WorldWideScience

Sample records for dependent rabi oscillations

  1. Electronically induced nuclear transitions - temperature dependence and Rabi oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niez, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper deals with a nucleus electromagnetically coupled with the bound states of its electronic surroundings. It describes the temperature dependence of its dynamics and the onset of potential Rabi oscillations by means of a Master Equation. The latter is generalized in order to account for possible strong resonances. Throughout the paper the approximation schemes are discussed and tested. (authors)

  2. Two-electron Rabi oscillations in real-time time-dependent density-functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habenicht, Bradley F.; Tani, Noriyuki P.; Provorse, Makenzie R.; Isborn, Christine M.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the Rabi oscillations of electrons excited by an applied electric field in several simple molecular systems using time-dependent configuration interaction (TDCI) and real-time time-dependent density-functional theory (RT-TDDFT) dynamics. While the TDCI simulations exhibit the expected single-electron Rabi oscillations at a single resonant electric field frequency, Rabi oscillations in the RT-TDDFT simulations are a two-electron process. The existence of two-electron Rabi oscillations is determined both by full population inversion between field-free molecular orbitals and the behavior of the instantaneous dipole moment during the simulations. Furthermore, the Rabi oscillations in RT-TDDFT are subject to an intensity threshold of the electric field, below which Rabi oscillations do not occur and above which the two-electron Rabi oscillations occur at a broad range of frequencies. It is also shown that at field intensities near the threshold intensity, the field frequency predicted to induce Rabi oscillations by linear response TDDFT only produces detuned Rabi oscillations. Instead, the field frequency that yields the full two-electron population inversion and Rabi oscillation behavior is shown to be the average of single-electron transition frequencies from the ground S 0 state and the doubly-excited S 2 state. The behavior of the two-electron Rabi oscillations is rationalized via two possible models. The first model is a multi-photon process that results from the electric field interacting with the three level system such that three level Rabi oscillations may occur. The second model suggests that the mean-field nature of RT-TDDFT induces paired electron propagation

  3. Rabi oscillation between states of a coupled harmonic oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Tae Jun

    2003-01-01

    Rabi oscillation between bound states of a single potential is well known. However the corresponding formula between the states of two different potentials has not been obtained yet. In this work, we derive Rabi formula between the states of a coupled harmonic oscillator which may be used as a simple model for the electron transfer. The expression is similar to typical Rabi formula for a single potential. This result may be used to describe transitions between coupled diabatic potential curves

  4. Rabi oscillations in bidimensional photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Centeno, E.; Felbacq, D.

    2000-01-01

    We theoretically and numerically investigate transient phenomena in finite two-dimensional photonic crystals doped by single-mode microcavities. We show that for antisymmetric defect modes, there are Rabi oscillations between the microcavities. We develop a spectral analysis which permits us to compute the Rabi frequencies of these oscillations as well as the Q factor of the microcavities. We present a method allowing the computation of the coupling factor between localized modes

  5. Suppression of Rabi oscillations for moving atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, B.; Egusquiza, I. L.; Muga, J. G.; Hegerfeldt, G. C.

    2003-01-01

    The well-known laser-induced Rabi oscillations of a two-level atom are shown to be suppressed under certain conditions when the atom is entering a laser-illuminated region. For temporal Rabi oscillations the effect has two regimes: a first classical-like one, taking place at intermediate atomic velocities, and a second purely quantum case at low velocities. The classical regime is associated with the formation of incoherent internal states of the atom in the laser region, whereas in the quantum, low velocity regime the laser projects the atom onto a pure internal state that can be controlled by detuning. Spatial Rabi oscillations are only suppressed in this low velocity, quantum regime

  6. Quantum simulations and experiments on Rabi oscillations of spin qubits : Intrinsic vs extrinsic damping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Raedt, Hans; Barbara, Bernard; Miyashita, Seiji; Michielsen, Kristel; Bertaina, Sylvain; Gambarelli, Serge

    2012-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance experiments show that the decay of Rabi oscillations of ensembles of spin qubits depends noticeably on the microwave power, and more precisely on the Rabi frequency, an effect recently called "driven decoherence." By direct numerical solution of the time-dependent

  7. Multiphoton Rabi oscillations between highly excited Stark states of potassium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Yonglin

    2011-01-01

    We have applied a nonperturbative resonant theory to study the Rabi frequency of microwave multiphoton transitions between two Rydberg states of potassium in a static electric field. The Stark electric dipole moments used to calculate the Rabi frequency are determined by the Stark states' wave functions, which are obtained by the diagonalization method. The frequencies of the Rabi oscillations are in good agreement with either experimental ones or ones calculated by the time-dependent close-coupling method and the Floquet theory. Furthermore, we are able to show that the size of avoided crossings between the (n+2)s and (n,3) states can be predicted from the Stark electric dipole moment and the difference of the two Stark states' energy at a given resonance.

  8. Conventional and anomalous quantum Rabi oscillations in graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Enamullah; Kumar, Vipin; Kumar, Upendra; Setlur, Girish S.

    2014-01-01

    We study the non linear response of graphene in presence of quantum field in two different regimes. Far from resonance, using our new technique asymptotic rotating wave approximation (ARWA), we obtained that the matter field interaction leads to the slow oscillations like conventional Rabi oscillations observed in conventional semiconductors using well known rotating wave approximation (RWA). The Rabi frequency obtained in both the regimes

  9. Crossover of coherent Rabi oscillations in graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enamullah; Kumar, Vipin; Setlur, Girish S.

    2012-01-01

    We study the phenomenon of crossover of Rabi oscillations in graphene as a function of detuning - the difference between the frequency of the incident wave and interband energy (2v F |k|). It is shown by comparison with an exactly solved model with bands having linear dispersion but lacking pseudospin that this crossover is unique to graphene, attributable to the pseudospin character of the graphene hamiltonian. A group theoretic argument for why this model is solvable is given. We compute the nonlinear current using our formalism, the main prediction being the threshold behavior (with exponent equal to 1/2) of the slowly varying part of the current in frequency domain with threshold frequency being 2ω R 2 /ω (‘anomalous’ Rabi frequency) where ω R is the Rabi frequency for zero detuning. The novelty of our approach is the introduction of an alternative to the rotating wave approximation (RWA) (called asymptotic RWA here) which is argued to be important in demonstrating this crossover. We provide an interpolation method between these two regimes, that shows novel phenomena attributable to harmonic generation. A fully numerical solution to the Bloch equations verifies the analytical results and the various approximation schemes.

  10. Correlation effect of Rabi oscillations of excitons in quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishi-Hayase, J.; Akahane, K.; Yamamoto, Y.; Kujiraoka, M.; Ema, K.; Sasaki, M.

    2008-01-01

    We performed a transient four-wave mixing experiment on a strain-compensated InAs quantum dot (QD) ensemble over a wide range of excitation intensities. Under the resonant excitation of an exciton ground state, an extremely long dephasing time of 1 ns was found. By increasing the areas of the excitation pulses, Rabi oscillations of excitonic polarizations were clearly observed. The corresponding Rabi frequency is three orders of magnitude higher than the measured dephasing rate. For larger pulse areas, we found that the deviation of experimental data from two-level predictions became significant. The deviations cannot be explained by taking into account, as has been suggested in other research, excitation density-dependent dephasing or Hartree-Fock-type Coulomb interactions between excitons

  11. Multi-photon Rabi oscillations in high spin paramagnetic impurity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertaina, S; Groll, N; Chen, L; Chiorescu, I

    2011-01-01

    We report on multiple photon monochromatic quantum oscillations (Rabi oscillations) observed by pulsed EPR (Electron Paramagnetic Resonance) of Mn 2+ (S = 5/2) impurities in MgO. We find that when the microwave magnetic field is similar or large than the anisotropy splitting, the Rabi oscillations have a spectrum made of many frequencies not predicted by the S = l/2 Rabi model. We show that these new frequencies come from multiple photon coherent manipulation of the multi-level spin impurity. We develop a model based on the crystal field theory and the rotating frame approximation, describing the observed phenomenon with a very good agreement.

  12. Rabi oscillations a quantum dot exposed to quantum light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magyarov, A.; Slepyan, G.Ya.; Maksimenko, S.A.; Hoffmann, A.

    2007-01-01

    The influence of the local field on the excitonic Rabi oscillations in an isolated quantum dot driven by the coherent state of light has been theoretically investigated. Local field is predicted to entail the appearance of two oscillatory regimes in the Rabi effect separated by the bifurcation. In the first regime Rabi oscillations are periodic and do not reveal collapse-revivals phenomenon, while in the second one collapse and revivals appear, showing significant difference as compared to those predicted by the standard Jaynes-Cummings model

  13. Observations of Rabi oscillations in a non-polar InGaN quantum dot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, Benjamin P. L.; Chan, Christopher C. S.; Taylor, Robert A.; Kocher, Claudius; Zhu, Tongtong; Oehler, Fabrice; Emery, Robert; Oliver, Rachel A.

    2014-01-01

    Experimental observation of Rabi rotations between an exciton excited state and the crystal ground state in a single non-polar InGaN quantum dot is presented. The exciton excited state energy is determined by photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy using two-photon excitation from a pulsed laser. The population of the exciton excited state is seen to undergo power dependent damped Rabi oscillations.

  14. Observations of Rabi oscillations in a non-polar InGaN quantum dot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, Benjamin P. L., E-mail: benjamin.reid@physics.ox.ac.uk; Chan, Christopher C. S.; Taylor, Robert A. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Kocher, Claudius [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Konstanz University, Konstanz (Germany); Zhu, Tongtong; Oehler, Fabrice; Emery, Robert; Oliver, Rachel A. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-30

    Experimental observation of Rabi rotations between an exciton excited state and the crystal ground state in a single non-polar InGaN quantum dot is presented. The exciton excited state energy is determined by photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy using two-photon excitation from a pulsed laser. The population of the exciton excited state is seen to undergo power dependent damped Rabi oscillations.

  15. Rabi oscillations in extreme ultraviolet ionization of atomic argon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flögel, Martin; Durá, Judith; Schütte, Bernd; Ivanov, Misha; Rouzée, Arnaud; Vrakking, Marc J. J.

    2017-02-01

    We demonstrate Rabi oscillations in nonlinear ionization of argon by an intense femtosecond extreme ultraviolet (XUV) laser field produced by high-harmonic generation. We monitor the formation of A r2 + as a function of the time delay between the XUV pulse and an additional near-infrared (NIR) femtosecond laser pulse, and show that the population of an A r+* intermediate resonance exhibits strong modulations both due to an NIR laser-induced Stark shift and XUV-induced Rabi cycling between the ground state of A r+ and the A r+* excited state. Our experiment represents a direct experimental observation of a Rabi-cycling process in the XUV regime.

  16. Determination of anisotropic dipole moments in self-assembled quantum dots using Rabi oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Andreas; Wang, Qu-Quan; Bianucci, Pablo; Xue, Qi-Kun; Shih, Chih-Kang

    2004-03-01

    By investigating the polarization-dependent Rabi oscillations using photoluminescence spectroscopy, we determined the respective transition dipole moments of the two excited excitonic states |Ex> and |Ey> of a single self-assembled quantum dot that are nondegenerate due to shape anisotropy. We find that the ratio of the two dipole moments is close to the physical elongation ratio of the quantum dot. We also measured the ground state radiative lifetimes of several quantum dots. The dipole moments calculated from the latter are in reasonable agreement with the dipole moments determined from the periodicity of the Rabi oscillations.

  17. The Rabi Oscillation in Subdynamic System for Quantum Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bi Qiao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A quantum computation for the Rabi oscillation based on quantum dots in the subdynamic system is presented. The working states of the original Rabi oscillation are transformed to the eigenvectors of subdynamic system. Then the dissipation and decoherence of the system are only shown in the change of the eigenvalues as phase errors since the eigenvectors are fixed. This allows both dissipation and decoherence controlling to be easier by only correcting relevant phase errors. This method can be extended to general quantum computation systems.

  18. Observation of Broadband Time-Dependent Rabi Shifting in Microplasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compton, Ryan; Filin, Alex; Romanov, Dmitri A.; Levis, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Coherent broadband radiation in the form of Rabi sidebands is observed when a ps probe laser propagates through a weakly ionized, electronically excited microplasma generated in the focus of an intense pump beam. The sidebands arise from the interaction of the probe beam with pairs of excited states of a constituent neutral atom via the probe-induced Rabi oscillation. Sideband shifting of >90 meV from the probe carrier frequency results in an effective bandwidth of 200 meV. The sidebands are controlled by the intensity and temporal profile of the probe pulse; with amplitude and shift in agreement with the predictions of a time-dependent generalized Rabi cycling model.

  19. Determination of anisotropic dipole moments in self-assembled quantum dots using Rabi oscillations

    OpenAIRE

    Muller, A.; Wang, Q. Q.; Bianucci, P.; Xue, Q. K.; Shih, C. K.

    2004-01-01

    By investigating the polarization-dependent Rabi oscillations using photoluminescence spectroscopy, we determined the respective transition dipole moments of the two excited excitonic states |Ex> and |Ey> of a single self-assembled quantum dot that are nondegenerate due to shape anisotropy. We find that the ratio of the two dipole moments is close to the physical elongation ratio of the quantum dot.

  20. Rabi spin oscillations generated by ultrasound in solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calero, C; Chudnovsky, E M

    2007-07-27

    It is shown that ultrasound in the gigahertz range can generate space-time Rabi oscillations between spin states of molecular magnets. We compute dynamics of the magnetization generated by surface acoustic waves and discuss conditions under which this novel quantum effect can be observed.

  1. Raby chaotic vacuum oscillations in resonator quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kon'kov, L.E.; Prants, S.V.

    1997-01-01

    It is shown in numerical experiments with two-level atoms, moving through a single-mode high-quality resonator, that a new type of spontaneous radiation - the Raby chaotic vacuum oscillation - originates in the mode of strong atom-field bonds

  2. Quantum resonances in a single plaquette of Josephson junctions: excitations of Rabi oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fistul, M. V.

    2002-03-01

    We present a theoretical study of a quantum regime of the resistive (whirling) state of dc driven anisotropic single plaquette containing small Josephson junctions. The current-voltage characteristics of such systems display resonant steps that are due to the resonant interaction between the time dependent Josephson current and the excited electromagnetic oscillations (EOs). The voltage positions of the resonances are determined by the quantum interband transitions of EOs. We show that in the quantum regime as the system is driven on the resonance, coherent Rabi oscillations between the quantum levels of EOs occur. At variance with the classical regime the magnitude and the width of resonances are determined by the frequency of Rabi oscillations that in turn, depends in a peculiar manner on an externally applied magnetic field and the parameters of the system.

  3. Strong-field effects in Rabi oscillations between a single state and a superposition of states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhdanovich, S.; Milner, V.; Hepburn, J. W.

    2011-01-01

    Rabi oscillations of quantum population are known to occur in two-level systems driven by spectrally narrow laser fields. In this work we study Rabi oscillations induced by shaped broadband femtosecond laser pulses. Due to the broad spectral width of the driving field, the oscillations are initiated between a ground state and a coherent superposition of excited states, or a ''wave packet,'' rather than a single excited state. Our experiments reveal an intricate dependence of the wave-packet phase on the intensity of the laser field. We confirm numerically that the effect is associated with the strong-field nature of the interaction and provide a qualitative picture by invoking a simple theoretical model.

  4. Optical Rabi Oscillations in a Quantum Dot Ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujiraoka, Mamiko; Ishi-Hayase, Junko; Akahane, Kouichi; Yamamoto, Naokatsu; Ema, Kazuhiro; Sasaki, Masahide

    2010-09-01

    We have investigated Rabi oscillations of exciton polarization in a self-assembled InAs quantum dot ensemble. The four-wave mixing signals measured as a function of the average of the pulse area showed the large in-plane anisotropy and nonharmonic oscillations. The experimental results can be well reproduced by a two-level model calculation including three types of inhomogeneities without any fitting parameter. The large anisotropy can be well explained by the anisotropic dipole moments. We also find that the nonharmonic behaviors partly originate from the polarization interference.

  5. Quantum lithography beyond the diffraction limit via Rabi-oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Zeyang; Al-Amri, Mohammad; Zubairy, M. Suhail

    2011-03-01

    We propose a quantum optical method to do the sub-wavelength lithography. Our method is similar to the traditional lithography but adding a critical step before dissociating the chemical bound of the photoresist. The subwavelength pattern is achieved by inducing the multi-Rabi-oscillation between the two atomic levels. The proposed method does not require multiphoton absorption and the entanglement of photons. This method is expected to be realizable using current technology. This work is supported by a grant from the Qatar National Research Fund (QNRF) under the NPRP project and a grant from the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST).

  6. Rabi oscillations in the dissociative continuum: Rotation and alignment effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granucci, Giovanni; Magnier, Sylvie; Persico, Maurizio

    2002-01-01

    We have simulated a set of experiments in which Rabi oscillations are induced in bound-free and free-free transitions of a diatomic molecule. Dissociative vibrational states belonging to different electronic terms are involved. We show analytically and confirm computationally that a simple relationship exists between the one-dimensional dynamics of a molecule with fixed orientation with respect to the polarization of the radiation field and the three-dimensional dynamics of a rotating system. It is demonstrated that sufficiently short laser pulses can induce oscillations in the probabilities of two coupled electronic states, and in the yields of the respective dissociation products, as functions of the radiation intensity. As a result of molecular rotation the oscillations are damped but not washed out. The initial thermal distribution on several rotational levels has a negligible effect on the photodissociation yields and other experimentally relevant quantities. Since the molecule undergoes a strong alignment along the polarization axis of the laser field, the ejection of atoms and ions is anisotropic. We have chosen the well known diatomic ion Na2+ as a convenient example.

  7. Rabi oscillations and quantum beats in a qubit in distorted magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanchenko, E.A.; Tolstoluzhsky, A.P.

    2007-01-01

    In a two-level system the time-periodic modulation of the magnetic field stabilizing the magnetic resonance position has been investigated. It was shown that the fundamental resonance is stable with respect to consistent variation of the longitudinal and transverse magnetic fields. The time-dependency of the Rabi oscillations and quantum beats of the spin flip probably was numerically researched in different parameter regimes taking into account dissipation and decoherence in the Lindblad form. The present study may be useful in the analysis of interference experiments and for manipulation of quantum bits

  8. Rabi Oscillations between Ground and Rydberg States with Dipole-Dipole Atomic Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, T. A.; Urban, E.; Henage, T.; Isenhower, L.; Yavuz, D. D.; Walker, T. G.; Saffman, M.

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate Rabi oscillations of small numbers of 87 Rb atoms between ground and Rydberg states with n≤43. Coherent population oscillations are observed for single atoms, while the presence of two or more atoms decoheres the oscillations. We show that these observations are consistent with van der Waals interactions of Rydberg atoms

  9. Collapse and revival of the Doppler-Rabi oscillations of a moving atom in a cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlovskii, A. V.

    2008-01-01

    Collapse and revival of the Doppler-Rabi oscillations of a two-level atom moving in a cavity electromagnetic field are analyzed. The coupled atom-field dynamics are predicted accurately by numerical calculation and approximately by using the stationary phase approximation combined with the Poisson summation formula. The collapse and revival patterns are shown to be qualitatively different in the cases of moving atom and atom at rest. In particular, quantum revivals of Doppler-Rabi oscillations occur with a period determined by the Doppler shift of the atomic transition frequency. This regime of Doppler-Rabi oscillations requires that the Rabi frequency and the Doppler shift satisfy the condition Ω R D . Under the inverse relation, the collapse- revival phenomenon generally does not occur. It is shown that even a small amount of atom-cavity detuning eliminates collapse-revival behavior. The analysis is performed for both coherent and thermal cavity fields

  10. Non-Bloch decay of Rabi oscillations in liquid state NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Arnab; Bhattacharyya, Rangeet

    2018-03-01

    Rabi oscillations are known to exhibit non-Bloch behaviour in anisotropic media. In this letter, we report an experimental observation of non-Bloch decay of Rabi oscillations in isotropic liquid state NMR. To avoid the dephasing due to the radio-frequency inhomogeneities, we develop a modified version of the rotary echo protocol and use it to determine the decay rates of Rabi oscillations. We find that the measured decay rates are proportional to the square of the Rabi frequencies and the proportionality constant is of the order of tens of picoseconds. Further, we show that this non-Bloch nature of the decay rates becomes less prominent with increasing temperature. The implications of the presence of non-Bloch decay rates in liquid state NMR in the context of ensemble quantum computing are also discussed.

  11. Pronounced enhancement of exciton Rabi oscillation for a two-photon transition based on quantum dot coupling control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Jian; Lu Di; Du Chaoling; Liu Youwen; Shi Daning; Lai Wei; Guo Chunlei; Gong Shangqing

    2012-01-01

    We theoretically investigate how to control the Rabi oscillation of excitons of the coupling quantum dots by manipulating static electric fields. Our results show that, for a single-photon process, when direct excitons change into indirect excitons with a bias applied on the sample, the Rabi oscillation rarely alters. However, for the two-photon process, a pronounced enhancement of Rabi oscillation is observed, which can be utilized as the logic gate in quantum information. (paper)

  12. Dynamical Fano-Like Interference between Rabi Oscillations and Coherent Phonons in a Semiconductor Microcavity System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, S; Oohata, G; Mizoguchi, K

    2015-10-09

    We report on dynamical interference between short-lived Rabi oscillations and long-lived coherent phonons in CuCl semiconductor microcavities resulting from the coupling between the two oscillations. The Fourier-transformed spectra of the time-domain signals obtained from semiconductor microcavities by using a pump-probe technique show that the intensity of the coherent longitudinal optical phonon of CuCl is enhanced by increasing that of the Rabi oscillation, which indicates that the coherent phonon is driven by the Rabi oscillation through the Fröhlich interaction. Moreover, as the Rabi oscillation frequency decreases upon crossing the phonon frequency, the spectral profile of the coherent phonon changes from a peak to a dip with an asymmetric structure. The continuous wavelet transformation reveals that these peak and dip structures originate from constructive and destructive interference between Rabi oscillations and coherent phonons, respectively. We demonstrate that the asymmetric spectral structures in relation to the frequency detuning are well reproduced by using a classical coupled oscillator model on the basis of dynamical Fano-like interference.

  13. Rabies

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    E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Rabies Raccoon People are exposed to rabies when they to the local health department. Rabies is almost always fatal once clinical symptoms appear. To confirm the victim's risk of being exposed to rabies, a decision must be made to either test or quarantine

  14. Vacuum Rabi Oscillation of an Atom without Rotating-Wave Approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fa-Qiang, Wang; Wei-Ci, Liu; Rui-Sheng, Liang

    2008-01-01

    We have investigated vacuum Rabi oscillation of an atom coupled with single-mode cavity field exactly, and compared the results with that of the Jaynes–Cummings (J–C) model. The results show that for resonant case, there is no Rabi oscillation for an atom. For small detuning and weak coupling case, the probability for the atom in excited state oscillates against time with different frequencies and amplitudes from that of the J-C model. It exhibits that the counter-rotating wave interaction could significantly effect the dynamic behaviour of the atom, even under the condition in which the RWA is considered to be justified

  15. Rabies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Nark

    2013-01-01

    Rabies has been a scourge of mankind since antiquity. The name itself, ?rabies? is derived from the ancient Sanskrit rabhas meaning ?to do violence? and has been found described in medical writings several thousand years old. The rabies virus is an RNA virus of the family Rhabdoviridae (Greek for ?rod-shaped virus?), genus Lyssavirus (Lyssa being the Greek God of frenzy and rage). Rabies infections have a worldwide spread, with only a few, mostly island nations laying claim to being ?rabies free.? 2013.

  16. Coherent Rabi oscillations in a molecular system and sub-diffraction-limited pattern generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Zeyang; Al-Amri, M; Zubairy, M Suhail

    2015-01-01

    The resolution of a photolithography and optical imaging system is restricted by the diffraction limit. Coherent Rabi oscillations have been shown to be able to overcome the diffraction limit in a simple two-level atomic system (Z Liao, M Al-amri, and M S Zubairy 2010 Phys. Rev. Lett. 105 183601). In this paper, we numerically calculate the wave packet dynamics of a molecular system interacting with an ultrashort laser pulse and show that coherent Rabi oscillations in a molecular system are also possible. Moreover, a sub-diffraction-limited pattern can be generated in this system by introducing spatially modulated Rabi oscillations. We also discuss several techniques to improve the visibility of the sub-diffraction-limited pattern. Our result may have important applications in super-resolution optical lithography and optical imaging. (paper)

  17. Resonant retuning of Rabi oscillations in a two-level system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonov, A.V.; Feranchuk, I.D.

    2009-01-01

    The evolution of a two-level system in a single-mode quantum field is considered beyond the rotating wave approximation. The existence of quasi-degenerate energy levels is shown to influence the essential characteristics of temporal and amplitude Rabi oscillations of the system in a resonant manner. (authors)

  18. The description of two-photon Rabi oscillations in the path integral approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biryukov, A. A.; Degtyareva, Ya. V.; Shleenkov, M. A.

    2018-04-01

    The probability of quantum transitions of a molecule between its states under the action of an electromagnetic field is represented as an integral over trajectories from a real alternating functional. A method is proposed for computing the integral using recurrence relations. The method is attached to describe the two-photon Rabi oscillations.

  19. Rabies

    Science.gov (United States)

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  20. Mathematical structure of Rabi oscillations in the strong coupling regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Kazuyuki

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we generalize the Jaynes-Cummings Hamiltonian by making use of some operators based on Lie algebras su(1, 1) and su(2), and study a mathematical structure of Rabi floppings of these models in the strong coupling regime. We show that Rabi frequencies are given by matrix elements of generalized coherent operators (Fujii K 2002 Preprint quant-ph/0202081) under the rotating-wave approximation. In the first half, we make a general review of coherent operators and generalized coherent ones based on Lie algebras su(1, 1) and su(2). In the latter half, we carry out a detailed examination of Frasca (Frasca M 2001 Preprint quant-ph/0111134) and generalize his method, and moreover present some related problems. We also apply our results to the construction of controlled unitary gates in quantum computation. Lastly, we make a brief comment on application to holonomic quantum computation

  1. Rabies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news-room/fact-sheets/detail/rabies","@context":"http://schema.org","@type":"Article"}; العربية 中文 français русский español ... prevention and control in communities includes education and information on responsible pet ownership, how to prevent dog ...

  2. Quantum coherence phenomena in semiconductor quantum dots: quantum interference, decoherence and Rabi oscillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Htoon, H.; Shih, C.K.; Takagahara, T.

    2003-01-01

    We performed extensive studies on quantum decoherence processes of excitons trapped in the various excited states of SAQDs. Energy level structure and dephasing times of excited states were first determined by conducting photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy and wave-packet interferometry on a large number of individual SAQDs. This large statistical basis allows us to extract the correlation between the energy level structure and dephasing times. The major decoherence mechanisms and their active regime were identified from this correlation. A significant suppression of decoherence was also observed in some of the energetically isolated excited states, providing an experimental evidence for the theoretical prediction, known as 'phonon bottleneck effect'. Furthermore, we observed the direct experimental evidence of Rabi oscillation in these excited states with long decoherence times. In addition, a new type of quantum interference (QI) phenomenon was discovered in the wave-packet interferometry experiments performed in the strong excitation regime where the non-linear effects of Rabi oscillation become important. Detailed theoretical investigations attribute this phenomenon to the coherent dynamics resulting from the interplay of Rabi oscillation and QI

  3. Anisotropic Exciton Rabi Oscillation in Single Telecommunication-Band Quantum Dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toshiyuki Miyazawa,; Toshihiro Nakaoka,; Katsuyuki Watanabe,; Naoto Kumagai,; Naoki Yokoyama,; Yasuhiko Arakawa,

    2010-06-01

    Anisotropic Rabi oscillation in the exciton state in a single InAs/GaAs quantum dot (QD) was demonstrated in the telecommunication-band by selecting two orthogonal polarization angles of the excitation laser. Our InAs QDs were embedded in an intrinsic layer of an n-i-Schottky diode, which provides an electric field to extract photoexcited carriers from QDs. Owing to the potential anisotropy of QDs, the fine structure splitting (FSS) energy in the exciton state in single InAs QDs was ˜110 μeV, measured by polarization-resolved photocurrent spectroscopy. The ratio between two different Rabi frequencies, which reflect anisotropic dipole moments of two orthogonal exciton states, was estimated to be ˜1.2. This demonstrates that the selective control of two orthogonal polarized exciton states is a promising technique for exciton-based-quantum information devices compatible with fiber optics.

  4. Analytical description of spin-Rabi oscillation controlled electronic transitions rates between weakly coupled pairs of paramagnetic states with S=(1)/(2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, R.; Baker, W. J.; Boehme, C.; Raikh, M. E.

    2013-04-01

    We report on the theoretical and experimental study of spin-dependent electronic transition rates which are controlled by a radiation-induced spin-Rabi oscillation of weakly spin-exchange and spin-dipolar coupled paramagnetic states (S=(1)/(2)). The oscillation components [the Fourier content, F(s)] of the net transition rates within spin-pair ensembles are derived for randomly distributed spin resonances, with an account of a possible correlation between the two distributions corresponding to individual pair partners. Our study shows that when electrically detected Rabi spectroscopy is conducted under an increasing driving field B1, the Rabi spectrum, F(s), evolves from a single peak at s=ΩR, where ΩR=γB1 is the Rabi frequency (γ is the gyromagnetic ratio), to three peaks at s=ΩR, s=2ΩR, and low s≪ΩR. The crossover between the two regimes takes place when ΩR exceeds the expectation value δ0 of the difference in the Zeeman energies within the pairs, which corresponds to the broadening of the magnetic resonance by disorder caused by a hyperfine field or distributions of Landé g factors. We capture this crossover by analytically calculating the shapes of all three peaks at an arbitrary relation between ΩR and δ0. When the peaks are well developed their widths are Δs˜δ02/ΩR. We find a good quantitative agreement between the theory and experiment.

  5. Oscillations of Doppler-Raby of two level atom moving in resonator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlovskij, A.V.

    2001-01-01

    The interaction of the two-level atom with the quantum mode of the high-quality resonator uniformly moving by the classic trajectory, is considered. The recurrent formula for the probability of the atom transition with the photon radiation is determined through the dressed states method. It is shown, that the ratio between the Doppler shift value of the atom transition and the Raby frequency value of the atom-field system qualitatively effects the dependence of the moving atom transition probability on its position in the resonator, as well as on its value [ru

  6. Rabi oscillation and electron-spin-echo envelope modulation of the photoexcited triplet spin system in silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Waseem; Sekiguchi, Takeharu; Itahashi, Tatsumasa; Filidou, Vasileia; Morton, John J. L.; Vlasenko, Leonid; Itoh, Kohei M.

    2012-09-01

    We report on a pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study of the photoexcited triplet state (S=1) of oxygen-vacancy centers in silicon. Rabi oscillations between the triplet sublevels are observed using coherent manipulation with a resonant microwave pulse. The Hahn echo and stimulated echo decay profiles are superimposed with strong modulations known as electron-spin-echo envelope modulation (ESEEM). The ESEEM spectra reveal a weak but anisotropic hyperfine coupling between the triplet electron spin and a 29Si nuclear spin (I=1/2) residing at a nearby lattice site, that cannot be resolved in conventional field-swept EPR spectra.

  7. Quantum resonances in a single plaquette of Josephson junctions: excitations of Rabi oscillations

    OpenAIRE

    Fistul, M. V.

    2001-01-01

    We present a theoretical study of a quantum regime of the resistive (whirling) state of dc driven anisotropic single plaquette containing three small Josephson junctions. The current-voltage characteristics of such a system display resonant steps that are due to the resonant interaction between the time dependent Josephson current and the excited electromagnetic oscillations (EOs). The voltage positions of the resonances are determined by the quantum interband transitions of EOs. We show that...

  8. Non-autonomous bright–dark solitons and Rabi oscillations in multi-component Bose–Einstein condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanna, T; Mareeswaran, R Babu; Tsitoura, F; Nistazakis, H E; Frantzeskakis, D J

    2013-01-01

    We study the dynamics of non-autonomous bright–dark matter-wave solitons in two- and three-component Bose–Einstein condensates. Our setting includes a time-dependent parabolic potential and scattering length, as well as Rabi coupling of the separate hyperfine states. By means of a similarity transformation, we transform the non-autonomous coupled Gross–Pitaevskii equations into the completely integrable Manakov model with defocusing nonlinearity, and construct the explicit form of the non-autonomous soliton solutions. The propagation characteristics for the one-soliton state, and collision scenarios for multiple soliton states are discussed in detail for two types of time-dependent nonlinearities: a kink-like one and a periodically modulated one, with appropriate time-dependence of the trapping potential. We find that in the two-component condensates the nature of soliton propagation is determined predominantly by the nature of the nonlinearity, as well as the temporal modulation of the harmonic potential; switching in this setting is essentially due to Rabi coupling. We also perform direct numerical simulation of the non-autonomous two-component coupled Gross–Pitaevskii equations to corroborate our analytical predictions. More interestingly, in the case of the three-component condensates, we find that the solitons can lead to collision-induced energy switching (energy sharing collision), that can be profitably used to control Rabi switching or vice versa. An interesting possibility of reversal of the nature of the constituent soliton, i.e., bright (dark) into dark (bright) due to Rabi coupling is demonstrated in the three-component setting. (paper)

  9. A quantum mechanical model of Rabi oscillations between two interacting harmonic oscillator modes and the interconversion of modes in a Penning trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kretzschmar, Martin

    1999-01-01

    When a Penning trap is operated with an additional quadrupole driving field with a frequency that equals a suitable combination (sum or difference) of the frequencies of the fundamental modes of motion (modified cyclotron, magnetron and axial frequency), then a periodic conversion of the participating modes into each other is observed, strongly resembling the Rabi oscillations in a 2-level atom driven by a laser field tuned to the transition frequency. This investigation attempts to understand on a fundamental level how and why the motion of a classical particle in a macroscopic apparatus can be truely analogous to the oscillations of states of quantum mechanical 2-level systems (2-level atom or magnetic resonance). Ion motion in a Penning trap with an additional quadrupole driving field is described in a quantum mechanical frame work. The Heisenberg equations of motion for the creation and annihilation operators of the interacting oscillators have been explicitly solved, the time development operator of the Schroedinger picture has been determined. The driving field provides for two types of intermode interaction: Type I preserves the total number of excitation quanta present in the two interacting modes, the system oscillates between the modes with a frequency corresponding to the Rabi frequency in two-level systems. Type II preserves the difference of the numbers of excitation quanta present in the two interacting modes, it causes the ion motion to become unbounded. The two types of interaction are associated in a natural way with a SU(2) and a SU(1,1) Lie algebra. The three generators of these algebras form a vector operator that we denote as the Bloch vector operator. The Hilbert space decomposes in a natural way into invariant subspaces, finite dimensional in the case of type I interaction (SU(2)-algebra) and infinite dimensional in the case of type II interaction (SU(1,1)-algebra). The physics of the 2-level atom in the laser field can be described in the 2

  10. To Rabi Hamiltonian through their Time Dependent Terms can be Reckons as Fractals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosary-Oyong, Se, Glory

    2016-03-01

    For light-matters interactions, ever replies by theLate HE. Mr. Prof M. Barmawi through Bose-Einstein condensates matter-waves ever retrieves [Boyce & DiPrima, 2015] instead of Richard Courant cq HE. Mr. Prof. Sudjoko Danusubroto's LKTM, Lustrum VI ITB, March 2, 1984. Follows ``Modified kernel to Quantum systems thorough Laplace inverse transformation'' whereas ``karyon'' in prokaryotes/eukaryotes meant as well as `kernel' , have been sought for `growth curve' & `potential of proton to other protons' the time dependent terms cos (ωt)exp[-iωot] whose integration y = sin ωt + c proves to be fractals h. 3 guided by Rabi Hamiltonian from Isidor Isaac Rabi,1944. Accompanying ``the Theory of Scale Relativity'' from Laurent Nottale/LUTH, the proofs of considerances whereas `time also are fractals', from Norways for Infra OMAN soughts a benchmark portfolio from Kjell Storvik, 2004: ``Socially Responsible Investment Strategies for the Norwegian Petroleum Fund'' whereas the Rabi frequency ? = 2 ɛ.deg/h can be relatively in comparisons expressed of capacitive [E.d/h]. Acknowledgment to HE. Mr. AUGUST PARENGKUAN if accepts 1995-2005 Invoicing & Fulfillments to ``KOMPAS'' cq the Prodi of Physics ITB.

  11. Flipping-shuttle oscillations of bright one- and two-dimensional solitons in spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensates with Rabi mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Hidetsugu; Malomed, Boris A.

    2017-10-01

    We analyze the possibility of macroscopic quantum effects in the form of coupled structural oscillations and shuttle motion of bright two-component spin-orbit-coupled striped (one-dimensional, 1D) and semivortex (two-dimensional, 2D) matter-wave solitons, under the action of linear mixing (Rabi coupling) between the components. In 1D, the intrinsic oscillations manifest themselves as flippings between spatially even and odd components of striped solitons, while in 2D the system features periodic transitions between zero-vorticity and vortical components of semivortex solitons. The consideration is performed by means of a combination of analytical and numerical methods.

  12. Temperature-Dependent Mollow Triplet Spectra from a Single Quantum Dot: Rabi Frequency Renormalization and Sideband Linewidth Insensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Yu-Jia; He, Yu; He, Yu-Ming

    2014-01-01

    We investigate temperature-dependent resonance fluorescence spectra obtained from a single self- assembled quantum dot. A decrease of the Mollow triplet sideband splitting is observed with increasing temperature, an effect we attribute to a phonon-induced renormalization of the driven dot Rabi fr...

  13. Dependence of synchronization frequency of Kuramoto oscillators ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kuramoto oscillators have been proposed earlier as a model for interacting systems that exhibit synchronization. In this article, we study the difference between networks with symmetric and asymmetric distribution of natural frequencies. We first indicate that synchronization frequency of oscillators in a completely connected ...

  14. PROFILAKSIS RABIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susilawathi NM

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Rabies merupakan penyakit ensefalitis akut yang disebabkan oleh virus RNA, famili Rhabdoviridae, genus lyssavirus. Anjing adalah reservoir utama penularan rabies, puluhan ribu kematian per tahun disebabkan oleh gigitan anjing rabies. Bila seseorang menunjukkan gejala rabies, biasanya selalu fatal.  Profilaksis terhadap rabies merupakan tindakan efektif dan aman. Mencuci luka dan vaksinasi segera setelah kontak dengan hewan tersangka rabies dapat mencegah timbulnya rabies hampir 100%. Strategi yang paling efektif untuk mencegah rabies adalah mengurangi penularan rabies pada anjing melalui vaksinasi.[MEDICINA 2009;40:55-9].

  15. Dependence of synchronization frequency of Kuramoto oscillators ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2Department of Theoretical Physics, Physical Research Laboratory, ... on the sine of the phase difference between the oscillators and hence, ... we study the change in synchronization frequency as the symmetry is changed under the limit of.

  16. Rabi oscillations and rapid-passage effects in the molecular-beam CO2-laser Stark spectroscopy of CH3F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, A.G.; Gough, T.E.; Isenor, N.R.; Scoles, G.

    1985-01-01

    sub-Doppler molecular-beam laser Stark spectroscopy has been employed to produce high-contrast Rabi oscillations in the ν 3 band of CH 3 F. By varying the intensity of the cw CO 2 laser, up to five complete oscillations were observed before the phenomenon was washed out by rapid-passage effects and damping mechanisms. Besides being useful in clarifying key features of coherent ir molecular-beam spectroscopy, the observation of Rabi oscillations provides one of the most accurate means of directly measuring transition dipole moments. Analysis of the present data on three rovibrational transitions, Q(1,1) -1reverse arrow0, P(1,0) 0reverse arrow0, and R(1,1) 0reverse arrow1, has yielded a rotationless transition dipole moment of 0.21 +- 0.01 D for the ν 3 = 1reverse arrow0 vibration. This result is in agreement with values estimated from both band-intensity and absorption-coefficient data in the literature

  17. Possible energy dependence of Θ13 in neutrino oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinkhamer, Frans R.

    2005-01-01

    A simple three-flavor neutrino-oscillation model is discussed which has both nonzero mass differences and timelike Fermi-point splittings, together with a combined bi-maximal and trimaximal mixing pattern. One possible consequence would be new effects in ν μ →ν e oscillations, characterized by an energy-dependent effective mixing angle Θ 13 . Future experiments such as T2K and NOνA, and perhaps even the current MINOS experiment, could look for these effects

  18. Intersubband Rabi oscillations in asymmetric nanoheterostructures: implications for a tunable continuous-wave source of a far-infrared and THz radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukushkin, V A

    2012-06-01

    A tunable continuous-wave source of a far-infrared and THz radiation based on a semiconductor nanoheterostructure with asymmetric quantum wells is suggested. It utilizes Rabi oscillations at a transition between quantum well subbands excited by external femtosecond pulses of a mid-infrared electromagnetic field. Due to quantum well broken inversion symmetry the subbands possess different average dipole moments, which enables the creation of polarization at the Rabi frequency as the subband populations change. It is shown that if this polarization is excited so that it is periodic in space, then, though being pulsed, it can produce continuous-wave output radiation. Changing the polarization space period and the time intervals between the exciting pulses, one can tune the frequency of this radiation throughout the far-infrared and THz range. In the present work a concrete multiple quantum well heterostructure design and a scheme of its space-periodic polarization are suggested. It is shown that for existing sources of mid-infrared femtosecond pulses the proposed scheme can provide a continuous-wave output power of order the power of far-infrared and THz quantum cascade lasers. Being added to the possibility of its output frequency tuning, this can make the suggested device attractive for fundamental research and various applications.

  19. Growth-rate-dependent dynamics of a bacterial genetic oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osella, Matteo; Lagomarsino, Marco Cosentino

    2013-01-01

    Gene networks exhibiting oscillatory dynamics are widespread in biology. The minimal regulatory designs giving rise to oscillations have been implemented synthetically and studied by mathematical modeling. However, most of the available analyses generally neglect the coupling of regulatory circuits with the cellular “chassis” in which the circuits are embedded. For example, the intracellular macromolecular composition of fast-growing bacteria changes with growth rate. As a consequence, important parameters of gene expression, such as ribosome concentration or cell volume, are growth-rate dependent, ultimately coupling the dynamics of genetic circuits with cell physiology. This work addresses the effects of growth rate on the dynamics of a paradigmatic example of genetic oscillator, the repressilator. Making use of empirical growth-rate dependencies of parameters in bacteria, we show that the repressilator dynamics can switch between oscillations and convergence to a fixed point depending on the cellular state of growth, and thus on the nutrients it is fed. The physical support of the circuit (type of plasmid or gene positions on the chromosome) also plays an important role in determining the oscillation stability and the growth-rate dependence of period and amplitude. This analysis has potential application in the field of synthetic biology, and suggests that the coupling between endogenous genetic oscillators and cell physiology can have substantial consequences for their functionality.

  20. Parametric Resonance in a Time-Dependent Harmonic Oscillator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Nesterov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the phenomenon of appearance of new resonances in a timedependent harmonic oscillator under an oscillatory decreasing force. The studied equation belongs to the class of adiabatic oscillators and arises in connection with the spectral problem for the one-dimensional Schr¨odinger equation with Wigner–von Neumann type potential. We use a specially developed method for asymptotic integration of linear systems of differential equations with oscillatory decreasing coefficients. This method uses the ideas of the averaging method to simplify the initial system. Then we apply Levinson’s fundamental theorem to get the asymptotics for its solutions. Finally, we analyze the features of a parametric resonance phenomenon. The resonant frequencies of perturbation are found and the pointwise type of the parametric resonance phenomenon is established. In conclusion, we construct an example of a time-dependent harmonic oscillator (adiabatic oscillator in which the parametric resonances, mentioned in the paper, may occur.

  1. Rabies (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... messages between the brain and the body. The rabies virus spreads through the nerves, first causing flu- ... to hallucinations, delirium, and insomnia. If left untreated, rabies is nearly always fatal.

  2. A Generalized Time-Dependent Harmonic Oscillator at Finite Temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majima, H.; Suzuki, A.

    2006-01-01

    We show how a generalized time-dependent harmonic oscillator (GTHO) is extended to a finite temperature case by using thermo field dynamics (TFD). We derive the general time-dependent annihilation and creation operators for the system, and obtain the time-dependent quasiparticle annihilation and creation operators for the GTHO by using the temperature-dependent Bogoliubov transformation of TFD. We also obtain the thermal state as a two-mode squeezed vacuum state in the time-dependent case as well as in the time-independent case. The general formula is derived to calculate the thermal expectation value of operators

  3. Thermal state of the general time-dependent harmonic oscillator

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Taking advantage of dynamical invariant operator, we derived quantum mechanical solution of general time-dependent harmonic oscillator. The uncertainty relation of the system is always larger than ħ=2 not only in number but also in the thermal state as expected. We used the diagonal elements of density operator ...

  4. Classical and quantum position-dependent mass harmonic oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz y Cruz, S.; Negro, J.; Nieto, L.M.

    2007-01-01

    The position-dependent mass oscillator is studied from both, classical and quantum mechanical points of view, in order to discuss the ambiguity on the operator ordering of the kinetic term in the quantum framework. The results are illustrated by some examples of specific mass functions

  5. The Feynman integral for time-dependent anharmonic oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grothaus, M.; Khandekar, D.C.; da Silva, J.L.; Streit, L.

    1997-01-01

    We review some basic notions and results of white noise analysis that are used in the construction of the Feynman integrand as a generalized white noise functional. We show that the Feynman integrand for the time-dependent harmonic oscillator in an external potential is a Hida distribution. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  6. Coherent states of general time-dependent harmonic oscillator

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. By introducing an invariant operator, we obtain exact wave functions for a general time-dependent quadratic harmonic oscillator. The coherent states, both in x- and p-spaces, are calculated. We confirm that the uncertainty product in coherent state is always larger than Η/2 and is equal to the minimum of the ...

  7. Localization of Cold Atoms in State-Dependent Optical Lattices via a Rabi Pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horstmann, Birger; Duerr, Stephan; Roscilde, Tommaso

    2010-01-01

    We propose a novel realization of Anderson localization in nonequilibrium states of ultracold atoms in an optical lattice. A Rabi pulse transfers part of the population to a different internal state with infinite effective mass. These frozen atoms create a quantum superposition of different disorder potentials, localizing the mobile atoms. For weakly interacting mobile atoms, Anderson localization is obtained. The localization length increases with increasing disorder and decreasing interaction strength, contrary to the expectation for equilibrium localization.

  8. Rabies: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabies: Questions and Answers Information about the disease and vaccines What causes rabies? Rabies is caused by a virus. The virus invades ... nervous system and disrupts its functioning. How does rabies spread? The rabies virus is transmitted in the ...

  9. Cell-Type-Specific Circuit Connectivity of Hippocampal CA1 Revealed through Cre-Dependent Rabies Tracing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Sun

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We developed and applied a Cre-dependent, genetically modified rabies-based tracing system to map direct synaptic connections to specific CA1 neuron types in the mouse hippocampus. We found common inputs to excitatory and inhibitory CA1 neurons from CA3, CA2, the entorhinal cortex (EC, the medial septum (MS, and, unexpectedly, the subiculum. Excitatory CA1 neurons receive inputs from both cholinergic and GABAergic MS neurons, whereas inhibitory neurons receive a great majority of inputs from GABAergic MS neurons. Both cell types also receive weaker input from glutamatergic MS neurons. Comparisons of inputs to CA1 PV+ interneurons versus SOM+ interneurons showed similar strengths of input from the subiculum, but PV+ interneurons received much stronger input than SOM+ neurons from CA3, the EC, and the MS. Thus, rabies tracing identifies hippocampal circuit connections and maps how the different input sources to CA1 are distributed with different strengths on each of its constituent cell types.

  10. Time-dependent coupled harmonic oscillators: classical and quantum solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macedo, D.X.; Guedes, I.

    2014-01-01

    In this work we present the classical and quantum solutions for an arbitrary system of time-dependent coupled harmonic oscillators, where the masses (m), frequencies (ω) and coupling parameter (k) are functions of time. To obtain the classical solutions, we use a coordinate and momentum transformations along with a canonical transformation to write the original Hamiltonian as the sum of two Hamiltonians of uncoupled harmonic oscillators with modified time-dependent frequencies and unitary masses. To obtain the exact quantum solutions we use a unitary transformation and the Lewis and Riesenfeld (LR) invariant method. The exact wave functions are obtained by solving the respective Milne–Pinney (MP) equation for each system. We obtain the solutions for the system with m 1 = m 2 = m 0 e γt , ω 1 = ω 01 e -γt/2 , ω 2 = ω 02 e -γt/2 and k = k 0 . (author)

  11. XFEL OSCILLATOR SIMULATION INCLUDING ANGLE-DEPENDENT CRYSTAL REFLECTIVITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawley, William; Lindberg, Ryan; Kim, K.-J.; Shvyd'ko, Yuri

    2010-01-01

    The oscillator package within the GINGER FEL simulation code has now been extended to include angle-dependent reflectivity properties of Bragg crystals. Previously, the package was modified to include frequencydependent reflectivity in order to model x-ray FEL oscillators from start-up from shot noise through to saturation. We present a summary of the algorithms used for modeling the crystal reflectivity and radiation propagation outside the undulator, discussing various numerical issues relevant to the domain of high Fresnel number and efficient Hankel transforms. We give some sample XFEL-O simulation results obtained with the angle-dependent reflectivity model, with particular attention directed to the longitudinal and transverse coherence of the radiation output.

  12. Time-dependent Hartree approximation and time-dependent harmonic oscillator model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaizot, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    We present an analytically soluble model for studying nuclear collective motion within the framework of the time-dependent Hartree (TDH) approximation. The model reduces the TDH equations to the Schroedinger equation of a time-dependent harmonic oscillator. Using canonical transformations and coherent states we derive a few properties of the time-dependent harmonic oscillator which are relevant for applications. We analyse the role of the normal modes in the time evolution of a system governed by TDH equations. We show how these modes couple together due to the anharmonic terms generated by the non-linearity of the theory. (orig.)

  13. Spatial dependence of plasma oscillations in Josephson tunnel junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Thorsten; Hansen, Jørn Bindslev

    1991-01-01

    of an applied magnetic field. Numerical simulations of the governing partial-differential sine-Gordon equation were performed and compared to the experimental results and a perturbation analysis. The theoretical results support the experiments and allow us to interpret the observed crossover as due...... field threading the tunneling barrier. We compare measurements where the plasma frequency was tuned either by applying a magnetic field or by raising the temperature. A crossover from short- to long-junction behavior of the functional dependence of the plasma oscillations was observed in the case...

  14. Photoionization of resonantly driven atomic states by an extreme ultraviolet-free-electron laser: intensity dependence and renormalization of Rabi frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, B; Brand, A; Glässl, M; Vagov, A; Axt, V M; Pietsch, U

    2013-01-01

    We analyze theoretically the high intensity photoionization dynamics of a system with two atomic states resonantly coupled by coherent extreme ultraviolet laser radiation that also gives rise to the ionization. The ground state occupation of such a system is shown to exhibit damped Rabi oscillations. The corresponding ionization, which is responsible for the damping, scales almost linearly with the field intensity when the pulse length exceeds the Rabi period. For shorter pulses a quadratic scaling is found. The Rabi frequency is shifted compared to its value for an isolated two-level system. The shift increases with excitation intensity and can acquire a high percentage of the unrenormalized frequency at high intensities. Analytical results obtained within a simplified solvable model demonstrate that the damping and the shift both result from the coupling of the discrete states to the ionization continuum and are therefore closely related. Numerical simulations for a two-electron system reveal at high intensities the importance of off-resonant ionization channels. (paper)

  15. Rabi-vibronic resonance with large number of vibrational quanta

    OpenAIRE

    Glenn, R.; Raikh, M. E.

    2011-01-01

    We study theoretically the Rabi oscillations of a resonantly driven two-level system linearly coupled to a harmonic oscillator (vibrational mode) with frequency, \\omega_0. We show that for weak coupling, \\omega_p \\ll \\omega_0, where \\omega_p is the polaronic shift, Rabi oscillations are strongly modified in the vicinity of the Rabi-vibronic resonance \\Omega_R = \\omega_0, where \\Omega_R is the Rabi frequency. The width of the resonance is (\\Omega_R-\\omega_0) \\sim \\omega_p^{2/3} \\omega_0^{1/3} ...

  16. Magnetic-Field Dependence of Raman Coupling Strength in Ultracold "4"0K Atomic Fermi Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Liang-Hui; Wang Peng-Jun; Meng Zeng-Ming; Peng Peng; Chen Liang-Chao; Li Dong-Hao; Zhang Jing

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the relation of Raman coupling strength with the external bias magnetic field in degenerate Fermi gas of "4"0K atoms. Two Raman lasers couple two Zeeman energy levels, whose energy splitting depends on the external bias magnetic field. The Raman coupling strength is determined by measuring the Rabi oscillation frequency. The characteristics of the Rabi oscillation is to be damped after several periods due to Fermi atoms in different momentum states oscillating with different Rabi frequencies. The experimental results show that the Raman coupling strength will decrease as the external bias magnetic field increases, which is in good agreement with the theoretical prediction. (paper)

  17. A position-dependent mass harmonic oscillator and deformed space

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Bruno G.; Borges, Ernesto P.

    2018-04-01

    We consider canonically conjugated generalized space and linear momentum operators x^ q and p^ q in quantum mechanics, associated with a generalized translation operator which produces infinitesimal deformed displacements controlled by a deformation parameter q. A canonical transformation (x ^ ,p ^ ) →(x^ q,p^ q ) leads the Hamiltonian of a position-dependent mass particle in usual space to another Hamiltonian of a particle with constant mass in a conservative force field of the deformed space. The equation of motion for the classical phase space (x, p) may be expressed in terms of the deformed (dual) q-derivative. We revisit the problem of a q-deformed oscillator in both classical and quantum formalisms. Particularly, this canonical transformation leads a particle with position-dependent mass in a harmonic potential to a particle with constant mass in a Morse potential. The trajectories in phase spaces (x, p) and (xq, pq) are analyzed for different values of the deformation parameter. Finally, we compare the results of the problem in classical and quantum formalisms through the principle of correspondence and the WKB approximation.

  18. Exact solution of a quantum forced time-dependent harmonic oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeon, Kyu Hwang; George, Thomas F.; Um, Chung IN

    1992-01-01

    The Schrodinger equation is used to exactly evaluate the propagator, wave function, energy expectation values, uncertainty values, and coherent state for a harmonic oscillator with a time dependent frequency and an external driving time dependent force. These quantities represent the solution of the classical equation of motion for the time dependent harmonic oscillator.

  19. Learning about Bats and Rabies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rabies and Kids! Rabies Learning about bats and rabies Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Most bats ... might contact people and pets. Bats and human rabies in the United States Rabies in humans is ...

  20. Tinnitus intensity dependent gamma oscillations of the contralateral auditory cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa van der Loo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Non-pulsatile tinnitus is considered a subjective auditory phantom phenomenon present in 10 to 15% of the population. Tinnitus as a phantom phenomenon is related to hyperactivity and reorganization of the auditory cortex. Magnetoencephalography studies demonstrate a correlation between gamma band activity in the contralateral auditory cortex and the presence of tinnitus. The present study aims to investigate the relation between objective gamma-band activity in the contralateral auditory cortex and subjective tinnitus loudness scores. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In unilateral tinnitus patients (N = 15; 10 right, 5 left source analysis of resting state electroencephalographic gamma band oscillations shows a strong positive correlation with Visual Analogue Scale loudness scores in the contralateral auditory cortex (max r = 0.73, p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Auditory phantom percepts thus show similar sound level dependent activation of the contralateral auditory cortex as observed in normal audition. In view of recent consciousness models and tinnitus network models these results suggest tinnitus loudness is coded by gamma band activity in the contralateral auditory cortex but might not, by itself, be responsible for tinnitus perception.

  1. Unconventional strain-dependent conductance oscillations in pristine phosphorene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, S J; Kamalakar, M Venkata

    2018-05-16

    Phosphorene is a single elemental, two-dimensional semiconductor that has quickly emerged as a high mobility material for transistors and optoelectronic devices. In addition, being a 2D material it can sustain high levels of strain, enabling sensitive modification of its electronic properties. In this paper, we investigate the strain dependent electronic properties of phosphorene nanocrystals. By performing extensive calculations we determine the electrical conductance as a function of uniaxial, as well as biaxial strain stimuli and uncover a unique zone phase diagram. This enables us to uncover conductance oscillations in pristine phosphorene for the first time, by the simple application of strain. We show that such unconventional current-voltage behaviour is tuneable by the nature of strain, and that an additional gate voltage can modulate the amplitude (peak to valley ratio) of the observed phenomena and its switching efficiency. Furthermore, we show that the switching is highly robust against doping and defects. Our detailed results present new leads for innovation in strain based gauging and high-frequency nanoelectronic switches of phosphorene.

  2. Burden of Rabies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit Button Past Emails The Burden of Rabies Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Learn how ... bitten by an animal that has the disease. Rabies in the U.S. Rabies continues to be a ...

  3. Travelers' Health: Rabies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fever Chapter 3 - Perspectives: Intradermal Rabies Preexposure Immunization Rabies Brett W. Petersen, Ryan M. Wallace, David R. ... animal. Box 3-04. World Health Organization, human rabies case definition Clinical case definition: a person presenting ...

  4. Attainable conditions and exact invariant for the time-dependent harmonic oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guasti, Manuel Fernandez [Lab. de Optica Cuantica, Dep. de Fisica, Universidad A. Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, Mexico DF, Ap. Post. 55-534 (Mexico)

    2006-09-22

    The time-dependent oscillator equation is solved numerically for various trajectories in amplitude and phase variables. The solutions exhibit a finite time-dependent parameter whenever the squared amplitude times the derivative of the phase is invariant. If the invariant relationship does not hold, the time-dependent parameter has divergent singularities. These observations lead to the proposition that the harmonic oscillator equation with finite time-dependent parameter must have amplitude and phase solutions fulfilling the invariant relationship. Since the time-dependent parameter or the potential must be finite for any real oscillator implementation, the invariant must hold for any such physically realizable system.

  5. Attainable conditions and exact invariant for the time-dependent harmonic oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guasti, Manuel Fernandez

    2006-01-01

    The time-dependent oscillator equation is solved numerically for various trajectories in amplitude and phase variables. The solutions exhibit a finite time-dependent parameter whenever the squared amplitude times the derivative of the phase is invariant. If the invariant relationship does not hold, the time-dependent parameter has divergent singularities. These observations lead to the proposition that the harmonic oscillator equation with finite time-dependent parameter must have amplitude and phase solutions fulfilling the invariant relationship. Since the time-dependent parameter or the potential must be finite for any real oscillator implementation, the invariant must hold for any such physically realizable system

  6. Temperature dependence of microwave oscillations in magnetic tunnel junctions with a perpendicularly magnetized free layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Peng; Feng, Jiafeng; Wei, Hongxiang; Han, Xiufeng; Fang, Bin; Zhang, Baoshun; Zeng, Zhongming

    2015-01-01

    We experimentally study the temperature dependence of the spin-transfer-torque-induced microwave oscillations in MgO-based magnetic tunnel junction nanopillars with a perpendicularly magnetized free layer. We demonstrate that the oscillation frequency increases rapidly with decreasing temperature, which is mainly ascribed to the temperature dependence of both the saturation magnetization and the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. We also find that a strong temperature dependence of the output power while a nonmonotonic temperature dependence of spectral linewidth are maintained for a constant dc bias in measured temperature range. Possible mechanisms leading to the different dependences of oscillation frequency, output power, and linewidth are discussed

  7. Suppression of error in qubit rotations due to Bloch-Siegert oscillation via the use of off-resonant Raman excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, Prabhakar; Cardoso, George C; Shahriar, M S

    2009-01-01

    The rotation of a quantum bit (qubit) is an important step in quantum computation. The rotation is generally performed using a Rabi oscillation. In a direct two-level qubit system, if the Rabi frequency is comparable to its resonance frequency, the rotating wave approximation is not valid, and the Rabi oscillation is accompanied by the so-called Bloch-Siegert oscillation (BSO) that occurs at twice the frequency of the driving field. One implication of the BSO is that for a given interaction time and Rabi frequency, the degree of rotation experienced by the qubit depends explicitly on the initial phase of the driving field. If this effect is not controlled, it leads to an apparent fluctuation in the rotation of the qubit. Here we show that when an off-resonant lambda system is used to realize a two-level qubit, the BSO is inherently negligible, thus eliminating this source of potential error.

  8. Exact Time-Dependent Wave Functions of a Confined Time-Dependent Harmonic Oscillator with Two Moving Boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, C.F.

    2009-01-01

    By applying the standard analytical techniques of solving partial differential equations, we have obtained the exact solution in terms of the Fourier sine series to the time-dependent Schroedinger equation describing a quantum one-dimensional harmonic oscillator of time-dependent frequency confined in an infinite square well with the two walls moving along some parametric trajectories. Based upon the orthonormal basis of quasi-stationary wave functions, the exact propagator of the system has also been analytically derived. Special cases like (i) a confined free particle, (ii) a confined time-independent harmonic oscillator, and (iii) an aging oscillator are examined, and the corresponding time-dependent wave functions are explicitly determined. Besides, the approach has been extended to solve the case of a confined generalized time-dependent harmonic oscillator for some parametric moving boundaries as well. (general)

  9. Rabies (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Rabies KidsHealth / For Parents / Rabies What's in this article? ... Treatment Prevention Print en español La rabia About Rabies Rabies infections in people are rare in the ...

  10. A hidden analytic structure of the Rabi model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moroz, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The Rabi model describes the simplest interaction between a cavity mode with a frequency ω c and a two-level system with a resonance frequency ω 0 . It is shown here that the spectrum of the Rabi model coincides with the support of the discrete Stieltjes integral measure in the orthogonality relations of recently introduced orthogonal polynomials. The exactly solvable limit of the Rabi model corresponding to Δ=ω 0 /(2ω c )=0, which describes a displaced harmonic oscillator, is characterized by the discrete Charlier polynomials in normalized energy ϵ, which are orthogonal on an equidistant lattice. A non-zero value of Δ leads to non-classical discrete orthogonal polynomials ϕ k (ϵ) and induces a deformation of the underlying equidistant lattice. The results provide a basis for a novel analytic method of solving the Rabi model. The number of ca. 1350 calculable energy levels per parity subspace obtained in double precision (cca 16 digits) by an elementary stepping algorithm is up to two orders of magnitude higher than is possible to obtain by Braak’s solution. Any first n eigenvalues of the Rabi model arranged in increasing order can be determined as zeros of ϕ N (ϵ) of at least the degree N=n+n t . The value of n t >0, which is slowly increasing with n, depends on the required precision. For instance, n t ≃26 for n=1000 and dimensionless interaction constant κ=0.2, if double precision is required. Given that the sequence of the lth zeros x nl ’s of ϕ n (ϵ)’s defines a monotonically decreasing discrete flow with increasing n, the Rabi model is indistinguishable from an algebraically solvable model in any finite precision. Although we can rigorously prove our results only for dimensionless interaction constant κ<1, numerics and exactly solvable example suggest that the main conclusions remain to be valid also for κ≥1. -- Highlights: •A significantly simplified analytic solution of the Rabi model. •The spectrum is the lattice of discrete

  11. Emergence of Slow Collective Oscillations in Neural Networks with Spike-Timing Dependent Plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, Kaare; Imparato, Alberto; Torcini, Alessandro

    2013-05-01

    The collective dynamics of excitatory pulse coupled neurons with spike-timing dependent plasticity is studied. The introduction of spike-timing dependent plasticity induces persistent irregular oscillations between strongly and weakly synchronized states, reminiscent of brain activity during slow-wave sleep. We explain the oscillations by a mechanism, the Sisyphus Effect, caused by a continuous feedback between the synaptic adjustments and the coherence in the neural firing. Due to this effect, the synaptic weights have oscillating equilibrium values, and this prevents the system from relaxing into a stationary macroscopic state.

  12. Gamma oscillation maintains stimulus structure-dependent synchronization in cat visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samonds, Jason M; Bonds, A B

    2005-01-01

    Visual cortical cells demonstrate both oscillation and synchronization, although the underlying causes and functional significance of these behaviors remain uncertain. We simultaneously recorded single-unit activity with microelectrode arrays in supragranular layers of area 17 of cats paralyzed and anesthetized with propofol and N(2)O. Rate-normalized autocorrelograms of 24 cells reveal bursting (100%) and gamma oscillation (63%). Renewal density analysis, used to explore the source of oscillation, suggests a contribution from extrinsic influences such as feedback. However, a bursting refractory period, presumably membrane-based, could also encourage oscillatory firing. When we investigated the source of synchronization for 60 cell pairs we found only moderate correlation of synchrony with bursts and oscillation. We did, nonetheless, discover a possible functional role for oscillation. In all cases of cross-correlograms that exhibited oscillation, the strength of the synchrony was maintained throughout the stimulation period. When no oscillation was apparent, 75% of the cell pairs showed decay in their synchronization. The synchrony between cells is strongly dependent on similar response onset latencies. We therefore propose that structured input, which yields tight organization of latency, is a more likely candidate for the source of synchronization than oscillation. The reliable synchrony at response onset could be driven by spatial and temporal correlation of the stimulus that is preserved through the earlier stages of the visual system. Oscillation then contributes to maintenance of the synchrony to enhance reliable transmission of the information for higher cognitive processing.

  13. Dependence of Helium II viscosity properties on oscillation frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadirashvili, Z.S.; Tsakadze, J.S.

    1979-01-01

    The causes of a discrepancy in the results of measurements of He II viscosity below Tapprox. =1.6 K obtained with different measurement methods are investigated. It is shown that to obtain correct results in oscillation experiments, the condition delta>>lambda/sub ph/ should obtain, where delta is the depth of viscous wave penetration and lambda/sub ph/ is the phonon free path length. Results of viscosity measurements at different ratios delta/lambda/sub ph/ (by a wire viscometer) are presented. It is shown that for the condition delta>>lambda/sub ph/, the results obtained are in good agreement with the results of Andronikashvili (in which delta/lambda/sub ph/>100). If the mentioned relation is not satisfied, then as the value of the ratio delta/lambda/sub ph/ is decreased, the value measured for the viscosity is increasingly lower than the results of Andronikashvili

  14. Time dependent analysis of Xenon spatial oscillations in small power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decco, Claudia Cristina Ghirardello

    1997-01-01

    This work presents time dependent analysis of xenon spatial oscillations studying the influence of the power density distribution, type of reactivity perturbation, power level and core size, using the one-dimensional and three-dimensional analysis with the MID2 and citation codes, respectively. It is concluded that small pressurized water reactors with height smaller than 1.5 m are stable and do not have xenon spatial oscillations. (author)

  15. Rabies in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabies in the Americas Search this site Welcome Previous Meetings Steering Committee Contact Sitemap Welcome The Rabies in the Americas (RITA) meeting is an annual event that has been held since 1990 managers of rabies programs, wildlife biologists, laboratory personnel and other people interested in

  16. Relaxation oscillations induced by amplitude-dependent frequency in dissipative trapped electron mode turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, P.W.; Ware, A.S.; Newman, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    A nonlinear frequency shift in dissipative trapped electron mode turbulence is shown to give rise to a relaxation oscillation in the saturated power density spectrum. A simple non-Markovian closure for the coupled evolution of ion momentum and electron density response is developed to describe the oscillations. From solutions of a nonlinear oscillator model based on the closure, it is found that the oscillation is driven by the growth rate, as modified by the amplitude-dependent frequency shift, with inertia provided by the memory of the growth rate of prior amplitudes. This memory arises from time-history integrals common to statistical closures. The memory associated with a finite time of energy transfer between coupled spectrum components does not sustain the oscillation in the simple model. Solutions of the model agree qualitatively with the time-dependent numerical solutions of the original dissipative trapped electron model, yielding oscillations with the proper phase relationship between the fluctuation energy and the frequency shift, the proper evolution of the wave number spectrum shape and particle flux, and a realistic period

  17. Symmetries and Invariants of the Time-dependent Oscillator Equation and the Envelope Equation

    CERN Document Server

    Qin, Hong

    2005-01-01

    Single-particle dynamics in a time-dependent focusing field is examined. The existence of the Courant-Snyder invariant* is fundamentally the result of the corresponding symmetry admitted by the oscillator equation with time-dependent frequency.** A careful analysis of the admitted symmetries reveals a deeper connection between the nonlinear envelope equation and the oscillator equation. A general theorem regarding the symmetries and invariants of the envelope equation, which includes the existence of the Courant-Snyder invariant as a special case, is demonstrated. The symmetries of the envelope equation enable a fast algorithm for finding matched solutions without using the conventional iterative shooting method.

  18. Contribution to rabies prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureau, P

    1992-01-01

    After the end of the Second World War, an outbreak of fox rabies invaded Europe. For the immunization of human populations and domestic animals against the risk of rabies transmitted by infected wild animals, it appeared necessary to replace the first generation of rabies vaccines (nerve tissue vaccines) by more potent and safer vaccines. The European vaccine manufacturers, in close collaboration with the research institutes engaged in rabies research, soon and quickly developed a second generation of rabies vaccines, produced in cell cultures including continuous cell lines grown in bioreactors of industrial scale. The third generation of rabies vaccines is already available: the vaccinia-rabies glycoprotein recombinant vaccine is presently applied on a large scale in some European countries for immunization of wildlife. The canarypox recombinant vaccine has already been considered and successfully tested for human immunization.

  19. Update on rabies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan C Jackson

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Alan C JacksonDepartments of Internal Medicine (Neurology and Medical Microbiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, CanadaAbstract: Human rabies is almost invariably fatal, and globally it remains an important public health problem. Our knowledge of rabies pathogenesis has been learned mainly from studies performed in experimental animal models, and a number of unresolved issues remain. In contrast with the neural pathway of spread, there is still no credible evidence that hematogenous spread of rabies virus to the central nervous system plays a significant role in rabies pathogenesis. Although neuronal dysfunction has been thought to explain the neurological disease in rabies, recent evidence indicates that structural changes involving neuronal processes may explain the severe clinical disease and fatal outcome. Endemic dog rabies results in an ongoing risk to humans in many resource-limited and resource-poor countries, whereas rabies in wildlife is important in North America and Europe. In human cases in North America, transmission from bats is most common, but there is usually no history of a bat bite and there may be no history of contact with bats. Physicians may not recognize typical features of rabies in North America and Europe. Laboratory diagnostic evaluation for rabies includes rabies serology plus skin biopsy, cerebrospinal fluid, and saliva specimens for rabies virus antigen and/or RNA detection. Methods of postexposure rabies prophylaxis, including wound cleansing and administration of rabies vaccine and human rabies immune globulin, are highly effective after recognized exposure. Although there have been rare survivors of human rabies, no effective therapy is presently available. Therapeutic coma (midazolam and phenobarbital, ketamine, and antiviral therapies (known as the “Milwaukee protocol” were given to a rabies survivor, but this therapy was likely not directly responsible for the favorable outcome. New therapeutic

  20. Stimulus-dependent modulation of spontaneous low-frequency oscillations in the rat visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liangming; Liu, Yadong; Gui, Jianjun; Li, Ming; Hu, Dewen

    2014-08-06

    Research on spontaneous low-frequency oscillations is important to reveal underlying regulatory mechanisms in the brain. The mechanism for the stimulus modulation of low-frequency oscillations is not known. Here, we used the intrinsic optical imaging technique to examine stimulus-modulated low-frequency oscillation signals in the rat visual cortex. The stimulation was presented monocularly as a flashing light with different frequencies and intensities. The phases of low-frequency oscillations in different regions tended to be synchronized and the rhythms typically accelerated within a 30-s period after stimulation. These phenomena were confined to visual stimuli with specific flashing frequencies (12.5-17.5 Hz) and intensities (5-10 mA). The acceleration and synchronization induced by the flashing frequency were more marked than those induced by the intensity. These results show that spontaneous low-frequency oscillations can be modulated by parameter-dependent flashing lights and indicate the potential utility of the visual stimulus paradigm in exploring the origin and function of low-frequency oscillations.

  1. Unified thalamic model generates multiple distinct oscillations with state-dependent entrainment by stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoshi Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The thalamus plays a critical role in the genesis of thalamocortical oscillations, yet the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. To understand whether the isolated thalamus can generate multiple distinct oscillations, we developed a biophysical thalamic model to test the hypothesis that generation of and transition between distinct thalamic oscillations can be explained as a function of neuromodulation by acetylcholine (ACh and norepinephrine (NE and afferent synaptic excitation. Indeed, the model exhibited four distinct thalamic rhythms (delta, sleep spindle, alpha and gamma oscillations that span the physiological states corresponding to different arousal levels from deep sleep to focused attention. Our simulation results indicate that generation of these distinct thalamic oscillations is a result of both intrinsic oscillatory cellular properties and specific network connectivity patterns. We then systematically varied the ACh/NE and input levels to generate a complete map of the different oscillatory states and their transitions. Lastly, we applied periodic stimulation to the thalamic network and found that entrainment of thalamic oscillations is highly state-dependent. Our results support the hypothesis that ACh/NE modulation and afferent excitation define thalamic oscillatory states and their response to brain stimulation. Our model proposes a broader and more central role of the thalamus in the genesis of multiple distinct thalamo-cortical rhythms than previously assumed.

  2. Spatio-temporal Use of Oral Rabies Vaccines in Fox Rabies Elimination Programmes in Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F Müller

    Full Text Available In Europe, the elimination of wildlife rabies using oral rabies vaccination [ORV] of foxes for more than 30 years has been a success story. Since a comprehensive review on the scope of the different oral rabies vaccine baits distributed across Europe has not been available yet, we evaluated the use of different vaccine baits over the entire period of ORV [1978-2014]. Our findings provide valuable insights into the complexity of ORV programs in terms of vaccine related issues. More than 10 oral vaccines against rabies were used over the past four decades. Depending on many factors, the extent to which oral rabies virus vaccines were used varied considerably resulting in huge differences in the number of vaccine doses disseminated in ORV campaigns as well as in large spatial and temporal overlaps. Although vaccine virus strains derived from the SAD rabies virus isolate were the most widely used, the success of ORV campaigns in Europe cannot be assigned to a single oral rabies virus vaccine alone. Rather, the successful elimination of fox rabies is the result of an interaction of different key components of ORV campaigns, i.e. vaccine strain, vaccine bait and strategy of distribution.

  3. Spatio-temporal Use of Oral Rabies Vaccines in Fox Rabies Elimination Programmes in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Thomas F.; Schröder, Ronald; Wysocki, Patrick; Mettenleiter, Thomas C.; Freuling, Conrad M.

    2015-01-01

    In Europe, the elimination of wildlife rabies using oral rabies vaccination [ORV] of foxes for more than 30 years has been a success story. Since a comprehensive review on the scope of the different oral rabies vaccine baits distributed across Europe has not been available yet, we evaluated the use of different vaccine baits over the entire period of ORV [1978–2014]. Our findings provide valuable insights into the complexity of ORV programs in terms of vaccine related issues. More than 10 oral vaccines against rabies were used over the past four decades. Depending on many factors, the extent to which oral rabies virus vaccines were used varied considerably resulting in huge differences in the number of vaccine doses disseminated in ORV campaigns as well as in large spatial and temporal overlaps. Although vaccine virus strains derived from the SAD rabies virus isolate were the most widely used, the success of ORV campaigns in Europe cannot be assigned to a single oral rabies virus vaccine alone. Rather, the successful elimination of fox rabies is the result of an interaction of different key components of ORV campaigns, i.e. vaccine strain, vaccine bait and strategy of distribution. PMID:26280895

  4. Potential Confounding of Diagnosis of Rabies in Patients with Recent Receipt of Intravenous Immune Globulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vora, Neil M; Orciari, Lillian A; Bertumen, J Bradford; Damon, Inger; Ellison, James A; Fowler, Vance G; Franka, Richard; Petersen, Brett W; Satheshkumar, P S; Schexnayder, Stephen M; Smith, Todd G; Wallace, Ryan M; Weinstein, Susan; Williams, Carl; Yager, Pamela; Niezgoda, Michael

    2018-02-09

    Rabies is an acute encephalitis that is nearly always fatal. It is caused by infection with viruses of the genus Lyssavirus, the most common of which is Rabies lyssavirus. The Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE) defines a confirmed human rabies case as an illness compatible with rabies that meets at least one of five different laboratory criteria.* Four of these criteria do not depend on the patient's rabies vaccination status; however, the remaining criterion, "identification of Lyssavirus-specific antibody (i.e. by indirect fluorescent antibody…test or complete [Rabies lyssavirus] neutralization at 1:5 dilution) in the serum," is only considered diagnostic in unvaccinated patients. Lyssavirus-specific antibodies include Rabies lyssavirus-specific binding immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies and Rabies lyssavirus neutralizing antibodies (RLNAs). This report describes six patients who were tested for rabies by CDC and who met CSTE criteria for confirmed human rabies because they had illnesses compatible with rabies, had not been vaccinated for rabies, and were found to have serum RLNAs (with complete Rabies lyssavirus neutralization at a serum dilution of 1:5). An additional four patients are described who were tested for rabies by CDC who were found to have serum RLNAs (with incomplete Rabies lyssavirus neutralization at a serum dilution of 1:5) despite having not been vaccinated for rabies. None of these 10 patients received a rabies diagnosis; rather, they were considered to have been passively immunized against rabies through recent receipt of intravenous immune globulin (IVIG). Serum RLNA test results should be interpreted with caution in patients who have not been vaccinated against rabies but who have recently received IVIG.

  5. Emergence of slow collective oscillations in neural networks with spike-timing dependent plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Kaare; Imparato, Alberto; Torcini, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    The collective dynamics of excitatory pulse coupled neurons with spike timing dependent plasticity (STDP) is studied. The introduction of STDP induces persistent irregular oscillations between strongly and weakly synchronized states, reminiscent of brain activity during slow-wave sleep. We explain...

  6. Coherent states for the time dependent harmonic oscillator: the step function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moya-Cessa, Hector; Fernandez Guasti, Manuel

    2003-01-01

    We study the time evolution for the quantum harmonic oscillator subjected to a sudden change of frequency. It is based on an approximate analytic solution to the time dependent Ermakov equation for a step function. This approach allows for a continuous treatment that differs from former studies that involve the matching of two time independent solutions at the time when the step occurs

  7. Time-dependent Thomas-Fermi approach to nuclear monopole oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pi, M.; Barranco, M.; Nemeth, J.; Ngo, C.; Tomasi, E.

    1985-10-01

    A Time-dependent Thomas-Fermi (TDTF) method has been used to study nuclear monopole oscillations and in particular, the semiclassical strength function S(E). An analysis of the S(E) moments, obtained by suitable integrations, shows that these results are in good agreement with data previously obtained from static Thomas-Fermi calculations

  8. The harmonic oscillator and the position dependent mass Schroedinger equation: isospectral partners and factorization operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, J.; Ovando, G.; Pena, J. J.

    2010-01-01

    One of the most important scientific contributions of Professor Marcos Moshinsky has been his study on the harmonic oscillator in quantum theory vis a vis the standard Schroedinger equation with constant mass [1]. However, a simple description of the motion of a particle interacting with an external environment such as happen in compositionally graded alloys consist of replacing the mass by the so-called effective mass that is in general variable and dependent on position. Therefore, honoring in memoriam Marcos Moshinsky, in this work we consider the position-dependent mass Schrodinger equations (PDMSE) for the harmonic oscillator potential model as former potential as well as with equi-spaced spectrum solutions, i.e. harmonic oscillator isospectral partners. To that purpose, the point canonical transformation method to convert a general second order differential equation (DE), of Sturm-Liouville type, into a Schroedinger-like standard equation is applied to the PDMSE. In that case, the former potential associated to the PDMSE and the potential involved in the Schroedinger-like standard equation are related through a Riccati-type relationship that includes the equivalent of the Witten superpotential to determine the exactly solvable positions-dependent mass distribution (PDMD)m(x). Even though the proposed approach is exemplified with the harmonic oscillator potential, the procedure is general and can be straightforwardly applied to other DEs.

  9. A thermostable messenger RNA based vaccine against rabies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stitz, Lothar; Vogel, Annette; Schnee, Margit; Voss, Daniel; Rauch, Susanne; Mutzke, Thorsten; Ketterer, Thomas; Kramps, Thomas; Petsch, Benjamin

    2017-12-01

    Although effective rabies virus vaccines have been existing for decades, each year, rabies virus infections still cause around 50.000 fatalities worldwide. Most of these cases occur in developing countries, where these vaccines are not available. The reasons for this are the prohibitive high costs of cell culture or egg grown rabies virus vaccines and the lack of a functional cold chain in many regions in which rabies virus is endemic. Here, we describe the excellent temperature resistance of a non-replicating mRNA based rabies virus vaccine encoding the rabies virus glycoprotein (RABV-G). Prolonged storage of the vaccine from -80°C to up to +70°C for several months did not impact the protective capacity of the mRNA vaccine. Efficacy after storage was demonstrated by the induction of rabies specific virus neutralizing antibodies and protection in mice against lethal rabies infection. Moreover, storing the vaccine at oscillating temperatures between +4° and +56°C for 20 cycles in order to simulate interruptions of the cold chain during vaccine transport, did not affect the vaccine's immunogenicity and protective characteristics, indicating that maintenance of a cold chain is not essential for this vaccine.

  10. Oscillating in synchrony with a metronome: serial dependence, limit cycle dynamics, and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, Kjerstin; Balasubramaniam, Ramesh; Delignières, Didier

    2010-07-01

    We analyzed serial dependencies in periods and asynchronies collected during oscillations performed in synchrony with a metronome. Results showed that asynchronies contain 1/f fluctuations, and the series of periods contain antipersistent dependence. The analysis of the phase portrait revealed a specific asymmetry induced by synchronization. We propose a hybrid limit cycle model including a cycle-dependent stiffness parameter provided with fractal properties, and a parametric driving function based on velocity. This model accounts for most experimentally evidenced statistical features, including serial dependence and limit cycle dynamics. We discuss the results and modeling choices within the framework of event-based and emergent timing.

  11. Frequency-dependent transient response of an oscillating electrically actuated droplet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dash, S; Kumari, N; Garimella, S V

    2012-01-01

    The transient response of a millimeter-sized sessile droplet under electrical actuation is experimentally investigated. Under dc actuation, the droplet spreading rate increases as the applied voltage is increased due to the higher electrical forces induced. At sufficiently high dc voltages, competition between the electrical actuation force, droplet inertia, the retarding surface tension force and contact line friction leads to droplet oscillation. The timescale for the droplet to attain its maximum wetted diameter during step actuation is analyzed. Systematic experiments are conducted over a frequency range of 5–200 Hz and actuation voltages of 40–80 V rms to determine the dependence of droplet oscillation on these parameters. The response of the droplet to different actuation frequencies and voltages is determined in terms of its contact angle and contact radius variation. The frequency of the driving force (equal to twice the frequency of the applied electrical signal) determines the mode of oscillation of the droplet which, together with its resonance characteristics, governs whether the droplet contact angle and contact radius vary in phase or out of phase with each other. In addition to the primary frequency response at the electrical forcing frequency, the droplet oscillation exhibits sub-harmonic oscillation at half of the forcing frequency that is attributed to the parametric nature of the electrical force acting on the triple contact line of the droplet. (paper)

  12. A Prospective Study of Age-dependent Changes in Propofol-induced Electroencephalogram Oscillations in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Johanna M; Akeju, Oluwaseun; Terzakis, Kristina; Pavone, Kara J; Deng, Hao; Houle, Timothy T; Firth, Paul G; Shank, Erik S; Brown, Emery N; Purdon, Patrick L

    2017-08-01

    In adults, frontal electroencephalogram patterns observed during propofol-induced unconsciousness consist of slow oscillations (0.1 to 1 Hz) and coherent alpha oscillations (8 to 13 Hz). Given that the nervous system undergoes significant changes during development, anesthesia-induced electroencephalogram oscillations in children may differ from those observed in adults. Therefore, we investigated age-related changes in frontal electroencephalogram power spectra and coherence during propofol-induced unconsciousness. We analyzed electroencephalogram data recorded during propofol-induced unconsciousness in patients between 0 and 21 yr of age (n = 97), using multitaper spectral and coherence methods. We characterized power and coherence as a function of age using multiple linear regression analysis and within four age groups: 4 months to 1 yr old (n = 4), greater than 1 to 7 yr old (n = 16), greater than 7 to 14 yr old (n = 30), and greater than 14 to 21 yr old (n = 47). Total electroencephalogram power (0.1 to 40 Hz) peaked at approximately 8 yr old and subsequently declined with increasing age. For patients greater than 1 yr old, the propofol-induced electroencephalogram structure was qualitatively similar regardless of age, featuring slow and coherent alpha oscillations. For patients under 1 yr of age, frontal alpha oscillations were not coherent. Neurodevelopmental processes that occur throughout childhood, including thalamocortical development, may underlie age-dependent changes in electroencephalogram power and coherence during anesthesia. These age-dependent anesthesia-induced electroencephalogram oscillations suggest a more principled approach to monitoring brain states in pediatric patients.

  13. Rabi dynamics of coupled atomic and molecular Bose-Einstein condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishkhanyan, Artur; Chernikov, G.P.; Nakamura, Hiroki

    2004-01-01

    The dynamics of coherent Rabi oscillations in coupled atomic and molecular Bose-Einstein condensates is considered taking into account the atom-atom, atom-molecule, and molecule-molecule elastic interactions. The exact solution for the molecule formation probability is derived in terms of the elliptic functions. The two-dimensional space of the involved parameters intensity and detuning is analyzed and divided into two regions where the Rabi oscillations show different characteristics. A resonance curve is found, on which the molecular formation probability monotonically increases as a function of time. The maximum value of the final transition probability on this curve is 1/2 (i.e., total transition to the molecular state) and it is achieved at high field intensities starting from a minimal threshold defined by the interspecies interaction scattering lights. The explicit form of the resonance curve is determined, and it is shown that the resonance frequency position reveals a nonlinear dependence on the Rabi frequency of the applied field. A singular point is found on the resonance curve, where a power-law time evolution of the system is observed

  14. Rabies in Kazakhstan

    OpenAIRE

    Sultanov, Akmetzhan A.; Abdrakhmanov, Sarsenbay K.; Abdybekova, Aida M.; Karatayev, Bolat S.; Torgerson, Paul R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Rabies is a neglected zoonotic disease. There is a sparsity of data on this disease with regard to the incidence of human and animal disease in many low and middle income countries. Furthermore, rabies results in a large economic impact and a high human burden of disease. Kazakhstan is a large landlocked middle income country that gained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991 and is endemic for rabies. Methodology/Principal Findings We used detailed public health and veterina...

  15. Rabies in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultanov, Akmetzhan A; Abdrakhmanov, Sarsenbay K; Abdybekova, Aida M; Karatayev, Bolat S; Torgerson, Paul R

    2016-08-01

    Rabies is a neglected zoonotic disease. There is a sparsity of data on this disease with regard to the incidence of human and animal disease in many low and middle income countries. Furthermore, rabies results in a large economic impact and a high human burden of disease. Kazakhstan is a large landlocked middle income country that gained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991 and is endemic for rabies. We used detailed public health and veterinary surveillance data from 2003 to 2015 to map where livestock rabies is occurring. We also estimate the economic impact and human burden of rabies. Livestock and canine rabies occurred over most of Kazakhstan, but there were regional variations in disease distribution. There were a mean of 7.1 officially recorded human fatalities due to rabies per year resulting in approximately 457 Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). A mean of 64,289 individuals per annum underwent post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) which may have resulted in an additional 1140 DALYs annually. PEP is preventing at least 118 cases of human rabies each year or possibly as many as 1184 at an estimated cost of $1193 or $119 per DALY averted respectively. The estimated economic impact of rabies in Kazakhstan is $20.9 million per annum, with nearly half of this cost being attributed to the cost of PEP and the loss of income whilst being treated. A further $5.4 million per annum was estimated to be the life time loss of income for fatal cases. Animal vaccination programmes and animal control programmes also contributed substantially to the economic losses. The direct costs due to rabies fatalities of agricultural animals was relatively low. This study demonstrates that in Kazakhstan there is a substantial economic cost and health impact of rabies. These costs could be reduced by modifying the vaccination programme that is now practised. The study also fills some data gaps on the epidemiology and economic effects of rabies in respect to Kazakhstan.

  16. Klein-Gordon oscillator with position-dependent mass in the rotating cosmic string spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing-Qian; Long, Zheng-Wen; Long, Chao-Yun; Wu, Shu-Rui

    2018-02-01

    A spinless particle coupled covariantly to a uniform magnetic field parallel to the string in the background of the rotating cosmic string is studied. The energy levels of the electrically charged particle subject to the Klein-Gordon oscillator are analyzed. Afterwards, we consider the case of the position-dependent mass and show how these energy levels depend on the parameters in the problem. Remarkably, it shows that for the special case, the Klein-Gordon oscillator coupled covariantly to a homogeneous magnetic field with the position-dependent mass in the rotating cosmic string background has the similar behaviors to the Klein-Gordon equation with a Coulomb-type configuration in a rotating cosmic string background in the presence of an external magnetic field.

  17. Effect of state-dependent delay on a weakly damped nonlinear oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jonathan L; Carr, Thomas W

    2011-04-01

    We consider a weakly damped nonlinear oscillator with state-dependent delay, which has applications in models for lasers, epidemics, and microparasites. More generally, the delay-differential equations considered are a predator-prey system where the delayed term is linear and represents the proliferation of the predator. We determine the critical value of the delay that causes the steady state to become unstable to periodic oscillations via a Hopf bifurcation. Using asymptotic averaging, we determine how the system's behavior is influenced by the functional form of the state-dependent delay. Specifically, we determine whether the branch of periodic solutions will be either sub- or supercritical as well as an accurate estimation of the amplitude. Finally, we choose a few examples of state-dependent delay to test our analytical results by comparing them to numerical continuation.

  18. Distinguishing quantum from classical oscillations in a driven phase qubit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevchenko, S N; Omelyanchouk, A N; Zagoskin, A M; Savel'ev, S; Nori, Franco

    2008-01-01

    Rabi oscillations are coherent transitions in a quantum two-level system under the influence of a resonant drive, with a much lower frequency dependent on the perturbation amplitude. These serve as one of the signatures of quantum coherent evolution in mesoscopic systems. It was shown recently (Groenbech-Jensen N and Cirillo M 2005 Phys. Rev. Lett. 95 067001) that in phase qubits (current-biased Josephson junctions) this effect can be mimicked by classical oscillations arising due to the anharmonicity of the effective potential. Nevertheless, we find qualitative differences between the classical and quantum effects. Firstly, while the quantum Rabi oscillations can be produced by the subharmonics of the resonant frequency ω 10 (multiphoton processes), the classical effect also exists when the system is excited at the overtones, nω 10 . Secondly, the shape of the resonance is, in the classical case, characteristically asymmetric, whereas quantum resonances are described by symmetric Lorentzians. Thirdly, the anharmonicity of the potential results in the negative shift of the resonant frequency in the classical case, in contrast to the positive Bloch-Siegert shift in the quantum case. We show that in the relevant range of parameters these features allow us to distinguish confidently the bona fide Rabi oscillations from their classical Doppelgaenger

  19. Circadian Oscillations within the Hippocampus Support Hippocampus-dependent Memory Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Lynn Eckel-Mahan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The ability to sustain memories over long periods of time, sometimes even a lifetime, is one of the most remarkable properties of the brain. Much knowledge has been gained over the past few decades regarding the molecular correlates of memory formation. Once a memory is forged, however, the molecular events that provide permanence are as of yet unclear. Studies in multiple organisms have revealed that circadian rhythmicity is important for the formation, stability, and recall of memories [1]. The neuronal events that provide this link need to be explored further. This article will discuss the findings related to the circadian regulation of memory-dependent processes in the hippocampus. Specifically, the circadian-controlled MAP kinase and cAMP signal transduction pathway plays critical roles in the consolidation of hippocampus-dependent memory. A series of studies have revealed the circadian oscillation of this pathway within the hippocampus, an activity that is absent in memory-deficient, transgenic mice lacking Ca2+-stimulated adenylyl cyclases. Interference with these oscillations proceeding the cellular memory consolidation period impairs the persistence of hippocampus-dependent memory. These data suggest that the persistence of long-term memories may depend upon reactivation of this signal transduction pathway in the hippocampus during the circadian cycle. New data reveals the dependence of hippocampal oscillation in MAPK activity on the SCN, again underscoring the importance of this region in maintaining the circadian physiology of memory. Finally, the downstream ramification of these oscillations in terms of gene expression and epigenetics should be considered, as emerging evidence is pointing strongly to a circadian link between epigenetics and long term synaptic plasticity.

  20. The role of inelastic processes in the temperature dependence of hall induced resistance oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunold, Alejandro; Torres, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    We develop a model of magnetoresistance oscillations induced by the Hall field in order to study the temperature dependence observed in recent experiments in two dimensional electron systems. The model is based on the solution of the von Neumann equation incorporating the exact dynamics of two-dimensional damped electrons in the presence of arbitrarily strong magnetic and dc electric fields, while the effects of randomly distributed neutral and charged impurities are perturbatively added. Both the effects of elastic impurity scattering as well as those related to inelastic processes play an important role. The theoretical predictions correctly reproduce the experimentally observed oscillations amplitude, provided that the quantum inelastic scattering rate obeys a T 2 temperature dependence, consistent with electron–electron interaction effects

  1. Energy dependent modulation of the ulf ion flux oscillations observed at small pitch angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, S.; Konradi, A.; Fritz, T.A.

    1979-01-01

    The characteristics of the ultralow frequency oscillations in the ion fluxes observed at small pitch angles by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminstration detector telescopes on board ATS 6 are again examined. The present report concentrates on the dramatic variation of the flux modulations detected in various energy channels during a single event which occurred on February 18, 1975. The wave amplitude is observed to be larger in a higher energy channel with energies from 100 keV to 150 keV and to decrease toward the lower energy channels. The lowest-energy protons (25--33 keV) in general are seldom seen to be oscillating, but in this event they display a low-amplitude oscillation which is 180 0 out of p ase with the adjacent channel. Such energy dependent modulation of the flux oscillation is thought to be a consequence of the wave particle resonant interaction. However, the prediction of the bounce resonant interaction is not consistent with the observations of both the energy dependent variation of the flux amplitudes and a 180 0 change in the oscillation phase in the adjacent low-energy channels that occurred in the February 18, 1975, event. Since the shape of the undisturned particle distribution can also determine the variation of the particle perturbation at various energies, the first-order particle distribution derived in a homogeneous plasma with a uniform magnetic field is examined without any specification of the wave mode. When the average particle distribution during the wave observation is used together with a parallel wave electric field that presumably causes the flux modulation at small pitch angles, a reasonable agreement is found between the variation of flux modulation derived from the slope of the average particle distribution and that from the experimental observation

  2. Symmetries and invariants of the oscillator and envelope equations with time-dependent frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Qin

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The single-particle dynamics in a time-dependent focusing field is examined. The existence of the Courant-Snyder invariant, a fundamental concept in accelerator physics, is fundamentally a result of the corresponding symmetry admitted by the harmonic oscillator equation with linear time-dependent frequency. It is demonstrated that the Lie algebra of the symmetry group for the oscillator equation with time-dependent frequency is eight dimensional, and is composed of four independent subalgebras. A detailed analysis of the admitted symmetries reveals a deeper connection between the nonlinear envelope equation and the oscillator equation. A general theorem regarding the symmetries and invariants of the envelope equation, which includes the existence of the Courant-Snyder invariant as a special case, is demonstrated. As an application to accelerator physics, the symmetries of the envelope equation enable a fast numerical algorithm for finding matched solutions without using the conventional iterative Newton’s method, where the envelope equation needs to be numerically integrated once for every iteration, and the Jacobi matrix needs to be calculated for the envelope perturbation.

  3. Lead-position dependent regular oscillations and random fluctuations of conductance in graphene quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Liang; Yang Rui; Lai Yingcheng; Ferry, David K

    2013-01-01

    Quantum interference causes a wavefunction to have sensitive spatial dependence, and this has a significant effect on quantum transport. For example, in a quantum-dot system, the conductance can depend on the lead positions. We investigate, for graphene quantum dots, the conductance variations with the lead positions. Since for graphene the types of boundaries, e.g., zigzag and armchair, can fundamentally affect the quantum transport characteristics, we focus on rectangular graphene quantum dots, for which the effects of boundaries can be systematically studied. For both zigzag and armchair horizontal boundaries, we find that changing the positions of the leads can induce significant conductance variations. Depending on the Fermi energy, the variations can be either regular oscillations or random conductance fluctuations. We develop a physical theory to elucidate the origin of the conductance oscillation/fluctuation patterns. In particular, quantum interference leads to standing-wave-like-patterns in the quantum dot which, in the absence of leads, are regulated by the energy-band structure of the corresponding vertical graphene ribbon. The observed ‘coexistence’ of regular oscillations and random fluctuations in the conductance can be exploited for the development of graphene-based nanodevices. (paper)

  4. Demystifying the constancy of the Ermakov-Lewis invariant for a time-dependent oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, T.

    2018-03-01

    It is well known that the time-dependent harmonic oscillator (TDHO) possesses a conserved quantity, usually called Ermakov-Lewis invariant. I provide a simple physical interpretation of this invariant as well as a whole family of related invariants. This interpretation does not seem to have been noticed in the literature before. The procedure also allows one to tackle some key conceptual issues which arise in the study of quantum fields in the external, time-dependent backgrounds like in the case of particle production in an expanding universe and Schwinger effect.

  5. Acute Stress Affects the Expression of Hippocampal Mu Oscillations in an Age-Dependent Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Takillah

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Anxiolytic drugs are widely used in the elderly, a population particularly sensitive to stress. Stress, aging and anxiolytics all affect low-frequency oscillations in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC independently, but the interactions between these factors remain unclear. Here, we compared the effects of stress (elevated platform, EP and anxiolytics (diazepam, DZP on extracellular field potentials (EFP in the PFC, parietal cortex and hippocampus (dorsal and ventral parts of adult (8 months and aged (18 months Wistar rats. A potential source of confusion in the experimental studies in rodents comes from locomotion-related theta (6–12 Hz oscillations, which may overshadow the direct effects of anxiety on low-frequency and especially on the high-amplitude oscillations in the Mu range (7–12 Hz, related to arousal. Animals were restrained to avoid any confound and isolate the direct effects of stress from theta oscillations related to stress-induced locomotion. We identified transient, high-amplitude oscillations in the 7–12 Hz range (“Mu-bursts” in the PFC, parietal cortex and only in the dorsal part of hippocampus. At rest, aged rats displayed more Mu-bursts than adults. Stress acted differently on Mu-bursts depending on age: it increases vs. decreases burst, in adult and aged animals, respectively. In contrast DZP (1 mg/kg acted the same way in stressed adult and age animal: it decreased the occurrence of Mu-bursts, as well as their co-occurrence. This is consistent with DZP acting as a positive allosteric modulator of GABAA receptors, which globally potentiates inhibition and has anxiolytic effects. Overall, the effect of benzodiazepines on stressed animals was to restore Mu burst activity in adults but to strongly diminish them in aged rats. This work suggests Mu-bursts as a neural marker to study the impact of stress and DZP on age.

  6. Acute Stress Affects the Expression of Hippocampal Mu Oscillations in an Age-Dependent Manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takillah, Samir; Naudé, Jérémie; Didienne, Steve; Sebban, Claude; Decros, Brigitte; Schenker, Esther; Spedding, Michael; Mourot, Alexandre; Mariani, Jean; Faure, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Anxiolytic drugs are widely used in the elderly, a population particularly sensitive to stress. Stress, aging and anxiolytics all affect low-frequency oscillations in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC) independently, but the interactions between these factors remain unclear. Here, we compared the effects of stress (elevated platform, EP) and anxiolytics (diazepam, DZP) on extracellular field potentials (EFP) in the PFC, parietal cortex and hippocampus (dorsal and ventral parts) of adult (8 months) and aged (18 months) Wistar rats. A potential source of confusion in the experimental studies in rodents comes from locomotion-related theta (6-12 Hz) oscillations, which may overshadow the direct effects of anxiety on low-frequency and especially on the high-amplitude oscillations in the Mu range (7-12 Hz), related to arousal. Animals were restrained to avoid any confound and isolate the direct effects of stress from theta oscillations related to stress-induced locomotion. We identified transient, high-amplitude oscillations in the 7-12 Hz range ("Mu-bursts") in the PFC, parietal cortex and only in the dorsal part of hippocampus. At rest, aged rats displayed more Mu-bursts than adults. Stress acted differently on Mu-bursts depending on age: it increases vs. decreases burst, in adult and aged animals, respectively. In contrast DZP (1 mg/kg) acted the same way in stressed adult and age animal: it decreased the occurrence of Mu-bursts, as well as their co-occurrence. This is consistent with DZP acting as a positive allosteric modulator of GABA A receptors, which globally potentiates inhibition and has anxiolytic effects. Overall, the effect of benzodiazepines on stressed animals was to restore Mu burst activity in adults but to strongly diminish them in aged rats. This work suggests Mu-bursts as a neural marker to study the impact of stress and DZP on age.

  7. A generalization of the quantum Rabi model: exact solution and spectral structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckle, Hans-Peter; Johannesson, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    We consider a generalization of the quantum Rabi model where the two-level system and the single-mode cavity oscillator are coupled by an additional Stark-like term. By adapting a method recently introduced by Braak (2011 Phys. Rev. Lett . 107 100401), we solve the model exactly. The low-lying spectrum in the experimentally relevant ultrastrong and deep strong regimes of the Rabi coupling is found to exhibit two striking features absent from the original quantum Rabi model: avoided level crossings for states of the same parity and an anomalously rapid onset of two-fold near-degenerate levels as the Rabi coupling increases. (paper)

  8. Measurement of the time dependence of B0-B0(bar) oscillations using inclusive dilepton events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera, Barbara

    2000-10-16

    A preliminary study of time dependence of B{sup 0}{bar B}{sup 0} oscillations using dilepton events is presented. The flavor of the B meson is determined by the charge sign of the lepton. To separate signal leptons from cascade and fake leptons we have used a method which combines several discriminating variables in a neural network. The time evolution of the oscillations is studied by reconstructing the time difference between the decays of the B mesons produced by the {Upsilon}(4S) decay. With an integrated luminosity of 7.7 fb{sup -1} collected on resonance by BABAR at the PEP-II asymmetric B Factory, we measure the difference in mass of the neutral B eigenstates, {Delta}m{sub B{sup 0}}, to be (0.507 {+-} 0.015 {+-} 0.022) x 10{sup 12} {Dirac_h} s{sup -1}.

  9. Classical oscillator with position-dependent mass in a complex domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Subir; Modak, Sujoy Kumar

    2009-01-01

    We study complexified Harmonic Oscillator with a position-dependent mass, termed as Complex Exotic Oscillator (CEO). The complexification induces a gauge invariance [A.V. Smilga, J. Phys. A 41 (2008) 244026, (arXiv:0706.4064); A. Mostafazadeh, J. Math. Phys. 43 (2002) 205; A. Mostafazadeh, J. Math. Phys. 43 (2002) 2814; A. Mostafazadeh, J. Math. Phys. 43 (2002) 3944]. The role of PT-symmetry is discussed from the perspective of classical trajectories of CEO for real energy. Some trajectories of CEO are similar to those for the particle in a quartic potential in the complex domain [C.M. Bender, S. Boettcher, P.N. Meisinger, J. Math. Phys. 40 (1999) 2201; C.M. Bender, D.D. Holm, D. Hook, J. Phys. A 40 (2007) F793, (arXiv:0705.3893)

  10. Dynamics of vector dark soliton induced by the Rabi coupling in one-dimensional trapped Bose–Einstein condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chao-Fei; Lu, Min; Liu, Wei-Qing

    2012-01-01

    The Rabi coupling between two components of Bose–Einstein condensates is used to controllably change ordinary dark soliton into dynamic vector dark soliton or ordinary vector dark soliton. When all inter- and intraspecies interactions are equal, the dynamic vector dark soliton is exactly constructed by two sub-dark-solitons, which oscillate with the same velocity and periodically convert with each other. When the interspecies interactions deviate from the intraspecies ones, the whole soliton can maintain its essential shape, but the sub-dark-soliton becomes inexact or is broken. This study indicates that the Rabi coupling can be used to obtain various vector dark solitons. -- Highlights: ► We consider the Rabi coupling to affect the dark soliton in BECs. ► We examine the changes of the initial dark solitons. ► The structure of the soliton depends on the inter- and intraspecies interactions strength. ► The Rabi coupling can be used to obtain various vector dark solitons.

  11. Input-dependent frequency modulation of cortical gamma oscillations shapes spatial synchronization and enables phase coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowet, Eric; Roberts, Mark; Hadjipapas, Avgis; Peter, Alina; van der Eerden, Jan; De Weerd, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Fine-scale temporal organization of cortical activity in the gamma range (∼25-80Hz) may play a significant role in information processing, for example by neural grouping ('binding') and phase coding. Recent experimental studies have shown that the precise frequency of gamma oscillations varies with input drive (e.g. visual contrast) and that it can differ among nearby cortical locations. This has challenged theories assuming widespread gamma synchronization at a fixed common frequency. In the present study, we investigated which principles govern gamma synchronization in the presence of input-dependent frequency modulations and whether they are detrimental for meaningful input-dependent gamma-mediated temporal organization. To this aim, we constructed a biophysically realistic excitatory-inhibitory network able to express different oscillation frequencies at nearby spatial locations. Similarly to cortical networks, the model was topographically organized with spatially local connectivity and spatially-varying input drive. We analyzed gamma synchronization with respect to phase-locking, phase-relations and frequency differences, and quantified the stimulus-related information represented by gamma phase and frequency. By stepwise simplification of our models, we found that the gamma-mediated temporal organization could be reduced to basic synchronization principles of weakly coupled oscillators, where input drive determines the intrinsic (natural) frequency of oscillators. The gamma phase-locking, the precise phase relation and the emergent (measurable) frequencies were determined by two principal factors: the detuning (intrinsic frequency difference, i.e. local input difference) and the coupling strength. In addition to frequency coding, gamma phase contained complementary stimulus information. Crucially, the phase code reflected input differences, but not the absolute input level. This property of relative input-to-phase conversion, contrasting with latency codes

  12. Neuronal Oscillations Indicate Sleep-dependent Changes in the Cortical Memory Trace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köster, Moritz; Finger, Holger; Kater, Maren-Jo; Schenk, Christoph; Gruber, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Sleep promotes the consolidation of newly acquired associative memories. Here we used neuronal oscillations in the human EEG to investigate sleep-dependent changes in the cortical memory trace. The retrieval activity for object-color associations was assessed immediately after encoding and after 3 hr of sleep or wakefulness. Sleep had beneficial effects on memory performance and led to reduced event-related theta and gamma power during the retrieval of associative memories. Furthermore, event-related alpha suppression was attenuated in the wake group for memorized and novel stimuli. There were no sleep-dependent changes in retrieval activity for missed items or items retrieved without color. Thus, the sleep-dependent reduction in theta and gamma oscillations was specific for the retrieval of associative memories. In line with theoretical accounts on sleep-dependent memory consolidation, decreased theta may indicate reduced mediotemporal activity because of a transfer of information into neocortical networks during sleep, whereas reduced parietal gamma may reflect effects of synaptic downscaling. Changes in alpha suppression in the wake group possibly index reduced attentional resources that may also contribute to a lower memory performance in this group. These findings indicate that the consolidation of associative memories during sleep is associated with profound changes in the cortical memory trace and relies on multiple neuronal processes working in concert.

  13. Rabies: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun Kumar Dutta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is a fatal disease caused by rabies virus, a neurotropic virus and a prototype of Lyssavirus of Rhabdoviridae family. It is transmitted to human beings through infected saliva of dogs and cats during bite. Dog is the cause of more than 90% of human rabies in India. The incubation period is 4-8 weeks (but it may vary from 5 days to 7 years. There are two clinical types of rabies - encephalitic (furious and paralytic (dumb types. In the encephalitic (furious form, the principal malfunction is in the brain stem and limbic system. Patient has hydrophobia in the full-blown form, but the mind remains clear till the end. Death occurs within a week after the onset of symptoms. Paralytic rabies resembles Guillain-Barre syndrome. Diagnosis is mostly clinical. However, direct fluorescent antibody test is used to identify the antigen in skin biopsy from the nape of neck. In the postmortem specimen, demonstration of Negri bodies in the brain confirms the diagnosis. Anti-rabies vaccine is used for pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis. The commonly used intramuscular (IM regimen is being superseded by intradermal (ID vaccine because it makes the treatment economical. Whereas touching of animal or lick on intact skin does not require vaccination, any transdermal bite with bleeding requires immediate administration of rabies immunoglobulin (RIG and simultaneous vaccination with a tissue culture vaccine (TCV. Minor abrasion without bleeding may require only vaccination and no RIG. Rabies human monoclonal antibody (RMAb is the newest entry in the prophylaxis of rabies which may ultimately replace RIG. Prognosis is grave since there are just six reports of survivors. Treatment is mainly palliative with heavy sedation and/or therapeutic coma (Milwaukee protocol.

  14. Dependence of the colored frequency noise in spin torque oscillators on current and magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Anders; Bonetti, Stefano; Sani, Sohrab R.; Majid Mohseni, S.; Persson, Johan; Chung, Sunjae; Amir Hossein Banuazizi, S.; Iacocca, Ezio; Östling, Mikael; Åkerman, Johan; Gunnar Malm, B.

    2014-03-01

    The nano-scale spin torque oscillator (STO) is a compelling device for on-chip, highly tunable microwave frequency signal generation. Currently, one of the most important challenges for the STO is to increase its longer-time frequency stability by decreasing the 1/f frequency noise, but its high level makes even its measurement impossible using the phase noise mode of spectrum analyzers. Here, we present a custom made time-domain measurement system with 150 MHz measurement bandwidth making possible the investigation of the variation of the 1/f as well as the white frequency noise in a STO over a large set of operating points covering 18-25 GHz. The 1/f level is found to be highly dependent on the oscillation amplitude-frequency non-linearity and the vicinity of unexcited oscillation modes. These findings elucidate the need for a quantitative theoretical treatment of the low-frequency, colored frequency noise in STOs. Based on the results, we suggest that the 1/f frequency noise possibly can be decreased by improving the microstructural quality of the metallic thin films.

  15. Dependence of the colored frequency noise in spin torque oscillators on current and magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eklund, Anders; Sani, Sohrab R.; Chung, Sunjae; Amir Hossein Banuazizi, S.; Östling, Mikael; Gunnar Malm, B.; Bonetti, Stefano; Majid Mohseni, S.; Persson, Johan; Iacocca, Ezio; Åkerman, Johan

    2014-01-01

    The nano-scale spin torque oscillator (STO) is a compelling device for on-chip, highly tunable microwave frequency signal generation. Currently, one of the most important challenges for the STO is to increase its longer-time frequency stability by decreasing the 1/f frequency noise, but its high level makes even its measurement impossible using the phase noise mode of spectrum analyzers. Here, we present a custom made time-domain measurement system with 150 MHz measurement bandwidth making possible the investigation of the variation of the 1/f as well as the white frequency noise in a STO over a large set of operating points covering 18–25 GHz. The 1/f level is found to be highly dependent on the oscillation amplitude-frequency non-linearity and the vicinity of unexcited oscillation modes. These findings elucidate the need for a quantitative theoretical treatment of the low-frequency, colored frequency noise in STOs. Based on the results, we suggest that the 1/f frequency noise possibly can be decreased by improving the microstructural quality of the metallic thin films

  16. Pacemaker neuron and network oscillations depend on a neuromodulator-regulated linear current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunbing Zhao

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Linear leak currents have been implicated in the regulation of neuronal excitability, generation of neuronal and network oscillations, and network state transitions. Yet, few studies have directly tested the dependence of network oscillations on leak currents or explored the role of leak currents on network activity. In the oscillatory pyloric network of decapod crustaceans neuromodulatory inputs are necessary for pacemaker activity. A large subset of neuromodulators is known to activate a single voltage-gated inward current IMI, which has been shown to regulate the rhythmic activity of the network and its pacemaker neurons. Using the dynamic clamp technique, we show that the crucial component of IMI for the generation of oscillatory activity is only a close-to-linear portion of the current-voltage relationship. The nature of this conductance is such that the presence or the absence of neuromodulators effectively regulates the amount of leak current and the input resistance in the pacemaker neurons. When deprived of neuromodulatory inputs, pyloric oscillations are disrupted; yet, a linear reduction of the total conductance in a single neuron within the pacemaker group recovers not only the pacemaker activity in that neuron, but also leads to a recovery of oscillations in the entire pyloric network. The recovered activity produces proper frequency and phasing that is similar to that induced by neuromodulators. These results show that the passive properties of pacemaker neurons can significantly affect their capacity to generate and regulate the oscillatory activity of an entire network, and that this feature is exploited by neuromodulatory inputs.

  17. The fermionic projector in a time-dependent external potential: Mass oscillation property and Hadamard states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finster, Felix; Murro, Simone; Röken, Christian

    2016-07-01

    We give a non-perturbative construction of the fermionic projector in Minkowski space coupled to a time-dependent external potential which is smooth and decays faster than quadratically for large times. The weak and strong mass oscillation properties are proven. We show that the integral kernel of the fermionic projector is of the Hadamard form, provided that the time integral of the spatial sup-norm of the potential satisfies a suitable bound. This gives rise to an algebraic quantum field theory of Dirac fields in an external potential with a distinguished pure quasi-free Hadamard state.

  18. The fermionic projector in a time-dependent external potential: Mass oscillation property and Hadamard states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finster, Felix; Murro, Simone; Röken, Christian

    2016-01-01

    We give a non-perturbative construction of the fermionic projector in Minkowski space coupled to a time-dependent external potential which is smooth and decays faster than quadratically for large times. The weak and strong mass oscillation properties are proven. We show that the integral kernel of the fermionic projector is of the Hadamard form, provided that the time integral of the spatial sup-norm of the potential satisfies a suitable bound. This gives rise to an algebraic quantum field theory of Dirac fields in an external potential with a distinguished pure quasi-free Hadamard state.

  19. The fermionic projector in a time-dependent external potential: Mass oscillation property and Hadamard states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finster, Felix, E-mail: finster@ur.de, E-mail: simone.murro@ur.de, E-mail: Christian.Roeken@mathematik.ur.de; Murro, Simone, E-mail: finster@ur.de, E-mail: simone.murro@ur.de, E-mail: Christian.Roeken@mathematik.ur.de; Röken, Christian, E-mail: finster@ur.de, E-mail: simone.murro@ur.de, E-mail: Christian.Roeken@mathematik.ur.de [Fakultät für Mathematik, Universität Regensburg, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany)

    2016-07-15

    We give a non-perturbative construction of the fermionic projector in Minkowski space coupled to a time-dependent external potential which is smooth and decays faster than quadratically for large times. The weak and strong mass oscillation properties are proven. We show that the integral kernel of the fermionic projector is of the Hadamard form, provided that the time integral of the spatial sup-norm of the potential satisfies a suitable bound. This gives rise to an algebraic quantum field theory of Dirac fields in an external potential with a distinguished pure quasi-free Hadamard state.

  20. Rabies in Captive Deer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-30

    Dr. Brett Petersen, a medical officer at CDC, discusses rabies in captive deer.  Created: 4/30/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/30/2012.

  1. Rabies in Transplant Recipients

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-09-19

    Dr. Richard Franka, a CDC scientist, discusses rabies in organ transplant recipients.  Created: 9/19/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 9/19/2016.

  2. Rabi splitting in an acoustic cavity embedded plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni, Xu; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Chen, Ze-Guo; Zheng, Li-Yang; Xu, Ye-Long; Lu, Ming-Hui; Chen, Yan-Feng

    2014-01-01

    We design a structure to realize Rabi splitting and Rabi oscillation in acoustics. We develop rigorous analytical models to analyze the splitting effect from the aspect of phase matching, and from the aspect of mode coupling using a coupled mode model. In this model, we discover that the splitting effect is caused by the coupling of the Fabry–Perot fundamental mode with the resonant mode of an artificial acoustic ‘atom’. We then extract the coupling strength and analyze the impact of structural parameters on it. In addition, we demonstrate Rabi oscillation in the time domain. Such quantum phenomena in the classical regime may have potential applications in the design of novel ultrasonic devices.

  3. Protective Effect of Different Anti-Rabies Virus VHH Constructs against Rabies Disease in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terryn, Sanne; Francart, Aurélie; Lamoral, Sophie; Hultberg, Anna; Rommelaere, Heidi; Wittelsberger, Angela; Callewaert, Filip; Stohr, Thomas; Meerschaert, Kris; Ottevaere, Ingrid; Stortelers, Catelijne; Vanlandschoot, Peter; Kalai, Michael; Van Gucht, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Rabies virus causes lethal brain infection in about 61000 people per year. Each year, tens of thousands of people receive anti-rabies prophylaxis with plasma-derived immunoglobulins and vaccine soon after exposure. Anti-rabies immunoglobulins are however expensive and have limited availability. VHH are the smallest antigen-binding functional fragments of camelid heavy chain antibodies, also called Nanobodies. The therapeutic potential of anti-rabies VHH was examined in a mouse model using intranasal challenge with a lethal dose of rabies virus. Anti-rabies VHH were administered directly into the brain or systemically, by intraperitoneal injection, 24 hours after virus challenge. Anti-rabies VHH were able to significantly prolong survival or even completely rescue mice from disease. The therapeutic effect depended on the dose, affinity and brain and plasma half-life of the VHH construct. Increasing the affinity by combining two VHH with a glycine-serine linker into bivalent or biparatopic constructs, increased the neutralizing potency to the picomolar range. Upon direct intracerebral administration, a dose as low as 33 µg of the biparatopic Rab-E8/H7 was still able to establish an anti-rabies effect. The effect of systemic treatment was significantly improved by increasing the half-life of Rab-E8/H7 through linkage with a third VHH targeted against albumin. Intraperitoneal treatment with 1.5 mg (2505 IU, 1 ml) of anti-albumin Rab-E8/H7 prolonged the median survival time from 9 to 15 days and completely rescued 43% of mice. For comparison, intraperitoneal treatment with the highest available dose of human anti-rabies immunoglobulins (65 mg, 111 IU, 1 ml) only prolonged survival by 2 days, without rescue. Overall, the therapeutic benefit seemed well correlated with the time of brain exposure and the plasma half-life of the used VHH construct. These results, together with the ease-of-production and superior thermal stability, render anti-rabies VHH into valuable

  4. Anisotropic Rabi model

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Qiong-Tao; Cui, Shuai; Cao, Jun-Peng; Amico, Luigi; Fan, Heng

    2014-01-01

    We define the anisotropic Rabi model as the generalization of the spin-boson Rabi model: The Hamiltonian system breaks the parity symmetry; the rotating and counterrotating interactions are governed by two different coupling constants; a further parameter introduces a phase factor in the counterrotating terms. The exact energy spectrum and eigenstates of the generalized model are worked out. The solution is obtained as an elaboration of a recently proposed method for the isotropic limit of th...

  5. How optimal synchronization of oscillators depends on the network structure and the individual dynamical properties of the oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markovic, R; Gosak, M; Marhl, M

    2013-01-01

    The problem of making a network of dynamical systems synchronize onto a common evolution is the subject of much ongoing research in several scientific disciplines. It is nowadays a well-known fact that the synchronization processes are gradually influenced by the interaction topology between the dynamically interacting units. A complex coupling configuration can significantly affect the synchronization abilities of a networked system. However, the question arises what is the optimal network topology that provides enhancement of the synchronization features under given circumstances. In order to address this issue we make use of a network model in which we can smoothly tune the topology from a highly heterogeneous and efficient scale-free network to a homogeneous and less efficient network. The network is then populated with Poincaré oscillators, a paradigmatic model for limit-cycle oscillations. This oscillator model exhibits a parameter that enables changes of the limit cycle attraction and is thus immediately related to flexibility/rigidity properties of the oscillator. Our results reveal that for weak attractions of the limit cycle, intermediate homogeneous topology ensures maximal synchronization, whereas highly heterogeneous scale-free topology ensures maximal synchronization for strong attractions of the limit cycle. We argue that the flexibility/rigidity of individual nodes of the networks defines the topology, where maximal global coherence is achieved.

  6. Rabies diagnosis for developing countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salome Dürr

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Canine rabies is a neglected disease causing 55,000 human deaths worldwide per year, and 99% of all cases are transmitted by dog bites. In N'Djaména, the capital of Chad, rabies is endemic with an incidence of 1.71/1,000 dogs (95% C.I. 1.45-1.98. The gold standard of rabies diagnosis is the direct immunofluorescent antibody (DFA test, requiring a fluorescent microscope. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, Atlanta, United States of America developed a histochemical test using low-cost light microscopy, the direct rapid immunohistochemical test (dRIT. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We evaluated the dRIT in the Chadian National Veterinary Laboratory in N'Djaména by testing 35 fresh samples parallel with both the DFA and dRIT. Additional retests (n = 68 in Chad, n = 74 at CDC by DFA and dRIT of stored samples enhanced the power of the evaluation. All samples were from dogs, cats, and in one case from a bat. The dRIT performed very well compared to DFA. We found a 100% agreement of the dRIT and DFA in fresh samples (n = 35. Results of retesting at CDC and in Chad depended on the condition of samples. When the sample was in good condition (fresh brain tissue, we found simple Cohen's kappa coefficient related to the DFA diagnostic results in fresh tissue of 0.87 (95% C.I. 0.63-1 up to 1. For poor quality samples, the kappa values were between 0.13 (95% C.I. -0.15-0.40 and 0.48 (95% C.I. 0.14-0.82. For samples stored in glycerol, dRIT results were more likely to agree with DFA testing in fresh samples than the DFA retesting. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The dRIT is as reliable a diagnostic method as the gold standard (DFA for fresh samples. It has an advantage of requiring only light microscopy, which is 10 times less expensive than a fluorescence microscope. Reduced cost suggests high potential for making rabies diagnosis available in other cities and rural areas of Africa for large populations for which a capacity for

  7. Controllable conditional quantum oscillations and quantum gate operations in superconducting flux qubits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Aimin; Cho Samyoung

    2011-01-01

    Conditional quantum oscillations are investigated for quantum gate operations in superconducting flux qubits. We present an effective Hamiltonian which describes a conditional quantum oscillation in two-qubit systems. Rabi-type quantum oscillations are discussed in implementing conditional quantum oscillations to quantum gate operations. Two conditional quantum oscillations depending on the states of control qubit can be synchronized to perform controlled-gate operations by varying system parameters. It is shown that the conditional quantum oscillations with their frequency synchronization make it possible to operate the controlled-NOT and -U gates with a very accurate gate performance rate in interacting qubit systems. Further, this scheme can be applicable to realize a controlled multi-qubit operation in various solid-state qubit systems. (author)

  8. Dynamical properties of the Rabi model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Binglu; Zhou, Huili; Chen, Shujie; Xianlong, Gao; Wang, Kelin

    2017-01-01

    We study the dynamical properties of the quantum Rabi model using a systematic expansion method. Based on the observation that the parity symmetry of the Rabi model is kept during evolution of the states, we decompose the initial state and the time-dependent one into positive and negative parity parts expanded by superposition of the coherent states. The evolutions of the corresponding positive and the negative parities are obtained, in which the expansion coefficients in the dynamical equations are known from the derived recurrence relation. (paper)

  9. Time-Dependent Simulation of Free-Electron Laser Amplifiers and Oscillators

    CERN Document Server

    Freund, H

    2005-01-01

    Time-dependent FEL simulations use a variety of techniques. Most simulations use a slowly varying envelope approximation (SVEA). One such technique assumes that the envelope varies only in z combined with a field representation as an ensemble of discrete harmonics, which is equivalent to a time-dependent simulation [1] but is computationally prohibitive. A second technique uses an SVEA in both in z and t [2]. The particles and fields are advanced in z using the same process as in steady-state simulations and then the time derivative describing slippage is applied. This is used in wiggler-averaged codes such as GINGER [3] and GENESIS [4]. We describe the inclusion of this technique in the non-wiggler-averaged code MEDUSA [5], which is applied to amplifiers and oscillators. MEDUSA differs from GINGER and GENESIS also in the way the field is treated. GINGER and GENESIS use a field solver and must explicitly propagate the field outside the wiggler oscillators. This is computationally intensive. MEDUSA uses a Gaus...

  10. Improved time-dependent harmonic oscillator method for vibrationally inelastic collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DePristo, A.E.

    1985-01-01

    A quantal solution to vibrationally inelastic collisions is presented based upon a linear expansion of the interaction potential around the time-dependent classical positions of all translational and vibrational degrees of freedom. The full time-dependent wave function is a product of a Gaussian translational wave packet and a multidimensional harmonic oscillator wave function, both centered around the appropriate classical position variables. The computational requirements are small since the initial vibrational coordinates are the equilibrium values in the classical trajectory (i.e., phase space sampling does not occur). Different choices of the initial width of the translational wave packet and the initial classical translational momenta are possible, and two combinations are investigated. The first involves setting the initial classical momenta equal to the quantal expectation value, and varying the width to satisfy normalization of the transition probability matrix. The second involves adjusting the initial classical momenta to ensure detailed balancing for each set of transitions, i→f and f→i, and varying the width to satisfy normalization. This choice illustrates the origin of the empirical correction of using the arithmetic average momenta as the initial classical momenta in the forced oscillator approximation. Both methods are tested for the collinear collision systems CO 2 --(He, Ne), and are found to be accurate except for near-resonant vibration--vibration exchange at low initial kinetic energies

  11. The intercellular synchronization of Ca2+ oscillations evaluates Cx36-dependent coupling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Bavamian

    Full Text Available Connexin36 (Cx36 plays an important role in insulin secretion by controlling the intercellular synchronization of Ca(2+ transients induced during stimulation. The lack of drugs acting on Cx36 channels is a major limitation in further unraveling the molecular mechanism underlying this effect. To screen for such drugs, we have developed an assay allowing for a semi-automatic, fluorimetric quantification of Ca(2+ transients in large populations of MIN6 cells. Here, we show that (1 compared to control cells, MIN6 cells with reduced Cx36 expression or function showed decreased synchrony of glucose-induced Ca(2+ oscillations; (2 glibenclamide, a sulphonylurea which promotes Cx36 junctions and coupling, increased the number of synchronous MIN6 cells, whereas quinine, an antimalarial drug which inhibits Cx36-dependent coupling, decreased this proportion; (3 several drugs were identified that altered the intercellular Ca(2+ synchronization, cell coupling and distribution of Cx36; (4 some of them also affected insulin content. The data indicate that the intercellular synchronization of Ca(2+ oscillations provides a reliable and non-invasive measurement of Cx36-dependent coupling, which is useful to identify novel drugs affecting the function of β-cells, neurons, and neuron-related cells that express Cx36.

  12. Robustness of the Rabi Splitting under Nonlocal Corrections in Plexcitonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tserkezis, Christos; Wubs, Martijn; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2018-01-01

    , the influence of nonlocality is rather limited, as in most occasions the width of the Rabi splitting remains largely unaffected and the two hybrid modes are well distinguishable. We discuss how this behavior can be understood in view of the popular coupled-harmonic-oscillator model, while we also provide...

  13. Persepsi Masyarakat Terhadap Penyakit Rabies

    OpenAIRE

    Retna Siwi Padmawati, I Made Kerta Duana Nida Ul Hasanat

    2011-01-01

    Background: Rabies is a viral disease that causes acute encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) in warm-blooded animals, and human. The rabies virus infects the central nervous system, ultimately causing disease in the brain and death. Rabies in Bali was firstly discovered in Badung District. Rabies was transferred by dog bite. Bali has enourmous dog population, the number reach approximately 540.000 animals or about 96 animals per square kilometer. Meanwhile, domesticated dog population onl...

  14. Eliminating Rabies in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliquet, Florence; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Must, Kylli; Laine, Marjana; Peik, Katrin; Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Guiot, Anne-Laure; Niin, Enel

    2012-01-01

    The compulsory vaccination of pets, the recommended vaccination of farm animals in grazing areas and the extermination of stray animals did not succeed in eliminating rabies in Estonia because the virus was maintained in two main wildlife reservoirs, foxes and raccoon dogs. These two species became a priority target therefore in order to control rabies. Supported by the European Community, successive oral vaccination (OV) campaigns were conducted twice a year using Rabigen® SAG2 baits, beginning in autumn 2005 in North Estonia. They were then extended to the whole territory from spring 2006. Following the vaccination campaigns, the incidence of rabies cases dramatically decreased, with 266 cases in 2005, 114 in 2006, four in 2007 and three in 2008. Since March 2008, no rabies cases have been detected in Estonia other than three cases reported in summer 2009 and one case in January 2011, all in areas close to the South-Eastern border with Russia. The bait uptake was satisfactory, with tetracycline positivity rates ranging from 85% to 93% in foxes and from 82% to 88% in raccoon dogs. Immunisation rates evaluated by ELISA ranged from 34% to 55% in foxes and from 38% to 55% in raccoon dogs. The rabies situation in Estonia was compared to that of the other two Baltic States, Latvia and Lithuania. Despite regular OV campaigns conducted throughout their territory since 2006, and an improvement in the epidemiological situation, rabies has still not been eradicated in these countries. An analysis of the number of baits distributed and the funding allocated by the European Commission showed that the strategy for rabies control is more cost-effective in Estonia than in Latvia and Lithuania. PMID:22393461

  15. Line shapes of atomic-candle-type Rabi resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffer, J.G.; Camparo, J.C.; Sickmiller, B.; Presser, A.

    2002-01-01

    When atoms interact with a phase-modulated field, the probability of finding the atom in the excited-state oscillates at the second harmonic of the modulation frequency, 2ω m . The amplitude of this oscillating probability is a resonant function of the Rabi frequency Ω, and this is termed a β Rabi resonance. In this work, we examine the line shape of the β Rabi resonance both theoretically and experimentally. We find that a small-signal theory of the β-Rabi-resonance condition captures much of the line shape's character, and, in particular, that the resonance's 'line Q' (i.e., 2δΩ 1/2 /Ω) is proportional to the modulation frequency. This result can be applied to the atomic candle, where β Rabi resonances are employed to stabilize field strength. Considering our results in the context of developing an optical atomic candle, we find that a free-running diode laser's intensity noise could be improved by orders of magnitude using the atomic candle concept

  16. Rabies and Risk to Travelers

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Each year over 55,000 people die because of rabies, mostly from being bitten by rabid dogs. Over half of all rabies infections occur in children under the age of 15 who live in developing countries, but travelers are not immune. This podcast discusses some of the activities that put travelers at risk for rabies and describes ways to prevent infection.

  17. Rabies in Iraq: trends in human cases 2001-2010 and characterisation of animal rabies strains from Baghdad.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel L Horton

    Full Text Available Control of rabies requires a consistent supply of dependable resources, constructive cooperation between veterinary and public health authorities, and systematic surveillance. These are challenging in any circumstances, but particularly during conflict. Here we describe available human rabies surveillance data from Iraq, results of renewed sampling for rabies in animals, and the first genetic characterisation of circulating rabies strains from Iraq. Human rabies is notifiable, with reported cases increasing since 2003, and a marked increase in Baghdad between 2009 and 2010. These changes coincide with increasing numbers of reported dog bites. There is no laboratory confirmation of disease or virus characterisation and no systematic surveillance for rabies in animals. To address these issues, brain samples were collected from domestic animals in the greater Baghdad region and tested for rabies. Three of 40 brain samples were positive using the fluorescent antibody test and hemi-nested RT-PCR for rabies virus (RABV. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis using partial nucleoprotein gene sequences derived from the samples demonstrated the viruses belong to a single virus variant and share a common ancestor with viruses from neighbouring countries, 22 (95% HPD 14-32 years ago. These include countries lying to the west, north and east of Iraq, some of which also have other virus variants circulating concurrently. These results suggest possible multiple introductions of rabies into the Middle East, and regular trans-boundary movement of disease. Although 4000 years have passed since the original description of disease consistent with rabies, animals and humans are still dying of this preventable and neglected zoonosis.

  18. Theta oscillations at encoding mediate the context-dependent nature of human episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudigl, Tobias; Hanslmayr, Simon

    2013-06-17

    Human episodic memory is highly context dependent. Therefore, retrieval benefits when a memory is recalled in the same context compared to a different context. This implies that items and contexts are bound together during encoding, such that the reinstatement of the initial context at test improves retrieval. Animal studies suggest that theta oscillations and theta-to-gamma cross-frequency coupling modulate such item-context binding, but direct evidence from humans is scarce. We investigated this issue by manipulating the overlap of contextual features between encoding and retrieval. Participants studied words superimposed on movie clips and were later tested by presenting the word with either the same or a different movie. The results show that memory performance and the oscillatory correlates of memory formation crucially depend on the overlap of the context between encoding and test. When the context matched, high theta power during encoding was related to successful recognition, whereas the opposite pattern emerged in the context-mismatch condition. In addition, cross-frequency coupling analysis revealed a context-dependent theta-to-gamma memory effect specifically in the left hippocampus. These results reveal for the first time that context-dependent episodic memory effects are mediated by theta oscillatory activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Dynamic phase transitions in a cylindrical Ising nanowire under a time-dependent oscillating magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deviren, Bayram; Kantar, Ersin; Keskin, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    The dynamic phase transitions in a cylindrical Ising nanowire system under a time-dependent oscillating external magnetic field for both ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic interactions are investigated within the effective-field theory with correlations and the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics approach. The effective-field dynamic equations for the average longitudinal magnetizations on the surface shell and core are derived by employing the Glauber transition rates. Temperature dependence of the dynamic magnetizations, the dynamic total magnetization, the hysteresis loop areas and the dynamic correlations are investigated in order to characterize the nature (first- or second-order) of the dynamic transitions as well as the dynamic phase transition temperatures and the compensation behaviors. The system strongly affected by the surface situations. Some characteristic phenomena are found depending on the ratio of the physical parameters in the surface shell and the core. According to the values of Hamiltonian parameters, five different types of compensation behaviors in the Néel classification nomenclature exist in the system. The system also exhibits a reentrant behavior. - Highlights: ► The dynamic aspects of a cylindrical Ising nanowire are investigated in detail. ► The dynamic magnetizations, hysteresis loop areas and correlations are calculated. ► We studied both the FM and AFM interactions within the EFT with correlations. ► Some characteristic phenomena are found depending on the interaction parameters. ► We obtained five different types of compensation behaviors and reentrant behavior.

  20. Dynamic phase transitions in a cylindrical Ising nanowire under a time-dependent oscillating magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deviren, Bayram [Department of Physics, Nevsehir University, 50300 Nevsehir (Turkey); Kantar, Ersin [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Keskin, Mustafa, E-mail: keskin@erciyes.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)

    2012-07-15

    The dynamic phase transitions in a cylindrical Ising nanowire system under a time-dependent oscillating external magnetic field for both ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic interactions are investigated within the effective-field theory with correlations and the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics approach. The effective-field dynamic equations for the average longitudinal magnetizations on the surface shell and core are derived by employing the Glauber transition rates. Temperature dependence of the dynamic magnetizations, the dynamic total magnetization, the hysteresis loop areas and the dynamic correlations are investigated in order to characterize the nature (first- or second-order) of the dynamic transitions as well as the dynamic phase transition temperatures and the compensation behaviors. The system strongly affected by the surface situations. Some characteristic phenomena are found depending on the ratio of the physical parameters in the surface shell and the core. According to the values of Hamiltonian parameters, five different types of compensation behaviors in the Neel classification nomenclature exist in the system. The system also exhibits a reentrant behavior. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The dynamic aspects of a cylindrical Ising nanowire are investigated in detail. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The dynamic magnetizations, hysteresis loop areas and correlations are calculated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We studied both the FM and AFM interactions within the EFT with correlations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Some characteristic phenomena are found depending on the interaction parameters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We obtained five different types of compensation behaviors and reentrant behavior.

  1. Exploring flavor-dependent long-range forces in long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sabya Sachi; Dasgupta, Arnab; Agarwalla, Sanjib Kumar

    2015-12-01

    The Standard Model gauge group can be extended with minimal matter content by introducing anomaly free U(1) symmetry, such as L e - L μ or L e - L τ . If the neutral gauge boson corresponding to this abelian symmetry is ultra-light, then it will give rise to flavor-dependent long-range leptonic force, which can have significant impact on neutrino oscillations. For an instance, the electrons inside the Sun can generate a flavor-dependent long-range potential at the Earth surface, which can suppress the ν μ → ν e appearance probability in terrestrial experiments. The sign of this potential is opposite for anti-neutrinos, and affects the oscillations of (anti-)neutrinos in different fashion. This feature invokes fake CP-asymmetry like the SM matter effect and can severely affect the leptonic CP-violation searches in long-baseline experiments. In this paper, we study in detail the possible impacts of these long-range flavor-diagonal neutral current interactions due to L e - L μ symmetry, when (anti-)neutrinos travel from Fermilab to Homestake (1300 km) and CERN to Pyhäsalmi (2290 km) in the context of future high-precision superbeam facilities, DUNE and LBNO respectively. If there is no signal of long-range force, DUNE (LBNO) can place stringent constraint on the effective gauge coupling α eμ < 1.9 × 10-53 (7.8 × 10-54) at 90% C.L., which is almost 30 (70) times better than the existing bound from the Super-Kamiokande experiment. We also observe that if α eμ ≥ 2 × 10-52, the CP-violation discovery reach of these future facilities vanishes completely. The mass hierarchy measurement remains robust in DUNE (LBNO) if α eμ < 5 × 10-52 (10-52).

  2. Asymptotic behavior of observables in the asymmetric quantum Rabi model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, J.; Kollar, M.

    2018-01-01

    The asymmetric quantum Rabi model with broken parity invariance shows spectral degeneracies in the integer case, that is when the asymmetry parameter equals an integer multiple of half the oscillator frequency, thus hinting at a hidden symmetry and accompanying integrability of the model. We study the expectation values of spin observables for each eigenstate and observe characteristic differences between the integer and noninteger cases for the asymptotics in the deep strong coupling regime, which can be understood from a perturbative expansion in the qubit splitting. We also construct a parent Hamiltonian whose exact eigenstates possess the same symmetries as the perturbative eigenstates of the asymmetric quantum Rabi model in the integer case.

  3. Rabies Across Borders

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-12-04

    Dr. Roman Biek, with the Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow, discusses rabies outbreaks in Canada from the U.S.  Created: 12/4/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 12/4/2017.

  4. Bat Rabies in Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, James A.; Gilbert, Amy T.; Recuenco, Sergio; Moran, David; Alvarez, Danilo A.; Kuzmina, Natalia; Garcia, Daniel L.; Peruski, Leonard F.; Mendonça, Mary T.; Lindblade, Kim A.; Rupprecht, Charles E.

    2014-01-01

    Rabies in bats is considered enzootic throughout the New World, but few comparative data are available for most countries in the region. As part of a larger pathogen detection program, enhanced bat rabies surveillance was conducted in Guatemala, between 2009 and 2011. A total of 672 bats of 31 species were sampled and tested for rabies. The prevalence of rabies virus (RABV) detection among all collected bats was low (0.3%). Viral antigens were detected and infectious virus was isolated from the brains of two common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus). RABV was also isolated from oral swabs, lungs and kidneys of both bats, whereas viral RNA was detected in all of the tissues examined by hemi-nested RT-PCR except for the liver of one bat. Sequencing of the nucleoprotein gene showed that both viruses were 100% identical, whereas sequencing of the glycoprotein gene revealed one non-synonymous substitution (302T,S). The two vampire bat RABV isolates in this study were phylogenetically related to viruses associated with vampire bats in the eastern states of Mexico and El Salvador. Additionally, 7% of sera collected from 398 bats demonstrated RABV neutralizing antibody. The proportion of seropositive bats varied significantly across trophic guilds, suggestive of complex intraspecific compartmentalization of RABV perpetuation. PMID:25080103

  5. Memorial I.Rabi

    CERN Multimedia

    Schopper,H

    1988-01-01

    Le DG H.Schopper ainsi que Norman Ramsey et le DG de l'Unesco rendent hommage à Isidor Rabi, grand scientifique et humaniste (1929-1988).Cette rencontre est organisée ensemble avec le Cern et l'Unesco.

  6. Rabies: Diagnosis in Animals and Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z # Rabies Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Rabies Homepage Exposure What materials can spread rabies? What ...

  7. Quantization and instability of the damped harmonic oscillator subject to a time-dependent force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majima, H.; Suzuki, A.

    2011-01-01

    We consider the one-dimensional motion of a particle immersed in a potential field U(x) under the influence of a frictional (dissipative) force linear in velocity (-γx) and a time-dependent external force (K(t)). The dissipative system subject to these forces is discussed by introducing the extended Bateman's system, which is described by the Lagrangian: L=mxy-U(x+1/2 y)+U(x-1/2 y)+(γ)/2 (xy-yx)-xK(t)+yK(t), which leads to the familiar classical equations of motion for the dissipative (open) system. The equation for a variable y is the time-reversed of the x motion. We discuss the extended Bateman dual Lagrangian and Hamiltonian by setting U(x±y/2)=1/2 k(x±y/2) 2 specifically for a dual extended damped-amplified harmonic oscillator subject to the time-dependent external force. We show the method of quantizing such dissipative systems, namely the canonical quantization of the extended Bateman's Hamiltonian H. The Heisenberg equations of motion utilizing the quantized Hamiltonian H surely lead to the equations of motion for the dissipative dynamical quantum systems, which are the quantum analog of the corresponding classical systems. To discuss the stability of the quantum dissipative system due to the influence of an external force K(t) and the dissipative force, we derived a formula for transition amplitudes of the dissipative system with the help of the perturbation analysis. The formula is specifically applied for a damped-amplified harmonic oscillator subject to the impulsive force. This formula is used to study the influence of dissipation such as the instability due to the dissipative force and/or the applied impulsive force. - Highlights: → A method of quantizing dissipative systems is presented. → In order to obtain the method, we apply Bateman's dual system approach. → A formula for a transition amplitude is derived. → We use the formula to study the instability of the dissipative systems.

  8. Exploration of CPT violation via time-dependent geometric quantities embedded in neutrino oscillation through fluctuating matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zisheng, E-mail: zishengwang@yahoo.com [College of Physics and Communication Electronics, Jiangxi Normal University, Nanchang 330022 (China); Institute of Applied Physics and Materials Engineering, University of Macau, Macao SAR (China); Pan, Hui, E-mail: huipan@umac.mo [Institute of Applied Physics and Materials Engineering, University of Macau, Macao SAR (China)

    2017-02-15

    We propose a new approach to explore CPT violation of neutrino oscillations through a fluctuating matter based on time-dependent geometric quantities. By mapping the neutrino oscillations onto a Poincaré sphere structure, we obtain an analytic solution of master equation and further define the geometric quantities, i.e., radius of Poincaré sphere and geometric phase. We find that the mixing process between electron and muon neutrinos can be described by the radius of Poincaré sphere that depends on the intrinsic CP-violating angle. Such a radius reveals a dynamic mechanism of CPT-violation, i.e., both spontaneous symmetry breaking and Majorana–Dirac neutrino confusion. We show that the time-dependent geometric phase can be used to find the neutrino nature and observe the CPT-violation because it is strongly enhanced under the neutrino propagation. We further show that the time-dependent geometric phase can be easily detected by simulating the neutrino oscillation based on fluctuating magnetic fields in nuclear magnetic resonance, which makes the experimental observation of CPT-violation possible in the neutrino mixing and oscillations.

  9. Bat Rabies Surveillance in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schatz, J.; Fooks, A. R.; McElhinney, L.

    2013-01-01

    Rabies is the oldest known zoonotic disease and was also the first recognized bat associated infection in humans. To date, four different lyssavirus species are the causative agents of rabies in European bats: the European Bat Lyssaviruses type 1 and 2 (EBLV-1, EBLV-2), the recently discovered...... putative new lyssavirus species Bokeloh Bat Lyssavirus (BBLV) and the West Caucasian Bat Virus (WCBV). Unlike in the new world, bat rabies cases in Europe are comparatively less frequent, possibly as a result of varying intensity of surveillance. Thus, the objective was to provide an assessment of the bat...... rabies surveillance data in Europe, taking both reported data to the WHO Rabies Bulletin Europe and published results into account. In Europe, 959 bat rabies cases were reported to the RBE in the time period 1977–2010 with the vast majority characterized as EBLV-1, frequently isolated in the Netherlands...

  10. Angle-dependent magnetoresistance and quantum oscillations in high-mobility semimetal LuPtBi

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Guizhou; Hou, Zhipeng; Wang, Yue; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Hongwei; Liu, Enke; Xi, X; Xu, Feng; Wu, Guangheng; Zhang, Xixiang; Wang, Wenhong

    2017-01-01

    The recent discovery of ultrahigh mobility and large positive magnetoresistance in topologically non-trivial Half-Heusler semimetal LuPtBi provides a unique playground for studying exotic physics and significant perspective for device applications. As an fcc-structured electron-hole-compensated semimetal, LuPtBi theoretically exhibits six symmetrically arranged anisotropic electron Fermi pockets and two nearly-spherical hole pockets, offering the opportunity to explore the physics of Fermi surface with a simple angle-related magnetotransport properties. In this work, through the angle-dependent transverse magnetoresistance measurements, in combination with high-field SdH quantum oscillations, we achieved to map out a Fermi surface with six anisotropic pockets in the high-temperature and low-field regime, and furthermore, identify a possible magnetic field driven Fermi surface change at lower temperatures. Reasons account for the Fermi surface change in LuPtBi are discussed in terms of the field-induced electron evacuation due to Landau quantization.

  11. Kinetic Ising model in a time-dependent oscillating external magnetic field: effective-field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deviren, Bayram; Canko, Osman; Keskin, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    Recently, Shi et al. [2008 Phys. Lett. A 372 5922] have studied the dynamical response of the kinetic Ising model in the presence of a sinusoidal oscillating field and presented the dynamic phase diagrams by using an effective-field theory (EFT) and a mean-field theory (MFT). The MFT results are in conflict with those of the earlier work of Tomé and de Oliveira, [1990 Phys. Rev. A 41 4251]. We calculate the dynamic phase diagrams and find that our results are similar to those of the earlier work of Tomé and de Oliveira; hence the dynamic phase diagrams calculated by Shi et al. are incomplete within both theories, except the low values of frequencies for the MFT calculation. We also investigate the influence of external field frequency (ω) and static external field amplitude (h 0 ) for both MFT and EFT calculations. We find that the behaviour of the system strongly depends on the values of ω and h 0 . (general)

  12. Angle-dependent magnetoresistance and quantum oscillations in high-mobility semimetal LuPtBi

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Guizhou

    2017-03-14

    The recent discovery of ultrahigh mobility and large positive magnetoresistance in topologically non-trivial Half-Heusler semimetal LuPtBi provides a unique playground for studying exotic physics and significant perspective for device applications. As an fcc-structured electron-hole-compensated semimetal, LuPtBi theoretically exhibits six symmetrically arranged anisotropic electron Fermi pockets and two nearly-spherical hole pockets, offering the opportunity to explore the physics of Fermi surface with a simple angle-related magnetotransport properties. In this work, through the angle-dependent transverse magnetoresistance measurements, in combination with high-field SdH quantum oscillations, we achieved to map out a Fermi surface with six anisotropic pockets in the high-temperature and low-field regime, and furthermore, identify a possible magnetic field driven Fermi surface change at lower temperatures. Reasons account for the Fermi surface change in LuPtBi are discussed in terms of the field-induced electron evacuation due to Landau quantization.

  13. Both neurons and astrocytes exhibited tetrodotoxin-resistant metabotropic glutamate receptor-dependent spontaneous slow Ca2+ oscillations in striatum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Tamura

    Full Text Available The striatum plays an important role in linking cortical activity to basal ganglia outputs. Group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs are densely expressed in the medium spiny projection neurons and may be a therapeutic target for Parkinson's disease. The group I mGluRs are known to modulate the intracellular Ca(2+ signaling. To characterize Ca(2+ signaling in striatal cells, spontaneous cytoplasmic Ca(2+ transients were examined in acute slice preparations from transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP in the astrocytes. In both the GFP-negative cells (putative-neurons and astrocytes of the striatum, spontaneous slow and long-lasting intracellular Ca(2+ transients (referred to as slow Ca(2+ oscillations, which lasted up to approximately 200 s, were found. Neither the inhibition of action potentials nor ionotropic glutamate receptors blocked the slow Ca(2+ oscillation. Depletion of the intracellular Ca(2+ store and the blockade of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors greatly reduced the transient rate of the slow Ca(2+ oscillation, and the application of an antagonist against mGluR5 also blocked the slow Ca(2+ oscillation in both putative-neurons and astrocytes. Thus, the mGluR5-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate signal cascade is the primary contributor to the slow Ca(2+ oscillation in both putative-neurons and astrocytes. The slow Ca(2+ oscillation features multicellular synchrony, and both putative-neurons and astrocytes participate in the synchronous activity. Therefore, the mGluR5-dependent slow Ca(2+ oscillation may involve in the neuron-glia interaction in the striatum.

  14. Intermittent Chaos in the Bray-Liebhafsky Oscillator. Dependence of Dynamic States on the Iodate Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubanja, I. N.; Ivanović-Šašić, A.; Čupić, Ž.; Anić, S.; Kolar-Anić, Lj.

    2017-12-01

    Chaotic dynamic states with intermittent oscillations were generated in a Bray-Liebhafsky (BL) oscillatory reaction in an isothermal open reactor i.e., in the continuously-fed well-stirred tank reactor (CSTR) when the inflow concentration of potassium iodate was the control parameter. They are found between periodic oscillations obtained when [KIO3]0 4.10 × 10-2 M. It was shown that the most chaotic states obtained experimentally somewhere in the middle of this region are in high correlation with results obtained by means of largest Lyapunov exponents and phenomenological analysis based on the quantitative characteristics of intermittent oscillations.

  15. Dependence of synchronization frequency of Kuramoto oscillators on symmetry of intrinsic frequency in ring network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Arindam; Amritkar, R. E.

    2014-12-01

    Kuramoto oscillators have been proposed earlier as a model for interacting systems that exhibit synchronisation. In this article we study the difference between networks with symmetric and asymmetric distribution of natural frequencies. We first indicate that the synchronisation frequency of the oscillators is independent of the natural frequency distribution for a completely connected network. Further we analyse the case of oscillators in a directed ring-network where asymmetry in the natural frequency distribution is seen to shift the synchronisation frequency of the network. We also present an estimate of the shift in the frequencies for slightly asymmetric distributions.

  16. Hamiltonian Dynamics and Adiabatic Invariants for Time-Dependent Superconducting Qubit-Oscillators and Resonators in Quantum Computing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Ryeol Choi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An adiabatic invariant, which is a conserved quantity, is useful for studying quantum and classical properties of dynamical systems. Adiabatic invariants for time-dependent superconducting qubit-oscillator systems and resonators are investigated using the Liouville-von Neumann equation. At first, we derive an invariant for a simple superconducting qubit-oscillator through the introduction of its reduced Hamiltonian. Afterwards, an adiabatic invariant for a nanomechanical resonator linearly interfaced with a superconducting circuit, via a coupling with a time-dependent strength, is evaluated using the technique of unitary transformation. The accuracy of conservation for such invariant quantities is represented in detail. Based on the results of our developments in this paper, perturbation theory is applicable to the research of quantum characteristics of more complicated qubit systems that are described by a time-dependent Hamiltonian involving nonlinear terms.

  17. Anisotropic Rabi model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qiong-Tao; Cui, Shuai; Cao, Jun-Peng; Amico, Luigi; Fan, Heng

    2014-04-01

    We define the anisotropic Rabi model as the generalization of the spin-boson Rabi model: The Hamiltonian system breaks the parity symmetry; the rotating and counterrotating interactions are governed by two different coupling constants; a further parameter introduces a phase factor in the counterrotating terms. The exact energy spectrum and eigenstates of the generalized model are worked out. The solution is obtained as an elaboration of a recently proposed method for the isotropic limit of the model. In this way, we provide a long-sought solution of a cascade of models with immediate relevance in different physical fields, including (i) quantum optics, a two-level atom in single-mode cross-electric and magnetic fields; (ii) solid-state physics, electrons in semiconductors with Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling; and (iii) mesoscopic physics, Josephson-junction flux-qubit quantum circuits.

  18. Anisotropic Rabi model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong-Tao Xie

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We define the anisotropic Rabi model as the generalization of the spin-boson Rabi model: The Hamiltonian system breaks the parity symmetry; the rotating and counterrotating interactions are governed by two different coupling constants; a further parameter introduces a phase factor in the counterrotating terms. The exact energy spectrum and eigenstates of the generalized model are worked out. The solution is obtained as an elaboration of a recently proposed method for the isotropic limit of the model. In this way, we provide a long-sought solution of a cascade of models with immediate relevance in different physical fields, including (i quantum optics, a two-level atom in single-mode cross-electric and magnetic fields; (ii solid-state physics, electrons in semiconductors with Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling; and (iii mesoscopic physics, Josephson-junction flux-qubit quantum circuits.

  19. Dependence of oscillational instabilities on the amplitude of the acoustic wave in single-axis levitators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orozco-Santillán, Arturo; Ruiz-Boullosa, Ricardo; Cutanda Henríquez, Vicente

    2007-01-01

    It is well known that acoustic waves exert forces on a boundary with which they interact; these forces can be so intense that they can compensate for the weight of small objects up to a few grams. In this way, it is possible to maintain solid or liquid samples levitating in a fluid, avoiding...... the use of containers, which may be undesirable for certain applications. Moreover, small samples can be manipulated by means of acoustic waves. In this paper, we report a study on the oscillational instabilities that can appear on a levitated solid sphere in single-axis acoustic devices. A theory...... proportional to the oscillation frequency of the levitated sample. We also present experimental results that show that the oscillational instabilities can be reduced if the amplitude of the acoustic wave is increased; as a result, stable conditions can be obtained where the oscillations of the sphere...

  20. [The significance of sympathovagal balance in the forming of respiration-dependent oscillations in cardiovascular system in human].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnikov, G V; Tiurina, M Ĭ; Tankanag, A V; Piskunova, G M; Cheremis, N K

    2014-01-01

    The effect of deep breathing controlled in both rate and amplitude on the heart rate variability (HRV) and respiration-dependent blood flow oscillations of forearm and finger-pad skin has been studied in 29 young healthy volunteers from 18 to 25 years old. To reveal the effect of the segments of the vegetative autonomic nervous system on the amplitudes of HRV and respiration-dependent oscillations of skin blood flow we estimated the parameters of the cardiovascular system into two groups of participants: with formally high and low sympathovagal balance values. The sympathovagal balance value was judged by the magnitude of LF/HF power ratio calculated for each participant using the spontaneous breathing rhythmogram. It was found what the participants with predominant parasympathetic tonus had statistically significant higher amplitudes of H R V and skin blood flow oscillations in the breathing rate less than 4 cycles per min than the subjects with predominant sympathetic tonus. In the forearm skin, where the density of sympathetic innervations is low comparatively to that in the finger skin, no statistically significant differences in the amplitude of respiratory skin blood flow oscillations was found between the two groups of participants.

  1. Activation of TRPV1-dependent calcium oscillation exacerbates seawater inhalation-induced acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Congcong; Bo, Liyan; Liu, Qingqing; Liu, Wei; Chen, Xiangjun; Xu, Dunquan; Jin, Faguang

    2016-03-01

    Calcium is an important second messenger and it is widely recognized that acute lung injury (ALI) is often caused by oscillations of cytosolic free Ca2+. Previous studies have indicated that the activation of transient receptor potential‑vanilloid (TRPV) channels and subsequent Ca2+ entry initiates an acute calcium‑dependent permeability increase during ALI. However, whether seawater exposure induces such an effect through the activation of TRPV channels remains unknown. In the current study, the effect of calcium, a component of seawater, on the inflammatory reactions that occur during seawater drowning‑induced ALI, was examined. The results demonstrated that a high concentration of calcium ions in seawater increased lung tissue myeloperoxidase activity and the secretion of inflammatory mediators, such as tumor necrosis factor‑α (TNF‑α) and interleukin (IL)‑1β and IL‑6. Further study demonstrated that the seawater challenge elevated cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, indicated by [Ca2+]c, by inducing calcium influx from the extracellular medium via TRPV1 channels. The elevated [Ca2+c] may have resulted in the increased release of TNF‑α and IL‑1β via increased phosphorylation of nuclear factor‑κB (NF‑κB). It was concluded that a high concentration of calcium in seawater exacerbated lung injury, and TRPV1 channels were notable mediators of the calcium increase initiated by the seawater challenge. Calcium influx through TRPV1 may have led to greater phosphorylation of NF‑κB and increased release of TNF‑α and IL‑1β.

  2. Impact of climate variability on various Rabi crops over Northwest India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nageswararao, M. M.; Dhekale, B. S.; Mohanty, U. C.

    2018-01-01

    The Indian agriculture with its two prominent cropping seasons [summer ( Kharif) and winter ( Rabi)] is the mainstay of the rural economy. Northwest India (NWI) is an important region for the cultivation of Rabi crops grown during the period from October to April. In the present study, state wise impact analysis is carried out to ascertain the influence of climate indices Nino3.4 region Sea Surface Temperature (SST), Southern Oscillation Index (SOI), Arctic Oscillation (AO), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and local precipitation, soil moisture, minimum ( T min), maximum ( T max) and mean ( T mean) temperatures on different Rabi crops (wheat, gram, rapeseed-mustard, oilseeds, and total Rabi food grains) over NWI during the years 1966-2011. To study the impact of climate variability on different Rabi crops, firstly, the influence of technology on the productivity of these crops has been removed by using linear function, as linear trend has noticed in all the time series. Correlation analysis provides an indication of the influence of local precipitation, soil moisture, T min, T max and T mean and some of its potential predictors (Nino3.4 region SST, SOI, AO, and NAO) on the productivity of different Rabi crops. Overall impact analysis indicates that the productivity of different Rabi crops in most of the places of NWI is most likely influenced by variability in local temperatures. Moreover, Nino3.4 region SST (SOI) positively (negatively) affects the productivity of gram, rapeseed-mustard, and total Rabi oilseeds in most of the states. The results of this study are useful in determining the strategies for increasing sustainable production through better agronomic practices.

  3. Intention of dog owners to participate in rabies control measures in Flores Island, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wera, Ewaldus; Mourits, Monique C.M.; Hogeveen, Henk

    2016-01-01

    The success of a rabies control strategy depends on the commitment and collaboration of dog owners. In this study the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) was used to identify the factors, which are associated with the intention of dog owners to participate in rabies control measures in the

  4. Bat Rabies Surveillance in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schatz, J.; Fooks, A.R.; McElhinney, L.M.; Horton, D.; Echevarria, J.; Vázquez-Morón, S.; Kooi, E.A.; Rasmussen, T.B.; Müller, T.; Freuling, C.

    2013-01-01

    Rabies is the oldest known zoonotic disease and was also the first recognized bat associated infection in humans. To date, four different lyssavirus species are the causative agents of rabies in European bats: the European Bat Lyssaviruses type 1 and 2 (EBLV-1, EBLV-2), the recently discovered

  5. The Mad Fox Disease: Rabies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Rosanne

    One of a series of instructional materials produced by the Literacy Council of Alaska, this booklet provides information about the control of rabies. Using both simplified sentence structure and vocabulary, it describes how rabies may be spread, its symptoms, its treatment, and ways it can be prevented. (FL)

  6. Field and power dependence of auto-oscillations in yttrium-iron-garnet films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMichael, R.D.; Wigen, P.E.

    1988-01-01

    The nonlinear response of the magnetic spin system in yttrium-iron-garnet (YIG) thin films to high-power ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) at perpendicular resonance was studied and the results are presented. A diagram of the regions of auto-oscillation of the system as a function of field and power is presented which shows the modes that appear in low-power FMR becoming unstable to auto-oscillations with increased power. The auto-oscillations exhibit periodic, quasiperiodic, period doubling, and chaotic behavior with typical frequencies in the MHz range. The domains of oscillatory behavior due to individual resonance modes are seen to merge and shift to lower fields as power is increased. Possible mechanisms for the behavior are proposed

  7. Oscillator monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeill, G.A.

    1981-01-01

    Present high-speed data acquisition systems in nuclear diagnostics use high-frequency oscillators to provide timing references for signals recorded on fast, traveling-wave oscilloscopes. An oscillator's sinusoidal wave shape is superimposed on the recorded signal with each cycle representing a fixed time increment. During data analysis the sinusoid is stripped from the signal, leaving a clean signal shape with known timing. Since all signal/time relationships are totally dependant upon working oscillators, these critical devices must have remote verification of proper operation. This manual presents the newly-developed oscillator monitor which will provide the required verification

  8. Thickness dependent quantum oscillations of transport properties in topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogacheva, E. I.; Budnik, A. V.; Sipatov, A. Yu.; Nashchekina, O. N. [National Technical University “Kharkov Polytechnic Institute,” 21 Frunze St., Kharkov 61002 (Ukraine); Dresselhaus, M. S. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2015-02-02

    The dependences of the electrical conductivity, the Hall coefficient, and the Seebeck coefficient on the layer thickness d (d = 18−600 nm) of p-type topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} thin films grown by thermal evaporation in vacuum on glass substrates were obtained at room temperature. In the thickness range of d = 18–100 nm, sustained oscillations with a substantial amplitude were revealed. The observed oscillations are well approximated by a harmonic function with a period Δd = (9.5 ± 0.5) nm. At d > 100 nm, the transport coefficients practically do not change as d is increased. The oscillations of the kinetic properties are attributed to the quantum size effects due to the hole confinement in the Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} quantum wells. The results of the theoretical calculations of Δd within the framework of a model of an infinitely deep potential well are in good agreement with the experimental results. It is suggested that the substantial amplitude of the oscillations and their sustained character as a function of d are connected with the topologically protected gapless surface states of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and are inherent to topological insulators.

  9. Determining the in-plane Fermi surface topology in high Tc superconductors using angle-dependent magnetic quantum oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, N; McDonald, R D

    2009-01-01

    We propose a quantum oscillation experiment by which the rotation of an underdoped YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6+x sample about two different axes with respect to the orientation of the magnetic field can be used to infer the shape of the in-plane cross-section of corrugated Fermi surface cylinder(s). Deep corrugations in the Fermi surface are expected to give rise to nodes in the quantum oscillation amplitude that depend on the magnitude and orientation of the magnetic induction B. Because the symmetries of electron and hole cylinders within the Brillouin zone are expected to be very different, the topology can provide essential clues as to the broken symmetry responsible for the observed oscillations. The criterion for the applicability of this method to the cuprate superconductors (as well as other layered metals) is that the difference in quantum oscillation frequency 2ΔF between the maximum (belly) and minimum (neck) extremal cross-sections of the corrugated Fermi surface exceeds |B|. (fast track communication)

  10. One-dimensional multiple-well oscillators: A time-dependent

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... quantum mechanical multiple-well oscillators. An imaginary-time evolution technique, coupled with the minimization of energy expectation value to reach a global minimum, subject to orthogonality constraint (for excited states) has been employed. Pseudodegeneracy in symmetric, deep multiple-well potentials, probability ...

  11. Statistical properties of multiphoton time-dependent three-boson coupled oscillators

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abdalla, M. S.; Peřina, Jan; Křepelka, Jaromír

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 6 (2006), s. 1146-1160 ISSN 0740-3224 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC P11.003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : quantum statistic * coupled oscillators * multiphoton Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.002, year: 2006

  12. CEXE INCEXE, 1 Group 3-D Time-Dependent Xe Oscillations in X-Y-Z Geometry with Feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kern, R.; Pacino, S.

    1973-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: CEXE solves the three- dimensional xyz time-dependent xenon spatial oscillation problem using a modified one energy group theory and a nodal representation. 2 - Method of solution: CEXE solves for the spatial neutron source distribution with coupled Doppler and moderator temperature feedbacks. The time dependence of the iodine and xenon concentrations are based on the assumption of constant power during each time-step interval. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maximum reactor core size representation is restricted to a nodal configuration of 19 x 19 x 10 in the x, y, z directions, respectively

  13. Rabies, encephalomyelitis: MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peloso, Raul; Gonzalez, Roberto

    2002-01-01

    The authors present a 14 year old patient who started with walking and swallowing difficulty; followed by fever, abdominal and lower back pain. Mechanical breathing difficulties required a respiratory mechanic assistance. The diagnosis of Guillain-Barre syndrome was thought at first. Since the patient have had previous contact with a bat two months before the symptoms began, this suggested rabies as the main diagnosis, which was later confirmed by hair-bulb, cornea, oral mucosa and salival immunofluorescence. The brain and spinal cord MRI showed focal lesions in T2 and FLAIR sequences, compatible with encephalomyelitis. (author)

  14. New SU(1,1) position-dependent effective mass coherent states for a generalized shifted harmonic oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahiaoui, Sid-Ahmed; Bentaiba, Mustapha

    2014-01-01

    A new SU(1,1) position-dependent effective mass coherent states (PDEM CS) related to the shifted harmonic oscillator (SHO) are deduced. This is accomplished by applying a similarity transformation to the generally deformed oscillator algebra (GDOA) generators for PDEM systems and a new set of operators that close the su(1,1) Lie algebra are constructed, being the PDEM CS of the basis for its unitary irreducible representation. From the Lie algebra generators, we evaluate the uncertainty relationship for a position and momentum-like operators in the PDEM CS and show that it is minimized in the sense of Barut–Girardello CS. We prove that the deduced PDEM CS preserve the same analytical form than those of Glauber states. As an illustration of our procedure, we depicted the 2D-probability density in the PDEM CS for SHO with the explicit form of the mass distribution with no singularities. (paper)

  15. Optimized t-expansion method for the Rabi Hamiltonian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travenec, Igor; Samaj, Ladislav

    2011-01-01

    A polemic arose recently about the applicability of the t-expansion method to the calculation of the ground state energy E 0 of the Rabi model. For specific choices of the trial function and very large number of involved connected moments, the t-expansion results are rather poor and exhibit considerable oscillations. In this Letter, we formulate the t-expansion method for trial functions containing two free parameters which capture two exactly solvable limits of the Rabi Hamiltonian. At each order of the t-series, E 0 is assumed to be stationary with respect to the free parameters. A high accuracy of E 0 estimates is achieved for small numbers (5 or 6) of involved connected moments, the relative error being smaller than 10 -4 (0.01%) within the whole parameter space of the Rabi Hamiltonian. A special symmetrization of the trial function enables us to calculate also the first excited energy E 1 , with the relative error smaller than 10 -2 (1%). -- Highlights: → We study the ground state energy of the Rabi Hamiltonian. → We use the t-expansion method with an optimized trial function. → High accuracy of estimates is achieved, the relative error being smaller than 0.01%. → The calculation of the first excited state energy is made. The method has a general applicability.

  16. Integrability of the Rabi Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braak, D.

    2011-01-01

    The Rabi model is a paradigm for interacting quantum systems. It couples a bosonic mode to the smallest possible quantum model, a two-level system. I present the analytical solution which allows us to consider the question of integrability for quantum systems that do not possess a classical limit. A criterion for quantum integrability is proposed which shows that the Rabi model is integrable due to the presence of a discrete symmetry. Moreover, I introduce a generalization with no symmetries; the generalized Rabi model is the first example of a nonintegrable but exactly solvable system.

  17. Rabies and Risk to Travelers

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-10-01

    Each year over 55,000 people die because of rabies, mostly from being bitten by rabid dogs. Over half of all rabies infections occur in children under the age of 15 who live in developing countries, but travelers are not immune. This podcast discusses some of the activities that put travelers at risk for rabies and describes ways to prevent infection.  Created: 10/1/2007 by National Center for the Prevention, Detection and Control of Infectious Diseases (NCPDCID).   Date Released: 10/5/2007.

  18. Arctic Rabies – A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prestrud Pål

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Rabies seems to persist throughout most arctic regions, and the northern parts of Norway, Sweden and Finland, is the only part of the Arctic where rabies has not been diagnosed in recent time. The arctic fox is the main host, and the same arctic virus variant seems to infect the arctic fox throughout the range of this species. The epidemiology of rabies seems to have certain common characteristics in arctic regions, but main questions such as the maintenance and spread of the disease remains largely unknown. The virus has spread and initiated new epidemics also in other species such as the red fox and the racoon dog. Large land areas and cold climate complicate the control of the disease, but experimental oral vaccination of arctic foxes has been successful. This article summarises the current knowledge and the typical characteristics of arctic rabies including its distribution and epidemiology.

  19. A review of current strategy for rabies prevention and control in the developing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneela Garg

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The control of Rabies, a zoonotic viral disease is a major public challenge in several developing countries. Current approaches for rabies control are overwhelmingly directed towards provision of effective post exposure prophylaxis (PEP to animal bite victims. The enormous costs involved in rabies prophylaxis is an important factor precluding its universal application in all animal bite victims especially in those residing in resource constrained settings. The intradermal route of administration has been shown to be cost effective except in peripheral regions with fewer animal bite cases. Nevertheless, rabies control program with their expected emphasis on human rabies prophylaxis have neglected canine vaccination. The feasibility of canine rabies vaccination depends primarily upon allocation of resources through political commitment and effective public private partnerships. However, in large parts of the world including India formal dog ownership constitutes a small minority of the overall canine population while state funded canine vaccination drives often fail to impress policy makers who struggle to maintain budgets for adequate coverage of rabies PEP for animal bite victims. The key to rabies control may therefore rest upon a one health approach with development of newer vaccine technology which is cost effective for vaccination in both, man and animal.

  20. Lyssaviruses: special emphasis on rabies virus and other members of the lyssavirus genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkess, Graeme; Fooks, Anthony R

    2011-01-01

    Rabies is routinely diagnosed based on the clinical description and history of exposure in a rabies-endemic country. A negative diagnostic test for rabies virus or a related lyssavirus does not exclude the clinical diagnosis. Diagnostic tests are never optimal and are entirely dependent on the nature and quality of the sample supplied. Often, only a sample from a single time point is investigated reducing the overall sensitivity of any diagnosis. With the advent of molecular biology, tests have been developed that are rapid, robust, and sensitive in support of the rapid detection and strain identification of rabies virus from clinical specimens. These molecular tests complement conventional tests in rabies diagnosis, particularly for human cases, for which an early laboratory diagnosis is critical and may decrease the number of unnecessary contacts with the patient, reduce the requirement for invasive and costly interventions, and enable the appropriate medical treatment regimen to be administered for the patient. The barrier to success is in transferring the technology for the latest techniques in rabies diagnosis to rabies-endemic countries. These barriers are not insurmountable and in liaison with international organisations, especially OIE, FAO, and WHO, these diagnostic tests will be validated for rabies diagnosis and surveillance, and implemented in modern and well-equipped diagnostic laboratories throughout the world.

  1. Stimulus-dependent state transition between synchronized oscillation and randomly repetitive burst in a model cerebellar granular layer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeru Honda

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Information processing of the cerebellar granular layer composed of granule and Golgi cells is regarded as an important first step toward the cerebellar computation. Our previous theoretical studies have shown that granule cells can exhibit random alternation between burst and silent modes, which provides a basis of population representation of the passage-of-time (POT from the onset of external input stimuli. On the other hand, another computational study has reported that granule cells can exhibit synchronized oscillation of activity, as consistent with observed oscillation in local field potential recorded from the granular layer while animals keep still. Here we have a question of whether an identical network model can explain these distinct dynamics. In the present study, we carried out computer simulations based on a spiking network model of the granular layer varying two parameters: the strength of a current injected to granule cells and the concentration of Mg²⁺ which controls the conductance of NMDA channels assumed on the Golgi cell dendrites. The simulations showed that cells in the granular layer can switch activity states between synchronized oscillation and random burst-silent alternation depending on the two parameters. For higher Mg²⁺ concentration and a weaker injected current, granule and Golgi cells elicited spikes synchronously (synchronized oscillation state. In contrast, for lower Mg²⁺ concentration and a stronger injected current, those cells showed the random burst-silent alternation (POT-representing state. It is suggested that NMDA channels on the Golgi cell dendrites play an important role for determining how the granular layer works in response to external input.

  2. Novel vaccines to human rabies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hildegund C J Ertl

    Full Text Available Rabies, the most fatal of all infectious diseases, remains a major public health problem in developing countries, claiming the lives of an estimated 55,000 people each year. Most fatal rabies cases, with more than half of them in children, result from dog bites and occur among low-income families in Southeast Asia and Africa. Safe and efficacious vaccines are available to prevent rabies. However, they have to be given repeatedly, three times for pre-exposure vaccination and four to five times for post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP. In cases of severe exposure, a regimen of vaccine combined with a rabies immunoglobulin (RIG preparation is required. The high incidence of fatal rabies is linked to a lack of knowledge on the appropriate treatment of bite wounds, lack of access to costly PEP, and failure to follow up with repeat immunizations. New, more immunogenic but less costly rabies virus vaccines are needed to reduce the toll of rabies on human lives. A preventative vaccine used for the immunization of children, especially those in high incidence countries, would be expected to lower fatality rates. Such a vaccine would have to be inexpensive, safe, and provide sustained protection, preferably after a single dose. Novel regimens are also needed for PEP to reduce the need for the already scarce and costly RIG and to reduce the number of vaccine doses to one or two. In this review, the pipeline of new rabies vaccines that are in pre-clinical testing is provided and an opinion on those that might be best suited as potential replacements for the currently used vaccines is offered.

  3. Temperature dependence of Coulomb oscillations in a few-layer two-dimensional WS2 quantum dot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiang-Xiang; Zhang, Zhuo-Zhi; You, Jie; Liu, Di; Li, Hai-Ou; Cao, Gang; Xiao, Ming; Guo, Guo-Ping

    2015-11-05

    Standard semiconductor fabrication techniques are used to fabricate a quantum dot (QD) made of WS2, where Coulomb oscillations were found. The full-width-at-half-maximum of the Coulomb peaks increases linearly with temperature while the height of the peaks remains almost independent of temperature, which is consistent with standard semiconductor QD theory. Unlike graphene etched QDs, where Coulomb peaks belonging to the same QD can have different temperature dependences, these results indicate the absence of the disordered confining potential. This difference in the potential-forming mechanism between graphene etched QDs and WS2 QDs may be the reason for the larger potential fluctuation found in graphene QDs.

  4. Quantum dynamics of the driven and dissipative Rabi model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriet, Loïc; Ristivojevic, Zoran; Orth, Peter P.; Le Hur, Karyn

    2014-08-01

    The Rabi model considers a two-level system (or spin 1/2) coupled to a quantized harmonic oscillator and describes the simplest interaction between matter and light. The recent experimental progress in solid-state circuit quantum electrodynamics has engendered theoretical efforts to quantitatively describe the mathematical and physical aspects of the light-matter interaction beyond the rotating-wave approximation. We develop a stochastic Schrödinger equation approach which enables us to access the strong-coupling limit of the Rabi model and study the effects of dissipation and ac drive in an exact manner. We include the effect of Ohmic noise on the non-Markovian spin dynamics, resulting in Kondo-type correlations, as well as cavity losses. We compute the time evolution of spin variables in various conditions. As a consideration for future work, we discuss the possibility of reaching a steady state with one polariton in realistic experimental conditions.

  5. Rabies: What Care Will I Receive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... closure should be decided together with your doctor. Rabies Postexposure Vaccinations For people who have never been ... you through the process. Also see: Preexposure Vaccinations Rabies Biologics Currently Available—United States, 2018 1 Human ...

  6. Lie algebraic approach to the time-dependent quantum general harmonic oscillator and the bi-dimensional charged particle in time-dependent electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibarra-Sierra, V.G.; Sandoval-Santana, J.C.; Cardoso, J.L.; Kunold, A.

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the one-dimensional, time-dependent general quadratic Hamiltonian and the bi-dimensional charged particle in time-dependent electromagnetic fields through the Lie algebraic approach. Such method consists in finding a set of generators that form a closed Lie algebra in terms of which it is possible to express a quantum Hamiltonian and therefore the evolution operator. The evolution operator is then the starting point to obtain the propagator as well as the explicit form of the Heisenberg picture position and momentum operators. First, the set of generators forming a closed Lie algebra is identified for the general quadratic Hamiltonian. This algebra is later extended to study the Hamiltonian of a charged particle in electromagnetic fields exploiting the similarities between the terms of these two Hamiltonians. These results are applied to the solution of five different examples: the linear potential which is used to introduce the Lie algebraic method, a radio frequency ion trap, a Kanai–Caldirola-like forced harmonic oscillator, a charged particle in a time dependent magnetic field, and a charged particle in constant magnetic field and oscillating electric field. In particular we present exact analytical expressions that are fitting for the study of a rotating quadrupole field ion trap and magneto-transport in two-dimensional semiconductor heterostructures illuminated by microwave radiation. In these examples we show that this powerful method is suitable to treat quadratic Hamiltonians with time dependent coefficients quite efficiently yielding closed analytical expressions for the propagator and the Heisenberg picture position and momentum operators. -- Highlights: •We deal with the general quadratic Hamiltonian and a particle in electromagnetic fields. •The evolution operator is worked out through the Lie algebraic approach. •We also obtain the propagator and Heisenberg picture position and momentum operators. •Analytical expressions for a

  7. Lie algebraic approach to the time-dependent quantum general harmonic oscillator and the bi-dimensional charged particle in time-dependent electromagnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibarra-Sierra, V.G.; Sandoval-Santana, J.C. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 México D.F. (Mexico); Cardoso, J.L. [Área de Física Teórica y Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Azcapotzalco, Av. San Pablo 180, Col. Reynosa-Tamaulipas, Azcapotzalco, 02200 México D.F. (Mexico); Kunold, A., E-mail: akb@correo.azc.uam.mx [Área de Física Teórica y Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Azcapotzalco, Av. San Pablo 180, Col. Reynosa-Tamaulipas, Azcapotzalco, 02200 México D.F. (Mexico)

    2015-11-15

    We discuss the one-dimensional, time-dependent general quadratic Hamiltonian and the bi-dimensional charged particle in time-dependent electromagnetic fields through the Lie algebraic approach. Such method consists in finding a set of generators that form a closed Lie algebra in terms of which it is possible to express a quantum Hamiltonian and therefore the evolution operator. The evolution operator is then the starting point to obtain the propagator as well as the explicit form of the Heisenberg picture position and momentum operators. First, the set of generators forming a closed Lie algebra is identified for the general quadratic Hamiltonian. This algebra is later extended to study the Hamiltonian of a charged particle in electromagnetic fields exploiting the similarities between the terms of these two Hamiltonians. These results are applied to the solution of five different examples: the linear potential which is used to introduce the Lie algebraic method, a radio frequency ion trap, a Kanai–Caldirola-like forced harmonic oscillator, a charged particle in a time dependent magnetic field, and a charged particle in constant magnetic field and oscillating electric field. In particular we present exact analytical expressions that are fitting for the study of a rotating quadrupole field ion trap and magneto-transport in two-dimensional semiconductor heterostructures illuminated by microwave radiation. In these examples we show that this powerful method is suitable to treat quadratic Hamiltonians with time dependent coefficients quite efficiently yielding closed analytical expressions for the propagator and the Heisenberg picture position and momentum operators. -- Highlights: •We deal with the general quadratic Hamiltonian and a particle in electromagnetic fields. •The evolution operator is worked out through the Lie algebraic approach. •We also obtain the propagator and Heisenberg picture position and momentum operators. •Analytical expressions for a

  8. Dog bite histories and response to incidents in canine rabies-enzootic KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Hergert

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to report evaluated observations from survey records captured through a cross-sectional observational study regarding canine populations and dog owners in rabies enzootic KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa. Our aim was to evaluate respondent knowledge of canine rabies and response to dog bite incidents towards improved rabies control. Six communities consisting of three land use types were randomly sampled from September 2009 to January 2011, using a cluster design. A total of 1992 household records were analyzed using descriptive statistics and regression modeling to evaluate source of rabies knowledge, experiences with dog bites, and factors affecting treatment received within respective households that occurred within the 365 day period prior to the surveys. 86% of the population surveyed had heard of rabies. Non-dog owners were 1.6 times more likely to have heard of rabies than dog owners; however, fear of rabies was not a reason for not owning a dog. Government veterinary services were reported most frequently as respondent source of rabies knowledge. Nearly 13% of households had a member bitten by a dog within the year prior to the surveys with 82% of the victims visiting a clinic as a response to the bite. 35% of these clinic visitors received at least one rabies vaccination. Regression modeling determined that the only response variable that significantly reflected the likelihood of a patient receiving rabies vaccination or not was the term for the area surveyed. Overall the survey showed that most respondents have heard of dog associated rabies and seek medical assistance at a clinic in response to a dog bite regardless of offending dog identification. An in-depth study involving factors associated within area clinics may highlight the area dependency for patients receiving rabies post exposure prophylaxis shown by this model.

  9. Time dependent analysis of Xenon spatial oscillations in small power reactors; Analise temporal das oscilacoes espaciais de Xenonio em reatores de pequeno porte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decco, Claudia Cristina Ghirardello

    1997-07-01

    This work presents time dependent analysis of xenon spatial oscillations studying the influence of the power density distribution, type of reactivity perturbation, power level and core size, using the one-dimensional and three-dimensional analysis with the MID2 and citation codes, respectively. It is concluded that small pressurized water reactors with height smaller than 1.5 m are stable and do not have xenon spatial oscillations. (author)

  10. Total inelastic cross sections for potassium ion--atom collisions: Oscillations in the velocity dependence and correlation with molecular structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquilanti, V.; Casavecchia, P.

    1976-01-01

    Electronic excitation leading to light emission in the wavelength range 350--800 nm has been studied by a crossed ion--atom beam technique for (K + , K) collisions, and the results are interpreted in terms of properties of the potential energy curves for the molecular ion K + 2 . The investigated velocity range is (1.3--12) x10 6 cm s -1 . The total cross section for the process K + (3p 6 1 S 0 ) +K(4s 2 S 1 / 2 ) →K + (3p 6 1 S 0 ) +K(4p 2 P 3 / 2 , 1 / 2 ) increases from threshold up to approx.10 -15 cm 2 at a velocity of approx.4.5x10 6 cm s -1 , and shows an oscillatory structure. The magnitude and over-all velocity dependence are attributed to a Σ--Pi curve crossing, and the oscillations to an interference effect, which is treated as an inelastic ''glory'' phenomenon. Cross sections for production of each of the fine structure components of K(4p), 2 P 3 / 2 , and 2 P 1 / 2 , have also been measured. Their ratio, which in the investigated velocity range is different from the statistical value, shows additional oscillations, which are discussed in terms of long range interference between alternate semiclassical paths

  11. A memristor-based third-order oscillator: beyond oscillation

    KAUST Repository

    Talukdar, Abdul Hafiz Ibne

    2012-10-06

    This paper demonstrates the first third-order autonomous linear time variant circuit realization that enhances parametric oscillation through the usage of memristor in conventional oscillators. Although the output has sustained oscillation, the linear features of the conventional oscillators become time dependent. The poles oscillate in nonlinear behavior due to the oscillation of memristor resistance. The mathematical formulas as well as SPICE simulations are introduced for the memristor-based phase shift oscillator showing a great matching.

  12. A memristor-based third-order oscillator: beyond oscillation

    KAUST Repository

    Talukdar, Abdul Hafiz Ibne; Radwan, Ahmed G.; Salama, Khaled N.

    2012-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the first third-order autonomous linear time variant circuit realization that enhances parametric oscillation through the usage of memristor in conventional oscillators. Although the output has sustained oscillation, the linear features of the conventional oscillators become time dependent. The poles oscillate in nonlinear behavior due to the oscillation of memristor resistance. The mathematical formulas as well as SPICE simulations are introduced for the memristor-based phase shift oscillator showing a great matching.

  13. Peculiarities of the thermal regime of the Russian plain depending on tidal oscillation Earth rotation speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimov, L. M.

    2018-01-01

    Typification of fields of anomaly of temperature in the central part of East European Plain depending on the main phases of the Moon taking into account these tidal fluctuations of speed of rotation of Earth is presented. The main regularities of spatial distribution of anomaly of temperature in December are revealed. The opposite dependence of distribution of anomaly of temperature on antiphases of the Moon is established.

  14. Rabies: Need for active and passive immunisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G N S Sangeetha Lakshmi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is an acute highly fatal viral disease of the CNS caused by Lyssavirus Type-I. It has a long and variable incubation period. It is a communicable disease of man that is always fatal. The combined administration of a single dose of anti rabies serum with a course of vaccine, together with local treatment of the wound is the best specific prophylactic treatment after exposure of man to rabies. Here, we report a case of rabies, who developed the disease in spite of having taken three doses of anti rabies vaccine (Post exposure.

  15. The epidemiology of rabies in Zimbabwe. 1. Rabies in dogs (Canis familiaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, J; Foggin, C M; Wandeler, A I; Hill, F W

    1999-03-01

    The epidemiology of rabies in dogs in Zimbabwe is described using data from 1950, when rabies was re-introduced after a 37-year absence, to 1996. Dogs constituted 45.7% of all laboratory-confirmed rabies cases and were the species most frequently diagnosed with the disease. Slightly more cases were diagnosed from June to November than in other months. From 1950 to the early 1980s, most dog cases were recorded from commercial farming areas, but since the early 1980s most have been recorded from communal (subsistence farming) areas. This change appears to be due to improved surveillance in communal areas and not to any change in the prevalence of rabies. Dog rabies therefore appears to be maintained mainly in communal area dog populations, particularly the large communal area blocks. Urban rabies was not important except in the city of Mutare. Where dog rabies prevalence was high, the disease was cyclic with periods between peak prevalence ranging from 4-7 years. Dog rabies cases were, on the whole, independent of jackal rabies and rabies in other carnivores. There was a significant negative relationship between the annual number of rabies vaccine doses administered nationally to dogs and the annual number of dog rabies cases lagged by one year, indicating that the past levels of immunisation coverage have had a significant effect on the number of rabies cases. However, dog vaccination coverage has clearly not been adequate to prevent the regular occurrence of rabies in dogs.

  16. Diameter dependence of emission power in MgO-based nano-pillar spin-torque oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Bochong; Kubota, Hitoshi, E-mail: hit-kubota@aist.go.jp; Yakushiji, Kay; Tamaru, Shingo; Arai, Hiroko; Imamura, Hiroshi; Fukushima, Akio; Yuasa, Shinji [Spintronics Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)

    2016-06-20

    The dependence on diameter of the emission power in MgO-based nano-pillar spin torque oscillators (STOs) was systematically investigated. A maximum emission power of over 2.5 μW was obtained around 300 nm in diameter, which is the largest reported to date among the out-of-plane precession STOs. By analyzing physical quantities, precession cone angle of the free-layer magnetization was evaluated. In the diameter range below 300 nm, the increase in power was mainly due to the increase of the injected current. The power decrease above 300 nm is possibly attributed to the decrease in the averaged precession cone angle, suggesting spatial phase difference of magnetization precession. This study provides the method for estimating the optimum STO diameter, which is of great importance in practical use.

  17. Invariance of the Berry phase under unitary transformations: application to the time-dependent generalized harmonic oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobe, D.H.

    1989-01-01

    The Berry phase is derived in a manifestly gauge-invariant way, without adiabatic or cyclic requirements. It is invariant under unitary transformations, contrary to recent assertions. A time-dependent generalized harmonic oscillator is taken as an example. The energy of the system is not in general the Hamiltonian. An energy, the time derivative of which is the power, is obtained from the equation of motion. When the system is quantized, the Berry phase is zero, and is invariant under unitary transformations. If the energy is chosen incorrectly to be the Hamiltonian, a nonzero Berry phase is obtained. In this case the total phase, the sun of the dynamical and Berry phases, is equal to the correct total phase through first order in perturbation theory. (author)

  18. Oscillation-Driven Spike-Timing Dependent Plasticity Allows Multiple Overlapping Pattern Recognition in Inhibitory Interneuron Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garrido, Jesús A.; Luque, Niceto R.; Tolu, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    The majority of operations carried out by the brain require learning complex signal patterns for future recognition, retrieval and reuse. Although learning is thought to depend on multiple forms of long-term synaptic plasticity, the way this latter contributes to pattern recognition is still poorly...... and at the inhibitory interneuron-interneuron synapses, the interneurons rapidly learned complex input patterns. Interestingly, induction of plasticity required that the network be entrained into theta-frequency band oscillations, setting the internal phase-reference required to drive STDP. Inhibitory plasticity...... effectively distributed multiple patterns among available interneurons, thus allowing the simultaneous detection of multiple overlapping patterns. The addition of plasticity in intrinsic excitability made the system more robust allowing self-adjustment and rescaling in response to a broad range of input...

  19. Bat Rabies in Massachusetts, USA, 1985–2009

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xingtai; DeMaria, Alfred; Smole, Sandra; Brown, Catherine M.; Han, Linda

    2010-01-01

    To investigate rabies in Massachusetts, we analyzed bat rabies test results before and after introduction of raccoon variant rabies and after release of revised 1999 US Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommendations for rabies postexposure prophylaxis. Bat submissions were associated with level of rabies awareness and specific postexposure recommendations.

  20. A quantitative risk assessment model to evaluate effective border control measures for rabies prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Hsin-Yi; Wu, Pei-I; Yang, Ping-Cheng; Tsai, Yi-Lun; Chang, Chao-Chin

    2009-01-01

    Border control is the primary method to prevent rabies emergence. This study developed a quantitative risk model incorporating stochastic processes to evaluate whether border control measures could efficiently prevent rabies introduction through importation of cats and dogs using Taiwan as an example. Both legal importation and illegal smuggling were investigated. The impacts of reduced quarantine and/or waiting period on the risk of rabies introduction were also evaluated. The results showed that Taiwan’s current animal importation policy could effectively prevent rabies introduction through legal importation of cats and dogs. The median risk of a rabid animal to penetrate current border control measures and enter Taiwan was 5.33 × 10−8 (95th percentile: 3.20 × 10−7). However, illegal smuggling may pose Taiwan to the great risk of rabies emergence. Reduction of quarantine and/or waiting period would affect the risk differently, depending on the applied assumptions, such as increased vaccination coverage, enforced custom checking, and/or change in number of legal importations. Although the changes in the estimated risk under the assumed alternatives were not substantial except for completely abolishing quarantine, the consequences of rabies introduction may yet be considered to be significant in a rabies-free area. Therefore, a comprehensive benefit-cost analysis needs to be conducted before recommending these alternative measures. PMID:19822125

  1. THE CLUSTERING OF GALAXIES IN THE SDSS-III BARYON OSCILLATION SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY: LUMINOSITY AND COLOR DEPENDENCE AND REDSHIFT EVOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Hong; Zehavi, Idit [Department of Astronomy, Case Western Reserve University, OH 44106 (United States); Zheng Zheng [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, UT 84112 (United States); Weinberg, David H. [Department of Astronomy and CCAPP, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Berlind, Andreas A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Blanton, Michael [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Chen Yanmei [Department of Astronomy, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Eisenstein, Daniel J.; McBride, Cameron K. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Ho, Shirley; Ross, Nicholas P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Kazin, Eyal [Center for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Manera, Marc; Maraston, Claudia; Percival, Will J.; Ross, Ashley J.; Samushia, Lado [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, Dennis Sciama Building, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Nuza, Sebastian E. [Leibniz-Institut fuer Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Parejko, John K. [Department of Physics, Yale University, 260 Whitney Ave, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); and others

    2013-04-20

    We measure the luminosity and color dependence and the redshift evolution of galaxy clustering in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey Ninth Data Release. We focus on the projected two-point correlation function (2PCF) of subsets of its CMASS sample, which includes about 260,000 galaxies over {approx}3300 deg{sup 2} in the redshift range 0.43 < z < 0.7. To minimize the selection effect on galaxy clustering, we construct well-defined luminosity and color subsamples by carefully accounting for the CMASS galaxy selection cuts. The 2PCF of the whole CMASS sample, if approximated by a power-law, has a correlation length of r{sub 0} = 7.93 {+-} 0.06 h {sup -1} Mpc and an index of {gamma} = 1.85 {+-} 0.01. Clear dependences on galaxy luminosity and color are found for the projected 2PCF in all redshift bins, with more luminous and redder galaxies generally exhibiting stronger clustering and steeper 2PCF. The color dependence is also clearly seen for galaxies within the red sequence, consistent with the behavior of SDSS-II main sample galaxies at lower redshifts. At a given luminosity (k + e corrected), no significant evolution of the projected 2PCFs with redshift is detected for red sequence galaxies. We also construct galaxy samples of fixed number density at different redshifts, using redshift-dependent magnitude thresholds. The clustering of these galaxies in the CMASS redshift range is found to be consistent with that predicted by passive evolution. Our measurements of the luminosity and color dependence and redshift evolution of galaxy clustering will allow for detailed modeling of the relation between galaxies and dark matter halos and new constraints on galaxy formation and evolution.

  2. [Epidemiology of rabies in Algeria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelmouffok, A; Belkaid, M; Benhassine, M

    An epidemiological study on rabies in Algeria has been carried out on data provided by the "Institut national de Santé publique" and the "Institut Pasteur d'Algérie". It showed that no region is unhurt. The animal reservoir is of the domestic type, essentially the dog. In 40% of cases, bites are due to stray dogs.

  3. Vacuum Rabi Splitting and Dynamics of the Jaynes—Cummings Model for Arbitrary Coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yu-Yu; Chen Qing-Hu; Zhu Shi-Yao

    2013-01-01

    The effects of counter-rotating terms (CRTs) on Rabi splitting and the dynamic evolution of atomic population in the Jaynes—Cummings model are studied with a coherent-state approach. When the coupling strength increases, the Rabi splitting becomes of multi-Rabi frequencies for the initial state of an excited atom in a vacuum field, and the collapses and revivals gradually disappear, and then reappear with quite good periodicity. Without the rotating-wave approximation (RWA), the initial excited state contains many eigenstates rather than two eigenstates under the RWA, which results in the multi-peak emission spectrum. An analytical approximate solution for the strong coupling regime is obtained, which gives a new oscillation frequency and explains the recovery of collapses and revivals due to the equal energy spacing

  4. Two-Photon Rabi Splitting in a Coupled System of a Nanocavity and Exciton Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Chenjiang; Wu, Shiyao; Song, Feilong; Peng, Kai; Xie, Xin; Yang, Jingnan; Xiao, Shan; Steer, Matthew J.; Thayne, Iain G.; Tang, Chengchun; Zuo, Zhanchun; Jin, Kuijuan; Gu, Changzhi; Xu, Xiulai

    2018-05-01

    Two-photon Rabi splitting in a cavity-dot system provides a basis for multiqubit coherent control in a quantum photonic network. Here we report on two-photon Rabi splitting in a strongly coupled cavity-dot system. The quantum dot was grown intentionally large in size for a large oscillation strength and small biexciton binding energy. Both exciton and biexciton transitions couple to a high-quality-factor photonic crystal cavity with large coupling strengths over 130 μ eV . Furthermore, the small binding energy enables the cavity to simultaneously couple with two exciton states. Thereby, two-photon Rabi splitting between the biexciton and cavity is achieved, which can be well reproduced by theoretical calculations with quantum master equations.

  5. Topography, power, and current source density of θ oscillations during reward processing as markers for alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarajan, Chella; Rangaswamy, Madhavi; Manz, Niklas; Chorlian, David B; Pandey, Ashwini K; Roopesh, Bangalore N; Porjesz, Bernice

    2012-05-01

    Recent studies have linked alcoholism with a dysfunctional neural reward system. Although several electrophysiological studies have explored reward processing in healthy individuals, such studies in alcohol-dependent individuals are quite rare. The present study examines theta oscillations during reward processing in abstinent alcoholics. The electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded in 38 abstinent alcoholics and 38 healthy controls as they performed a single outcome gambling task, which involved outcomes of either loss or gain of an amount (10 or 50¢) that was bet. Event-related theta band (3.0-7.0 Hz) power following each outcome stimulus was computed using the S-transform method. Theta power at the time window of the outcome-related negativity (ORN) and positivity (ORP) (200-500 ms) was compared across groups and outcome conditions. Additionally, behavioral data of impulsivity and task performance were analyzed. The alcoholic group showed significantly decreased theta power during reward processing compared to controls. Current source density (CSD) maps of alcoholics revealed weaker and diffuse source activity for all conditions and weaker bilateral prefrontal sources during the Loss 50 condition when compared with controls who manifested stronger and focused midline sources. Furthermore, alcoholics exhibited increased impulsivity and risk-taking on the behavioral measures. A strong association between reduced anterior theta power and impulsive task-performance was observed. It is suggested that decreased power and weaker and diffuse CSD in alcoholics may be due to dysfunctional neural reward circuitry. The relationship among alcoholism, theta oscillations, reward processing, and impulsivity could offer clues to understand brain circuitries that mediate reward processing and inhibitory control. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Rabies Epidemiology and Control in Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Prado, Esteban; Ponce-Zea, Jorge; Ramirez, Dario; Stewart-Ibarra, Anna M.; Armijos, Luciana; Yockteng, Jaime; Cárdenas, Washington B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Describe the epidemiology and the control effort for rabies in Ecuador. Methods: This observational study included data from the Ecuadorian National Institute of Census and Statistics (INEC), and mortality and morbidity data reported by the Ministry of Public Health and the National Institute for Social Security. We conducted a phylogeny analyses to compare the N gene from the Challenge Virus Standard (CVS) vaccine strain used in Ecuador with published Cosmopolitan, Asian and Sylvatic strains. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to determine the significance of the data. Results: In 1996 Ecuador suffered the highest rate of rabies per capita in the Americas, with an incidence rate of 0.56 cases per 100 000 people per year. Human and canine rabies showed a sharp decline until 2012. Between 1994 and 2014, we found a correlation of 0.925 (pEcuador. The incidence of human and canine rabies, also known as urban rabies, has clearly decreased due to massive canine vaccination campaigns. Phylogenetic analysis of the prevailing vaccine used in the country showed a clear separation from bat-derived rabies, the source of recent rabies outbreaks. Efforts are ongoing to develop rabies vaccines that are highly specific to the rabies virus genotype circulating in the region, including sylvatic rabies. These efforts include the implementation of reverse genetics to generate recombinant virus coding for the prevailing glycoprotein gene. PMID:26493436

  7. BAT-BORNE RABIES IN LATIN AMERICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Escobar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The situation of rabies in America is complex: rabies in dogs has decreased dramatically, but bats are increasingly recognized as natural reservoirs of other rabies variants. Here, bat species known to be rabies-positive with different antigenic variants, are summarized in relation to bat conservation status across Latin America. Rabies virus is widespread in Latin American bat species, 22.5%75 of bat species have been confirmed as rabies-positive. Most bat species found rabies positive are classified by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as “Least Concern”. According to diet type, insectivorous bats had the most species known as rabies reservoirs, while in proportion hematophagous bats were the most important. Research at coarse spatial scales must strive to understand rabies ecology; basic information on distribution and population dynamics of many Latin American and Caribbean bat species is needed; and detailed information on effects of landscape change in driving bat-borne rabies outbreaks remains unassessed. Finally, integrated approaches including public health, ecology, and conservation biology are needed to understand and prevent emergent diseases in bats.

  8. Rabies Epidemiology and Control in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Prado, Esteban; Ponce-Zea, Jorge; Ramirez, Dario; Stewart-Ibarra, Anna M; Armijos, Luciana; Yockteng, Jaime; Cardenas, Washington Bolivar

    2015-07-12

    Describe the epidemiology and the control effort for rabies in Ecuador. This observational study included data from the Ecuadorian National Institute of Census and Statistics (INEC), and mortality and morbidity data reported by the Ministry of Public Health and the National Institute for Social Security. We conducted a phylogeny analyses to compare the N gene from the Challenge Virus Standard (CVS) vaccine strain used in Ecuador with published Cosmopolitan, Asian and Sylvatic strains. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to determine the significance of the data. In 1996 Ecuador suffered the highest rate of rabies per capita in the Americas, with an incidence rate of 0.56 cases per 100 000 people per year. Human and canine rabies showed a sharp decline until 2012. Between 1994 and 2014, we found a correlation of 0.925 (pEcuador. The incidence of human and canine rabies, also known as urban rabies, has clearly decreased due to massive canine vaccination campaigns. Phylogenetic analysis of the prevailing vaccine used in the country showed a clear separation from bat-derived rabies, the source of recent rabies outbreaks. Efforts are ongoing to develop rabies vaccines that are highly specific to the rabies virus genotype circulating in the region, including sylvatic rabies. These efforts include the implementation of reverse genetics to generate recombinant virus coding for the prevailing glycoprotein gene.

  9. Rabies: What If I Receive Treatment Outside the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z # Rabies Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Rabies Homepage Exposure What materials can spread rabies? What ...

  10. Emergency rabies control in a community of two high-density hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singer Alexander

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rabies is a fatal viral disease that potentially can affect all mammals. Terrestrial rabies is not present in the United Kingdom and has been eliminated from Western Europe. Nevertheless the possibility remains that rabies could be introduced to England, where it would find two potentially suitable hosts, red foxes and badgers. With the aim to analyse the spread and emergency control of rabies in this two species host community, a simulation model was constructed. Different control strategies involving anti-rabies vaccination and population culling were developed, considering control application rates, spatial extent and timing. These strategies were evaluated for efficacy and feasibility to control rabies in hypothetical rural areas in the South of England immediately after a disease outbreak. Results The model confirmed that both fox and badger populations, separately, were competent hosts for the spread of rabies. Realistic vaccination levels were not sufficient to control rabies in high-density badger populations. The combined species community was a very strong rabies host. However, disease spread within species appeared to be more important than cross-species infection. Thus, the drivers of epidemiology depend on the potential of separate host species to sustain the disease. To control a rabies outbreak in the two species, both species had to be targeted. Realistic and robust control strategies involved vaccination of foxes and badgers, but also required badger culling. Although fox and badger populations in the UK are exceptionally dense, an outbreak of rabies can be controlled with a higher than 90% chance, if control response is quick and follows a strict regime. This requires surveillance and forceful and repeated control campaigns. In contrast, an uncontrolled rabies outbreak in the South of England would quickly develop into a strong epizootic involving tens of thousands of rabid foxes and badgers. Conclusions If

  11. Intention of dog owners to participate in rabies control measures in Flores Island, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wera, Ewaldus; Mourits, Monique C M; Hogeveen, Henk

    2016-04-01

    The success of a rabies control strategy depends on the commitment and collaboration of dog owners. In this study the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) was used to identify the factors, which are associated with the intention of dog owners to participate in rabies control measures in the Manggarai and Sikka regencies of Flores Island, Indonesia. Questionnaires were administered to 450 dog owners from 44 randomly selected villages in the two regencies. Ninety-six percent of the dog owners intended to participate in a free-of-charge vaccination campaign. The intention decreased to 24% when dog owners were asked to pay a vaccination fee equal to the market price of the vaccine (Rp 18.000 per dose=US$2). Approximately 81% of the dog owners intended to keep their dogs inside their house or to leash them day and night during a period of at least three months in case of an incidence of rabies in the dog population within their village. Only 40% intended to cull their dogs in case of a rabies incident within their village. Using multivariable logistic regression analysis, the attitude item 'vaccinating dogs reduces rabies cases in humans', and the perceived behavioural control items 'availability of time' and 'ability to confine dogs' were shown to be significantly associated with the intention to participate in a free-of-charge vaccination campaign. The attitude item 'culling dogs reduces rabies cases in humans' was significantly associated with the intention to participate in a culling measure. The attitude item 'leashing of dogs reduces human rabies cases' and perceived behavioural controls 'availability of time' and 'money to buy a leash' were associated with the intention to leash dogs during a rabies outbreak. As the attitude variables were often significantly associated with intention to participate in a rabies control measure, an educational rabies campaign focusing on the benefit of rabies control measures is expected to increase the intention of dog owners to

  12. Effective preexposure and postexposure prophylaxis of rabies with a highly attenuated recombinant rabies virus

    OpenAIRE

    Faber, Milosz; Li, Jianwei; Kean, Rhonda B.; Hooper, D. Craig; Alugupalli, Kishore R.; Dietzschold, Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    Rabies remains an important public health problem with more than 95% of all human rabies cases caused by exposure to rabid dogs in areas where effective, inexpensive vaccines are unavailable. Because of their ability to induce strong innate and adaptive immune responses capable of clearing the infection from the CNS after a single immunization, live-attenuated rabies virus (RV) vaccines could be particularly useful not only for the global eradication of canine rabies but also for late-stage r...

  13. Detuning-Controlled Internal Oscillations in an Exciton-Polariton Condensate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronova, N. S.; Elistratov, A. A.; Lozovik, Yu. E.

    2015-10-01

    We theoretically analyze exciton-photon oscillatory dynamics within a homogenous polariton gas in the presence of energy detuning between the cavity and quantum well modes. Whereas pure Rabi oscillations consist of the particle exchange between the photon and exciton states in the polariton system without any oscillations of the phases of the two subcondensates, we demonstrate that any nonzero detuning results in oscillations of the relative phase of the photon and exciton macroscopic wave functions. Different initial conditions reveal a variety of behaviors of the relative phase between the two condensates, and a crossover from Rabi-like to Josephson-like oscillations is predicted.

  14. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum due to paralytic rabies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuping Wang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is a fatal disease resulting from rabies virus infection, causing severe neurological symptoms and ultimately death by destroying the nervous system. In general, a patient tends to see a neurologist or an infectious diseases physician, with very common and typical discipline-related signs and symptoms, such as hydrophobia, aerophobia, and mental disorders. However, we reported a rabies patient who was first admitted to see a thoracic surgeon with spontaneous pneumomediastinum.

  15. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum due to paralytic rabies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuping Wang

    Full Text Available Rabies is a fatal disease resulting from rabies virus infection, causing severe neurological symptoms and ultimately death by destroying the nervous system. In general, a patient tends to see a neurologist or an infectious diseases physician, with very common and typical discipline-related signs and symptoms, such as hydrophobia, aerophobia, and mental disorders. However, we reported a rabies patient who was first admitted to see a thoracic surgeon with spontaneous pneumomediastinum.

  16. Sudden Hearing Loss after Rabies Vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Güçlü, Oğuz; Dereköy, Fevzi Sefa

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sudden hearing loss developing after immunisation is a very rare situation. Rabies is a viral disease characterised by encephalitis and death. Treatment involves active and passive immunisation. Neurologic complications including Guillain-Barre syndrome or facial paralysis are reported in the literature as a side effect after rabies immunisation. Case Report: Sudden hearing loss was detected in an 11 year-old male patient who had taken the medication for rabies immunisatio...

  17. Sudden Hearing Loss after Rabies Vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Güçlü, Oğuz; Dereköy, Fevzi Sefa

    2013-01-01

    Background: Sudden hearing loss developing after immunisation is a very rare situation. Rabies is a viral disease characterised by encephalitis and death. Treatment involves active and passive immunisation. Neurologic complications including Guillain-Barre syndrome or facial paralysis are reported in the literature as a side effect after rabies immunisation. Case Report: Sudden hearing loss was detected in an 11 year-old male patient who had taken the medication for rabies immunisat...

  18. The quantum Rabi model: solution and dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Qiongtao; Zhong, Honghua; Lee, Chaohong; Batchelor, Murray T

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a review of recent developments on various aspects of the quantum Rabi model. Particular emphasis is given on the exact analytic solution obtained in terms of confluent Heun functions. The analytic solutions for various generalisations of the quantum Rabi model are also discussed. Results are also reviewed on the level statistics and the dynamics of the quantum Rabi model. The article concludes with an introductory overview of several experimental realisations of the quantum Rabi model. An outlook towards future developments is also given. (topical review)

  19. Position-dependent correlation function from the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey Data Release 10 CMASS sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, Chi-Ting; Wagner, Christian; Sánchez, Ariel G.; Schmidt, Fabian; Komatsu, Eiichiro

    2015-01-01

    We report on the first measurement of the three-point function with the position-dependent correlation function from the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) Data Release 10 CMASS sample. This new observable measures the correlation between two-point functions of galaxy pairs within different subvolumes, ξ-circumflex (ř,ř L ), where ř L is the location of a subvolume, and the corresponding mean overdensities, δ-bar (ř L ). This correlation, which we call the 'integrated three-point function', iζ(r)≡(ξ-circumflex (ř,ř L )δ-bar (ř L )), measures a three-point function of two short- and one long-wavelength modes, and is generated by nonlinear gravitational evolution and possibly also by the physics of inflation. The iζ(r) measured from the BOSS data lies within the scatter of those from the mock galaxy catalogs in redshift space, yielding a ten-percent-level determination of the amplitude of iζ(r). The tree-level perturbation theory in redshift space predicts how this amplitude depends on the linear and quadratic nonlinear galaxy bias parameters (b 1 and b 2 ), as well as on the amplitude and linear growth rate of matter fluctuations (σ 8 and f). Combining iζ(r) with the constraints on b 1σ 8 and fσ 8 from the global two-point correlation function and that on σ 8 from the weak lensing signal of BOSS galaxies, we measure b 2 =0.41±0.41 (68% C.L.) assuming standard perturbation theory at the tree level and the local bias model

  20. The Relevance of Rabies to Today’s Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    April 26, 2012. Heithaus ER, Opler PA, Baker HG. Bat activity and 20. pollination of Bauhinia Pauletia: plant- pollinator coevolution. Ecology ...canine. This is especially true in urban centers of the developing world. It should be understood, however, that any mammal can become infected by the...the feeding on vast numbers of insects, while many plants depend on the pollinating activities of fruit bats.20 BAT RABIES IN THE UNITED STATES Bat

  1. Rabi N. Bhattacharya selected papers

    CERN Document Server

    Waymire, Edward

    2016-01-01

    This volume presents some of the most influential papers published by Rabi N. Bhattacharya, along with commentaries from international experts, demonstrating his knowledge, insight, and influence in the field of probability and its applications. For more than three decades, Bhattacharya has made significant contributions in areas ranging from theoretical statistics via analytical probability theory, Markov processes, and random dynamics to applied topics in statistics, economics, and geophysics. Selected reprints of Bhattacharya’s papers are divided into three sections: Modes of Approximation, Large Times for Markov Processes, and Stochastic Foundations in Applied Sciences. The accompanying articles by the contributing authors not only help to position his work in the context of other achievements, but also provide a unique assessment of the state of their individual fields, both historically and for the next generation of researchers. Rabi N. Bhattacharya: Selected Papers will be a valuable resource for yo...

  2. Activation of a cGMP-sensitive calcium-dependent chloride channel may cause transition from calcium waves to whole-cell oscillations in smooth muscle cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Jens Christian; Aalkjær, Christian; Nilsson, Holger

    2007-01-01

    waves sweeping through the cytoplasm when the SR is stimulated to release calcium. A rise in cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) leads to the experimentally observed transition from waves to whole-cell calcium oscillations. At the same time membrane potential starts to oscillate and the frequency...... approximately doubles. In this transition, the simulated results point to a key role for a recently discovered cGMP-sensitive calcium-dependent chloride channel. This channel depolarizes the membrane in response to calcium released from the SR. In turn, depolarization causes uniform opening of L-type calcium...... onset of oscillations in membrane potential within the individual cell may underlie sudden intercellular synchronization and the appearance of vasomotion. Key words: Vasomotion, Chloride channel, cGMP, Mathematical model, Calcium waves....

  3. Generalized squeezing rotating-wave approximation to the isotropic and anisotropic Rabi model in the ultrastrong-coupling regime

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yu-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Generalized squeezing rotating-wave approximation (GSRWA) is proposed by employing both the displacement and the squeezing transformations. A solvable Hamiltonian is reformulated in the same form as the ordinary RWA ones. For a qubit coupled to oscillators experiment, a well-defined Schr\\"{o}dinger-cat-like entangled state is given by the displaced-squeezed oscillator state instead of the original displaced state. For the isotropic Rabi case, the mean photon number and the ground-state energy...

  4. Isidor I Rabi and CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Krige, Gerhard John

    2005-01-01

    Isidor I. Rabi (1898-1988) is the acknowledged "father of CERN", today one of the most important particle-physics laboratories in the world. I explore his motives for promoting the idea in 1950 that Western Europe should build a "Brookhaven" with national governments replacing universities. I unravel the many ways in which a major accelerator facility in Geneva, Switzerland, could both stimulate European science and serve the interests of the American scientific community. Rabi was careful to avoid giving any official support to steps then under way in Europe to build a research reactor, even though Brookhaven National Laboratory on Long Island, New York, had one from the outset. I suggest that his main motive for doing so was that he wanted West Germany to be part of the collaborative venture. Rabi was well aware of the foreign-policy objectives of the U.S. State Department in the European theater in 1950, and he wanted to situate politically the new research center in the framework of the Marshall Plan for ...

  5. Transmission dynamics and economics of rabies control in dogs and humans in an African city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinsstag, J; Dürr, S; Penny, M A; Mindekem, R; Roth, F; Menendez Gonzalez, S; Naissengar, S; Hattendorf, J

    2009-09-01

    Human rabies in developing countries can be prevented through interventions directed at dogs. Potential cost-savings for the public health sector of interventions aimed at animal-host reservoirs should be assessed. Available deterministic models of rabies transmission between dogs were extended to include dog-to-human rabies transmission. Model parameters were fitted to routine weekly rabid-dog and exposed-human cases reported in N'Djaména, the capital of Chad. The estimated transmission rates between dogs (beta(d)) were 0.0807 km2/(dogs x week) and between dogs and humans (beta(dh)) 0.0002 km2/(dogs x week). The effective reproductive ratio (R(e)) at the onset of our observations was estimated at 1.01, indicating low-level endemic stability of rabies transmission. Human rabies incidence depended critically on dog-related transmission parameters. We simulated the effects of mass dog vaccination and the culling of a percentage of the dog population on human rabies incidence. A single parenteral dog rabies-mass vaccination campaign achieving a coverage of least 70% appears to be sufficient to interrupt transmission of rabies to humans for at least 6 years. The cost-effectiveness of mass dog vaccination was compared to postexposure prophylaxis (PEP), which is the current practice in Chad. PEP does not reduce future human exposure. Its cost-effectiveness is estimated at US $46 per disability adjusted life-years averted. Cost-effectiveness for PEP, together with a dog-vaccination campaign, breaks even with cost-effectiveness of PEP alone after almost 5 years. Beyond a time-frame of 7 years, it appears to be more cost-effective to combine parenteral dog-vaccination campaigns with human PEP compared to human PEP alone.

  6. Potential cost savings with terrestrial rabies control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherry Bryan

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cost-benefit of raccoon rabies control strategies such as oral rabies vaccination (ORV are under evaluation. As an initial quantification of the potential cost savings for a control program, the collection of selected rabies cost data was pilot tested for five counties in New York State (NYS in a three-year period. Methods Rabies costs reported to NYS from the study counties were computerized and linked to a human rabies exposure database. Consolidated costs by county and year were averaged and compared. Results Reported rabies-associated costs for all rabies variants totalled $2.1 million, for human rabies postexposure prophylaxes (PEP (90.9%, animal specimen preparation/shipment to laboratory (4.7%, and pet vaccination clinics (4.4%. The proportion that may be attributed to raccoon rabies control was 37% ($784,529. Average costs associated with the raccoon variant varied across counties from $440 to $1,885 per PEP, $14 to $44 per specimen, and $0.33 to $15 per pet vaccinated. Conclusion Rabies costs vary widely by county in New York State, and were associated with human population size and methods used by counties to estimate costs. Rabies cost variability must be considered in developing estimates of possible ORV-related cost savings. Costs of PEPs and specimen preparation/shipments, as well as the costs of pet vaccination provided by this study may be valuable for development of more realistic scenarios in economic modelling of ORV costs versus benefits.

  7. The time-dependent coupled oscillator model for the motion of a charged particle in the presence of a time-varying magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menouar, Salah; Maamache, Mustapha; Choi, Jeong Ryeol

    2010-01-01

    The dynamics of the time-dependent coupled oscillator model for the motion of a charged particle subjected to a time-dependent external magnetic field is investigated. We use the canonical transformation approach for the classical treatment of the system, whereas the unitary transformation approach is used in managing the system in the framework of quantum mechanics. For both approaches, the original system is transformed into a much more simple system that is the sum of two independent harmonic oscillators with time-dependent frequencies. We therefore easily identify the wavefunctions in the transformed system with the help of an invariant operator of the system. The full wavefunctions in the original system are derived from the inverse unitary transformation of the wavefunctions associated with the transformed system.

  8. The effects of static quartic anharmonicity on the quantum dynamics of a linear oscillator with time-dependent harmonic frequency: Perturbative analysis and numerical calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, P.; Bhattacharyya, S.P.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of quartic anharmonicity on the quantum dynamics of a linear oscillator with time-dependent force constant (K) or harmonic frequency (ω) are studied both perturbatively and numerically by the time-dependent Fourier grid Hamiltonian method. In the absence of anharmonicity, the ground-state population decreases and the population of an accessible excited state (k = 2.4, 6 ... ) increases with time. However, when anharmonicity is introduced, both the ground- and excited-state populations show typical oscillations. For weak coupling, the population of an accessible excited state at a certain instant of time (short) turns out to be a parabolic function of the anharmonic coupling constant (λ), when all other parameters of the system are kept fixed. This parabolic nature of the excited-state population vs. the λ profile is independent of the specific form of the time dependence of the force constant, K t . However, it depends upon the rate at which K t relaxes. For small anharmonic coupling strength and short time scales, the numerical results corroborate expectations based on the first-order time-dependent perturbative analysis, using a suitably repartitioned Hamiltonian that makes H 0 time-independent. Some of the possible experimental implications of our observations are analyzed, especially in relation to intensity oscillations observed in some charge-transfer spectra in systems in which the dephasing rates are comparable with the time scale of the electron transfer. 21 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  9. Quantum phase transition and quench dynamics in the anisotropic Rabi model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Li-Tuo; Yang, Zhen-Biao; Wu, Huai-Zhi; Zheng, Shi-Biao

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the quantum phase transition (QPT) and quench dynamics in the anisotropic Rabi model when the ratio of the qubit transition frequency to the oscillator frequency approaches infinity. Based on the Schrieffer-Wolff transformation, we find an anti-Hermitian operator that maps the original Hamiltonian into a one-dimensional oscillator Hamiltonian within the spin-down subspace. We analytically derive the eigenenergy and eigenstate of the normal and superradiant phases and demonstrate that the system undergoes a second-order quantum phase transition at a critical border. The critical border is a straight line in a two-dimensional parameter space which essentially extends the dimensionality of QPT in the Rabi model. By combining the Kibble-Zurek mechanism and the adiabatic dynamics method, we find that the residual energy vanishes as the quench time tends to zero, which is a sharp contrast to the universal scaling where the residual energy diverges in the same limit.

  10. Laboratory Diagnosis of Human Rabies: Recent Advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Reeta Subramaniam; Madhusudana, Shampur Narayan

    2013-01-01

    Rabies, an acute progressive, fatal encephalomyelitis, transmitted most commonly through the bite of a rabid animal, is responsible for an estimated 61,000 human deaths worldwide. The true disease burden and public health impact due to rabies remain underestimated due to lack of sensitive laboratory diagnostic methods. Rapid diagnosis of rabies can help initiate prompt infection control and public health measures, obviate the need for unnecessary treatment/medical tests, and assist in timely administration of pre- or postexposure prophylactic vaccination to family members and medical staff. Antemortem diagnosis of human rabies provides an impetus for clinicians to attempt experimental therapeutic approaches in some patients, especially after the reported survival of a few cases of human rabies. Traditional methods for antemortem and postmortem rabies diagnosis have several limitations. Recent advances in technology have led to the improvement or development of several diagnostic assays which include methods for rabies viral antigen and antibody detection and assays for viral nucleic acid detection and identification of specific biomarkers. These assays which complement traditional methods have the potential to revolutionize rabies diagnosis in future. PMID:24348170

  11. Risk of rabies exposure among travellers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieten, R. W.; Tawil, S.; van Vugt, M.; Goorhuis, A.; Grobusch, M. P.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, requests for rabies immunoglobulin have increased at Amsterdam's Academic Medical Center's travel clinic. Travellers who received rabies pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) before travel departure have immunological memory that can quickly be activated by timely booster vaccinations

  12. Quasi exact solution of the Rabi Hamiltonian

    CERN Document Server

    Koç, R; Tuetuencueler, H

    2002-01-01

    A method is suggested to obtain the quasi exact solution of the Rabi Hamiltonian. It is conceptually simple and can be easily extended to other systems. The analytical expressions are obtained for eigenstates and eigenvalues in terms of orthogonal polynomials. It is also demonstrated that the Rabi system, in a particular case, coincides with the quasi exactly solvable Poeschl-Teller potential.

  13. 9 CFR 113.209 - Rabies Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.209... Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.209 Rabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. Rabies Vaccine (Killed Virus) shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell cultures or nerve tissues obtained from animals that have developed rabies...

  14. 9 CFR 113.312 - Rabies Vaccine, Live Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rabies Vaccine, Live Virus. 113.312... Virus Vaccines § 113.312 Rabies Vaccine, Live Virus. Rabies Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing... administration. (iii) Observe all animals for signs of rabies until scheduled time to sacrifice. If animals show...

  15. Rabies in Asia: the classical zoonosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Henry; Hemachudha, Thiravat; Wacharapluesadee, Supaporn; Lumlertdacha, Boonlert; Tepsumethanon, Veera

    2013-01-01

    Rabies remains a constant threat to humans throughout much of Asia. The dog is the main reservoir and vector with wildlife playing a very minor role. No Asian country or region has been declared rabies free by WHO in over two decades and there is evidence of canine rabies spread to new regions during the past 10 years. We now have the knowledge and technology to control canine rabies. The main barrier in managing this costly endemic is lack of motivation by authorities to address this issue along with regional inability of public health and livestock (agriculture) officials to tackle this issue in cooperation and coordination. Rabies is one of the first recognized zoonoses and a model for a true "One Health" management goal where human; veterinary, and government officials must work together in harmony to defeat this disease.

  16. Strategic model of national rabies control in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Yeotaek; Kim, Bongjun; Lee, Ki Joong; Park, Donghwa; Kim, Sooyeon; Kim, Hyeoncheol; Park, Eunyeon; Lee, Hyeongchan; Bae, Chaewun; Oh, Changin; Park, Seung-Yong; Song, Chang-Seon; Lee, Sang-Won; Choi, In-Soo; Lee, Joong-Bok

    2014-01-01

    Rabies is an important zoonosis in the public and veterinary healthy arenas. This article provides information on the situation of current rabies outbreak, analyzes the current national rabies control system, reviews the weaknesses of the national rabies control strategy, and identifies an appropriate solution to manage the current situation. Current rabies outbreak was shown to be present from rural areas to urban regions. Moreover, the situation worldwide demonstrates that each nation struggles to prevent or control rabies. Proper application and execution of the rabies control program require the overcoming of existing weaknesses. Bait vaccines and other complex programs are suggested to prevent rabies transmission or infection. Acceleration of the rabies control strategy also requires supplementation of current policy and of public information. In addition, these prevention strategies should be executed over a mid- to long-term period to control rabies.

  17. Factors associated with the success of rabies vaccination of dogs in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivera Esteban

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background United Kingdom, Ireland, Malta and Sweden maintain their national provisions for a transitional period regarding rules concerning rabies vaccination and individual serological test for rabies neutralizing antibodies. The purpose of vaccinating dogs against rabies is to establish pre-exposure immunity and protect individual animals from contracting rabies. The aim of the study was to investigate factors associated with reaching the internationally accepted threshold antibody titre of 0.5 IU/mL after rabies vaccination of dogs. Methods The study was a prospective single cohort study including 6,789 samples from Swedish dogs vaccinated with commercially available vaccines in Sweden, and the dog's antibody responses were determined by the OIE approved FAVN test. Information on potential risk factors; breed, age, gender, date of vaccination, vaccine label and the number of vaccinations, was collected for each dog. Associations between the dependent variable, serological response ≥ 0.5 IU/mL or Results Of 6,789 vaccinated dogs, 6,241 (91.9% had an approved test result of ≥ 0.5 IU/mL. The results of the multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that vaccinating with vaccine B reduced the risk of having antibody titres of 5 years of age to have antibody titres of Conclusions The probability of success of rabies vaccinations of dogs depends on type of vaccine used, number of rabies vaccinations, the breed size of the dog, age at vaccination, and number of days after vaccination when the antibody titres are tested. The need for a booster vaccination regimen is recommended for larger breeds of dog.

  18. Laboratory diagnostics in dog-mediated rabies: an overview of performance and a proposed strategy for various settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Veasna; Tarantola, Arnaud; Ong, Sivuth; Mey, Channa; Choeung, Rithy; Ly, Sowath; Bourhy, Hervé; Dussart, Philippe; Buchy, Philippe

    2016-05-01

    The diagnosis of dog-mediated rabies in humans and animals has greatly benefited from technical advances in the laboratory setting. Approaches to diagnosis now include the detection of rabies virus (RABV), RABV RNA, or RABV antigens. These assays are important tools in the current efforts aimed at the global elimination of dog-mediated rabies. The assays available for use in laboratories are reviewed herein, as well as their strengths and weaknesses, which vary with the types of sample analyzed. Depending on the setting, however, the public health objectives and use of RABV diagnosis in the field will also vary. In non-endemic settings, the detection of all introduced or emergent animal or human cases justifies exhaustive testing. In dog RABV-endemic settings, such as rural areas of developing countries where most cases occur, the availability of or access to testing may be severely constrained. Thus, these issues are also discussed along with a proposed strategy to prioritize testing while access to rabies testing in the resource-poor, highly endemic setting is improved. As the epidemiological situation of rabies in a country evolves, the strategy should shift from that of an endemic setting to one more suitable for a decreased rabies incidence following the implementation of efficient control measures and when nearing the target of dog-mediated rabies elimination. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Nature's Autonomous Oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, H. G.; Yee, J.-H.; Mayr, M.; Schnetzler, R.

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinearity is required to produce autonomous oscillations without external time dependent source, and an example is the pendulum clock. The escapement mechanism of the clock imparts an impulse for each swing direction, which keeps the pendulum oscillating at the resonance frequency. Among nature's observed autonomous oscillators, examples are the quasi-biennial oscillation and bimonthly oscillation of the Earth atmosphere, and the 22-year solar oscillation. The oscillations have been simulated in numerical models without external time dependent source, and in Section 2 we summarize the results. Specifically, we shall discuss the nonlinearities that are involved in generating the oscillations, and the processes that produce the periodicities. In biology, insects have flight muscles, which function autonomously with wing frequencies that far exceed the animals' neural capacity; Stretch-activation of muscle contraction is the mechanism that produces the high frequency oscillation of insect flight, discussed in Section 3. The same mechanism is also invoked to explain the functioning of the cardiac muscle. In Section 4, we present a tutorial review of the cardio-vascular system, heart anatomy, and muscle cell physiology, leading up to Starling's Law of the Heart, which supports our notion that the human heart is also a nonlinear oscillator. In Section 5, we offer a broad perspective of the tenuous links between the fluid dynamical oscillators and the human heart physiology.

  20. Rabies postexposure prophylaxis. Human and domestic animal considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearneyhough, M G

    2001-05-01

    The emphasis on rabies control and prevention in the United States seems to be a function of our perception of proximity of the threat. Wildlife rabies epizootics within a state may be of little concern to the uninformed urban dweller. Additionally, many parts of the western United States are free of terrestrial rabies; were it not for the presence of bat rabies, people in those areas would likely interpret rabies control as a minor public health concern. It is essential that federal, state, and local public health programs emphasize the importance of rabies control through activities that include rabies education, sponsorship of legislated requirements for domestic animal vaccination, support for local animal control programs, and the promotion of recommendations that encourage the appropriate use of PEP. We are almost guaranteed that rabies is going to remain a major public health issue well into the next century because of expanding wildlife rabies epizootics, identification of new rabies viral variants with increased public health concern, emotional and legal concerns associated with rabies exposure, and increasing national cost associated with rabies control and prevention. Nevertheless, the development of new laboratory technology that allows an understanding of the epidemiologic nature of the rabies virus based on an evolving genetic history and the interrelationship with wildlife reservoirs should allow access to valuable tools for rabies control. When combined with programs using new developments in oral rabies vaccine that can immunize whole populations of wildlife reservoirs, that technology offers encouragement in our effort to control one of the diseases of antiquity.

  1. The inhibition of optical excitations and enhancement of Rabi flopping in hybrid quantum dot-metallic nanoparticle systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghi, S M

    2009-01-01

    We study the inhibition of optical excitation and enhancement of Rabi flopping and frequency in semiconductor quantum dots via plasmonic effects. This is done by demonstrating that the interaction of a quantum dot with a laser field in the vicinity of a metallic nanoparticle can be described in terms of optical Bloch equations with a plasmically normalized Rabi frequency. We show that in the weak-field regime plasmonic effects can suppress the interband transitions, inhibiting exciton generation. In the strong-field regime these effects delay the response of the quantum dot to the laser field and enhance Rabi flopping. We relate these to the conversion of Rabi frequency from a real quantity into a complex and strongly frequency-dependent quantity as plasmonic effects become significant. We show that, within the strong-field regime, in the wavelength range where real and imaginary parts of this frequency reach their maxima, a strongly frequency-dependent enhancement of carrier excitation can happen.

  2. Equation-of-state dependent features in shock-oscillation modulated neutrino and gravitational-wave signals from supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, A.; Janka, H.-T.; Müller, E.

    2009-03-01

    We present two-dimensional (axisymmetric) neutrino-hydrodynamic simulations of the long-time accretion phase of a 15 M_⊙ progenitor star after core bounce and before the launch of a supernova explosion, when non-radial hydrodynamic instabilities like convection occur in different regions of the collapsing stellar core and the standing accretion shock instability (SASI) leads to large-amplitude oscillations of the stalled shock with a period of tens of milliseconds. Our simulations were performed with the Prometheus-Vertex code, which includes a multi-flavor, energy-dependent neutrino transport scheme and employs an effective relativistic gravitational potential. Testing the influence of a stiff and a soft equation of state for hot neutron star matter, we find that the non-radial mass motions in the supernova core impose a time variability on the neutrino and gravitational-wave signals with larger amplitudes, as well as higher frequencies in the case of a more compact nascent neutron star. After the prompt shock-breakout burst of electron neutrinos, a more compact accreting remnant produces higher neutrino luminosities and higher mean neutrino energies. The observable neutrino emission in the SASI sloshing direction exhibits a modulation of several ten percent in the luminosities and around 1 MeV in the mean energies with most power at typical SASI frequencies between roughly 20 and 100 Hz. The modulation is caused by quasi-periodic variations in the mass accretion rate of the neutron star in each hemisphere. At times later than ~50-100 ms after bounce, the gravitational-wave amplitude is dominated by the growing low-frequency (⪉200 Hz) signal associated with anisotropic neutrino emission. A high-frequency wave signal results from nonradial gas flows in the outer layers of the anisotropically accreting neutron star. Right after bounce such nonradial mass motions occur due to prompt post-shock convection in both considered cases and contribute mostly to the early

  3. Rabies in the Americas: 1998-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire de Carvalho, Mary; Vigilato, Marco A N; Pompei, Julio A; Rocha, Felipe; Vokaty, Alexandra; Molina-Flores, Baldomero; Cosivi, Ottorino; Del Rio Vilas, Victor J

    2018-03-01

    Through national efforts and regional cooperation under the umbrella of the Regional Program for the Elimination of Rabies, dog and human rabies have decreased significantly in Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) countries over the last three decades. To achieve this decline, LAC countries had to develop national plans, and consolidate capabilities such as regular mass dog vaccination, opportune post-exposure prophylaxis and sensitive surveillance. This paper presents longitudinal data for 21 LAC countries on dog vaccination, PEP and rabies surveillance collected from the biannual regional meeting for rabies directors from 1998-2014 and from the Regional Epidemiologic Surveillance System for Rabies (SIRVERA). Differences in human and dog rabies incidence rates and dog vaccination rates were shown between low, middle and high-income countries. At the peak, over 50 million dogs were vaccinated annually in national campaigns in the countries represented. The reported number of animal exposures remained fairly stable during the study period with an incidence rate ranging from 123 to 191 reported exposures per 100,000 people. On average, over 2 million doses of human vaccine were applied annually. In the most recent survey, only 37% of countries reported that they had sufficient financial resources to meet the program objectives. The data show a sufficient and sustained effort of the LAC countries in the area of dog vaccination and provide understanding of the baseline effort required to reduce dog-mediated rabies incidence.

  4. Rabies in the Americas: 1998-2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Freire de Carvalho

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Through national efforts and regional cooperation under the umbrella of the Regional Program for the Elimination of Rabies, dog and human rabies have decreased significantly in Latin America and Caribbean (LAC countries over the last three decades. To achieve this decline, LAC countries had to develop national plans, and consolidate capabilities such as regular mass dog vaccination, opportune post-exposure prophylaxis and sensitive surveillance. This paper presents longitudinal data for 21 LAC countries on dog vaccination, PEP and rabies surveillance collected from the biannual regional meeting for rabies directors from 1998-2014 and from the Regional Epidemiologic Surveillance System for Rabies (SIRVERA. Differences in human and dog rabies incidence rates and dog vaccination rates were shown between low, middle and high-income countries. At the peak, over 50 million dogs were vaccinated annually in national campaigns in the countries represented. The reported number of animal exposures remained fairly stable during the study period with an incidence rate ranging from 123 to 191 reported exposures per 100,000 people. On average, over 2 million doses of human vaccine were applied annually. In the most recent survey, only 37% of countries reported that they had sufficient financial resources to meet the program objectives. The data show a sufficient and sustained effort of the LAC countries in the area of dog vaccination and provide understanding of the baseline effort required to reduce dog-mediated rabies incidence.

  5. Rabies direct fluorescent antibody test does not inactivate rabies or eastern equine encephalitis viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Jodie A; Franke, Mary A; Davis, April D

    2016-08-01

    An examination using the routine rabies direct fluorescent antibody test was performed on rabies or Eastern equine encephalitis positive mammalian brain tissue to assess inactivation of the virus. Neither virus was inactivated with acetone fixation nor the routine test, thus laboratory employees should treat all samples as rabies and when appropriate Eastern equine encephalitis positive throughout the whole procedure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of field quantization on Rabi oscillation of equidistant cascade ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    acting with a single-mode radiation field both semiclassically and quantum ... the equidistant cascade four-level system modeled by the generators of the spin-3. 2 ... (1), hω0 is the equidistant energy gap between the levels, Ω is the frequency.

  7. The two-qubit quantum Rabi model: inhomogeneous coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Lijun; Huai, Sainan; Zhang, Yunbo

    2015-01-01

    We revisit the analytic solution of the two-qubit quantum Rabi model with inhomogeneous coupling and transition frequencies using a displaced oscillator basis. This approach enables us to apply the same truncation rules and techniques adopted in the Rabi model to the two qubits system. The derived analytical spectra match perfectly with the numerical solutions in the parameter regime where the qubits’ transition frequencies are far off-resonance with the field frequency and the interaction strengths reach the ultrastrong coupling regime. We further explore the dynamical behavior of the two qubits as well as the evolution of entanglement. The analytical methods provide unexpectedly accurate results in describing the dynamics of the two qubits in the present experimentally accessible coupling regime. The time evolutions of the probability for the qubits show that the collapse-revival phenomena emerge, survive and finally disappear when one coupling strength increases from weak to strong coupling regimes and the other coupling strength is well into the ultrastrong coupling regime. The inhomogeneous coupling system exhibits new dynamics, which are different from the homogeneous coupling case. (paper)

  8. Dynamic Rabi sidebands in laser-generated microplasmas: Tunability and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compton, R.; Filin, A.; Levis, R. J.; Romanov, D. A.

    2011-01-01

    Broadband, coherent radiation in the optical-frequency range is generated using microplasma channels in atmospheric gases in a pump-probe experiment. A microplasma medium is created in a gas by a focused intense femtosecond pump pulse. A picosecond probe pulse then interacts with this microplasma channel, producing broad, coherent sidebands that are associated with luminescence lines and are redshifted and blueshifted with respect to the laser carrier frequency. These sidebands originate from the induced Rabi oscillations between pairs of excited states that are coupled by the probe pulse. Thus the sideband radiation intensity tracks the microplasma evolution. The sidebands arise from broad and tunable Rabi shifts corresponding to varying values of the electric-field magnitude in the probe pulse. The ∼10 10 W cm -2 probe beam creates a maximum sideband shift of >90 meV from the carrier frequency, resulting in an effective bandwidth of 200 meV. The sidebands can be tuned and controlled by the intensity and temporal profile of the probe pulse. The fact that the coherence is observed in a microplasma demonstrates that Rabi cycling is possible at high temperature with moderately high laser intensities as long as transitions close to the driving frequency (Δ∼2%ω c ) are available. Plasma excitation combined with Rabi-shifting measurements also serves as a means to simultaneously extract quantitative ratios for the transition-dipole moments between multiple sets of highly excited states with transitions in the optical regime.

  9. The effect of electric field maximum on the Rabi flopping and generated higher frequency spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu Yueping; Cui Ni; Xiang Yang; Li Ruxin; Gong Shangqing; Xu Zhizhan

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the effect of the electric field maximum on the Rabi flopping and the generated higher frequency spectra properties by solving Maxwell-Bloch equations without invoking any standard approximations. It is found that the maximum of the electric field will lead to carrier-wave Rabi flopping (CWRF) through reversion dynamics which will be more evident when the applied field enters the sub-one-cycle regime. Therefore, under the interaction of sub-one-cycle pulses, the Rabi flopping follows the transient electric field tightly through the oscillation and reversion dynamics, which is in contrast to the conventional envelope Rabi flopping. Complete or incomplete population inversion can be realized through the control of the carrier-envelope phase (CEP). Furthermore, the generated higher frequency spectra will be changed from distinct to continuous or irregular with the variation of the CEP. Our results demonstrate that due to the evident maximum behavior of the electric field, pulses with different CEP give rise to different CWRFs, and then different degree of interferences lead to different higher frequency spectral features.

  10. An alternative approach to exact wave functions for time-dependent coupled oscillator model of charged particle in variable magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menouar, Salah; Maamache, Mustapha; Choi, Jeong Ryeol

    2010-01-01

    The quantum states of time-dependent coupled oscillator model for charged particles subjected to variable magnetic field are investigated using the invariant operator methods. To do this, we have taken advantage of an alternative method, so-called unitary transformation approach, available in the framework of quantum mechanics, as well as a generalized canonical transformation method in the classical regime. The transformed quantum Hamiltonian is obtained using suitable unitary operators and is represented in terms of two independent harmonic oscillators which have the same frequencies as that of the classically transformed one. Starting from the wave functions in the transformed system, we have derived the full wave functions in the original system with the help of the unitary operators. One can easily take a complete description of how the charged particle behaves under the given Hamiltonian by taking advantage of these analytical wave functions.

  11. NNDSS - Table II. Mumps to Rabies, animal

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Mumps to Rabies, animal - 2014.In this Table, all conditions with a 5-year average annual national total of more than or equals 1,000 cases but...

  12. NNDSS - Table II. Mumps to Rabies, animal

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Mumps to Rabies, animal - 2015.In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding year),...

  13. NNDSS - Table II. Mumps to Rabies, animal

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Mumps to Rabies, animal - 2016. In this Table, provisional* cases of selected† notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  14. Bat Rabies and Other Lyssavirus Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantine, Denny G.; Blehert, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Bat Rabies and Other Lyssavirus Infections offers readers an overview of the virus variants that cause bat rabies, and geographical patterns in occurrence of this disease. The section Species Susceptibility describes infection rates and trends among bats, humans, and other animals. Disease Ecology considers the biological and environmental dynamics of the disease in various species of bats. Points to Ponder: Interspecies Interactions in Potential Bat Rabies Transmission Settings discusses the narrowing interface of bat colonies and human society and how humans and domestic animals play a role in transmission of bat rabies. Disease Prevention and Control outlines how to limit exposure to rabid bats and other animals. Appendixes include extensive tables of reported infections in bat species and in humans, and a glossary of technical terms is included. The author, Denny G. Constantine, helped define rabies infection in insect-eating bats and has investigated bat rabies ecology for more than half a century. He has authored more than 90 papers during the course of his career and is widely considered to be the world's foremost authority on the disease. Currently, Dr. Constantine is a public health officer emeritus and veterinary epidemiologist for the California Department of Health Services Viral and Rickettsial Disease Laboratory. Milt Friend, first director of the USGS National Wildlife Health Center, wrote the foreword. David Blehert, a USGS microbiologist who is investigating the emergence and causes of bat white-nose syndrome, edited the volume. Bat Rabies is intended for scholars and the general public. Dr. Constantine presents the material in a simple, straightforward manner that serves both audiences. The goal of the author is to increase people's understanding of both bat and disease ecology and also provide a balanced perspective on human risks pertaining to bat rabies.

  15. Infection of neuroblastoma cells by rabies virus is modulated by the virus titer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuoco, Natalia Langenfeld; Dos Ramos Silva, Sandriana; Fernandes, Elaine Raniero; Luiz, Fernanda Guedes; Ribeiro, Orlando Garcia; Katz, Iana Suly Santos

    2018-01-01

    Rabies is a lethal viral infection that can affect almost all mammals, including humans. To better understand the replication of Rabies lyssavirus, we investigated if the viral load in brains naturally infected with rabies influences viral internalization and viral growth kinetics in neuroblastoma cells, and if the viral load affects mortality in mice after intradermal infection. We noted that high initial viral loads in brains (group II) were unfavourable for increasing viral titers during serial passages in neuroblastoma cells when compared to low initial viral loads in brains (group I). In addition, group I strains showed higher viral growth and enhanced internalization efficiency in neuroblastoma cells than group II strains. However, we observed that the dominant virus subpopulation in group II promoted efficient viral infection in the central nervous system in the new host, providing a selective advantage to the virus. Our data indicate that rabies infection in animal models depends on not only the virus strain but also the amount of virus. This study may serve as a basis for understanding the biologic proprieties of Rabies lyssavirus strains with respect to the effects on viral replication and the impact on pathogenesis, improving virus yields for use in vaccine development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. [Hematophagous bats as reservoirs of rabies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffer, Karin Corrêa; Iamamoto, Keila; Asano, Karen Miyuki; Mori, Enio; Estevez Garcia, Andrea Isabel; Achkar, Samira M; Fahl, Williande Oliveira

    2014-04-01

    Rabies continues to be a challenge for public health authorities and a constraint to the livestock industry in Latin America. Wild and domestic canines and vampire bats are the main transmitter species and reservoirs of the disease. Currently, variations observed in the epidemiological profile of rabies, where the species of hematophagous bat Desmodus rotundus constitutes the main transmitting species. Over the years, knowledge has accumulated about the ecology, biology and behavior of this species and the natural history of rabies, which should lead to continuous development of methods of population control of d. Rotundus as well as prevention and diagnostic tools for rabies. Ecological relationships of this species with other hematophagous and non-hematophagous bats is unknown, and there is much room for improvement in reporting systems and surveillance, as well as creating greater awareness among the farming community. Understanding the impact of human-induced environmental changes on the rabies virus in bats should be cause for further investigation. This will require a combination of field studies with mathematical models and new diagnostic tools. This review aims to present the most relevant issues on the role of hematophagous bats as reservoirs and transmitters of the rabies virus.

  17. Heterogeneity of Rabies Vaccination Recommendations across Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Buchy

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Asian countries bear the greatest burden of the disease, with a majority (59% of rabies-related deaths occurring in Asia. In order to promote best practices, we summarized national human vaccination guidelines across this region, to highlight differences and similarities and to discuss the aspects that would benefit from updates. National management guidelines for rabies were retrieved from various sources to extract information on rabies pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP, and PEP, booster vaccination, and route of administration. Rabies guidelines recommendations for wound management and PrEP across Asia are broadly aligned to the World Health Organization (WHO guidelines. For PEP, the 5-dose Essen, and the 4-dose Zagreb are the regimens of choice for intramuscular (IM, and the Thai Red Cross regimen for intradermal (ID, administration. Several national guidelines have yet to endorse ID vaccine administration. Most guidelines recommend rabies immunoglobulin in category III exposures. Booster recommendations are not included in all guidelines, with limited clarity on booster requirement across the spectrum of risk of rabies exposure. In conclusion, national recommendations across Asian countries differ and while some guidelines are closely aligned to the WHO recommendations, resource-saving ID administration and use of rational abbreviated schedules have yet to be endorsed.

  18. An immune stimulating complex (iscom) subunit rabies vaccine protects dogs and mice against street rabies challenge.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Fekadu; J.H. Schaddock; J. Ekströ m; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); D.W. Sanderlin; B. Sundquist; B. Morein (Bror)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractDogs and mice were immunized with either a rabies glycoprotein subunit vaccine incorporated into an immune stimulating complex (ISCOM) or a commercial human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) prepared from a Pitman Moore (PM) rabies vaccine strain. Pre-exposure vaccination of mice with two

  19. Generalization of the Rabi population inversion dynamics in the sub-one-cycle pulse limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doslic, N.

    2006-01-01

    We consider the population inversion in a two-level system generated by a sub-one-cycle pulse excitation. Specifically, we explore the effect that the time derivative of the pulse envelope has on the Rabi dynamics. Our analysis is based on a combination of analytical, perturbative, and nonperturbative treatments and is complemented by numerical simulations. We find a shortening of the Rabi inversion period and show that complete inversion is unobtainable under resonant, ultrashort pulse conditions. The impact of nonresonant and carrier-envelope phase-dependent effects on the dynamics of two-level and multilevel systems is studied numerically, and conditions for complete population inversion are derived

  20. Emerging technologies for the detection of rabies virus: challenges and hopes in the 21st century.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony R Fooks

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of rabies is routinely based on clinical and epidemiological information, especially when exposures are reported in rabies-endemic countries. Diagnostic tests using conventional assays that appear to be negative, even when undertaken late in the disease and despite the clinical diagnosis, have a tendency, at times, to be unreliable. These tests are rarely optimal and entirely dependent on the nature and quality of the sample supplied. In the course of the past three decades, the application of molecular biology has aided in the development of tests that result in a more rapid detection of rabies virus. These tests enable viral strain identification from clinical specimens. Currently, there are a number of molecular tests that can be used to complement conventional tests in rabies diagnosis. Indeed the challenges in the 21st century for the development of rabies diagnostics are not of a technical nature; these tests are available now. The challenges in the 21st century for diagnostic test developers are two-fold: firstly, to achieve internationally accepted validation of a test that will then lead to its acceptance by organisations globally. Secondly, the areas of the world where such tests are needed are mainly in developing regions where financial and logistical barriers prevent their implementation. Although developing countries with a poor healthcare infrastructure recognise that molecular-based diagnostic assays will be unaffordable for routine use, the cost/benefit ratio should still be measured. Adoption of rapid and affordable rabies diagnostic tests for use in developing countries highlights the importance of sharing and transferring technology through laboratory twinning between the developed and the developing countries. Importantly for developing countries, the benefit of molecular methods as tools is the capability for a differential diagnosis of human diseases that present with similar clinical symptoms. Antemortem

  1. Nonequilibrium dynamics of a mixed spin-1/2 and spin-3/2 Ising ferrimagnetic system with a time dependent oscillating magnetic field source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vatansever, Erol [Dokuz Eylül University, Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, TR-35160 Izmir (Turkey); Polat, Hamza, E-mail: hamza.polat@deu.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Dokuz Eylül University, TR-35160 Izmir (Turkey)

    2015-10-15

    Nonequilibrium phase transition properties of a mixed Ising ferrimagnetic model consisting of spin-1/2 and spin-3/2 on a square lattice under the existence of a time dependent oscillating magnetic field have been investigated by making use of Monte Carlo simulations with a single-spin flip Metropolis algorithm. A complete picture of dynamic phase boundary and magnetization profiles have been illustrated and the conditions of a dynamic compensation behavior have been discussed in detail. According to our simulation results, the considered system does not point out a dynamic compensation behavior, when it only includes the nearest-neighbor interaction, single-ion anisotropy and an oscillating magnetic field source. As the next-nearest-neighbor interaction between the spins-1/2 takes into account and exceeds a characteristic value which sensitively depends upon values of single-ion anisotropy and only of amplitude of external magnetic field, a dynamic compensation behavior occurs in the system. Finally, it is reported that it has not been found any evidence of dynamically first-order phase transition between dynamically ordered and disordered phases, which conflicts with the recently published molecular field investigation, for a wide range of selected system parameters. - Highlights: • Spin-1/2 and spin-3/2 Ising ferrimagnetic model is examined. • The system is exposed to time-dependent magnetic field. • Kinetic Monte Carlo simulation technique is used. • Any evidence of first-order phase transition has not been found.

  2. THE ENERGY DEPENDENCE OF THE CENTROID FREQUENCY AND PHASE LAG OF THE QUASI-PERIODIC OSCILLATIONS IN GRS 1915+105

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, J. L.; Lu, F. J.; Lu, Y.; Song, L. M.; Zhang, S.; Wang, J. M.; Ding, G. Q.

    2010-01-01

    We present a study of the centroid frequencies and phase lags of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) as functions of photon energy for GRS 1915+105. It is found that the centroid frequencies of the 0.5-10 Hz QPOs and their phase lags are both energy dependent, and there exists an anticorrelation between the QPO frequency and phase lag. These new results challenge the popular QPO models, because none of them can fully explain the observed properties. We suggest that the observed QPO phase lags are partially due to the variation of the QPO frequency with energy, especially for those with frequency higher than 3.5 Hz.

  3. Activation of a cGMP-sensitive calcium-dependent chloride channel may cause transition from calcium waves to whole-cell oscillations in smooth muscle cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Jens Christian; Aalkjær, Christian; Nilsson, Holger

    2007-01-01

    approximately doubles. In this transition, the simulated results point to a key role for a recently discovered cGMP-sensitive calcium-dependent chloride channel. This channel depolarizes the membrane in response to calcium released from the SR. In turn, depolarization causes uniform opening of L-type calcium...... channels on the cell surface stimulating synchronized release of SR-calcium and inducing the shift from waves to whole-cell oscillations. The effect of the channel is therefore to couple the processes of the SR with those of the membrane. We hypothesize that the shift in oscillatory mode and the associated...

  4. GHz Rabi Flopping to Rydberg States in Hot Atomic Vapor Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, B.; Baluktsian, T.; Schlagmueller, M.; Koelle, A.; Kuebler, H.; Loew, R.; Pfau, T.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the observation of Rabi oscillations to a Rydberg state on a time scale below 1 ns in thermal rubidium vapor. We use a bandwidth-limited pulsed excitation and observe up to 6 full Rabi cycles within a pulse duration of ∼4 ns. We find good agreement between the experiment and numerical simulations based on a surprisingly simple model. This result shows that fully coherent dynamics with Rydberg states can be achieved even in thermal atomic vapor, thus suggesting small vapor cells as a platform for room-temperature quantum devices. Furthermore, the result implies that previous coherent dynamics in single-atom Rydberg gates can be accelerated by 3 orders of magnitude.

  5. Feedback control of persistent-current oscillation based on the atomic-clock technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Deshui; Dumke, Rainer

    2018-05-01

    We propose a scheme of stabilizing the persistent-current Rabi oscillation based on the flux qubit-resonator-atom hybrid structure. The low-Q L C resonator weakly interacts with the flux qubit and maps the persistent-current Rabi oscillation of the flux qubit onto the intraresonator electric field. This oscillating electric field is further coupled to a Rydberg-Rydberg transition of the 87Rb atoms. The Rabi-frequency fluctuation of the flux qubit is deduced from measuring the atomic population via the fluorescence detection and stabilized by feedback controlling the external flux bias. Our numerical simulation indicates that the feedback-control method can efficiently suppress the background fluctuations in the flux qubit, especially in the low-frequency limit. This technique may be extensively applicable to different types of superconducting circuits, paving a way to long-term-coherence superconducting quantum information processing.

  6. Human rabies in India: an audit from a rabies diagnostic laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Reeta Subramaniam; Anand, Ashwini Manoor; Madhusudana, Shampur Narayan

    2016-04-01

    Rabies, an acute progressive encephalomyelitis, continues to be a serious public health problem in India and many other countries in Asia and Africa. The low level of commitment to rabies control is partly attributable to challenges in laboratory diagnosis and lack of adequate surveillance to indicate the disease burden. A laboratory audit of human rabies cases was undertaken to disseminate information on the clinical, demographic, prophylactic and most importantly the laboratory diagnostic aspects of rabies. A retrospective analysis of all clinically suspected human rabies cases, whose samples were received at a rabies diagnostic laboratory in South India in the last 3 years, was performed. Clinical and demographic details of patients were obtained. The clinical samples included cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), serum, saliva and nuchal skin biopsy collected antemortem, and brain tissue obtained post-mortem. Various laboratory tests were performed for diagnosis. Clinical samples from 128 patients with suspected rabies, from 11 states in India, were received for diagnostic confirmation. About 94% of the victims reported dog-bites, more than a third of them were children and most of the victims did not receive adequate post-exposure prophylaxis. Antemortem confirmation of rabies by a combination of laboratory diagnostic assays (detection of viral RNA in CSF, skin and saliva, and neutralising antibodies in CSF) could be achieved in 40.6% cases. Increasing awareness about adequate post-exposure prophylaxis, additional rabies diagnostic facilities, and enhanced human and animal rabies surveillance to indicate the true disease burden are essential to control this fatal disease. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. A rabies lesson improves rabies knowledge amongst primary school children in Zomba, Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdon Bailey, Jordana L; Gamble, Luke; Gibson, Andrew D; Bronsvoort, Barend M deC; Handel, Ian G; Mellanby, Richard J; Mazeri, Stella

    2018-03-01

    Rabies is an important neglected disease, which kills around 59,000 people a year. Over a third of these deaths are in children less than 15 years of age. Almost all human rabies deaths in Africa and Asia are due to bites from infected dogs. Despite the high efficacy of current rabies vaccines, awareness about rabies preventive healthcare is often low in endemic areas. It is therefore common for educational initiatives to be conducted in conjunction with other rabies control activities such as mass dog vaccination, however there are few examples where the efficacy of education activities has been assessed. Here, primary school children in Zomba, Malawi, were given a lesson on rabies biology and preventive healthcare. Subsequently, a mass dog vaccination programme was delivered in the same region. Knowledge and attitudes towards rabies were assessed by a questionnaire before the lesson, immediately after the lesson and 9 weeks later to assess the impact the lesson had on school children's knowledge and attitudes. This assessment was also undertaken in children who were exposed to the mass dog vaccination programme but did not receive the lesson. Knowledge of rabies and how to be safe around dogs increased following the lesson (both prabies and how to be safe around dogs was greater amongst school children who had received the lesson compared to school children who had not received the lesson, but had been exposed to a rabies vaccination campaign in their community (both prabies can improve short and medium-term rabies knowledge and attitudes of Malawian schoolchildren.

  8. A rabies lesson improves rabies knowledge amongst primary school children in Zomba, Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdon Bailey, Jordana L.; Gamble, Luke; Gibson, Andrew D.; Bronsvoort, Barend M. deC.; Handel, Ian G.; Mellanby, Richard J.; Mazeri, Stella

    2018-01-01

    Rabies is an important neglected disease, which kills around 59,000 people a year. Over a third of these deaths are in children less than 15 years of age. Almost all human rabies deaths in Africa and Asia are due to bites from infected dogs. Despite the high efficacy of current rabies vaccines, awareness about rabies preventive healthcare is often low in endemic areas. It is therefore common for educational initiatives to be conducted in conjunction with other rabies control activities such as mass dog vaccination, however there are few examples where the efficacy of education activities has been assessed. Here, primary school children in Zomba, Malawi, were given a lesson on rabies biology and preventive healthcare. Subsequently, a mass dog vaccination programme was delivered in the same region. Knowledge and attitudes towards rabies were assessed by a questionnaire before the lesson, immediately after the lesson and 9 weeks later to assess the impact the lesson had on school children’s knowledge and attitudes. This assessment was also undertaken in children who were exposed to the mass dog vaccination programme but did not receive the lesson. Knowledge of rabies and how to be safe around dogs increased following the lesson (both prabies and how to be safe around dogs was greater amongst school children who had received the lesson compared to school children who had not received the lesson, but had been exposed to a rabies vaccination campaign in their community (both prabies can improve short and medium-term rabies knowledge and attitudes of Malawian schoolchildren. PMID:29522517

  9. Rabies exposures, post-exposure prophylaxis and deaths in a region of endemic canine rabies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Hampson

    Full Text Available Thousands of human deaths from rabies occur annually despite the availability of effective vaccines following exposure, and for disease control in the animal reservoir. Our aim was to assess risk factors associated with exposure and to determine why human deaths from endemic canine rabies still occur.Contact tracing was used to gather data on rabies exposures, post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP delivered and deaths in two rural districts in northwestern Tanzania from 2002 to 2006. Data on risk factors and the propensity to seek and complete courses of PEP was collected using questionnaires. Exposures varied from 6-141/100,000 per year. Risk of exposure to rabies was greater in an area with agropastoralist communities (and larger domestic dog populations than an area with pastoralist communities. Children were at greater risk than adults of being exposed to rabies and of developing clinical signs. PEP dramatically reduced the risk of developing rabies (odds ratio [OR] 17.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] 6.39-60.83 and when PEP was not delivered the risks were higher in the pastoralist than the agro-pastoralist area (OR 6.12, 95% CI 2.60-14.58. Low socioeconomic class and distance to medical facilities lengthened delays before PEP delivery. Over 20% of rabies-exposed individuals did not seek medical treatment and were not documented in official records and <65% received PEP. Animal bite injury records were an accurate indicator of rabies exposure incidence.Insufficient knowledge about rabies dangers and prevention, particularly prompt PEP, but also wound management, was the main cause of rabies deaths. Education, particularly in poor and marginalized communities, but also for medical and veterinary workers, would prevent future deaths.

  10. Inactivation of rabies diagnostic reagents by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamble, W.C.; Chappell, W.A.; George, E.H.

    1980-01-01

    Treatment of CVS-11 rabies adsorbing suspensions and street rabies infected mouse brains with gamma radiation resulted in inactivated reagents that are safer to distribute and use. These irradiated reagents were as sensitive and reactive as the nonirradiated control reagents

  11. Compendium of animal rabies prevention and control, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    Rabies has one of the highest case-fatality ratios of any infectious disease. This report provides recommendations for public health officials, veterinarians, animal control officials, and other parties engaged in rabies prevention and control activities and should serve as the basis for standardizing procedures among jurisdictions. The recommendations regarding domestic animal vaccination, management of animals exposed to rabies, and management of animals that bite humans are the core elements of animal rabies control and human rabies prevention. These updated 2011 guidelines include the national case definition for animal rabies and clarify the role of the CDC rabies laboratory in providing confirmatory testing of suspect animals. The table of rabies vaccines licensed and marketed in the United States has been updated, and additional references have been included to provide scientific support for information in this report.

  12. Detection of Rabies Antigen in the Brain Tissues of Apparetly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rabies is a serious public health hazard and recently outbreaks of the disease have been reported in three local government areas in Cross River State. Detection of rabies antigen in the brain tissues of apparently healthy dogs indicates the presence of rabies virus and this is a significant factor in the transmission and ...

  13. A comparative rabies laboratory diagnosis: Peculiar features of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many diagnostic methods have been used to detect rabies virus antigen. The preferred method for routine rabies diagnosis in fresh brain tissue is fluorescent antibody test (FAT). In this study, FAT was used to evaluate the presence of rabies virus antigen in the brain (hippocampus) of fifty apparently healthy dogs. Mouse ...

  14. Response to a Rabies Epidemic, Bali, Indonesia, 2008–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Katie; Girardi, Janice; Hiby, Elly; Knobel, Darryn; Mardiana, Wayan; Townsend, Sunny; Scott-Orr, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Emergency vaccinations and culling failed to contain an outbreak of rabies in Bali, Indonesia, during 2008–2009. Subsequent island-wide mass vaccination (reaching 70% coverage, >200,000 dogs) led to substantial declines in rabies incidence and spread. However, the incidence of dog bites remains high, and repeat campaigns are necessary to eliminate rabies in Bali. PMID:23632033

  15. Response to a rabies epidemic, Bali, Indonesia, 2008-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra, Anak Agung Gde; Hampson, Katie; Girardi, Janice; Hiby, Elly; Knobel, Darryn; Mardiana, I Wayan; Townsend, Sunny; Scott-Orr, Helen

    2013-04-01

    Emergency vaccinations and culling failed to contain an outbreak of rabies in Bali, Indonesia, during 2008-2009. Subsequent island-wide mass vaccination (reaching 70% coverage, >200,000 dogs) led to substantial declines in rabies incidence and spread. However, the incidence of dog bites remains high, and repeat campaigns are necessary to eliminate rabies in Bali.

  16. Childhood Rabies: A 10 Year Review of Management and Outcome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Rabies is still a cause of death among children in our environment. We undertook a 10-year retrospective review to evaluate the aetiology and outcome of management of childhood rabies in our setting. Methodology: This was a 10-year retrospective study of rabies cases managed in the Paediatrics Unit of the ...

  17. Canine and Human Rabies in Cameroon | Awah | Tropical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is a retrospective review of recorded rabies and antirabies activities in Cameroon from 1990 to 1999 to determine the current state of rabies in both dogs and humans. Rabies and antirabies activities were recorded every year in Cameroon through out the 10-year study period with the highest values observed in ...

  18. The status of rabies in Ethiopia: A retrospective record review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Rabies, a viral disease that affects all warm-blooded animals, is widespread in many regions of the world. Human rabies, transmitted by dogs is an important public health issue in Ethiopia. To-date, effective rabies control program still remains to be a reality and needs to be strengthened.. Objective: Reviewing ...

  19. Human rabies: Still a neglected preventable disease in Nigeria | Eke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background/Objectives: Adequate surveillance and monitoring of dog bite incidents are veritable tools in the determination of the epidemiology of human rabies infections. There is a paucity of data with regards to rabies in Nigeria. Hence, this study was aimed at describing the pattern and outcomes of dog bites and rabies ...

  20. Prevalence and demographic distribution of canine rabies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rabies, a neglected tropical disease, is one of the most fatal diseases. Around 55,000 people die from rabies annually with over 99% of these deaths occurring in Africa and Asia. A retrospective study of rabies cases was carried out in Plateau state, Nigeria, 2004 – 2009. Cases reported to the central diagnostic laboratory ...

  1. Protective role of interferon against cytotoxcicity induced by rabies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rabies remains an important public health problem in the world due to uncontrolled enzootic rabies, lack of safe efficient vaccines and poor information on the risk of contracting rabies post animal exposure. The lethality and mutagenic potential of challenge virus standard (CVS) was evaluated in mice. Mice were ...

  2. Generalized squeezing rotating-wave approximation to the isotropic and anisotropic Rabi model in the ultrastrong-coupling regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Yu

    2016-12-01

    Generalized squeezing rotating-wave approximation (GSRWA) is proposed by employing both the displacement and the squeezing transformations. A solvable Hamiltonian is reformulated in the same form as the ordinary RWA ones. For a qubit coupled to oscillators experiment, a well-defined Schrödinger-cat-like entangled state is given by the displaced-squeezed oscillator state instead of the original displaced state. For the isotropic Rabi case, the mean photon number and the ground-state energy are expressed analytically with additional squeezing terms, exhibiting a substantial improvement of the GSRWA. And the ground-state energy in the anisotropic Rabi model confirms the effectiveness of the GSRWA. Due to the squeezing effect, the GSRWA improves the previous methods only with the displacement transformation in a wide range of coupling strengths even for large atom frequency.

  3. Ferret badger rabies origin and its revisited importance as potential source of rabies transmission in Southeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Ye

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The frequent occurrence of ferret badger-associated human rabies cases in southeast China highlights the lack of laboratory-based surveillance and urges revisiting the potential importance of this animal in rabies transmission. To determine if the ferret badgers actually contribute to human and dog rabies cases, and the possible origin of the ferret badger-associated rabies in the region, an active rabies survey was conducted to determine the frequency of rabies infection and seroprevalence in dogs and ferret badgers. Methods A retrospective survey on rabies epidemics was performed in Zhejiang, Jiangxi and Anhui provinces in southeast China. The brain tissues from ferret badgers and dogs were assayed by fluorescent antibody test. Rabies virus was isolated and sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. The sera from ferret badgers and dogs were titrated using rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (VNA test. Results The ferret badgers presented a higher percentage of rabies seroconversion than dogs did in the endemic region, reaching a maximum of 95% in the collected samples. Nine ferret badger-associated rabies viruses were isolated, sequenced, and were phylogenetically clustered as a separate group. Nucleotide sequence revealed 99.4-99.8% homology within the ferret badger isolates, and 83-89% homology to the dog isolates in the nucleoprotein and glycoprotein genes in the same rabies endemic regions. Conclusions Our data suggest ferret badger-associated rabies has likely formed as an independent enzootic originating from dogs during the long-term rabies infestation in southeast China. The eventual role of FB rabies in public health remains unclear. However, management of ferret badger bites, rabies awareness and control in the related regions should be an immediate need.

  4. [Epidemiology of human rabies in China, 2016].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y R; Zhu, L L; Zhu, W Y; Tao, X Y

    2018-01-10

    Objective: To understand the epidemiological characteristics of human rabies in China in 2016 and provide evidence for the control and prevention of human rabies. Methods: The incidence data of human rabies in China in 2016 were collected from national infectious disease reporting information management system. The surveillance data were collected from provinces of Shandong, Guizhou, Anhui, Hunan, Jiangsu and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. Excel 2013 software was used to process and summarize the data, the epidemiological characteristics of human rabies in China in 2016 were described by using indicators such as morbidity, mortality and constituent ratio. Results: A total of 644 human rabies cases were reported in 28 provinces in China in 2016, a decrease of 19.60% (157/801) compared with 2015. The provinces reporting high incidences of human rabies were Henan, Hunan, Guangxi and Guizhou, accounting for 39.44% (254/644) of the total cases. One case was reported in Qinghai province and Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region respectively. The male to female ratio of the cases was 2.14∶1 (439/205), and the majority of the patients were farmers (444/644). Surveillance points in 6 provinces reported 1 281 340 persons seeking post-exposure treatment, of whom 1 018 367 were treated for dog bite or scratch. A total of 764 234 persons completed the vaccination series, accounting for 63.90% (764 234/1 195 956) of the persons with grade Ⅱ and Ⅲ exposures, and 28.89% (165 677/573 571) of the persons with grade Ⅲ exposure were treated with passive immunization product. The average density of dogs in each surveillance area was 7.03/100 persons, the average canine immunization rate was 37.64%. Conclusion: The incidence of human rabies has remained decline in China in 2016, the number of the affected provinces has increased and that has the tendency of spreading to low-risk regions. The cases mainly occurred in men and farmers, and caused by dog bite or scratch. It is

  5. Dynamic compensation temperatures in a mixed spin-1 and spin-3/2 Ising system under a time-dependent oscillating magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keskin, Mustafa, E-mail: keskin@erciyes.edu.t [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Kantar, Ersin [Institute of Science, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)

    2010-09-15

    We study the existence of dynamic compensation temperatures in the mixed spin-1 and spin-3/2 Ising ferrimagnetic system Hamiltonian with bilinear and crystal-field interactions in the presence of a time-dependent oscillating external magnetic field on a hexagonal lattice. We employ the Glauber transitions rates to construct the mean-field dynamic equations. We investigate the time dependence of an average sublattice magnetizations, the thermal behavior of the dynamic sublattice magnetizations and the total magnetization. From these studies, we find the phases in the system, and characterize the nature (continuous or discontinuous) of transitions as well as obtain the dynamic phase transition (DPT) points and the dynamic compensation temperatures. We also present dynamic phase diagrams, including the compensation temperatures, in the five different planes. A comparison is made with the results of the available mixed spin Ising systems.

  6. Phase diagrams of a nonequilibrium mixed spin-1/2 and spin-2 Ising ferrimagnetic system under a time-dependent oscillating magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keskin, M.; Canko, O.; Gueldal, S.

    2009-01-01

    We present phase diagrams for a nonequilibrium mixed spin-1/2 and spin-2 Ising ferrimagnetic system on a square lattice in the presence of a time dependent oscillating external magnetic field. We employ the Glauber transition rates to construct the mean-field dynamical equations. The time variation of the average magnetizations and the thermal behavior of the dynamic magnetizations are investigated, extensively. The nature (continuous or discontinuous) of the transitions is characterized by studying the thermal behaviors of the dynamic magnetizations. The dynamic phase transition points are obtained and the phase diagrams are presented in two different planes. Phase diagrams contain paramagnetic (p) and ferrimagnetic (i) phases, and one coexistence or mixed phase region, namely the i+p, that strongly depend on interaction parameters. The system exhibits the dynamic tricritical point and the reentrant behaviors.

  7. Phase diagrams of a nonequilibrium mixed spin-1/2 and spin-2 Ising ferrimagnetic system under a time-dependent oscillating magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keskin, M., E-mail: keskin@erciyes.edu.t [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Canko, O. [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Gueldal, S. [Institute of Science, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)

    2009-12-14

    We present phase diagrams for a nonequilibrium mixed spin-1/2 and spin-2 Ising ferrimagnetic system on a square lattice in the presence of a time dependent oscillating external magnetic field. We employ the Glauber transition rates to construct the mean-field dynamical equations. The time variation of the average magnetizations and the thermal behavior of the dynamic magnetizations are investigated, extensively. The nature (continuous or discontinuous) of the transitions is characterized by studying the thermal behaviors of the dynamic magnetizations. The dynamic phase transition points are obtained and the phase diagrams are presented in two different planes. Phase diagrams contain paramagnetic (p) and ferrimagnetic (i) phases, and one coexistence or mixed phase region, namely the i+p, that strongly depend on interaction parameters. The system exhibits the dynamic tricritical point and the reentrant behaviors.

  8. Dynamic compensation temperatures in a mixed spin-1 and spin-3/2 Ising system under a time-dependent oscillating magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keskin, Mustafa; Kantar, Ersin

    2010-01-01

    We study the existence of dynamic compensation temperatures in the mixed spin-1 and spin-3/2 Ising ferrimagnetic system Hamiltonian with bilinear and crystal-field interactions in the presence of a time-dependent oscillating external magnetic field on a hexagonal lattice. We employ the Glauber transitions rates to construct the mean-field dynamic equations. We investigate the time dependence of an average sublattice magnetizations, the thermal behavior of the dynamic sublattice magnetizations and the total magnetization. From these studies, we find the phases in the system, and characterize the nature (continuous or discontinuous) of transitions as well as obtain the dynamic phase transition (DPT) points and the dynamic compensation temperatures. We also present dynamic phase diagrams, including the compensation temperatures, in the five different planes. A comparison is made with the results of the available mixed spin Ising systems.

  9. Cost-effectiveness of canine vaccination to prevent human rabies in rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Meagan C; Hampson, Katie; Cleaveland, Sarah; Mzimbiri, Imam; Lankester, Felix; Lembo, Tiziana; Meyers, Lauren A; Paltiel, A David; Galvani, Alison P

    2014-01-21

    The annual mortality rate of human rabies in rural Africa is 3.6 deaths per 100 000 persons. Rabies can be prevented with prompt postexposure prophylaxis, but this is costly and often inaccessible in rural Africa. Because 99% of human exposures occur through rabid dogs, canine vaccination also prevents transmission of rabies to humans. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of rabies control through annual canine vaccination campaigns in rural sub-Saharan Africa. We model transmission dynamics in dogs and wildlife and assess empirical uncertainty in the biological variables to make probability-based evaluations of cost-effectiveness. Epidemiologic variables from a contact-tracing study and literature and cost data from ongoing vaccination campaigns. Two districts of rural Tanzania: Ngorongoro and Serengeti. 10 years. Health policymaker. Vaccination coverage ranging from 0% to 95% in increments of 5%. Life-years for health outcomes and 2010 U.S. dollars for economic outcomes. Annual canine vaccination campaigns were very cost-effective in both districts compared with no canine vaccination. In Serengeti, annual campaigns with as much as 70% coverage were cost-saving. Across a wide range of variable assumptions and levels of societal willingness to pay for life-years, the optimal vaccination coverage for Serengeti was 70%. In Ngorongoro, although optimal coverage depended on willingness to pay, vaccination campaigns were always cost-effective and lifesaving and therefore preferred. Canine vaccination was very cost-effective in both districts, but there was greater uncertainty about the optimal coverage in Ngorongoro. Annual canine rabies vaccination campaigns conferred extraordinary value and dramatically reduced the health burden of rabies. National Institutes of Health.

  10. The elimination of fox rabies from Europe: determinants of success and lessons for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freuling, Conrad M.; Hampson, Katie; Selhorst, Thomas; Schröder, Ronald; Meslin, Francois X.; Mettenleiter, Thomas C.; Müller, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Despite perceived challenges to controlling an infectious disease in wildlife, oral rabies vaccination (ORV) of foxes has proved a remarkably successful tool and a prime example of a sophisticated strategy to eliminate disease from wildlife reservoirs. During the past three decades, the implementation of ORV programmes in 24 countries has led to the elimination of fox-mediated rabies from vast areas of Western and Central Europe. In this study, we evaluated the efficiency of 22 European ORV programmes between 1978 and 2010. During this period an area of almost 1.9 million km² was targeted at least once with vaccine baits, with control taking between 5 and 26 years depending upon the country. We examined factors influencing effort required both to control and eliminate fox rabies as well as cost-related issues of these programmes. The proportion of land area ever affected by rabies and an index capturing the size and overlap of successive ORV campaigns were identified as factors having statistically significant effects on the number of campaigns required to both control and eliminate rabies. Repeat comprehensive campaigns that are wholly overlapping much more rapidly eliminate infection and are less costly in the long term. Disproportionally greater effort is required in the final phase of an ORV programme, with a median of 11 additional campaigns required to eliminate disease once incidence has been reduced by 90 per cent. If successive ORV campaigns span the entire affected area, rabies will be eliminated more rapidly than if campaigns are implemented in a less comprehensive manner, therefore reducing ORV expenditure in the longer term. These findings should help improve the planning and implementation of ORV programmes, and facilitate future decision-making by veterinary authorities and policy-makers. PMID:23798690

  11. Effective preexposure and postexposure prophylaxis of rabies with a highly attenuated recombinant rabies virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Milosz; Li, Jianwei; Kean, Rhonda B; Hooper, D Craig; Alugupalli, Kishore R; Dietzschold, Bernhard

    2009-07-07

    Rabies remains an important public health problem with more than 95% of all human rabies cases caused by exposure to rabid dogs in areas where effective, inexpensive vaccines are unavailable. Because of their ability to induce strong innate and adaptive immune responses capable of clearing the infection from the CNS after a single immunization, live-attenuated rabies virus (RV) vaccines could be particularly useful not only for the global eradication of canine rabies but also for late-stage rabies postexposure prophylaxis of humans. To overcome concerns regarding the safety of live-attenuated RV vaccines, we developed the highly attenuated triple RV G variant, SPBAANGAS-GAS-GAS. In contrast to most attenuated recombinant RVs generated thus far, SPBAANGAS-GAS-GAS is completely nonpathogenic after intracranial infection of mice that are either developmentally immunocompromised (e.g., 5-day-old mice) or have inherited deficits in immune function (e.g., antibody production or type I IFN signaling), as well as normal adult animals. In addition, SPBAANGAS-GAS-GAS induces immune mechanisms capable of containing a CNS infection with pathogenic RV, thereby preventing lethal rabies encephalopathy. The lack of pathogenicity together with excellent immunogenicity and the capacity to deliver immune effectors to CNS tissues makes SPBAANGAS-GAS-GAS a promising vaccine candidate for both the preexposure and postexposure prophylaxis of rabies.

  12. Advances in Diagnosis of Rabies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar B.P.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is a major zoonosis for which diagnostic techniques have been standardised internationally. Laboratory techniques are preferably conducted on central nervous system (CNS tissue removed from the cranium. Agent identification is preferably done using the fluorescent antibody test. A drop of purified immunoglobulin previously conjugated with fluorescein isothiocyanate is added to an acetone-fixed brain tissue smear, preferably made from several parts of the brain, including the hippocampus, cerebellum and medulla oblongata. For a large number of samples, as in an epidemiological survey, the immunoenzyme technique can provide rapid results (the rapid rabies enzyme immunodiagnosis. FAT provides a reliable diagnosis in 98-100% of cases for all genotypes if a potent conjugate is used, while RREID detects only genotype 1 virus. Infected neuronal cells have been demonstrated by histological tests and these procedures will reveal aggregates of viral material (the Negri bodies in the cytoplasm of neurones. However, the sensitivity of histological techniques is much less than that of immunological methods, especially if there has been some autolysis of the specimen. Consequently, histological techniques can no longer be recommended. As a single negative test on fresh material does not rule out the possibility of infection, inoculation tests, or other tests, should be carried out simultaneously. Newborn or 3-4-week-old mice are inoculated intracerebrally with a pool of several CNS tissues, including the brain stem, and then kept under observation for 28 days. For any mouse that dies between 5 and 28 days, the cause of death should be confirmed by FAT. Alternatively, a monolayer culture of susceptible cells is inoculated with the same material as used for mice. FAT carried out after appropriate incubation will demonstrate the presence or absence of viral antigen. Wherever possible, virus isolation in cell culture should replace mouse inoculation tests

  13. Vampire Bat Rabies: Ecology, Epidemiology and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas; Aréchiga-Ceballos, Nidia; Aguilar-Setien, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    Extensive surveillance in bat populations in response to recent emerging diseases has revealed that this group of mammals acts as a reservoir for a large range of viruses. However, the oldest known association between a zoonotic virus and a bat is that between rabies virus and the vampire bat. Vampire bats are only found in Latin America and their unique method of obtaining nutrition, blood-feeding or haematophagy, has only evolved in the New World. The adaptations that enable blood-feeding also make the vampire bat highly effective at transmitting rabies virus. Whether the virus was present in pre-Columbian America or was introduced is much disputed, however, the introduction of Old World livestock and associated landscape modification, which continues to the present day, has enabled vampire bat populations to increase. This in turn has provided the conditions for rabies re-emergence to threaten both livestock and human populations as vampire bats target large mammals. This review considers the ecology of the vampire bat that make it such an efficient vector for rabies, the current status of vampire-transmitted rabies and the future prospects for spread by this virus and its control. PMID:24784570

  14. Vampire Bat Rabies: Ecology, Epidemiology and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Johnson

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Extensive surveillance in bat populations in response to recent emerging diseases has revealed that this group of mammals acts as a reservoir for a large range of viruses. However, the oldest known association between a zoonotic virus and a bat is that between rabies virus and the vampire bat. Vampire bats are only found in Latin America and their unique method of obtaining nutrition, blood-feeding or haematophagy, has only evolved in the New World. The adaptations that enable blood-feeding also make the vampire bat highly effective at transmitting rabies virus. Whether the virus was present in pre-Columbian America or was introduced is much disputed, however, the introduction of Old World livestock and associated landscape modification, which continues to the present day, has enabled vampire bat populations to increase. This in turn has provided the conditions for rabies re-emergence to threaten both livestock and human populations as vampire bats target large mammals. This review considers the ecology of the vampire bat that make it such an efficient vector for rabies, the current status of vampire-transmitted rabies and the future prospects for spread by this virus and its control.

  15. Comparison of an anti-rabies human monoclonal antibody combination with human polyclonal anti-rabies immune globulin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudsmit, Jaap; Marissen, Wilfred E.; Weldon, William C.; Niezgoda, Michael; Hanlon, Cathleen A.; Rice, Amy B.; Kruif, John de; Dietzschold, Bernhard; Bakker, Alexander B. H.; Rupprecht, Charles E.

    2006-01-01

    The World Health Organization estimates human mortality from endemic canine rabies to be 55,000 deaths/year. Limited supply hampers the accessibility of appropriate lifesaving treatment, particularly in areas where rabies is endemic. Anti-rabies antibodies are key to protection against lethal

  16. The Formation of the Eastern Africa Rabies Network: A Sub-Regional Approach to Rabies Elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieracci, Emily G; Scott, Terence P; Coetzer, Andre; Athman, Mwatondo; Mutembei, Arithi; Kidane, Abraham Haile; Bekele, Meseret; Ayalew, Girma; Ntegeyibizaza, Samson; Assenga, Justine; Markalio, Godson; Munyua, Peninah; Nel, Louis H; Blanton, Jesse

    2017-01-01

    International rabies networks have been formed in many of the canine-rabies endemic regions around the world to create unified and directed regional approaches towards elimination. The aim of the first sub-regional Eastern Africa rabies network meeting, which included Kenya, Ethiopia, Tanzania, Rwanda, and Uganda, was to discuss how individual country strategies could be coordinated to address the unique challenges that are faced within the network. The Stepwise Approach towards Rabies Elimination and the Global Dog Rabies Elimination Pathway tool were used to stimulate discussion and planning to achieve the elimination of canine-mediated human rabies by 2030. Our analysis estimated a total dog population of 18.3 million dogs in the Eastern Africa region. The current dog vaccination coverage was estimated to be approximately 5% (915,000 dogs), with an estimated 4910 vaccinators available. Assuming that every vaccinator performs rabies vaccination, this equated to each vaccinator currently vaccinating 186 dogs per year, whilst the target would be to vaccinate 2609 dogs every year for the community to reach 70% coverage. In order to achieve the World Health Organization-recommended 70% vaccination coverage, an additional 11 million dogs need to be vaccinated each year, pointing to an average annual shortfall of $ 23 million USD in current spending to achieve elimination by 2030 across the region. Improved vaccination efficiency within the region could be achieved by improving logistics and/or incorporating multiple vaccination methods to increase vaccinator efficiency, and could serve to reduce the financial burden associated with rabies elimination. Regional approaches to rabies control are of value, as neighboring countries can share their unique challenges while, at the same time, common approaches can be developed and resource-saving strategies can be implemented.

  17. Oral rabies vaccination in north america: opportunities, complexities, and challenges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Slate

    Full Text Available Steps to facilitate inter-jurisdictional collaboration nationally and continentally have been critical for implementing and conducting coordinated wildlife rabies management programs that rely heavily on oral rabies vaccination (ORV. Formation of a national rabies management team has been pivotal for coordinated ORV programs in the United States of America. The signing of the North American Rabies Management Plan extended a collaborative framework for coordination of surveillance, control, and research in border areas among Canada, Mexico, and the US. Advances in enhanced surveillance have facilitated sampling of greater scope and intensity near ORV zones for improved rabies management decision-making in real time. The value of enhanced surveillance as a complement to public health surveillance was best illustrated in Ohio during 2007, where 19 rabies cases were detected that were critical for the formulation of focused contingency actions for controlling rabies in this strategically key area. Diverse complexities and challenges are commonplace when applying ORV to control rabies in wild meso-carnivores. Nevertheless, intervention has resulted in notable successes, including the elimination of an arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus rabies virus variant in most of southern Ontario, Canada, with ancillary benefits of elimination extending into Quebec and the northeastern US. Progress continues with ORV toward preventing the spread and working toward elimination of a unique variant of gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus rabies in west central Texas. Elimination of rabies in coyotes (Canis latrans through ORV contributed to the US being declared free of canine rabies in 2007. Raccoon (Procyon lotor rabies control continues to present the greatest challenges among meso-carnivore rabies reservoirs, yet to date intervention has prevented this variant from gaining a broad geographic foothold beyond ORV zones designed to prevent its spread from the eastern US

  18. Rabies Vaccine and Rabies Immunoglobulin in Cambodia: Use and Obstacles to Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantola, Arnaud; Ly, Sowath; In, Sotheary; Ong, Sivuth; Peng, Yiksing; Heng, Nayyim; Buchy, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Authorities have pledged to eliminate canine rabies by 2020 in Cambodia, a country with a very high rabies burden. Logistic and financial access to timely and adequate postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) is essential for preventing rabies in humans. We undertook a survey of the few identified sites where PEP rabies vaccination and rabies immunoglobulin (RIG) are available in Cambodia. We examined the Rabies Prevention Center at Institut Pasteur du Cambodge (rpc@ipc) database and rpc@ipc order forms for 2012 to assess vaccine and RIG use. We conducted a rapid internet survey of centers that provide rabies vaccine and RIG in Cambodia, other than rpc@ipc. The cost of a full course of intramuscular or intradermal PEP in Cambodia, with and without RIG, was also estimated. Rabies vaccination is free of charge in one foundation hospital and is accessible for a fee at Institut Pasteur du Cambodge (IPC), some institutions, and some Cambodian private clinics. In 2012, 27,500 rabies vaccine doses (0.5 mL) and 591 equine RIG doses were used to provide intradermal PEP to 20,610 persons at rpc@ipc following animal bites. Outside of rpc@ipc, an estimated total of 53,400 vaccine doses and 200 RIG doses were used in Cambodia in 2012. The wholesale cost of full rabies PEP was estimated at 50% to 100% of a Cambodian farmer's monthly wage. Local populations and travelers cannot be sure to locally access adequate and timely PEP due to high costs and low access to RIG. Travelers to high-endemic areas such as Cambodia are strongly encouraged to undergo pre-exposure vaccination or seek expert advice, as per World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. State-subsidized, pre-positioned stocks of human vaccine and RIG in bite management centers would extend the rabies prevention centers network. Support from Institut Pasteur du Cambodge for staff training, cold chain, and quality control would contribute to reducing the risk of rabies deaths in Cambodia. © 2015 International Society of

  19. Order 1/N corrections to the time-dependent Hartree approximation for a system of N+1 oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihaila, B.; Dawson, J.F.; Cooper, F.

    1997-01-01

    We solve numerically to order 1/N the time evolution of a quantum dynamical system of N oscillators of mass m coupled quadratically to a massless dynamic variable. We use Schwingers closed time path formalism to derive the equations. We compare two methods which differ by terms of order 1/N 2 . The first method is a direct perturbation theory in 1/N using the path integral. The second solves exactly the theory defined by the effective action to order 1/N. We compare the results of both methods as a function of N. At N=1, where we expect the expansion to be quite innacurate, we compare our results to an exact numerical solution of the Schroedinger equation. In this case we find that when the two methods disagree they also diverge from the exact answer. We also find at N=1 that the 1/N corrected evolutions track the exact answer for the expectation values much longer than the mean field (N=∞) result. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  20. Size-dependent oscillator strength and quantum efficiency of CdSe quantum dots controlled via the local density of states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leistikow, M.D.; Johansen, Jeppe; Kettelarij, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    We study experimentally time-resolved emission of colloidal CdSe quantum dots in an environment with a controlled local density of states LDOS. The decay rate is measured versus frequency and as a function of distance to a mirror. We observe a linear relation between the decay rate and the LDOS, ...... with the measured radiative rates. Our results are relevant for applications of CdSe quantum dots in spontaneous emission control and cavity quantum electrodynamics.......We study experimentally time-resolved emission of colloidal CdSe quantum dots in an environment with a controlled local density of states LDOS. The decay rate is measured versus frequency and as a function of distance to a mirror. We observe a linear relation between the decay rate and the LDOS......, allowing us to determine the size-dependent quantum efficiency and oscillator strength. We find that the quantum efficiency decreases with increasing emission energy mostly due to an increase in nonradiative decay. We manage to obtain the oscillator strength of the important class of CdSe quantum dots...

  1. Maternal immunity against rabies in raccoon dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, A; Müller, T; Schuster, P; Selhorst, T; Wenzel, U

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the study was to examine possible maternally transferred antibodies (maAb) against rabies in raccoon dogs. Ten cubs born from a rabies-immune animal were bled on days 31, 36, 43, 50, 57 and 64 post partum. The geometric mean titres of the cubs were 1.19, 1.18, 0.45, 0.25, 0.25 and 0.16 IU/ml, respectively. Up to 36 days post partum maAb were detected in all cubs at levels > or = 0.5 IU/ml and at day 56 post partum all animals had maAb levels dogs as well.

  2. Transcriptional mapping of rabies virus in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flamand, A.; Delagneau, J.F.

    1978-01-01

    Synthesis of the proteins of rabies virus was studied in hamster cell infected with uv-irradiated virus. The uv target size of genes L, N, M 1 , and M 2 was measured during primary transcription. Except for N, the target size of the remaining genes was considerably larger than that of their physical sizes. The data fit the hypothesis that four genes occupy a single transcriptional unit and that transcription of rabies virus proceeds in the order N, M 1 , M 2 , and L

  3. Vaccination of Ferrets for Rabies and Distemper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Laura L

    2018-01-01

    Companion ferrets need to be vaccinated against 2 viral diseases that cause neurologic illness: canine distemper and rabies. Although not common in ferrets, both viruses are fatal in ferrets and rabies virus is also fatal in humans. In this article, we provide a basic review of the 2 diseases, highlighting key neurologic concerns. We also review and update current vaccine concerns from a practitioner's perspective, including available vaccines, vaccine schedule recommendations, vaccine reactions, and risk assessment. Last, we mention the ferret and its use in cutting-edge vaccine development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Notes from the field: wildlife rabies on an island free from canine rabies for 52 years--Taiwan, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsiu; Chang, Su-San; Tsai, Hsiang-Jung; Wallace, Ryan M; Recuenco, Sergio E; Doty, Jeffrey B; Vora, Neil M; Chang, Feng-Yee

    2014-02-28

    Dog-to-dog transmission of rabies in Taiwan was eliminated in 1961; the island was considered canine rabies-free for 52 years. On July 16, 2013, three ferret-badgers (Melogale moschata) tested positive for rabies by fluorescent antibody testing at the Animal Health Research Institute, Council of Agriculture of Taiwan. This was the first time wild animals other than bats were tested. During 1999-2012, a total of 6,841 clinically healthy dogs and five apparently normal cats from shelters were tested and found negative for rabies. During 2009-2012, a total of 322 bats were tested and found negative for rabies.

  5. Theta oscillations during holeboard training in rats: different learning strategies entail different context-dependent modulations in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldeit, M L; Korz, V

    2010-02-03

    A functional connection between theta rhythms, information processing, learning and memory formation is well documented by studies focusing on the impact of theta waves on motor activity, global context or phase coding in spatial learning. In the present study we analyzed theta oscillations during a spatial learning task and assessed which specific behavioral contexts were connected to changes in theta power and to the formation of memory. Therefore, we measured hippocampal dentate gyrus theta modulations in male rats that were allowed to establish a long-term spatial reference memory in a holeboard (fixed pattern of baited holes) in comparison to rats that underwent similar training conditions but could not form a reference memory (randomly baited holes). The first group established a pattern specific learning strategy, while the second developed an arbitrary search strategy, visiting increasingly more holes during training. Theta power was equally influenced during the training course in both groups, but was significantly higher when compared to untrained controls. A detailed behavioral analysis, however, revealed behavior- and context-specific differences within the experimental groups. In spatially trained animals theta power correlated with the amounts of reference memory errors in the context of the inspection of unbaited holes and exploration in which, as suggested by time frequency analyses, also slow wave (delta) power was increased. In contrast, in randomly trained animals positive correlations with working memory errors were found in the context of rearing behavior. These findings indicate a contribution of theta/delta to long-lasting memory formation in spatially trained animals, whereas in pseudo trained animals theta seems to be related to attention in order to establish trial specific short-term working memory. Implications for differences in neuronal plasticity found in earlier studies are discussed. Copyright 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd

  6. Efficacy of rabies vaccines in dogs and cats and protection in a mouse model against European bat lyssavirus type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokireki, Tiina; Jakava-Viljanen, Miia; Virtala, Anna-Maija; Sihvonen, Liisa

    2017-10-02

    Rabies is preventable by pre- and/or post-exposure prophylaxis consisting of series of rabies vaccinations and in some cases the use of immunoglobulins. The success of vaccination can be estimated either by measuring virus neutralising antibodies or by challenge experiment. Vaccines based on rabies virus offer cross-protection against other lyssaviruses closely related to rabies virus. The aim was to assess the success of rabies vaccination measured by the antibody response in dogs (n = 10,071) and cats (n = 722), as well as to investigate the factors influencing the response to vaccination when animals failed to reach a rabies antibody titre of ≥ 0.5 IU/ml. Another aim was to assess the level of protection afforded by a commercial veterinary rabies vaccine against intracerebral challenge in mice with European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2) and classical rabies virus (RABV), and to compare this with the protection offered by a vaccine for humans. A significantly higher proportion of dogs (10.7%, 95% confidence interval CI 10.1-11.3) than cats (3.5%; 95% CI 2.3-5.0) had a vaccination antibody titre of  60 cm or larger resulted in a higher risk of failing to reach an antibody level of at least 0.5 IU/ml. When challenged with EBLV-2 and RABV, 80 and 100% of mice vaccinated with the veterinary rabies vaccine survived, respectively. When mice were vaccinated with the human rabies vaccine and challenged with EBLV-2, 75-80% survived, depending on the booster. All vaccinated mice developed sufficient to high titres of virus-neutralising antibodies (VNA) against RABV 21-22 days post-vaccination, ranging from 0.5 to 128 IU/ml. However, there was significant difference between antibody titres after vaccinating once in comparison to vaccinating twice (P lyssaviruses. Booster vaccination is recommended for dogs and cats if exposed to infected bats.

  7. Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in a glutamate receptor gene (GRM8) with theta power of event-related oscillations and alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Andrew C H; Tang, Yongqiang; Rangaswamy, Madhavi; Wang, Jen C; Almasy, Laura; Foroud, Tatiana; Edenberg, Howard J; Hesselbrock, Victor; Nurnberger, John; Kuperman, Samuel; O'Connor, Sean J; Schuckit, Marc A; Bauer, Lance O; Tischfield, Jay; Rice, John P; Bierut, Laura; Goate, Alison; Porjesz, Bernice

    2009-04-05

    Evidence suggests the P3 amplitude of the event-related potential and its underlying superimposed event-related oscillations (EROs), primarily in the theta (4-5 Hz) and delta (1-3 Hz) frequencies, as endophenotypes for the risk of alcoholism and other disinhibitory disorders. Major neurochemical substrates contributing to theta and delta rhythms and P3 involve strong GABAergic, cholinergic and glutamatergic system interactions. The aim of this study was to test the potential associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in glutamate receptor genes and ERO quantitative traits. GRM8 was selected because it maps at chromosome 7q31.3-q32.1 under the peak region where we previously identified significant linkage (peak LOD = 3.5) using a genome-wide linkage scan of the same phenotype (event-related theta band for the target visual stimuli). Neural activities recorded from scalp electrodes during a visual oddball task in which rare target elicited P3s were analyzed in a subset of the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA) sample comprising 1,049 Caucasian subjects from 209 families (with 472 DSM-IV alcohol dependent individuals). The family-based association test (FBAT) detected significant association (P power to target visual stimuli, and also with alcohol dependence, even after correction for multiple comparisons by false discovery rate (FDR). Our results suggest that variation in GRM8 may be involved in modulating event-related theta oscillations during information processing and also in vulnerability to alcoholism. These findings underscore the utility of electrophysiology and the endophenotype approach in the genetic study of psychiatric disorders. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Post-exposure Treatment with Anti-rabies VHH and Vaccine Significantly Improves Protection of Mice from Lethal Rabies Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terryn, Sanne; Francart, Aurélie; Rommelaere, Heidi; Stortelers, Catelijne; Van Gucht, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) against rabies infection consists of a combination of passive immunisation with plasma-derived human or equine immune globulins and active immunisation with vaccine delivered shortly after exposure. Since anti-rabies immune globulins are expensive and scarce, there is a need for cheaper alternatives that can be produced more consistently. Previously, we generated potent virus-neutralising VHH, also called Nanobodies, against the rabies glycoprotein that are effectively preventing lethal disease in an in vivo mouse model. The VHH domain is the smallest antigen-binding functional fragment of camelid heavy chain-only antibodies that can be manufactured in microbial expression systems. In the current study we evaluated the efficacy of half-life extended anti-rabies VHH in combination with vaccine for PEP in an intranasal rabies infection model in mice. The PEP combination therapy of systemic anti-rabies VHH and intramuscular vaccine significantly delayed the onset of disease compared to treatment with anti-rabies VHH alone, prolonged median survival time (35 versus 14 days) and decreased mortality (60% versus 19% survival rate), when treated 24 hours after rabies virus challenge. Vaccine alone was unable to rescue mice from lethal disease. As reported also for immune globulins, some interference of anti-rabies VHH with the antigenicity of the vaccine was observed, but this did not impede the synergistic effect. Post exposure treatment with vaccine and human anti-rabies immune globulins was unable to protect mice from lethal challenge. Anti-rabies VHH and vaccine act synergistically to protect mice after rabies virus exposure, which further validates the possible use of anti-rabies VHH for rabies PEP. PMID:27483431

  9. Post-exposure Treatment with Anti-rabies VHH and Vaccine Significantly Improves Protection of Mice from Lethal Rabies Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne Terryn

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP against rabies infection consists of a combination of passive immunisation with plasma-derived human or equine immune globulins and active immunisation with vaccine delivered shortly after exposure. Since anti-rabies immune globulins are expensive and scarce, there is a need for cheaper alternatives that can be produced more consistently. Previously, we generated potent virus-neutralising VHH, also called Nanobodies, against the rabies glycoprotein that are effectively preventing lethal disease in an in vivo mouse model. The VHH domain is the smallest antigen-binding functional fragment of camelid heavy chain-only antibodies that can be manufactured in microbial expression systems. In the current study we evaluated the efficacy of half-life extended anti-rabies VHH in combination with vaccine for PEP in an intranasal rabies infection model in mice. The PEP combination therapy of systemic anti-rabies VHH and intramuscular vaccine significantly delayed the onset of disease compared to treatment with anti-rabies VHH alone, prolonged median survival time (35 versus 14 days and decreased mortality (60% versus 19% survival rate, when treated 24 hours after rabies virus challenge. Vaccine alone was unable to rescue mice from lethal disease. As reported also for immune globulins, some interference of anti-rabies VHH with the antigenicity of the vaccine was observed, but this did not impede the synergistic effect. Post exposure treatment with vaccine and human anti-rabies immune globulins was unable to protect mice from lethal challenge. Anti-rabies VHH and vaccine act synergistically to protect mice after rabies virus exposure, which further validates the possible use of anti-rabies VHH for rabies PEP.

  10. Reminiscences by Dr. I.I. Rabi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabi, I.I.

    1973-01-01

    Dr. I.I. Rabi, Professor of Physics, Columbia University, Nobel Laureate, adviser to presidents and an original member of the scientific advisory committees both of the United Nations and the IAEA, delivered the following address at the Salazar Atomic Centre, Mexico, in October 1972 he spoke on 'reminiscences from scientific advisory services to governments and international organizations'. (author)

  11. Rabies in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Regulation of diagnostic test kits Prevention Prevention in animals Prevention in people Rabies in the U.S. and around the World ... United States? Veterinarians What to do with an animal that has bitten a person Caring for animals with potential exposure Clinical signs ...

  12. How Can You Prevent Rabies in Animals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Regulation of diagnostic test kits Prevention Prevention in animals Prevention in people Rabies in the U.S. and around the World ... United States? Veterinarians What to do with an animal that has bitten a person Caring for animals with potential exposure Clinical signs ...

  13. [Viruses and bats: rabies and Lyssavirus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tordo, N; Marianneau, M Ph

    2009-01-01

    Recent emerging zoonoses (hemorrhagic fevers due to Ebola or Marburg virus, encephalitis due to Nipah virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome due to SRAS virus...) outline the potential of bats as vectors for transmission of infectious disease to humans. Such a potential is already known for rabies encephalitis since seven out of the eight genotypes of Lyssavirus are transmitted by bats. In addition, phylogenetic reconstructions indicate that Lyssavirus have evolved in chiropters before their emergence in carnivores. Nevertheless, carnivores remain the most critical vectors for public health, in particular dogs that are originating 55.000 rabies deaths per year, essentially in developing countries. Rabies control in carnivores by parenteral (dog) or oral (wild carnivores) vaccination is efficacious and campaigns start to be more widely applied. On the other hand, rabies control in bat still remains non realistic, particularly as the pathogenicity of bat Lyssavirus for bats is still under debate, suggesting that a "diplomatic relationship" between partners would have arisen from a long term cohabitation. While comparing the interactions that humans and bats establish with Lyssavirus, scientists try to understand the molecular basis ofpathogenicity in man, a indispensable prerequisite to identify antiviral targets in a perspective of therapy.

  14. Rabies vaccine and neuraxial anaesthesia | Rewari | Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This case report of neuraxial anaesthesia for emergency orthopaedic surgery serves to highlight the dilemma faced by anaesthetists when surgical intervention becomes necessary in a patient on anti-rabies vaccine. The two issues of importance are the possible reduction in the efficacy of vaccination by an ...

  15. Kinetics of the spin-2 Blume-Capel model under a time-dependent oscillating external field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keskin, M.; Canko, O.; Ertas, M.

    2007-01-01

    Within a mean-field approach and using the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics, we study the kinetics of the spin-2 Blume-Capel model in the presence of a time-varying (sinusoidal) magnetic field. We investigate the time dependence of the average order parameter and the behavior of the average order parameter in a period, which is also called the dynamic order parameter, as a function of the reduced temperature. The nature (continuous and discontinuous) of the transition is characterized by the dynamic order parameter. The dynamic phase transition points are obtained and the phase diagrams are presented in the reduced magnetic field amplitude and reduced temperature plane. The phase diagrams exhibit one dynamic tricritical point; besides a disordered and an ordered phases, there are three phase coexistence regions that are strongly dependent on the interaction parameter

  16. Chromospheric oscillations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lites, B.W.; Rutten, R.J.; Thomas, J.H.

    1995-01-01

    We show results from SO/Sacramento Peak data to discuss three issues: (i)--the spatial occurrence of chromospheric 3--min oscillations; (ii)--the validity of Ca II H&K line-center Doppler Shift measurements; (iii)--the signi ?cance of oscillation power and phase at frequencies above 10 mHz.

  17. Inverted oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuce, C [Physics Department, Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey); Kilic, A [Physics Department, Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey); Coruh, A [Physics Department, Sakarya University, Sakarya (Turkey)

    2006-07-15

    The inverted harmonic oscillator problem is investigated quantum mechanically. The exact wavefunction for the confined inverted oscillator is obtained and it is shown that the associated energy eigenvalues are discrete, and the energy is given as a linear function of the quantum number n.

  18. Canine Rabies: A Looming Threat to Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigfrido Burgos-Cáceres

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is an acute, fatal viral disease that infects domestic and wild animals and is transmissible to humans. Worldwide, rabies kills over 55,000 people every year. The domestic dog plays a pivotal role in rabies transmission. Domestic dogs are not only part of our daily lives but also of our immediate surroundings, and this is reflected in the rise in pet dog ownership in developed and developing countries. This is important given that more frequent exposures and interactions at the animal-human interface increases the likelihood of contracting zoonotic diseases of companion animals. Despite existing vaccines and post-exposure prophylactic treatment, rabies remains a neglected disease that is poorly controlled throughout much of the developing world, particularly Africa and Asia, where most human rabies deaths occur. It is believed that with sustained international commitments, global elimination of rabies from domestic dog populations, the most dangerous vector to humans, is a realistic goal.

  19. Spatiotemporal distribution of rabies in Arctic foxes in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raundrup, Katrine; Moshøj, Charlotte Margaret; Wennerberg, Sanne

    2015-01-01

    The temporal occurrence, spatial distribution, spread, and prevalence of rabies in Arctic foxes, Vulpes lagopus, in Greenland were studied using historical observations from 1969 to 2011 and survey data collected in the winters 1992 and 1993. Regionally, the prevalence of rabies ranged between 0...... and 7.1 %. Wavelet analysis was used to identify periodicities in the abundance of rabies cases based on the historical observations. No general length of the cyclic interval of rabies occurrences in Greenland could be demonstrated. The frequency of outbreaks was found to be variable but can be grouped...... as short (less than 5 years), medium (5–10 years), and long (more than 10 years). Moreover, rabies outbreaks in neighboring regions were found to be more closely correlated compared to regions further apart. In West Greenland, the temporal outbreaks of rabies were found to occur along a north...

  20. Rabies in Saudi Arabia: a need for epidemiological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziad A. Memish

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is endemic in animals in the Arabian Peninsula. Although Saudi Arabia is the largest country in the Peninsula, little has been published about the rabies situation in the country. A total of 11 069 animal bites to humans were reported during 2007–2009, and 40 animals suspected of rabies were examined for rabies infection from 2005 through 2010. Results suggest that animal-related injuries in Saudi Arabia remain a public health problem, with feral dogs accounting for the majority of bites to humans and for the majority of animals found to be rabid. Over the last 10 years, no confirmed human rabies case has been reported. More detailed information about the epidemiology of animal bites and that of animal rabies in Saudi Arabia would be of great interest, notably to provide a basis on which vaccination recommendations could be made for the numerous international travellers visiting the country.

  1. Multi-photon transitions and Rabi resonance in continuous wave EPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiko, Alexander P; Fedaruk, Ryhor; Markevich, Siarhei A

    2015-10-01

    The study of microwave-radiofrequency multi-photon transitions in continuous wave (CW) EPR spectroscopy is extended to a Rabi resonance condition, when the radio frequency of the magnetic-field modulation matches the Rabi frequency of a spin system in the microwave field. Using the non-secular perturbation theory based on the Bogoliubov averaging method, the analytical description of the response of the spin system is derived for all modulation frequency harmonics. When the modulation frequency exceeds the EPR linewidth, multi-photon transitions result in sidebands in absorption EPR spectra measured with phase-sensitive detection at any harmonic. The saturation of different-order multi-photon transitions is shown to be significantly different and to be sensitive to the Rabi resonance. The noticeable frequency shifts of sidebands are found to be the signatures of this resonance. The inversion of two-photon lines in some spectral intervals of the out-of-phase first-harmonic signal is predicted under passage through the Rabi resonance. The inversion indicates the transition from absorption to stimulated emission or vice versa, depending on the sideband. The manifestation of the primary and secondary Rabi resonance is also demonstrated in the time evolution of steady-state EPR signals formed by all harmonics of the modulation frequency. Our results provide a theoretical framework for future developments in multi-photon CW EPR spectroscopy, which can be useful for samples with long spin relaxation times and extremely narrow EPR lines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The RABiT: a rapid automated biodosimetry tool for radiological triage. II. Technological developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garty, Guy; Chen, Youhua; Turner, Helen C; Zhang, Jian; Lyulko, Oleksandra V; Bertucci, Antonella; Xu, Yanping; Wang, Hongliang; Simaan, Nabil; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Lawrence Yao, Y; Brenner, David J

    2011-08-01

    Over the past five years the Center for Minimally Invasive Radiation Biodosimetry at Columbia University has developed the Rapid Automated Biodosimetry Tool (RABiT), a completely automated, ultra-high throughput biodosimetry workstation. This paper describes recent upgrades and reliability testing of the RABiT. The RABiT analyses fingerstick-derived blood samples to estimate past radiation exposure or to identify individuals exposed above or below a cut-off dose. Through automated robotics, lymphocytes are extracted from fingerstick blood samples into filter-bottomed multi-well plates. Depending on the time since exposure, the RABiT scores either micronuclei or phosphorylation of the histone H2AX, in an automated robotic system, using filter-bottomed multi-well plates. Following lymphocyte culturing, fixation and staining, the filter bottoms are removed from the multi-well plates and sealed prior to automated high-speed imaging. Image analysis is performed online using dedicated image processing hardware. Both the sealed filters and the images are archived. We have developed a new robotic system for lymphocyte processing, making use of an upgraded laser power and parallel processing of four capillaries at once. This system has allowed acceleration of lymphocyte isolation, the main bottleneck of the RABiT operation, from 12 to 2 sec/sample. Reliability tests have been performed on all robotic subsystems. Parallel handling of multiple samples through the use of dedicated, purpose-built, robotics and high speed imaging allows analysis of up to 30,000 samples per day.

  3. Paralytic rabies: MRI findings and review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Jayantee Kalita; Sanjeev K Bhoi; Jogendra K Bastia; Sangmitra Lashkar; Anita Mahadevan; Usha K Misra

    2014-01-01

    Paralytic rabies closely simulates Guillain-Barre syndrome or ascending myelitis often causing clinical dilemma. Two such patients were managed in our hospital whose magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed characteristic findings revealing T2 hyper intensity in central spinal cord and in posterior brainstem and hypothalamus. These MRI findings are helpful in the diagnosis of rabies in appropriate setting. We also review the literature on MRI changes in paralytic rabies.

  4. The History of Rabies in Trinidad: Epidemiology and Control Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine F. R. Seetahal

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Vampire bat-transmitted rabies was first recognized in Trinidad during a major outbreak reported in 1925. Trinidad is the only Caribbean island with vampire bat-transmitted rabies. We conducted a literature review to describe the changing epidemiology of rabies in Trinidad and give a historical perspective to rabies prevention and control measures on the island. The last human case of rabies occurred in 1937 and although no case of canine-transmitted rabies was reported since 1914, sporadic outbreaks of bat-transmitted rabies still occur in livestock to date. Over the last century, seven notable epidemics were recorded in Trinidad with the loss of over 3000 animals. During the 1950s, several measures were effectively adopted for the prevention and control of the disease which led to a significant reduction in the number of cases. These measures include: vampire bat population control, livestock vaccination, and animal surveillance. However, due to lapses in these measures over the years (e.g., periods of limited vampire control and incomplete herd vaccination, epidemics have occurred. In light of the significant negative impact of rabies on animal production and human health, rabies surveillance in Trinidad should be enhanced and cases evaluated towards the design and implementation of more evidence-based prevention and control programs.

  5. Pneumomediastinum as initial presentation of paralytic rabies: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemachudha Thiravat

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rabies is readily diagnosed when it presents as the classic furious form. Paralytic and atypical forms can pose significant problems in diagnosis. Catastrophic incidents included 7 organ transplant recipients who died of rabies recently in United States and Germany. Although rabies remains top in the lists of differential diagnosis of encephalitis in rabies endemic area, its complication may divert physicians from making a relevant management. We encountered an unusual case of paralytic rabies who presented with spontaneous pneumomediastinum. Case Presentation A young male presented with fever and dysphagia. There was a history of fluctuating consciousness and aerophobia but they were absent or could not be demonstrated at the time of admission. He exhibited subcutaneous chest wall emphysema and was found to have pneumomediastinum which resulted in surgical intervention. He developed paralysis followed by seizures during postoperative period. Diagnosis was confirmed by demonstration of rabies RNA in saliva during the preterminal phase and by the autopsy. Over 200 hospital staff subsequently received rabies postexposure prophylaxis. Conclusion Spontaneous pneumomediastinum can be a rare complication of rabies. It may lead clinicians to perform inappropriate treatment, particularly when phobic spasms are not present and agitation is not prominent. High level of awareness of rabies in any patient with confusion albeit subtle or with any obscure neurological presentations such as difficulty swallowing with no identifiable causes must be borne in mind.

  6. Challenges and needs for China to eliminate rabies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wenwu; Dong, Jie; Tu, Changchun; Edwards, John; Guo, Fusheng; Zhou, Hang; Yu, Hongjie; Vong, Sirenda

    2013-10-02

    In China, rabies is a significant public health concern where dogs remain the main reservoir of disease transmission to humans; rabies-related mortality ranks second in the world.We compiled all published articles and official documents on rabies in mainland China to examine challenges and needs to eliminate rabies in the country. The Chinese authorities have identified rabies as a priority, recognized rabies control in dogs as key to control rabies in humans and required intersectoral collaborations. Efforts have been made to respond effectively to the latest re-emergence of rabies, which peaked in 2007 with >3,300 cases. Despite these outcomes and the increasing volume of publications and regulations in the recent years, our review points to some major information gaps to improve rabies control activities and envisage elimination program. An emphasis on laboratory or pathogen-associated and basic epidemiology research in the literature has contrasted with the absence of information to monitor various systems in humans and animals (e.g. quality of surveillance, response and post-exposure prophylaxis). Information is also lacking to appropriately inform policymakers (e.g. economic disease burden, impact of policies) and assist program managers (e.g. comprehensive and strategic guidance for cost-effective prevention and control activities, public education and dog population management).In conclusion, strategic planning is needed to provide a sense of direction, demonstrate feasibility of elimination in China, and develop a research agenda, addressing country's operational needs and constraints. The planning should be a multisectoral effort.

  7. Geographical Clusters and Predictors of Rabies in Three Southeastern States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Sara; Sanderson, Wayne T; Christian, W Jay; Browning, Steven R

    2017-06-01

    The rabies virus causes progressive encephalomyelitis that is fatal in nearly 100% of untreated cases. In the United States, wildlife act as the primary reservoir for rabies; prevention, surveillance, and control costs remain high. The purpose of this study is to understand the current distribution of wildlife rabies in three southeastern states, with particular focus on raccoons as the primary eastern reservoir, as well as identify demographic and geographic factors which may affect the risk of human exposure. This ecologic study obtained county-level rabies surveillance data from state health departments and the United States Department of Agriculture Wildlife services for North Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia from 2010 to 2013. A spatial statistical analysis was performed to identify county clusters with high or low rates of raccoon rabies in the three states. Potential demographic and geographic factors associated with these varying rates of rabies were assessed using a multivariable negative binomial regression model. In North Carolina, raccoons constituted 50% of positive tests, in Virginia, 49%, and in West Virginia, 50%. Compared to persons residing in West Virginia counties, persons in North Carolina counties had 1.67 times the risk of exposure (p rabies exposure. Further research is needed to better understand the effect of the oral rabies vaccine program in controlling the risk of human exposure to raccoon rabies.

  8. Using qubits to reveal quantum signatures of an oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Shantanu

    In this thesis, we seek to study the qubit-oscillator system with the aim to identify and quantify inherent quantum features of the oscillator. We show that the quantum signatures of the oscillator get imprinted on the dynamics of the joint system. The two key features which we explore are the quantized energy spectrum of the oscillator and the non-classicality of the oscillator's wave function. To investigate the consequences of the oscillator's discrete energy spectrum, we consider the qubit to be coupled to the oscillator through the Rabi Hamiltonian. Recent developments in fabrication technology have opened up the possibility to explore parameter regimes which were conventionally inaccessible. Motivated by these advancements, we investigate in this thesis a parameter space where the qubit frequency is much smaller than the oscillator frequency and the Rabi frequency is allowed to be an appreciable fraction of the bare frequency of the oscillator. We use the adiabatic approximation to understand the dynamics in this quasi-degenerate qubit regime. By deriving a dressed master equation, we systematically investigate the effects of the environment on the system dynamics. We develop a spectroscopic technique, using which one can probe the steady state response of the driven and damped system. The spectroscopic signal clearly reveals the quantized nature of the oscillator's energy spectrum. We extend the adiabatic approximation, earlier developed only for the single qubit case, to a scenario where multiple qubits interact with the oscillator. Using the extended adiabatic approximation, we study the collapse and revival of multi-qubit observables. We develop analytic expressions for the revival signals which are in good agreement with the numerically evaluated results. Within the quantum restriction imposed by Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, the uncertainty in the position and momentum of an oscillator is minimum and shared equally when the oscillator is prepared

  9. Stiffness of sphere–plate contacts at MHz frequencies: dependence on normal load, oscillation amplitude, and ambient medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Vlachová

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The stiffness of micron-sized sphere–plate contacts was studied by employing high frequency, tangential excitation of variable amplitude (0–20 nm. The contacts were established between glass spheres and the surface of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM, where the resonator surface had been coated with either sputtered SiO2 or a spin-cast layer of poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA. The results from experiments undertaken in the dry state and in water are compared. Building on the shifts in the resonance frequency and resonance bandwidth, the instrument determines the real and the imaginary part of the contact stiffness, where the imaginary part quantifies dissipative processes. The method is closely analogous to related procedures in AFM-based metrology. The real part of the contact stiffness as a function of normal load can be fitted with the Johnson–Kendall–Roberts (JKR model. The contact stiffness was found to increase in the presence of liquid water. This finding is tentatively explained by the rocking motion of the spheres, which couples to a squeeze flow of the water close to the contact. The loss tangent of the contact stiffness is on the order of 0.1, where the energy losses are associated with interfacial processes. At high amplitudes partial slip was found to occur. The apparent contact stiffness at large amplitude depends linearly on the amplitude, as predicted by the Cattaneo–Mindlin model. This finding is remarkable insofar, as the Cattaneo–Mindlin model assumes Coulomb friction inside the sliding region. Coulomb friction is typically viewed as a macroscopic concept, related to surface roughness. An alternative model (formulated by Savkoor, which assumes a constant frictional stress in the sliding zone independent of the normal pressure, is inconsistent with the experimental data. The apparent friction coefficients slightly increase with normal force, which can be explained by nanoroughness. In other words, contact splitting

  10. Fatal rabies despite post-exposure prophylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D G Deshmukh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Only sporadic reports of failure of post-exposure prophylaxis for rabies exist in the published literature. We are reporting such a case in a 3-year-old boy. The child had Category III dog bite on his right thigh. He presented with progressive ascending paralysis, finally developing quadriplegia and respiratory paralysis. Typical hydrophobia and aerophobia were absent. He received four doses of antirabies cell culture vaccine. He did not receive antirabies immunoglobulin. The boy succumbed on the 23 rd day of the dog bite. Diagnosis of rabies was confirmed in the laboratory by demonstration of Negri bodies, direct fluorescent antibody test and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction either on impression smear of brain or a piece of brain taken during autopsy.

  11. A single immunization with a recombinant canine adenovirus expressing the rabies virus G protein confers protective immunity against rabies in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jianwei; Faber, Milosz; Papaneri, Amy; Faber, Marie-Luise; McGettigan, James P.; Schnell, Matthias J.; Dietzschold, Bernhard

    2006-01-01

    Rabies vaccines based on live attenuated rabies viruses or recombinant pox viruses expressing the rabies virus (RV) glycoprotein (G) hold the greatest promise of safety and efficacy, particularly for oral immunization of wildlife. However, while these vaccines induce protective immunity in foxes, they are less effective in other animals, and safety concerns have been raised for some of these vaccines. Because canine adenovirus 2 (CAV2) is licensed for use as a live vaccine for dogs and has an excellent efficacy and safety record, we used this virus as an expression vector for the RVG. The recombinant CAV2-RV G produces virus titers similar to those produced by wild-type CAV2, indicating that the RVG gene does not affect virus replication. Comparison of RVG expressed by CAV2-RV G with that of vaccinia-RV G recombinant virus (V-RG) revealed similar amounts of RV G on the cell surface. A single intramuscular or intranasal immunization of mice with CAV2-RVG induced protective immunity in a dose-dependent manner, with no clinical signs or discomfort from the virus infection regardless of the route of administration or the amount of virus

  12. The design of delay-dependent wide-area DOFC with prescribed degree of stability α for damping inter-area low-frequency oscillations in power system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Miaoping; Nian, Xiaohong; Dai, Liqiong; Guo, Hua

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, the delay-dependent wide-area dynamic output feedback controller (DOFC) with prescribed degree of stability is proposed for interconnected power system to damp inter-area low-frequency oscillations. Here, the prescribed degree of stability α is used to maintain all the poles on the left of s=-α in the s-plane. Firstly, residue approach is adopted to select input-output control signals and the schur balanced truncation model reduction method is utilized to obtain the reduced power system model. Secondly, based on Lyapunov stability theory and transformation operation in complex plane, the sufficient condition of asymptotic stability for closed-loop power system with prescribed degree of stability α is derived. Then, a novel method based on linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) is presented to obtain the parameters of DOFC and calculate delay margin of the closed-loop system considering the prescribed degree of stability α. Finally, case studies are carried out on the two-area four-machine system, which is controlled by classical wide-area power system stabilizer (WAPSS) in reported reference and our proposed DOFC respectively. The effectiveness and advantages of the proposed method are verified by the simulation results under different operating conditions. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Chemical Oscillations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IMTECH),. Chandigarh. Praveen Kumar is pursuing his PhD in chemical dynamics at. Panjab University,. Chandigarh. Keywords. Chemical oscillations, autoca-. talYSis, Lotka-Volterra model, bistability, hysteresis, Briggs-. Rauscher reaction.

  14. Chemical Oscillations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the law of mass-action that every simple reaction approaches ... from thermodynamic equilibrium. Such oscillating systems cor- respond to thermodynamically open systems. .... experimentally observable, and the third is always unstable.

  15. Quantum information, oscillations and the psyche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, F.; Carminati, F.; Galli Carminati, G.

    2010-05-01

    In this paper, taking the theory of quantum information as a model, we consider the human unconscious, pre-consciousness and consciousness as sets of quantum bits (qubits). We view how there can be communication between these various qubit sets. In doing this we are inspired by the theory of nuclear magnetic resonance. In this way we build a model of handling a mental qubit with the help of pulses of a mental field. Starting with an elementary interaction between two qubits we build two-qubit quantum logic gates that allow information to be transferred from one qubit to the other. In this manner we build a quantum process that permits consciousness to "read" the unconscious and vice versa. The elementary interaction, e.g. between a pre-consciousness qubit and a consciousness one, allows us to predict the time evolution of the pre-consciousness + consciousness system in which pre-consciousness and consciousness are quantum entangled. This time evolution exhibits Rabi oscillations that we name mental Rabi oscillations. This time evolution shows how for example the unconscious can influence consciousness. In a process like mourning the influence of the unconscious on consciousness, as the influence of consciousness on the unconscious, are in agreement with what is observed in psychiatry.

  16. Live vaccinia-rabies virus recombinants, but not an inactivated rabies virus cell culture vaccine, protect B-lymphocyte-deficient A/WySnJ mice against rabies: considerations of recombinant defective poxviruses for rabies immunization of immunocompromised individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodmell, Donald L; Esposito, Joseph J; Ewalt, Larry C

    2004-09-03

    Presently, commercially available cell culture rabies vaccines for humans and animals consist of the five inactivated rabies virus proteins. The vaccines elicit a CD4+ helper T-cell response and a humoral B-cell response against the viral glycoprotein (G) resulting in the production of virus neutralizing antibody. Antibody against the viral nucleoprotein (N) is also present, but the mechanism(s) of its protection is unclear. HIV-infected individuals with low CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts and individuals undergoing treatment with immunosuppressive drugs have an impaired neutralizing antibody response after pre- and post-exposure immunization with rabies cell culture vaccines. Here we show the efficacy of live vaccinia-rabies virus recombinants, but not a cell culture vaccine consisting of inactivated rabies virus, to elicit elevated levels of neutralizing antibody in B-lymphocyte deficient A/WySnJ mice. The cell culture vaccine also failed to protect the mice, whereas a single immunization of a vaccinia recombinant expressing the rabies virus G or co-expressing G and N equally protected the mice up to 18 months after vaccination. The data suggest that recombinant poxviruses expressing the rabies virus G, in particular replication defective poxviruses such as canarypox or MVA vaccinia virus that undergo abortive replication in non-avian cells, or the attenuated vaccinia virus NYVAC, should be evaluated as rabies vaccines in immunocompromised individuals.

  17. Survey of bat populations from Mexico and Paraguay for rabies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeler-Gordon, L L; Smith, J S

    2001-07-01

    A mammalian survey was conducted in Mexico (October 1994-January 1996) and in Paraguay (August 1996-March 1997); a complete specimen was collected for each bat in the survey, including primary voucher specimen, ectoparasites, karyotype, and various frozen tissues. The surveys combined provided 937 brain samples (65 bat species) for rabies diagnosis. One male Lasiurus ega, collected in Paraguay, tested positive for the rabies virus (overall prevalence rate of 0.1%). Nucleotide sequence from a 300 bp region of the rabies nucleoprotein gene was compared with sequence obtained from representative rabies virus samples in the repository at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Atlanta, Georgia, USA). Rabies virus extracted from the brain material of L. ega differed by only one nucleotide from a 300 bp consensus sequence (>99% homology) derived from samples for the variant of rabies virus transmitted by Lasiurus cinereus. Lasiurus ego differed by approximately 15% for the variant transmitted by Desmodus rotundus. Phylogenetic analysis found no evidence to suggest L. ego is a reservoir for rabies antigenic variant 6. The most likely explanation for rabies in L. ega was infection following contact with a rabid L. cinereus.

  18. Terrestrial Rabies and Human Postexposure Prophylaxis, New York, USA

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast describes a 10-year study of the use of postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) for rabies in New York State. CDC's Dr. Brett Petersen discusses the prevalence of rabies in the United States and how the study lends support to recent changes in the recommended PEP protocol.

  19. Rabies, the neglected cause of mortality in developing countries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of the studies on rabies in Tanzania have been conducted by foreign scientists and the WHO and few Tanzanians-often junior researchers and research assistants. Currently, there is an on-going study at Ifakara on immunization of dogs and results are still pending. Rabies is a fatal disease that carries a very high mortality.

  20. Detection of Rabies antigen in brains of suspected Rabid dogs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To detect the presence of rabies antigen in brains of suspected rabid dogs. Materials and Methods: Ninety six (96) brain specimens from suspected rabid dogs were examined for the presence of rabies antigen using Seller's staining technique and enzyme immunoassay. Results: The two techniques were both ...

  1. Rabies Elimination in Dogs in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Rabies has been eliminated from dogs in the United States through efforts to promote annual vaccination, but it's still a problem in wildlife in the U.S. and in wild and domesticated animals abroad. In this podcast, CDC's Dr. Charles Rupprecht discusses a study which provides proof of the elimination of rabies in dogs and what this means for the average American.

  2. Factors Associated with Rabies Awareness and Attitude to Dog Bite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preponderance of stray dogs at the study site necessitated assessment of awareness on rabies and associated factors, attitude to dog bite and knowledge on rabies among students and staff members in a University community. We reviewed hospital records for dog bite cases from 2005 to 2010 and administered structured ...

  3. Rabies trends and surveillance capabilities in Zambia | Kabaso ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of this study was to assess the trends, distribution and positivity rate of rabies cases in Zambia. A retrospective study for the period of 10 years between 2004 and 2014, was conducted by using rabies case reports. The data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and geo-coded in Quantum ...

  4. Antigenic analysis of some Nigerian street rabies virus using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The authors studied 12 street rabies virus isolates from 3 states of Nigeria using both the anti-nucleocapsid and anti-glycoprotein monoclonal antibodies and cross-protection tests. It was observed that all the viruses were rabies having divergent antigenic presentation. Also noticed was an antigenic shift when the viruses ...

  5. Rabies elimination research: juxtaposing optimism, pragmatism and realism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleaveland, Sarah; Hampson, Katie

    2017-12-20

    More than 100 years of research has now been conducted into the prevention, control and elimination of rabies with safe and highly efficacious vaccines developed for use in human and animal populations. Domestic dogs are a major reservoir for rabies, and although considerable advances have been made towards the elimination and control of canine rabies in many parts of the world, the disease continues to kill tens of thousands of people every year in Africa and Asia. Policy efforts are now being directed towards a global target of zero human deaths from dog-mediated rabies by 2030 and the global elimination of canine rabies. Here we demonstrate how research provides a cause for optimism as to the feasibility of these goals through strategies based around mass dog vaccination. We summarize some of the pragmatic insights generated from rabies epidemiology and dog ecology research that can improve the design of dog vaccination strategies in low- and middle-income countries and which should encourage implementation without further delay. We also highlight the need for realism in reaching the feasible, although technically more difficult and longer-term goal of global elimination of canine rabies. Finally, we discuss how research on rabies has broader relevance to the control and elimination of a suite of diseases of current concern to human and animal health, providing an exemplar of the value of a 'One Health' approach. © 2017 The Authors.

  6. What Is the Rabies Risk for My Pet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention and Control May 28, 2010: Report on Human and Dog Rabies Prevention and Control April 21, 2010: Limited ... be evaluated on a case-by-case basis. Dogs and cats that are currently ... to cause rabies among humans in the United States. Bites by these animals ...

  7. Bounded-oscillation Pushdown Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Ganty

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We present an underapproximation for context-free languages by filtering out runs of the underlying pushdown automaton depending on how the stack height evolves over time. In particular, we assign to each run a number quantifying the oscillating behavior of the stack along the run. We study languages accepted by pushdown automata restricted to k-oscillating runs. We relate oscillation on pushdown automata with a counterpart restriction on context-free grammars. We also provide a way to filter all but the k-oscillating runs from a given PDA by annotating stack symbols with information about the oscillation. Finally, we study closure properties of the defined class of languages and the complexity of the k-emptiness problem asking, given a pushdown automaton P and k >= 0, whether P has a k-oscillating run. We show that, when k is not part of the input, the k-emptiness problem is NLOGSPACE-complete.

  8. Lattice Three-Species Models of the Spatial Spread of Rabies among FOXES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyoussef, A.; Boccara, N.; Chakib, H.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.

    Lattice models describing the spatial spread of rabies among foxes are studied. In these models, the fox population is divided into three-species: susceptible (S), infected or incubating (I), and infectious or rabid (R). They are based on the fact that susceptible and incubating foxes are territorial while rabid foxes have lost their sense of direction and move erratically. Two different models are investigated: a one-dimensional coupled-map lattice model, and a two-dimensional automata network model. Both models take into account the short-range character of the infection process and the diffusive motion of rabid foxes. Numerical simulations show how the spatial distribution of rabies, and the speed of propagation of the epizootic front depend upon the carrying capacity of the environment and diffusion of rabid foxes out of their territory.

  9. Rabies vaccines: where do we stand, where are we heading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Manpreet; Garg, Rajni; Singh, Samer; Bhatnagar, Rakesh

    2015-03-01

    Rabies being the most lethal zoonotic, vaccine-preventable viral disease with worldwide distribution of reservoir wild animals presents unique challenges for its diagnosis, management and control. Although vaccines available are highly effective, which had played the key role in controlling rabies in North America, western Europe and in a number of Asian and Latin American countries, the requirement of multiple doses along with boosters, associated cost to reduce the incidence in wild animals and prophylactic human vaccination has remained a major impediment towards achieving the same goals in poorer parts of the world such as sub-Saharan Africa and southeast Asia. Current efforts to contain rabies worldwide are directed towards the development of more safe, cheaper and efficacious vaccines along with anti-rabies antibodies for post-exposure prophylaxis. The work presented here provides an overview of the advances made towards controlling the human rabies, particularly in last 10 years, and future perspective.

  10. Difficulties in estimating the human burden of canine rabies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Louise H; Hampson, Katie; Fahrion, Anna; Abela-Ridder, Bernadette; Nel, Louis H

    2017-01-01

    Current passive surveillance data for canine rabies, particularly for the regions where the burden is highest, are inadequate for appropriate decision making on control efforts. Poor enforcement of existing legislation and poor implementation of international guidance reduce the effectiveness of surveillance systems, but another set of problems relates to the fact that canine rabies is an untreatable condition which affects very poor sectors of society. This results in an unknown, but potentially large proportion of rabies victims dying outside the health system, deaths that are unlikely to be recorded by surveillance systems based on health center records. This article critically evaluates the potential sources of information on the number of human deaths attributable to canine rabies, and how we might improve the estimates required to move towards the goal of global canine rabies elimination. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Renewed Global Partnerships and Redesigned Roadmaps for Rabies Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembo, Tiziana; Attlan, Michaël; Bourhy, Hervé; Cleaveland, Sarah; Costa, Peter; de Balogh, Katinka; Dodet, Betty; Fooks, Anthony R.; Hiby, Elly; Leanes, Fernando; Meslin, François-Xavier; Miranda, Mary Elizabeth; Müller, Thomas; Nel, Louis H.; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Tordo, Noël; Tumpey, Abbigail; Wandeler, Alexander; Briggs, Deborah J.

    2011-01-01

    Canine rabies, responsible for most human rabies deaths, is a serious global public health concern. This zoonosis is entirely preventable, but by focusing solely upon rabies prevention in humans, this “incurable wound” persists at high costs. Although preventing human deaths through canine rabies elimination is feasible, dog rabies control is often neglected, because dogs are not considered typical economic commodities by the animal health sector. Here, we demonstrate that the responsibility of managing rabies falls upon multiple sectors, that a truly integrated approach is the key to rabies elimination, and that considerable progress has been made to this effect. Achievements include the construction of global rabies networks and organizational partnerships; development of road maps, operational toolkits, and a blueprint for rabies prevention and control; and opportunities for scaling up and replication of successful programs. Progress must continue towards overcoming the remaining challenges preventing the ultimate goal of rabies elimination. PMID:21776359

  12. Renewed Global Partnerships and Redesigned Roadmaps for Rabies Prevention and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Lembo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Canine rabies, responsible for most human rabies deaths, is a serious global public health concern. This zoonosis is entirely preventable, but by focusing solely upon rabies prevention in humans, this “incurable wound” persists at high costs. Although preventing human deaths through canine rabies elimination is feasible, dog rabies control is often neglected, because dogs are not considered typical economic commodities by the animal health sector. Here, we demonstrate that the responsibility of managing rabies falls upon multiple sectors, that a truly integrated approach is the key to rabies elimination, and that considerable progress has been made to this effect. Achievements include the construction of global rabies networks and organizational partnerships; development of road maps, operational toolkits, and a blueprint for rabies prevention and control; and opportunities for scaling up and replication of successful programs. Progress must continue towards overcoming the remaining challenges preventing the ultimate goal of rabies elimination.

  13. Recombinant rabies virus expressing dog GM-CSF is an efficacious oral rabies vaccine for dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ming; Wang, Lei; Zhou, Songqin; Wang, Zhao; Ruan, Juncheng; Tang, Lijun; Jia, Ziming; Cui, Min; Zhao, Ling; Fu, Zhen F

    2015-11-17

    Developing efficacious oral rabies vaccines is an important step to increase immunization coverage for stray dogs, which are not accessible for parenteral vaccination. Our previous studies have demonstrated that recombinant rabies virus (RABV) expressing cytokines/chemokines induces robust protective immune responses after oral immunization in mice by recruiting and activating dendritic cells (DCs) and B cells. To develop an effective oral rabies vaccine for dogs, a recombinant attenuated RABV expressing dog GM-CSF, designated as LBNSE-dGM-CSF was constructed and used for oral vaccination in a dog model. Significantly more DCs or B cells were activated in the peripheral blood of dogs vaccinated orally with LBNSE-dGM-CSF than those vaccinated with the parent virus LBNSE, particularly at 3 days post immunization (dpi). As a result, significantly higher levels of virus neutralizing antibodies (VNAs) were detected in dogs immunized with LBNSE-dGM-CSF than with the parent virus. All the immunized dogs were protected against a lethal challenge with 4500 MICLD50 of wild-type RABV SXTYD01. LBNSE-dGM-CSF was found to replicate mainly in the tonsils after oral vaccination as detected by nested RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Taken together, our results indicate that LBNSE-dGM-CSF could be a promising oral rabies vaccine candidate for dogs.

  14. DISTRIBUSI KASUS GIGITAN HEWAN PENULAR RABIES (HPR DAN KASUS RABIES DI KABUPATEN NGADA, PROPINSI NUSA TENGGARA TIMUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Indriaty P.B Sopi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Rabies adalah penyakit infeksi zoonotic akut padasystem saraf pusat yang disebabkan oleh family Rhabdovirus dan genus Lyssavirus. Data tentang penyebaran rabies di Kabupaten Ngada menunjukkan bahwa ada 3 kasus rabies pada tahun 2000. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menggambarkan distribusi kasus gigitan hewan penular rabies (HPR dan kasus rabies di Kabupaten Ngada. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian deskriptif yang menggunakan desain cross-sectional. Data dikumpulkan dari kasus gigitan HPR dan kasus rabies tahun 2004 sampai Oktober 2008. Data tersebut merupakan data sekunder dari Dinas Kesehatan Kabupaten Ngada. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kasus gigitan HPR tertinggi per puskesmas adalah di Puskesmas Watumanu pada tahun 2007, yaitu 79 kasus. Puncak terjadinya kasus gigitan HPR adalah pada tahun 2004, yaitu 78 kasus di bulan Mei, dan 77 kasus di bulan Juni. Median kasus per bulan pada bulan Juli, yaitu 26 kasus. Hewan peliharaan masyarakat yang paling sering menularkan rabies adalah anjing. Pendekatan persuasive dan intensif melalui pendidikan kesehatan untuk mengajak masyarakat memvaksinasi hewan peliharaan sangat dibutuhkan. Hal ini karena, kesadaran masyarakat tentang pentingnya vaksinasi hewan peliharaan, akan mendukung keberhasilan program pemberantasan rabies di Kabupaten Ngada.  

  15. Nonperturbative Dynamical Casimir Effect in Optomechanical Systems: Vacuum Casimir-Rabi Splittings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Macrì

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We study the dynamical Casimir effect using a fully quantum-mechanical description of both the cavity field and the oscillating mirror. We do not linearize the dynamics, nor do we adopt any parametric or perturbative approximation. By numerically diagonalizing the full optomechanical Hamiltonian, we show that the resonant generation of photons from the vacuum is determined by a ladder of mirror-field vacuum Rabi splittings. We find that vacuum emission can originate from the free evolution of an initial pure mechanical excited state, in analogy with the spontaneous emission from excited atoms. By considering a coherent drive of the mirror, using a master-equation approach to take losses into account, we are able to study the dynamical Casimir effect for optomechanical coupling strengths ranging from weak to ultrastrong. We find that a resonant production of photons out of the vacuum can be observed even for mechanical frequencies lower than the cavity-mode frequency. Since high mechanical frequencies, which are hard to achieve experimentally, were thought to be imperative for realizing the dynamical Casimir effect, this result removes one of the major obstacles for the observation of this long-sought effect. We also find that the dynamical Casimir effect can create entanglement between the oscillating mirror and the radiation produced by its motion in the vacuum field, and that vacuum Casimir-Rabi oscillations can occur. Finally, we also show that all these findings apply not only to optomechanical systems, but also to parametric amplifiers operating in the fully quantum regime.

  16. Frequency-dependent changes in local intrinsic oscillations in chronic primary insomnia: A study of the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations in the resting state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fuqing; Huang, Suhua; Zhuang, Ying; Gao, Lei; Gong, Honghan

    2017-01-01

    New neuroimaging techniques have led to significant advancements in our understanding of cerebral mechanisms of primary insomnia. However, the neuronal low-frequency oscillation remains largely uncharacterized in chronic primary insomnia (CPI). In this study, the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF), a data-driven method based on resting-state functional MRI, was used to examine local intrinsic activity in 27 patients with CPI and 27 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy controls. We examined neural activity in two frequency bands, slow-4 (between 0.027 and 0.073 Hz) and slow-5 (0.010-0.027 Hz), because blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) fluctuations in different low-frequency bands may present different neurophysiological manifestations that pertain to a spatiotemporal organization. The ALFF associated with the primary disease effect was widely distributed in the cerebellum posterior lobe (CPL), dorsal and ventral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, precuneus, somatosensory cortex, and several default-mode sub-regions. Several brain regions (i.e., the right cerebellum, anterior lobe, and left putamen) exhibited an interaction between the frequency band and patient group. In the slow-5 band, increased ALFF of the right postcentral gyrus/inferior parietal lobule (PoCG/IPL) was enhanced in association with the sleep quality (ρ = 0.414, P  = 0.044) and anxiety index (ρ = 0.406, P  = 0.049) of the CPI patients. These findings suggest that during chronic insomnia, the intrinsic functional plasticity primarily responds to the hyperarousal state, which is the loss of inhibition in sensory-informational processing. Our findings regarding an abnormal sensory input and intrinsic processing mechanism might provide novel insight into the pathophysiology of CPI. Furthermore, the frequency factor should be taken into consideration when exploring ALFF-related clinical manifestations.

  17. Frequency-dependent changes in amplitude of low-frequency oscillations in depression: A resting-state fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Kong, Qingmei; Li, Ke; Su, Yunai; Zeng, Yawei; Zhang, Qinge; Dai, Wenji; Xia, Mingrui; Wang, Gang; Jin, Zhen; Yu, Xin; Si, Tianmei

    2016-02-12

    We conducted this fMRI study to examine whether the alterations in amplitudes of low-frequency oscillation (LFO) of major depressive disorder (MDD) patients were frequency dependent. The LFO amplitudes (as indexed by amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation [ALFF] and fractional ALFF [fALFF]) within 4 narrowly-defined frequency bands (slow-5: 0.01-0.027Hz, slow-4: 0.027-0.073Hz, slow-3: 0.073-0.198Hz, and slow-2: 0.198-0.25Hz) were computed using resting-state fMRI data of 35 MDD patients and 32 healthy subjects. Repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed on ALFF and fALFF both within the low frequency bands of slow-4 and slow-5 and within all of the four bands. We observed significant main effects of group and frequency on ALFF and fALFF in widely distributed brain regions. Importantly, significant group and frequency interaction effects were observed in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, precentral gyrus, in a left-sided fashion, the bilateral posterior cingulate and precuneus, during ANOVA both within slow-4 and slow-5 bands and within all the frequency bands. The results suggest that the alterations of LFO amplitudes in specific brain regions in MDD patients could be more sensitively detected in the slow-5 rather than the slow-4 bands. The findings may provide guidance for the frequency choice of future resting-state fMRI studies of MDD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Nonlinear oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Nayfeh, Ali Hasan

    1995-01-01

    Nonlinear Oscillations is a self-contained and thorough treatment of the vigorous research that has occurred in nonlinear mechanics since 1970. The book begins with fundamental concepts and techniques of analysis and progresses through recent developments and provides an overview that abstracts and introduces main nonlinear phenomena. It treats systems having a single degree of freedom, introducing basic concepts and analytical methods, and extends concepts and methods to systems having degrees of freedom. Most of this material cannot be found in any other text. Nonlinear Oscillations uses sim

  19. Analytical eigenstates for the quantum Rabi model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Honghua; Xie, Qiongtao; Lee, Chaohong; Batchelor, Murray T

    2013-01-01

    We develop a method to find analytical solutions for the eigenstates of the quantum Rabi model. These include symmetric, anti-symmetric and asymmetric analytic solutions given in terms of the confluent Heun functions. Both regular and exceptional solutions are given in a unified form. In addition, the analytic conditions for determining the energy spectrum are obtained. Our results show that conditions proposed by Braak (2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 107 100401) are a type of sufficiency condition for determining the regular solutions. The well-known Judd isolated exact solutions appear naturally as truncations of the confluent Heun functions. (paper)

  20. Analytical solutions by squeezing to the anisotropic Rabi model in the nonperturbative deep-strong-coupling regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Yu; Chen, Xiang-You

    2017-12-01

    An unexplored nonperturbative deep strong coupling (npDSC) achieved in superconducting circuits has been studied in the anisotropic Rabi model by the generalized squeezing rotating-wave approximation. Energy levels are evaluated analytically from the reformulated Hamiltonian and agree well with numerical ones in a wide range of coupling strength. Such improvement ascribes to deformation effects in the displaced-squeezed state presented by the squeezed momentum variance, which are omitted in previous displaced states. The atom population dynamics confirms the validity of our approach for the npDSC strength. Our approach offers the possibility to explore interesting phenomena analytically in the npDSC regime in qubit-oscillator experiments.

  1. Rabies surveillance in the United States during 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, Jesse D.; Palmer, Dustyn; Dyer, Jessie; Rupprecht, Charles E.

    2016-01-01

    Summary During 2010, 48 states and Puerto Rico reported 6,154 rabid animals and 2 human rabies cases to the CDC, representing an 8% decrease from the 6,690 rabid animals and 4 human cases reported in 2009. Hawaii and Mississippi did not report any laboratory-confirmed rabid animals during 2010. Approximately 92% of reported rabid animals were wildlife. Relative contributions by the major animal groups were as follows: 2,246 raccoons (36.5%), 1,448 skunks (23.5%), 1,430 bats (23.2%), 429 foxes (6.9%), 303 cats (4.9%), 71 cattle (1.1%), and 69 dogs (1.1%). Compared with 2009, number of reported rabid animals decreased across all animal types with the exception of a 1% increase in the number of reported rabid cats. Two cases of rabies involving humans were reported from Louisiana and Wisconsin in 2010. Louisiana reported an imported human rabies case involving a 19-year-old male migrant farm worker who had a history of a vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) bite received while in Mexico. This represents the first human rabies case reported in the United States confirmed to have been caused by a vampire bat rabies virus variant. Wisconsin reported a human rabies case involving a 70-year-old male that was confirmed to have been caused by a rabies virus variant associated with tri-colored bats (Perimyotis subflavus). PMID:21916759

  2. Evaluation of a rapid immunodiagnostic test kit for rabies virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, BoKyu; Oh, JinSik; Lee, ChulSeung; Park, Bong-Kyun; Park, YoungNam; Hong, KyungSoo; Lee, KyungGi; Cho, ByungKi; Song, DaeSub

    2007-10-01

    A rapid immunodiagnostic test kit for rabies virus detection was evaluated using 51 clinical samples and 4 isolates of rabies virus. The quick detection of rabies virus under field conditions may be helpful in determining if post-exposure prophylaxis is needed, thereby avoiding unnecessary treatments, as well as undue economic burden. There are several widely used diagnostic methods for rabies, including fluorescent antibody tests, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and electron microscopy; however, these methods include time-consuming, intricate, and costly procedures. The rapid immunodiagnostic test was able to detect rabies virus in clinical samples, including brain tissue and saliva, in addition to 10(3.2) 50% lethal dose (LD(50))/mL cell-adapted rabies virus. The assay was not cross-reactive with non-rabies virus microbes. When the performance of the rapid immunodiagnostic test was compared to a fluorescent antibody test, the rapid immunodiagnostic test had a sensitivity of 91.7% and specificity of 100% (95.8% CI).

  3. Biological and immunogenic properties of rabies virus glycoprotein expressed by canine herpesvirus vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, X; Tuchiya, K; Sato, I; Nishikawa, Y; Onoderaz, Y; Takashima, Y; Yamamoto, A; Katsumata, A; Iwata, A; Ueda, S; Mikami, T; Otsuka, H

    1998-01-01

    In order to evaluate whether canine herpesvirus (CHV) could be used as a live vector for the expression of heterologous immunogenes, we constructed a recombinant canine herpesvirus (CHV) expressing glycoprotein (G protein) of rabies virus (RV). The gene of G protein was inserted within the thymidine kinase gene of CHV YP11mu strain under the control of the human cytomegalovirus immediate early promoter. The G protein expressed by the recombinant CHV was processed and transported to the cell surface as in RV infected cells, and showed the same biological activities such as low pH dependent cell fusion and hemadsorption. The antigenic authenticity of the recombinant G protein was confirmed by a panel of monoclonal antibodies specific for G protein. Dogs inoculated intransally with the recombinant CHV produced higher titres of virus neutralizing antibodies against RV than those inoculated with a commercial, inactivated rabies vaccine. These results suggest that the CHV recombinant expressing G protein can be used as a vaccine to control canine rabies and that CHV may be useful as a vector to develop live recombinant against other infectious diseases in dogs.

  4. Transmission dynamics of rabies virus in Thailand: Implications for disease control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puanghat Apirom

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Thailand, rabies remains a neglected disease with authorities continuing to rely on human death statistics while ignoring the financial burden resulting from an enormous increase in post-exposure prophylaxis. Past attempts to conduct a mass dog vaccination and sterilization program have been limited to Bangkok city and have not been successful. We have used molecular epidemiology to define geographic localization of rabies virus phylogroups and their pattern of spread in Thailand. Methods We analyzed 239 nucleoprotein gene sequences from animal and human brain samples collected from all over Thailand between 1998 and 2002. We then reconstructed a phylogenetic tree correlating these data with geographical information. Results All sequences formed a monophyletic tree of 2 distinct phylogroups, TH1 and TH2. Three subgroups were identified in the TH1 subgroup and were distributed in the middle region of the country. Eight subgroups of TH2 viruses were identified widely distributed throughout the country overlapping the TH1 territory. There was a correlation between human-dependent transportation routes and the distribution of virus. Conclusion Inter-regional migration paths of the viruses might be correlated with translocation of dogs associated with humans. Interconnecting factors between human socioeconomic and population density might determine the transmission dynamics of virus in a rural-to-urban polarity. The presence of 2 or more rabies virus groups in a location might be indicative of a gene flow, reflecting a translocation of dogs within such region and adjacent areas. Different approaches may be required for rabies control based on the homo- or heterogeneity of the virus. Areas containing homogeneous virus populations should be targeted first. Control of dog movement associated with humans is essential.

  5. Human rabies: still a neglected preventable disease in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eke, C B; Omotowo, I B; Ukoha, O M; Ibe, B C

    2015-01-01

    Adequate surveillance and monitoring of dog bite incidents are veritable tools in the determination of the epidemiology of human rabies infections. There is a paucity of data with regards to rabies in Nigeria. Hence, this study was aimed at describing the pattern and outcomes of dog bites and rabies infections among patients presenting to University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku-Ozalla, Enugu. This was a 10-year (January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2013) observational retrospective study. Case definition of rabies was based on ICD 10 criteria, while relevant clinical data were retrieved from individual folders of registered victims using a semi-structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 17.0 while the level of statistical significance was set at P cases of dog bites were reported during the period under review, of which 6 (4.0%) had confirmed rabies. Ninety-six (64.4%) cases presented more than 24 h after the bites. Majority of the offending dogs were stray dogs 86 (57.7%), which attacked their victims unprovoked, in 54.6% of cases. Furthermore, most of the bites were from dogs with unknown history of rabies vaccination 72 (52.3%), while the case fatality rate was 100%. All the cases of rabies reported were as a result of bites from stray dogs with unknown history of rabies vaccinations, and the outcome was 100% fatality in all cases. Efforts should be made to create and strengthen awareness campaigns on control of rabies infections through responsible dog ownership including their regular vaccinations as well as provision and use of prompt postexposure prophylaxis in human cases of dog bites at all levels of health care.

  6. Barriers to dog rabies vaccination during an urban rabies outbreak: Qualitative findings from Arequipa, Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Castillo-Neyra

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Canine rabies was reintroduced to the city of Arequipa, Peru in March 2015. The Ministry of Health has conducted a series of mass dog vaccination campaigns to contain the outbreak, but canine rabies virus transmission continues in Arequipa's complex urban environment, putting the city's 1 million inhabitants at risk of infection. The proximate driver of canine rabies in Arequipa is low dog vaccination coverage. Our objectives were to qualitatively assess barriers to and facilitators of rabies vaccination during mass campaigns, and to explore strategies to increase participation in future efforts.We conducted 8 focus groups (FG in urban and peri-urban communities of Mariano Melgar district; each FG included both sexes, and campaign participants and non-participants. All FG were transcribed and then coded independently by two coders. Results were summarized using the Social Ecological Model. At the individual level, participants described not knowing enough about rabies and vaccination campaigns, mistrusting the campaign, and being unable to handle their dogs, particularly in peri-urban vs. urban areas. At the interpersonal level, we detected some social pressure to vaccinate dogs, as well as some disparaging of those who invest time and money in pet dogs. At the organizational level, participants found the campaign information to be insufficient and ill-timed, and campaign locations and personnel inadequate. At the community level, the influence of landscape and topography on accessibility to vaccination points was reported differently between participants from the urban and peri-urban areas. Poor security and impermanent housing materials in the peri-urban areas also drives higher prevalence of guard dog ownership for home protection; these dogs usually roam freely on the streets and are more difficult to handle and bring to the vaccination points.A well-designed communication campaign could improve knowledge about canine rabies. Timely messages

  7. Characterization of rabies virus from a human case in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, G R; Horton, D L; Dahal, M; Rai, J N; Ide, S; Leech, S; Marston, D A; McElhinney, L M; Fooks, A R

    2011-04-01

    Rabies is endemic throughout most of Asia, with the majority of human cases transmitted by domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). Here, we report a case of rabies in a 12-year-old girl in the Lalitpur district of Nepal that might have been prevented by better public awareness and timely post-exposure prophylaxis. Molecular characterization of the virus showed 100% identity over a partial nucleoprotein gene sequence to previous isolates from Nepal belonging to the 'arctic-like' lineage of rabies virus. Sequence analysis of both partial nucleoprotein and glycoprotein genes showed differences in consensus sequence after passage in vitro but not after passage in vivo.

  8. Modelling of Rabies Transmission Dynamics Using Optimal Control Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Kiddy K. Asamoah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We examine an optimal way of eradicating rabies transmission from dogs into the human population, using preexposure prophylaxis (vaccination and postexposure prophylaxis (treatment due to public education. We obtain the disease-free equilibrium, the endemic equilibrium, the stability, and the sensitivity analysis of the optimal control model. Using the Latin hypercube sampling (LHS, the forward-backward sweep scheme and the fourth-order Range-Kutta numerical method predict that the global alliance for rabies control’s aim of working to eliminate deaths from canine rabies by 2030 is attainable through mass vaccination of susceptible dogs and continuous use of pre- and postexposure prophylaxis in humans.

  9. Muonium and the Breit-Rabi diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, S.F.J.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter introduces the study of muonium, as opposed to that of unbound muons. The properties and behaviour of muonium are compared and contrasted with those of hydrogen and of positronium. The special significance of muonium in atomic and molecular physics is explained, and its utility as a lightweight or radioactive isotope of hydrogen in solid state physics and chemistry illustrated. The identification of atomic muonium by means of its ground state magnetic properties is described with reference to the Breit-Rabi diagram. This diagram is invaluable for interpreting or predicting MuSR observations, both in transverse and longitudinal magnetic fields, so its construction and properties are explained in some detail. The precession signals observed in transverse-field MuSR correspond to transitions allowed between the energy levels in this diagram; particular attention is paid to the spectra characteristic of the high and low field regimes. The different states of muonium observed in dielectric, semiconducting and metallic materials are introduced. The influence of the host medium on the spectral parameters, hyperfine interaction and linewidth, is considered both for atomic muonium and for muonium which is chemically bound in paramagnetic molecules, for which the Breit-Rabi diagram also applies. (orig.)

  10. Controlling rabies through a multidisciplinary, public health system in Trujillo, La Libertad, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seneschall, Charlotte; Luna-Farro, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Rabies remains endemic in Peru. In 1983, Latin America and the Caribbean promised to eliminate canine-transmitted rabies from the continent. This led to Peru introducing a multidisciplinary public health system for controlling and managing rabies across the country. The system consists of mass canine vaccination campaigns, post exposure prophylaxis and monitoring aggressor animals for signs of rabies. The Peruvian city of Trujillo, La Libertad, is an urban area where dogs are the principal reservoir for rabies. The disease burden of rabies in Trujillo, La Libertad is currently minimal, with no rabies cases in humans for over 10 years, and only three canine cases. No human deaths due to rabies have occurred for several decades. From this it can be inferred that antirabies systems such as this do have real effects in reducing cases of human rabies at a grass roots level. PMID:24392679

  11. Controlling rabies through a multidisciplinary, public health system in Trujillo, La Libertad, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seneschall, Charlotte; Luna-Farro, Maria

    2013-10-01

    Rabies remains endemic in Peru. In 1983, Latin America and the Caribbean promised to eliminate canine-transmitted rabies from the continent. This led to Peru introducing a multidisciplinary public health system for controlling and managing rabies across the country. The system consists of mass canine vaccination campaigns, post exposure prophylaxis and monitoring aggressor animals for signs of rabies. The Peruvian city of Trujillo, La Libertad, is an urban area where dogs are the principal reservoir for rabies. The disease burden of rabies in Trujillo, La Libertad is currently minimal, with no rabies cases in humans for over 10 years, and only three canine cases. No human deaths due to rabies have occurred for several decades. From this it can be inferred that antirabies systems such as this do have real effects in reducing cases of human rabies at a grass roots level.

  12. Arc Length Coding by Interference of Theta Frequency Oscillations May Underlie Context-Dependent Hippocampal Unit Data and Episodic Memory Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselmo, Michael E.

    2007-01-01

    Many memory models focus on encoding of sequences by excitatory recurrent synapses in region CA3 of the hippocampus. However, data and modeling suggest an alternate mechanism for encoding of sequences in which interference between theta frequency oscillations encodes the position within a sequence based on spatial arc length or time. Arc length…

  13. Dynamics of the Jaynes-Cummings and Rabi models: old wine in new bottles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, Jonas [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, E-08860 Castelldefels, Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-08-15

    By using a wavepacket approach, this paper reviews the Jaynes-Cummings model with and without the rotating wave approximation (RWA) in a non-standard way. This gives new insight, not only of the two models themselves, but of the RWA as well. Expressing the models by field quadrature operators, instead of the typically used boson ladder operators, wavepacket simulations are presented. Several known phenomena of these systems, such as collapse-revivals, Rabi oscillation, squeezing and entanglement, are reviewed and explained in this new picture, either in an adiabatic or diabatic frame. The harmonic shape of the potential curves that the wavepackets evolve on and the existence of a level crossing make these results interesting in a broader sense not only for models in quantum optics, but especially in atomic and molecular physics.

  14. Rabies in southeast Brazil: a change in the epidemiological pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Luzia Helena; Favoretto, Silvana Regina; Cunha, Elenice Maria S; Campos, Angélica Cristine A; Lopes, Marissol Cardoso; de Carvalho, Cristiano; Iamamoto, Keila; Araújo, Danielle Bastos; Venditti, Leandro Lima R; Ribeiro, Erica S; Pedro, Wagner André; Durigon, Edison Luiz

    2012-01-01

    This epidemiological study was conducted using antigenic and genetic characterisation of rabies virus isolates obtained from different animal species in the southeast of Brazil from 1993 to 2007. An alteration in the epidemiological profile was observed. One hundred two samples were tested using a panel of eight monoclonal antibodies, and 94 were genetically characterised by sequencing the nucleoprotein gene. From 1993 to 1997, antigenic variant 2 (AgV-2), related to a rabies virus maintained in dog populations, was responsible for rabies cases in dogs, cats, cattle and horses. Antigenic variant 3 (AgV-3), associated with Desmodus rotundus, was detected in a few cattle samples from rural areas. From 1998 to 2007, rabies virus was detected in bats and urban pets, and four distinct variants were identified. A nucleotide similarity analysis resulted in two primary groups comprising the dog and bat antigenic variants and showing the distinct endemic cycles maintained in the different animal species in this region.

  15. Rabies Exposure: When Should I Seek Medical Attention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rabies and Kids! When should I seek medical attention? Language: English Spanish Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... with soap and water. See your doctor for attention for any trauma due to an animal attack ...

  16. Immunization against Rabies with Plant-Derived Antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modelska, Anna; Dietzschold, Bernard; Sleysh, N.; Fu, Zhen Fang; Steplewski, Klaudia; Hooper, D. Craig; Koprowski, Hilary; Yusibov, Vidadi

    1998-03-01

    We previously demonstrated that recombinant plant virus particles containing a chimeric peptide representing two rabies virus epitopes stimulate virus neutralizing antibody synthesis in immunized mice. We show here that mice immunized intraperitoneally or orally (by gastric intubation or by feeding on virus-infected spinach leaves) with engineered plant virus particles containing rabies antigen mount a local and systemic immune response. After the third dose of antigen, given intraperitoneally, 40% of the mice were protected against challenge infection with a lethal dose of rabies virus. Oral administration of the antigen stimulated serum IgG and IgA synthesis and ameliorated the clinical signs caused by intranasal infection with an attenuated rabies virus strain.

  17. Protective role of interferon against cytotoxcicity induced by rabies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-02-15

    Feb 15, 2010 ... lack of safe efficient vaccines and poor information on the risk of contracting rabies post animal exposure. .... cell was considered centromerically attenuated when it contains at least ..... population by adenovirus. In: Genetic ...

  18. NNDSS - Table II. Rabies, animal to Rubella, congenital syndrome

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Rabies, animal to Rubella, congenital syndrome - 2018. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported...

  19. NNDSS - Table II. Rabies, animal to Rubella, congenital syndrome

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Rabies, animal to Rubella, congenital syndrome - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported...

  20. Rabies vaccinations: are abbreviated intradermal schedules the future?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieten, R. W.; Leenstra, T.; van Thiel, P. P. A. M.; van Vugt, M.; Stijnis, C.; Goorhuis, A.; Grobusch, M. P.

    2013-01-01

    Rabies is a deadly disease, and current preexposure vaccination schedules are lengthy and expensive. We identified nine studies investigating abbreviated schedules. Although initial responses were lower, accelerated adequate immune responses were elicited after booster vaccinations. Lower-dose (and

  1. Human rabies due to lyssavirus infection of bat origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, N; Vos, A; Freuling, C; Tordo, N; Fooks, A R; Müller, T

    2010-05-19

    Rabies is a fatal viral encephalitis and results from infection with viruses belonging to the genus Lyssavirus. Infection usually results from a bite from a dog infected with classical rabies virus. However, a small number of cases result from contact with bats. It is within bats that most lyssavirus variants, referred to as genotypes, are found. The lyssaviruses found in bats have a distinct geographical distribution and are often restricted to specific bat species. Most have been associated with rabies in humans and in some cases spill-over to domestic animals. Many diagnostic techniques are unable to differentiate rabies virus from other genotypes so it is possible that some human and animal cases go unreported. Furthermore, current vaccines have limited efficacy against some genotypes. Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. [Diagnosis of rabies infection in animals using monoclonal antibodies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akacem, O; Taril, A; Benelmouffok, A; Bemansour, A; Couillin, P; Brahimi, M; Benhassine, M

    1989-01-01

    Two monoclonal antibodies (M.A.), specific for viral nucleocapsid, the M.A. D-20 and the M.A. D-43 raised against a fixed strain of rabies virus (C.V.S. 11), have been tested in parallel with a standard antirabies serum (S.A.R.) in diagnosis of animal rabies virus infection. 44 brain imprints from animals which died from rabies were tested by indirect immunofluorescent technique with monoclonal antibodies. Constant correlation has been found between the M.A. D-43 and the S.A.R. in the diagnosis of animal rabies virus infection in all cases studied. For M.A. D-20, concordance of results with S.A.R. was found only in limited number of cases.

  3. Taming the beast: rabies control in the cradle of mankind

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    D' Amico, C.; Mihalca, A. D.; Domsa, C.; Albrechtová, K.; Sándor, A.D.; Modrý, David

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 2 (2013), s. 409-411 ISSN 1827-1987 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : dogs * rabies * geographical information systems * Kenya Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2013

  4. Incidence of human rabies and characterization of rabies virus nucleoprotein gene in dogs in Fujian Province, Southeast China, 2002-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Ming; Zhang, Zhi-Shan; Deng, Yan-Qin; Wu, Shou-Li; Wang, Wei; Yan, Yan-Sheng

    2017-08-30

    Rabies is a global fatal infectious viral disease that is characterized by a high mortality after onset of clinical symptoms. Recently, there has been an increase in the incidence of rabies in China. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of human rabies and characterize the rabies virus nucleoprotein gene in dogs sampled from Fujian Province, Southeast China from 2002 to 2012. Data pertaining to human rabies cases in Fujian Province during the period from 2002 through 2012 were collected, and the epidemiological profiles were described. The saliva and brain specimens were collected from dogs in Quanzhou, Longyan and Sanming cities of the province, and the rabies virus antigen was determined in the canine saliva specimens using an ELISA assay. Rabies virus RNA was extracted from canine brain specimens, and rabies virus nucleoprotein gene was amplified using a nested RT-PCR assay, followed by sequencing and genotyping. A total of 226 human rabies cases were reported in Fujian Province from 2002 to 2012, in which 197 cases were detected in three cities of Quanzhou, Longyan and Sanming. ELISA assay revealed positive rabies virus antigen in six of eight rabid dogs and 165 of 3492 seemingly healthy dogs. The full-length gene fragment of the rabies virus nucleoprotein gene was amplified from the brain specimens of seven rabid dogs and 12 seemingly healthy dogs. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis revealed that these 19 rabies virus nucleoprotein genes all belonged to genotype I, and were classified into three genetic groups. Sequencing analysis showed a 99.7% to 100% intra-group and an 86.4% to 89.3% inter-group homology. This study is the first description pertaining to the epidemiological characteristics of human rabies cases and characterization of the rabies virus nucleoprotein gene in dogs in Fujian Province, Southeast China. Our findings may provide valuable knowledge for the development of strategies targeting the prevention and control of

  5. Protection of Non-Human Primates against Rabies with an Adenovirus Recombinant Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Z.Q.; Greenberg, L.; Ertl, H. C.; Rupprecht, C.E.

    2014-01-01

    Rabies remains a major neglected global zoonosis. New vaccine strategies are needed for human rabies prophylaxis. A single intramuscular immunization with a moderate dose of an experimental chimpanzee adenovirus (Ad) vector serotype SAd-V24, also termed AdC68, expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein, resulted in sustained titers of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies and protection against a lethal rabies virus challenge infection in a non-human primate model. Taken together, these data demonstrate the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of the recombinant Ad-rabies vector for further consideration in human clinical trials. PMID:24503087

  6. Evolutionary history of rabies in Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David T S Hayman

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Rabies virus (RABV is enzootic throughout Africa, with the domestic dog (Canis familiaris being the principal vector. Dog rabies is estimated to cause 24,000 human deaths per year in Africa, however, this estimate is still considered to be conservative. Two sub-Saharan African RABV lineages have been detected in West Africa. Lineage 2 is present throughout West Africa, whereas Africa 1a dominates in northern and eastern Africa, but has been detected in Nigeria and Gabon, and Africa 1b was previously absent from West Africa. We confirmed the presence of RABV in a cohort of 76 brain samples obtained from rabid animals in Ghana collected over an eighteen-month period (2007-2009. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences obtained confirmed all viruses to be RABV, belonging to lineages previously detected in sub-Saharan Africa. However, unlike earlier reported studies that suggested a single lineage (Africa 2 circulates in West Africa, we identified viruses belonging to the Africa 2 lineage and both Africa 1 (a and b sub-lineages. Phylogeographic Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis of a 405 bp fragment of the RABV nucleoprotein gene from the 76 new sequences derived from Ghanaian animals suggest that within the Africa 2 lineage three clades co-circulate with their origins in other West African countries. Africa 1a is probably a western extension of a clade circulating in central Africa and the Africa 1b virus a probable recent introduction from eastern Africa. We also developed and tested a novel reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP assay for the detection of RABV in African laboratories. This RT-LAMP was shown to detect both Africa 1 and 2 viruses, including its adaptation to a lateral flow device format for product visualization. These data suggest that RABV epidemiology is more complex than previously thought in West Africa and that there have been repeated introductions of RABV into Ghana. This analysis

  7. A generic rabies risk assessment tool to support surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Michael P; Hernández-Jover, Marta

    2015-06-01

    The continued spread of rabies in Indonesia poses a risk to human and animal populations in the remaining free islands, as well as the neighbouring rabies-free countries of Timor Leste, Papua New Guinea and Australia. Here we describe the development of a generic risk assessment tool which can be used to rapidly determine the vulnerability of rabies-free islands, so that scarce resources can be targeted to surveillance activities and the sensitivity of surveillance systems increased. The tool was developed by integrating information on the historical spread of rabies, anthropological studies, and the opinions of local animal health experts. The resulting tool is based on eight critical parameters that can be estimated from the literature, expert opinion, observational studies and information generated from routine surveillance. In the case study presented, results generated by this tool were most sensitive to the probability that dogs are present on private and fishing boats and it was predicted that rabies-infection (one infected case) might occur in a rabies-free island (upper 95% prediction interval) with a volume of 1000 boats movements. With 25,000 boat movements, the median of the probability distribution would be equal to one infected case, with an upper 95% prediction interval of six infected cases. This tool could also be used at the national-level to guide control and eradication plans. An initial recommendation from this study is to develop a surveillance programme to determine the likelihood that boats transport dogs, for example by port surveillance or regularly conducted surveys of fisherman and passenger ferries. However, the illegal nature of dog transportation from rabies-infected to rabies-free islands is a challenge for developing such surveillance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Animal and Rabies Control in Joint Operations Areas (Working Paper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    appear lethargic with hypersalivation and anorexia . Two rabies syndromes are recognized in animals—the paralytic or “dumb” and hyperactive or “furious... nutritional needs, making populated areas a preferred habitat and increasing the reproductive capacity of animals which is attributed to improved... nutrition . Without appropriate vaccination and population control, feral animals contribute to the maintenance of sylvatic rabies cycles in local wildlife

  9. Terrestrial Rabies and Human Postexposure Prophylaxis, New York, USA

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-03-15

    This podcast describes a 10-year study of the use of postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) for rabies in New York State. CDC's Dr. Brett Petersen discusses the prevalence of rabies in the United States and how the study lends support to recent changes in the recommended PEP protocol.  Created: 3/15/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/15/2010.

  10. Estimating the Global Burden of Endemic Canine Rabies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Katie; Coudeville, Laurent; Lembo, Tiziana; Sambo, Maganga; Kieffer, Alexia; Attlan, Michaël; Barrat, Jacques; Blanton, Jesse D.; Briggs, Deborah J.; Cleaveland, Sarah; Costa, Peter; Freuling, Conrad M.; Hiby, Elly; Knopf, Lea; Leanes, Fernando; Meslin, François-Xavier; Metlin, Artem; Miranda, Mary Elizabeth; Müller, Thomas; Nel, Louis H.; Recuenco, Sergio; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Schumacher, Carolin; Taylor, Louise; Vigilato, Marco Antonio Natal; Zinsstag, Jakob; Dushoff, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Background Rabies is a notoriously underreported and neglected disease of low-income countries. This study aims to estimate the public health and economic burden of rabies circulating in domestic dog populations, globally and on a country-by-country basis, allowing an objective assessment of how much this preventable disease costs endemic countries. Methodology/Principal Findings We established relationships between rabies mortality and rabies prevention and control measures, which we incorporated into a model framework. We used data derived from extensive literature searches and questionnaires on disease incidence, control interventions and preventative measures within this framework to estimate the disease burden. The burden of rabies impacts on public health sector budgets, local communities and livestock economies, with the highest risk of rabies in the poorest regions of the world. This study estimates that globally canine rabies causes approximately 59,000 (95% Confidence Intervals: 25-159,000) human deaths, over 3.7 million (95% CIs: 1.6-10.4 million) disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and 8.6 billion USD (95% CIs: 2.9-21.5 billion) economic losses annually. The largest component of the economic burden is due to premature death (55%), followed by direct costs of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP, 20%) and lost income whilst seeking PEP (15.5%), with only limited costs to the veterinary sector due to dog vaccination (1.5%), and additional costs to communities from livestock losses (6%). Conclusions/Significance This study demonstrates that investment in dog vaccination, the single most effective way of reducing the disease burden, has been inadequate and that the availability and affordability of PEP needs improving. Collaborative investments by medical and veterinary sectors could dramatically reduce the current large, and unnecessary, burden of rabies on affected communities. Improved surveillance is needed to reduce uncertainty in burden estimates and to

  11. Estimating the global burden of endemic canine rabies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Hampson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is a notoriously underreported and neglected disease of low-income countries. This study aims to estimate the public health and economic burden of rabies circulating in domestic dog populations, globally and on a country-by-country basis, allowing an objective assessment of how much this preventable disease costs endemic countries.We established relationships between rabies mortality and rabies prevention and control measures, which we incorporated into a model framework. We used data derived from extensive literature searches and questionnaires on disease incidence, control interventions and preventative measures within this framework to estimate the disease burden. The burden of rabies impacts on public health sector budgets, local communities and livestock economies, with the highest risk of rabies in the poorest regions of the world. This study estimates that globally canine rabies causes approximately 59,000 (95% Confidence Intervals: 25-159,000 human deaths, over 3.7 million (95% CIs: 1.6-10.4 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs and 8.6 billion USD (95% CIs: 2.9-21.5 billion economic losses annually. The largest component of the economic burden is due to premature death (55%, followed by direct costs of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP, 20% and lost income whilst seeking PEP (15.5%, with only limited costs to the veterinary sector due to dog vaccination (1.5%, and additional costs to communities from livestock losses (6%.This study demonstrates that investment in dog vaccination, the single most effective way of reducing the disease burden, has been inadequate and that the availability and affordability of PEP needs improving. Collaborative investments by medical and veterinary sectors could dramatically reduce the current large, and unnecessary, burden of rabies on affected communities. Improved surveillance is needed to reduce uncertainty in burden estimates and to monitor the impacts of control efforts.

  12. Quantum information, oscillations and the psyche

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, F; Carminati, G Galli

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, taking the theory of quantum information as a model, we consider the human unconscious, pre-consciousness and consciousness as sets of quantum bits (qubits). We view how there can be communication between these various qubit sets. In doing this we are inspired by the theory of nuclear magnetic resonance. In this way we build a model of handling a mental qubit with the help of pulses of a mental field. Starting with an elementary interaction between two qubits we build two-qubit quantum logic gates that allow information to be transferred from one qubit to the other. In this manner we build a quantum process that permits consciousness to ``read{''} the unconscious and vice versa. The elementary interaction, e.g. between a pre-consciousness qubit and a consciousness one, allows us to predict the time evolution of the pre-consciousness + consciousness system in which pre-consciousness and consciousness are quantum entangled. This time evolution exhibits Rabi oscillations that we name mental Rabi o...

  13. Synchronization in Coupled Oscillators with Two Coexisting Attractors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han-Han, Zhu; Jun-Zhong, Yang

    2008-01-01

    Dynamics in coupled Duffing oscillators with two coexisting symmetrical attractors is investigated. For a pair of Duffing oscillators coupled linearly, the transition to the synchronization generally consists of two steps: Firstly, the two oscillators have to jump onto a same attractor, then they reach synchronization similarly to coupled monostable oscillators. The transition scenarios to the synchronization observed are strongly dependent on initial conditions. (general)

  14. The decade of the RABiT (2005-15)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garty, G.; Turner, H.C.; Bertucci, A.; Sharma, P.; Taveras, M.; Bigelow, A.W.; Repin, M.; Lyulko, O.V.; Brenner, D.J.; Salerno, A.; Zhang, J.; Chen, Y.; Bian, D.; Yao, Y.L.; Dutta, A.; Wang, H.; Bhatla, A.; Balajee, A.; Simaan, N.

    2016-01-01

    The RABiT (Rapid Automated Biodosimetry Tool) is a dedicated Robotic platform for the automation of cytogenetics-based biodosimetry assays. The RABiT was developed to fulfill the critical requirement for triage following a mass radiological or nuclear event. Starting from well-characterized and accepted assays we developed a custom robotic platform to automate them. We present here a brief historical overview of the RABiT program at Columbia University from its inception in 2005 until the RABiT was dismantled at the end of 2015. The main focus of this paper is to demonstrate how the biological assays drove development of the custom robotic systems and in turn new advances in commercial robotic platforms inspired small modifications in the assays to allow replacing customized robotics with 'off the shelf' systems. Currently, a second-generation, RABiT II, system at Columbia University, consisting of a PerkinElmer cell::explorer, was programmed to perform the RABiT assays and is undergoing testing and optimization studies. (authors)

  15. Poxvirus-vectored vaccines for rabies--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyer, Jacqueline; Rupprecht, Charles E; Nel, Louis H

    2009-11-27

    Oral rabies vaccination of target reservoir species has proved to be one of the pillars of successful rabies elimination programs. The use of live attenuated rabies virus vaccines has been extensive but several limitations hamper its future use. A recombinant vaccinia-rabies vaccine has also been successfully used for the oral vaccination of several species. Nevertheless, its lack of efficacy in certain important rabies reservoirs and concerns on the use of this potent live virus as vaccine carrier (vector) impair the expansion of its use for new target species and new areas. Several attenuated and host-restricted poxvirus alternatives, which supposedly offer enhanced safety, have been investigated. Once again, efficacy in certain target species and innocuity through the oral route remain major limitations of these vaccines. Alternative recombinant vaccines using adenovirus as an antigen delivery vector have been extensively investigated and may provide an important addition to the currently available oral rabies vaccine repertoire, but are not the primary subject of this review.

  16. Retrospective: animal attacks and rabies exposures in Thai children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriaroon, Chakrapol; Sriaroon, Panida; Daviratanasilpa, Svastijaya; Khawplod, Pakamatz; Wilde, Henry

    2006-09-01

    Over 50% of animal bites and potential rabies exposures in Thailand are in children and they also have the more severe injuries due to inexperience, smaller size and less ability to fend off attacks. Potential rabies exposures and animal bites are common in Thailand. Majority of these are in children where the extent of the injuries is also much more severe. The bitten areas correlate to the age of the children and level of the bitten animal head. These are areas noted for a higher risk of infection with rabies virus and shorter incubation periods. The vast majority of bites are due to dogs (86%) of which 74.6% are stray or community-owned animals. The prevalence of dog bites shows no seasonal variation in adults but there are two peaks during school vacation period for children. Extensive educational efforts directed at the Thai public are responsible for the rapid presentation of victims for post-exposure treatment. The dramatic reduction of human rabies deaths in Thailand during the last decades was achieved largely by the provision of expensive WHO standard post-exposure treatment, utilizing modern tissue culture vaccines and immunoglobulins. Canine and feline rabies is nevertheless still endemic and not likely to be controlled or eliminated till sustainable humane methods of dog population control and comprehensive countrywide canine rabies vaccination become possible through government policy.

  17. Towards canine rabies elimination: Economic comparisons of three project sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elser, J L; Hatch, B G; Taylor, L H; Nel, L H; Shwiff, S A

    2018-02-01

    An appreciation of the costs of implementing canine rabies control in different settings is important for those planning new or expanded interventions. Here we compare the costs of three canine rabies control projects in South Africa, the Philippines and Tanzania to identify factors that influence the overall costs of rabies control efforts. There was considerable variation in the cost of vaccinating each dog, but across the sites these were lower where population density was higher, and later in the projects when dog vaccination coverage was increased. Transportation costs comprised a much higher proportion of total costs in rural areas and where house-to-house vaccination campaigns were necessary. The association between the cost of providing PEP and human population density was less clear. The presence of a pre-existing national rabies management programme had a marked effect on keeping infrastructure and equipment costs for the project low. Finally, the proportion of the total costs of the project provided by the external donor was found to be low for the projects in the Philippines and South Africa, but likely covered close to the complete costs of the project in Tanzania. The detailed economic evaluation of three recent large-scale rabies control pilot projects provides the opportunity to examine economic costs across these different settings and to identify factors influencing rabies control costs that could be applied to future projects. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  18. Medium-term cryopreservation of rabies virus samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza D'avila de Freitas Aguiar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The cryopreservation of rabies virus has been described in detail in the literature. To date, little information is available on the use of cryoprotective agents for cold preservation of this virus, and the available data focus only on short-term virus preservation. In this study, we investigated the medium-term cryopreservation of samples of rabies virus using different cryopreservation protocols. Methods The cryopreservation protocols for the rabies virus samples were performed at -20°C and were divided according to the variables of time and cryoprotectant type used. The laboratory tests (intracerebral inoculation of mice, viral titration and direct immunofluorescence were performed at regular intervals (360 and 720 days to assess the viability of the viral samples according to the different preservation techniques used. Results After 1 year of cryopreservation, the fluorescence intensity of intracellular corpuscles of the rabies virus and the median survival time of the mice differed between the positive controls and the treatments with the cryoprotectants. After 2 years, most of the samples subjected to the cryopreservation protocols (including the controls did not produce fluorescence. However, the virus samples exposed to the cryoprotectant sucrose (68% solution responded positively in the direct immunofluorescence assay and in the intracerebral inoculation of the mice. Conclusions Medium-term cryopreservation of the rabies virus inactivates the viral sample. However, the cryoprotectant agent sucrose (68% produces a preservative effect in cryopreserved rabies virus samples.

  19. Host and viral ecology determine bat rabies seasonality and maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, D.B.; Webb, C.T.; Farnsworth, Matthew L.; O'Shea, T.J.; Bowen, R.A.; Smith, D.L.; Stanley, T.R.; Ellison, L.E.; Rupprecht, C.E.

    2011-01-01

    Rabies is an acute viral infection that is typically fatal. Most rabies modeling has focused on disease dynamics and control within terrestrial mammals (e.g., raccoons and foxes). As such, rabies in bats has been largely neglected until recently. Because bats have been implicated as natural reservoirs for several emerging zoonotic viruses, including SARS-like corona viruses, henipaviruses, and lyssaviruses, understanding how pathogens are maintained within a population becomes vital. Unfortunately, little is known about maintenance mechanisms for any pathogen in bat populations. We present a mathematical model parameterized with unique data from an extensive study of rabies in a Colorado population of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) to elucidate general maintenance mechanisms. We propose that life history patterns of many species of temperate-zone bats, coupled with sufficiently long incubation periods, allows for rabies virus maintenance. Seasonal variability in bat mortality rates, specifically low mortality during hibernation, allows long-term bat population viability. Within viable bat populations, sufficiently long incubation periods allow enough infected individuals to enter hibernation and survive until the following year, and hence avoid an epizootic fadeout of rabies virus. We hypothesize that the slowing effects of hibernation on metabolic and viral activity maintains infected individuals and their pathogens until susceptibles from the annual birth pulse become infected and continue the cycle. This research provides a context to explore similar host ecology and viral dynamics that may explain seasonal patterns and maintenance of other bat-borne diseases.

  20. Oscillator circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Graf, Rudolf F

    1996-01-01

    This series of circuits provides designers with a quick source for oscillator circuits. Why waste time paging through huge encyclopedias when you can choose the topic you need and select any of the specialized circuits sorted by application?This book in the series has 250-300 practical, ready-to-use circuit designs, with schematics and brief explanations of circuit operation. The original source for each circuit is listed in an appendix, making it easy to obtain additional information.Ready-to-use circuits.Grouped by application for easy look-up.Circuit source listing

  1. The spatiotemporal expansion of human rabies and its probable explanation in mainland China, 2004-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hong-Wu; Yang, Yang; Liu, Kun; Li, Xin-Lou; Zuo, Shu-Qing; Sun, Ruo-Xi; Fang, Li-Qun; Cao, Wu-Chun

    2015-02-01

    Human rabies is a significant public health concern in mainland China. However, the neglect of rabies expansion and scarce analyses of the dynamics have made the spatiotemporal spread pattern of human rabies and its determinants being poorly understood. We collected geographic locations and timeline of reported human rabies cases, rabies sequences and socioeconomic variables for the years 2004-2013, and integrated multidisciplinary approaches, including epidemiological characterization, hotspots identification, risk factors analysis and phylogeographic inference, to explore the spread pattern of human rabies in mainland China during the last decade. The results show that human rabies distribution and hotspots were expanding from southeastern regions to north or west regions, which could be associated with the evolution of the virus, especially the clade I-G. A Panel Poisson Regression analysis reveals that human rabies incidences had significant correlation with the education level, GDP per capita, temperature at one-month lag and canine rabies outbreak at two-month lag. The reduction in the overall human rabies incidence was accompanied by a westward and northward expansion of the circulating region in mainland China. Higher risk of human rabies was associated with lower level of education and economic status. New clades of rabies, especial Clade I-G, played an important role in recent spread. Our findings provide valuable information for rabies control and prevention in the future.

  2. Bloch Oscillations in the Chains of Artificial Atoms Dressed with Photons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilay Levie

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a model of one-dimensional chain of two-level artificial atoms driven with DC field and quantum light simultaneously in a strong coupling regime. The interaction of atoms with light leads to electron-photon entanglement (dressing of the atoms with light. The driving via dc field leads to the Bloch oscillations (BO in the chain of dressed atoms. We consider the mutual influence of dressing and BO and show that scenario of oscillations dramatically differs from predicted by the Jaynes-Cummings and Bloch-Zener models. We study the evolution of the population inversion, tunneling current, photon probability distribution, mean number of photons, and photon number variance, and show the influence of BO on the quantum-statistical characteristics of light. For example, the collapse-revivals picture and vacuum Rabi-oscillations are strongly modulated with Bloch frequency. As a result, quantum properties of light and degree of electron-photon entanglement become controllable via adiabatic dc field turning. On the other hand, the low-frequency tunneling current depends on the quantum light statistics (in particular, for coherent initial state it is modulated accordingly the collapse-revivals picture. The developed model is universal with respect to the physical origin of artificial atom and frequency range of atom-light interaction. The model is adapted to the 2D-heterostructures (THz frequencies, semiconductor quantum dots (optical range, and Josephson junctions (microwaves. The data for numerical simulations are taken from recently published experiments. The obtained results open a new way in quantum state engineering and nano-photonic spectroscopy.

  3. Quantum oscillations of conductivity in bismuth wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condrea, Elena

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of the resistance of bismuth nanowires with several diameters and different quality reveal oscillations on the dependence of resistance under uniaxial strain at T = 4.2 K. Amplitude of oscillations is significant (38 %) at helium temperature and becomes smearing at T = 77 K. Observed oscillations originate from quantum size effect. A simple evaluation of period of oscillations allows us to identify the groups of carriers involved in transport. Calculated periods of 42.2 and 25.9 nm satisfy approximately the ratio 2:1 for two experimentally observed sets of oscillations from light and heavy electrons.

  4. Epidemiology, clinical features and risk factors for human rabies and animal bites during an outbreak of rabies in Maputo and Matola cities, Mozambique, 2014: Implications for public health interventions for rabies control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomão, Cristolde; Nacima, Amílcar; Cuamba, Lutero; Gujral, Lorna; Amiel, Olga; Baltazar, Cynthia; Cliff, Julie; Gudo, Eduardo Samo

    2017-07-01

    In Mozambique, the majority of rabies outbreaks are unreported and data on the epidemiological features of human rabies and animal bites are scarce. An outbreak of human rabies in adjacent Maputo and Matola cities in 2014 prompted us to investigate the epidemiology, clinical features and risk factors of human rabies and animal bites in the two cities. We reviewed cases of human rabies and animal bites from April to July 2014, and carried out a community investigation in July and August in the neighborhoods where cases of human rabies resided. This investigation included collection of clinical, demographic and epidemiological information and a case control study to investigate the risk factors associated with human rabies. Fourteen cases of human rabies were detected in Maputo (n = 10) and Matola (n = 3) cities and neighbouring Boane district (n = 1) between April and August 2014, all of whom had been admitted to hospital. All had a recent history of dog bite. Of the 14 rabid dogs, only one had been immunized. 819 cases of animal bites were registered, of which 64.6% (529/819) were from Maputo City. Dogs were responsible for 97.8% (801/819) of all animal bites, but only 27.0% (126/467) were immunized. Factors significantly associated with human rabies were: age human rabies were strongly associated with bites by stray and unvaccinated dogs and irregular implementation of post-exposure measures.

  5. Implementation of an Intersectoral Program to Eliminate Human and Canine Rabies: The Bohol Rabies Prevention and Elimination Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapiz, Stella Marie D.; Miranda, Mary Elizabeth G.; Garcia, Romulo G.; Daguro, Leonida I.; Paman, Meydalyn D.; Madrinan, Frederick P.; Rances, Polizena A.; Briggs, Deborah J.

    2012-01-01

    Background The province of Bohol, located in the Visayas islands region in the Philippines has a human population of 1.13 million and was the 4th highest region for human rabies deaths in the country, averaging 10 per year, prior to the initiation of the Bohol Rabies Prevention and Elimination Project (BRPEP). Aims The BRPEP was initiated in 2007 with the goal of building a sustainable program that would prevent human rabies by eliminating rabies at its source, in dogs, by 2010. This goal was in line with the Philippine National Rabies Program whose objective is to eliminate rabies by 2020. Methods The intersectoral BRPEP was launched in 2007 and integrated the expertise and resources from the sectors of agriculture, public health and safety, education, environment, legal affairs, interior and local government. The program included: increasing local community involvement; implementing dog population control; conducting mass dog vaccination; improving dog bite management; instituting veterinary quarantine; and improving diagnostic capability, surveillance and monitoring. Funding was secured from the national government, provincial, municipal and village units, dog owners, NGOs, the regional office of the WHO, the UBS Optimus Foundation, and the Global Alliance for Rabies Control. The BRPEP was managed by the Bohol Rabies Prevention and Eradication Council (BRPEC) under the jurisdiction of the Governor of Bohol. Parallel organizations were created at the municipal level and village level. Community volunteers facilitated the institution of the program. Dog population surveys were conducted to plan for sufficient resources to vaccinate the required 70% of the dogs living in the province. Two island-wide mass vaccination campaigns were conducted followed by “catch up” vaccination campaigns. Registration of dogs was implemented including a small fee that was rolled back into the program to maintain sustainability. Children were educated by introducing rabies

  6. An improved FEM model for computing transport AC loss in coils made of RABiTS YBCO coated conductors for electric machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ainslie, Mark D; Rodriguez Zermeno, Victor Manuel; Hong, Zhiyong

    2011-01-01

    and magnetic field-dependent critical current densities, and the inclusion and exclusion of a magnetic substrate, as found in RABiTS (rolling-assisted biaxially textured substrate) YBCO coated conductors. The coil model is based on the superconducting stator coils used in the University of Cambridge EPEC...

  7. One dimension harmonic oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen-Tannoudji, Claude; Diu, Bernard; Laloe, Franck.

    1977-01-01

    The importance of harmonic oscillator in classical and quantum physics, eigenvalues and eigenstates of hamiltonian operator are discussed. In complement are presented: study of some physical examples of harmonic oscillators; study of stationnary states in the /x> representation; Hermite polynomials; resolution of eigenvalue equation of harmonic oscillator by polynomial method; isotope harmonic oscillator with three dimensions; charged harmonic oscillator in uniform electric field; quasi classical coherent states of harmonic oscillator; eigenmodes of vibration of two coupled harmonic oscillators; vibration modus of a continuous physical system (application to radiation: photons); vibration modus of indefinite linear chain of coupled harmonic oscillators (phonons); one-dimensional harmonic oscillator in thermodynamic equilibrium at temperature T [fr

  8. Power oscillation damping controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    A power oscillation damping controller is provided for a power generation device such as a wind turbine device. The power oscillation damping controller receives an oscillation indicating signal indicative of a power oscillation in an electricity network and provides an oscillation damping control...

  9. Oscillations of void lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhiezer, A.I.; Davydov, L.N.; Spol'nik, Z.A.

    1976-01-01

    Oscillations of a nonideal crystal are studied, in which macroscopic defects (pores) form a hyperlattice. It is shown that alongside with acoustic and optical phonons (relative to the hyperlattice), in such a crystal oscillations of the third type are possible which are a hydridization of sound oscillations of atoms and surface oscillations of a pore. Oscillation spectra of all three types were obtained

  10. Establishment of a Canine Rabies Burden in Haiti through the Implementation of a Novel Surveillance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Ryan M; Reses, Hannah; Franka, Richard; Dilius, Pierre; Fenelon, Natael; Orciari, Lillian; Etheart, Melissa; Destine, Apollon; Crowdis, Kelly; Blanton, Jesse D; Francisco, Calvin; Ludder, Fleurinord; Del Rio Vilas, Victor; Haim, Joseph; Millien, Max

    2015-01-01

    The Republic of Haiti is one of only several countries in the Western Hemisphere in which canine rabies is still endemic. Estimation methods have predicted that 130 human deaths occur per year, yet existing surveillance mechanisms have detected few of these rabies cases. Likewise, canine rabies surveillance capacity has had only limited capacity, detecting only two rabid dogs per year, on average. In 2013, Haiti initiated a community-based animal rabies surveillance program comprised of two components: active community bite investigation and passive animal rabies investigation. From January 2013 –December 2014, 778 rabies suspect animals were reported for investigation. Rabies was laboratory-confirmed in 70 animals (9%) and an additional 36 cases were identified based on clinical diagnosis (5%), representing an 18-fold increase in reporting of rabid animals compared to the three years before the program was implemented. Dogs were the most frequent rabid animal (90%). Testing and observation ruled out rabies in 61% of animals investigated. A total of 639 bite victims were reported to the program and an additional 364 bite victims who had not sought medical care were identified during the course of investigations. Only 31% of people with likely rabies exposures had initiated rabies post-exposure prophylaxis prior to the investigation. Rabies is a neglected disease in-part due to a lack of surveillance and understanding about the burden. The surveillance methods employed by this program established a much higher burden of canine rabies in Haiti than previously recognized. The active, community-based bite investigations identified numerous additional rabies exposures and bite victims were referred for appropriate medical care, averting potential human rabies deaths. The use of community-based rabies surveillance programs such as HARSP should be considered in canine rabies endemic countries. PMID:26600437

  11. Some cases of rabies with high exposure potential: A field experience

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 12-year old girl died of rabies in 1986. The source of the rabies was a family dog that had been vaccinated several times with Flury Strain LEP rabies vaccine. The health and home care of the dog was excellent. The death of the dog 4 days after it bit the girl did not qualify it for a rabies suspect and the brain was not tested ...

  12. The rise and fall of rabies in Japan: A quantitative history of rabies epidemics in Osaka Prefecture, 1914-1933.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiko Kurosawa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Japan has been free from rabies since the 1950s. However, during the early 1900s several large-scale epidemics spread throughout the country. Here we investigate the dynamics of these epidemics between 1914 and 1933 in Osaka Prefecture, using archival data including newspapers. The association between dog rabies cases and human population density was investigated using Mixed-effects models and epidemiological parameters such as the basic reproduction number (R0, the incubation and infectious period and the serial interval were estimated. A total of 4,632 animal rabies cases were reported, mainly in dogs (99.0%, 4,584 cases during two epidemics from 1914 to 1921, and 1922 to 1933 respectively. The second epidemic was larger (3,705 cases than the first (879 cases, but had a lower R0 (1.50 versus 2.42. The first epidemic was controlled through capture of stray dogs and tethering of pet dogs. Dog mass vaccination began in 1923, with campaigns to capture stray dogs. Rabies in Osaka Prefecture was finally eliminated in 1933. A total of 3,805 rabid dog-bite injuries, and 75 human deaths were reported. The relatively low incidence of human rabies, high ratio of post-exposure vaccines (PEP and bite injuries by rabid dogs (minimum 6.2 to maximum 73.6, between 1924 and 1928, and a decline in the proportion of bite victims that developed hydrophobia over time (slope = -0.29, se = 3, p < 0.001, indicated that increased awareness and use of PEP might have prevented disease. Although significantly more dog rabies cases were detected at higher human population densities (slope = 0.66, se = 0.03, p < 0.01, there were fewer dog rabies cases detected per capita (slope = -0.34, se = 0.03, p < 0.01. We suggest that the combination of mass vaccination and restriction of dog movement enabled by strong legislation was key to eliminate rabies. Moreover, the prominent role of the media in both reporting rabies cases and efforts to control the disease likely contributed

  13. Comparison of pathogenic domains of rabies and African rabies-related lyssaviruses and pathogenicity observed in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Kgaladi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Several lyssavirus species occur in Africa (Rabies virus, Lagos bat virus, Mokola virus, Duvenhage virus, Shimoni bat virus and Ikoma lyssavirus, displaying a high sequence diversity between isolates belonging to the same species. There is limited information about comparative pathogenesis of these African lyssaviruses and this precludes authoritative opinion on the potential public and veterinary health impact. In this study, an analysis of representative African lyssaviruses attempted to correlate viral genomic sequence similarities and differences with the corresponding pathogenic profiles observed in mice. The study demonstrated that the virus isolates evaluated could be lethal to mice when introduced intramuscularly and that different isolates of the same lyssavirus species differ in their virulence. Using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR, viral RNA was detected in brain tissue, but no viral RNA was detected in the salivary glands or blood of mice that succumbed to infection. Comparison of known pathogenic domains indicated that pathogenicity is likely to be dependent on multiple domains. Cumulatively, our results re-emphasised the realisation that the pathogenicity of a lyssavirus species cannot be deduced based on studies of only a single isolate of the species or a single pathogenic domain.

  14. 76 FR 50221 - International Workshop on Alternative Methods for Human and Veterinary Rabies Vaccine Testing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... and Veterinary Rabies Vaccine Testing: State of the Science and Planning the Way Forward AGENCY... (NICEATM) announces an ``International Workshop on Alternative Methods for Human and Veterinary Rabies... rabies vaccine potency testing, and to develop an implementation strategy to achieve global acceptance...

  15. Molecular Diagnosis of Classical Rabies Virus in Polar Foxes in Greeenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Strandbygaard, Bertel

    Classical rabies virus continues to circulate in polar foxes in Greenland. Within the last 5 years more than 30 animals, mainly polar foxes have been tested positive for rabies. In this study, brain samples from this period were assessed for the presence of rabies viral RNA using molecular...

  16. 78 FR 33798 - Oral Rabies Vaccine Trial; Availability of a Supplemental Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2013-0046] Oral Rabies Vaccine Trial; Availability of a Supplemental... Inspection Service has prepared a supplemental environmental assessment (EA) relative to an oral rabies... analyzes expanding the field trial for an experimental oral rabies vaccine for wildlife to additional areas...

  17. Rabies Virus Transmission in Solid Organ Transplantation, China, 2015-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuilian; Zhang, Heng; Luo, Meiling; Chen, Jingfang; Yao, Dong; Chen, Faming; Liu, Ruchun; Chen, Tianmu

    2017-09-01

    We report rabies virus transmission among solid organ transplantation recipients in Changsha, China, in 2016. Two recipients were confirmed to have rabies and died. Our findings suggest that more attention should be paid to the possibility of rabies virus transmission through organ transplantation for clinical and public health reasons.

  18. 77 FR 49409 - Oral Rabies Vaccine Trial; Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-16

    ...] Oral Rabies Vaccine Trial; Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant... assessment and finding of no significant impact relative to an oral rabies vaccination field trial in New... be prepared. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Richard Chipman, Rabies Program Coordinator...

  19. Costs of Rabies Control: An Economic Calculation Method Applied to Flores Island

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wera, E.; Velthuis, A.G.J.; Geong, M.; Hogeveen, H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Rabies is a zoonotic disease that, in most human cases, is fatal once clinical signs appear. The disease transmits to humans through an animal bite. Dogs are the main vector of rabies in humans on Flores Island, Indonesia, resulting in about 19 human deaths each year. Currently, rabies

  20. 76 FR 48119 - Oral Rabies Vaccine Trial; Availability of a Risk Assessment and an Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ...] Oral Rabies Vaccine Trial; Availability of a Risk Assessment and an Environmental Assessment AGENCY... environmental assessment relative to an oral rabies vaccination field trial in West Virginia. The environmental... rabies vaccine, analyzes the use of that vaccine in field safety and efficacy trials in West Virginia...

  1. 77 FR 40322 - Oral Rabies Vaccine Trial; Availability of an Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    ...] Oral Rabies Vaccine Trial; Availability of an Environmental Assessment AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... assessment relative to an oral rabies vaccination field trial in New Hampshire, New York, Ohio, Vermont, and West Virginia. The environmental assessment analyzes the use of an experimental rabies vaccine in field...

  2. 76 FR 56731 - Oral Rabies Vaccine Trial; Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ...] Oral Rabies Vaccine Trial; Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant... the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service relative to an oral rabies vaccination field trial in... INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Dennis Slate, Rabies Program Coordinator, Wildlife Services, APHIS, 59 Chennell Drive...

  3. A human monoclonal antibody cocktail as a novel component of rabies postexposure prophylaxis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kruif, John; Bakker, Alexander B. H.; Marissen, Wilfred E.; Kramer, R. Arjen; Throsby, Mark; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Goudsmit, Jaap

    2007-01-01

    The currently recommended treatment for individuals exposed to rabies virus is the combined administration of rabies vaccine and rabies immune globulin (RIG). This review sets out the criteria used to guide development of a cocktail of human monoclonal antibodies as a replacement for RIG. Using this

  4. Review on Dog Rabies Vaccination Coverage in Africa: A Question of Dog Accessibility or Cost Recovery?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jibat, T.; Hogeveen, H.; Mourits, Monique C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Rabies is one of the most fatal diseases in both humans and animals. A bite by a rabid dog is the main cause of human rabies in Africa. Parenteral mass dog vaccination is the most cost-effective tool to prevent rabies in humans. Our main objective was to review research articles on the parenteral

  5. 78 FR 49444 - Oral Rabies Vaccine Trial; Availability of a Supplement to an Environmental Assessment and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    ...] Oral Rabies Vaccine Trial; Availability of a Supplement to an Environmental Assessment and Finding of... supplement to an environmental assessment and finding of no significant impact relative to an oral rabies.... Richard Chipman, Rabies Program Coordinator, Wildlife Services, APHIS, 59 Chennell Drive, Suite 7, Concord...

  6. First reported case of dog associated pig rabies in Ghana | Tasiame ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Pig rabies is uncommon and there is paucity of information on rabies in pigs in West African countries other than Nigeria. This communication presents a case of dog associated pig rabies in Adidome, Ghana. Materials and Methods: Case history, Dog assessment in adjoining communities, human exposure, ...

  7. Incidence of dog bite injuries and clinical rabies in a tertiary health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: It is widely recognized that rabies is grossly under-reported even though it is a notifiable disease and a lack of accurate figures has rendered rabies a low public health and veterinary priority. This study aimed at determining the incidence of dog bite injuries and clinical rabies in a tertiary health care centre.

  8. Cold chain facility status and the potency of animal rabies vaccine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rabies vaccine failures were reported in literature. Realising that rabies vaccine is sensitive to temperature change, there is need to assess the storage condition of rabies vaccine from distribution centres to veterinary clinics where they are used. This is to establish the sustained potency from source to use. Cold-Chain ...

  9. On the solvability of p states quantum Rabi Model with Zp -graded parity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Won Sang; Kim, Jae Yoon

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the p-level Rabi model with Z p -graded symmetry is discussed. The p-level Rabi Hamiltonian is constructed by introducing the generalized Pauli matrices. The energy and wave function for the p-level Rabi equation are obtained by using the standard perturbation method. (paper)

  10. Oscillation characteristics of the reactor 'A'; Oscilatorne karakteristike reaktora 'A'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zecevic, V; Lolic, B [The Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1961-07-01

    In addition to good knowledge of reactor physical properties, design of the reactor oscillator demands determining of the oscillator operating points as well as oscillation reactor properties. This paper contains study of the RA reactor power changes due to oscillations in in one of the vertical experimental channels. It has been concluded that the reactor optimum operating conditions are attained when the oscillator operates at optimum points, and other parameters are determined dependent on the sensitivity of the method and reactor stability.

  11. The Duffing oscillator with damping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Kim

    2015-01-01

    An analytical solution to the differential equation describing the Duffing oscillator with damping is presented. The damping term of the differential equation and the initial conditions satisfy an algebraic equation, and thus the solution is specific for this type of damping. The nonlinear term...... of the differential equation is allowed to be considerable compared to the linear term. The solution is expressed in terms of the Jacobi elliptic functions by including a parameter-dependent elliptic modulus. The analytical solution is compared to the numerical solution, and the agreement is found to be very good....... It is established that the period of oscillation is shorter compared to that of a linearized model but increasing with time and asymptotically approaching the period of oscillation of the linear damped model. An explicit expression for the period of oscillation has been derived, and it is found to be very accurate....

  12. Clinical management and humoral immune responses to rabies post-exposure prophylaxis among three patients who received solid organs from a donor with rabies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vora, N M; Orciari, L A; Niezgoda, M; Selvaggi, G; Stosor, V; Lyon, G M; Wallace, R M; Gabel, J; Stanek, D R; Jenkins, P; Shiferaw, M; Yager, P; Jackson, F; Hanlon, C A; Damon, I; Blanton, J D; Recuenco, S; Franka, R

    2015-06-01

    The rabies virus causes a fatal encephalitis and can be transmitted through organ transplantation. In 2013, a man developed rabies 18 months after receiving a kidney from a donor with rabies, who was not known to have been infected when the organs were procured. Three additional persons who received organs from the same donor (liver, kidney, heart), all of whom were not vaccinated for rabies before transplantation, received rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) with rabies immune globulin and 5 doses of rabies vaccine as soon as the diagnosis of rabies was made in the donor (18 months after their transplant surgeries). We describe their clinical management. As the 3 recipients were all on immunosuppressive medications, post-vaccination serologic testing was performed using the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test to measure rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (RVNAs). An acceptable antibody response to administration of rabies vaccine was defined as detection of RVNAs at a concentration ≥0.1 IU/mL from a serum specimen collected ≥7 days after the fifth vaccine dose. All 3 recipients demonstrated an acceptable antibody response despite their immunosuppressed states. More than 36 months have passed since their transplant surgeries, and all 3 recipients have no evidence of rabies. The survival of 3 previously unvaccinated recipients of solid organs from a donor with rabies is unexpected. Although the precise factors that led to their survival remain unclear, our data suggest that PEP can possibly enhance transplant safety in settings in which donors are retrospectively diagnosed with rabies. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Clinical management and humoral immune responses to rabies post-exposure prophylaxis among three patients who received solid organs from a donor with rabies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vora, N.M.; Orciari, L.A.; Niezgoda, M.; Selvaggi, G.; Stosor, V.; Lyon, G.M.; Wallace, R.M.; Gabel, J.; Stanek, D.R.; Jenkins, P.; Shiferaw, M.; Yager, P.; Jackson, F.; Hanlon, C.A.; Damon, I.; Blanton, J.D.; Recuenco, S.; Franka, R.

    2015-01-01

    Background The rabies virus causes a fatal encephalitis and can be transmitted through organ transplantation. In 2013, a man developed rabies 18 months after receiving a kidney from a donor with rabies, who was not known to have been infected when the organs were procured. Three additional persons who received organs from the same donor (liver, kidney, heart), all of whom were not vaccinated for rabies before transplantation, received rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) with rabies immune globulin and 5 doses of rabies vaccine as soon as the diagnosis of rabies was made in the donor (18 months after their transplant surgeries). We describe their clinical management. Methods As the 3 recipients were all on immunosuppressive medications, post-vaccination serologic testing was performed using the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test to measure rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (RVNAs). An acceptable antibody response to administration of rabies vaccine was defined as detection of RVNAs at a concentration ≥0.1 IU/mL from a serum specimen collected ≥7 days after the fifth vaccine dose. Results All 3 recipients demonstrated an acceptable antibody response despite their immunosuppressed states. More than 36 months have passed since their transplant surgeries, and all 3 recipients have no evidence of rabies. Conclusions The survival of 3 previously unvaccinated recipients of solid organs from a donor with rabies is unexpected. Although the precise factors that led to their survival remain unclear, our data suggest that PEP can possibly enhance transplant safety in settings in which donors are retrospectively diagnosed with rabies. PMID:25851103

  14. Inversion of Qubit Energy Levels in Qubit-Oscillator Circuits in the Deep-Strong-Coupling Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihara, F.; Fuse, T.; Ao, Z.; Ashhab, S.; Kakuyanagi, K.; Saito, S.; Aoki, T.; Koshino, K.; Semba, K.

    2018-05-01

    We report on experimentally measured light shifts of superconducting flux qubits deep-strongly coupled to L C oscillators, where the coupling constants are comparable to the qubit and oscillator resonance frequencies. By using two-tone spectroscopy, the energies of the six lowest levels of each circuit are determined. We find huge Lamb shifts that exceed 90% of the bare qubit frequencies and inversions of the qubits' ground and excited states when there are a finite number of photons in the oscillator. Our experimental results agree with theoretical predictions based on the quantum Rabi model.

  15. The Pan-African Rabies Control Network (PARACON): A unified approach to eliminating canine rabies in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, T P; Coetzer, A; de Balogh, K; Wright, N; Nel, L H

    2015-12-01

    Even though Africa has the highest per capita death rate from rabies of any continent, and the disease is almost entirely transmitted by the bites of rabid dogs, there has been no coordinated pan-African approach to controlling canine rabies. In order to attain an inclusive and unified network, the Pan-African Rabies Control Network (PARACON) was established in 2014. By following the 'One Health' concept, which involves close coordination between animal and human health sectors across national, regional and continental levels, PARACON will provide a platform to facilitate and promote coordinated and sustainable control strategies and programmes. Meetings will take place at regular intervals and will be centred on the involvement by key focal persons from the medical and veterinary sectors. The inaugural meeting was held in South Africa in June, 2015 and was focused around interactive discussions and workshops, whilst updating country representatives on the tools available to aid them in developing and implementing sustainable rabies intervention strategies. Experts from various global organizations, institutions and industry participated in the discussions and shared their experience and expertise. The workshops focused on the latest format of the Rabies Blueprint platform (www.rabiesblueprint.com), which in the broadest sense assists with control and elimination campaigns, including educational and advocacy drives, improvement of surveillance and diagnosis and the systematic monitoring of progress. Together with the Stepwise Approach towards Rabies Elimination, the Blueprint is a planning tool to help countries free themselves from canine-transmitted rabies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Advancements in web-database applications for rabies surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bélanger Denise

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protection of public health from rabies is informed by the analysis of surveillance data from human and animal populations. In Canada, public health, agricultural and wildlife agencies at the provincial and federal level are responsible for rabies disease control, and this has led to multiple agency-specific data repositories. Aggregation of agency-specific data into one database application would enable more comprehensive data analyses and effective communication among participating agencies. In Québec, RageDB was developed to house surveillance data for the raccoon rabies variant, representing the next generation in web-based database applications that provide a key resource for the protection of public health. Results RageDB incorporates data from, and grants access to, all agencies responsible for the surveillance of raccoon rabies in Québec. Technological advancements of RageDB to rabies surveillance databases include 1 automatic integration of multi-agency data and diagnostic results on a daily basis; 2 a web-based data editing interface that enables authorized users to add, edit and extract data; and 3 an interactive dashboard to help visualize data simply and efficiently, in table, chart, and cartographic formats. Furthermore, RageDB stores data from citizens who voluntarily report sightings of rabies suspect animals. We also discuss how sightings data can indicate public perception to the risk of racoon rabies and thus aid in directing the allocation of disease control resources for protecting public health. Conclusions RageDB provides an example in the evolution of spatio-temporal database applications for the storage, analysis and communication of disease surveillance data. The database was fast and inexpensive to develop by using open-source technologies, simple and efficient design strategies, and shared web hosting. The database increases communication among agencies collaborating to protect human health from

  17. Oscillators - a simple introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Oscillators are kernel components of electrical and electronic circuits. Discussion of history, mechanisms and design based on Barkhausens observation. Discussion of a Wien Bridge oscillator based on the question: Why does this circuit oscillate ?......Oscillators are kernel components of electrical and electronic circuits. Discussion of history, mechanisms and design based on Barkhausens observation. Discussion of a Wien Bridge oscillator based on the question: Why does this circuit oscillate ?...

  18. Oscillators and Eigenvalues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Erik

    1997-01-01

    In order to obtain insight in the nature of nonlinear oscillators the eigenvalues of the linearized Jacobian of the differential equations describing the oscillator are found and displayed as functions of time. A number of oscillators are studied including Dewey's oscillator (piecewise linear wit...... with negative resistance), Kennedy's Colpitts-oscillator (with and without chaos) and a new 4'th order oscillator with hyper-chaos....

  19. B{sup 0}{sub s} - B-bar{sup 0}{sub s} mesons oscillations temporal dependence in the Delphi experiment; Etude de la dependance temporelle des oscillations des mesons B{sup 0}{sub s} -B-bar{sup 0}{sub s} dans l`experience Delphi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ripp-Baudot, I

    1996-05-09

    B{sup 0}{sub s} oscillations have been studied in the DELPHI experiment. The B{sup 0}{sub s} oscillation frequency is related to the abs(V{sub ts}) Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix element and its measurement constitutes a test of the standard model. Furthermore it provides the ratio abs(V{sub td}/V{sub ts}) with reduced theoretical uncertainties when combined with the measurement of the B{sup 0}{sub d} oscillation frequency. The value of this ratio constraints the phase of CP violation in the standard model. The analysis consists in reconstructing semi-exclusively B{sup 0}{sub s} mesons in D{sub s} and D{sub s} -leptons channels, using 3.2 millions of Z decaying into hadrons, collected by DELPHI from 1991 to 1994 at LEP. The nature of particle or anti-particle of the B{sup 0}{sub s} at production time is tagged by a jet charge method, that has been optimized to the semi-exclusive case. The nature at decay time, the oscillation frequency is determined by adjusting the oscillation curve with a likelihood method. (author). 83 refs., 115 figs., 35 tabs.

  20. [Canine and human rabies in Conakry: epidemiology and preventive aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youla, A S; Traore, F A; Sako, F B; Feda, R M; Emeric, M A

    2014-02-01

    In Guinea, stray dogs are present in large numbers in public places and around landfills. The objectives of this study were to determine the frequency of human exposure to rabies risk, the cases of human and canine rabies and to describe the epidemiological profile of the cases. This retrospective and descriptive study was conducted in health and veterinarian facilities within the city of Conakry. All records of patients admitted in these facilities because of animal bites and veterinary records for aggression by domestic animals from 2002 to 2012, so, during an 11-year period, were collected. During the study period, 7 994 people were concerned by domestic animal bites. Males were the most affected with 60.4% of all cases. Students represented the higher class with 36.0%, followed by workers (18%). The majority of injuries were to the lower limbs (54.4%). The dog has been implicated in the attacks in 98.8% of cases. Among the 2 916 biting dogs which were placed under observation, 14 developed clinical rabies. Among those assaulted, 11 cases of rabies were reported. From 7 994 victims of domestic animal bites, 2 634 received post-exposure prophylaxis and the dropout rate was 51%. Rabies is a real risk in Conakry. Provisions in terms of public health strategy must be taken to minimize it.

  1. Outbreak of human rabies in the Peruvian jungle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, A; Miranda, P; Tejada, E; Fishbein, D B

    1992-02-15

    Transmission of rabies to man by vampire bats has been known for 60 years but there have been few reports of the features of rabies transmitted in this way. These aspects of the disease were investigated during an outbreak in Peru in early 1990. Between Jan 1 and April 30, 1990, 29 (5%) of 636 residents of the two rural communities in the Amazon Jungle in Peru acquired an illness characterised by hydrophobia, fever, and headache and died shortly thereafter. A census in one of the two towns revealed that the proportion affected was significantly higher for 5-14 year olds (17%) than for other age-groups (p less than 10(-5). Interviews conducted with 23 of the patients or their families revealed that 22 (96%) had a history of bat bite, compared with 66 (22%) of 301 community members who remained healthy (p less than 10(-6). A rabies virus strain identical to those isolated from vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) was isolated from the brain of the only person on whom necropsy could be done. Because of the extreme isolation of this and other communities affected by bat-transmitted rabies, preventive measures should be directed at decreasing the risk of nocturnal exposure to bats by bat proofing dwellings or use of mosquito nets and at prompt wound care. Rabies pre-exposure or postexposure vaccination is clearly indicated, but may not be feasible in these isolated populations.

  2. Transmission dynamics and prospects for the elimination of canine rabies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Hampson

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Rabies has been eliminated from domestic dog populations in Western Europe and North America, but continues to kill many thousands of people throughout Africa and Asia every year. A quantitative understanding of transmission dynamics in domestic dog populations provides critical information to assess whether global elimination of canine rabies is possible. We report extensive observations of individual rabid animals in Tanzania and generate a uniquely detailed analysis of transmission biology, which explains important epidemiological features, including the level of variation in epidemic trajectories. We found that the basic reproductive number for rabies, R0, is very low in our study area in rural Africa (approximately 1.2 and throughout its historic global range (<2. This finding provides strong support for the feasibility of controlling endemic canine rabies by vaccination, even near wildlife areas with large wild carnivore populations. However, we show that rapid turnover of domestic dog populations has been a major obstacle to successful control in developing countries, thus regular pulse vaccinations will be required to maintain population-level immunity between campaigns. Nonetheless our analyses suggest that with sustained, international commitment, global elimination of rabies from domestic dog populations, the most dangerous vector to humans, is a realistic goal.

  3. Rabies vaccination in dogs using a dissolving microneedle patch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Jaya M; Dewitt, Kristopher; Scott-Garrard, Maya; Chiang, Yu-Wei; Prausnitz, Mark R

    2016-10-10

    Because humans get rabies primarily through dog bites, stray dog population control and mass or mandatory vaccination of domestic dogs and other animals has virtually eliminated human rabies in industrialized countries. However, thousands of people in developing countries die of rabies each year due to the inability to control dog populations and implement mass vaccination because of financial, logistical and other challenges. The availability of an easier-to-administer and more cost-effective vaccine may help to address some of these issues. Here, we propose the use of dissolving microneedle patches for simple and potentially cost-effective rabies vaccination, and assess the safety and immunogenicity of microneedle patch vaccination using a rabies DNA vaccine in dogs. The vaccine was stable upon formulation and storage for at least 3weeks at 4°C in a microneedle patch. For vaccination, the patches were applied to the inner ear by hand without an applicator. Microneedle patches were well tolerated in the skin, with mild erythema, minimal wheal formation and complete resolution of skin reactions within 7days, and generated no systemic adverse events. Microneedle patches were at least as immunogenic as intramuscular injection at the same dose, as demonstrated by similar serum neutralizing antibody titers. A ten-fold lower vaccine dose administered by microneedle patch generated a weaker immune response compared to full-dose intramuscular vaccination. We conclude that dissolving microneedle patches may provide an innovative approach to mass vaccination of dogs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Novel rabies virus-neutralizing epitope recognized by human monoclonal antibody: Fine mapping and escape mutant analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marissen, W.E.; Kramer, R.A.; Rice, A.; Weldon, W.C.; Niezgoda, M.; Faber, M.; Slootstra, J.W.; Meloen, R.H.; Clijsters-van der Horst, M.; Visser, T.J.; Jongeneelen, M.; Thijsse, S.; Throsby, M.; Kruif, de J.; Rupprecht, C.E.; Dietzschold, B.; Goudsmit, J.; Bakker, A.B.H.

    2005-01-01

    Anti-rabies virus immunoglobulin combined with rabies vaccine protects humans from lethal rabies infections. For cost and safety reasons, replacement of the human or equine polyclonal immunoglobulin is advocated, and the use of rabies virus-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) is recommended. We

  5. Novel rabies virus-neutralizing epitope recognized by human monoclonal antibody: fine mapping and escape mutant analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marissen, Wilfred E.; Kramer, R. Arjen; Rice, Amy; Weldon, William C.; Niezgoda, Michael; Faber, Milosz; Slootstra, Jerry W.; Meloen, Rob H.; Clijsters-van der Horst, Marieke; Visser, Therese J.; Jongeneelen, Mandy; Thijsse, Sandra; Throsby, Mark; de Kruif, John; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Dietzschold, Bernhard; Goudsmit, Jaap; Bakker, Alexander B. H.

    2005-01-01

    Anti-rabies virus immunoglobulin combined with rabies vaccine protects humans from lethal rabies infections. For cost and safety reasons, replacement of the human or equine polyclonal immunoglobulin is advocated, and the use of rabies virus-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) is recommended. We

  6. Surveillance and control of rabies in La Reunion, Mayotte, and Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Mayotte and La Reunion islands are currently free of animal rabies and surveillance is performed by the French Human and Veterinary Public Health Services. However, dog rabies is still enzootic in Madagascar with 4 to 10 confirmed human cases each year. The number of antirabies medical centres in Madagascar is still scarce to provide easy access to the local population for post-exposure rabies prophylaxis. Furthermore, stray dog populations are considerable and attempts to control rabies by mass campaigns of dog vaccination have not received sufficient attention from the national health authorities. To address these challenges, an expanded program to control rabies needs to be initiated by the Malagasy authorities. PMID:24016204

  7. Distemper in raccoons and foxes suspected of having rabies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermann, R.T.; Herman, C.M.; Williams, F.P.

    1958-01-01

    1) Twenty-one raccoons and 3 red foxes were collected from areas where suspected rabies occurred. All were found to be nonrabid. 2) Distemper was diagnosed in 14 of the 21 raccoons by demonstrating intracytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusions in the brain and visceral tissues. Two of the 3 foxes were considered to have distemper; the clinical signs were typical and mouse inoculation tests were negative for rabies. 3) Deaths of the other 7 raccoons were attributed to: leishmaniasis 1, gastritis 1, bronchopneumonia 1, parasitism 2, car injury 1; 1 showed no significant lesions. The death of 1 fox was attributed to parasitism. 4) Distemper may be a frequent cause of death in raccoons and foxes, in epizootics which simulate rabies.

  8. Reemergence of rabies in the southern Han river region, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oem, Jae-Ku; Kim, Seong-Hee; Kim, Yeon-Hee; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Lee, Kyoung-Ki

    2014-07-01

    Recently, 11 cases of animal rabies were reported in the southern region (Suwon and Hwaseong cities) of Gyeonggi Province, South Korea. The cases were temporally separated into two cases in dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) in spring 2012 and nine cases in domestic animals and wildlife in winter 2012-13. All carcasses were submitted for histopathologic examination and viral antigen identification. Sequences of the glycoprotein, nucleoprotein, and glycoprotein-large polymerase protein intergenic noncoding loci of the 11 strains were determined and compared with published reference sequences. All rabies strains were closely related to the Gangwon strains isolated in 2008-09, suggesting that the rabies virus strains isolated in Gyeonggi were introduced from Gangwon Province.

  9. Rabies surveillance in the United States during 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, Jesse D.; Dyer, Jessie; McBrayer, Jesse; Rupprecht, Charles E.

    2016-01-01

    Summary During 2011, 49 states and Puerto Rico reported 6,031 rabid animals and 6 human rabies cases to the CDC, representing a 1.9% decrease from the 6,153 rabid animals and 2 human cases reported in 2010. Approximately 92% of reported rabid animals were wildlife. Relative contributions by the major animal groups were as follows: 1,981 raccoons (32.8%), 1,627 skunks (270%), 1,380 bats (22.9%), 427 foxes (71%), 303 cats (5.0%), 65 cattle (1.1%), and 70 dogs (1.2%). Compared with 2010, there was a substantial increase in the number of rabid skunks reported. Six cases of rabies involving humans were reported from California, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, and South Carolina. Three cases reported from Massachusetts, New Jersey, and New York were determined to be a result of canine rabies virus variants acquired outside the United States. PMID:22947154

  10. Dispersive regime of the Jaynes–Cummings and Rabi lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Guanyu; Koch, Jens; Schmidt, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    Photon-based strongly correlated lattice models like the Jaynes–Cummings and Rabi lattices differ from their more conventional relatives like the Bose–Hubbard model by the presence of an additional tunable parameter: the frequency detuning between the pseudo-spin degree of freedom and the harmonic mode frequency on each site. Whenever this detuning is large compared to relevant coupling strengths, the system is said to be in the dispersive regime. The physics of this regime is well-understood at the level of a single Jaynes–Cummings or Rabi site. Here, we extend the theoretical description of the dispersive regime to lattices with many sites, for both strong and ultra-strong coupling. We discuss the nature and spatial range of the resulting qubit–qubit and photon–photon coupling, demonstrate the emergence of photon-pairing and squeezing and illustrate our results by exact diagonalization of the Rabi dimer. (paper)

  11. Systems Biomedicine of Rabies Delineates the Affected Signaling pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Hamid Reza Mozhgani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The prototypical neurotropic virus, rabies, is a member of the Rhabdoviridae family that causes lethal encephalomyelitis. Although there have been a plethora of studies investigating the etiological mechanism of the rabies virus and many precautionary methods have been implemented to avert the disease outbreak over the last century, the disease has surprisingly no definite remedy at its late stages. The psychological symptoms and the underlying etiology, as well as the rare survival rate from rabies encephalitis, has still remained a mystery. We, therefore, undertook a systems biomedicine approach to identify the network of gene products implicated in rabies. This was done by meta-analyzing whole-transcriptome microarray datasets of the CNS infected by strain CVS-11, and integrating them with interactome data using computational and statistical methods. We first determined the differentially expressed genes (DEGs in each study and horizontally integrated the results at the mRNA and microRNA levels separately. A total of 61 seed genes involved in signal propagation system were obtained by means of unifying mRNA and microRNA detected integrated DEGs. We then reconstructed a refined protein-protein interaction network (PPIN of infected cells to elucidate the rabies-implicated signal transduction network (RISN. To validate our findings, we confirmed differential expression of randomly selected genes in the network using Real-time PCR. In conclusion, the identification of seed genes and their network neighborhood within the refined PPIN can be useful for demonstrating signaling pathways including interferon circumvent, toward proliferation and survival, and neuropathological clue, explaining the intricate underlying molecular neuropathology of rabies infection and thus rendered a molecular framework for predicting potential drug targets.

  12. Systems Biomedicine of Rabies Delineates the Affected Signaling Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimzadeh Jamalkandi, Sadegh; Mozhgani, Sayed-Hamidreza; Gholami Pourbadie, Hamid; Mirzaie, Mehdi; Noorbakhsh, Farshid; Vaziri, Behrouz; Gholami, Alireza; Ansari-Pour, Naser; Jafari, Mohieddin

    2016-01-01

    The prototypical neurotropic virus, rabies, is a member of the Rhabdoviridae family that causes lethal encephalomyelitis. Although there have been a plethora of studies investigating the etiological mechanism of the rabies virus and many precautionary methods have been implemented to avert the disease outbreak over the last century, the disease has surprisingly no definite remedy at its late stages. The psychological symptoms and the underlying etiology, as well as the rare survival rate from rabies encephalitis, has still remained a mystery. We, therefore, undertook a systems biomedicine approach to identify the network of gene products implicated in rabies. This was done by meta-analyzing whole-transcriptome microarray datasets of the CNS infected by strain CVS-11, and integrating them with interactome data using computational and statistical methods. We first determined the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in each study and horizontally integrated the results at the mRNA and microRNA levels separately. A total of 61 seed genes involved in signal propagation system were obtained by means of unifying mRNA and microRNA detected integrated DEGs. We then reconstructed a refined protein–protein interaction network (PPIN) of infected cells to elucidate the rabies-implicated signal transduction network (RISN). To validate our findings, we confirmed differential expression of randomly selected genes in the network using Real-time PCR. In conclusion, the identification of seed genes and their network neighborhood within the refined PPIN can be useful for demonstrating signaling pathways including interferon circumvent, toward proliferation and survival, and neuropathological clue, explaining the intricate underlying molecular neuropathology of rabies infection and thus rendered a molecular framework for predicting potential drug targets. PMID:27872612

  13. Systems Biomedicine of Rabies Delineates the Affected Signaling Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimzadeh Jamalkandi, Sadegh; Mozhgani, Sayed-Hamidreza; Gholami Pourbadie, Hamid; Mirzaie, Mehdi; Noorbakhsh, Farshid; Vaziri, Behrouz; Gholami, Alireza; Ansari-Pour, Naser; Jafari, Mohieddin

    2016-01-01

    The prototypical neurotropic virus, rabies, is a member of the Rhabdoviridae family that causes lethal encephalomyelitis. Although there have been a plethora of studies investigating the etiological mechanism of the rabies virus and many precautionary methods have been implemented to avert the disease outbreak over the last century, the disease has surprisingly no definite remedy at its late stages. The psychological symptoms and the underlying etiology, as well as the rare survival rate from rabies encephalitis, has still remained a mystery. We, therefore, undertook a systems biomedicine approach to identify the network of gene products implicated in rabies. This was done by meta-analyzing whole-transcriptome microarray datasets of the CNS infected by strain CVS-11, and integrating them with interactome data using computational and statistical methods. We first determined the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in each study and horizontally integrated the results at the mRNA and microRNA levels separately. A total of 61 seed genes involved in signal propagation system were obtained by means of unifying mRNA and microRNA detected integrated DEGs. We then reconstructed a refined protein-protein interaction network (PPIN) of infected cells to elucidate the rabies-implicated signal transduction network (RISN). To validate our findings, we confirmed differential expression of randomly selected genes in the network using Real-time PCR. In conclusion, the identification of seed genes and their network neighborhood within the refined PPIN can be useful for demonstrating signaling pathways including interferon circumvent, toward proliferation and survival, and neuropathological clue, explaining the intricate underlying molecular neuropathology of rabies infection and thus rendered a molecular framework for predicting potential drug targets.

  14. Pre-exposure rabies prophylaxis: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recuenco, Sergio; Navarro-Vela, Ana Maria; Deray, Raffy; Vigilato, Marco; Ertl, Hildegund; Durrheim, David; Rees, Helen; Nel, Louis H; Abela-Ridder, Bernadette; Briggs, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective To review the safety and immunogenicity of pre-exposure rabies prophylaxis (including accelerated schedules, co-administration with other vaccines and booster doses), its cost–effectiveness and recommendations for use, particularly in high-risk settings. Methods We searched the PubMed, Centre for Agriculture and Biosciences International, Cochrane Library and Web of Science databases for papers on pre-exposure rabies prophylaxis published between 2007 and 29 January 2016. We reviewed field data from pre-exposure prophylaxis campaigns in Peru and the Philippines. Findings Pre-exposure rabies prophylaxis was safe and immunogenic in children and adults, also when co-administered with routine childhood vaccinations and the Japanese encephalitis vaccine. The evidence available indicates that shorter regimens and regimens involving fewer doses are safe and immunogenic and that booster intervals could be extended up to 10 years. The few studies on cost suggest that, at current vaccine and delivery costs, pre-exposure prophylaxis campaigns would not be cost-effective in most situations. Although pre-exposure prophylaxis has been advocated for high-risk populations, only Peru and the Philippines have implemented appropriate national programmes. In the future, accelerated regimens and novel vaccines could simplify delivery and increase affordability. Conclusion Pre-exposure rabies prophylaxis is safe and immunogenic and should be considered: (i) where access to postexposure prophylaxis is limited or delayed; (ii) where the risk of exposure is high and may go unrecognized; and (iii) where controlling rabies in the animal reservoir is difficult. Pre-exposure prophylaxis should not distract from canine vaccination efforts, provision of postexposure prophylaxis or education to increase rabies awareness in local communities. PMID:28250534

  15. Enzyme immunoassay for rabies antibody in hybridoma culture fluids and its application to differentiation of street and laboratory strains of rabies virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, J S; Sumner, J W; Roumillat, L F

    1984-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive enzyme immunoassay is described for detecting rabies antibody in hybridoma culture fluids. Glass fiber filter disks were used to immobilize gamma-irradiated mouse neuroblastoma cells infected with street or laboratory strains of rabies virus. Bound rabies-specific antibody was detected by reaction with horseradish peroxidase-labeled goat anti-mouse immunoglobulin G. The assay was performed in a 96-well filtration device developed by Cleveland et al. (J. Clin. Microbiol. ...

  16. Human Rabies in the WHO Southeast Asia Region: Forward Steps for Elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyanendra Gongal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There are eleven Member States in the WHO southeast Asia region (Bangladesh, Bhutan, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, India, Indonesia, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Timor-Leste of which eight are endemic for rabies. More than 1.4 billion people in the Region are at risk of rabies infection, and approximately 45% of worldwide rabies deaths occur in Asia. Dog bites account for 96% of human rabies cases. Progress in preventing human rabies through control of the disease in dogs has been slow due to various factors. Innovative control tools and techniques have been developed and standardized in recent years. The introduction of cost-effective intradermal rabies vaccination regimens in Asian countries has increased the availability and affordability of postexposure prophylaxis. Elimination of rabies is not possible without regional and intersectoral cooperation. Considering the importance of consolidating achievements in rabies control in Member countries, the WHO Regional Office for southeast Asia has developed a regional strategy for elimination of human rabies transmitted by dogs in the Region. They have committed to provide technical leadership, to advocate national health authorities to develop major stakeholder consensus for a comprehensive rabies elimination programme, and to implement national strategies for elimination of human rabies.

  17. Spatio-temporal pattern of sylvatic rabies in the Sultanate of Oman, 2006-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Muhammad Hammad; Ward, Michael P; Body, Mohammed; Al-Rawahi, Abdulmajeed; Wadir, Ali Awlad; Al-Habsi, Saif; Saqib, Muhammad; Ahmed, Mohammed Sayed; Almaawali, Mahir Gharib

    2013-07-01

    Rabies was first reported in the Sultanate of Oman is 1990. We analysed passive surveillance data (444 samples) collected and reported between 2006 and 2010. During this period, between 45 and 75% of samples submitted from suspect animals were subsequently confirmed (fluorescent antibody test, histopathology and reverse transcription PCR) as rabies cases. Overall, 63% of submitted samples were confirmed as rabies cases. The spatial distribution of species-specific cases were similar (centred in north-central Oman with a northeast-southwest distribution), although fox cases had a wider distribution and an east-west orientation. Clustering of cases was detected using interpolation, local spatial autocorrelation and scan statistical analysis. Several local government areas (wilayats) in north-central Oman were identified where higher than expected numbers of laboratory-confirmed rabies cases were reported. For fox rabies, more clusters (local spatial autocorrelation analysis) and a larger clustered area (scan statistical analysis) were detected. In Oman, monthly reports of fox rabies cases were highly correlated (rSP>0.5) with reports of camel, cattle, sheep and goat rabies. The best-fitting ARIMA model included a seasonality component. Fox rabies cases reported 6 months previously best explained rabies reported cases in other animal species. Despite likely reporting bias, results suggest that rabies exists as a sylvatic cycle of transmission in Oman and an opportunity still exists to prevent establishment of dog-mediated rabies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [Calbindin and parvalbumin distribution in spinal cord of normal and rabies-infected mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroy-Gómez, Jeison; Torres-Fernández, Orlando

    2013-01-01

    Rabies is a fatal infectious disease of the nervous system; however, the knowledge about the pathogenic neural mechanisms in rabies is scarce. In addition, there are few studies of rabies pathology of the spinal cord. To study the distribution of calcium binding proteins calbindin and parvalbumin and assessing the effect of rabies virus infection on their expression in the spinal cord of mice. MATERIALES Y METHODS: Mice were inoculated with rabies virus, by intracerebral or intramuscular route. The spinal cord was extracted to perform some crosscuts which were treated by immunohistochemistry with monoclonal antibodies to reveal the presence of the two proteins in normal and rabies infected mice. We did qualitative and quantitative analyses of the immunoreactivity of the two proteins. Calbindin and parvalbumin showed differential distribution in Rexed laminae. Rabies infection produced a decrease in the expression of calbindin. On the contrary, the infection caused an increased expression of parvalbumin. The effect of rabies infection on the two proteins expression was similar when comparing both routes of inoculation. The differential effect of rabies virus infection on the expression of calbindin and parvalbumin in the spinal cord of mice was similar to that previously reported for brain areas. This result suggests uniformity in the response to rabies infection throughout the central nervous system. This is an important contribution to the understanding of the pathogenesis of rabies.

  19. Natural Rabies Infection in a Domestic Fowl (Gallus domesticus): A Report from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baby, Julie; Mani, Reeta Subramaniam; Abraham, Swapna Susan; Thankappan, Asha T; Pillai, Prasad Madhavan; Anand, Ashwini Manoor; Madhusudana, Shampur Narayan; Ramachandran, Jayachandran; Sreekumar, Sachin

    2015-01-01

    Rabies is a fatal encephalitis caused by viruses belonging to the genus Lyssavirus of the family Rhabdoviridae. It is a viral disease primarily affecting mammals, though all warm blooded animals are susceptible. Experimental rabies virus infection in birds has been reported, but naturally occurring infection of birds has been documented very rarely. The carcass of a domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus), which had been bitten by a stray dog one month back, was brought to the rabies diagnostic laboratory. A necropsy was performed and the brain tissue obtained was subjected to laboratory tests for rabies. The brain tissue was positive for rabies viral antigens by fluorescent antibody test (FAT) confirming a diagnosis of rabies. Phylogenetic analysis based on nucleoprotein gene sequencing revealed that the rabies virus strain from the domestic fowl belonged to a distinct and relatively rare Indian subcontinent lineage. This case of naturally acquired rabies infection in a bird species, Gallus domesticus, being reported for the first time in India, was identified from an area which has a significant stray dog population and is highly endemic for canine rabies. It indicates that spill over of infection even to an unusual host is possible in highly endemic areas. Lack of any clinical signs, and fewer opportunities for diagnostic laboratory testing of suspected rabies in birds, may be the reason for disease in these species being undiagnosed and probably under-reported. Butchering and handling of rabies virus- infected poultry may pose a potential exposure risk.

  20. Natural Rabies Infection in a Domestic Fowl (Gallus domesticus: A Report from India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Baby

    Full Text Available Rabies is a fatal encephalitis caused by viruses belonging to the genus Lyssavirus of the family Rhabdoviridae. It is a viral disease primarily affecting mammals, though all warm blooded animals are susceptible. Experimental rabies virus infection in birds has been reported, but naturally occurring infection of birds has been documented very rarely.The carcass of a domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus, which had been bitten by a stray dog one month back, was brought to the rabies diagnostic laboratory. A necropsy was performed and the brain tissue obtained was subjected to laboratory tests for rabies. The brain tissue was positive for rabies viral antigens by fluorescent antibody test (FAT confirming a diagnosis of rabies. Phylogenetic analysis based on nucleoprotein gene sequencing revealed that the rabies virus strain from the domestic fowl belonged to a distinct and relatively rare Indian subcontinent lineage.This case of naturally acquired rabies infection in a bird species, Gallus domesticus, being reported for the first time in India, was identified from an area which has a significant stray dog population and is highly endemic for canine rabies. It indicates that spill over of infection even to an unusual host is possible in highly endemic areas. Lack of any clinical signs, and fewer opportunities for diagnostic laboratory testing of suspected rabies in birds, may be the reason for disease in these species being undiagnosed and probably under-reported. Butchering and handling of rabies virus- infected poultry may pose a potential exposure risk.

  1. The serological response of young dogs to the Flury LEP strain of rabies virus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghomo, H O; Oduye, O O; Rupprecht, C E

    1990-01-01

    The serological response of puppies from Nigeria to live Flury low egg passage (LEP) rabies vaccine was determined. Two sets of puppies were used: one set from rabies-vaccinated bitches and another set from non-vaccinated bitches. Puppies were vaccinated intramuscularly with Flury LEP strain rabies vaccine and serially bled from the 4th week to the 30th week. Serum rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (VNA) were measured by a modified rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT). Puppies from non-vaccinated bitches responded well to vaccination after the 4th week and through to the 10th week of age, showing a progressive increase in VNA. In contrast, puppies from vaccinated bitches responded well to rabies vaccination only at 10 weeks of age, although detectable maternal rabies VNA and rabies anti-ribonucleoprotein (RNP) antibodies had decreased by 6 weeks post partum.

  2. Protection of non-human primates against rabies with an adenovirus recombinant vaccine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang, Z.Q.; Greenberg, L.; Ertl, H.C.; Rupprecht, C.E.

    2014-01-01

    Rabies remains a major neglected global zoonosis. New vaccine strategies are needed for human rabies prophylaxis. A single intramuscular immunization with a moderate dose of an experimental chimpanzee adenovirus (Ad) vector serotype SAd-V24, also termed AdC68, expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein, resulted in sustained titers of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies and protection against a lethal rabies virus challenge infection in a non-human primate model. Taken together, these data demonstrate the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of the recombinant Ad-rabies vector for further consideration in human clinical trials. - Highlights: • Pre-exposure vaccination with vaccine based on a chimpanzee derived adenovirus protects against rabies. • Protection is sustained. • Protection is achieved with single low-dose of vaccine given intramuscularly. • Protection is not affected by pre-existing antibodies to common human serotypes of adenovirus

  3. Awareness of rabies and response to dog bites in a Bangladesh community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghosh, Sumon; Chowdhury, Sukanta; Haider, Najmul

    2016-01-01

    Community awareness regarding rabies and treatment seeking behaviours are critical both for the prevention and control of the disease in human and animals. We conducted a study to explore people's awareness about rabies, their attitudes towards dogs and practices associated with treating dog bites...... in Satkhira Sadar, a south-western sub-district of Bangladesh. Of the total 3200 households (HHs) surveyed, the majority of the respondents have heard about rabies (73%) and there was a high level of awareness that dog bite is the main cause of rabies (86%), and that rabies can be prevented by vaccination (85......%). However, 59% of the dog bite victims first seek treatment from traditional healers instead of visiting the hospitals, 29% received the rabies vaccine, 2% practiced proper wound washing with soap and water, while 4.8% have not taken any measures. None of the victims have received rabies immunoglobulin (RIG...

  4. Investigation of an Imported Case of Rabies in a Juvenile Dog with Atypical Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trudy Goddard

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Movement of dogs between rabies-endemic and rabies-free countries carries the inherent risk of introducing the disease. In April of 2008, a juvenile dog was imported to the UK from Sri Lanka. It died shortly after transfer to a quarantine facility in the south-east of England following a short history of diarrhoea and convulsions but no overt signs of aggression. Subsequent investigation confirmed that rabies was the cause of death. Rabies virus was isolated from brain samples taken from the dog and the subsequent phylogenetic investigation confirmed that the genomic sequence from this virus shared over 99% homology with endemic rabies viruses from Sri Lanka. Histological examination of the brain demonstrated clear signs of encephalitis and rabies antigenic labeling in numerous neurons. In this particular case, Negri bodies were absent. As this case was diagnosed in a quarantine facility, the ‘rabies-free’ status of the UK was un-affected.

  5. Protection of non-human primates against rabies with an adenovirus recombinant vaccine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, Z.Q. [The Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Greenberg, L. [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Ertl, H.C., E-mail: ertl@wistar.upenn.edu [The Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Rupprecht, C.E. [The Global Alliance for Rabies Control, Manhattan, KS (United States); Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine, Basseterre (Saint Kitts and Nevis)

    2014-02-15

    Rabies remains a major neglected global zoonosis. New vaccine strategies are needed for human rabies prophylaxis. A single intramuscular immunization with a moderate dose of an experimental chimpanzee adenovirus (Ad) vector serotype SAd-V24, also termed AdC68, expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein, resulted in sustained titers of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies and protection against a lethal rabies virus challenge infection in a non-human primate model. Taken together, these data demonstrate the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of the recombinant Ad-rabies vector for further consideration in human clinical trials. - Highlights: • Pre-exposure vaccination with vaccine based on a chimpanzee derived adenovirus protects against rabies. • Protection is sustained. • Protection is achieved with single low-dose of vaccine given intramuscularly. • Protection is not affected by pre-existing antibodies to common human serotypes of adenovirus.

  6. Rabid epidemiologies: the emergence and resurgence of rabies in twentieth century South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the history of rabies in South Africa since the early twentieth century. It argues that rabies is a zoonotic disease that traverses rural and urban spaces, that transfers itself between wild and domestic animals and remains a potential threat to human life in the region. Scientists discovered an indigenous form of rabies, found primarily in the yellow mongoose, after the first biomedically confirmed human fatalities in 1928. Since the 1950s canine rabies, presumed to have moved southwards from across the Zambezi River, has become endemic also. South Africa is home to a comparatively large number of rabies strains and animal carriers, making it a particularly interesting case study. Environmental changes during the colonial and apartheid periods have helped to explain the increase in rabies cases since the mid-twentieth century. Moreover, developments in the biological and ecological sciences have provided insights into why the rabies virus has become endemic in certain wildlife species.

  7. Zagreb regimen, an abbreviated intramuscular schedule for rabies vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jiangping; Yao, Linong; Sun, Jimin; Gong, Zhenyu

    2015-01-01

    The Zagreb regimen, an abbreviated intramuscular schedule for rabies vaccination, was developed by I. Vodopija and colleagues of the Zagreb Institute of Public Health in Croatia in the 1980s. It was recommended by WHO as one of the intramuscular (IM) schedules for rabies vaccination in 2010. We reviewed the literature on the immunogenicity, safety, economic burden, and compliance of the Zagreb 2-1-1 regimen. Compared to Essen, another IM schedule recommended by WHO, Zagreb has higher compliance, lower medical cost, and better immunogenicity at an early stage. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. A progressive diagonalization scheme for the Rabi Hamiltonian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Feng; Guan, Xin; Wang, Yin; Draayer, J P

    2010-01-01

    A diagonalization scheme for the Rabi Hamiltonian, which describes a qubit interacting with a single-mode radiation field via a dipole interaction, is proposed. It is shown that the Rabi Hamiltonian can be solved almost exactly using a progressive scheme that involves a finite set of one variable polynomial equations. The scheme is especially efficient for the lower part of the spectrum. Some low-lying energy levels of the model with several sets of parameters are calculated and compared to those provided by the recently proposed generalized rotating-wave approximation and a full matrix diagonalization.

  9. A Class of Quasi-exact Solutions of Rabi Hamiltonian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Feng; Yao Youkun; Xie Mingxia; Han Wenjuan; Draayer, J.P.

    2007-01-01

    A class of quasi-exact solutions of the Rabi Hamiltonian, which describes a two-level atom interacting with a single-mode radiation field via a dipole interaction without the rotating-wave approximation, are obtained by using a wavefunction ansatz. Exact solutions for part of the spectrum are obtained when the atom-field coupling strength and the field frequency satisfy certain relations. As an example, the lowest exact energy level and the corresponding atom-field entanglement at the quasi-exactly solvable point are calculated and compared to results from the Jaynes-Cummings and counter-rotating cases of the Rabi Hamiltonian.

  10. Case Report: Magnetic resonance imaging in rabies encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Arekapudi Subramanyaswara; Varma, Dandu Ravi; Chalapathi Rao, Mamidi Venkata; Mohandas, Surat

    2009-01-01

    Rabies encephalitis is an invariably fatal disease characterized by typical clinical symptoms. Although the diagnosis of this condition can be made on the basis of the patient's history and the classical clinical presentation, neuroimaging may still play a role, especially for establishing an early diagnosis in cases with atypical presentations or when the history of animal bite is not forthcoming. We report the MRI findings in a case of furious rabies encephalitis and describe the utility of diffusion imaging in its diagnosis

  11. Rabies Elimination in Dogs in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-12-01

    Rabies has been eliminated from dogs in the United States through efforts to promote annual vaccination, but it's still a problem in wildlife in the U.S. and in wild and domesticated animals abroad. In this podcast, CDC's Dr. Charles Rupprecht discusses a study which provides proof of the elimination of rabies in dogs and what this means for the average American.  Created: 12/1/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 12/1/2008.

  12. Fighting rabies in Eastern Europe, the Middle East and Central Asia--experts call for a regional initiative for rabies elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikimbayev, A; Briggs, D; Coltan, G; Dodet, B; Farahtaj, F; Imnadze, P; Korejwo, J; Moiseieva, A; Tordo, N; Usluer, G; Vodopija, R; Vranješ, N

    2014-05-01

    MEEREB is an informal network of rabies experts from the Middle East, Eastern Europe and Central Asia, seeking to eliminate rabies from the region. They met for the second time to review the current rabies situation, both globally and in their respective countries, highlighting current rabies control problems and potential solutions. Success stories in Latin America, in Western Europe, in some Asian countries, as well as in Croatia and Serbia prove that elimination of human rabies is achievable in the MEEREB region. It requires political willingness and cooperation of all stakeholders, including Ministries of Health and of Agriculture; adequate management of animal bites through post-exposure prophylaxis; pre-exposure prophylaxis for populations at high risk of rabies exposure, animal vaccination and humane control of stray dog populations. MEEREB members called for a regional initiative for rabies elimination in Eastern Europe and the Middle East. They are confident that the elimination of human rabies of canine origin can be achieved in the region through adopting a One Health approach, and that campaigns for rabies elimination will have significant benefit for public health, including strengthening the structure for control of other zoonoses. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Rabies Control and Treatment: From Prophylaxis to Strategies with Curative Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shimao; Guo, Caiping

    2016-01-01

    Rabies is an acute, fatal, neurological disease that affects almost all kinds of mammals. Vaccination (using an inactivated rabies vaccine), combined with administration of rabies immune globulin, is the only approved, effective method for post-exposure prophylaxis against rabies in humans. In the search for novel rabies control and treatment strategies, live-attenuated viruses have recently emerged as a practical and promising approach for immunizing and controlling rabies. Unlike the conventional, inactivated rabies vaccine, live-attenuated viruses are genetically modified viruses that are able to replicate in an inoculated recipient without causing adverse effects, while still eliciting robust and effective immune responses against rabies virus infection. A number of viruses with an intrinsic capacity that could be used as putative candidates for live-attenuated rabies vaccine have been intensively evaluated for therapeutic purposes. Additional novel strategies, such as a monoclonal antibody-based approach, nucleic acid-based vaccines, or small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) interfering with virus replication, could further add to the arena of strategies to combat rabies. In this review, we highlight current advances in rabies therapy and discuss the role that they might have in the future of rabies treatment. Given the pronounced and complex impact of rabies on a patient, a combination of these novel modalities has the potential to achieve maximal anti-rabies efficacy, or may even have promising curative effects in the future. However, several hurdles regarding clinical safety considerations and public awareness should be overcome before these approaches can ultimately become clinically relevant therapies. PMID:27801824

  14. Molecular diversity of rabies viruses associated with bats in Mexico and other countries of the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco-Villa, Andrés; Orciari, Lillian A; Juárez-Islas, Víctor; Gómez-Sierra, Mauricio; Padilla-Medina, Irma; Flisser, Ana; Souza, Valeria; Castillo, Amanda; Franka, Richard; Escalante-Mañe, Maribel; Sauri-González, Isaias; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2006-05-01

    Bat rabies and its transmission to humans and other species in Mexico were investigated. Eighty-nine samples obtained from rabid livestock, cats, dogs, and humans in Mexico were studied by antigenic typing and partial sequence analysis. Samples were further compared with enzootic rabies associated with different species of bats in the Americas. Patterns of nucleotide variation allowed the definition of at least 20 monophyletic clusters associated with 9 or more different bat species. Several lineages associated with distinctive antigenic patterns were found in rabies viruses related to rabies in vampire bats in Mexico. Vampire bat rabies virus lineages associated with antigenic variant 3 are widely spread from Mexico to South America, suggesting these lineages as the most likely ancestors of vampire bat rabies and the ones that have been moved by vampire bat populations throughout the Americas. Rabies viruses related to Lasiurus cinereus, Histiotus montanus, and some other not yet identified species of the genus Lasiurus were found circulating in Mexico. Long-range dissemination patterns of rabies are not necessarily associated with migratory bat species, as in the case of rabies in Desmodus rotundus and Histiotus montanus. Human rabies was associated with vampire bat transmission in most cases, and in one case, rabies transmission from free-tailed bats was inferred. The occurrence of rabies spillover from bats to domestic animals was also demonstrated. Genetic typing of rabies viruses allowed us to distinguish trends of disease dissemination and to address, in a preliminary fashion, aspects of the complex evolution of rabies viruses in different host-reservoir species.

  15. Public Health Responses to Reemergence of Animal Rabies, Taiwan, July 16-December 28, 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Song-En Huang

    Full Text Available Taiwan had been free of indigenous human and animal rabies case since canine rabies was eliminated in 1961. In July 2013, rabies was confirmed among three wild ferret-badgers, prompting public health response to prevent human rabies cases. This descriptive study reports the immediate response to the reemergence of rabies in Taiwan. Response included enhanced surveillance for human rabies cases by testing stored cerebrospinal fluids (CSF from patients with encephalitides of unknown cause by RT-PCR, prioritizing vaccine use for postexposure prophylaxis (PEP during periods of vaccine shortage and subsequent expansion of PEP, surveillance of animal bites using information obtained from vaccine application, roll out of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP with vaccine stock restoration, surveillance for adverse events following immunization (AEFI, and ensuring surge capacity to respond to general public inquiries by phone and training for healthcare professionals. Enhanced surveillance for human rabies found no cases after testing 205 stored CSF specimens collected during January 2010-July 2013. During July 16 to December 28, 2013, we received 8,241 rabies PEP application; 6,634 (80.5% were consistent with recommendations. Among the 6,501 persons who received at least one dose of rabies vaccine postexposure, 4,953 (76.2% persons who were bitten by dogs; only 59 (0.9% persons were bitten by ferret-badgers. During the study period, 6,247 persons received preexposure prophylaxis. There were 23 reports of AEFI; but no anaphylaxis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, or acute disseminated encephalomyelitis were found. During the study period, there were 40,312 calls to the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control hotline, of which, 8,692 (22% were related to rabies. Recent identification of rabies among ferret-badgers in a previously rabies-free country prompted rapid response. To date, no human rabies has been identified. Continued multifaceted surveillance and

  16. Oscillating and rotating sine-Gordon system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, O. H.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm

    1986-01-01

    The interaction between a 2π kink and the background or vacuum is investigated in the pure sine-Gordon system. For an oscillating background (i.e., the k=0 part of the phonon spectrum) the 2π kink oscillates, while for increasing or decreasing vacuum two phenomena have been observed, depending...

  17. Assessing the Risk of a Canine Rabies Incursion in Northern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Emily G.; Brookes, Victoria J.; Ward, Michael P.

    2017-01-01

    Rabies is a globally distributed virus that causes approximately 60,00 human deaths annually with >99% of cases caused by dog bites. Australia is currently canine rabies free. However, the recent eastward spread of rabies in the Indonesian archipelago has increased the probability of rabies entry into northern Australian communities. In addition, many northern Australian communities have large populations of free-roaming dogs, capable of maintaining rabies should an incursion occur. A risk assessment of rabies entry and transmission into these communities is needed to target control and surveillance measures. Illegal transportation of rabies-infected dogs via boat landings is a high-risk entry pathway and was the focus of the current study. A quantitative, stochastic, risk assessment model was developed to evaluate the risk of rabies entry into north-west Cape York Peninsula, Australia, and rabies introduction to resident dogs in one of the communities via transport of rabies-infected dogs on illegal Indonesian fishing boats. Parameter distributions were derived from expert opinion, literature, and analysis of field studies. The estimated median probability of rabies entry into north-west Cape York Peninsula and into Seisia from individual fishing boats was 1.9 × 10−4/boat and 8.7 × 10−6/boat, respectively. The estimated annual probability that at least one rabies-infected dog enters north-west Cape York Peninsula and into Seisia was 5.5 × 10−3 and 3.5 × 10−4, respectively. The estimated median probability of rabies introduction into Seisia was 4.7 × 10−8/boat, and the estimated annual probability that at least one rabies-infected dog causes rabies transmission in a resident Seisia dog was 8.3 × 10−5. Sensitivity analysis using the Sobol method highlighted some parameters as influential, including but not limited to the prevalence of rabies in Indonesia, the probability of a dog on board an Indonesian fishing boat, and the

  18. Assessing the Risk of a Canine Rabies Incursion in Northern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily G. Hudson

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is a globally distributed virus that causes approximately 60,00 human deaths annually with >99% of cases caused by dog bites. Australia is currently canine rabies free. However, the recent eastward spread of rabies in the Indonesian archipelago has increased the probability of rabies entry into northern Australian communities. In addition, many northern Australian communities have large populations of free-roaming dogs, capable of maintaining rabies should an incursion occur. A risk assessment of rabies entry and transmission into these communities is needed to target control and surveillance measures. Illegal transportation of rabies-infected dogs via boat landings is a high-risk entry pathway and was the focus of the current study. A quantitative, stochastic, risk assessment model was developed to evaluate the risk of rabies entry into north-west Cape York Peninsula, Australia, and rabies introduction to resident dogs in one of the communities via transport of rabies-infected dogs on illegal Indonesian fishing boats. Parameter distributions were derived from expert opinion, literature, and analysis of field studies. The estimated median probability of rabies entry into north-west Cape York Peninsula and into Seisia from individual fishing boats was 1.9 × 10−4/boat and 8.7 × 10−6/boat, respectively. The estimated annual probability that at least one rabies-infected dog enters north-west Cape York Peninsula and into Seisia was 5.5 × 10−3 and 3.5 × 10−4, respectively. The estimated median probability of rabies introduction into Seisia was 4.7 × 10−8/boat, and the estimated annual probability that at least one rabies-infected dog causes rabies transmission in a resident Seisia dog was 8.3 × 10−5. Sensitivity analysis using the Sobol method highlighted some parameters as influential, including but not limited to the prevalence of rabies in Indonesia, the probability of a dog on board an Indonesian

  19. Waves and oscillations in nature an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Narayanan, A Satya

    2015-01-01

    Waves and oscillations are found in large scales (galactic) and microscopic scales (neutrino) in nature. Their dynamics and behavior heavily depend on the type of medium through which they propagate.Waves and Oscillations in Nature: An Introduction clearly elucidates the dynamics and behavior of waves and oscillations in various mediums. It presents different types of waves and oscillations that can be observed and studied from macroscopic to microscopic scales. The book provides a thorough introduction for researchers and graduate students in assorted areas of physics, such as fluid dynamics,

  20. Faktor-Faktor Risiko Rabies pada Anjing di Bali (RISK FACTORS ANALYSIS FOR RABIES INDOGS IN BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Dibia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The efforts to eradicate rabies in Bali have been done for more than three years. However, therabiescases is still spreading. Thus, rabies virus continues to infect humans. A case-control study wasconducted to identify the risk factors associated with rabid dog in Bali. Cases were defined as dogsconfirmed having rabies by direct fluorescent antibody test (dFAT. Determination of sample amount ineach district was taken proportionally and samples were taken by using simple random sampling. A totalof 51 rabid dog cases between 2010 and 2011 and 102 uninfected rabies dogs as control were used in thisstudy. Possible associated factors were obtained by doing questionnaire. The data were subsequentlyanalyzed using chi-square (X2 and odds-ratio (OR for possible association, which were ultimately analyzedby means of logistic regression to build up of model. This study revealed that factors associated with rabiddog were the status of rabies vaccination (X2= 55.538; P= 0.000; OR= 19.133; 95% CI= 8.015rabies=1| x = - 4.413 + 3.919 (status of rabies vaccination + 3.457(contact with other dog. This study is expected to be used as a reference in order to improve rabies controleffectiveness in Bali.