development. Accordingly, Slamf5-/- B6 mice showed an exclusive expansion of innate CD8+ T cells, but not NKT cells. Interestingly, the SAP-independent Slamf7-/- strain showed an expansion of both splenic innate CD8+ T cells and thymic NKT cells. On the other hand, and similar to what was recently shown in Slamf3-/- BALB/c mice, the proportions of thymic PLZFhi NKT cells and innate CD8+ T cells significatively increased in the SAP-independent Slamf8-/- BALB/c strain. In summary, these results show that NKT and innate CD8+ T cell development can be regulated in a SAP-dependent and -independent fashion by SLAMF receptors, in which Slamf1, Slamf6, and Slamf8 affect development of NKT cells, and that Slamf5, Slamf7, and Slamf8 affect the development of innate CD8+ T cells.

  16. SAP-Dependent and -Independent Regulation of Innate T Cell Development Involving SLAMF Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Calisto, Jaime; Wang, Ninghai; Wang, Guoxing; Yigit, Burcu; Engel, Pablo; Terhorst, Cox

    2014-01-01

    Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM)-associated protein (SAP) plays an essential role in the immune system mediating the function of several members of the SLAM family (SLAMF) of receptors, whose expression is essential for T, NK, and B-cell responses. Additionally, the expression of SAP in double-positive thymocytes is mandatory for natural killer T (NKT) cells and, in mouse, for innate CD8(+) T cell development. To date, only two members of the SLAMF of receptors, Slamf1 and Slamf6, have been shown to positively cooperate during NKT cell differentiation in mouse. However, it is less clear whether other members of this family may also participate in the development of these innate T cells. Here, we show that Slamf[1 + 6](-/-) and Slamf[1 + 5 + 6](-/-) B6 mice have ~70% reduction of NKT cells compared to wild-type B6 mice. Unexpectedly, the proportion of innate CD8(+) T cells slightly increased in the Slamf[1 + 5 + 6](-/-) , but not in the Slamf[1 + 6](-/-) strain, suggesting that Slamf5 may function as a negative regulator of innate CD8(+) T cell development. Accordingly, Slamf5(-/-) B6 mice showed an exclusive expansion of innate CD8(+) T cells, but not NKT cells. Interestingly, the SAP-independent Slamf7(-/-) strain showed an expansion of both splenic innate CD8(+) T cells and thymic NKT cells. On the other hand, and similar to what was recently shown in Slamf3(-/-) BALB/c mice, the proportions of thymic promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF(hi)) NKT cells and innate CD8(+) T cells significantly increased in the SAP-independent Slamf8(-/-) BALB/c strain. In summary, these results show that NKT and innate CD8(+) T cell development can be regulated in a SAP-dependent and -independent fashion by SLAMF receptors, in which Slamf1, Slamf6, and Slamf8 affect development of NKT cells, and that Slamf5, Slamf7, and Slamf8 affect the development of innate CD8(+) T cells.

  17. Structural Basis of the Lactate-dependent Allosteric Regulation of Oxygen Binding in Arthropod Hemocyanin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirota, S.; Tanaka, N; Micetic, I; Di Muro, P; Nagao, S; Kitagishi, H; Magliozzo, R; Peisach, J; Beltramini, M; Bubacco, L

    2010-01-01

    Hemocyanin (Hc) is an oxygen carrier protein in which oxygen binding is regulated by allosteric effectors such as H{sup +} and L-lactate. Isothermal titration calorimetric measurements showed that L-lactate binds to dodecameric and heterohexameric Hc and to the CaeSS3 homohexamer but not to the CaeSS2 monomer. The binding of lactate caused no change in the optical absorption and x-ray absorption spectra of either oxy- or deoxy-Hc, suggesting that no structural rearrangement of the active site occurred. At pH 6.5, the oxygen binding rate constant k{sub obs} obtained by flash photolysis showed a significant increase upon addition of L-lactate, whereas L-lactate addition had little effect at pH 8.3. Lactate binding caused a concentration-dependent shift in the interhexameric distances at pH 6.5 based on small angle x-ray scattering measurements. These results show that L-lactate affects oxygen affinity at pH 6.5 by modulating the global structure of Hc without affecting its binuclear copper center (the active site). In contrast to this, the active site structure of deoxy-Hc is affected by changes in pH (Hirota, S., Kawahara, T., Beltramini, M., Di Muro, P., Magliozzo, R. S., Peisach, J., Powers, L. S., Tanaka, N., Nagao, S., and Bubacco, L. (2008) J. Biol. Chem. 283, 31941-31948). Upon addiction of lactate, the kinetic behavior of oxygen rebinding for Hc was heterogeneous under low oxygen concentrations at pH 6.5 due to changes in the T and R state populations, and the equilibrium was found to shift from the T toward the R state with addition of lactate.

  18. Hypothalamo-pituitary and immune-dependent adrenal regulation during systemic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanczkowski, Waldemar; Alexaki, Vasileia-Ismini; Tran, Nguyen; Großklaus, Sylvia; Zacharowski, Kai; Martinez, Antoine; Popovics, Petra; Block, Norman L; Chavakis, Triantafyllos; Schally, Andrew V; Bornstein, Stefan R

    2013-09-03

    Inflammation-related dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is central to the course of systemic inflammatory response syndrome or sepsis. The underlying mechanisms, however, are not well understood. Initial activation of adrenocortical hormone production during early sepsis depends on the stimulation of hypothalamus and pituitary mediated by cytokines; in late sepsis, there is a shift from neuroendocrine to local immune-adrenal regulation of glucocorticoid production. Therefore, the modulation of the local immune-adrenal cross talk, and not of the neuroendocrine circuits involved in adrenocorticotropic hormone production, may be more promising in the prevention of the adrenal insufficiency associated with prolonged sepsis. In the present work, we investigated the function of the crucial Toll-like receptor (TLR) adaptor protein myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) in systemic and local activation of adrenal gland inflammation and glucocorticoid production mediated by lipopolysachharides (LPSs). To this end, we used mice with a conditional MyD88 allele. These mice either were interbred with Mx1 Cre mice, resulting in systemic MyD88 deletion, predominantly in the liver and hematopoietic system, or were crossed with Akr1b7 Cre transgenic mice, resulting thereby in deletion of MyD88, which was adrenocortical-specific. Although reduced adrenal inflammation and HPA-axis activation mediated by LPS were found in Mx1(Cre+)-MyD88(fl/fl) mice, adrenocortical-specific MyD88 deletion did not alter the adrenal inflammation or HPA-axis activity under systemic inflammatory response syndrome conditions. Thus, our data suggest an important role of immune cell rather than adrenocortical MyD88 for adrenal inflammation and HPA-axis activation mediated by LPS.

  19. Irsogladine maleate regulates gap junctional intercellular communication-dependent epithelial barrier in human nasal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Ryo; Nomura, Kazuaki; Kakuki, Takuya; Takano, Ken-Ichi; Kohno, Takayuki; Konno, Takumi; Sawada, Norimasa; Himi, Tetsuo; Kojima, Takashi

    2015-04-01

    The airway epithelium of the human nasal mucosa acts as the first physical barrier that protects against inhaled substances and pathogens. Irsogladine maleate (IM) is an enhancer of gastric mucosal protective factors via upregulation of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC). GJIC is thought to participate in the formation of functional tight junctions. However, the effects of IM on GJIC and the epithelial barrier in human nasal epithelial cells (HNECs) remain unknown. To investigate the effects of IM on GJIC and the tight junctional barrier in HNECs, primary cultures of HNECs transfected with human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT-HNECs) were treated with IM and the GJIC inhibitors oleamide and 18β-GA. Some cells were pretreated with IM before treatment with TLR3 ligand poly(I:C) to examine whether IM prevented the changes via TLR3-mediated signal pathways. In hTERT-HNECs, GJIC blockers reduced the expression of tight junction molecules claudin-1, -4, -7, occludin, tricellulin, and JAM-A. IM induced GJIC activity and enhanced the expression of claudin-1, -4, and JAM-A at the protein and mRNA levels with an increase of barrier function. GJIC blockers prevented the increase of the tight junction proteins induced by IM. Furthermore, IM prevented the reduction of JAM-A but not induction of IL-8 and TNF-α induced by poly(I:C). In conclusion, IM can maintain the GJIC-dependent tight junctional barrier via regulation of GJIC in upper airway nasal epithelium. Therefore, it is possible that IM may be useful as a nasal spray to prevent the disruption of the epithelial barrier by viral infections and exposure to allergens in human nasal mucosa.

  20. Human lactoferrin triggers a mitochondrial- and caspase-dependent regulated cell death in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Zaldívar, M; Andrés, M T; Rego, A; Pereira, C S; Fierro, J F; Côrte-Real, M

    2016-02-01

    We have previously shown that the antifungal activity of human lactoferrin (hLf) against Candida albicans relies on its ability to induce cell death associated with apoptotic markers. To gain a deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying hLf-induced apoptosis, we characterized this cell death process in the well-established Saccharomyces cerevisiae model. Our results indicate that hLf induces cell death in S. cerevisiae in a manner that requires energy and de novo protein synthesis. Cell death is associated with nuclear chromatin condensation, preservation of plasma membrane integrity, and is Yca1p metacaspase-dependent. Lactoferrin also caused mitochondrial dysfunction associated with ROS accumulation and release of cytochrome c. Pre-incubation with oligomycin, an oxidative phosphorylation inhibitor, increased resistance to hLf and, accordingly, mutants deficient in the F1F0-ATP synthase complex were more resistant to death induced by hLf. This indicates that mitochondrial energetic metabolism plays a key role in the killing effect of hLf, though a direct role of F1F0-ATP synthase cannot be precluded. Overexpression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL or pre-incubation with N-acetyl cysteine reduced the intracellular level of ROS and increased resistance to hLf, confirming a ROS-mediated mitochondrial cell death process. Mitochondrial involvement was further reinforced by the higher resistance of cells lacking mitochondrial DNA, or other known yeast mitochondrial apoptosis regulators, such as, Aif1p, Cyc3p and Aac1/2/3p. This study provides new insights into a detailed understanding at the molecular level of hLf-induced apoptosis, which may allow the design of new strategies to overcome the emergence of resistance of clinically relevant fungi to conventional antifungals.

  1. Age-dependent role of steroids in the regulation of growth of the hen follicular wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebedev Vladimir A

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ovaries are the primary targets of senescence effects in mammalian and avian species. In the present study, relationships between reproductive aging, sex steroids and the growth pattern of the pre-ovulatory follicle wall were investigated using young hens with long clutch (YLC, old hens with long clutch (OLC, old hens with short clutch (OSC, and old hens with interrupted long clutch (OILC. Methods Experiment 1: Hens were sacrificed 1.5 and 14.5 h after ovulation. Experiment 2: YLC and OILC hens were sacrificed 3.5 h after treatments with LH and/or aminoglutethimide (AG, an inhibitor of steroid synthesis. Volumes of pre-ovulatory follicles (F1-F5 and plasma concentrations of ovarian steroids were determined. Experiment 3: Granulosa and theca cells from F3 follicles of OSC and/or YLC hens were exposed in vitro to estradiol-17beta (E2, testosterone (T and LH and the proliferative activity of the cells was examined using CellTiter 96 Aqueous One Solution Assay. Results In YLC and OLC groups, the total volume of F1-F5 follicles rose between 1.5 and 14.5 h after ovulation (P 2 (P 2 and the follicular volume (P 2 (r = -0.54, P 2 enhanced proliferation of granulosa cells from YLC and OSC groups. The proliferative activity of granulosa and theca cells of YLC hens depended on the interaction between T and LH (P Conclusions These data indicate for the first time that the growth pattern of pre-ovulatory follicles during the ovulatory cycle changes in the course of reproductive aging. E2 seems to play a dual role in this adjustment; it stimulates the growth of the follicular wall in reproductive aged hens, whereas it may inhibit this process in young birds. T and LH are apparently involved in the growth regulation during the pre-ovulatory surge in young hens.

  2. Identification of side- and shear-dependent microRNAs regulating porcine aortic valve pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathan, Swetha; Ankeny, Casey J.; Arjunon, Sivakkumar; Ferdous, Zannatul; Kumar, Sandeep; Fernandez Esmerats, Joan; Heath, Jack M.; Nerem, Robert M.; Yoganathan, Ajit P.; Jo, Hanjoong

    2016-05-01

    Aortic valve (AV) calcification is an inflammation driven process that occurs preferentially in the fibrosa. To explore the underlying mechanisms, we investigated if key microRNAs (miRNA) in the AV are differentially expressed due to disturbed blood flow (oscillatory shear (OS)) experienced by the fibrosa compared to the ventricularis. To identify the miRNAs involved, endothelial-enriched RNA was isolated from either side of healthy porcine AVs for microarray analysis. Validation using qPCR confirmed significantly higher expression of 7 miRNAs (miR-100, -130a, -181a/b, -199a-3p, -199a-5p, and -214) in the fibrosa versus the ventricularis. Upon bioinformatics analysis, miR-214 was selected for further investigation using porcine AV leaflets in an ex vivo shear system. Fibrosa and ventricularis sides were exposed to either oscillatory or unidirectional pulsatile shear for 2 days and 3 & 7 days in regular and osteogenic media, respectively. Higher expression of miR-214, increased thickness of the fibrosa, and calcification was observed when the fibrosa was exposed to OS compared to the ventricularis. Silencing of miR-214 by anti-miR-214 in whole AV leaflets with the fibrosa exposed to OS significantly increased the protein expression of TGFβ1 and moderately increased collagen content but did not affect AV calcification. Thus, miR-214 is identified as a side- and shear-dependent miRNA that regulates key mechanosensitive gene in AV such as TGFβ1.

  3. Acetylcholinesterase Regulates Skeletal In Ovo Development of Chicken Limbs by ACh-Dependent and -Independent Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spieker, Janine; Ackermann, Anica; Salfelder, Anika; Vogel-Höpker, Astrid; Layer, Paul G.

    2016-01-01

    Formation of the vertebrate limb presents an excellent model to analyze a non-neuronal cholinergic system (NNCS). Here, we first analyzed the expression of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by IHC and of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) by ISH in developing embryonic chicken limbs (stages HH17-37). AChE outlined formation of bones, being strongest at their distal tips, and later also marked areas of cell death. At onset, AChE and ChAT were elevated in two organizing centers of the limb anlage, the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) and zone of polarizing activity (ZPA), respectively. Thereby ChAT was expressed shortly after AChE, thus strongly supporting a leading role of AChE in limb formation. Then, we conducted loss-of-function studies via unilateral implantation of beads into chicken limb anlagen, which were soaked in cholinergic components. After varying periods, the formation of cartilage matrix and of mineralizing bones was followed by Alcian blue (AB) and Alizarin red (AR) stainings, respectively. Both acetylcholine (ACh)- and ChAT-soaked beads accelerated bone formation in ovo. Notably, inhibition of AChE by BW284c51, or by the monoclonal antibody MAB304 delayed cartilage formation. Since bead inhibition of BChE was mostly ineffective, an ACh-independent action during BW284c51 and MAB304 inhibition was indicated, which possibly could be due to an enzymatic side activity of AChE. In conclusion, skeletogenesis in chick is regulated by an ACh-dependent cholinergic system, but to some extent also by an ACh-independent aspect of the AChE protein. PMID:27574787

  4. Arabidopsis MAP kinase 4 regulates salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid/ethylene-dependent responses via EDS1 and PAD4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Klaus Peter; Petersen, Morten; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn

    2006-01-01

    Arabidopsis MPK4 has been implicated in plant defense regulation because mpk4 knockout plants exhibit constitutive activation of salicylic acid (SA)-dependent defenses, but fail to induce jasmonic acid (JA) defense marker genes in response to JA. We show here that mpk4 mutants are also defective...

  5. Glucagon Couples Hepatic Amino Acid Catabolism to mTOR-Dependent Regulation of α-Cell Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J. Solloway

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the regulation of islet cell mass has important implications for the discovery of regenerative therapies for diabetes. The liver plays a central role in metabolism and the regulation of endocrine cell number, but liver-derived factors that regulate α-cell and β-cell mass remain unidentified. We propose a nutrient-sensing circuit between liver and pancreas in which glucagon-dependent control of hepatic amino acid metabolism regulates α-cell mass. We found that glucagon receptor inhibition reduced hepatic amino acid catabolism, increased serum amino acids, and induced α-cell proliferation in an mTOR-dependent manner. In addition, mTOR inhibition blocked amino-acid-dependent α-cell replication ex vivo and enabled conversion of α-cells into β-like cells in vivo. Serum amino acids and α-cell proliferation were increased in neonatal mice but fell throughout postnatal development in a glucagon-dependent manner. These data reveal that amino acids act as sensors of glucagon signaling and can function as growth factors that increase α-cell proliferation.

  6. NAD(+)- dependent deacetylase SIRT3 regulates mitochondrial protein synthesis by deacetylation of the ribosomal protein MRPL10

    Science.gov (United States)

    A member of the sirtuin family of NAD (+)-dependent deacetylases, SIRT3, is located in mammalian mitochondria and is important for regulation of mitochondrial metabolism, cell survival, and longevity. In this study, MRPL10 (mitochondrial ribosomal protein L10) was identified as the major acetylated ...

  7. The Molecular Basis for Calcium-dependent Regulation of Cardiac Structure and Function

    OpenAIRE

    Shimizu, Hirohito

    2014-01-01

    Calcium homeostasis is essential for regulating a wide spectrum of biological processes. In the heart, Ca2+ plays a key role in excitation-contraction coupling, electrophysiological processes, activation of contractile proteins, energy metabolism, cell death, and transcriptional regulation. Alteration of Ca2+ homeostasis is often associated with cardiac pathology such as contractile dysfunction, arrhythmias and heart failure. In order to discover novel molecular mechanisms by which Ca2+ regul...

  8. Epitope specificity plays a critical role in regulating antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity against influenza A virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wenqian; Tan, Gene S; Mullarkey, Caitlin E; Lee, Amanda J; Lam, Mannie Man Wai; Krammer, Florian; Henry, Carole; Wilson, Patrick C; Ashkar, Ali A; Palese, Peter; Miller, Matthew S

    2016-10-18

    The generation of strain-specific neutralizing antibodies against influenza A virus is known to confer potent protection against homologous infections. The majority of these antibodies bind to the hemagglutinin (HA) head domain and function by blocking the receptor binding site, preventing infection of host cells. Recently, elicitation of broadly neutralizing antibodies which target the conserved HA stalk domain has become a promising "universal" influenza virus vaccine strategy. The ability of these antibodies to elicit Fc-dependent effector functions has emerged as an important mechanism through which protection is achieved in vivo. However, the way in which Fc-dependent effector functions are regulated by polyclonal influenza virus-binding antibody mixtures in vivo has never been defined. Here, we demonstrate that interactions among viral glycoprotein-binding antibodies of varying specificities regulate the magnitude of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity induction. We show that the mechanism responsible for this phenotype relies upon competition for binding to HA on the surface of infected cells and virus particles. Nonneutralizing antibodies were poor inducers and did not inhibit antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Interestingly, anti-neuraminidase antibodies weakly induced antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and enhanced induction in the presence of HA stalk-binding antibodies in an additive manner. Our data demonstrate that antibody specificity plays an important role in the regulation of ADCC, and that cross-talk among antibodies of varying specificities determines the magnitude of Fc receptor-mediated effector functions.

  9. Estrogen receptor alpha is cell cycle-regulated and regulates the cell cycle in a ligand-dependent fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    JavanMoghadam, Sonia; Weihua, Zhang; Hunt, Kelly K; Keyomarsi, Khandan

    2016-06-17

    Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) has been implicated in several cell cycle regulatory events and is an important predictive marker of disease outcome in breast cancer patients. Here, we aimed to elucidate the mechanism through which ERα influences proliferation in breast cancer cells. Our results show that ERα protein is cell cycle-regulated in human breast cancer cells and that the presence of 17-β-estradiol (E2) in the culture medium shortened the cell cycle significantly (by 4.5 hours, P fashion. These results provide the rationale for an effective treatment strategy that includes a cell cycle inhibitor in combination with a drug that lowers estrogen levels, such as an aromatase inhibitor, and an antiestrogen that does not result in the degradation of ERα, such as tamoxifen.

  10. RhoA Controls Retinoid Signaling by ROCK Dependent Regulation of Retinol Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García-Mariscal, Alberto; Peyrollier, Karine; Basse, Astrid;

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquitously expressed small GTPase RhoA is essential for embryonic development and mutated in different cancers. Functionally, it is well described as a regulator of the actin cytoskeleton, but its role in gene regulation is less understood. Using primary mouse keratinocytes with a deletion...

  11. A Pressure-dependent Model for the Regulation of Lipoprotein Lipase by Apolipoprotein C-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Nathan L; Larsson, Mikael; Olivecrona, Gunilla; Small, Donald M

    2015-07-17

    Apolipoprotein C-II (apoC-II) is the co-factor for lipoprotein lipase (LPL) at the surface of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. LPL hydrolyzes triacylglycerol, which increases local surface pressure as surface area decreases and amphipathic products transiently accumulate at the lipoprotein surface. To understand how apoC-II adapts to these pressure changes, we characterized the behavior of apoC-II at multiple lipid/water interfaces. ApoC-II adsorption to a triacylglycerol/water interface resulted in large increases in surface pressure. ApoC-II was exchangeable at this interface and desorbed on interfacial compressions. These compressions increase surface pressure and mimic the action of LPL. Analysis of gradual compressions showed that apoC-II undergoes a two-step desorption, which indicates that lipid-bound apoC-II can exhibit at least two conformations. We characterized apoC-II at phospholipid/triacylglycerol/water interfaces, which more closely mimic lipoprotein surfaces. ApoC-II had a large exclusion pressure, similar to that of apoC-I and apoC-III. However, apoC-II desorbed at retention pressures higher than those seen with the other apoCs. This suggests that it is unlikely that apoC-I and apoC-III inhibit LPL via displacement of apoC-II from the lipoprotein surface. Upon rapid compressions and re-expansions, re-adsorption of apoC-II increased pressure by lower amounts than its initial adsorption. This indicates that apoC-II removed phospholipid from the interface upon desorption. These results suggest that apoC-II regulates the activity of LPL in a pressure-dependent manner. ApoC-II is provided as a component of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins and is the co-factor for LPL as pressure increases. Above its retention pressure, apoC-II desorbs and removes phospholipid. This triggers release of LPL from lipoproteins.

  12. A Pressure-dependent Model for the Regulation of Lipoprotein Lipase by Apolipoprotein C-II*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Nathan L.; Larsson, Mikael; Olivecrona, Gunilla; Small, Donald M.

    2015-01-01

    Apolipoprotein C-II (apoC-II) is the co-factor for lipoprotein lipase (LPL) at the surface of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. LPL hydrolyzes triacylglycerol, which increases local surface pressure as surface area decreases and amphipathic products transiently accumulate at the lipoprotein surface. To understand how apoC-II adapts to these pressure changes, we characterized the behavior of apoC-II at multiple lipid/water interfaces. ApoC-II adsorption to a triacylglycerol/water interface resulted in large increases in surface pressure. ApoC-II was exchangeable at this interface and desorbed on interfacial compressions. These compressions increase surface pressure and mimic the action of LPL. Analysis of gradual compressions showed that apoC-II undergoes a two-step desorption, which indicates that lipid-bound apoC-II can exhibit at least two conformations. We characterized apoC-II at phospholipid/triacylglycerol/water interfaces, which more closely mimic lipoprotein surfaces. ApoC-II had a large exclusion pressure, similar to that of apoC-I and apoC-III. However, apoC-II desorbed at retention pressures higher than those seen with the other apoCs. This suggests that it is unlikely that apoC-I and apoC-III inhibit LPL via displacement of apoC-II from the lipoprotein surface. Upon rapid compressions and re-expansions, re-adsorption of apoC-II increased pressure by lower amounts than its initial adsorption. This indicates that apoC-II removed phospholipid from the interface upon desorption. These results suggest that apoC-II regulates the activity of LPL in a pressure-dependent manner. ApoC-II is provided as a component of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins and is the co-factor for LPL as pressure increases. Above its retention pressure, apoC-II desorbs and removes phospholipid. This triggers release of LPL from lipoproteins. PMID:26026161

  13. Genome-wide analysis of growth phase-dependent translational and transcriptional regulation in halophilic archaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raddatz Günter

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differential expression of genes can be regulated on many different levels. Most global studies of gene regulation concentrate on transcript level regulation, and very few global analyses of differential translational efficiencies exist. The studies have revealed that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Arabidopsis thaliana, and human cell lines translational regulation plays a significant role. Additional species have not been investigated yet. Particularly, until now no global study of translational control with any prokaryotic species was available. Results A global analysis of translational control was performed with two haloarchaeal model species, Halobacterium salinarum and Haloferax volcanii. To identify differentially regulated genes, exponentially growing and stationary phase cells were compared. More than 20% of H. salinarum transcripts are translated with non-average efficiencies. By far the largest group is comprised of genes that are translated with above-average efficiency specifically in exponential phase, including genes for many ribosomal proteins, RNA polymerase subunits, enzymes, and chemotaxis proteins. Translation of 1% of all genes is specifically repressed in either of the two growth phases. For comparison, DNA microarrays were also used to identify differential transcriptional regulation in H. salinarum, and 17% of all genes were found to have non-average transcript levels in exponential versus stationary phase. In H. volcanii, 12% of all genes are translated with non-average efficiencies. The overlap with H. salinarum is negligible. In contrast to H. salinarum, 4.6% of genes have non-average translational efficiency in both growth phases, and thus they might be regulated by other stimuli than growth phase. Conclusion For the first time in any prokaryotic species it was shown that a significant fraction of genes is under differential translational control. Groups of genes with different regulatory patterns

  14. RNA secondary structures regulate three steps of Rho-dependent transcription termination within a bacterial mRNA leader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriner, Michelle A; Groisman, Eduardo A

    2017-01-25

    Transcription termination events in bacteria often require the RNA helicase Rho. Typically, Rho promotes termination at the end of coding sequences, but it can also terminate transcription within leader regions to implement regulatory decisions. Rho-dependent termination requires initial recognition of a Rho utilization (rut) site on a nascent RNA by Rho's primary binding surface. However, it is presently unclear what factors determine the location of transcription termination, how RNA secondary structures influence this process and whether mechanistic differences distinguish constitutive from regulated Rho-dependent terminators. We previously demonstrated that the 5' leader mRNA of the Salmonella corA gene can adopt two mutually exclusive conformations that dictate accessibility of a rut site to Rho. We now report that the corA leader also controls two subsequent steps of Rho-dependent termination. First, the RNA conformation that presents an accessible rut site promotes pausing of RNA polymerase (RNAP) at a single Rho-dependent termination site over 100 nt downstream. Second, an additional RNA stem-loop promotes Rho activity and controls the location at which Rho-dependent termination occurs, despite having no effect on initial Rho binding to the corA leader. Thus, the multi-step nature of Rho-dependent termination may facilitate regulation of a given coding region by multiple cytoplasmic signals.

  15. Arabidopsis MAP kinase 4 regulates salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid/ethylene-dependent responses via EDS1 and PAD4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodersen, Peter; Petersen, Morten; Bjørn Nielsen, Henrik; Zhu, Shijiang; Newman, Mari-Anne; Shokat, Kevan M; Rietz, Steffen; Parker, Jane; Mundy, John

    2006-08-01

    Arabidopsis MPK4 has been implicated in plant defense regulation because mpk4 knockout plants exhibit constitutive activation of salicylic acid (SA)-dependent defenses, but fail to induce jasmonic acid (JA) defense marker genes in response to JA. We show here that mpk4 mutants are also defective in defense gene induction in response to ethylene (ET), and that they are more susceptible than wild-type (WT) to Alternaria brassicicola that induces the ET/JA defense pathway(s). Both SA-repressing and ET/JA-(co)activating functions depend on MPK4 kinase activity and involve the defense regulators EDS1 and PAD4, as mutations in these genes suppress de-repression of the SA pathway and suppress the block of the ET/JA pathway in mpk4. EDS1/PAD4 thus affect SA-ET/JA signal antagonism as activators of SA but as repressors of ET/JA defenses, and MPK4 negatively regulates both of these functions. We also show that the MPK4-EDS1/PAD4 branch of ET defense signaling is independent of the ERF1 transcription factor, and use comparative microarray analysis of ctr1, ctr1/mpk4, mpk4 and WT to show that MPK4 is required for induction of a small subset of ET-regulated genes. The regulation of some, but not all, of these genes involves EDS1 and PAD4.

  16. p35 regulates the CRM1-dependent nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of nuclear hormone receptor coregulator-interacting factor 1 (NIF-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Su Zhao

    Full Text Available Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5 is a proline-directed serine/threonine kinase, which plays critical roles in a wide spectrum of neuronal functions including neuronal survival, neurite outgrowth, and synapse development and plasticity. Cdk5 activity is controlled by its specific activators: p35 or p39. While knockout studies reveal that Cdk5/p35 is critical for neuronal migration during early brain development, functions of Cdk5/p35 have been unraveled through the identification of the interacting proteins of p35, most of which are Cdk5/p35 substrates. However, it remains unclear whether p35 can regulate neuronal functions independent of Cdk5 activity. Here, we report that a nuclear protein, nuclear hormone receptor coregulator (NRC-interacting factor 1 (NIF-1, is a new interacting partner of p35. Interestingly, p35 regulates the functions of NIF-1 independent of Cdk5 activity. NIF-1 was initially discovered as a transcriptional regulator that enhances the transcriptional activity of nuclear hormone receptors. Our results show that p35 interacts with NIF-1 and regulates its nucleocytoplasmic trafficking via the nuclear export pathway. Furthermore, we identified a nuclear export signal on p35; mutation of this site or blockade of the CRM1/exportin-dependent nuclear export pathway resulted in the nuclear accumulation of p35. Intriguingly, blocking the nuclear export of p35 attenuated the nuclear accumulation of NIF-1. These findings reveal a new p35-dependent mechanism in transcriptional regulation that involves the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of transcription regulators.

  17. p35 regulates the CRM1-dependent nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of nuclear hormone receptor coregulator-interacting factor 1 (NIF-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiao-Su; Fu, Wing-Yu; Chien, Winnie W Y; Li, Zhen; Fu, Amy K Y; Ip, Nancy Y

    2014-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is a proline-directed serine/threonine kinase, which plays critical roles in a wide spectrum of neuronal functions including neuronal survival, neurite outgrowth, and synapse development and plasticity. Cdk5 activity is controlled by its specific activators: p35 or p39. While knockout studies reveal that Cdk5/p35 is critical for neuronal migration during early brain development, functions of Cdk5/p35 have been unraveled through the identification of the interacting proteins of p35, most of which are Cdk5/p35 substrates. However, it remains unclear whether p35 can regulate neuronal functions independent of Cdk5 activity. Here, we report that a nuclear protein, nuclear hormone receptor coregulator (NRC)-interacting factor 1 (NIF-1), is a new interacting partner of p35. Interestingly, p35 regulates the functions of NIF-1 independent of Cdk5 activity. NIF-1 was initially discovered as a transcriptional regulator that enhances the transcriptional activity of nuclear hormone receptors. Our results show that p35 interacts with NIF-1 and regulates its nucleocytoplasmic trafficking via the nuclear export pathway. Furthermore, we identified a nuclear export signal on p35; mutation of this site or blockade of the CRM1/exportin-dependent nuclear export pathway resulted in the nuclear accumulation of p35. Intriguingly, blocking the nuclear export of p35 attenuated the nuclear accumulation of NIF-1. These findings reveal a new p35-dependent mechanism in transcriptional regulation that involves the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of transcription regulators.

  18. Novel role of c-jun N-terminal kinase in regulating the initiation of cap-dependent translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Manish R; Sadiq, Ahad A; Jay-Dixon, Joe; Jirakulaporn, Tanawat; Jacobson, Blake A; Farassati, Faris; Bitterman, Peter B; Kratzke, Robert A

    2012-02-01

    Initiation of protein translation by the 5' mRNA cap is a tightly regulated step in cell growth and proliferation. Aberrant activation of cap-dependent translation is a hallmark of many cancers including non-small cell lung cancer. The canonical signaling mechanisms leading to translation initiation include activation of the Akt/mTOR pathway in response to the presence of nutrients and growth factors. We have previously observed that inhibition of c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) leads to inactivation of cap-dependent translation in mesothelioma cells. Since JNK is involved in the genesis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), we hypothesized that JNK could also be involved in activating cap-dependent translation in NSCLC cells and could represent an alternative pathway regulating translation. In a series of NSCLC cell lines, inhibition of JNK using SP600125 resulted in inhibition of 4E-BP1 phosphorylation and a decrease in formation of the cap-dependent translation complex, eIF4F. Furthermore, we show that JNK-mediated inhibition of translation is independent of mTOR. Our data provide evidence that JNK is involved in the regulation of translation and has potential as a therapeutic target in NSCLC.

  19. O2-sensing and O2-dependent gene regulation in facultatively anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unden, G; Becker, S; Bongaerts, J; Holighaus, G; Schirawski, J; Six, S

    1995-08-01

    Availability of O2 is one of the most important regulatory signals in facultatively anaerobic bacteria. Various two- or one-component sensor/regulator systems control the expression of aerobic and anaerobic metabolism in response to O2. Most of the sensor proteins contain heme or Fe as cofactors that interact with O2 either by binding or by a redox reaction. The ArcA/ArcB regulator of aerobic metabolism in Escherichia coli may use a different sensory mechanism. In two-component regulators, the sensor is located in the cytoplasmic membrane, whereas one-component regulators are located in the cytoplasm. Under most conditions, O2 can readily reach the cytoplasm and could provide the signal in the cytoplasm. The transcriptional regulator FNR of E. Coli controls the expression of many genes required for anaerobic metabolism in response to O2. Functional homologs of FNR are present in facultatively anaerobic Proteobacteria and presumably also in gram-positive bacteria. The target genes of FNR are mostly under multiple regulation by FNR and other regulators that respond to O2, nitrate, or glucose. FNR represents a 'one-component' sensor/regulator and contains Fe for signal perception. In response to O2 availability, FNR is converted reversibly from the aerobic (inactive) state to the anaerobic (active) state. Experiments suggest that the Fe cofactor is bound by four essential cysteine residues. The O2-triggered transformation between active and inactive FNR presumably is due to a redox reaction at the Fe cofactor, but other modes of interaction cannot be excluded. O2 seems to affect the site-specific DNA binding of FNR at target genes or the formation of an active transcriptional complex with RNA polymerase.

  20. Physiological and genetic analysis of the carbon regulation of the NAD-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coschigano, P W; Miller, S M; Magasanik, B

    1991-09-01

    We found that cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have an elevated level of the NAD-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (NAD-GDH; encoded by the GDH2 gene) when grown with a nonfermentable carbon source or with limiting amounts of glucose, even in the presence of the repressing nitrogen source glutamine. This regulation was found to be transcriptional, and an upstream activation site (GDH2 UASc) sufficient for activation of transcription during respiratory growth conditions was identified. This UAS was found to be separable from a neighboring element which is necessary for the nitrogen source regulation of the gene, and strains deficient for the GLN3 gene product, required for expression of NAD-GDH during growth with the activating nitrogen source glutamate, were unaffected for the expression of NAD-GDH during growth with activating carbon sources. Two classes of mutations which prevented the normal activation of NAD-GDH in response to growth with nonfermentable carbon sources, but which did not affect the nitrogen-regulated expression of NAD-GDH, were found and characterized. Carbon regulation of GDH2 was found to be normal in hxk2, hap3, and hap4 strains and to be only slightly altered in a ssn6 strain; thus, in comparison with the regulation of previously identified glucose-repressed genes, a new pathway appears to be involved in the regulation of GDH2.

  1. PRKDC mutations associated with immunodeficiency, granuloma, and autoimmune regulator-dependent autoimmunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.-L. Mathieu (Anne-Laure); E. Verronese (Estelle); G.I. Rice (Gillian I.); F. Fouyssac (Fanny); Y. Bertrand (Yves); C. Picard (Capucine); M. Chansel (Marie); J.E. Walter (Jolan E.); L.D. Notarangelo (Luigi Daniele); M.J. Butte (Manish J.); K.C. Nadeau (Kari Christine); K. Csomos (Krisztian); D.J. Chen (David); K. Chen (Karin); A. Delgado (Ana); C. Rigal (Chantal); C. Bardin (Christine); C. Schuetz (Catharina); D. Moshous (Despina); H. Reumaux (Héloïse); F. Plenat (François); A. Phan (Alice); M.-T. Zabot (Marie-Thérèse); B. Balme (Brigitte); S. Viel (Sébastien); J. Bienvenu (Jacques); P. Cochat (Pierre); M. van der Burg (Mirjam); C. Caux (Christophe); E.H. Kemp (E. Helen); I. Rouvet (Isabelle); C. Malcus (Christophe); J.-F. Méritet (Jean-Francois); A. Lim (Annick); Y.J. Crow (Yanick J.); N. Fabien (Nicole); C. Ménétrier-Caux (Christine); J.-P. De Villartay (Jean-Pierre); T. Walzer (Thierry); A. Belot (Alexandre)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground PRKDC encodes for DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs), a kinase that forms part of a complex (DNA-dependent protein kinase [DNA-PK]) crucial for DNA double-strand break repair and V(D)J recombination. In mice DNA-PK also interacts with the transcription

  2. PRKDC mutations associated with immunodeficiency, granuloma, and autoimmune regulator-dependent autoimmunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.-L. Mathieu (Anne-Laure); E. Verronese (Estelle); G.I. Rice (Gillian I.); F. Fouyssac (Fanny); Y. Bertrand (Yves); C. Picard (Capucine); M. Chansel (Marie); J.E. Walter (Jolan E.); L.D. Notarangelo (Luigi Daniele); M.J. Butte (Manish J.); K.C. Nadeau (Kari Christine); K. Csomos (Krisztian); D.J. Chen (David); K. Chen (Karin); A. Delgado (Ana); C. Rigal (Chantal); C. Bardin (Christine); C. Schuetz (Catharina); D. Moshous (Despina); H. Reumaux (Héloïse); F. Plenat (François); A. Phan (Alice); M.-T. Zabot (Marie-Thérèse); B. Balme (Brigitte); S. Viel (Sébastien); J. Bienvenu (Jacques); P. Cochat (Pierre); M. van der Burg (Mirjam); C. Caux (Christophe); E.H. Kemp (E. Helen); I. Rouvet (Isabelle); C. Malcus (Christophe); J.-F. Méritet (Jean-Francois); A. Lim (Annick); Y.J. Crow (Yanick J.); N. Fabien (Nicole); C. Ménétrier-Caux (Christine); J.-P. De Villartay (Jean-Pierre); T. Walzer (Thierry); A. Belot (Alexandre)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground PRKDC encodes for DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs), a kinase that forms part of a complex (DNA-dependent protein kinase [DNA-PK]) crucial for DNA double-strand break repair and V(D)J recombination. In mice DNA-PK also interacts with the transcription f

  3. A Genetic Screen To Assess Dopamine Receptor (DopR1 Dependent Sleep Regulation in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiqin Jiang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sleep is an essential behavioral state of rest that is regulated by homeostatic drives to ensure a balance of sleep and activity, as well as independent arousal mechanisms in the central brain. Dopamine has been identified as a critical regulator of both sleep behavior and arousal. Here, we present results of a genetic screen that selectively restored the Dopamine Receptor (DopR/DopR1/dumb to specific neuroanatomical regions of the adult Drosophila brain to assess requirements for DopR in sleep behavior. We have identified subsets of the mushroom body that utilizes DopR in daytime sleep regulation. These data are supported by multiple examples of spatially restricted genetic rescue data in discrete circuits of the mushroom body, as well as immunohistochemistry that corroborates the localization of DopR protein within mushroom body circuits. Independent loss of function data using an inducible RNAi construct in the same specific circuits also supports a requirement for DopR in daytime sleep. Additional circuit activation of discrete DopR+ mushroom body neurons also suggests roles for these subpopulations in sleep behavior. These conclusions support a new separable function for DopR in daytime sleep regulation within the mushroom body. This daytime regulation is independent of the known role of DopR in nighttime sleep, which is regulated within the Fan-Shaped Body (FSB. This study provides new neuroanatomical loci for exploration of dopaminergic sleep functions in Drosophila, and expands our understanding of sleep regulation during the day vs. night.

  4. Toddler's self-regulation strategies in a challenge context are nap-dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alison L; Seifer, Ronald; Crossin, Rebecca; Lebourgeois, Monique K

    2015-06-01

    Early childhood represents a time of developmental changes in both sleep and self-regulation, a construct reflecting the ability to control one's behaviour, attention and emotions when challenged. Links between sleep and self-regulation processes have been proposed, but experimental evidence with young children is lacking. In the current study, we tested the effects of acute sleep restriction (nap deprivation) on toddlers' self-regulation. Healthy children (n = 12; four males; aged 30-36 months (33.9 ± 1.7)) slept on a strict schedule (verified with actigraphy and sleep diaries) for 5 days before each of two afternoon assessments following a nap and a no-nap condition (~11-day protocol). Children were videotaped while attempting an unsolvable puzzle, and 10 mutually exclusive self-regulation strategies were later coded. On average, children lost ~90 min of sleep on the no-nap versus the nap day. Nap deprivation resulted in moderate-to-large effects on self-regulation strategies, with decreases in scepticism (d = 0.77; 7% change), negative self-appraisal (d = 0.92; 5% change) and increases in physical self-soothing (d = 0.68; 10% change), focus on the puzzle piece that would not fit (perseveration; d = 0.50; 9% change) and insistence on completing the unsolvable puzzle (d = 0.91; 10% change). Results suggest that sleep serves an important role in the way that toddlers respond to challenging events in their daily lives. After losing daytime sleep, toddlers were less able to engage effectively in a difficult task and reverted to less mature self-regulation strategies than when they were well rested. Over time, chronically missed sleep may impair young children's self-regulation abilities, resulting in risk for social-emotional, behavioural and school problems.

  5. Negative feedback regulation of Homer 1a on norepinephrine-dependent cardiac hypertrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiarello, Carmelina; Bortoloso, Elena; Carpi, Andrea; Furlan, Sandra; Volpe, Pompeo, E-mail: pompeo.volpe@unipd.it

    2013-07-15

    Homers are scaffolding proteins that modulate diverse cell functions being able to assemble signalling complexes. In this study, the presence, sub-cellular distribution and function of Homer 1 was investigated. Homer 1a and Homer 1b/c are constitutively expressed in cardiac muscle of both mouse and rat and in HL-1 cells, a cardiac cell line. As judged by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy, Homer 1a displays sarcomeric and peri-nuclear localization. In cardiomyocytes and cultured HL-1 cells, the hypertrophic agonist norepinephrine (NE) induces α{sub 1}-adrenergic specific Homer 1a over-expression, with a two-to-three-fold increase within 1 h, and no up-regulation of Homer 1b/c, as judged by Western blot and qPCR. In HL-1 cells, plasmid-driven over-expression of Homer 1a partially antagonizes activation of ERK phosphorylation and ANF up-regulation, two well-established, early markers of hypertrophy. At the morphometric level, NE-induced increase of cell size is likewise and partially counteracted by exogenous Homer 1a. Under the same experimental conditions, Homer 1b/c does not have any effect on ANF up-regulation nor on cell hypertrophy. Thus, Homer 1a up-regulation is associated to early stages of cardiac hypertrophy and appears to play a negative feedback regulation on molecular transducers of hypertrophy. -- Highlights: • Homer 1a is constitutively expressed in cardiac tissue. • In HL-1 cells, norepinephrine activates signaling pathways leading to hypertrophy. • Homer 1a up-regulation is an early event of norepinephrine-induced hypertrophy. • Homer 1a plays a negative feedback regulation modulating pathological hypertrophy. • Over-expression of Homer 1a per se does not induce hypertrophy.

  6. Interleukin-1-induced activation of the small GTPase Rac1 depends on receptor internalization and regulates gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windheim, Mark; Hansen, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin 1 (IL-1) triggers the internalization of its cognate receptor from the plasma membrane. We recently demonstrated that this internalization is of critical importance for the IL-1-induced gene expression. In this study we report that the IL-1-induced activation of the small GTPase Rac1 requires receptor endocytosis. We further show that the depletion of Rac1 reduces the IL-1-dependent gene expression without affecting signaling events that are initiated at the plasma membrane. Collectively, we provide evidence for a key role of Rac1 in a pathway that regulates IL-1-induced gene expression depending on receptor endocytosis.

  7. v-erbA oncogene activation entails the loss of hormone-dependent regulator activity of c-erbA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zenke, M; Muñoz, A; Sap, J;

    1990-01-01

    and erythrocyte-specific gene expression in a T3-dependent fashion, when introduced into erythroid cells via a retrovirus. In contrast, the endogenous thyroid hormone receptor does not detectably affect erythroid differentiation. The analysis of a series of chimeric v-/c-erbA proteins suggests that the v......The v-erbA oncogene, one of the two oncogenes of the avian erythroblastosis virus, efficiently blocks erythroid differentiation and suppresses erythrocyte-specific gene transcription. Here we show that the overexpressed thyroid hormone receptor c-erbA effectively modulates erythroid differentiation......-erbA oncoprotein has lost one type of thyroid hormone receptor function (regulating erythrocyte gene transcription in response to T3), but constitutively displays another function: it represses transcription in the absence of T3. The region responsible for the loss of hormone-dependent regulator activity of v...

  8. CRP-dependent positive autoregulation and proteolytic degradation regulate competence activator Sxy of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaskólska, Milena; Gerdes, Kenn

    2015-03-01

    Natural competence, the ability of bacteria to take up exogenous DNA and incorporate it into their chromosomes, is in most bacteria a transient phenomenon under complex genetic and environmental control. In the Gram-negative bacteria Haemophilus influenzae and Vibrio cholerae, the master regulator Sxy/TfoX controls competence development. Although not known to be naturally competent, Escherichia coli possesses a Sxy homologue and a competence regulon containing the genes required for DNA uptake. Here, we show that in contrast to other characterised Gamma-proteobacteria, E. coli Sxy is positively autoregulated at the level of transcription by a mechanism that requires cAMP receptor protein (CRP), cyclic AMP (cAMP) and a CRP-S site in the sxy promoter. Similarly, we found no evidence that Sxy expression in E. coli was regulated at the translational level. However, our analysis revealed that Sxy is an unstable protein and that its cellular level is negatively regulated at the post-translational level via degradation by Lon protease. Interestingly, in the Gram-positive model organism Bacillus subtilis, the competence master regulator ComK is also positively autoregulated at the level of transcription and negatively regulated by proteolysis. Together, these findings reveal striking similarities between the competence regulons of a Gram-positive and a Gram-negative bacterium.

  9. Differential regulation of survivin by p53 contributes to cell cycle dependent apoptosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan JIN; Yong WEI; Lei XIONG; Ying YANG; Jia Rui WU

    2005-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that cell-cycle checkpoints are tightly correlated with the regulation of apoptosis, in which p53 plays an important role. Our present works show that the expression of E6/E7 oncogenes of human papillomavirus in HeLa cells is inhibited in the presence of anti-tumor reagent tripchlorolide (TC), which results in the up-regulation of p53 in HeLa cells. Interestingly, under the same TC-treatment, the cells at the early S-phase are more susceptible to apoptosis than those at the middle S-phase although p53 protein is stabilized to the same level in both situations.Significant difference is exhibited between the two specified expression profiles. Further analysis demonstrates that anti-apoptotic gene survivin is up-regulated by p53 in the TC-treated middle-S cells, whereas it is down-regulated by p53 in the TC-treated early-S cells. Taken together, the present study indicates that the differential p53-regulated expression of survivin at different stages of the cell cycle results in different cellular outputs under the same apoptosis-inducer.

  10. Uterine Micro-Environment and Estrogen-Dependent Regulation of Osteopontin Expression in Mouse Blastocyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Zhen Xie

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Embryo implantation is a highly synchronized bioprocess between an activated blastocyst and a receptive uterus. In mice, successful implantation relies on the dynamic interplay of estrogen and progesterone; however, the key mediators downstream of these hormones that act on blastocyst competency and endometrium receptivity acquisition are largely unknown. In this study, we showed that the expression of osteopontin (OPN in mouse blastocysts is regulated by ovarian estrogen and uterine micro-environment. OPN mRNA is up-regulated in mouse blastocyst on day 4 of pregnancy, which is associated with ovarian estrogen secretion peak. Hormone treatment in vivo demonstrated that OPN expression in a blastocyst is regulated by estrogen through an estrogen receptor (ER. Our results of the delayed and activated implantation model showed that OPN expression is induced after estrogen injection. While estrogen treatment during embryo culture in vitro showed less effect on OPN expression, the tubal ligation model on day 3 of pregnancy confirmed that the regulation of estrogen on OPN expression in blastocyst might, through some specific cytokines, have existed in a uterine micro-environment. Collectively, our study presents that estrogen regulates OPN expression and it may play an important role during embryo implantation by activating blastocyst competence and facilitating the endometrium acceptable for active blastocyst.

  11. Interleukin-13 (IL-13)/IL-13 receptor alpha1 (IL-13Ralpha1) signaling regulates intestinal epithelial cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator channel-dependent Cl- secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, David; Ahrens, Richard; Osterfeld, Heather; Noah, Taeko K; Groschwitz, Katherine; Foster, Paul S; Steinbrecher, Kris A; Rothenberg, Marc E; Shroyer, Noah F; Matthaei, Klaus I; Finkelman, Fred D; Hogan, Simon P

    2011-04-15

    Interleukin-13 (IL-13) has been linked to the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. It is postulated that IL-13 drives inflammatory lesions through the modulation of both hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cell function in the intestine. To delineate the relevant contribution of elevated levels of intestinal IL-13 to intestinal structure and function, we generated an intestinal IL-13 transgenic mouse (iIL-13Tg). We show that constitutive overexpression of IL-13 in the small bowel induces modification of intestinal epithelial architecture (villus blunting, goblet cell hyperplasia, and increased epithelial proliferation) and epithelial function (altered basolateral → apical Cl(-) ion conductance). Pharmacological analyses in vitro and in vivo determined that elevated Cl(-) conductance is mediated by altered cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator expression and activity. Generation of iIL-13Tg/Il13rα1(-/-), iIL-13Tg/Il13rα2(-/-), and iIL-13Tg/Stat6(-/-) mice revealed that IL-13-mediated dysregulation of epithelial architecture and Cl(-) conductance is dependent on IL-13Rα1 and STAT-6. These observations demonstrate a central role for the IL-13/IL-13Rα1 pathway in the regulation of intestinal epithelial cell Cl(-) secretion via up-regulation of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, suggesting an important role for this pathway in secretory diarrhea.

  12. Regulation of Caenorhabditis elegans p53/CEP-1-dependent germ cell apoptosis by Ras/MAPK signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael Rutkowski

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining genome stability in the germline is thought to be an evolutionarily ancient role of the p53 family. The sole Caenorhabditis elegans p53 family member CEP-1 is required for apoptosis induction in meiotic, late-stage pachytene germ cells in response to DNA damage and meiotic recombination failure. In an unbiased genetic screen for negative regulators of CEP-1, we found that increased activation of the C. elegans ERK orthologue MPK-1, resulting from either loss of the lip-1 phosphatase or activation of let-60 Ras, results in enhanced cep-1-dependent DNA damage induced apoptosis. We further show that MPK-1 is required for DNA damage-induced germ cell apoptosis. We provide evidence that MPK-1 signaling regulates the apoptotic competency of germ cells by restricting CEP-1 protein expression to cells in late pachytene. Restricting CEP-1 expression to cells in late pachytene is thought to ensure that apoptosis doesn't occur in earlier-stage cells where meiotic recombination occurs. MPK-1 signaling regulates CEP-1 expression in part by regulating the levels of GLD-1, a translational repressor of CEP-1, but also via a GLD-1-independent mechanism. In addition, we show that MPK-1 is phosphorylated and activated upon ionising radiation (IR in late pachytene germ cells and that MPK-1-dependent CEP-1 activation may be in part direct, as these two proteins interact in a yeast two-hybrid assay. In summary, we report our novel finding that MAP kinase signaling controls CEP-1-dependent apoptosis by several different pathways that converge on CEP-1. Since apoptosis is also restricted to pachytene stage cells in mammalian germlines, analogous mechanisms regulating p53 family members are likely to be conserved throughout evolution.

  13. Physiological and genetic analysis of the carbon regulation of the NAD-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Coschigano, P W; Miller, S. M; Magasanik, B

    1991-01-01

    We found that cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have an elevated level of the NAD-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (NAD-GDH; encoded by the GDH2 gene) when grown with a nonfermentable carbon source or with limiting amounts of glucose, even in the presence of the repressing nitrogen source glutamine. This regulation was found to be transcriptional, and an upstream activation site (GDH2 UASc) sufficient for activation of transcription during respiratory growth conditions was identified. This U...

  14. The σ(54)-dependent two-component system regulating sulfur oxidization (Sox) system in Acidithiobacillus caldus and some chemolithotrophic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li-Feng; Fu, Luo-Jie; Lin, Jian-Qun; Pang, Xin; Liu, Xiang-Mei; Wang, Rui; Wang, Zhao-Bao; Lin, Jian-Qiang; Chen, Lin-Xu

    2017-03-01

    The sulfur oxidization (Sox) system is the central sulfur oxidization pathway of phototrophic and chemotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Regulation and function of the Sox system in the chemotrophic Paracoccus pantotrophus has been elucidated; however, to date, no information is available on the regulation of this system in the chemolithotrophic Acidithiobacillus caldus, which is widely utilized in bioleaching. We described the novel tspSR-sox-like clusters in A. caldus and other chemolithotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria containing Sox systems. The highly homologous σ(54)-dependent two-component signaling system (TspS/R), upstream of the sox operons in these novel clusters, was identified by phylogenetic analyses. A typical σ(54)-dependent promoter, P1, was identified upstream of soxX-I in the sox-I cluster of A. caldus MTH-04. The transcriptional start site (G) and the -12/-24 regions (GC/GG) of P1 were determined by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (5'RACE), and the upstream activator sequences (UASs; TGTCCCAAATGGGACA) were confirmed by electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) in vitro and by UAS-probe-plasmids assays in vivo. Sequence analysis of promoter regions in tspSR-sox-like clusters revealed that there were similar σ(54)-dependent promoters upstream of the soxX genes. Based on our results, we proposed a TspSR-mediated signal transduction and transcriptional regulation pathway for the Sox system in A. caldus. The regulation of σ(54)-dependent two-component systems (TCSs) for Sox pathways were explained for the first time in A. caldus, A. thiooxidans, T. tepidarius, and T. denitrificans, indicating the significance of modulating the sulfur oxidization in these chemolithotrophic sulfur oxidizers.

  15. Breast Cancer Migration and Invasion Depend on Proteasome Degradation of Regulator of G-Protein Signaling 4

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Yan; Wolff, Dennis W.; Wei, Taotao; Wang, Bo; Deng, Caishu; Kirui, Joseph K.; Jiang, Haihong; Qin, Jianbing; Abel, Peter W.; Tu, Yaping

    2009-01-01

    Aberrant signaling through G-protein coupled receptors promotes metastasis, the major cause of breast cancer death. We identified regulator of G-protein signaling 4 (RGS4) as a novel suppressor of breast cancer migration and invasion, important steps of metastatic cascades. By blocking signals initiated through Gi-coupled receptors, such as protease-activated receptor 1 and CXC chemokine receptor 4, RGS4 disrupted Rac1-dependent lamellipodia formation, a key step involved in cancer migration ...

  16. Circadian- and Light-Dependent Regulation of Resting Membrane Potential and Spontaneous Action Potential Firing of Drosophila Circadian Pacemaker Neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Sheeba, Vasu; Gu, Huaiyu; Sharma, Vijay K.; O'Dowd, Diane K.; Holmes, Todd C

    2007-01-01

    The ventral lateral neurons (LNvs) of adult Drosophila brain express oscillating clock proteins and regulate circadian behavior. Whole cell current-clamp recordings of large LNvs in freshly dissected Drosophila whole brain preparations reveal two spontaneous activity patterns that correlate with two underlying patterns of oscillating membrane potential: tonic and burst firing of sodium-dependent action potentials. Resting membrane potential and spontaneous action potential firing are rapidly ...

  17. A Potassium-Dependent Oxygen Sensing Pathway Regulates Plant Root Hydraulics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Zaigham; Canut, Matthieu; Tournaire-Roux, Colette; Martinière, Alexandre; Boursiac, Yann; Loudet, Olivier; Maurel, Christophe

    2016-09-22

    Aerobic organisms survive low oxygen (O2) through activation of diverse molecular, metabolic, and physiological responses. In most plants, root water permeability (in other words, hydraulic conductivity, Lpr) is downregulated under O2 deficiency. Here, we used a quantitative genetics approach in Arabidopsis to clone Hydraulic Conductivity of Root 1 (HCR1), a Raf-like MAPKKK that negatively controls Lpr. HCR1 accumulates and is functional under combined O2 limitation and potassium (K(+)) sufficiency. HCR1 regulates Lpr and hypoxia responsive genes, through the control of RAP2.12, a key transcriptional regulator of the core anaerobic response. A substantial variation of HCR1 in regulating Lpr is observed at the Arabidopsis species level. Thus, by combinatorially integrating two soil signals, K(+) and O2 availability, HCR1 modulates the resilience of plants to multiple flooding scenarios.

  18. The Iron-Dependent Regulator Fur Controls Pheromone Signaling Systems and Luminescence in the Squid Symbiont Vibrio fischeri ES114

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septer, Alecia N.; Lyell, Noreen L.

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria often use pheromones to coordinate group behaviors in specific environments. While high cell density is required for pheromones to achieve stimulatory levels, environmental cues can also influence pheromone accumulation and signaling. For the squid symbiont Vibrio fischeri ES114, bioluminescence requires pheromone-mediated regulation, and this signaling is induced in the host to a greater extent than in culture, even at an equivalent cell density. Our goal is to better understand this environment-specific control over pheromone signaling and bioluminescence. Previous work with V. fischeri MJ1 showed that iron limitation induces luminescence, and we recently found that ES114 encounters a low-iron environment in its host. Here we show that ES114 induces luminescence at lower cell density and achieves brighter luminescence in low-iron media. This iron-dependent effect on luminescence required ferric uptake regulator (Fur), which we propose influences two pheromone signaling master regulators, LitR and LuxR. Genetic and bioinformatic analyses suggested that under low-iron conditions, Fur-mediated repression of litR is relieved, enabling more LitR to perform its established role as an activator of luxR. Interestingly, Fur may similarly control the LitR homolog SmcR of Vibrio vulnificus. These results reveal an intriguing regulatory link between low-iron conditions, which are often encountered in host tissues, and pheromone-dependent master regulators. PMID:23315731

  19. Regulation of spike timing-dependent plasticity of olfactory inputs in mitral cells in the rat olfactory bulb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng-Fei Ma

    Full Text Available The recent history of activity input onto granule cells (GCs in the main olfactory bulb can affect the strength of lateral inhibition, which functions to generate contrast enhancement. However, at the plasticity level, it is unknown whether and how the prior modification of lateral inhibition modulates the subsequent induction of long-lasting changes of the excitatory olfactory nerve (ON inputs to mitral cells (MCs. Here we found that the repetitive stimulation of two distinct excitatory inputs to the GCs induced a persistent modification of lateral inhibition in MCs in opposing directions. This bidirectional modification of inhibitory inputs differentially regulated the subsequent synaptic plasticity of the excitatory ON inputs to the MCs, which was induced by the repetitive pairing of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs with postsynaptic bursts. The regulation of spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP was achieved by the regulation of the inter-spike-interval (ISI of the postsynaptic bursts. This novel form of inhibition-dependent regulation of plasticity may contribute to the encoding or processing of olfactory information in the olfactory bulb.

  20. FLOWERING LOCUS C -dependent and -independent regulation of the circadian clock by the autonomous and vernalization pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn James R

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The circadian system drives pervasive biological rhythms in plants. Circadian clocks integrate endogenous timing information with environmental signals, in order to match rhythmic outputs to the local day/night cycle. Multiple signaling pathways affect the circadian system, in ways that are likely to be adaptively significant. Our previous studies of natural genetic variation in Arabidopsis thaliana accessions implicated FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC as a circadian-clock regulator. The MADS-box transcription factor FLC is best known as a regulator of flowering time. Its activity is regulated by many regulatory genes in the "autonomous" and vernalization-dependent flowering pathways. We tested whether these same pathways affect the circadian system. Results Genes in the autonomous flowering pathway, including FLC, were found to regulate circadian period in Arabidopsis. The mechanisms involved are similar, but not identical, to the control of flowering time. By mutant analyses, we demonstrate a graded effect of FLC expression upon circadian period. Related MADS-box genes had less effect on clock function. We also reveal an unexpected vernalization-dependent alteration of periodicity. Conclusion This study has aided in the understanding of FLC's role in the clock, as it reveals that the network affecting circadian timing is partially overlapping with the floral-regulatory network. We also show a link between vernalization and circadian period. This finding may be of ecological relevance for developmental programing in other plant species.

  1. Integrin-linked kinase mediates the hydrogen peroxide-dependent transforming growth factor-β1 up-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Ramos, M; de Frutos, S; Griera, M; Luengo, A; Olmos, G; Rodriguez-Puyol, D; Calleros, L; Rodriguez-Puyol, M

    2013-08-01

    Transforming growth factor type-β1 (TGF-β1) has been recognized as a central mediator in many pathological events related to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins accumulation, where their locally increased expression has been implicated in the fibrosis process of numerous organs, including glomerular fibrosis in the kidney. We and others have reported the TGF-β1 synthesis regulation by reactive oxygen species (ROS), and moreover we also described the implication of integrin-linked kinase (ILK) in the AP-1-dependent TGF-β1 up-regulation. Thus, we propose here that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-dependent TGF-β1 regulation may be mediated by ILK activation. First we confirmed the increase in TGF-β1 expression in human mesangial cells (HMC) after treatment with H2O2 or with an alternative H2O2-generating system such as the glucose-oxidase enzyme (GOX). By using immunoblotting, immunofluorescence, and ELISA techniques, we demonstrate that extracellular H2O2 up-regulates TGF-β1 transcription, as well as increases TGF-β1 promoter activity. Furthermore, catalase-decreased intracellular H2O2 abolished TGF-β1 up-regulation. The use of pharmacological inhibitors as well as knockdown of ILK with small interfering RNA (siRNA) demonstrated the implication of a PI3K/ILK/AKT/ERK MAPK signaling pathway axis in the H2O2-induced TGF-β1 overexpression. Finally, we explored the physiological relevance of these findings by treating HMC with angiotensin II, a known stimuli of H2O2 synthesis. Our results confirm the relevance of previous findings after a more physiological stimulus. In summary, our results provide evidence that ILK activity changes may act as a mechanism in response to different stimuli such as H2O2 in the induced TGF-β1 up-regulation in pathological or even physiological conditions.

  2. The α-hydroxyketone LAI-1 regulates motility, Lqs-dependent phosphorylation signalling and gene expression of Legionella pneumophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, Ursula; Simon, Sylvia; Sahr, Tobias; Hager, Dominik; Albers, Michael F; Kessler, Aline; Fahrnbauer, Felix; Trauner, Dirk; Hedberg, Christian; Buchrieser, Carmen; Hilbi, Hubert

    2016-02-01

    The causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, Legionella pneumophila, employs the autoinducer compound LAI-1 (3-hydroxypentadecane-4-one) for cell-cell communication. LAI-1 is produced and detected by the Lqs (Legionella quorum sensing) system, comprising the autoinducer synthase LqsA, the sensor kinases LqsS and LqsT, as well as the response regulator LqsR. Lqs-regulated processes include pathogen-host interactions, production of extracellular filaments and natural competence for DNA uptake. Here we show that synthetic LAI-1 promotes the motility of L. pneumophila by signalling through LqsS/LqsT and LqsR. Upon addition of LAI-1, autophosphorylation of LqsS/LqsT by [γ-(32) P]-ATP was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, the Vibrio cholerae autoinducer CAI-1 (3-hydroxytridecane-4-one) promoted the phosphorylation of LqsS (but not LqsT). LAI-1 did neither affect the stability of phospho-LqsS or phospho-LqsT, nor the dephosphorylation by LqsR. Transcriptome analysis of L. pneumophila treated with LAI-1 revealed that the compound positively regulates a number of genes, including the non-coding RNAs rsmY and rsmZ, and negatively regulates the RNA-binding global regulator crsA. Accordingly, LAI-1 controls the switch from the replicative to the transmissive growth phase of L. pneumophila. In summary, the findings indicate that LAI-1 regulates motility and the biphasic life style of L. pneumophila through LqsS- and LqsT-dependent phosphorylation signalling.

  3. DHHC protein-dependent palmitoylation protects regulator of G-protein signaling 4 from proteasome degradation

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Regulator of G-protein signaling 4 (RGS4), an intracellular modulator of G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR)-mediated signaling, is regulated by multiple processes including palmitoylation and proteasome degradation. We found that co-expression of DHHC acyltransferases (DHHC3 or DHHC7), but not their acyltransferase-inactive mutants, increased expression levels of RGS4 but not its Cys2 to Ser mutant (RGS4C2S). DHHC3 interacts with and palmitoylates RGS4 but not RGS4C2S in vivo. Palmitoylation p...

  4. Panax red ginseng extract regulates energy expenditures by modulating PKA dependent lipid mobilization in adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hae-Mi; Kang, Young-Ho; Yoo, Hanju; Yoon, Seung-Yong; Kang, Sang-Wook; Chang, Eun-Ju; Song, Youngsup

    2014-05-16

    Regulation of balance between lipid accumulation and energy consumption is a critical step for the maintenance of energy homeostasis. Here, we show that Panax red ginseng extract treatments increased energy expenditures and prevented mice from diet induced obesity. Panax red ginseng extracts strongly activated Hormone Specific Lipase (HSL) via Protein Kinase A (PKA). Since activation of HSL induces lipolysis in WAT and fatty acid oxidation in brown adipose tissue (BAT), these results suggest that Panax red ginseng extracts reduce HFD induced obesity by regulating lipid mobilization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Cell type and gender-dependent differential regulation of the p202 and Aim2 proteins: implications for the regulation of innate immune responses in SLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchanathan, Ravichandran; Duan, Xin; Arumugam, Muthuvel; Shen, Hui; Liu, Hongzhu; Choubey, Divaker

    2011-10-01

    Upon sensing cytosolic double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), the murine Aim2 (encoded by the Aim2 gene) protein forms an inflammasome and promotes the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1β and IL-18. In contrast, the p202 protein (encoded by the Ifi202 gene) does not form an inflammasome. Previously, we have reported that the interferon (IFN) and female sex hormone-induced increased nuclear levels of p202 protein in immune cells are associated with increased susceptibility to develop a lupus-like disease. However, signaling pathways that regulate the expression of Aim2 protein remain unknown. Here we report that the expression of Aim2 gene is induced in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) by IFN-α treatment and the expression is, in part, STAT1-dependent. However, treatment of splenic T or B cells with IFN-α or their stimulation, which induced the expression of Ifi202 gene, did not induce the expression of Aim2 gene. Furthermore, treatment of cells with the male hormone androgen increased levels of Aim2 mRNA and protein. Moreover, treatment of murine macrophage cell lines (RAW264.7 and J774A.1) with IFN-α differentially induced the expression of Aim2 and p202 proteins and regulated their sub-cellular localization. Additionally, activation of Toll-like receptors (TLR3, 4, and 9) in BMDMs and cell lines also differentially regulated the expression of Aim2 and Ifi202 genes. Our observations demonstrate that cell type and gender-dependent factors differentially regulate the expression of the Aim2 and p202 proteins, thus, suggesting opposing roles for these two proteins in innate immune responses in lupus disease.

  6. Zn2+ regulates Kv2.1 voltage-dependent gating and localization following ischemia

    OpenAIRE

    Aras, Mandar A.; Saadi, Robert A.; Aizenman, Elias

    2009-01-01

    The delayed-rectifier K+ channel Kv2.1 exists in highly phosphorylated somatodendritic clusters. Ischemia induces rapid Kv2.1 dephosphorylation and a dispersal of these clusters, accompanied by a hyperpolarizing shift in their voltage-dependent activation kinetics. Transient modulation of Kv2.1 activity and localization following ischemia is dependent on a rise in intracellular Ca2+and the protein phosphatase calcineurin. Here, we show that neuronal free Zn2+also plays a critical role in the ...

  7. Polarized membrane traffic and cell polarity development is dependent on dihydroceramide synthase-regulated sphinganine turnover

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ijzendoorn, SCD; van der Wouden, JM; Liebisch, G; Schmitz, G; Hoekstra, D

    2004-01-01

    Sphingoid bases have been implicated in various cellular processes including cell growth, apoptosis and cell differentiation. Here, we show that the regulated turnover of sphingoid bases is crucial for cell polarity development, i.e., the biogenesis of apical plasma membrane domains, in well-differe

  8. Quorum Sensing Regulation of Adhesion in Serratia Marcescens MG1 is surface dependent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labbate, M.; Zhu, H.; Thung, L.;

    2007-01-01

    Serratia marcescens is an opportunistic pathogen and a major cause of ocular infections. In previous studies of S. marcescens MG1, we showed that biofilm maturation and sloughing were regulated by N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL)-based quorum sensing (QS). Because of the importance of adhesion...

  9. Metal-dependent regulation of ATP7A and ATP7B in fibroblast cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenartowicz, Malgorzata; Moos, Torben; Ogórek, Mateusz

    2016-01-01

    Deficiency of one of the copper transporters ATP7A and ATP7B leads to the rare X-linked disorder Menkes Disease (MD) or the rare autosomal disorder Wilson disease (WD), respectively. In order to investigate whether the ATP7A and the ATP7B genes may be transcriptionally regulated, we measured...

  10. Polarized membrane traffic and cell polarity development is dependent on dihydroceramide synthase-regulated sphinganine turnover

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ijzendoorn, SCD; van der Wouden, JM; Liebisch, G; Schmitz, G; Hoekstra, D

    Sphingoid bases have been implicated in various cellular processes including cell growth, apoptosis and cell differentiation. Here, we show that the regulated turnover of sphingoid bases is crucial for cell polarity development, i.e., the biogenesis of apical plasma membrane domains, in

  11. Get Over It! A Multilevel Threshold Autoregressive Model for State-Dependent Affect Regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haan-Rietdijk, Silvia; Gottman, John M.; Bergeman, Cindy S.; Hamaker, Ellen L.

    2014-01-01

    Intensive longitudinal data provide rich information, which is best captured when specialized models are used in the analysis. One of these models is the multilevel autoregressive model, which psychologists have applied successfully to study affect regulation as well as alcohol use. A limitation of

  12. Metal-Dependent Regulation of ATP7A and ATP7B in Fibroblast Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenartowicz, Malgorzata; Moos, Torben; Ogórek, Mateusz;

    2016-01-01

    Deficiency of one of the copper transporters ATP7A and ATP7B leads to the rare X-linked disorder Menkes Disease (MD) or the rare autosomal disorder Wilson disease (WD), respectively. In order to investigate whether the ATP7A and the ATP7B genes may be transcriptionally regulated, we measured...

  13. Palmitoylation controls dopamine transporter kinetics, degradation, and protein kinase C-dependent regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, James D; Vaughan, Roxanne A

    2011-02-18

    Palmitoylation is a lipid modification that confers diverse functions to target proteins and is a contributing factor for many neuronal diseases. In this study, we demonstrate using [(3)H]palmitic acid labeling and acyl-biotinyl exchange that native and expressed dopamine transporters (DATs) are palmitoylated, and using the palmitoyl acyltransferase inhibitor 2-bromopalmitate (2BP), we identify several associated functions. Treatment of rat striatal synaptosomes with 2BP using lower doses or shorter times caused robust inhibition of transport V(max) that occurred with no losses of DAT protein or changes in DAT surface levels, indicating that acute loss of palmitoylation leads to reduction of transport kinetics. Treatment of synaptosomes or cells with 2BP using higher doses or longer times resulted in DAT protein losses and production of transporter fragments, implicating palmitoylation in regulation of transporter degradation. Site-directed mutagenesis indicated that palmitoylation of rat DAT occurs at Cys-580 at the intracellular end of transmembrane domain 12 and at one or more additional unidentified site(s). Cys-580 mutation also led to production of transporter degradation fragments and to increased phorbol ester-induced down-regulation, further supporting palmitoylation in opposing DAT turnover and in opposing protein kinase C-mediated regulation. These results identify S-palmitoylation as a major regulator of DAT properties that could significantly impact acute and long term dopamine transport capacity.

  14. Sugar- and nitrogen-dependent regulation of an Amanita muscaria phenylalanine ammonium lyase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehls, U; Ecke, M; Hampp, R

    1999-03-01

    The cDNA of a key enzyme of secondary metabolism, phenylalanine ammonium lyase, was identified for an ectomycorrhizal fungus by differential screening of a mycorrhizal library. The gene was highly expressed in hyphae grown at low external monosaccharide concentrations, but its expression was 30-fold reduced at elevated concentrations. Gene repression was regulated by hexokinase.

  15. Apoptosis in rat gastric antrum: Evidence that regulation by food intake depends on nitric oxide synthase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Bao-Hong; Mortensen, Kirsten; Tornehave, Ditte;

    2000-01-01

    The turnover of the epithelium of the gastrointestinal tract is regulated by a balance between cell multiplication and cell loss. We examined the effects of starvation on apoptosis in endocrine and other epithelial cells of rat antropyloric mucosa. Apoptosis was determined by the TUNEL reaction...

  16. Cell cycle-regulated expression of mammalian CDC6 is dependent on E2F

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hateboer, G; Wobst, A; Petersen, B O

    1998-01-01

    The E2F transcription factors are essential regulators of cell growth in multicellular organisms, controlling the expression of a number of genes whose products are involved in DNA replication and cell proliferation. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the MBF and SBF transcription complexes have functi...

  17. Hippocampal Regulation of Context-Dependent Neuronal Activity in the Lateral Amygdala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maren, Stephen; Hobin, Jennifer A.

    2007-01-01

    Pavlovian fear conditioning is a robust and enduring form of emotional learning that provides an ideal model system for studying contextual regulation of memory retrieval. After extinction the expression of fear conditional responses (CRs) is context-specific: A conditional stimulus (CS) elicits greater conditional responding outside compared with…

  18. Protein refolding in peroxisomes is dependent upon an HSF1-regulated function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heldens, Lonneke; van Genesen, Siebe T.; Hanssen, Lars L. P.; Hageman, Jurre; Kampinga, Harm H.; Lubsen, Nicolette H.

    2012-01-01

    Post-heat shock refolding of luciferase requires chaperones. Expression of a dominant negative HSF1 mutant (dnHSF1), which among other effects depletes cells of HSF1-regulated chaperones, blocked post-heat shock refolding of luciferase targeted to the cytoplasm, nucleus, or peroxisomes, while refold

  19. Sclerostin is a locally acting regulator of late-osteoblast/preosteocyte differentiation and regulates mineralization through a MEPE-ASARM-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Gerald J; Rowe, Peter S; Lim, Hui P; Welldon, Katie J; Ormsby, Renee; Wijenayaka, Asiri R; Zelenchuk, Lesya; Evdokiou, Andreas; Findlay, David M

    2011-07-01

    The identity of the cell type responsive to sclerostin, a negative regulator of bone mass, is unknown. Since sclerostin is expressed in vivo by mineral-embedded osteocytes, we tested the hypothesis that sclerostin would regulate the behavior of cells actively involved in mineralization in adult bone, the preosteocyte. Differentiating cultures of human primary osteoblasts exposed to recombinant human sclerostin (rhSCL) for 35 days displayed dose- and time-dependent inhibition of in vitro mineralization, with late cultures being most responsive in terms of mineralization and gene expression. Treatment of advanced (day 35) cultures with rhSCL markedly increased the expression of the preosteocyte marker E11 and decreased the expression of mature markers DMP1 and SOST. Concomitantly, matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE) expression was increased by rhSCL at both the mRNA and protein levels, whereas PHEX was decreased, implying regulation through the MEPE-ASARM axis. We confirmed that mineralization by human osteoblasts is exquisitely sensitive to the triphosphorylated ASARM-PO4 peptide. Immunostaining revealed that rhSCL increased the endogenous levels of MEPE-ASARM. Importantly, antibody-mediated neutralization of endogenous MEPE-ASARM antagonized the effect of rhSCL on mineralization, as did the PHEX synthetic peptide SPR4. Finally, we found elevated Sost mRNA expression in the long bones of HYP mice, suggesting that sclerostin may drive the increased MEPE-ASARM levels and mineralization defect in this genotype. Our results suggest that sclerostin acts through regulation of the PHEX/MEPE axis at the preosteocyte stage and serves as a master regulator of physiologic bone mineralization, consistent with its localization in vivo and its established role in the inhibition of bone formation.

  20. Antibody-dependent enhancement infection facilitates dengue virus-regulated signaling of IL-10 production in monocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Ting Tsai

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin (IL-10 levels are increased in dengue virus (DENV-infected patients with severe disorders. A hypothetical intrinsic pathway has been proposed for the IL-10 response during antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE of DENV infection; however, the mechanisms of IL-10 regulation remain unclear.We found that DENV infection and/or attachment was sufficient to induce increased expression of IL-10 and its downstream regulator suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 in human monocytic THP-1 cells and human peripheral blood monocytes. IL-10 production was controlled by activation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding (CREB, primarily through protein kinase A (PKA- and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K/PKB-regulated pathways, with PKA activation acting upstream of PI3K/PKB. DENV infection also caused glycogen synthase kinase (GSK-3β inactivation in a PKA/PI3K/PKB-regulated manner, and inhibition of GSK-3β significantly increased DENV-induced IL-10 production following CREB activation. Pharmacological inhibition of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk activity significantly decreased DENV-induced IL-10 production, whereas silencing Syk-associated C-type lectin domain family 5 member A caused a partial inhibition. ADE of DENV infection greatly increased IL-10 expression by enhancing Syk-regulated PI3K/PKB/GSK-3β/CREB signaling. We also found that viral load, but not serotype, affected the IL-10 response. Finally, modulation of IL-10 expression could affect DENV replication.These results demonstrate that, in monocytes, IL-10 production is regulated by ADE through both an extrinsic and an intrinsic pathway, all involving a Syk-regulated PI3K/PKB/GSK-3β/CREB pathway, and both of which impact viral replication.

  1. Amino acids allosterically regulate the thiamine diphosphate-dependent alpha-keto acid decarboxylase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werther, Tobias; Spinka, Michael; Tittmann, Kai; Schütz, Anja; Golbik, Ralph; Mrestani-Klaus, Carmen; Hübner, Gerhard; König, Stephan

    2008-02-29

    The gene rv0853c from Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain H37Rv codes for a thiamine diphosphate-dependent alpha-keto acid decarboxylase (MtKDC), an enzyme involved in the amino acid degradation via the Ehrlich pathway. Steady state kinetic experiments were performed to determine the substrate specificity of MtKDC. The mycobacterial enzyme was found to convert a broad spectrum of branched-chain and aromatic alpha-keto acids. Stopped-flow kinetics showed that MtKDC is allosterically activated by alpha-keto acids. Even more, we demonstrate that also amino acids are potent activators of this thiamine diphosphate-dependent enzyme. Thus, metabolic flow through the Ehrlich pathway can be directly regulated at the decarboxylation step. The influence of amino acids on MtKDC catalysis was investigated, and implications for other thiamine diphosphate-dependent enzymes are discussed.

  2. PIP2 regulation of KCNQ channels: biophysical and molecular mechanisms for lipid modulation of voltage-dependent gating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Alan Zaydman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated potassium (Kv channels contain voltage-sensing (VSD and pore-gate (PGD structural domains. During voltage-dependent gating, conformational changes in the two domains are coupled giving rise to voltage-dependent opening of the channel. In addition to membrane voltage, KCNQ (Kv7 channel opening requires the membrane lipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2. Recent studies suggest that PIP2 serves as a cofactor to mediate VSD-PGD coupling in KCNQ1 channels. In this review, we put these findings in the context of the current understanding of voltage-dependent gating, lipid modulation of Kv channel activation, and PIP2-regulation of KCNQ channels. We suggest that lipid-mediated coupling of functional domains is a common mechanism among KCNQ channels that may be applicable to other Kv channels and membrane proteins.

  3. PIP2 regulation of KCNQ channels: biophysical and molecular mechanisms for lipid modulation of voltage-dependent gating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaydman, Mark A; Cui, Jianmin

    2014-01-01

    Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels contain voltage-sensing (VSD) and pore-gate (PGD) structural domains. During voltage-dependent gating, conformational changes in the two domains are coupled giving rise to voltage-dependent opening of the channel. In addition to membrane voltage, KCNQ (Kv7) channel opening requires the membrane lipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2). Recent studies suggest that PIP2 serves as a cofactor to mediate VSD-PGD coupling in KCNQ1 channels. In this review, we put these findings in the context of the current understanding of voltage-dependent gating, lipid modulation of Kv channel activation, and PIP2-regulation of KCNQ channels. We suggest that lipid-mediated coupling of functional domains is a common mechanism among KCNQ channels that may be applicable to other Kv channels and membrane proteins.

  4. Efficacy of Regulated 12-Session Matrix Model on restraining methamphetamine-dependence: Biological evidence and self-reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Amiri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Substance abuse is accompanied by a wide range of psychological, social, and economic adverse outcomes and damages. Methamphetamine (abuse is dangerous because of its wide range adverse outcomes and hazardous sustaining side effects. Moreover, Methamphetamine-dependence is usually treatment-resistant. This study evaluated the Regulated 12-Session Matrix Model in treatment of outpatient ethamphetamine-dependent individuals. Method: 24 individuals were chosen according to inclusion/exclusion criteria of the study and randomly assigned to equal experimental (age range 19-41; mean age: 46.9 and control groups (age range: 21-42; mean age: 27.8. Experimental group members partook Regulated 12-Session Matrix Model once a week in 12 consecutive weeks, while control group members remained at waitlist. Results:Independent t-test in 12th week showed that experimental group had lower methamphetamine use, comparing to control group (p<.05.Phillai’s Trace, Wilk’sLambda,Hotelling-Lawley's trace, and Roy's largest root showed that there are significant association between experimental and control groups in reduction of methamphetamine-use lapse (p<.05.Within-subject F ratio revealed that “methamphetamine use” was significantly reduced in experimental group after clinical intervention (p<.001. Urine test showed significant difference in results of negative responses by the end of intervention (p<.05 in experimental group, compared to control group, which was also significant from the results of both groups in pre-test (p<.001. Discussion and conclusion: Efficacy of Regulated 12-Session Matrix Model in craving control and reduction of lapse and substance (abuse in methamphetamine-dependent patients was approved with self-reports and biological indicators. Regulated 12-Session Matrix Model has been proved to be beneficial in methamphetaminedependencetreatment in Iran and other alike cultural and social atmospheres. Limitations and future

  5. Novel expression and regulation of voltage-dependent potassium channels in placentas from women with preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Hiten D; McCallum, Laura A; Kurlak, Lesia O; Greenwood, Iain A; Broughton Pipkin, Fiona; Tribe, Rachel M

    2011-09-01

    Preeclampsia is associated with structural/functional alterations in placental and maternal vasculature. Voltage-dependant potassium channels encoded by KCNQ1-5 genes have been detected in several types of blood vessels where they promote vascular relaxation. Voltage-dependant potassium channel function can be modulated by KCNE1-5-encoded accessory proteins. The aim of this study was to determine whether KCNQ and KCNE genes are differentially expressed in placentas from women with preeclampsia compared with normotensive controls and to examine any differences in those who delivered preterm (voltage-dependant potassium channels are expressed and markedly modulated in placentas from preeclamptic women. Differential expression of isoforms may lead to altered cell proliferation. The correlation between KCNQ3 and KCNE5 expression is indicative of a novel channel complex and warrants further investigation.

  6. Themes and Variations: Regulation of RpoN-Dependent Flagellar Genes across Diverse Bacterial Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Tsang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Flagellar biogenesis in bacteria is a complex process in which the transcription of dozens of structural and regulatory genes is coordinated with the assembly of the flagellum. Although the overall process of flagellar biogenesis is conserved among bacteria, the mechanisms used to regulate flagellar gene expression vary greatly among different bacterial species. Many bacteria use the alternative sigma factor σ54 (also known as RpoN to transcribe specific sets of flagellar genes. These bacteria include members of the Epsilonproteobacteria (e.g., Helicobacter pylori and Campylobacter jejuni, Gammaproteobacteria (e.g., Vibrio and Pseudomonas species, and Alphaproteobacteria (e.g., Caulobacter crescentus. This review characterizes the flagellar transcriptional hierarchies in these bacteria and examines what is known about how flagellar gene regulation is linked with other processes including growth phase, quorum sensing, and host colonization.

  7. Endocytosis-dependent coordination of multiple actin regulators is required for wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubayashi, Yutaka; Coulson-Gilmer, Camilla; Millard, Tom H

    2015-08-01

    The ability to heal wounds efficiently is essential for life. After wounding of an epithelium, the cells bordering the wound form dynamic actin protrusions and/or a contractile actomyosin cable, and these actin structures drive wound closure. Despite their importance in wound healing, the molecular mechanisms that regulate the assembly of these actin structures at wound edges are not well understood. In this paper, using Drosophila melanogaster embryos, we demonstrate that Diaphanous, SCAR, and WASp play distinct but overlapping roles in regulating actin assembly during wound healing. Moreover, we show that endocytosis is essential for wound edge actin assembly and wound closure. We identify adherens junctions (AJs) as a key target of endocytosis during wound healing and propose that endocytic remodeling of AJs is required to form "signaling centers" along the wound edge that control actin assembly. We conclude that coordination of actin assembly, AJ remodeling, and membrane traffic is required for the construction of a motile leading edge during wound healing.

  8. Regulation of vacuolar proton pumping ATPase-dependent luminal acidification in the epididymis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nicolas Da Silva; Winnie W. C. Shum; Sylvie Breton

    2007-01-01

    Luminal acidification in the epididymis is an important process for the regulation of male fertility. Low pH and low bicarbonate concentration are among key factors that keep spermatozoa in a dormant state while they mature and are stored in this organ. Although significant bicarbonate reabsorption is achieved by principal cells in the proximal regions of the epididymis, clear and narrow cells are specialized for net proton secretion. Clear cells express very high levels of the vacuolar proton pumping ATPase (V-ATPase) in their apical membrane and are responsible for the bulk of proton secretion. In the present paper, selected aspects of V-ATPase regulation in clear cells are described and potential pathologies associated with mutations of some of the V-ATPase subunits are discussed.

  9. Trithorax and Polycomb group-dependent regulation: a tale of opposing activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, Sarah J; Paro, Renato

    2015-09-01

    Intricate layers of regulation determine the unique gene expression profiles of a given cell and, therefore, underlie the immense phenotypic diversity observed among cell types. Understanding the mechanisms that govern which genes are expressed and which genes are silenced is a fundamental focus in biology. The Polycomb and Trithorax group chromatin proteins play important roles promoting the stable and heritable repression and activation of gene expression, respectively. These proteins, which are conserved across metazoans, modulate post-translational modifications on histone tails and regulate nucleosomal structures. Here, we review recent advances that have shed light on the mechanisms by which these two classes of proteins act to maintain epigenetic memory and allow dynamic switches in gene expression during development.

  10. CYLD Regulates Noscapine Activity in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia via a Microtubule-Dependent Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yunfan; Ran, Jie; Sun, Lei; Sun, Xiaodong; Luo, Youguang; Yan, Bing; Tala; Liu, Min; Li, Dengwen; Zhang, Lei; Bao, Gang; Zhou, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Noscapine is an orally administrable drug used worldwide for cough suppression and has recently been demonstrated to disrupt microtubule dynamics and possess anticancer activity. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating noscapine activity remain poorly defined. Here we demonstrate that cylindromatosis (CYLD), a microtubule-associated tumor suppressor protein, modulates the activity of noscapine both in cell lines and in primary cells of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Flow cytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy reveal that CYLD increases the ability of noscapine to induce mitotic arrest and apoptosis. Examination of cellular microtubules as well as in vitro assembled microtubules shows that CYLD enhances the effect of noscapine on microtubule polymerization. Microtubule cosedimentation and fluorescence titration assays further reveal that CYLD interacts with microtubule outer surface and promotes noscapine binding to microtubules. These findings thus demonstrate CYLD as a critical regulator of noscapine activity and have important implications for ALL treatment.

  11. Rasgrf1 Imprinting Is Regulated by a CTCF-Dependent Methylation-Sensitive Enhancer Blocker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Bongjune; Herman, Herry; Hu, Benjamin; Park, Yoon Jung; Lindroth, Anders; Bell, Adam; West, Adam G.; Chang, Yanjie; Stablewski, Aimee; Piel, Jessica C.; Loukinov, Dmitri I.; Lobanenkov, Victor V.; Soloway, Paul D.

    2005-01-01

    Imprinted methylation of the paternal Rasgrf1 allele in mice occurs at a differentially methylated domain (DMD) 30 kbp 5′ of the promoter. A repeated sequence 3′ of the DMD regulates imprinted methylation, which is required for imprinted expression. Here we identify the mechanism by which methylation controls imprinting. The DMD is an enhancer blocker that binds CTCF in a methylation-sensitive manner. CTCF bound to the unmethylated maternal allele silences expression. CTCF binding to the paternal allele is prevented by repeat-mediated methylation, allowing expression. Optimal in vitro enhancer-blocking activity requires CTCF binding sites. The enhancer blocker can be bypassed in vivo and imprinting abolished by placing an extra enhancer proximal to the promoter. Together, the repeats and the DMD constitute a binary switch that regulates Rasgrf1 imprinting. PMID:16314537

  12. Calmodulin and calcium differentially regulate the neuronal Nav1.1 voltage-dependent sodium channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudioso, Christelle; Carlier, Edmond; Youssouf, Fahamoe [INSERM U641, Institut Jean Roche, Marseille F-13344 (France); Universite de la Mediterranee, Faculte de Medecine Secteur Nord, IFR 11, Marseille F-13344 (France); Clare, Jeffrey J. [Eaton Pharma Consulting, Eaton Socon, Cambridgeshire PE19 8EF (United Kingdom); Debanne, Dominique [INSERM U641, Institut Jean Roche, Marseille F-13344 (France); Universite de la Mediterranee, Faculte de Medecine Secteur Nord, IFR 11, Marseille F-13344 (France); Alcaraz, Gisele, E-mail: gisele.alcaraz@univmed.fr [INSERM U641, Institut Jean Roche, Marseille F-13344 (France); Universite de la Mediterranee, Faculte de Medecine Secteur Nord, IFR 11, Marseille F-13344 (France)

    2011-07-29

    Highlights: {yields} Both Ca{sup ++}-Calmodulin (CaM) and Ca{sup ++}-free CaM bind to the C-terminal region of Nav1.1. {yields} Ca{sup ++} and CaM have both opposite and convergent effects on I{sub Nav1.1}. {yields} Ca{sup ++}-CaM modulates I{sub Nav1.1} amplitude. {yields} CaM hyperpolarizes the voltage-dependence of activation, and increases the inactivation rate. {yields} Ca{sup ++} alone antagonizes CaM for both effects, and depolarizes the voltage-dependence of inactivation. -- Abstract: Mutations in the neuronal Nav1.1 voltage-gated sodium channel are responsible for mild to severe epileptic syndromes. The ubiquitous calcium sensor calmodulin (CaM) bound to rat brain Nav1.1 and to the human Nav1.1 channel expressed by a stably transfected HEK-293 cell line. The C-terminal region of the channel, as a fusion protein or in the yeast two-hybrid system, interacted with CaM via a consensus C-terminal motif, the IQ domain. Patch clamp experiments on HEK1.1 cells showed that CaM overexpression increased peak current in a calcium-dependent way. CaM had no effect on the voltage-dependence of fast inactivation, and accelerated the inactivation kinetics. Elevating Ca{sup ++} depolarized the voltage-dependence of fast inactivation and slowed down the fast inactivation kinetics, and for high concentrations this effect competed with the acceleration induced by CaM alone. Similarly, the depolarizing action of calcium antagonized the hyperpolarizing shift of the voltage-dependence of activation due to CaM overexpression. Fluorescence spectroscopy measurements suggested that Ca{sup ++} could bind the Nav1.1 C-terminal region with micromolar affinity.

  13. Tobacco carcinogen mediated up-regulation of AP-1 dependent pro-angiogenic cytokines in head and neck carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Wade G; Wuertz, Beverly R K; Ondrey, Frank G

    2011-09-01

    Tobacco is notably genotoxic and associated with head and neck carcinogenesis. Cigarette carcinogens have the capacity to alter early response gene expression in tobacco-related malignancies via genes such as nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB). A number of early response gene activation events are also facilitated by fos/jun activator protein 1 (AP-1) associated pathways. In the present study, we hypothesize that tobacco products may induce microenvironment alterations, promoting angiogenesis and providing a permissive environment for head and neck cancer progression. In an in vitro analysis, we employed immortalized oral keratinocyte (HOK-16B) and laryngeal squamous carcinoma (UM-SCC-11A) cells to investigate interleukin (IL)-8 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) induction by cigarette smoke condensate (CSC). IL-8 and VEGF expression is based on interactions between NFκB, AP-1, and NF-IL6. We identified at least 1.5-fold dose-dependent induction of AP-1, VEGF, and IL-8 promoter/reporter gene activity after 24 h exposure to CSC. Next, we stably transfected UM-SCC-11A cells with A-Fos, a dominant negative AP-1 protein. Treatment with CSC of the A-Fos cell lines compared to empty vector controls significantly down-regulated AP-1, VEGF, and IL-8 promoter/reporter gene expression. We also performed ELISAs and discovered significant up-regulation of IL-8 and VEGF secretion by UMSCC 11A after treatment with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and CSC, which was down-regulated by the A-Fos dominant negative protein. We conclude tobacco carcinogens up-regulate AP-1 activity and AP-1 dependent IL-8 and VEGF gene expression in head and neck cancer. This up-regulation may promote an angiogenic phenotype favoring invasion in both premalignant and squamous cancer cells of the head and neck.

  14. Rictor regulates FBXW7-dependent c-Myc and cyclin E degradation in colorectal cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Zheng [Markey Cancer Center, The University of Kentucky, 800 Rose Street, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Gastroenterology, Department of Gastroenterology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, 1838 Guangzhou Dadao Bei, Guangzhou 510515 (China); Zhou, Yuning [Markey Cancer Center, The University of Kentucky, 800 Rose Street, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Evers, B. Mark [Markey Cancer Center, The University of Kentucky, 800 Rose Street, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Department of Surgery, The University of Kentucky, 800 Rose Street, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Wang, Qingding, E-mail: qingding.wang@uky.edu [Markey Cancer Center, The University of Kentucky, 800 Rose Street, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Department of Surgery, The University of Kentucky, 800 Rose Street, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States)

    2012-02-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rictor associates with FBXW7 to form an E3 complex. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Knockdown of rictor decreases ubiquitination of c-Myc and cylin E. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Knockdown of rictor increases protein levels of c-Myc and cylin E. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of rictor induces the degradation of c-Myc and cyclin E proteins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rictor regulation of c-Myc and cyclin E requires FBXW7. -- Abstract: Rictor (Rapamycin-insensitive companion of mTOR) forms a complex with mTOR and phosphorylates and activates Akt. Activation of Akt induces expression of c-Myc and cyclin E, which are overexpressed in colorectal cancer and play an important role in colorectal cancer cell proliferation. Here, we show that rictor associates with FBXW7 to form an E3 complex participating in the regulation of c-Myc and cyclin E degradation. The Rictor-FBXW7 complex is biochemically distinct from the previously reported mTORC2 and can be immunoprecipitated independently of mTORC2. Moreover, knocking down of rictor in serum-deprived colorectal cancer cells results in the decreased ubiquitination and increased protein levels of c-Myc and cyclin E while overexpression of rictor induces the degradation of c-Myc and cyclin E proteins. Genetic knockout of FBXW7 blunts the effects of rictor, suggesting that rictor regulation of c-Myc and cyclin E requires FBXW7. Our findings identify rictor as an important component of FBXW7 E3 ligase complex participating in the regulation of c-Myc and cyclin E protein ubiquitination and degradation. Importantly, our results suggest that elevated growth factor signaling may contribute to decrease rictor/FBXW7-mediated ubiquitination of c-Myc and cyclin E, thus leading to accumulation of cyclin E and c-Myc in colorectal cancer cells.

  15. Ethylene regulates root growth through effects on auxin biosynthesis and transport-dependent auxin distribution

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    In plants, each developmental process integrates a network of signaling events that are regulated by different phytohormones, and interactions among hormonal pathways are essential to modulate their effect. Continuous growth of roots results from the postembryonic activity of cells within the root meristem that is controlled by the coordinated action of several phytohormones, including auxin and ethylene. Although their interaction has been studied intensively, the molecular and cellular mech...

  16. The Developmental Intestinal Regulator ELT-2 Controls p38-Dependent Immune Responses in Adult C. elegans

    OpenAIRE

    Block, Dena H. S.; Kwame Twumasi-Boateng; Hae Sung Kang; Jolie A Carlisle; Alexandru Hanganu; Ty Yu-Jen Lai; Michael Shapira

    2015-01-01

    Author Summary C. elegans provides a tractable genetic model to study the regulation of the evolutionarily conserved innate immune system. One of the central signaling modules of innate immunity in all organisms is the p38 pathway, which has been studied extensively in C. elegans. Such studies identified the transcription factors ATF-7 and SKN-1 as proteins mediating downstream effects of the p38 pathway on immune and oxidative stress gene expression. Previous studies in C. elegans also ident...

  17. CYLD Regulates Noscapine Activity in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia via a Microtubule-Dependent Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yunfan; Ran, Jie; Sun, Lei; Sun, Xiaodong; Luo, Youguang; Yan, Bing; Tala,; Liu, Min; Li, Dengwen; Zhang, Lei; Bao, Gang; Zhou, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Noscapine is an orally administrable drug used worldwide for cough suppression and has recently been demonstrated to disrupt microtubule dynamics and possess anticancer activity. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating noscapine activity remain poorly defined. Here we demonstrate that cylindromatosis (CYLD), a microtubule-associated tumor suppressor protein, modulates the activity of noscapine both in cell lines and in primary cells of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Flow cytometry a...

  18. Drosophila Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein Developmentally Regulates Activity-Dependent Axon Pruning

    OpenAIRE

    Tessier, Charles R.; Broadie, Kendal

    2008-01-01

    Fragile X Syndrome (FraX) is a broad-spectrum neurological disorder with symptoms ranging from hyperexcitability to mental retardation and autism. Loss of the fragile X mental retardation 1 (fmr1) gene product, the mRNA-binding translational regulator FMRP, causes structural over-elaboration of dendritic and axonal processes as well as functional alterations in synaptic plasticity at maturity. It is unclear, however, whether FraX is primarily a disease of development, a disease of plasticity ...

  19. Sex-dependent regulation of hypoxic ventilation in mice and humans is mediated by erythropoietin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soliz, Jorge; Thomsen, Jonas Juhl; Soulage, Christophe;

    2009-01-01

    . Alterations of catecholamines in the brain stem's respiratory centers were also sex dependent. In a proof-of-concept study, human volunteers were intravenously injected with 5,000 units rhEpo and subsequently exposed to 10% oxygen. Compared with men, the hypoxic ventilatory response was significantly...... increased in women. We conclude that Epo exerts a sex-dependent impact on hypoxic ventilation improving the response in female mice and in women that most probably involves sexual hormones. Our data provides an explanation as to why women are less susceptible to hypoxia-associated syndromes than men....

  20. Absence of Hyperplasia in Gasp-1 Overexpressing Mice is Dependent on Myostatin Up-Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Brun

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Overexpression of Gasp-1, an inhibitor of myostatin, leads to a hypermuscular phenotype due to hypertrophy rather than hyperplasia in mice. However to date, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this phenotype are not investigated. Methods: Skeletal muscles of overexpressing Gasp-1 mice, called Tg(Gasp-1 mice, were analyzed by histological methods. Satellite cell-derived myoblasts from these mice were used to investigate the molecular mechanisms. Results: We demonstrated that hypertrophy in Tg(Gasp-1 mice was related to a myonuclear accretion during the first 3 postnatal weeks and an activation of the pro-hypertrophic Akt/mTORC/p70S6K signaling. In accordance with these results, we showed that overexpressing Gasp-1 primary myoblasts proliferated faster and myonuclei average per myotube was increased during differentiation. Molecular analysis revealed that Gasp-1 overexpression resulted in increased myostatin expression related to its auto-regulation. Despite its inhibition, myostatin led to Pax7 deregulation through its non-canonical Erk1/2 signaling pathway. Consistent with this, inhibition of Erk1/2 signaling pathway as well as neutralization of secreted myostatin rescue the Pax7 expression in overexpressing Gasp-1 myoblasts. Conclusion: Our study shows that myostatin is able to act independently of its canonical pathway to regulate the Pax7 expression. Altogether, our results indicate that myostatin could regulate muscle development despite its protein inhibition.

  1. Absence of hyperplasia in Gasp-1 overexpressing mice is dependent on myostatin up-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Caroline; Périé, Luce; Baraige, Fabienne; Vernus, Barbara; Bonnieu, Anne; Blanquet, Véronique

    2014-01-01

    Overexpression of Gasp-1, an inhibitor of myostatin, leads to a hypermuscular phenotype due to hypertrophy rather than hyperplasia in mice. However to date, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this phenotype are not investigated. Skeletal muscles of overexpressing Gasp-1 mice, called Tg(Gasp-1) mice, were analyzed by histological methods. Satellite cell-derived myoblasts from these mice were used to investigate the molecular mechanisms. We demonstrated that hypertrophy in Tg(Gasp-1) mice was related to a myonuclear accretion during the first 3 postnatal weeks and an activation of the pro-hypertrophic Akt/mTORC/p70S6K signaling. In accordance with these results, we showed that overexpressing Gasp-1 primary myoblasts proliferated faster and myonuclei average per myotube was increased during differentiation. Molecular analysis revealed that Gasp-1 overexpression resulted in increased myostatin expression related to its auto-regulation. Despite its inhibition, myostatin led to Pax7 deregulation through its non-canonical Erk1/2 signaling pathway. Consistent with this, inhibition of Erk1/2 signaling pathway as well as neutralization of secreted myostatin rescue the Pax7 expression in overexpressing Gasp-1 myoblasts. Our study shows that myostatin is able to act independently of its canonical pathway to regulate the Pax7 expression. Altogether, our results indicate that myostatin could regulate muscle development despite its protein inhibition. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Protein phosphatase-dependent circadian regulation of intermediate-term associative memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Maximilian; Gardner, Jacob S; Green, Charity L; Organ, Chelsea L; Lyons, Lisa C

    2013-03-01

    The endogenous circadian clock is a principal factor modulating memory across species. Determining the processes through which the circadian clock modulates memory formation is a key issue in understanding and identifying mechanisms to improve memory. We used the marine mollusk Aplysia californica to investigate circadian modulation of intermediate-term memory (ITM) and the mechanisms through which the circadian clock phase specifically suppresses memory using the operant learning paradigm, learning that food is inedible. We found that ITM, a temporally and mechanistically distinct form of memory, is rhythmically expressed under light-dark and constant conditions when induced by either massed or spaced training. Strong circadian regulation of ITM occurs with memory exhibited only by animals trained during the early subjective day; no apparent memory is expressed when training occurs during the late subjective day or night. Given the necessity of multiple persistent kinase cascades for ITM, we investigated whether protein phosphatase activity affected circadian modulation. Inhibition of protein phosphatases 1 and 2A blocked ITM when animals were trained during the early (subjective) day while resulting in phase-specific memory rescue when animals were trained late in the subjective day and early night. In contrast, inhibition of calcineurin did not block ITM when animals were trained during the early day and permitted ITM when animals were trained during the late subjective day, early evening, and throughout the night. These results demonstrate that levels of protein phosphatase activity are critical regulators of ITM and one mechanism through which the circadian clock regulates memory formation.

  3. Regulated ADAM17-dependent EGF family ligand release by substrate-selecting signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Michelle; Armbruster, Nicole; Miller, Miles A; Cermeno, Efrain; Hartmann, Monika; Bell, George W; Root, David E; Lauffenburger, Douglas A; Lodish, Harvey F; Herrlich, Andreas

    2013-06-11

    Ectodomain cleavage of cell-surface proteins by A disintegrin and metalloproteinases (ADAMs) is highly regulated, and its dysregulation has been linked to many diseases. ADAM10 and ADAM17 cleave most disease-relevant substrates. Broad-spectrum metalloprotease inhibitors have failed clinically, and targeting the cleavage of a specific substrate has remained impossible. It is therefore necessary to identify signaling intermediates that determine substrate specificity of cleavage. We show here that phorbol ester or angiotensin II-induced proteolytic release of EGF family members may not require a significant increase in ADAM17 protease activity. Rather, inducers activate a signaling pathway using PKC-α and the PKC-regulated protein phosphatase 1 inhibitor 14D that is required for ADAM17 cleavage of TGF-α, heparin-binding EGF, and amphiregulin. A second pathway involving PKC-δ is required for neuregulin (NRG) cleavage, and, indeed, PKC-δ phosphorylation of serine 286 in the NRG cytosolic domain is essential for induced NRG cleavage. Thus, signaling-mediated substrate selection is clearly distinct from regulation of enzyme activity, an important mechanism that offers itself for application in disease.

  4. Control of Arabidopsis meristem development by thioredoxin-dependent regulation of intercellular transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez-Alfonso, Yoselin; Cilia, Michelle; Roman, Adrianna San; Thomas, Carole; Maule, Andy; Hearn, Stephen; Jackson, David

    2009-01-01

    Cell-to-cell transport in plants occurs through cytoplasmic channels called “plasmodesmata” and is regulated by developmental and environmental factors. Callose deposition modulates plasmodesmal transport in vivo, but little is known about the mechanisms that regulate this process. Here we report a genetic approach to identify mutants affecting plasmodesmal transport. We isolated 5 mutants, named gfp arrested trafficking (gat), affected in GFP unloading from the phloem into the meristem. gat1 mutants were seedling lethal and carried lesions in an m-type thioredoxin that is expressed in non-green plastids of meristems and organ primordia. Callose and hydrogen peroxide accumulated in gat1 mutants, and WT plants subjected to oxidative conditions phenocopied the gat1 trafficking defects. Ectopic expression of GAT1 in mature leaves increased plasmodesmal permeability and led to a delay in senescence and flowering time. We propose a role for the GAT1 thioredoxin in the redox regulation of callose deposition and symplastic permeability that is essential for meristem maintenance in Arabidopsis. PMID:19218459

  5. Differentially phased leaf growth and movements in Arabidopsis depend on coordinated circadian and light regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornbusch, Tino; Michaud, Olivier; Xenarios, Ioannis; Fankhauser, Christian

    2014-10-01

    In contrast to vastly studied hypocotyl growth, little is known about diel regulation of leaf growth and its coordination with movements such as changes in leaf elevation angle (hyponasty). We developed a 3D live-leaf growth analysis system enabling simultaneous monitoring of growth and movements. Leaf growth is maximal several hours after dawn, requires light, and is regulated by daylength, suggesting coupling between growth and metabolism. We identify both blade and petiole positioning as important components of leaf movements in Arabidopsis thaliana and reveal a temporal delay between growth and movements. In hypocotyls, the combination of circadian expression of PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR4 (PIF4) and PIF5 and their light-regulated protein stability drives rhythmic hypocotyl elongation with peak growth at dawn. We find that PIF4 and PIF5 are not essential to sustain rhythmic leaf growth but influence their amplitude. Furthermore, EARLY FLOWERING3, a member of the evening complex (EC), is required to maintain the correct phase between growth and movement. Our study shows that the mechanisms underlying rhythmic hypocotyl and leaf growth differ. Moreover, we reveal the temporal relationship between leaf elongation and movements and demonstrate the importance of the EC for the coordination of these phenotypic traits.

  6. Regulation of nitrate transport in citrus rootstocks depending on nitrogen availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerezo, Miguel; Camañes, Gemma; Flors, Víctor; Primo-Millo, Eduardo; García-Agustín, Pilar

    2007-09-01

    Previously, we reported that in Citrus plants, nitrate influx through the plasmalemma of roots cells follows a biphasic pattern, suggesting the existence of at least two different uptake systems, a high and low affinity transport system (HATS and LATS, respectively). Here, we describe a novel inducible high affinity transport system (iHATS). This new nitrate transport system has a high capacity to uptake nitrate in two different Citrus rootstocks (Cleopatra mandarin and Troyer citrange). The iHATS was saturable, showing higher affinity than constitutive high affinity transport system (cHATS) to the substrate NO(3) (-). The V(max) for this saturable component iHATS was higher than cHATS, reaching similar values in both rootstocks.Additionally, we studied the regulation of root NO(3) (-) uptake mediated by both HATS (iHATS and cHATS) and LATS. In both rootstocks, cHATS is constitutive and independent of N-status. Concerning the regulation of iHATS, this system is upregulated by NO(3) (-) and down-regulated by the N status and by NO(3) (-) itself when plants are exposed to it for a longer period of time. LATS in Cleopatra mandarin and Troyer citrange rootstocks is repressed by the N-status.The use of various metabolic uncouplers or inhibitors indicated that NO(3) (-) net uptake mediated by iHATS and LATS was an active transport system in both rootstocks.

  7. Regulation of Estrogen-Dependent Transcription by the LIM Cofactors CLIM and RLIM in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Steven A.; Güngör, Cenap; Prenzel, Tanja; Riethdorf, Sabine; Riethdorf, Lutz; Taniguchi-Ishigaki, Naoko; Rau, Thomas; Tursun, Baris; Furlow, J. David; Sauter, Guido; Scheffner, Martin; Pantel, Klaus; Gannon, Frank; Bach, Ingolf

    2009-01-01

    Mammary oncogenesis is profoundly influenced by signaling pathways controlled by Estrogen Receptor-alpha (ERα). Although it is known that ERα exerts its oncogenic effect by stimulating the proliferation of many human breast cancers through the activation of target genes, our knowledge of the underlying transcriptional mechanisms remains limited. Our published work has shown that the in vivo activity of LIM homeodomain transcription factors (LIM-HDs) is critically regulated by Cofactors of LIM-HD proteins (CLIM) and the ubiquitin ligase RING finger LIM domain interacting protein (RLIM). Here, we identify CLIM and RLIM as novel ERα cofactors that co-localize and interact with ERα in primary human breast tumors. We show that both cofactors associate with estrogen responsive promoters and regulate the expression of endogenous ERα target genes in breast cancer cells. Surprisingly, our results indicate opposing functions of LIM cofactors for ERα and LIM-HDs: whereas CLIM enhances transcriptional activity of LIM-HDs, it inhibits transcriptional activation mediated by ERα on most target genes in vivo. In turn, the ubiquitin ligase RLIM inhibits transcriptional activity of LIM-HDs, but enhances transcriptional activation of endogenous ERα target genes. Results from a human breast cancer tissue microarray (TMA) of 1,335 patients revealed a highly significant correlation of elevated CLIM levels to ER/PR positivity and poor differentiation of tumors. Combined, these results indicate that LIM cofactors CLIM and RLIM regulate the biological activity of ERα during the development of human breast cancer. PMID:19117995

  8. Mutually exclusive binding of APPL(PH) to BAR domain and Reptin regulates β-catenin dependent transcriptional events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Sajid; Parveen, Zahida; Ferdous, Saba; Bibi, Nousheen

    2013-12-01

    Reptin functions in a wide range of biological processes including chromatin remodelling, nucleolar organization and transcriptional regulation of WNT signalling. As β-catenin dependent transcriptional repression and activation events involve binding of Reptin and histone deacetylase 1 to APPL endocytic proteins, this complex has become an important target to identify molecules governing endocytic processes and WNT signalling. Here, we describe the structural basis of APPL binding to Reptin to explore their mode of binding in context with APPL1/APPL2 dimerization. There is an evidence that both PH and BAR domains of APPL proteins exhibit alternately conserved regions involved in hetero-dimerization process and our in-silico data also corroborate this fact. Moreover, APPL2(PH) domain binds to the BAR domain region encompassing a nuclear localization signal. We conclude that APPL(PH) binding to BAR domain and Reptin is mutually exclusive which regulates the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of Reptin. Furthermore, Reptin is unable to bind with membrane-associated APPL proteins. These observations were further expanded by experimental approaches where we identified a novel point mutation D316N lying in the APPL1(PH) domain which resulted in a significantly reduced binding with Reptin. By luciferase assays, we observed that overexpression of APPL1(D316N) and APPL1(WT) stimulated β-catenin/TCF dependent transcriptional activity in a similar manner which suggested that binding of Reptin to APPL1 is not necessary for β-catenin dependent target gene expression. Overall, our data attempt to highlight a comparative role of APPL proteins in controlling β-catenin dependent transcription mechanism which may improve our understanding of gene regulation.

  9. Intracellular pH regulation in unstimulated Calliphora salivary glands is Na+ dependent and requires V-ATPase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schewe, Bettina; Blenau, Wolfgang; Walz, Bernd

    2012-04-15

    Salivary gland cells of the blowfly Calliphora vicina have a vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) that lies in their apical membrane and energizes the secretion of a KCl-rich primary saliva upon stimulation with serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine). Whether and to what extent V-ATPase contributes to intracellular pH (pH(i)) regulation in unstimulated gland cells is unknown. We used the fluorescent dye BCECF to study intracellular pH(i) regulation microfluorometrically and show that: (1) under resting conditions, the application of Na(+)-free physiological saline induces an intracellular alkalinization attributable to the inhibition of the activity of a Na(+)-dependent glutamate transporter; (2) the maintenance of resting pH(i) is Na(+), Cl(-), concanamycin A and DIDS sensitive; (3) recovery from an intracellular acid load is Na(+) sensitive and requires V-ATPase activity; (4) the Na(+)/H(+) antiporter is not involved in pH(i) recovery after a NH(4)Cl prepulse; and (5) at least one Na(+)-dependent transporter and the V-ATPase maintain recovery from an intracellular acid load. Thus, under resting conditions, the V-ATPase and at least one Na(+)-dependent transporter maintain normal pH(i) values of pH 7.5. We have also detected the presence of a Na(+)-dependent glutamate transporter, which seems to act as an acid loader. Despite this not being a common pH(i)-regulating transporter, its activity affects steady-state pH(i) in C. vicina salivary gland cells.

  10. Dosage dependent hormonal counter regulation to combination therapy in patients with left ventricular dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galløe, A.M.; Skagen, K.; Christensen, Niels Juel

    2006-01-01

    rate and plasma noradrenaline in a dose dependent manner. Doses of bumetanide of more than 0.5 mg, given twice daily significantly decreased the quality of life and increased diuresis. Weight loss was maximal on 0.5 mg bumetanide twice daily. Trandolapril significantly reduced systolic blood pressure...

  11. Stochastic seasonality and nonlinear density-dependent factors regulate population size in an African rodent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leirs, Herwig; Steneth, Nils Chr.; Nichols, James D.

    1997-01-01

    , but clear examples of both processes acting in the same population are rare(7,8). Key-factor analysis (regression of population changes on possible causal factors) and time-series analysis are often used to investigate the presence of density dependence, but such approaches may be biased and provide...

  12. p53-Dependent Nestin Regulation Links Tumor Suppression to Cellular Plasticity in Liver Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tschaharganeh, Darjus F; Xue, Wen; Calvisi, Diego F

    2014-01-01

    nestin in an Sp1/3 transcription-factor-dependent manner and that Nestin is required for tumor initiation in vivo. Moreover, loss of p53 facilitates dedifferentiation of mature hepatocytes into nestin-positive progenitor-like cells, which are poised to differentiate into hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs...

  13. Auxin Is Rapidly Induced by Herbivore Attack and Regulates a Subset of Systemic, Jasmonate-Dependent Defenses1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Ricardo A. R.; Robert, Christelle A. M.; Arce, Carla C. M.; Ferrieri, Abigail P.; Jimenez-Aleman, Guillermo H.

    2016-01-01

    Plant responses to herbivore attack are regulated by phytohormonal networks. To date, the role of the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in this context is not well understood. We quantified and manipulated the spatiotemporal patterns of IAA accumulation in herbivore-attacked Nicotiana attenuata plants to unravel its role in the regulation of plant secondary metabolism. We found that IAA is strongly, rapidly, and specifically induced by herbivore attack. IAA is elicited by herbivore oral secretions and fatty acid conjugate elicitors and is accompanied by a rapid transcriptional increase of auxin biosynthetic YUCCA-like genes. IAA accumulation starts 30 to 60 s after local induction and peaks within 5 min after induction, thereby preceding the jasmonate (JA) burst. IAA accumulation does not require JA signaling and spreads rapidly from the wound site to systemic tissues. Complementation and transport inhibition experiments reveal that IAA is required for the herbivore-specific, JA-dependent accumulation of anthocyanins and phenolamides in the stems. In contrast, IAA does not affect the accumulation of nicotine or 7-hydroxygeranyllinalool diterpene glycosides in the same tissue. Taken together, our results uncover IAA as a rapid and specific signal that regulates a subset of systemic, JA-dependent secondary metabolites in herbivore-attacked plants. PMID:27485882

  14. Fronto-temporal alterations and affect regulation in methamphetamine dependence with and without a history of psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlmann, Anne; Fouche, Jean-Paul; Koen, Nastassja; Meintjes, Ernesta M; Wilson, Don; Stein, Dan J

    2016-02-28

    Methamphetamine (MA) has been shown to have neurotoxic effects associated with brain structure changes and schizophrenia-like psychotic symptoms. Although these abnormalities may in turn be related to cognitive impairment and increased aggression, their association with affect dysregulation is less well studied. We investigated cortical thickness and subcortical volumes in 21 participants with MA dependence, 19 patients with MA-associated psychosis (MAP), and 19 healthy controls. Participants' affect regulation abilities were assessed through self-report scales on emotion reactivity (ERS) and difficulties in emotion regulation (DERS) and correlated with differences in cortical thickness. MAP patients showed thinner cortices in the fusiform and inferior temporal gyrus (ITG), orbitofrontal (OFC) and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and insula, compared to the MA group. MAP also showed significantly lower hippocampal volumes relative to MA and CTRL. Both clinical groups showed impairment in affect regulation, but only in MAP was this dysfunction associated with thinner cortices in ITG, OFC and IFG. Our findings suggest significant differences in cortical thickness in MA dependence with and without psychosis. Lower fronto-temporal cortical thickness and smaller hippocampal volumes in MAP are consistent with neuroimaging findings in other psychotic disorders, supporting the notion of MAP being a useful model of psychosis.

  15. Actin Dynamics Regulates Voltage-Dependent Calcium-Permeable Channels of the Vicia faba Guard Cell Plasma Membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhang; Liu-Min Fan

    2009-01-01

    Free cytosolic Ca~(2+) ([Ca~(2+)]_(cyt)) is an ubiquitous second messenger in plant cell signaling, and [Ca~(2+)]_(cyt) elevation is associated with Ca~(2+)-permeable channels in the plasma membrane and endomembranes regulated by a wide range of stimuli. However, knowledge regarding Ca~(2+) channels and their regulation remains limited in planta. A type of voltage-dependent Ca~(2+)-permeable channel was identified and characterized for the Vicia faba L. guard cell plasma membrane by using patch-clamp techniques. These channels are permeable to both Ba~(2+) and Ca~(2+), and their activities can be inhibited by micromolar Gd~(3+). The unitary conductance and the reversal potential of the channels depend on the Ca~(2+) or Ba~(2+) gradients across the plasma membrane. The inward whole-cell Ca~(2+) (Ba~(2+)) current, as well as the unitary current amplitude and NP. of the single Ca~(2+) channel, increase along with the membrane hyperpolarization. Pharmacological experiments suggest that actin dynamics may serve as an upstream regulator of this type of calcium channel of the guard cell plasma membrane. Cytochalasin D, an actin polymerization blocker, activated the NP_o of these channels at the single channel level and increased the current amplitude at the whole-cell level. But these channel activations and current increments could be restrained by pretreatment with an F-actin stabilizer, phalloidin. The potential physiological significance of this regulatory mechanism is also discussed.

  16. Characterization of a calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase homolog from maize roots showing light-regulated gravitropism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y. T.; Hidaka, H.; Feldman, L. J.

    1996-01-01

    Roots of many species respond to gravity (gravitropism) and grow downward only if illuminated. This light-regulated root gravitropism is phytochrome-dependent, mediated by calcium, and inhibited by KN-93, a specific inhibitor of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK II). A cDNA encoding MCK1, a maize homolog of mammalian CaMK, has been isolated from roots of maize (Zea mays L.). The MCK1 gene is expressed in root tips, the site of perception for both light and gravity. Using the [35S]CaM gel-overlay assay we showed that calmodulin-binding activity of the MCK1 is abolished by 50 microM KN-93, but binding is not affected by 5 microM KN-93, paralleling physiological findings that light-regulated root gravitropism is inhibited by 50 microM KN-93, but not by 5 microM KN-93. KN-93 inhibits light-regulated gravitropism by interrupting transduction of the light signal, not light perception, suggesting that MCK1 may play a role in transducing light. This is the first report suggesting a physiological function for a CaMK homolog in light signal transduction.

  17. Regulation of the small regulatory RNA MicA by ribonuclease III: a target-dependent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegas, Sandra C; Silva, Inês J; Saramago, Margarida; Domingues, Susana; Arraiano, Cecília M

    2011-04-01

    MicA is a trans-encoded small non-coding RNA, which downregulates porin-expression in stationary-phase. In this work, we focus on the role of endoribonucleases III and E on Salmonella typhimurium sRNA MicA regulation. RNase III is shown to regulate MicA in a target-coupled way, while RNase E is responsible for the control of free MicA levels in the cell. We purified both Salmonella enzymes and demonstrated that in vitro RNase III is only active over MicA when in complex with its targets (whether ompA or lamB mRNAs). In vivo, MicA is demonstrated to be cleaved by RNase III in a coupled way with ompA mRNA. On the other hand, RNase E is able to cleave unpaired MicA and does not show a marked dependence on its 5' phosphorylation state. The main conclusion of this work is the existence of two independent pathways for MicA turnover. Each pathway involves a distinct endoribonuclease, having a different role in the context of the fine-tuned regulation of porin levels. Cleavage of MicA by RNase III in a target-dependent fashion, with the concomitant decay of the mRNA target, strongly resembles the eukaryotic RNAi system, where RNase III-like enzymes play a pivotal role.

  18. Radiation-induced cyclooxygenase 2 up-regulation is dependent on redox status in prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingyun; Steinauer, Kirsten K; Dirks, Amie J; Husbeck, Bryan; Gibbs, Iris; Knox, Susan J

    2003-12-01

    Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) is the inducible isozyme of COX, a key enzyme in arachidonate metabolism and the conversion of arachidonic acid (AA) to prostaglandins (PGs) and other eicosanoids. Previous studies have demonstrated that the COX2 protein is up-regulated in prostate cancer cells after irradiation and that this results in elevated levels of PGE(2). In the present study, we further investigated whether radiation-induced COX2 up-regulation is dependent on the redox status of cells from the prostate cancer cell line PC-3. l-Buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), which inhibits gamma glutamyl cysteine synthetase (gammaGCS), and the antioxidants alpha-lipoic acid and N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) were used to modulate the cellular redox status. BSO decreased the cellular GSH level and increased cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in PC-3 cells, whereas alpha-lipoic acid and NAC increased the GSH level and decreased cellular ROS. Both radiation and the oxidant H(2)O(2) had similar effects on COX2 up-regulation and PGE(2) production in PC-3 cells, suggesting that radiation-induced COX2 up-regulation is secondary to the production of ROS. The relative increases in COX2 expression and PGE(2) production induced by radiation and H(2)O(2) were even greater when PC-3 cells were pretreated with BSO. When the cells were pretreated with alpha-lipoic acid or NAC for 24 h, both radiation- and H(2)O(2)-induced COX2 up-regulation and PGE(2) production were markedly inhibited. These results demonstrate that radiation-induced COX2 up-regulation in prostate cancer cells is modulated by the cellular redox status. Radiation-induced increases in ROS levels contribute to the adaptive response of PC-3 cells, resulting in elevated levels of COX2.

  19. Phosphorylation-dependent 14-3-3 protein interactions regulate CFTR biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiubin; Da Paula, Ana Carina; Bozóky, Zoltán; Zhang, Hui; Bertrand, Carol A; Peters, Kathryn W; Forman-Kay, Julie D; Frizzell, Raymond A

    2012-03-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA)-regulated chloride channel whose phosphorylation controls anion secretion across epithelial cell apical membranes. We examined the hypothesis that cAMP/PKA stimulation regulates CFTR biogenesis posttranslationally, based on predicted 14-3-3 binding motifs within CFTR and forskolin-induced CFTR expression. The 14-3-3β, γ, and ε isoforms were expressed in airway cells and interacted with CFTR in coimmunoprecipitation assays. Forskolin stimulation (15 min) increased 14-3-3β and ε binding to immature and mature CFTR (bands B and C), and 14-3-3 overexpression increased CFTR bands B and C and cell surface band C. In pulse-chase experiments, 14-3-3β increased the synthesis of immature CFTR, reduced its degradation rate, and increased conversion of immature to mature CFTR. Conversely, 14-3-3β knockdown decreased CFTR B and C bands (70 and 55%) and elicited parallel reductions in cell surface CFTR and forskolin-stimulated anion efflux. In vitro, 14-3-3β interacted with the CFTR regulatory region, and by nuclear magnetic resonance analysis, this interaction occurred at known PKA phosphorylated sites. In coimmunoprecipitation assays, forskolin stimulated the CFTR/14-3-3β interaction while reducing CFTR's interaction with coat protein complex 1 (COP1). Thus 14-3-3 binding to phosphorylated CFTR augments its biogenesis by reducing retrograde retrieval of CFTR to the endoplasmic reticulum. This mechanism permits cAMP/PKA stimulation to make more CFTR available for anion secretion.

  20. CNC-bZIP protein Nrf1-dependent regulation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hongzhi; Fu, Jingqi; Xue, Peng; Zhao, Rui; Dong, Jian; Liu, Dianxin; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Tong, Qingchun; Teng, Weiping; Qu, Weidong; Zhang, Qiang; Andersen, Melvin E; Pi, Jingbo

    2015-04-01

    The inability of pancreatic β-cells to secrete sufficient insulin in response to glucose stimulation is a major contributing factor to the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). We investigated both the in vitro and in vivo effects of deficiency of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 1 (Nrf1) in β-cells on β-cell function and glucose homeostasis. Silencing of Nrf1 in β-cells leads to a pre-T2D phenotype with disrupted glucose metabolism and impaired insulin secretion. Specifically, MIN6 β-cells with stable knockdown of Nrf1 (Nrf1-KD) and isolated islets from β-cell-specific Nrf1-knockout [Nrf1(b)-KO] mice displayed impaired glucose responsiveness, including elevated basal insulin release and decreased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Nrf1(b)-KO mice exhibited severe fasting hyperinsulinemia, reduced GSIS, and glucose intolerance. Silencing of Nrf1 in MIN6 cells resulted in oxidative stress and altered glucose metabolism, with increases in both glucose uptake and aerobic glycolysis, which is associated with the elevated basal insulin release and reduced glucose responsiveness. The elevated glycolysis and reduced glucose responsiveness due to Nrf1 silencing likely result from altered expression of glucose metabolic enzymes, with induction of high-affinity hexokinase 1 and suppression of low-affinity glucokinase. Our study demonstrated a novel role of Nrf1 in regulating glucose metabolism and insulin secretion in β-cells and characterized Nrf1 as a key transcription factor that regulates the coupling of glycolysis and mitochondrial metabolism and GSIS. Nrf1 plays critical roles in regulating glucose metabolism, mitochondrial function, and insulin secretion, suggesting that Nrf1 may be a novel target to improve the function of insulin-secreting β-cells.

  1. SREBP-2 negatively regulates FXR-dependent transcription of FGF19 in human intestinal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Masaaki; Hata, Tatsuya; Yamazoe, Yasushi; Yoshinari, Kouichi

    2014-01-10

    Sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 (SREBP-2) is a basic helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper transcription factor that positively regulates transcription of target genes involved in cholesterol metabolism. In the present study, we have investigated a possible involvement of SREBP-2 in human intestinal expression of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)19, which is an endocrine hormone involved in the regulation of lipid and glucose metabolism. Overexpression of constitutively active SREBP-2 decreased FGF19 mRNA levels in human colon-derived LS174T cells. In reporter assays, active SREBP-2 overexpression suppressed GW4064/FXR-mediated increase in reporter activities in regions containing the IR-1 motif (+848 to +5200) in the FGF19 gene. The suppressive effect disappeared in reporter activities in the region containing the IR-1 motif when the mutation was introduced into the IR-1 motif. In electrophoretic mobility shift assays, binding of the FXR/retinoid X receptor α heterodimer to the IR-1 motif was attenuated by adding active SREBP-2, but SREBP-2 binding to the IR-1 motif was not observed. In chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, specific binding of FXR to the IR-1-containing region of the FGF19 gene (+3214 to +3404) was increased in LS174T cells by treatment with cholesterol and 25-hydroxycholesterol. Specific binding of SREBP-2 to FXR was observed in glutathione-S-transferase (GST) pull-down assays. These results suggest that SREBP-2 negatively regulates the FXR-mediated transcriptional activation of the FGF19 gene in human intestinal cells.

  2. Sowing quality of seeds sunflower, depending on the influence of plant growth regulators and protectants

    OpenAIRE

    Буряк, Ю. І.; Огурцов, Ю. Є.; Чернобаб, О. В.; Клименко, І. І.

    2014-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this work was to study the influence of plant growth regulators and protectants on the sowing quality of seeds parental forms and hybrids of sunflower.Methodology and materials. Research conducted in the Plant Production Institute named after V.Ya. Yuriev NAAS. The predecessor of sunflower – winter wheat. Sunflower seeds parent lines Сх1010А, Х720В, Х526В and hybrids F1 Romance and Maximus were sown in optimal terms with the seeding norm of 57 thousand pieces of viable seeds p...

  3. Environmental control of the Pom1-dependent cell-size regulation pathway in fission yeast

    OpenAIRE

    Kelkar, M.

    2015-01-01

    Cells couple their growth and division rate in response to nutrient availability to maintain a constant size. This co-ordination happens either at the G1-S or the G2-M transition of the cell cycle. In the rod-shaped fission yeast, size regulation happens at the G2-M transition prior to mitotic commitment. Recent studies have focused on the role of the DYRK-family protein kinase Pom1, which forms gradients emanating from cell poles and inhibits the mitotic activator kinase Cdr2, present at the...

  4. Spatial organization of adhesion: force-dependent regulation and function in tissue morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papusheva, Ekaterina; Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp

    2010-08-18

    Integrin- and cadherin-mediated adhesion is central for cell and tissue morphogenesis, allowing cells and tissues to change shape without loosing integrity. Studies predominantly in cell culture showed that mechanosensation through adhesion structures is achieved by force-mediated modulation of their molecular composition. The specific molecular composition of adhesion sites in turn determines their signalling activity and dynamic reorganization. Here, we will review how adhesion sites respond to mecanical stimuli, and how spatially and temporally regulated signalling from different adhesion sites controls cell migration and tissue morphogenesis.

  5. LKB1 Regulates Mitochondria-Dependent Presynaptic Calcium Clearance and Neurotransmitter Release Properties at Excitatory Synapses along Cortical Axons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Kyu Kwon

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Individual synapses vary significantly in their neurotransmitter release properties, which underlie complex information processing in neural circuits. Presynaptic Ca2+ homeostasis plays a critical role in specifying neurotransmitter release properties, but the mechanisms regulating synapse-specific Ca2+ homeostasis in the mammalian brain are still poorly understood. Using electrophysiology and genetically encoded Ca2+ sensors targeted to the mitochondrial matrix or to presynaptic boutons of cortical pyramidal neurons, we demonstrate that the presence or absence of mitochondria at presynaptic boutons dictates neurotransmitter release properties through Mitochondrial Calcium Uniporter (MCU-dependent Ca2+ clearance. We demonstrate that the serine/threonine kinase LKB1 regulates MCU expression, mitochondria-dependent Ca2+ clearance, and thereby, presynaptic release properties. Re-establishment of MCU-dependent mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake at glutamatergic synapses rescues the altered neurotransmitter release properties characterizing LKB1-null cortical axons. Our results provide novel insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms whereby mitochondria control neurotransmitter release properties in a bouton-specific way through presynaptic Ca2+ clearance.

  6. LKB1 Regulates Mitochondria-Dependent Presynaptic Calcium Clearance and Neurotransmitter Release Properties at Excitatory Synapses along Cortical Axons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Seok-Kyu; Sando, Richard; Maximov, Anton; Polleux, Franck

    2016-01-01

    Individual synapses vary significantly in their neurotransmitter release properties, which underlie complex information processing in neural circuits. Presynaptic Ca2+ homeostasis plays a critical role in specifying neurotransmitter release properties, but the mechanisms regulating synapse-specific Ca2+ homeostasis in the mammalian brain are still poorly understood. Using electrophysiology and genetically encoded Ca2+ sensors targeted to the mitochondrial matrix or to presynaptic boutons of cortical pyramidal neurons, we demonstrate that the presence or absence of mitochondria at presynaptic boutons dictates neurotransmitter release properties through Mitochondrial Calcium Uniporter (MCU)-dependent Ca2+ clearance. We demonstrate that the serine/threonine kinase LKB1 regulates MCU expression, mitochondria-dependent Ca2+ clearance, and thereby, presynaptic release properties. Re-establishment of MCU-dependent mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake at glutamatergic synapses rescues the altered neurotransmitter release properties characterizing LKB1-null cortical axons. Our results provide novel insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms whereby mitochondria control neurotransmitter release properties in a bouton-specific way through presynaptic Ca2+ clearance. PMID:27429220

  7. PPARgamma-dependent regulation of adenylate cyclase 6 amplifies the stimulatory effect of cAMP on renin gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desch, Michael; Schubert, Thomas; Schreiber, Andrea; Mayer, Sandra; Friedrich, Björn; Artunc, Ferruh; Todorov, Vladimir T

    2010-11-01

    The second messenger cAMP plays an important role in the regulation of renin gene expression. Nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) is known to stimulate renin gene transcription acting through PPARγ-binding sequences in renin promoter. We show now that activation of PPARγ by unsaturated fatty acids or thiazolidinediones drastically augments the cAMP-dependent increase of renin mRNA in the human renin-producing cell line Calu-6. The underlying mechanism involves potentiation of agonist-induced cAMP increase and up-regulation of adenylate cyclase 6 (AC6) gene expression. We identified a palindromic element with a 3-bp spacer (Pal3) in AC6 intron 1 (AC6Pal3). AC6Pal3 bound PPARγ and mediated trans-activation by PPARγ agonist. AC6 knockdown decreased basal renin mRNA level and attenuated the maximal PPARγ-dependent stimulation of the cAMP-induced renin gene expression. AC6Pal3 decoy oligonucleotide abrogated the PPARγ-dependent potentiation of cAMP-induced renin gene expression. Treatment of mice with PPARγ agonist increased AC6 mRNA kidney levels. Our data suggest that in addition to its direct effect on renin gene transcription, PPARγ "sensitizes" renin gene to cAMP via trans-activation of AC6 gene. AC6 has been identified as PPARγ target gene with a functional Pal3 sequence.

  8. Oxygen-dependent regulation of c-di-GMP synthesis by SadC controls alginate production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Annika; Hammerbacher, Anna Silke; Bastian, Mike; Nieken, Karen Jule; Klockgether, Jens; Merighi, Massimo; Lapouge, Karine; Poschgan, Claudia; Kölle, Julia; Acharya, K Ravi; Ulrich, Martina; Tümmler, Burkhard; Unden, Gottfried; Kaever, Volkhard; Lory, Stephen; Haas, Dieter; Schwarz, Sandra; Döring, Gerd

    2016-10-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces increased levels of alginate in response to oxygen-deprived conditions. The regulatory pathway(s) that links oxygen limitation to increased synthesis of alginate has remained elusive. In the present study, using immunofluorescence microscopy, we show that anaerobiosis-induced alginate production by planktonic PAO1 requires the diguanylate cyclase (DGC) SadC, previously identified as a regulator of surface-associated lifestyles. Furthermore, we found that the gene products of PA4330 and PA4331, located in a predicted operon with sadC, have a major impact on alginate production: deletion of PA4330 (odaA, for oxygen-dependent alginate synthesis activator) caused an alginate production defect under anaerobic conditions, whereas a PA4331 (odaI, for oxygen-dependent alginate synthesis inhibitor) deletion mutant produced alginate also in the presence of oxygen, which would normally inhibit alginate synthesis. Based on their sequence, OdaA and OdaI have predicted hydratase and dioxygenase reductase activities, respectively. Enzymatic assays using purified protein showed that unlike OdaA, which did not significantly affect DGC activity of SadC, OdaI inhibited c-di-GMP production by SadC. Our data indicate that SadC, OdaA and OdaI are components of a novel response pathway of P. aeruginosa that regulates alginate synthesis in an oxygen-dependent manner. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Dose-dependent regulation of target gene expression and cell proliferation by c-Myc levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuhmacher, Marino; Eick, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    The proto-oncogene c-myc encodes a basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor (c-Myc). c-Myc plays a crucial role in cell growth and proliferation. Here, we examined how expression of c-Myc target genes and cell proliferation depend on variation of c-Myc protein levels. We show that proliferation rates, the number of cells in S-phase, and cell size increased in a dose-dependent manner in response to increasing c-Myc levels. Likewise, the mRNA levels of c-Myc responsive genes steadily increased with rising c-Myc levels. Strikingly, steady-state mRNA levels of c-Myc target genes did not saturate even at highest c-Myc concentrations. These characteristics predestine c-Myc levels as a cellular rheostat for the control and fine-tuning of cell proliferation and growth rates.

  10. Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein Regulates Leukocyte-Dependent Breast Cancer Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Ishihara

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A paracrine interaction between epidermal growth factor (EGF-secreting tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs and colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1-secreting breast carcinoma cells promotes invasion and metastasis. Here, we show that mice deficient in the hematopoietic-cell-specific Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp are unable to support TAM-dependent carcinoma cell invasion and metastasis in both orthotopic and transgenic models of mammary tumorigenesis. Motility and invasion defects of tumor cells were recapitulated ex vivo upon coculture with WASp−/− macrophages. Mechanistically, WASp is required for macrophages to migrate toward CSF-1-producing carcinoma cells, as well as for the release of EGF through metalloprotease-dependent shedding of EGF from the cell surface of macrophages. Our findings suggest that WASp acts to support both the migration of TAMs and the production of EGF, which in concert promote breast tumor metastasis.

  11. Role of an iron-dependent transcriptional regulator in the pathogenesis and host response to infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha Gupta

    Full Text Available Iron is a critical cofactor for many enzymes and is known to regulate gene expression in many bacterial pathogens. Streptococcus pneumoniae normally inhabits the upper respiratory mucosa but can also invade and replicate in lungs and blood. These anatomic sites vary considerably in both the quantity and form of available iron. The genome of serotype 4 pneumococcal strain TIGR4 encodes a putative iron-dependent transcriptional regulator (IDTR. A mutant deleted at idtr (Δidtr exhibited growth kinetics similar to parent strain TIGR4 in vitro and in mouse blood for up to 48 hours following infection. However, Δidtr was significantly attenuated in a murine model of sepsis. IDTR down-regulates the expression of ten characterized and putative virulence genes in nasopharyngeal colonization and pneumonia. The host cytokine response was significantly suppressed in sepsis with Δidtr. Since an exaggerated inflammatory response is associated with a poor prognosis in sepsis, the decreased inflammatory response could explain the increased survival with Δidtr. Our results suggest that IDTR, which is dispensable for pneumococcal growth in vitro, is associated with regulation of pneumococcal virulence in specific host environments. Additionally, IDTR ultimately modulates the host cytokine response and systemic inflammation that contributes to morbidity and mortality of invasive pneumococcal disease.

  12. Histone Methylation and microRNA-dependent Regulation of Epigenetic Activities in Neural Progenitor Self-Renewal and Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacci, Emanuele; Negri, Rodolfo; Biagioni, Stefano; Lupo, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Neural stem/progenitor cell (NSPC) self-renewal and differentiation in the developing and the adult brain are controlled by extra-cellular signals and by the inherent competence of NSPCs to produce appropriate responses. Stage-dependent responsiveness of NSPCs to extrinsic cues is orchestrated at the epigenetic level. Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation, histone modifications and non-coding RNA-mediated regulation control crucial aspects of NSPC development and function, and are also implicated in pathological conditions. While their roles in the regulation of stem cell fate have been largely explored in pluripotent stem cell models, the epigenetic signature of NSPCs is also key to determine their multipotency as well as their progressive bias towards specific differentiation outcomes. Here we review recent developments in this field, focusing on the roles of histone methylation marks and the protein complexes controlling their deposition in NSPCs of the developing cerebral cortex and the adult subventricular zone. In this context, we describe how bivalent promoters, carrying antagonistic epigenetic modifications, feature during multiple steps of neural development, from neural lineage specification to neuronal differentiation. Furthermore, we discuss the emerging cross-talk between epigenetic regulators and microRNAs, and how the interplay between these different layers of regulation can finely tune the expression of genes controlling NSPC maintenance and differentiation. In particular, we highlight recent advances in the identification of astrocyte-enriched microRNAs and their function in cell fate choices of NSPCs differentiating towards glial lineages.

  13. Regulation of the Drosophila Hypoxia-Inducible Factor α Sima by CRM1-Dependent Nuclear Export ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Nuria M.; Irisarri, Maximiliano; Roth, Peggy; Cauerhff, Ana; Samakovlis, Christos; Wappner, Pablo

    2008-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor α (HIF-α) proteins are regulated by oxygen levels through several different mechanisms that include protein stability, transcriptional coactivator recruitment, and subcellular localization. It was previously reported that these transcription factors are mainly nuclear in hypoxia and cytoplasmic in normoxia, but so far the molecular basis of this regulation is unclear. We show here that the Drosophila melanogaster HIF-α protein Sima shuttles continuously between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. We identified the relevant nuclear localization signal and two functional nuclear export signals (NESs). These NESs are in the Sima basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain and promote CRM1-dependent nuclear export. Site-directed mutagenesis of either NES provoked Sima nuclear retention and increased transcriptional activity, suggesting that nuclear export contributes to Sima regulation. The identified NESs are conserved and probably functional in the bHLH domains of several bHLH-PAS proteins. We propose that rapid nuclear export of Sima regulates the duration of cellular responses to hypoxia. PMID:18332128

  14. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 controls adult neural stem cell expansion by regulating Sox2 gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marqués-Torrejón, M Ángeles; Porlan, Eva; Banito, Ana; Gómez-Ibarlucea, Esther; Lopez-Contreras, Andrés J; Fernández-Capetillo, Oscar; Vidal, Anxo; Gil, Jesús; Torres, Josema; Fariñas, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    In the adult brain, continual neurogenesis of olfactory neurons is sustained by the existence of neural stem cells (NSCs) in the subependymal niche. Elimination of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (p21) leads to premature exhaustion of the subependymal NSC pool, suggesting a relationship between cell cycle control and long-term self-renewal, but the molecular mechanisms underlying NSC maintenance by p21 remain unexplored. Here we identify a function of p21 in the direct regulation of the expression of pluripotency factor Sox2, a key regulator of the specification and maintenance of neural progenitors. We observe that p21 directly binds a Sox2 enhancer and negatively regulates Sox2 expression in NSCs. Augmented levels of Sox2 in p21 null cells induce replicative stress and a DNA damage response that leads to cell growth arrest mediated by increased levels of p19(Arf) and p53. Our results show a regulation of NSC expansion driven by a p21/Sox2/p53 axis.

  15. Frontal Metabolite Concentration Deficits in Opiate Dependence Relate to Substance Use, Cognition, and Self-Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Donna E; Durazzo, Timothy C; Schmidt, Thomas P; Abé, Christoph; Guydish, Joseph; Meyerhoff, Dieter J

    2016-01-01

    Objective Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) in opiate dependence showed abnormalities in neuronal viability and glutamate concentration in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Metabolite levels in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) or orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and their neuropsychological correlates have not been investigated in opiate dependence. Methods Single-volume proton MRS at 4 Tesla and neuropsychological testing were conducted in 21 opiate-dependent individuals (OD) on buprenorphine maintenance therapy. Results were compared to 28 controls (CON) and 35 alcohol-dependent individuals (ALC), commonly investigated treatment-seekers providing context for OD evaluation. Metabolite concentrations were measured from ACC, DLPFC, OFC and parieto-occipital cortical (POC) regions. Results Compared to CON, OD had lower concentrations of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), glutamate (Glu), creatine +phosphocreatine (Cr) and myo-Inositol (mI) in the DLPFC and lower NAA, Cr, and mI in the ACC. OD, ALC, and CON were equivalent on metabolite levels in the POC and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentration did not differ between groups in any region. In OD, prefrontal metabolite deficits in ACC Glu as well as DLPFC NAA and choline containing metabolites (Cho) correlated with poorer working memory, executive and visuospatial functioning; metabolite deficits in DLPFC Glu and ACC GABA and Cr correlated with substance use measures. In the OFC of OD, Glu and choline-containing metabolites were elevated and lower Cr concentration related to higher nonplanning impulsivity. Compared to 3 week abstinent ALC, OD had significant DLPFC metabolite deficits. Conclusion The anterior frontal metabolite profile of OD differed significantly from that of CON and ALC. The frontal lobe metabolite abnormalities in OD and their neuropsychological correlates may play a role in treatment outcome and could be explored as specific targets for improved OD treatment. PMID:27695638

  16. Density-dependent nerve growth factor regulation of Gs-alpha RNA in pheochromocytoma 12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjaden, G; Aguanno, A; Kumar, R; Benincasa, D; Gubits, R M; Yu, H; Dolan, K P

    1990-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) affects levels of the alpha subunit of the stimulatory G protein (Gs-alpha) in pheochromocytoma 12 cells in a bidirectional, density-dependent manner. Cells grown at high density responded to NGF treatment with increased levels of Gs-alpha mRNA and protein. Conversely, in cells grown in low-density cultures, levels of this mRNA were lowered by NGF treatment. Images PMID:2160599

  17. Cyclic-AMP regulation of calcium-dependent K channels in an insect central neurone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, J A; Pitman, R M

    1996-01-26

    In the cockroach fast coxal depressor motoneurone, either the muscarinic agonist McN-A-343 or dibutyryl cAMP (Db-cAMP) induced a reduction in voltage-dependent outward current. The response to McN is due to suppression of a calcium-dependent potassium current (IK,Ca) produced secondarily to a reduction in voltage-dependent calcium current (ICa). The response to Db-cAMP was investigated in order to establish whether cAMP might mediate the response to McN. ICa was suppressed by 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) but not by Db-cAMP. The effects of IBMX were therefore unlikely to be the result of phosphodiesterase inhibition. Since caffeine also suppressed ICa, the observed effect of IBMX is probably due to release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores. IK,Ca, evoked by injection of Ca2+, was reduced by Db-cAMP or forskolin but not by McN. These results indicate that the electrical response to McN in this neurone is not mediated by changes in cAMP.

  18. Sodium-dependent pH regulation in active sea urchin sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibring, T; Baxandall, J; Harter, C C

    1984-02-01

    Extracellular sodium ion is required for activation of motility and respiration in sea urchin sperm when semen is diluted in seawater. We have investigated the role of sodium ion in maintenance of sperm activity. Active sperm lose activity on transfer to sodium-free artificial seawater and can be reactivated with external Na+. Reactivation occurs in the range of Na+ concentration required for initial activation; ammonium can substitute for sodium in reactivation. Sperm withdrawn from sodium and sperm prior to activation share a characteristic morphology with straight or gently bent flagella. Activation of sperm by amines in the absence of Na+ is unstable. It is followed by a steady respiratory decline which is temporarily reversed by addition of more amine and stably reversed by addition of Na+. Measurements of intracellular pH indicate that the internal pH rises during amine activation. Internal reacidification occurs during the period of respiratory decline, and Na+ again elevates internal pH. Treatment with cyanide abolishes the reacidification, indicating that it depends on respiration. We conclude that the sodium requirement persists in active sperm; respiration-dependent production of H+ must be balanced by sodium-dependent H+ removal to maintain activity.

  19. Target DNA sequence directly regulates the frequency of activation-induced deaminase-dependent mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhangguo; Viboolsittiseri, Sawanee S; O'Connor, Brian P; Wang, Jing H

    2012-10-15

    Activation-induced deaminase (AID) catalyses class switch recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation (SHM) in B lymphocytes to enhance Ab diversity. CSR involves breaking and rejoining highly repetitive switch (S) regions in the IgH (Igh) locus. S regions appear to be preferential targets of AID. To determine whether S region sequence per se, independent of Igh cis regulatory elements, can influence AID targeting efficiency and mutation frequency, we established a knock-in mouse model by inserting a core Sγ1 region into the first intron of proto-oncogene Bcl6, which is a non-Ig target of SHM. We found that the mutation frequency of the inserted Sγ1 region was dramatically higher than that of the adjacent Bcl6 endogenous sequence. Mechanistically, S region-enhanced SHM was associated with increased recruitment of AID and RNA polymerase II, together with Spt5, albeit to a lesser extent. Our studies demonstrate that target DNA sequences influence mutation frequency via regulating AID recruitment. We propose that the nucleotide sequence preference may serve as an additional layer of AID regulation by restricting its mutagenic activity to specific sequences despite the observation that AID has the potential to access the genome widely.

  20. Mind Bomb-2 Regulates Hippocampus-dependent Memory Formation and Synaptic Plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Somi; Kim, TaeHyun; Lee, Hye-Ryeon; Kong, Young-Yun; Kaang, Bong-Kiun

    2015-11-01

    Notch signaling is a key regulator of neuronal fate during embryonic development, but its function in the adult brain is still largely unknown. Mind bomb-2 (Mib2) is an essential positive regulator of the Notch pathway, which acts in the Notch signal-sending cells. Therefore, genetic deletion of Mib2 in the mouse brain might help understand Notch signaling-mediated cell-cell interactions between neurons and their physiological function. Here we show that deletion of Mib2 in the mouse brain results in impaired hippocampal spatial memory and contextual fear memory. Accordingly, we found impaired hippocampal synaptic plasticity in Mib2 knock-out (KO) mice; however, basal synaptic transmission did not change at the Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses. Using western blot analysis, we found that the level of cleaved Notch1 was lower in Mib2 KO mice than in wild type (WT) littermates after mild foot shock. Taken together, these data suggest that Mib2 plays a critical role in synaptic plasticity and spatial memory through the Notch signaling pathway.

  1. Pbx-dependent regulation of lbx gene expression in developing zebrafish embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukowski, Chris M; Drummond, Danna Lynne; Waskiewicz, Andrew J

    2011-12-01

    Ladybird (Lbx) homeodomain transcription factors function in neural and muscle development--roles conserved from Drosophila to vertebrates. Lbx expression in mice specifies neural cell types, including dorsally located interneurons and association neurons, within the neural tube. Little, however, is known about the regulation of vertebrate lbx family genes. Here we describe the expression pattern of three zebrafish ladybird genes via mRNA in situ hybridization. Zebrafish lbx genes are expressed in distinct but overlapping regions within the developing neural tube, with strong expression within the hindbrain and spinal cord. The Hox family of transcription factors, in cooperation with cofactors such as Pbx and Meis, regulate hindbrain segmentation during embryogenesis. We have identified a novel regulatory interaction in which lbx1 genes are strongly downregulated in Pbx-depleted embryos. Further, we have produced a transgenic zebrafish line expressing dTomato and EGFP under the control of an lbx1b enhancer--a useful tool to acertain neuron location, migration, and morphology. Using this transgenic strain, we have identified a minimal neural lbx1b enhancer that contains key regulatory elements for expression of this transcription factor.

  2. Leptin-dependent serotonin control of appetite: temporal specificity, transcriptional regulation, and therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Vijay K; Oury, Franck; Tanaka, Kenji F; Tanaka, Kenji; Thomas, Tiffany; Wang, Ying; Cremers, Serge; Hen, Rene; Krust, Andree; Chambon, Pierre; Karsenty, Gerard

    2011-01-17

    Recent evidence indicates that leptin regulates appetite and energy expenditure, at least in part by inhibiting serotonin synthesis and release from brainstem neurons. To demonstrate that this pathway works postnatally, we used a conditional, brainstem-specific mouse CreER(T2) driver to show that leptin signals in brainstem neurons after birth to decrease appetite by inhibiting serotonin synthesis. Cell-specific gene deletion experiments and intracerebroventricular leptin infusions reveal that serotonin signals in arcuate nuclei of the hypothalamus through the Htr1a receptor to favor food intake and that this serotonin function requires the expression of Creb, which regulates the expression of several genes affecting appetite. Accordingly, a specific antagonist of the Htr1a receptor decreases food intake in leptin-deficient but not in Htr1a(-/-) mice. Collectively, these results establish that leptin inhibition of serotonin is necessary to inhibit appetite postnatally and provide a proof of principle that selective inhibition of this pathway may be a viable option to treat appetite disorders.

  3. Mechanisms regulating nutrition-dependent developmental plasticity through organ-specific effects in insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi eKoyama

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition, via the insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IIS/Target of Rapamycin (TOR signaling pathway, can provide a strong molding force for determining animal size and shape. For instance, nutrition induces a disproportionate increase in the size of male horns in dung and rhinoceros beetles, or mandibles in staghorn or horned flour beetles, relative to body size. In these species, well-fed male larvae produce adults with greatly enlarged horns or mandibles, whereas males that are starved or poorly fed as larvae bear much more modest appendages. Changes in IIS/TOR signaling plays a key role in appendage development by regulating growth in the horn and mandible primordia. In contrast, changes the IIS/TOR pathway produces minimal effects on the size of other adult structures, such as the male genitalia in fruit flies and dung beetles. The horn, mandible and genitalia illustrate that although all tissues are exposed to the same hormonal environment within the larval body, the extent to which insulin can induce growth is organ specific. In addition, the IIS/TOR pathway affects body size and shape by controlling production of metamorphic hormones important for regulating developmental timing, like the steroid molting hormone ecdysone and sesquiterpenoid hormone juvenile hormone. In this review, we discuss recent results from Drosophila and other insects that highlight mechanisms allowing tissues to differ in their sensitivity to IIS/TOR and the potential consequences of these differences on body size and shape.

  4. Rab6 and Rab11 regulate Chlamydia trachomatis development and golgin-84-dependent Golgi fragmentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anette Rejman Lipinski

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Many intracellular pathogens that replicate in special membrane bound compartments exploit cellular trafficking pathways by targeting small GTPases, including Rab proteins. Members of the Chlamydiaceae recruit a subset of Rab proteins to their inclusions, but the significance of these interactions is uncertain. Using RNA interference, we identified Rab6 and Rab11 as important regulators of Chlamydia infections. Depletion of either Rab6 or Rab11, but not the other Rab proteins tested, decreased the formation of infectious particles. We further examined the interplay between these Rab proteins and the Golgi matrix components golgin-84 and p115 with regard to Chlamydia-induced Golgi fragmentation. Silencing of the Rab proteins blocked Chlamydia-induced and golgin-84 knockdown-stimulated Golgi disruption, whereas Golgi fragmentation was unaffected in p115 depleted cells. Interestingly, p115-induced Golgi fragmentation could rescue Chlamydia propagation in Rab6 and Rab11 knockdown cells. Furthermore, transport of nutrients to Chlamydia, as monitored by BODIPY-Ceramide, was inhibited by Rab6 and Rab11 knockdown. Taken together, our results demonstrate that Rab6 and Rab11 are key regulators of Golgi stability and further support the notion that Chlamydia subverts Golgi structure to enhance its intracellular development.

  5. Regulation of Tcrb recombination ordering by c-Fos-dependent RAG deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoming; Xiao, Gang; Zhang, Yafeng; Wen, Xiaomin; Gao, Xiang; Okada, Seiji; Liu, Xiaolong

    2008-07-01

    Antigen receptor variable-(diversity)-joining (V(D)J) recombination at the locus encoding the T cell antigen receptor-beta (Tcrb) is ordered, with D(beta)-to-J(beta) assembly preceding V(beta)-to-DJ(beta) joining. The molecular mechanism underlying this 'preferred' order of rearrangement remains unclear. Here we show that the D(beta) 23-base pair recombination signal sequence (D(beta) 23-RSS) contains a specific AP-1 transcription factor-binding site bound by AP-1 and its component c-Fos expressed at a specific stage. Cell-based recombination assays suggested that c-Fos interacted directly with the RAG recombinase and enhanced its deposition to D(beta) 23-RSSs, thus conferring the priority of DJ(beta) recombination. Loss of c-Fos decreased Tcrb recombination efficiency and disrupted recombination ordering in vivo. Our results show an unexpected function for c-Fos as a direct regulator of Tcrb recombination, rather than its usual function as a transcription regulator, and provide new insight into the mechanisms of recombination ordering.

  6. Localized LoxL3-Dependent Fibronectin Oxidation Regulates Myofiber Stretch and Integrin-Mediated Adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft-Sheleg, Ortal; Zaffryar-Eilot, Shelly; Genin, Olga; Yaseen, Wesal; Soueid-Baumgarten, Sharon; Kessler, Ofra; Smolkin, Tatyana; Akiri, Gal; Neufeld, Gera; Cinnamon, Yuval; Hasson, Peleg

    2016-03-07

    For muscles to function, myofibers have to stretch and anchor at the myotendinous junction (MTJ), a region rich in extracellular matrix (ECM). Integrin signaling is required for MTJ formation, and mutations affecting the cascade lead to muscular dystrophies in mice and humans. Underlying mechanisms for integrin activation at the MTJ and ECM modifications regulating its signaling are unclear. We show that lysyl oxidase-like 3 (LoxL3) is a key regulator of integrin signaling that ensures localized control of the cascade. In LoxL3 mutants, myofibers anchor prematurely or overshoot to adjacent somites, and are loose and lack tension. We find that LoxL3 complexes with and directly oxidizes Fibronectin (FN), an ECM scaffold protein and integrin ligand enriched at the MTJ. We identify a mechanism whereby localized LoxL3 secretion from myofiber termini oxidizes FN, enabling enhanced integrin activation at the tips of myofibers and ensuring correct positioning and anchoring of myofibers along the MTJ. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Sensitivity to lysosome-dependent cell death is directly regulated by lysosomal cholesterol content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Appelqvist

    Full Text Available Alterations in lipid homeostasis are implicated in several neurodegenerative diseases, although the mechanisms responsible are poorly understood. We evaluated the impact of cholesterol accumulation, induced by U18666A, quinacrine or mutations in the cholesterol transporting Niemann-Pick disease type C1 (NPC1 protein, on lysosomal stability and sensitivity to lysosome-mediated cell death. We found that neurons with lysosomal cholesterol accumulation were protected from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. In addition, human fibroblasts with cholesterol-loaded lysosomes showed higher lysosomal membrane stability than controls. Previous studies have shown that cholesterol accumulation is accompanied by the storage of lipids such as sphingomyelin, glycosphingolipids and sphingosine and an up regulation of lysosomal associated membrane protein-2 (LAMP-2, which may also influence lysosomal stability. However, in this study the use of myriocin and LAMP deficient fibroblasts excluded these factors as responsible for the rescuing effect and instead suggested that primarily lysosomal cholesterol content determineD the cellular sensitivity to toxic insults. Further strengthening this concept, depletion of cholesterol using methyl-β-cyclodextrin or 25-hydroxycholesterol decreased the stability of lysosomes and cells became more prone to undergo apoptosis. In conclusion, cholesterol content regulated lysosomal membrane permeabilization and thereby influenced cell death sensitivity. Our data suggests that lysosomal cholesterol modulation might be used as a therapeutic strategy for conditions associated with accelerated or repressed apoptosis.

  8. Regulation of Müller glial dependent neuronal regeneration in the damaged adult zebrafish retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsuch, Ryne A; Hyde, David R

    2014-06-01

    This article examines our current knowledge underlying the mechanisms involved in neuronal regeneration in the adult zebrafish retina. Zebrafish, which has the capacity to regenerate a wide variety of tissues and organs (including the fins, kidney, heart, brain, and spinal cord), has become the premier model system to study retinal regeneration due to the robustness and speed of the response and the variety of genetic tools that can be applied to study this question. It is now well documented that retinal damage induces the resident Müller glia to dedifferentiate and reenter the cell cycle to produce neuronal progenitor cells that continue to proliferate, migrate to the damaged retinal layer and differentiate into the missing neuronal cell types. Increasing our understanding of how these cellular events are regulated and occur in response to neuronal damage may provide critical information that can be applied to stimulating a regeneration response in the mammalian retina. In this review, we will focus on the genes/proteins that regulate zebrafish retinal regeneration and will attempt to critically evaluate how these factors may interact to correctly orchestrate the definitive cellular events that occur during regeneration.

  9. Proteasome- and Ethanol-Dependent Regulation of HCV-Infection Pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia A. Osna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the role of the catabolism of HCV and signaling proteins in HCV protection and the involvement of ethanol in HCV-proteasome interactions. HCV specifically infects hepatocytes, and intracellularly expressed HCV proteins generate oxidative stress, which is further exacerbated by heavy drinking. The proteasome is the principal proteolytic system in cells, and its activity is sensitive to the level of cellular oxidative stress. Not only host proteins, but some HCV proteins are degraded by the proteasome, which, in turn, controls HCV propagation and is crucial for the elimination of the virus. Ubiquitylation of HCV proteins usually leads to the prevention of HCV propagation, while accumulation of undegraded viral proteins in the nuclear compartment exacerbates infection pathogenesis. Proteasome activity also regulates both innate and adaptive immunity in HCV-infected cells. In addition, the proteasome/immunoproteasome is activated by interferons, which also induce “early” and “late” interferon-sensitive genes (ISGs with anti-viral properties. Cleaving viral proteins to peptides in professional immune antigen presenting cells and infected (“target” hepatocytes that express the MHC class I-antigenic peptide complex, the proteasome regulates the clearance of infected hepatocytes by the immune system. Alcohol exposure prevents peptide cleavage by generating metabolites that impair proteasome activity, thereby providing escape mechanisms that interfere with efficient viral clearance to promote the persistence of HCV-infection.

  10. Novel Roles for the Insulin-Regulated Glucose Transporter-4 in Hippocampally Dependent Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson-Leary, Jiah; McNay, Ewan C

    2016-11-23

    The insulin-regulated glucose transporter-4 (GluT4) is critical for insulin- and contractile-mediated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. GluT4 is also expressed in some hippocampal neurons, but its functional role in the brain is unclear. Several established molecular modulators of memory processing regulate hippocampal GluT4 trafficking and hippocampal memory formation is limited by both glucose metabolism and insulin signaling. Therefore, we hypothesized that hippocampal GluT4 might be involved in memory processes. Here, we show that, in male rats, hippocampal GluT4 translocates to the plasma membrane after memory training and that acute, selective intrahippocampal inhibition of GluT4-mediated glucose transport impaired memory acquisition, but not memory retrieval. Other studies have shown that prolonged systemic GluT4 blockade causes insulin resistance. Unexpectedly, we found that prolonged hippocampal blockade of glucose transport through GluT4-upregulated markers of hippocampal insulin signaling prevented task-associated depletion of hippocampal glucose and enhanced both working and short-term memory while also impairing long-term memory. These effects were accompanied by increased expression of hippocampal AMPA GluR1 subunits and the neuronal GluT3, but decreased expression of hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor, consistent with impaired ability to form long-term memories. Our findings are the first to show the cognitive impact of brain GluT4 modulation. They identify GluT4 as a key regulator of hippocampal memory processing and also suggest differential regulation of GluT4 in the hippocampus from that in peripheral tissues. The role of insulin-regulated glucose transporter-4 (GluT4) in the brain is unclear. In the current study, we demonstrate that GluT4 is a critical component of hippocampal memory processes. Memory training increased hippocampal GluT4 translocation and memory acquisition was impaired by GluT4 blockade. Unexpectedly, whereas long

  11. Cell cycle- and cell growth-regulated proteolysis of mammalian CDC6 is dependent on APC-CDH1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, B O; Wagener, C; Marinoni, F;

    2000-01-01

    CDC6 is conserved during evolution and is essential and limiting for the initiation of eukaryotic DNA replication. Human CDC6 activity is regulated by periodic transcription and CDK-regulated subcellular localization. Here, we show that, in addition to being absent from nonproliferating cells, CDC6...... is targeted for ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis by the anaphase promoting complex (APC)/cyclosome in G(1). A combination of point mutations in the destruction box and KEN-box motifs in CDC6 stabilizes the protein in G(1) and in quiescent cells. Furthermore, APC, in association with CDH1, ubiquitinates CDC6...... in vitro, and both APC and CDH1 are required and limiting for CDC6 proteolysis in vivo. Although a stable mutant of CDC6 is biologically active, overexpression of this mutant or wild-type CDC6 is not sufficient to induce multiple rounds of DNA replication in the same cell cycle. The APC-CDH1-dependent...

  12. PKD1 phosphorylation-dependent degradation of SNAIL by SCF-FBXO11 regulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hanqiu; Shen, Minhong; Cha, Yin-Lian; Li, Wenyang; Wei, Yong; Blanco, Mario Andres; Ren, Guangwen; Zhou, Tianhua; Storz, Peter; Wang, Hui-Yun; Kang, Yibin

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Metastatic dissemination is often initiated by the reactivation of an embryonic development program referred to as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The transcription factor SNAIL promotes EMT and elicits associated pathological characteristics, such as invasion, metastasis and stemness. To better understand the post-translational regulation of SNAIL, we performed a luciferase-based genome-wide E3 ligase siRNA library screen and identified SCF-FBXO11 as an important E3 which targets SNAIL for ubiquitylation and degradation. Furthermore, we discovered that SNAIL degradation by FBXO11 is dependent on Serine-11 phosphorylation of SNAIL by protein kinase D1 (PKD1). FBXO11 blocks SNAIL-induced EMT, tumor initiation and metastasis in multiple breast cancer models. These findings establish the PKD1-FBXO11-SNAIL axis as a mechanism of post-translational regulation of EMT and cancer metastasis. PMID:25203322

  13. NOA1 functions in a temperature-dependent manner to regulate chlorophyll biosynthesis and Rubisco formation in rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaosong Yang

    Full Text Available NITRIC OXIDE-ASSOCIATED1 (NOA1 encodes a circularly permuted GTPase (cGTPase known to be essential for ribosome assembly in plants. While the reduced chlorophyll and Rubisco phenotypes were formerly noticed in both NOA1-suppressed rice and Arabidopsis, a detailed insight is still necessary. In this study, by using RNAi transgenic rice, we further demonstrate that NOA1 functions in a temperature-dependent manner to regulate chlorophyll and Rubisco levels. When plants were grown at 30°C, the chlorophyll and Rubisco levels in OsNOA1-silenced plants were only slightly lower than those in WT. However, at 22°C, the silenced plants accumulated far less chlorophyll and Rubisco than WT. It was further revealed that the regulation of chlorophyll and Rubisco occurs at the anabolic level. Etiolated WT seedlings restored chlorophyll and Rubisco accumulations readily once returned to light, at either 30°C or 15°C. Etiolated OsNOA1-silenced plants accumulated chlorophyll and Rubisco to normal levels only at 30°C, and lost this ability at low temperature. On the other hand, de-etiolated OsNOA1-silenced seedlings maintained similar levels of chlorophyll and Rubisco as WT, even after being shifted to 15°C for various times. Further expression analyses identified several candidate genes, including OsPorA (NADPH: protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase A, OsrbcL (Rubisco large subunit, OsRALyase (Ribosomal RNA apurinic site specific lyase and OsPuf4 (RNA-binding protein of the Puf family, which may be involved in OsNOA1-regulated chlorophyll biosynthesis and Rubisco formation. Overall, our results suggest OsNOA1 functions in a temperature-dependent manner to regulate chlorophyll biosynthesis, Rubisco formation and plastid development in rice.

  14. Genetic feedback regulation of frontal cortical neuronal ensembles through activity-dependent Arc expression and dopaminergic input

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surjeet Mastwal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mental functions involve coordinated activities of specific neuronal ensembles that are embedded in complex brain circuits. Aberrant neuronal ensemble dynamics is thought to form the neurobiological basis of mental disorders. A major challenge in mental health research is to identify these cellular ensembles and determine what molecular mechanisms constrain their emergence and consolidation during development and learning. Here, we provide a perspective based on recent studies that use activity-dependent gene Arc/Arg3.1 as a cellular marker to identify neuronal ensembles and a molecular probe to modulate circuit functions. These studies have demonstrated that the transcription of Arc is activated in selective groups of frontal cortical neurons in response to specific behavioral tasks. Arc expression regulates the persistent firing of individual neurons and predicts the consolidation of neuronal ensembles during repeated learning. Therefore, the Arc pathway represents a prototypical example of activity-dependent genetic feedback regulation of neuronal ensembles. The activation of this pathway in the frontal cortex starts during early postnatal development and requires dopaminergic input. Conversely, genetic disruption of Arc leads to a hypoactive mesofrontal dopamine circuit and its related cognitive deficit. This mutual interaction suggests an auto-regulatory mechanism to amplify the impact of neuromodulators and activity-regulated genes during postnatal development. Such a mechanism may contribute to the association of mutations in dopamine and Arc pathways with neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorders. As the mesofrontal dopamine circuit shows extensive activity-dependent developmental plasticity, activity-guided modulation of dopaminergic projections or Arc ensembles during development may help to repair circuit deficits related to neuropsychiatric disorders.

  15. Nutritional status-dependent endocannabinoid signalling regulates the integration of rat visceral information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlaifia, Abdessattar; Matias, Isabelle; Cota, Daniela; Tell, Fabien

    2017-06-01

    Vagal sensory inputs transmit information from the viscera to brainstem neurones located in the nucleus tractus solitarii to set physiological parameters. These excitatory synapses exhibit a CB1 endocannabinoid-induced long-term depression (LTD) triggered by vagal fibre stimulation. We investigated the impact of nutritional status on long-term changes in this long-term synaptic plasticity. Food deprivation prevents LTD induction by disrupting CB1 receptor signalling. Short-term refeeding restores the capacity of vagal synapses to express LTD. Ghrelin and cholecystokinin, respectively released during fasting and refeeding, play a key role in the control of LTD via the activation of energy sensing pathways such as AMPK and the mTOR and ERK pathways. Communication form the viscera to the brain is essential to set physiological homoeostatic parameters but also to drive more complex behaviours such as mood, memory and emotional states. Here we investigated the impact of the nutritional status on long-term changes in excitatory synaptic transmission in the nucleus tractus solitarii, a neural hub integrating visceral signals. These excitatory synapses exhibit a CB1 endocannabinoid (eCB)-induced long-term depression (LTD) triggered by vagal fibre stimulation. Since eCB signalling is known to be an important component of homoeostatic regulation of the body and is regulated during various stressful conditions, we tested the hypothesis that food deprivation alters eCB signalling in central visceral afferent fibres. Food deprivation prevents eCB-LTD induction due to the absence of eCB signalling. This loss was reversed by blockade of ghrelin receptors. Activation of the cellular fuel sensor AMP-activated protein kinase or inhibition of the mechanistic target of rapamycin pathway abolished eCB-LTD in free-fed rats. Signals associated with energy surfeit, such as short-term refeeding, restore eCB-LTD induction, which in turn requires activation of cholecystokinin receptors and

  16. DCLK1 regulates pluripotency and angiogenic factors via microRNA-dependent mechanisms in pancreatic cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sripathi M Sureban

    Full Text Available Stem cell pluripotency, angiogenesis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT have been shown to be significantly upregulated in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC and many other aggressive cancers. The dysregulation of these processes is believed to play key roles in tumor initiation, progression, and metastasis, and is contributory to PDAC being the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the US. The tumor suppressor miRNA miR-145 downregulates critical pluripotency factors and oncogenes and results in repressed metastatic potential in PDAC. Additionally, the miR-200 family regulates several angiogenic factors which have been linked to metastasis in many solid tumors. We have previously demonstrated that downregulation of DCLK1 can upregulate critical miRNAs in both in vitro and in vivo cancer models and results in downregulation of c-MYC, KRAS, NOTCH1 and EMT-related transcription factors. A recent report has also shown that Dclk1 can distinguish between normal and tumor stem cells in Apc (min/+ mice and that ablation of Dclk1(+ cells resulted in regression of intestinal polyps without affecting homeostasis. Here we demonstrate that the knockdown of DCLK1 using poly(lactide-co-glycolide-encapsulated-DCLK1-siRNA results in AsPC1 tumor growth arrest. Examination of xenograft tumors revealed, (a increased miR-145 which results in decreased pluripotency maintenance factors OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, KLF4 as well as KRAS and RREB1; (b increased let-7a which results in decreased pluripotency factor LIN28B; and (c increased miR-200 which results in decreased VEGFR1, VEGFR2 and EMT-related transcription factors ZEB1, ZEB2, SNAIL and SLUG. Specificity of DCLK1 post-transcriptional regulation of the downstream targets of miR-145, miR-200 and let-7a was accomplished utilizing a luciferase-based reporter assay. We conclude that DCLK1 plays a significant master regulatory role in pancreatic tumorigenesis through the regulation of multiple tumor

  17. Time-dependent regulation of muscle caveolin activation and insulin signalling in response to high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Ruiz, Ana; de Miguel, Carlos; Campión, Javier; Martínez, J Alfredo; Milagro, Fermín I

    2009-10-06

    We studied the effect of high-fat diet on the expression and activation of the three caveolins in rat skeletal muscle and their association with the insulin signalling cascade. Initial response was characterized by increased signalling through Cav-1 and Cav-3 phosphorylation, suggesting that both participate in an initial acute response to the calorie surplus. Afterwards, Cav-1 signalling was slightly reduced, whereas Cav-3 remained active. Late chronic phase signalling through both proteins was impaired inducing a prediabetic state. Summarizing, caveolins seem to mediate a time-dependent regulation of insulin cascade in response to high-fat diet in muscle.

  18. PKA-Dependent Regulation of Synaptic Enhancement between a Buccal Motor Neuron and Its Regulatory Interneuron in Lymnaea stagnalis

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Suguru; Kojima, Satoshi; Urano, Akihisa; Ito, Etsuro

    1999-01-01

    The cerebral giant cell (CGC) is known to play a crucial role in the regulation of feeding response in the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis. However, the mechanisms of signal transduction from the CGC to the following buccal motor neurons are not clear. In the present study, we examined whether cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKA) contributes to enhancement of a monosynaptic connection between the presynaptic CGC and the postsynaptic buccal motor neuron 1 (B1 cell). Injection of cAMP...

  19. Effect of metabolic regulation on renal leakiness to dextran molecules in short-term insulin-dependent diabetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, H H; Rutili, F; Granath, K;

    1979-01-01

    Renal clearance of dextran of two ranges of molecular size and glomerular filtration rate (GFR, 51Cr-EDTA) were measured in seven short-term insulin-dependent diabetics (mean age 25 years). Measurements were carried out in the same patient during good and poor metabolic regulation (plasma glucose...... were normalized within one to three weeks of effective insulin treatment. This rapid reversibility can hardly be explained by the previously demonstrated enlargement in glomerular size and filtration surface area, since these alterations remain unchanged after more than one month of insulin treatment...

  20. Lhx2 regulates the timing of β-catenin-dependent cortical neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Lea Chia-Ling; Nam, Sean; Cui, Yi; Chang, Ching-Pu; Wang, Chia-Fang; Kuo, Hung-Chih; Touboul, Jonathan D; Chou, Shen-Ju

    2015-09-29

    The timing of cortical neurogenesis has a major effect on the size and organization of the mature cortex. The deletion of the LIM-homeodomain transcription factor Lhx2 in cortical progenitors by Nestin-cre leads to a dramatically smaller cortex. Here we report that Lhx2 regulates the cortex size by maintaining the cortical progenitor proliferation and delaying the initiation of neurogenesis. The loss of Lhx2 in cortical progenitors results in precocious radial glia differentiation and a temporal shift of cortical neurogenesis. We further investigated the underlying mechanisms at play and demonstrated that in the absence of Lhx2, the Wnt/β-catenin pathway failed to maintain progenitor proliferation. We developed and applied a mathematical model that reveals how precocious neurogenesis affected cortical surface and thickness. Thus, we concluded that Lhx2 is required for β-catenin function in maintaining cortical progenitor proliferation and controls the timing of cortical neurogenesis.

  1. How well socially wary preschoolers fare over time depends on their parasympathetic regulation and socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Paul D; Kahle, Sarah; Nuselovici, Jacob M

    2014-01-01

    Parasympathetic regulation and maternal overprotective parenting were examined in 101 children as moderators of links between preschool (M = 3.53 years) social wariness and childhood (M = 9.07 years) internalizing and anxiety problems, social skills, and scholastic performance. Across these three domains of functioning, more socially wary children were likely to manifest worse adjustment when they had low respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) or highly overprotective mothers. Conversely, maternal overprotection appeared to confer benefits for preschoolers with low wariness and low RSA. These findings point to the importance of both internal self-regulatory capacities and external support for autonomy and competence to understand and assist socially wary children and their families.

  2. Dendritic cell podosome dynamics does not depend on the F-actin regulator SWAP-70.

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    Anne Götz

    Full Text Available In addition to classical adhesion structures like filopodia or focal adhesions, dendritic cells similar to macrophages and osteoclasts assemble highly dynamic F-actin structures called podosomes. They are involved in cellular processes such as extracellular matrix degradation, bone resorption by osteoclasts, and trans-cellular diapedesis of lymphocytes. Besides adhesion and migration, podosomes enable dendritic cells to degrade connective tissue by matrix metalloproteinases. SWAP-70 interacts with RhoGTPases and F-actin and regulates migration of dendritic cells. SWAP-70 deficient osteoclasts are impaired in F-actin-ring formation and bone resorption. In the present study, we demonstrate that SWAP-70 is not required for podosome formation and F-actin turnover in dendritic cells. Furthermore, we found that toll-like receptor 4 ligand induced podosome disassembly and podosome-mediated matrix degradation is not affected by SWAP-70 in dendritic cells. Thus, podosome formation and function in dendritic cells is independent of SWAP-70.

  3. Models of Aire-dependent gene regulation for thymic negative selection

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    Dina eDanso-Abeam

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the Autoimmune Regulator (AIRE gene lead to Autoimmune Polyendocrinopathy Syndrome type 1 (APS1, characterized by the development of multi-organ autoimmune damage. The mechanism by which defects in AIRE result in autoimmunity has been the subject of intense scrutiny. At the cellular level, the working model explains most of the clinical and immunological characteristics of APS1, with AIRE driving the expression of tissue restricted antigens (TRAs in the epithelial cells of the thymic medulla. This TRA expression results in effective negative selection of TRA-reactive thymocytes, preventing autoimmune disease. At the molecular level, the mechanism by which AIRE initiates TRA expression in the thymic medulla remains unclear. Multiple different models for the molecular mechanism have been proposed, ranging from classical transcriptional activity, to random induction of gene expression, to epigenetic tag recognition effect, to altered cell biology. In this review, we evaluate each of these models and discuss their relative strengths and weaknesses.

  4. Contact-dependent regulation of a Tannerella forsythia virulence factor, BspA, in biofilms.

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    Inagaki, Satoru; Kuramitsu, Howard K; Sharma, Ashu

    2005-08-15

    Tannerella forsythia is one of the periodontal organisms implicated in the development of periodontal diseases. The surface associated and secreted protein, BspA (encoded by the bspA gene), of this bacterium is an important virulence factor. The present study was carried out to examine the regulation of the bspA gene during biofilm growth and contact stimuli encountered in interbacterial interactions. The expression levels of the bspA transcript were determined by real-time RT-PCR approach. The levels of bspA transcript were found to be significantly reduced as a result of contact stimulus and in biofilm cells relative to planktonic cells. The results of our study suggest that the likely downregulation of the BspA protein in biofilms and following contact may have implications in pathogenesis as a plausible mechanism of evasion of host immune responses.

  5. Mycobacterium tuberculosis eis regulates autophagy, inflammation, and cell death through redox-dependent signaling.

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    Dong-Min Shin

    Full Text Available The "enhanced intracellular survival" (eis gene of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb is involved in the intracellular survival of M. smegmatis. However, its exact effects on host cell function remain elusive. We herein report that Mtb Eis plays essential roles in modulating macrophage autophagy, inflammatory responses, and cell death via a reactive oxygen species (ROS-dependent pathway. Macrophages infected with an Mtb eis-deletion mutant H37Rv (Mtb-Δeis displayed markedly increased accumulation of massive autophagic vacuoles and formation of autophagosomes in vitro and in vivo. Infection of macrophages with Mtb-Δeis increased the production of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 over the levels produced by infection with wild-type or complemented strains. Elevated ROS generation in macrophages infected with Mtb-Δeis (for which NADPH oxidase and mitochondria were largely responsible rendered the cells highly sensitive to autophagy activation and cytokine production. Despite considerable activation of autophagy and proinflammatory responses, macrophages infected with Mtb-Δeis underwent caspase-independent cell death. This cell death was significantly inhibited by blockade of autophagy and c-Jun N-terminal kinase-ROS signaling, suggesting that excessive autophagy and oxidative stress are detrimental to cell survival. Finally, artificial over-expression of Eis or pretreatment with recombinant Eis abrogated production of both ROS and proinflammatory cytokines, which depends on the N-acetyltransferase domain of the Eis protein. Collectively, these data indicate that Mtb Eis suppresses host innate immune defenses by modulating autophagy, inflammation, and cell death in a redox-dependent manner.

  6. Anion Exchanger 2 Regulates Dectin-1-Dependent Phagocytosis and Killing of Candida albicans.

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    Katia Urso

    Full Text Available Anion exchanger 2 (Ae2; gene symbol, Slc4a2 is a plasma membrane Cl-/HCO3- exchanger expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, kidney and bone. We have previously shown that Ae2 is required for the function of osteoclasts, bone resorbing cells of the macrophage lineage, to maintain homeostatic cytoplasmic pH and electroneutrality during acid secretion. Macrophages require endosomal acidification for pathogen killing during the process known as phagocytosis. Chloride is thought to be the principal ion responsible for maintaining electroneutrality during organelle acidification, but whether Cl-/HCO3- exchangers such as Ae2 contribute to macrophage function is not known. In this study we investigated the role of Ae2 in primary macrophages during phagocytosis. We find that Ae2 is expressed in macrophages where it regulates intracellular pH and the binding of Zymosan, a fungal cell wall derivative. Surprisingly, the transcription and surface expression of Dectin-1, the major phagocytic receptor for Candida albicans (C. albicans and Zymosan, is reduced in the absence of Ae2. As a consequence, Zymosan-induced Tnfα expression is also impaired in Ae2-deficient macrophages. Similar to Ae2 deficiency, pharmacological alkalinization of lysosomal pH with bafilomycin A decreases both Dectin-1 mRNA and cell surface expression. Finally, Ae2-deficient macrophages demonstrate defective phagocytosis and killing of the human pathogenic fungus C. albicans. Our results strongly suggest that Ae2 is a critical factor in the innate response to C. albicans. This study represents an important contribution to a better understanding of how Dectin-1 expression and fungal clearance is regulated.

  7. Nidogen-1 regulates laminin-1-dependent mammary-specific gene expression

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    Pujuguet, Philippe; Simian, Marina; Liaw, Jane; Timpl, Rupert; Werb, Zena; Bissell, Mina J..

    2000-02-01

    Nidogen-1 (entactin) acts as a bridge between the extracellular matrix molecules laminin-1 and type IV collagen, and thus participates in the assembly of basement membranes. To investigate the role of nidogen-1 in regulating cell-type-specific gene expression in mammary epithelium, we designed a culture microecosystem in which each component, including epithelial cells, mesenchymal cells, lactogenic hormones and extracellular matrix, could be controlled. We found that primary and established mesenchymal and myoepithelial cells synthesized and secreted nidogen-1, whereas expression was absent in primary and established epithelial cells. In an epithelial cell line containing mesenchymal cells, nidogen-1 was produced by the mesenchymal cells but deposited between the epithelial cells. In this mixed culture, mammary epithelial cells express b-casein in the presence of lactogenic hormones. Addition of either laminin-1 plus nidogen-1, or laminin-1 alone to mammary epithelial cells induced b- casein production. We asked whether recombinant nidogen-1 alone could signal directly for b-casein. Nidogen-1 did not induce b-casein synthesis in epithelial cells, but it augmented the inductive capacity of laminin-1. These data suggest that nidogen-1 can cooperate with laminin-1 to regulate b-casein expression. Addition of full length nidogen-1 to the mixed cultures had no effect on b-casein gene expression; however, a nidogen-1 fragment containing the laminin-1 binding domain, but lacking the type IV collagen-binding domain, had a dominant negative effect on b-casein expression. These data point to a physiological role for nidogen-1 in the basement membrane-induced gene expression by epithelial cells.

  8. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate-dependent regulation of the output in lobster olfactory receptor neurons.

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    Bobkov, Yuriy V; Pezier, Adeline; Corey, Elizabeth A; Ache, Barry W

    2010-05-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels often play a role in sensory transduction, including chemosensory transduction. TRP channels, a common downstream target of phosphoinositide (PI) signaling, can be modulated by exogenous phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2], phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate [PI(3,4,5)P3] and/or diacylglycerol (DAG). Lobster olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) express a TRP-related, non-selective, calcium/magnesium-permeable, sodium/calcium-gated cation (SGC) channel. Here we report that PIs regulate the function of the calcium-activated form of the lobster channel. Sequestering of endogenous PI(4,5)P2, either with an anti-PI(4,5)P2 antibody or by electrostatic screening with polyvalent cations, blocks the channel. Exogenous PI(3,4,5)P3 activates the channel independently of intracellular sodium and/or calcium. Exogenous non-hydrolysable DAG analogs fail to change the gating parameters of the channel, suggesting the channel is insensitive to DAG. Electrophysiological recording from lobster ORNs in situ using a panel of pharmacological tools targeting the key components of both PI and DAG metabolism (phospholipase C, phosphoinositide 4-kinase and DAG kinase) extend these findings to the intact ORN. PI(4,5)P2 depletion suppresses both the odorant-evoked discharge and whole-cell current of the cells, and does so possibly independently of DAG production. Collectively, our results argue that PIs can regulate output in lobster ORNs, at least in part through their action on the lobster SGC channel.

  9. Neuronal exosomal miRNA-dependent translational regulation of astroglial glutamate transporter GLT1.

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    Morel, Lydie; Regan, Melissa; Higashimori, Haruki; Ng, Seng Kah; Esau, Christine; Vidensky, Svetlana; Rothstein, Jeffrey; Yang, Yongjie

    2013-03-08

    Perisynaptic astrocytes express important glutamate transporters, especially excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2, rodent analog GLT1) to regulate extracellular glutamate levels and modulate synaptic activation. In this study, we investigated an exciting new pathway, the exosome-mediated transfer of microRNA (in particular, miR-124a), in neuron-to-astrocyte signaling. Exosomes isolated from neuron-conditioned medium contain abundant microRNAs and small RNAs. These exosomes can be directly internalized into astrocytes and increase astrocyte miR-124a and GLT1 protein levels. Direct miR-124a transfection also significantly and selectively increases protein (but not mRNA) expression levels of GLT1 in cultured astrocytes. Consistent with our in vitro findings, intrastriatal injection of specific antisense against miR-124a into adult mice dramatically reduces GLT1 protein expression and glutamate uptake levels in striatum without reducing GLT1 mRNA levels. MiR-124a-mediated regulation of GLT1 expression appears to be indirect and is not mediated by its suppression of the putative GLT1 inhibitory ligand ephrinA3. Moreover, miR-124a is selectively reduced in the spinal cord tissue of end-stage SOD1 G93A mice, the mouse model of ALS. Subsequent exogenous delivery of miR-124a in vivo through stereotaxic injection significantly prevents further pathological loss of GLT1 proteins, as determined by GLT1 immunoreactivity in SOD1 G93A mice. Together, our study characterized a new neuron-to-astrocyte communication pathway and identified miRNAs that modulate GLT1 protein expression in astrocytes in vitro and in vivo.

  10. Neuronal Exosomal miRNA-dependent Translational Regulation of Astroglial Glutamate Transporter GLT1*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Lydie; Regan, Melissa; Higashimori, Haruki; Ng, Seng Kah; Esau, Christine; Vidensky, Svetlana; Rothstein, Jeffrey; Yang, Yongjie

    2013-01-01

    Perisynaptic astrocytes express important glutamate transporters, especially excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2, rodent analog GLT1) to regulate extracellular glutamate levels and modulate synaptic activation. In this study, we investigated an exciting new pathway, the exosome-mediated transfer of microRNA (in particular, miR-124a), in neuron-to-astrocyte signaling. Exosomes isolated from neuron-conditioned medium contain abundant microRNAs and small RNAs. These exosomes can be directly internalized into astrocytes and increase astrocyte miR-124a and GLT1 protein levels. Direct miR-124a transfection also significantly and selectively increases protein (but not mRNA) expression levels of GLT1 in cultured astrocytes. Consistent with our in vitro findings, intrastriatal injection of specific antisense against miR-124a into adult mice dramatically reduces GLT1 protein expression and glutamate uptake levels in striatum without reducing GLT1 mRNA levels. MiR-124a-mediated regulation of GLT1 expression appears to be indirect and is not mediated by its suppression of the putative GLT1 inhibitory ligand ephrinA3. Moreover, miR-124a is selectively reduced in the spinal cord tissue of end-stage SOD1 G93A mice, the mouse model of ALS. Subsequent exogenous delivery of miR-124a in vivo through stereotaxic injection significantly prevents further pathological loss of GLT1 proteins, as determined by GLT1 immunoreactivity in SOD1 G93A mice. Together, our study characterized a new neuron-to-astrocyte communication pathway and identified miRNAs that modulate GLT1 protein expression in astrocytes in vitro and in vivo. PMID:23364798

  11. TFIIS-Dependent Non-coding Transcription Regulates Developmental Genome Rearrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliszewska-Olejniczak, Kamila; Gruchota, Julita; Gromadka, Robert; Denby Wilkes, Cyril; Arnaiz, Olivier; Mathy, Nathalie; Duharcourt, Sandra; Bétermier, Mireille; Nowak, Jacek K

    2015-07-01

    Because of their nuclear dimorphism, ciliates provide a unique opportunity to study the role of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) in the communication between germline and somatic lineages. In these unicellular eukaryotes, a new somatic nucleus develops at each sexual cycle from a copy of the zygotic (germline) nucleus, while the old somatic nucleus degenerates. In the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia, the genome is massively rearranged during this process through the reproducible elimination of repeated sequences and the precise excision of over 45,000 short, single-copy Internal Eliminated Sequences (IESs). Different types of ncRNAs resulting from genome-wide transcription were shown to be involved in the epigenetic regulation of genome rearrangements. To understand how ncRNAs are produced from the entire genome, we have focused on a homolog of the TFIIS elongation factor, which regulates RNA polymerase II transcriptional pausing. Six TFIIS-paralogs, representing four distinct families, can be found in P. tetraurelia genome. Using RNA interference, we showed that TFIIS4, which encodes a development-specific TFIIS protein, is essential for the formation of a functional somatic genome. Molecular analyses and high-throughput DNA sequencing upon TFIIS4 RNAi demonstrated that TFIIS4 is involved in all kinds of genome rearrangements, including excision of ~48% of IESs. Localization of a GFP-TFIIS4 fusion revealed that TFIIS4 appears specifically in the new somatic nucleus at an early developmental stage, before IES excision. RT-PCR experiments showed that TFIIS4 is necessary for the synthesis of IES-containing non-coding transcripts. We propose that these IES+ transcripts originate from the developing somatic nucleus and serve as pairing substrates for germline-specific short RNAs that target elimination of their homologous sequences. Our study, therefore, connects the onset of zygotic non coding transcription to the control of genome plasticity in Paramecium, and establishes for

  12. The tumor suppressor Caliban regulates DNA damage-induced apoptosis through p53-dependent and -independent activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Wang, Z; Joshi, B H; Puri, R K; Stultz, B; Yuan, Q; Bai, Y; Zhou, P; Yuan, Z; Hursh, D A; Bi, X

    2013-08-15

    We previously identified Caliban (Clbn) as the Drosophila homolog of human Serologically defined colon cancer antigen 1 gene and demonstrated that it could function as a tumor suppressor in human non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells, although its mode of action was unknown. Herein, we identify roles for Clbn in DNA damage response. We generate clbn knockout flies using homologous recombination and demonstrate that they have a heightened sensitivity to irradiation. We show that normal Clbn function facilitates both p53-dependent and -independent DNA damage-induced apoptosis. Clbn coordinates different apoptosis pathways, showing a two-stage upregulation following DNA damage. Clbn has proapoptotic functions, working with both caspase and the proapoptotic gene Hid. Finally, ecotopic expression of clbn(+) in NSCLC cells suppresses tumor formation in athymic nude mice. We conclude that Caliban is a regulator of DNA damage-induced apoptosis, functioning as a tumor suppressor in both p53-dependent and -independent pathways.

  13. Molecular Basis of NusG-mediated Regulation of Rho-dependent Transcription Termination in Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valabhoju, Vishalini; Agrawal, Sonia; Sen, Ranjan

    2016-10-21

    The bacterial transcription elongation factor NusG stimulates the Rho-dependent transcription termination through a direct interaction with Rho. The mechanistic basis of NusG dependence of the Rho function is not known. Here, we describe Rho* mutants I168V, R221C/A, and P235H that do not require NusG for their termination function. These Rho* mutants have acquired new properties, which otherwise would have been imparted by NusG. A detailed analyses revealed that they have more stable interactions at the secondary RNA binding sites of Rho, which reduced the lag in initiating its ATPase as well as the translocase activities. These more stable interactions arose from the significant spatial re-orientations of the P, Q, and R structural loops of the Rho central channel. We propose that NusG imparts similar conformational changes in the central channel of Rho, yielding faster isomerization of the open to the closed hexameric states of the latter during its RNA-loading step. This acceleration stabilizes the Rho-RNA interactions at many terminators having suboptimal rut sites, thus making Rho-NusG interactions so essential in vivo Finally, identification of the NusG binding sites on the Rho hexamer led us to conclude that the former exerts its effect allosterically. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Kinetic modeling of rhamnolipid production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 including cell density-dependent regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, Marius; Schmidberger, Anke; Vogelbacher, Markus; Kühnert, Christian; Beuker, Janina; Bernard, Thomas; Schwartz, Thomas; Syldatk, Christoph; Hausmann, Rudolf

    2014-08-01

    The production of rhamnolipid biosurfactants by Pseudomonas aeruginosa is under complex control of a quorum sensing-dependent regulatory network. Due to a lack of understanding of the kinetics applicable to the process and relevant interrelations of variables, current processes for rhamnolipid production are based on heuristic approaches. To systematically establish a knowledge-based process for rhamnolipid production, a deeper understanding of the time-course and coupling of process variables is required. By combining reaction kinetics, stoichiometry, and experimental data, a process model for rhamnolipid production with P. aeruginosa PAO1 on sunflower oil was developed as a system of coupled ordinary differential equations (ODEs). In addition, cell density-based quorum sensing dynamics were included in the model. The model comprises a total of 36 parameters, 14 of which are yield coefficients and 7 of which are substrate affinity and inhibition constants. Of all 36 parameters, 30 were derived from dedicated experimental results, literature, and databases and 6 of them were used as fitting parameters. The model is able to describe data on biomass growth, substrates, and products obtained from a reference batch process and other validation scenarios. The model presented describes the time-course and interrelation of biomass, relevant substrates, and products on a process level while including a kinetic representation of cell density-dependent regulatory mechanisms.

  15. Reactive oxygen species are involved in insulin-dependent regulation of autophagy in primary rat podocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audzeyenka, Irena; Rogacka, Dorota; Piwkowska, Agnieszka; Rychlowski, Michal; Bierla, Joanna Beata; Czarnowska, Elżbieta; Angielski, Stefan; Jankowski, Maciej

    2016-06-01

    Autophagy is an intracellular defense mechanism responsible for the turnover of damaged or non-functional cellular constituents. This process provides cells with energy and essential compounds under unfavorable environmental conditions-such as oxidative stress and hyperglycemia, which are both observed in diabetes. The most common diabetes complication is diabetic nephropathy (DN), which can lead to renal failure. This condition often includes impaired podocyte function. Here we investigated autophagic activity in rat podocytes cultured with a high insulin concentration (300nM). Autophagy was activated after 60min of insulin stimulation. Moreover, this effect was abolished following pharmacological (apocynin) or genetic (siRNA) inhibition of NAD(P)H oxidase activity, indicating that insulin-dependent autophagy stimulation involved reactive oxygen species (ROS). We also observed a continuous and time-dependent increase of podocyte albumin permeability in response to insulin, and this process was slightly improved by autophagy inhibition following short-term insulin exposure. Our results suggest that insulin may be a factor affecting the development of diabetic nephropathy.

  16. Fluorescence circadian imaging reveals a PDF-dependent transcriptional regulation of the Drosophila molecular clock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabado, Virginie; Vienne, Ludovic; Nunes, José Manuel; Rosbash, Michael; Nagoshi, Emi

    2017-01-30

    Circadian locomotor behaviour is controlled by a pacemaker circuit composed of clock-containing neurons. To interrogate the mechanistic relationship between the molecular clockwork and network communication critical to the operation of the Drosophila circadian pacemaker circuit, we established new fluorescent circadian reporters that permit single-cell recording of transcriptional and post-transcriptional rhythms in brain explants and cultured neurons. Live-imaging experiments combined with pharmacological and genetic manipulations demonstrate that the neuropeptide pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) amplifies the molecular rhythms via time-of-day- and activity-dependent upregulation of transcription from E-box-containing clock gene promoters within key pacemaker neurons. The effect of PDF on clock gene transcription and the known role of PDF in enhancing PER/TIM stability occur via independent pathways downstream of the PDF receptor, the former through a cAMP-independent mechanism and the latter through a cAMP-PKA dependent mechanism. These results confirm and extend the mechanistic understanding of the role of PDF in controlling the synchrony of the pacemaker neurons. More broadly, our results establish the utility of the new live-imaging tools for the study of molecular-neural interactions important for the operation of the circadian pacemaker circuit.

  17. Oxidative stress and redox regulation on hippocampal-dependent cognitive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ting-Ting; Leu, David; Zou, Yani

    2015-06-15

    Hippocampal-dependent cognitive functions rely on production of new neurons and maintenance of dendritic structures to provide the synaptic plasticity needed for learning and formation of new memories. Hippocampal formation is exquisitely sensitive to patho-physiological changes, and reduced antioxidant capacity and exposure to low dose irradiation can significantly impede hippocampal-dependent functions of learning and memory by reducing the production of new neurons and alter dendritic structures in the hippocampus. Although the mechanism leading to impaired cognitive functions is complex, persistent oxidative stress likely plays an important role in the SOD-deficient and radiation-exposed hippocampal environment. Aging is associated with increased production of pro-oxidants and accumulation of oxidative end products. Similar to the hippocampal defects observed in SOD-deficient mice and mice exposed to low dose irradiation, reduced capacity in learning and memory, diminishing hippocampal neurogenesis, and altered dendritic network are universal in the aging brains. Given the similarities in cellular and structural changes in the aged, SOD-deficient, and radiation-exposed hippocampal environment and the corresponding changes in cognitive decline, understanding the shared underlying mechanism will provide more flexible and efficient use of SOD deficiency or irradiation to model age-related changes in cognitive functions and identify potential therapeutic or intervention methods.

  18. INPP5E regulates phosphoinositide-dependent cilia transition zone function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Jennifer M; Conduit, Sarah E; Feeney, Sandra J; Hakim, Sandra; DiTommaso, Tia; Fulcher, Alex J; Sriratana, Absorn; Ramm, Georg; Horan, Kristy A; Gurung, Rajendra; Wicking, Carol; Smyth, Ian; Mitchell, Christina A

    2017-01-02

    Human ciliopathies, including Joubert syndrome (JBTS), arise from cilia dysfunction. The inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase INPP5E localizes to cilia and is mutated in JBTS. Murine Inpp5e ablation is embryonically lethal and recapitulates JBTS, including neural tube defects and polydactyly; however, the underlying defects in cilia signaling and the function of INPP5E at cilia are still emerging. We report Inpp5e(-/-) embryos exhibit aberrant Hedgehog-dependent patterning with reduced Hedgehog signaling. Using mouse genetics, we show increasing Hedgehog signaling via Smoothened M2 expression rescues some Inpp5e(-/-) ciliopathy phenotypes and "normalizes" Hedgehog signaling. INPP5E's phosphoinositide substrates PI(4,5)P2 and PI(3,4,5)P3 accumulated at the transition zone (TZ) in Hedgehog-stimulated Inpp5e(-/-) cells, which was associated with reduced recruitment of TZ scaffolding proteins and reduced Smoothened levels at cilia. Expression of wild-type, but not 5-phosphatase-dead, INPP5E restored TZ molecular organization and Smoothened accumulation at cilia. Therefore, we identify INPP5E as an essential point of convergence between Hedgehog and phosphoinositide signaling at cilia that maintains TZ function and Hedgehog-dependent embryonic development.

  19. Discovery of a cAMP deaminase that quenches cyclic AMP-dependent regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goble, Alissa M; Feng, Youjun; Raushel, Frank M; Cronan, John E

    2013-12-20

    An enzyme of unknown function within the amidohydrolase superfamily was discovered to catalyze the hydrolysis of the universal second messenger, cyclic-3',5'-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). The enzyme, which we have named CadD, is encoded by the human pathogenic bacterium Leptospira interrogans. Although CadD is annotated as an adenosine deaminase, the protein specifically deaminates cAMP to cyclic-3',5'-inosine monophosphate (cIMP) with a kcat/Km of 2.7 ± 0.4 × 10(5) M(-1) s(-1) and has no activity on adenosine, adenine, or 5'-adenosine monophosphate (AMP). This is the first identification of a deaminase specific for cAMP. Expression of CadD in Escherichia coli mimics the loss of adenylate cyclase in that it blocks growth on carbon sources that require the cAMP-CRP transcriptional activator complex for expression of the cognate genes. The cIMP reaction product cannot replace cAMP as the ligand for CRP binding to DNA in vitro and cIMP is a very poor competitor of cAMP activation of CRP for DNA binding. Transcriptional analyses indicate that CadD expression represses expression of several cAMP-CRP dependent genes. CadD adds a new activity to the cAMP metabolic network and may be a useful tool in intracellular study of cAMP-dependent processes.

  20. Matrix-Dependent Regulation of AKT in Hepsin-Overexpressing PC3 Prostate Cancer Cells

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    Stephanie M Wittig-Blaich

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The serine-protease hepsin is one of the most prominently overexpressed genes in human prostate carcinoma. Forced expression of the enzyme in mice prostates is associated with matrix degradation, invasive growth, and prostate cancer progression. Conversely, hepsin overexpression in metastatic prostate cancer cell lines was reported to induce cell cycle arrest and reduction of invasive growth in vitro. We used a system for doxycycline (dox-inducible target gene expression in metastasis-derived PC3 cells to analyze the effects of hepsin in a quantitative manner. Loss of viability and adhesion correlated with hepsin expression levels during anchorage-dependent but not anchorage-independent growth. Full expression of hepsin led to cell death and detachment and was specifically associated with reduced phosphorylation of AKT at Ser473, which was restored by growth on matrix derived from RWPE1 normal prostatic epithelial cells. In the chorioallantoic membrane xenograft model, hepsin overexpression in PC3 cells reduced the viability of tumors but did not suppress invasive growth. The data presented here provide evidence that elevated levels of hepsin interfere with cell adhesion and viability in the background of prostate cancer as well as other tissue types, the details of which depend on the microenvironment provided. Our findings suggest that overexpression of the enzyme in prostate carcinogenesis must be spatially and temporally restricted for the efficient development of tumors and metastases.

  1. Matrix-Dependent Regulation of AKT in Hepsin-Overexpressing PC3 Prostate Cancer Cells12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittig-Blaich, Stephanie M; Kacprzyk, Lukasz A; Eismann, Thorsten; Bewerunge-Hudler, Melanie; Kruse, Petra; Winkler, Eva; Strauss, Wolfgang S L; Hibst, Raimund; Steiner, Rudolf; Schrader, Mark; Mertens, Daniel; Sültmann, Holger; Wittig, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    The serine-protease hepsin is one of the most prominently overexpressed genes in human prostate carcinoma. Forced expression of the enzyme in mice prostates is associated with matrix degradation, invasive growth, and prostate cancer progression. Conversely, hepsin overexpression in metastatic prostate cancer cell lines was reported to induce cell cycle arrest and reduction of invasive growth in vitro. We used a system for doxycycline (dox)-inducible target gene expression in metastasis-derived PC3 cells to analyze the effects of hepsin in a quantitative manner. Loss of viability and adhesion correlated with hepsin expression levels during anchorage-dependent but not anchorage-independent growth. Full expression of hepsin led to cell death and detachment and was specifically associated with reduced phosphorylation of AKT at Ser473, which was restored by growth on matrix derived from RWPE1 normal prostatic epithelial cells. In the chorioallantoic membrane xenograft model, hepsin overexpression in PC3 cells reduced the viability of tumors but did not suppress invasive growth. The data presented here provide evidence that elevated levels of hepsin interfere with cell adhesion and viability in the background of prostate cancer as well as other tissue types, the details of which depend on the microenvironment provided. Our findings suggest that overexpression of the enzyme in prostate carcinogenesis must be spatially and temporally restricted for the efficient development of tumors and metastases. PMID:21750652

  2. Differential regulation of trophic and proinflammatory microglial effectors is dependent on severity of neuronal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Aaron Y; Todd, Kathryn G

    2008-02-01

    Microglial activation has been reported to promote neurotoxicity and also neuroprotective effects. A possible contributor to this dichotomy of responses may be the degree to which proximal neurons are injured. The aim of this study was to determine whether varying the severity of neuronal injury influenced whether microglia were neuroprotective or neurotoxic. We exposed cortical neuronal cultures to varying degrees of hypoxia thereby generating mild (70% death, 6 h hypoxia) injuries. Twenty-four hours after hypoxia, the media from the neuronal cultures was collected and incubated with primary microglial cultures for 24 h. Results showed that the classic microglial proinflammatory mediators including inducible nitric oxide synthase, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interleukin-1-beta were upregulated only in response to mild neuronal injuries, while the trophic microglial effectors brain-derived neurotrophic factor and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor were upregulated in response to all degrees of neuronal injury. Microglia stimulated with media from damaged neurons were co-cultured with hypoxic neurons. Microglia stimulated by moderate, but not mild or severe damage were neuroprotective in these co-cultures. We also showed that the severity-dependent phenomenon was not related to autocrine microglial signaling and was dependent on the neurotransmitters released by neurons after injury, namely glutamate and adenosine 5'-triphosphate. Together our results show that severity of neuronal injury is an important factor in determining microglial release of "toxic" versus "protective" effectors and the resulting neurotoxicity versus neuroprotection.

  3. E6-Associated Protein Dependent Estrogen Receptor Regulation of Protein Kinase A Regulatory Subunit R2A Expression in Neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeid, Jean-Pierre; Zeidan, Youssef H; Zafar, Nawal; El Hokayem, Jimmy

    2017-02-18

    E6ap is a known transcriptional coregulator for estrogen receptor alpha (Er, Erα) in the presence of estrogen. Protein kinase A (PKA) contains two regulatory subunits derived from four genes. Recent evidence demonstrates that PKA regulates E6ap activity. Data generated in our lab indicated estrogen dependent regulation of Pkar2a levels. Our project sets to investigate a possible feedback mechanism constituting of Erα and E6ap transcriptional regulation of Pkar2a expression. Western blot evaluated protein regulation correlations with E2 in mouse neuroblastoma lines. Bioinformatics detected estrogen response element (ERE) sequences. quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) validated the western blot results. ERE oligonucleotides were synthesized. Reporter gene transcriptional activity was evaluated via Luciferase assay output. Electromobility shift assay (EMSA) assessed direct binding between Erα relevant sequences. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and Re-ChIP were conducted in quantifying protein complex recruitment levels. Pkar2a protein expression directly correlated with E2, and four putative ERE sequences were identified. Pkar2a mRNA expression reverted to baseline with either E2 or E6ap absent. In the presence of E2, ERE-1 and ERE-4 possessed Luciferase reporter gene transcriptional capabilities. ERE-1 portrayed band shifts, representing direct binding to Erα with E2 supplementation. With E2, ERE-1 significantly enhanced Erα and E6ap recruitment levels to the Pkar2a promoter. Pkar2a is directly regulated by Erα and E6ap in the presence of estrogen stimulus. This work indicates a feedback mechanism in the interplay between PKA and E6ap, which may prove crucial for the role of both proteins in cancers and neurogenetic diseases like Angelman syndrome.

  4. Expression of the pyr operon of Lactobacillus plantarum is regulated by inorganic carbon availability through a second regulator, PyrR2, homologous to the pyrimidine-dependent regulator PyrR1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arsène-Ploetze, Florence; Valérie Kugler, Valérie; Martinussen, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Inorganic carbon (IC), such as bicarbonate or carbon dioxide, stimulates the growth of Lactobacillus plantarum. At low IC levels, one-third of natural isolated L. plantarum strains are nutritionally dependent on exogenous arginine and pyrimidine, a phenotype previously defined as high-CO2-requiring...... (HCR) prototrophy. IC enrichment significantly decreased the amounts of the enzymes in the pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway encoded by the pyrR1BCAa1Ab1DFE operon, as demonstrated by proteomic analysis. Northern blot and reverse transcription-PCR experiments demonstrated that IC levels regulated pyr...... genes mainly at the level of transcription or RNA stability. Two putative PyrR regulators with 62% amino acid identity are present in the L. plantarum genome. PyrR1 is an RNA-binding protein that regulates the pyr genes in response to pyrimidine availability by a mechanism of transcriptional attenuation...

  5. Regulation of cap-dependent translation initiation in the early stage porcine parthenotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susor, Andrej; Jelínková, Lucie; Karabínová, Pavla; Torner, Helmut; Tomek, Wolfgang; Kovárová, Hana; Kubelka, Michal

    2008-12-01

    The binding of mRNAs to ribosomes is mediated by the protein complex eIF4F in conjunction with eIF4B (eukaryotic initiation factor 4F and 4B). EIF4F is a three subunit complex consisting of eIF4A (RNA helicase), eIF4E (mRNA cap binding protein), and eIF4G (bridging protein). The crucial role is played by eIF4E, which directly binds the 5'-cap structure of the mRNA and facilitates the recruitment to the mRNA of other translation factors and the 40S ribosomal subunit. EIF4E binding to mRNA and to other initiation factors is regulated on several levels, including its phosphorylation on Ser-209, and association with its regulatory protein 4E-binding protein (4E-BP1). In this study we document that both the translation initiation factor eIF4E and its regulator 4E-BP1 become dephosphorylated in the early stage porcine zygotes already 8 hr post-activation. Similarly, the activities of ERK1/2 MAP and Mnk1 kinases, which are both involved in eIF4E phosphorylation, gradually decrease during this period with the timing similar to that of eIF4E dephosphorylation. The formation of an active eIF4F complex is also diminished after 9-15 hr post-activation, although substantial amounts of this complex have been detected also 24 hr post-activation (2-cell stage). The overall protein synthesis in the parthenotes decreases gradually from 12 hr post-activation reaching a minimum after 48 hr (4-cell stage). Although the translation is gradually decreasing during early preimplantation development, the eIF4F complex, which is temporarily formed, might be a premise for the translation of a small subset of mRNAs at this period of development.

  6. TFIIS-Dependent Non-coding Transcription Regulates Developmental Genome Rearrangements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Maliszewska-Olejniczak

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Because of their nuclear dimorphism, ciliates provide a unique opportunity to study the role of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs in the communication between germline and somatic lineages. In these unicellular eukaryotes, a new somatic nucleus develops at each sexual cycle from a copy of the zygotic (germline nucleus, while the old somatic nucleus degenerates. In the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia, the genome is massively rearranged during this process through the reproducible elimination of repeated sequences and the precise excision of over 45,000 short, single-copy Internal Eliminated Sequences (IESs. Different types of ncRNAs resulting from genome-wide transcription were shown to be involved in the epigenetic regulation of genome rearrangements. To understand how ncRNAs are produced from the entire genome, we have focused on a homolog of the TFIIS elongation factor, which regulates RNA polymerase II transcriptional pausing. Six TFIIS-paralogs, representing four distinct families, can be found in P. tetraurelia genome. Using RNA interference, we showed that TFIIS4, which encodes a development-specific TFIIS protein, is essential for the formation of a functional somatic genome. Molecular analyses and high-throughput DNA sequencing upon TFIIS4 RNAi demonstrated that TFIIS4 is involved in all kinds of genome rearrangements, including excision of ~48% of IESs. Localization of a GFP-TFIIS4 fusion revealed that TFIIS4 appears specifically in the new somatic nucleus at an early developmental stage, before IES excision. RT-PCR experiments showed that TFIIS4 is necessary for the synthesis of IES-containing non-coding transcripts. We propose that these IES+ transcripts originate from the developing somatic nucleus and serve as pairing substrates for germline-specific short RNAs that target elimination of their homologous sequences. Our study, therefore, connects the onset of zygotic non coding transcription to the control of genome plasticity in Paramecium

  7. Redox-dependent regulation of the Na⁺-K⁺ pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Chia-Chi; Fry, Natasha A S; Hamilton, Elisha J;

    2013-01-01

    By the time it was appreciated that the positive inotropic effect of cardiac glycosides is due to inhibition of the membrane Na(+)-K(+) pump, glycosides had been used for treatment of heart failure on an empiric basis for ~200 years. The subsequent documentation of their lack of clinical efficacy...... to stimulate the Na(+)-K(+) pump, effectively the only export route for intracellular Na(+) in the heart failure. A paradigm has emerged that implicates pump inhibition in the raised Na(+) levels in heart failure. It invokes protein kinase-dependent activation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate...... oxidase (NADPH oxidase) and glutathionylation, a reversible oxidative modification, of the Na(+)-K(+) pump molecular complex that inhibits its activity. Since treatments of proven efficacy reverse the oxidative Na(+)-K(+) pump inhibition, the pump retains its status as a key pharmacological target...

  8. Dosage dependent hormonal counter regulation to combination therapy in patients with left ventricular dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galløe, A.M.; Skagen, K.; Christensen, N.J.

    2006-01-01

    The present study attempts to assess the efficacy combination therapy for heart failure. Genuine dose-response studies on combination therapy are not available and published studies involved adding one drug on top of 'usual treatment'. Sixteen different dosage combinations of trandolapril...... rate and plasma noradrenaline in a dose dependent manner. Doses of bumetanide of more than 0.5 mg, given twice daily significantly decreased the quality of life and increased diuresis. Weight loss was maximal on 0.5 mg bumetanide twice daily. Trandolapril significantly reduced systolic blood pressure...... of life and weight loss. Estimated by the reduction in systolic blood pressure the optimal dosage of Trandolapril appeared to be 0.5 mg once daily. CONCLUSIONS: It appears that patients should be given less than the usually recommended dosages. Patients may be treated with a low dose loop diuretic...

  9. Microtubule-Dependent Mitochondria Alignment Regulates Calcium Release in Response to Nanomechanical Stimulus in Heart Myocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Miragoli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Arrhythmogenesis during heart failure is a major clinical problem. Regional electrical gradients produce arrhythmias, and cellular ionic transmembrane gradients are its originators. We investigated whether the nanoscale mechanosensitive properties of cardiomyocytes from failing hearts have a bearing upon the initiation of abnormal electrical activity. Hydrojets through a nanopipette indent specific locations on the sarcolemma and initiate intracellular calcium release in both healthy and heart failure cardiomyocytes, as well as in human failing cardiomyocytes. In healthy cells, calcium is locally confined, whereas in failing cardiomyocytes, calcium propagates. Heart failure progressively stiffens the membrane and displaces sub-sarcolemmal mitochondria. Colchicine in healthy cells mimics the failing condition by stiffening the cells, disrupting microtubules, shifting mitochondria, and causing calcium release. Uncoupling the mitochondrial proton gradient abolished calcium initiation in both failing and colchicine-treated cells. We propose the disruption of microtubule-dependent mitochondrial mechanosensor microdomains as a mechanism for abnormal calcium release in failing heart.

  10. PIP Water Transport and Its pH Dependence Are Regulated by Tetramer Stoichiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozefkowicz, Cintia; Sigaut, Lorena; Scochera, Florencia; Soto, Gabriela; Ayub, Nicolás; Pietrasanta, Lía Isabel; Amodeo, Gabriela; González Flecha, F Luis; Alleva, Karina

    2016-03-29

    Many plasma membrane channels form oligomeric assemblies, and heterooligomerization has been described as a distinctive feature of some protein families. In the particular case of plant plasma membrane aquaporins (PIPs), PIP1 and PIP2 monomers interact to form heterotetramers. However, the biological properties of the different heterotetrameric configurations formed by PIP1 and PIP2 subunits have not been addressed yet. Upon coexpression of tandem PIP2-PIP1 dimers in Xenopus oocytes, we can address, for the first time to our knowledge, the functional properties of single heterotetrameric species having 2:2 stoichiometry. We have also coexpressed PIP2-PIP1 dimers with PIP1 and PIP2 monomers to experimentally investigate the localization and biological activity of each tetrameric assembly. Our results show that PIP2-PIP1 heterotetramers can assemble with 3:1, 1:3, or 2:2 stoichiometry, depending on PIP1 and PIP2 relative expression in the cell. All PIP2-PIP1 heterotetrameric species localize at the plasma membrane and present the same water transport capacity. Furthermore, the contribution of any heterotetrameric assembly to the total water transport through the plasma membrane doubles the contribution of PIP2 homotetramers. Our results also indicate that plasma membrane water transport can be modulated by the coexistence of different tetrameric species and by intracellular pH. Moreover, all the tetrameric species present similar cooperativity behavior for proton sensing. These findings throw light on the functional properties of PIP tetramers, showing that they have flexible stoichiometry dependent on the quantity of PIP1 and PIP2 molecules available. This represents, to our knowledge, a novel regulatory mechanism to adjust water transport across the plasma membrane.

  11. Regulation of bone mass and osteoclast function depend on the F-actin modulator SWAP-70.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbe, Annette I; Roscher, Anne; Schüler, Christiane; Lutter, Anne-Helen; Glösmann, Martin; Bernhardt, Ricardo; Chopin, Michael; Hempel, Ute; Hofbauer, Lorenz C; Rammelt, Stefan; Egerbacher, Monika; Erben, Reinhold G; Jessberger, Rolf

    2012-10-01

    Bone remodeling involves tightly regulated bone-resorbing osteoclasts and bone-forming osteoblasts. Determining osteoclast function is central to understanding bone diseases such as osteoporosis and osteopetrosis. Here, we report a novel function of the F-actin binding and regulatory protein SWAP-70 in osteoclast biology. F-actin ring formation, cell morphology, and bone resorption are impaired in Swap-70(-/-) osteoclasts, whereas the expression of osteoclast differentiation markers induced in vitro by macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) remains unaffected. Swap-70(-/-) mice develop osteopetrosis with increased bone mass, abnormally dense bone, and impaired osteoclast function. Ectopic expression of SWAP-70 in Swap-70(-/-) osteoclasts in vitro rescues their deficiencies in bone resorption and F-actin ring formation. Rescue requires a functional pleckstrin homology (PH) domain, known to support membrane localization of SWAP-70, and the F-actin binding domain. Transplantation of SWAP-70-proficient bone marrow into Swap-70(-/-) mice restores osteoclast resorption capacity in vivo. The identification of the role of SWAP-70 in promoting osteoclast function through modulating membrane-proximal F-actin rearrangements reveals a new pathway to control osteoclasts and bone homeostasis.

  12. Cofilin Regulates Nuclear Architecture through a Myosin-II Dependent Mechanotransduction Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggan, O’Neil; Schroder, Bryce; Krapf, Diego; Bamburg, James R.; DeLuca, Jennifer G.

    2017-01-01

    Structural features of the nucleus including shape, size and deformability impact its function affecting normal cellular processes such as cell differentiation and pathological conditions such as tumor cell migration. Despite the fact that abnormal nuclear morphology has long been a defining characteristic for diseases such as cancer relatively little is known about the mechanisms that control normal nuclear architecture. Mounting evidence suggests close coupling between F-actin cytoskeletal organization and nuclear morphology however, mechanisms regulating this coupling are lacking. Here we identify that Cofilin/ADF-family F-actin remodeling proteins are essential for normal nuclear structure in different cell types. siRNA mediated silencing of Cofilin/ADF provokes striking nuclear defects including aberrant shapes, nuclear lamina disruption and reductions to peripheral heterochromatin. We provide evidence that these anomalies are primarily due to Rho kinase (ROCK) controlled excessive contractile myosin-II activity and not to elevated F-actin polymerization. Furthermore, we demonstrate a requirement for nuclear envelope LINC (linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton) complex proteins together with lamin A/C for nuclear aberrations induced by Cofilin/ADF loss. Our study elucidates a pivotal regulatory mechanism responsible for normal nuclear structure and which is expected to fundamentally influence nuclear function. PMID:28102353

  13. Akt-dependent Girdin phosphorylation regulates repair processes after acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayano, Shinji; Takefuji, Mikito; Maeda, Kengo; Noda, Tomonori; Ichimiya, Hitoshi; Kobayashi, Koichi; Enomoto, Atsushi; Asai, Naoya; Takahashi, Masahide; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2015-11-01

    Myocardial infarction is a leading cause of death, and cardiac rupture following myocardial infarction leads to extremely poor prognostic feature. A large body of evidence suggests that Akt is involved in several cardiac diseases. We previously reported that Akt-mediated Girdin phosphorylation is essential for angiogenesis and neointima formation. The role of Girdin expression and phosphorylation in myocardial infarction, however, is not understood. Therefore, we employed Girdin-deficient mice and Girdin S1416A knock-in (Girdin(SA/SA)) mice, replacing the Akt phosphorylation site with alanine, to address this question. We found that Girdin was expressed and phosphorylated in cardiac fibroblasts in vitro and that its phosphorylation was crucial for the proliferation and migration of cardiac fibroblasts. In vivo, Girdin was localized in non-cardiomyocyte interstitial cells and phosphorylated in α-smooth muscle actin-positive cells, which are likely to be cardiac myofibroblasts. In an acute myocardial infarction model, Girdin(SA/SA) suppressed the accumulation and proliferation of cardiac myofibroblasts in the infarcted area. Furthermore, lower collagen deposition in Girdin(SA/SA) mice impaired cardiac repair and resulted in increased mortality attributed to cardiac rupture. These findings suggest an important role of Girdin phosphorylation at serine 1416 in cardiac repair after acute myocardial infarction and provide insights into the complex mechanism of cardiac rupture through the Akt/Girdin-mediated regulation of cardiac myofibroblasts.

  14. HOPS: a novel cAMP-dependent shuttling protein involved in protein synthesis regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Fazia, Maria Agnese; Castelli, Marilena; Bartoli, Daniela; Pieroni, Stefania; Pettirossi, Valentina; Piobbico, Danilo; Viola-Magni, Mariapia; Servillo, Giuseppe

    2005-07-15

    The liver has the ability to autonomously regulate growth and mass. Following partial hepatectomy, hormones, growth factors, cytokines and their coupled signal transduction pathways have been implicated in hepatocyte proliferation. To understand the mechanisms responsible for the proliferative response, we studied liver regeneration by characterization of novel genes that are activated in residual hepatocytes. A regenerating liver cDNA library screening was performed with cDNA-subtracted probes derived from regenerating and normal liver. Here, we describe the biology of Hops (for hepatocyte odd protein shuttling). HOPS is a novel shuttling protein that contains an ubiquitin-like domain, a putative NES and a proline-rich region. HOPS is rapidly exported from the nucleus and is overexpressed during liver regeneration. Evidence shows that cAMP governs HOPS export in hepatocytes of normal and regenerating liver and is mediated via CRM-1. We demonstrate that HOPS binds to elongation factor eEF-1A and interferes in protein synthesis. HOPS overexpression in H-35-hepatoma and 3T3-NIH cells strongly reduces proliferation.

  15. AKT regulates NPM dependent ARF localization and p53mut stability in tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Garth; Abraham, Aswin G; Morton, Jennifer; Sampson, Oliver; Pefani, Dafni E; Khoronenkova, Svetlana; Grawenda, Anna; Papaspyropoulos, Angelos; Jamieson, Nigel; McKay, Colin; Sansom, Owen; Dianov, Grigory L; O'Neill, Eric

    2014-08-15

    Nucleophosmin (NPM) is known to regulate ARF subcellular localization and MDM2 activity in response to oncogenic stress, though the precise mechanism has remained elusive. Here we describe how NPM and ARF associate in the nucleoplasm to form a MDM2 inhibitory complex. We find that oligomerization of NPM drives nucleolar accumulation of ARF. Moreover, the formation of NPM and ARF oligomers antagonizes MDM2 association with the inhibitory complex, leading to activation of MDM2 E3-ligase activity and targeting of p53. We find that AKT phosphorylation of NPM-Ser48 prevents oligomerization that results in nucleoplasmic localization of ARF, constitutive MDM2 inhibition and stabilization of p53. We also show that ARF promotes p53 mutant stability in tumors and suppresses p73 mediated p21 expression and senescence. We demonstrate that AKT and PI3K inhibitors may be effective in treatment of therapeutically resistant tumors with elevated AKT and carrying gain of function mutations in p53. Our results show that the clinical candidate AKT inhibitor MK-2206 promotes ARF nucleolar localization, reduced p53(mut) stability and increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation in a xenograft model of pancreatic cancer. Analysis of human tumors indicates that phospho-S48-NPM may be a useful biomarker for monitoring AKT activity and in vivo efficacy of AKT inhibitor treatment. Critically, we propose that combination therapy involving PI3K-AKT inhibitors would benefit from a patient stratification rationale based on ARF and p53(mut) status.

  16. Uric acid regulates hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance through the NLRP3 inflammasome-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xingyong; Xu, Chengfu; Lin, Yiming; Lu, Chao; Li, Dejian; Sang, Jianzhong; He, Haijian; Liu, Xiao; Li, Youming; Yu, Chaohui

    2016-04-01

    Hyperuricemia significantly increases risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and insulin resistance. However, the mechanisms responsible for this association are as yet unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effects and underlying mechanisms of uric acid on development of NAFLD and insulin resistance. We initially analyzed the impact of uric acid on the development of hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance in mice and in two cell models, HepG2 and L02. Subsequently, we studied the role of the NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in uric acid-induced fat accumulation and insulin signaling impairment. We found that uric acid directly induces hepatocyte fat accumulation, insulin resistance, and insulin signaling impairment both in vivo and in vitro. We also found that uric acid-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation, whereas lowering uric acid by allopurinol inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation in a high fat diet mouse model of NAFLD. Moreover, knocking down NLRP3 expression significantly attenuated uric acid-induced fat accumulation both in HepG2 cells and L02 cells. Knocking down NLRP3 expression also rescued uric acid-induced insulin signaling impairment in both cell types. Uric acid regulates hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance through the NLRP3 inflammasome. Uric acid may be a new therapeutic target for NAFLD and insulin resistance. Copyright © 2015 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. TIMP3 regulates mammary epithelial apoptosis with immune cell recruitment through differential TNF dependence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo V Hojilla

    Full Text Available Post-lactation mammary involution is a homeostatic process requiring epithelial apoptosis and clearance. Given that the deficiency of the extracellular metalloproteinase inhibitor TIMP3 impacts epithelial apoptosis and heightens inflammatory response, we investigated whether TIMP3 regulates these distinct processes during the phases of mammary gland involution in the mouse. Here we show that TIMP3 deficiency leads to TNF dysregulation, earlier caspase activation and onset of mitochondrial apoptosis. This accelerated first phase of involution includes faster loss of initiating signals (STAT3 activation; TGFβ3 concurrent with immediate luminal deconstruction through E-cadherin fragmentation. Epithelial apoptosis is followed by accelerated adipogenesis and a greater macrophage and T-cell infiltration in Timp3(-/- involuting glands. Crossing in Tnf deficiency abrogates caspase 3 activation, but heightens macrophage and T-cell influx into Timp3(-/- glands. The data indicate that TIMP3 differentially impacts apoptosis and inflammatory cell influx, based on involvement of TNF, during the process of mammary involution. An understanding of the molecular factors and wound healing microenvironment of the postpartum mammary gland may have implications for understanding pregnancy-associated breast cancer risk.

  18. Flow-dependent regulation of vascular function and gene expression in rat superior mesenteric artery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Shang; DENG Chang-sheng

    2009-01-01

    Background Mesenteric artery thrombosis is prone to occur at specific arterial regions with different fluid flow patterns,yet mechanistic links between blood flow and vascular function remain unclear. This study aired to investigate the role of blood flow in regulation of vascular function and gene expression in rats.Methods Isometric tension was recorded in wire myograph to examine vascular function of specific regions (trunk parts and proximal parts from the origin) with different blood flow in superior mesenteric artery (SMA). Endothelial nitric oxide syntheses (eNOS), phosphorylated-eNOS (p-eNOS), serine-threonine kinase Akt and phosphorylated-Akt (p-Akt) protein expressions in SMA were examined by Western blotting. Significance was analyzed using a Student's ttest or analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by a Dunnett's multiple-comparison post hoc test.Results Compared with trunks, proximal parts exhibited severely impaired relaxant responses to acetylcholine (Ach) (1 nmol/L to 10 pmol/L) (P 0.05).Conclusion Critical components that drive the vascular function and influence the localization of mesenteric artery thrombosis are flow-responsive elements within the vascular endothelium.

  19. Developmental Stage-dependent Regulation of Prolyl 3-Hydroxylation in Tendon Type I Collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taga, Yuki; Kusubata, Masashi; Ogawa-Goto, Kiyoko; Hattori, Shunji

    2016-01-01

    3-Hydroxyproline (3-Hyp), which is unique to collagen, is a fairly rare post-translational modification. Recent studies have suggested a function of prolyl 3-hydroxylation in fibril assembly and its relationships with certain disorders, including recessive osteogenesis imperfecta and high myopia. However, no direct evidence for the physiological and pathological roles of 3-Hyp has been presented. In this study, we first estimated the overall alterations in prolyl hydroxylation in collagens purified from skin, bone, and tail tendon of 0.5-18-month-old rats by LC-MS analysis with stable isotope-labeled collagen, which was recently developed as an internal standard for highly accurate collagen analyses. 3-Hyp was found to significantly increase in tendon collagen until 3 months after birth and then remain constant, whereas increased prolyl 3-hydroxylation was not observed in skin and bone collagen. Site-specific analysis further revealed that 3-Hyp was increased in tendon type I collagen in a specific sequence region, including a previously known modification site at Pro(707) and newly identified sites at Pro(716) and Pro(719), at the early ages. The site-specific alterations in prolyl 3-hydroxylation with aging were also observed in bovine Achilles tendon. We postulate that significant increases in 3-Hyp at the consecutive modification sites are correlated with tissue development in tendon. The present findings suggest that prolyl 3-hydroxylation incrementally regulates collagen fibril diameter in tendon.

  20. SIGNR3-dependent immune regulation by Lactobacillus acidophilus surface layer protein A in colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoot, Yaíma L; Selle, Kurt; Yang, Tao; Goh, Yong Jun; Sahay, Bikash; Zadeh, Mojgan; Owen, Jennifer L; Colliou, Natacha; Li, Eric; Johannssen, Timo; Lepenies, Bernd; Klaenhammer, Todd R; Mohamadzadeh, Mansour

    2015-04-01

    Intestinal immune regulatory signals govern gut homeostasis. Breakdown of such regulatory mechanisms may result in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Lactobacillus acidophilus contains unique surface layer proteins (Slps), including SlpA, SlpB, SlpX, and lipoteichoic acid (LTA), which interact with pattern recognition receptors to mobilize immune responses. Here, to elucidate the role of SlpA in protective immune regulation, the NCK2187 strain, which solely expresses SlpA, was generated. NCK2187 and its purified SlpA bind to the C-type lectin SIGNR3 to exert regulatory signals that result in mitigation of colitis, maintenance of healthy gastrointestinal microbiota, and protected gut mucosal barrier function. However, such protection was not observed in Signr3(-/-) mice, suggesting that the SlpA/SIGNR3 interaction plays a key regulatory role in colitis. Our work presents critical insights into SlpA/SIGNR3-induced responses that are integral to the potential development of novel biological therapies for autoinflammatory diseases, including IBD.

  1. Synaptic strength is bidirectionally controlled by opposing activity-dependent regulation of Nedd4-1 and USP8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudder, Samantha L; Goo, Marisa S; Cartier, Anna E; Molteni, Alice; Schwarz, Lindsay A; Wright, Rebecca; Patrick, Gentry N

    2014-12-10

    The trafficking of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) to and from synapses is crucial for synaptic plasticity. Previous work has demonstrated that AMPARs undergo activity-dependent ubiquitination by the E3 ubiquitin ligase Nedd4-1, which promotes their internalization and degradation in lysosomes. Here, we define the molecular mechanisms involved in ubiquitination and deubiquitination of AMPARs. We report that Nedd4-1 is rapidly redistributed to dendritic spines in response to AMPAR activation and not in response to NMDA receptor (NMDAR) activation in cultured rat neurons. In contrast, NMDAR activation directly antagonizes Nedd4-1 function by promoting the deubiquitination of AMPARs. We show that NMDAR activation causes the rapid dephosphorylation and activation of the deubiquitinating enzyme (DUB) USP8. Surface AMPAR levels and synaptic strength are inversely regulated by Nedd4-1 and USP8. Strikingly, we show that homeostatic downscaling of synaptic strength is accompanied by an increase and decrease in Nedd4-1 and USP8 protein levels, respectively. Furthermore, we show that Nedd4-1 is required for homeostatic loss of surface AMPARs and downscaling of synaptic strength. This study provides the first mechanistic evidence for rapid and opposing activity-dependent control of a ubiquitin ligase and DUB at mammalian CNS synapses. We propose that the dynamic regulation of these opposing forces is critical in maintaining synapses and scaling them during homeostatic plasticity.

  2. A type I IFN-dependent DNA damage response regulates the genetic program and inflammasome activation in macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Abigail J; Carrero, Javier A; Hung, Putzer J; Tubbs, Anthony T; Andrews, Jared M; Edelson, Brian T; Calderon, Boris; Innes, Cynthia L; Paules, Richard S; Payton, Jacqueline E; Sleckman, Barry P

    2017-01-01

    Macrophages produce genotoxic agents, such as reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, that kill invading pathogens. Here we show that these agents activate the DNA damage response (DDR) kinases ATM and DNA-PKcs through the generation of double stranded breaks (DSBs) in murine macrophage genomic DNA. In contrast to other cell types, initiation of this DDR depends on signaling from the type I interferon receptor. Once activated, ATM and DNA-PKcs regulate a genetic program with diverse immune functions and promote inflammasome activation and the production of IL-1β and IL-18. Indeed, following infection with Listeria monocytogenes, DNA-PKcs-deficient murine macrophages produce reduced levels of IL-18 and are unable to optimally stimulate IFN-γ production by NK cells. Thus, genomic DNA DSBs act as signaling intermediates in murine macrophages, regulating innate immune responses through the initiation of a type I IFN-dependent DDR. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.24655.001 PMID:28362262

  3. Chromatin remodeling protein SMAR1 regulates NF-κB dependent Interleukin-8 transcription in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malonia, Sunil K; Yadav, Bhawna; Sinha, Surajit; Lazennec, Gwendel; Chattopadhyay, Samit

    2014-10-01

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a pleiotropic chemokine involved in metastasis and angiogenesis of breast tumors. The expression of IL-8 is deregulated in metastatic breast carcinomas owing to aberrant NF-κB activity, which is known to positively regulate IL-8 transcription. Earlier, we have shown that tumor suppressor SMAR1 suppresses NF-κB transcriptional activity by modulating IκBα function. Here, we show that NF-κB target gene IL-8, is a direct transcriptional target of SMAR1. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation and reporter assays, we demonstrate that SMAR1 binds to IL-8 promoter MAR (matrix attachment region) and recruits HDAC1 dependent co-repressor complex. Further, we also show that SMAR1 antagonizes p300-mediated acetylation of RelA/p65, a post-translational modification indispensable for IL-8 transactivation. Thus, we decipher a new role of SMAR1 in NF-κB dependent transcriptional regulation of pro-angiogenic chemokine IL-8.

  4. Cyclin K dependent regulation of Aurora B affects apoptosis and proliferation by induction of mitotic catastrophe in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schecher, Sabrina; Walter, Britta; Falkenstein, Michael; Macher-Goeppinger, Stephan; Stenzel, Philipp; Krümpelmann, Kristina; Hadaschik, Boris; Perner, Sven; Kristiansen, Glen; Duensing, Stefan; Roth, Wilfried; Tagscherer, Katrin E

    2017-10-15

    Cyclin K plays a critical role in transcriptional regulation as well as cell development. However, the role of Cyclin K in prostate cancer is unknown. Here, we describe the impact of Cyclin K on prostate cancer cells and examine the clinical relevance of Cyclin K as a biomarker for patients with prostate cancer. We show that Cyclin K depletion in prostate cancer cells induces apoptosis and inhibits proliferation accompanied by an accumulation of cells in the G2/M phase. Moreover, knockdown of Cyclin K causes mitotic catastrophe displayed by multinucleation and spindle multipolarity. Furthermore, we demonstrate a Cyclin K dependent regulation of the mitotic kinase Aurora B and provide evidence for an Aurora B dependent induction of mitotic catastrophe. In addition, we show that Cyclin K expression is associated with poor biochemical recurrence-free survival in patients with prostate cancer treated with an adjuvant therapy. In conclusion, targeting Cyclin K represents a novel, promising anti-cancer strategy to induce cell cycle arrest and apoptotic cell death through induction of mitotic catastrophe in prostate cancer cells. Moreover, our results indicate that Cyclin K is a putative predictive biomarker for clinical outcome and therapy response for patients with prostate cancer. © 2017 UICC.

  5. Palmitoylation-dependent CDKL5–PSD-95 interaction regulates synaptic targeting of CDKL5 and dendritic spine development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong-Chuan; Li, Dan; Wang, Lu; Lu, Bin; Zheng, Jing; Zhao, Shi-Lin; Zeng, Rong; Xiong, Zhi-Qi

    2013-01-01

    The X-linked gene cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) is mutated in severe neurodevelopmental disorders, including some forms of atypical Rett syndrome, but the function and regulation of CDKL5 protein in neurons remain to be elucidated. Here, we show that CDKL5 binds to the scaffolding protein postsynaptic density (PSD)-95, and that this binding promotes the targeting of CDKL5 to excitatory synapses. Interestingly, this binding is not constitutive, but governed by palmitate cycling on PSD-95. Furthermore, pathogenic mutations that truncate the C-terminal tail of CDKL5 diminish its binding to PSD-95 and synaptic accumulation. Importantly, down-regulation of CDKL5 by RNA interference (RNAi) or interference with the CDKL5–PSD-95 interaction inhibits dendritic spine formation and growth. These results demonstrate a critical role of the palmitoylation-dependent CDKL5–PSD-95 interaction in localizing CDKL5 to synapses for normal spine development and suggest that disruption of this interaction by pathogenic mutations may be implicated in the pathogenesis of CDKL5-related disorders. PMID:23671101

  6. GTSE1 is a microtubule plus-end tracking protein that regulates EB1-dependent cell migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimilano Scolz

    Full Text Available The regulation of cell migration is a highly complex process that is often compromised when cancer cells become metastatic. The microtubule cytoskeleton is necessary for cell migration, but how microtubules and microtubule-associated proteins regulate multiple pathways promoting cell migration remains unclear. Microtubule plus-end binding proteins (+TIPs are emerging as important players in many cellular functions, including cell migration. Here we identify a +TIP, GTSE1, that promotes cell migration. GTSE1 accumulates at growing microtubule plus ends through interaction with the EB1+TIP. The EB1-dependent +TIP activity of GTSE1 is required for cell migration, as well as for microtubule-dependent disassembly of focal adhesions. GTSE1 protein levels determine the migratory capacity of both nontransformed and breast cancer cell lines. In breast cancers, increased GTSE1 expression correlates with invasive potential, tumor stage, and time to distant metastasis, suggesting that misregulation of GTSE1 expression could be associated with increased invasive potential.

  7. Salinity-dependent nickel accumulation and effects on respiration, ion regulation and oxidative stress in the galaxiid fish, Galaxias maculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blewett, Tamzin A; Wood, Chris M; Glover, Chris N

    2016-07-01

    Inanga (Galaxias maculatus) are a euryhaline and amphidromous Southern hemisphere fish species inhabiting waters highly contaminated in trace elements such as nickel (Ni). Ni is known to exert its toxic effects on aquatic biota via three key mechanisms: inhibition of respiration, impaired ion regulation, and stimulation of oxidative stress. Inanga acclimated to freshwater (FW), 50% seawater (SW) or 100% SW were exposed to 0, 150 or 2000 μg Ni L(-1), and tissue Ni accumulation, metabolic rate, ion regulation (tissue ions, calcium (Ca) ion influx), and oxidative stress (catalase activity, protein carbonylation) were measured after 96 h. Ni accumulation increased with Ni exposure concentration in gill, gut and remaining body, but not in liver. Only in the gill was Ni accumulation affected by exposure salinity, with lower branchial Ni burdens in 100% and 50% SW inanga, relative to FW fish. There were no Ni-dependent effects on respiration, or Ca influx, and the only Ni-dependent effect on tissue ion content was on gill potassium. Catalase activity and protein carbonylation were affected by Ni, primarily in FW, but only at 150 μg Ni L(-1). Salinity therefore offsets the effects of Ni, despite minimal changes in Ni bioavailability. These data suggest only minor effects of Ni in inanga, even at highly elevated environmental Ni concentrations.

  8. NEDD8-activating enzyme inhibitor, MLN4924 (Pevonedistat) induces NOXA-dependent apoptosis through up-regulation of ATF-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaojun; Jiang, Yanan; Wu, Jianfu; Zhang, Wenjuan; Liang, Yupei; Jia, Lijun; Yu, Jinha; Jeong, L S; Li, Lihui

    2017-06-17

    It has been reported that MLN4924 can inhibit cell growth and metastasis in various kinds of cancer. We have reported that MLN4924 is able to inhibit angiogenesis through the induction of cell apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo models. Moreover, Neddylation inhibition using MLN4924 triggered the accumulation of pro-apoptotic protein NOXA in Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). However, the mechanism of MLN4924-induced NOXA up-regulation has not been addressed in HUVECs yet. In this study, we investigated how MLN4924 induced NOXA expression and cellular apoptosis in HUVECs treated with MLN4924 at indicated concentrations. MLN4924-induced apoptosis was evaluated by Annexin V-FITC/PI analysis and expression of genes associated with apoptosis was assessed by Quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting. As a result, MLN4924 triggered NOXA-dependent apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner in HUVECs. Mechanistically, inactivation of Neddylation pathway caused up-regulation of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF-4), a substrate of Cullin-Ring E3 ubiquitin ligases (CRL). NOXA was subsequently transactivated by ATF-4 and further induced apoptosis. More importantly, knockdown of ATF-4 by siRNA significantly decreased NOXA expression and apoptotic induction in HUVECs. In summary, our study reveals a new mechanism underlying MLN4924-induced NOXA accumulation in HUVECs, which may help extend further study of MLN4924 for angiogenesis inhibition treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Role of calcineurin in down-regulation of left ventricular transmural voltage- dependent K(+) currents in mice with heart failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chen-Xia; Dong, Fang; Chang, Yan-Chao; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Xu, Yan-Fang

    2015-08-25

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of calcineurin in the down-regulation of left ventricular transmural voltage-dependent K(+) currents in heart failure. Transverse aorta was banded by using microsurgical techniques to create mouse heart failure model. Sham-operated (Sham) or aorta banded (Band) mice were randomized to receive calcineurin inhibitor cyclosporine A (CsA) or vehicle. The densities and kinetic properties of voltage-dependent K(+) currents, as well as action potential (AP), of left ventricular subendocardial (Endo) and subepicardial (Epi) myocytes were determined by using whole-cell patch-clamp technique. The results showed that calcineurin activity was significant higher in Endo myocytes than that in Epi ones in all the groups. Compared with Sham group, Band mice showed significantly increased calcineurin activity both in Endo and Epi myocytes. CsA significantly reduced calcineurin activity in Band mice. CsA treatment in Band mice partially reversed the down-regulation of Ito density, completely reversed the down-regulation of IK,slow density both in Endo and Epi myocytes, and Iss density in Endo myocytes. In addition, CsA treatment in Band mice partially antagonized the prolongation of action potential duration (APD), and APD at 50% (APD50) and 90% repolarization (APD90) were significantly reduced. Because of non-parallel shortening of APD in Endo and Epi myocytes, the ratio of Endo/Epi APD90 was reduced from 4.8:1 in Band mice to 2.6:1 in CsA-treated mice, which was close to that in Sham mice. The results suggest that non-parallel activation of calcineurin in Endo and Epi myocytes contributes to the down-regulation of transmural voltage-dependent K(+) currents and the amplification of transmural dispersion of repolarization (TDR) in left ventricular failure hearts. Inhibition of calcineurin may be a potential new therapeutic strategy to prevent and cure arrhythmias and sudden death in heart failure.

  10. p38α MAPK regulates proliferation and differentiation of osteoclast progenitors and bone remodeling in an aging-dependent manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Qian; Jia, Hao; Li, Ping; Qiu, Shoutao; Yeh, James; Wang, Yibin; Zhang, Zhen-Lin; Ao, Junping; Li, Baojie; Liu, Huijuan

    2017-01-01

    Bone mass is determined by the balance between bone formation, carried out by mesenchymal stem cell-derived osteoblasts, and bone resorption, carried out by monocyte-derived osteoclasts. Here we investigated the potential roles of p38 MAPKs, which are activated by growth factors and cytokines including RANKL and BMPs, in osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption by ablating p38α MAPK in LysM+monocytes. p38α deficiency promoted monocyte proliferation but regulated monocyte osteoclastic differentiation in a cell-density dependent manner, with proliferating p38α−/− cultures showing increased differentiation. While young mutant mice showed minor increase in bone mass, 6-month-old mutant mice developed osteoporosis, associated with an increase in osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption and an increase in the pool of monocytes. Moreover, monocyte-specific p38α ablation resulted in a decrease in bone formation and the number of bone marrow mesenchymal stem/stromal cells, likely due to decreased expression of PDGF-AA and BMP2. The expression of PDGF-AA and BMP2 was positively regulated by the p38 MAPK-Creb axis in osteoclasts, with the promoters of PDGF-AA and BMP2 having Creb binding sites. These findings uncovered the molecular mechanisms by which p38α MAPK regulates osteoclastogenesis and coordinates osteoclastogenesis and osteoblastogenesis. PMID:28382965

  11. Raf kinase inhibitory protein function is regulated via a flexible pocket and novel phosphorylation-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granovsky, Alexey E; Clark, Matthew C; McElheny, Dan; Heil, Gary; Hong, Jia; Liu, Xuedong; Kim, Youngchang; Joachimiak, Grazyna; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Koide, Shohei; Rosner, Marsha Rich

    2009-03-01

    Raf kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP/PEBP1), a member of the phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein family that possesses a conserved ligand-binding pocket, negatively regulates the mammalian mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascade. Mutation of a conserved site (P74L) within the pocket leads to a loss or switch in the function of yeast or plant RKIP homologues. However, the mechanism by which the pocket influences RKIP function is unknown. Here we show that the pocket integrates two regulatory signals, phosphorylation and ligand binding, to control RKIP inhibition of Raf-1. RKIP association with Raf-1 is prevented by RKIP phosphorylation at S153. The P74L mutation increases kinase interaction and RKIP phosphorylation, enhancing Raf-1/MAPK signaling. Conversely, ligand binding to the RKIP pocket inhibits kinase interaction and RKIP phosphorylation by a noncompetitive mechanism. Additionally, ligand binding blocks RKIP association with Raf-1. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies reveal that the pocket is highly dynamic, rationalizing its capacity to interact with distinct partners and be involved in allosteric regulation. Our results show that RKIP uses a flexible pocket to integrate ligand binding- and phosphorylation-dependent interactions and to modulate the MAPK signaling pathway. This mechanism is an example of an emerging theme involving the regulation of signaling proteins and their interaction with effectors at the level of protein dynamics.

  12. Listeria monocytogenes differential transcriptome analysis reveals temperature-dependent Agr regulation and suggests overlaps with other regulons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmyn, Dominique; Augagneur, Yoann; Gal, Laurent; Vivant, Anne-Laure; Piveteau, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a ubiquitous, opportunistic pathogenic organism. Environmental adaptation requires constant regulation of gene expression. Among transcriptional regulators, AgrA is part of an auto-induction system. Temperature is an environmental cue critical for in vivo adaptation. In order to investigate how temperature may affect AgrA-dependent transcription, we compared the transcriptomes of the parental strain L. monocytogenes EGD-e and its ΔagrA mutant at the saprophytic temperature of 25°C and in vivo temperature of 37°C. Variations of transcriptome were higher at 37°C than at 25°C. Results suggested that AgrA may be involved in the regulation of nitrogen transport, amino acids, purine and pyrimidine biosynthetic pathways and phage-related functions. Deregulations resulted in a growth advantage at 37°C, but affected salt tolerance. Finally, our results suggest overlaps with PrfA, σB, σH and CodY regulons. These overlaps may suggest that through AgrA, Listeria monocytogenes integrates information on its biotic environment.

  13. Adiponectin regulates ACTH secretion and the HPAA in an AMPK-dependent manner in pituitary corticotroph cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Maopei; Wang, Zhiquan; Zhan, Ming; Liu, Ruixin; Nie, Aifang; Wang, Jiqiu; Ning, Guang; Ma, Qinyun

    2014-03-05

    It is known that adipokines can regulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA). In this study, we confirmed that adiponectin regulates the HPAA by affecting pituitary corticotroph cells. Using RT-PCR and immunofluorescence, we determined that adiponectin receptors were expressed in pituitary corticotroph tumour cells (AtT-20 cells and human corticotroph tumours). Adiponectin stimulated calcium influx and increased basal ACTH secretion without affecting corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH)-stimulated ACTH secretion, which was most likely due to the expression of adiponectin repressing CRH receptor 1 (CRHR1). Adiponectin also acutely stimulated ACTH release in primary culture pituitary cells. Lastly, adiponectin directly phosphorylated 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in AtT-20 cells. The effects of adiponectin were mimicked by AICAR, which was blocked by compound C. Taken together, our results suggested that adiponectin stimulated ACTH secretion and down-regulated CRHR1, possibly via an AMPK-dependent mechanism in pituitary corticotroph cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Aurora A Kinase Regulates Mammary Epithelial Cell Fate by Determining Mitotic Spindle Orientation in a Notch-Dependent Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph L. Regan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cell fate determination in the progeny of mammary epithelial stem/progenitor cells remains poorly understood. Here, we have examined the role of the mitotic kinase Aurora A (AURKA in regulating the balance between basal and luminal mammary lineages. We find that AURKA is highly expressed in basal stem cells and, to a lesser extent, in luminal progenitors. Wild-type AURKA expression promoted luminal cell fate, but expression of an S155R mutant reduced proliferation, promoted basal fate, and inhibited serial transplantation. The mechanism involved regulation of mitotic spindle orientation by AURKA and the positioning of daughter cells after division. Remarkably, this was NOTCH dependent, as NOTCH inhibitor blocked the effect of wild-type AURKA expression on spindle orientation and instead mimicked the effect of the S155R mutant. These findings directly link AURKA, NOTCH signaling, and mitotic spindle orientation and suggest a mechanism for regulating the balance between luminal and basal lineages in the mammary gland.

  15. EPCR-dependent PAR2 activation by the blood coagulation initiation complex regulates LPS-triggered interferon responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hai Po H; Kerschen, Edward J; Hernandez, Irene; Basu, Sreemanti; Zogg, Mark; Botros, Fady; Jia, Shuang; Hessner, Martin J; Griffin, John H; Ruf, Wolfram; Weiler, Hartmut

    2015-04-30

    Infection and inflammation are invariably associated with activation of the blood coagulation mechanism, secondary to the inflammation-induced expression of the coagulation initiator tissue factor (TF) on innate immune cells. By investigating the role of cell-surface receptors for coagulation factors in mouse endotoxemia, we found that the protein C receptor (ProcR; EPCR) was required for the normal in vivo and in vitro induction of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-regulated gene expression. In cultured bone marrow-derived myeloid cells and in monocytic RAW264.7 cells, the LPS-induced expression of functionally active TF, assembly of the ternary TF-VIIa-Xa initiation complex of blood coagulation, and the EPCR-dependent activation of protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) by the ternary TF-VIIa-Xa complex were required for the normal LPS induction of messenger RNAs encoding the TLR3/4 signaling adaptor protein Pellino-1 and the transcription factor interferon regulatory factor 8. In response to in vivo challenge with LPS, mice lacking EPCR or PAR2 failed to fully initiate an interferon-regulated gene expression program that included the Irf8 target genes Lif, Iigp1, Gbp2, Gbp3, and Gbp6. The inflammation-induced expression of TF and crosstalk with EPCR, PAR2, and TLR4 therefore appear necessary for the normal evolution of interferon-regulated host responses.

  16. Suppressor of fusion, a Fusarium oxysporum homolog of Ndt80, is required for nutrient-dependent regulation of anastomosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahi, Shermineh; Fokkens, Like; Houterman, Petra M; Rep, Martijn

    2016-10-01

    Heterokaryon formation is an essential step in asexual recombination in Fusarium oxysporum. Filamentous fungi have an elaborate nonself recognition machinery to prevent formation and proliferation of heterokaryotic cells, called heterokaryon incompatibility (HI). In F. oxysporum the regulation of this machinery is not well understood. In Neurospora crassa, Vib-1, a putative transcription factor of the p53-like Ndt80 family of transcription factors, has been identified as global regulator of HI. In this study we investigated the role of the F. oxysporum homolog of Vib-1, called Suf, in vegetative hyphal and conidial anastomosis tube (CAT) fusion and HI. We identified a novel function for an Ndt80 homolog as a nutrient-dependent regulator of anastomosis. Strains carrying the SUF deletion mutation display a hyper-fusion phenotype during vegetative growth as well as germling development. In addition, conidial paring of incompatible SUF deletion strains led to more heterokaryon formation, which is independent of suppression of HI. Our data provides further proof for the divergence in the functions of different members Ndt80 family. We propose that Ndt80 homologs mediate responses to nutrient quality and quantity, with specific responses varying between species.

  17. PTBP1-dependent regulation of USP5 alternative RNA splicing plays a role in glioblastoma tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izaguirre, Daisy I; Zhu, Wen; Hai, Tao; Cheung, Hannah C; Krahe, Ralf; Cote, Gilbert J

    2012-11-01

    Aberrant RNA splicing is thought to play a key role in tumorigenesis. The assessment of its specific contributions is limited by the complexity of information derived from genome-wide array-based approaches. We describe how performing splicing factor-specific comparisons using both tumor and cell line data sets may more readily identify physiologically relevant tumor-specific splicing events. Affymetrix exon array data derived from glioblastoma (GBM) tumor samples with defined polypyrimidine tract-binding protein 1 (PTBP1) levels were compared with data from U251 GBM cells with and without PTBP1 knockdown. This comparison yielded overlapping gene sets that comprised only a minor fraction of each data set. The identification of a novel GBM-specific splicing event involving the USP5 gene led us to further examine its role in tumorigenesis. In GBM, USP5 generates a shorter isoform 2 through recognition of a 5' splice site within exon 15. Production of the USP5 isoform 2 was strongly correlated with PTBP1 expression in GBM tumor samples and cell lines. Splicing regulation was consistent with the presence of an intronic PTBP1 binding site and could be modulated through antisense targeting of the isoform 2 splice site to force expression of isoform 1 in GBM cells. The forced expression of USP5 isoform 1 in two GBM cell lines inhibited cell growth and migration, implying an important role for USP5 splicing in gliomagenesis. These results support a role for aberrant RNA splicing in tumorigenesis and suggest that changes in relatively few genes may be sufficient to drive the process.

  18. ATP-dependent regulation of actin monomer-filament equilibrium by cyclase-associated protein and ADF/cofilin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Kazumi; Ono, Shoichiro

    2013-07-15

    CAP (cyclase-associated protein) is a conserved regulator of actin filament dynamics. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, CAS-1 is an isoform of CAP that is expressed in striated muscle and regulates sarcomeric actin assembly. In the present study, we report that CAS-2, a second CAP isoform in C. elegans, attenuates the actin-monomer-sequestering effect of ADF (actin depolymerizing factor)/cofilin to increase the steady-state levels of actin filaments in an ATP-dependent manner. CAS-2 binds to actin monomers without a strong preference for either ATP- or ADP-actin. CAS-2 strongly enhances the exchange of actin-bound nucleotides even in the presence of UNC-60A, a C. elegans ADF/cofilin that inhibits nucleotide exchange. UNC-60A induces the depolymerization of actin filaments and sequesters actin monomers, whereas CAS-2 reverses the monomer-sequestering effect of UNC-60A in the presence of ATP, but not in the presence of only ADP or the absence of ATP or ADP. A 1:100 molar ratio of CAS-2 to UNC-60A is sufficient to increase actin filaments. CAS-2 has two independent actin-binding sites in its N- and C-terminal halves, and the C-terminal half is necessary and sufficient for the observed activities of the full-length CAS-2. These results suggest that CAS-2 (CAP) and UNC-60A (ADF/cofilin) are important in the ATP-dependent regulation of the actin monomer-filament equilibrium.

  19. Cardiac sympathetic neurons provide trophic signal to the heart via β2-adrenoceptor-dependent regulation of proteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaglia, Tania; Milan, Giulia; Franzoso, Mauro; Bertaggia, Enrico; Pianca, Nicola; Piasentini, Eleonora; Voltarelli, Vanessa A; Chiavegato, David; Brum, Patricia C; Glass, David J; Schiaffino, Stefano; Sandri, Marco; Mongillo, Marco

    2013-02-01

    Increased cardiac sympathetic neuron (SN) activity has been associated with pathologies such as heart failure and hypertrophy, suggesting that cardiac innervation regulates cardiomyocyte trophism. Whether continuous input from the SNs is required for the maintenance of the cardiomyocyte size has not been determined thus far. To address the role of cardiac innervation in cardiomyocyte size regulation, we monitored the effect of pharmacological sympathetic denervation in mice on cardiac structure, function, and signalling from 24 h to 30 days in the absence of other pathological stimuli. SN ablation caused an immediate reduction in the cardiomyocyte size with minimal consequences on the resting contractile function. Atrophic remodelling was mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system through FOXO-dependent early induction of the muscle-specific E3 ubiquitin ligases Atrogin-1/MAFbx and MuRF1, which was followed by activation of the autophagy-lysosome system. MuRF1 was found to be determinant in denervation atrophy as remodelling did not develop in denervated MuRF1 knock-out (KO) hearts. These effects were caused by decreased basal stimulation of cardiomyocyte β2-adrenoceptor (AR), as atrophy was prevented by treatment of denervated mice with the β2-AR agonist clenbuterol. Consistent with these data, we also observed that β2-AR KO mice showed cardiac atrophy at rest. Cardiac SNs are strong regulators of the cardiomyocyte size via β2-AR-dependent repression of proteolysis, demonstrating that the neuro-cardiac axis operates constitutively for the determination of the physiological cardiomyocyte size. These results are of great clinical relevance given the role of β-AR in cardiovascular diseases and their modulation in therapy.

  20. Genetic regulation by NLA and microRNA827 for maintaining nitrate-dependent phosphate homeostasis in arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya Kant

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Plants need abundant nitrogen and phosphorus for higher yield. Improving plant genetics for higher nitrogen and phosphorus use efficiency would save potentially billions of dollars annually on fertilizers and reduce global environmental pollution. This will require knowledge of molecular regulators for maintaining homeostasis of these nutrients in plants. Previously, we reported that the NITROGEN LIMITATION ADAPTATION (NLA gene is involved in adaptive responses to low-nitrogen conditions in Arabidopsis, where nla mutant plants display abrupt early senescence. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying NLA function, two suppressors of the nla mutation were isolated that recover the nla mutant phenotype to wild type. Map-based cloning identified these suppressors as the phosphate (Pi transport-related genes PHF1 and PHT1.1. In addition, NLA expression is shown to be regulated by the low-Pi induced microRNA miR827. Pi analysis revealed that the early senescence in nla mutant plants was due to Pi toxicity. These plants accumulated over five times the normal Pi content in shoots specifically under low nitrate and high Pi but not under high nitrate conditions. Also the Pi overaccumulator pho2 mutant shows Pi toxicity in a nitrate-dependent manner similar to the nla mutant. Further, the nitrate and Pi levels are shown to have an antagonistic crosstalk as displayed by their differential effects on flowering time. The results demonstrate that NLA and miR827 have pivotal roles in regulating Pi homeostasis in plants in a nitrate-dependent fashion.

  1. Mouse Sphingosine Kinase 1a Is Negatively Regulated through Conventional PKC-Dependent Phosphorylation at S373 Residue.

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    Yong-Seok Oh

    Full Text Available Sphingosine kinase is a lipid kinase that converts sphingosine into sphingosine-1-phosphate, an important signaling molecule with intracellular and extracellular functions. Although diverse extracellular stimuli influence cellular sphingosine kinase activity, the molecular mechanisms underlying its regulation remain to be clarified. In this study, we investigated the phosphorylation-dependent regulation of mouse sphingosine kinase (mSK isoforms 1 and 2. mSK1a was robustly phosphorylated in response to extracellular stimuli such as phorbol ester, whereas mSK2 exhibited a high basal level of phosphorylation in quiescent cells regardless of agonist stimulation. Interestingly, phorbol ester-induced phosphorylation of mSK1a correlated with suppression of its activity. Chemical inhibition of conventional PKCs (cPKCs abolished mSK1a phosphorylation, while overexpression of PKCα, a cPKC isoform, potentiated the phosphorylation, in response to phorbol ester. Furthermore, an in vitro kinase assay showed that PKCα directly phosphorylated mSK1a. In addition, phosphopeptide mapping analysis determined that the S373 residue of mSK1a was the only site phosphorylated by cPKC. Interestingly, alanine substitution of S373 made mSK1a refractory to the inhibitory effect of phorbol esters, whereas glutamate substitution of the same residue resulted in a significant reduction in mSK1a activity, suggesting the significant role of this phosphorylation event. Taken together, we propose that mSK1a is negatively regulated through cPKC-dependent phosphorylation at S373 residue.

  2. Sex-dependent effects on gut microbiota regulate hepatic carcinogenic outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Guoxiang; Wang, Xiaoning; Zhao, Aihua; Yan, Jingyu; Chen, Wenlian; Jiang, Runqiu; Ji, Junfang; Huang, Fengjie; Zhang, Yunjing; Lei, Sha; Ge, Kun; Zheng, Xiaojiao; Rajani, Cynthia; Alegado, Rosanna A.; Liu, Jiajian; Liu, Ping; Nicholson, Jeremy; Jia, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Emerging evidence points to a strong association between sex and gut microbiota, bile acids (BAs), and gastrointestinal cancers. Here, we investigated the mechanistic link between microbiota and hepatocellular carcinogenesis using a streptozotocin-high fat diet (STZ-HFD) induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis-hepatocellular carcinoma (NASH-HCC) murine model and compared results for both sexes. STZ-HFD feeding induced a much higher incidence of HCC in male mice with substantially increased intrahepatic retention of hydrophobic BAs and decreased hepatic expression of tumor-suppressive microRNAs. Metagenomic analysis showed differences in gut microbiota involved in BA metabolism between normal male and female mice, and such differences were amplified when mice of both sexes were exposed to STZ-HFD. Treating STZ-HFD male mice with 2% cholestyramine led to significant improvement of hepatic BA retention, tumor-suppressive microRNA expressions, microbial gut communities, and prevention of HCC. Additionally the sex-dependent differences in BA profiles in the murine model can be correlated to the differential BA profiles between men and women during the development of HCC. These results uncover distinct male and female profiles for gut microbiota, BAs, and microRNAs that may contribute to sex-based disparity in liver carcinogenesis, and suggest new possibilities for preventing and controlling human obesity-related gastrointestinal cancers that often exhibit sex differences. PMID:28345673

  3. Size-dependent regulation of synchronized activity in living neuronal networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hideaki; Kubota, Shigeru; Chida, Yudai; Morita, Mayu; Moriya, Satoshi; Akima, Hisanao; Sato, Shigeo; Hirano-Iwata, Ayumi; Tanii, Takashi; Niwano, Michio

    2016-07-01

    We study the effect of network size on synchronized activity in living neuronal networks. Dissociated cortical neurons form synaptic connections in culture and generate synchronized spontaneous activity within 10 days in vitro. Using micropatterned surfaces to extrinsically control the size of neuronal networks, we show that synchronized activity can emerge in a network as small as 12 cells. Furthermore, a detailed comparison of small (˜20 cells), medium (˜100 cells), and large (˜400 cells) networks reveal that synchronized activity becomes destabilized in the small networks. A computational modeling of neural activity is then employed to explore the underlying mechanism responsible for the size effect. We find that the generation and maintenance of the synchronized activity can be minimally described by: (1) the stochastic firing of each neuron in the network, (2) enhancement in the network activity in a positive feedback loop of excitatory synapses, and (3) Ca-dependent suppression of bursting activity. The model further shows that the decrease in total synaptic input to a neuron that drives the positive feedback amplification of correlated activity is a key factor underlying the destabilization of synchrony in smaller networks. Spontaneous neural activity plays a critical role in cortical information processing, and our work constructively clarifies an aspect of the structural basis behind this.

  4. Cdh1 regulates craniofacial development via APC-dependent ubiquitination and activation of Goosecoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Rui; Liu, Jia; Yan, Guang; Zhang, Jinfang; Han, Yujiao; Guo, Jianfeng; Xu, Zhan; Yuan, Zhu; Liu, Jiankang; Malumbres, Marcos; Wan, Lixin; Wei, Wenyi; Zou, Weiguo

    2016-06-01

    Craniofacial anomalies (CFAs) characterized by birth defects of skull and facial bones are the most frequent congenital disease. Genomic analysis has identified multiple genes responsible for CFAs; however, the underlying genetic mechanisms for the majority of CFAs remain largely unclear. Our previous study revealed that the Wwp2 E3 ubiquitin ligase facilitates craniofacial development in part through inducing monoubiquitination and activation of the paired-like homeobox transcription factor, Goosecoid (Gsc). Here we report that Gsc is also ubiquitinated and activated by the APC(Cdh1) E3 ubiquitin ligase, leading to transcriptional activation of various Gsc target genes crucial for craniofacial development. Consistenly, neural crest-specific Cdh1-knockout mice display similar bone malformation as Wwp2-deficient mice in the craniofacial region, characterized by a domed skull, a short snout and a twisted nasal bone. Mechanistically, like Wwp2-deficient mice, mice with Cdh1 deficiency in neural crest cells exhibit reduced Gsc/Sox6 transcriptional activities. Simultaneous deletion of Cdh1 and Wwp2 results in a more severe craniofacial defect compared with single gene deletion, suggesting a synergistic augmentation of Gsc activity by these two E3 ubiquitin ligases. Hence, our study reveals a novel role for Cdh1 in craniofacial development through promoting APC-dependent non-proteolytic ubiquitination and activation of Gsc.

  5. Activity-dependent regulation of synaptic strength by PSD-95 in CA1 neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Lisman, John E

    2012-02-01

    CaMKII and PSD-95 are the two most abundant postsynaptic proteins in the postsynaptic density (PSD). Overexpression of either can dramatically increase synaptic strength and saturate long-term potentiation (LTP). To do so, CaMKII must be activated, but the same is not true for PSD-95; expressing wild-type PSD-95 is sufficient. This raises the question of whether PSD-95's effects are simply an equilibrium process [increasing the number of AMPA receptor (AMPAR) slots] or whether activity is somehow involved. To examine this question, we blocked activity in cultured hippocampal slices with TTX and found that the effects of PSD-95 overexpression were greatly reduced. We next studied the type of receptors involved. The effects of PSD-95 were prevented by antagonists of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) but not by antagonists of ionotropic glutamate receptors. The inhibition of PSD-95-induced strengthening was not simply a result of inhibition of PSD-95 synthesis. To understand the mechanisms involved, we tested the role of CaMKII. Overexpression of a CaMKII inhibitor, CN19, greatly reduced the effect of PSD-95. We conclude that PSD-95 cannot itself increase synaptic strength simply by increasing the number of AMPAR slots; rather, PSD-95's effects on synaptic strength require an activity-dependent process involving mGluR and CaMKII.

  6. REM Sleep-Dependent Bidirectional Regulation of Hippocampal-Based Emotional Memory and LTP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravassard, Pascal; Hamieh, Al Mahdy; Joseph, Mickaël Antoine; Fraize, Nicolas; Libourel, Paul-Antoine; Lebarillier, Léa; Arthaud, Sébastien; Meissirel, Claire; Touret, Monique; Malleret, Gaël; Salin, Paul-Antoine

    2016-04-01

    Prolonged rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep deprivation has long been used to study the role of REM sleep in learning and memory processes. However, this method potentially induces stress and fatigue that may directly affect cognitive functions. Here, by using a short-term and nonstressful REM sleep deprivation (RSD) method we assessed in rats the bidirectional influence of reduced and increased REM sleep amount on hippocampal-dependent emotional memory and plasticity. Our results indicate that 4 h RSD impaired consolidation of contextual fear conditioning (CFC) and induction of long-term potentiation (LTP), while decreasing density of Egr1/Zif268-expressing neurons in the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus. LTP and Egr1 expression were not affected in ventral CA1. Conversely, an increase in REM sleep restores and further facilitates CFC consolidation and LTP induction, and also increases Egr1 expression in dorsal CA1. Moreover, CFC consolidation, Egr1 neuron density, and LTP amplitude in dorsal CA1 show a positive correlation with REM sleep amount. Altogether, these results indicate that mild changes in REM sleep amount bidirectionally affect memory and synaptic plasticity mechanisms occurring in the CA1 area of the dorsal hippocampus.

  7. Cbl-b is a novel physiologic regulator of glycoprotein VI-dependent platelet activation.

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    Daniel, James L; Dangelmaier, Carol A; Mada, Sripal; Buitrago, Lorena; Jin, Jianguo; Langdon, Wallace Y; Tsygankov, Alexander Y; Kunapuli, Satya P; Sanjay, Archana

    2010-06-04

    Cbl-b, a member of the Cbl family of E3 ubiquitin ligases, plays an important role in the activation of lymphocytes. However, its function in platelets remains unknown. We show that Cbl-b is expressed in human platelets along with c-Cbl, but in contrast to c-Cbl, it is not tyrosine-phosphorylated upon glycoprotein VI (GPVI) stimulation. Cbl-b, unlike c-Cbl, is not required for Syk ubiquitylation downstream of GPVI activation. Phospholipase Cgamma2 (PLCgamma2) and Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) are constituently associated with Cbl-b. Cbl-b-deficient (Cbl-b(-/-)) platelets display an inhibition in the concentration-response curve for GPVI-specific agonist-induced aggregation, secretion, and Ca(2+) mobilization. A parallel inhibition is found for activation of PLCgamma2 and BTK. However, Syk activation is not affected by the absence of Cbl-b, indicating that Cbl-b acts downstream of Syk but upstream of BTK and PLCgamma2. When Cbl-b(-/-) mice were tested in the ferric chloride thrombosis model, occlusion time was increased and clot stability was reduced compared with wild type controls. These data indicate that Cbl-b plays a positive modulatory role in GPVI-dependent platelet signaling, which translates to an important regulatory role in hemostasis and thrombosis in vivo.

  8. Spleen Tyrosine Kinase Regulates AP-1 Dependent Transcriptional Response to Minimally Oxidized LDL

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    Choi, Soo-Ho; Wiesner, Philipp; Almazan, Felicidad; Kim, Jungsu; Miller, Yury I.

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) turns it into an endogenous ligand recognized by pattern-recognition receptors. We have demonstrated that minimally oxidized LDL (mmLDL) binds to CD14 and mediates TLR4/MD-2-dependent responses in macrophages, many of which are MyD88-independent. We have also demonstrated that the mmLDL activation leads to recruitment of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) to TLR4 and TLR4 and Syk phosphorylation. In this study, we produced a macrophage-specific Syk knockout mouse and used primary Syk−/− macrophages in our studies. We demonstrated that Syk mediated phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK, which in turn phosphorylated c-Fos and c-Jun, respectively, as assessed by an in vitro kinase assay. c-Jun phosphorylation was also mediated by IKKε. c-Jun and c-Fos bound to consensus DNA sites and thereby completed an AP-1 transcriptional complex and induced expression of CXCL2 and IL-6. These results suggest that Syk plays a key role in TLR4-mediated macrophage responses to host-generated ligands, like mmLDL, with subsequent activation of an AP-1 transcription program. PMID:22384232

  9. The aPKC-CBP Pathway Regulates Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis in an Age-Dependent Manner

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    Ayden Gouveia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available While epigenetic modifications have emerged as attractive substrates to integrate environmental changes into the determination of cell identity and function, specific signals that directly activate these epigenetic modifications remain unknown. Here, we examine the role of atypical protein kinase C (aPKC-mediated Ser436 phosphorylation of CBP, a histone acetyltransferase, in adult hippocampal neurogenesis and memory. Using a knockin mouse strain (CbpS436A in which the aPKC-CBP pathway is deficient, we observe impaired hippocampal neuronal differentiation, maturation, and memory and diminished binding of CBP to CREB in 6-month-old CbpS436A mice, but not at 3 months of age. Importantly, elevation of CREB activity rescues these deficits, and CREB activity is reduced whereas aPKC activity is increased in the murine hippocampus as they age from 3 to 6 months regardless of genotype. Thus, the aPKC-CBP pathway is a homeostatic compensatory mechanism that modulates hippocampal neurogenesis and memory in an age-dependent manner in response to reduced CREB activity.

  10. Size-dependent regulation of synchronized activity in living neuronal networks.

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    Yamamoto, Hideaki; Kubota, Shigeru; Chida, Yudai; Morita, Mayu; Moriya, Satoshi; Akima, Hisanao; Sato, Shigeo; Hirano-Iwata, Ayumi; Tanii, Takashi; Niwano, Michio

    2016-07-01

    We study the effect of network size on synchronized activity in living neuronal networks. Dissociated cortical neurons form synaptic connections in culture and generate synchronized spontaneous activity within 10 days in vitro. Using micropatterned surfaces to extrinsically control the size of neuronal networks, we show that synchronized activity can emerge in a network as small as 12 cells. Furthermore, a detailed comparison of small (∼20 cells), medium (∼100 cells), and large (∼400 cells) networks reveal that synchronized activity becomes destabilized in the small networks. A computational modeling of neural activity is then employed to explore the underlying mechanism responsible for the size effect. We find that the generation and maintenance of the synchronized activity can be minimally described by: (1) the stochastic firing of each neuron in the network, (2) enhancement in the network activity in a positive feedback loop of excitatory synapses, and (3) Ca-dependent suppression of bursting activity. The model further shows that the decrease in total synaptic input to a neuron that drives the positive feedback amplification of correlated activity is a key factor underlying the destabilization of synchrony in smaller networks. Spontaneous neural activity plays a critical role in cortical information processing, and our work constructively clarifies an aspect of the structural basis behind this.

  11. Regulation of KV channel voltage-dependent activation by transmembrane β subunits

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    Xiaohui eSun

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Voltage-activated K+ (KV channels are important for shaping action potentials and maintaining resting membrane potential in excitable cells. KV channels contain a central pore-gate domain (PGD surrounded by four voltage-sensing domains (VSD. The VSDs will change conformation in response to alterations of the membrane potential thereby inducing the opening of the PGD. Many KV channels are heteromeric protein complexes containing auxiliary β subunits. These β subunits modulate channel expression and activity to increase functional diversity and render tissue specific phenotypes. This review focuses on the KV β subunits that contain transmembrane (TM segments including the KCNE family and the β subunits of large conductance, Ca2+- and voltage-activated K+ (BK channels. These TM β subunits affect the voltage-dependent activation of KV α subunits. Experimental and computational studies have described the structural location of these β subunits in the channel complexes and the biophysical effects on VSD activation, PGD opening and VSD-PGD coupling. These results reveal some common characteristics and mechanistic insights into KV channel modulation by TM β subunits.

  12. The phosphorylation-dependent regulation of nuclear SREBP1 during mitosis links lipid metabolism and cell growth

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    Bengoechea-Alonso, Maria Teresa; Ericsson, Johan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The SREBP transcription factors are major regulators of lipid metabolism. Disturbances in lipid metabolism are at the core of several health issues facing modern society, including cardiovascular disease, obesity and diabetes. In addition, the role of lipid metabolism in cancer cell growth is receiving increased attention. Transcriptionally active SREBP molecules are unstable and rapidly degraded in a phosphorylation-dependent manner by Fbw7, a ubiquitin ligase that targets several cell cycle regulatory proteins for degradation. We have previously demonstrated that active SREBP1 is stabilized during mitosis. We have now delineated the mechanisms involved in the stabilization of SREBP1 in mitotic cells. This process is initiated by the phosphorylation of a specific serine residue in nuclear SREBP1 by the mitotic kinase Cdk1. The phosphorylation of this residue creates a docking site for a separate mitotic kinase, Plk1. Plk1 interacts with nuclear SREBP1 in mitotic cells and phosphorylates a number of residues in the C-terminal domain of the protein, including a threonine residue in close proximity of the Fbw7 docking site in SREBP1. The phosphorylation of these residues by Plk1 blocks the interaction between SREBP1 and Fbw7 and attenuates the Fbw7-dependent degradation of nuclear SREBP1 during cell division. Inactivation of SREBP1 results in a mitotic defect, suggesting that SREBP1 could regulate cell division. We propose that the mitotic phosphorylation and stabilization of nuclear SREBP1 during cell division provides a link between lipid metabolism and cell proliferation. Thus, the current study provides additional support for the emerging hypothesis that SREBP-dependent lipid metabolism may be important for cell growth. PMID:27579997

  13. Dystrophin/α1-syntrophin scaffold regulated PLC/PKC-dependent store-operated calcium entry in myotubes.

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    Sabourin, Jessica; Harisseh, Rania; Harnois, Thomas; Magaud, Christophe; Bourmeyster, Nicolas; Déliot, Nadine; Constantin, Bruno

    2012-12-01

    In skeletal muscles from patient suffering of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy and from mdx mice, the absence of the cytoskeleton protein dystrophin has been shown to be essential for maintaining a normal calcium influx. We showed that a TRPC store-dependent cation influx is increased by loss of dystrophin or a scaffolding protein α1-syntrophin, however the mechanisms of this calcium mishandling are incompletely understood. First of all, we confirmed that TRPC1 but also STIM1 and Orai1 are supporting the store-operated cation entry which is enhanced in dystrophin-deficient myotubes. Next, we demonstrated that inhibition of PLC or PKC in dystrophin-deficient myotubes restores elevated cation entry to normal levels similarly to enforced minidystrophin expression. In addition, silencing α1-syntrophin also increased cation influx in a PLC/PKC dependent pathway. We also showed that α1-syntrophin and PLCβ are part of a same protein complex reinforcing the idea of their inter-relation in calcium influx regulation. This elevated cation entry was decreased to normal levels by chelating intracellular free calcium with BAPTA-AM. Double treatments with BAPTA-AM and PLC or PKC inhibitors suggested that the elevation of cation influx by PLC/PKC pathway is dependent on cytosolic calcium. All these results demonstrate an involvement in dystrophin-deficient myotubes of a specific calcium/PKC/PLC pathway in elevation of store-operated cation influx supported by the STIM1/Orai1/TRPC1 proteins, which is normally regulated by the α1-syntrophin/dystrophin scaffold.

  14. Iduna is a poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR)-dependent E3 ubiquitin ligase that regulates DNA damage

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    Kang, Ho Chul; Lee, Yun-Il; Shin, Joo-Ho; Andrabi, Shaida A.; Chi, Zhikai; Gagné, Jean-Philippe; Lee, Yunjong; Ko, Han Seok; Lee, Byoung Dae; Poirier, Guy G.; Dawson, Valina L.; Dawson, Ted M.

    2011-01-01

    Ubiquitin mediated protein degradation is crucial for regulation of cell signaling and protein quality control. Poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) is a cell-signaling molecule that mediates changes in protein function through binding at PAR binding sites. Here we characterize the PAR binding protein, Iduna, and show that it is a PAR-dependent ubiquitin E3 ligase. Iduna’s E3 ligase activity requires PAR binding because point mutations at Y156A and R157A eliminate Iduna’s PAR binding and Iduna’s E3 ligase activity. Iduna’s E3 ligase activity also requires an intact really interesting new gene (RING) domain because Iduna possessing point mutations at either H54A or C60A is devoid of ubiquitination activity. Tandem affinity purification reveals that Iduna binds to a number of proteins that are either PARsylated or bind PAR including PAR polymerase-1, 2 (PARP1, 2), nucleolin, DNA ligase III, KU70, KU86, XRCC1, and histones. PAR binding to Iduna activates its E3 ligase function, and PAR binding is required for Iduna ubiquitination of PARP1, XRCC1, DNA ligase III, and KU70. Iduna’s PAR-dependent ubiquitination of PARP1 targets it for proteasomal degradation. Via PAR binding and ubiquitin E3 ligase activity, Iduna protects against cell death induced by the DNA damaging agent N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) and rescues cells from G1 arrest and promotes cell survival after γ-irradiation. Moreover, Iduna facilitates DNA repair by reducing apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites after MNNG exposure and facilitates DNA repair following γ-irradiation as assessed by the comet assay. These results define Iduna as a PAR-dependent E3 ligase that regulates cell survival and DNA repair. PMID:21825151

  15. Variation in regulator of G-protein signaling 17 gene (RGS17 is associated with multiple substance dependence diagnoses

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    Zhang Huiping

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RGS17 and RGS20 encode two members of the regulator of G-protein signaling RGS-Rz subfamily. Variation in these genes may alter their transcription and thereby influence the function of G protein-coupled receptors, including opioid receptors, and modify risk for substance dependence. Methods The association of 13 RGS17 and eight RGS20 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs was examined with four substance dependence diagnoses (alcohol (AD, cocaine (CD, opioid (OD or marijuana (MjD] in 1,905 African Americans (AAs: 1,562 cases and 343 controls and 1,332 European Americans (EAs: 981 cases and 351 controls. Analyses were performed using both χ2 tests and logistic regression analyses that covaried sex, age, and ancestry proportion. Correlation of genotypes and mRNA expression levels was assessed by linear regression analyses. Results Seven RGS17 SNPs showed a significant association with at least one of the four dependence traits after a permutation-based correction for multiple testing (0.003≤Pempirical≤0.037. The G allele of SNP rs596359, in the RGS17 promoter region, was associated with AD, CD, OD, or MjD in both populations (0.005≤Pempirical≤0.019. This allele was also associated with significantly lower mRNA expression levels of RGS17 in YRI subjects (P = 0.002 and non-significantly lower mRNA expression levels of RGS17 in CEU subjects (P = 0.185. No RGS20 SNPs were associated with any of the four dependence traits in either population. Conclusions This study demonstrated that variation in RGS17 was associated with risk for substance dependence diagnoses in both AA and EA populations.

  16. Salt-dependent regulation of a CNG channel subfamily in Arabidopsis

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    Wolff Patricia

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Arabidopsis thaliana, the family of cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (CNGCs is composed of 20 members. Previous studies indicate that plant CNGCs are involved in the control of growth processes and responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. According to their proposed function as cation entry pathways these channels contribute to cellular cation homeostasis, including calcium and sodium, as well as to stress-related signal transduction. Here, we studied the expression patterns and regulation of CNGC19 and CNGC20, which constitute one of the five CNGC subfamilies. Results GUS, GFP and luciferase reporter assays were used to study the expression of CNGC19 and CNGC20 genes from Arabidopsis thaliana in response to developmental cues and salt stress. CNGC19 and CNGC20 were differentially expressed in roots and shoots. The CNGC19 gene was predominantly active in roots already at early growth stages. Major expression was observed in the phloem. CNGC20 showed highest promoter activity in mesophyll cells surrounding the veins. Its expression increased during development and was maximal in mature and senescent leaves. Both genes were upregulated in the shoot in response to elevated NaCl but not mannitol concentrations. While in the root, CNGC19 did not respond to changes in the salt concentration, in the shoot it was strongly upregulated in the observed time frame (6-72 hours. Salt-induction of CNGC20 was also observed in the shoot, starting already one hour after stress treatment. It occurred with similar kinetics, irrespective of whether NaCl was applied to roots of intact plants or to the petiole of detached leaves. No differences in K and Na contents of the shoots were measured in homozygous T-DNA insertion lines for CNGC19 and CNGC20, respectively, which developed a growth phenotype in the presence of up to 75 mM NaCl similar to that of the wild type. Conclusion Together, the results strongly suggest that both channels are

  17. Proteomic analysis of growth phase-dependent expression of Legionella pneumophila proteins which involves regulation of bacterial virulence traits.

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    Tsuyoshi Hayashi

    Full Text Available Legionella pneumophila, which is a causative pathogen of Legionnaires' disease, expresses its virulent traits in response to growth conditions. In particular, it is known to become virulent at a post-exponential phase in vitro culture. In this study, we performed a proteomic analysis of differences in expression between the exponential phase and post-exponential phase to identify candidates associated with L. pneumophila virulence using 2-Dimentional Fluorescence Difference Gel Electrophoresis (2D-DIGE combined with Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS. Of 68 identified proteins that significantly differed in expression between the two growth phases, 64 were up-regulated at a post-exponential phase. The up-regulated proteins included enzymes related to glycolysis, ketone body biogenesis and poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB biogenesis, suggesting that L. pneumophila may utilize sugars and lipids as energy sources, when amino acids become scarce. Proteins related to motility (flagella components and twitching motility-associated proteins were also up-regulated, predicting that they enhance infectivity of the bacteria in host cells under certain conditions. Furthermore, 9 up-regulated proteins of unknown function were found. Two of them were identified as novel bacterial factors associated with hemolysis of sheep red blood cells (SRBCs. Another 2 were found to be translocated into macrophages via the Icm/Dot type IV secretion apparatus as effector candidates in a reporter assay with Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase. The study will be helpful for virulent analysis of L. pneumophila from the viewpoint of physiological or metabolic modulation dependent on growth phase.

  18. SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling regulates alcohol response behaviors in Caenorhabditis elegans and is associated with alcohol dependence in humans.

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    Mathies, Laura D; Blackwell, GinaMari G; Austin, Makeda K; Edwards, Alexis C; Riley, Brien P; Davies, Andrew G; Bettinger, Jill C

    2015-03-10

    Alcohol abuse is a widespread and serious problem. Understanding the factors that influence the likelihood of abuse is important for the development of effective therapies. There are both genetic and environmental influences on the development of abuse, but it has been difficult to identify specific liability factors, in part because of both the complex genetic architecture of liability and the influences of environmental stimuli on the expression of that genetic liability. Epigenetic modification of gene expression can underlie both genetic and environmentally sensitive variation in expression, and epigenetic regulation has been implicated in the progression to addiction. Here, we identify a role for the switching defective/sucrose nonfermenting (SWI/SNF) chromatin-remodeling complex in regulating the behavioral response to alcohol in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that SWI/SNF components are required in adults for the normal behavioral response to ethanol and that different SWI/SNF complexes regulate different aspects of the acute response to ethanol. We showed that the SWI/SNF subunits SWSN-9 and SWSN-7 are required in neurons and muscle for the development of acute functional tolerance to ethanol. Examination of the members of the SWI/SNF complex for association with a diagnosis of alcohol dependence in a human population identified allelic variation in a member of the SWI/SNF complex, suggesting that variation in the regulation of SWI/SNF targets may influence the propensity to develop abuse disorders. Together, these data strongly implicate the chromatin remodeling associated with SWI/SNF complex members in the behavioral responses to alcohol across phyla.

  19. NFAT5 regulates T lymphocyte homeostasis and CD24-dependent T cell expansion under pathologic hypernatremia.

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    Berga-Bolaños, Rosa; Drews-Elger, Katherine; Aramburu, Jose; López-Rodríguez, Cristina

    2010-12-01

    Immune cells rely on the transcription factor NFAT5 to adapt to hypertonic stress. The hypertonicity-dependent role of NFAT5 in T cells in vivo remains unclear because mouse models of NFAT5 deficiency have produced substantially different T cell phenotypes. In this study, we analyzed the T cell compartment in NFAT5-null and T cell-specific NFAT5 knockout mice. We found that NFAT5-null mice had constitutive, pronounced hypernatremia and suffered a severe immunodeficiency, with T cell lymphopenia, altered CD8 naive/memory homeostasis, and inability to reject allogeneic tumors. By contrast, T cell-specific NFAT5 knockout mice had normal plasma tonicity, rejected allogeneic tumors, and exhibited only a mild, low-penetrance memory bias in CD8 cells. Notably, when T cells from these mice were cultured ex vivo in hypernatremic media, they exhibited features found in NFAT5-null mice, with pronounced naive/memory imbalance and impaired homeostatic survival in response to IL-7, as well as a severe inhibition of their mitogen-induced proliferation. By analyzing surface receptors whose expression might be affected in NFAT5-deficient cells, we identified CD24 as a novel NFAT5 target induced by hypertonicity both in vitro and in vivo, and required to sustain T cell expansion under osmostress. NFAT5 bound to the Cd24 promoter in response to hypertonicity facilitated the local derepression of chromatin and enhanced the expression of CD24 mRNA and protein. Altogether, our results indicate that the systemic hypernatremia of NFAT5-null mice is a major contributor to their immunodeficiency, and highlight the role of NFAT5 and CD24 in the homeostasis of T cells under osmostress in vivo.

  20. Evidence of defective cardiovascular regulation in insulin-dependent diabetic patients without clinical autonomic dysfunction.

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    Weston, P J; James, M A; Panerai, R B; McNally, P G; Potter, J F; Thurston, H

    1998-12-01

    (1) Autonomic dysfunction is a well recognised complication of diabetes mellitus and early detection may allow therapeutic manoeuvres to reduce the associated mortality and morbidity. We sought to identify early cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy using spectral analysis of heart rate and systolic blood pressure variability. (2) Thirty patients with Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus (DM) and 30 matched control subjects were studied. In addition to standard tests of autonomic function, heart rate and systolic blood pressure variability were assessed using power spectral analysis. From the frequency domain analysis of systolic blood pressure and R-R interval, the overall gain of baroreflex mechanisms was assessed. (3) Standard tests of autonomic function were normal in both groups. Total spectral power of R-R interval was reduced in the Type 1 DM group for low-frequency (473 +/- 63 vs. 747 +/- 78 ms2, mean +/- S.E.M., P = 0.002) and high-frequency bands (125 +/- 13 vs. 459+/-90 ms2, P standing (2.9+/-0.9 vs. 7.18+/-1.9 ms/mmHg, P < 0.001). (4) Spectral analysis of cardiovascular variability detects autonomic dysfunction more frequently in Type 1 DM patients than conventional tests, and is suggestive of an abnormality of parasympathetic function. The abnormality of baroreceptor-cardiac reflex sensitivity could be explained by this impairment of parasympathetic function and this may predispose to the development of hypertension and increase the risk of sudden cardiac death. Using spectral analysis methods may allow detection of early diabetic cardiac autonomic neuropathy and allow therapeutic intervention to slow the progression.

  1. Nitric oxide regulates input specificity of long-term depression and context dependence of cerebellar learning.

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    Hideaki Ogasawara

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that multiple internal models are acquired in the cerebellum and that these can be switched under a given context of behavior. It has been proposed that long-term depression (LTD of parallel fiber (PF-Purkinje cell (PC synapses forms the cellular basis of cerebellar learning, and that the presynaptically synthesized messenger nitric oxide (NO is a crucial "gatekeeper" for LTD. Because NO diffuses freely to neighboring synapses, this volume learning is not input-specific and brings into question the biological significance of LTD as the basic mechanism for efficient supervised learning. To better characterize the role of NO in cerebellar learning, we simulated the sequence of electrophysiological and biochemical events in PF-PC LTD by combining established simulation models of the electrophysiology, calcium dynamics, and signaling pathways of the PC. The results demonstrate that the local NO concentration is critical for induction of LTD and for its input specificity. Pre- and postsynaptic coincident firing is not sufficient for a PF-PC synapse to undergo LTD, and LTD is induced only when a sufficient amount of NO is provided by activation of the surrounding PFs. On the other hand, above-adequate levels of activity in nearby PFs cause accumulation of NO, which also allows LTD in neighboring synapses that were not directly stimulated, ruining input specificity. These findings lead us to propose the hypothesis that NO represents the relevance of a given context and enables context-dependent selection of internal models to be updated. We also predict sparse PF activity in vivo because, otherwise, input specificity would be lost.

  2. Aging-dependent changes in rat heart mitochondrial glutaredoxins—Implications for redox regulation

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    Xing-Huang Gao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and animal studies have documented that hearts of the elderly are more susceptible to ischemia/reperfusion damage compared to young adults. Recently we found that aging-dependent increase in susceptibility of cardiomyocytes to apoptosis was attributable to decrease in cytosolic glutaredoxin 1 (Grx1 and concomitant decrease in NF-κB-mediated expression of anti-apoptotic proteins. Besides primary localization in the cytosol, Grx1 also exists in the mitochondrial intermembrane space (IMS. In contrast, Grx2 is confined to the mitochondrial matrix. Here we report that Grx1 is decreased by 50–60% in the IMS, but Grx2 is increased by 1.4–2.6 fold in the matrix of heart mitochondria from elderly rats. Determination of in situ activities of the Grx isozymes from both subsarcolemmal (SSM and interfibrillar (IFM mitochondria revealed that Grx1 was fully active in the IMS. However, Grx2 was mostly in an inactive form in the matrix, consistent with reversible sequestration of the active-site cysteines of two Grx2 molecules in complex with an iron–sulfur cluster. Our quantitative evaluations of the active/inactive ratio for Grx2 suggest that levels of dimeric Grx2 complex with iron–sulfur clusters are increased in SSM and IFM in the hearts of elderly rats. We found that the inactive Grx2 can be fully reactivated by sodium dithionite or exogenous superoxide production mediated by xanthine oxidase. However, treatment with rotenone, which generates intramitochondrial superoxide through inhibition of mitochondrial respiratory chain Complex I, did not lead to Grx2 activation. These findings suggest that insufficient ROS accumulates in the vicinity of dimeric Grx2 to activate it in situ.

  3. The Role of Sugar-related Regulation in the Light-dependent Alterations of Arabidopsis Glutamate Dehydrogenase Genes Expression

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    E.Yu. Garnik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Expression of gdh1 and gdh2 genes of Arabidopsis thaliana increases in the dark and decreases in the light. The reason of such alteration seems to be a glucose rising in photosynthetic cell in the light, but this hypothesis needs to be confirmed. In this work we investigate the role of glucose and hexokinase 1 in the light-dependent regulation of the gdh1 and gdh2 expression. A comparison of expression profiles of apl3, gdh1, gdh2 genes in presenсe of exogenous sucrose in the dark and in the light has demonstrated that sugar-related repression of gdh1 and gdh2 genes is insufficient to provide the high decrease of their transcripts in the light. Using Arabidopsis mutant gin2-1 with a defect in hxk1 gene we demonstrated that such a decrease is not depended on the regulatory function of hexokinase 1. We presume that light- dependent alterations of gdh1 and gdh2 expression are mediated by some chloroplast-to-nucleus regulatory signals.

  4. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase regulates crosstalk between Trk A tyrosine kinase and p75(NTR)-dependent sphingolipid signaling pathways.

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    Bilderback, T R; Gazula, V R; Dobrowsky, R T

    2001-03-01

    The mechanism of crosstalk between signaling pathways coupled to the Trk A and p75(NTR) neurotrophin receptors in PC12 cells was examined. In response to nerve growth factor (NGF), Trk A activation inhibited p75(NTR)-dependent sphingomyelin (SM) hydrolysis. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) inhibitor, LY294002, reversed this inhibition suggesting that Trk A activation of PI 3-kinase is necessary to inhibit sphingolipid signaling by p75(NTR). In contrast, SM hydrolysis induced by neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), which did not activate PI-3 kinase, was uneffected by LY294002. However, transient expression of a constituitively active PI 3-kinase inhibited p75(NTR)-dependent SM hydrolysis by both NGF and NT-3. Intriguingly, NGF induced an association of activated PI 3-kinase with acid sphingomyelinase (SMase). This interaction localized to caveolae-related domains and correlated with a 50% decrease in immunoprecipitated acid SMase activity. NGF-stimulated PI 3-kinase activity was necessary for inhibition of acid SMase but was not required for ligand-induced association of the p85 subunit of PI 3-kinase with the phospholipase. Finally, this interaction was specific for NGF since EGF did not induce an association of PI 3-kinase with acid SMase. In summary, our data suggest that PI 3-kinase regulates the inhibitory crosstalk between Trk A tyrosine kinase and p75(NTR)-dependent sphingolipid signaling pathways and that this interaction localizes to caveolae-related domains.

  5. The PAF complex and Prf1/Rtf1 delineate distinct Cdk9-dependent pathways regulating transcription elongation in fission yeast.

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    Jean Mbogning

    Full Text Available Cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (Cdk9 promotes elongation by RNA polymerase II (RNAPII, mRNA processing, and co-transcriptional histone modification. Cdk9 phosphorylates multiple targets, including the conserved RNAPII elongation factor Spt5 and RNAPII itself, but how these different modifications mediate Cdk9 functions is not known. Here we describe two Cdk9-dependent pathways in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe that involve distinct targets and elicit distinct biological outcomes. Phosphorylation of Spt5 by Cdk9 creates a direct binding site for Prf1/Rtf1, a transcription regulator with functional and physical links to the Polymerase Associated Factor (PAF complex. PAF association with chromatin is also dependent on Cdk9 but involves alternate phosphoacceptor targets. Prf1 and PAF are biochemically separate in cell extracts, and genetic analyses show that Prf1 and PAF are functionally distinct and exert opposing effects on the RNAPII elongation complex. We propose that this opposition constitutes a Cdk9 auto-regulatory mechanism, such that a positive effect on elongation, driven by the PAF pathway, is kept in check by a negative effect of Prf1/Rtf1 and downstream mono-ubiquitylation of histone H2B. Thus, optimal RNAPII elongation may require balanced action of functionally distinct Cdk9 pathways.

  6. An Obesity-Predisposing Variant of the FTO Gene Regulates D2R-Dependent Reward Learning.

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    Sevgi, Meltem; Rigoux, Lionel; Kühn, Anne B; Mauer, Jan; Schilbach, Leonhard; Hess, Martin E; Gruendler, Theo O J; Ullsperger, Markus; Stephan, Klaas Enno; Brüning, Jens C; Tittgemeyer, Marc

    2015-09-09

    Variations in the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene are linked to obesity. However, the underlying neurobiological mechanisms by which these genetic variants influence obesity, behavior, and brain are unknown. Given that Fto regulates D2/3R signaling in mice, we tested in humans whether variants in FTO would interact with a variant in the ANKK1 gene, which alters D2R signaling and is also associated with obesity. In a behavioral and fMRI study, we demonstrate that gene variants of FTO affect dopamine (D2)-dependent midbrain brain responses to reward learning and behavioral responses associated with learning from negative outcome in humans. Furthermore, dynamic causal modeling confirmed that FTO variants modulate the connectivity in a basic reward circuit of meso-striato-prefrontal regions, suggesting a mechanism by which genetic predisposition alters reward processing not only in obesity, but also in other disorders with altered D2R-dependent impulse control, such as addiction. Significance statement: Variations in the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene are associated with obesity. Here we demonstrate that variants of FTO affect dopamine-dependent midbrain brain responses and learning from negative outcomes in humans during a reward learning task. Furthermore, FTO variants modulate the connectivity in a basic reward circuit of meso-striato-prefrontal regions, suggesting a mechanism by which genetic vulnerability in reward processing can increase predisposition to obesity. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/3512584-09$15.00/0.

  7. Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase alpha is expressed by monocytic cells and regulates the activation profile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher B Guest

    Full Text Available Macrophages are capable of assuming numerous phenotypes in order to adapt to endogenous and exogenous challenges but many of the factors that regulate this process are still unknown. We report that Ca(2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase alpha (CaMKKalpha is expressed in human monocytic cells and demonstrate that its inhibition blocks type-II monocytic cell activation and promotes classical activation. Affinity chromatography with paramagnetic beads isolated an approximately 50 kDa protein from nuclear lysates of U937 human monocytic cells activated with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA. This protein was identified as CaMKKalpha by mass spectrometry and Western analysis. The function of CaMKKalpha in monocyte activation was examined using the CaMKKalpha inhibitors (STO-609 and forskolin and siRNA knockdown. Inhibition of CaMKKalpha, enhanced PMA-dependent CD86 expression and reduced CD11b expression. In addition, inhibition was associated with decreased translocation of CaMKKalpha to the nucleus. Finally, to further examine monocyte activation profiles, TNFalpha and IL-10 secretion were studied. CaMKKalpha inhibition attenuated PMA-dependent IL-10 production and enhanced TNFalpha production indicating a shift from type-II to classical monocyte activation. Taken together, these findings indicate an important new role for CaMKKalpha in the differentiation of monocytic cells.

  8. Regulation of phenylacetic acid uptake is sigma54 dependent in Pseudomonas putida CA-3.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O' Leary, Niall D

    2011-10-13

    primer extension analysis. Comparative analyses of genomes encoding phenylacetyl CoA, (PACoA), catabolic operons identified a common association among styrene degradation linked PACoA catabolons in Pseudomonas species studied to date. Conclusions In summary, this is the first study to report RpoN dependent transcriptional activation of the PACoA catabolon paaL gene, encoding a transport protein essential for phenylacetic acid utilisation in P. putida CA-3. Bioinformatic analysis is provided to suggest this regulatory link may be common among styrene degrading Pseudomonads.

  9. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-dependent regulation of miR-196a expression controls lung fibroblast apoptosis but not proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecht, Emelia [Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Zago, Michela [Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Sarill, Miles [Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Rico de Souza, Angela [Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Gomez, Alvin; Matthews, Jason [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Hamid, Qutayba; Eidelman, David H. [Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Baglole, Carolyn J., E-mail: Carolyn.baglole@McGill.ca [Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2014-11-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor implicated in the regulation of apoptosis and proliferation. Although activation of the AhR by xenobiotics such as dioxin inhibits the cell cycle and control apoptosis, paradoxically, AhR expression also promotes cell proliferation and survival independent of exogenous ligands. The microRNA (miRNA) miR-196a has also emerged as a regulator of proliferation and apoptosis but a relationship between the AhR and miR-196a is not known. Therefore, we hypothesized that AhR-dependent regulation of endogenous miR-196a expression would promote cell survival and proliferation. Utilizing lung fibroblasts from AhR deficient (AhR{sup −/−}) and wild-type (AhR{sup +/+}) mice, we show that there is ligand-independent regulation of miRNA, including low miR-196a in AhR{sup −/−} cells. Validation by qRT-PCR revealed a significant decrease in basal expression of miR-196a in AhR{sup −/−} compared to AhR{sup +/+} cells. Exposure to AhR agonists benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and FICZ as well as AhR antagonist CH-223191 decreased miR-196a expression in AhR{sup +/+} fibroblasts concomitant with decreased AhR protein levels. There was increased proliferation only in AhR{sup +/+} lung fibroblasts in response to serum, corresponding to a decrease in p27{sup KIP1} protein, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. Increasing the cellular levels of miR-196a had no effect on proliferation or expression of p27{sup KIP1} in AhR{sup −/−} fibroblasts but attenuated cigarette smoke-induced apoptosis. This study provides the first evidence that AhR expression is essential for the physiological regulation of cellular miRNA levels- including miR-196a. Future experiments designed to elucidate the functional relationship between the AhR and miR-196a may delineate additional novel ligand-independent roles for the AhR. - Highlights: • The AhR controls proliferation and apoptosis in lung cells. • The AhR regulates the

  10. Origin of the voltage dependence of G-protein regulation of P/Q-type Ca2+ channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun; Chen, Yu-Hang; Bangaru, Saroja D; He, Linling; Abele, Kathryn; Tanabe, Shihori; Kozasa, Tohru; Yang, Jian

    2008-12-24

    G-protein (Gbetagamma)-mediated voltage-dependent inhibition of N- and P/Q-type Ca(2+) channels contributes to presynaptic inhibition and short-term synaptic plasticity. The voltage dependence derives from the dissociation of Gbetagamma from the inhibited channels, but the underlying molecular and biophysical mechanisms remain largely unclear. In this study we investigated the role in this process of Ca(2+) channel beta subunit (Ca(v)beta) and a rigid alpha-helical structure between the alpha-interacting domain (AID), the primary Ca(v)beta docking site on the channel alpha(1) subunit, and the pore-lining IS6 segment. Gbetagamma inhibition of P/Q-type channels was reconstituted in giant inside-out membrane patches from Xenopus oocytes. Large populations of channels devoid of Ca(v)beta were produced by washing out a mutant Ca(v)beta with a reduced affinity for the AID. These beta-less channels were still inhibited by Gbetagamma, but without any voltage dependence, indicating that Ca(v)beta is indispensable for voltage-dependent Gbetagamma inhibition. A truncated Ca(v)beta containing only the AID-binding guanylate kinase (GK) domain could fully confer voltage dependence to Gbetagamma inhibition. Gbetagamma did not alter inactivation properties, and channels recovered from Gbetagamma inhibition exhibited the same activation property as un-inhibited channels, indicating that Gbetagamma does not dislodge Ca(v)beta from the inhibited channel. Furthermore, voltage-dependent Gbetagamma inhibition was abolished when the rigid alpha-helix between the AID and IS6 was disrupted by insertion of multiple glycines, which also eliminated Ca(v)beta regulation of channel gating, revealing a pivotal role of this rigid alpha-helix in both processes. These results suggest that depolarization-triggered movement of IS6, coupled to the subsequent conformational change of the Gbetagamma-binding pocket through a rigid alpha-helix induced partly by the Ca(v)beta GK domain, causes the

  11. Phosphorylation-dependent regulation of phospholipase D2 by protein kinase C delta in rat Pheochromocytoma PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jung Min; Kim, Jae Ho; Lee, Byoung Dae; Lee, Sang Do; Kim, Yong; Jung, Yon Woo; Lee, Sukmook; Cho, Wonhwa; Ohba, Motoi; Kuroki, Toshio; Suh, Pann-Ghill; Ryu, Sung Ho

    2002-03-08

    Many studies have shown that protein kinase C (PKC) is an important physiological regulator of phospholipase D (PLD). However, the role of PKC in agonist-induced PLD activation has been mainly investigated with a focus on the PLD1, which is one of the two PLD isoenzymes (PLD1 and PLD2) cloned to date. Since the expression of PLD2 significantly enhanced phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)- or bradykinin-induced PLD activity in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells, we investigated the regulatory mechanism of PLD2 in PC12 cells. Two different PKC inhibitors, GF109203X and Ro-31-8220, completely blocked PMA-induced PLD2 activation. In addition, specific inhibition of PKC delta by rottlerin prevented PLD2 activation in PMA-stimulated PC12 cells. Concomitant with PLD2 activation, PLD2 became phosphorylated upon PMA or bradykinin treatment of PC12 cells. Moreover, rottlerin blocked PMA- or bradykinin-induced PLD2 phosphorylation in PC12 cells. Expression of a kinase-deficient mutant of PKC delta using adenovirus-mediated gene transfer inhibited the phosphorylation and activation of PLD2 induced by PMA in PC12 cells, suggesting the phosphorylation-dependent regulation of PLD2 mediated by PKC delta kinase activity in PC12 cells. PKC delta co-immunoprecipitated with PLD2 from PC12 cell extracts, and associated with PLD2 in vitro in a PMA-dependent manner. Phospho-PLD2 immunoprecipitated from PMA-treated PC12 cells and PLD2 phosphorylated in vitro by PKC delta were resolved by two-dimensional phosphopeptide mapping and compared. At least seven phosphopeptides co-migrated, indicating the direct phosphorylation of PLD2 by PKC delta inside the cells. Immunocytochemical studies of PC12 cells revealed that after treatment with PMA, PKC delta was translocated from the cytosol to the plasma membrane where PLD2 is mainly localized. These results suggest that PKC delta-dependent direct phosphorylation plays an important role in the regulation of PLD2 activity in PC12 cells.

  12. Role of Interaction and Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinase B in Regulation of the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Function by cAMP-Dependent Protein Kinase A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borthwick, Lee A; Kerbiriou, Mathieu; Taylor, Christopher J; Cozza, Giorgio; Lascu, Ioan; Postel, Edith H; Cassidy, Diane; Trouvé, Pascal; Mehta, Anil; Robson, Louise; Muimo, Richmond

    2016-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis results from mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) and ATP-regulated chloride channel. Here, we demonstrate that nucleoside diphosphate kinase B (NDPK-B, NM23-H2) forms a functional complex with CFTR. In airway epithelia forskolin/IBMX significantly increases NDPK-B co-localisation with CFTR whereas PKA inhibitors attenuate complex formation. Furthermore, an NDPK-B derived peptide (but not its NDPK-A equivalent) disrupts the NDPK-B/CFTR complex in vitro (19-mers comprising amino acids 36-54 from NDPK-B or NDPK-A). Overlay (Far-Western) and Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) analysis both demonstrate that NDPK-B binds CFTR within its first nucleotide binding domain (NBD1, CFTR amino acids 351-727). Analysis of chloride currents reflective of CFTR or outwardly rectifying chloride channels (ORCC, DIDS-sensitive) showed that the 19-mer NDPK-B peptide (but not its NDPK-A equivalent) reduced both chloride conductances. Additionally, the NDPK-B (but not NDPK-A) peptide also attenuated acetylcholine-induced intestinal short circuit currents. In silico analysis of the NBD1/NDPK-B complex reveals an extended interaction surface between the two proteins. This binding zone is also target of the 19-mer NDPK-B peptide, thus confirming its capability to disrupt NDPK-B/CFTR complex. We propose that NDPK-B forms part of the complex that controls chloride currents in epithelia.

  13. Role of Interaction and Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinase B in Regulation of the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Function by cAMP-Dependent Protein Kinase A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee A Borthwick

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis results from mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR, a cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA and ATP-regulated chloride channel. Here, we demonstrate that nucleoside diphosphate kinase B (NDPK-B, NM23-H2 forms a functional complex with CFTR. In airway epithelia forskolin/IBMX significantly increases NDPK-B co-localisation with CFTR whereas PKA inhibitors attenuate complex formation. Furthermore, an NDPK-B derived peptide (but not its NDPK-A equivalent disrupts the NDPK-B/CFTR complex in vitro (19-mers comprising amino acids 36-54 from NDPK-B or NDPK-A. Overlay (Far-Western and Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR analysis both demonstrate that NDPK-B binds CFTR within its first nucleotide binding domain (NBD1, CFTR amino acids 351-727. Analysis of chloride currents reflective of CFTR or outwardly rectifying chloride channels (ORCC, DIDS-sensitive showed that the 19-mer NDPK-B peptide (but not its NDPK-A equivalent reduced both chloride conductances. Additionally, the NDPK-B (but not NDPK-A peptide also attenuated acetylcholine-induced intestinal short circuit currents. In silico analysis of the NBD1/NDPK-B complex reveals an extended interaction surface between the two proteins. This binding zone is also target of the 19-mer NDPK-B peptide, thus confirming its capability to disrupt NDPK-B/CFTR complex. We propose that NDPK-B forms part of the complex that controls chloride currents in epithelia.