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Sample records for dependent kinases part

  1. Propofol reduced myocardial contraction of vertebrates partly by mediating the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylation pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Xiaotong; Zhang, Xinyu; Bo, Qiyu; Meng, Tao; Lei, Zhen; Li, Jingxin; Hou, Yonghao; Yu, Xiaoqian; Yu, Jingui

    2016-01-01

    Propofol inhibits myocardial contraction in a dose dependent manner. The present study is designed to examine the effect of propofol on PKA mediated myocardial contraction in the absence of adrenoreceptor agonist. The contraction of isolated rat heart was measured in the presence or absence of PKA inhibitor H89 or propofol, using a pressure transducer. The levels of cAMP and PKA kinase activity were detected by ELISA. The mRNA and total protein or phosphorylation level of PKA and downstream proteins were tested in the presence or absence of PKA inhibitor H89 or propofol, using RT-PCR, QPCR and western blotting. The phosphorylation level of PKA was examined thoroughly using immunofluorescence and PKA activity non-radioactive detection kit. Propofol induced a dose-dependent negative contractile response on the rat heart. The inhibitory effect of high concentration propofol (50 μM) with 45% decease of control could be partly reversed by the PKA inhibitor H89 (10 μM) and the depressant effect of propofol decreased from 45% to 10%. PKA kinase activity was inhibited by propofol in a dose-dependent manner. Propofol also induced a decrease in phosphorylation of PKA, which was also inhibited by H89, but did not alter the production of cAMP and the mRNA levels of PKA. The downstream proteins of PKA, PLN and RyR2 were phosphorylated to a lesser extent with propofol or H89 than control. These results demonstrated that propofol induced a negative myocardial contractile response partly by mediating the PKA phosphorylation pathway.

  2. Inhibitors of Cyclin-dependent Kinases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kryštof, V.; Strnad, Miroslav

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 5 (2001), s. 295-300 ISSN 0009-2770 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA301/02/0475; GA MŠk VS96154 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : Cyclin-dependent Kinase Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.317, year: 2001

  3. Cyclin-dependent kinases in C. elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boxem Mike

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cell division is an inherent part of organismal development, and defects in this process can lead to developmental abnormalities as well as cancerous growth. In past decades, much of the basic cell-cycle machinery has been identified, and a major challenge in coming years will be to understand the complex interplay between cell division and multicellular development. Inevitably, this requires the use of more complex multicellular model systems. The small nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is an excellent model system to study the regulation of cell division in a multicellular organism, and is poised to make important contributions to this field. The past decade has already seen a surge in cell-cycle research in C. elegans, yielding information on the function of many basic cell-cycle regulators, and making inroads into the developmental control of cell division. This review focuses on the in vivo roles of cyclin-dependent kinases in C. elegans, and highlights novel findings implicating CDKs in coupling development to cell-cycle progression.

  4. dependent/calmodulin- stimulated protein kinase from moss

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    lin-dependent protein kinase homolog; Planta 203 S91–. S97. Lu Y-T, Hidaka H and Feldman L J 1996 Characterization of a calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase homolog from maize roots showing light-regulated gravitropism; Planta. 199 18–24. Mitra D and Johri M M 2000 Enhanced expression of a cal-.

  5. Enhanced expression of a calcium-dependent protein kinase from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Calcium-dependent protein kinase; degenerate primer; Funaria hygrometrica; nutrient; polymerase chain reaction; starvation ... Among the downstream targets of calcium in plants, calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) form an inter- esting class of ..... Saunders M J and Hepler P K 1983 Calcium antagonists and.

  6. Diverse phosphoregulatory mechanisms controlling cyclin-dependent kinase-activating kinases in Arabidopsis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shimotohno, A.; Ohno, R.; Bišová, Kateřina; Sakaguchi, N.; Huang, J.; Koncz, C.; Uchimiya, H.; Umeda, M.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 47, - (2006), s. 701-710 ISSN 0960-7412 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : cyclin -dependent kinase * cdk-activating kinase * cyclin Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 6.565, year: 2006

  7. Enhanced expression of a calcium-dependent protein kinase from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Among the downstream targets of calcium in plants, calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) form an interesting class of kinases which are activated by calcium binding. They have been implicated in a diverse array of responses to hormonal and environmental stimuli. In order to dissect the role of CDPKs in the moss ...

  8. Enhanced expression of a calcium-dependent protein kinase

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Among the downstream targets of calcium in plants, calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) form an interesting class of kinases which are activated by calcium binding. They have been implicated in a diverse array of responses to hormonal and environmental stimuli. In order to dissect the role of CDPKs in the moss ...

  9. Localization of two mammalian cyclin dependent kinases during mammalian meiosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashley, T.; Walpita, D.; de rooij, D. G.

    2001-01-01

    Mammalian meiotic progression, like mitotic cell cycle progression, is regulated by cyclins and cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs). However, the unique requirements of meiosis (homologous synapsis, reciprocal recombination and the dual divisions that segregate first homologues, then sister chromatids)

  10. Cyclin-dependent kinase Inhibitors Inspired by Roscovitine: Purine Bioisosteres

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jorda, Radek; Paruch, K.; Kryštof, Vladimír

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 20 (2012), s. 2974-2980 ISSN 1381-6128 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP305/12/0783 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Cancer * cyclin-dependent kinase * inhibitor Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.311, year: 2012 http://www.benthamdirect.org/pages/article/1/3177382/cyclin-dependent-kinase-inhibitors-inspired-by-roscovitine-purine-bioisosteres.html

  11. Cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors as anticancer drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Martínez, Concepción; Gelbert, Lawrence M; Lallena, María José; de Dios, Alfonso

    2015-09-01

    Sustained proliferative capacity is a hallmark of cancer. In mammalian cells proliferation is controlled by the cell cycle, where cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) regulate critical checkpoints. CDK4 and CDK6 are considered highly validated anticancer drug targets due to their essential role regulating cell cycle progression at the G1 restriction point. This review provides an overview of recent advances on cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors in general with special emphasis on CDK4 and CDK6 inhibitors and compounds under clinical evaluation. Chemical structures, structure activity relationships, and relevant preclinical properties will be described. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Targeting Cyclin-Dependent Kinases in Human Cancers: From Small Molecules to Peptide Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Peyressatre

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK/Cyclins form a family of heterodimeric kinases that play central roles in regulation of cell cycle progression, transcription and other major biological processes including neuronal differentiation and metabolism. Constitutive or deregulated hyperactivity of these kinases due to amplification, overexpression or mutation of cyclins or CDK, contributes to proliferation of cancer cells, and aberrant activity of these kinases has been reported in a wide variety of human cancers. These kinases therefore constitute biomarkers of proliferation and attractive pharmacological targets for development of anticancer therapeutics. The structural features of several of these kinases have been elucidated and their molecular mechanisms of regulation characterized in depth, providing clues for development of drugs and inhibitors to disrupt their function. However, like most other kinases, they constitute a challenging class of therapeutic targets due to their highly conserved structural features and ATP-binding pocket. Notwithstanding, several classes of inhibitors have been discovered from natural sources, and small molecule derivatives have been synthesized through rational, structure-guided approaches or identified in high throughput screens. The larger part of these inhibitors target ATP pockets, but a growing number of peptides targeting protein/protein interfaces are being proposed, and a small number of compounds targeting allosteric sites have been reported.

  13. Novel arylazopyrazole inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jorda, Radek; Schütznerová, E.; Cankař, P.; Brychtová, Veronika; Navrátilová, Jana; Kryštof, Vladimír

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 9 (2015), s. 1975-1981 ISSN 0968-0896 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP305/12/0783; GA ČR GA14-19590S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Cyclin-dependent kinases * Inhibitor * Cell cycle Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.923, year: 2015

  14. Cyclin-dependent kinase suppression by WEE1 kinase protects the genome through control of replication initiation and nucleotide consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Halfdan; Nähse-Kumpf, Viola; Larsen, Marie Sofie Yoo

    2012-01-01

    Activation of oncogenes or inhibition of WEE1 kinase deregulates Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) activity and leads to replication stress, however, the underlying mechanism is not understood. We now show that elevation of CDK activity by inhibiting WEE1 kinase rapidly increases initiation of replic...... that deregulated CDK activity, such as that occurring following inhibition of WEE1 kinase or activation of oncogenes, induces replication stress and loss of genomic integrity through increased firing of replication origins and subsequent nucleotide shortage.......Activation of oncogenes or inhibition of WEE1 kinase deregulates Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) activity and leads to replication stress, however, the underlying mechanism is not understood. We now show that elevation of CDK activity by inhibiting WEE1 kinase rapidly increases initiation...

  15. Presenilin dependence of phospholipase C and protein kinase C signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehvari, Nodi; Cedazo-Minguez, Angel; Isacsson, Ola

    2007-01-01

    -stimulated phospholipase C (PLC) activity which was gamma-secretase dependent. To further evaluate the dependence of PLC on PSs we measured PLC activity and the activation of variant protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) lacking either PS1, PS2, or both. PLC activity and PKCalpha...... and PKCgamma activations were significantly lower in PS1 and PS2 double knockout MEFs after PLC stimulation. Protein levels of PKCalpha and PKCgamma were lower in PS1 and PS2 double knockout MEFs. In contrast, PKCdelta levels were significantly elevated in PS1 and PS2 double knockout as well as in PS1 knockout...

  16. Cyclin-dependent kinases regulate apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sujoy; Ray, Ramesh M.; Johnson, Leonard R.

    2014-01-01

    Homeostasis of the gastrointestinal epithelium is dependent upon a balance between cell proliferation and apoptosis. Cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) are well known for their role in cell proliferation. Previous studies from our group have shown that polyamine-depletion of intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6) decreases cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2) activity, increases p53 and p21Cip1 protein levels, induces G1 arrest, and protects cells from camptothecin (CPT)-induced apoptosis. Although emerging evidence suggests that members of the Cdk family are involved in the regulation of apoptosis, their roles directing apoptosis of IEC-6 cells are not known. In this study, we report that inhibition of Cdk1, 2, and 9 (with the broad range Cdk inhibitor, AZD5438) in proliferating IEC-6 cells triggered DNA damage, activated p53 signaling, inhibited proliferation, and induced apoptosis. By contrast, inhibition of Cdk2 (with NU6140) increased p53 protein and activity, inhibited proliferation, but had no effect on apoptosis. Notably, AZD5438 sensitized, whereas, NU6140 rescued proliferating IEC-6 cells from CPT-induced apoptosis. However, in colon carcinoma (Caco2) cells with mutant p53, treatment with either AZD5438 or NU6140 blocked proliferation, albeit more robustly with AZD5438. Both Cdk inhibitors induced apoptosis in Caco2 cells in a p53-independent manner. In serum starved quiescent IEC-6 cells, both AZD5438 and NU6140 decreased TNF- /CPT-induced activation of p53 and, consequently, rescued cells from apoptosis, indicating that sustained Cdk activity is required for apoptosis of quiescent cells. Furthermore, AZD5438 partially reversed the protective effect of polyamine depletion whereas NU6140 had no effect. Together, these results demonstrate that Cdks possess opposing roles in the control of apoptosis in quiescent and proliferating cells. In addition, Cdk inhibitors uncouple proliferation from apoptosis in a p53-dependent manner. PMID:24242917

  17. Probes of the Mitochondrial cAMP-dependent Protein Kinase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shell, Jennifer R.; Lawrence, David S.

    2013-01-01

    The development of a fluorescent assay to detect activity of the mitochondrial cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is described. A peptide-based sensor was utilized to quantify the relative amount of PKA activity present in each compartment of the mitochondria (the outer membrane, the intermembrane space, and the matrix). In the process of validating this assay, we discovered that PKA activity is regulated by the protease calpain. Upon exposure of bovine heart mitochondria to digitonin, Ca2+, and a variety of electron transport chain inhibitors, the regulatory subunits of the PKA holoenzyme (R2C2) are digested, releasing active catalytic subunits. This proteolysis is attenuated by calpain inhibitor I (ALLN). PMID:23410952

  18. Metabolic control by S6 kinases depends on dietary lipids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara R Castañeda

    Full Text Available Targeted deletion of S6 kinase (S6K 1 in mice leads to higher energy expenditure and improved glucose metabolism. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling these effects remain to be fully elucidated. Here, we analyze the potential role of dietary lipids in regulating the mTORC1/S6K system. Analysis of S6K phosphorylation in vivo and in vitro showed that dietary lipids activate S6K, and this effect is not dependent upon amino acids. Comparison of male mice lacking S6K1 and 2 (S6K-dko with wt controls showed that S6K-dko mice are protected against obesity and glucose intolerance induced by a high-fat diet. S6K-dko mice fed a high-fat diet had increased energy expenditure, improved glucose tolerance, lower fat mass gain, and changes in markers of lipid metabolism. Importantly, however, these metabolic phenotypes were dependent upon dietary lipids, with no such effects observed in S6K-dko mice fed a fat-free diet. These changes appear to be mediated via modulation of cellular metabolism in skeletal muscle, as shown by the expression of genes involved in energy metabolism. Taken together, our results suggest that the metabolic functions of S6K in vivo play a key role as a molecular interface connecting dietary lipids to the endogenous control of energy metabolism.

  19. Selective Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitors Discriminating between Cell Cycle and Transcriptional Kinases Future Reality or Utopia?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wesierska-Gadek, J.; Kryštof, Vladimír

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 1171, - (2009), s. 228-241 ISSN 0077-8923 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/08/0511 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : cell cycle * CYC202 * cyclin-dependent kinase Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.670, year: 2009

  20. Thrombin generation in abdominal sepsis is Rho-kinase-dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongzhi; Braun, Oscar Ö; Zhang, Su; Norström, Eva; Thorlacius, Henrik

    2015-05-08

    Sepsis causes severe derangements of the coagulation system. However, the signaling mechanisms regulating sepsis-induced thrombin generation remain elusive. Herein, we hypothesized that Rho-kinase might be an important regulator of thrombin generation in abdominal sepsis. Abdominal sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in C57Bl/6 mice. Thrombin generation, coagulation factors, lung histology and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were determined 6 h and 24 h after induction of CLP. Induction of CLP triggered a systemic inflammatory response characterized by neutrophil accumulation and tissue injury in the lung as well as thrombocytopenia and leukocytopenia. Administration of Y-27632, a Rho-kinase inhibitor, attenuated these markers of systemic inflammation in CLP animals. Moreover, peak thrombin formation was decreased by 77% and 81% in plasma from mice 6 h and 24 h after induction of CLP. Total thrombin generation was reduced by 64% and 67% 6 h and 24 h after CLP induction, respectively. Notably, administration of Y-27632 increased peak formation by 99% and total thrombin generation by 66% in plasma from septic animals. In addition, CLP markedly decreased plasma levels of prothrombin, factor V and factor X at 6 h and 24 h. Interestingly, Rho-kinase inhibition significantly enhanced levels of prothrombin, factor V and factor X in plasma from septic mice. In addition, inhibition of Rho-kinase decreased CLP-induced elevations of CXCL2 by 36% and interleukin-6 by 38%. These novel findings suggest that sepsis-induced thrombin generation is regulated by Rho-kinase. Moreover, inhibition of Rho-kinase reverses sepsis-evoked consumption of coagulation factors. Thus, our results show that targeting Rho-kinase signaling might protect against coagulation dysfunction in abdominal sepsis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The DNA-dependent protein kinase: a multifunctional protein kinase with roles in DNA double strand break repair and mitosis

    OpenAIRE

    Jette, Nicholas; Lees-Miller, Susan P.

    2014-01-01

    The DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) is a serine/threonine protein kinase composed of a large catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) and the Ku70/80 heterodimer. Over the past two decades, significant progress has been made in elucidating the role of DNA-PK in non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), the major pathway for repair of ionizing radiation-induced DNA double strand breaks in human cells and recently, additional roles for DNA-PK have been reported. In this review, we will describe the biochemi...

  2. Calcium/phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase C) phosphorylates and activates tyrosine hydroxylase.

    OpenAIRE

    Albert, K A; Helmer-Matyjek, E; Nairn, A C; Müller, T H; Haycock, J W; Greene, L A; Goldstein, M; Greengard, P

    1984-01-01

    Protein kinase C, purified to homogeneity, was found to phosphorylate and activate tyrosine hydroxylase that had been partially purified from pheochromocytoma PC 12 cells. These actions of protein kinase C required the presence of calcium and phospholipid. This phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase reduced the Km for the cofactor 6-methyltetrahydropterine from 0.45 mM to 0.11 mM, increased the Ki for dopamine from 4.2 microM to 47.5 microM, and produced no change in the Km for tyrosine. Lit...

  3. The role of DNA dependent protein kinase in synapsis of DNA ends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.P.W.C. Weterings (Eric); N.S. Verkaik (Nicole); H.T. Brüggenwirth (Hennie); D.C. van Gent (Dik); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractDNA dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) plays a central role in the non-homologous end-joining pathway of DNA double strand break repair. Its catalytic subunit (DNA-PK(CS)) functions as a serine/threonine protein kinase. We show that DNA-PK forms a stable complex at DNA termini that blocks

  4. An active form of calcium and calmodulin dependant protein kinase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The removal of the auto-inhibitory domain that negatively regulates the kinase activity in M. truncatula results in a constitutively-active form, inducing symbiotic responses in the absence of bacterial signals. In this study, we verified the functionality of a DMI3 variant and its ability to induce spontaneous nodules in M.

  5. The ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, Ubc1, indirectly regulates SNF1 kinase activity via Forkhead-dependent transcription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubin Jiao

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The SNF1 kinase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an excellent model to study the regulation and function of the AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK family of serine-threonine protein kinases. Yeast discoveries regarding the regulation of this non-hormonal sensor of metabolic/environmental stress are conserved in higher eukaryotes, including poly-ubiquitination of the α-subunit of yeast (Snf1 and human (AMPKα that ultimately effects subunit stability and enzyme activity. The ubiquitin-cascade enzymes responsible for targeting Snf1 remain unknown, leading us to screen for those that impact SNF1 kinase function. We identified the E2, Ubc1, as a regulator of SNF1 kinase function. The decreased Snf1 abundance found upon deletion of Ubc1 is not due to increased degradation, but instead is partly due to impaired SNF1 gene expression, arising from diminished abundance of the Forkhead 1/2 proteins, previously shown to contribute to SNF1 transcription. Ultimately, we report that the Fkh1/2 cognate transcription factor, Hcm1, fails to enter the nucleus in the absence of Ubc1. This implies that Ubc1 acts indirectly through transcriptional effects to modulate SNF1 kinase activity.

  6. Structures of apicomplexan calcium-dependent protein kinases reveal mechanism of activation by calcium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wernimont, Amy K; Artz, Jennifer D.; Jr, Patrick Finerty; Lin, Yu-Hui; Amani, Mehrnaz; Allali-Hassani, Abdellah; Senisterra, Guillermo; Vedadi, Masoud; Tempel, Wolfram; Mackenzie, Farrell; Chau, Irene; Lourido, Sebastian; Sibley, L. David; Hui, Raymond (Toronto); (WU-MED)

    2010-09-21

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) have pivotal roles in the calcium-signaling pathway in plants, ciliates and apicomplexan parasites and comprise a calmodulin-dependent kinase (CaMK)-like kinase domain regulated by a calcium-binding domain in the C terminus. To understand this intramolecular mechanism of activation, we solved the structures of the autoinhibited (apo) and activated (calcium-bound) conformations of CDPKs from the apicomplexan parasites Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium parvum. In the apo form, the C-terminal CDPK activation domain (CAD) resembles a calmodulin protein with an unexpected long helix in the N terminus that inhibits the kinase domain in the same manner as CaMKII. Calcium binding triggers the reorganization of the CAD into a highly intricate fold, leading to its relocation around the base of the kinase domain to a site remote from the substrate binding site. This large conformational change constitutes a distinct mechanism in calcium signal-transduction pathways.

  7. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors as anticancer drugs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kryštof, Vladimír; Uldrijan, S.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 3 (2010), s. 291-302 ISSN 1389-4501 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/08/0511; GA ČR GA301/08/1649; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06077 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : CDK * protein kinase * inhibitor Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.061, year: 2010

  8. Activation of ZmMKK10, a maize mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase, induces ethylene-dependent cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ying; Yang, Hailian; Ren, Dongtao; Li, Yuan

    2017-11-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades play important roles in regulating plant growth, development and stress responses. Here, we report that ZmMKK10, a maize MAP kinase kinase, positively regulates cell death. Sequence comparison to Arabidopsis MKKs has led to ZmMKK10 being classified as a group D MKK. Kinase activity analysis of recombinant ZmMKK10 showed that the Mg 2+ ion was required for its kinase activity. Transient expression of ZmMKK10 WT or ZmMKK10 DD (the active form of ZmMKK10) in maize mesophyll protoplast significantly increased the cell death rate. Inducible expression of ZmMKK10 WT or ZmMKK10 DD in Arabidopsis transgenic plants caused rapid HR-like cell death, whereas induction of ZmMKK10 KR (the inactive form of ZmMKK10) expression in transgenic plants did not yield the same phenotype. Genetic and pharmacological analysis revealed that ZmMKK10-induced cell death in transgenic plants requires the activation of Arabidopsis MPK3 and MPK6 and that it partially depended on ethylene biosynthesis. ZmMPK3 and ZmMPK7, the orthologues of Arabidopsis MPK3 and MPK6, interacted with ZmMKK10 in yeast and ZmMKK10 phosphorylated them both in vitro. Our results demonstrate that ZmMKK10 induces cell death in an ethylene-dependent manner. Furthermore, ZmMPK3 and ZmMPK7 may be the downstream MAPKs in this process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Huntingtin-Associated Protein 1 (HAP1) is a cGMP-dependent Kinase Anchoring Protein (GKAP) specific for the cGMP-dependent protein kinase Iβ isoform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corradini, Eleonora; Burgers, Pepijn P.; Plank, Michael; Heck, Albert J R; Scholten, Arjen

    2015-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions are important in providing compartmentalization and specificity in cellular signal transduction. Many studies have hallmarked the well designed compartmentalization of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) through its anchoring proteins. Much less data are available on

  10. Selective inhibition reveals cyclin-dependent kinase 2 as another kinase that phosphorylates the androgen receptor at serine 81

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jorda, Radek; Bučková, Zuzana; Řezníčková, Eva; Bouchal, J.; Kryštof, Vladimír

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 1865, č. 2 (2018), s. 354-363 ISSN 0167-4889 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1304 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Androgen receptor * Cyclin-dependent kinase * Inhibitor * Phosphorylation * Serine 81 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 4.521, year: 2016

  11. Redox regulation of cGMP-dependent protein kinase Iα in the cardiovascular system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prysyazhna, Oleksandra; Eaton, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Elevated levels of oxidants in biological systems have been historically referred to as “oxidative stress,” a choice of words that perhaps conveys an imbalanced view of reactive oxygen species in cells and tissues. The term stress suggests a harmful role, whereas a contemporary view is that oxidants are also crucial for the maintenance of homeostasis or adaptive signaling that can actually limit injury. This regulatory role for oxidants is achieved in part by them inducing oxidative post-translational modifications of proteins which may alter their function or interactions. Such mechanisms allow changes in cell oxidant levels to be coupled to regulated alterations in enzymatic function (i.e., signal transduction), which enables “redox signaling.” In this review we focus on the role of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) Ia disulfide dimerisation, an oxidative modification that is induced by oxidants that directly activates the enzyme, discussing how this impacts on the cardiovascular system. Additionally, how this oxidative activation of PKG may coordinate with or differ from classical activation of this kinase by cGMP is also considered. PMID:26236235

  12. The DNA-dependent protein kinase: a multifunctional protein kinase with roles in DNA double strand break repair and mitosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jette, Nicholas; Lees-Miller, Susan P.

    2015-01-01

    The DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) is a serine/threonine protein kinase composed of a large catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) and the Ku70/80 heterodimer. Over the past two decades, significant progress has been made in elucidating the role of DNA-PK in non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), the major pathway for repair of ionizing radiation-induced DNA double strand breaks in human cells and recently, additional roles for DNA-PK have been reported. In this review, we will describe the biochemistry, structure and function of DNA-PK, its roles in DNA double strand break repair and its newly described roles in mitosis and other cellular processes. PMID:25550082

  13. S -Nitrosylation inhibits the kinase activity of tomato phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jian-Zhong; Duan, Jicheng; Ni, Min; Liu, Zhen; Qiu, Wen-Li; Whitham, Steven A.; Qian, Wei-Jun

    2017-09-29

    It is well known that the reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide (NO), can trigger cell death in plants, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we provide evidence that NO may trigger cell death in tomato (Solanum lycopersicon) through inhibiting the phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) kinase activity via S-nitrosylation. Biotin-switch assays and LC-MS/MS analyses demonstrated that SlPDK1 was a target of S-nitrosylation modification, which primarily occurred on the cysteine residue at position 128 (Cys128). Accordingly, the kinase activity of SlPDK1 was inhibited by S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) both in vitro and in vivo in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating that SlPDK1 activity is regulated by S-nitrosylation. The inhibition of SlPDK1 kinase activity by GSNO was reversible in the presence of a reducing agent but synergistically enhanced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Mutation of Cys128 to serine completely abolished SlPDK1 kinase activity, suggesting that S-nitrosylation of Cys128 is responsible for the inhibition of the kinase activity of SlPDK1. In sum, our results established a potential link between NO-triggered cell death and inhibition of the kinase activity of tomato PDK1, a conserved negative regulator of cell death in yeasts, mammals and plants. Nitric oxide (NO) potentiates the induction of hypersensitive cell death in soybean cells by reactive oxygen species (ROS) (1). However, the molecular mechanism of the NO-induced cell death remains an enigma. One potential mechanism is that the activity of proteins that control cell death may be altered by a post-translational modification, S-nitrosylation. S-nitrosylation is the addition of the NO moiety to thiol groups, including cysteine (Cys) residues in proteins, to form S-nitrosothiols (SNOs). S-nitrosylation is an enzyme-independent post-translational and labile modification that can function as an on/off switch of protein activity (2- 4). Thousands of diverse

  14. A curvature-dependent membrane binding by tyrosine kinase Fer involves an intrinsically disordered region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hikaru; Kondo, Akihiro; Itoh, Toshiki

    2018-01-01

    Tyrosine kinases are important enzymes that mediate signal transduction at the plasma membrane. While the significance of membrane localization of tyrosine kinases has been well evaluated, the role of membrane curvature in their regulation is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that an intrinsically disordered region in the tyrosine kinase Fer acts as a membrane curvature sensor that preferentially binds to highly curved membranes in vitro. This region forms an amphipathic α-helix upon interaction with curved membranes, aligning hydrophobic residues on one side of the helical structure. Further, the tyrosine kinase activity of Fer is significantly enhanced by the membrane in a manner dependent on curvature. We propose a model for the regulation of Fer based on an intramolecular interaction and the curvature-dependent membrane binding mediated by its intrinsically disordered region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Perspective of Cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9) as a Drug Target

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kryštof, Vladimír; Baumli, S.; Fürst, R.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 20 (2012), s. 2883-2890 ISSN 1381-6128 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP305/12/0783 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Cancer * inflammation * kinase Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.311, year: 2012 http://www.benthamdirect.org/pages/article/1/3177374/perspective-of-cyclin-dependent-kinase-9-cdk9-as-a- drug -target.html

  16. Chimeric calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase in tobacco: differential regulation by calmodulin isoforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z.; Xia, M.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    1998-01-01

    cDNA clones of chimeric Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) from tobacco (TCCaMK-1 and TCCaMK-2) were isolated and characterized. The polypeptides encoded by TCCaMK-1 and TCCaMK-2 have 15 different amino acid substitutions, yet they both contain a total of 517 amino acids. Northern analysis revealed that CCaMK is expressed in a stage-specific manner during anther development. Messenger RNA was detected when tobacco bud sizes were between 0.5 cm and 1.0 cm. The appearance of mRNA coincided with meiosis and became undetectable at later stages of anther development. The reverse polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification assay using isoform-specific primers showed that both of the CCaMK mRNAs were expressed in anther with similar expression patterns. The CCaMK protein expressed in Escherichia coli showed Ca2+-dependent autophosphorylation and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent substrate phosphorylation. Calmodulin isoforms (PCM1 and PCM6) had differential effects on the regulation of autophosphorylation and substrate phosphorylation of tobacco CCaMK, but not lily CCaMK. The evolutionary tree of plant serine/threonine protein kinases revealed that calmodulin-dependent kinases form one subgroup that is distinctly different from Ca2+-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) and other serine/threonine kinases in plants.

  17. The regulation of SIRT2 function by cyclin-dependent kinases affects cell motility.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pandithage, R.; Lilischkis, R.; Harting, K.; Wolf, A.; Jedamzik, B.; Luscher-Firzlaff, J.; Vervoorts, J.; Lasonder, E.; Kremmer, E.; Knoll, B.; Luscher, B.

    2008-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) fulfill key functions in many cellular processes, including cell cycle progression and cytoskeletal dynamics. A limited number of Cdk substrates have been identified with few demonstrated to be regulated by Cdk-dependent phosphorylation. We identify on protein

  18. Casein kinase 2 dependent phosphorylation of neprilysin regulates receptor tyrosine kinase signaling to Akt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Siepmann

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Neprilysin (NEP is a type II membrane metalloproteinase that cleaves physiologically active peptides at the cell surface thus regulating the local concentration of these peptides available for receptor binding and signal transduction. In addition, the cytoplasmic N-terminal domain of NEP interacts with the phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN thereby regulating intracellular signaling via Akt. Thus, NEP serves dual functions in extracellular and intracellular signal transduction. Here, we show that NEP undergoes phosphorylation at serine residue 6 within the N-terminal cytoplasmic domain. In vitro and cell culture experiments demonstrate that Ser 6 is efficiently phosphorylated by protein kinase CK2. The phosphorylation of the cytoplasmic domain of NEP inhibits its interaction with PTEN. Interestingly, expression of a pseudophosphorylated NEP variant (Ser6Asp abrogates the inhibitory effect of NEP on insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 stimulated activation of Akt. Thus, our data demonstrate a regulatory role of CK2 in the interaction of NEP with PTEN and insulin/IGF-1 signaling.

  19. Puerarin activates endothelial nitric oxide synthase through estrogen receptor-dependent PI3-kinase and calcium-dependent AMP-activated protein kinase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Yong Pil; Kim, Hyung Gyun [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hien, Tran Thi [College of Pharmacy, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Myung Ho [Heart Research Center, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Tae Cheon, E-mail: taecheon@ynu.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Yeungnam University, Gyungsan (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hye Gwang, E-mail: hgjeong@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    The cardioprotective properties of puerarin, a natural product, have been attributed to the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-mediated production of nitric oxide (NO) in EA.hy926 endothelial cells. However, the mechanism by which puerarin activates eNOS remains unclear. In this study, we sought to identify the intracellular pathways underlying eNOS activation by puerarin. Puerarin induced the activating phosphorylation of eNOS on Ser1177 and the production of NO in EA.hy926 cells. Puerarin-induced eNOS phosphorylation required estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling and was reversed by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) inhibition. Importantly, puerarin inhibited the adhesion of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha}-stimulated monocytes to endothelial cells and suppressed the TNF-{alpha} induced expression of intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1. Puerarin also inhibited the TNF-{alpha}-induced nuclear factor-{kappa}B activation, which was attenuated by pretreatment with N{sup G}-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, a NOS inhibitor. These results indicate that puerarin stimulates eNOS phosphorylation and NO production via activation of an estrogen receptor-mediated PI3K/Akt- and CaMKII/AMPK-dependent pathway. Puerarin may be useful for the treatment or prevention of endothelial dysfunction associated with diabetes and cardiovascular disease. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Puerarin induced the phosphorylation of eNOS and the production of NO. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Puerarin activated eNOS through ER-dependent PI3-kinase and Ca{sup 2+}-dependent AMPK. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Puerarin-induced NO was involved in the inhibition of NF-kB activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Puerarin may help for prevention of vascular dysfunction and diabetes.

  20. Partial purification and characterization of a Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase from pea nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.; Dauwalder, M.; Roux, S. J.

    1991-01-01

    Almost all the Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase activity in nuclei purified from etiolated pea (Pisum sativum, L.) plumules is present in a single enzyme that can be extracted from chromatin by 0.3 molar NaCl. This protein kinase can be further purified 80,000-fold by salt fractionation and high performance liquid chromatography, after which it has a high specific activity of about 100 picomoles per minute per microgram in the presence of Ca2+ and reaches half-maximal activation at about 3 x 10(-7) molar free Ca2+, without calmodulin. It is a monomer with a molecular weight near 90,000. It can efficiently use histone III-S, ribosomal S6 protein, and casein as artificial substrates, but it phosphorylates phosvitin only weakly. Its Ca(2+)-dependent kinase activity is half-maximally inhibited by 0.1 millimolar chlorpromazine, by 35 nanomolar K-252a and by 7 nanomolar staurosporine. It is insensitive to sphingosine, an inhibitor of protein kinase C, and to basic polypeptides that block other Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinases. It is not stimulated by exogenous phospholipids or fatty acids. In intact isolated pea nuclei it preferentially phosphorylates several chromatin-associated proteins, with the most phosphorylated protein band being near the same molecular weight (43,000) as a nuclear protein substrate whose phosphorylation has been reported to be stimulated by phytochrome in a calcium-dependent fashion.

  1. Polyunsaturated fatty acids induce ovarian cancer cell death through ROS-dependent MAP kinase activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Aiko; Yamamoto, Akane; Murota, Kaeko; Tsujiuchi, Toshifumi; Iwamori, Masao; Fukushima, Nobuyuki

    2017-11-04

    Free fatty acids not only play a role in cell membrane construction and energy production but also exert diverse cellular effects through receptor and non-receptor mechanisms. Moreover, epidemiological and clinical studies have so far suggested that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) could have health benefits and the advantage as therapeutic use in cancer treatment. However, the underlying mechanisms of PUFA-induced cellular effects remained to be cleared. Here, we examined the effects of ω-3 and ω-6 PUFAs on cell death in ovarian cancer cell lines. ω-3 PUFA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and ω-6 PUFA, γ-linolenic acid (γ-LNA) induced cell death in KF28 cells at the levels of physiological concentrations, but not HAC2 cells. Pharmacological and biochemical analyses demonstrated that cell death induced by DHA and γ-LNA was correlated with activation of JNK and p38 MAP kinases, and further an upstream MAP kinase kinase, apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1, which is stimulated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, an antioxidant vitamin E attenuated PUFA-induced cell death and MAP kinase activation. These findings indicate that PUFA-induced cell death involves ROS-dependent MAP kinase activation and is a cell type-specific action. A further study of the underlying mechanisms for ROS-dependent cell death induced by PUFAs will lead to the discovery of a new target for cancer therapy or diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The cyclin-dependent kinase 8 module sterically blocks Mediator interactions with RNA polymerase II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmlund, Hans; Baraznenok, Vera; Lindahl, Martin

    2006-01-01

    CDK8 (cyclin-dependent kinase 8), along with CycC, Med12, and Med13, form a repressive module (the Cdk8 module) that prevents RNA polymerase II (pol II) interactions with Mediator. Here, we report that the ability of the Cdk8 module to prevent pol II interactions is independent of the Cdk8......-dependent kinase activity. We use electron microscopy and single-particle reconstruction to demonstrate that the Cdk8 module forms a distinct structural entity that binds to the head and middle region of Mediator, thereby sterically blocking interactions with pol II....

  3. PPARδ activation acts cooperatively with 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 to enhance mammary tumorigenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire B Pollock

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorδ (PPARδ is a transcription factor that is associated with metabolic gene regulation and inflammation. It has been implicated in tumor promotion and in the regulation of 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDK1. PDK1 is a key regulator of the AGC protein kinase family, which includes the proto-oncogene AKT/PKB implicated in several malignancies, including breast cancer. To assess the role of PDK1 in mammary tumorigenesis and its interaction with PPARδ, transgenic mice were generated in which PDK1 was expressed in mammary epithelium under the control of the MMTV enhancer/promoter region. Transgene expression increased pT308AKT and pS9GSK3β, but did not alter phosphorylation of mTOR, 4EBP1, ribosomal protein S6 and PKCα. The transgenic mammary gland also expressed higher levels of PPARδ and a gene expression profile resembling wild-type mice maintained on a diet containing the PPARδ agonist, GW501516. Both wild-type and transgenic mice treated with GW501516 exhibited accelerated rates of tumor formation that were more pronounced in transgenic animals. GW501516 treatment was accompanied by a distinct metabolic gene expression and metabolomic signature that was not present in untreated animals. GW501516-treated transgenic mice expressed higher levels of fatty acid and phospholipid metabolites than treated wild-type mice, suggesting the involvement of PDK1 in enhancing PPARδ-driven energy metabolism. These results reveal that PPARδ activation elicits a distinct metabolic and metabolomic profile in tumors that is in part related to PDK1 and AKT signaling.

  4. A Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase Is Systemically Induced upon Wounding in Tomato Plants1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chico, José Manuel; Raíces, Marcela; Téllez-Iñón, María Teresa; Ulloa, Rita María

    2002-01-01

    A full-length cDNA clone (LeCDPK1) from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) encoding a calcium-dependent protein kinase (CDPK) was isolated by screening a cDNA library from tomato cell cultures exposed to Cladosporium fulvum elicitor preparations. The predicted amino acid sequence of the cDNA reveals a high degree of similarity with other members of the CDPK family. LeCDPK1 has a putative N-terminal myristoylation sequence and presents a possible palmitoylation site. The in vitro translated protein conserves the biochemical properties of a member of the CDPK family. In addition, CDPK activity was detected in soluble and particulate extracts of tomato leaves. Basal levels of LeCDPK1 mRNA were detected by northern-blot analysis in roots, stems, leaves, and flowers of tomato plants. The expression of LeCDPK1 was rapidly and transiently enhanced in detached tomato leaves treated with pathogen elicitors and H2O2. Moreover, when tomato greenhouse plants were subjected to mechanical wounding, a transient increase of LeCDPK1 steady-state mRNA levels was detected locally at the site of the injury and systemically in distant non-wounded leaves. The increase observed in LeCDPK1 mRNA upon wounding correlates with an increase in the amount and in the activity of a soluble CDPK detected in extracts of tomato leaves, suggesting that this kinase is part of physiological plant defense mechanisms against biotic or abiotic attacks. PMID:11788771

  5. 2,5-hexanedione (HD) treatment alters calmodulin, Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, and protein kinase C in rats' nerve tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qingshan; Hou Liyan; Zhang Cuili; Zhao Xiulan; Yu Sufang; Xie, Ke-Qin

    2008-01-01

    Calcium-dependent mechanisms, particularly those mediated by Ca 2+ /calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), have been implicated in neurotoxicant-induced neuropathy. However, it is unknown whether similar mechanisms exist in 2,5-hexanedione (HD)-induced neuropathy. For that, we investigated the changes of CaM, CaMKII, protein kinase C (PKC) and polymerization ratios (PRs) of NF-L, NF-M and NF-H in cerebral cortex (CC, including total cortex and some gray), spinal cord (SC) and sciatic nerve (SN) of rats treated with HD at a dosage of 1.75 or 3.50 mmol/kg for 8 weeks (five times per week). The results showed that CaM contents in CC, SC and SN were significantly increased, which indicated elevation of Ca 2+ concentrations in nerve tissues. CaMKII contents and activities were also increased in CC and were positively correlated with gait abnormality, but it could not be found in SC and SN. The increases of PKC contents and activities were also observed in SN and were positively correlated with gait abnormality. Except for that of NF-M in CC, the PRs of NF-L, NF-M and NF-H were also elevated in nerve tissues, which was consistent with the activation of protein kinases. The results suggested that CaMKII might be partly (in CC but not in SC and SN) involved in HD-induced neuropathy. CaMKII and PKC might mediate the HD neurotoxicity by altering the NF phosphorylation status and PRs

  6. Cyclin dependent kinase 5 regulates endocytosis in nerve terminals via dynamin I phosphorylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, T.C.; Hansra, G.; Calova, V.; Cousin, M.; Robinson, P.J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Synaptic vesicle endocytosis (SVE) in nerve terminals is essential for normal synaptic transmission and for memory retrieval. Dynamin I is a 96kDa nerve terminal phosphoprotein necessary for synaptic vesicle endocytosis in the nerve terminal. Dynamin I is dephosphorylated and rephosphorylated in a cyclical fashion with nerve terminal depolarisation and repolarisation. A number of kinases phosphorylate dynamin I in vitro including PKC, MAP kinase and cdc2. PKC phosphorylates dynamin in the proline rich domain on Ser 795 and is also thought to be the in vivo kinase for dynamin I. Another candidate is the neuron specific kinase cdk5, crucial for CNS development. The aim of this study is to identify the kinase which phosphorylates dynamin I in intact nerve terminals. Here we show that cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (cdk5) phosphorylates dynamin I in the proline-rich tail on Ser-774 or Ser-778. The phosphorylation of these sites but not Ser-795 also occurred in intact nerve terminals suggesting that cdk5 is the physiologically relevant enzyme for dynamin I. Synaptosomes prepared from rat brains (after cervical dislocations) and labelled with 32 Pi, were incubated with 100 M roscovitine (a selective inhibitor of cdks), 10 M Ro 31-8220 (a selective PKC inhibitor) and 100 M PD 98059 (a MEK kinase inhibitor). Dynamin rephosphorylation during repolarisation was reduced in synaptosomes treated with roscovitine and Ro 38-8220 but not in synaptosomes treated with PD 98059. Fluorimetric experiments on intact synaptosomes utilising FM-210 (a fluorescent dye) indicate that endocytosis was reduced in synaptosomes treated with 100 M roscovitine. Our results suggest that dynamin phosphorylation in intact nerve terminals may not be regulated by PKC or MAP kinase and that dynamin phosphorylation by cdk5 may regulate endocytosis. Copyright (2002) Australian Neuroscience Society

  7. Novel adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate dependent protein kinases in a marine diatom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, P.P.C.; Volcani, B.E.

    1989-01-01

    Two novel adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) dependent protein kinases have been isolated from the diatom Cylindrotheca fusiformis. The kinases, designated I and II, are eluted from DEAE-Sephacel at 0.10 and 0.15 M NaCl. They have a high affinity for cAMP and are activated by micromolar cAMP. They exhibit maximal activity at 5 mM Mg 2+ and pH 8 with the preferred phosphate donor ATP and phosphate acceptor histone H1. They phosphorylate sea urchin sperm histone H1 on a single serine site in the sequence Arg-Lys-Gly-Ser( 32 P)-Ser-Asn-Ala-Arg and have an apparent M r of 75,000 as determined by gel filtration and sucrose density sedimentation. In the kinase I preparation a single protein band with an apparent M r of about 78,000 is photolabeled with 8-azido[ 32 P]cAMP and is also phosphorylated with [γ- 32 P]ATP in a cAMP-dependent manner, after autoradiography following sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis. The rate of phosphorylation of the 78,000-dalton band is independent of the enzyme concentration. The results indicate that (i) these diatom cAMP-dependent protein kinases are monomeric proteins, possessing both the cAMP-binding regulatory and catalytic domains on the same polypeptide chain, (ii) the enzymes do not dissociate into smaller species upon activation by binding cAMP, and (iii) self-phosphorylation of the enzymes by an intrapeptide reaction is cAMP dependent. The two diatom cAMP kinases are refractory to the heat-stable protein kinase modulator from rabbit muscle, but they respond differently to proteolytic degradation and to inhibition by arachidonic acid and several microbial alkaloids

  8. Activation of a calcium-dependent protein kinase involved in the Azospirillum growth promotion in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribaudo, Claudia M; Curá, José A; Cantore, María L

    2017-02-01

    Rice seedlings (Oryza sativa) inoculated with the plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria Azospirillum brasilense FT326 showed an enhanced development of the root system 3 days after inoculation. Later on, a remarkable enlargement of shoots was also evident. An increase in the Ca 2+ -dependent histone kinase activity was also detected as a result of inoculation. The biochemical characterization and Western-blot analysis of the kinase strongly supports the hypothesis that it belongs to a member of the rice CDPK family. The fact that the amount of the protein did not change upon inoculation seems to indicate that a posttranslational activation is responsible for the change in the enzymatic activity. An in-gel kinase experiment identified a 46 kDa CDPK like protein kinase as a putative component of the signal transduction pathway triggered by Azospirillum inoculation. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the possible involvement of a Ca 2+ -dependent protein kinase in promotion of rice plants growth by A. brasilense.

  9. The inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases, olomoucine II, exhibits potent antiviral properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holčáková, J.; Tomašec, P.; Burget, J. J.; Wang, E. C. Y.; Wilkinson, G. W. G.; Hrstka, R.; Kryštof, Vladimír; Strnad, Miroslav; Vojtešek, B.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 3 (2010), s. 133-142 ISSN 0956-3202 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA301/08/1649 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Cyclin-dependent Kinase * Olomoucine II * vaccinia Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  10. Spermidine-Induced Improvement of Reconsolidation of Memory Involves Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardi, Bruna Amanda; Ribeiro, Daniela Aymone; Signor, Cristiane; Muller, Michele; Gais, Mayara Ana; Mello, Carlos Fernando; Rubin, Maribel Antonello

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we determined whether the calcium-dependent protein kinase (PKC) signaling pathway is involved in the improvement of fear memory reconsolidation induced by the intrahippocampal administration of spermidine in rats. Male Wistar rats were trained in a fear conditioning apparatus using a 0.4-mA footshock as an unconditioned stimulus.…

  11. Conditioned taste aversion and Ca/calmodulin-dependent kinase II in the parabrachial nucleus of rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křivánek, Jiří

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 1 (2001), s. 46-56 ISSN 1074-7427 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA7011706 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II * conditioned taste aversion * parabrachial nucleus of rat Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.830, year: 2001

  12. Selective inhibition of Sarcocystis neurona calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 for equine protozoal myeloencephalitis therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarcocystis neurona is the most frequent cause of Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis (EPM), a debilitating neurologic disease of horses that can be difficult to treat. We identified SnCDPK1, the S. neurona homologue of calcium dependent protein kinase 1 (CDPK1), a validated drug target in Toxoplasma...

  13. Advanced protein-ligand scoring: successful prediction of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brahmkshatriya, Pathik; Fanfrlík, Jindřich; Řezáč, Jan; Dobeš, P.; Přenosil, Ondřej; Paruch, K.; Lepšík, Martin; Hobza, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 156, Suppl. 1 (2012), S76-S76 ISSN 1213-8118. [International Congress Natural Anticancer Drugs. 30.06.2012-04.07.2012, Olomouc] R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP208/12/G016 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : semiempirical quantum mechanics * cyclin-dependent kinase 2 Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  14. Multiple cyclin-dependent kinase complexes and phosphatases control G2/M progression in alfalfa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mészáros, T; Miskolczi, P; Ayaydin, F; Pettkó-Szandtner, A; Peres, A; Magyar, Z; Horváth, G V; Bakó, L; Fehér, A; Dudits, D

    2000-08-01

    Reversible phosphorylation of proteins by kinases and phosphatases plays a key regulatory role in several eukaryotic cellular functions including the control of the division cycle. Increasing numbers of sequence and biochemical data show the involvement of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and cyclins in regulation of the cell cycle progression in higher plants. The complexity represented by different types of CDKs and cyclins in a single species such as alfalfa, indicates that multicomponent regulatory pathways control G2/M transition. A set of cdc2-related genes (cdc2Ms A, B, D and F) was expressed in G2 and M cells. Phosphorylation assays also revealed that at least three kinase complexes (Cdc2Ms A/B, D and F) were successively active in G2/M cells after synchronization. Interaction between alfalfa mitotic cyclin (Medsa;CycB2;1) and a kinase partner has been reported previously. The present yeast two-hybrid analyses showed differential interaction between defined D-type cyclins and Cdc2Ms kinases functioning in G2/M phases. Localization of Cdc2Ms F kinase to the preprophase band (PPB), the perinuclear ring in early prophase, the mitotic spindle and the phragmoplast indicated a pivotal role for this kinase in mitotic plant cells. So far limited research efforts have been devoted to the functions of phosphatases in the control of plant cell division. A homologue of dual phosphatase, cdc25, has not been cloned yet from alfalfa; however tyrosine phosphorylation was indicated in the case of Cdc2Ms A kinase and the p(13suc1)-bound kinase activity was increased by treatment of this complex with recombinant Drosophila Cdc25. The potential role of serine/threonine phosphatases can be concluded from inhibitor studies based on okadaic acid or endothall. Endothall elevated the kinase activity of p(13suc1)-bound fractions in G2-phase alfalfa cells. These biochemical data are in accordance with observed cytological abnormalities. The present overview with selected original data

  15. FAK dimerization controls its kinase-dependent functions at focal adhesions

    KAUST Repository

    Brami-Cherrier, Karen

    2014-01-30

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) controls adhesion-dependent cell motility, survival, and proliferation. FAK has kinase-dependent and kinase-independent functions, both of which play major roles in embryogenesis and tumor invasiveness. The precise mechanisms of FAK activation are not known. Using x-ray crystallography, small angle x-ray scattering, and biochemical and functional analyses, we show that the key step for activation of FAK\\'s kinase-dependent functions-autophosphorylation of tyrosine-397-requires site-specific dimerization of FAK. The dimers form via the association of the N-terminal FERM domain of FAK and are stabilized by an interaction between FERM and the C-terminal FAT domain. FAT binds to a basic motif on FERM that regulates co-activation and nuclear localization. FAK dimerization requires local enrichment, which occurs specifically at focal adhesions. Paxillin plays a dual role, by recruiting FAK to focal adhesions and by reinforcing the FAT:FERM interaction. Our results provide a structural and mechanistic framework to explain how FAK combines multiple stimuli into a site-specific function. The dimer interfaces we describe are promising targets for blocking FAK activation. © 2014 The Authors.

  16. cAMP-dependent Protein Kinase (PKA) Signaling Is Impaired in the Diabetic Heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockus, Lee B; Humphries, Kenneth M

    2015-12-04

    Diabetes mellitus causes cardiac dysfunction and heart failure that is associated with metabolic abnormalities and autonomic impairment. Autonomic control of ventricular function occurs through regulation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). The diabetic heart has suppressed β-adrenergic responsiveness, partly attributable to receptor changes, yet little is known about how PKA signaling is directly affected. Control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice were therefore administered 8-bromo-cAMP (8Br-cAMP) acutely to activate PKA in a receptor-independent manner, and cardiac hemodynamic function and PKA signaling were evaluated. In response to 8Br-cAMP treatment, diabetic mice had impaired inotropic and lusitropic responses, thus demonstrating postreceptor defects. This impaired signaling was mediated by reduced PKA activity and PKA catalytic subunit content in the cytoplasm and myofilaments. Compartment-specific loss of PKA was reflected by reduced phosphorylation of discrete substrates. In response to 8Br-cAMP treatment, the glycolytic activator PFK-2 was robustly phosphorylated in control animals but not diabetics. Control adult cardiomyocytes cultured in lipid-supplemented media developed similar changes in PKA signaling, suggesting that lipotoxicity is a contributor to diabetes-induced β-adrenergic signaling dysfunction. This work demonstrates that PKA signaling is impaired in diabetes and suggests that treating hyperlipidemia is vital for proper cardiac signaling and function. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. cAMP-dependent Protein Kinase (PKA) Signaling Is Impaired in the Diabetic Heart*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockus, Lee B.; Humphries, Kenneth M.

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus causes cardiac dysfunction and heart failure that is associated with metabolic abnormalities and autonomic impairment. Autonomic control of ventricular function occurs through regulation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). The diabetic heart has suppressed β-adrenergic responsiveness, partly attributable to receptor changes, yet little is known about how PKA signaling is directly affected. Control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice were therefore administered 8-bromo-cAMP (8Br-cAMP) acutely to activate PKA in a receptor-independent manner, and cardiac hemodynamic function and PKA signaling were evaluated. In response to 8Br-cAMP treatment, diabetic mice had impaired inotropic and lusitropic responses, thus demonstrating postreceptor defects. This impaired signaling was mediated by reduced PKA activity and PKA catalytic subunit content in the cytoplasm and myofilaments. Compartment-specific loss of PKA was reflected by reduced phosphorylation of discrete substrates. In response to 8Br-cAMP treatment, the glycolytic activator PFK-2 was robustly phosphorylated in control animals but not diabetics. Control adult cardiomyocytes cultured in lipid-supplemented media developed similar changes in PKA signaling, suggesting that lipotoxicity is a contributor to diabetes-induced β-adrenergic signaling dysfunction. This work demonstrates that PKA signaling is impaired in diabetes and suggests that treating hyperlipidemia is vital for proper cardiac signaling and function. PMID:26468277

  18. Evolutionary Paths of the cAMP-Dependent Protein Kinase (PKA) Catalytic Subunits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søberg, Kristoffer; Jahnsen, Tore; Rognes, Torbjørn; Skålhegg, Bjørn S.; Laerdahl, Jon K.

    2013-01-01

    3′,5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) dependent protein kinase or protein kinase A (PKA) has served as a prototype for the large family of protein kinases that are crucially important for signal transduction in eukaryotic cells. The PKA catalytic subunits Cα and Cβ, encoded by the two genes PRKACA and PRKACB, respectively, are among the best understood and characterized human kinases. Here we have studied the evolution of this gene family in chordates, arthropods, mollusks and other animals employing probabilistic methods and show that Cα and Cβ arose by duplication of an ancestral PKA catalytic subunit in a common ancestor of vertebrates. The two genes have subsequently been duplicated in teleost fishes. The evolution of the PRKACG retroposon in simians was also investigated. Although the degree of sequence conservation in the PKA Cα/Cβ kinase family is exceptionally high, a small set of signature residues defining Cα and Cβ subfamilies were identified. These conserved residues might be important for functions that are unique to the Cα or Cβ clades. This study also provides a good example of a seemingly simple phylogenetic problem which, due to a very high degree of sequence conservation and corresponding weak phylogenetic signals, combined with problematic nonphylogenetic signals, is nontrivial for state-of-the-art probabilistic phylogenetic methods. PMID:23593352

  19. Double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase regulates the motility of breast cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Xu

    Full Text Available Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR is an interferon-induced protein kinase that plays a central role in the anti-viral process. Due to its pro-apoptotic and anti-proliferative action, there is an increased interest in PKR modulation as an anti-tumor strategy. PKR is overexpressed in breast cancer cells; however, the role of PKR in breast cancer cells is unclear. The expression/activity of PKR appears inversely related to the aggressiveness of breast cancer cells. The current study investigated the role of PKR in the motility/migration of breast cancer cells. The activation of PKR by a synthesized dsRNA (PIC significantly decreased the motility of several breast cancer cell lines (BT474, MDA-MB231 and SKBR3. PIC inhibited cell migration and blocked cell membrane ruffling without affecting cell viability. PIC also induced the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and impaired the formation of lamellipodia. These effects of PIC were reversed by the pretreatment of a selective PKR inhibitor. PIC also activated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK and its downstream MAPK-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2. PIC-induced activation of p38 MAPK and MK2 was attenuated by the PKR inhibitor and the PKR siRNA, but a selective p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB203580 or other MAPK inhibitors did not affect PKR activity, indicating that PKR is upstream of p38 MAPK/MK2. Cofilin is an actin severing protein and regulates membrane ruffling, lamellipodia formation and cell migration. PIC inhibited cofilin activity by enhancing its phosphorylation at Ser3. PIC activated LIM kinase 1 (LIMK1, an upstream kinase of cofilin in a p38 MAPK-dependent manner. We concluded that the activation of PKR suppressed cell motility by regulating the p38 MAPK/MK2/LIMK/cofilin pathway.

  20. VEGF secretion during hypoxia depends on free radicals-induced Fyn kinase activity in mast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Roman, Jonathan; Ibarra-Sanchez, Alfredo; Lamas, Monica; Gonzalez Espinosa, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) secrete functional VEGF but do not degranulate after Cobalt chloride-induced hypoxia. → CoCl 2 -induced VEGF secretion in mast cells occurs by a Ca 2+ -insensitive but brefeldin A and Tetanus toxin-sensitive mechanism. → Trolox and N-acetylcysteine inhibit hypoxia-induced VEGF secretion but only Trolox inhibits FcεRI-dependent anaphylactic degranulation in mast cells. → Src family kinase Fyn activation after free radical production is necessary for hypoxia-induced VEGF secretion in mast cells. -- Abstract: Mast cells (MC) have an important role in pathologic conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), where hypoxia conduce to deleterious inflammatory response. MC contribute to hypoxia-induced angiogenesis producing factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), but the mechanisms behind the control of hypoxia-induced VEGF secretion in this cell type is poorly understood. We used the hypoxia-mimicking agent cobalt chloride (CoCl 2 ) to analyze VEGF secretion in murine bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs). We found that CoCl 2 promotes a sustained production of functional VEGF, able to induce proliferation of endothelial cells in vitro. CoCl 2 -induced VEGF secretion was independent of calcium rise but dependent on tetanus toxin-sensitive vesicle-associated membrane proteins (VAMPs). VEGF exocytosis required free radicals formation and the activation of Src family kinases. Interestingly, an important deficiency on CoCl 2 -induced VEGF secretion was observed in Fyn kinase-deficient BMMCs. Moreover, Fyn kinase was activated by CoCl 2 in WT cells and this activation was prevented by treatment with antioxidants such as Trolox and N-acetylcysteine. Our results show that BMMCs are able to release VEGF under hypoxic conditions through a tetanus toxin-sensitive mechanism, promoted by free radicals-dependent Fyn kinase activation.

  1. VEGF secretion during hypoxia depends on free radicals-induced Fyn kinase activity in mast cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Roman, Jonathan; Ibarra-Sanchez, Alfredo; Lamas, Monica [Departamento de Farmacobiologia, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN (Cinvestav, IPN) (Mexico); Gonzalez Espinosa, Claudia, E-mail: cgonzal@cinvestav.mx [Departamento de Farmacobiologia, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN (Cinvestav, IPN) (Mexico)

    2010-10-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) secrete functional VEGF but do not degranulate after Cobalt chloride-induced hypoxia. {yields} CoCl{sub 2}-induced VEGF secretion in mast cells occurs by a Ca{sup 2+}-insensitive but brefeldin A and Tetanus toxin-sensitive mechanism. {yields} Trolox and N-acetylcysteine inhibit hypoxia-induced VEGF secretion but only Trolox inhibits Fc{epsilon}RI-dependent anaphylactic degranulation in mast cells. {yields} Src family kinase Fyn activation after free radical production is necessary for hypoxia-induced VEGF secretion in mast cells. -- Abstract: Mast cells (MC) have an important role in pathologic conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), where hypoxia conduce to deleterious inflammatory response. MC contribute to hypoxia-induced angiogenesis producing factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), but the mechanisms behind the control of hypoxia-induced VEGF secretion in this cell type is poorly understood. We used the hypoxia-mimicking agent cobalt chloride (CoCl{sub 2}) to analyze VEGF secretion in murine bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs). We found that CoCl{sub 2} promotes a sustained production of functional VEGF, able to induce proliferation of endothelial cells in vitro. CoCl{sub 2}-induced VEGF secretion was independent of calcium rise but dependent on tetanus toxin-sensitive vesicle-associated membrane proteins (VAMPs). VEGF exocytosis required free radicals formation and the activation of Src family kinases. Interestingly, an important deficiency on CoCl{sub 2}-induced VEGF secretion was observed in Fyn kinase-deficient BMMCs. Moreover, Fyn kinase was activated by CoCl{sub 2} in WT cells and this activation was prevented by treatment with antioxidants such as Trolox and N-acetylcysteine. Our results show that BMMCs are able to release VEGF under hypoxic conditions through a tetanus toxin-sensitive mechanism, promoted by free radicals-dependent

  2. Cell cycle phase specificity of putative cyclin-dependent kinase variants in synchronized alfalfa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magyar, Z; Mészáros, T; Miskolczi, P; Deák, M; Fehér, A; Brown, S; Kondorosi, E; Athanasiadis, A; Pongor, S; Bilgin, M; Bakó, L; Koncz, C; Dudits, D

    1997-02-01

    The eukaryotic cell division cycle is coordinated by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), represented by a single major serine/threonine kinase in yeasts (Cdc2/CDC28) and a family of kinases (CDK1 to CDK8) in human cells. Previously, two cdc2 homologs, cdc2MsA and cdc2MsB, have been identified in alfalfa (Medicago sativa). By isolating cDNAs using a cdc2MsA probe, we demonstrate here that at least four additional cdc2 homologous genes are expressed in the tetraploid alfalfa. Proteins encoded by the new cdc2MsC to cdc2MsF cDNAs share the characteristic functional domains of CDKs with the conserved and plant-specific sequence elements. Transcripts from cdc2MsA, cdc2MsB, cdc2MsC, and cdc2MsE genes are synthesized throughout the cell cycle, whereas the amounts of cdc2MsD and cdc2MsF mRNAs peak during G2-to-M phases. The translation of Cdc2MsA/B, Cdc2MsD, and Cdc2MsF proteins follows the pattern of transcript accumulation. The multiplicity of kinase complexes with cell cycle phase-dependent activities was revealed by in vitro phosphorylation experiments. Proteins bound to p13suc1-Sepharose or immunoprecipitated with Cdc2MsA/B antibodies from cells at G1-to-S and G2-to-M phase boundaries showed elevated kinase activities. the Cdc2MsF antibodies separated a G2-to-M phase-related kinase complex. Detection of histone H1 phosphorylation activities in fractions immunoprecipitated with antimitotic cyclin (CyclinMs2) antibodies from G2-to-M phase cells indicates the complex formation between this cyclin and a kinase partner in alfalfa. The observed fluctuation of transcript levels, amounts, and activities of kinases in different cell cycle phases reflects a multilevel regulatory system during cell cycle progression in plants.

  3. Cyclin D1 represses p300 transactivation through a cyclin-dependent kinase-independent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Maofu; Wang, Chenguang; Rao, Mahadev; Wu, Xiaofang; Bouras, Toula; Zhang, Xueping; Li, Zhiping; Jiao, Xuanmao; Yang, Jianguo; Li, Anping; Perkins, Neil D; Thimmapaya, Bayar; Kung, Andrew L; Munoz, Alberto; Giordano, Antonio; Lisanti, Michael P; Pestell, Richard G

    2005-08-19

    Cyclin D1 encodes a regulatory subunit, which with its cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk)-binding partner forms a holoenzyme that phosphorylates and inactivates the retinoblastoma protein. In addition to its Cdk binding-dependent functions, cyclin D1 regulates cellular differentiation in part by modifying several transcription factors and nuclear receptors. The molecular mechanism through which cyclin D1 regulates the function of transcription factors involved in cellular differentiation remains to be clarified. The histone acetyltransferase protein p300 is a co-integrator required for regulation of multiple transcription factors. Here we show that cyclin D1 physically interacts with p300 and represses p300 transactivation. We demonstrated further that the interaction of the two proteins occurs at the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-responsive element of the lipoprotein lipase promoter in the context of the local chromatin structure. We have mapped the domains in p300 and cyclin D1 involved in this interaction. The bromo domain and cysteine- and histidine-rich domains of p300 were required for repression by cyclin D1. Cyclin D1 repression of p300 was independent of the Cdk- and retinoblastoma protein-binding domains of cyclin D1. Cyclin D1 inhibits histone acetyltransferase activity of p300 in vitro. Microarray analysis identified a signature of genes repressed by cyclin D1 and induced by p300 that promotes cellular differentiation and induces cell cycle arrest. Together, our results suggest that cyclin D1 plays an important role in cellular proliferation and differentiation through regulation of p300.

  4. DNA-dependent protein kinase in nonhomologous end joining: a lock with multiple keys?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weterings, Eric; Chen, David J

    2007-10-22

    The DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) is one of the central enzymes involved in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. It facilitates proper alignment of the two ends of the broken DNA molecule and coordinates access of other factors to the repair complex. We discuss the latest findings on DNA-PK phosphorylation and offer a working model for the regulation of DNA-PK during DSB repair.

  5. Evolution of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA catalytic subunit isoforms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristoffer Søberg

    Full Text Available The 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP-dependent protein kinase, or protein kinase A (PKA, pathway is one of the most versatile and best studied signaling pathways in eukaryotic cells. The two paralogous PKA catalytic subunits Cα and Cβ, encoded by the genes PRKACA and PRKACB, respectively, are among the best understood model kinases in signal transduction research. In this work, we explore and elucidate the evolution of the alternative 5' exons and the splicing pattern giving rise to the numerous PKA catalytic subunit isoforms. In addition to the universally conserved Cα1/Cβ1 isoforms, we find kinase variants with short N-termini in all main vertebrate classes, including the sperm-specific Cα2 isoform found to be conserved in all mammals. We also describe, for the first time, a PKA Cα isoform with a long N-terminus, paralogous to the PKA Cβ2 N-terminus. An analysis of isoform-specific variation highlights residues and motifs that are likely to be of functional importance.

  6. Curcumin Attenuates Opioid Tolerance and Dependence by Inhibiting Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II α Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoyu; Huang, Fang; Szymusiak, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Chronic use of opioid analgesics has been hindered by the development of opioid addiction and tolerance. We have reported that curcumin, a natural flavonoid from the rhizome of Curcuma longa, attenuated opioid tolerance, although the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that curcumin may inhibit Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II α (CaMKIIα), a protein kinase that has been previously proposed to be critical for opioid tolerance and dependence. In this study, we used state-of-the-art polymeric formulation technology to produce poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-curcumin nanoparticles (nanocurcumin) to overcome the drug’s poor solubility and bioavailability, which has made it extremely difficult for studying in vivo pharmacological actions of curcumin. We found that PLGA-curcumin nanoparticles reduced the dose requirement by 11- to 33-fold. Pretreatment with PLGA-curcumin (by mouth) prevented the development of opioid tolerance and dependence in a dose-dependent manner, with ED50 values of 3.9 and 3.2 mg/kg, respectively. PLGA-curcumin dose-dependently attenuated already-established opioid tolerance (ED50 = 12.6 mg/kg p.o.) and dependence (ED50 = 3.1 mg/kg p.o.). Curcumin or PLGA-curcumin did not produce antinociception by itself or affect morphine (1–10 mg/kg) antinociception. Moreover, we found that the behavioral effects of curcumin on opioid tolerance and dependence correlated with its inhibition of morphine-induced CaMKIIα activation in the brain. These results suggest that curcumin may attenuate opioid tolerance and dependence by suppressing CaMKIIα activity. PMID:25515789

  7. Selective inhibition of Sarcocystis neurona calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 for equine protozoal myeloencephalitis therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, Kayode K; Dangoudoubiyam, Sriveny; Verma, Shiv K; Scheele, Suzanne; DeRocher, Amy E; Yeargan, Michelle; Choi, Ryan; Smith, Tess R; Rivas, Kasey L; Hulverson, Matthew A; Barrett, Lynn K; Fan, Erkang; Maly, Dustin J; Parsons, Marilyn; Dubey, Jitender P; Howe, Daniel K; Van Voorhis, Wesley C

    2016-12-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is the most frequent cause of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis, a debilitating neurological disease of horses that can be difficult to treat. We identified SnCDPK1, the S. neurona homologue of calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 (CDPK1), a validated drug target in Toxoplasma gondii. SnCDPK1 shares the glycine "gatekeeper" residue of the well-characterized T. gondii enzyme, which allows the latter to be targeted by bumped kinase inhibitors. This study presents detailed molecular and phenotypic evidence that SnCDPK1 can be targeted for rational drug development. Recombinant SnCDPK1 was tested against four bumped kinase inhibitors shown to potently inhibit both T. gondii (Tg) CDPK1 and T. gondii tachyzoite growth. SnCDPK1 was inhibited by low nanomolar concentrations of these BKIs and S. neurona growth was inhibited at 40-120nM concentrations. Thermal shift assays confirmed these bumped kinase inhibitors bind CDPK1 in S. neurona cell lysates. Treatment with bumped kinase inhibitors before or after invasion suggests that bumped kinase inhibitors interfere with S. neurona mammalian host cell invasion in the 0.5-2.5μM range but interfere with intracellular division at 2.5μM. In vivo proof-of-concept experiments were performed in a murine model of S. neurona infection. The experimental infected groups treated for 30days with compound BKI-1553 (n=10 mice) had no signs of disease, while the infected control group had severe signs and symptoms of infection. Elevated antibody responses were found in 100% of control infected animals, but only 20% of BKI-1553 treated infected animals. Parasites were found in brain tissues of 100% of the control infected animals, but only in 10% of the BKI-1553 treated animals. The bumped kinase inhibitors used in these assays have been chemically optimized for potency, selectivity and pharmacokinetic properties, and hence are good candidates for treatment of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis. Copyright © 2016

  8. Kinase pathway dependence in primary human leukemias determined by rapid inhibitor screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. Tyner (Jeffrey); W.F. Yang (Wayne); A. Bankhead III (Armand); G. Fan (Guang); L.B. Fletcher (Luke); J. Bryant (Jade); J.M. Glover (Jason); B.H. Chang (Bill); S.E. Spurgeon (Stephen); W.H. Fleming (William); T. Kovacsovics; J. Gotlib (Jason); S.T. Oh (Stephen); M.W.N. Deininger (Michael W.); C.M. Zwaan (Christian Michel); M.L. den Boer (Monique); M.M. van den Heuvel-Eibrink (Marry); T. O'Hare (Thomas); B.J. Druker (Brian); M.M. Loriaux (Marc)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractKinases are dysregulated in most cancers, but the frequency of specific kinase mutations is low, indicating a complex etiology in kinase dysregulation. Here, we report a strategy to rapidly identify functionally important kinase targets, irrespective of the etiology of kinase pathway

  9. The calcium-dependent protein kinase CPK28 buffers plant immunity and regulates BIK1 turnover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monaghan, Jacqueline; Matschi, Susanne; Shorinola, Oluwaseyi

    2014-01-01

    Plant perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) triggers a phosphorylation relay leading to PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). Despite increasing knowledge of PTI signaling, how immune homeostasis is maintained remains largely unknown. Here we describe a forward-genetic screen...... to identify loci involved in PTI and characterize the Arabidopsis calcium-dependent protein kinase CPK28 as a negative regulator of immune signaling. Genetic analyses demonstrate that CPK28 attenuates PAMP-triggered immune responses and antibacterial immunity. CPK28 interacts with and phosphorylates...... the plasma-membrane-associated cytoplasmic kinase BIK1, an important convergent substrate of multiple pattern recognition receptor (PRR) complexes. We find that BIK1 is rate limiting in PTI signaling and that it is continuously turned over to maintain cellular homeostasis. We further show that CPK28...

  10. Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II in Vascular Smooth Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saddouk, F Z; Ginnan, R; Singer, H A

    2017-01-01

    Ca 2+ -dependent signaling pathways are central regulators of differentiated vascular smooth muscle (VSM) contractile function. In addition, Ca 2+ signals regulate VSM gene transcription, proliferation, and migration of dedifferentiated or "synthetic" phenotype VSM cells. Synthetic phenotype VSM growth and hyperplasia are hallmarks of pervasive vascular diseases including hypertension, atherosclerosis, postangioplasty/in-stent restenosis, and vein graft failure. The serine/threonine protein kinase Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is a ubiquitous mediator of intracellular Ca 2+ signals. Its multifunctional nature, structural complexity, diversity of isoforms, and splice variants all characterize this protein kinase and make study of its activity and function challenging. The kinase has unique autoregulatory mechanisms, and emerging studies suggest that it can function to integrate Ca 2+ and reactive oxygen/nitrogen species signaling. Differentiated VSM expresses primarily CaMKIIγ and -δ isoforms. CaMKIIγ isoform expression correlates closely with the differentiated phenotype, and some studies link its function to regulation of contractile activity and Ca 2+ homeostasis. Conversely, synthetic phenotype VSM cells primarily express CaMKIIδ and substantial evidence links it to regulation of gene transcription, proliferation, and migration of VSM in vitro, and vascular hypertrophic and hyperplastic remodeling in vivo. CaMKIIδ and -γ isoforms have opposing functions at the level of cell cycle regulation, proliferation, and VSM hyperplasia in vivo. Isoform switching following vascular injury is a key step in promoting vascular remodeling. Recent availability of genetically engineered mice with smooth muscle deletion of specific isoforms and transgenics expressing an endogenous inhibitor protein (CAMK2N) has enabled a better understanding of CaMKII function in VSM and should facilitate future studies. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Role of Interaction and Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinase B in Regulation of the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Function by cAMP-Dependent Protein Kinase A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee A Borthwick

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis results from mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR, a cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA and ATP-regulated chloride channel. Here, we demonstrate that nucleoside diphosphate kinase B (NDPK-B, NM23-H2 forms a functional complex with CFTR. In airway epithelia forskolin/IBMX significantly increases NDPK-B co-localisation with CFTR whereas PKA inhibitors attenuate complex formation. Furthermore, an NDPK-B derived peptide (but not its NDPK-A equivalent disrupts the NDPK-B/CFTR complex in vitro (19-mers comprising amino acids 36-54 from NDPK-B or NDPK-A. Overlay (Far-Western and Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR analysis both demonstrate that NDPK-B binds CFTR within its first nucleotide binding domain (NBD1, CFTR amino acids 351-727. Analysis of chloride currents reflective of CFTR or outwardly rectifying chloride channels (ORCC, DIDS-sensitive showed that the 19-mer NDPK-B peptide (but not its NDPK-A equivalent reduced both chloride conductances. Additionally, the NDPK-B (but not NDPK-A peptide also attenuated acetylcholine-induced intestinal short circuit currents. In silico analysis of the NBD1/NDPK-B complex reveals an extended interaction surface between the two proteins. This binding zone is also target of the 19-mer NDPK-B peptide, thus confirming its capability to disrupt NDPK-B/CFTR complex. We propose that NDPK-B forms part of the complex that controls chloride currents in epithelia.

  12. Redox-dependent dimerization of p38α mitogen-activated protein kinase with mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi, Rekha; Burgoyne, Joseph R; DeNicola, Gian F; Rudyk, Olena; DeSantis, Vittorio; Charles, Rebecca L; Eaton, Philip; Marber, Michael S

    2017-09-29

    The kinase p38α MAPK (p38α) plays a pivotal role in many biological processes. p38α is activated by canonical upstream kinases that phosphorylate the activation region. The purpose of our study was to determine whether such activation may depend on redox-sensing cysteines within p38α. p38α was activated and formed a disulfide-bound heterodimer with MAP2K3 (MKK3) in rat cardiomyocytes and isolated hearts exposed to H 2 O 2 This disulfide heterodimer was sensitive to reduction by mercaptoethanol and was enhanced by the thioredoxin-reductase inhibitor auranofin. We predicted that Cys-119 or Cys-162 of p38α, close to the known MKK3 docking domain, were relevant for these redox characteristics. The C119S mutation decreased whereas the C162S mutation increased the dimer formation, suggesting that these two Cys residues act as vicinal thiols, consistent with C119S/C162S being incapable of sensing H 2 O 2 Similarly, disulfide heterodimer formation was abolished in H9C2 cells expressing both MKK3 and p38α C119S/C162S and subjected to simulated ischemia and reperfusion. However, the p38α C119S/C162S mutants did not exhibit appreciable alteration in activating dual phosphorylation. In contrast, the anti-inflammatory agent 10-nitro-oleic acid (NO 2 -OA), a component of the Mediterranean diet, reduced p38α activation and covalently modified Cys-119/Cys-162, probably obstructing MKK3 access. Moreover, NO 2 -OA reduced the dephosphorylation of p38α by hematopoietic tyrosine phosphatase (HePTP). Furthermore, steric obstruction of Cys-119/Cys-162 by NO 2 -OA pretreatment in Langendorff-perfused murine hearts prevented the p38-MKK3 disulfide dimer formation and attenuated H 2 O 2 -induced contractile dysfunction. Our findings suggest that cysteine residues within p38α act as redox sensors that can dynamically regulate the association between p38 and MKK3. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. DNA-dependent protein kinase inhibits AID-induced antibody gene conversion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J L Cook

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Affinity maturation and class switching of antibodies requires activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID-dependent hypermutation of Ig V(DJ rearrangements and Ig S regions, respectively, in activated B cells. AID deaminates deoxycytidine bases in Ig genes, converting them into deoxyuridines. In V(DJ regions, subsequent excision of the deaminated bases by uracil-DNA glycosylase, or by mismatch repair, leads to further point mutation or gene conversion, depending on the species. In Ig S regions, nicking at the abasic sites produced by AID and uracil-DNA glycosylases results in staggered double-strand breaks, whose repair by nonhomologous end joining mediates Ig class switching. We have tested whether nonhomologous end joining also plays a role in V(DJ hypermutation using chicken DT40 cells deficient for Ku70 or the DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs. Inactivation of the Ku70 or DNA-PKcs genes in DT40 cells elevated the rate of AID-induced gene conversion as much as 5-fold. Furthermore, DNA-PKcs-deficiency appeared to reduce point mutation. The data provide strong evidence that double-strand DNA ends capable of recruiting the DNA-dependent protein kinase complex are important intermediates in Ig V gene conversion.

  14. Regulation of Plasmodium falciparum development by calcium-dependent protein kinase 7 (PfCDPK7).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Praveen; Tripathi, Anuj; Ranjan, Ravikant; Halbert, Jean; Gilberger, Tim; Doerig, Christian; Sharma, Pushkar

    2014-07-18

    Second messengers such as phosphoinositides and calcium are known to control diverse processes involved in the development of malaria parasites. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms and pathways need to be unraveled, which may be achieved by understanding the regulation of effectors of these second messengers. Calcium-dependent protein kinase (CDPK) family members regulate diverse parasitic processes. Because CDPKs are absent from the host, these kinases are considered as potential drug targets. We have dissected the function of an atypical CDPK from Plasmodium falciparum, PfCDPK7. The domain architecture of PfCDPK7 is very different from that of other CDPKs; it has a pleckstrin homology domain adjacent to the kinase domain and two calcium-binding EF-hands at its N terminus. We demonstrate that PfCDPK7 interacts with PI(4,5)P2 via its pleckstrin homology domain, which may guide its subcellular localization. Disruption of PfCDPK7 caused a marked reduction in the growth of the blood stage parasites, as maturation of rings to trophozoites was markedly stalled. In addition, parasite proliferation was significantly attenuated. These findings shed light on an important role for PfCDPK7 in the erythrocytic asexual cycle of malaria parasites. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Neuronal phosphorylated RNA-dependent protein kinase in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Paquet, Claire

    2009-02-01

    The mechanisms of neuronal apoptosis in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) and their relationship to accumulated prion protein (PrP) are unclear. A recent cell culture study showed that intracytoplasmic PrP may induce phosphorylated RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR(p))-mediated cell stress. The double-stranded RNA protein kinase PKR is a proapoptotic and stress kinase that accumulates in degenerating neurons in Alzheimer disease. To determine whether neuronal apoptosis in human CJD is associated with activation of the PKR(p) signaling pathway, we assessed in situ end labeling and immunocytochemistry for PrP, glial fibrillary acidic protein, CD68, activated caspase 3, and phosphorylated PKR (Thr451) in samples of frontal, occipital, and temporal cortex, striatum, and cerebellum from 6 patients with sporadic CJD and 5 controls. Neuronal immunostaining for activated PKR was found in all CJD cases. The most staining was in nuclei and, in contrast to findings in Alzheimer disease, cytoplasmic labeling was not detected. Both the number and distribution of PKR(p)-positive neurons correlated closely with the extent of neuronal apoptosis, spongiosis, astrocytosis, and microglial activation and with the phenotype and disease severity. There was no correlation with the type, topography, or amount of extracellular PrP deposits. These findings suggest that neuronal apoptosis in human CJD may result from PKR(p)-mediated cell stress and are consistent with recent studies supporting a pathogenic role for intracellular or transmembrane PrP.

  16. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5, a node protein in diminished tauopathy: a systems biology approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Fredy Castro-Alvarez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is the most common cause of dementia worldwide. One of the main pathological changes that occurs in AD is the intracellular accumulation of hyperphosphorylated Tau protein in neurons. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5 is one of the major kinases involved in Tau phosphorylation, directly phosphorylating various residues and simultaneously regulating various substrates such as kinases and phosphatases that influence Tau phosphorylation in a synergistic and antagonistic way. It remains unknown how the interaction between CDK5 and its substrates promotes Tau phosphorylation, and systemic approaches are needed that allow an analysis of all the proteins involved. In this review, the role of the CDK5 signaling pathway in Tau hyperphosphorylation is described, an in silico model of the CDK5 signaling pathway is presented. The relationship among these theoretical and computational models shows that the regulation of Tau phosphorylation by PP2A and GSK3β is essential under basal conditions and also describes the leading role of CDK5 under excitotoxic conditions, where silencing of CDK5 can generate changes in these enzymes to reverse a pathological condition that simulates AD.

  17. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Ser/Thr protein kinase B mediates an oxygen-dependent replication switch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, Corrie; Liao, Reiling; Anderson, Lindsey N.; Rustad, Tige; Ollodart, Anja R.; Wright, Aaron T.; Sherman, David R.; Grundner, Christoph

    2014-01-07

    In the majority of cases, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infections are clinically latent, characterized by little or no bacterial replication and drug tolerance. Low oxygen tension is a major host factor inducing bacteriostasis, but the molecular mechanisms driving oxygen-dependent replication are poorly understood. Mtb encodes eleven serine/threonine protein kinases, a family of signaling molecules known to regulate similar replicative adaptations in other bacteria. Here, we tested the role of serine/threonine phosphorylation in the Mtb response to altered oxygen status, using an in vitro model of latency (hypoxia) and reactivation (reaeration). Broad kinase inhibition compromised survival of Mtb in hypoxia. Activity-based protein profiling and genetic mutation identified PknB as the kinase critical for surviving hypoxia. Mtb replication was highly sensitive to changes in PknB levels in aerated culture, and even more so in hypoxia. A mutant overexpressing PknB specifically in hypoxia showed a 10-fold loss in viability in low oxygen conditions. In contrast, chemically reducing PknB activity during hypoxia specifically compromised resumption of growth during reaeration. These data support a model in which PknB activity is reduced to achieve bacteriostasis, and elevated when replication resumes. Together, these data show that phosphosignaling controls replicative transitions associated with latency and reactivation, that PknB is a major regulator of these transitions, and that PknB could provide a highly vulnerable therapeutic target at every step of the Mtb life cycle - active disease, latency, and reactivation.

  18. dsRNA-Dependent Protein Kinase PKR and its Role in Stress, Signaling and HCV Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane F. Meurs

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase PKR plays multiple roles in cells, in response to different stress situations. As a member of the interferon (IFN‑Stimulated Genes, PKR was initially recognized as an actor in the antiviral action of IFN, due to its ability to control translation, through phosphorylation, of the alpha subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2a. As such, PKR participates in the generation of stress granules, or autophagy and a number of viruses have designed strategies to inhibit its action. However, PKR deficient mice resist most viral infections, indicating that PKR may play other roles in the cell other than just acting as an antiviral agent. Indeed, PKR regulates several signaling pathways, either as an adapter protein and/or using its kinase activity. Here we review the role of PKR as an eIF2a kinase, its participation in the regulation of the NF-kB, p38MAPK and insulin pathways, and we focus on its role during infection with the hepatitis C virus (HCV. PKR binds the HCV IRES RNA, cooperates with some functions of the HCV core protein and may represent a target for NS5A or E2. Novel data points out for a role of PKR as a pro-HCV agent, both as an adapter protein and as an eIF2a-kinase, and in cooperation with the di-ubiquitin-like protein ISG15. Developing pharmaceutical inhibitors of PKR may help in resolving some viral infections as well as stress-related damages.

  19. MAPKAP kinase 2 (MK2)-dependent and independent models of blister formation in pemphigus vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xuming; Li, Hong; Sano, Yasuyo; Gaestel, Matthias; Park, Jin Mo; Payne, Aimee S.

    2013-01-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is an autoimmune blistering disease characterized by autoantibodies to the keratinocyte adhesion protein desmoglein (Dsg) 3. Previous studies suggest that PV pathogenesis involves p38 mitogen activated protein kinase-dependent and -independent pathways. However, p38 is a difficult protein to study and therapeutically target because it has four isoforms and multiple downstream effectors. In the current study, we identify MAPKAP kinase 2 (MK2) as a downstream effector of p38 signaling in PV and describe MK2-dependent and -independent mechanisms of blister formation using passive transfer of human anti-Dsg IgG4 mAbs to neonatal mice. In human keratinocytes, PV mAbs activate MK2 in a dose-dependent manner. MK2 is also activated in human pemphigus skin blisters, causing translocation of MK2 from the nucleus to the cytosol. Small molecule inhibition of MK2 and silencing of MK2 expression block PV mAb-induced Dsg3 endocytosis in human keratinocytes. Additionally, small molecule inhibition and genetic deletion of p38α and MK2 inhibit spontaneous, but not induced, suprabasal blisters by PV mAbs in mouse passive transfer models. Collectively, these data suggest that MK2 is a key downstream effector of p38 that can modulate PV autoantibody pathogenicity. MK2 inhibition may be a valuable adjunctive therapy for control of pemphigus blistering. PMID:23657501

  20. Speeding through cell cycle roadblocks: Nuclear cyclin D1-dependent kinase and neoplastic transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diehl J Alan

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mitogenic induction of cyclin D1, the allosteric regulator of CDK4/6, is a key regulatory event contributing to G1 phase progression. Following the G1/S transition, cyclin D1 activation is antagonized by GSK3β-dependent threonine-286 (Thr-286 phosphorylation, triggering nuclear export and subsequent cytoplasmic degradation mediated by the SCFFbx4-αBcrystallin E3 ubiquitin ligase. Although cyclin D1 overexpression occurs in numerous malignancies, overexpression of cyclin D1 alone is insufficient to drive transformation. In contrast, cyclin D1 mutants refractory to phosphorylation-dependent nuclear export and degradation are acutely transforming. This raises the question of whether overexpression of cyclin D1 is a significant contributor to tumorigenesis or an effect of neoplastic transformation. Significantly, recent work strongly supports a model wherein nuclear accumulation of cyclin D1-dependent kinase during S-phase is a critical event with regard to transformation. The identification of mutations within SCFFbx4-αBcrystallin ligase in primary tumors provides mechanistic insight into cyclin D1 accumulation in human cancer. Furthermore, analysis of mouse models expressing cyclin D1 mutants refractory to degradation indicate that nuclear cyclin D1/CDK4 kinase triggers DNA re-replication and genomic instability. Collectively, these new findings provide a mechanism whereby aberrations in post-translational regulation of cyclin D1 establish a cellular environment conducive to mutations that favor neoplastic growth.

  1. Molecular Mechanism of Distinct Salt-Dependent Enzyme Activity of Two Halophilic Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinases

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamura, Akihiro; Ichimura, Takefumi; Kamekura, Masahiro; Mizuki, Toru; Usami, Ron; Makino, Tsukasa; Ohtsuka, Jun; Miyazono, Ken-ichi; Okai, Masahiko; Nagata, Koji; Tanokura, Masaru

    2009-01-01

    Nucleoside diphosphate kinases from haloarchaea Haloarcula quadrata (NDK-q) and H. sinaiiensis (NDK-s) are identical except for one out of 154 residues, i.e., Arg31 in NDK-q and Cys31 in NDK-s. However, the salt-dependent activity profiles of NDK-q and NDK-s are quite different: the optimal NaCl concentrations of NDK-q and NDK-s are 1 M and 2 M, respectively. We analyzed the relationships of the secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures and NDK activity of these NDKs at various salt conc...

  2. Inflammation kinase PKR phosphorylates α-synuclein and causes α-synuclein-dependent cell death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimer, Lasse; Lund, Louise Buur; Betzer, Cristine

    2018-01-01

    Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and multiple system atrophy comprise a group of neurodegenerative diseases termed synucleinopathies. Synucleinopathie are, characterized by presence of inclusion bodies in degenerating brain cells which contain aggregated α-synuclein phosphorylated...... on Ser129. Although the inflammation-associated serine-threonine kinase, PKR (EIF2AK2), promotes cellular protection against infection, we demonstrate a pro-degenerative role of activated PKR in an α-synuclein-dependent cell model of multiple system atrophy, where inhibition and silencing of PKR decrease...

  3. cGMP-dependent protein kinase I, the circadian clock, sleep and learning

    OpenAIRE

    Feil, Robert; Hölter, Sabine M; Weindl, Karin; Wurst, Wolfgang; Langmesser, Sonja; Gerling, Andrea; Feil, Susanne; Albrecht, Urs

    2009-01-01

    The second messenger cGMP controls cardiovascular and gastrointestinal homeostasis in mammals. However, its physiological relevance in the nervous system is poorly understood.1 Now, we have reported that the cGMP-dependent protein kinase type I (PRKG1) is implicated in the regulation of the timing and quality of sleep and wakefulness.2 Prkg1 mutant mice showed altered distribution of sleep and wakefulness as well as reduction in rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS) duration and in non-REMS consoli...

  4. EXPRESSION OF CALCIUM-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE (CDPK GENES IN VITIS AMURENSIS UNDER ABIOTIC STRESS CONDITIONS

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    Dubrovina A.S.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abiotic stresses, such as extreme temperatures, soil salinity, or water deficit, are one of the major limiting factors of crop productivity worldwide. Examination of molecular and genetic mechanisms of abiotic stress tolerance in plants is of great interest to plant biologists. Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs, which are the most important Ca2+ sensors in plants, are known to play one of the key roles in plant adaptation to abiotic stress. CDPK is a multigene family of enzymes. Analysis of CDPK gene expression under various abiotic stress conditions would help identify those CDPKs that might play important roles in plant adaptation to abiotic stress. We focused on studying CDPK gene expression under osmotic, water deficit, and temperature stress conditions in a wild-growing grapevine Vitis amurensis Rurp., which is native to the Russian Far East and is known to possess high adaptive potential and high level of resistance against adverse environmental conditions. Healthy V. amurensis cuttings (excised young stems with one healthy leaf were used for the treatments. For the non-stress treatment, we placed the cuttings in distilled water for 12 h at room temperature. For the water-deficit stress, detached cuttings were laid on a paper towel for 12 h at room temperature. For osmotic stress treatments, the cuttings were placed in 0.4 М NaCl and 0.4 М mannitol solutions for 12 h at room temperature. To examine temperature stress tolerance, the V. amurensis cuttings were placed in a growth chamber at +10oC and +37oC for 12 h. The total expression of VaCDPK genes was examined by semiquantitative RT-PCR with degenerate primers designed to the CDPK kinase domain. The total level of CDPK gene expression increased under salt and decreased under low temperature stress conditions. We sequenced 300 clones of the amplified part of different CDPK transcripts obtained from the analyzed cDNA probes. Analysis of the cDNA sequences identified 8 different

  5. Reduced Activity of Mutant Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase 1 Is Compensated in Plasmodium falciparum through the Action of Protein Kinase G

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    Abhisheka Bansal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We used a sensitization approach that involves replacement of the gatekeeper residue in a protein kinase with one with a different side chain. The activity of the enzyme with a bulky gatekeeper residue, such as methionine, cannot be inhibited using bumped kinase inhibitors (BKIs. Here, we have used this approach to study Plasmodium falciparum calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 (PfCDPK1. The methionine gatekeeper substitution, T145M, although it led to a 47% reduction in transphosphorylation, was successfully introduced into the CDPK1 locus using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR/Cas9. As methionine is a bulky residue, BKI 1294 had a 10-fold-greater effect in vitro on the wild-type enzyme than on the methionine mutant. However, in contrast to in vitro data with recombinant enzymes, BKI 1294 had a slightly greater inhibition of the growth of CDPK1 T145M parasites than the wild type. Moreover, the CDPK1 T145M parasites were more sensitive to the action of compound 2 (C2, a specific inhibitor of protein kinase G (PKG. These results suggest that a reduction in the activity of CDPK1 due to methionine substitution at the gatekeeper position is compensated through the direct action of PKG or of another kinase under the regulation of PKG. The transcript levels of CDPK5 and CDPK6 were significantly upregulated in the CDPK1 T145M parasites. The increase in CDPK6 or some other kinase may compensate for decrease in CDPK1 activity during invasion. This study suggests that targeting two kinases may be more effective in chemotherapy to treat malaria so as not to select for mutations in one of the enzymes.

  6. MARK/Par1 Kinase Is Activated Downstream of NMDA Receptors through a PKA-Dependent Mechanism.

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    Laura P Bernard

    Full Text Available The Par1 kinases, also known as microtubule affinity-regulating kinases (MARKs, are important for the establishment of cell polarity from worms to mammals. Dysregulation of these kinases has been implicated in autism, Alzheimer's disease and cancer. Despite their important function in health and disease, it has been unclear how the activity of MARK/Par1 is regulated by signals from cell surface receptors. Here we show that MARK/Par1 is activated downstream of NMDA receptors in primary hippocampal neurons. Further, we show that this activation is dependent on protein kinase A (PKA, through the phosphorylation of Ser431 of Par4/LKB1, the major upstream kinase of MARK/Par1. Together, our data reveal a novel mechanism by which MARK/Par1 is activated at the neuronal synapse.

  7. Abscisic acid stimulates a calcium-dependent protein kinase in grape berry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiang-Chun; Li, Mei-Jun; Gao, Gui-Feng; Feng, Hai-Zhong; Geng, Xue-Qing; Peng, Chang-Cao; Zhu, Sai-Yong; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Shen, Yuan-Yue; Zhang, Da-Peng

    2006-02-01

    It has been demonstrated that calcium plays a central role in mediating abscisic acid (ABA) signaling, but many of the Ca2+-binding sensory proteins as the components of the ABA-signaling pathway remain to be elucidated. Here we identified, characterized, and purified a 58-kD ABA-stimulated calcium-dependent protein kinase from the mesocarp of grape berries (Vitis vinifera x Vitis labrusca), designated ACPK1 (for ABA-stimulated calcium-dependent protein kinase1). ABA stimulates ACPK1 in a dose-dependent manner, and the ACPK1 expression and enzyme activities alter accordantly with the endogenous ABA concentrations during fruit development. The ABA-induced ACPK1 stimulation appears to be transient with a rapid effect in 15 min but also with a slow and steady state of induction after 60 min. ABA acts on ACPK1 indirectly and dependently on in vivo state of the tissues. Two inactive ABA isomers, (-)-2-cis, 4-trans-ABA and 2-trans, 4-trans-(+/-)-ABA, are ineffective for inducing ACPK1 stimulation, revealing that the ABA-induced effect is stereo specific to physiological active (+)-2-cis, 4-trans-ABA. The other phytohormones such as auxin indoleacetic acid, gibberellic acid, synthetic cytokinin N-benzyl-6-aminopurine, and brassinolide are also ineffective in this ACPK1 stimulation. Based on sequencing of the two-dimensional electrophoresis-purified ACPK1, we cloned the ACPK1 gene. The ACPK1 is expressed specifically in grape berry covering a fleshy portion and seeds, and in a developmental stage-dependent manner. We further showed that ACPK1 is localized in both plasma membranes and chloroplasts/plastids and positively regulates plasma membrane H+-ATPase in vitro, suggesting that ACPK1 may be involved in the ABA-signaling pathway.

  8. Fatigue resistance of rat extraocular muscles does not depend on creatine kinase activity

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    Hayeß Katrin

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Creatine kinase (CK links phosphocreatine, an energy storage system, to cellular ATPases. CK activity serves as a temporal and spatial buffer for ATP content, particularly in fast-twitch skeletal muscles. The extraocular muscles are notoriously fast and active, suggesting the need for efficient ATP buffering. This study tested the hypotheses that (1 CK isoform expression and activity in rat extraocular muscles would be higher, and (2 the resistance of these muscles to fatigue would depend on CK activity. Results We found that mRNA and protein levels for cytosolic and mitochondrial CK isoforms were lower in the extraocular muscles than in extensor digitorum longus (EDL. Total CK activity was correspondingly decreased in the extraocular muscles. Moreover, cytoskeletal components of the sarcomeric M line, where a fraction of CK activity is found, were downregulated in the extraocular muscles as was shown by immunocytochemistry and western blotting. CK inhibition significantly accelerated the development of fatigue in EDL muscle bundles, but had no major effect on the extraocular muscles. Searching for alternative ATP buffers that could compensate for the relative lack of CK in extraocular muscles, we determined that mRNAs for two adenylate kinase (AK isoforms were expressed at higher levels in these muscles. Total AK activity was similar in EDL and extraocular muscles. Conclusion These data indicate that the characteristic fatigue resistance of the extraocular muscles does not depend on CK activity.

  9. The Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Ortholog pUL97 of Human Cytomegalovirus Interacts with Cyclins

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    Laura Graf

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV-encoded protein kinase, pUL97, is considered a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK ortholog, due to shared structural and functional characteristics. The primary mechanism of CDK activation is binding to corresponding cyclins, including cyclin T1, which is the usual regulatory cofactor of CDK9. This study provides evidence of direct interaction between pUL97 and cyclin T1 using yeast two-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation analyses. Confocal immunofluorescence revealed partial colocalization of pUL97 with cyclin T1 in subnuclear compartments, most pronounced in viral replication centres. The distribution patterns of pUL97 and cyclin T1 were independent of HCMV strain and host cell type. The sequence domain of pUL97 responsible for the interaction with cyclin T1 was between amino acids 231–280. Additional co-immunoprecipitation analyses showed cyclin B1 and cyclin A as further pUL97 interaction partners. Investigation of the pUL97-cyclin T1 interaction in an ATP consumption assay strongly suggested phosphorylation of pUL97 by the CDK9/cyclin T1 complex in a substrate concentration-dependent manner. This is the first demonstration of interaction between a herpesviral CDK ortholog and cellular cyclins.

  10. The Yeast Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Routes Carbon Fluxes to Fuel Cell Cycle Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewald, Jennifer C; Kuehne, Andreas; Zamboni, Nicola; Skotheim, Jan M

    2016-05-19

    Cell division entails a sequence of processes whose specific demands for biosynthetic precursors and energy place dynamic requirements on metabolism. However, little is known about how metabolic fluxes are coordinated with the cell division cycle. Here, we examine budding yeast to show that more than half of all measured metabolites change significantly through the cell division cycle. Cell cycle-dependent changes in central carbon metabolism are controlled by the cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk1), a major cell cycle regulator, and the metabolic regulator protein kinase A. At the G1/S transition, Cdk1 phosphorylates and activates the enzyme Nth1, which funnels the storage carbohydrate trehalose into central carbon metabolism. Trehalose utilization fuels anabolic processes required to reliably complete cell division. Thus, the cell cycle entrains carbon metabolism to fuel biosynthesis. Because the oscillation of Cdk activity is a conserved feature of the eukaryotic cell cycle, we anticipate its frequent use in dynamically regulating metabolism for efficient proliferation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in brain is dependent on method of sacrifice and tissue preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Matthew T.; Mackiewicz, Miroslaw; Naidoo, Nirinjini; O'Callaghan, James P.; Pack, Allan I.

    2013-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase is activated when the catalytic α subunit is phosphorylated on Thr172 and therefore, phosphorylation of the α subunit is used as a measure of activation. However, measurement of α-AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in vivo can be technically challenging. To determine the most accurate method for measuring α-AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in the mouse brain, we compared different methods of sacrifice and tissue preparation. We found that freeze/thawing samples after homogenization on ice dramatically increased α-AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in mice sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Sacrifice of mice by focused microwave irradiation, which rapidly heats the brain and causes enzymatic inactivation, prevented the freeze/thaw-induced increase in α-AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation and similar levels of phosphorylation were observed compared to mice sacrificed with cervical dislocation without freeze/thawing of samples. Sonication of samples in hot 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate blocked the freeze/thaw-induced increase in α-AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation, but phosphorylation was higher in mice sacrificed by cervical dislocation compared to mice sacrificed by focused microwave irradiation. These results demonstrate that α-AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation is dependent on method of sacrifice and tissue preparation and that α-AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation can increase in a manner that does not reflect biological alterations. PMID:18088373

  12. Cyclic AMP (cAMP)-mediated stimulation of adipocyte differentiation requires the synergistic action of Epac- and cAMP-dependent protein kinase-dependent processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Koefoed; Madsen, Lise; Pedersen, Lone Møller

    2008-01-01

    AMP-dependent stimulation of adipocyte differentiation. Epac, working via Rap, acted synergistically with cAMP-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase A [PKA]) to promote adipogenesis. The major role of PKA was to down-regulate Rho and Rho-kinase activity, rather than to enhance CREB phosphorylation. Suppression of Rho......-kinase impaired proadipogenic insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 signaling, which was restored by activation of Epac. This interplay between PKA and Epac-mediated processes not only provides novel insight into the initiation and tuning of adipocyte differentiation, but also demonstrates a new mechanism of c......AMP signaling whereby cAMP uses both PKA and Epac to achieve an appropriate cellular response....

  13. Regulation of p73 by Hck through kinase-dependent and independent mechanisms

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    Radha Vegesna

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background p73, a p53 family member is a transcription factor that plays a role in cell cycle, differentiation and apoptosis. p73 is regulated through post translational modifications and protein interactions. c-Abl is the only known tyrosine kinase that phosphorylates and activates p73. Here we have analyzed the role of Src family kinases, which are involved in diverse signaling pathways, in regulating p73. Results Exogenously expressed as well as cellular Hck and p73 interact in vivo. In vitro binding assays show that SH3 domain of Hck interacts with p73. Co-expression of p73 with Hck or c-Src in mammalian cells resulted in tyrosine phosphorylation of p73. Using site directed mutational analysis, we determined that Tyr-28 was the major site of phosphorylation by Hck and c-Src, unlike c-Abl which phosphorylates Tyr-99. In a kinase dependent manner, Hck co-expression resulted in stabilization of p73 protein in the cytoplasm. Activation of Hck in HL-60 cells resulted in tyrosine phosphorylation of endogenous p73. Both exogenous and endogenous Hck localize to the nuclear as well as cytoplasmic compartment, just as does p73. Ectopically expressed Hck repressed the transcriptional activity of p73 as determined by promoter assays and semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis of the p73 target, Ipaf and MDM2. SH3 domain- dependent function of Hck was required for its effect on p73 activity, which was also reflected in its ability to inhibit p73-mediated apoptosis. We also show that Hck interacts with Yes associated protein (YAP, a transcriptional co-activator of p73, and shRNA mediated knockdown of YAP protein reduces p73 induced Ipaf promoter activation. Conclusion We have identified p73 as a novel substrate and interacting partner of Hck and show that it regulates p73 through mechanisms that are dependent on either catalytic activity or protein interaction domains. Hck-SH3 domain-mediated interactions play an important role in the inhibition of p73

  14. Fluorescent peptide biosensor for probing the relative abundance of cyclin-dependent kinases in living cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laetitia Kurzawa

    Full Text Available Cyclin-dependant kinases play a central role in coordinating cell growth and division, and in sustaining proliferation of cancer cells, thereby constituting attractive pharmacological targets. However, there are no direct means of assessing their relative abundance in living cells, current approaches being limited to antigenic and proteomic analysis of fixed cells. In order to probe the relative abundance of these kinases directly in living cells, we have developed a fluorescent peptide biosensor with biligand affinity for CDKs and cyclins in vitro, that retains endogenous CDK/cyclin complexes from cell extracts, and that bears an environmentally-sensitive probe, whose fluorescence increases in a sensitive fashion upon recognition of its targets. CDKSENS was introduced into living cells, through complexation with the cell-penetrating carrier CADY2 and applied to assess the relative abundance of CDK/Cyclins through fluorescence imaging and ratiometric quantification. This peptide biosensor technology affords direct and sensitive readout of CDK/cyclin complex levels, and reports on differences in complex formation when tampering with a single CDK or cyclin. CDKSENS further allows for detection of differences between different healthy and cancer cell lines, thereby enabling to distinguish cells that express high levels of these heterodimeric kinases, from cells that present decreased or defective assemblies. This fluorescent biosensor technology provides information on the overall status of CDK/Cyclin complexes which cannot be obtained through antigenic detection of individual subunits, in a non-invasive fashion which does not require cell fixation or extraction procedures. As such it provides promising perspectives for monitoring the response to therapeutics that affect CDK/Cyclin abundance, for cell-based drug discovery strategies and fluorescence-based cancer diagnostics.

  15. Src tyrosine kinases contribute to serotonin-mediated contraction by regulating calcium-dependent pathways in rat skeletal muscle arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavaritskaya, Olga; Lubomirov, Lubomir T; Altay, Serdar; Schubert, Rudolf

    2017-06-01

    The Src tyrosine kinase family contributes to the signalling mechanism mediating serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT))-induced vasoconstriction. These kinases were reported to influence the calcium sensitivity of the contractile apparatus. Whether Src kinases affect also the intracellular calcium concentration during constriction of intact arteries is unknown. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that constriction of arteries is associated with a Src kinase-dependent alteration of the intracellular calcium concentration. Contractility of gracilis arteries of Wistar rats was studied using isometric and isobaric myography. The intracellular calcium concentration was measured simultaneously with tension by FURA-2 fluorimetry. Inhibition of Src kinases with 10 μM PP2, 30 μM dasatinib and 100 μM AZM 475271 resulted in a strong attenuation of 5-HT-induced contractions. Vessel incubation with 10 μM PP3, an inactive analogue of PP2, had no effect. Removal of the endothelium did not alter vessel contractile responses to 5-HT nor the action of the Src-kinase inhibitor PP2. The PP2-mediated inhibition of 5-HT-induced contraction was associated with a reduced response of [Ca 2+ ] i to 5-HT. In particular, inhibition of Src kinases attenuates 5-HT-induced calcium influx as well as calcium release from intracellular stores. In contrast, the calcium sensitivity of the contractile apparatus and the filling state of the sarcoplasmic reticulum were not influenced by Src kinases during 5-HT-induced contractions. We conclude that Src kinase activation is a powerful mechanism to produce vasoconstriction of small skeletal muscle arteries of rats. This effect is endothelium-independent. The data further suggest that the action of c-Src kinases is associated with a change in the intracellular calcium concentration that involves Ca 2+ entry and Ca 2+ release pathways.

  16. RNAi screen reveals an Abl kinase-dependent host cell pathway involved in Pseudomonas aeruginosa internalization.

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    Julia F Pielage

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Internalization of the pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa by non-phagocytic cells is promoted by rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton, but the host pathways usurped by this bacterium are not clearly understood. We used RNAi-mediated gene inactivation of approximately 80 genes known to regulate the actin cytoskeleton in Drosophila S2 cells to identify host molecules essential for entry of P. aeruginosa. This work revealed Abl tyrosine kinase, the adaptor protein Crk, the small GTPases Rac1 and Cdc42, and p21-activated kinase as components of a host signaling pathway that leads to internalization of P. aeruginosa. Using a variety of complementary approaches, we validated the role of this pathway in mammalian cells. Remarkably, ExoS and ExoT, type III secreted toxins of P. aeruginosa, target this pathway by interfering with GTPase function and, in the case of ExoT, by abrogating P. aeruginosa-induced Abl-dependent Crk phosphorylation. Altogether, this work reveals that P. aeruginosa utilizes the Abl pathway for entering host cells and reveals unexpected complexity by which the P. aeruginosa type III secretion system modulates this internalization pathway. Our results furthermore demonstrate the applicability of using RNAi screens to identify host signaling cascades usurped by microbial pathogens that may be potential targets for novel therapies directed against treatment of antibiotic-resistant infections.

  17. Spatial regulation of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase during chemotactic cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Alan K; Baldor, Linda C; Hogan, Brian P

    2005-10-04

    Historically, the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) has a paradoxical role in cell motility, having been shown to both facilitate and inhibit actin cytoskeletal dynamics and cell migration. In an effort to understand this dichotomy, we show here that PKA is regulated in subcellular space during cell migration. Immunofluorescence microscopy and biochemical enrichment of pseudopodia showed that type II regulatory subunits of PKA and PKA activity are enriched in protrusive cellular structures formed during chemotaxis. This enrichment correlates with increased phosphorylation of key cytoskeletal substrates for PKA, including the vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) and the protein tyrosine phosphatase containing a PEST motif. Importantly, inhibition of PKA activity or its ability to interact with A kinase anchoring proteins inhibited the activity of the Rac GTPase within pseudopodia. This effect correlated with both decreased guanine nucleotide exchange factor activity and increased GTPase activating protein activity. Finally, inhibition of PKA anchoring, like inhibition of total PKA activity, inhibited pseudopod formation and chemotactic cell migration. These data demonstrate that spatial regulation of PKA via anchoring is an important facet of normal chemotactic cell movement.

  18. Functions of Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinases in Plant Innate Immunity

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    Xiquan Gao

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An increase of cytosolic Ca2+ is generated by diverse physiological stimuli and stresses, including pathogen attack. Plants have evolved two branches of the immune system to defend against pathogen infections. The primary innate immune response is triggered by the detection of evolutionarily conserved pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP, which is called PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI. The second branch of plant innate immunity is triggered by the recognition of specific pathogen effector proteins and known as effector-triggered immunity (ETI. Calcium (Ca2+ signaling is essential in both plant PTI and ETI responses. Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs have emerged as important Ca2+ sensor proteins in transducing differential Ca2+ signatures, triggered by PAMPs or effectors and activating complex downstream responses. CDPKs directly transmit calcium signals by calcium binding to the elongation factor (EF-hand domain at the C-terminus and substrate phosphorylation by the catalytic kinase domain at the N-terminus. Emerging evidence suggests that specific and overlapping CDPKs phosphorylate distinct substrates in PTI and ETI to regulate diverse plant immune responses, including production of reactive oxygen species, transcriptional reprogramming of immune genes, and the hypersensitive response.

  19. Comprehensive behavioral analysis of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV knockout mice.

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    Keizo Takao

    Full Text Available Calcium-calmodulin dependent protein kinase IV (CaMKIV is a protein kinase that activates the transcription factor CREB, the cyclic AMP-response element binding protein. CREB is a key transcription factor in synaptic plasticity and memory consolidation. To elucidate the behavioral effects of CaMKIV deficiency, we subjected CaMKIV knockout (CaMKIV KO mice to a battery of behavioral tests. CaMKIV KO had no significant effects on locomotor activity, motor coordination, social interaction, pain sensitivity, prepulse inhibition, attention, or depression-like behavior. Consistent with previous reports, CaMKIV KO mice exhibited impaired retention in a fear conditioning test 28 days after training. In contrast, however, CaMKIV KO mice did not show any testing performance deficits in passive avoidance, one of the most commonly used fear memory paradigms, 28 days after training, suggesting that remote fear memory is intact. CaMKIV KO mice exhibited intact spatial reference memory learning in the Barnes circular maze, and normal spatial working memory in an eight-arm radial maze. CaMKIV KO mice also showed mildly decreased anxiety-like behavior, suggesting that CaMKIV is involved in regulating emotional behavior. These findings indicate that CaMKIV might not be essential for fear memory or spatial memory, although it is possible that the activities of other neural mechanisms or signaling pathways compensate for the CaMKIV deficiency.

  20. The role of DNA dependent protein kinase in synapsis of DNA ends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weterings, Eric; Verkaik, Nicole S; Brüggenwirth, Hennie T; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J; van Gent, Dik C

    2003-12-15

    DNA dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) plays a central role in the non-homologous end-joining pathway of DNA double strand break repair. Its catalytic subunit (DNA-PK(CS)) functions as a serine/threonine protein kinase. We show that DNA-PK forms a stable complex at DNA termini that blocks the action of exonucleases and ligases. The DNA termini become accessible after autophosphorylation of DNA-PK(CS), which we demonstrate to require synapsis of DNA ends. Interestingly, the presence of DNA-PK prevents ligation of the two synapsed termini, but allows ligation to another DNA molecule. This alteration of the ligation route is independent of the type of ligase that we used, indicating that the intrinsic architecture of the DNA-PK complex itself is not able to support ligation of the synapsed DNA termini. We present a working model in which DNA-PK creates a stable molecular bridge between two DNA ends that is remodeled after DNA-PK autophosphorylation in such a way that the extreme termini become accessible without disrupting synapsis. We infer that joining of synapsed DNA termini would require an additional protein factor.

  1. Applying conformational selection theory to improve crossdocking efficiency in 3-phosphoinositide dependent protein kinase-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotasthane, Anuja; Mulakala, Chandrika; Viswanadhan, Vellarkad N

    2014-03-01

    The emerging picture of biomolecular recognition is that of conformational selection followed by induced-fit. Conformational selection theory states that binding partners exist in various conformations in solution, with binding involving a "selection" between complementary conformers. In this study, we devise a docking protocol that mimics conformational selection in protein-ligand binding and demonstrate that it significantly enhances crossdocking accuracy over Glide's flexible docking protocol, which is widely used in the pharmaceutical industry. Our protocol uses a pregenerated conformational ensemble to simulate ligand flexibility. The ensemble was generated by thorough conformational sampling coupled with conformer minimization. The generated conformers were then rigidly docked in the active site of the protein along with a postdocking minimization step that allows limited induced fit effects to be modeled for the ligand. We illustrate the improved performance of our protocol through crossdocking of 31 ligands to cocomplexed proteins of the kinase 3-phosphoinositide dependent protein kinase-1 extracted from the crystal structures 1H1W (ATP bound), 1OKY (staurosporine bound) and 3QD0 (bound to a potent inhibitor). Consistent with conformational selection theory, the performance of our protocol was the best for crossdocking to the cognate protein bound to the natural ligand, ATP. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) and protein phosphatase 6 (PP6) regulate DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) phosphorylation in mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Pauline; Ye, Ruiqiong; Trinkle-Mulcahy, Laura; Neal, Jessica A; De Wever, Veerle; Morrice, Nick A; Meek, Katheryn; Lees-Miller, Susan P

    2014-06-25

    The protein kinase activity of the DNA-PKcs (DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit) and its autophosphorylation are critical for DBS (DNA double-strand break) repair via NHEJ (non-homologous end-joining). Recent studies have shown that depletion or inactivation of DNA-PKcs kinase activity also results in mitotic defects. DNA-PKcs is autophosphorylated on Ser2056, Thr2647 and Thr2609 in mitosis and phosphorylated DNA-PKcs localize to centrosomes, mitotic spindles and the midbody. DNA-PKcs also interacts with PP6 (protein phosphatase 6), and PP6 has been shown to dephosphorylate Aurora A kinase in mitosis. Here we report that DNA-PKcs is phosphorylated on Ser3205 and Thr3950 in mitosis. Phosphorylation of Thr3950 is DNA-PK-dependent, whereas phosphorylation of Ser3205 requires PLK1 (polo-like kinase 1). Moreover, PLK1 phosphorylates DNA-PKcs on Ser3205 in vitro and interacts with DNA-PKcs in mitosis. In addition, PP6 dephosphorylates DNA-PKcs at Ser3205 in mitosis and after IR (ionizing radiation). DNA-PKcs also phosphorylates Chk2 on Thr68 in mitosis and both phosphorylation of Chk2 and autophosphorylation of DNA-PKcs in mitosis occur in the apparent absence of Ku and DNA damage. Our findings provide mechanistic insight into the roles of DNA-PKcs and PP6 in mitosis and suggest that DNA-PKcs' role in mitosis may be mechanistically distinct from its well-established role in NHEJ.

  3. Interaction between Salt-inducible Kinase 2 and Protein Phosphatase 2A Regulates the Activity of Calcium/Calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase I and Protein Phosphatase Methylesterase-1*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia-Wei; Yang, Fu-Chia; Chang, Hsin-Yun; Chou, Hanyi; Tan, Bertrand Chin-Ming; Lee, Sheng-Chung

    2014-01-01

    Salt-inducible kinase 2 (SIK2) is the only AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) family member known to interact with protein phosphatase 2 (PP2A). However, the functional aspects of this complex are largely unknown. Here we report that the SIK2·PP2A complex preserves both kinase and phosphatase activities. In this capacity, SIK2 attenuates the association of the PP2A repressor, the protein phosphatase methylesterase-1 (PME-1), thus preserving the methylation status of the PP2A catalytic subunit. Furthermore, the SIK2·PP2A holoenzyme complex dephosphorylates and inactivates Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I (CaMKI), an upstream kinase for phosphorylating PME-1/Ser15. The functionally antagonistic SIK2·PP2A and CaMKI and PME-1 networks thus constitute a negative feedback loop that modulates the phosphatase activity of PP2A. Depletion of SIK2 led to disruption of the SIK2·PP2A complex, activation of CaMKI, and downstream effects, including phosphorylation of HDAC5/Ser259, sequestration of HDAC5 in the cytoplasm, and activation of myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2C (MEF2C)-mediated gene expression. These results suggest that the SIK2·PP2A complex functions in the regulation of MEF2C-dependent transcription. Furthermore, this study suggests that the tightly linked regulatory loop comprised of the SIK2·PP2A and CaMKI and PME-1 networks may function in fine-tuning cell proliferation and stress response. PMID:24841198

  4. Monoclonal antibody against brain calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II detects putative conformational changes induced by Ca2+-calmodulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeVine, H. III; Su, J.L.; Sahyoun, N.E.

    1988-01-01

    A mouse monoclonal IgG1 antibody has been generated against the soluble form of the calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II. This antibody recognizes both the soluble and cytoskeletal forms of the enzyme, requiring Ca 2+ for the interaction. Other divalent cations such as Zn 2+ , Mn 2+ , Cd 2+ , Co 2+ , and Ni 2+ will substitute for Ca 2+ , while Mg 2+ and Ba 2+ will not. The antibody reacts with both the α- and β-subunits on Western blots in a similar Ca 2+ -dependent fashion but with a lower sensitivity. The affinity of the antibody for the kinase is 0.13 nM determined by displacement of 125 I Bolton-Hunter-labeled kinase with unlabeled enzyme. Calmodulin and antibody reciprocally potentiate each other's interaction with the enzyme. This is illustrated both by direct binding studies and by a decrease of the K/sub m app/ for calmodulin and an increase in the V/sub max/ for the autophosphorylation reaction of the enzyme. The antibody thus appears to recognize and stabilize a conformation of the kinase which favors calmodulin binding although it does not itself activate the kinase in the absence of calmodulin. Since the M/sub r/ 30,000 catalytic fragment of the kinase is not immunoreactive, either the antibody combining site of the kinase must be present in the noncatalytic portion of the protein along with the calmodulin binding site or proteolysis interferes with the putative Ca 2+ -dependent conformational change. Thus, monoclonal antibodies can be useful tools in elucidating the mechanism by which Ca 2+ and calmodulin act on the kinase molecule

  5. Comparison of phosphorylation of ribosomal proteins from HeLa and Krebs II ascites-tumour cells by cyclic AMP-dependent and cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issinger, O G; Beier, H; Speichermann, N

    1980-01-01

    Phosphorylation of eukaryotic ribosomal proteins in vitro by essentially homogeneous preparations of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit and cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase was compared. Each protein kinase was added at a concentration of 30nM. Ribosomal proteins were identi...

  6. Large-Scale Profiling of Kinase Dependencies in Cancer Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, James; Ryan, Colm J; Brough, Rachel; Bajrami, Ilirjana; Pemberton, Helen N; Chong, Irene Y; Costa-Cabral, Sara; Frankum, Jessica; Gulati, Aditi; Holme, Harriet; Miller, Rowan; Postel-Vinay, Sophie; Rafiq, Rumana; Wei, Wenbin; Williamson, Chris T; Quigley, David A; Tym, Joe; Al-Lazikani, Bissan; Fenton, Timothy; Natrajan, Rachael; Strauss, Sandra J; Ashworth, Alan; Lord, Christopher J

    2016-03-15

    One approach to identifying cancer-specific vulnerabilities and therapeutic targets is to profile genetic dependencies in cancer cell lines. Here, we describe data from a series of siRNA screens that identify the kinase genetic dependencies in 117 cancer cell lines from ten cancer types. By integrating the siRNA screen data with molecular profiling data, including exome sequencing data, we show how vulnerabilities/genetic dependencies that are associated with mutations in specific cancer driver genes can be identified. By integrating additional data sets into this analysis, including protein-protein interaction data, we also demonstrate that the genetic dependencies associated with many cancer driver genes form dense connections on functional interaction networks. We demonstrate the utility of this resource by using it to predict the drug sensitivity of genetically or histologically defined subsets of tumor cell lines, including an increased sensitivity of osteosarcoma cell lines to FGFR inhibitors and SMAD4 mutant tumor cells to mitotic inhibitors. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Large-Scale Profiling of Kinase Dependencies in Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Campbell

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available One approach to identifying cancer-specific vulnerabilities and therapeutic targets is to profile genetic dependencies in cancer cell lines. Here, we describe data from a series of siRNA screens that identify the kinase genetic dependencies in 117 cancer cell lines from ten cancer types. By integrating the siRNA screen data with molecular profiling data, including exome sequencing data, we show how vulnerabilities/genetic dependencies that are associated with mutations in specific cancer driver genes can be identified. By integrating additional data sets into this analysis, including protein-protein interaction data, we also demonstrate that the genetic dependencies associated with many cancer driver genes form dense connections on functional interaction networks. We demonstrate the utility of this resource by using it to predict the drug sensitivity of genetically or histologically defined subsets of tumor cell lines, including an increased sensitivity of osteosarcoma cell lines to FGFR inhibitors and SMAD4 mutant tumor cells to mitotic inhibitors.

  8. Synaptic roles of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 & its implications in epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Banerjee Dixit

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying epilepsy to find novel prognostic/diagnostic biomarkers to prevent epilepsy patients at risk. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5 is involved in multiple neuronal functions and plays a crucial role in maintaining homeostatic synaptic plasticity by regulating intracellular signalling cascades at synapses. CDK5 deregulation is shown to be associated with various neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. The association between chronic loss of CDK5 and seizures has been reported in animal models of epilepsy. Genetic expression of CDK5 at transcriptome level has been shown to be abnormal in intractable epilepsy. In this review various possible mechanisms by which deregulated CDK5 may alter synaptic transmission and possibly lead to epileptogenesis have been discussed. Further, CDK5 has been proposed as a potential biomarker as well as a pharmacological target for developing treatments for epilepsy.

  9. Mechanism of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II regulation of AMPA receptor gating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Anders Skov; Jenkins, Meagan A; Banke, Tue G

    2011-01-01

    The function, trafficking and synaptic signaling of AMPA receptors are tightly regulated by phosphorylation. Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) phosphorylates the GluA1 AMPA receptor subunit at Ser831 to increase single-channel conductance. We show that CaMKII increases the conductance....... Finally, phosphorylation of Ser831 increases the efficiency with which each subunit can activate, independent of agonist efficacy, thereby increasing the likelihood that more receptor subunits will be simultaneously activated during gating. This underlies the observation that phospho-Ser831 increases...... the frequency of openings to larger conductances rather than altering unitary conductance. Together, these findings suggest that CaMKII phosphorylation of GluA1-Ser831 decreases the activation energy for an intrasubunit conformational change that regulates the conductance of the receptor when the channel pore...

  10. Classical Anticytokinins Do Not Interact with Cytokinin Receptors but Inhibit Cyclin-dependent Kinases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spíchal, Lukáš; Kryštof, Vladimír; Paprskářová, Martina; Lenobel, René; Stýskala, Jakub; Binarová, Pavla; Cenklová, Věra; De Veylder, L.; Inzé, D.; Kontopidis, G.; Fischer, P.M.; Schmülling, T.; Strnad, Miroslav

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 282, č. 19 (2007), s. 14356-14363 ISSN 0021-9258 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06034; GA ČR GA301/05/0418; GA AV ČR IAA5020302; GA ČR(CZ) GA204/07/1169 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje ; V - iné verejné zdroje ; V - iné verejné zdroje ; V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : Cyclin -dependent Kinases * Anticytokinins * Cytokinin Receptors Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.581, year: 2007

  11. Purification and sequencing of radish seed calmodulin antagonists phosphorylated by calcium-dependent protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polya, G M; Chandra, S; Condron, R

    1993-02-01

    A family of radish (Raphanus sativus) calmodulin antagonists (RCAs) was purified from seeds by extraction, centrifugation, batch-wise elution from carboxymethyl-cellulose, and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on an SP5PW cation-exchange column. This RCA fraction was further resolved into three calmodulin antagonist polypeptides (RCA1, RCA2, and RCA3) by denaturation in the presence of guanidinium HCl and mercaptoethanol and subsequent reverse-phase HPLC on a C8 column eluted with an acetonitrile gradient in the presence of 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid. The RCA preparation, RCA1, RCA2, RCA3, and other radish seed proteins are phosphorylated by wheat embryo Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase (CDPK). The RCA preparation contains other CDPK substrates in addition to RCA1, RCA2, and RCA3. The RCA preparation, RCA1, RCA2, and RCA3 inhibit chicken gizzard calmodulin-dependent myosin light chain kinase assayed with a myosin-light chain-based synthetic peptide substrate (fifty percent inhibitory concentrations of RCA2 and RCA3 are about 7 and 2 microM, respectively). N-terminal sequencing by sequential Edman degradation of RCA1, RCA2, and RCA3 revealed sequences having a high homology with the small subunit of the storage protein napin from Brassica napus and with related proteins. The deduced amino acid sequences of RCA1, RCA2, RCA3, and RCA3' (a subform of RCA3) have agreement with average molecular masses from electrospray mass spectrometry of 4537, 4543, 4532, and 4560 kD, respectively. The only sites for serine phosphorylation are near or at the C termini and hence adjacent to the sites of proteolytic precursor cleavage.

  12. Neospora caninum calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 is an effective drug target for neosporosis therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayode K Ojo

    Full Text Available Despite the enormous economic importance of Neospora caninum related veterinary diseases, the number of effective therapeutic agents is relatively small. Development of new therapeutic strategies to combat the economic impact of neosporosis remains an important scientific endeavor. This study demonstrates molecular, structural and phenotypic evidence that N. caninum calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 (NcCDPK1 is a promising molecular target for neosporosis drug development. Recombinant NcCDPK1 was expressed, purified and screened against a select group of bumped kinase inhibitors (BKIs previously shown to have low IC50s against Toxoplasma gondii CDPK1 and T. gondii tachyzoites. NcCDPK1 was inhibited by low concentrations of BKIs. The three-dimensional structure of NcCDPK1 in complex with BKIs was studied crystallographically. The BKI-NcCDPK1 structures demonstrated the structural basis for potency and selectivity. Calcium-dependent conformational changes in solution as characterized by small-angle X-ray scattering are consistent with previous structures in low Calcium-state but different in the Calcium-bound active state than predicted by X-ray crystallography. BKIs effectively inhibited N. caninum tachyzoite proliferation in vitro. Electron microscopic analysis of N. caninum cells revealed ultra-structural changes in the presence of BKI compound 1294. BKI compound 1294 interfered with an early step in Neospora tachyzoite host cell invasion and egress. Prolonged incubation in the presence of 1294 interfered produced observable interference with viability and replication. Oral dosing of BKI compound 1294 at 50 mg/kg for 5 days in established murine neosporosis resulted in a 10-fold reduced cerebral parasite burden compared to untreated control. Further experiments are needed to determine the PK, optimal dosage, and duration for effective treatment in cattle and dogs, but these data demonstrate proof-of-concept for BKIs, and 1294 specifically, for

  13. Regulation of resveratrol production in Vitis amurensis cell cultures by calcium-dependent protein kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleynova, O A; Dubrovina, A S; Manyakhin, A Y; Karetin, Y A; Kiselev, K V

    2015-02-01

    Resveratrol is a naturally occurring plant stilbene that exhibits a wide range of valuable biological and pharmacological properties. Although the beneficial effects of trans-resveratrol to human health and plant protection against fungal pathogens are well-established, little is known about the molecular mechanisms regulating stilbene biosynthesis in plant cells. It has been recently shown that overexpression of the calcium-dependent protein kinase VaCPK20 gene considerably increased resveratrol accumulation in cell cultures of Vitis amurensis. It is possible that calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) play an important role in the regulation of resveratrol biosynthesis. In the present work, we investigated the effects of overexpression of other members of the CDPK multigene family (VaCPK9, VaCPK13, VaCPK21, and VaCPK29) on resveratrol accumulation and growth parameters of grape cell cultures. The obtained data show that overexpression of VaCPK29 increased resveratrol content 1.6-2.4-fold and fresh biomass accumulation 1.1-1.4-fold in the four independently transformed cell lines of V. amurensis compared with that in the empty vector-transformed calli. However, overexpression of the VaCPK9, VaCPK13, and VaCPK21 genes did not considerably affect resveratrol content and fresh/dry biomass accumulation in the independently transformed cell lines of V. amurensis. VaCPK29-transformed calli were capable of producing between 1.02 and 1.39 mg/l of resveratrol, while the control calli produced 0.48 to 0.79 mg/l of resveratrol. The data indicate that the VaCPK9, VaCPK13, and VaCPK21 genes are not involved in the regulation of stilbene biosynthesis in grape cells, while the VaCPK29 and VaCPK20 genes are implicated in resveratrol biosynthesis as positive regulators.

  14. Virtual Screening for Potential Allosteric Inhibitors of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2 from Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Lu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2, a member of Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs, plays an important role in cell division and DNA replication. It is regarded as a desired target to treat cancer and tumor by interrupting aberrant cell proliferation. Compared to lower subtype selectivity of CDK2 ATP-competitive inhibitors, CDK2 allosteric inhibitor with higher subtype selectivity has been used to treat CDK2-related diseases. Recently, the first crystal structure of CDK2 with allosteric inhibitor has been reported, which provides new opportunities to design pure allosteric inhibitors of CDK2. The binding site of the ATP-competition inhibitors and the allosteric inhibitors are partially overlapped in space position, so the same compound might interact with the two binding sites. Thus a novel screening strategy was essential for the discovery of pure CDK2 allosteric inhibitors. In this study, pharmacophore and molecular docking were used to screen potential CDK2 allosteric inhibitors and ATP-competition inhibitors from Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM. In the docking result of the allosteric site, the compounds which can act with the CDK2 ATP site were discarded, and the remaining compounds were regarded as the potential pure allosteric inhibitors. Among the results, prostaglandin E1 and nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA were available and their growth inhibitory effect on human HepG2 cell lines was determined by MTT assay. The two compounds could substantially inhibit the growth of HepG2 cell lines with an estimated IC50 of 41.223 μmol/L and 45.646 μmol/L. This study provides virtual screening strategy of allosteric compounds and a reliable method to discover potential pure CDK2 allosteric inhibitors from TCM. Prostaglandin E1 and NDGA could be regarded as promising candidates for CDK2 allosteric inhibitors.

  15. Neospora caninum calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 is an effective drug target for neosporosis therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, Kayode K; Reid, Molly C; Kallur Siddaramaiah, Latha; Müller, Joachim; Winzer, Pablo; Zhang, Zhongsheng; Keyloun, Katelyn R; Vidadala, Rama Subba Rao; Merritt, Ethan A; Hol, Wim G J; Maly, Dustin J; Fan, Erkang; Van Voorhis, Wesley C; Hemphill, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Despite the enormous economic importance of Neospora caninum related veterinary diseases, the number of effective therapeutic agents is relatively small. Development of new therapeutic strategies to combat the economic impact of neosporosis remains an important scientific endeavor. This study demonstrates molecular, structural and phenotypic evidence that N. caninum calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 (NcCDPK1) is a promising molecular target for neosporosis drug development. Recombinant NcCDPK1 was expressed, purified and screened against a select group of bumped kinase inhibitors (BKIs) previously shown to have low IC50s against Toxoplasma gondii CDPK1 and T. gondii tachyzoites. NcCDPK1 was inhibited by low concentrations of BKIs. The three-dimensional structure of NcCDPK1 in complex with BKIs was studied crystallographically. The BKI-NcCDPK1 structures demonstrated the structural basis for potency and selectivity. Calcium-dependent conformational changes in solution as characterized by small-angle X-ray scattering are consistent with previous structures in low Calcium-state but different in the Calcium-bound active state than predicted by X-ray crystallography. BKIs effectively inhibited N. caninum tachyzoite proliferation in vitro. Electron microscopic analysis of N. caninum cells revealed ultra-structural changes in the presence of BKI compound 1294. BKI compound 1294 interfered with an early step in Neospora tachyzoite host cell invasion and egress. Prolonged incubation in the presence of 1294 interfered produced observable interference with viability and replication. Oral dosing of BKI compound 1294 at 50 mg/kg for 5 days in established murine neosporosis resulted in a 10-fold reduced cerebral parasite burden compared to untreated control. Further experiments are needed to determine the PK, optimal dosage, and duration for effective treatment in cattle and dogs, but these data demonstrate proof-of-concept for BKIs, and 1294 specifically, for therapy of bovine

  16. Protein kinase A-dependent transactivation by the E2A-Pbx1 fusion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogo, A; Waterman, M R; Kamps, M P; Kagawa, N

    1995-10-27

    The chimeric gene E2A-PBX1 is formed by the t(1;19) chromosomal translocation exclusively associated with pediatric pre-B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (pre-B ALL). The resultant fusion protein from this chimeric gene contains the DNA-binding homeodomain of Pbx1. The first and only functional Pbx1 binding site has been localized in bovine CYP17 to a sequence (CRS1) that participates in cAMP-dependent transcription of this gene encoding the steroid hydroxylase, 17 alpha-hydroxylase cytochrome P450. Because Pbx1 is not expressed in pre-B cells, it may be possible that the E2a-Pbx1 fusion protein expressed in pre-B cells having this translocation will activate, in response to cAMP, transcription of genes not normally expressed in these cells leading to arrest of differentiation at the pre-B cell stage. We have now shown that reporter genes comprising CRS1 are activated transcriptionally by protein kinase A (PKA) in the pre-B cell line 697, which endogenously expresses the fusion protein, and that overexpression of E2A-Pbx1 in additional cell lines enhances transcription of reporter genes in a PKA-dependent fashion. Thus, it seems plausible that arrest in the pre-B stage leading to pre-B ALL includes cAMP-dependent activation of E2A-Pbx1.

  17. A Raf-like protein kinase BHP mediates blue light-dependent stomatal opening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Maki; Inoue, Shin-Ichiro; Ueno, Yoshihisa; Kinoshita, Toshinori

    2017-03-30

    Stomata in the plant epidermis open in response to blue light and affect photosynthesis and plant growth by regulating CO 2 uptake and transpiration. In stomatal guard cells under blue light, plasma membrane H + -ATPase is phosphorylated and activated via blue light-receptor phototropins and a signaling mediator BLUS1, and H + -ATPase activation drives stomatal opening. However, details of the signaling between phototropins and H + -ATPase remain largely unknown. In this study, through a screening of specific inhibitors for the blue light-dependent H + -ATPase phosphorylation in guard cells, we identified a Raf-like protein kinase, BLUE LIGHT-DEPENDENT H + -ATPASE PHOSPHORYLATION (BHP). Guard cells in the bhp mutant showed impairments of stomatal opening and H + -ATPase phosphorylation in response to blue light. BHP is abundantly expressed in the cytosol of guard cells and interacts with BLUS1 both in vitro and in vivo. Based on these results, BHP is a novel signaling mediator in blue light-dependent stomatal opening, likely downstream of BLUS1.

  18. A role for barley calcium-dependent protein kinase CPK2a in the response to drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Cieśla

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the drought tolerance of crops is one of the most challenging goals in plant breeding. To improve crop productivity during periods of water deficit, it is essential to understand the complex regulatory pathways that adapt plant metabolism to environmental conditions. Among various plant hormones and second messengers, calcium ions are known to be involved in drought stress perception and signaling. Plants have developed specific calcium-dependent protein kinases that convert calcium signals into phosphorylation events. In this study we attempted to elucidate the role of a calcium-dependent protein kinase in the drought stress response of barley (Hordeum vulgare L., one of the most economically important crops worldwide. The ongoing barley genome project has provided useful information about genes potentially involved in the drought stress response, but information on the role of calcium-dependent kinases is still limited. We found that the gene encoding the calcium-dependent protein kinase HvCPK2a was significantly upregulated in response to drought. To better understand the role of HvCPK2a in drought stress signaling, we generated transgenic Arabidopsis plants that overexpressed the corresponding coding sequence. Overexpressing lines displayed drought sensitivity, reduced nitrogen balance index, an increase in total chlorophyll content and decreased relative water content. In addition, in vitro kinase assay experiments combined with mass spectrometry allowed HvCPK2a autophosphorylation sites to be identified. Our results suggest that HvCPK2a is a dual-specificity calcium-dependent protein kinase that functions as a negative regulator of the drought stress response in barley.

  19. Specificity of ATP-dependent and GTP-dependent protein kinases with respect to ribosomal proteins of Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issinger, O G; Kiefer, M C; Traut, R R

    1975-01-01

    Two protein kinases differing in substrate specificity were used to phosphorylate the 30-S and the 50-S ribosomal subunits of Escherichia coli. The catalytic subunit from the rabbit skeletal muscle protein kinase phosphorylates proteins S1, S4, S9, S13 and S18 of the 30-S subunit and proteins L2,...

  20. Lack of sik1 in mouse embryonic stem cells impairs cardiomyogenesis by down-regulating the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p57kip2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Romito

    Full Text Available Sik1 (salt inducible kinase 1 is a serine/threonine kinase that belongs to the stress- and energy-sensing AMP-activated protein kinase family. During murine embryogenesis, sik1 marks the monolayer of future myocardial cells that will populate first the primitive ventricle, and later the primitive atrium suggesting its involvement in cardiac cell differentiation and/or heart development. Despite that observation, the involvement of sik1 in cardiac differentiation is still unknown. We examined the sik1 function during cardiomyocyte differentiation using the ES-derived embryoid bodies. We produced a null embryonic stem cell using a gene-trap cell line carrying an insertion in the sik1 locus. In absence of the sik1 protein, the temporal appearance of cardiomyocytes is delayed. Expression profile analysis revealed sik1 as part of a genetic network that controls the cell cycle, where the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p57(Kip2 is directly involved. Collectively, we provided evidence that sik1-mediated effects are specific for cardiomyogenesis regulating cardiomyoblast cell cycle exit toward terminal differentiation.

  1. Mechanism of nuclear calcium signaling by inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate produced in the nucleus, nuclear located protein kinase C and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Christian; Malviya, Anant N

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear phospholipase C-gamma 1 can be phosphorylated by nuclear membrane located epidermal growth factor receptor sequel to epidermal growth factor-mediated signaling to the nucleus. The function of mouse liver phospholipase C-gamma 1 is attributed to a 120 kDa protein fragment which has been found to be a proteolytic product of the 150 kDa native nuclear enzyme. The tyrosine-phosphorylated 120 kDa protein band interacts with activated EGFR, binds phosphatidyl-3-OH kinase enhancer, and activates nuclear phosphatidylinositol-3-OH-kinase, and is capable of generating diacylglycerol in response to the epidermal growth factor signal to the nucleus in vivo. Thus a mechanism for nuclear production of inositol-1,4,5-trisphophate is unraveled. Nuclear generated inositol-1,4,5-trisphophate interacts with the inner membrane located inositol-1,4,5-trisphophate receptor and sequesters calcium into the nucleoplasm. Nuclear inositol-1,4,5-trisphophate receptor is phosphorylated by native nuclear protein kinase C which enhances the receptor-ligand interaction. Nuclear calcium-ATPase and inositol-1,3,4,5-tetrakisphophate receptor are located on the outer nuclear membrane, thus facilitating calcium transport into the nuclear envelope lumen either by ATP or inositol-1,3,4,5-tetrakisphophate depending upon the external free calcium concentrations. Nuclear calcium ATPase is phosphorylated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase with enhanced calcium pumping activity. A holistic picture emerges here where tyrosine phosphorylation compliments serine phosphorylation of key moieties regulating nuclear calcium signaling. Evidence are forwarded in favor of proteolysis having a profound implications in nuclear calcium homeostasis in particular and signal transduction in general.

  2. Lyn tyrosine kinase promotes silencing of ATM-dependent checkpoint signaling during recovery from DNA double-strand breaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumoto, Yasunori, E-mail: fukumoto@faculty.chiba-u.jp; Kuki, Kazumasa; Morii, Mariko; Miura, Takahito; Honda, Takuya; Ishibashi, Kenichi; Hasegawa, Hitomi; Kubota, Sho; Ide, Yudai; Yamaguchi, Noritaka; Nakayama, Yuji; Yamaguchi, Naoto, E-mail: nyama@faculty.chiba-u.jp

    2014-09-26

    Highlights: • Inhibition of Src family kinases decreased γ-H2AX signal. • Inhibition of Src family increased ATM-dependent phosphorylation of Chk2 and Kap1. • shRNA-mediated knockdown of Lyn increased phosphorylation of Kap1 by ATM. • Ectopic expression of Src family kinase suppressed ATM-mediated Kap1 phosphorylation. • Src is involved in upstream signaling for inactivation of ATM signaling. - Abstract: DNA damage activates the DNA damage checkpoint and the DNA repair machinery. After initial activation of DNA damage responses, cells recover to their original states through completion of DNA repair and termination of checkpoint signaling. Currently, little is known about the process by which cells recover from the DNA damage checkpoint, a process called checkpoint recovery. Here, we show that Src family kinases promote inactivation of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)-dependent checkpoint signaling during recovery from DNA double-strand breaks. Inhibition of Src activity increased ATM-dependent phosphorylation of Chk2 and Kap1. Src inhibition increased ATM signaling both in G2 phase and during asynchronous growth. shRNA knockdown of Lyn increased ATM signaling. Src-dependent nuclear tyrosine phosphorylation suppressed ATM-mediated Kap1 phosphorylation. These results suggest that Src family kinases are involved in upstream signaling that leads to inactivation of the ATM-dependent DNA damage checkpoint.

  3. Lyn tyrosine kinase promotes silencing of ATM-dependent checkpoint signaling during recovery from DNA double-strand breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumoto, Yasunori; Kuki, Kazumasa; Morii, Mariko; Miura, Takahito; Honda, Takuya; Ishibashi, Kenichi; Hasegawa, Hitomi; Kubota, Sho; Ide, Yudai; Yamaguchi, Noritaka; Nakayama, Yuji; Yamaguchi, Naoto

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Inhibition of Src family kinases decreased γ-H2AX signal. • Inhibition of Src family increased ATM-dependent phosphorylation of Chk2 and Kap1. • shRNA-mediated knockdown of Lyn increased phosphorylation of Kap1 by ATM. • Ectopic expression of Src family kinase suppressed ATM-mediated Kap1 phosphorylation. • Src is involved in upstream signaling for inactivation of ATM signaling. - Abstract: DNA damage activates the DNA damage checkpoint and the DNA repair machinery. After initial activation of DNA damage responses, cells recover to their original states through completion of DNA repair and termination of checkpoint signaling. Currently, little is known about the process by which cells recover from the DNA damage checkpoint, a process called checkpoint recovery. Here, we show that Src family kinases promote inactivation of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)-dependent checkpoint signaling during recovery from DNA double-strand breaks. Inhibition of Src activity increased ATM-dependent phosphorylation of Chk2 and Kap1. Src inhibition increased ATM signaling both in G2 phase and during asynchronous growth. shRNA knockdown of Lyn increased ATM signaling. Src-dependent nuclear tyrosine phosphorylation suppressed ATM-mediated Kap1 phosphorylation. These results suggest that Src family kinases are involved in upstream signaling that leads to inactivation of the ATM-dependent DNA damage checkpoint

  4. DNA-Dependent Protein Kinase As Molecular Target for Radiosensitization of Neuroblastoma Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Emmy M Dolman

    Full Text Available Tumor cells might resist therapy with ionizing radiation (IR by non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ of IR-induced double-strand breaks. One of the key players in NHEJ is DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK. The catalytic subunit of DNA-PK, i.e. DNA-PKcs, can be inhibited with the small-molecule inhibitor NU7026. In the current study, the in vitro potential of NU7026 to radiosensitize neuroblastoma cells was investigated. DNA-PKcs is encoded by the PRKDC (protein kinase, DNA-activated, catalytic polypeptide gene. We showed that PRKDC levels were enhanced in neuroblastoma patients and correlated with a more advanced tumor stage and poor prognosis, making DNA-PKcs an interesting target for radiosensitization of neuroblastoma tumors. Optimal dose finding for combination treatment with NU7026 and IR was performed using NGP cells. One hour pre-treatment with 10 μM NU7026 synergistically sensitized NGP cells to 0.63 Gy IR. Radiosensitizing effects of NU7026 increased in time, with maximum effects observed from 96 h after IR-exposure on. Combined treatment of NGP cells with 10 μM NU7026 and 0.63 Gy IR resulted in apoptosis, while no apoptotic response was observed for either of the therapies alone. Inhibition of IR-induced DNA-PK activation by NU7026 confirmed the capability of NGP cells to, at least partially, resist IR by NHEJ. NU7026 also synergistically radiosensitized other neuroblastoma cell lines, while no synergistic effect was observed for low DNA-PKcs-expressing non-cancerous fibroblasts. Results obtained for NU7026 were confirmed by PRKDC knockdown in NGP cells. Taken together, the current study shows that DNA-PKcs is a promising target for neuroblastoma radiosensitization.

  5. Calcineurin A (Ca Inhibition Supresses Protein Synthesis Via Amp Dependent Kinase (Ampk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Franch

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes stimulates CA activity in the kidney and CA inhibitor cyclosporine A (CYA or CAβ isoform knock-out (CAβ -/- block diabetic renal hypertrophy.CA regulates the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR to reduce protein synthesis (PS during cardiac hypertrophy.To study this pathway, NRK-52E and SV40 transformed CAβ +/+ and -/- proximal tubule cell lines were treated with 10 nM epidermal growth factor (EGF and/or 8 μM CYA. After 48 hrs of CYA in NRK-52E cells, EGF-induced protein/well was 30±4% lower with decreased PS (49±2% rather than increased protein breakdown. In CAβ -/- cells, protein/well (20+2% and PS (16 ±1% were lower and CYA did not decrease PS further. In CAβ+/+ cells, CYA reduced PS 20+2%. However, CYA did not block mTOR signaling as measured by phosphorylation (P at S2448 or by p70S6 kinase P at T389. CYA also did not alter the mTOR dependent pathway of macroautophagy. However, CYA in NRK-52E or CAβ -/- cells showed increased activation of the metformin-sensitive energy sensor, AMPK, as measured by P of T172 by ∼5- or>10-fold, respectively. AMPK reduces PS via P of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2 at T356 and CYA increased eEF2 P by∼3 fold.We conclude CA inhibition reduces PS in renal hypertrophy via a novel pathway involving AMPK and eEF2 rather than by mTOR and p70S6 kinase. Activation of AMPK or altered energy metabolism via CAβ may be important in CA inhibitor nephrotoxicity.

  6. Regulation of flagellar biogenesis by a calcium dependent protein kinase in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yinwen; Pan, Junmin

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a bi-flagellated green alga, is a model organism for studies of flagella or cilia related activities including cilia-based signaling, flagellar motility and flagellar biogenesis. Calcium has been shown to be a key regulator of these cellular processes whereas the signaling pathways linking calcium to these cellular functions are less understood. Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs), which are present in plants but not in animals, are also present in ciliated microorganisms which led us to examine their possible functions and mechanisms in flagellar related activities. By in silico analysis of Chlamydomonas genome we have identified 14 CDPKs and studied one of the flagellar localized CDPKs--CrCDPK3. CrCDPK3 was a protein of 485 amino acids and predicted to have a protein kinase domain at the N-terminus and four EF-hand motifs at the C-terminus. In flagella, CrCDPK3 was exclusively localized in the membrane matrix fraction and formed an unknown 20 S protein complex. Knockdown of CrCDPK3 expression by using artificial microRNA did not affect flagellar motility as well as flagellar adhesion and mating. Though flagellar shortening induced by treatment with sucrose or sodium pyrophosphate was not affected in RNAi strains, CrCDPK3 increased in the flagella, and pre-formed protein complex was disrupted. During flagellar regeneration, CrCDPK3 also increased in the flagella. When extracellular calcium was lowered to certain range by the addition of EGTA after deflagellation, flagellar regeneration was severely affected in RNAi cells compared with wild type cells. In addition, during flagellar elongation induced by LiCl, RNAi cells exhibited early onset of bulbed flagella. This work expands new functions of CDPKs in flagellar activities by showing involvement of CrCDPK3 in flagellar biogenesis in Chlamydomonas.

  7. Regulation of hippocampal and behavioral excitability by cyclin-dependent kinase 5.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar H Hawasli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5 is a proline-directed serine/threonine kinase that has been implicated in learning, synaptic plasticity, neurotransmission, and numerous neurological disorders. We previously showed that conditional loss of Cdk5 in adult mice enhanced hippocampal learning and plasticity via modulation of calpain-mediated N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor (NMDAR degradation. In the present study, we characterize the enhanced synaptic plasticity and examine the effects of long-term Cdk5 loss on hippocampal excitability in adult mice. Field excitatory post-synaptic potentials (fEPSPs from the Schaffer collateral CA1 subregion of the hippocampus (SC/CA1 reveal that loss of Cdk5 altered theta burst topography and enhanced post-tetanic potentiation. Since Cdk5 governs NMDAR NR2B subunit levels, we investigated the effects of long-term Cdk5 knockout on hippocampal neuronal excitability by measuring NMDAR-mediated fEPSP magnitudes and population-spike thresholds. Long-term loss of Cdk5 led to increased Mg(2+-sensitive potentials and a lower threshold for epileptiform activity and seizures. Biochemical analyses were performed to better understand the role of Cdk5 in seizures. Induced-seizures in wild-type animals led to elevated amounts of p25, the Cdk5-activating cofactor. Long-term, but not acute, loss of Cdk5 led to decreased p25 levels, suggesting that Cdk5/p25 may be activated as a homeostatic mechanism to attenuate epileptiform activity. These findings indicate that Cdk5 regulates synaptic plasticity, controls neuronal and behavioral stimulus-induced excitability and may be a novel pharmacological target for cognitive and anticonvulsant therapies.

  8. RhoG regulates anoikis through a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaki, Nao; Negishi, Manabu; Katoh, Hironori

    2007-01-01

    In normal epithelial cells, cell-matrix interaction is required for cell survival and proliferation, whereas disruption of this interaction causes epithelial cells to undergo apoptosis called anoikis. Here we show that the small GTPase RhoG plays an important role in the regulation of anoikis. HeLa cells are capable of anchorage-independent cell growth and acquire resistance to anoikis. We found that RNA interference-mediated knockdown of RhoG promoted anoikis in HeLa cells. Previous studies have shown that RhoG activates Rac1 and induces several cellular functions including promotion of cell migration through its effector ELMO and the ELMO-binding protein Dock180 that function as a Rac-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor. However, RhoG-induced suppression of anoikis was independent of the ELMO- and Dock180-mediated activation of Rac1. On the other hand, the regulation of anoikis by RhoG required phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activity, and constitutively active RhoG bound to the PI3K regulatory subunit p85α and induced the PI3K-dependent phosphorylation of Akt. Taken together, these results suggest that RhoG protects cells from apoptosis caused by the loss of anchorage through a PI3K-dependent mechanism, independent of its activation of Rac1

  9. Regulation of the pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1 protein by DNA-dependent protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebrun, Patricia; Montminy, Marc R; Van Obberghen, Emmanuel

    2005-11-18

    The transcription factor PDX-1 plays a crucial role during pancreatic development and in the function of insulin-producing beta cells. Disruption of the pdx-1 gene in these cells induces overt diabetes in mice, and this gene is modified in several type 2 diabetic families. It is thus crucial to determine the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of PDX-1 expression and/or activation. We identified new proteins associated with PDX-1 by mass spectrometry. These proteins, Ku70 and Ku80, are regulatory subunits of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK). We determined that the interaction between PDX-1 and Ku70 or Ku80 is dependent on the homeodomain of PDX-1. Most interestingly, we demonstrated in vitro that the DNA-PK phosphorylates PDX-1 on threonine 11. Although this residue is located in the transactivation domain, this phosphorylation does not seem to be implicated in the transcriptional activation of PDX-1. However, in response to radiation, which activates DNA-PK, a second form of the PDX-1 protein appears rapidly. This form is phosphorylated on threonine and seems to drive PDX-1 degradation by the proteosome. In correlation with this degradation, we observed a subsequent reduction in the activation of the insulin promoter and a decrease in PDX-1-mediated gene expression, i.e. glut2 and glucokinase. Our study demonstrates that radiation, through the activation of DNA-PK, may regulate PDX-1 protein expression.

  10. Convergent regulation of skeletal muscle Ca2+ channels by dystrophin, the actin cytoskeleton, and cAMP-dependent protein kinase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Barry D.; Scheuer, Todd; Catterall, William A.

    2005-03-01

    The skeletal muscle L-type Ca2+ channel (CaV1.1), which is responsible for initiating muscle contraction, is regulated by phosphorylation by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) in a voltage-dependent manner that requires direct physical association between the channel and the kinase mediated through A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). The role of the actin cytoskeleton in channel regulation was investigated in skeletal myocytes cultured from wild-type mice, mdx mice that lack the cytoskeletal linkage protein dystrophin, and a skeletal muscle cell line, 129 CB3. Voltage dependence of channel activation was shifted positively, and potentiation was greatly diminished in mdx myocytes and in 129 CB3 cells treated with the microfilament stabilizer phalloidin. Voltage-dependent potentiation by strong depolarizing prepulses was reduced in mdx myocytes but could be restored by positively shifting the stimulus potentials to compensate for the positive shift in the voltage dependence of gating. Inclusion of PKA in the pipette caused a negative shift in the voltage dependence of activation and restored voltage-dependent potentiation in mdx myocytes. These results show that skeletal muscle Ca2+ channel activity and voltage-dependent potentiation are controlled by PKA and microfilaments in a convergent manner. Regulation of Ca2+ channel activity by hormones and neurotransmitters that use the PKA signal transduction pathway may interact in a critical way with the cytoskeleton and may be impaired by deletion of dystrophin, contributing to abnormal regulation of intracellular calcium concentrations in dystrophic muscle.

  11. Novel platinum(II) and palladium(II) complexes with cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors: Synthesis, characterization and antitumour activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Szüčová, Lucie; Trávníček, Zdeněk; Zatloukal, Marek; Popa, Igor

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 2 (2006), s. 479-491 ISSN 0968-0896 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/04/1168 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Platinum(II) * Palladium(II) * Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.624, year: 2006

  12. Sibiriline, a new small chemical inhibitor of receptor-interacting protein kinase 1, prevents immune-dependent hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Cann, Fabienne; Delehouzé, Claire; Leverrier-Penna, Sabrina; Filliol, Aveline; Comte, Arnaud; Delalande, Olivier; Desban, Nathalie; Baratte, Blandine; Gallais, Isabelle; Piquet-Pellorce, Claire; Faurez, Florence; Bonnet, Marion; Mettey, Yvette; Goekjian, Peter; Samson, Michel; Vandenabeele, Peter; Bach, Stéphane; Dimanche-Boitrel, Marie-Thérèse

    2017-09-01

    Necroptosis is a regulated form of cell death involved in several disease models including in particular liver diseases. Receptor-interacting protein kinases, RIPK1 and RIPK3, are the main serine/threonine kinases driving this cell death pathway. We screened a noncommercial, kinase-focused chemical library which allowed us to identify Sibiriline as a new inhibitor of necroptosis induced by tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD)-deficient Jurkat cells. Moreover, Sib inhibits necroptotic cell death induced by various death ligands in human or mouse cells while not protecting from caspase-dependent apoptosis. By using competition binding assay and recombinant kinase assays, we demonstrated that Sib is a rather specific competitive RIPK1 inhibitor. Molecular docking analysis shows that Sib is trapped closed to human RIPK1 adenosine triphosphate-binding site in a relatively hydrophobic pocket locking RIPK1 in an inactive conformation. In agreement with its RIPK1 inhibitory property, Sib inhibits both TNF-induced RIPK1-dependent necroptosis and RIPK1-dependent apoptosis. Finally, Sib protects mice from concanavalin A-induced hepatitis. These results reveal the small-molecule Sib as a new RIPK1 inhibitor potentially of interest for the treatment of immune-dependent hepatitis. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  13. Functional p53 in cells contributes to the anticancer effect of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor roscovitine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paprskářová, Martina; Kryštof, Vladimír; Jorda, Radek; Džubák, P.; Hajdúch, M.; Wesierska-Gadek, J.; Strnad, Miroslav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 107, č. 3 (2009), s. 428-437 ISSN 0730-2312 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/08/0511 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : APOPTOSIS * CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE * OLOMOUCINE II * p53 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.935, year: 2009

  14. Antiproliferative activity of olomoucine II, a novel 2,6,9-trisubstituted purine cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kryštof, Vladimír; McNae, I. W.; Walkinshaw, M. D.; Fischer, P.M.; Müller, P.; Vojtešek, B.; Orság, Martin; Havlíček, Libor; Strnad, Miroslav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 15 (2005), s. 1763-1771 ISSN 1420-682X R&D Projects: GA ČR GP204/03/D231 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : olomoucine II * roscovitine * cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.582, year: 2005

  15. The role of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A in bile canalicular plasma membrane biogenesis in hepatocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wojtal, Kacper Andrze

    2007-01-01

    cAMP-dependent protein kinase A is one of the most important enzymes in the eukaryotic cell. The function of this protein is strictly in a close relation to the signaling pathways, which trigger the production of intracellular secondary messenger –cAMP. As a consequence of PKA activation numerous

  16. Clinical significance of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27Kip1 expression and proliferation in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Michael Boe; Skjødt, Karsten; Mortensen, Leif Spange

    1999-01-01

    The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27Kip1 is a negative cell cycle regulator linking extracellular growth-regulatory signals to the cell cycle machinery in G1. We investigated the pattern and prognostic value of p27Kip1 expression in a population-based group of 203 non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL...

  17. Computational structure-based approach to selectivity enhancement of purine-based inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nekardová, Michaela; Lepšík, Martin; Bazgier, V.; Berka, K.; Jorda, R.; Kryštof, V.; Řezáč, Jan; Fanfrlík, Jindřich; Hobza, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 156, Suppl. 1 (2012), S85-S85 ISSN 1213-8118. [International Congress Natural Anticancer Drugs. 30.06.2012-04.07.2012, Olomouc] Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : cyclin -dependent kinases Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  18. Brain Region-Specific Effects of cGMP-Dependent Kinase II Knockout on AMPA Receptor Trafficking and Animal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seonil; Pick, Joseph E.; Abera, Sinedu; Khatri, Latika; Ferreira, Danielle D. P.; Sathler, Matheus F.; Morison, Sage L.; Hofmann, Franz; Ziff, Edward B.

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorylation of GluA1, a subunit of AMPA receptors (AMPARs), is critical for AMPAR synaptic trafficking and control of synaptic transmission. cGMP-dependent protein kinase II (cGKII) mediates this phosphorylation, and cGKII knockout (KO) affects GluA1 phosphorylation and alters animal behavior. Notably, GluA1 phosphorylation in the KO…

  19. Protein kinase C interaction with calcium: a phospholipid-dependent process.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bazzi, M D

    1990-08-21

    The calcium-binding properties of calcium- and phospholipid-dependent protein kinase C (PKC) were investigated by equilibrium dialysis in the presence and the absence of phospholipids. Calcium binding to PKC displayed striking and unexpected behavior; the free proteins bound virtually no calcium at intracellular calcium concentrations and bound limited calcium (about 1 mol\\/mol of PKC) at 200 microM calcium. However, in the presence of membranes containing acidic phospholipids, PKC bound at least eight calcium ions per protein. The presence of 1 microM phorbol dibutyrate (PDBu) in the dialysis buffer had little effect on these calcium-binding properties. Analysis of PKC-calcium binding by gel filtration under equilibrium conditions gave similar results; only membrane-associated PKC bound significant amounts of calcium. Consequently, PKC is a member of what may be a large group of proteins that bind calcium in a phospholipid-dependent manner. The calcium concentrations needed to induce PKC-membrane binding were similar to those needed for calcium binding (about 40 microM calcium at the midpoint). However, the calcium concentration required for PKC-membrane binding was strongly influenced by the phosphatidylserine composition of the membranes. Membranes with higher percentages of phosphatidylserine required lower concentrations of calcium. These properties suggested that the calcium sites may be generated at the interface between PKC and the membrane. Calcium may function as a bridge between PKC and phospholipids. These studies also suggested that calcium-dependent PKC-membrane binding and PKC function could be regulated by a number of factors in addition to calcium levels and diacylglycerol content of the membrane.

  20. A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, dinaciclib in preclinical treatment models of thyroid cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Fu Lin

    Full Text Available We explored the therapeutic effects of dinaciclib, a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK inhibitor, in the treatment of thyroid cancer.Seven cell lines originating from three pathologic types of thyroid cancer (papillary, follicular and anaplastic were studied. The cytotoxicity of dinaciclib was measured using a lactate dehydrogenase assay. The expression of proteins associated with cell cycle and apoptosis was assessed using Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence microscopy. Cell cycle distribution was measured by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy. Apoptosis and caspase-3 activity were measured by flow cytometry and fluorometric assay. Mice bearing flank anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC were treated with intraperitoneal injections of dinaciclib.Dinaciclib inhibited thyroid cancer cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Dinaciclib had a low median-effect dose (≤ 16.0 nM to inhibit cell proliferation in seven thyroid cancer cell lines. Dinaciclib decreased CDK1, cyclin B1, and Aurora A expression, induced cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase, and induced accumulation of prophase mitotic cells. Dinaciclib decreased Mcl-1, Bcl-xL and survivin expression, activated caspase-3 and induced apoptosis. In vivo, the growth of ATC xenograft tumors was retarded in a dose-dependent fashion with daily dinaciclib treatment. Higher-dose dinaciclib (50 mg/kg caused slight, but significant weight loss, which was absent with lower-dose dinaciclib (40 mg/kg treatment.Dinaciclib inhibited thyroid cancer proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. These findings support dinaciclib as a potential drug for further studies in clinical trials for the treatment of patients with refractory thyroid cancer.

  1. Convergence of mitogenic signalling cascades from diverse classes of receptors at the cyclin D-cyclin-dependent kinase-pRb-controlled G1 checkpoint.

    OpenAIRE

    Lukas, J; Bartkova, J; Bartek, J

    1996-01-01

    The commitment of mammalian cells in late G1 to replicate the genome and divide in response to mitogenic growth factors operating via tyrosine kinase receptors depends on phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein (pRb), a process controlled by cyclin D-associated cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks) and their inhibitors. This study addressed the issue of whether also other mitogenic signalling cascades require activation of cyclin D-associated kinases or whether any mitogenic pathway can bypas...

  2. Fyn kinase iniates complementary signals required for IgE-dependent mast cell degranulation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Parravicini, V.; Massimo, G.; Kovářová, Martina; Odom, S.; Gonzales-Espinosa, C.; Furumoto, Y.; Saitoh, S.; Samelson, L.; Oshea, J.; Rivera, J.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 8 (2002), s. 741-748 ISSN 1529-2908 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : mast cell * IGE receptor Fyn kinase * Lyn kinase Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 27.868, year: 2002

  3. Protein kinase A-dependent step(s) in hepatitis C virus entry and infectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farquhar, Michelle J.; Harris, Helen J.; Diskar, Mandy; Jones, Sarah; Mee, Christopher J.; Nielsen, Soren U.; Brimacombe, Claire L.; Molina, Sonia; Toms, Geoffrey L.; Maurel, Patrick; Howl, John; Herberg, Friedrich W.; van Ijzendoorn, Sven C. D.; Balfe, Peter; McKeating, Jane A.

    Viruses exploit signaling pathways to their advantage during multiple stages of their life cycle. We demonstrate a role for protein kinase A (PKA) in the hepatitis C virus (HCV) life cycle. The inhibition of PKA with H89, cyclic AMP (cAMP) antagonists, or the protein kinase inhibitor peptide reduced

  4. Cyclin-dependent protein kinase and cyclin homologs SSN3 and SSN8 contribute to transcriptional control in yeast.

    OpenAIRE

    Kuchin, S; Yeghiayan, P; Carlson, M

    1995-01-01

    The SSN3 and SSN8 genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were identified by mutations that suppress a defect in SNF1, a protein kinase required for release from glucose repression. Mutations in SSN3 and SSN8 also act synergistically with a mutation of the MIG1 repressor protein to relieve glucose repression. We have cloned the SSN3 and SSN8 genes. SSN3 encodes a cyclin-dependent protein kinase (cdk) homolog and is identical to UME5. SSN8 encodes a cyclin homolog 35% identical to human cyclin C. SS...

  5. Calcium-dependent protein kinases from Arabidopsis show substrate specificity differences in an analysis of 103 substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Amy; Chang, Ing-Feng; Chang, Chia-Lun; Garg, Shilpi; Miguel, Rodriguez Milla; Barron, Yoshimi D; Li, Ying; Romanowsky, Shawn; Cushman, John C; Gribskov, Michael; Harmon, Alice C; Harper, Jeffrey F

    2011-01-01

    The identification of substrates represents a critical challenge for understanding any protein kinase-based signal transduction pathway. In Arabidopsis, there are more than 1000 different protein kinases, 34 of which belong to a family of Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinases (CPKs). While CPKs are implicated in regulating diverse aspects of plant biology, from ion transport to transcription, relatively little is known about isoform-specific differences in substrate specificity, or the number of phosphorylation targets. Here, in vitro kinase assays were used to compare phosphorylation targets of four CPKs from Arabidopsis (CPK1, 10, 16, and 34). Significant differences in substrate specificity for each kinase were revealed by assays using 103 different substrates. For example CPK16 phosphorylated Serine 109 in a peptide from the stress-regulated protein, Di19-2 with K(M) ∼70 μM, but this site was not phosphorylated significantly by CPKs 1, 10, or 34. In contrast, CPKs 1, 10, and 34 phosphorylated 93 other peptide substrates not recognized by CPK16. Examples of substrate specificity differences among all four CPKs were verified by kinetic analyses. To test the correlation between in vivo phosphorylation events and in vitro kinase activities, assays were performed with 274 synthetic peptides that contained phosphorylation sites previously mapped in proteins isolated from plants (in vivo-mapped sites). Of these, 74 (27%) were found to be phosphorylated by at least one of the four CPKs tested. This 27% success rate validates a robust strategy for linking the activities of specific kinases, such as CPKs, to the thousands of in planta phosphorylation sites that are being uncovered by emerging technologies.

  6. Lipid composition of cAMP-dependent protein kinase mutants of Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernejc, Katarina; Bencina, Mojca

    2003-08-29

    Lipid composition of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) Aspergillus niger mutants with overexpressed or deleted genes for either regulatory and/or the catalytic subunit of PKA was analyzed. Disruption of the gene encoding the PKA regulatory subunit resulted in 20% less total lipids, 30% less neutral lipids, four times more glycolipids and two-fold higher triacylglycerol lipase activity compared to the control strain. Concomitantly a five-fold decrease in phosphatidylcholine, accompanied with 1.5-, 1.8- and 2.8-fold increases in phosphatidylethanolamine, lysophosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol, was determined, respectively. The lack of PKA activity, due to the disruption of a gene encoding the PKA catalytic subunit, resulted in a 1.6-times increase in total lipids with two times more neutral lipids associated with lower triacylglycerol lipase activity and a decrease in phospholipids. The mutants with unrestricted PKA activity synthesized twice as much citric acid as the control strain and three times more than strains lacking PKA activity. The results indicate the involvement of cAMP-mediated PKA activity in regulation of lipid biosynthesis as well as citric acid synthesis.

  7. Spatiotemporal and functional characterisation of the Plasmodium falciparum cGMP-dependent protein kinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine S Hopp

    Full Text Available Signalling by 3'-5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP exists in virtually all eukaryotes. In the apicomplexan parasite Plasmodium, the cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG has previously been reported to play a critical role in four key stages of the life cycle. The Plasmodium falciparum isoform (PfPKG is essential for the initiation of gametogenesis and for blood stage schizont rupture and work on the orthologue from the rodent malaria parasite P. berghei (PbPKG has shown additional roles in ookinete differentiation and motility as well as liver stage schizont development. In the present study, PfPKG expression and subcellular location in asexual blood stages was investigated using transgenic epitope-tagged PfPKG-expressing P. falciparum parasites. In Western blotting experiments and immunofluorescence analysis (IFA, maximal PfPKG expression was detected at the late schizont stage. While IFA suggested a cytosolic location, a degree of overlap with markers of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER was found and subcellular fractionation showed some association with the peripheral membrane fraction. This broad localisation is consistent with the notion that PfPKG, as with the mammalian orthologue, has numerous cellular substrates. This idea is further supported by the global protein phosphorylation pattern of schizonts which was substantially changed following PfPKG inhibition, suggesting a complex role for PfPKG during schizogony.

  8. Calcium-dependent protein kinases in plants: evolution, expression and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valmonte, Gardette R; Arthur, Kieren; Higgins, Colleen M; MacDiarmid, Robin M

    2014-03-01

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CPKs) are plant proteins that directly bind calcium ions before phosphorylating substrates involved in metabolism, osmosis, hormone response and stress signaling pathways. CPKs are a large multigene family of proteins that are present in all plants studied to date, as well as in protists, oomycetes and green algae, but are not found in animals and fungi. Despite the increasing evidence of the importance of CPKs in developmental and stress responses from various plants, a comprehensive genome-wide analysis of CPKs from algae to higher plants has not been undertaken. This paper describes the evolution of CPKs from green algae to plants using a broadly sampled phylogenetic analysis and demonstrates the functional diversification of CPKs based on expression and functional studies in different plant species. Our findings reveal that CPK sequence diversification into four major groups occurred in parallel with the terrestrial transition of plants. Despite significant expansion of the CPK gene family during evolution from green algae to higher plants, there is a high level of sequence conservation among CPKs in all plant species. This sequence conservation results in very little correlation between CPK evolutionary groupings and functional diversity, making the search for CPK functional orthologs a challenge.

  9. Curcumin: Synthesis optimization and in silico interaction with cyclin dependent kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mahmood; Abdul Qadir, Muhammad; Imtiaz Shafiq, Muhammad; Muddassar, Muhammad; Hameed, Abdul; Nadeem Arshad, Muhammad; Asiri, Abdullah M

    2017-09-01

    Curcumin is a natural product with enormous biological potential. In this study, curcumin synthesis was revisited using different reaction solvents, a catalyst (n-butylamine) and a water scavenger [(n-BuO)3B], to develop the optimal procedure for its rapid acquisition. During synthesis, solvent choice was found to be an important parameter for better curcumin yield and high purity. In a typical reaction, acetyl acetone was treated with boron trioxide, followed by condensation with vanillin in the presence of tri-n-butyl borate as water scavenger and n-butylamine as catalyst at 80 °C in ethyl acetate to afford curcumin. Moreover, curcumin was also extracted from turmeric powder and spectroscopic properties such as IR, MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR with synthetic curcumin were established to identify any impurity. The purity of synthetic and extracted curcumin was also checked by TLC and HPLC-DAD. To computationally assess its therapeutic potential against cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs), curcumin was docked in different isoforms of CDKs. It was observed that it did not dock at the active sites of CDK2 and CDK6. However, it could enter into weak interactions with CDK4 protein.

  10. Subcellular Targeting of Nine Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase Isoforms from Arabidopsis1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammann, Christian; Ichida, Audrey; Hong, Bimei; Romanowsky, Shawn M.; Hrabak, Estelle M.; Harmon, Alice C.; Pickard, Barbara G.; Harper, Jeffrey F.

    2003-01-01

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are specific to plants and some protists. Their activation by calcium makes them important switches for the transduction of intracellular calcium signals. Here, we identify the subcellular targeting potentials for nine CDPK isoforms from Arabidopsis, as determined by expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusions in transgenic plants. Subcellular locations were determined by fluorescence microscopy in cells near the root tip. Isoforms AtCPK3-GFP and AtCPK4-GFP showed a nuclear and cytosolic distribution similar to that of free GFP. Membrane fractionation experiments confirmed that these isoforms were primarily soluble. A membrane association was observed for AtCPKs 1, 7, 8, 9, 16, 21, and 28, based on imaging and membrane fractionation experiments. This correlates with the presence of potential N-terminal acylation sites, consistent with acylation as an important factor in membrane association. All but one of the membrane-associated isoforms targeted exclusively to the plasma membrane. The exception was AtCPK1-GFP, which targeted to peroxisomes, as determined by covisualization with a peroxisome marker. Peroxisome targeting of AtCPK1-GFP was disrupted by a deletion of two potential N-terminal acylation sites. The observation of a peroxisome-located CDPK suggests a mechanism for calcium regulation of peroxisomal functions involved in oxidative stress and lipid metabolism. PMID:12913141

  11. Subcellular targeting of nine calcium-dependent protein kinase isoforms from Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammann, Christian; Ichida, Audrey; Hong, Bimei; Romanowsky, Shawn M.; Hrabak, Estelle M.; Harmon, Alice C.; Pickard, Barbara G.; Harper, Jeffrey F.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are specific to plants and some protists. Their activation by calcium makes them important switches for the transduction of intracellular calcium signals. Here, we identify the subcellular targeting potentials for nine CDPK isoforms from Arabidopsis, as determined by expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusions in transgenic plants. Subcellular locations were determined by fluorescence microscopy in cells near the root tip. Isoforms AtCPK3-GFP and AtCPK4-GFP showed a nuclear and cytosolic distribution similar to that of free GFP. Membrane fractionation experiments confirmed that these isoforms were primarily soluble. A membrane association was observed for AtCPKs 1, 7, 8, 9, 16, 21, and 28, based on imaging and membrane fractionation experiments. This correlates with the presence of potential N-terminal acylation sites, consistent with acylation as an important factor in membrane association. All but one of the membrane-associated isoforms targeted exclusively to the plasma membrane. The exception was AtCPK1-GFP, which targeted to peroxisomes, as determined by covisualization with a peroxisome marker. Peroxisome targeting of AtCPK1-GFP was disrupted by a deletion of two potential N-terminal acylation sites. The observation of a peroxisome-located CDPK suggests a mechanism for calcium regulation of peroxisomal functions involved in oxidative stress and lipid metabolism.

  12. Hunting Increases Phosphorylation of Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II in Adult Barn Owls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant S. Nichols

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile barn owls readily adapt to prismatic spectacles, whereas adult owls living under standard aviary conditions do not. We previously demonstrated that phosphorylation of the cyclic-AMP response element-binding protein (CREB provides a readout of the instructive signals that guide plasticity in juveniles. Here we investigated phosphorylation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (pCaMKII in both juveniles and adults. In contrast to CREB, we found no differences in pCaMKII expression between prism-wearing and control juveniles within the external nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICX, the major site of plasticity. For prism-wearing adults that hunted live mice and are capable of adaptation, expression of pCaMKII was increased relative to prism-wearing adults that fed passively on dead mice and are not capable of adaptation. This effect did not bear the hallmarks of instructive information: it was not localized to rostral ICX and did not exhibit a patchy distribution reflecting discrete bimodal stimuli. These data are consistent with a role for CaMKII as a permissive rather than an instructive factor. In addition, the paucity of pCaMKII expression in passively fed adults suggests that the permissive default setting is “off” in adults.

  13. Curcumin: Synthesis optimization and in silico interaction with cyclin dependent kinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mahmood

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin is a natural product with enormous biological potential. In this study, curcumin synthesis was revisited using different reaction solvents, a catalyst (n-butylamine and a water scavenger [(n-BuO3B], to develop the optimal procedure for its rapid acquisition. During synthesis, solvent choice was found to be an important parameter for better curcumin yield and high purity. In a typical reaction, acetyl acetone was treated with boron trioxide, followed by condensation with vanillin in the presence of tri-n-butyl borate as water scavenger and n-butylamine as catalyst at 80 °C in ethyl acetate to afford curcumin. Moreover, curcumin was also extracted from turmeric powder and spectroscopic properties such as IR, MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR with synthetic curcumin were established to identify any impurity. The purity of synthetic and extracted curcumin was also checked by TLC and HPLC-DAD. To computationally assess its therapeutic potential against cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs, curcumin was docked in different isoforms of CDKs. It was observed that it did not dock at the active sites of CDK2 and CDK6. However, it could enter into weak interactions with CDK4 protein.

  14. Localized cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity is required for myogenic cell fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukai, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Naohiro

    2008-01-01

    Multinucleated myotubes are formed by fusion of mononucleated myogenic progenitor cells (myoblasts) during terminal skeletal muscle differentiation. In addition, myoblasts fuse with myotubes, but terminally differentiated myotubes have not been shown to fuse with each other. We show here that an adenylate cyclase activator, forskolin, and other reagents that elevate intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels induced cell fusion between small bipolar myotubes in vitro. Then an extra-large myotube, designated a 'myosheet,' was produced by both primary and established mouse myogenic cells. Myotube-to-myotube fusion always occurred between the leading edge of lamellipodia at the polar end of one myotube and the lateral plasma membrane of the other. Forskolin enhanced the formation of lamellipodia where cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) was accumulated. Blocking enzymatic activity or anchoring of PKA suppressed forskolin-enhanced lamellipodium formation and prevented fusion of multinucleated myotubes. Localized PKA activity was also required for fusion of mononucleated myoblasts. The present results suggest that localized PKA plays a pivotal role in the early steps of myogenic cell fusion, such as cell-to-cell contact/recognition through lamellipodium formation. Furthermore, the localized cAMP-PKA pathway might be involved in the specification of the fusion-competent areas of the plasma membrane in lamellipodia of myogenic cells

  15. Structural basis of divergent cyclin-dependent kinase activation by Spy1/RINGO proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrath, Denise A.; Fifield, Bre-Anne; Marceau, Aimee H.; Tripathi, Sarvind; Porter, Lisa A.; Rubin, Seth M. (UCSC); (Windsor)

    2017-06-30

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) are principal drivers of cell division and are an important therapeutic target to inhibit aberrant proliferation. Cdk enzymatic activity is tightly controlled through cyclin interactions, posttranslational modifications, and binding of inhibitors such as the p27 tumor suppressor protein. Spy1/RINGO (Spy1) proteins bind and activate Cdk but are resistant to canonical regulatory mechanisms that establish cell-cycle checkpoints. Cancer cells exploit Spy1 to stimulate proliferation through inappropriate activation of Cdks, yet the mechanism is unknown. We have determined crystal structures of the Cdk2-Spy1 and p27-Cdk2-Spy1 complexes that reveal how Spy1 activates Cdk. We find that Spy1 confers structural changes to Cdk2 that obviate the requirement of Cdk activation loop phosphorylation. Spy1 lacks the cyclin-binding site that mediates p27 and substrate affinity, explaining why Cdk-Spy1 is poorly inhibited by p27 and lacks specificity for substrates with cyclin-docking sites. We identify mutations in Spy1 that ablate its ability to activate Cdk2 and to proliferate cells. Our structural description of Spy1 provides important mechanistic insights that may be utilized for targeting upregulated Spy1 in cancer.

  16. Sequence-selective DNA binding to the regulatory subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J C; Wang, J H

    1989-06-15

    The fluorescence of Trp-226 in the regulatory subunit of bovine type II cAMP-dependent protein kinase is unaffected by the binding of cAMP, but is quenched by the binding of 2'-dansyl-cAMP (DNS-cAMP). Up to 67% of the fluorescence of Trp-226 can be quenched by resonant energy transfer to the DNS-cAMP bound to the first site, and 96% of the fluorescence can be quenched by saturating both sites with DNS-cAMP. The observed efficiencies of energy transfer gave a distance of 16 A between Trp-226 and the DNS-cAMP bound at the first site and a distance of 12.7 A between Trp-226 and the DNS-cAMP bound at second site. The fluorescence of Trp-226 was suppressed by incubation of RII with the self-complementary octanucleotide TGACGTCA (CRE) due to binding of the oligonucleotide to RII. A detailed study of the binding equilibrium showed that each RII(cAMP)2 molecule binds 1 molecule of CRE with Kd = 80 nM. The corresponding Kd value for cAMP-depleted RII was found to be 25-fold higher. RII was also found to bind randomly selected DNA fragments with an average Kd value much higher than that of CRE. These observations show for the first time that the binding of oligonucleotide to RII is cAMP-enhanced and sequence-selective.

  17. Molecular mechanism of distinct salt-dependent enzyme activity of two halophilic nucleoside diphosphate kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamura, Akihiro; Ichimura, Takefumi; Kamekura, Masahiro; Mizuki, Toru; Usami, Ron; Makino, Tsukasa; Ohtsuka, Jun; Miyazono, Ken-ichi; Okai, Masahiko; Nagata, Koji; Tanokura, Masaru

    2009-06-03

    Nucleoside diphosphate kinases from haloarchaea Haloarcula quadrata (NDK-q) and H. sinaiiensis (NDK-s) are identical except for one out of 154 residues, i.e., Arg(31) in NDK-q and Cys(31) in NDK-s. However, the salt-dependent activity profiles of NDK-q and NDK-s are quite different: the optimal NaCl concentrations of NDK-q and NDK-s are 1 M and 2 M, respectively. We analyzed the relationships of the secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures and NDK activity of these NDKs at various salt concentrations, and revealed that 1), NDK-q is present as a hexamer under a wide range of salt concentrations (0.2-4 M NaCl), whereas NDK-s is present as a hexamer at an NaCl concentration above 2 M and as a dimer at NaCl concentrations below 1 M; 2), dimeric NDK-s has lower activity than hexameric NDK-s; and 3), dimeric NDK-s has higher helicity than hexameric NDK-s. We also determined the crystal structure of hexameric NDK-q, and revealed that Arg(31) plays an important role in stabilizing the hexamer. Thus the substitution of Arg (as in NDK-q) to Cys (as in NDK-s) at position 31 destabilizes the hexameric assembly, and causes dissociation to less active dimers at low salt concentrations.

  18. cGMP-dependent protein kinase I, the circadian clock, sleep and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feil, Robert; Hölter, Sabine M; Weindl, Karin; Wurst, Wolfgang; Langmesser, Sonja; Gerling, Andrea; Feil, Susanne; Albrecht, Urs

    2009-07-01

    The second messenger cGMP controls cardiovascular and gastrointestinal homeostasis in mammals. However, its physiological relevance in the nervous system is poorly understood.1 Now, we have reported that the cGMP-dependent protein kinase type I (PRKG1) is implicated in the regulation of the timing and quality of sleep and wakefulness.2Prkg1 mutant mice showed altered distribution of sleep and wakefulness as well as reduction in rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS) duration and in non-REMS consolidation. Furthermore, the ability to sustain waking episodes was compromised. These observations were also reflected in wheel-running and drinking activity. A decrease in electroencephalogram power in the delta frequency range (1-4 Hz) under baseline conditions was observed, which was normalized after sleep deprivation. Together with the finding that circadian clock amplitude is reduced in Prkg1 mutants these results indicate a decrease of the wake-promoting output of the circadian system affecting sleep. Because quality of sleep might affect learning we tested Prkg1 mutants in several learning tasks and find normal spatial learning but impaired object recognition memory in these animals. Our findings indicate that Prkg1 impinges on circadian rhythms, sleep and distinct aspects of learning.

  19. The nuclear receptor DHR3 modulates dS6 kinase-dependent growth in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Montagne

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available S6 kinases (S6Ks act to integrate nutrient and insulin signaling pathways and, as such, function as positive effectors in cell growth and organismal development. However, they also have been shown to play a key role in limiting insulin signaling and in mediating the autophagic response. To identify novel regulators of S6K signaling, we have used a Drosophila-based, sensitized, gain-of-function genetic screen. Unexpectedly, one of the strongest enhancers to emerge from this screen was the nuclear receptor (NR, Drosophila hormone receptor 3 (DHR3, a critical constituent in the coordination of Drosophila metamorphosis. Here we demonstrate that DHR3, through dS6K, also acts to regulate cell-autonomous growth. Moreover, we show that the ligand-binding domain (LBD of DHR3 is essential for mediating this response. Consistent with these findings, we have identified an endogenous DHR3 isoform that lacks the DBD. These results provide the first molecular link between the dS6K pathway, critical in controlling nutrient-dependent growth, and that of DHR3, a major mediator of ecdysone signaling, which, acting together, coordinate metamorphosis.

  20. High-throughput screening of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) using the caliper microfluidic platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Leonard J; Birkos, Steve; Hallam, Rhonda; Van De Carr, Gretchen; Arroway, Jamie; Suto, Carla M; Janzen, William P

    2009-01-01

    Inhibitors of kinase activities can be mechanistically diverse, genomically selective, and pathway sensitive. This potential has made these biological targets the focus of a number of drug discovery and development programs in the pharmaceutical industry. To this end, the high-throughput screening of kinase targets against diverse chemical libraries or focused compound collections is at the forefront of the drug discovery process. Thus, the platform technology used to screen such libraries must be flexible and produce reliable and comparable data. The Caliper HTS microfluidic platform provides a direct determination of a peptidic substrate and phosphorylated product through the electrophoretic separation of the two species. The resulting data are reliable and comparable among screens and cover a broad range of biological targets, provided there is a definable peptide substrate that permits separation. Here we present a method for the high-throughput screening of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) as an example of the simplicity of this microfluidic platform.

  1. TCR comodulation of nonengaged TCR takes place by a protein kinase C and CD3 gamma di-leucine-based motif-dependent mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonefeld, Charlotte Menné; Rasmussen, B. A.; Lauritsen, J P

    2003-01-01

    of comodulation. Like internalization of engaged TCR, comodulation was dependent on protein tyrosine kinase activity. Finally, we found that in contrast to internalization of engaged TCR, comodulation was highly dependent on protein kinase C activity and the CD3 gamma di-leucine-based motif. Based...

  2. Dbf4-dependent kinase and the Rtt107 scaffold promote Mus81-Mms4 resolvase activation during mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Princz, Lissa N; Wild, Philipp; Bittmann, Julia; Aguado, F Javier; Blanco, Miguel G; Matos, Joao; Pfander, Boris

    2017-03-01

    DNA repair by homologous recombination is under stringent cell cycle control. This includes the last step of the reaction, disentanglement of DNA joint molecules (JMs). Previous work has established that JM resolving nucleases are activated specifically at the onset of mitosis. In case of budding yeast Mus81-Mms4, this cell cycle stage-specific activation is known to depend on phosphorylation by CDK and Cdc5 kinases. Here, we show that a third cell cycle kinase, Cdc7-Dbf4 (DDK), targets Mus81-Mms4 in conjunction with Cdc5-both kinases bind to as well as phosphorylate Mus81-Mms4 in an interdependent manner. Moreover, DDK-mediated phosphorylation of Mms4 is strictly required for Mus81 activation in mitosis, establishing DDK as a novel regulator of homologous recombination. The scaffold protein Rtt107, which binds the Mus81-Mms4 complex, interacts with Cdc7 and thereby targets DDK and Cdc5 to the complex enabling full Mus81 activation. Therefore, Mus81 activation in mitosis involves at least three cell cycle kinases, CDK, Cdc5 and DDK Furthermore, tethering of the kinases in a stable complex with Mus81 is critical for efficient JM resolution. © 2017 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY NC ND 4.0 license.

  3. Alteration of sodium, potassium-adenosine triphosphatase activity in rabbit ciliary processes by cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delamere, N.A.; Socci, R.R.; King, K.L.

    1990-01-01

    The response of sodium, potassium-adenosine triphosphatase (Na,K-ATPase) to cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase was examined in membranes obtained from rabbit iris-ciliary body. In the presence of the protein kinase together with 10(-5) M cAMP, Na,K-ATPase activity was reduced. No change in Na,K-ATPase activity was detected in response to the protein kinase without added cAMP. Likewise cAMP alone did not alter Na,K-ATPase activity. Reduction of Na,K-ATPase activity was also observed in the presence of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit. The response of the enzyme to the kinase catalytic subunit was also examined in membranes obtained from rabbit ciliary processes. In the presence of 8 micrograms/ml of the catalytic subunit, ciliary process Na,K-ATPase activity was reduced by more than 50%. To examine whether other ATPases were suppressed by the protein kinase, calcium-stimulated ATPase activity was examined; its activity was stimulated by the catalytic subunit. To test whether the response of the ciliary process Na,K-ATPase is unique, experiments were also performed using membrane preparations from rabbit lens epithelium or rabbit kidney; the catalytic subunit significantly reduced the activity of Na,K-ATPase from the kidney but not the lens. These Na,K-ATPase studies suggest that in the iris-ciliary body, cAMP may alter sodium pump activity. In parallel 86Rb uptake studies, we observed that ouabain-inhibitable potassium uptake by intact pieces of iris-ciliary body was reduced by exogenous dibutryl cAMP or by forskolin

  4. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor P1446A Induces Apoptosis in a JNK/p38 MAPK-Dependent Manner in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia B-Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cody Paiva

    Full Text Available CDK (cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors have shown remarkable activity in CLL, where its efficacy has been linked to inhibition of the transcriptional CDKs (7 and 9 and deregulation of RNA polymerase and short-lived pro-survival proteins such as MCL1. Furthermore, ER (endoplasmic reticulum stress has been implicated in CDK inhibition in CLL. Here we conducted a pre-clinical study of a novel orally active kinase inhibitor P1446A in CLL B-cells. P1446A inhibited CDKs at nanomolar concentrations and induced rapid apoptosis of CLL cells in vitro, irrespective of chromosomal abnormalities or IGHV mutational status. Apoptosis preceded inactivation of RNA polymerase, and was accompanied by phosphorylation of stress kinases JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase. Pharmacologic inhibitors of JNK/p38 MAPK conferred protection from P1446A-mediated apoptosis. Treatment with P1446A led to a dramatic induction of NOXA in a JNK-dependent manner, and sensitized CLL cells to ABT-737, a BH3-mimetic. We observed concurrent activation of apoptosis stress-inducing kinase 1 (ASK1 and its interaction with inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1 and tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2 in CLL cells treated with P1446A, providing insights into upstream regulation of JNK in this setting. Consistent with previous reports on limited functionality of ER stress mechanism in CLL cells, treatment with P1446A failed to induce an extensive unfolded protein response. This study provides rationale for additional investigations of P1446A in CLL.

  5. Context-dependent cell cycle checkpoint abrogation by a novel kinase inhibitor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Massey

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Checkpoint kinase 1 and 2 (Chk1/Chk2, and the Aurora kinases play a critical role in the activation of the DNA damage response and mitotic spindle checkpoints. We have identified a novel inhibitor of these kinases and utilized this molecule to probe the functional interplay between these two checkpoints.Fragment screening, structure guided design, and kinase cross screening resulted in the identification of a novel, potent small molecule kinase inhibitor (VER-150548 of Chk1 and Chk2 kinases with IC(50s of 35 and 34 nM as well as the Aurora A and Aurora B kinases with IC(50s of 101 and 38 nM. The structural rationale for this kinase specificity could be clearly elucidated through the X-ray crystal structure. In human carcinoma cells, VER-150548 induced reduplication and the accumulation of cells with >4N DNA content, inhibited histone H3 phosphorylation and ultimately gave way to cell death after 120 hour exposure; a phenotype consistent with cellular Aurora inhibition. In the presence of DNA damage induced by cytotoxic chemotherapeutic drugs, VER-150548 abrogated DNA damage induced cell cycle checkpoints. Abrogation of these checkpoints correlated with increased DNA damage and rapid cell death in p53 defective HT29 cells. In the presence of DNA damage, reduplication could not be observed. These observations are consistent with the Chk1 and Chk2 inhibitory activity of this molecule.In the presence of DNA damage, we suggest that VER-150548 abrogates the DNA damage induced checkpoints forcing cells to undergo a lethal mitosis. The timing of this premature cell death induced by Chk1 inhibition negates Aurora inhibition thereby preventing re-entry into the cell cycle and subsequent DNA reduplication. This novel kinase inhibitor therefore serves as a useful chemical probe to further understand the temporal relationship between cell cycle checkpoint pathways, chemotherapeutic agent induced DNA damage and cell death.

  6. Hydrogen peroxide induces activation of insulin signaling pathway via AMP-dependent kinase in podocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piwkowska, Agnieszka, E-mail: apiwkowska@cmdik.pan.pl [Mossakowski Medical Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences, Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Nephrology, Gdansk (Poland); Rogacka, Dorota; Angielski, Stefan [Mossakowski Medical Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences, Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Nephrology, Gdansk (Poland); Jankowski, Maciej [Mossakowski Medical Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences, Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Nephrology, Gdansk (Poland); Medical University of Gdansk, Department of Therapy Monitoring and Pharmacogenetics (Poland)

    2012-11-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H{sub 2}O{sub 2} activates the insulin signaling pathway and glucose uptake in podocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H{sub 2}O{sub 2} induces time-dependent changes in AMPK phosphorylation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H{sub 2}O{sub 2} enhances insulin signaling pathways via AMPK activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H{sub 2}O{sub 2} stimulation of glucose uptake is AMPK-dependent. -- Abstract: Podocytes are cells that form the glomerular filtration barrier in the kidney. Insulin signaling in podocytes is critical for normal kidney function. Insulin signaling is regulated by oxidative stress and intracellular energy levels. We cultured rat podocytes to investigate the effects of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) on the phosphorylation of proximal and distal elements of insulin signaling. We also investigated H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced intracellular changes in the distribution of protein kinase B (Akt). Western blots showed that H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (100 {mu}M) induced rapid, transient phosphorylation of the insulin receptor (IR), the IR substrate-1 (IRS1), and Akt with peak activities at 5 min ({Delta} 183%, P < 0.05), 3 min ({Delta} 414%, P < 0.05), and 10 min ({Delta} 35%, P < 0.05), respectively. Immunostaining cells with an Akt-specific antibody showed increased intensity at the plasma membrane after treatment with H{sub 2}O{sub 2}>. Furthermore, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} inhibited phosphorylation of the phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN; peak activity at 10 min; {Delta} -32%, P < 0.05) and stimulated phosphorylation of the AMP-dependent kinase alpha subunit (AMPK{alpha}; 78% at 3 min and 244% at 10 min). The stimulation of AMPK was abolished with an AMPK inhibitor, Compound C (100 {mu}M, 2 h). Moreover, Compound C significantly reduced the effect of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} on IR phosphorylation by about 40% (from 2.07 {+-} 0.28 to 1.28 {+-} 0.12, P < 0.05). In addition, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} increased glucose uptake in podocytes

  7. Toxoplasma DJ-1 Regulates Organelle Secretion by a Direct Interaction with Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child, Matthew A; Garland, Megan; Foe, Ian; Madzelan, Peter; Treeck, Moritz; van der Linden, Wouter A; Oresic Bender, Kristina; Weerapana, Eranthie; Wilson, Mark A; Boothroyd, John C; Reese, Michael L; Bogyo, Matthew

    2017-02-28

    Human DJ-1 is a highly conserved and yet functionally enigmatic protein associated with a heritable form of Parkinson's disease. It has been suggested to be a redox-dependent regulatory scaffold, binding to proteins to modulate their function. Here we present the X-ray crystal structure of the Toxoplasma orthologue Toxoplasma gondii DJ-1 (TgDJ-1) at 2.1-Å resolution and show that it directly associates with calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 (CDPK1). The TgDJ-1 structure identifies an orthologously conserved arginine dyad that acts as a phospho-gatekeeper motif to control complex formation. We determined that the binding of TgDJ-1 to CDPK1 is sensitive to oxidation and calcium, and that this interaction potentiates CDPK1 kinase activity. Finally, we show that genetic deletion of TgDJ-1 results in upregulation of CDPK1 expression and that disruption of the CDPK1/TgDJ-1 complex in vivo prevents normal exocytosis of parasite virulence-associated organelles called micronemes. Overall, our data suggest that TgDJ-1 functions as a noncanonical kinase-regulatory scaffold that integrates multiple intracellular signals to tune microneme exocytosis in T. gondii IMPORTANCE Apicomplexan parasites such as Toxoplasma and Plasmodium are obligate intracellular parasites that require the protective environment of a host cell in order to replicate and survive within a host organism. These parasites secrete effector proteins from specialized apical organelles to select and invade a chosen host cell. The secretion of these organelles is a tightly regulated process coordinated by endogenous small molecules and calcium-dependent protein kinases. We previously identified the Toxoplasma orthologue of the highly conserved protein DJ-1 as a regulator of microneme secretion, but the molecular basis for this was not known. We have now identified the molecular mechanism for how TgDJ-1 regulates microneme secretion. TgDJ-1 interacts with the kinase responsible for the secretion of these

  8. Molecular modelling of calcium dependent protein kinase 4 (CDPK4) from Plasmodium falciparum

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tsekoa, Tsepo L

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available . Development of new drug targets is of vital importance in this regard. The recent availability of genomic information and the resultant observation that in many instances, protein kinases from parasitic protozoa are phylogenetically distant from those...

  9. Molecular Modelling of Calcium Dependent Protein Kinase 4 (CDPK4) from Plasmodium falciparum

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tsekoa, Tsepo L

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available . Development of new drug targets is of vital importance in this regard. The recent availability of genomic information and the resultant observation that in many instances, protein kinases from parasitic protozoa are phylogenetically distant from those...

  10. Activation of double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase inhibits proliferation of pancreatic β-cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shan-Shan [Key Laboratory of Human Functional Genomics of Jiangsu Province, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); Jiang, Teng [Department of Neurology, Qingdao Municipal Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); Wang, Yi; Gu, Li-Ze [Key Laboratory of Human Functional Genomics of Jiangsu Province, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); Wu, Hui-Wen [Laboratory Center for Basic Medical Sciences, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); Tan, Lan [Department of Neurology, Qingdao Municipal Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); Guo, Jun, E-mail: Guoj@njmu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Human Functional Genomics of Jiangsu Province, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China)

    2014-01-17

    Highlights: •PKR can be activated by glucolipitoxicity and pro-inflammatory cytokines in β-cells. •Activated PKR inhibited β-cell proliferation by arresting cell cycle at G1 phase. •Activated PKR fully abrogated the pro-proliferative effects of IGF-I on β-cells. -- Abstract: Double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) is revealed to participate in the development of insulin resistance in peripheral tissues in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Meanwhile, PKR is also characterized as a critical regulator of cell proliferation. To date, no study has focused on the impact of PKR on the proliferation of pancreatic β-cells. Here, we adopted insulinoma cell lines and mice islet β-cells to investigate: (1) the effects of glucolipotoxicity and pro-inflammatory cytokines on PKR activation; (2) the effects of PKR on proliferation of pancreatic β-cells and its underlying mechanisms; (3) the actions of PKR on pro-proliferative effects of IGF-I and its underlying pathway. Our results provided the first evidence that PKR can be activated by glucolipitoxicity and pro-inflammatory cytokines in pancreatic β-cells, and activated PKR significantly inhibited cell proliferation by arresting cell cycle at G1 phase. Reductions in cyclin D1 and D2 as well as increases in p27 and p53 were associated with the anti-proliferative effects of PKR, and proteasome-dependent degradation took part in the reduction of cyclin D1 and D2. Besides, PKR activation abrogated the pro-proliferative effects of IGF-I by activating JNK and disrupting IRS1/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. These findings indicate that the anti-proliferative actions of PKR on pancreatic β-cells may contribute to the pathogenesis of T2DM.

  11. LRRK2 kinase activity is dependent on LRRK2 GTP binding capacity but independent of LRRK2 GTP binding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marc Taymans

    Full Text Available Leucine rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2 is a Parkinson's disease (PD gene that encodes a large multidomain protein including both a GTPase and a kinase domain. GTPases often regulate kinases within signal transduction cascades, where GTPases act as molecular switches cycling between a GTP bound "on" state and a GDP bound "off" state. It has been proposed that LRRK2 kinase activity may be increased upon GTP binding at the LRRK2 Ras of complex proteins (ROC GTPase domain. Here we extensively test this hypothesis by measuring LRRK2 phosphorylation activity under influence of GDP, GTP or non-hydrolyzable GTP analogues GTPγS or GMPPCP. We show that autophosphorylation and lrrktide phosphorylation activity of recombinant LRRK2 protein is unaltered by guanine nucleotides, when co-incubated with LRRK2 during phosphorylation reactions. Also phosphorylation activity of LRRK2 is unchanged when the LRRK2 guanine nucleotide binding pocket is previously saturated with various nucleotides, in contrast to the greatly reduced activity measured for the guanine nucleotide binding site mutant T1348N. Interestingly, when nucleotides were incubated with cell lysates prior to purification of LRRK2, kinase activity was slightly enhanced by GTPγS or GMPPCP compared to GDP, pointing to an upstream guanine nucleotide binding protein that may activate LRRK2 in a GTP-dependent manner. Using metabolic labeling, we also found that cellular phosphorylation of LRRK2 was not significantly modulated by nucleotides, although labeling is significantly reduced by guanine nucleotide binding site mutants. We conclude that while kinase activity of LRRK2 requires an intact ROC-GTPase domain, it is independent of GDP or GTP binding to ROC.

  12. Expression and alternative splicing of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor-3 gene in human cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cress, W Douglas; Yu, Peng; Wu, Jie

    2017-10-01

    The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor-3 (CDKN3) gene encodes a dual-specificity protein tyrosine phosphatase that dephosphorylates CDK1/CDK2 and other proteins. CDKN3 is often overexpressed in human cancer, and this overexpression correlates with reduced survival in several types of cancer. CDKN3 transcript variants and mutations have also been reported. The mechanism of CDKN3 overexpression and the role of CDKN3 transcript variants in human cancer are not entirely clear. Here, we review the literature and provide additional data to assess the correlation of CDKN3 expression with patient survival. Besides the full-length CDKN3 encoding transcript and a major transcript that skips exon 2 express in normal and cancer cells, minor aberrant transcript variants have been reported. Aberrant CDKN3 transcripts were postulated to encode dominant-negative inhibitors of CDKN3 as an explanation for overexpression of the perceived tumor suppressor gene in human cancer. However, while CDKN3 is often overexpressed in human cancer, aberrant CDKN3 transcripts occur infrequently and at lower levels. CDKN3 mutations and copy number alternation are rare in human cancer, implying that neither loss of CDKN3 activity nor constitutive gain of CDKN3 expression offer an advantage to tumorigenesis. Recently, it was found that CDKN3 transcript and protein levels fluctuate during the cell cycle, peaking in mitosis. Given that rapidly growing tumors have more mitotic cells, the high level of mitotic CDKN3 expression is the most plausible mechanism of frequent CDKN3 overexpression in human cancer. This finding clarifies the mechanism of CDKN3 overexpression in human cancer and questions the view of CDKN3 as a tumor suppressor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. AMP-activated protein kinase has diet-dependent and -independent roles in Drosophila oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Kaitlin M; Drummond-Barbosa, Daniela

    2016-12-01

    Multiple aspects of organismal physiology influence the number and activity of stem cells and their progeny, including nutritional status. Previous studies demonstrated that Drosophila germline stem cells (GSCs), follicle stem cells (FSCs), and their progeny sense and respond to diet via complex mechanisms involving many systemic and local signals. AMP-activated protein kinase, or AMPK, is a highly conserved regulator of energy homeostasis known to be activated under low cellular energy conditions; however, its role in the ovarian response to diet has not been investigated. Here, we describe nutrient-dependent and -independent requirements for AMPK in Drosophila oogenesis. We found that AMPK is cell autonomously required for the slow down in GSC and follicle cell proliferation that occurs on a poor diet. Similarly, AMPK activity is necessary in the germline for the degeneration of vitellogenic stages in response to nutrient deprivation. In contrast, AMPK activity is not required within the germline to modulate its growth. Instead, AMPK acts in follicle cells to negatively regulate their growth and proliferation, thereby indirectly limiting the size of the underlying germline cyst within developing follicles. Paradoxically, AMPK is required for GSC maintenance in well-fed flies (when AMPK activity is presumably at its lowest), suggesting potentially important roles for basal AMPK activity in specific cell types. Finally, we identified a nutrient-independent, developmental role for AMPK in cyst encapsulation by follicle cells. These results uncover specific AMPK requirements in multiple cell types in the ovary and suggest that AMPK can function outside of its canonical nutrient-sensing role in specific developmental contexts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Calcium-dependent protein kinases regulate polarized tip growth in pollen tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Candace; Romanowsky, Shawn M; Barron, Yoshimi D; Garg, Shilpi; Azuse, Corinn L; Curran, Amy; Davis, Ryan M; Hatton, Jasmine; Harmon, Alice C; Harper, Jeffrey F

    2009-08-01

    Calcium signals are critical for the regulation of polarized growth in many eukaryotic cells, including pollen tubes and neurons. In plants, the regulatory pathways that code and decode Ca(2+) signals are poorly understood. In Arabidopsis thaliana, genetic evidence presented here indicates that pollen tube tip growth involves the redundant activity of two Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinases (CPKs), isoforms CPK17 and -34. Both isoforms appear to target to the plasma membrane, as shown by imaging of CPK17-yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) and CPK34-YFP in growing pollen tubes. Segregation analyses from two independent sets of T-DNA insertion mutants indicate that a double disruption of CPK17 and -34 results in an approximately 350-fold reduction in pollen transmission efficiency. The near sterile phenotype of homozygous double mutants could be rescued through pollen expression of a CPK34-YFP fusion. In contrast, a transgene rescue was blocked by mutations engineered to disrupt the Ca(2+)-activation mechanism of CPK34 (CPK34-YFP-E465A,E500A), providing in vivo evidence linking Ca(2+) activation to a biological function of a CPK. While double mutant pollen tubes displayed normal morphology, relative growth rates for the most rapidly growing tubes were reduced by more than three-fold compared with wild type. In addition, while most mutant tubes appeared to grow far enough to reach ovules, the vast majority (>90%) still failed to locate and fertilize ovules. Together, these results provide genetic evidence that CPKs are essential to pollen fitness, and support a mechanistic model in which CPK17 and -34 transduce Ca(2+) signals to increase the rate of pollen tube tip growth and facilitate a response to tropism cues.

  15. Differential regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors in neuroblastoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao, Lan; Paul, Pritha; Lee, Sora; Qiao, Jingbo; Wang, Yongsheng; Chung, Dai H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •GRP-R signaling differentially regulated the expression of p21 and p27. •Silencing GRP/GRP-R downregulated p21, while p27 expression was upregulated. •Inhibition of GRP/GRP-R signaling enhanced PTEN expression, correlative to the increased expression of p27. •PTEN and p27 co-localized in cytoplasm and silencing PTEN decreased p27 expression. -- Abstract: Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) and its receptor (GRP-R) are highly expressed in undifferentiated neuroblastoma, and they play critical roles in oncogenesis. We previously reported that GRP activates the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway to promote DNA synthesis and cell cycle progression in neuroblastoma cells. Conversely, GRP-R silencing induces cell cycle arrest. Here, we speculated that GRP/GRP-R signaling induces neuroblastoma cell proliferation via regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors. Surprisingly, we found that GRP/GRP-R differentially induced expressions of p21 and p27. Silencing GRP/GRP-R decreased p21, but it increased p27 expressions in neuroblastoma cells. Furthermore, we found that the intracellular localization of p21 and p27 in the nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments, respectively. In addition, we found that GRP/GRP-R silencing increased the expression and accumulation of PTEN in the cytoplasm of neuroblastoma cells where it co-localized with p27, thus suggesting that p27 promotes the function of PTEN as a tumor suppressor by stabilizing PTEN in the cytoplasm. GRP/GRP-R regulation of CDK inhibitors and tumor suppressor PTEN may be critical for tumoriogenesis of neuroblastoma

  16. Differential regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors in neuroblastoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiao, Lan [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun 130021 (China); Paul, Pritha; Lee, Sora [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Qiao, Jingbo [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Wang, Yongsheng [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun 130021 (China); Chung, Dai H., E-mail: dai.chung@vanderbilt.edu [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States)

    2013-05-31

    Highlights: •GRP-R signaling differentially regulated the expression of p21 and p27. •Silencing GRP/GRP-R downregulated p21, while p27 expression was upregulated. •Inhibition of GRP/GRP-R signaling enhanced PTEN expression, correlative to the increased expression of p27. •PTEN and p27 co-localized in cytoplasm and silencing PTEN decreased p27 expression. -- Abstract: Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) and its receptor (GRP-R) are highly expressed in undifferentiated neuroblastoma, and they play critical roles in oncogenesis. We previously reported that GRP activates the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway to promote DNA synthesis and cell cycle progression in neuroblastoma cells. Conversely, GRP-R silencing induces cell cycle arrest. Here, we speculated that GRP/GRP-R signaling induces neuroblastoma cell proliferation via regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors. Surprisingly, we found that GRP/GRP-R differentially induced expressions of p21 and p27. Silencing GRP/GRP-R decreased p21, but it increased p27 expressions in neuroblastoma cells. Furthermore, we found that the intracellular localization of p21 and p27 in the nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments, respectively. In addition, we found that GRP/GRP-R silencing increased the expression and accumulation of PTEN in the cytoplasm of neuroblastoma cells where it co-localized with p27, thus suggesting that p27 promotes the function of PTEN as a tumor suppressor by stabilizing PTEN in the cytoplasm. GRP/GRP-R regulation of CDK inhibitors and tumor suppressor PTEN may be critical for tumoriogenesis of neuroblastoma.

  17. Cyclin‑dependent kinase inhibitor p21 does not impact embryonic endochondral ossification in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinzei, Nobuaki; Hayashi, Shinya; Hashimoto, Shingo; Kanzaki, Noriyuki; Iwasa, Kenjiro; Sakata, Shuhei; Kihara, Shinsuke; Fujishiro, Takaaki; Kuroda, Ryosuke; Kurosaka, Masahiro

    2015-03-01

    Endochondral ossification at the growth plate is regulated by a number of factors and hormones. The cyclin‑dependent kinase inhibitor p21 has been identified as a cell cycle regulator and its expression has been reported to be essential for endochondral ossification in vitro. However, to the best of our knowledge, the function of p21 in endochondral ossification has not been evaluated in vivo. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the function of p21 in embryonic endochondral ossification in vivo. Wild‑type (WT) and p21 knockout (KO) pregnant heterozygous mice were sacrificed on embryonic days E13.5, E15.5 and E18.5. Sagittal histological sections of the forearms of the embryos were collected and stained with Safranin O and 5‑bromo‑2'‑deoxyuridine (BrdU). Additionally, the expression levels of cyclin D1, type II collagen, type X collagen, Sox9, and p16 were examined using immunohistochemistry, and the expression levels of p27 were examined using immunofluorescence. Safranin O staining revealed no structural change between the cartilage tissues of the WT and p21KO mice at any time point. Type II collagen was expressed ubiquitously, while type X collagen was only expressed in the hypertrophic zone of the cartilage tissues. No differences in the levels of Sox9 expression were observed between the two groups at any time point. The levels of cyclin D1 expression and BrdU uptake were higher in the E13.5 cartilage tissue compared with those observed in the embryonic cartilage tissue at subsequent time points. Expression of p16 and p27 was ubiquitous throughout the tissue sections. These results indicate that p21 may not be essential for embryonic endochondral ossification in articular cartilage of mice and that other signaling networks may compensate for p21 deletion.

  18. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 3 is overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma and promotes tumor cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing, Chunyang; Xie, Haiyang; Zhou, Lin; Zhou, Wuhua; Zhang, Wu; Ding, Songming; Wei, Bajin; Yu, Xiaobo; Su, Rong; Zheng, Shusen

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► CDKN3 is commonly overexpressed in HCC and is associated with poor clinical outcome. ► Overexpression of CDKN3 could stimulate the proliferation of HCC cells by promoting G1/S transition. ► CDKN3 could inhibit the expression of p21 in HCC cells. ► Overexpression of CDKN3 has no effect on apoptosis and invasion of HCC cells. ► We identified 61 genes co-expressed with CDKN3, and BIRC5 was located at the center of the co-expression network. -- Abstract: Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 3 (CDKN3) belongs to the protein phosphatases family and has a dual function in cell cycling. The function of this gene has been studied in several kinds of cancers, but its role in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains to be elucidated. In this study, we found that CDKN3 was frequently overexpressed in both HCC cell lines and clinical samples, and this overexpression was correlated with poor tumor differentiation and advanced tumor stage. Functional studies showed that overexpression of CDKN3 could promote cell proliferation by stimulating G1-S transition but has no impact on cell apoptosis and invasion. Microarray-based co-expression analysis identified a total of 61 genes co-expressed with CDKN3, with most of them involved in cell proliferation, and BIRC5 was located at the center of CDKN3 co-expression network. These results suggest that CDKN3 acts as an oncogene in human hepatocellular carcinoma and antagonism of CDKN3 may be of interest for the treatment of HCC.

  19. Crystal Structure of Human Cyclin K, A Positive Regulator of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek,K.; Brown, R.; Birrane, G.; Ladias, J.

    2007-01-01

    K and the closely related cyclins T1, T2a, and T2b interact with cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9) forming multiple nuclear complexes, referred to collectively as positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb). Through phosphorylation of the C-terminal domain of the RNA polymerase II largest subunit, distinct P-TEFb species regulate the transcriptional elongation of specific genes that play central roles in human physiology and disease development, including cardiac hypertrophy and human immunodeficiency virus-1 pathogenesis. We have determined the crystal structure of human cyclin K (residues 11-267) at 1.5 {angstrom} resolution, which represents the first atomic structure of a P-TEFb subunit. The cyclin K fold comprises two typical cyclin boxes with two short helices preceding the N-terminal box. A prominent feature of cyclin K is an additional helix (H4a) in the first cyclin box that obstructs the binding pocket for the cell-cycle inhibitor p27{sup Kip1}. Modeling of CDK9 bound to cyclin K provides insights into the structural determinants underlying the formation and regulation of this complex. A homology model of human cyclin T1 generated using the cyclin K structure as a template reveals that the two proteins have similar structures, as expected from their high level of sequence identity. Nevertheless, their CDK9-interacting surfaces display significant structural differences, which could potentially be exploited for the design of cyclin-targeted inhibitors of the CDK9-cyclin K and CDK9-cyclin T1 complexes.

  20. Biodentine induces human dental pulp stem cell differentiation through mitogen-activated protein kinase and calcium-/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhirong; Kohli, Meetu R; Yu, Qing; Kim, Syngcuk; Qu, Tiejun; He, Wen-xi

    2014-07-01

    Biodentine (Septodont, Saint-Maur-des-Fossès, France), a new tricalcium silicate cement formulation, has been introduced as a bioactive dentine substitute to be used in direct contact with pulp tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate the response of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) to the material and whether mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), and calcium-/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) signal pathways played a regulatory role in Biodentine-induced odontoblast differentiation. hDPCs obtained from impacted third molars were incubated with Biodentine. Odontoblastic differentiation was evaluated by alkaline phosphatase activity, alizarin red staining, and quantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for the analysis of messenger RNA expression of the following differentiation gene markers: osteocalcin (OCN), dentin sialophosprotein (DSPP), dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1), and bone sialoprotein (BSP). Cell cultures in the presence of Biodentine were exposed to specific inhibitors of MAPK (U0126, SB203580, and SP600125), NF-κB (pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate), and CaMKII (KN-93) pathways to evaluate the regulatory effect on the expression of these markers and mineralization assay. Biodentine significantly increased alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralized nodule formation and the expression of OCN, DSPP, DMP1, and BSP. The MAPK inhibitor for extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (U0126) and Jun N-terminal kinase (SP600125) significantly decreased the Biodentine-induced mineralized differentiation of hDPSCs and OCN, DSPP, DMP1, and BSP messenger RNA expression, whereas p38 MAPK inhibitors (SB203580) had no effect. The CaMKII inhibitor KN-93 significantly attenuated and the NF-κB inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate further enhanced the up-regulation of Biodentine-induced gene expression and mineralization. Biodentine is a bioactive and biocompatible material capable

  1. Roles of calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II in long-term memory formation in crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizunami, Makoto; Nemoto, Yuko; Terao, Kanta; Hamanaka, Yoshitaka; Matsumoto, Yukihisa

    2014-01-01

    Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is a key molecule in many systems of learning and memory in vertebrates, but roles of CaMKII in invertebrates have not been characterized in detail. We have suggested that serial activation of NO/cGMP signaling, cyclic nucleotide-gated channel, Ca(2+)/CaM and cAMP signaling participates in long-term memory (LTM) formation in olfactory conditioning in crickets, and here we show participation of CaMKII in LTM formation and propose its site of action in the biochemical cascades. Crickets subjected to 3-trial conditioning to associate an odor with reward exhibited memory that lasts for a few days, which is characterized as protein synthesis-dependent LTM. In contrast, animals subjected to 1-trial conditioning exhibited memory that lasts for only several hours (mid-term memory, MTM). Injection of a CaMKII inhibitor prior to 3-trial conditioning impaired 1-day memory retention but not 1-hour memory retention, suggesting that CaMKII participates in LTM formation but not in MTM formation. Animals injected with a cGMP analogue, calcium ionophore or cAMP analogue prior to 1-trial conditioning exhibited 1-day retention, and co-injection of a CaMKII inhibitor impaired induction of LTM by the cGMP analogue or that by the calcium ionophore but not that by the cAMP analogue, suggesting that CaMKII is downstream of cGMP production and Ca(2+) influx and upstream of cAMP production in biochemical cascades for LTM formation. Animals injected with an adenylyl cyclase (AC) activator prior to 1-trial conditioning exhibited 1-day retention. Interestingly, a CaMKII inhibitor impaired LTM induction by the AC activator, although AC is expected to be a downstream target of CaMKII. The results suggest that CaMKII interacts with AC to facilitate cAMP production for LTM formation. We propose that CaMKII serves as a key molecule for interplay between Ca(2+) signaling and cAMP signaling for LTM formation, a new role of CaMKII in

  2. Roles of calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II in long-term memory formation in crickets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Mizunami

    Full Text Available Ca(2+/calmodulin (CaM-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII is a key molecule in many systems of learning and memory in vertebrates, but roles of CaMKII in invertebrates have not been characterized in detail. We have suggested that serial activation of NO/cGMP signaling, cyclic nucleotide-gated channel, Ca(2+/CaM and cAMP signaling participates in long-term memory (LTM formation in olfactory conditioning in crickets, and here we show participation of CaMKII in LTM formation and propose its site of action in the biochemical cascades. Crickets subjected to 3-trial conditioning to associate an odor with reward exhibited memory that lasts for a few days, which is characterized as protein synthesis-dependent LTM. In contrast, animals subjected to 1-trial conditioning exhibited memory that lasts for only several hours (mid-term memory, MTM. Injection of a CaMKII inhibitor prior to 3-trial conditioning impaired 1-day memory retention but not 1-hour memory retention, suggesting that CaMKII participates in LTM formation but not in MTM formation. Animals injected with a cGMP analogue, calcium ionophore or cAMP analogue prior to 1-trial conditioning exhibited 1-day retention, and co-injection of a CaMKII inhibitor impaired induction of LTM by the cGMP analogue or that by the calcium ionophore but not that by the cAMP analogue, suggesting that CaMKII is downstream of cGMP production and Ca(2+ influx and upstream of cAMP production in biochemical cascades for LTM formation. Animals injected with an adenylyl cyclase (AC activator prior to 1-trial conditioning exhibited 1-day retention. Interestingly, a CaMKII inhibitor impaired LTM induction by the AC activator, although AC is expected to be a downstream target of CaMKII. The results suggest that CaMKII interacts with AC to facilitate cAMP production for LTM formation. We propose that CaMKII serves as a key molecule for interplay between Ca(2+ signaling and cAMP signaling for LTM formation, a new role of Ca

  3. Synthesis and evaluation of pyrazolo[1,5-b]pyridazines as selective cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, Kirk L.; Reno, Michael J.; Alberti, Jennifer B.; Price, Daniel J.; Kane-Carson, Laurie S.; Knick, Victoria B.; Shewchuk, Lisa M.; Hassell, Anne M.; Veal, James M.; Davis, Stephen T.; Griffin, Robert J.; Peel, Michael R. (GSKNC)

    2010-10-01

    A novel series of pyrazolo[1,5-b]pyridazines have been synthesized and identified as cyclin dependant kinase inhibitors potentially useful for the treatment of solid tumors. Modification of the hinge-binding amine or the C(2)- and C(6)-substitutions on the pyrazolopyridazine core provided potent inhibitors of CDK4 and demonstrated enzyme selectivity against VEGFR-2 and GSK3{beta}.

  4. Synthesis and in vitro biological evaluation of 2,6,9-trisubstituted purines targeting multiple cyclin-dependent kinases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zatloukal, M.; Jorda, Radek; Gucký, T.; Řezníčková, Eva; Voller, Jiří; Pospíšil, T.; Malínková, V.; Adamcová, H.; Kryštof, Vladimír; Strnad, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 61, SI (2013), s. 61-72 ISSN 0223-5234 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP305/12/0783; GA ČR GA301/08/1649 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED0007/01/01 Program:ED Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Cyclin-dependent kinase * Inhibitor * Roscovitine Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.432, year: 2013

  5. cAMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylation of EVL, a Mena/VASP relative, regulates its interaction with actin and SH3 domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrechts, A; Kwiatkowski, A V; Lanier, L M; Bear, J E; Vandekerckhove, J; Ampe, C; Gertler, F B

    2000-11-17

    Proteins of the Ena/VASP family are implicated in processes that require dynamic actin remodeling such as axon guidance and platelet activation. In this work, we explored some of the pathways that likely regulate actin dynamics in part via EVL (Ena/VASP-like protein). Two isoforms, EVL and EVL-I, were highly expressed in hematopoietic cells of thymus and spleen. In CD3-activated T-cells, EVL was found in F-actin-rich patches and at the distal tips of the microspikes that formed on the activated side of the T-cells. Like the other family members, EVL localized to focal adhesions and the leading edge of lamellipodia when expressed in fibroblasts. EVL was a substrate for the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, and this phosphorylation regulated several of the interactions between EVL and its ligands. Unlike VASP, EVL nucleated actin polymerization under physiological conditions, whereas phosphorylation of both EVL and VASP decreased their nucleating activity. EVL bound directly to the Abl, Lyn, and nSrc SH3 domains; the FE65 WW domain; and profilin, likely via its proline-rich core. Binding of Abl and nSrc SH3 domains, but not profilin or other SH3 domains, was abolished by cAMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylation of EVL. We show strong cooperative binding of two profilin dimers on the polyproline sequence of EVL. Additionally, profilin competed with the SH3 domains for binding to partially overlapping binding sites. These data suggest that the function of EVL could be modulated in a complex manner by its interactions with multiple ligands and through phosphorylation by cyclic nucleotide dependent kinases.

  6. Inhibitors of JAK-family kinases: an update on the patent literature 2013-2015, part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettle, Jason G; Åstrand, Annika; Catley, Matthew; Grimster, Neil P; Nilsson, Magnus; Su, Qibin; Woessner, Richard

    2017-02-01

    Janus kinases (JAKs) are a family of four enzymes; JAK1, JAK2, JAK3 and tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2) that are critical in cytokine signalling and are strongly linked to both cancer and inflammatory diseases. There are currently two launched JAK inhibitors for the treatment of human conditions: tofacitinib for Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ruxolitinib for myeloproliferative neoplasms including intermediate or high risk myelofibrosis and polycythemia vera. Areas covered: This review covers patents claiming activity against one or more JAK family members in the period 2013-2015 inclusive, and covers 95 patents from 42 applicants, split over two parts. The authors have ordered recent patents according to the primary applicant's name, with part 2 covering J through Z. Expert opinion: Inhibition of JAK-family kinases is an area of growing interest, catalysed by the maturity of data on marketed inhibitors ruxolitinib and tofacitinib in late stage clinical trials. Many applicants are pursuing traditional fast-follower strategies around these inhibitors, with a range of chemical strategies adopted. The challenge will be to show sufficient differentiation to the originator compounds, since dose limiting toxicities with such agents appear to be on target and mechanism-related and also considering that such agents may be available as generic compounds by the time follower agents reach market.

  7. Inhibitors of JAK-family kinases: an update on the patent literature 2013-2015, part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettle, Jason G; Åstrand, Annika; Catley, Matthew; Grimster, Neil P; Nilsson, Magnus; Su, Qibin; Woessner, Richard

    2017-02-01

    Janus kinases (JAKs) are a family of four enzymes; JAK1, JAK2, JAK3 and tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2) that are critical in cytokine signalling and are strongly linked to both cancer and inflammatory diseases. There are currently two launched JAK inhibitors for the treatment of human conditions: tofacitinib for Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ruxolitinib for myeloproliferative neoplasms including intermediate or high risk myelofibrosis and polycythemia vera. Areas covered: This review covers patents claiming activity against one or more JAK family members in the period 2013-2015 inclusive, and covers 95 patents from 42 applicants, split over two parts. The authors have ordered recent patents according to the primary applicant's name, with part 1 covering A through to I. Expert opinion: Inhibition of JAK-family kinases is an area of growing interest, catalysed by the maturity of data on marketed inhibitors ruxolitinib and tofacitinib in late stage clinical trials. Many applicants are pursuing traditional fast-follower strategies around these inhibitors, with a range of chemical strategies adopted. The challenge will be to show sufficient differentiation to the originator compounds, since dose limiting toxicities with such agents appear to be on target and mechanism-related and also considering that such agents may be available as generic compounds by the time follower agents reach market.

  8. Phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 controls migration and malignant transformation but not cell growth and proliferation in PTEN-null lymphocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finlay, D.K.; Sinclair, L.V.; Feijoo, C.; Waugh, C.M.; Hagenbeek, T.J.; Spits, H.; Cantrell, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    In normal T cell progenitors, phosphoinositide-dependent kinase l (PDK1)-mediated phosphorylation and activation of protein kinase B (PKB) is essential for the phosphorylation and inactivation of Foxo family transcription factors, and also controls T cell growth and proliferation. The current study

  9. Suppression of DNA-dependent protein kinase sensitize cells to radiation without affecting DSB repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, Ann-Sofie; Abramenkovs, Andris; Stenerlöw, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We reduced the level of DNA-PKcs with siRNA and examined cells after γ-irradiation. • Low DNA-PKcs levels lead to radiosensitivity but did not affect repair of DSB. • Low DNA-PKcs levels may block progression of mitosis. • DNA-PKcs role in mitotic progression is independent of its role in DSB repair. • We suggest different mechanisms by which loss of DNA-PKcs function sensitize cells. - Abstract: Efficient and correct repair of DNA double-strand break (DSB) is critical for cell survival. Defects in the DNA repair may lead to cell death, genomic instability and development of cancer. The catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs) is an essential component of the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) which is the major DSB repair pathway in mammalian cells. In the present study, by using siRNA against DNA-PKcs in four human cell lines, we examined how low levels of DNA-PKcs affected cellular response to ionizing radiation. Decrease of DNA-PKcs levels by 80–95%, induced by siRNA treatment, lead to extreme radiosensitivity, similar to that seen in cells completely lacking DNA-PKcs and low levels of DNA-PKcs promoted cell accumulation in G2/M phase after irradiation and blocked progression of mitosis. Surprisingly, low levels of DNA-PKcs did not affect the repair capacity and the removal of 53BP1 or γ-H2AX foci and rejoining of DSB appeared normal. This was in strong contrast to cells completely lacking DNA-PKcs and cells treated with the DNA-PKcs inhibitor NU7441, in which DSB repair were severely compromised. This suggests that there are different mechanisms by which loss of DNA-PKcs functions can sensitize cells to ionizing radiation. Further, foci of phosphorylated DNA-PKcs (T2609 and S2056) co-localized with DSB and this was independent of the amount of DNA-PKcs but foci of DNA-PKcs was only seen in siRNA-treated cells. Our study emphasizes on the critical role of DNA-PKcs for maintaining survival after radiation exposure

  10. Suppression of DNA-dependent protein kinase sensitize cells to radiation without affecting DSB repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, Ann-Sofie, E-mail: ann-sofie.gustafsson@bms.uu.se; Abramenkovs, Andris; Stenerlöw, Bo

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • We reduced the level of DNA-PKcs with siRNA and examined cells after γ-irradiation. • Low DNA-PKcs levels lead to radiosensitivity but did not affect repair of DSB. • Low DNA-PKcs levels may block progression of mitosis. • DNA-PKcs role in mitotic progression is independent of its role in DSB repair. • We suggest different mechanisms by which loss of DNA-PKcs function sensitize cells. - Abstract: Efficient and correct repair of DNA double-strand break (DSB) is critical for cell survival. Defects in the DNA repair may lead to cell death, genomic instability and development of cancer. The catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs) is an essential component of the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) which is the major DSB repair pathway in mammalian cells. In the present study, by using siRNA against DNA-PKcs in four human cell lines, we examined how low levels of DNA-PKcs affected cellular response to ionizing radiation. Decrease of DNA-PKcs levels by 80–95%, induced by siRNA treatment, lead to extreme radiosensitivity, similar to that seen in cells completely lacking DNA-PKcs and low levels of DNA-PKcs promoted cell accumulation in G2/M phase after irradiation and blocked progression of mitosis. Surprisingly, low levels of DNA-PKcs did not affect the repair capacity and the removal of 53BP1 or γ-H2AX foci and rejoining of DSB appeared normal. This was in strong contrast to cells completely lacking DNA-PKcs and cells treated with the DNA-PKcs inhibitor NU7441, in which DSB repair were severely compromised. This suggests that there are different mechanisms by which loss of DNA-PKcs functions can sensitize cells to ionizing radiation. Further, foci of phosphorylated DNA-PKcs (T2609 and S2056) co-localized with DSB and this was independent of the amount of DNA-PKcs but foci of DNA-PKcs was only seen in siRNA-treated cells. Our study emphasizes on the critical role of DNA-PKcs for maintaining survival after radiation exposure

  11. The effect of Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 on voltage-dependent calcium channels in PC12 cells varies according to channel type and cell differentiation state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furusawa, Kotaro; Asada, Akiko; Saito, Taro; Hisanaga, Shin-ichi

    2014-08-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is a Ser/Thr kinase that plays an important role in the release of neurotransmitter from pre-synaptic terminals triggered by Ca(2+) influx into the pre-synaptic cytoplasm through voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels (VDCCs). It is reported that Cdk5 regulates L-, P/Q-, or N-type VDCC, but there is conflicting data as to the effect of Cdk5 on VDCC activity. To clarify the mechanisms involved, we examined the role of Cdk5 in regulating the Ca(2+) -channel property of VDCCs, using PC12 cells expressing endogenous, functional L-, P/Q-, and N-type VDCCs. The Ca(2+) influx, induced by membrane depolarization with high K(+) , was monitored with a fluorescent Ca(2+) indicator protein in both undifferentiated and nerve growth factor (NGF)-differentiated PC12 cells. Overall, Ca(2+) influx was increased by expression of Cdk5-p35 in undifferentiated PC12 cells but suppressed in differentiated PC12 cells. Moreover, we found that different VDCCs are distinctly regulated by Cdk5-p35 depending on the differentiation states of PC12 cells. These results indicate that Cdk5-p35 regulates L-, P/Q-, or N-type VDCCs in a cellular context-dependent manner. Calcium (Ca(2+) ) influx through voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels (VDCCs) triggers neurotransmitter release from pre-synaptic terminal of neurons. The channel activity of VDCCs is regulated by Cdk5-p35, a neuronal Ser/Thr kinase. However, there have been debates about the regulation of VDCCs by Cdk5. Using PC12 cells, we show that Cdk5-p35 regulates VDCCs in a type (L, P/Q, and N) and differentiation-dependent manner. NGF = nerve growth factor. © 2014 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  12. Interaction of the regulatory subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase with PATZ1 (ZNF278)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Weng-Lang; Ravatn, Roald; Kudoh, Kazuya; Alabanza, Leah; Chin, Khew-Voon

    2010-01-01

    The effects of cAMP in cell are predominantly mediated by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), which is composed of two genetically distinct subunits, catalytic (C) and regulatory (R), forming a tetrameric holoenzyme R 2 C 2 . The only known function for the R subunit is that of inhibiting the activity of the C subunit kinase. It has been shown that overexpression of RIα, but not the C subunit kinase, is associated with neoplastic transformation. In addition, it has also been demonstrated that mutation in the RIα, but not the C subunit is associated with increased resistance to the DNA-damaging anticancer drug cisplatin, thus suggesting that the RIα subunit of PKA may have functions independent of the kinase. We show here that the RIα subunit interacts with a BTB/POZ domain zinc-finger transcription factor, PATZ1 (ZNF278), and co-expression with RIα results in its sequestration in the cytoplasm. The cytoplasmic/nuclear translocation is inducible by cAMP. C-terminus deletion abolishes PATZ1 interaction with RIα and results in its localization in the nucleus. PATZ1 transactivates the cMyc promoter and the presence of cAMP and co-expression with RIα modulates its transactivation. Moreover, PATZ1 is aberrantly expressed in cancer. Taken together, our results showed a potentially novel mechanism of cAMP signaling mediated through the interaction of RIα with PATZ1 that is independent of the kinase activity of PKA, and the aberrant expression of PATZ1 in cancer point to its role in cell growth regulation.

  13. Structure and Ubiquitination-Dependent Activation of TANK-Binding Kinase 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daqi Tu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Upon stimulation by pathogen-associated inflammatory signals, TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1 induces type I interferon expression and modulates nuclear factor κB (NF-κB signaling. Here, we describe the 2.4 Å-resolution crystal structure of nearly full-length TBK1 in complex with specific inhibitors. The structure reveals a dimeric assembly created by an extensive network of interactions among the kinase, ubiquitin-like, and scaffold/dimerization domains. An intact TBK1 dimer undergoes K63-linked polyubiquitination on lysines 30 and 401, and these modifications are required for TBK1 activity. The ubiquitination sites and dimer contacts are conserved in the close homolog inhibitor of κB kinase ∊ (IKK∊ but not in IKKβ, a canonical IKK that assembles in an unrelated manner. The multidomain architecture of TBK1 provides a structural platform for integrating ubiquitination with kinase activation and IRF3 phosphorylation. The structure of TBK1 will facilitate studies of the atypical IKKs in normal and disease physiology and further the development of more specific inhibitors that may be useful as anticancer or anti-inflammatory agents.

  14. Structure and ubiquitination-dependent activation of TANK-binding kinase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Daqi; Zhu, Zehua; Zhou, Alicia Y; Yun, Cai-hong; Lee, Kyung-Eun; Toms, Angela V; Li, Yiqun; Dunn, Gavin P; Chan, Edmond; Thai, Tran; Yang, Shenghong; Ficarro, Scott B; Marto, Jarrod A; Jeon, Hyesung; Hahn, William C; Barbie, David A; Eck, Michael J

    2013-03-28

    Upon stimulation by pathogen-associated inflammatory signals, TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) induces type I interferon expression and modulates nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling. Here, we describe the 2.4 Å-resolution crystal structure of nearly full-length TBK1 in complex with specific inhibitors. The structure reveals a dimeric assembly created by an extensive network of interactions among the kinase, ubiquitin-like, and scaffold/dimerization domains. An intact TBK1 dimer undergoes K63-linked polyubiquitination on lysines 30 and 401, and these modifications are required for TBK1 activity. The ubiquitination sites and dimer contacts are conserved in the close homolog inhibitor of κB kinase ε (IKKε) but not in IKKβ, a canonical IKK that assembles in an unrelated manner. The multidomain architecture of TBK1 provides a structural platform for integrating ubiquitination with kinase activation and IRF3 phosphorylation. The structure of TBK1 will facilitate studies of the atypical IKKs in normal and disease physiology and further the development of more specific inhibitors that may be useful as anticancer or anti-inflammatory agents. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Regulation of plant cyclin-dependent kinases and cell cycle machinery by plant hormone analogues

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kryštof, V.; Bögre, L.; Binarová, Pavla; Doležel, Jaroslav; Strnad, Miroslav

    1998-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 3 (1998), s. 310 [International Conference on Inhibitors of Protein Kinases /1./. 15.09.1998-20.09.1998, Warsaw] R&D Projects: GA ČR GV204/96/K235; GA MŠk VS96154 Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  16. Regulators of cyclin-dependent kinases are crucial for maintaining genome integrity in S phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Halfdan; Nähse, Viola; Larsen, Marie Sofie Yoo

    2010-01-01

    Maintenance of genome integrity is of critical importance to cells. To identify key regulators of genomic integrity, we screened a human cell line with a kinome small interfering RNA library. WEE1, a major regulator of mitotic entry, and CHK1 were among the genes identified. Both kinases...

  17. rad-Dependent response of the chk1-encoded protein kinase at the DNA damage checkpoint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walworth, N.C.; Bernards, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    Exposure of eukaryotic cells to agents that generate DNA damage results in transient arrest of progression through the cell cycle. In fission yeast, the DNA damage checkpoint associated with cell cycle arrest before mitosis requires the protein kinase p56chk1. DNA damage induced by ultraviolet

  18. MHC-I-induced apoptosis in human B-lymphoma cells is dependent on protein tyrosine and serine/threonine kinases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Elm; Bregenholt, S; Johansen, B

    1999-01-01

    B lymphoma cells, is dependent on protein tyrosine kinases and the phosphatidylinositol 3 (PI-3) kinase. Functional studies showed that MHC-I crosslinking induced almost complete inhibition of the spontaneous proliferation of the B lymphoma cells as early as 6 h post-crosslinking and apoptosis 24 h...... post-crosslinking. Preincubation with either protein tyrosine kinase or protein serine/threonine kinase inhibitors reduced the MHC-I-induced apoptosis to background levels, whereas inhibition of PI-3 kinase had no effect. These data demonstrate a pivotal role for protein tyrosine and serine....../threonine kinases in MHC-I-mediated apoptosis in human B-cells and suggest the presence of several MHC-I signaling pathways leading to diverse effects in these cells....

  19. Structure-Based Design of Potent and Selective 3-Phosphoinositide-Dependent Kinase-1 (PDK1) Inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, Jesus R.; Becker, Christopher J.; Blackledge, Charles W.; Duquenne, Celine; Feng, Yanhong; Grant, Seth W.; Heerding, Dirk; Li, William H.; Miller, William H.; Romeril, Stuart P.; Scherzer, Daryl; Shu, Arthur; Bobko, Mark A.; Chadderton, Antony R.; Dumble, Melissa; Gardiner, Christine M.; Gilbert, Seth; Liu, Qi; Rabindran, Sridhar K.; Sudakin, Valery; Xiang, Hong; Brady, Pat G.; Campobasso, Nino; Ward, Paris; Axten, Jeffrey M. (GSKPA)

    2014-10-02

    Phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1(PDK1) is a master regulator of the AGC family of kinases and an integral component of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. As this pathway is among the most commonly deregulated across all cancers, a selective inhibitor of PDK1 might have utility as an anticancer agent. Herein we describe our lead optimization of compound 1 toward highly potent and selective PDK1 inhibitors via a structure-based design strategy. The most potent and selective inhibitors demonstrated submicromolar activity as measured by inhibition of phosphorylation of PDK1 substrates as well as antiproliferative activity against a subset of AML cell lines. In addition, reduction of phosphorylation of PDK1 substrates was demonstrated in vivo in mice bearing OCl-AML2 xenografts. These observations demonstrate the utility of these molecules as tools to further delineate the biology of PDK1 and the potential pharmacological uses of a PDK1 inhibitor.

  20. High throughput screens yield small molecule inhibitors of Leishmania CRK3:CYC6 cyclin-dependent kinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderick G Walker

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania species are parasitic protozoa that have a tightly controlled cell cycle, regulated by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs. Cdc2-related kinase 3 (CRK3, an essential CDK in Leishmania and functional orthologue of human CDK1, can form an active protein kinase complex with Leishmania cyclins CYCA and CYC6. Here we describe the identification and synthesis of specific small molecule inhibitors of bacterially expressed Leishmania CRK3:CYC6 using a high throughput screening assay and iterative chemistry. We also describe the biological activity of the molecules against Leishmania parasites.In order to obtain an active Leishmania CRK3:CYC6 protein kinase complex, we developed a co-expression and co-purification system for Leishmania CRK3 and CYC6 proteins. This active enzyme was used in a high throughput screening (HTS platform, utilising an IMAP fluorescence polarisation assay. We carried out two chemical library screens and identified specific inhibitors of CRK3:CYC6 that were inactive against the human cyclin-dependent kinase CDK2:CycA. Subsequently, the best inhibitors were tested against 11 other mammalian protein kinases. Twelve of the most potent hits had an azapurine core with structure activity relationship (SAR analysis identifying the functional groups on the 2 and 9 positions as essential for CRK3:CYC6 inhibition and specificity against CDK2:CycA. Iterative chemistry allowed synthesis of a number of azapurine derivatives with one, compound 17, demonstrating anti-parasitic activity against both promastigote and amastigote forms of L. major. Following the second HTS, 11 compounds with a thiazole core (active towards CRK3:CYC6 and inactive against CDK2:CycA were tested. Ten of these hits demonstrated anti-parasitic activity against promastigote L. major.The pharmacophores identified from the high throughput screens, and the derivatives synthesised, selectively target the parasite enzyme and represent compounds for future hit

  1. Intradermal administration of endothelin-1 attenuates endothelium-dependent and -independent cutaneous vasodilation via Rho kinase in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Naoto; Amano, Tatsuro; Halili, Lyra; Louie, Jeffrey C; Zhang, Sarah Y; McNeely, Brendan D; Kenny, Glen P

    2017-01-01

    We recently showed that intradermal administration of endothelin-1 diminished endothelium-dependent and -independent cutaneous vasodilation. We evaluated the hypothesis that Rho kinase may be a mediator of this response. We also sought to evaluate if endothelin-1 increases sweating. In 12 adults (25 ± 6 yr), we measured cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) and sweating during 1) endothelium-dependent vasodilation induced via administration of incremental doses of methacholine (0.25, 5, 100, and 2,000 mM each for 25 min) and 2) endothelium-independent vasodilation induced via administration of 50 mM sodium nitroprusside (20-25 min). Responses were evaluated at four skin sites treated with either 1) lactated Ringer solution (Control), 2) 400 nM endothelin-1, 3) 3 mM HA-1077 (Rho kinase inhibitor), or 4) endothelin-1+HA-1077. Pharmacological agents were intradermally administered via microdialysis. Relative to the Control site, endothelin-1 attenuated endothelium-dependent vasodilation (CVC at 2,000 mM methacholine, 80 ± 10 vs. 56 ± 15%max, P 0.05). Endothelium-independent vasodilation was attenuated by endothelin-1 compared with the Control site (CVC, 92 ± 13 vs. 70 ± 14%max, P 0.05). There was no between-site difference in sweating throughout (P > 0.05). We show that in young adults, Rho kinase is an important mediator of the endothelin-1-mediated attenuation of endothelium-dependent and -independent cutaneous vasodilation, and that endothelin-1 does not increase sweating. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  2. cAMP-dependent kinase does not modulate the Slack sodium-activated potassium channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuwer, Megan O; Picchione, Kelly E; Bhattacharjee, Arin

    2009-09-01

    The Slack gene encodes a Na(+)-activated K(+) channel and is expressed in many different types of neurons. Like the prokaryotic Ca(2+)-gated K(+) channel MthK, Slack contains two 'regulator of K(+) conductance' (RCK) domains within its carboxy terminal, domains likely involved in Na(+) binding and channel gating. It also contains multiple consensus protein kinase C (PKC) and protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation sites and although regulated by protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylation, modulation by PKA has not been determined. To test if PKA directly regulates Slack, nystatin-perforated patch whole-cell currents were recorded from a human embryonic kidney (HEK-293) cell line stably expressing Slack. Bath application of forskolin, an adenylate cyclase activator, caused a rapid and complete inhibition of Slack currents however, the inactive homolog of forskolin, 1,9-dideoxyforskolin caused a similar effect. In contrast, bath application of 8-bromo-cAMP did not affect the amplitude nor the activation kinetics of Slack currents. In excised inside-out patch recordings, direct application of the PKA catalytic subunit to patches did not affect the open probability of Slack channels nor was open probability affected by direct application of protein phosphatase 2B. Preincubation of cells with the protein kinase A inhibitor KT5720 also did not change current density. Finally, mutating the consensus phosphorylation site located between RCK domain 1 and domain 2 from serine to glutamate did not affect current activation kinetics. We conclude that unlike PKC, phosphorylation by PKA does not acutely modulate the function and gating activation kinetics of Slack channels.

  3. Prediction of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 inhibitor potency using the fragment molecular orbital method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazanetz Michael P

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The reliable and robust estimation of ligand binding affinity continues to be a challenge in drug design. Many current methods rely on molecular mechanics (MM calculations which do not fully explain complex molecular interactions. Full quantum mechanical (QM computation of the electronic state of protein-ligand complexes has recently become possible by the latest advances in the development of linear-scaling QM methods such as the ab initio fragment molecular orbital (FMO method. This approximate molecular orbital method is sufficiently fast that it can be incorporated into the development cycle during structure-based drug design for the reliable estimation of ligand binding affinity. Additionally, the FMO method can be combined with approximations for entropy and solvation to make it applicable for binding affinity prediction for a broad range of target and chemotypes. Results We applied this method to examine the binding affinity for a series of published cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2 inhibitors. We calculated the binding affinity for 28 CDK2 inhibitors using the ab initio FMO method based on a number of X-ray crystal structures. The sum of the pair interaction energies (PIE was calculated and used to explain the gas-phase enthalpic contribution to binding. The correlation of the ligand potencies to the protein-ligand interaction energies gained from FMO was examined and was seen to give a good correlation which outperformed three MM force field based scoring functions used to appoximate the free energy of binding. Although the FMO calculation allows for the enthalpic component of binding interactions to be understood at the quantum level, as it is an in vacuo single point calculation, the entropic component and solvation terms are neglected. For this reason a more accurate and predictive estimate for binding free energy was desired. Therefore, additional terms used to describe the protein-ligand interactions were then

  4. Characterization of the cGMP-dependent protein kinase SmcGK1 of Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Leutner

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomes are trematode parasites and of worldwide medical importance for humans and animals. Growth and development of these parasites require a specific host environment, but also permanent communication processes between the two genders. Accumulating molecular evidence indicates that the responsible interactions are mediated by signal transduction processes. Conserved signaling molecules were identified, and first approaches made for their characterization. However, no representative of the conserved family of cGMP-dependent protein kinases (cGKs has been described in this parasite yet. Within the Schistosoma mansoni genome data-set we identified cGK homologs, of which one was investigated in more detail in this study. We present the cloning of SmcGK1, whose sequence shows homology to cGKs of higher eukaryotes. SmcGK1 was found to be gender-independently transcribed in adult schistosomes. The occurrence of SmcGK1 sense and antisense transcripts suggests that the expression of this gene is controlled at the post-transcriptional level. In situ hybridization experiments demonstrated a gonad-preferential expression profile in both genders indicating a role of SmcGK1, at least during sexual development of schistosomes. Using a cGK-specific inhibitor to treat adult schistosomes in vitro finally resulted in a multifaceted phenotype including slow motion, oocyte congestion, and reduced egg production.Esquistossomos são parasitas trematodos de importância médica em todo o mundo para o homem e os animais. O crescimento e o desenvolvimento destes parasitas requerem um ambiente específico do hospedeiro, mas também um processo de comunicação permanente entre parasitas dos dois sexos. Evidência molecular tem se acumulado e indica que as interações são mediadas por processos de transdução de sinal. Moléculas sinalizadoras conservadas foram identificadas, e as primeiras abordagens têm sido feitas para sua caracterização. Contudo, não foi

  5. Stimulation of dihydroxyacetone and glycerol kinase activity in Streptococcus faecalis by phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphorylation catalyzed by enzyme I and HPr of the phosphotransferase systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutscher, J.; Sauerwald, H.

    1986-01-01

    Recently a report was given of the phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)-dependent phosphorylation of a 55-kilodalton protein of Streptococus faecalis catalyzed by enzyme I and histidine-containing protein (HPr) of the phosphotransferase system. The purified 55-kilodalton protein was found to exhibit dihydroxyacetone kinase activity. Glycerol was six times more slowly phosphorylated than dihydroxyacetone. The K/sub m/s were found to 0.7 mM for ATP, 0.45 mM for dihydroxyacetone, and 0.9 MM for glycerol. PEP-dependent phosphorylation of dihydroxyacetone kinase stimulated phosphorylation of both substrates about 10-fold. Fructose 1,6-diphosphate at concentrations higher than 2 mM inhibited the activity of phosphorylated and unphosphorylated dihydroxyacetone kinase in a noncompetitive manner. The rate of PEP-dependent phosphorylation of dihydroxyacetone kinase was about 200-fold slower than the phosphorylation rate of III proteins (also called enzyme III or factor III), which so far have been considered the only phosphoryl acceptors of histidyl-phosphorylated HPr. P-Dihydroxyacetone kinase was found to be able to transfer its phosphoryl group in a backward reaction to HPr. Following [ 32 P]PEP-dependent phosphorylation and tryptic digestion of dihydroxyacetone kinase, the authors isolated a labeled peptide composed of 37 amino acids, as determined by amino acid analysis. The single histidyl residue of this peptide most likely carries the phosphoryl group in phosphorylated dihydroxyacetone kinase

  6. Stimulation of dihydroxyacetone and glycerol kinase activity in Streptococcus faecalis by phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphorylation catalyzed by enzyme I and HPr of the phosphotransferase systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deutscher, J.; Sauerwald, H.

    1986-06-01

    Recently a report was given of the phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)-dependent phosphorylation of a 55-kilodalton protein of Streptococus faecalis catalyzed by enzyme I and histidine-containing protein (HPr) of the phosphotransferase system. The purified 55-kilodalton protein was found to exhibit dihydroxyacetone kinase activity. Glycerol was six times more slowly phosphorylated than dihydroxyacetone. The K/sub m/s were found to 0.7 mM for ATP, 0.45 mM for dihydroxyacetone, and 0.9 MM for glycerol. PEP-dependent phosphorylation of dihydroxyacetone kinase stimulated phosphorylation of both substrates about 10-fold. Fructose 1,6-diphosphate at concentrations higher than 2 mM inhibited the activity of phosphorylated and unphosphorylated dihydroxyacetone kinase in a noncompetitive manner. The rate of PEP-dependent phosphorylation of dihydroxyacetone kinase was about 200-fold slower than the phosphorylation rate of III proteins (also called enzyme III or factor III), which so far have been considered the only phosphoryl acceptors of histidyl-phosphorylated HPr. P-Dihydroxyacetone kinase was found to be able to transfer its phosphoryl group in a backward reaction to HPr. Following (/sup 32/P)PEP-dependent phosphorylation and tryptic digestion of dihydroxyacetone kinase, the authors isolated a labeled peptide composed of 37 amino acids, as determined by amino acid analysis. The single histidyl residue of this peptide most likely carries the phosphoryl group in phosphorylated dihydroxyacetone kinase.

  7. Mutant LRRK2 toxicity in neurons depends on LRRK2 levels and synuclein but not kinase activity or inclusion bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skibinski, Gaia; Nakamura, Ken; Cookson, Mark R; Finkbeiner, Steven

    2014-01-08

    By combining experimental neuron models and mathematical tools, we developed a "systems" approach to deconvolve cellular mechanisms of neurodegeneration underlying the most common known cause of Parkinson's disease (PD), mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2). Neurons ectopically expressing mutant LRRK2 formed inclusion bodies (IBs), retracted neurites, accumulated synuclein, and died prematurely, recapitulating key features of PD. Degeneration was predicted from the levels of diffuse mutant LRRK2 that each neuron contained, but IB formation was neither necessary nor sufficient for death. Genetic or pharmacological blockade of its kinase activity destabilized LRRK2 and lowered its levels enough to account for the moderate reduction in LRRK2 toxicity that ensued. By contrast, targeting synuclein, including neurons made from PD patient-derived induced pluripotent cells, dramatically reduced LRRK2-dependent neurodegeneration and LRRK2 levels. These findings suggest that LRRK2 levels are more important than kinase activity per se in predicting toxicity and implicate synuclein as a major mediator of LRRK2-induced neurodegeneration.

  8. Targeting cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) but not CDK4/6 or CDK2 is selectively lethal to MYC-dependent human breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Jian; Sergio, C Marcelo; Sutherland, Robert L; Musgrove, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    Although MYC is an attractive therapeutic target for breast cancer treatment, it has proven challenging to inhibit MYC directly, and clinically effective pharmaceutical agents targeting MYC are not yet available. An alternative approach is to identify genes that are synthetically lethal in MYC-dependent cancer. Recent studies have identified several cell cycle kinases as MYC synthetic-lethal genes. We therefore investigated the therapeutic potential of specific cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibition in MYC-driven breast cancer. Using small interfering RNA (siRNA), MYC expression was depleted in 26 human breast cancer cell lines and cell proliferation evaluated by BrdU incorporation. MYC-dependent and MYC-independent cell lines were classified based on their sensitivity to siRNA-mediated MYC knockdown. We then inhibited CDKs including CDK4/6, CDK2 and CDK1 individually using either RNAi or small molecule inhibitors, and compared sensitivity to CDK inhibition with MYC dependence in breast cancer cells. Breast cancer cells displayed a wide range of sensitivity to siRNA-mediated MYC knockdown. The sensitivity was correlated with MYC protein expression and MYC phosphorylation level. Sensitivity to siRNA-mediated MYC knockdown did not parallel sensitivity to the CDK4/6 inhibitor PD0332991; instead MYC-independent cell lines were generally sensitive to PD0332991. Cell cycle arrest induced by MYC knockdown was accompanied by a decrease in CDK2 activity, but inactivation of CDK2 did not selectively affect the viability of MYC-dependent breast cancer cells. In contrast, CDK1 inactivation significantly induced apoptosis and reduced viability of MYC-dependent cells but not MYC- independent cells. This selective induction of apoptosis by CDK1 inhibitors was associated with up-regulation of the pro-apoptotic molecule BIM and was p53-independent. Overall, these results suggest that further investigation of CDK1 inhibition as a potential therapy for MYC-dependent breast cancer

  9. Stable transfection of protein kinase C alpha cDNA in hormone-dependent breast cancer cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    Tonetti, D A; Chisamore, M J; Grdina, W; Schurz, H; Jordan, V C

    2000-01-01

    An inverse relationship between protein kinase C (PKC) activity and oestrogen receptor (ER) expression in human breast cell lines and tumours has been firmly established over the past 10 years. To determine whether specific alterations in PKC expression accompany hormone-independence, we examined the expression of PKC isozymes in the hormone-independent human breast cancer cell clones MCF-7 5C and T47D:C42 compared with their hormone-dependent counterparts, MCF-7 A4, MCF-7 WS8 and T47D:A18 re...

  10. Identification of DNA-Dependent Protein Kinase Catalytic Subunit (DNA-PKcs) as a Novel Target of Bisphenol A

    OpenAIRE

    Ito, Yuki; Ito, Takumi; Karasawa, Satoki; Enomoto, Teruya; Nashimoto, Akihiro; Hase, Yasuyoshi; Sakamoto, Satoshi; Mimori, Tsuneyo; Matsumoto, Yoshihisa; Yamaguchi, Yuki; Handa, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) forms the backbone of plastics and epoxy resins used to produce packaging for various foods and beverages. BPA is also an estrogenic disruptor, interacting with human estrogen receptors (ER) and other related nuclear receptors. Nevertheless, the effects of BPA on human health remain unclear. The present study identified DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) as a novel BPA-binding protein. DNA-PKcs, in association with the Ku heterodimer (Ku70/80), is a cr...

  11. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibition by the KLF6 tumor suppressor protein through interaction with cyclin D1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzeno, Sharon; Narla, Goutham; Allina, Jorge; Cheng, George Z; Reeves, Helen L; Banck, Michaela S; Odin, Joseph A; Diehl, J Alan; Germain, Doris; Friedman, Scott L

    2004-06-01

    Kruppel-like factor 6 (KLF6) is a tumor suppressor gene inactivated in prostate and colon cancers, as well as in astrocytic gliomas. Here, we establish that KLF6 mediates growth inhibition through an interaction with cyclin D1, leading to reduced phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein (Rb) at Ser(795). Furthermore, introduction of KLF6 disrupts cyclin D1-cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) 4 complexes and forces the redistribution of p21(Cip/Kip) onto cdk2, which promotes G(1) cell cycle arrest. Our data suggest that KLF6 converges with the Rb pathway to inhibit cyclin D1/cdk4 activity, resulting in growth suppression.

  12. Methanol-dependent production of dihydroxyacetone and glycerol by mutants of the methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha blocked in dihydroxyacetone kinase and glycerol kinase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, W. de; Weusthuis, R.A.; Harder, W.; Dijkhuizen, L.

    Various factors controlling dihydroxyacetone (DHA) and glycerol production from methanol by resting cell suspensions of a mutant of Hansenula polymorpha, blocked in DHA kinase and glycerol kinase, were investigated. The presence of methanol (250 mM) and an additional substrate (0.5%, w/v) to

  13. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5-mediated phosphorylation of CHIP promotes the tAIF-dependent death pathway in rotenone-treated cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chiho; Lee, Juhyung; Ko, Yeon Uk; Oh, Young J

    2018-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is a proline-directed serine/threonine kinase. Its dysregulation has been implicated in various neurodegenerative diseases. We previously reported that phosphorylation of the C-terminus of the Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP) by Cdk5 promotes truncated apoptosis-inducing factor (tAIF)-mediated neuronal death induced by oxidative stress. Here, we determined whether this Cdk5-dependent cell death signaling pathway is present in experimental models of Parkinson's disease. First, we showed that rotenone activates Cdk5 in primary cultures of cortical neurons and causes tAIF-dependent neuronal cell death. This event was attenuated by negative regulation of endogenous Cdk5 activity by the pharmacological Cdk5 inhibitor, roscovitine, or by lentiviral knockdown of Cdk5. Cdk5 phosphorylates CHIP at Ser20 in rotenone-treated neurons. Consequently, overexpression of CHIP S20A , but not CHIP WT , attenuates tAIF-induced cell death in rotenone-treated cortical neurons. Taken together, these results indicate that phosphorylation of CHIP at Ser20 by Cdk5 activation inhibits CHIP-mediated tAIF degradation, thereby contributing to tAIF-induced neuronal cell death following rotenone treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Cyclic stretch-induced stress fiber dynamics - Dependence on strain rate, Rho-kinase and MLCK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chin-Fu; Haase, Candice; Deguchi, Shinji; Kaunas, Roland

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Cyclic stretch induces stress fiber disassembly, reassembly and fusion perpendicular to the direction of stretch. → Stress fiber disassembly and reorientation were not induced at low stretch frequency. → Stretch caused actin fiber formation parallel to stretch in distinct locations in cells treated with Rho-kinase and MLCK inhibitors. -- Abstract: Stress fiber realignment is an important adaptive response to cyclic stretch for nonmuscle cells, but the mechanism by which such reorganization occurs is not known. By analyzing stress fiber dynamics using live cell microscopy, we revealed that stress fiber reorientation perpendicular to the direction of cyclic uniaxial stretching at 1 Hz did not involve disassembly of the stress fiber distal ends located at focal adhesion sites. Instead, these distal ends were often used to assemble new stress fibers oriented progressively further away from the direction of stretch. Stress fiber disassembly and reorientation were not induced when the frequency of stretch was decreased to 0.01 Hz, however. Treatment with the Rho-kinase inhibitor (Y27632) reduced stress fibers to thin fibers located in the cell periphery which bundled together to form thick fibers oriented parallel to the direction of stretching at 1 Hz. In contrast, these thin fibers remained diffuse in cells subjected to stretch at 0.01 Hz. Cyclic stretch at 1 Hz also induced actin fiber formation parallel to the direction of stretch in cells treated with the myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) inhibitor ML-7, but these fibers were located centrally rather than peripherally. These results shed new light on the mechanism by which stress fibers reorient in response to cyclic stretch in different regions of the actin cytoskeleton.

  15. Dynamic interplay between O-linked N-acetylglucosaminylation and glycogen synthase kinase-3-dependent phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zihao; Pandey, Akhilesh; Hart, Gerald W

    2007-08-01

    O-GlcNAcylation on serine and threonine side chains of nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins is dynamically regulated in response to various environmental and biological stimuli. O-GlcNAcylation is remarkably similar to O-phosphorylation and appears to have a dynamic interplay with O-phosphate in cellular regulation. A systematic glycoproteomics analysis of the affects of inhibiting specific kinases on O-GlcNAcylation should help reveal both the global and specific dynamic relationships between these two abundant post-translational modifications. Here we report the O-GlcNAc perturbations in response to inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), a pivotal kinase involved in many signaling pathways. By combining immunoaffinity chromatography and SILAC (stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture)-based quantitative mass spectrometry, we identified 45 potentially O-GlcNAcylated proteins. Quantitative measurements indicated that at least 10 proteins had an apparent increase of O-GlcNAcylation upon GSK-3 inhibition by lithium, whereas surprisingly 19 other proteins showed decreases. O-GlcNAcylation changes on a subset of the proteins were confirmed by follow-up experiments. By combining a new O-GlcNAc peptide enrichment method and beta-elimination followed by Michael addition with DTT, we also mapped the O-GlcNAc site (Ser-55) of vimentin, which showed an apparent increase of O-GlcNAcylation upon GSK-3 inhibition. Based on the MS data, we further investigated potential roles of O-GlcNAc on host cell factor-1, a transcription co-activator, and showed that dynamic regulation of O-GlcNAcylation on host cell factor-1 influenced its subcellular distribution. Taken together, these data indicated the complex interplay between phosphorylation and O-GlcNAcylation that occurs within signaling networks.

  16. MHC-I-induced apoptosis in human B-lymphoma cells is dependent on protein tyrosine and serine/threonine kinases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Elm; Bregenholt, S; Johansen, B

    1999-01-01

    In addition to providing the framework for peptide presentation, major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) molecules can act as signal transducing molecules in lymphoid cells. Here we show that the mobilization of intracellular calcium, which follows crosslinking of MHC-I molecules on human...... B lymphoma cells, is dependent on protein tyrosine kinases and the phosphatidylinositol 3 (PI-3) kinase. Functional studies showed that MHC-I crosslinking induced almost complete inhibition of the spontaneous proliferation of the B lymphoma cells as early as 6 h post-crosslinking and apoptosis 24 h...... post-crosslinking. Preincubation with either protein tyrosine kinase or protein serine/threonine kinase inhibitors reduced the MHC-I-induced apoptosis to background levels, whereas inhibition of PI-3 kinase had no effect. These data demonstrate a pivotal role for protein tyrosine and serine...

  17. Identification of DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs as a novel target of bisphenol A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Ito

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA forms the backbone of plastics and epoxy resins used to produce packaging for various foods and beverages. BPA is also an estrogenic disruptor, interacting with human estrogen receptors (ER and other related nuclear receptors. Nevertheless, the effects of BPA on human health remain unclear. The present study identified DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs as a novel BPA-binding protein. DNA-PKcs, in association with the Ku heterodimer (Ku70/80, is a critical enzyme involved in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks. Low levels of DNA-PK activity are previously reported to be associated with an increased risk of certain types of cancer. Although the Kd for the interaction between BPA and a drug-binding mutant of DNA-PKcs was comparatively low (137 nM, high doses of BPA were required before cellular effects were observed (100-300 μM. The results of an in vitro kinase assay showed that BPA inhibited DNA-PK kinase activity in a concentration-dependent manner. In M059K cells, BPA inhibited the phosphorylation of DNA-PKcs at Ser2056 and H2AX at Ser139 in response to ionizing radiation (IR-irradiation. BPA also disrupted DNA-PKcs binding to Ku70/80 and increased the radiosensitivity of M059K cells, but not M059J cells (which are DNA-PKcs-deficient. Taken together, these results provide new evidence of the effects of BPA on DNA repair in mammalian cells, which are mediated via inhibition of DNA-PK activity. This study may warrant the consideration of the possible carcinogenic effects of high doses of BPA, which are mediated through its action on DNA-PK.

  18. Role of focal adhesion tyrosine kinases in GPVI-dependent platelet activation and reactive oxygen species formation.

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    Naadiya Carrim

    Full Text Available We have previously shown the presence of a TRAF4/p47phox/Hic5/Pyk2 complex associated with the platelet collagen receptor, GPVI, consistent with a potential role of this complex in GPVI-dependent ROS formation. In other cell systems, NOX-dependent ROS formation is facilitated by Pyk2, which along with its closely related homologue FAK are known to be activated and phosphorylated downstream of ligand binding to GPVI.To evaluate the relative roles of Pyk2 and FAK in GPVI-dependent ROS formation and to determine their location within the GPVI signaling pathway.Human and mouse washed platelets (from WT or Pyk2 KO mice were pre-treated with pharmacological inhibitors targeting FAK or Pyk2 (PF-228 and Tyrphostin A9, respectively and stimulated with the GPVI-specific agonist, CRP. FAK, but not Pyk2, was found to be essential for GPVI-dependent ROS production and aggregation. Subsequent human platelet studies with PF-228 confirmed FAK is essential for GPVI-mediated phosphatidylserine exposure, α-granule secretion (P-selectin (CD62P surface expression and integrin αIIbβ3 activation. To determine the precise location of FAK within the GPVI pathway, we analyzed the effect of PF-228 inhibition in CRP-stimulated platelets in conjunction with immunoprecipitation and pulldown analysis to show that FAK is downstream of Lyn, Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk, PI3-K and Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk and upstream of Rac1, PLCγ2, Ca2+ release, PKC, Hic-5, NOX1 and αIIbβ3 activation.Overall, these data suggest a novel role for FAK in GPVI-dependent ROS formation and platelet activation and elucidate a proximal signaling role for FAK within the GPVI pathway.

  19. Phosphorylation and activation of nuclear Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase phosphatase (CaMKP-N/PPM1E) by Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I (CaMKI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onouchi, Takashi [Department of Life Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Kagawa University, Miki-cho, Kagawa 761-0795 (Japan); Sueyoshi, Noriyuki, E-mail: sueyoshi@ag.kagawa-u.ac.jp [Department of Life Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Kagawa University, Miki-cho, Kagawa 761-0795 (Japan); Ishida, Atsuhiko [Laboratory of Molecular Brain Science, Graduate School of Integrated Arts and Sciences, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8521 (Japan); Kameshita, Isamu [Department of Life Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Kagawa University, Miki-cho, Kagawa 761-0795 (Japan)

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CaMKP-N/PPM1E underwent proteolytic processing and translocated to cytosol. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The proteolysis was effectively inhibited by the proteasome inhibitors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ser-480 of zebrafish CaMKP-N was phosphorylated by cytosolic CaMKI. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phosphorylation-mimic mutants of CaMKP-N showed enhanced activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These results suggest that CaMKP-N is regulated by CaMKI. -- Abstract: Nuclear Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase phosphatase (CaMKP-N/PPM1E) is an enzyme that dephosphorylates and downregulates multifunctional Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CaMKs) as well as AMP-dependent protein kinase. In our previous study, we found that zebrafish CaMKP-N (zCaMKP-N) underwent proteolytic processing and translocated to cytosol in a proteasome inhibitor-sensitive manner. In the present study, we found that zCaMKP-N is regulated by phosphorylation at Ser-480. When zCaMKP-N was incubated with the activated CaMKI, time-dependent phosphorylation of the enzyme was observed. This phosphorylation was significantly reduced when Ser-480 was replaced by Ala, suggesting that CaMKI phosphorylates Ser-480 of zCaMKP-N. Phosphorylation-mimic mutants, S480D and S480E, showed higher phosphatase activities than those of wild type and S480A mutant in solution-based phosphatase assay using various substrates. Furthermore, autophosphorylation of CaMKII after ionomycin treatment was more severely attenuated in Neuro2a cells when CaMKII was cotransfected with the phosphorylation-mimic mutant of zCaMKP-N than with the wild-type or non-phosphorylatable zCaMKP-N. These results strongly suggest that phosphorylation of zCaMKP-N at Ser-480 by CaMKI activates CaMKP-N catalytic activity and thereby downregulates multifunctional CaMKs in the cytosol.

  20. Several Human Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitors, Structurally Related to Roscovitine, As New Anti-Malarial Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine Houzé

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In Africa, malaria kills one child each minute. It is also responsible for about one million deaths worldwide each year. Plasmodium falciparum, is the protozoan responsible for the most lethal form of the disease, with resistance developing against the available anti-malarial drugs. Among newly proposed anti-malaria targets, are the P. falciparum cyclin-dependent kinases (PfCDKs. There are involved in different stages of the protozoan growth and development but share high sequence homology with human cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs. We previously reported the synthesis of CDKs inhibitors that are structurally-related to (R-roscovitine, a 2,6,9-trisubstituted purine, and they showed activity against neuronal diseases and cancers. In this report, we describe the synthesis and the characterization of new CDK inhibitors, active in reducing the in vitro growth of P. falciparum (3D7 and 7G8 strains. Six compounds are more potent inhibitors than roscovitine, and three exhibited IC50 values close to 1 µM for both 3D7 and 7G8 strains. Although, such molecules do inhibit P. falciparum growth, they require further studies to improve their selectivity for PfCDKs.

  1. Cloning and characterization of Escherichia coli DUF299: a bifunctional ADP-dependent kinase - Pi-dependent pyrophosphorylase from bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Phosphoenolpyruvate synthetase (PEPS; EC 2.7.9.2) catalyzes the synthesis of phosphoenolpyruvate from pyruvate in Escherichia coli when cells are grown on a three carbon source. It also catalyses the anabolic conversion of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in gluconeogenesis. A bioinformatics search conducted following the successful cloning and expression of maize leaf pyruvate, orthophosphate dikinase regulatory protein (PDRP) revealed the presence of PDRP homologs in more than 300 bacterial species; the PDRP homolog was identified as DUF299. Results This paper describes the cloning and expression of both PEPS and DUF299 from E. coli and establishes that E. coli DUF299 catalyzes both the ADP-dependent inactivation and the Pi-dependent activation of PEPS. Conclusion This paper represents the first report of a bifunctional regulatory enzyme catalysing an ADP-dependent phosphorylation and a Pi-dependent pyrophosphorylation reaction in bacteria. PMID:20044937

  2. Cloning and characterization of Escherichia coli DUF299: a bifunctional ADP-dependent kinase - Pi-dependent pyrophosphorylase from bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burnell Jim N

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phosphoenolpyruvate synthetase (PEPS; EC 2.7.9.2 catalyzes the synthesis of phosphoenolpyruvate from pyruvate in Escherichia coli when cells are grown on a three carbon source. It also catalyses the anabolic conversion of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in gluconeogenesis. A bioinformatics search conducted following the successful cloning and expression of maize leaf pyruvate, orthophosphate dikinase regulatory protein (PDRP revealed the presence of PDRP homologs in more than 300 bacterial species; the PDRP homolog was identified as DUF299. Results This paper describes the cloning and expression of both PEPS and DUF299 from E. coli and establishes that E. coli DUF299 catalyzes both the ADP-dependent inactivation and the Pi-dependent activation of PEPS. Conclusion This paper represents the first report of a bifunctional regulatory enzyme catalysing an ADP-dependent phosphorylation and a Pi-dependent pyrophosphorylation reaction in bacteria.

  3. 3-Phosphoinositide-dependent Protein Kinase-1 (PDK1 promotes invasion and activation of matrix metalloproteinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng Xiao

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metastasis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in breast cancer with tumor cell invasion playing a crucial role in the metastatic process. PDK1 is a key molecule that couples PI3K to cell proliferation and survival signals in response to growth factor receptor activation, and is oncogenic when expressed in mouse mammary epithelial cells. We now present evidence showing that PDK1-expressing cells exhibit enhanced anchorage-dependent and -independent cell growth and are highly invasive when grown on Matrigel. These properties correlate with induction of MMP-2 activity, increased MT1-MMP expression and a unique gene expression profile. Methods Invasion assays in Matrigel, MMP-2 zymogram analysis, gene microarray analysis and mammary isografts were used to characterize the invasive and proliferative function of cells expressing PDK1. Tissue microarray analysis of human breast cancers was used to measure PDK1 expression in invasive tumors by IHC. Results Enhanced invasion on Matrigel in PDK1-expressing cells was accompanied by increased MMP-2 activity resulting from stabilization against proteasomal degradation. Increased MMP-2 activity was accompanied by elevated levels of MT1-MMP, which is involved in generating active MMP-2. Gene microarray analysis identified increased expression of the ECM-associated genes decorin and type I procollagen, whose gene products are substrates of MT1-MMP. Mammary fat pad isografts of PDK1-expressing cells produced invasive adenocarcinomas. Tissue microarray analysis of human invasive breast cancer indicated that PDK1pSer241 was strongly expressed in 90% of samples. Conclusion These results indicate that PDK1 serves as an important effector of mammary epithelial cell growth and invasion in the transformed phenotype. PDK1 mediates its effect in part by MT1-MMP induction, which in turn activates MMP-2 and modulates the ECM proteins decorin and collagen. The presence of increased PDK1

  4. 3-Phosphoinositide-dependent Protein Kinase-1 (PDK1) promotes invasion and activation of matrix metalloproteinases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Zhihui; Yuan, Hongyan; Yin, Yuzhi; Zeng, Xiao; Bai, Renkui; Glazer, Robert I

    2006-01-01

    Metastasis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in breast cancer with tumor cell invasion playing a crucial role in the metastatic process. PDK1 is a key molecule that couples PI3K to cell proliferation and survival signals in response to growth factor receptor activation, and is oncogenic when expressed in mouse mammary epithelial cells. We now present evidence showing that PDK1-expressing cells exhibit enhanced anchorage-dependent and -independent cell growth and are highly invasive when grown on Matrigel. These properties correlate with induction of MMP-2 activity, increased MT1-MMP expression and a unique gene expression profile. Invasion assays in Matrigel, MMP-2 zymogram analysis, gene microarray analysis and mammary isografts were used to characterize the invasive and proliferative function of cells expressing PDK1. Tissue microarray analysis of human breast cancers was used to measure PDK1 expression in invasive tumors by IHC. Enhanced invasion on Matrigel in PDK1-expressing cells was accompanied by increased MMP-2 activity resulting from stabilization against proteasomal degradation. Increased MMP-2 activity was accompanied by elevated levels of MT1-MMP, which is involved in generating active MMP-2. Gene microarray analysis identified increased expression of the ECM-associated genes decorin and type I procollagen, whose gene products are substrates of MT1-MMP. Mammary fat pad isografts of PDK1-expressing cells produced invasive adenocarcinomas. Tissue microarray analysis of human invasive breast cancer indicated that PDK1pSer241 was strongly expressed in 90% of samples. These results indicate that PDK1 serves as an important effector of mammary epithelial cell growth and invasion in the transformed phenotype. PDK1 mediates its effect in part by MT1-MMP induction, which in turn activates MMP-2 and modulates the ECM proteins decorin and collagen. The presence of increased PDK1 expression in the majority of invasive breast cancers suggests its

  5. Serine/Threonine kinase dependent transcription from the polyhedrin promoter of SpltNPV-I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Gourav; Gautam, Hemant K; Das, Rakha H

    2007-07-06

    Polyhedrin (polh) and p10 are the two hyper-expressed very late genes of nucleopolyhedroviruses. Alpha amanitin resistant transcription from Spodoptera litura nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpltNPV-I) polyhedrin promoter was observed with virus infected nuclear extract of NIV-HA-197 cells but not with that from uninfected nuclear extract. Anti-protein kinase-1 (pk1) antibody inhibited the transcription and the inhibition reversed on addition of pk1, however, pk1 mutant protein, K50M having no phosphorylation activity did not overcome the transcription inhibition. Chromatin immuno-precipitation assays with viral anti-pk1 antibody showed the interaction of pk1 with the polh while electrophoretic mobility shift assays indicated the strong binding affinity (K(d) approximately 5.5x10(-11)) of purified pk1 with the polh promoter. These results suggested that the viral coded pk1 acts as a transcription factor in transcribing baculovirus very late genes.

  6. Serine/Threonine kinase dependent transcription from the polyhedrin promoter of SpltNPV-I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Gourav; Gautam, Hemant K.; Das, Rakha H.

    2007-01-01

    Polyhedrin (polh) and p10 are the two hyper-expressed very late genes of nucleopolyhedroviruses. Alpha amanitin resistant transcription from Spodoptera litura nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpltNPV-I) polyhedrin promoter was observed with virus infected nuclear extract of NIV-HA-197 cells but not with that from uninfected nuclear extract. Anti-protein kinase-1 (pk1) antibody inhibited the transcription and the inhibition reversed on addition of pk1, however, pk1 mutant protein, K50M having no phosphorylation activity did not overcome the transcription inhibition. Chromatin immuno-precipitation assays with viral anti-pk1 antibody showed the interaction of pk1 with the polh while electrophoretic mobility shift assays indicated the strong binding affinity (K d ∼ 5.5 x 10 -11 ) of purified pk1 with the polh promoter. These results suggested that the viral coded pk1 acts as a transcription factor in transcribing baculovirus very late genes

  7. FAK/src-family dependent activation of the Ste20-like kinase SLK is required for microtubule-dependent focal adhesion turnover and cell migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Wagner

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Cell migration involves a multitude of signals that converge on cytoskeletal reorganization, essential for development, immune responses and tissue repair. Using knockdown and dominant negative approaches, we show that the microtubule-associated Ste20-like kinase SLK is required for focal adhesion turnover and cell migration downstream of the FAK/c-src complex. Our results show that SLK co-localizes with paxillin, Rac1 and the microtubules at the leading edge of migrating cells and is activated by scratch wounding. SLK activation is dependent on FAK/c-src/MAPK signaling, whereas SLK recruitment to the leading edge is src-dependent but FAK independent. Our results show that SLK represents a novel focal adhesion disassembly signal.

  8. Diacylglycerol-stimulated endocytosis of transferrin in trypanosomatids is dependent on tyrosine kinase activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandesh Subramanya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Small molecule regulation of cell function is an understudied area of trypanosomatid biology. In Trypanosoma brucei diacylglycerol (DAG stimulates endocytosis of transferrin (Tf. However, it is not known whether other trypanosomatidae respond similarly to the lipid. Further, the biochemical pathways involved in DAG signaling to the endocytic system in T. brucei are unknown, as the parasite genome does not encode canonical DAG receptors (e.g. C1-domains. We established that DAG stimulates endocytosis of Tf in Leishmania major, and we evaluated possible effector enzymes in the pathway with multiple approaches. First, a heterologously expressed glycosylphosphatidylinositol phospholipase C (GPI-PLC activated endocytosis of Tf 300% in L. major. Second, exogenous phorbol ester and DAGs promoted Tf endocytosis in L. major. In search of possible effectors of DAG signaling, we discovered a novel C1-like domain (i.e. C1_5 in trypanosomatids, and we identified protein Tyr kinases (PTKs linked with C1_5 domains in T. brucei, T. cruzi, and L. major. Consequently, we hypothesized that trypanosome PTKs might be effector enzymes for DAG signaling. General uptake of Tf was reduced by inhibitors of either Ser/Thr or Tyr kinases. However, DAG-stimulated endocytosis of Tf was blocked only by an inhibitor of PTKs, in both T. brucei and L. major. We conclude that (i DAG activates Tf endocytosis in L. major, and that (ii PTKs are effectors of DAG-stimulated endocytosis of Tf in trypanosomatids. DAG-stimulated endocytosis of Tf may be a T. brucei adaptation to compete effectively with host cells for vertebrate Tf in blood, since DAG does not enhance endocytosis of Tf in human cells.

  9. Identification, expression and interaction analyses of calcium-dependent protein kinase (CPK) genes in canola (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hanfeng; Liu, Wu-Zhen; Zhang, Yupeng; Deng, Min; Niu, Fangfang; Yang, Bo; Wang, Xiaoling; Wang, Boya; Liang, Wanwan; Deyholos, Michael K; Jiang, Yuan-Qing

    2014-03-19

    Canola (Brassica napus L.) is one of the most important oil-producing crops in China and worldwide. The yield and quality of canola is frequently threatened by environmental stresses including drought, cold and high salinity. Calcium is a well-known ubiquitous intracellular secondary messenger in plants. Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CPKs) are Ser/Thr protein kinases found only in plants and some protozoans. CPKs are Ca2+ sensors that have both Ca2+ sensing function and kinase activity within a single protein and play crucial roles in plant development and responses to various environmental stresses. In this study, we mined the available expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of B. napus and identified a total of 25 CPK genes, among which cDNA sequences of 23 genes were successfully cloned from a double haploid cultivar of canola. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that they could be clustered into four subgroups. The subcellular localization of five selected BnaCPKs was determined using green fluorescence protein (GFP) as the reporter. Furthermore, the expression levels of 21 BnaCPK genes in response to salt, drought, cold, heat, abscisic acid (ABA), low potassium (LK) and oxidative stress were studied by quantitative RT-PCR and were found to respond to multiple stimuli, suggesting that canola CPKs may be convergence points of different signaling pathways. We also identified and cloned five and eight Clade A basic leucine zipper (bZIP) and protein phosphatase type 2C (PP2C) genes from canola and, using yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC), determined the interaction between individual BnaCPKs and BnabZIPs or BnaPP2Cs (Clade A). We identified novel, interesting interaction partners for some of the BnaCPK proteins. We present the sequences and characterization of CPK gene family members in canola for the first time. This work provides a foundation for further crop improvement and improved understanding of signal transduction in plants.

  10. Orientation of the brush-border membranal proteinase which specifically splits the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jonge, H; Schmeeda, H; Shaltiel, S

    1987-12-15

    The active site of the rat intestinal brush-border membranal proteinase [Alhanaty E. and Shaltiel S. (1979) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 89, 323-332], which splits the catalytic subunit (C) of cAMP-dependent protein kinase with a remarkable specificity [Alhanaty E., Tauber-Finkelstein, M., Schmeeda, H. and Shaltiel, S. (1985) Curr. Topics Cell. Regul. 27, 267-277], is shown to face predominantly the cell exterior; vesicles prepared from these brush-borders (mostly sealed and right-side-out) fully express the proteinase activity as judged by the fact that there is no increase in activity upon rupture or solubilization of the vesicles. Although the brush-border vesicles contain a cAMP-dependent protein kinase, this membrane-bound kinase is not likely to be the physiological target of the proteinase, since it appears to have an intracellular orientation and, at least in the vesicles, to be inaccessible to the proteinase. It is, therefore, suggested that the physiological substrate of the proteinase might be either an extracellular cAMP-dependent protein kinase, which is lost (e.g. removed, inactivated or degraded) in the course of vesicle isolation, or a kinase domain in one of the family of proteins recently shown to have a considerable structural and conformational homology with C. Alternatively the physiological site of action of this kinase-splitting proteinase might be an intracellular organelle to which it is translocated by endocytosis.

  11. Vanadium induces dopaminergic neurotoxicity via protein kinase Cdelta dependent oxidative signaling mechanisms: Relevance to etiopathogenesis of Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afeseh Ngwa, Hilary; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Song, Chunjuan; Witte, Travis; Houk, Robert; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G.

    2009-01-01

    Environmental exposure to neurotoxic metals through various sources including exposure to welding fumes has been linked to an increased incidence of Parkinson's disease (PD). Welding fumes contain many different metals including vanadium typically present as particulates containing vanadium pentoxide (V 2 O 5 ). However, possible neurotoxic effects of this metal oxide on dopaminergic neuronal cells are not well studied. In the present study, we characterized vanadium-induced oxidative stress-dependent cellular events in cell culture models of PD. V 2 O 5 was neurotoxic to dopaminergic neuronal cells including primary nigral dopaminergic neurons and the EC 50 was determined to be 37 μM in N27 dopaminergic neuronal cell model. The neurotoxic effect was accompanied by a time-dependent uptake of vanadium and upregulation of metal transporter proteins Tf and DMT1 in N27 cells. Additionally, vanadium resulted in a threefold increase in reactive oxygen species generation, followed by release of mitochondrial cytochrome c into cytoplasm and subsequent activation of caspase-9 (> fourfold) and caspase-3 (> ninefold). Interestingly, vanadium exposure induced proteolytic cleavage of native protein kinase Cdelta (PKCδ, 72-74 kDa) to yield a 41 kDa catalytically active fragment resulting in a persistent increase in PKCδ kinase activity. Co-treatment with pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK significantly blocked vanadium-induced PKCδ proteolytic activation, indicating that caspases mediate PKCδ cleavage. Also, co-treatment with Z-VAD-FMK almost completely inhibited V 2 O 5 -induced DNA fragmentation. Furthermore, PKCδ knockdown using siRNA protected N27 cells from V 2 O 5 -induced apoptotic cell death. Collectively, these results demonstrate that vanadium can exert neurotoxic effects in dopaminergic neuronal cells via caspase-3-dependent PKCδ cleavage, suggesting that metal exposure may promote nigral dopaminergic degeneration.

  12. Biaryl purine derivatives as potent antiproliferative agents: inhibitors of cyclin dependent kinases. Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trova, Michael P; Barnes, Keith D; Barford, Curt; Benanti, Travis; Bielaska, Mark; Burry, Lori; Lehman, John M; Murphy, Christine; O'Grady, Harold; Peace, Denise; Salamone, Susan; Smith, Jennifer; Snider, Patricia; Toporowski, Joseph; Tregay, Steven; Wilson, Alison; Wyle, Michael; Zheng, Xiaozhang; Friedrich, Thomas D

    2009-12-01

    The introduction of an aryl ring onto the 4-position of the C-6 benzyl amino group of the Cdk inhibitor roscovitine (2), maintained the potent Cdk inhibition demonstrated by roscovitine (2) as well as greatly improving the antiproliferative activity. A series of C-6 biarylmethylamino derivatives was prepared addressing modifications on the C-6 biaryl rings, N-9 and C-2 positions to provide compounds that displayed potent cytotoxic activity against tumor cell lines. In particular, derivative 21h demonstrated a >750-fold improvement in the growth inhibition of HeLa cells compared to roscovitine (2).

  13. A receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, Tyrphostin A9 induces cancer cell death through Drp1 dependent mitochondria fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, So Jung; Park, Young Jun; Shin, Ji Hyun; Kim, Eun Sung; Hwang, Jung Jin; Jin, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Jin Cheon; Cho, Dong-Hyung

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We screened and identified Tyrphostin A9, a receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor as a strong mitochondria fission inducer. → Tyrphostin A9 treatment promotes mitochondria dysfunction and contributes to cytotoxicity in cancer cells. → Tyrphostin A9 induces apoptotic cell death through a Drp1-mediated pathway. → Our studies suggest that Tyrphostin A9 induces mitochondria fragmentation and apoptotic cell death via Drp1 dependently. -- Abstract: Mitochondria dynamics controls not only their morphology but also functions of mitochondria. Therefore, an imbalance of the dynamics eventually leads to mitochondria disruption and cell death. To identify specific regulators of mitochondria dynamics, we screened a bioactive chemical compound library and selected Tyrphostin A9, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, as a potent inducer of mitochondrial fission. Tyrphostin A9 treatment resulted in the formation of fragmented mitochondria filament. In addition, cellular ATP level was decreased and the mitochondrial membrane potential was collapsed in Tyr A9-treated cells. Suppression of Drp1 activity by siRNA or over-expression of a dominant negative mutant of Drp1 inhibited both mitochondrial fragmentation and cell death induced by Tyrpohotin A9. Moreover, treatment of Tyrphostin A9 also evoked mitochondrial fragmentation in other cells including the neuroblastomas. Taken together, these results suggest that Tyrphostin A9 induces Drp1-mediated mitochondrial fission and apoptotic cell death.

  14. Efficacy of cyclin dependent kinase 4 inhibitors as potent neuroprotective agents against insults relevant to Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyankar Sanphui

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is a progressive neurodegenerative disease with no cure till today. Aberrant activation of cell cycle regulatory proteins is implicated in neurodegenerative diseases including AD. We and others have shown that Cyclin dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4 is activated in AD brain and is required for neuron death. In this study, we tested the efficiency of commercially available Cdk4 specific inhibitors as well as a small library of synthetic molecule inhibitors targeting Cdk4 as neuroprotective agents in cellular models of neuron death. We found that several of these inhibitors significantly protected neuronal cells against death induced by nerve growth factor (NGF deprivation and oligomeric beta amyloid (Aβ that are implicated in AD. These neuroprotective agents inhibit specifically Cdk4 kinase activity, loss of mitochondrial integrity, induction of pro-apoptotic protein Bim and caspase3 activation in response to NGF deprivation. The efficacies of commercial and synthesized inhibitors are comparable. The synthesized molecules are either phenanthrene based or naphthalene based and they are synthesized by using Pschorr reaction and Buchwald coupling respectively as one of the key steps. A number of molecules of both kinds block neurodegeneration effectively. Therefore, we propose that Cdk4 inhibition would be a therapeutic choice for ameliorating neurodegeneration in AD and these synthetic Cdk4 inhibitors could lead to development of effective drugs for AD.

  15. Anticancer screening of medicinal plant phytochemicals against Cyclin-Dependent Kinase-2 (CDK2: An in-silico approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wajahat Khan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cyclin-Dependent Kinase-2 (CDK2 is a member of serine/threonine protein kinases family and plays an important role in regulation of various eukaryotic cell division events. Over-expression of CDK2 during cell cycle may lead to several cellular functional aberrations including diverse types of cancers (lung cancer, primary colorectal carcinoma, ovarian cancer, melanoma and pancreatic carcinoma in humans. Medicinal plants phytochemicals which have anticancer potential can be used as an alternative drug resource. Methods: This study was designed to find out anticancer phytochemicals from medicinal plants which could inhibit CDK2 with the help of molecular docking technique. Molecular Operating Environment (MOE v2009 software was used to dock 2300 phytochemicals in this study. Results: The outcome of this study shows that four phytochemicals Kushenol T, Remangiflavanone B, Neocalyxins A and Elenoside showed the lowest S-score (-17.83, -17.57, -17.26, -17.17 respectively and binds strongly with all eight active residues Tyr15, Lys33, Ileu52, Lys56, Leu78, phe80, Asp145 and Phe146 of CDK2 binding site. These phytochemicals could successfully inhibit the CDK2. Conclusion: These phytochemicals can be considered as potential anticancer agents and used in drug development against CDK2. We anticipate that this study would pave way for phytochemical based novel small molecules as more efficacious and selective anti-cancer therapeutic compounds.

  16. AMP-activated protein kinase deficiency rescues paraquat-induced cardiac contractile dysfunction through an autophagy-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiurong; Yang, Lifang; Hua, Yinan; Nair, Sreejayan; Xu, Xihui; Ren, Jun

    2014-11-01

    Paraquat, a quaternary nitrogen herbicide, is a highly toxic prooxidant resulting in multi-organ failure including the heart although the underlying mechanism still remains elusive. This study was designed to examine the role of the cellular fuel sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in paraquat-induced cardiac contractile and mitochondrial injury. Wild-type and transgenic mice with overexpression of a mutant AMPK α2 subunit (kinase dead, KD), with reduced activity in both α1 and α2 subunits, were administered with paraquat (45 mg/kg) for 48 h. Paraquat elicited cardiac mechanical anomalies including compromised echocardiographic parameters (elevated left ventricular end-systolic diameter and reduced factional shortening), suppressed cardiomyocyte contractile function, intracellular Ca(2+) handling, reduced cell survival, and overt mitochondrial damage (loss in mitochondrial membrane potential). In addition, paraquat treatment promoted phosphorylation of AMPK and autophagy. Interestingly, deficiency in AMPK attenuated paraquat-induced cardiac contractile and intracellular Ca(2+) derangement. The beneficial effect of AMPK inhibition was associated with inhibition of the AMPK-TSC-mTOR-ULK1 signaling cascade. In vitro study revealed that inhibitors for AMPK and autophagy attenuated paraquat-induced cardiomyocyte contractile dysfunction. Taken together, our findings revealed that AMPK may mediate paraquat-induced myocardial anomalies possibly by regulating the AMPK/mTOR-dependent autophagy. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Dabrafenib, an inhibitor of RIP3 kinase-dependent necroptosis, reduces ischemic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly A Cruz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic brain injury triggers neuronal cell death by apoptosis via caspase activation and by necroptosis through activation of the receptor-interacting protein kinases (RIPK associated with the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α/death receptor. Recent evidence shows RIPK inhibitors are neuroprotective and alleviate ischemic brain injury in a number of animal models, however, most have not yet undergone clinical trials and safety in humans remains in question. Dabrafenib, originally identified as a B-raf inhibitor that is currently used to treat melanoma, was later revealed to be a potent RIPK3 inhibitor at micromolar concentrations. Here, we investigated whether Dabrafenib would show a similar neuroprotective effect in mice subjected to ischemic brain injury by photothrombosis. Dabrafenib administered intraperitoneally at 10 mg/kg one hour after photothrombosis-induced focal ischemic injury significantly reduced infarct lesion size in C57BL6 mice the following day, accompanied by a markedly attenuated upregulation of TNF-α. However, subsequent lower doses (5 mg/kg/day failed to sustain this neuroprotective effect after 4 days. Dabrafenib blocked lipopolysaccharides-induced activation of TNF-α in bone marrow-derived macrophages, suggesting that Dabrafenib may attenuate TNF-α-induced necroptotic pathway after ischemic brain injury. Since Dabrafenib is already in clinical use for the treatment of melanoma, it might be repurposed for stroke therapy.

  18. Novel role of c-jun N-terminal kinase in regulating the initiation of cap-dependent translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Manish R; Sadiq, Ahad A; Jay-Dixon, Joe; Jirakulaporn, Tanawat; Jacobson, Blake A; Farassati, Faris; Bitterman, Peter B; Kratzke, Robert A

    2012-02-01

    Initiation of protein translation by the 5' mRNA cap is a tightly regulated step in cell growth and proliferation. Aberrant activation of cap-dependent translation is a hallmark of many cancers including non-small cell lung cancer. The canonical signaling mechanisms leading to translation initiation include activation of the Akt/mTOR pathway in response to the presence of nutrients and growth factors. We have previously observed that inhibition of c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) leads to inactivation of cap-dependent translation in mesothelioma cells. Since JNK is involved in the genesis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), we hypothesized that JNK could also be involved in activating cap-dependent translation in NSCLC cells and could represent an alternative pathway regulating translation. In a series of NSCLC cell lines, inhibition of JNK using SP600125 resulted in inhibition of 4E-BP1 phosphorylation and a decrease in formation of the cap-dependent translation complex, eIF4F. Furthermore, we show that JNK-mediated inhibition of translation is independent of mTOR. Our data provide evidence that JNK is involved in the regulation of translation and has potential as a therapeutic target in NSCLC.

  19. Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II-dependent regulation of atrial myocyte late Na+current, Ca2+cycling, and excitability: a mathematical modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onal, Birce; Gratz, Daniel; Hund, Thomas J

    2017-12-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) affects more than three million people per year in the United States and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Both electrical and structural remodeling contribute to AF, but the molecular pathways underlying AF pathogenesis are not well understood. Recently, a role for Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) in the regulation of persistent "late" Na + current ( I Na,L ) has been identified. Although I Na,L inhibition is emerging as a potential antiarrhythmic strategy in patients with AF, little is known about the mechanism linking I Na,L to atrial arrhythmogenesis. A computational approach was used to test the hypothesis that increased CaMKII-activated I Na,L in atrial myocytes disrupts Ca 2+ homeostasis, promoting arrhythmogenic afterdepolarizations. Dynamic CaMKII activity and regulation of multiple downstream targets [ I Na,L , L-type Ca 2+ current, phospholamban, and the ryanodine receptor sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ -release channel (RyR2)] were incorporated into an existing well-validated computational model of the human atrial action potential. Model simulations showed that constitutive CaMKII-dependent phosphorylation of Na v 1.5 and the subsequent increase in I Na,L effectively disrupt intracellular atrial myocyte ion homeostasis and CaMKII signaling. Specifically, increased I Na,L promotes intracellular Ca 2+ overload via forward-mode Na + /Ca 2+ exchange activity, which greatly increases RyR2 open probability beyond that observed for CaMKII-dependent phosphorylation of RyR2 alone. Increased I Na,L promotes atrial myocyte repolarization defects (afterdepolarizations and alternans) in the setting of acute β-adrenergic stimulation. We anticipate that our modeling efforts will help identify new mechanisms for atrial Na V 1.5 regulation with direct relevance for human AF. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Here, we present a novel computational model to study the effects of late Na + current ( I Na,L ) in human atrial

  20. Neural cell adhesion molecule-stimulated neurite outgrowth depends on activation of protein kinase C and the Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolkova, K; Novitskaya, V; Pedersen, N

    2000-01-01

    transfected with expression plasmids encoding constitutively active forms of Ras, Raf, MAP kinase kinases MEK1 and 2, dominant negative forms of Ras and Raf, and the FAK-related nonkinase. Alternatively, PC12-E2 cells were submitted to treatment with antibodies to the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor......, inhibitors of the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase p59(fyn), PLC, PKC and MEK and an activator of PKC, phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA). MEK2 transfection rescued cells treated with all inhibitors. The same was found for PMA treatment, except when cells concomitantly were treated with the MEK inhibitor....... Arachidonic acid rescued cells treated with antibodies to the FGF receptor or the PLC inhibitor, but not cells in which the activity of PKC, p59(fyn), FAK, Ras, or MEK was inhibited. Interaction of NCAM with a synthetic NCAM peptide ligand, known to induce neurite outgrowth, was shown to stimulate...

  1. MDM2 Inhibitor, Nutlin 3a, Induces p53 Dependent Autophagy in Acute Leukemia by AMP Kinase Activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam Borthakur

    Full Text Available MDM2 (mouse double minute 2 inhibitors that activate p53 and induce apoptosis in a non-genotoxic manner are in clinical development for treatment of leukemias. P53 can modulate other programmed cell death pathways including autophagy both transcriptionally and non-transcriptionally. We investigated autophagy induction in acute leukemia by Nutlin 3a, a first-in-class MDM2 inhibitor. Nutlin 3a induced autophagy in a p53 dependent manner and transcriptional activation of AMP kinase (AMPK is critical, as this effect is abrogated in AMPK -/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Nutlin 3a induced autophagy appears to be pro-apoptotic as pharmacological (bafilomycin or genetic inhibition (BECLIN1 knockdown of autophagy impairs apoptosis induced by Nutlin 3a.

  2. Molecular cloning and chromosomal mapping of the mouse gene encoding cyclin-dependent kinase 5 regulatory subunit p35

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohshima, Toshio; Kozak, C.A.; Nagle, J.W. [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)] [and others

    1996-07-15

    A neural-specific activating subunit, p35, of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) was recently reported to differ from other mammalian cyclins, suggesting a new type of regulatory subunit for Cdk activity. The mouse gene encoding p35, Cdk5r, was isolated from a mouse 129/SvJ genomic library, and the genomic structure of Cdk5r was characterized. The most notable features of Cdk5r are the absence of introns in the amino acid coding region and the high homology of amino acid sequence among species. The 5{prime}-flanking region of Cdk5r contained no canonical TATA or CAAT box but had several putative promoter elements, including Sp1, AP2, MRE, and NGFIA. The mouse Cdk5r transcript was detected only in the brain by Northern blot analysis. Mouse Cdk5r was mapped to a position on mouse chromosome 11. 14 refs., 2 figs.

  3. A kinome screen identifies checkpoint kinase 1 (CHK1 as a sensitizer for RRM1-dependent gemcitabine efficacy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhou

    Full Text Available Gemcitabine is among the most efficacious and widely used antimetabolite agents. Its molecular targets are ribonucleotide reductase M1 (RRM1 and elongating DNA. Acquired and de novo resistance as a result of RRM1 overexpression are major obstacles to therapeutic efficacy. We deployed a synthetic lethality screen to investigate if knockdown of 87 selected protein kinases by siRNA could overcome RRM1-dependent gemcitabine resistance in high and low RRM1-expressing model systems. The models included genetically RRM1-modified lung and breast cancer cell lines, cell lines with gemcitabine-induced RRM1 overexpression, and a series of naturally gemcitabine-resistant cell lines. Lead molecular targets were validated by determination of differential gemcitabine activity using cell lines with and without target knock down, and by assessing synergistic activity between gemcitabine and an inhibitor of the lead target. CHK1 was identified has the kinase with the most significant and robust interaction, and it was validated using AZD7762, a small-molecule ATP-competitive inhibitor of CHK1 activation. Synergism between CHK1 inhibition and RRM1-dependent gemcitabine efficacy was observed in cells with high RRM1 levels, while antagonism was observed in cells with low RRM1 levels. In addition, four cell lines with natural gemcitabine resistance demonstrated improved gemcitabine efficacy after CHK1 inhibition. In tumor specimens from 187 patients with non-small-cell lung cancer, total CHK1 and RRM1 in situ protein levels were significantly (p = 0.003 and inversely correlated. We conclude that inhibition of CHK1 may have its greatest clinical utility in malignancies where gemcitabine resistance is a result of elevated RRM1 levels. We also conclude that CHK1 inhibition in tumors with low RRM1 levels may be detrimental to gemcitabine efficacy.

  4. Palbociclib can overcome mutations in cyclin dependent kinase 6 that break hydrogen bonds between the drug and the protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez Maganhi, Stella; Jensen, Patrizia; Caracelli, Ignez; Zukerman Schpector, Julio; Fröhling, Stefan; Friedman, Ran

    2017-04-01

    Inhibition of cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs) 4 and 6 prevent cells from entering the synthesis phase of the cell cycle. CDK4 and 6 are therefore important drug targets in various cancers. The selective CDK4/6 inhibitor palbociclib is approved for the treatment of breast cancer and has shown activity in a cellular model of mixed lineage leukaemia (MLL)-rearranged acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). We studied the interactions of palbociclib and CDK6 using molecular dynamics simulations. Analysis of the simulations suggested several interactions that stabilized the drug in its binding site and that were not observed in the crystal structure of the protein-drug complex. These included a hydrogen bond to His 100 that was hitherto not reported and several hydrophobic contacts. Evolutionary-based bioinformatic analysis was used to suggest two mutants, D163G and H100L that would potentially yield drug resistance, as they lead to loss of important protein-drug interactions without hindering the viability of the protein. One of the mutants involved a change in the glycine of the well-conserved DFG motif of the kinase. Interestingly, CDK6-dependent human AML cells stably expressing either mutant retained sensitivity to palbociclib, indicating that the protein-drug interactions are not affected by these. Furthermore, the cells were proliferative in the absence of palbociclib, indicating that the Asp to Gly mutation in the DFG motif did not interfere with the catalytic activity of the protein. © 2017 The Authors Protein Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Protein Society.

  5. Glucose triggers protein kinase A-dependent insulin secretion in mouse pancreatic islets through activation of the K+ATP channel-dependent pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thams, Peter; Anwar, Mohammad R; Capito, Kirsten

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the significance of protein kinase A (PKA) in glucose triggering of ATP-sensitive K(+) (K(+)(ATP)) channel-dependent insulin secretion and in glucose amplification of K(+)(ATP) channel-independent insulin secretion. METHODS: Insulin release from cultured perifused mouse...... pancreatic islets was determined by radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: In islets cultured at 5.5 mmol/l glucose, and then perifused in physiological Krebs-Ringer medium, the PKA inhibitors, H89 (10 micromol/l) and PKI 6-22 amide (30 micromol/l) did not inhibit glucose (16.7 mmol/l)-induced insulin secretion...... glucose amplification of K(+)(ATP) channel-independent insulin secretion. In the presence of 1 mmol/l ouabain and 250 micromol/l diazoxide, which cause modest Ca(2+) influx, glucose amplification of K(+)(ATP) channel-independent insulin secretion was observed without concomitant Ca(2+) stimulation of PKA...

  6. Expression of a TGF-{beta} regulated cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor in normal and immortalized airway epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tierney, L.A.; Bloomfield, C.; Johnson, N.F. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Tumors arising from epithelial cells, including lung cancers are frequently resistant to factors that regulate growth and differentiation in normal in normal cells. Once such factor is transforming growth factor-{Beta} (TGF-{Beta}). Escape from the growth-inhibitory effects of TGF-{Beta} is thought to be a key step in the transformation of airway epithelial cells. most lung cancer cell lines require serum for growth. In contrast, normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells are exquisitely sensitive to growth-inhibitory and differentiating effects of TGF-{Beta}. The recent identification of a novel cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p15{sup INK4B}, which is regulated by TGF-{Beta}, suggests a mechanism by which TGF-{Beta} mediates growth arrest in NHBE cells. The purpose of this study was two-fold: (1) to determine if p15{sup INK4B} is induced by TGF-{Beta} in NHBE cells or immortalized bronchial epithelial (R.1) cells and if that induction corresponds to a G1/S cell-cycle arrest; (2) to determine the temporal relationship between p15{sup INK4B} induction, cell-cycle arrest, and the phosphorylation state of the pRB because it is thought that p15{sup INK4B} acts indirectly by preventing phosphorylation of the RB gene product. In this study, expression of p15{sup INK4B} was examined in NHBE cells and R.1 cells at different time intervals following TGF-{Beta} treatment. The expression of this kinase inhibitor and its relationship to the cell and the pRb phosphorylation state were examined in cells that were both sensitive (NHBE) and resistant (R.1) to the effects of TGF-{Beta}. These results suggest that the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p15{sup INK4B}, is involved in airway epithelial cell differentiation and that loss or reduction of expression plays a role in the resistance of transformed or neoplastic cells to the growth-inhibitory effects of TGF-{Beta}.

  7. Nicotine reward and affective nicotine withdrawal signs are attenuated in calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV knockout mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kia J Jackson

    Full Text Available The influx of Ca(2+ through calcium-permeable nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs leads to activation of various downstream processes that may be relevant to nicotine-mediated behaviors. The calcium activated protein, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMKIV phosphorylates the downstream transcription factor cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB, which mediates nicotine responses; however the role of CaMKIV in nicotine dependence is unknown. Given the proposed role of CaMKIV in CREB activation, we hypothesized that CaMKIV might be a crucial molecular component in the development of nicotine dependence. Using male CaMKIV genetically modified mice, we found that nicotine reward is attenuated in CaMKIV knockout (-/- mice, but cocaine reward is enhanced in these mice. CaMKIV protein levels were also increased in the nucleus accumbens of C57Bl/6 mice after nicotine reward. In a nicotine withdrawal assessment, anxiety-related behavior, but not somatic signs or the hyperalgesia response are attenuated in CaMKIV -/- mice. To complement our animal studies, we also conducted a human genetic association analysis and found that variants in the CaMKIV gene are associated with a protective effect against nicotine dependence. Taken together, our results support an important role for CaMKIV in nicotine reward, and suggest that CaMKIV has opposing roles in nicotine and cocaine reward. Further, CaMKIV mediates affective, but not physical nicotine withdrawal signs, and has a protective effect against nicotine dependence in human genetic association studies. These findings further indicate the importance of calcium-dependent mechanisms in mediating behaviors associated with drugs of abuse.

  8. Cell-cycle-dependent Xenopus TRF1 recruitment to telomere chromatin regulated by Polo-like kinase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Atsuya; Muraki, Keiko; Saito, Motoki; Ohsumi, Keita; Kishimoto, Takeo; Ishikawa, Fuyuki

    2006-01-01

    Telomeres are regulated by a homeostatic mechanism that includes telomerase and telomeric repeat binding proteins, TRF1 and TRF2. Recently, it has been hypothesized that telomeres assume distinct configurations in a cell-cycle-dependent manner, although direct biochemical evidence is lacking. Here we demonstrated that Xenopus TRF1 (xTRF1) associates with telomere chromatin specifically in mitotic Xenopus egg extracts, and dissociates from it upon mitotic exit. Both the N-terminal TRF-homology (TRFH) domain and the linker region connecting the TRFH domain and the C-terminal Myb domain are required for this cell-cycle-dependent association of xTRF1 with chromatin. In contrast, Xenopus TRF2 (xTRF2) associates with chromatin throughout the cell cycle. We showed that Polo-like kinase (Plx1) phosphorylates xTRF1 in vitro. Moreover, the mitotic xTRF1–chromatin association was significantly impaired when Plx1 was immunodepleted from the extracts. Finally, high telomerase activities were detected in association with replicating interphase chromatin compared with mitotic chromatin. These results indicate that telomere chromatin is actively regulated by cell-cycle-dependent processes, and provide an insight for understanding how telomeres undergo DNA metabolisms during the cell cycle. PMID:16424898

  9. Functional intersection of ATM and DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit in coding end joining during V(D)J recombination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Baeck-Seung; Gapud, Eric J; Zhang, Shichuan

    2013-01-01

    V(D)J recombination is initiated by the RAG endonuclease, which introduces DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) at the border between two recombining gene segments, generating two hairpin-sealed coding ends and two blunt signal ends. ATM and DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA......-PKcs. Mutation of these threonine residues to alanine (DNA-PKcs(3A)) renders DNA-PKcs dependent on its intrinsic kinase activity during coding end joining, at a step downstream of opening hairpin-sealed coding ends. Thus, DNA-PKcs has critical functions in coding end joining beyond promoting Artemis endonuclease...

  10. JNK mitogen-activated protein kinase limits calcium-dependent chloride secretion across colonic epithelial cells.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donnellan, Fergal

    2010-01-01

    Neuroimmune agonists induce epithelial Cl(-) secretion through elevations in intracellular Ca2+ or cAMP. Previously, we demonstrated that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) transactivation and subsequent ERK MAPK activation limits secretory responses to Ca2+-dependent, but not cAMP-dependent, agonists. Although JNK MAPKs are also expressed in epithelial cells, their role in regulating transport function is unknown. Here, we investigated the potential role for JNK in regulating Cl(-) secretion in T(84) colonic epithelial cells. Western blot analysis revealed that a prototypical Ca2+-dependent secretagogue, carbachol (CCh; 100 microM), induced phosphorylation of both the 46-kDa and 54-kDa isoforms of JNK. This effect was mimicked by thapsigargin (TG), which specifically elevates intracellular Ca2+, but not by forskolin (FSK; 10 microM), which elevates cAMP. CCh-induced JNK phosphorylation was attenuated by the EGFR inhibitor, tyrphostin-AG1478 (1 microM). Pretreatment of voltage-clamped T(84) cells with SP600125 (2 microM), a specific JNK inhibitor, potentiated secretory responses to both CCh and TG but not to FSK. The effects of SP600125 on CCh-induced secretion were not additive with those of the ERK inhibitor, PD98059. Finally, in apically permeabilized T(84) cell monolayers, SP600125 potentiated CCh-induced K+ conductances but not Na+\\/K+ATPase activity. These data demonstrate a novel role for JNK MAPK in regulating Ca2+ but not cAMP-dependent epithelial Cl(-) secretion. JNK activation is mediated by EGFR transactivation and exerts its antisecretory effects through inhibition of basolateral K+ channels. These data further our understanding of mechanisms regulating epithelial secretion and underscore the potential for exploitation of MAPK-dependent signaling in treatment of intestinal transport disorders.

  11. Calcium-dependent protein kinases responsible for the phosphorylation of a bZIP transcription factor FD crucial for the florigen complex formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Nozomi; Sasabe, Michiko; Endo, Motomu; Machida, Yasunori; Araki, Takashi

    2015-02-09

    Appropriate timing of flowering is critical for reproductive success and necessarily involves complex genetic regulatory networks. A mobile floral signal, called florigen, is a key molecule in this process, and flowering locus T (FT) protein is its major component in Arabidopsis. FT is produced in leaves, but promotes the floral transition in the shoot apex, where it forms a complex with a basic region/leucine-zipper (bZIP) transcription factor, FD. Formation of the florigen complex depends on the supposed phosphorylation of FD; hitherto, however, the responsible protein kinase(s) have not been identified. In this study, we prepared protein extracts from shoot apices of plants around the floral transition, and detected a protein kinase activity that phosphorylates a threonine residue at position 282 of FD (FD T282), which is a crucial residue for the complex formation with FT via 14-3-3. The kinase activity was calcium-dependent. Subsequent biochemical, cellular, and genetic analyses showed that three calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) efficiently phosphorylate FD T282. Two of them (CPK6 and CPK33) are expressed in shoot apical meristem and directly interact with FD, suggesting they have redundant functions. The loss of function of one CDPK (CPK33) resulted in a weak but significant late-flowering phenotype.

  12. The contribution of two isozymes to the pyruvate kinase activity of Vibrio cholerae: One K+-dependent constitutively active and another K+-independent with essential allosteric activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Mendiola, Carlos; García-Trejo, José J; Encalada, Rusely; Saavedra, Emma; Ramírez-Silva, Leticia

    2017-01-01

    In a previous phylogenetic study of the family of pyruvate kinase EC (2.7.1.40), a cluster with Glu117 and another with Lys117 were found (numbered according to the rabbit muscle enzyme). The sequences with Glu117 have been found to be K+-dependent, whereas those with Lys117 were K+-independent. Interestingly, only γ-proteobacteria exhibit sequences in both branches of the tree. In this context, it was explored whether these phylogenetically distinct pyruvate kinases were both expressed and contribute to the pyruvate kinase activity in Vibrio cholerae. The main findings of this work showed that the isozyme with Glu117 is an active K+-dependent enzyme. At the same substrate concentration, its Vmax in the absence of fructose 1,6 bisphosphate was 80% of that with its effector. This result is in accordance with the non-essential activation described by allosteric ligands for most pyruvate kinases. In contrast, the pyruvate kinase with Lys117 was a K+-independent enzyme displaying an allosteric activation by ribose 5-phosphate. At the same substrate concentration, its activity without the effector was 0.5% of the one obtained in the presence of ribose 5-phosphate, indicating that this sugar monophosphate is a strong activator of this enzyme. This absolute allosteric dependence is a novel feature of pyruvate kinase activity. Interestingly, in the K+-independent enzyme, Mn2+ may "mimic" the allosteric effect of Rib 5-P. Despite their different allosteric behavior, both isozymes display a rapid equilibrium random order kinetic mechanism. The intracellular concentrations of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate and ribose 5-phosphate in Vibrio cholerae have been experimentally verified to be sufficient to induce maximal activation of both enzymes. In addition, Western blot analysis indicated that both enzymes were co-expressed. Therefore, it is concluded that VcIPK and VcIIPK contribute to the activity of pyruvate kinase in this γ-proteobacterium.

  13. Cardiac hyporesponsiveness in severe sepsis is associated with nitric oxide-dependent activation of G protein receptor kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal-Secco, Daniela; DalBó, Silvia; Lautherbach, Natalia E S; Gava, Fábio N; Celes, Mara R N; Benedet, Patricia O; Souza, Adriana H; Akinaga, Juliana; Lima, Vanessa; Silva, Katiussia P; Kiguti, Luiz Ricardo A; Rossi, Marcos A; Kettelhut, Isis C; Pupo, André S; Cunha, Fernando Q; Assreuy, Jamil

    2017-07-01

    G protein-coupled receptor kinase isoform 2 (GRK2) has a critical role in physiological and pharmacological responses to endogenous and exogenous substances. Sepsis causes an important cardiovascular dysfunction in which nitric oxide (NO) has a relevant role. The present study aimed to assess the putative effect of inducible NO synthase (NOS2)-derived NO on the activity of GRK2 in the context of septic cardiac dysfunction. C57BL/6 mice were submitted to severe septic injury by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Heart function was assessed by isolated and perfused heart, echocardiography, and β-adrenergic receptor binding. GRK2 was determined by immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis in the heart and isolated cardiac myocytes. Sepsis increased NOS2 expression in the heart, increased plasma nitrite + nitrate levels, and reduced isoproterenol-induced isolated ventricle contraction, whole heart tension development, and β-adrenergic receptor density. Treatment with 1400W or with GRK2 inhibitor prevented CLP-induced cardiac hyporesponsiveness 12 and 24 h after CLP. Increased labeling of total and phosphorylated GRK2 was detected in hearts after CLP. With treatment of 1400W or in hearts taken from septic NOS2 knockout mice, the activation of GRK2 was reduced. 1400W or GRK2 inhibitor reduced mortality, improved echocardiographic cardiac parameters, and prevented organ damage. Therefore, during sepsis, NOS2-derived NO increases GRK2, which leads to a reduction in β-adrenergic receptor density, contributing to the heart dysfunction. Isolated cardiac myocyte data indicate that NO acts through the soluble guanylyl cyclase/cGMP/PKG pathway. GRK2 inhibition may be a potential therapeutic target in sepsis-induced cardiac dysfunction. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The main novelty presented here is to show that septic shock induces cardiac hyporesponsiveness to isoproterenol by a mechanism dependent on nitric oxide and mediated by G protein-coupled receptor kinase isoform 2. Therefore

  14. Studying the mechanism that enables paullones to selectively inhibit glycogen synthase kinase 3 rather than cyclin-dependent kinase 5 by molecular dynamics simulations and free-energy calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Quan; Cui, Wei; Cheng, Yuanhua; Zhang, Fushi; Ji, Mingjuan

    2011-04-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) is an attractive target for the treatment of diabetes, and paullones have been reported to be effective inhibitors of GSK-3. However, it is still a challenging task to improve selectivity among protein kinases, especially cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). Here we investigated the mechanism that enables paullones to selectively inhibit GSK-3 rather than cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) using sequence alignment, molecular dynamics simulations, free-energy calculations and free-energy decomposition analysis. The results indicate that the interaction between paullones and Val135 of GSK-3 is obviously stronger than that between paullones and Cys83 of CDK5, suggesting that paullones could be utilized as potent selective inhibitors. Meanwhile, we observed that the decrease in the interaction between paullones and the Asp86 of CDK5 favors their selectivity towards GSK-3 rather than CDK5, as demonstrated using 1-azakenpaullone as an example. Although substitution at position 9 and replacement at position 2 may influence the activity of GSK-3, they only have a minor effect on the selectivity. We expect that the information obtained here could prove useful for developing specific paullone inhibitors of GSK-3.

  15. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor regulates cell cycle progression in human breast cancer cells via a functional interaction with cyclin-dependent kinase 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barhoover, Melissa A; Hall, Julie M; Greenlee, William F; Thomas, Russell S

    2010-02-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor with constitutive activities and those induced by xenobiotic ligands, such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). One unexplained cellular role for the AHR is its ability to promote cell cycle progression in the absence of exogenous ligands, whereas treatment with exogenous ligands induces cell cycle arrest. Within the cell cycle, progression from G(1) to S phase is controlled by sequential phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein (RB1) by cyclin D-cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4/6 complexes. In this study, the functional interactions between the AHR, CDK4, and cyclin D1 (CCND1) were investigated as a potential mechanism for the cell cycle regulation by the AHR. Time course cell cycle and molecular experiments were performed in human breast cancer cells. The results demonstrated that the AHR and CDK4 interact within the cell cycle, and the interaction was disrupted upon TCDD treatment. The disruption was temporally correlated with G(1) cell cycle arrest and decreased phosphorylation of RB1. Biochemical reconstitution assays using in vitro-translated protein recapitulated the AHR and CDK4 interaction and showed that CCND1 was also part of the complex. In vitro assays for CDK4 kinase activity demonstrated that RB1 phosphorylation by the AHR/CDK4/CCND1 complex was reduced in the presence of TCDD. The results suggest that the AHR interacts in a complex with CDK4 and CCND1 in the absence of exogenous ligands to facilitate cell cycle progression. This interaction is disrupted by exogenous ligands, such as TCDD, to induce G(1) cell cycle arrest.

  16. Identification of functional sites in the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase by differential modification and site-directed mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buechler, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    In order to characterize substrate-induced conformational changes in the catalytic (C) subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, the reactivity of the lysine residues towards [ 3 H]-acetic anhydride was determined in the absence of substrates, with MgATP bound to the enzyme, and when MgATP and an inhibitor peptide were present. A model for a portion of the ATP binding site in the C subunit was proposed based in part on the changes in lysine reactivity induced by MgATP binding to the C subunit. An intramolecular cross-link between a carboxyl group activated by dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD) and a lysine residue was circumvented by first modifying the lysine residues in the C subunit with acetic anhydride, and then labeling the modified C subunit with DCCD and [ 14 C]-glycine ethyl ester. Two carboxyl groups, Asp 184 and Glu 91, were labeled in the apoenzyme, but protected from modification in the presence of MgATP. The two residues accounting for the intramolecular cross-link mediated by DCCD were identified by first labeling the apoenzyme with DCCD, followed by modification of the lysine residues with [ 3 H]-acetic anhydride. The two residues involved in the cross-link, Asp 184 and Lys 72, are both invariant amino acids in the protein kinase family, and a potential orientation of the active site was proposed. The C subunit was modified with a water soluble carbodiimide, 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl-amino-propyl) carbodiimide (EDC) and [ 14 C]glycine ethyl ester in order to identify carboxyl groups that may interact with the basic residues of the protein substrates. Either MgATP or peptide inhibitor alone did not protect the C subunit from inhibition, but together they blocked the inactivation by EDC

  17. A nonsense mutation in cGMP-dependent type II protein kinase (PRKG2) causes dwarfism in American Angus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koltes, James E; Mishra, Bishnu P; Kumar, Dinesh; Kataria, Ranjit S; Totir, Liviu R; Fernando, Rohan L; Cobbold, Rowland; Steffen, David; Coppieters, Wouter; Georges, Michel; Reecy, James M

    2009-11-17

    Historically, dwarfism was the major genetic defect in U.S. beef cattle. Aggressive culling and sire testing were used to minimize its prevalence; however, neither of these practices can eliminate a recessive genetic defect. We assembled a 4-generation pedigree to identify the mutation underlying dwarfism in American Angus cattle. An adaptation of the Elston-Steward algorithm was used to overcome small pedigree size and missing genotypes. The dwarfism locus was fine-mapped to BTA6 between markers AFR227 and BM4311. Four candidate genes were sequenced, revealing a nonsense mutation in exon 15 of cGMP-dependant type II protein kinase (PRKG2). This C/T transition introduced a stop codon (R678X) that truncated 85 C-terminal amino acids, including a large portion of the kinase domain. Of the 75 mutations discovered in this region, only this mutation was 100% concordant with the recessive pattern of inheritance in affected and carrier individuals (log of odds score = 6.63). Previous research has shown that PRKG2 regulates SRY (sex-determining region Y) box 9 (SOX9)-mediated transcription of collagen 2 (COL2). We evaluated the ability of wild-type (WT) or R678X PRKG2 to regulate COL2 expression in cell culture. Real-time PCR results confirmed that COL2 is overexpressed in cells that overexpressed R678X PRKG2 as compared with WT PRKG2. Furthermore, COL2 and COL10 mRNA expression was increased in dwarf cattle compared with unaffected cattle. These experiments indicate that the R678X mutation is functional, resulting in a loss of PRKG2 regulation of COL2 and COL10 mRNA expression. Therefore, we present PRKG2 R678X as a causative mutation for dwarfism cattle.

  18. Protein kinase C-dependent signaling controls the midgut epithelial barrier to malaria parasite infection in anopheline mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazzy Pakpour

    Full Text Available Anopheline mosquitoes are the primary vectors of parasites in the genus Plasmodium, the causative agents of malaria. Malaria parasites undergo a series of complex transformations upon ingestion by the mosquito host. During this process, the physical barrier of the midgut epithelium, along with innate immune defenses, functionally restrict parasite development. Although these defenses have been studied for some time, the regulatory factors that control them are poorly understood. The protein kinase C (PKC gene family consists of serine/threonine kinases that serve as central signaling molecules and regulators of a broad spectrum of cellular processes including epithelial barrier function and immunity. Indeed, PKCs are highly conserved, ranging from 7 isoforms in Drosophila to 16 isoforms in mammals, yet none have been identified in mosquitoes. Despite conservation of the PKC gene family and their potential as targets for transmission-blocking strategies for malaria, no direct connections between PKCs, the mosquito immune response or epithelial barrier integrity are known. Here, we identify and characterize six PKC gene family members--PKCδ, PKCε, PKCζ, PKD, PKN, and an indeterminate conventional PKC--in Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of the anopheline PKCs support most subfamily assignments. All six PKCs are expressed in the midgut epithelia of A. gambiae and A. stephensi post-blood feeding, indicating availability for signaling in a tissue that is critical for malaria parasite development. Although inhibition of PKC enzymatic activity decreased NF-κB-regulated anti-microbial peptide expression in mosquito cells in vitro, PKC inhibition had no effect on expression of a panel of immune genes in the midgut epithelium in vivo. PKC inhibition did, however, significantly increase midgut barrier integrity and decrease development of P. falciparum oocysts in A. stephensi, suggesting that PKC-dependent

  19. Resensitization of breast cancer cells to anoikis by tropomyosin-1: role of Rho kinase-dependent cytoskeleton and adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharadwaj, Shantaram; Thanawala, Ruchi; Bon, Giulia; Falcioni, Rita; Prasad, G L

    2005-12-15

    Two most common properties of malignant cells are the presence of aberrant actin cytoskeleton and resistance to anoikis. Suppression of several key cytoskeletal proteins, including tropomyosin-1 (TM1), during neoplastic transformation is hypothesized to contribute to the altered cytoskeleton and neoplastic phenotype. Using TM1 as a paradigm, we have shown that cytoskeletal proteins induce anoikis in breast cancer (MCF-7 and MDA MB 231) cells. Here, we have tested the hypothesis that TM1-mediated cytoskeletal changes regulate integrin activity and the sensitivity to anoikis. TM1 expression in MDA MB 231 cells promotes the assembly of stress fibers, induces rapid anoikis via caspase-dependent pathways involving the release of cytochrome c. Further, TM1 inhibits binding of MDA MB 231 cells to collagen I, but promotes adhesion to laminin. Inhibition of Rho kinase disrupts TM1-mediated cytoskeletal reorganization and adhesion to the extracellular matrix components, whereas the parental cells attach to collagen I, spread and form extensive actin meshwork in the presence of Rho kinase inhibitor, underscoring the differences in parental and TM1-transduced breast cancer cells. Further, treatment with the cytoskeletal disrupting drugs rescues the cells from TM1-induced anoikis. These new findings demonstrate that the aberrant cytoskeleton contributes to neoplastic transformation by conferring resistance to anoikis. Restoration of stress fiber network through enhanced expression of key cytoskeletal proteins may modulate the activity of focal adhesions and sensitize the neoplastic cells to anoikis. Oncogene (2005) 24, 8291-8303. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1208993; published online 19 September 2005.

  20. Identification of aspartate-184 as an essential residue in the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechler, J.A.; Taylor, S.S.

    1988-09-20

    The hydrophobic carbodiimide dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD) was previously shown to be an irreversible inhibitor of the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, and MgATP protected against inactivation. This inhibition by DCCD indicated that an essential carboxyl group was present at the active site of the enzyme even though identification of that carboxyl group was not possible. This presumably was because a nucleophile on the protein cross-linked to the electrophilic intermediate formed when the carbodiimide reacted with the carboxyl group. To circumvent this problem, the catalytic subunit first was treated with acetic anhydride to block accessible lysine residues, thus preventing intramolecular cross-linking. The DCCD reaction then was carried out in the presence of (/sup 14/C)glycine ethyl ester in order to trap any electrophilic intermediates that were generated by DCCD. The modified protein was treated with trypsin, and the resulting peptides were separated by HPLC. Two major radioactive peptides were isolated as well as one minor peptide. MgATP protected all three peptides from covalent modification. The two major peaks contained the same modified carboxyl group, which corresponded to Asp-184. The minor peak contained a modified glutamic acid, Glu-91. Both of these acidic residues are conserved in all protein kinases, which is consistent with their playing essential roles. The positions of Asp-184 and Glu-91 have been correlated with the overall domain structure of the molecule. Asp-184 may participate as a general base catalyst at the active site. A third carboxyl group, Glu-230, also was identified.

  1. Identification of aspartate-184 as an essential residue in the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buechler, J.A.; Taylor, S.S.

    1988-01-01

    The hydrophobic carbodiimide dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD) was previously shown to be an irreversible inhibitor of the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, and MgATP protected against inactivation. This inhibition by DCCD indicated that an essential carboxyl group was present at the active site of the enzyme even though identification of that carboxyl group was not possible. This presumably was because a nucleophile on the protein cross-linked to the electrophilic intermediate formed when the carbodiimide reacted with the carboxyl group. To circumvent this problem, the catalytic subunit first was treated with acetic anhydride to block accessible lysine residues, thus preventing intramolecular cross-linking. The DCCD reaction then was carried out in the presence of [ 14 C]glycine ethyl ester in order to trap any electrophilic intermediates that were generated by DCCD. The modified protein was treated with trypsin, and the resulting peptides were separated by HPLC. Two major radioactive peptides were isolated as well as one minor peptide. MgATP protected all three peptides from covalent modification. The two major peaks contained the same modified carboxyl group, which corresponded to Asp-184. The minor peak contained a modified glutamic acid, Glu-91. Both of these acidic residues are conserved in all protein kinases, which is consistent with their playing essential roles. The positions of Asp-184 and Glu-91 have been correlated with the overall domain structure of the molecule. Asp-184 may participate as a general base catalyst at the active site. A third carboxyl group, Glu-230, also was identified

  2. Identification of aspartate-184 as an essential residue in the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buechler, J A; Taylor, S S

    1988-09-20

    The hydrophobic carbodiimide dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD) was previously shown to be an irreversible inhibitor of the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, and MgATP protected against inactivation [Toner-Webb, J., & Taylor, S. S. (1987) Biochemistry 26, 7371]. This inhibition by DCCD indicated that an essential carboxyl group was present at the active site of the enzyme even though identification of that carboxyl group was not possible. This presumably was because a nucleophile on the protein cross-linked to the electrophilic intermediate formed when the carbodiimide reacted with the carboxyl group. To circumvent this problem, the catalytic subunit first was treated with acetic anhydride to block accessible lysine residues, thus preventing intramolecular cross-linking. The DCCD reaction then was carried out in the presence of [14C]glycine ethyl ester in order to trap any electrophilic intermediates that were generated by DCCD. The modified protein was treated with trypsin, and the resulting peptides were separated by HPLC. Two major radioactive peptides were isolated as well as one minor peptide. MgATP protected all three peptides from covalent modification. The two major peaks contained the same modified carboxyl group, which corresponded to Asp-184. The minor peak contained a modified glutamic acid, Glu-91. Both of these acidic residues are conserved in all protein kinases, which is consistent with their playing essential roles. The positions of Asp-184 and Glu-91 have been correlated with the overall domain structure of the molecule. Asp-184 may participate as a general base catalyst at the active site. A third carboxyl group, Glu-230, also was identified.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Targeted overexpression of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase subunit in Toxoplasma gondii promotes replication and virulence in host cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongchao; Wang, Suhua; Zhao, Xianfeng; Yao, Chaoqun; Zhuang, Haohan; Huang, Yechuan; Chen, Xueqiu; Yang, Yi; Du, Aifang

    2017-08-30

    Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is one of the most common parasite that can infect almost any warm-blooded animals including humans. The cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinase (PKA) regulates a spectrum of intracellular signal pathways in many organisms. Protein kinase catalytic subunit (PKAC) is the core of the whole protein, and plays an important role in the life cycle of T.gondii. Here, T.gondii PKAC (TgPKAC) overexpression strain (TgPKAC-OE) was constructed. The growth of the TgPKAC-OE, RH△Ku80, and TgPKAC inhibition strains (TgPKAC-H89) were analysed by SYBR-green real-time PCR, and the ultrastructure was observed by transmission electron microscopy. The survival rate in mice was also recorded to analyse the virulence of the parasites. We also investigated the subcellular localization of TgPKAC in Vero cells by laser scanning microscope. We found that TgPKAC-OE strain exhibited obviously increased growth rate in Vero cells in vitro, and infected mice survived for a shorter time compared to wild type strain. Ultrastructural analysis found more autophagosomes-like structures in TgPKAC-H89 parasite compared to RH△Ku80 strain, and the relative expression level of Toxoplasma gondii autophagy-related protein (ATG8) in TgPKAC-H89 parasite was higher than wild type parasite. Laser confocal results showed that TgPKAC was mainly expressed in the cytoplasm of Vero cells. In conclusion, we hypothesized that inhibition of TgPKAC could cause autophagy of Toxoplasma gondii and then influence the replication of the parasite. TgPKAC plays an important role in parasite virulence in vivo, and the subcellular localization was successfully detected in Vero cells. Our data will provide a basis for further study of TgPKAC function and help screen drug targets of T. gondii. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Identification of an hexapeptide that binds to a surface pocket in cyclin A and inhibits the catalytic activity of the complex cyclin-dependent kinase 2-cyclin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canela, Núria; Orzáez, Mar; Fucho, Raquel; Mateo, Francesca; Gutierrez, Ricardo; Pineda-Lucena, Antonio; Bachs, Oriol; Pérez-Payá, Enrique

    2006-11-24

    The protein-protein complexes formed between different cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are central to cell cycle regulation. These complexes represent interesting points of chemical intervention for the development of antineoplastic molecules. Here we describe the identification of an all d-amino acid hexapeptide, termed NBI1, that inhibits the kinase activity of the cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (cdk2)-cyclin A complex through selective binding to cyclin A. The mechanism of inhibition is non-competitive for ATP and non-competitive for protein substrates. In contrast to the existing CDKs peptide inhibitors, the hexapeptide NBI1 interferes with the formation of the cdk2-cyclin A complex. Furthermore, a cell-permeable derivative of NBI1 induces apoptosis and inhibits proliferation of tumor cell lines. Thus, the NBI1-binding site on cyclin A may represent a new target site for the selective inhibition of activity cdk2-cyclin A complex.

  5. Keratin 8 phosphorylation in vitro by cAMP-dependent protein kinase occurs within the amino- and carboxyl-terminal end domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, S; Tokui, T; Yano, T; Inagaki, M

    1996-04-05

    We reported earlier that phosphorylation in vitro of keratin filaments reconstituted from rat type I keratin 18 and type II keratin 8 by cAPM-dependent protein kinase induces disassembly of the keratin filament structure. Keratin 8 rather than keratin 18 was the major target of the kinase. We have now identified the sites on rat keratin 8 for cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Sequential analysis of the purified phosphoropeptides, together with the known primary sequence, revealed that four major sites, Ser-12, Ser-23, Ser-36, and Ser-50, and three minor sites, Ser-8, Ser-33, Ser-42, are located in the amino-terminal head domain, while three minor sites, Ser-416, Ser-423 and Ser-425 locate in the carboxyl-terminal tail domain.

  6. Checkpoint Kinase-Dependent Regulation of DNA Repair and Genome Instability in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    air dried for 1 min, rinsed six times with PBS, and blocked for 15 min at room temperature with 5% bovine serum albumin (BSA) in PBS. Primary antibodies...Replication-dependent destruction of Cdt1 limits DNA replication to a single round per cell cycle in Xenopus egg extracts. Genes Dev. 19:114–126. 4. Banin, S...blocks and UV-damaged DNA in Xenopus egg extracts. Genes Dev. 14:2745–2756. 23. Gurley, L. R., J. A. D’Anna, S. S. Barham, L. L. Deaven, and R. A. Tobey

  7. Convergence of mitogenic signalling cascades from diverse classes of receptors at the cyclin D-cyclin-dependent kinase-pRb-controlled G1 checkpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, J; Bartkova, J; Bartek, J

    1996-12-01

    The commitment of mammalian cells in late G1 to replicate the genome and divide in response to mitogenic growth factors operating via tyrosine kinase receptors depends on phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein (pRb), a process controlled by cyclin D-associated cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks) and their inhibitors. This study addressed the issue of whether also other mitogenic signalling cascades require activation of cyclin D-associated kinases or whether any mitogenic pathway can bypass the cyclin D-pRb checkpoint. We show that mitogenic signal transduction pathways from three classes of receptors, the membrane tyrosine kinase receptors activated by serum mitogens or epidermal growth factor, estrogen receptors triggered by estradiol, and the cyclic AMP-dependent signalling from G-protein-coupled thyrotropin receptors, all converge and strictly require the cyclin D-cdk activity to induce S phase in human MCF-7 cells and/or primary dog thyrocytes. Combined microinjection and biochemical approaches showed that whereas these three mitogenic cascades are sensitive to the p16 inhibitor of cdk4/6 and/or cyclin D1-neutralizing antibody and able to induce pRb kinase activity, their upstream biochemical routes are distinct as demonstrated by their differential sensitivity to lovastatin and requirements for mitogen-activated protein kinases whose sustained activation is seen only in the growth factor-dependent pathway. Taken together, these results support the candidacy of the cyclin D-cdk-pRb interplay for the convergence step of multiple signalling cascades and a mechanism contributing to the restriction point switch.

  8. pVHL interacts with Ceramide kinase like (CERKL) protein and ubiquitinates it for oxygen dependent proteasomal degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiaxiang; Liu, Fei; Li, Hui; Archacki, Stephen; Gao, Meng; Liu, Ying; Liao, Shengjie; Huang, Mi; Wang, Jiuxiang; Yu, Shanshan; Li, Chang; Tang, Zhaohui; Liu, Mugen

    2015-11-01

    Mutations of Ceramide kinase-like (CERKL) gene are associated with retinitis pigmentosa (RP), an inherited degenerative eye disease. CERKL encodes an antioxidant protein which is critical to photoreceptor survival, its deficiency causes retinal degeneration as a result of oxidative damage. However, the regulation of CERKL in response to oxidative stress, and its contribution to photoreceptor survival remain unclear. pVHL, the substrate receptor of RING finger-type SCF like ECV ubiquitin ligase, binds and ubiquitinates a number of hydroxylated proteins for proteasomal degradation. Due to hydroxylated proteins which are modified by PHD1-3, pVHL dependent ubiquitin-proteasomal degradation pathway is blocked by PHD1-3 inhibitors (e.g. hypoxia or oxidative stress). In this study, we identified pVHL as an important regulator of CERKL. Western blot and in vivo ubiquitination assays showed hypoxia up-regulates CERKL at protein level by down-regulating its poly-ubiquitination. By Co-IP and domain mapping studies, we found CERKL complexes with ECV ligase via pVHL. Through overexpression and small RNA interference analysis, we demonstrated pVHL ubiquitinates CERKL for proteasomal degradation. Additionally, our work showed that the oxygen sensors PHD1 and PHD3 are involved in CERKL degradation. Collectively, our results indicated that pVHL interacts with CERKL and ubiquitinates it for oxygen dependent proteasomal degradation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A new class of cyclin dependent kinase in Chlamydomonas is required for coupling cell size to cell division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yubing; Liu, Dianyi; López-Paz, Cristina; Olson, Bradley JSC; Umen, James G

    2016-01-01

    Proliferating cells actively control their size by mechanisms that are poorly understood. The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii divides by multiple fission, wherein a ‘counting’ mechanism couples mother cell-size to cell division number allowing production of uniform-sized daughters. We identified a sizer protein, CDKG1, that acts through the retinoblastoma (RB) tumor suppressor pathway as a D-cyclin-dependent RB kinase to regulate mitotic counting. Loss of CDKG1 leads to fewer mitotic divisions and large daughters, while mis-expression of CDKG1 causes supernumerous mitotic divisions and small daughters. The concentration of nuclear-localized CDKG1 in pre-mitotic cells is set by mother cell size, and its progressive dilution and degradation with each round of cell division may provide a link between mother cell-size and mitotic division number. Cell-size-dependent accumulation of limiting cell cycle regulators such as CDKG1 is a potentially general mechanism for size control. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10767.001 PMID:27015111

  10. Salinomycin activates AMP-activated protein kinase-dependent autophagy in cultured osteoblastoma cells: a negative regulator against cell apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lun-qing Zhu

    Full Text Available The malignant osteoblastoma has poor prognosis, thus the search for novel and more efficient chemo-agents against this disease is urgent. Salinomycin induces broad anti-cancer effects both in vivo and in vitro, however, its role in osteoblastoma is still not clear.Salinomycin induced both apoptosis and autophagy in cultured U2OS and MG-63 osteoblastoma cells. Inhibition of autophagy by 3-methyladenine (3-MA, or by RNA interference (RNAi of light chain 3B (LC3B, enhanced salinomycin-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis. Salinomycin induced a profound AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK activation, which was required for autophagy induction. AMPK inhibition by compound C, or by AMPKα RNAi prevented salinomycin-induced autophagy activation, while facilitating cancer cell death and apoptosis. On the other hand, the AMPK agonist AICAR promoted autophagy activation in U2OS cells. Salinomycin-induced AMPK activation was dependent on reactive oxygen species (ROS production in osteoblastoma cells. Antioxidant n-acetyl cysteine (NAC significantly inhibited salinomycin-induced AMPK activation and autophagy induction.Salinomycin activates AMPK-dependent autophagy in osteoblastoma cells, which serves as a negative regulator against cell apoptosis. AMPK-autophagy inhibition might be a novel strategy to sensitize salinomycin's effect in cancer cells.

  11. Salinomycin activates AMP-activated protein kinase-dependent autophagy in cultured osteoblastoma cells: a negative regulator against cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lun-qing; Zhen, Yun-fang; Zhang, Ya; Guo, Zhi-xiong; Dai, Jin; Wang, Xiao-dong

    2013-01-01

    The malignant osteoblastoma has poor prognosis, thus the search for novel and more efficient chemo-agents against this disease is urgent. Salinomycin induces broad anti-cancer effects both in vivo and in vitro, however, its role in osteoblastoma is still not clear. Salinomycin induced both apoptosis and autophagy in cultured U2OS and MG-63 osteoblastoma cells. Inhibition of autophagy by 3-methyladenine (3-MA), or by RNA interference (RNAi) of light chain 3B (LC3B), enhanced salinomycin-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis. Salinomycin induced a profound AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation, which was required for autophagy induction. AMPK inhibition by compound C, or by AMPKα RNAi prevented salinomycin-induced autophagy activation, while facilitating cancer cell death and apoptosis. On the other hand, the AMPK agonist AICAR promoted autophagy activation in U2OS cells. Salinomycin-induced AMPK activation was dependent on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in osteoblastoma cells. Antioxidant n-acetyl cysteine (NAC) significantly inhibited salinomycin-induced AMPK activation and autophagy induction. Salinomycin activates AMPK-dependent autophagy in osteoblastoma cells, which serves as a negative regulator against cell apoptosis. AMPK-autophagy inhibition might be a novel strategy to sensitize salinomycin's effect in cancer cells.

  12. Neutrophil development and function critically depend on Bruton tyrosine kinase in a mouse model of X-linked agammaglobulinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Katja; Sindrilaru, Anca; Terszowski, Grzegorz; Kokai, Enikö; Feyerabend, Thorsten B; Bullinger, Lars; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer; Brunner, Cornelia

    2011-01-27

    Bruton tyrosine kinase (Btk) is essential for B cell development and function and also appears to be important for myeloid cells. The bone marrow of Btk-deficient mice shows enhanced granulopoiesis compared with that of wild-type mice. In purified granulocyte-monocyte-progenitors (GMP) from Btk-deficient mice, the development of granulocytes is favored at the expense of monocytes. However, Btk-deficient neutrophils are impaired in maturation and function. Using bone marrow chimeras, we show that this defect is cell-intrinsic to neutrophils. In GMP and neutrophils, Btk plays a role in GM-CSF- and Toll-like receptor-induced differentiation. Molecular analyses revealed that expression of the lineage-determining transcription factors C/EBPα, C/EBPβ, and PU.1, depends on Btk. In addition, expression of several granule proteins, including myeloperoxidase, neutrophilic granule protein, gelatinase and neutrophil elastase, is Btk-dependent. In the Arthus reaction, an acute inflammatory response, neutrophil migration into tissues, edema formation, and hemorrhage are significantly reduced in Btk-deficient animals. Together, our findings implicate Btk as an important regulator of neutrophilic granulocyte maturation and function in vivo.

  13. Serum albumin protects from cytokine-induced pancreatic beta cell death by a phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiaer, Caroline; Thams, Peter

    2009-01-01

    /l) increased cell death. This demise was prevented by serum albumin, dependent on its free sulfhydryl group, emphasizing that albumin may scavenge H(2)O(2) due to its antioxidant properties. Culture for 48 h with a cytokine mixture of IL-1beta (160 pg/ml), IFN-gamma (200 ng/ml), and TNF-alpha (2 ng....../ml) revealed that albumin, also protected against cytokine-induced death of both mouse islets and INS-1E beta cells. This protective effect against cytokine-induced beta cell death was, however, not dependent on albumins free sulfhydryl group, but was inhibited by the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K......) inhibitors LY294002 (25 micromol/l) and wortmannin (1 micromol/l), suggesting that albumin may rescue beta cells from cytokine-induced cell death by activation of PI3K. In accordance, albumin stimulated phosphorylation of Akt, a down-stream target for PI3K. In conclusion, it is suggested that albumin may...

  14. Salinomycin Activates AMP-Activated Protein Kinase-Dependent Autophagy in Cultured Osteoblastoma Cells: A Negative Regulator against Cell Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya; Guo, Zhi-xiong; Dai, Jin; Wang, Xiao-dong

    2013-01-01

    Background The malignant osteoblastoma has poor prognosis, thus the search for novel and more efficient chemo-agents against this disease is urgent. Salinomycin induces broad anti-cancer effects both in vivo and in vitro, however, its role in osteoblastoma is still not clear. Key Findings Salinomycin induced both apoptosis and autophagy in cultured U2OS and MG-63 osteoblastoma cells. Inhibition of autophagy by 3-methyladenine (3-MA), or by RNA interference (RNAi) of light chain 3B (LC3B), enhanced salinomycin-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis. Salinomycin induced a profound AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation, which was required for autophagy induction. AMPK inhibition by compound C, or by AMPKα RNAi prevented salinomycin-induced autophagy activation, while facilitating cancer cell death and apoptosis. On the other hand, the AMPK agonist AICAR promoted autophagy activation in U2OS cells. Salinomycin-induced AMPK activation was dependent on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in osteoblastoma cells. Antioxidant n-acetyl cysteine (NAC) significantly inhibited salinomycin-induced AMPK activation and autophagy induction. Conclusions Salinomycin activates AMPK-dependent autophagy in osteoblastoma cells, which serves as a negative regulator against cell apoptosis. AMPK-autophagy inhibition might be a novel strategy to sensitize salinomycin’s effect in cancer cells. PMID:24358342

  15. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein B1 protein impairs DNA repair mediated through the inhibition of DNA-dependent protein kinase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwanaga, Kentaro; Sueoka, Naoko; Sato, Akemi; Hayashi, Shinichiro; Sueoka, Eisaburo

    2005-01-01

    Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein B1, an RNA binding protein, is overexpressed from the early stage of lung cancers; it is evident even in bronchial dysplasia, a premalignant lesion. We evaluated the proteins bound with hnRNP B1 and found that hnRNP B1 interacted with DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) complex, and recombinant hnRNP B1 protein dose-dependently inhibited DNA-PK activity in vitro. To test the effect of hnRNP B1 on DNA repair, we performed comet assay after irradiation, using normal human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells treated with siRNA for hnRNP A2/B1: reduction of hnRNP B1 treated with siRNA for hnRNP A2/B1 induced faster DNA repair in normal HBE cells. Considering these results, we assume that overexpression of hnRNP B1 occurring in the early stage of carcinogenesis inhibits DNA-PK activity, resulting in subsequent accumulation of erroneous rejoining of DNA double-strand breaks, causing tumor progression

  16. Structural Insight into the 14-3-3 Protein-dependent Inhibition of Protein Kinase ASK1 (Apoptosis Signal-regulating kinase 1)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrvalská, Olivia; Košek, Dalibor; Kukačka, Zdeněk; Tošner, Z.; Man, Petr; Večeř, J.; Herman, P.; Obšilová, Veronika; Obšil, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 291, č. 39 (2016), s. 20753-20765 ISSN 0021-9258 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-10061S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : 14-3-3 protein * apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) * fluorescence * nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) * protein cross-linking * small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.125, year: 2016

  17. A phase i study of the cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibitor ribociclib (LEE011) in patients with advanced solid tumors and lymphomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Infante, Jeffrey R.; Cassier, Philippe A.; Gerecitano, John F.; Witteveen, Petronella O.; Chugh, Rashmi; Ribrag, Vincent; Chakraborty, Abhijit; Matano, Alessandro; Dobson, Jason R.; Crystal, Adam S.; Parasuraman, Sudha; Shapiro, Geoffrey I.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Ribociclib (an oral, highly specific cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibitor) inhibits tumor growth in preclinical models with intact retinoblastoma protein (Rb+). This first-in-human study investigated the MTD, recommended dose for expansion (RDE), safety, preliminary activity,

  18. Expression of cGMP-dependent protein kinase I and phosphorylation of its substrate, vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein, in human endothelial cells of different origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draijer, R.; Vaandrager, A.B.; Nolte, C.; Jonge, H.R. de; Walter, U.; Hinsbergh, V.W.M. van

    1995-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that the thrombin-induced permeability of endothelial cell monolayers is reduced by the elevation of cGMP. In the present study, the presence of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGMP-PK) immunoreactivity and activity in various types of human endothelial cells (ECs) and

  19. The Golgi localization of phosphatidylinositol transfer protein beta requires the protein kinase C-dependent phosphorylation of serine 262 and is essential for maintaining plasma membrane sphingomyelin levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tiel, Claudia M.; Westerman, Jan; Paasman, Marten A.; Hoebens, Martha M.; Wirtz, Karel W. A.; Snoek, Gerry T.

    2002-01-01

    Recombinant mouse phosphatidylinositol transfer protein (PI-TP)beta is a substrate for protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent phosphorylation in vitro. Based on site-directed mutagenesis and two-dimensional tryptic peptide mapping, Ser(262) was identified as the major site of phosphorylation and Ser(165)

  20. Isotype-specific activation of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator-chloride channels by cGMP-dependent protein kinase II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. French (Pim); J. Bijman (Jan); M.J. Edixhoven (Marcel); A.B. Vaandrager (Arie); B.J. Scholte (Bob); S.M. Lohmann (Suzanne); A.C. Nairn; H.R. de Jonge (Hugo)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractType II cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGKII) isolated from pig intestinal brush borders and type I alpha cGK (cGKI) purified from bovine lung were compared for their ability to activate the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-Cl- channel in

  1. The cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor H-89 attenuates the bioluminescence signal produced by Renilla Luciferase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie J Herbst

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Investigations into the regulation and functional roles of kinases such as cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA increasingly rely on cellular assays. Currently, there are a number of bioluminescence-based assays, for example reporter gene assays, that allow the study of the regulation, activity, and functional effects of PKA in the cellular context. Additionally there are continuing efforts to engineer improved biosensors that are capable of detecting real-time PKA signaling dynamics in cells. These cell-based assays are often utilized to test the involvement of PKA-dependent processes by using H-89, a reversible competitive inhibitor of PKA.We present here data to show that H-89, in addition to being a competitive PKA inhibitor, attenuates the bioluminescence signal produced by Renilla luciferase (RLuc variants in a population of cells and also in single cells. Using 10 microM of luciferase substrate and 10 microM H-89, we observed that the signal from RLuc and RLuc8, an eight-point mutation variant of RLuc, in cells was reduced to 50% (+/-15% and 54% (+/-14% of controls exposed to the vehicle alone, respectively. In vitro, we showed that H-89 decreased the RLuc8 bioluminescence signal but did not compete with coelenterazine-h for the RLuc8 active site, and also did not affect the activity of Firefly luciferase. By contrast, another competitive inhibitor of PKA, KT5720, did not affect the activity of RLuc8.The identification and characterization of the adverse effect of H-89 on RLuc signal will help deconvolute data previously generated from RLuc-based assays looking at the functional effects of PKA signaling. In addition, for the current application and future development of bioluminscence assays, KT5720 is identified as a more suitable PKA inhibitor to be used in conjunction with RLuc-based assays. These principal findings also provide an important lesson to fully consider all of the potential effects of experimental conditions on a cell

  2. Regulation of Serine-Threonine Kinase Akt Activation by NAD+-Dependent Deacetylase SIRT7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Akt pathway is a central regulator that promotes cell survival in response to extracellular signals. Depletion of SIRT7, an NAD+-dependent deacetylase that is the least-studied sirtuin, is known to significantly increase Akt activity in mice through unknown mechanisms. In this study, we demonstrate that SIRT7 depletion in breast cancer cells results in Akt hyper-phosphorylation and increases cell survival following genotoxic stress. Mechanistically, SIRT7 specifically interacts with and deacetylates FKBP51 at residue lysines 28 and 155 (K28 and K155, resulting in enhanced interactions among FKBP51, Akt, and PHLPP, as well as Akt dephosphorylation. Mutating both lysines to arginines abolishes the effect of SIRT7 on Akt activity through FKBP51 deacetylation. Finally, energy stress strengthens SIRT7-mediated effects on Akt dephosphorylation through FKBP51 and thus sensitizes cancer cells to cytotoxic agents. These results reveal a direct role of SIRT7 in Akt regulation and raise the possibility of using the glucose analog 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG as a chemo-sensitizing agent.

  3. Immunohistochemical analysis of the D-type cyclin-dependent kinases Cdk4 and Cdk6, using a series of monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, C; Jensen, S K; Bartkova, J; Lukas, J; Bartek, J

    1999-06-01

    Cellular signal transduction cascades triggered by mitogenic or antiproliferative cues eventually converge on a biochemical mechanism centered around the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor (pRb), the so-called RB pathway that governs G1-phase progression and guards the commitment to enter S phase. pRb, together with its immediate upstream regulators, the D-type cyclins, their partner cyclin-dependent kinases Cdk4 and Cdk6, and the Cdk inhibitors, form a functional unit that is involved in major decisions about cellular fate, and whose components, including the proto-oncogenic cyclin D-dependent kinases, are commonly deregulated in many types of cancer. We report here the production and characterization of a series of 12 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that specifically recognize either Cdk4 or Cdk6. These antibodies are proving to be invaluable molecular probes for defining abundance, subcellular localization, binding partners, and ultimately the function(s) of these cell cycle-regulatory kinases. Localization of the target epitopes was mapped by peptide enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay (ELISA), and two antibodies recognizing sequences adjacent to N-terminus of Cdk4 can discriminate between the wild-type protein and the oncogenic, melanoma-associated R24C mutant of this kinase. Individual antibodies of our panel recognize distinct pools of Cdk4/6, a feature reflected by their differential applicability in immunoblotting, immunoprecipitation, kinase assays, and immunostaining including immunohistochemistry on archival paraffin-embedded tissue sections. Collectively, the antibodies described in this study provide the means for immunochemical analyses of the cyclin D-dependent kinases in human and animal cells, and represent useful molecular tools that should help better understand the biological roles of Cdk4 and Cdk6 in normal cell-cycle control, and their oncogenic activity in tumor cells.

  4. Dendritic spine changes in the development of alcohol addiction regulated by α-calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Mijakowska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Alcohol has many adverse effects on the brain. Among them are dendritic spine morphology alterations, which are believed to be the basis of alcohol addiction. Autophosphorylation of α-calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (αCaMKII has been shown to regulate spine morphology in vitro. Here we show that αCaMKII can also regulate addiction related behaviour and dendritic spine morphology changes caused by alcohol consumption in vivo. Method 12 αCaMKII-autophosphorylation deficient female mice (T286A and 12 wild type littermates were used in the study. T286A strain was created by Giese et al. (1998. Mice were housed and tested in two IntelliCages from NewBehavior (www.newbehavior.com. IntelliCage is an automated learning system. After 95 days of alcohol drinking interrupted by tests for motivation, persistence in alcohol seeking and probability of relapse, mice were ascribed to ‘high’ or ‘low’ drinkers group according to their performance in the tests. Additional criterion was the amount of alcohol consumed during the whole experiment. Result of each test was evaluated separately. 1/3 of the mice that scored highest in each criterion were considered ‘positive’ for this trait. ‘Positive’ animals were given 1 point, negative 0 points. Mice that were positive in at least 2 criteria were ascribed to ‘high’ drinkers (‘+’ group. Remaining mice – to ‘low’ drinkers (‘–‘. This method of behavioral phenotyping, developed by Radwanska and Kaczmarek (2012, is inspired by DSM-IV. Since the results of this evaluation are discrete (i.e. by definition all the animals score between 0 to +4, we developed also a continuous method of addiction rating, which we call ‘addiction index’. The result of the second method is a sum of the standardized (z-score results of the above mentioned tests. We use it to examine the correlations between addiction-like behavior and spine parameters. Control group (12 WT, 8

  5. Stem cell factor induces phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase-dependent Lyn/Tec/Dok-1 complex formation in hematopoietic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, T. B.; van den Akker, E.; Amelsvoort, M. P.; Mano, H.; Löwenberg, B.; von Lindern, M.

    2000-01-01

    Stem cell factor (SCF) has an important role in the proliferation, differentiation, survival, and migration of hematopoietic cells. SCF exerts its effects by binding to cKit, a receptor with intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity. Activation of phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3-K) by cKit was

  6. Neural cell adhesion molecule-stimulated neurite outgrowth depends on activation of protein kinase C and the Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolkova, K; Novitskaya, V; Pedersen, N

    2000-01-01

    , inhibitors of the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase p59(fyn), PLC, PKC and MEK and an activator of PKC, phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA). MEK2 transfection rescued cells treated with all inhibitors. The same was found for PMA treatment, except when cells concomitantly were treated with the MEK inhibitor....... Arachidonic acid rescued cells treated with antibodies to the FGF receptor or the PLC inhibitor, but not cells in which the activity of PKC, p59(fyn), FAK, Ras, or MEK was inhibited. Interaction of NCAM with a synthetic NCAM peptide ligand, known to induce neurite outgrowth, was shown to stimulate...

  7. Mutations in CG8878, a novel putative protein kinase, enhance P element dependent silencing (PDS and position effect variegation (PEV in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen McCracken

    Full Text Available Genes in multicellular organisms are expressed as part of a developmental program that is largely dependent on self-perpetuating higher-order chromatin states. The mechanism of establishing and maintaining these epigenetic events is well studied in Drosophila. The first known example of an epigenetic effect was that of (PEV in Drosophila, which has been shown to be due to gene silencing via heterochromatin formation. We are investigating a process similar to Position Effect Variegation (PEV using a mini-w transgene, called Pci, inserted in the upstream regulatory region of ci. The mini-white+ transgene in Pci is expressed throughout the adult eye; however, when other P or KP elements are present, a variegated eye phenotype results indicating random w+ silencing during development. This P element dependent silencing (PDS can be modified by the haplo-suppressors/triplo-enhancers, Su(var205 and Su(var3-7, indicating that these heterochromatic modifiers also act dose dependently in PDS. Here we use a spontaneous derivative mutation of Pci called PciE1 (E1 that variegates like PDS in the absence of P elements, presumably due to an adjacent gypsy element insertion, to screen for second-site modifier mutations that enhance variable silencing of white+ in E1. We isolated 7 mutations in CG8878, an essential gene, that enhance the E1 variegated phenotype. CG8878, a previously uncharacterized gene, potentially encodes a serine/threonine kinase whose closest Drosophila paralogue, ballchen (nhk-1, phosphorylates histones. These mutant alleles enhance both PDS at E1 and Position Effect Variegation (PEV at w(m4, indicating a previously unknown common silencing mechanism between the two.

  8. Mutations in CG8878, a Novel Putative Protein Kinase, Enhance P Element Dependent Silencing (PDS) and Position Effect Variegation (PEV) in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, Allen; Locke, John

    2014-01-01

    Genes in multicellular organisms are expressed as part of a developmental program that is largely dependent on self-perpetuating higher-order chromatin states. The mechanism of establishing and maintaining these epigenetic events is well studied in Drosophila. The first known example of an epigenetic effect was that of (PEV) in Drosophila, which has been shown to be due to gene silencing via heterochromatin formation. We are investigating a process similar to Position Effect Variegation (PEV) using a mini-w transgene, called Pci, inserted in the upstream regulatory region of ci. The mini-white + transgene in Pci is expressed throughout the adult eye; however, when other P or KP elements are present, a variegated eye phenotype results indicating random w + silencing during development. This P element dependent silencing (PDS) can be modified by the haplo-suppressors/triplo-enhancers, Su(var)205 and Su(var)3–7, indicating that these heterochromatic modifiers also act dose dependently in PDS. Here we use a spontaneous derivative mutation of Pci called PciE1 (E1) that variegates like PDS in the absence of P elements, presumably due to an adjacent gypsy element insertion, to screen for second-site modifier mutations that enhance variable silencing of white + in E1. We isolated 7 mutations in CG8878, an essential gene, that enhance the E1 variegated phenotype. CG8878, a previously uncharacterized gene, potentially encodes a serine/threonine kinase whose closest Drosophila paralogue, ballchen (nhk-1), phosphorylates histones. These mutant alleles enhance both PDS at E1 and Position Effect Variegation (PEV) at wm4, indicating a previously unknown common silencing mechanism between the two. PMID:24614804

  9. Phase 1 safety, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic study of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor dinaciclib administered every three weeks in patients with advanced malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mita, Monica M; Mita, Alain C; Moseley, Jennifer L; Poon, Jennifer; Small, Karen A; Jou, Ying-Ming; Kirschmeier, Paul; Zhang, Da; Zhu, Yali; Statkevich, Paul; Sankhala, Kamelesh K; Sarantopoulos, John; Cleary, James M; Chirieac, Lucian R; Rodig, Scott J; Bannerji, Rajat; Shapiro, Geoffrey I

    2017-10-24

    Dinaciclib is a potent inhibitor of cell cycle and transcriptional cyclin-dependent kinases. This Phase 1 study evaluated the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of various dosing schedules of dinaciclib in advanced solid tumour patients and assessed pharmacodynamic and preliminary anti-tumour activity. In part 1, patients were enrolled in escalating cohorts of 2-h infusions administered once every 3 weeks, utilising an accelerated titration design until a recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D) was defined. In part 2, 8- and 24-h infusions were evaluated. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined for all schedules. Pharmacodynamic effects were assessed with an ex vivo stimulated lymphocyte proliferation assay performed in whole blood.Effects of dinaciclib on retinoblastoma (Rb) phosphorylation and other CDK targets were evaluated in skin and tumour biopsies. In addition to tumour size, metabolic response was evaluated by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography. Sixty-one patients were enrolled to parts 1 and 2. The RP2Ds were 50, 7.4 and 10.4 mg m -2 as 2- 8- and 24-hour infusions, respectively. Dose-limiting toxicities included pancytopenia, neutropenic fever, elevated transaminases, hyperuricemia and hypotension. Pharmacokinetics demonstrated rapid distribution and a short plasma half-life. Dinaciclib suppressed proliferation of stimulated lymphocytes. In skin and tumour biopsies, dinaciclib reduced Rb phosphorylation at CDK2 phospho-sites and modulated expression of cyclin D1 and p53, suggestive of CDK9 inhibition. Although there were no RECIST responses, eight patients had prolonged stable disease and received between 6 and 30 cycles. Early metabolic responses occurred. Dinaciclib is tolerable at doses demonstrating target engagement in surrogate and tumour tissue.

  10. Identification of peptides in wheat germ hydrolysate that demonstrate calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inhibitory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumrungsee, Thanutchaporn; Akiyama, Sayaka; Guo, Jian; Tanaka, Mitsuru; Matsui, Toshiro

    2016-12-15

    Hydrolysis of wheat germ by proteases resulted in bioactive peptides that demonstrated an inhibitory effect against the vasoconstrictive Ca(2+)-calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK II). The hydrolysate by thermolysin (1.0wt%, 5h) showed a particularly potent CaMK II inhibition. As a result of mixed mode high-performance liquid chromatography of thermolysin hydrolysate with pH elution gradient ranging between 4.8 and 8.9, the fraction eluted at pH 8.9 was the most potent CaMK II inhibitor. From this fraction, Trp-Val and Trp-Ile were identified as CaMK II inhibitors. In Sprague-Dawley rats, an enhanced aortic CaMK II activity by 1μM phenylephrine was significantly (p<0.05) suppressed by 15-min incubation with 300μM Trp-Val or Trp-Ile. On the basis of Ca(2+)-chelating fluorescence and CaMK II activity assays, it was concluded that Trp-Val and Trp-Ile competed with Ca(2+)-CaM complex to bind to CaMK II with Ki values of 5.4 and 3.6μM, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Identification of calcium-dependent protein kinase (CDPK): A multi-functional gene family in Rafflesia cantleyi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Safoora; Goh, Hoe-Han; Wan, Kiew-Lian

    2016-11-01

    Rafflesia, a parasitic plant that belongs to the Rafflesiaceae family, is notable for producing the largest flowers in the world. This study focused on identification of Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) due to their vital roles in plant growth and development, biotic and abiotic stress responses, and hormone signaling. RNA-seq data generated from three bud stages of Rafflesia cantleyi ie BS1, BS2, and BS3 and were assembled. Based on the BLAST searches of Rafflesia unique transcripts (UTs) to Arabidopsis TAIR database, a total of 14 unique transcripts (UTs) were identified as CDPK1 to CDPK5, CDPK7 to CDPK11, CDPK16, CDPK18, CDPK19, and CDPK28. These genes are expressed at all three bud stages of R. cantleyi with up-regulation pattern at BS1 vs. BS2 and BS2 vs. BS3. This result shows that the expression of CDPK gene family increases by developmental progress in Rafflesia in order to regulate biochemical and molecular changes at the cellular level in response to exposure to environmental changes. However, CDPKs functions in plants growth and defense process still need more experimental evidence to deeply understand their biological roles in R. cantleyi.

  12. Efflux of Creatine Kinase from Isolated Soleus Muscle Depends on Age, Sex and Type of Exercise in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juozas Baltusnikas, Tomas Venckunas, Audrius Kilikevicius, Andrej Fokin, Aivaras Ratkevicius

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Elevated plasma creatine kinase (CK activity is often used as an indicator of exercise-induced muscle damage. Our aim was to study effects of contraction type, sex and age on CK efflux from isolated skeletal muscles of mice. The soleus muscle (SOL of adult (7.5-month old female C57BL/6J mice was subjected to either 100 passive stretches, isometric contractions or eccentric contractions, and muscle CK efflux was assessed after two-hour incubation in vitro. SOL of young (3-month old male and female mice was studied after 100 eccentric contractions. For adult females, muscle CK efflux was larger (p < 0.05 after eccentric contractions than after incubation without exercise (698 ± 344 vs. 268 ± 184 mU·h−1, respectively, but smaller (p < 0.05 than for young females after the same type of exercise (1069 ± 341 mU·h−1. Eccentric exercise-induced CK efflux was larger in muscles of young males compared to young females (2046 ± 317 vs 1069 ± 341 mU · h−1, respectively, p < 0.001. Our results show that eccentric contractions induce a significant increase in muscle CK efflux immediately after exercise. Isolated muscle resistance to exercise-induced CK efflux depends on age and sex of mice.

  13. Arabidopsis calcium-dependent protein kinase AtCPK1 plays a positive role in salt/drought-stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kui; Peng, Lu; Liu, Yingying; Yao, Rundong; Liu, Zhibin; Li, Xufeng; Yang, Yi; Wang, Jianmei

    2018-03-25

    The calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) play vital roles in plant response to various environmental stimuli. Here, we investigated the function of Arabidopsis AtCPK1 in response to salt and drought stress. The loss-of-function cpk1 mutant displayed hypersensitive to salt and drought stress, whereas overexpressing AtCPK1 in Arabidopsis plants significantly enhanced the resistance to salt or drought stress. The reduced or elevated tolerance of cpk1 mutant and AtCPK1-overexpressing lines was confirmed by the changes of proline, malondialdehyde (MDA) and H 2 O 2 . Real-time PCR analysis revealed that the expression of several stress-inducible genes (RD29A, COR15A, ZAT10, APX2) down-regulated in cpk1 mutant and up-regulated in AtCPK1-overexpressing plants. These results are likely to indicate that AtCPK1 positively regulates salt and drought stress in Arabidopsis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The evolutionary history and diverse physiological roles of the grapevine calcium-dependent protein kinase gene family.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Chen

    Full Text Available Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs are molecular switches that bind Ca(2+, ATP, and protein substrates, acting as sensor relays and responders that convert Ca(2+ signals, created by developmental processes and environmental stresses, into phosphorylation events. The precise functions of the CDPKs in grapevine (Vitis vinifera are largely unknown. We therefore investigated the phylogenetic relationships and expression profiles of the 17 CDPK genes identified in the 12x grapevine genome sequence, resolving them into four subfamilies based on phylogenetic tree topology and gene structures. The origins of the CDPKs during grapevine evolution were characterized, involving 13 expansion events. Transcriptomic analysis using 54 tissues and developmental stages revealed three types of CDPK gene expression profiles: constitutive (housekeeping CDPKs, partitioned functions, and prevalent in pollen/stamen. We identified two duplicated CDPK genes that had evolved from housekeeping to pollen-prevalent functions and whose origin correlated with that of seed plants, suggesting neofunctionalization with an important role in pollen development and also potential value in the breeding of seedless varieties. We also found that CDPKs were involved in three abiotic stress signaling pathways and could therefore be used to investigate the crosstalk between stress responses.

  15. MAP kinase dependent cyclinE/cdk2 activity promotes DNA replication in early sea urchin embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisielewska, J; Philipova, R; Huang, J-Y; Whitaker, M

    2009-10-15

    Sea urchins provide an excellent model for studying cell cycle control mechanisms governing DNA replication in vivo. Fertilization and cell cycle progression are tightly coordinated by Ca(2+) signals, but the mechanisms underlying the onset of DNA replication after fertilization remain less clear. In this study we demonstrate that calcium-dependent activation of ERK1 promotes accumulation of cyclinE/cdk2 into the male and female pronucleus and entry into first S-phase. We show that cdk2 activity rises quickly after fertilization to a maximum at 4 min, corresponding in timing to the early ERK1 activity peak. Abolishing MAP kinase activity after fertilization with MEK inhibitor, U0126, substantially reduces the early peak of cdk2 activity and prevents cyclinE and cdk2 accumulation in both sperm pronucleus and zygote nucleus in vivo. Both p27(kip1) and roscovitine, cdk2 inhibitors, prevented DNA replication suggesting cdk2 involvement in this process in sea urchin. Inhibition of cdk2 activity using p27(kip1) had no effect on the phosphorylation of MBP by ERK, but completely abolished phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein, a cdk2 substrate, indicating that cdk2 activity is downstream of ERK1 activation. This pattern of regulation of DNA synthesis conforms to the pattern observed in mammalian somatic cells.

  16. Characterization of the regulatory subunit of Yarrowia lipolytica cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Evidences of a monomeric protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronberg, Florencia; Giacometti, Romina; Ruiz-Herrera, José; Passeron, Susana

    2011-05-01

    cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) catalytic (C) and regulatory (R) subunits from Yarrowia lipolytica are encoded by single genes, TPK1 and RKA1, respectively. Here we performed the heterologous expression, purification and characterization of the R subunit from Y. lipolytica yeast cells, and explored the main biochemical features of the PKA. The purified recombinant R, active and capable to interact with C subunit was used to prepare highly specific polyclonal antiserum. Sucrose-gradient centrifugation and gel filtration analysis of both recombinant and native R revealed the monomeric nature of this subunit. Hydrodynamic parameters of the holoenzyme indicated that Y. lipolytica PKA is a dimer of 90 kDa composed of an R subunit of 42 kDa and a C subunit of 39 kDa. The identification of the N-terminal sequence was carried out by mass spectrometry analysis of the purified native R subunit. The differences between N-terminal sequences of R subunits from Y. lipolytica and other organisms, particularly a short linker that spans the inhibitory site, were discussed as the possible cause of the lack of dimerization. R was identified as a type II subunit since our results indicated that it was phosphorylated in vivo by C at S124 identified by anti-phospho-PKA substrate (RRXS/T) antibody. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Enhancing blast disease resistance by overexpression of the calcium-dependent protein kinase OsCPK4 in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundó, Mireia; Coca, María

    2016-06-01

    Rice is the most important staple food for more than half of the human population, and blast disease is the most serious disease affecting global rice production. In this work, the isoform OsCPK4 of the rice calcium-dependent protein kinase family is reported as a regulator of rice immunity to blast fungal infection. It shows that overexpression of OsCPK4 gene in rice plants enhances resistance to blast disease by preventing fungal penetration. The constitutive accumulation of OsCPK4 protein prepares rice plants for a rapid and potentiated defence response, including the production of reactive oxygen species, callose deposition and defence gene expression. OsCPK4 overexpression leads also to constitutive increased content of the glycosylated salicylic acid hormone in leaves without compromising rice yield. Given that OsCPK4 overexpression was known to confer also salt and drought tolerance in rice, the results reported in this article demonstrate that OsCPK4 acts as a convergence component that positively modulates both biotic and abiotic signalling pathways. Altogether, our findings indicate that OsCPK4 is a potential molecular target to improve not only abiotic stress tolerance, but also blast disease resistance of rice crops. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Loss of the DNA Damage Repair Kinase ATM Impairs Inflammasome-Dependent Anti-Bacterial Innate Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erttmann, Saskia F; Härtlova, Anetta; Sloniecka, Marta; Raffi, Faizal A M; Hosseinzadeh, Ava; Edgren, Tomas; Rofougaran, Reza; Resch, Ulrike; Fällman, Maria; Ek, Torben; Gekara, Nelson O

    2016-07-19

    The ATM kinase is a central component of the DNA damage repair machinery and redox balance. ATM dysfunction results in the multisystem disease ataxia-telangiectasia (AT). A major cause of mortality in AT is respiratory bacterial infections. Whether ATM deficiency causes innate immune defects that might contribute to bacterial infections is not known. Here we have shown that loss of ATM impairs inflammasome-dependent anti-bacterial innate immunity. Cells from AT patients or Atm(-/-) mice exhibited diminished interleukin-1β (IL-1β) production in response to bacteria. In vivo, Atm(-/-) mice were more susceptible to pulmonary S. pneumoniae infection in a manner consistent with inflammasome defects. Our data indicate that such defects were due to oxidative inhibition of inflammasome complex assembly. This study reveals an unanticipated function of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in negative regulation of inflammasomes and proposes a theory for the notable susceptibility of AT patients to pulmonary bacterial infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Phospholipid mediated activation of calcium dependent protein kinase 1 (CaCDPK1 from chickpea: a new paradigm of regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar Dixit

    Full Text Available Phospholipids, the major structural components of membranes, can also have functions in regulating signaling pathways in plants under biotic and abiotic stress. The effects of adding phospholipids on the activity of stress-induced calcium dependent protein kinase (CaCDPK1 from chickpea are reported here. Both autophosphorylation as well as phosphorylation of the added substrate were enhanced specifically by phosphatidylcholine and to a lesser extent by phosphatidic acid, but not by phosphatidylethanolamine. Diacylgylerol, the neutral lipid known to activate mammalian PKC, stimulated CaCDPK1 but at higher concentrations. Increase in V(max of the enzyme activity by these phospholipids significantly decreased the K(m indicating that phospholipids enhance the affinity towards its substrate. In the absence of calcium, addition of phospholipids had no effect on the negligible activity of the enzyme. Intrinsic fluorescence intensity of the CaCDPK1 protein was quenched on adding PA and PC. Higher binding affinity was found with PC (K(½ = 114 nM compared to PA (K(½ = 335 nM. We also found that the concentration of PA increased in chickpea plants under salt stress. The stimulation by PA and PC suggests regulation of CaCDPK1 by these phospholipids during stress response.

  20. Intermittent Hypoxia-Induced Spinal Inflammation Impairs Respiratory Motor Plasticity by a Spinal p38 MAP Kinase-Dependent Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxtable, Adrianne G; Smith, Stephanie M C; Peterson, Timothy J; Watters, Jyoti J; Mitchell, Gordon S

    2015-04-29

    Inflammation is characteristic of most clinical disorders that challenge the neural control of breathing. Since inflammation modulates neuroplasticity, we studied the impact of inflammation caused by prolonged intermittent hypoxia on an important form of respiratory plasticity, acute intermittent hypoxia (three, 5 min hypoxic episodes, 5 min normoxic intervals) induced phrenic long-term facilitation (pLTF). Because chronic intermittent hypoxia elicits neuroinflammation and pLTF is undermined by lipopolysaccharide-induced systemic inflammation, we hypothesized that one night of intermittent hypoxia (IH-1) elicits spinal inflammation, thereby impairing pLTF by a p38 MAP kinase-dependent mechanism. pLTF and spinal inflammation were assessed in anesthetized rats pretreated with IH-1 (2 min hypoxia, 2 min normoxia; 8 h) or sham normoxia and allowed 16 h for recovery. IH-1 (1) transiently increased IL-6 (1.5 ± 0.2-fold; p = 0.02) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) (2.4 ± 0.4-fold; p = 0.01) mRNA in cervical spinal homogenates, (2) elicited a sustained increase in IL-1β mRNA (2.4 ± 0.2-fold; p e.g., sleep apnea, apnea of prematurity, spinal injury, or motor neuron disease). Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/356871-10$15.00/0.

  1. Eukaryotic initiation factor 5A and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase 1D modulate trophoblast cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xiaoli; Liang, Yan; Guo, Yuna; Liu, Xiaorui; Zeng, Weihong; Wu, Fan; Lin, Yi; Zhang, Yan

    2018-03-13

    Trophoblast cells regulate embryo implantation and placental development. Eukaryotic initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) is an initiator of translation involved in cellular processes, such as migration, proliferation, and apoptosis. However, the function of eIF5A in trophoblast cells is unknown. We inhibited eIF5A and Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase 1D (CAMK1D) expression in HTR8 cells using RNA interference. The effects of eIF5A and CAMK1D on HTR8 cells were investigated using real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, flow cytometry, cell transfection assays, cell migration assays, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling. eIF5A inhibition decreased CAMK1D expression, proliferation, migration, and invasion, but upregulated apoptosis, in HTR8 cells. Cross-talk between eIF5A and CAMK1D enhances proliferation, migration, and invasion, but inhibits apoptosis, in trophoblasts. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Herbal therapeutics that block the oncogenic kinase PAK1: a practical approach towards PAK1-dependent diseases and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruta, Hiroshi

    2014-05-01

    Over 35 years research on PAKs, RAC/CDC42(p21)-activated kinases, comes of age, and in particular PAK1 has been well known to be responsible for a variety of diseases such as cancer (mainly solid tumors), Alzheimer's disease, acquired immune deficiency syndrome and other viral/bacterial infections, inflammatory diseases (asthma and arthritis), diabetes (type 2), neurofibromatosis, tuberous sclerosis, epilepsy, depression, schizophrenia, learning disability, autism, etc. Although several distinct synthetic PAK1-blockers have been recently developed, no FDA-approved PAK1 blockers are available on the market as yet. Thus, patients suffering from these PAK1-dependent diseases have to rely on solely a variety of herbal therapeutics such as propolis and curcumin that block PAK1 without affecting normal cell growth. Furthermore, several recent studies revealed that some of these herbal therapeutics significantly extend the lifespan of nematodes (C. elegans) and fruit flies (Drosophila), and PAK1-deficient worm lives longer than the wild type. Here, I outline mainly pathological phenotypes of hyper-activated PAK1 and a list of herbal therapeutics that block PAK1, but cause no side (harmful) effect on healthy people or animals. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Malaria parasite cGMP-dependent protein kinase regulates blood stage merozoite secretory organelle discharge and egress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine R Collins

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The malaria parasite replicates within an intraerythrocytic parasitophorous vacuole (PV. Eventually, in a tightly regulated process called egress, proteins of the PV and intracellular merozoite surface are modified by an essential parasite serine protease called PfSUB1, whilst the enclosing PV and erythrocyte membranes rupture, releasing merozoites to invade fresh erythrocytes. Inhibition of the Plasmodium falciparum cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PfPKG prevents egress, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Here we show that PfPKG activity is required for PfSUB1 discharge into the PV, as well as for release of distinct merozoite organelles called micronemes. Stimulation of PfPKG by inhibiting parasite phosphodiesterase activity induces premature PfSUB1 discharge and egress of developmentally immature, non-invasive parasites. Our findings identify the signalling pathway that regulates PfSUB1 function and egress, and raise the possibility of targeting PfPKG or parasite phosphodiesterases in therapeutic approaches to dysregulate critical protease-mediated steps in the parasite life cycle.

  4. Plasmodium falciparum Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase 2 Is Critical for Male Gametocyte Exflagellation but Not Essential for Asexual Proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhisheka Bansal

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Drug development efforts have focused mostly on the asexual blood stages of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Except for primaquine, which has its own limitations, there are no available drugs that target the transmission of the parasite to mosquitoes. Therefore, there is a need to validate new parasite proteins that can be targeted for blocking transmission. P. falciparum calcium-dependent protein kinases (PfCDPKs play critical roles at various stages of the parasite life cycle and, importantly, are absent in the human host. These features mark them as attractive drug targets. In this study, using CRISPR/Cas9 we successfully knocked out PfCDPK2 from blood-stage parasites, which was previously thought to be an indispensable protein. The growth rate of the PfCDPK2 knockout (KO parasites was similar to that of wild-type parasites, confirming that PfCDPK2 function is not essential for the asexual proliferation of the parasite in vitro. The mature male and female gametocytes of PfCDPK2 KO parasites become round after induction. However, they fail to infect female Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes due to a defect(s in male gametocyte exflagellation and possibly in female gametes.

  5. Polo-like kinase 2-dependent phosphorylation of NPM/B23 on serine 4 triggers centriole duplication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annekatrin Krause

    Full Text Available Duplication of the centrosome is well controlled during faithful cell division while deregulation of this process leads to supernumary centrosomes, chromosome missegregation and aneuploidy, a hallmark of many cancer cells. We previously reported that Polo-like kinase 2 (Plk2 is activated near the G1/S phase transition, and regulates the reproduction of centrosomes. In search for Plk2 interacting proteins we have identified NPM/B23 (Nucleophosmin as a novel Plk2 binding partner. We find that Plk2 and NPM/B23 interact in vitro in a Polo-box dependent manner. An association between both proteins was also observed in vivo. Moreover, we show that Plk2 phosphorylates NPM/B23 on serine 4 in vivo in S-phase. Notably, expression of a non-phosphorylatable NPM/B23 S4A mutant interferes with centriole reduplication in S-phase arrested cells and leads to a dilution of centriole numbers in unperturbed U2OS cells. The corresponding phospho-mimicking mutants have the opposite effect and their expression leads to the accumulation of centrioles. These findings suggest that NPM/B23 is a direct target of Plk2 in the regulation of centriole duplication and that phosphorylation on serine 4 can trigger this process.

  6. Antagonistic interactions between the cAMP-dependent protein kinase and Tor signaling pathways modulate cell growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Vidhya; Herman, Paul K

    2011-02-01

    Eukaryotic cells integrate information from multiple sources to respond appropriately to changes in the environment. Here, we examined the relationship between two signaling pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that are essential for the coordination of cell growth with nutrient availability. These pathways involve the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and Tor proteins, respectively. Although these pathways control a similar set of processes important for growth, it was not clear how their activities were integrated in vivo. The experiments here examined this coordination and, in particular, tested whether the PKA pathway was primarily a downstream effector of the TORC1 signaling complex. Using a number of reporters for the PKA pathway, we found that the inhibition of TORC1 did not result in diminished PKA signaling activity. To the contrary, decreased TORC1 signaling was generally associated with elevated levels of PKA activity. Similarly, TORC1 activity appeared to increase in response to lower levels of PKA signaling. Consistent with these observations, we found that diminished PKA signaling partially suppressed the growth defects associated with decreased TORC1 activity. In all, these data suggested that the PKA and TORC1 pathways were functioning in parallel to promote cell growth and that each pathway might restrain, either directly or indirectly, the activity of the other. The potential significance of this antagonism for the regulation of cell growth and overall fitness is discussed.

  7. Canonical and Alternative Pathways in Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 1/Cyclin B Inactivation upon M-Phase Exit in Xenopus laevis Cell-Free Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Z. Kubiak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 1 (CDK1 is the major M-phase kinase known also as the M-phase Promoting Factor or MPF. Studies performed during the last decade have shown many details of how CDK1 is regulated and also how it regulates the cell cycle progression. Xenopus laevis cell-free extracts were widely used to elucidate the details and to obtain a global view of the role of CDK1 in M-phase control. CDK1 inactivation upon M-phase exit is a primordial process leading to the M-phase/interphase transition during the cell cycle. Here we discuss two closely related aspects of CDK1 regulation in Xenopus laevis cell-free extracts: firstly, how CDK1 becomes inactivated and secondly, how other actors, like kinases and phosphatases network and/or specific inhibitors, cooperate with CDK1 inactivation to assure timely exit from the M-phase.

  8. Development of a transgenic Plasmodium berghei line (Pb pfpkg) expressing the P. falciparum cGMP-dependent protein kinase, a novel antimalarial drug target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Rita; Patzewitz, Eva-Maria; Poulin, Benoit; Stewart, Lindsay; Baker, David A

    2014-01-01

    With the inevitable selection of resistance to antimalarial drugs in treated populations, there is a need for new medicines to enter the clinic and new targets to progress through the drug discovery pipeline. In this study we set out to develop a transgenic rodent model for testing inhibitors of the Plasmodium falciparum cyclic GMP-dependent kinase in vivo. A model was needed that would allow us to investigate whether differences in amino acid sequence of this enzyme between species influences in vivo efficacy. Here we report the successful development of a transgenic P. berghei line in which the cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) was replaced by the P. falciparum orthologue. We demonstrate that the P. falciparum orthologue was able to functionally complement the endogenous P. berghei pkg gene throughout blood stage development and early sexual development. However, subsequent development in the mosquito was severely compromised. We show that this is due to a defect in the female lineage of the transgenic by using genetic crosses with both male and female deficient P. berghei lines. This defect could be due to expression of a female-specific target in the mosquito stages of P. berghei that cannot be phosphorylated by the P. falciparum kinase. Using a previously reported anti-coccidial inhibitor of the cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase, we show no difference in in vivo efficacy between the transgenic and control P. berghei lines. This in vivo model will be useful for screening future generations of cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitors and allowing us to overcome any species-specific differences in the enzyme primary sequence that would influence in vivo efficacy in the rodent model. The approach will also be applicable to in vivo testing of other antimalarial compounds where the target is known.

  9. Protein Kinase C-dependent Ubiquitination and Clathrin-mediated Endocytosis of the Cationic Amino Acid Transporter CAT-1*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vina-Vilaseca, Arnau; Bender-Sigel, Julia; Sorkina, Tatiana; Closs, Ellen Ildicho; Sorkin, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Cationic amino acid transporter 1 (CAT-1) is responsible for the bulk of the uptake of cationic amino acids in most mammalian cells. Activation of protein kinase C (PKC) leads to down-regulation of the cell surface CAT-1. To examine the mechanisms of PKC-induced down-regulation of CAT-1, a functional mutant of CAT-1 (CAT-1-HA-GFP) was generated in which a hemagglutinin antigen (HA) epitope tag was introduced into the second extracellular loop and GFP was attached to the carboxyl terminus. CAT-1-HA-GFP was stably expressed in porcine aorthic endothelial and human epithelial kidney (HEK) 293 cells. Using the HA antibody internalization assay we have demonstrated that PKC-dependent endocytosis was strongly inhibited by siRNA depletion of clathrin heavy chain, indicating that CAT-1-HA-GFP internalization requires clathrin-coated pits. Internalized CAT-1-HA-GFP was accumulated in early, recycling, and late endosomes. PKC activation also resulted in ubiquitination of CAT-1. CAT-1 ubiquitination and endocytosis in phorbol ester-stimulated porcine aorthic endothelial and HEK293 cells were inhibited by siRNA knockdown of NEDD4-2 and NEDD4-1 E3 ubiquitin ligases, respectively. In contrast, ubiquitination and endocytosis of the dopamine transporter was dependent on NEDD4-2 in all cell types tested. Altogether, our data suggest that ubiquitination mediated by NEDD4-2 or NEDD4-1 leading to clathrin-mediated endocytosis is the common mode of regulation of various transporter proteins by PKC. PMID:21212261

  10. Oxidative stress impairs cGMP-dependent protein kinase activation and vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein serine-phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banday, Anees A; Lokhandwala, Mustafa F

    2018-02-09

    Reactive oxygen species induce vascular dysfunction and hypertension by directly interacting with nitric oxide (NO) which leads to NO inactivation. In addition to a decrease in NO bioavailability, there is evidence that oxidative stress can also modulate NO signaling during hypertension. Here, we investigated the effect of oxidative stress on NO signaling molecules cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) and vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) which are known to mediate vasodilatory actions of NO. Male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were provided with tap water (control), 30 mM L-buthionine sulfoximine (BSO, a pro-oxidant), 1 mM tempol (T, an antioxidant) and BSO + T for 3 wks. BSO-treated rats exhibited high blood pressure and oxidative stress. Incubation of mesenteric arterial rings with NO donors caused concentration-dependent relaxation in control rats. However, the response to NO donors was significantly lower in BSO-treated rats with a marked decrease in pD2. In control rats, NO donors activated mesenteric PKG, increased VASP phosphorylation and its interaction with transient receptor potential channels 4 (TRPC4) and inhibited store-operated Ca 2+ influx. NO failed to activate these signaling molecules in mesenteric arteries from BSO-treated rats. Supplementation of BSO-treated rats with tempol reduced oxidative stress and blood pressure and normalized the NO signaling. These data suggest that oxidative stress can reduce NO-mediated PKG activation and VASP-TRPC4 interaction which leads to failure of NO to reduce Ca 2+ influx in smooth muscle cells. The increase in intracellular Ca 2+ contributes to sustained vasoconstriction and subsequent hypertension. Antioxidant supplementation decreases oxidative stress, normalizes NO signaling and reduces blood pressure.

  11. Neuronal extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK activity as marker and mediator of alcohol and opioid dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva R. Zamora-Martinez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Early pioneering work in the field of biochemistry identified phosphorylation as a crucial post-translational modification of proteins with the ability to both indicate and arbitrate complex physiological processes. More recent investigations have functionally linked phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK to a variety of neurophysiological mechanisms ranging from acute neurotransmitter action to long-term gene expression. ERK phosphorylation serves as an intracellular bridging mechanism that facilitates neuronal communication and plasticity. Drugs of abuse, including alcohol and opioids, act as artificial yet powerful rewards that impinge upon natural reinforcement processes critical for survival. The graded progression from initial exposure to addiction (or substance dependence is believed to result from drug- and drug context-induced adaptations in neuronal signaling processes across brain reward and stress circuits following excessive drug use. In this regard, commonly abused drugs as well as drug-associated experiences are capable of modifying the phosphorylation of ERK within central reinforcement systems. In addition, chronic drug and alcohol exposure may drive ERK-regulated epigenetic and structural alterations that underlie a long-term propensity for escalating drug use. Under the influence of such a neurobiological vulnerability, encountering drug-associated cues and contexts can produce subsequent alterations in ERK signaling that drive relapse to drug and alcohol seeking. Current studies are determining precisely which molecular and regional ERK phosphorylation-associated events contribute to the addiction process, as well as which neuroadaptations need to be targeted in order to return dependent individuals to a healthy state.

  12. Stem cell factor induces phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase-dependent Lyn/Tec/Dok-1 complex formation in hematopoietic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.B. van Dijk (Thamar); M. Parren-Van Amelsvoort (Martine); H. Mano; M.M. von Lindern (Marieke); B. Löwenberg (Bob); E. van den Akker (Emile)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractStem cell factor (SCF) has an important role in the proliferation, differentiation, survival, and migration of hematopoietic cells. SCF exerts its effects by binding to cKit, a receptor with intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity. Activation of

  13. Dependence of myosin-ATPase on structure bound creatine kinase in cardiac myfibrils from rainbow trout and freshwater turtle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, L.; Jensen, D.H.; Gesser, Hans

    2008-01-01

    The influence of myofibrillar creatine kinase on the myosin-ATPase activity was examined in cardiac ventricular myofibrils isolated from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and freshwater turtle (Trachemys scripta). The ATPase rate was assessed by recording the rephosphorylation of ADP by the pyr......The influence of myofibrillar creatine kinase on the myosin-ATPase activity was examined in cardiac ventricular myofibrils isolated from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and freshwater turtle (Trachemys scripta). The ATPase rate was assessed by recording the rephosphorylation of ADP...... activity twice or more for both trout and turtle. As examined for trout myofibrils, the ATPase activity was reduced about four times by inhibiting the activity of myofibril-bound creatine kinase with iodoacetamide and this reduction was only partially counteracted, when the creatine kinase activity...

  14. Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase IV Mediates IFN-γ-Induced Immune Behaviors in Skeletal Muscle Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RuiCai Gu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Whether calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMKIV plays a role in regulating immunologic features of muscle cells in inflammatory environment, as it does for immune cells, remains mostly unknown. In this study, we investigated the influence of endogenous CaMKIV on the immunological characteristics of myoblasts and myotubes received IFN-γ stimulation. Methods: C2C12 and murine myogenic precursor cells (MPCs were cultured and differentiated in vitro, in the presence of pro-inflammatory IFN-γ. CaMKIV shRNA lentivirus transfection was performed to knockdown CaMKIV gene in C2C12 cells. pEGFP-N1-CaMKIV plasmid was delivered into knockout cells for recovering intracellular CaMKIV gene level. CREB1 antagonist KG-501 was used to block CREB signal. qPCR, immunoblot analysis, or immunofluorescence was used to detect mRNA and protein levels of CaMKIV, immuno-molecules, or pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Co-stimulatory molecules expression was assessed by FACS analysis. Results: IFN-γ induces the expression or up-regulation of MHC-I/II and TLR3, and the up-regulation of CaMKIV level in muscle cells. In contrast, CaMKIV knockdown in myoblasts and myotubes leads to expression inhibition of the above immuno-molecules. As well, CaMKIV knockdown selectively inhibits pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines, and co-stimulatory molecules expression in IFN-γ treated myoblasts and myotubes. Finally, CaMKIV knockdown abolishes IFN-γ induced CREB pathway molecules accumulation in differentiated myotubes. Conclusions: CaMKIV can be induced to up-regulate in muscle cells under inflammatory condition, and positively mediates intrinsic immune behaviors of muscle cells triggered by IFN-γ.

  15. Prenatal testosterone exposure induces hypertension in adult females via androgen receptor-dependent protein kinase Cδ-mediated mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blesson, Chellakkan S; Chinnathambi, Vijayakumar; Hankins, Gary D; Yallampalli, Chandra; Sathishkumar, Kunju

    2015-03-01

    Prenatal exposure to excess testosterone induces hyperandrogenism in adult females and predisposes them to hypertension. We tested whether androgens induce hypertension through transcriptional regulation and signaling of protein kinase C (PKC) in the mesenteric arteries. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with vehicle or testosterone propionate (0.5 mg/kg per day from gestation days 15 to 19, SC) and their 6-month-old adult female offspring were examined. Plasma testosterone levels (0.84±0.04 versus 0.42±0.09 ng/mL) and blood pressures (111.6±1.3 versus 104.5±2.4 mm Hg) were significantly higher in prenatal testosterone-exposed rats compared with controls. This was accompanied with enhanced expression of PKCδ mRNA (1.5-fold) and protein (1.7-fold) in the mesenteric arteries of prenatal testosterone-exposed rats. In addition, mesenteric artery contractile responses to PKC activator, phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate, was significantly greater in prenatal testosterone-exposed rats. Treatment with androgen receptor antagonist flutamide (10 mg/kg, SC, BID for 10 days) significantly attenuated hypertension, PKCδ expression, and the exaggerated vasoconstriction in prenatal testosterone-exposed rats. In vitro exposure of testosterone to cultured mesenteric artery smooth muscle cells dose dependently upregulated PKCδ expression. Analysis of PKCδ gene revealed a putative androgen responsive element in the promoter upstream to the transcription start site and an enhancer element in intron-1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that androgen receptors bind to these elements in response to testosterone stimulation. Furthermore, luciferase reporter assays showed that the enhancer element is highly responsive to androgens and treatment with flutamide reverses reporter activity. Our studies identified a novel androgen-mediated mechanism for the control of PKCδ expression via transcriptional regulation that controls vasoconstriction and blood pressure. © 2014

  16. Expression of Beta Subunit 2 of Ca²+/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase I in the Developing Rat Retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusuf, Ahmad Aulia; Sakagami, Hiroyuki; Kikkawa, Satoshi; Terashima, Toshio

    2016-03-07

    Expression of beta 2 subunit of Ca²+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I (CaMKIβ2) of the rat retina during the developmental period and in the adulthood was studied immunohistochemically. The immunoreactivity of CaMKIβ2 was detected in the earliest development of the primordial retina at embryological day (E) 12. The inner neuroblastic layer from which the presumptive ganglion cells are generated showed the ubiquitous CaMKIβ2 immunoreactivity at E15 and persistently expressed at the same level until postnatal day (P) 0 when the inner neuroblastic layer divides into the ganglionic cell layer and the inner plexiform layer. The strong immunoreactivity was detected in the ganglion cell layer and the moderate one in the internal plexiform layer. CaMKIβ2 immunoreactivities were persistantly expressed throughout the postnatal development at the same level. The low level of intensity was first found in the inner nuclear layer at P7, followed by the outer plexiform, outer nuclear and rod-cone cell layers at the age of P12, respectively. The intensities of CaMKIβ2 immunoreactivities in the inner nuclear and rod-cone cell layers were gradually increased to the strong level by P18 and persisted until adulthood. The present study revealed that the expression of CaMKIβ2 in the retina was detected from the earliest development until adulthood, indicating that CaMKIβ2 may be required in both proliferation and differentiation of the retinal precursor cells and subsequent formation of the functional layers. In addition, CaMKIβ2 immunoreactivity in the rod-cone cell layer implies that this protein may be involved in the visual signaling process.

  17. Non-aggregating tau phosphorylation by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 contributes to motor neuron degeneration in spinal muscular atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Nimrod; Feng, Zhihua; Edens, Brittany M; Yang, Ben; Shi, Han; Sze, Christie C; Hong, Benjamin Taige; Su, Susan C; Cantu, Jorge A; Topczewski, Jacek; Crawford, Thomas O; Ko, Chien-Ping; Sumner, Charlotte J; Ma, Long; Ma, Yong-Chao

    2015-04-15

    Mechanisms underlying motor neuron degeneration in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), the leading inherited cause of infant mortality, remain largely unknown. Many studies have established the importance of hyperphosphorylation of the microtubule-associated protein tau in various neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. However, tau phosphorylation in SMA pathogenesis has yet to be investigated. Here we show that tau phosphorylation on serine 202 (S202) and threonine 205 (T205) is increased significantly in SMA motor neurons using two SMA mouse models and human SMA patient spinal cord samples. Interestingly, phosphorylated tau does not form aggregates in motor neurons or neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), even at late stages of SMA disease, distinguishing it from other tauopathies. Hyperphosphorylation of tau on S202 and T205 is mediated by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) in SMA disease condition, because tau phosphorylation at these sites is significantly reduced in Cdk5 knock-out mice; genetic knock-out of Cdk5 activating subunit p35 in an SMA mouse model also leads to reduced tau phosphorylation on S202 and T205 in the SMA;p35(-/-) compound mutant mice. In addition, expression of the phosphorylation-deficient tauS202A,T205A mutant alleviates motor neuron defects in a zebrafish SMA model in vivo and mouse motor neuron degeneration in culture, whereas expression of phosphorylation-mimetic tauS202E,T205E promotes motor neuron defects. More importantly, genetic knock-out of tau in SMA mice rescues synapse stripping on motor neurons, NMJ denervation, and motor neuron degeneration in vivo. Altogether, our findings suggest a novel mechanism for SMA pathogenesis in which hyperphosphorylation of non-aggregating tau by Cdk5 contributes to motor neuron degeneration. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/356038-13$15.00/0.

  18. Tau-Induced Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase-IV Activation Aggravates Nuclear Tau Hyperphosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yu-Ping; Ye, Jin-Wang; Wang, Xiong; Zhu, Li-Ping; Hu, Qing-Hua; Wang, Qun; Ke, Dan; Tian, Qing; Wang, Jian-Zhi

    2018-04-01

    Hyperphosphorylated tau is the major protein component of neurofibrillary tangles in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the mechanism underlying tau hyperphosphorylation is not fully understood. Here, we demonstrated that exogenously expressed wild-type human tau40 was detectable in the phosphorylated form at multiple AD-associated sites in cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions from HEK293 cells. Among these sites, tau phosphorylated at Thr205 and Ser214 was almost exclusively found in the nuclear fraction at the conditions used in the present study. With the intracellular tau accumulation, the Ca 2+ concentration was significantly increased in both cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions. Further studies using site-specific mutagenesis and pharmacological treatment demonstrated that phosphorylation of tau at Thr205 increased nuclear Ca 2+ concentration with a simultaneous increase in the phosphorylation of Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMKIV) at Ser196. On the other hand, phosphorylation of tau at Ser214 did not significantly change the nuclear Ca 2+ /CaMKIV signaling. Finally, expressing calmodulin-binding protein-4 that disrupts formation of the Ca 2+ /calmodulin complex abolished the okadaic acid-induced tau hyperphosphorylation in the nuclear fraction. We conclude that the intracellular accumulation of phosphorylated tau, as detected in the brains of AD patients, can trigger nuclear Ca 2+ /CaMKIV signaling, which in turn aggravates tau hyperphosphorylation. Our findings provide new insights for tauopathies: hyperphosphorylation of intracellular tau and an increased Ca 2+ concentration may induce a self-perpetuating harmful loop to promote neurodegeneration.

  19. Induction of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 in the hippocampus by chronic electroconvulsive seizures: role of [Delta]FosB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J; Zhang, Y; Kelz, M B; Steffen, C; Ang, E S; Zeng, L; Nestler, E J

    2000-12-15

    The transcription factor DeltaFosB is induced in the hippocampus and other brain regions by repeated electroconvulsive seizures (ECS), an effective antidepressant treatment. The unusually high stability of this protein makes it an attractive candidate to mediate some of the long-lasting changes in the brain caused by ECS treatment. To understand how DeltaFosB might alter brain function, we examined the gene expression profiles in the hippocampus of inducible transgenic mice that express DeltaFosB in this brain region by the use of cDNA expression arrays that contain 588 genes. Of the 430 genes detected, 20 genes were consistently upregulated, and 14 genes were downregulated, by >50%. One of the upregulated genes is cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (cdk5). On the basis of its purported role in regulating neuronal structure, we studied directly whether cdk5 is a true target for DeltaFosB. Upregulation of cdk5 immunoreactivity in the hippocampus was confirmed by Western blotting in the DeltaFosB-expressing transgenic mice as well as in rats treated chronically with ECS. Chronic ECS treatment also increased, in the hippocampus, the phosphorylation state of tau, a microtubule-associated protein that is a known substrate for cdk5. A 1.6 kb fragment of the cdk5 promoter was cloned, and activity of the promoter was found to be increased after overexpression of DeltaFosB in cell culture. Moreover, mutation of the single consensus activator protein-1 site contained within the cdk5 promoter fragment completely abolished activation of the promoter by DeltaFosB. Together, these results suggest that cdk5 is one target by which DeltaFosB produces some of its physiological effects in the hippocampus and thereby mediates certain long-term consequences of chronic ECS treatment.

  20. Calmodulin dependent protein kinase II activation by exercise regulates saturated & unsaturated fatty acids and improves some metabolic syndrome markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukwevho, Emmanuel; Joseph, Jitcy S

    2014-08-28

    Activation of Calmodulin dependent protein kinase (CaMK)-II by exercise has a plethora of benefits in health. Fatty acids play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Prevention of MetS and treatment of its main characteristics are very significant to fight against type 2 diabetes. CaMKII activation in the regulation of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in relation to type 2 diabetes and MetS has not been studied, which became the focus of this present study. Using Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry, we investigated saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids. Quantitative real time PCR was also used to assess the gene expression. Results indicate that both palmitoleic acid and oleic acid which are monounsaturated fatty acids were increased in response to CaMKII activation. On the other hand, myristic acid and palmitic acid which are saturated fatty acids known to increase the risk factors of MetS and type 2 diabetes were decreased by exercise induction of CaMKII. Conversely, lauric acid also a saturated fatty acid was increased in response to CaMKII activation by exercise. This fatty acid is known to have beneficial effects in alleviating symptoms of both type 2 diabetes and MetS. According to our knowledge, this is the first study to show that CaMKII activation by exercise regulates fatty acids essential in type 2 diabetes and MetS. CaMKII can be an avenue of designing novel therapeutic drugs in the management and treatment of type 2 diabetes and MetS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Multigene Family Encoding 3′,5′-Cyclic-GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases in Paramecium tetraurelia Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissmehl, Roland; Krüger, Tim P.; Treptau, Tilman; Froissard, Marine; Plattner, Helmut

    2006-01-01

    In the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia, 3′,5′-cyclic GMP (cGMP) is one of the second messengers involved in several signal transduction pathways. The enzymes for its production and degradation are well established for these cells, whereas less is known about the potential effector proteins. On the basis of a current Paramecium genome project, we have identified a multigene family with at least 35 members, all of which encode cGMP-dependent protein kinases (PKGs). They can be classified into 16 subfamilies with several members each. Two of the genes, PKG1-1 and PKG2-1, were analyzed in more detail after molecular cloning. They encode monomeric enzymes of 770 and 819 amino acids, respectively, whose overall domain organization resembles that in higher eukaryotes. The enzymes contain a regulatory domain of two tandem cyclic nucleotide-binding sites flanked by an amino-terminal region for intracellular localization and a catalytic domain with highly conserved regions for ATP binding and catalysis. However, some Paramecium PKGs show a different structure. In Western blots, PKGs are detected both as cytosolic and as structure-bound forms. Immunofluorescence labeling shows enrichment in the cell cortex, notably around the dense-core secretory vesicles (trichocysts), as well as in cilia. Immunogold electron microscopy analysis reveals consistent labeling of ciliary membranes, of the membrane complex composed of cell membrane and cortical Ca2+ stores, and of regions adjacent to ciliary basal bodies, trichocysts, and trafficking vesicles. Since PKGs (re)phosphorylate the exocytosis-sensitive phosphoprotein pp63/pf upon stimulation, the role of PKGs during stimulated exocytosis is discussed, in addition to a role in ciliary beat regulation. PMID:16400170

  2. Protein kinase Cdelta stimulates proteasome-dependent degradation of C/EBPalpha during apoptosis induction of leukemic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The precise regulation and maintenance of balance between cell proliferation, differentiation and death in metazoan are critical for tissue homeostasis. CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPalpha has been implicated as a key regulator of differentiation and proliferation in various cell types. Here we investigated the potential dynamic change and role of C/EBPalpha protein during apoptosis induction. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Upon onset of apoptosis induced by various kinds of inducers such as NSC606985, etoposide and others, C/EBPalpha expression presented a profound down-regulation in leukemic cell lines and primary cells via induction of protein degradation and inhibition of transcription, as assessed respectively by cycloheximide inhibition test, real-time quantitative RT-PCR and luciferase reporter assay. Applying chemical inhibition, forced expression of dominant negative mutant and catalytic fragment (CF of protein kinase Cdelta (PKCdelta, which was proteolytically activated during apoptosis induction tested, we showed that the active PKCdelta protein contributed to the increased degradation of C/EBPalpha protein. Three specific proteasome inhibitors antagonized C/EBPalpha degradation during apoptosis induction. More importantly, ectopic expression of PKCdelta-CF stimulated the ubiquitination of C/EBPalpha protein, while the chemical inhibition of PKCdelta action significantly inhibited the enhanced ubiquitination of C/EBPalpha protein under NSC606985 treatment. Additionally, silencing of C/EBPalpha expression by small interfering RNAs enhanced, while inducible expression of C/EBPalpha inhibited NSC606985/etoposide-induced apoptosis in leukemic cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These observations indicate that the activation of PKCdelta upon apoptosis results in the increased proteasome-dependent degradation of C/EBPalpha, which partially contributes to PKCdelta-mediated apoptosis.

  3. Tauroursodeoxycholate Protects Rat Hepatocytes from Bile Acid-Induced Apoptosis via β1-Integrin- and Protein Kinase A-Dependent Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Sommerfeld

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Ursodeoxycholic acid, which in vivo is rapidly converted into its taurine conjugate, is frequently used for the treatment of cholestatic liver disease. Apart from its choleretic effects, tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDC can protect hepatocytes from bile acid-induced apoptosis, but the mechanisms underlying its anti-apoptotic effects are poorly understood. Methods: These mechanisms were investigated in perfused rat liver and isolated rat hepatocytes. Results: It was found that TUDC inhibited the glycochenodeoxycholate (GCDC-induced activation of the CD95 death receptor at the level of association between CD95 and the epidermal growth factor receptor. This was due to a rapid TUDC-induced β1-integrin-dependent cyclic AMP (cAMP signal with induction of the dual specificity mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinase phosphatase 1 (MKP-1, which prevented GCDC-induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 (MKK4 and c-jun-NH2-terminal kinase (JNK activation. Furthermore, TUDC induced a protein kinase A (PKA-mediated serine/threonine phosphorylation of the CD95, which was recently identified as an internalization signal for CD95. Furthermore, TUDC inhibited GCDC-induced CD95 targeting to the plasma membrane in a β1-integrin-and PKA-dependent manner. In line with this, the β1-integrin siRNA knockdown in sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (Ntcp-transfected HepG2 cells abolished the protective effect of TUDC against GCDC-induced apoptosis. Conclusion: TUDC exerts its anti-apoptotic effect via a β1-integrin-mediated formation of cAMP, which prevents CD95 activation by hydrophobic bile acids at the levels of JNK activation and CD95 serine/threonine phosphorylation.

  4. The role of c-AMP-dependent protein kinase in spinal cord and post synaptic dorsal column neurons in a rat model of visceral pain

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Jing; Su, Guangxiao; Ma, Long; Zhang, Xuan; Lei, Yongzhong; Lin, Qing; Nauta, Haring J.W.; Li, Junfa; Fang, Li

    2007-01-01

    Visceral noxious stimulation induces central neuronal plasticity changes and suggests that the c-AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) signal transduction cascade contributes to long-term changes in nociceptive processing at the spinal cord level. Our previous studies reported the clinical neurosurgical interruption of post synaptic dorsal column neuron (PSDC) pathway by performing midline myelotomy effectively alleviating the intractable visceral pain in patients with severe pain. However, the ...

  5. Interaction energies for the purine inhibitor roscovitine with cyclin-dependent kinase 2: Correlated ab initio quantum-chemical, DFT and empirical calculations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dobeš, Petr; Otyepka, M.; Strnad, Miroslav; Hobza, Pavel

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 16 (2006), s. 4297-4304 ISSN 0947-6539 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/05/0009; GA ČR(CZ) GA301/05/0418; GA MŠk(CZ) LC512 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : ab initio calculations * cyclin -dependent kinase * roscovitine Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 5.015, year: 2006

  6. Crystal structure of human cyclin-dependent kinase-2 complex with MK2 inhibitor TEI-I01800: insight into the selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujino, Aiko; Fukushima, Kei; Kubota, Takaharu; Kosugi, Tomomi; Takimoto-Kamimura, Midori, E-mail: m.kamimura@teijin.co.jp [Teijin Pharma Limited, 4-3-2 Asahigaoka, Hino-shi, Tokyo 191-8512 (Japan)

    2013-11-01

    The Gly-rich loop of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) bound to TEI-I01800 as an MK2 specific inhibitor forms a β-sheet which is a common structure in CDK2–ligand complexes. Here, the reason why TEI-I01800 does not become a strong inhibitor against CDK2 based on the conformation of TEI-I01800 is presented. Mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2 or MAPKAP-K2) is a Ser/Thr kinase from the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathway and plays an important role in inflammatory diseases. The crystal structure of the MK2–TEI-I01800 complex has been reported; its Gly-rich loop was found to form an α-helix, not a β-sheet as has been observed for other Ser/Thr kinases. TEI-I01800 is 177-fold selective against MK2 compared with CDK2; in order to understand the inhibitory mechanism of TEI-I01800, the cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) complex structure with TEI-I01800 was determined at 2.0 Å resolution. Interestingly, the Gly-rich loop of CDK2 formed a β-sheet that was different from that of MK2. In MK2, TEI-I01800 changed the secondary structure of the Gly-rich loop from a β-sheet to an α-helix by collision between Leu70 and a p-ethoxyphenyl group at the 7-position and bound to MK2. However, for CDK2, TEI-I01800 bound to CDK2 without this structural change and lost the interaction with the substituent at the 7-position. In summary, the results of this study suggest that the reason for the selectivity of TEI-I01800 is the favourable conformation of TEI-I01800 itself, making it suitable for binding to the α-form MK2.

  7. Genistein prevents thyroid hormone-dependent tail regression of Rana catesbeiana tadpoles by targetting protein kinase C and thyroid hormone receptor alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, L; Domanski, D; Skirrow, R C; Helbing, C C

    2007-03-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH)-regulated gene expression is mainly mediated by TH binding to nuclear thyroid hormone receptors (TRs). Despite extensive studies in mammalian cell lines that show that phosphorylation signaling pathways are important in TH action, little is known about their roles on TH signaling in vivo during development. Anuran metamorphosis is a postembryonic process that is absolutely dependent upon TH and tadpole tail resorption can be precociously induced by exogenous administration of 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T(3)). We demonstrate that genistein (a major isoflavone in soy products and tyrosine kinase inhibitor) and the PKC inhibitor (H7) prevent T(3)-induced regression of the Rana catesbeiana tadpole tail. T(3)-induced protein kinase C tyrosine phosphorylation and kinase activity are inhibited by genistein while T(3)-induced up-regulation of TRbeta mRNA, but not TRalpha mRNA, is significantly attenuated, most likely through inhibition of T(3)-dependent phosphorylation of the TRalpha protein. This phosphorylation may be modulated through PKC. These data demonstrate that T(3) signaling in the context of normal cells in vivo includes phosphorylation as an important factor in establishing T(3)-dependent tail regression during development.

  8. DNA-dependent protein kinase (DAN-PK), a key enzyme in the re-ligation of DNA double-strand breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennequin, C.; Averbeck, D.

    1999-01-01

    Repair pathways of DNA are now defined and some important findings have been discovered in the last few years. DNA non-homologous end-joining (NEH) is a crucial process in the repair of radiation-induced double-strand breaks (DSBs). NHEj implies at least three steps: the DNA free-ends must get closer, preparation of the free-ends by exonucleases and then a transient hybridization in a region of DNA with weak homology. DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) is the key enzyme in this process. DNA-PK is a nuclear serine/threonine kinase that comprises three components: a catalytic subunit (DNA-PK cs ) and two regulatory subunits, DNA-binding proteins, Ku80 and Ku70. The severe combined immuno-deficient (scid) mice are deficient in DNA-PK cs : this protein is involved both in DNA repair and in the V(D)J recombination of immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor genes. It is a protein-kinase of the P13-kinase family and which can phosphorylate Ku proteins, p53 and probably some other proteins still unknown. DNA-PK is an important actor of DSBs repair (induced by ionising radiations or by drugs like etoposide), but obviously it is not the only mechanism existing in the cell for this function. Some others, like homologous recombination, seem also to have a great importance for cell survival. (authors)

  9. The calcium-dependent protein kinase 3 of toxoplasma influences basal calcium levels and functions beyond egress as revealed by quantitative phosphoproteome analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Treeck

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs are conserved in plants and apicomplexan parasites. In Toxoplasma gondii, TgCDPK3 regulates parasite egress from the host cell in the presence of a calcium-ionophore. The targets and the pathways that the kinase controls, however, are not known. To identify pathways regulated by TgCDPK3, we measured relative phosphorylation site usage in wild type and TgCDPK3 mutant and knock-out parasites by quantitative mass-spectrometry using stable isotope-labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC. This revealed known and novel phosphorylation events on proteins predicted to play a role in host-cell egress, but also a novel function of TgCDPK3 as an upstream regulator of other calcium-dependent signaling pathways, as we also identified proteins that are differentially phosphorylated prior to egress, including proteins important for ion-homeostasis and metabolism. This observation is supported by the observation that basal calcium levels are increased in parasites where TgCDPK3 has been inactivated. Most of the differential phosphorylation observed in CDPK3 mutants is rescued by complementation of the mutants with a wild type copy of TgCDPK3. Lastly, the TgCDPK3 mutants showed hyperphosphorylation of two targets of a related calcium-dependent kinase (TgCDPK1, as well as TgCDPK1 itself, indicating that this latter kinase appears to play a role downstream of TgCDPK3 function. Overexpression of TgCDPK1 partially rescues the egress phenotype of the TgCDPK3 mutants, reinforcing this conclusion. These results show that TgCDPK3 plays a pivotal role in regulating tachyzoite functions including, but not limited to, egress.

  10. The Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase 3 of Toxoplasma Influences Basal Calcium Levels and Functions beyond Egress as Revealed by Quantitative Phosphoproteome Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treeck, Moritz; Sanders, John L.; Gaji, Rajshekhar Y.; LaFavers, Kacie A.; Child, Matthew A.; Arrizabalaga, Gustavo; Elias, Joshua E.; Boothroyd, John C.

    2014-01-01

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are conserved in plants and apicomplexan parasites. In Toxoplasma gondii, TgCDPK3 regulates parasite egress from the host cell in the presence of a calcium-ionophore. The targets and the pathways that the kinase controls, however, are not known. To identify pathways regulated by TgCDPK3, we measured relative phosphorylation site usage in wild type and TgCDPK3 mutant and knock-out parasites by quantitative mass-spectrometry using stable isotope-labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC). This revealed known and novel phosphorylation events on proteins predicted to play a role in host-cell egress, but also a novel function of TgCDPK3 as an upstream regulator of other calcium-dependent signaling pathways, as we also identified proteins that are differentially phosphorylated prior to egress, including proteins important for ion-homeostasis and metabolism. This observation is supported by the observation that basal calcium levels are increased in parasites where TgCDPK3 has been inactivated. Most of the differential phosphorylation observed in CDPK3 mutants is rescued by complementation of the mutants with a wild type copy of TgCDPK3. Lastly, the TgCDPK3 mutants showed hyperphosphorylation of two targets of a related calcium-dependent kinase (TgCDPK1), as well as TgCDPK1 itself, indicating that this latter kinase appears to play a role downstream of TgCDPK3 function. Overexpression of TgCDPK1 partially rescues the egress phenotype of the TgCDPK3 mutants, reinforcing this conclusion. These results show that TgCDPK3 plays a pivotal role in regulating tachyzoite functions including, but not limited to, egress. PMID:24945436

  11. Toxoplasma gondii Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Subunit 3 Is Involved in the Switch from Tachyzoite to Bradyzoite Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuki Sugi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular apicomplexan parasite that infects warm-blooded vertebrates, including humans. Asexual reproduction in T. gondii allows it to switch between the rapidly replicating tachyzoite and quiescent bradyzoite life cycle stages. A transient cyclic AMP (cAMP pulse promotes bradyzoite differentiation, whereas a prolonged elevation of cAMP inhibits this process. We investigated the mechanism(s by which differential modulation of cAMP exerts a bidirectional effect on parasite differentiation. There are three protein kinase A (PKA catalytic subunits (TgPKAc1 to -3 expressed in T. gondii. Unlike TgPKAc1 and TgPKAc2, which are conserved in the phylum Apicomplexa, TgPKAc3 appears evolutionarily divergent and specific to coccidian parasites. TgPKAc1 and TgPKAc2 are distributed in the cytomembranes, whereas TgPKAc3 resides in the cytosol. TgPKAc3 was genetically ablated in a type II cyst-forming strain of T. gondii (PruΔku80Δhxgprt and in a type I strain (RHΔku80Δhxgprt, which typically does not form cysts. The Δpkac3 mutant exhibited slower growth than the parental and complemented strains, which correlated with a higher basal rate of tachyzoite-to-bradyzoite differentiation. 3-Isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX treatment, which elevates cAMP levels, maintained wild-type parasites as tachyzoites under bradyzoite induction culture conditions (pH 8.2/low CO2, whereas the Δpkac3 mutant failed to respond to the treatment. This suggests that TgPKAc3 is the factor responsible for the cAMP-dependent tachyzoite maintenance. In addition, the Δpkac3 mutant had a defect in the production of brain cysts in vivo, suggesting that a substrate of TgPKAc3 is probably involved in the persistence of this parasite in the intermediate host animals.

  12. Double stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase is involved in osteoclast differentiation of RAW264.7 cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teramachi, Junpei [Department of Histology and Oral Histology, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Kuramoto, Tokushima 770-8504 (Japan); Morimoto, Hiroyuki; Baba, Ryoko; Doi, Yoshiaki [Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Yahatanishi, Kitakyushu 807-8555 (Japan); Hirashima, Kanji [Department of Histology and Oral Histology, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Kuramoto, Tokushima 770-8504 (Japan); Haneji, Tatsuji, E-mail: tat-hane@dent.tokushima-u.ac.jp [Department of Histology and Oral Histology, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Kuramoto, Tokushima 770-8504 (Japan)

    2010-11-15

    Double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) plays a critical role in antiviral defence of the host cells. PKR is also involved in cell cycle progression, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, tumorigenesis, and apoptosis. We previously reported that PKR is required for differentiation and calcification of osteoblasts. However, it is unknown about the role of PKR in osteoclast differentiation. A dominant-negative PKR mutant cDNA, in which the amino acid lysine at 296 was replaced with arginine, was transfected into RAW264.7 cells. We have established the cell line that stably expresses the PKR mutant gene (PKR-K/R). Phosphorylation of PKR and {alpha}-subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 was not stimulated by polyinosic-polycytidylic acid in the PKR-K/R cells. RANKL stimulated the formation of TRAP-positive multinuclear cells in RAW264.7 cells. However, TRAP-positive multinuclear cells were not formed in the PKR-K/R cells even when the cells were stimulated with higher doses of RANKL. A specific inhibitor of PKR, 2-aminopurine, also suppressed the RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation in RAW264.7 cells. The expression of macrophage fusion receptor and dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein significantly decreased in the PKR-K/R cells by real time PCR analysis. The results of RT-PCR revealed that the mRNA expression of osteoclast markers (cathepsin K and calcitonin receptor) was suppressed in the PKR-K/R cells and RAW264.7 cells treated with 2-aminopurine. Expression of NF-{kappa}B protein was suppressed in the PKR-K/R cells and 2-aminopurine-treated RAW264.7 cells. The level of STAT1 protein expression was elevated in the PKR-K/R cells compared with that of the wild-type cells. Immunohistochemical study showed that PKR was localized in osteoclasts of metatarsal bone of newborn mouse. The finding that the PKR-positive multinuclear cells should be osteoclasts was confirmed by TRAP-staining. Our present study indicates that PKR plays important

  13. Accelerated turnover of taste bud cells in mice deficient for the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27Kip1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perna Marla K

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mammalian taste buds contain several specialized cell types that coordinately respond to tastants and communicate with sensory nerves. While it has long been appreciated that these cells undergo continual turnover, little is known concerning how adequate numbers of cells are generated and maintained. The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27Kip1 has been shown to influence cell number in several developing tissues, by coordinating cell cycle exit during cell differentiation. Here, we investigated its involvement in the control of taste cell replacement by examining adult mice with targeted ablation of the p27Kip1 gene. Results Histological and morphometric analyses of fungiform and circumvallate taste buds reveal no structural differences between wild-type and p27Kip1-null mice. However, when examined in functional assays, mutants show substantial proliferative changes. In BrdU incorporation experiments, more S-phase-labeled precursors appear within circumvallate taste buds at 1 day post-injection, the earliest time point examined. After 1 week, twice as many labeled intragemmal cells are present, but numbers return to wild-type levels by 2 weeks. Mutant taste buds also contain more TUNEL-labeled cells and 50% more apoptotic bodies than wild-type controls. In normal mice, p27 Kip1 is evident in a subset of receptor and presynaptic taste cells beginning about 3 days post-injection, correlating with the onset of taste cell maturation. Loss of gene function, however, does not alter the proportions of distinct immunohistochemically-identified cell types. Conclusions p27Kip1 participates in taste cell replacement by regulating the number of precursor cells available for entry into taste buds. This is consistent with a role for the protein in timing cell cycle withdrawal in progenitor cells. The equivalence of mutant and wild-type taste buds with regard to cell number, cell types and general structure contrasts with the hyperplasia

  14. PRKDC mutations associated with immunodeficiency, granuloma, and autoimmune regulator-dependent autoimmunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.-L. Mathieu (Anne-Laure); E. Verronese (Estelle); G.I. Rice (Gillian I.); F. Fouyssac (Fanny); Y. Bertrand (Yves); C. Picard (Capucine); M. Chansel (Marie); J.E. Walter (Jolan E.); L.D. Notarangelo (Luigi Daniele); M.J. Butte (Manish J.); K.C. Nadeau (Kari Christine); K. Csomos (Krisztian); D.J. Chen (David); K. Chen (Karin); A. Delgado (Ana); C. Rigal (Chantal); C. Bardin (Christine); C. Schuetz (Catharina); D. Moshous (Despina); H. Reumaux (Héloïse); F. Plenat (François); A. Phan (Alice); M.-T. Zabot (Marie-Thérèse); B. Balme (Brigitte); S. Viel (Sébastien); J. Bienvenu (Jacques); P. Cochat (Pierre); M. van der Burg (Mirjam); C. Caux (Christophe); E.H. Kemp (E. Helen); I. Rouvet (Isabelle); C. Malcus (Christophe); J.-F. Méritet (Jean-Francois); A. Lim (Annick); Y.J. Crow (Yanick J.); N. Fabien (Nicole); C. Ménétrier-Caux (Christine); J.-P. De Villartay (Jean-Pierre); T. Walzer (Thierry); A. Belot (Alexandre)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground PRKDC encodes for DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs), a kinase that forms part of a complex (DNA-dependent protein kinase [DNA-PK]) crucial for DNA double-strand break repair and V(D)J recombination. In mice DNA-PK also interacts with the transcription

  15. Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-dependent phosphorylation of SLP-76 by the lymphoma-associated ITK-SYK fusion-protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, Alamdar; Faryal, Rani; Nore, Beston F.; Mohamed, Abdalla J.; Smith, C.I. Edvard

    2009-01-01

    Recurrent chromosomal translocations have long been implicated in various types of lymphomas and other malignancies. Novel recurrent t(5;9)(q33;q22) has been recently discovered in un-specified peripheral T-cell lymphoma. To elucidate the role of this translocation, the corresponding fusion construct encoding the N-terminal portion of the ITK kinase and the C-terminal catalytic region of the SYK kinase was generated. We herein show that the ITK-SYK fusion-protein is constitutively active. Moreover, we demonstrate that ITK-SYK is phosphorylated on key tyrosine residues and is capable of potently phosphorylating the related adapter proteins BLNK and SLP-76. In transiently transfected cells, SYK was phosphorylated at Y352 but not detectably at the activation-loop tyrosines Y525/Y526. In contrast, ITK-SYK was phosphorylated both at Y212 and the activation-loop tyrosines Y385/Y386, corresponding to Y352 and Y525/Y526 in SYK, respectively. In resting primary lymphocytes, ITK-SYK predominantly localizes to the cell surface. In addition, we demonstrate that following stimulation, the ITK-SYK fusion-protein in cell lines translocates to the cell membrane and, moreover, that this phenomenon as well as SLP-76 phosphorylation are blocked upon phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3-kinase) inhibition.

  16. Scattering of MCF7 cells by heregulin ß-1 depends on the MEK and p38 MAP kinase pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rintaro Okoshi

    Full Text Available Heregulin (HRG β1 signaling promotes scattering of MCF7 cells by inducing breakdown of adherens and tight junctions. Here, we show that stimulation with HRG-β1 causes the F-actin backbone of junctions to destabilize prior to the loss of adherent proteins and scattering of the cells. The adherent proteins dissociate and translocate from cell-cell junctions to the cytosol. Moreover, using inhibitors we show that the MEK1 pathway is required for the disappearance of F-actin from junctions and p38 MAP kinase activity is essential for scattering of the cells. Upon treatment with a p38 MAP kinase inhibitor, adherens junction complexes immediately reassemble, most likely in the cytoplasm, and move to the plasma membrane in cells dissociated by HRG-β1 stimulation. Subsequently, tight junction complexes form, most likely in the cytoplasm, and move to the plasma membrane. Thus, the p38 MAP kinase inhibitor causes a re-aggregation of scattered cells, even in the presence of HRG-β1. These results suggest that p38 MAP kinase signaling to adherens junction proteins regulates cell aggregation, providing a novel understanding of the regulation of cell-cell adhesion.

  17. cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) regulates angiogenesis by modulating tip cell behavior in a Notch-independent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedvetsky, Pavel I; Zhao, Xiaocheng; Mathivet, Thomas; Aspalter, Irene M; Stanchi, Fabio; Metzger, Ross J; Mostov, Keith E; Gerhardt, Holger

    2016-10-01

    cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) is a ubiquitously expressed serine/threonine kinase that regulates a variety of cellular functions. Here, we demonstrate that endothelial PKA activity is essential for vascular development, specifically regulating the transition from sprouting to stabilization of nascent vessels. Inhibition of endothelial PKA by endothelial cell-specific expression of dominant-negative PKA in mice led to perturbed vascular development, hemorrhage and embryonic lethality at mid-gestation. During perinatal retinal angiogenesis, inhibition of PKA resulted in hypersprouting as a result of increased numbers of tip cells. In zebrafish, cell autonomous PKA inhibition also increased and sustained endothelial cell motility, driving cells to become tip cells. Although these effects of PKA inhibition were highly reminiscent of Notch inhibition effects, our data demonstrate that PKA and Notch independently regulate tip and stalk cell formation and behavior. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. Molecular cloning, expression pattern, and chromosomal localization of human CDKN2D/INK4d, an inhibitor of cyclin D-dependent kinases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuda, Tsukasa; Shurtleff, S.A.; Downing, J.R. [St. Jude Children`s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-10

    Progression through the G1 phase of the cell cycle is dependent on the activity of holoenzymes formed between D-type cyclins and their catalytic partners, the cyclin-dependent kinases cdk4 and cdk6. p16{sup INK4a} p15{sup INK4b}, and p18{sup INK4c}, a group of structurally related proteins, function as specific inhibitors of the cyclin D-dependent kinases and are likely to play physiologic roles as specific regulators of these kinases in vivo. A new member of the INK4 gene family, murine INK4d, has recently been identified. Here we report the isolation of human INK4d (gene symbol CDKN2D), which is 86 identical at the amino acid level to the murine clone and {approximately}44% identical to each of the other human INK4 family members. The INK4d gene is ubiquitously expressed as a single 1.4-kb mRNA with the highest levels detected in thymus, spleen, peripheral blood leukocytes, fetal liver, brain, and testes. The abundance of INK4d mRNA oscillates in a cell-cycle-dependent manner with expression lowest at mid G1 and maximal during S phase. Using a P1-phage genomic clone of INK4d for fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis, the location of this gene was mapped to chromosome 19p13. No rearrangements or deletions of the INK4d gene were observed in Southern blot analysis of selected cases of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) containing a variant (1;19)(q23;p13) translocation that lacks rearrangement of either E2A or PBX1, or in ALL cases containing homozygous or hemizygous deletions of the related genes, INK4a and INK4b. 39 refs., 3 figs.

  19. cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibits α7 nicotinic receptor activity in layer 1 cortical interneurons through activation of D1/D5 dopamine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komal, Pragya; Estakhr, Jasem; Kamran, Melad; Renda, Anthony; Nashmi, Raad

    2015-08-15

    Protein kinases can modify the function of many proteins including ion channels. However, the role of protein kinase A in modifying nicotinic receptors in the CNS has never been investigated. We showed through whole-cell recordings of layer 1 prefrontal cortical interneurons that α7 nicotinic responses are negatively modulated by protein kinase A. Furthermore, we show that stimulation of dopamine receptors can similarly attenuate α7 nicotinic responses through the activation of protein kinase A. These results suggest how the interaction of the cholinergic and dopaminergic systems may influence neuronal excitability in the brain. Phosphorylation of ion channels, including nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), by protein kinases plays a key role in the modification of synaptic transmission and neuronal excitability. α7 nAChRs are the second most prevalent nAChR subtype in the CNS following α4β2. Serine 365 in the M3-M4 cytoplasmic loop of the α7 nAChR is a phosphorylation site for protein kinase A (PKA). D1/D5 dopamine receptors signal through the adenylate cyclase-PKA pathway and play a key role in working memory and attention in the prefrontal cortex. Thus, we examined whether the dopaminergic system, mediated through PKA, functionally interacts with the α7-dependent cholinergic neurotransmission. In layer 1 interneurons of mouse prefrontal cortex, α7 nicotinic currents were decreased upon stimulation with 8-Br-cAMP, a PKA activator. In HEK 293T cells, dominant negative PKA abolished 8-Br-cAMP's effect of diminishing α7 nicotinic currents, while a constitutively active PKA catalytic subunit decreased α7 currents. In brain slices, the PKA inhibitor KT-5720 nullified 8-Br-cAMP's effect of attenuating α7 nicotinic responses, while applying a PKA catalytic subunit in the pipette solution decreased α7 currents. 8-Br-cAMP stimulation reduced surface expression of α7 nAChRs, but there was no change in single-channel conductance. The D1/D5 dopamine

  20. Arabidopsis mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases MKK1 and MKK2 have overlapping functions in defense signaling mediated by MEKK1, MPK4, and MKS1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiu, Jin-Long; Zhou, Lu; Yun, Byung-Wook

    2008-01-01

    by biochemical and molecular analyses implicating the kinases in jasmonate- and salicylate-dependent defense responses, mediated in part via the MPK4 substrate MKS1. In addition, transcriptome analyses delineate overlapping and specific effects of the kinases on global gene expression patterns demonstrating both...

  1. Moringa oleifera fruit induce apoptosis via reactive oxygen species-dependent activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases in human melanoma A2058 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guon, Tae Eun; Chung, Ha Sook

    2017-08-01

    The present study was performed to determine the effect of Moringa oleifera fruit extract on the apoptosis of human melanoma A2058 cells. A2058 cells were treated for 72 h with Moringa oleifera fruit extract at 50-100 µg/ml, and cell viability with apoptotic changes was examined. The involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) was examined. It was revealed that Moringa oleifera fruit extract significantly inhibited the cell viability and promoted apoptosis of A2058 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Moringa oleifera fruit extract-treated A2058 cells exhibited increased activities of cleaved caspase-9 and caspase-3. It also caused an enhancement of MAPK phosphorylation and ROS production. The pro-apoptotic activity of Moringa oleifera fruit extract was significantly reversed by pretreatment with the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor SP600125, extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor PD98058 or ROS inhibitor N-acetyl-L-cysteine. Taken together, Moringa oleifera fruit extract is effective in inducing mitochondrial apoptosis of A2058 cells, which is mediated through induction of ROS formation, and JNK and ERK activation. Moringa oleifera fruit extract may thus have therapeutic benefits for human melanoma A2058 cells.

  2. Osteitis fibrosa is mediated by Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-A via a phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent signaling pathway in a rat model for chronic hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Malcolm B; Lotinun, Sutada; Leontovich, Alexey A; Zhang, Minzhi; Maran, Avudaiappan; Shogren, Kristen L; Palama, Brett K; Marley, Kevin; Iwaniec, Urszula T; Turner, Russell T

    2008-11-01

    Abnormal secretion of PTH by the parathyroid glands contributes to a variety of common skeletal disorders. Prior studies implicate platelet-derived growth factor-A (PDGF-A) as an important mediator of selective PTH actions on bone. The present studies used targeted gene profiling and small-molecule antagonists directed against candidate gene products to elucidate the roles of specific PTH-regulated genes and signaling pathways. A group of 29 genes in rats continuously infused with PTH and cotreated with the PDGF receptor antagonist trapidil were differentially expressed compared with PTH treatment alone. Several of the identified genes were functionally clustered as regulators of fibroblast differentiation and extracellular matrix modeling, including the matrix cross-linking enzyme lysyl oxidase (LOX). Treatment with beta-aminopropionitrile, an irreversible inhibitor of LOX activity, dramatically reduced diffuse mineralization but had no effect on PTH-induced fibrosis. In contrast, the receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor Gleevec and the phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor wortmannin each reduced bone marrow fibrosis. In summary, the present studies support the hypotheses that PTH-induced bone marrow fibrosis is mediated by PDGF-A via a phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent signaling pathway and that increased LOX gene expression plays a key role in abnormal mineralization, a hallmark of chronic hyperparathyroidism.

  3. Prostate-derived sterile 20-like kinase 1-alpha induces apoptosis. JNK- and caspase-dependent nuclear localization is a requirement for membrane blebbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zihni, Ceniz; Mitsopoulos, Costas; Tavares, Ignatius A; Baum, Buzz; Ridley, Anne J; Morris, Jonathan D H

    2007-03-02

    We have demonstrated previously that full-length prostate-derived sterile 20-like kinase 1-alpha (PSK1-alpha) binds to microtubules via its C terminus and regulates their organization and stability independently of its catalytic activity. Here we have shown that apoptotic and microtubule-disrupting agents promote catalytic activation, C-terminal cleavage, and nuclear translocation of endogenous phosphoserine 181 PSK1-alpha and activated N-terminal PSK1-alpha-induced apoptosis. PSK1-alpha, unlike its novel isoform PSK1-beta, stimulated the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway, and the nuclear localization of PSK1-alpha and its induction of cell contraction, membrane blebbing, and apoptotic body formation were dependent on JNK activity. PSK1-alpha was also a caspase substrate, and the broad spectrum caspase inhibitor benzyloxycarbonyl-VAD-fluoromethyl ketone or mutation of a putative caspase recognition motif ((916)DPGD(919)) blocked nuclear localization of PSK1-alpha and its induction of membrane blebs. Additional inhibition of caspase 9 was needed to prevent cell contraction. PSK1-alpha is therefore a bifunctional kinase that associates with microtubules, and JNK- and caspase-mediated removal of its C-terminal microtubule-binding domain permits nuclear translocation of the N-terminal region of PSK1-alpha and its induction of apoptosis.

  4. Calcium-dependent protein kinase 21 phosphorylates 14-3-3 proteins in response to ABA signaling and salt stress in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yixing; Zhou, Xiaojin; Chang, Shu; Chu, Zhilin; Wang, Hanmeng; Han, Shengcheng; Wang, Yingdian

    2017-12-02

    The calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are a class of plant-specific kinase that directly bind Ca 2+ and mediate the calcium-signaling pathways to play important physiological roles in growth and development. The rice genome contains 31 CDPK genes, one of which, OsCPK21, is known to modulate the abscisic acid (ABA) and salt stress responses in this crop; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying this regulation are largely unknown. In the present study, we performed yeast two-hybrid screening, glutathione S-transferase pull-down, co-immunoprecipitation, and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays to confirm the interaction between OsCPK21 and one of its putative targets, Os14-3-3 (OsGF14e). We used an in vitro kinase assay and site-directed mutagenesis to verify that OsCPK21 phosphorylates OsGF14e at Tyr-138. We used real-time PCR to reveal that several ABA and salt inducible genes were more highly expressed in the OsCPK21-OE and OsGF14e WT-OE plants than in the mutant OsGF14e Y138A-OE and wild-type plants. These results suggest that OsCPK21 phosphorylates OsGF14e to facilitate the response to ABA and salt stress. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Src tyrosine kinase mediates platelet-derived growth factor BB-induced and redox-dependent migration in metanephric mesenchymal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorin, Yves

    2013-01-01

    The adult kidney is derived from the interaction between the metanephric blastema and the ureteric bud. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor β is essential for the development of the mature glomerular tuft, as mice deficient for this receptor lack mesangial cells. This study investigated the role of Src tyrosine kinase in PDGF-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and migration of metanephric mesenchymal cells (MMCs). Cultured embryonic MMCs from wild-type and PDGF receptor-deficient embryos were established. Migration was determined via wound-healing assay. Unlike PDGF AA, PDGF BB-induced greater migration in MMCs with respect to control. This was abrogated by neutralizing an antibody to PDGF BB. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors suppressed PDGF BB-induced migration. Conversely, mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK) inhibitors had no effect. Src inhibitors inhibited PDGF-induced cell migration, PI3K activity, and Akt phosphorylation. Adenoviral dominant negative Src (AD DN Src) abrogated PDGF BB-induced Akt phosphorylation. Hydrogen peroxide stimulated cell migration. PDGF BB-induced wound closure was inhibited by the antioxidants N-acetyl-l-cysteine, tiron, and the flavoprotein inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium. These cells express the NADPH oxidase homolog Nox4. Inhibiting Nox4 with antisense oligonucleotides or small interfering RNA (siRNA) suppressed PDGF-induced wound closure. Inhibition of Src with siRNA reduced PDGF BB-induced ROS generation as assessed by 2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate fluorescence. Furthermore, PDGF BB-stimulated ROS generation and migration were similarly suppressed by Ad DN Src. In MMCs, PDGF BB-induced migration is mediated by PI3K and Src in a redox-dependent manner involving Nox4. Src may be upstream to PI3K and Nox4. PMID:24197068

  6. Akt-dependent Activation of the Heart 6-Phosphofructo-2-kinase/Fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase (PFKFB2) Isoenzyme by Amino Acids*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novellasdemunt, Laura; Tato, Irantzu; Navarro-Sabate, Aurea; Ruiz-Meana, Marisol; Méndez-Lucas, Andrés; Perales, Jose Carlos; Garcia-Dorado, David; Ventura, Francesc; Bartrons, Ramon; Rosa, Jose Luis

    2013-01-01

    Reciprocal regulation of metabolism and signaling allows cells to modulate their activity in accordance with their metabolic resources. Thus, amino acids could activate signal transduction pathways that control cell metabolism. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the effect of amino acids on fructose-2,6-bisphosphate (Fru-2,6-P2) metabolism. We demonstrate that amino acids increase Fru-2,6-P2 concentration in HeLa and in MCF7 human cells. In conjunction with this, 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase activity, glucose uptake, and lactate concentration were increased. These data correlate with the specific phosphorylation of heart 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-biphosphatase (PFKFB2) isoenzyme at Ser-483. This activation was mediated by the PI3K and p38 signaling pathways. Furthermore, Akt inactivation blocked PFKFB2 phosphorylation and Fru-2,6-P2 production, thereby suggesting that the above signaling pathways converge at Akt kinase. In accordance with these results, kinase assays showed that amino acid-activated Akt phosphorylated PFKFB2 at Ser-483 and that knockdown experiments confirmed that the increase in Fru-2,6-P2 concentration induced by amino acids was due to PFKFB2. In addition, similar effects on Fru-2,6-P2 metabolism were observed in freshly isolated rat cardiomyocytes treated with amino acids, which indicates that these effects are not restricted to human cancer cells. In these cardiomyocytes, the glucose consumption and the production of lactate and ATP suggest an increase of glycolytic flux. Taken together, these results demonstrate that amino acids stimulate Fru-2,6-P2 synthesis by Akt-dependent PFKFB2 phosphorylation and activation and show how signaling and metabolism are inextricably linked. PMID:23457334

  7. Quantum Mechanical Scoring: Structural and Energetic Insights into Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2 Inhibition by Pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brahmkshatriya, Pathik; Dobeš, P.; Fanfrlík, Jindřich; Řezáč, Jan; Paruch, K.; Bronowska, A.; Lepšík, Martin; Hobza, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 1 (2013), s. 118-129 ISSN 1573-4099 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP208/12/G016 Grant - others:Operational Program Research and Development for Innovations(XE) CZ.1.05/2.1.00/03.0058 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : binding affinity * cyclin-dependent kinase 2 * QM/SQM/MM * PM6 * pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine * semiempirical quantum mechanics * scoring function Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.942, year: 2013

  8. ATR-Chk1-APC/C-dependent stabilization of Cdc7-ASK (Dbf4) kinase is required for DNA lesion bypass under replication stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamada, M.; Watanabe, K.; Mistrik, M.

    2013-01-01

    replication. Stalled DNA replication evoked stabilization of the Cdc7-ASK (Dbf4) complex in a manner dependent on ATR-Chk1-mediated checkpoint signaling and its interplay with the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosomeCdh1 (APC/C) ubiquitin ligase. Mechanistically, Chk1 kinase inactivates APC/C through...... degradation of Cdh1 upon replication block, thereby stabilizing APC/C substrates, including Cdc7-ASK (Dbf4). Furthermore, motif C of ASK (Dbf4) interacts with the N-terminal region of RAD18 ubiquitin ligase, and this interaction is required for chromatin binding of RAD18. Impaired interaction of ASK (Dbf4...

  9. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-induced repression of GKAP42 protein levels through cGMP-dependent kinase (cGK)-Iα causes insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Yasutoshi; Shinozawa, Yusuke; Iijima, Yumi; Yu, Bu-Chin; Sone, Meri; Ooi, Yuko; Watanaka, Yusuke; Chida, Kazuhiro; Hakuno, Fumihiko; Takahashi, Shin-Ichiro

    2015-02-27

    Insulin receptor substrates (IRSs) have been shown to be major mediators of insulin signaling. Recently, we found that IRSs form high-molecular weight complexes, and here, we identify by yeast two-hybrid screening a novel IRS-1-associated protein: a 42-kDa cGMP-dependent protein kinase-anchoring protein (GKAP42). GKAP42 knockdown in 3T3-L1 adipocytes suppressed insulin-dependent IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation and downstream signaling, resulting in suppression of GLUT4 translocation to plasma membrane induced by insulin. In addition, GLUT4 translocation was also suppressed in cells overexpressing GKAP42-N (the IRS-1 binding region of GKAP42), which competed with GKAP42 for IRS-1, indicating that GKAP42 binding to IRS-1 is required for insulin-induced GLUT4 translocation. Long term treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with TNF-α, which induced insulin resistance, significantly decreased the GKAP42 protein level. We then investigated the roles of cGMP-dependent kinase (cGK)-Iα, which bound to GKAP42, in these changes. cGK-Iα knockdown partially rescued TNF-α-induced decrease in GKAP42 and impairment of insulin signals. These data indicated that TNF-α-induced repression of GKAP42 via cGK-Iα caused reduction of insulin-induced IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation at least in part. The present study describes analysis of the novel TNF-α-induced pathway, cGK-Iα-GKAP42, which regulates insulin-dependent signals and GLUT4 translocation. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Protein Kinase CK2 Expression Predicts Relapse Survival in ERα Dependent Breast Cancer, and Modulates ERα Expression in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon D. Williams

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The heterotetrameric protein kinase CK2 has been associated with oncogenic transformation, and our previous studies have shown that it may affect estrogenic signaling. Here, we investigate the role of the protein kinase CK2 in regulating ERα (estrogen receptor α signaling in breast cancer. We determined the correlation of CK2α expression with relapse free breast cancer patient survival utilizing Kaplan Meier Plotter (kmplot.com/analysis/ to mine breast cancer microarrays repositories. Patients were stratified according to ERα status, histological grade, and hormonal therapy. Luciferase reporter assays and flow cytometry were implemented to determine the impact of CK2 inhibition on ERE-mediated gene expression and expression of ERα protein. CK2α expression is associated with shorter relapse free survival among ERα (+ patients with grade 1 or 2 tumors, as well as among those patients receiving hormonal therapy. Biochemical inhibition of CK2 activity results in increased ER-transactivation as well as increased expression among ERα (+ and ERα (− breast cancer cell lines. These findings suggest that CK2 may contribute to estrogen-independent cell proliferation and breast tumor progression, and may potentially serve as a biomarker and pharmacological target in breast cancer.

  11. LKB1 mediates the development of conventional and innate T cells via AMP-dependent kinase autonomous pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marouan Zarrouk

    Full Text Available The present study has examined the role of the serine/threonine kinase LKB1 in the survival and differentiation of CD4/8 double positive thymocytes. LKB1-null DPs can respond to signals from the mature α/β T-cell-antigen receptor and initiate positive selection. However, in the absence of LKB1, thymocytes fail to mature to conventional single positive cells causing severe lymphopenia in the peripheral lymphoid tissues. LKB1 thus appears to be dispensable for positive selection but important for the maturation of positively selected thymocytes. LKB1 also strikingly prevented the development of invariant Vα14 NKT cells and innate TCR αβ gut lymphocytes. Previous studies with gain of function mutants have suggested that the role of LKB1 in T cell development is mediated by its substrate the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK. The present study now analyses the impact of AMPK deletion in DP thymocytes and shows that the role of LKB1 during the development of both conventional and innate T cells is mediated by AMPK-independent pathways.

  12. Induction of eosinophil apoptosis by the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor AT7519 promotes the resolution of eosinophil-dominant allergic inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L Alessandri

    Full Text Available Eosinophils not only defend the body against parasitic infection but are also involved in pathological inflammatory allergic diseases such as asthma, allergic rhinitis and contact dermatitis. Clearance of apoptotic eosinophils by macrophages is a key process responsible for driving the resolution of eosinophilic inflammation and can be defective in allergic diseases. However, enhanced resolution of eosinophilic inflammation by deliberate induction of eosinophil apoptosis using pharmacological agents has not been previously demonstrated. Here we investigated the effect of a novel cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor drug, AT7519, on human and mouse eosinophil apoptosis and examined whether it could enhance the resolution of a murine model of eosinophil-dominant inflammation in vivo.Eosinophils from blood of healthy donors were treated with AT7519 and apoptosis assessed morphologically and by flow-cytometric detection of annexin-V/propidium iodide staining. AT7519 induced eosinophil apoptosis in a concentration dependent manner. Therapeutic administration of AT7519 in eosinophil-dominant allergic inflammation was investigated using an established ovalbumin-sensitised mouse model of allergic pleurisy. Following ovalbumin challenge AT7519 was administered systemically at the peak of pleural inflammation and inflammatory cell infiltrate, apoptosis and evidence of macrophage phagocytosis of apoptotic eosinophils assessed at appropriate time points. Administration of AT7519 dramatically enhanced the resolution of allergic pleurisy via direct induction of eosinophil apoptosis without detriment to macrophage clearance of these cells. This enhanced resolution of inflammation was shown to be caspase-dependent as the effects of AT7519 were reduced by treatment with a broad spectrum caspase inhibitor (z-vad-fmk.Our data show that AT7519 induces human eosinophil apoptosis and enhances the resolution of a murine model of allergic pleurisy by inducing caspase-dependent

  13. High glucose increases glomerular filtration barrier permeability by activating protein kinase G type Iα subunits in a Nox4-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piwkowska, Agnieszka; Rogacka, Dorota; Audzeyenka, Irena; Angielski, Stefan; Jankowski, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    Hyperglycemia is a primary factor that disturbs podocyte function in the glomerular filtration process; this disturbance leads to the development of diabetic nephropathy, and ultimately, renal failure. Podocyte function may also be altered by biological agents that modify protein kinase activity, including the cGMP-activated protein kinase type Iα (PKGIα). We hypothesized that hyperglycemia-induced podocyte protein hyperpermeability was dependent on PKGIα activation, and that PKGIα was activated via dimerization induced by reactive oxygen species. This hypothesis was investigated in rat podocytes cultured in high glucose (HG, 30 mM). Protein expression was measured with Western blot and immunofluorescence. Podocyte permeability was measured with a transmembrane albumin flux assay. We found that HG increased podocyte permeability in long-term incubations (1, 3, and 5 days); permeability was increased by 66% on day 5. This effect was abolished with apocynin, a NAD(P)H inhibitor, and Rp-8-Br-cGMPS, a PKG inhibitor. It was also abolished by introducing small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) against Nox4 and PKGIα into cultured podocytes. Furthermore, HG increased PKGIα dimerization by 138% (0.23 ± 0.04 vs. 0.54 ± 0.09; Pfiltration barrier via Nox4-dependent PKGIα dimerization. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Heterologous desensitization of adenylate cyclase from pigeon erythrocytes under the action of the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, K.M.; Bulargina, T.V.; Severin, E.S.

    1985-01-01

    Preincubation of the plasma membranes from pigeon erythrocytes with the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase leads to desensitization of adenylate cyclase of the erythrocytes. The adenylate cyclase activity, measured in the presence of 10 μM isoproterenol and 50 μM GTP-γ-S, is decreased by 40% in 10 min of incubation, while the activity in the presence of 50 μM GTP-γ-S is decreased by 35% in 20 min. The decrease in the adenylate cyclase activity is due to an increase in the lag phase of activation of the enzyme in the presence of a GTP analog stable to hydrolysis and a decrease in the activity in the steady-state phase of activation. Heterologous desensitization of adenylate cyclase under the action of cAMP-dependent protein kinase is coupled with a decrease in the number of β-adrenoreceptors capable of passing into a state of high affinity for antagonists in the absence of guanylic nucleotides. The influence of the catalytic subunit on adenylate cyclase entirely models the process of desensitization of the enzyme absorbed in the influence of isoproterenol or cAMP on erythrocytes

  15. Rice calcium-dependent protein kinase OsCPK17 targets plasma membrane intrinsic protein and sucrose phosphate synthase and is required for a proper cold stress response

    KAUST Repository

    Almadanim, M. Cecília

    2017-01-19

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are involved in plant tolerance mechanisms to abiotic stresses. Although CDPKs are recognized as key messengers in signal transduction, the specific role of most members of this family remains unknown. Here we test the hypothesis that OsCPK17 plays a role in rice cold stress response by analyzing OsCPK17 knockout, silencing, and overexpressing rice lines under low temperature. Altered OsCPK17 gene expression compromises cold tolerance performance, without affecting the expression of key cold stress-inducible genes. A comparative phosphoproteomic approach led to the identification of six potential in vivo OsCPK17 targets, which are associated with sugar and nitrogen metabolism, and with osmotic regulation. To test direct interaction, in vitro kinase assays were performed, showing that the sucrose phosphate synthase OsSPS4, and the aquaporin OsPIP2;1/OsPIP2;6 are phosphorylated by OsCPK17 in a calcium-dependent manner. Altogether, our data indicates that OsCPK17 is required for a proper cold stress response in rice, likely affecting the activity of membrane channels and sugar metabolism.

  16. The expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p15, p16, p21, and p27 during ovarian follicle growth initiation in the mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayrak Aykut

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyclins regulate the cell cycle in association with cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs. CDKs are under inhibitory control of cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs. Method In this study we tested the expression of CDKIs p15, p16, p21 and p27 by immunohistochemistry to determine the role of CDKIs in the initiation of primordial follicle growth. Ovaries were collected from 60-day-old cycling B6D2F1/J mice (n = 16. Results Expression of p15, p16, p21 and p27 did not vary in granulosa and theca cells by the follicle stage. However, p16 staining was stronger (++ in the oocytes of all primordial, and 57.4 ± 3.1% of primary follicles compared to the remaining primary and more advanced follicles (+. Interestingly, primary follicles with weaker (+ oocyte staining for p16 had significantly larger mean follicle diameter compared to the primary and primordial follicles with stronger (++ oocyte staining (55.6 ± 2.1 vs. 32.0 ± 1.0 and 26.5 ± 0.7 μm, respectively, p Conclusions These preliminary findings suggest that the initiation of oocyte growth, which seems to lead follicle growth, is associated with diminished p16 expression in the mouse ovary. Further studies are needed to investigate the factors that regulate the expression of p16 in the oocyte, which might also govern the initiation of primordial follicle growth.

  17. ADAM12/syndecan-4 signaling promotes beta 1 integrin-dependent cell spreading through protein kinase Calpha and RhoA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thodeti, Charles Kumar; Albrechtsen, Reidar; Grauslund, Morten

    2002-01-01

    and stress fiber formation. We demonstrate that syndecan-4, when present in significant amounts, promotes beta(1) integrin-dependent cell spreading and stress fiber formation in response to rADAM12-cys. A mutant form of syndecan-4 deficient in protein kinase C (PKC)alpha activation or a different member...... of the syndecan family, syndecan-2, was unable to promote cell spreading. GF109203X and Gö6976, inhibitors of PKC, completely inhibited ADAM12/syndecan-4-induced cell spreading. Expression of syndecan-4, but not syn4DeltaI, resulted in the accumulation of activated beta(1) integrins at the cell periphery...... insights into syndecan-4 signaling. Syndecan-4 can promote cell spreading in a beta(1) integrin-dependent fashion through PKCalpha and RhoA, and PKCalpha and RhoA likely function in separate pathways....

  18. Phosphorylation of the PCNA binding domain of the large subunit of replication factor C by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inhibits DNA synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maga, G; Mossi, R; Fischer, R

    1997-01-01

    Replication factor C (RF-C) is a heteropentameric protein essential for DNA replication and DNA repair. It is a molecular matchmaker required for loading of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) sliding clamp onto double-strand DNA and for PCNA-dependent DNA synthesis by DNA polymerases...... delta and epsilon. The DNA and PCNA binding domains of the large 140 kDa subunit of human RF-C have been recently cloned [Fotedar, R., Mossi, R., Fitzgerald, P., Rousselle, T., Maga, G., Brickner, H., Messier, H., Khastilba. S., Hübscher, U., & Fotedar, A. (1996) EMBO J. 15, 4423-4433]. Here we show...... that the PCNA binding domain is phosphorylated by the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), an enzyme required for cell cycle progression in eukaryotic cells. The DNA binding domain, on the other hand, is not phosphorylated. Phosphorylation by CaMKII reduces the binding of PCNA to RF-C...

  19. Anti-neuroinflammatory efficacy of the aldose reductase inhibitor FMHM via phospholipase C/protein kinase C-dependent NF-κB and MAPK pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Ke-Wu [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China); Li, Jun [Modern Research Center for Traditional Chinese Medicine, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100029 (China); Dong, Xin; Wang, Ying-Hong; Ma, Zhi-Zhong; Jiang, Yong; Jin, Hong-Wei [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China); Tu, Peng-Fei, E-mail: pengfeitu@vip.163.com [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China); Modern Research Center for Traditional Chinese Medicine, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2013-11-15

    Aldose reductase (AR) has a key role in several inflammatory diseases: diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, AR inhibition seems to be a useful strategy for anti-inflammation therapy. In the central nervous system (CNS), microglial over-activation is considered to be a central event in neuroinflammation. However, the effects of AR inhibition in CNS inflammation and its underlying mechanism of action remain unknown. In the present study, we found that FMHM (a naturally derived AR inhibitor from the roots of Polygala tricornis Gagnep.) showed potent anti-neuroinflammatory effects in vivo and in vitro by inhibiting microglial activation and expression of inflammatory mediators. Mechanistic studies showed that FMHM suppressed the activity of AR-dependent phospholipase C/protein kinase C signaling, which further resulted in downstream inactivation of the IκB kinase/IκB/nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) inflammatory pathway. Therefore, AR inhibition-dependent NF-κB inactivation negatively regulated the transcription and expression of various inflammatory genes. AR inhibition by FMHM exerted neuroprotective effects in lipopolysaccharide-induced neuron–microglia co-cultures. These findings suggested that AR is a potential target for neuroinflammation inhibition and that FMHM could be an effective agent for treating or preventing neuroinflammatory diseases. - Highlights: • FMHM is a natural-derived aldose reductase (AR) inhibitor. • FMHM inhibits various neuroinflammatory mediator productions in vitro and in vivo. • FMHM inhibits neuroinflammation via aldose reductase/PLC/PKC-dependent NF-κB pathway. • FMHM inhibits neuroinflammation via aldose reductase/PLC/PKC-dependent MAPK pathway. • FMHM protects neurons against inflammatory injury in microglia-neuron co-cultures.

  20. Anti-neuroinflammatory efficacy of the aldose reductase inhibitor FMHM via phospholipase C/protein kinase C-dependent NF-κB and MAPK pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldose reductase (AR) has a key role in several inflammatory diseases: diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, AR inhibition seems to be a useful strategy for anti-inflammation therapy. In the central nervous system (CNS), microglial over-activation is considered to be a central event in neuroinflammation. However, the effects of AR inhibition in CNS inflammation and its underlying mechanism of action remain unknown. In the present study, we found that FMHM (a naturally derived AR inhibitor from the roots of Polygala tricornis Gagnep.) showed potent anti-neuroinflammatory effects in vivo and in vitro by inhibiting microglial activation and expression of inflammatory mediators. Mechanistic studies showed that FMHM suppressed the activity of AR-dependent phospholipase C/protein kinase C signaling, which further resulted in downstream inactivation of the IκB kinase/IκB/nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) inflammatory pathway. Therefore, AR inhibition-dependent NF-κB inactivation negatively regulated the transcription and expression of various inflammatory genes. AR inhibition by FMHM exerted neuroprotective effects in lipopolysaccharide-induced neuron–microglia co-cultures. These findings suggested that AR is a potential target for neuroinflammation inhibition and that FMHM could be an effective agent for treating or preventing neuroinflammatory diseases. - Highlights: • FMHM is a natural-derived aldose reductase (AR) inhibitor. • FMHM inhibits various neuroinflammatory mediator productions in vitro and in vivo. • FMHM inhibits neuroinflammation via aldose reductase/PLC/PKC-dependent NF-κB pathway. • FMHM inhibits neuroinflammation via aldose reductase/PLC/PKC-dependent MAPK pathway. • FMHM protects neurons against inflammatory injury in microglia-neuron co-cultures

  1. 1,6-O,O-diacetylbritannilactones inhibits IkappaB kinase beta-dependent NF-kappaB activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yue-Ping; Wen, Jin-Kun; Wu, Yi-Bing; Zhang, Jia; Zheng, Bin; Zhang, Di-Qun; Han, Mei

    2009-03-01

    To determine the chemical constituents responsible for pharmacological effects of Inula britannica-F., three specific sesquiterpene lactones in Inula britannica were isolated from chloroform extract and identified, including britannilactone (BL), 1-O-acetylbritannilactone (ABLO), and 1,6-O,O-diacetylbritannilactone (ABLOO). Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) was performed to detect the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) p65. The expressions of IkappaBalpha, pIkappaBalpha, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), IkappaB kinase alpha/beta (IKKalpha/beta) and NF-kappaB kinase (NIK) were detected by Western blot and RT-PCR. We found that acetyl side groups enhanced the inhibitory action of the agents on LPS/IFN-gamma-induced iNOS and COX-2 expression. Their inhibiting activity was positive correlation with the acetyl side group number. The effects of LPS/IFN-gamma were reversed by ABLOO, and BL without acetyl side groups showed only a weak inhibitory action. Further study indicated that ABLOO markedly inhibited the phosphorylation of IKKbeta down to based level, but not IKKalpha, corresponding with decreased in IkappaBalpha degradation and phosphorylation induced by LPS/IFN-gamma, resulting in the suppression of NF-kappaB nuclear translocation and activity. These results suggest that the acetyl moieties add to the lipophilicity, and consequently enhance cellular penetration, so that ABLOO possess the most anti-inflammatory effect and may be a potent lead structure for the development of therapeutic and cytokine-suppressing remedies valuable for the treatment of various inflammatory diseases.

  2. The Atypical MAP Kinase SWIP-13/ERK8 Regulates Dopamine Transporters through a Rho-Dependent Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermingham, Daniel P; Hardaway, J Andrew; Refai, Osama; Marks, Christian R; Snider, Sam L; Sturgeon, Sarah M; Spencer, William C; Colbran, Roger J; Miller, David M; Blakely, Randy D

    2017-09-20

    The neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) regulates multiple behaviors across phylogeny, with disrupted DA signaling in humans associated with addiction, attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia, and Parkinson's disease. The DA transporter (DAT) imposes spatial and temporal limits on DA action, and provides for presynaptic DA recycling to replenish neurotransmitter pools. Molecular mechanisms that regulate DAT expression, trafficking, and function, particularly in vivo , remain poorly understood, though recent studies have implicated rho-linked pathways in psychostimulant action. To identify genes that dictate the ability of DAT to sustain normal levels of DA clearance, we pursued a forward genetic screen in Caenorhabditis elegans based on the phenotype swimming-induced paralysis (Swip), a paralytic behavior observed in hermaphrodite worms with loss-of-function dat-1 mutations. Here, we report the identity of swip-13 , which encodes a highly conserved ortholog of the human atypical MAP kinase ERK8. We present evidence that SWIP-13 acts presynaptically to insure adequate levels of surface DAT expression and DA clearance. Moreover, we provide in vitro and in vivo evidence supporting a conserved pathway involving SWIP-13/ERK8 activation of Rho GTPases that dictates DAT surface expression and function. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Signaling by the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) is tightly regulated by the DA transporter (DAT), insuring efficient DA clearance after release. Molecular networks that regulate DAT are poorly understood, particularly in vivo Using a forward genetic screen in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans , we implicate the atypical mitogen activated protein kinase, SWIP-13, in DAT regulation. Moreover, we provide in vitro and in vivo evidence that SWIP-13, as well as its human counterpart ERK8, regulate DAT surface availability via the activation of Rho proteins. Our findings implicate a novel pathway that regulates DA synaptic availability and that

  3. Activation of the Stress Response Kinase JNK (c-Jun N-terminal Kinase) Attenuates Insulin Action in Retina through a p70S6K1-dependent Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, William P; Ravi, Suhana; Martin, Tony D; Kimball, Scot R; Dennis, Michael D

    2017-02-03

    Despite recent advances in therapeutics, diabetic retinopathy remains a leading cause of vision impairment. Improvement in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy requires a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that cause neurovascular complications, particularly in type 2 diabetes. Recent studies demonstrate that rodents fed a high fat diet exhibit retinal dysfunction concomitant with attenuated Akt phosphorylation. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the impact of a high fat/high sucrose diet on retinal insulin signaling and evaluate the mechanism(s) responsible for the changes. Mice fed a high fat/sucrose diet exhibited attenuated Akt phosphorylation in the retina as compared with mice fed normal chow. Retinas of mice fed a high fat/sucrose diet also exhibited elevated levels of activated JNK as well as enhanced p70S6K1 autoinhibitory domain phosphorylation. In cells, JNK activation enhanced p70S6K1 phosphorylation and mTORC1-dependent activation of the kinase, as evidenced by enhanced phosphorylation of key substrates. Rictor phosphorylation by p70S6K1 was specifically enhanced by the addition of phosphomimetic mutations in the autoinhibitory domain and was more sensitive to inhibition of the kinase as compared with rpS6. Notably, rictor and IRS-1 phosphorylation by p70S6K1 attenuate insulin action through a negative feedback pathway. Indeed, p70S6K1 inhibition prevented the repressive effect of JNK activation on insulin action in retinas. Overall, the results identify the JNK/S6K1 axis as a key molecular mechanism whereby a high fat/sucrose diet impairs insulin action in retina. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. DNA requirements for interaction of the C-terminal region of Ku80 with the DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Sarvan Kumar; Lees-Miller, Susan P

    2017-09-01

    Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) is the major pathway for the repair of ionizing radiation induced DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) in human cells. Critical to NHEJ is the DNA-dependent interaction of the Ku70/80 heterodimer with the DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) to form the DNA-PK holoenzyme. However, precisely how Ku recruits DNA-PKcs to DSBs ends to enhance its kinase activity has remained enigmatic, with contradictory findings reported in the literature. Here we address the role of the Ku80 C-terminal region (CTR) in the DNA-dependent interaction of Ku70/80 with DNA-PKcs using purified components and defined DNA structures. Our results show that the Ku80 CTR is required for interaction with DNA-PKcs on short segments of blunt ended 25bp dsDNA or 25bp dsDNA with a 15-base poly dA single stranded (ss) DNA extension, but this requirement is less stringent on longer dsDNA molecules (35bp blunt ended dsDNA) or 25bp duplex DNA with either a 15-base poly dT or poly dC ssDNA extension. Moreover, the DNA-PKcs-Ku complex preferentially forms on 25 bp DNA with a poly-pyrimidine ssDNA extension.Our work clarifies the role of the Ku80 CTR and dsDNA ends on the interaction of DNA-PKcs with Ku and provides key information to guide assembly and biology of NHEJ complexes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Radiosensitivity profiles from a panel of ovarian cancer cell lines exhibiting genetic alterations in p53 and disparate DNA-dependent protein kinase activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langland, Gregory T.; Yannone, Steven M.; Langland, Rachel A.; Nakao, Aki; Guan, Yinghui; Long, Sydney B.T.; Vonguyen, Lien; Chen, David J.; Gray, Joe W; Chen, Fanqing

    2009-09-07

    The variability of radiation responses in ovarian tumors and tumor-derived cell lines is poorly understood. Since both DNA repair capacity and p53 status can significantly alter radiation sensitivity, we evaluated these factors along with radiation sensitivity in a panel of sporadic human ovarian carcinoma cell lines. We observed a gradation of radiation sensitivity among these sixteen lines, with a five-fold difference in the LD50 between the most radiosensitive and the most radioresistant cells. The DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) is essential for the repair of radiation induced DNA double-strand breaks in human somatic cells. Therefore, we measured gene copy number, expression levels, protein abundance, genomic copy and kinase activity for DNA-PK in all of our cell lines. While there were detectable differences in DNA-PK between the cell lines, there was no clear correlation with any of these differences and radiation sensitivity. In contrast, p53 function as determined by two independent methods, correlated well with radiation sensitivity, indicating p53 mutant ovarian cancer cells are typically radioresistant relative to p53 wild-type lines. These data suggest that the activity of regulatory molecules such as p53 may be better indicators of radiation sensitivity than DNA repair enzymes such as DNAPK in ovarian cancer.

  6. Focal adhesion kinase-dependent focal adhesion recruitment of SH2 domains directs SRC into focal adhesions to regulate cell adhesion and migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jui-Chung; Chen, Yu-Chen; Kuo, Chih-Ting; Wenshin Yu, Helen; Chen, Yin-Quan; Chiou, Arthur; Kuo, Jean-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Directed cell migration requires dynamical control of the protein complex within focal adhesions (FAs) and this control is regulated by signaling events involving tyrosine phosphorylation. We screened the SH2 domains present in tyrosine-specific kinases and phosphatases found within FAs, including SRC, SHP1 and SHP2, and examined whether these enzymes transiently target FAs via their SH2 domains. We found that the SRC_SH2 domain and the SHP2_N-SH2 domain are associated with FAs, but only the SRC_SH2 domain is able to be regulated by focal adhesion kinase (FAK). The FAK-dependent association of the SRC_SH2 domain is necessary and sufficient for SRC FA targeting. When the targeting of SRC into FAs is inhibited, there is significant suppression of SRC-mediated phosphorylation of paxillin and FAK; this results in an inhibition of FA formation and maturation and a reduction in cell migration. This study reveals an association between FAs and the SRC_SH2 domain as well as between FAs and the SHP2_N-SH2 domains. This supports the hypothesis that the FAK-regulated SRC_SH2 domain plays an important role in directing SRC into FAs and that this SRC-mediated FA signaling drives cell migration. PMID:26681405

  7. Ca²⁺/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II contributes to hypoxic ischemic cell death in neonatal hippocampal slice cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Lu

    Full Text Available We have recently shown that p38MAP kinase (p38MAPK stimulates ROS generation via the activation of NADPH oxidase during neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI brain injury. However, how p38MAPK is activated during HI remains unresolved and was the focus of this study. Ca²⁺/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII plays a key role in brain synapse development, neural transduction and synaptic plasticity. Here we show that CaMKII activity is stimulated in rat hippocampal slice culture exposed to oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD to mimic the condition of HI. Further, the elevation of CaMKII activity, correlated with enhanced p38MAPK activity, increased superoxide generation from NADPH oxidase as well as necrotic and apoptotic cell death. All of these events were prevented when CaMKII activity was inhibited with KN93. In a neonatal rat model of HI, KN93 also reduced brain injury. Our results suggest that CaMKII activation contributes to the oxidative stress associated with neural cell death after HI.

  8. Fas-Induced Apoptosis of Renal Cell Carcinoma is Mediated by Apoptosis Signal-Regulating Kinase 1 via Mitochondrial Damage-Dependent Caspase-8 Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Hassan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma (RCC is a prototype of a chemo refractory tumour. It remains the most lethal of the common urologic cancers and is highly resistant to conventional therapy. Here, we confirmed the efficiency of anti-Fas monoclonal antibody (CH11 as alternative therapeutic approach for the treatment of RCC and investigated the molecular mechanism(s, whereby CH11 induces apoptosis of RCC cells. The present study shows an essential role for apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1, together with both c-jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK and p38 pathways, and caspase-8 in this process. Furthermore, CH11-dependent induction of the ASK1–JNK/p38 pathways was found to activate the transcription factors AP-1 and ATF-2, and FADD-caspase-8-Bid signalling, resulting in the translocation of both Bax and Bak proteins, and subsequently mitochondrial dysregulation that is characterized by the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm, cytochrome c release and cleavage of caspase-9, caspase-3 and PARP. Thus, the described molecular mechanisms of CH11-induced apoptosis suggest the reliability of Fas activation as an alternative therapeutic approach for the treatment of patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma.

  9. MicroRNA-26a/cyclin-dependent kinase 5 axis controls proliferation, apoptosis and in vivo tumor growth of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, Floriana Maria; Inguscio, Alessandra; Kunderfranco, Paolo; Cortesi, Alice; Elia, Leonardo; Quintavalle, Manuela

    2017-06-22

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most frequent type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Despite a favorable therapeutic response to first-line chemo-immunotherapy, still 30-40% of patients is refractory, or relapse after this treatment. Thus, alternative strategies must be sought. Previous studies have indicated that cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5), a serine/threonine protein kinase, is involved in tumor development and progression, and it may represent a potential therapeutic target. However, its role in modulating DLBCL growth and progression remains largely unexplored. In this study, we show that CDK5 and its activator, cyclin-dependent kinase 5 activator 1 (CDK5R1 or p35), are overexpressed in DLBCL cell lines and that signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation and activity is dependent on CDK5 expression in DLBCL. Using public data sets, we also demonstrate that patients with DLBCL show a higher expression of CDK5 compared with healthy individuals. By using loss-of-function approaches, we demonstrate that CDK5's activity regulates proliferation and survival of DLBCL cells. MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) are small noncoding RNAs that negatively regulating gene expression and are involved in cancer initiation and progression. We identify miR-26a as direct regulator of p35 expression and CDK5 activity. We show that miR-26a expression is lower in DLBCL cell lines compared to B lymphocytes and that its ectopic expression leads to a drastic reduction of DLBCL tumor growth in vivo and decreased proliferation, cell-cycle progression, and survival in vitro. Remarkably, concomitant overexpression of a 3'-UTR-truncated form of p35 promoted tumor growth in vivo and cell proliferation, cell-cycle progression, and cell survival in vitro. In conclusion, these results demonstrate an important role for miR-26a and CDK5 together in the survival and growth of DLBCL cells, suggesting the existence of potential novel therapeutic targets for the

  10. Parathyroid Hormone Activates Phospholipase C (PLC)-Independent Protein Kinase C Signaling Pathway via Protein Kinase A (PKA)-Dependent Mechanism: A New Defined Signaling Route Would Induce Alternative Consideration to Previous Conceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Guojun; Meng, Yue; Hao, Song; Hu, Shaoyu; He, Youhua; Yan, Wenjuan; Yang, Dehong

    2017-04-20

    BACKGROUND Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is an effective anti-osteoporosis agent, after binding to its receptor PTHR1, several signaling pathways, including cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) and phospholipase C (PLC)/protein kinase C (PKC), are initiated through G proteins; with the cAMP/PKA pathway as the major pathway. Earlier studies have reported that PTHR1 might also activate PKC via a PLC-independent mechanism, but this pathway remains unclear. MATERIAL AND METHODS In HEK293 cells, cAMP accumulation was measured with ELISA and PKC was measured with fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) analysis using CKAR plasmid. In MC3T3-E1 cells, real-time PCR was performed to examine gene expressions. Then assays for cell apoptosis, cell differentiation, alkaline phosphatase activity, and mineralization were performed. RESULTS The FRET analysis found that PTH(1-34), [G1,R19]PTH(1-34) (GR(1-34), and [G1,R19]PTH(1-28) (GR(1-28) were all activated by PKC. The PKC activation ability of GR(1-28) was blocked by cAMP inhibitor (Rp-cAMP) and rescued with the addition of active PKA-α and PKA-β. The PKC activation ability of GR(1-34) was partially inhibited by Rp-cAMP. In MC3T3-E1 cells, gene expressions of ALP, CITED1, NR4a2, and OSX that was regulated by GR(1-28) were significantly changed by the pan-PKC inhibitor Go6983. After pretreatment with Rp-cAMP, the gene expressions of ALP, CITED1, and OPG were differentially regulated by GR(1-28) or GR(1-34), and the difference was blunted by Go6983. PTH(1-34), GR(1-28), and GR(1-34) significantly decreased early apoptosis and augmented osteoblastic differentiation in accordance with the activities of PKA and PKC. CONCLUSIONS PLC-independent PKC activation induced by PTH could be divided into two potential mechanisms: one was PKA-dependent and associated with PTH(1-28); the other was PKA-independent and associated with PTH(29-34). We also found that PTH could activate PLC-independent PKC via PKA-dependent mechanisms.

  11. Up-regulation of DNA-dependent protein kinase correlates with radiation resistance in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shintani, Satoru; Mihara, Mariko; Li, Chunnan; Nakahara Yuuji; Hino, Satoshi; Nakashiro, Koh-ichi; Hamakawa, Hiroyuki

    2003-01-01

    DNA-PK is a nuclear protein with serine/threonine kinase activity and forms a complex consisting of the DNA-PKcs and a heterodimer of Ku70 and Ku80 proteins. Recent laboratory experiments have demonstrated that the DNA-PK complex formation is one of the major pathways by which mammalian cells respond to DNA double-strand breaks induced by ionizing radiation. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between expression levels of DNA-PKcs, Ku70 and Ku80 proteins and radiation sensitivity in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell lines and in OSCC patients treated with preoperative radiation therapy. The OSCC cell lines greatly differed in their response to irradiation, as assessed by a standard colony formation assay. However, the expression levels of the DNA-PK complex proteins were all similar, and there was no association between the magnitude of their expression and the tumor radiation sensitivity. Expression of DNA-PK complex proteins increased after radiation treatment, and the increased values correlated with the tumor radiation resistance. Expression of DNA-PKcs and Ku70 after irradiation was increased in the surviving cells of OSCC tissues irradiated preoperatively. These results suggest that up-regulation of DNA-PK complex protein, especially DNA-PKcs, after radiation treatment correlates to radiation resistance. DNA-PKcs might be a molecular target for a novel radiation sensitization therapy of OSCC. (author)

  12. Pro-survival Effects of 17β-Estradiol on Osteocytes Are Mediated by Nitric Oxide/cGMP via Differential Actions of cGMP-dependent Protein Kinases I and II*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marathe, Nisha; Rangaswami, Hema; Zhuang, Shunhui; Boss, Gerry R.; Pilz, Renate B.

    2012-01-01

    Estrogens promote bone health in part by increasing osteocyte survival, an effect that requires activation of the protein kinases Akt and ERK1/2, but the molecular mechanisms involved are only partly understood. Because estrogens increase nitric oxide (NO) synthesis and NO can have anti-apoptotic effects, we examined the role of NO/cGMP signaling in estrogen regulation of osteocyte survival. Etoposide-induced death of MLO-Y4 osteocyte-like cells, assessed by trypan blue staining, caspase-3 cleavage, and TUNEL assays, was completely prevented when cells were pre-treated with 17β-estradiol. This protective effect was mimicked when cells were pre-treated with a membrane-permeable cGMP analog and blocked by pharmacological inhibitors of NO synthase, soluble guanylate cyclase, or cGMP-dependent protein kinases (PKGs), supporting a requirement for NO/cGMP/PKG signaling downstream of 17β-estradiol. siRNA-mediated knockdown and viral reconstitution of individual PKG isoforms demonstrated that the anti-apoptotic effects of estradiol and cGMP were mediated by PKG Iα and PKG II. Akt and ERK1/2 activation by 17β-estradiol required PKG II, and cGMP mimicked the effects of estradiol on Akt and ERK, including induction of ERK nuclear translocation. cGMP induced BAD phosphorylation on several sites, and experiments with phosphorylation-deficient BAD mutants demonstrated that the anti-apoptotic effects of cGMP and 17β-estradiol required BAD phosphorylation on Ser136 and Ser155; these sites were targeted by Akt and PKG I, respectively, and regulate BAD interaction with Bcl-2. In conclusion, 17β-estradiol protects osteocytes against apoptosis by activating the NO/cGMP/PKG cascade; PKG II is required for estradiol-induced activation of ERK and Akt, and PKG Iα contributes to pro-survival signaling by directly phosphorylating BAD. PMID:22117068

  13. Effect Of DNA-dependent protein kinase on the molecular fate of the rAAV2 genome in skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sihong; Laipis, Philip J.; Berns, Kenneth I.; Flotte, Terence R.

    2001-01-01

    We report here that the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) affects the molecular fate of the recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) genome in skeletal muscle. rAAV-human α1-antitrypsin (rAAV-hAAT) vectors were delivered by intramuscular injection to either C57BL/6 (DNA-PKcs+) or C57BL/6-SCID [severe combined immunodeficient (SCID), DNA-PKcs−] mice. In both strains, high levels of transgene expression were sustained for up to 1 year after a single injection. Southern blot analysis showed that rAAV genomes persisted as linear episomes for more than 1 year in SCID mice, whereas only circular episomal forms were observed in the C57BL/6 strain. These results indicate that DNA-PK is involved in the formation of circular rAAV episomes. PMID:11274433

  14. Non-small cell lung cancer-derived soluble mediators enhance apoptosis in activated T lymphocytes through an I kappa B kinase-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Raj K; Lin, Ying; Sharma, Sherven; Dohadwala, Mariam; Luo, Jie; Pold, Mehis; Dubinett, Steven M

    2003-02-01

    T lymphocyte survival is critical for the development and maintenance of an effective host antitumor immune response; however, the tumor environment can negatively impact T-cell survival. Lymphocytes exposed to tumor supernatants (TSNs) were evaluated for apoptosis after mitogen stimulation. TSN was observed to significantly enhance phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate/ionomycin- and anti-CD3-stimulated lymphocyte apoptosis. Enhanced lymphocyte apoptosis was associated with an impairment of nuclear factor kappa B nuclear translocation and diminished I kappa B alpha degradation. In lymphocytes stimulated after exposure to TSNs, cytoplasmic I kappa B alpha persisted as a result of alterations in I kappa B kinase (IKK) activity. Accordingly, although there were no apparent differences in IKK component concentrations, lymphocytes preexposed to TSNs exhibited markedly reduced IKK activity. We conclude that non-small cell lung cancer-derived soluble factors promote apoptosis in activated lymphocytes by an IKK-dependent pathway.

  15. Neutron diffraction reveals hydrogen bonds critical for cGMP-selective activation: insights for cGMP-dependent protein kinase agonist design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Gilbert Y; Gerlits, Oksana O; Blakeley, Matthew P; Sankaran, Banumathi; Kovalevsky, Andrey Y; Kim, Choel

    2014-11-04

    High selectivity of cyclic-nucleotide binding (CNB) domains for cAMP and cGMP are required for segregating signaling pathways; however, the mechanism of selectivity remains unclear. To investigate the mechanism of high selectivity in cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG), we determined a room-temperature joint X-ray/neutron (XN) structure of PKG Iβ CNB-B, a domain 200-fold selective for cGMP over cAMP, bound to cGMP (2.2 Å), and a low-temperature X-ray structure of CNB-B with cAMP (1.3 Å). The XN structure directly describes the hydrogen bonding interactions that modulate high selectivity for cGMP, while the structure with cAMP reveals that all these contacts are disrupted, explaining its low affinity for cAMP.

  16. Platelet adhesion enhances the glycoprotein VI-dependent procoagulant response: Involvement of p38 MAP kinase and calpain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siljander, P; Farndale, R W; Feijge, M A; Comfurius, P; Kos, S; Bevers, E M; Heemskerk, J W

    2001-04-01

    In the final stages of activation, platelets express coagulation-promoting activity by 2 simultaneous processes: exposure of aminophospholipids, eg, phosphatidylserine (PS), at the platelet surface, and formation of membrane blebs, which may be shed as microvesicles. Contact with collagen triggers both processes via platelet glycoprotein VI (GPVI). Here, we studied the capacity of 2 GPVI ligands, collagen-related peptide (CRP) and the snake venom protein convulxin (CVX), to elicit the procoagulant platelet response. In platelets in suspension, either ligand induced full aggregation and high Ca(2+) signals but little microvesiculation or PS exposure. However, most of the platelets adhering to immobilized CRP or CVX had exposed PS and formed membrane blebs after a prolonged increase in cytosolic [Ca(2+)](i). Platelets adhering to fibrinogen responded similarly but only when exposed to soluble CRP or CVX. By scanning electron microscopic analysis, the bleb-forming platelets were detected as either round, spongelike structures with associated microparticles or as arrays of vesicular cell fragments. The phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) elicited by CRP and CVX was enhanced in fibrinogen-adherent platelets compared with that in platelets in suspension. The p38 inhibitor SB203580 and the calpain protease inhibitor calpeptin reduced only the procoagulant bleb formation, having no effect on PS exposure. Inhibition of p38 also downregulated calpain activity. We conclude that the procoagulant response evoked by GPVI stimulation is potentiated by platelet adhesion. The sequential activation of p38 MAPK and calpain appears to regulate procoagulant membrane blebbing but not PS exposure.

  17. Two Novel Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase 1 Inhibitors Interfere with Vertical Transmission in Mice Infected with Neospora caninum Tachyzoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Joachim; Aguado-Martínez, Adriana; Balmer, Vreni; Maly, Dustin J; Fan, Erkang; Ortega-Mora, Luis-Miguel; Ojo, Kayode K; Van Voorhis, Wesley C; Hemphill, Andrew

    2017-04-01

    We present the effects of two novel bumped kinase inhibitors, BKI-1517 and BKI-1553, against Neospora caninum tachyzoites in vitro and in experimentally infected pregnant mice. These compounds inhibited tachyzoite proliferation of a transgenic beta-galactosidase reporter strain cultured in human foreskin fibroblasts with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC 50 s) of 0.05 ± 0.03 and 0.18 ± 0.03 μM, respectively. As assessed by an alamarBlue assay, fibroblast IC 50 s were above 20 μM; however, morphological changes occurred in cultures treated with >5 μM BKI-1517 after prolonged exposure (>6 days). Treatment of intracellular tachyzoites with 5 μM BKI-1553 for 6 days inhibited endodyogeny by interfering with the separation of newly formed zoites from a larger multinucleated parasite mass. In contrast, parasites treated with 5 μM BKI-1517 did not form large complexes and showed much more evidence of cell death. However, after a treatment duration of 10 days in vitro , both compounds failed to completely prevent the regrowth of parasites from culture. BALB/c mice experimentally infected with N. caninum Spain7 (Nc-Spain7) and then treated during 6 days with BKI-1517 or BKI-1553 at different dosages showed a significant reduction of the cerebral parasite load. However, fertility was impaired by BKI-1517 when applied at 50 mg/kg of body weight/day. At 20 mg/kg/day, BKI-1517 significantly inhibited the vertical transmission of N. caninum to pups and increased the rate of survival of offspring. BKI-1553 was less detrimental to fertility and also provided significant but clearly less pronounced protection of dams and offspring. These results demonstrate that, when judiciously applied, this compound class protects offspring from vertical transmission and disease. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  18. Ca2+/Calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase IIα (αCaMKII) Controls the Activity of the Dopamine Transporter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinkellner, Thomas; Yang, Jae-Won; Montgomery, Therese R.; Chen, Wei-Qiang; Winkler, Marie-Therese; Sucic, Sonja; Lubec, Gert; Freissmuth, Michael; Elgersma, Ype; Sitte, Harald H.; Kudlacek, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) is a crucial regulator of dopaminergic neurotransmission, controlling the length and brevity of dopaminergic signaling. DAT is also the primary target of psychostimulant drugs such as cocaine and amphetamines. Conversely, methylphenidate and amphetamine are both used clinically in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and narcolepsy. The action of amphetamines, which induce transport reversal, relies primarily on the ionic composition of the intra- and extracellular milieus. Recent findings suggest that DAT interacting proteins may also play a significant role in the modulation of reverse dopamine transport. The pharmacological inhibition of the serine/threonine kinase αCaMKII attenuates amphetamine-triggered DAT-mediated 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) efflux. More importantly, αCaMKII has also been shown to bind DAT in vitro and is therefore believed to be an important player within the DAT interactome. Herein, we show that αCaMKII co-immunoprecipitates with DAT in mouse striatal synaptosomes. Mice, which lack αCaMKII or which express a permanently self-inhibited αCaMKII (αCaMKIIT305D), exhibit significantly reduced amphetamine-triggered DAT-mediated MPP+ efflux. Additionally, we investigated mice that mimic a neurogenetic disease known as Angelman syndrome. These mice possess reduced αCaMKII activity. Angelman syndrome mice demonstrated an impaired DAT efflux function, which was comparable with that of the αCaMKII mutant mice, indicating that DAT-mediated dopaminergic signaling is affected in Angelman syndrome. PMID:22778257

  19. Opioid withdrawal increases transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 activity in a protein kinase A-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahn, Viola; Fischer, Oliver; Endres-Becker, Jeannette; Schäfer, Michael; Stein, Christoph; Zöllner, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Hyperalgesia is a cardinal symptom of opioid withdrawal. The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a ligand-gated ion channel expressed on sensory neurons responding to noxious heat, protons, and chemical stimuli such as capsaicin. TRPV1 can be inhibited via μ-opioid receptor (MOR)-mediated reduced activity of adenylyl cyclases (ACs) and decreased cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels. In contrast, opioid withdrawal following chronic activation of MOR uncovers AC superactivation and subsequent increases in cAMP and protein kinase A (PKA) activity. Here we investigated (1) whether an increase in cAMP during opioid withdrawal increases the activity of TRPV1 and (2) how opioid withdrawal modulates capsaicin-induced nocifensive behavior in rats. We applied whole-cell patch clamp, microfluorimetry, cAMP assays, radioligand binding, site-directed mutagenesis, and behavioral experiments. Opioid withdrawal significantly increased cAMP levels and capsaicin-induced TRPV1 activity in both transfected human embryonic kidney 293 cells and dissociated dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Inhibition of AC and PKA, as well as mutations of the PKA phosphorylation sites threonine 144 and serine 774, prevented the enhanced TRPV1 activity. Finally, capsaicin-induced nocifensive behavior was increased during opioid withdrawal in vivo. In summary, our results demonstrate an increased activity of TRPV1 in DRG neurons as a new mechanism contributing to opioid withdrawal-induced hyperalgesia. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. G protein-coupled receptor (GPR)40-dependent potentiation of insulin secretion in mouse islets is mediated by protein kinase D1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdaoussi, M; Bergeron, V; Zarrouki, B; Kolic, J; Cantley, J; Fielitz, J; Olson, E N; Prentki, M; Biden, T; MacDonald, P E; Poitout, V

    2012-10-01

    Activation of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPR)40 by long-chain fatty acids potentiates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from pancreatic beta cells, and GPR40 agonists are in clinical development for type 2 diabetes therapy. GPR40 couples to the G protein subunit Gα(q/11) but the signalling cascade activated downstream is unknown. This study aimed to determine the mechanisms of GPR40-dependent potentiation of GSIS by fatty acids. Insulin secretion in response to glucose, oleate or diacylglycerol (DAG) was assessed in dynamic perifusions and static incubations in islets from wild-type (WT) and Gpr40 (-/-) mice. Depolymerisation of filamentous actin (F-actin) was visualised by phalloidin staining and epifluorescence. Pharmacological and molecular approaches were used to ascertain the roles of protein kinase D (PKD) and protein kinase C delta in GPR40-mediated potentiation of GSIS. Oleate potentiates the second phase of GSIS, and this effect is largely dependent upon GPR40. Accordingly, oleate induces rapid F-actin remodelling in WT but not in Gpr40 (-/-) islets. Exogenous DAG potentiates GSIS in both WT and Gpr40 (-/-) islets. Oleate induces PKD phosphorylation at residues Ser-744/748 and Ser-916 in WT but not Gpr40 (-/-) islets. Importantly, oleate-induced F-actin depolymerisation and potentiation of GSIS are lost upon pharmacological inhibition of PKD1 or deletion of Prkd1. We conclude that the signalling cascade downstream of GPR40 activation by fatty acids involves activation of PKD1, F-actin depolymerisation and potentiation of second-phase insulin secretion. These results provide important information on the mechanisms of action of GPR40, a novel drug target for type 2 diabetes.

  1. cGMP-dependent protein kinase type I is implicated in the regulation of the timing and quality of sleep and wakefulness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Langmesser

    Full Text Available Many effects of nitric oxide (NO are mediated by the activation of guanylyl cyclases and subsequent production of the second messenger cyclic guanosine-3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP. cGMP activates cGMP-dependent protein kinases (PRKGs, which can therefore be considered downstream effectors of NO signaling. Since NO is thought to be involved in the regulation of both sleep and circadian rhythms, we analyzed these two processes in mice deficient for cGMP-dependent protein kinase type I (PRKG1 in the brain. Prkg1 mutant mice showed a strikingly altered distribution of sleep and wakefulness over the 24 hours of a day as well as reductions in rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS duration and in non-REM sleep (NREMS consolidation, and their ability to sustain waking episodes was compromised. Furthermore, they displayed a drastic decrease in electroencephalogram (EEG power in the delta frequency range (1-4 Hz under baseline conditions, which could be normalized after sleep deprivation. In line with the re-distribution of sleep and wakefulness, the analysis of wheel-running and drinking activity revealed more rest bouts during the activity phase and a higher percentage of daytime activity in mutant animals. No changes were observed in internal period length and phase-shifting properties of the circadian clock while chi-squared periodogram amplitude was significantly reduced, hinting at a less robust oscillator. These results indicate that PRKG1 might be involved in the stabilization and output strength of the circadian oscillator in mice. Moreover, PRKG1 deficiency results in an aberrant pattern, and consequently a reduced quality, of sleep and wakefulness, possibly due to a decreased wake-promoting output of the circadian system impinging upon sleep.

  2. Apelin-13 inhibits large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels in cerebral artery smooth muscle cells via a PI3-kinase dependent mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Modgil

    Full Text Available Apelin-13 causes vasoconstriction by acting directly on APJ receptors in vascular smooth muscle (VSM cells; however, the ionic mechanisms underlying this action at the cellular level remain unclear. Large-conductance Ca(2+-activated K(+ (BKCa channels in VSM cells are critical regulators of membrane potential and vascular tone. In the present study, we examined the effect of apelin-13 on BK(Ca channel activity in VSM cells, freshly isolated from rat middle cerebral arteries. In whole-cell patch clamp mode, apelin-13 (0.001-1 μM caused concentration-dependent inhibition of BK(Ca in VSM cells. Apelin-13 (0.1 µM significantly decreased BK(Ca current density from 71.25 ± 8.14 pA/pF to 44.52 ± 7.10 pA/pF (n=14 cells, P<0.05. This inhibitory effect of apelin-13 was confirmed by single channel recording in cell-attached patches, in which extracellular application of apelin-13 (0.1 µM decreased the open-state probability (NPo of BK(Ca channels in freshly isolated VSM cells. However, in inside-out patches, extracellular application of apelin-13 (0.1 µM did not alter the NPo of BK(Ca channels, suggesting that the inhibitory effect of apelin-13 on BKCa is not mediated by a direct action on BK(Ca. In whole cell patches, pretreatment of VSM cells with LY-294002, a PI3-kinase inhibitor, markedly attenuated the apelin-13-induced decrease in BK(Ca current density. In addition, treatment of arteries with apelin-13 (0.1 µM significantly increased the ratio of phosphorylated-Akt/total Akt, indicating that apelin-13 significantly increases PI3-kinase activity. Taken together, the data suggest that apelin-13 inhibits BK(Ca channel via a PI3-kinase-dependent signaling pathway in cerebral artery VSM cells, which may contribute to its regulatory action in the control of vascular tone.

  3. Arabidopsis MAP kinase 4 regulates salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid/ethylene-dependent responses via EDS1 and PAD4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, P; Petersen, M; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn

    2006-01-01

    Arabidopsis MPK4 has been implicated in plant defense regulation because mpk4 knockout plants exhibit constitutive activation of salicylic acid (SA)-dependent defenses, but fail to induce jasmonic acid (JA) defense marker genes in response to JA. We show here that mpk4 mutants are also defective...

  4. Hair Growth Promoting and Anticancer Effects of p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1 Inhibitors Isolated from Different Parts of Alpinia zerumbet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nozomi Taira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available PAK1 (p21-activated kinase 1 is an emerging target for the treatment of hair loss (alopecia and cancer; therefore, the search for PAK1 blockers to treat these PAK1-dependent disorders has received much attention. In this study, we evaluated the anti-alopecia and anticancer effects of PAK1 inhibitors isolated from Alpinia zerumbet (alpinia in cell culture. The bioactive compounds isolated from alpinia were found to markedly promote hair cell growth. Kaempferol-3-O-β-d-glucuronide (KOG and labdadiene, two of the isolated compounds, increased the proliferation of human follicle dermal papilla cells by approximately 117%–180% and 132%–226%, respectively, at 10–100 μM. MTD (2,5-bis(1E,3E,5E-6-methoxyhexa-1,3,5-trien-1-yl-2,5-dihydrofuran and TMOQ ((E-2,2,3,3-tetramethyl-8-methylene-7-(oct-6-en-1-yloctahydro-1H-quinolizine showed growth-promoting activity around 164% and 139% at 10 μM, respectively. The hair cell proliferation induced by these compounds was significantly higher than that of minoxidil, a commercially available treatment for hair loss. Furthermore, the isolated compounds from alpinia exhibited anticancer activity against A549 lung cancer cells with IC50 in the range of 67–99 μM. Regarding the mechanism underlying their action, we hypothesized that the anti-alopecia and anticancer activities of these compounds could be attributed to the inhibition of the oncogenic/aging kinase PAK1.

  5. Central limit theorems for sequences with m(n)-dependent main part

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, G.

    1992-01-01

    Let (Xi(n); n ϵ N, 1⩽i⩽h(n)) be a double sequence of random variables with h(n)→∞ as n→∞. Suppose that the sequence can be split into two parts: an m(n)-dependent sequence (Xi,m(n); n ϵ N, 1⩽i⩽h(n)) of main terms and a sequence (Xi,m(n); n ϵ N, 1⩽i⩽h(n)) of residual terms. Here (m(n)) may be

  6. Stress state dependence of in-reactor creep and swelling. Part 2: Experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, M. M., Jr.; Flinn, J. E.

    2010-01-01

    Irradiation creep constitutive equations, which were developed in Part I, are used here to analyze in-reactor creep and swelling data obtained ca. 1977-1979 as part of the US breeder reactor program. The equations were developed according to the principles of incremental continuum plasticity for the purpose of analyzing data obtained from a novel irradiation experiment that was conducted, in part, using Type 304 stainless steel that had been previously irradiated to significant levels of void swelling. Analyses of these data support an earlier observation that all stress states, whether tensile, compressive, shear or mixed, can affect both void swelling and interactions between irradiation creep and swelling. The data were obtained using a set of five unique multiaxial creep-test specimens that were designed and used for the first time in this study. The data analyses demonstrate that the constitutive equations derived in Part I provide an excellent phenomenological representation of the interactive creep and swelling phenomena. These equations provide nuclear power reactor designers and analysts with a first-of-its-kind structural analysis tool for evaluating irradiation damage-dependent distortion of complex structural components having gradients in neutron damage rate, temperature and stress state.

  7. pH-dependent structural change of the extracellular sensor domain of the DraK histidine kinase from Streptomyces coelicolor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeo, Kwon Joo [Division of Magnetic Resonance, Korea Basic Science Institute (KBSI), 16 Yeongudanji-Ro, Ochang, Chungbuk 363-883 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun Hye [Systems and Synthetic Biology Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), 125 Gwahak-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Eunha; Han, Young-Hyun; Eo, Yumi; Kim, Hyun Jung [Division of Magnetic Resonance, Korea Basic Science Institute (KBSI), 16 Yeongudanji-Ro, Ochang, Chungbuk 363-883 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Ohsuk [Systems and Synthetic Biology Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), 125 Gwahak-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Young-Soo [Chemical Biology Research Center, KRIBB, 30 Yeongudanji-Ro, Ochang, Chungbuk 363-883 (Korea, Republic of); Cheong, Chaejoon, E-mail: cheong@kbsi.re.kr [Division of Magnetic Resonance, Korea Basic Science Institute (KBSI), 16 Yeongudanji-Ro, Ochang, Chungbuk 363-883 (Korea, Republic of); Cheong, Hae-Kap, E-mail: haekap@kbsi.re.kr [Division of Magnetic Resonance, Korea Basic Science Institute (KBSI), 16 Yeongudanji-Ro, Ochang, Chungbuk 363-883 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: ► We described the biochemical and biophysical properties of the extracellular sensory domain (ESD) of DraK histidine kinase. ► The ESD of DraK showed a reversible pH-dependent conformational change in a wide pH range. ► The E83 is an important residue for the pH-dependent conformational change. -- Abstract: Recently, the DraR/DraK (Sco3063/Sco3062) two-component system (TCS) of Streptomycescoelicolor has been reported to be involved in the differential regulation of antibiotic biosynthesis. However, it has not been shown that under which conditions and how the DraR/DraK TCS is activated to initiate the signal transduction process. Therefore, to understand the sensing mechanism, structural study of the sensory domain of DraK is highly required. Here, we report the biochemical and biophysical properties of the extracellular sensory domain (ESD) of DraK. We observed a reversible pH-dependent conformational change of the ESD in a pH range of 2.5–10. Size-exclusion chromatography and AUC (analytical ultracentrifugation) data indicated that the ESD is predominantly monomeric in solution and exists in equilibrium between monomer and dimer states in acidic condition. Using NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) and CD (circular dichroism) spectroscopy, our findings suggest that the structure of the ESD at low pH is more structured than that at high pH. In particular, the glutamate at position 83 is an important residue for the pH-dependent conformational change. These results suggest that this pH-dependent conformational change of ESD may be involved in signal transduction process of DraR/DraK TCS.

  8. Regulatory Phosphorylation of Bacterial-Type PEP Carboxylase by the Ca2+-Dependent Protein Kinase RcCDPK1 in Developing Castor Oil Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Sheng; Hill, Allyson T; Pyc, Michal; Anderson, Erin M; Snedden, Wayne A; Mullen, Robert T; She, Yi-Min; Plaxton, William C

    2017-06-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) is a tightly controlled cytosolic enzyme situated at a crucial branch point of central plant metabolism. In developing castor oil seeds ( Ricinus communis ) a novel, allosterically desensitized 910-kD Class-2 PEPC hetero-octameric complex, arises from a tight interaction between 107-kD plant-type PEPC and 118-kD bacterial-type (BTPC) subunits. The native Ca 2+ -dependent protein kinase (CDPK) responsible for in vivo inhibitory phosphorylation of Class-2 PEPC's BTPC subunit's at Ser-451 was highly purified from COS and identified as RcCDPK1 (XP_002526815) by mass spectrometry. Heterologously expressed RcCDPK1 catalyzed Ca 2+ -dependent, inhibitory phosphorylation of BTPC at Ser-451 while exhibiting: ( i ) a pair of Ca 2+ binding sites with identical dissociation constants of 5.03 μM, ( ii ) a Ca 2+ -dependent electrophoretic mobility shift, and ( iii ) a marked Ca 2+ -independent hydrophobicity. Pull-down experiments established the Ca 2+ -dependent interaction of N-terminal GST-tagged RcCDPK1 with BTPC. RcCDPK1-Cherry localized to the cytosol and nucleus of tobacco bright yellow-2 cells, but colocalized with mitochondrial-surface associated BTPC-enhanced yellow fluorescent protein when both fusion proteins were coexpressed. Deletion analyses demonstrated that although its N-terminal variable domain plays an essential role in optimizing Ca 2+ -dependent RcCDPK1 autophosphorylation and BTPC transphosphorylation activity, it is not critical for in vitro or in vivo target recognition. Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) CPK4 and soybean ( Glycine max ) CDPKβ are RcCDPK1 orthologs that effectively phosphorylated castor BTPC at Ser-451. Overall, the results highlight a potential link between cytosolic Ca 2+ signaling and the posttranslational control of respiratory CO 2 refixation and anaplerotic photosynthate partitioning in support of storage oil and protein biosynthesis in developing COS. © 2017 American Society of Plant

  9. Regulatory Phosphorylation of Bacterial-Type PEP Carboxylase by the Ca2+-Dependent Protein Kinase RcCDPK1 in Developing Castor Oil Seeds1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Allyson T.; Anderson, Erin M.; She, Yi-Min

    2017-01-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) is a tightly controlled cytosolic enzyme situated at a crucial branch point of central plant metabolism. In developing castor oil seeds (Ricinus communis) a novel, allosterically desensitized 910-kD Class-2 PEPC hetero-octameric complex, arises from a tight interaction between 107-kD plant-type PEPC and 118-kD bacterial-type (BTPC) subunits. The native Ca2+-dependent protein kinase (CDPK) responsible for in vivo inhibitory phosphorylation of Class-2 PEPC’s BTPC subunit’s at Ser-451 was highly purified from COS and identified as RcCDPK1 (XP_002526815) by mass spectrometry. Heterologously expressed RcCDPK1 catalyzed Ca2+-dependent, inhibitory phosphorylation of BTPC at Ser-451 while exhibiting: (i) a pair of Ca2+ binding sites with identical dissociation constants of 5.03 μM, (ii) a Ca2+-dependent electrophoretic mobility shift, and (iii) a marked Ca2+-independent hydrophobicity. Pull-down experiments established the Ca2+-dependent interaction of N-terminal GST-tagged RcCDPK1 with BTPC. RcCDPK1-Cherry localized to the cytosol and nucleus of tobacco bright yellow-2 cells, but colocalized with mitochondrial-surface associated BTPC-enhanced yellow fluorescent protein when both fusion proteins were coexpressed. Deletion analyses demonstrated that although its N-terminal variable domain plays an essential role in optimizing Ca2+-dependent RcCDPK1 autophosphorylation and BTPC transphosphorylation activity, it is not critical for in vitro or in vivo target recognition. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) CPK4 and soybean (Glycine max) CDPKβ are RcCDPK1 orthologs that effectively phosphorylated castor BTPC at Ser-451. Overall, the results highlight a potential link between cytosolic Ca2+ signaling and the posttranslational control of respiratory CO2 refixation and anaplerotic photosynthate partitioning in support of storage oil and protein biosynthesis in developing COS. PMID:28363991

  10. pH-dependent structural change of the extracellular sensor domain of the DraK histidine kinase from Streptomyces coelicolor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeo, Kwon Joo; Kim, Eun Hye; Hwang, Eunha; Han, Young-Hyun; Eo, Yumi; Kim, Hyun Jung; Kwon, Ohsuk; Hong, Young-Soo; Cheong, Chaejoon; Cheong, Hae-Kap

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We described the biochemical and biophysical properties of the extracellular sensory domain (ESD) of DraK histidine kinase. ► The ESD of DraK showed a reversible pH-dependent conformational change in a wide pH range. ► The E83 is an important residue for the pH-dependent conformational change. -- Abstract: Recently, the DraR/DraK (Sco3063/Sco3062) two-component system (TCS) of Streptomycescoelicolor has been reported to be involved in the differential regulation of antibiotic biosynthesis. However, it has not been shown that under which conditions and how the DraR/DraK TCS is activated to initiate the signal transduction process. Therefore, to understand the sensing mechanism, structural study of the sensory domain of DraK is highly required. Here, we report the biochemical and biophysical properties of the extracellular sensory domain (ESD) of DraK. We observed a reversible pH-dependent conformational change of the ESD in a pH range of 2.5–10. Size-exclusion chromatography and AUC (analytical ultracentrifugation) data indicated that the ESD is predominantly monomeric in solution and exists in equilibrium between monomer and dimer states in acidic condition. Using NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) and CD (circular dichroism) spectroscopy, our findings suggest that the structure of the ESD at low pH is more structured than that at high pH. In particular, the glutamate at position 83 is an important residue for the pH-dependent conformational change. These results suggest that this pH-dependent conformational change of ESD may be involved in signal transduction process of DraR/DraK TCS

  11. MAP kinase dependent cyclinE/cdk2 activity promotes DNA replication in early sea urchin embryos

    OpenAIRE

    Kisielewska, J.; Philipova, R.; Huang, J.-Y.; Whitaker, M.

    2009-01-01

    Sea urchins provide an excellent model for studying cell cycle control mechanisms governing DNA replication in vivo. Fertilization and cell cycle progression are tightly coordinated by Ca2+ signals, but the mechanisms underlying the onset of DNA replication after fertilization remain less clear. In this study we demonstrate that calcium-dependent activation of ERK1 promotes accumulation of cyclinE/cdk2 into the male and female pronucleus and entry into first S-phase. We show that cdk2 activit...

  12. Cell-cycle-dependent Xenopus TRF1 recruitment to telomere chromatin regulated by Polo-like kinase

    OpenAIRE

    Nishiyama, Atsuya; Muraki, Keiko; Saito, Motoki; Ohsumi, Keita; Kishimoto, Takeo; Ishikawa, Fuyuki

    2006-01-01

    Telomeres are regulated by a homeostatic mechanism that includes telomerase and telomeric repeat binding proteins, TRF1 and TRF2. Recently, it has been hypothesized that telomeres assume distinct configurations in a cell-cycle-dependent manner, although direct biochemical evidence is lacking. Here we demonstrated that Xenopus TRF1 (xTRF1) associates with telomere chromatin specifically in mitotic Xenopus egg extracts, and dissociates from it upon mitotic exit. Both the N-terminal TRF-homology...

  13. Co-targeting Deoxyribonucleic Acid–Dependent Protein Kinase and Poly(Adenosine Diphosphate-Ribose) Polymerase-1 Promotes Accelerated Senescence of Irradiated Cancer Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azad, Arun; Bukczynska, Patricia; Jackson, Susan; Haput, Ygal; Cullinane, Carleen; McArthur, Grant A.; Solomon, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the effects of combined blockade of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) and poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) on accelerated senescence in irradiated H460 and A549 non-small cell lung cancer cells. Methods and Materials: The effects of KU5788 and AG014699 (inhibitors of DNA-PK and PARP-1, respectively) on clonogenic survival, DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), apoptosis, mitotic catastrophe, and accelerated senescence in irradiated cells were examined in vitro. For in vivo experiments, H460 xenografts established in athymic nude mice were treated with BEZ235 (a DNA-PK, ATM, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor) and AG014699 to determine effects on proliferation, DNA DSBs, and accelerated senescence after radiation. Results: Compared with either inhibitor alone, combination treatment with KU57788 and AG014699 reduced postradiation clonogenic survival and significantly increased persistence of Gamma-H2AX (γH2AX) foci in irradiated H460 and A549 cells. Notably, these effects coincided with the induction of accelerated senescence in irradiated cells as reflected by positive β-galactosidase staining, G2-M cell-cycle arrest, enlarged and flattened cellular morphology, increased p21 expression, and senescence-associated cytokine secretion. In irradiated H460 xenografts, concurrent therapy with BEZ235 and AG014699 resulted in sustained Gamma-H2AX (γH2AX) staining and prominent β-galactosidase activity. Conclusion: Combined DNA-PK and PARP-1 blockade increased tumor cell radiosensitivity and enhanced the prosenescent properties of ionizing radiation in vitro and in vivo. These data provide a rationale for further preclinical and clinical testing of this therapeutic combination

  14. Tousled-like kinase-dependent phosphorylation of Rad9 plays a role in cell cycle progression and G2/M checkpoint exit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Kelly

    Full Text Available Genomic integrity is preserved by checkpoints, which act to delay cell cycle progression in the presence of DNA damage or replication stress. The heterotrimeric Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 (9-1-1 complex is a PCNA-like clamp that is loaded onto DNA at structures resulting from damage and is important for initiating and maintaining the checkpoint response. Rad9 possesses a C-terminal tail that is phosphorylated constitutively and in response to cell cycle position and DNA damage. Previous studies have identified tousled-like kinase 1 (TLK1 as a kinase that may modify Rad9. Here we show that Rad9 is phosphorylated in a TLK-dependent manner in vitro and in vivo, and that T355 within the C-terminal tail is the primary targeted residue. Phosphorylation of Rad9 at T355 is quickly reduced upon exposure to ionizing radiation before returning to baseline later in the damage response. We also show that TLK1 and Rad9 interact constitutively, and that this interaction is enhanced in chromatin-bound Rad9 at later stages of the damage response. Furthermore, we demonstrate via siRNA-mediated depletion that TLK1 is required for progression through S-phase in normally cycling cells, and that cells lacking TLK1 display a prolonged G2/M arrest upon exposure to ionizing radiation, a phenotype that is mimicked by over-expression of a Rad9-T355A mutant. Given that TLK1 has previously been shown to be transiently inactivated upon phosphorylation by Chk1 in response to DNA damage, we propose that TLK1 and Chk1 act in concert to modulate the phosphorylation status of Rad9, which in turn serves to regulate the DNA damage response.

  15. VaCPK20, a calcium-dependent protein kinase gene of wild grapevine Vitis amurensis Rupr., mediates cold and drought stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubrovina, Alexandra S; Kiselev, Konstantin V; Khristenko, Valeriya S; Aleynova, Olga A

    2015-08-01

    Abiotic stresses, such as drought, salinity, cold and heat, are major environmental factors that limit crop productivity. Vitis amurensis Rupr. is a wild grapevine species displaying a high level of abiotic and biotic stress resistance. Protein kinases, including Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs), are known to mediate plant acclimation to various environmental changes. However, the functions of most grape CDPKs have not been clarified. A recent CDPK gene expression analysis revealed that 10 CDPK genes of V. amurensis were up-regulated under different abiotic stress treatments. The expression of the VaCPK20 gene was significantly up-regulated under low and high temperature stress in V. amurensis. In the current study, the effects of overexpressing the VaCPK20 gene in callus cell lines of V. amurensis and transgenic plants of A. thaliana on their responses to abiotic stresses were investigated. Transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing the VaCPK20 gene showed higher tolerance to freezing and drought stresses, and transgenic grape cell cultures overexpressing the VaCPK20 gene showed higher resistance to cold stress in comparison with the controls transformed by the "empty" vector. Heat and salt stress resistance of the transgenic V. amurensis calli and A. thaliana was comparable to that of the wild type and vector controls. Overexpression of the VaCPK20 gene increased the expression of stress-responsive genes, such as COR47, NHX1, KIN1, or ABF3, in the transgenic Arabidopsis plants under non-stress conditions, after freezing, and under drought stress. The results imply that VaCPK20 may act as a regulatory factor involved in cold and drought stress response pathways. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Prostaglandin E1 protects hepatocytes against endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis via protein kinase A-dependent induction of glucose-regulated protein 78 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fang-Wan; Fu, Yu; Li, Ying; He, Yi-Huai; Mu, Mao-Yuan; Liu, Qi-Chuan; Long, Jun; Lin, Shi-De

    2017-10-28

    To investigate the protective effect of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) against endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced hepatocyte apoptosis, and to explore its underlying mechanisms. Thapsigargin (TG) was used to induce ER stress in the human hepatic cell line L02 and hepatocarcinoma-derived cell line HepG2. To evaluate the effects of PGE1 on TG-induced apoptosis, PGE1 was used an hour prior to TG treatment. Activation of unfolded protein response signaling pathways were detected by western blotting and quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Apoptotic index and cell viability of L02 cells and HepG2 cells were determined with flow cytometry and MTS [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium] assay. Pretreatment with 1 μmol/L PGE1 protected against TG-induced apoptosis in both L02 cells and HepG2 cells. PGE1 enhanced the TG-induced expression of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), glucose-regulated protein (GRP) 78 and spliced X box-binding protein 1 at 6 h. However, it attenuated their expressions after 24 h. PGE1 alone induced protein and mRNA expressions of GRP78; PGE1 also induced protein expression of DNA damage-inducible gene 34 and inhibited the expressions of phospho-PKR-like ER kinase, phospho-eukaryotic initiation factor 2α and CHOP. Treatment with protein kinase A (PKA)-inhibitor H89 or KT5720 blocked PGE1-induced up-regulation of GRP78. Further, the cytoprotective effect of PGE1 on hepatocytes was not observed after blockade of GRP78 expression by H89 or small interfering RNA specifically targeted against human GRP78. Our study demonstrates that PGE1 protects against ER stress-induced hepatocyte apoptosis via PKA pathway-dependent induction of GRP78 expression.

  17. Co-targeting Deoxyribonucleic Acid–Dependent Protein Kinase and Poly(Adenosine Diphosphate-Ribose) Polymerase-1 Promotes Accelerated Senescence of Irradiated Cancer Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azad, Arun, E-mail: arun.azad@bccancer.bc.ca [Division of Cancer Research, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Department of Pathology, St. Vincent' s Hospital, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Bukczynska, Patricia; Jackson, Susan [Division of Cancer Research, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Haput, Ygal; Cullinane, Carleen [Division of Cancer Research, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); McArthur, Grant A.; Solomon, Benjamin [Division of Cancer Research, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Division of Cancer Medicine, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Department of Medicine, St. Vincent' s Hospital, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia)

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: To examine the effects of combined blockade of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) and poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) on accelerated senescence in irradiated H460 and A549 non-small cell lung cancer cells. Methods and Materials: The effects of KU5788 and AG014699 (inhibitors of DNA-PK and PARP-1, respectively) on clonogenic survival, DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), apoptosis, mitotic catastrophe, and accelerated senescence in irradiated cells were examined in vitro. For in vivo experiments, H460 xenografts established in athymic nude mice were treated with BEZ235 (a DNA-PK, ATM, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor) and AG014699 to determine effects on proliferation, DNA DSBs, and accelerated senescence after radiation. Results: Compared with either inhibitor alone, combination treatment with KU57788 and AG014699 reduced postradiation clonogenic survival and significantly increased persistence of Gamma-H2AX (γH2AX) foci in irradiated H460 and A549 cells. Notably, these effects coincided with the induction of accelerated senescence in irradiated cells as reflected by positive β-galactosidase staining, G2-M cell-cycle arrest, enlarged and flattened cellular morphology, increased p21 expression, and senescence-associated cytokine secretion. In irradiated H460 xenografts, concurrent therapy with BEZ235 and AG014699 resulted in sustained Gamma-H2AX (γH2AX) staining and prominent β-galactosidase activity. Conclusion: Combined DNA-PK and PARP-1 blockade increased tumor cell radiosensitivity and enhanced the prosenescent properties of ionizing radiation in vitro and in vivo. These data provide a rationale for further preclinical and clinical testing of this therapeutic combination.

  18. Protein kinase-dependent oxidative regulation of the cardiac Na+-K+ pump: evidence from in vivo and in vitro modulation of cell signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galougahi, Keyvan Karimi; Liu, Chia-Chi; Garcia, Alvaro; Fry, Natasha A S; Hamilton, Elisha J; Rasmussen, Helge H; Figtree, Gemma A

    2013-06-15

    The widely reported stimulation of the cardiac Na(+)-K(+) pump by protein kinase A (PKA) should oppose other effects of PKA to increase contractility of the normal heart. It should also reduce harmful raised myocyte Na(+) levels in heart failure, yet blockade of the β1 adrenergic receptor (AR), coupled to PKA signalling, is beneficial. We treated rabbits with the β1 AR antagonist metoprolol to modulate PKA activity and studied cardiac myocytes ex vivo. Metoprolol increased electrogenic pump current (Ip) in voltage clamped myocytes and reduced glutathionylation of the β1 pump subunit, an oxidative modification causally related to pump inhibition. Activation of adenylyl cyclase with forskolin to enhance cAMP synthesis or inclusion of the catalytic subunit of PKA in patch pipette solutions abolished the increase in Ip in voltage clamped myocytes induced by treatment with metoprolol, supporting cAMP/PKA-mediated pump inhibition. Metoprolol reduced myocardial PKA and protein kinase C (PKC) activities, reduced coimmunoprecipitation of cytosolic p47(phox) and membranous p22(phox) NADPH oxidase subunits and reduced myocardial O2(•-)-sensitive dihydroethidium fluorescence. Treatment also enhanced coimmunoprecipitation of the β1 pump subunit with glutaredoxin 1 that catalyses de-glutathionylation. Since angiotensin II induces PKC-dependent activation of NADPH oxidase, we examined the effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition with captopril. This treatment had no effect on PKA activity but reduced the activity of PKC, reduced β1 subunit glutathionylation and increased Ip. The PKA-induced Na(+)-K(+) pump inhibition we report should act with other mechanisms that enhance contractility of the normal heart but accentuate the harmful effects of raised cytosolic Na(+) in the failing heart. This scheme is consistent with the efficacy of β1 AR blockade in the treatment of heart failure.

  19. Protein kinase-dependent oxidative regulation of the cardiac Na+–K+ pump: evidence from in vivo and in vitro modulation of cell signalling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galougahi, Keyvan Karimi; Liu, Chia-Chi; Garcia, Alvaro; Fry, Natasha A S; Hamilton, Elisha J; Rasmussen, Helge H; Figtree, Gemma A

    2013-01-01

    The widely reported stimulation of the cardiac Na+–K+ pump by protein kinase A (PKA) should oppose other effects of PKA to increase contractility of the normal heart. It should also reduce harmful raised myocyte Na+ levels in heart failure, yet blockade of the β1 adrenergic receptor (AR), coupled to PKA signalling, is beneficial. We treated rabbits with the β1 AR antagonist metoprolol to modulate PKA activity and studied cardiac myocytes ex vivo. Metoprolol increased electrogenic pump current (Ip) in voltage clamped myocytes and reduced glutathionylation of the β1 pump subunit, an oxidative modification causally related to pump inhibition. Activation of adenylyl cyclase with forskolin to enhance cAMP synthesis or inclusion of the catalytic subunit of PKA in patch pipette solutions abolished the increase in Ip in voltage clamped myocytes induced by treatment with metoprolol, supporting cAMP/PKA-mediated pump inhibition. Metoprolol reduced myocardial PKA and protein kinase C (PKC) activities, reduced coimmunoprecipitation of cytosolic p47phox and membranous p22phox NADPH oxidase subunits and reduced myocardial O2•−-sensitive dihydroethidium fluorescence. Treatment also enhanced coimmunoprecipitation of the β1 pump subunit with glutaredoxin 1 that catalyses de-glutathionylation. Since angiotensin II induces PKC-dependent activation of NADPH oxidase, we examined the effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition with captopril. This treatment had no effect on PKA activity but reduced the activity of PKC, reduced β1 subunit glutathionylation and increased Ip. The PKA-induced Na+–K+ pump inhibition we report should act with other mechanisms that enhance contractility of the normal heart but accentuate the harmful effects of raised cytosolic Na+ in the failing heart. This scheme is consistent with the efficacy of β1 AR blockade in the treatment of heart failure. PMID:23587884

  20. Silencing of EEF2K (eukaryotic elongation factor-2 kinase) reveals AMPK-ULK1-dependent autophagy in colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chuan-Ming; Liu, Xiao-Yu; Sham, Kathy W Y; Lai, Josie M Y; Cheng, Christopher H K

    2014-09-01

    EEF2K (eukaryotic elongation factor-2 kinase), also known as Ca (2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase III, functions in downregulating peptide chain elongation through inactivation of EEF2 (eukaryotic translation elongation factor 2). Currently, there is a limited amount of information on the promotion of autophagic survival by EEF2K in breast and glioblastoma cell lines. However, the precise role of EEF2K in carcinogenesis as well as the underlying mechanism involved is still poorly understood. In this study, contrary to the reported autophagy-promoting activity of EEF2K in certain cancer cells, EEF2K is shown to negatively regulate autophagy in human colon cancer cells as indicated by the increase of LC3-II levels, the accumulation of LC3 dots per cell, and the promotion of autophagic flux in EEF2K knockdown cells. EEF2K negatively regulates cell viability, clonogenicity, cell proliferation, and cell size in colon cancer cells. Autophagy induced by EEF2K silencing promotes cell survival and does not potentiate the anticancer efficacy of the AKT inhibitor MK-2206. In addition, autophagy induced by silencing of EEF2K is attributed to induction of protein synthesis and activation of the AMPK-ULK1 pathway, independent of the suppression of MTOR activity and ROS generation. Knockdown of AMPK or ULK1 significantly abrogates EEF2K silencing-induced increase of LC3-II levels, accumulation of LC3 dots per cell as well as cell proliferation in colon cancer cells. In conclusion, silencing of EEF2K promotes autophagic survival via activation of the AMPK-ULK1 pathway in colon cancer cells. This finding suggests that upregulation of EEF2K activity may constitute a novel approach for the treatment of human colon cancer.

  1. Adenosine A2A receptor-dependent proliferation of pulmonary endothelial cells is mediated through calcium mobilization, PI3-kinase and ERK1/2 pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Aftab; Schaack, Jerome B.; White, Carl W.; Ahmad, Shama

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •A 2A receptor-induced pulmonary endothelial growth is mediated by PI3K and ERK1/2. •Cytosolic calcium mobilization is also critical for pulmonary endothelial growth. •Effectors of A 2A receptor, like tyrosine kinases and cAMP increase PI3K/Akt signaling. •Activation of A 2A receptor can contribute to vascular remodeling. -- Abstract: Hypoxia and HIF-2α-dependent A 2A receptor expression and activation increase proliferation of human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HLMVECs). This study was undertaken to investigate the signaling mechanisms that mediate the proliferative effects of A 2A receptor. A 2A receptor-mediated proliferation of HLMVECs was inhibited by intracellular calcium chelation, and by specific inhibitors of ERK1/2 and PI3-kinase (PI3K). The adenosine A 2A receptor agonist CGS21680 caused intracellular calcium mobilization in controls and, to a greater extent, in A 2A receptor-overexpressing HLMVECs. Adenoviral-mediated A 2A receptor overexpression as well as receptor activation by CGS21680 caused increased PI3K activity and Akt phosphorylation. Cells overexpressing A 2A receptor also manifested enhanced ERK1/2 phosphorylation upon CGS21680 treatment. A 2A receptor activation also caused enhanced cAMP production. Likewise, treatment with 8Br-cAMP increased PI3K activity. Hence A 2A receptor-mediated cAMP production and PI3K and Akt phosphorylation are potential mediators of the A 2A -mediated proliferative response of HLMVECs. Cytosolic calcium mobilization and ERK1/2 phosphorylation are other critical effectors of HLMVEC proliferation and growth. These studies underscore the importance of adenosine A 2A receptor in activation of survival and proliferative pathways in pulmonary endothelial cells that are mediated through PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 pathways

  2. Molecular and Biochemical Characterization of the Involvement of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase A during the Early Development of Tomato Fruit1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubès, Jérôme; Phan, Thi-Hai; Just, Daniel; Rothan, Christophe; Bergounioux, Catherine; Raymond, Philippe; Chevalier, Christian

    1999-01-01

    Following fruit set, the early development of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit comprises two distinct phases: a cell division phase and a consecutive phase of cell expansion until the onset of ripening. In this study, we analyzed cytological and molecular changes characterizing these early phases of tomato fruit development. First we investigated the spatial and temporal regulation of the mitotic activity during fruit development. The DNA content of isolated nuclei from the different fruit tissues was determined by flow cytometry analysis. The results confirm the data of mitotic activity measurements and show that cell differentiation, leading to expanded cells, is characterized by endoreduplication. Second, we isolated two cDNAs, named Lyces;CDKA1 (accession no. Y17225) and Lyces;CDKA2 (accession no. Y17226), encoding tomato homologs of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) p34cdc2. Tomato CDKA gene expression was followed at both the transcriptional and translational levels during fruit development. The transcripts for Lyces;CDKA1 and Lyces;CDKA2 and the corresponding CDKA proteins are predominantly accumulated during the phase of cell division between anthesis and 5 d post anthesis (DPA). In whole fruits, the maximum CDK activity was obtained between 5 and 10 DPA. The determination of the kinase activity using protein extracts from the different fruit tissues was in agreement with mitotic activity analysis. It showed the particular disappearance of the activity in the gel tissue as early as 15 DPA. The overall data of CDK activity measurements suggest a strong post-translational regulation of CDK at the temporal and spatial levels during early tomato fruit development. PMID:10557234

  3. Arecoline-induced phosphorylated p53 and p21(WAF1) protein expression is dependent on ATM/ATR and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase in clone-9 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Wen-Wen; Guh, Jinn-Yuh; Tsai, Jung-Fa; Hwang, Chi-Ching; Chiou, Shean-Jaw; Chuang, Lea-Yea

    2009-06-01

    Betel-quid use is associated with liver cancer whereas its constituent arecoline is cytotoxic, genotoxic, and induces p53-dependent p21(WAF1) protein expression in Clone-9 cells (rat hepatocytes). The ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)/rad3-related (ATR)-p53-p21(WAF1) and the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways are involved in the DNA damage response and the pathogenesis of cancers. Thus, we studied the role of ATM/ATR and PI3K in arecoline-induced p53 and p21(WAF1) protein expression in Clone-9 cells. We found that arecoline (0.5 mM) activated the ATM/ATR kinase at 30 min. The arecoline-activated ATM/ATR substrate contained p-p53Ser15. Moreover, arecoline only increased the levels of the p-p53Ser6, p-p53Ser15, and p-p53Ser392 phosphorylated p53 isoforms among the known isoforms. ATM shRNA attenuated arecoline-induced p-p53Ser15 and p21(WAF1) at 24 h. Arecoline (0.5 mM) increased phosphorylation levels of p-AktSer473 and p-mTORSer2448 at 30-60 min. Dominant-negative PI3K plasmids attenuated arecoline-induced p21(WAF1), but not p-p53Ser15, at 24 h. Rapamycin attenuated arecoline-induced phosphrylated p-p53Ser15, but not p21(WAF1), at 24 h. ATM shRNA, but not dominant-negative PI3K plasmids, attenuated arecoline-induced p21(WAF1) gene transcription. We conclude that arecoline activates the ATM/ATR-p53-p21(WAF1) and the PI3K/Akt-mTOR-p53 pathways in Clone-9 cells. Arecoline-induced phosphorylated p-p53Ser15 expression is dependent on ATM whereas arecoline-induced p21(WAF1) protein expression is dependent on ATM and PI3K. Moreover, p21(WAF1) gene is transcriptionally induced by arecoline-activated ATM. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Tyrosine kinases in rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobayashi Akiko

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is an inflammatory, polyarticular joint disease. A number of cellular responses are involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis, including activation of inflammatory cells and cytokine expression. The cellular responses involved in each of these processes depends on the specific signaling pathways that are activated; many of which include protein tyrosine kinases. These pathways include the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, Janus kinases/signal transducers and activators transcription pathway, spleen tyrosine kinase signaling, and the nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells pathway. Many drugs are in development to target tyrosine kinases for the treatment of RA. Based on the number of recently published studies, this manuscript reviews the role of tyrosine kinases in the pathogenesis of RA and the potential role of kinase inhibitors as new therapeutic strategies of RA.

  5. EphB4 Tyrosine Kinase Stimulation Inhibits Growth of MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Cells in a Dose and Time Dependent Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Barneh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. EphB4 receptor tyrosine kinase is of diagnostic and therapeutic value due to its overexpression in breast tumors. Dual functions of tumor promotion and suppression have been reported for this receptor based on presence or absence of its ligand. To elucidate such discrepancy, we aimed to determine the effect of time- and dose-dependent stimulation of EphB4 on viability and invasion of breast cancer cells via recombinant ephrinB2-Fc. Methods. Cells were seeded into multiwell plates and were stimulated by various concentrations of preclustered ephrinB2-Fc. Cell viability was measured on days 3 and 6 following treatment using alamar-blue when cells were in different states of confluence. Results. Stimulation of cells with ephrinB2 did not pose any significant effect on cell viability before reaching confluence, while inhibition of cell growth was detected after 6 days when cells were in postconfluent state following a dose-dependent manner. EphrinB2 treatment did not affect tubular formation and invasion on matrigel. Conclusion. This study showed that EphB4 can differentially inhibit cells at post confluent state and that presence of ligand manifests growth-inhibitory properties of EphB4 receptor. It is concluded that growth inhibition has occurred possibly due to long treatment with ligand, a process which leads to receptor downregulation.

  6. cGMP-dependent protein kinase type II knockout mice exhibit working memory impairments, decreased repetitive behavior, and increased anxiety-like traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wincott, Charlotte M; Abera, Sinedu; Vunck, Sarah A; Tirko, Natasha; Choi, Yoon; Titcombe, Roseann F; Antoine, Shannon O; Tukey, David S; DeVito, Loren M; Hofmann, Franz; Hoeffer, Charles A; Ziff, Edward B

    2014-10-01

    Neuronal activity regulates AMPA receptor trafficking, a process that mediates changes in synaptic strength, a key component of learning and memory. This form of plasticity may be induced by stimulation of the NMDA receptor which, among its activities, increases cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) through the nitric oxide synthase pathway. cGMP-dependent protein kinase type II (cGKII) is ultimately activated via this mechanism and AMPA receptor subunit GluA1 is phosphorylated at serine 845. This phosphorylation contributes to the delivery of GluA1 to the synapse, a step that increases synaptic strength. Previous studies have shown that cGKII-deficient mice display striking spatial learning deficits in the Morris Water Maze compared to wild-type littermates as well as lowered GluA1 phosphorylation in the postsynaptic density of the prefrontal cortex (Serulle et al., 2007; Wincott et al., 2013). In the current study, we show that cGKII knockout mice exhibit impaired working memory as determined using the prefrontal cortex-dependent Radial Arm Maze (RAM). Additionally, we report reduced repetitive behavior in the Marble Burying task (MB), and heightened anxiety-like traits in the Novelty Suppressed Feeding Test (NSFT). These data suggest that cGKII may play a role in the integration of information that conveys both anxiety-provoking stimuli as well as the spatial and environmental cues that facilitate functional memory processes and appropriate behavioral response. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Central amygdala activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and age-dependent changes in inflammatory pain sensitivity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Katelyn E; Gartland, Nathan M; Cavanaugh, Jane E; Kolber, Benedict J

    2017-08-01

    Aging populations are more sensitive to noxious stimuli as a result of altered somatosensory systems. In these experiments, we examined pain-like behaviors in young, middle-aged, and old mice during peripheral inflammation to determine if the same sensitivity exists in preclinical animal models. Immediately following injury, middle-aged and old mice exhibited more spontaneous pain-like behaviors than young mice, matching pain prevalence in clinical populations. Middle-aged and old mice also developed persistent mechanical hypersensitivity in the injured paw. Furthermore, old mice developed mechanical hypersensitivity in the noninjured paw suggesting age-dependent changes in central nociceptive systems. To address this end, pain-related protein expression was examined in the central nucleus of the amygdala, a limbic brain region that modulates somatic pain. Following injury, increased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1, a protein with known nociceptive functions, was observed in the right central nucleus of the amygdala of old mice and not middle-aged or young animals. These findings suggest that age-dependent changes in supraspinal nociceptive systems may account for increased pain-like behaviors in aging populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. SDF-1α/CXCR4 Signaling in Lipid Rafts Induces Platelet Aggregation via PI3 Kinase-Dependent Akt Phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuka, Hiroko; Iguchi, Tomohiro; Hayashi, Moyuru; Kaneda, Mizuho; Iida, Kazuko; Shimonaka, Motoyuki; Hara, Takahiko; Arai, Morio; Koike, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Naomasa; Kasahara, Kohji

    2017-01-01

    Stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α)-induced platelet aggregation is mediated through its G protein-coupled receptor CXCR4 and phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K). Here, we demonstrate that SDF-1α induces phosphorylation of Akt at Thr308 and Ser473 in human platelets. SDF-1α-induced platelet aggregation and Akt phosphorylation are inhibited by pretreatment with the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 or the PI3K inhibitor LY294002. SDF-1α also induces the phosphorylation of PDK1 at Ser241 (an upstream activator of Akt), GSK3β at Ser9 (a downstream substrate of Akt), and myosin light chain at Ser19 (a downstream element of the Akt signaling pathway). SDF-1α-induced platelet aggregation is inhibited by pretreatment with the Akt inhibitor MK-2206 in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, SDF-1α-induced platelet aggregation and Akt phosphorylation are inhibited by pretreatment with the raft-disrupting agent methyl-β-cyclodextrin. Sucrose density gradient analysis shows that 35% of CXCR4, 93% of the heterotrimeric G proteins Gαi-1, 91% of Gαi-2, 50% of Gβ and 4.0% of PI3Kβ, and 4.5% of Akt2 are localized in the detergent-resistant membrane raft fraction. These findings suggest that SDF-1α/CXCR4 signaling in lipid rafts induces platelet aggregation via PI3K-dependent Akt phosphorylation.

  9. Transcriptome analysis of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A–regulated genes reveals the production of the novel natural compound fumipyrrole by Aspergillus fumigatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macheleidt, Juliane; Scherlach, Kirstin; Neuwirth, Toni; Schmidt-Heck, Wolfgang; Straßburger, Maria; Spraker, Joseph; Baccile, Joshua A.; Schroeder, Frank C.; Keller, Nancy P.; Hertweck, Christian; Heinekamp, Thorsten; Brakhage, Axel A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic human pathogenic fungus causing life-threatening infections in immunocompromised patients. Adaptation to different habitats and also virulence of the fungus depends on signal perception and transduction by modules such as the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) pathway. Here, by transcriptome analysis, 632 differentially regulated genes of this important signaling cascade were identified, including 23 putative transcriptional regulators. The highest upregulated transcription factor gene was located in a previously unknown secondary metabolite gene cluster, which we named fmp, encoding an incomplete nonribosomal peptide synthetase, FmpE. Overexpression of the regulatory gene fmpR using the TetOn system led to the specific expression of the other six genes of the fmp cluster. Metabolic profiling of wild type and fmpR overexpressing strain by HPLC-DAD and HPLCHRESI-MS and structure elucidation by NMR led to identification of 5-benzyl-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid, which we named fumipyrrole. Fumipyrrole was not described as natural product yet. Chemical synthesis of fumipyrrole confirmed its structure. Interestingly, deletion of fmpR or fmpE led to reduced growth and sporulation of the mutant strains. Although fmp cluster genes were transcribed in infected mouse lungs, deletion of fmpR resulted in wild-type virulence in a murine infection model. PMID:25582336

  10. Disruption of zebrafish cyclin G-associated kinase (GAK function impairs the expression of Notch-dependent genes during neurogenesis and causes defects in neuronal development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szeto Daniel P

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The J-domain-containing protein auxilin, a critical regulator in clathrin-mediated transport, has been implicated in Drosophila Notch signaling. To ask if this role of auxilin is conserved and whether auxilin has additional roles in development, we have investigated the functions of auxilin orthologs in zebrafish. Results Like mammals, zebrafish has two distinct auxilin-like molecules, auxilin and cyclin G-associated kinase (GAK, differing in their domain structures and expression patterns. Both zebrafish auxilin and GAK can functionally substitute for the Drosophila auxilin, suggesting that they have overlapping molecular functions. Still, they are not completely redundant, as morpholino-mediated knockdown of the ubiquitously expressed GAK alone can increase the specification of neuronal cells, a known Notch-dependent process, and decrease the expression of Her4, a Notch target gene. Furthermore, inhibition of GAK function caused an elevated level of apoptosis in neural tissues, resulting in severe degeneration of neural structures. Conclusion In support of the notion that endocytosis plays important roles in Notch signaling, inhibition of zebrafish GAK function affects embryonic neuronal cell specification and Her4 expression. In addition, our analysis suggests that zebrafish GAK has at least two functions during the development of neural tissues: an early Notch-dependent role in neuronal patterning and a late role in maintaining the survival of neural cells.

  11. Identification of glucose kinase-dependent and -independent pathways for carbon control of primary metabolism, development and antibiotic production in Streptomyces coelicolor by quantitative proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubbens, Jacob; Janus, Marleen M; Florea, Bogdan I; Overkleeft, Herman S; van Wezel, Gilles P

    2012-12-01

    Members of the soil-dwelling prokaryotic genus Streptomyces are indispensable for the recycling of complex polysaccharides, and produce a wide range of natural products. Nutrient availability is a major determinant for the switch to development and antibiotic production in streptomycetes. Carbon catabolite repression (CCR), a main signalling pathway underlying this phenomenon, was so far considered fully dependent on the glycolytic enzyme glucose kinase (Glk). Here we provide evidence of a novel Glk-independent pathway in Streptomyces coelicolor, using advanced proteomics that allowed the comparison of the expression of some 2000 proteins, including virtually all enzymes for central metabolism. While CCR and inducer exclusion of enzymes for primary and secondary metabolism and precursor supply for natural products is mostly mediated via Glk, enzymes for the urea cycle, as well as for biosynthesis of the γ-butyrolactone Scb1 and the responsive cryptic polyketide Cpk are subject to Glk-independent CCR. Deletion of glkA led to strong downregulation of biosynthetic proteins for prodigionins and calcium-dependent antibiotic (CDA) in mannitol-grown cultures. Repression of bldB, bldN, and its target bldM may explain the poor development of S. coelicolor on solid-grown cultures containing glucose. A new model for carbon catabolite repression in streptomycetes is presented. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Role of protein kinase C in regulation of Na+- and K +-dependent ATPase activity and pump function in corneal endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatou, Shin; Yamada, Masakazu; Mochizuki, Hiroshi; Nishida, Teruo

    2009-05-01

    Na+- and K+-dependent ATPase (Na,K-ATPase) plays an important role in the pump function of the corneal endothelium. We investigated the possible role of protein kinase C (PKC) in regulation of Na,K-ATPase activity and pump function in corneal endothelial cells. Confluent monolayers of mouse corneal endothelial cells were exposed to phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) to induce activation of PKC. ATPase activity of the cells was evaluated by using ammonium molybdate in spectrophotometric measurement of phosphate released from ATP, with Na,K-ATPase activity being defined as the portion of total ATPase activity sensitive to ouabain. Pump function of the cells was measured with a Ussing chamber, with the pump function attributable to Na,K-ATPase activity being defined as the portion of the total short-circuit current sensitive to ouabain. PDBu (10(-7) M) increased the Na,K-ATPase activity and pump function of the cultured cells. These effects of PDBu were potentiated by the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin and the cytochrome P(450) inhibitor resorufin and were blocked by okadaic acid, an inhibitor of protein phosphatases 1 and 2A. Our results suggest that PKC bidirectionally regulates Na,K-ATPase activity in mouse corneal endothelial cells: it inhibits Na,K-ATPase activity in a cyclooxygenase- and cytochrome P(450)-dependent manner, whereas it stimulates such activity by activating protein phosphatases 1 or 2A.

  13. Sex and estrous cycle-dependent rapid protein kinase signaling actions of estrogen in distal colonic cells.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Mahony, Fiona

    2008-10-01

    Previous studies from our laboratory demonstrated that 17beta-estradiol (E2) rapidly inhibits Cl(-) secretion in rat and human distal colonic epithelium. The inhibition has been shown to occur via targeting of a basolateral K(+) channel identified as the KCNQ1 (KvLQT1) channel. E2 indirectly modulates the channel activity via a cascade of second messengers which are rapidly phosphorylated in response to E2. The anti-secretory mechanism may be the manner by which E2 induces fluid retention in the intestine during periods of high circulating plasma E2. Here we review the sex-dependent and estrous cycle regulation of this novel rapid response to E2. The inhibition of KCNQ1 channel activity and Cl(-) secretion will be of interest in the future in the investigation of the retentive effects of estrogen in female tissue and also in the study of secretory disorders and drugable targets of the intestine.

  14. 5-Substituted 3-isopropyl-7-[4-(2-pyridyl)benzyl]amino-1(2)H-pyrazolo[4,3-d]pyrimidines with anti-proliferative activity as potent and selective inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vymětalová, Ladislava; Havlíček, Libor; Šturc, Antonín; Skrášková, Zuzana; Jorda, Radek; Pospíšil, Tomáš; Strnad, Miroslav; Kryštof, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 110, MAR 3 (2016), s. 291-301 ISSN 0223-5234 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-15264S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Cyclin-dependent kinase * Inhibitor * Selectivity Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.519, year: 2016

  15. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid inserts the apical conjugate export pump, Mrp2, into canalicular membranes and stimulates organic anion secretion by protein kinase C-dependent mechanisms in cholestatic rat liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beuers, U.; Bilzer, M.; Chittattu, A.; Kullak-Ublick, G. A.; Keppler, D.; Paumgartner, G.; Dombrowski, F.

    2001-01-01

    Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) exerts anticholestatic effects by undefined mechanisms. Previous work suggested that UDCA stimulates biliary exocytosis via Ca(++)- and protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent mechanisms. Therefore, the effect of taurine-conjugated UDCA (TUDCA) was studied in the experimental

  16. Protein kinase A-dependent Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase Activation Mediates the Enhancement of Baroreflex Response by Adrenomedullin in the Nucleus Tractus Solitarii of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho I-Chun

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adrenomedullin (ADM exerts its biological functions through the receptor-mediated enzymatic mechanisms that involve protein kinase A (PKA, or neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS. We previously demonstrated that the receptor-mediated cAMP/PKA pathway involves in ADM-enhanced baroreceptor reflex (BRR response. It remains unclear whether ADM may enhance BRR response via activation of nNOS-dependent mechanism in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS. Methods Intravenous injection of phenylephrine was administered to evoke the BRR before and at 10, 30, and 60 min after microinjection of the test agents into NTS of Sprague-Dawley rats. Western blotting analysis was used to measure the level and phosphorylation of proteins that involved in BRR-enhancing effects of ADM (0.2 pmol in NTS. The colocalization of PKA and nNOS was examined by immunohistochemical staining and observed with a laser confocal microscope. Results We found that ADM-induced enhancement of BRR response was blunted by microinjection of NPLA or Rp-8-Br-cGMP, a selective inhibitor of nNOS or protein kinase G (PKG respectively, into NTS. Western blot analysis further revealed that ADM induced an increase in the protein level of PKG-I which could be attenuated by co-microinjection with the ADM receptor antagonist ADM22-52 or NPLA. Moreover, we observed an increase in phosphorylation at Ser1416 of nNOS at 10, 30, and 60 min after intra-NTS administration of ADM. As such, nNOS/PKG signaling may also account for the enhancing effect of ADM on BRR response. Interestingly, biochemical evidence further showed that ADM-induced increase of nNOS phosphorylation was prevented by co-microinjection with Rp-8-Br-cAMP, a PKA inhibitor. The possibility of PKA-dependent nNOS activation was substantiated by immunohistochemical demonstration of co-localization of PKA and nNOS in putative NTS neurons. Conclusions The novel finding of this study is that the signal transduction cascade that

  17. The calcium-dependent protein kinase RcCDPK2 phosphorylates sucrose synthase at Ser11 in developing castor oil seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedosejevs, Eric T; Gerdis, Suzanne A; Ying, Sheng; Pyc, Michal; Anderson, Erin M; Snedden, Wayne A; Mullen, Robert T; She, Yi-Min; Plaxton, William C

    2016-10-15

    Imported sucrose is cleaved by sucrose synthase (SUS) as a critical initial reaction in the biosynthesis of storage end-products by developing seeds. Although SUS is phosphorylated at a conserved seryl residue by an apparent CDPK (Ca 2+ -dependent protein kinase) in diverse plant tissues, the functions and mechanistic details of this process remain obscure. Thus, the native CDPK that phosphorylates RcSUS1 (Ricinus communis SUS1) at Ser 11 in developing COS (castor oil seeds) was highly purified and identified as RcCDPK2 by MS/MS. Purified RcSUS1-K (-kinase) and heterologously expressed RcCDPK2 catalyzed Ca 2+ -dependent Ser 11 phosphorylation of RcSUS1 and its corresponding dephosphopeptide, while exhibiting a high affinity for free Ca 2+ ions [K 0.5 (Ca 2+ ) < 0.4 µM]. RcSUS1-K activity, RcCDPK2 expression, and RcSUS1 Ser 11 phosphorylation peaked during early COS development and then declined in parallel. The elimination of sucrose import via fruit excision triggered RcSUS1 dephosphorylation but did not alter RcSUS1-K activity, suggesting a link between sucrose signaling and posttranslational RcCDPK2 control. Both RcCDPK2-mCherry and RcSUS1-EYFP co-localized throughout the cytosol when transiently co-expressed in tobacco suspension cells, although RcCDPK2-mCherry was also partially localized to the nucleus. Subcellular fractionation revealed that ∼20% of RcSUS1-K activity associates with microsomal membranes in developing COS, as does RcSUS1. In contrast with RcCDPK1, which catalyzes inhibitory phosphorylation of COS bacterial-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase at Ser 451 , RcCDPK2 exhibited broad substrate specificity, a wide pH-activity profile centered at pH 8.5, and insensitivity to metabolite effectors or thiol redox status. Our combined results indicate a possible link between cytosolic Ca 2+ -signaling and the control of photosynthate partitioning during COS development. © 2016 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the

  18. Glycogen-dependent effects of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide (AICA)-riboside on AMP-activated protein kinase and glycogen synthase activities in rat skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F P; Jørgensen, Sebastian B; Hellsten, Ylva; Hardie, D Grahame; Richter, Erik A

    2002-02-01

    5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) functions as a metabolic switch in mammalian cells and can be artificially activated by 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide (AICA)-riboside. AMPK activation during muscle contraction is dependent on muscle glycogen concentrations, but whether glycogen also modifies the activation of AMPK and its possible downstream effectors (glycogen synthase and glucose transport) by AICA-riboside in resting muscle is not known. Thus, we have altered muscle glycogen levels in rats by a combination of swimming exercise and diet and investigated the effects of AICA-riboside in the perfused rat hindlimb muscle. Two groups of rats, one with super-compensated muscle glycogen content (approximately 200-300% of normal; high glycogen [HG]) and one with moderately lowered muscle glycogen content (approximately 80% of normal; low glycogen [LG]), were generated. In both groups, the degree of activation of the alpha2 isoform of AMPK by AICA-riboside depended on muscle type (white gastrocnemius > red gastrocnemius > soleus). Basal and AICA-riboside-induced alpha2-AMPK activity were markedly lowered in the HG group (approximately 50%) compared with the LG group. Muscle 2-deoxyglucose uptake was also increased and glycogen synthase activity decreased by AICA-riboside. Especially in white gastrocnemius, these effects, as well as the absolute activity levels of AMPK-alpha2, were markedly reduced in the HG group compared with the LG group. The inactivation of glycogen synthase by AICA-riboside was accompanied by decreased gel mobility and was eliminated by protein phosphatase treatment. We conclude that acute AICA-riboside treatment leads to phosphorylation and deactivation of glycogen synthase in skeletal muscle. Although the data do not exclude a role of other kinases/phosphatases, they suggest that glycogen synthase may be a target for AMPK in vivo. Both basal and AICA-riboside-induced AMPK-alpha2 and glycogen synthase activities, as well as glucose transport

  19. Ca²+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII activity and sinoatrial nodal pacemaker cell energetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Yaniv

    Full Text Available : Ca(2+-activated basal adenylate cyclase (AC in rabbit sinoatrial node cells (SANC guarantees, via basal cAMP/PKA-calmodulin/CaMKII-dependent protein phosphorylation, the occurrence of rhythmic, sarcoplasmic-reticulum generated, sub-membrane Ca(2+ releases that prompt rhythmic, spontaneous action potentials (APs. This high-throughput signaling consumes ATP.We have previously demonstrated that basal AC-cAMP/PKA signaling directly, and Ca(2+ indirectly, regulate mitochondrial ATP production. While, clearly, Ca(2+-calmodulin-CaMKII activity regulates ATP consumption, whether it has a role in the control of ATP production is unknown.We superfused single, isolated rabbit SANC at 37°C with physiological saline containing CaMKII inhibitors, (KN-93 or autocamtide-2 Related Inhibitory Peptide (AIP, or a calmodulin inhibitor (W-7 and measured cytosolic Ca(2+, flavoprotein fluorescence and spontaneous AP firing rate. We measured cAMP, ATP and O2 consumption in cell suspensions. Graded reductions in basal CaMKII activity by KN-93 (0.5-3 µmol/L or AIP (2-10 µmol/L markedly slow the kinetics of intracellular Ca(2+ cycling, decrease the spontaneous AP firing rate, decrease cAMP, and reduce O2 consumption and flavoprotein fluorescence. In this context of graded reductions in ATP demand, however, ATP also becomes depleted, indicating reduced ATP production.CaMKII signaling, a crucial element of normal automaticity in rabbit SANC, is also involved in SANC bioenergetics.

  20. Dependence of morphometric allometries on the growth kinetics of body parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijhout, H Frederik

    2011-11-07

    As overall size varies, the sizes of body parts of many animals often appear to be related to each other by a power law, commonly called the allometric equation. Orderly scaling relationships among body parts are widespread in the animal world, but there is no general agreement about how these relationships come about. Presumably they depend on the patterns of growth of body parts, and simple analyses have shown that exponential growth can lead to size relationships that are well-described by the allometric equation. Exponential growth kinetics also allow for a simple biological interpretation of the coefficients of the power relationship. Nevertheless, many tissues do not grow with exponential kinetics, nor do they grow for the same period of time, and the consequences of more realistic growth patterns on the resulting allometric relationships of body parts are not well understood. In this paper I derive a set of allometric equations that assume different kinetics of growth: linear, exponential and sigmoidal. In these derivations I also include differences in development times as a variable, in addition to differences in the growth rates and initial sizes of the two structures whose allometric relationship is compared. I show how these equations can be used to deduce the effect of different causes of variation in absolute size on the resulting allometry. Variation in size can be due to variation in the duration of development, variation in growth rate or variation in initial size. I show that the meaning of the coefficients of the allometric equation depends on exactly how size variation comes about. I show that if two structures are assumed to grow with sigmoidal kinetics (logistic and Gompertz) the resulting allometric equations do not have a simple and intuitive structure and produce graphs that, over a sufficiently large range of sizes, can vary from linear, to sigmoidal to hump-shaped. Over a smaller range of absolute sizes, these sigmoid growth kinetics can

  1. Role of protein kinase C family in the cerebellum-dependent adaptive learning of horizontal optokinetic response eye movements in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutoh, Fumihiro; Katoh, Akira; Ohki, Masafumi; Itohara, Shigeyoshi; Tonegawa, Susumu; Nagao, Soichi

    2003-07-01

    Among the subtypes of the Ca2+-dependent protein kinase C (PKC), which play a crucial role in long-term depression (LTD), both alpha and gamma are expressed in the cerebellar floccular Purkinje cells. To reveal the functional differences of PKC subtypes, we examined the adaptability of ocular reflexes of PKCgamma mutant mice, which show mild ataxia and normal LTD. In mutant mice, gains of the horizontal optokinetic eye response (HOKR) were reduced. Adaptation of the HOKR was not affected but its retinal slip dependency was altered in mutant mice. Sustained 1-h sinusoidal screen oscillation, which induced a relatively large amount of retinal slips in both mutant and wild-type mice, increased the HOKR gain in wild-type mice but not in mutant mice. In contrast, exposure to 1 h of sustained slower screen oscillations, which induced relatively small retinal slips in mutant and wild-type mice, increased the HOKR gain in both mutant and wild-type mice. Adaptation of the HOKR of the mutant mice to slow screen oscillation and those of wild-type mice to fast and slow screen oscillations were all abolished by local applications of a PKC inhibitor (chelerythrine) within the flocculi. Electrophysiological and anatomical studies showed no appreciable changes in the sources and magnitudes of climbing fibre inputs, which mediate retinal slip signals to the flocculus in the mutant mice. These results suggest that PKCgamma has a modulatory role in determining retinal slip dependency, and other PKC subtypes, e.g. PKCalpha, may play a crucial role in the adaptation of the HOKR.

  2. Activity-dependent calcium signaling and ERK-MAP kinases in neurons: a link to structural plasticity of the nucleus and gene transcription regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegert, J Simon; Bading, Hilmar

    2011-05-01

    Activity-dependent gene expression is important for the formation and maturation of neuronal networks, neuronal survival and for plastic modifications within mature networks. At the level of individual neurons, expression of new protein is required for dendritic branching, synapse formation and elimination. Experience-driven synaptic activity induces membrane depolarization, which in turn evokes intracellular calcium transients that are decoded according to their source and strength by intracellular calcium sensing proteins. In order to activate the gene transcription machinery of the cell, calcium signals have to be conveyed from the site of their generation in the cytoplasm to the cell nucleus. This can occur via a variety of mechanisms and with different kinetics depending on the source and amplitude of calcium influx. One mechanism involves the propagation of calcium itself, leading to nuclear calcium transients that subsequently activate transcription. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade represents a second central signaling module that transduces information from the site of calcium signal generation at the plasma membrane to the nucleus. Nuclear signaling of the MAPK cascades catalyzes the phosphorylation of transcription factors but also regulates gene transcription more globally at the level of chromatin remodeling as well as through its recently identified role in the modulation of nuclear shape. Here we discuss the possible mechanisms by which the MAPKs ERK1 and ERK2, activated by synaptically evoked calcium influx, can signal to the nucleus and regulate gene transcription. Moreover, we describe how MAPK-dependent structural plasticity of the nuclear envelope enhances nuclear calcium signaling and suggest possible implications for the regulation of gene transcription in the context of nuclear geometry. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Autophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis impairment contribute to age-dependent liver injury in experimental sepsis: dysregulation of AMP-activated protein kinase pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inata, Yu; Kikuchi, Satoshi; Samraj, Ravi S; Hake, Paul W; O'Connor, Michael; Ledford, John R; O'Connor, James; Lahni, Patrick; Wolfe, Vivian; Piraino, Giovanna; Zingarelli, Basilia

    2018-02-01

    Age is an independent risk factor of multiple organ failure in patients with sepsis. However, the age-related mechanisms of injury are not known. AMPK is a crucial regulator of energy homeostasis, which controls mitochondrial biogenesis by activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-α (PGC-1α) and disposal of defective organelles by autophagy. We investigated whether AMPK dysregulation might contribute to age-dependent liver injury in young (2-3 mo) and mature male mice (11-13 mo) subjected to sepsis. Liver damage was higher in mature mice than in young mice and was associated with impairment of hepatocyte mitochondrial function, structure, and biogenesis and reduced autophagy. At molecular analysis, there was a time-dependent nuclear translocation of the active phosphorylated catalytic subunits AMPKα1/α2 and PGC-1α in young, but not in mature, mice after sepsis. Treatment with the AMPK activator 5-amino-4-imidazolecarboxamide riboside-1-β-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR) improved liver mitochondrial structure in both age groups compared with vehicle. In loss-of-function studies, young knockout mice with systemic deficiency of AMPKα1 exhibited greater liver injury than did wild-type mice after sepsis. Our study suggests that AMPK is important for liver metabolic recovery during sepsis. Although its function may diminish with age, pharmacological activation of AMPK may be of therapeutic benefit.-Inata, Y., Kikuchi, S., Samraj, R. S., Hake, P. W., O'Connor, M., Ledford, J. R., O'Connor, J., Lahni, P., Wolfe, V., Piraino, G., Zingarelli, B. Autophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis impairment contribute to age-dependent liver injury in experimental sepsis: dysregulation of AMP-activated protein kinase pathway.

  4. Inhibition of Cardiac Kir Current (IK1 by Protein Kinase C Critically Depends on PKCβ and Kir2.2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Scherer

    Full Text Available Cardiac inwardly rectifying Kir current (IK1 mediates terminal repolarisation and is critical for the stabilization of the diastolic membrane potential. Its predominant molecular basis in mammalian ventricle is heterotetrameric assembly of Kir2.1 and Kir2.2 channel subunits. It has been shown that PKC inhibition of IK1 promotes focal ventricular ectopy. However, the underlying molecular mechanism has not been fully elucidated to date.In the Xenopus oocyte expression system, we observed a pronounced PKC-induced inhibition of Kir2.2 but not Kir2.1 currents. The PKC regulation of Kir2.2 could be reproduced by an activator of conventional PKC isoforms and antagonized by pharmacological inhibition of PKCβ. In isolated ventricular cardiomyocytes (rat, mouse, pharmacological activation of conventional PKC isoforms induced a pronounced inhibition of IK1. The PKC effect in rat ventricular cardiomyocytes was markedly attenuated following co-application of a small molecule inhibitor of PKCβ. Underlining the critical role of PKCβ, the PKC-induced inhibition of IK1 was absent in homozygous PKCβ knockout-mice. After heterologous expression of Kir2.1-Kir2.2 concatemers in Xenopus oocytes, heteromeric Kir2.1/Kir2.2 currents were also inhibited following activation of PKC.We conclude that inhibition of cardiac IK1 by PKC critically depends on the PKCβ isoform and Kir2.2 subunits. This regulation represents a potential novel target for the antiarrhythmic therapy of focal ventricular arrhythmias.

  5. Time-dependent reliability of corrosion-affected RC beams. Part 3: Effect of corrosion initiation time and its variability on time-dependent failure probability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhargava, Kapilesh; Mori, Yasuhiro; Ghosh, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper forms the third part of a study which addresses time-dependent reliability analyses of reinforced concrete (RC) beams affected by reinforcement corrosion. Parts 1 and 2 of the reliability study are presented in companion papers. Part 1 of the reliability study presents evaluation of probabilistic descriptions for time-dependent strengths of a typical simply supported corrosion-affected RC beam. These probabilistic descriptions, i.e., mean and coefficient of variation (c.o.v.) for the time-dependent strengths are presented for two limit states: (a) flexural failure; and (b) shear failure. Part 2 of the reliability study presents evaluation of time-dependent failure probability for the considered RC beam by utilizing the information on probabilistic descriptions for time-dependent strengths available in Part 1. Evaluation of time-dependent failure probability considering the variability in time-dependent strengths and/or time-dependent degradation functions is also presented. This paper investigates the effects of time to corrosion initiation and its variability on failure probability of the same RC beam presented in companion papers. By considering variability in the identified variables that could affect the expected time of first corrosion, simple estimations are presented for mean time to corrosion initiation and variability associated with time to corrosion initiation. Evaluation of time-dependent failure probability for the beam is presented by considering estimated probabilistic descriptions, i.e., mean and c.o.v. for time to corrosion initiation. Parametric analyses show that failure probability for the beam is sensitive to the mode of strength degradation and time to corrosion initiation.

  6. Histoplasma capsulatum-Induced Cytokine Secretion in Lung Epithelial Cells Is Dependent on Host Integrins, Src-Family Kinase Activation, and Membrane Raft Recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maza, Paloma K; Suzuki, Erika

    2016-01-01

    Histoplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum is a dimorphic fungus that causes histoplasmosis, a human systemic mycosis with worldwide distribution. In the present work, we demonstrate that H. capsulatum yeasts are able to induce cytokine secretion by the human lung epithelial cell line A549 in integrin- and Src-family kinase (SFK)-dependent manners. This conclusion is supported by small interfering RNA (siRNA) directed to α3 and α5 integrins, and PP2, an inhibitor of SFK activation. siRNA and PP2 reduced IL-6 and IL-8 secretion in H. capsulatum-infected A549 cell cultures. In addition, α3 and α5 integrins from A549 cells were capable of associating with H. capsulatum yeasts, and this fungus promotes recruitment of these integrins and SFKs to A549 cell membrane rafts. Corroborating this finding, membrane raft disruption with the cholesterol-chelator methyl-β-cyclodextrin reduced the levels of integrins and SFKs in these cell membrane domains. Finally, pretreatment of A549 cells with the cholesterol-binding compound, and also a membrane raft disruptor, filipin, significantly reduced IL-6 and IL-8 levels in A549-H.capsulatum cultures. Taken together, these results indicate that H. capsulatum yeasts induce secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 in human lung epithelial cells by interacting with α3 and α5 integrins, recruiting these integrins to membrane rafts, and promoting SFK activation.

  7. Pyruvate kinase isoenzyme M2 is a glycolytic sensor differentially regulating cell proliferation, cell size and apoptotic cell death dependent on glucose supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spoden, Gilles A.; Rostek, Ursula; Lechner, Stefan; Mitterberger, Maria; Mazurek, Sybille; Zwerschke, Werner

    2009-01-01

    The glycolytic key regulator pyruvate kinase M2 (M2-PK or PKM2) can switch between a highly active tetrameric and an inactive dimeric form. The transition between the two conformations regulates the glycolytic flux in tumor cells. We developed specific M2-PK-binding peptide aptamers which inhibit M2-PK, but not the 96% homologous M1-PK isoenzyme. In this study we demonstrate that, at normal blood glucose concentrations, peptide aptamer-mediated inhibition of M2-PK induces a significant decrease of the population doubling (PDL rate) and cell proliferation rate as well as an increase in cell size, whereas under glucose restriction an increase in PDL and cell proliferation rates but a decrease in cell size was observed. Moreover, M2-PK inhibition rescues cells from glucose starvation-induced apoptotic cell death by increasing the metabolic activity. These findings suggest that M2-PK is a metabolic sensor which regulates cell proliferation, cell growth and apoptotic cell death in a glucose supply-dependent manner.

  8. Leptin enhances NR2B-mediated N-methyl-D-aspartate responses via a mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent process in cerebellar granule cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, A J; Wallace, L; Durakoglugil, D; Harvey, J

    2006-01-01

    It is well documented that the hormone leptin regulates energy balance via its actions in the hypothalamus. However, evidence is accumulating that leptin plays a key role in numerous CNS functions. Indeed, leptin receptors are expressed in many extrahypothalamic brain regions, with high levels found in the hippocampus and cerebellum. In the hippocampus leptin has been shown to facilitate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor function and modulate synaptic plasticity. A role for leptin in cerebellar function is also indicated as leptin-deficient rodents display reduced mobility that is unrelated to obesity. Here we show that leptin receptor immunolabeling can be detected in cultured cerebellar granule cells, being expressed at the somatic plasma membrane and also concentrated at synapses. Furthermore, leptin facilitated NR2B N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated Ca2+ influx in cerebellar granule cells via a mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent pathway. These findings provide the first direct evidence for a cellular action of leptin in cerebellar neurons. In addition, given that N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activity in the cerebellum is crucial for normal locomotor function, these data also have important implications for the potential role of leptin in the control of movement.

  9. The Activators of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5 p35 and p39 Are Essential for Oligodendrocyte Maturation, Process Formation, and Myelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Fucheng; Zhang, Jessie; Burke, Kathryn; Miller, Robert H; Yang, Yan

    2016-03-09

    The regulation of oligodendrocyte development and myelin formation in the CNS is poorly defined. Multiple signals influence the rate and extent of CNS myelination, including the noncanonical cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) whose functions are regulated by its activators p35 and p39. Here we show that selective loss of either p35 or p39 perturbed specific aspects of oligodendrocyte development, whereas loss of both p35 and p39 completely inhibited the development of mature oligodendrocytes and myelination. In the absence of p35, oligodendrocyte differentiation was delayed, process outgrowth was truncated in vitro, and the patterning and extent of myelination were perturbed in the CNS of p35(-/-) mice. In the absence of p39, oligodendrocyte maturation was transiently affected both in vitro and in vivo. However, loss of both p35 and p39 in oligodendrocyte lineage cells completely inhibited oligodendrocyte progenitor cell differentiation and myelination both in vitro and after transplantation into shiverer slice cultures. Loss of p35 and p39 had a more profound effect on oligodendrocyte development than simply the loss of Cdk5 and could not be rescued by Cdk5 overexpression. These data suggest p35 and p39 have specific and overlapping roles in oligodendrocyte development, some of which may be independent of Cdk5 activation. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/363024-14$15.00/0.

  10. The comparison of nuclear ubiquitous casein and cyclin-dependent kinases substrate (NUCKS) with Ki67 proliferation marker expression in common skin tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zduniak, Krzysztof; Agrawal, Siddarth; Symonowicz, Krzysztof; Jurczyszyn, Kamil; Ziółkowski, Piotr

    2014-03-01

    Nuclear ubiquitous casein and cyclin-dependent kinases substrate (NUCKS) is a chromosomal protein of unknown function. Its amino acid composition and structure of its DNA binding domain resemble those of high mobility group A (HMGA) proteins which are associated with various malignancies. Since changes in expression of HMGA are considered as a marker of tumor progression, it is possible that similar changes in expression of NUCKS could be a useful tool in diagnosis of malignant skin tumors. To investigate this assumption we used specific antibodies against NUCKS for immunohistochemistry of squamous (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) as well as keratoacanthoma (KA). We found high expression of NUCKS in nuclei of SCC and BCC cells which exceeded expression of the well-known proliferation marker Ki67. Expression of NUCKS in benign KA was much below that of malignant tumors. With the present study and based on our previous experience we would like to suggest the NUCKS protein as a novel proliferation marker for immunohistochemical evaluation of formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded skin tumor specimens. We would like to emphasize that NUCKS abundance in malignant skin tumors is higher than that of the well-known proliferation marker Ki67, thus allowing more precise assessment of tumor proliferation potential.

  11. Involvement of c-Met- and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase dependent pathways in arsenite-induced downregulation of catalase in hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soohee; Lee, Seung Heon; Kang, Sukmo; Lee, Lyon; Park, Jung-Duck; Ryu, Doug-Young

    2011-01-01

    Catalase protects cells from reactive oxygen species-induced damage by catalyzing the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide to oxygen and water. Arsenite decreases catalase activity; it activates phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and its key downstream effector Akt in a variety of cells. The PI3K pathway is known to inhibit catalase expression. c-Met, an upstream regulator of PI3K and Akt, is also involved in the regulation of catalase expression. To examine the involvement of c-Met and PI3K pathways in the arsenite-induced downregulation of catalase, catalase mRNA and protein expression were analyzed in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2 treated with arsenite and either an inhibitor of c-Met (PHA665752 (PHA)) or of PI3K (LY294002 (LY)). Arsenite treatment markedly activated Akt and decreased the levels of both catalase mRNA and protein. Both PHA and LY attenuated arsenite-induced activation of Akt. PHA and LY treatment also prevented the inhibitory effect of arsenite on catalase protein expression but did not affect the level of catalase mRNA. These findings suggest that arsenite-induced inhibition of catalase expression is regulated at the mRNA and post-transcriptional levels in HepG2 cells, and that the post-transcriptional regulation is mediated via c-Met- and PI3K-dependent mechanisms.

  12. Calcium-dependent protein kinase CPK31 interacts with arsenic transporter AtNIP1;1 and regulates arsenite uptake in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruijie Ji

    Full Text Available Although arsenite [As(III] is non-essential and toxic for plants, it is effectively absorbed through various transporters into the roots. Here we identified a calcium-dependent protein kinase (CPK31 response for As(III tolerance in Arabidopsis. We identified CPK31 as an interacting protein of a nodulin 26-like intrinsic protein (NIP1;1, an aquaporin involved in As(III uptake. Similarly to the nip1;1 mutants, the loss-of-function mutants of CPK31 improved the tolerance against As(III but not As(V, and accumulated less As(III in roots than that of the wild-type plants. The promoter-β-glucuronidase and quantitative Real-Time PCR analysis revealed that CPK31 displayed overlapping expression profiles with NIP1;1 in the roots, suggesting that they might function together in roots. Indeed, the cpk31 nip1;1 double mutants exhibited stronger As(III tolerance than cpk31 mutants, but similar to nip1;1 mutants, supporting the idea that CPK31 might serve as an upstream regulator of NIP1;1. Furthermore, transient CPK31 overexpression induced by dexamethasone caused the decrease in As(III tolerance of transgenic Arabidopsis lines. These findings reveal that CPK31 is a key factor in As(III response in plants.

  13. Transforming growth factor beta-activated kinase 1 (TAK1)-dependent checkpoint in the survival of dendritic cells promotes immune homeostasis and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanyan; Huang, Gonghua; Vogel, Peter; Neale, Geoffrey; Reizis, Boris; Chi, Hongbo

    2012-02-07

    Homeostatic control of dendritic cell (DC) survival is crucial for adaptive immunity, but the molecular mechanism is not well defined. Moreover, how DCs influence immune homeostasis under steady state remains unclear. Combining DC-specific and -inducible deletion systems, we report that transforming growth factor beta-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) is an essential regulator of DC survival and immune system homeostasis and function. Deficiency of TAK1 in CD11c(+) cells induced markedly elevated apoptosis, leading to the depletion of DC populations, especially the CD8(+) and CD103(+) DC subsets in lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues, respectively. TAK1 also contributed to DC development by promoting the generation of DC precursors. Prosurvival signals from Toll-like receptors, CD40 and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (RANK) are integrated by TAK1 in DCs, which in turn mediated activation of downstream NF-κB and AKT-Foxo pathways and established a gene-expression program. TAK1 deficiency in DCs caused a myeloid proliferative disorder characterized by expansion of neutrophils and inflammatory monocytes, disrupted T-cell homeostasis, and prevented effective T-cell priming and generation of regulatory T cells. Moreover, TAK1 signaling in DCs was required to prevent myeloid proliferation even in the absence of lymphocytes, indicating a previously unappreciated regulatory mechanism of DC-mediated control of myeloid cell-dependent inflammation. Therefore, TAK1 orchestrates a prosurvival checkpoint in DCs that affects the homeostasis and function of the immune system.

  14. Radioiodination of cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor Olomoucine loaded Fe rate at Au nanoparticle and evaluation of the therapeutic efficacy on cancerous cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takan, Gokhan; Guldu, Ozge Kozgus; Medine, Emin Ilker [Ege Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Nuclear Applications

    2017-06-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles have promising biomedical applications such as drug delivery, novel therapeutics and diagnostic imaging. Magnetic drug delivery combination works on the delivery of magnetic nanoparticles loaded with drug to the target tissue by means of an external magnetic field. Gold coated iron oxide (Fe rate at Au) nanoparticles can provide useful surface chemistry and biological reactivity. Covalent conjugation to the Fe rate at Au nanoparticles through cleavable linkages can be used to deliver drugs to tumor cells, then the drug can be released by an external. In this paper, purine based cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs) inhibitor Olomoucine (Olo) [2-(Hydroxyethylamino)-6-benzylamino-9-methylpurine] was loaded on gold coated iron oxide (Fe rate at Au) nanoparticles and radiolabeled with {sup 131}I to combine magnetic targeted drug delivery and radiotherapy. Fe rate at Au nanoparticles were synthesized by microemulsion method. The characterization of nanoparticles was examined by TEM, VSM and XRD. Amine activation was utilized by cysteamine hydrochloride and then CDI was used for conjugation of Olomoucine. Antiproliferative effect and cytotoxicity of Olomoucine loaded Fe rate at Au nanoparticles (Fe rate at Au-Olo) were investigated on MCF7 and A549 cell lines. Proliferation rate was decreased while uptake of Fe rate at Au-Olo on both cell lines was high in comparison with Olomoucine. Also, enhanced incorporation ratio was observed under external magnetic field.

  15. Cell culture condition-dependent impact of AGE-rich food extracts on kinase activation and cell survival on human fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nass, Norbert; Weissenberg, Kristian; Somoza, Veronika; Ruhs, Stefanie; Silber, Rolf-Edgar; Simm, Andreas

    2014-03-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are stable end products of the Maillard reaction. Effects of food extracts are often initially analysed in cellular test systems and it is not clear how different cell culture conditions might influence the results. Therefore, we compared the effects of two models for AGE-rich food, bread crust and coffee extract (CE) on WI-38 human lung fibroblasts under different cell culture conditions (sub-confluent versus confluent cells, with and without serum). WI-38 cells responded to coffee and bread crust extract (BCE) with a rapid phosphorylation of PKB (AKT), p42/44 MAPK (ERK 1/2) and p38 MAPK, strongly depending on culture conditions. BCE resulted in increased cell numbers, whereas CE appeared to be cytotoxic. When cell numbers under all culture conditions and treatments were correlated with kinase phosphorylation, the relation between phospho-p38 MAPK and phospho-AKT represented a good, cell culture condition-independent predictor of cell survival.

  16. Adipocyte Fatty Acid Binding Protein Potentiates Toxic Lipids-Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Macrophages via Inhibition of Janus Kinase 2-dependent Autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoo, Ruby L C; Shu, Lingling; Cheng, Kenneth K Y; Wu, Xiaoping; Liao, Boya; Wu, Donghai; Zhou, Zhiguang; Xu, Aimin

    2017-01-17

    Lipotoxicity is implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity-related inflammatory complications by promoting macrophage infiltration and activation. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP) play key roles in obesity and mediate inflammatory activity through similar signaling pathways. However, little is known about their interplay in lipid-induced inflammatory responses. Here, we showed that prolonged treatment of palmitic acid (PA) increased ER stress and expression of A-FABP, which was accompanied by reduced autophagic flux in macrophages. Over-expression of A-FABP impaired PA-induced autophagy associating with enhanced ER stress and pro-inflammatory cytokine production, while genetic ablation or pharmacological inhibition of A-FABP reversed the conditions. PA-induced expression of autophagy-related protein (Atg)7 was attenuated in A-FABP over-expressed macrophages, but was elevated in A-FABP-deficient macrophages. Mechanistically, A-FABP potentiated the effects of PA by inhibition of Janus Kinase (JAK)2 activity, thus diminished PA-induced Atg7 expression contributing to impaired autophagy and further augmentation of ER stress. These findings suggest that A-FABP acts as autophagy inhibitor to instigate toxic lipids-induced ER stress through inhibition of JAK2-dependent autophagy, which in turn triggers inflammatory responses in macrophages. A-FABP-JAK2 axis may represent an important pathological pathway contributing to obesity-related inflammatory diseases.

  17. Simple synthesis of carbon-11-labeled chromen-4-one derivatives as new potential PET agents for imaging of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) in cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Mingzhang; Wang, Min; Miller, Kathy D.; Zheng, Qi-Huang

    2012-01-01

    Carbon-11-labeled chromen-4-one derivatives were synthesized as new potential PET agents for imaging of DNA repair enzyme DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) in cancer. The target tracers, X-[ 11 C]methoxy-2-morpholino-4H-chromen-4-ones (X=8, 7, 6, 5; [ 11 C]4a–d), were prepared from their corresponding precursors, X-hydroxy-2-morpholino-4H-chromen-4-ones (X=8, 7, 6, 5; 5a–d), with [ 11 C]CH 3 OTf through O-[ 11 C]methylation and isolated by a simplified solid-phase extraction (SPE) method using a C-18 Sep-Pak Plus cartridge. The radiochemical yields decay corrected to end of bombardment (EOB), from [ 11 C]CO 2 , were 40–60%. The specific activity at end of synthesis (EOS) was 185–370 GBq/μmol. - Highlights: ► New chromen-4-one derivatives were synthesized. ► New carbon-11-labeled chromen-4-one derivatives were synthesized. ► Simple solid-phase extraction (SPE) method was employed in radiosynthesis.

  18. Functional changes in the properties of the β-adrenoreceptors of pigeon erythrocytes under the action of the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, K.M.; Bulargina, T.V.; Severin, E.S.

    1986-01-01

    The β-adrenoreceptors were solubilized from the plasma membranes of pigeon erythrocytes, treated with N-ethylmaleimide, using deoxycholate. The removal of the deoxycholate leads to incorporation of receptors into phospholipid vesicles and a restoration of their biological activity. After fusion of vesicles containing reconstituted receptors with vesicles containing the N/sub s/-protein and the catalytic component, a restoration of the hormonal activity of the enzyme was observed. If vesicles containing β-adrenoreceptors were incubated before fusion with the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, the hormonal activity of the preparation obtained was lowered by 45-50%. The decrease in activity occurred on account of an increase in the lag phase of activation of the enzyme in the presence of isoproterenol and GPP(NH)p, as well as on account of a decrease in the activity in the stationary phase of activation. Phosphorylation of the β-adrenoreceptors leads to a decrease in the content of the ternary isoproterenol-receptor-N/sub s/-protein complex, participating in the activation of adenylate cyclase. Thus, phosphorylation of the receptors leads to disruptions of the mechanism of transmission of the hormonal signal, analogous to those observed in the desensitization of adenylate cyclase

  19. Phosphorylation of transcriptional regulators in the retinoblastoma protein pathway by UL97, the viral cyclin-dependent kinase encoded by human cytomegalovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwahori, Satoko; Kalejta, Robert F

    2017-12-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) encodes a viral cyclin-dependent kinase (v-CDK), the UL97 protein. UL97 phosphorylates Rb, p107 and p130, thereby inactivating all three retinoblastoma (Rb) family members. Rb proteins function through regulating the activity of transcription factors to which they bind. Therefore, we examined whether the UL97-mediated regulation of the Rb tumor suppressors also extended to their binding partners. We observed that UL97 phosphorylates LIN52, a component of p107- and p130-assembled transcriptionally repressive DREAM complexes that control transcription during the G0/G1 phases, and the Rb-associated E2F3 protein that activates transcription through G1 and S phases. Intriguingly, we also identified FoxM1B, a transcriptional regulator during the S and G2 phases, as a UL97 substrate. This survey extends the influence of UL97 beyond simply the Rb proteins themselves to their binding partners, as well as past the G1/S transition into later stages of the cell cycle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Flowcytometric evaluation of cell cycle regulators (cyclins and cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors expressed on bone marrow cells of patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia and multiple myeloma

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    Selami Koçak Toprak

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Etiopathology of malignancy can be demonstrated by the comparison of the quantified changes in the different phases of the cycle about cyclins and cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKI in healthy and malignant proliferated cells. The aim of this study is to analyze flow cytometric expression of cell cycle regulating elements in the malignant diseases with low and high proliferative signature. METHODS: The levels of cyclin D, E, A, B and CDKI's p16, p21 were studied by flowcytometry in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML (n=16, multiple myeloma (MM (n=13 and control subjects (n=15. RESULTS: The distributions of the cell cycle S phase were 10, 63%, 6, 72% and 3, 59%; for CML, MM and control subjects, respectively. Among all the cyclins expressed during the S phase, cyclin D expression was the lowest, in CML patients. While the distribution of cyclins and CDKI’s was similar between MM and control groups in G2/M phase; cyclins expressions were parallel in all three phases in MM and chronic myeloid leukemia groups. CONCLUSION: CML and MM are diseases presenting with variable degrees of proliferation. The increase of cyclins in cell cycle phases in patient group was not associated with the augmentation of the expression of CDKI’s. This finding may contribute the mechanisms effective in the etiopathogenesis of hematological malignancy.

  1. Rapid Diminution in the Level and Activity of DNA-Dependent Protein Kinase in Cancer Cells by a Reactive Nitro-Benzoxadiazole Compound

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    Viviane A. O. Silva

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The expression and activity of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK is related to DNA repair status in the response of cells to exogenous and endogenous factors. Recent studies indicate that Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR is involved in modulating DNA-PK. It has been shown that a compound 4-nitro-7-[(1-oxidopyridin-2-ylsulfanyl]-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole (NSC, bearing a nitro-benzoxadiazole (NBD scaffold, enhances tyrosine phosphorylation of EGFR and triggers downstream signaling pathways. Here, we studied the behavior of DNA-PK and other DNA repair proteins in prostate cancer cells exposed to compound NSC. We showed that both the expression and activity of DNA-PKcs (catalytic subunit of DNA-PK rapidly decreased upon exposure of cells to the compound. The decline in DNA-PKcs was associated with enhanced protein ubiquitination, indicating the activation of cellular proteasome. However, pretreatment of cells with thioglycerol abolished the action of compound NSC and restored the level of DNA-PKcs. Moreover, the decreased level of DNA-PKcs was associated with the production of intracellular hydrogen peroxide by stable dimeric forms of Cu/Zn SOD1 induced by NSC. Our findings indicate that reactive oxygen species and electrophilic intermediates, generated and accumulated during the redox transformation of NBD compounds, are primarily responsible for the rapid modulation of DNA-PKcs functions in cancer cells.

  2. Protein kinase G regulates β-synuclein in response to repeated exposure to cocaine in the rat dorsal striatum in a Ca²⁺-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ju Hwan; Choe, Eun Sang

    2014-10-17

    Protein kinase G (PKG) activation plays a crucial role in neuronal plasticity after repeated exposure to cocaine in the dorsal striatum. The present study investigated the characteristics of β-synuclein expression by PKG activation after repeated cocaine administration in the rat dorsal striatum. The results demonstrated that repeated, but not acute, exposure to cocaine (20mg/kg) once a day for 7 consecutive days significantly upregulated expression of β-synuclein. Furthermore, this upregulation was decreased by the depletion of Ca(2+), but not blockade of Na(+) influx. Blockade of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and ryanodine-sensitive Ca(2+) channels also decreased the elevation of β-synuclein expression by repeated cocaine administration. Inhibition of neuronal nitric oxide synthase, which can activate PKG, did not alter the expression of β-synuclein elevated by repeated cocaine administration. These findings suggest that the expression of β-synuclein can be regulated by Ca(2+)-dependent PKG activation via stimulation of NMDA receptors and voltage-operated Ca(2+) channels in the endoplasmic reticulum in the dorsal striatum. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. cGMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Inhibition Extends the Upper Temperature Limit of Stimulus-Evoked Calcium Responses in Motoneuronal Boutons of Drosophila melanogaster Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krill, Jennifer L; Dawson-Scully, Ken

    2016-01-01

    While the mammalian brain functions within a very narrow range of oxygen concentrations and temperatures, the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has employed strategies to deal with a much wider range of acute environmental stressors. The foraging (for) gene encodes the cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG), has been shown to regulate thermotolerance in many stress-adapted species, including Drosophila, and could be a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of hyperthermia in mammals. Whereas previous thermotolerance studies have looked at the effects of PKG variation on Drosophila behavior or excitatory postsynaptic potentials at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), little is known about PKG effects on presynaptic mechanisms. In this study, we characterize presynaptic calcium ([Ca2+]i) dynamics at the Drosophila larval NMJ to determine the effects of high temperature stress on synaptic transmission. We investigated the neuroprotective role of PKG modulation both genetically using RNA interference (RNAi), and pharmacologically, to determine if and how PKG affects presynaptic [Ca2+]i dynamics during hyperthermia. We found that PKG activity modulates presynaptic neuronal Ca2+ responses during acute hyperthermia, where PKG activation makes neurons more sensitive to temperature-induced failure of Ca2+ flux and PKG inhibition confers thermotolerance and maintains normal Ca2+ dynamics under the same conditions. Targeted motoneuronal knockdown of PKG using RNAi demonstrated that decreased PKG expression was sufficient to confer thermoprotection. These results demonstrate that the PKG pathway regulates presynaptic motoneuronal Ca2+ signaling to influence thermotolerance of presynaptic function during acute hyperthermia.

  4. Constitutively active erythropoietin receptor expression in breast cancer cells promotes cellular proliferation and migration through a MAP-kinase dependent pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Ping; Jiang Xiaohong; Arcasoy, Murat O.

    2009-01-01

    The role of erythropoietin receptor (EpoR) expression in tumor cells and the potential of EpoR-mediated signaling to contribute to cellular proliferation and invasiveness require further characterization. To determine whether EpoR expression and activation in tumor cells modulates intracellular signal transduction to promote cellular proliferation and migration, we employed a novel experimental model using human breast cancer cells engineered to stably express a constitutively active EpoR-R129C variant. EpoR-R129C expression resulted in increased cellular proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells and these effects were associated with significantly increased Epo-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2, AKT and c-Jun-NH2-kinase (SAPK/JNK) proteins. Expression of the constitutively active EpoR-R129C receptor promoted the proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells via activation of ERK- and SAPK/JNK-dependent signaling pathways, respectively. These findings suggest that EpoR over-expression and activation in breast cancer cells has the potential to contribute to tumor progression by promoting the proliferation and invasiveness of the neoplastic cells.

  5. Enterovirus 71 VP1 activates calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and results in the rearrangement of vimentin in human astrocyte cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Haolong

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71 is one of the main causative agents of foot, hand and mouth disease. Its infection usually causes severe central nervous system diseases and complications in infected infants and young children. In the present study, we demonstrated that EV71 infection caused the rearrangement of vimentin in human astrocytoma cells. The rearranged vimentin, together with various EV71 components, formed aggresomes-like structures in the perinuclear region. Electron microscopy and viral RNA labeling indicated that the aggresomes were virus replication sites since most of the EV71 particles and the newly synthesized viral RNA were concentrated here. Further analysis revealed that the vimentin in the virus factories was serine-82 phosphorylated. More importantly, EV71 VP1 protein is responsible for the activation of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK-II which phosphorylated the N-terminal domain of vimentin on serine 82. Phosphorylation of vimentin and the formation of aggresomes were required for the replication of EV71 since the latter was decreased markedly after phosphorylation was blocked by KN93, a CaMK-II inhibitor. Thus, as one of the consequences of CaMK-II activation, vimentin phosphorylation and rearrangement may support virus replication by playing a structural role for the formation of the replication factories. Collectively, this study identified the replication centers of EV71 in human astrocyte cells. This may help us understand the replication mechanism and pathogenesis of EV71 in human.

  6. Type II cGMP‑dependent protein kinase inhibits the migration, invasion and proliferation of several types of human cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Min; Wu, Yan; Qian, Hai; Tao, Yan; Pang, Ji; Wang, Ying; Chen, Yongchang

    2017-10-01

    Previous studies have indicated that type II cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)‑dependent protein kinase (PKG II) could inhibit the proliferation and migration of gastric cancer cells. However, the effects of PKG II on the biological functions of other types of cancer cells remain to be elucidated. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of PKG II on cancer cells derived from various types of human tissues, including A549 lung, HepG2 hepatic, OS‑RC‑2 renal, SW480 colon cancer cells and U251 glioma cells. Cancer cells were infected with adenoviral constructs coding PKG II (Ad‑PKG II) to up‑regulate PKG II expression, and treated with 8‑(4‑chlorophenylthio) (8‑pCPT)‑cGMP to activate the kinase. A Cell Counting kit 8 assay was used to detect cell proliferation. Cell migration was measured using a Transwell assay, whereas a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase 2'‑deoxyuridine, 5'‑triphosphate nick‑end labeling assay was used to detect cell apoptosis. A pull‑down assay was used to investigate the activation of Ras‑related C3 botulinum toxin substrate (Rac) 1 and western blotting was used to detect the expression of proteins of interest. The present results demonstrated that EGF (100 ng/ml, 24 h) promoted the proliferation and migration of cancer cells, and it suppressed their apoptosis. In addition, treatment with EGF enhanced the activation of Rac1, and up‑regulated the protein expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)2, MMP7 and B‑cell lymphoma (Bcl)‑2, whereas it down‑regulated the expression of Bcl‑2‑associated X protein. Transfection of cancer cells with Ad‑PKG II, and PKG II activation with 8‑pCPT‑cGMP, was identified to counteract the effects triggered by EGF. The present results suggested that PKG II may exert inhibitory effects on the proliferation and migration of various types of cancer cells.

  7. Building bridges toward invasion: tumor promoter treatment induces a novel protein kinase C-dependent phenotype in MCF10A mammary cell acini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klos, Kristine S; Warmka, Janel K; Drachenberg, Disa M; Chang, Liang; Luxton, G W Gant; Leung, Cheuk T; Schwertfeger, Kathryn L; Wattenberg, Elizabeth V

    2014-01-01

    The potent tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) alters many cellular processes through activation of its receptor protein kinase C (PKC), including gene expression, cell cycle, and the regulation of cell morphology, raising an important question for developing targeted methods to prevent cancer: which effects of TPA are crucial for carcinogenesis? To address this question, we studied TPA action in the 3-dimensional (3D) MCF10A human breast epithelial cell system, which models important features of in vivo epithelial tissue including growth constraints, structural organization of cells, and establishment of a basement membrane. MCF10A cells, which are immortalized but nontumorigenic, form hollow, spheroid structures in 3D culture referred to as acini. The development of normal acini requires the tight spatiotemporal regulation of cellular proliferation, polarization, apoptosis, and growth arrest. Treatment of MCF10A acini with TPA caused the appearance of multi-acinar structures. Surprisingly, this phenotype did not involve an increase in cell number or major changes in cell death, and polarization. Instead, live cell and confocal microscopy revealed that TPA stimulates MCF10A acini to aggregate. TPA induces the PKC-dependent production of actin-based protrusions, which leads to the formation of cellular bridges between acini, the clustering of acini, and allows cells to move into adjacent acini. During this process, the integrity of the laminin V basement membrane is disrupted, while E-cadherin-based cell-cell contacts remain intact. Altogether, our results show that under the biochemical and structural constraints of epithelial tissue, as modeled by the 3D MCF10A system, TPA induces a novel PKC-dependent phenotype that resembles local invasion. Of the many effects caused by TPA, these studies highlight the aggressive production of actin-based cellular protrusions as a potentially important event along the pathway to carcinogenesis.

  8. Building bridges toward invasion: tumor promoter treatment induces a novel protein kinase C-dependent phenotype in MCF10A mammary cell acini.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine S Klos

    Full Text Available The potent tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA alters many cellular processes through activation of its receptor protein kinase C (PKC, including gene expression, cell cycle, and the regulation of cell morphology, raising an important question for developing targeted methods to prevent cancer: which effects of TPA are crucial for carcinogenesis? To address this question, we studied TPA action in the 3-dimensional (3D MCF10A human breast epithelial cell system, which models important features of in vivo epithelial tissue including growth constraints, structural organization of cells, and establishment of a basement membrane. MCF10A cells, which are immortalized but nontumorigenic, form hollow, spheroid structures in 3D culture referred to as acini. The development of normal acini requires the tight spatiotemporal regulation of cellular proliferation, polarization, apoptosis, and growth arrest. Treatment of MCF10A acini with TPA caused the appearance of multi-acinar structures. Surprisingly, this phenotype did not involve an increase in cell number or major changes in cell death, and polarization. Instead, live cell and confocal microscopy revealed that TPA stimulates MCF10A acini to aggregate. TPA induces the PKC-dependent production of actin-based protrusions, which leads to the formation of cellular bridges between acini, the clustering of acini, and allows cells to move into adjacent acini. During this process, the integrity of the laminin V basement membrane is disrupted, while E-cadherin-based cell-cell contacts remain intact. Altogether, our results show that under the biochemical and structural constraints of epithelial tissue, as modeled by the 3D MCF10A system, TPA induces a novel PKC-dependent phenotype that resembles local invasion. Of the many effects caused by TPA, these studies highlight the aggressive production of actin-based cellular protrusions as a potentially important event along the pathway to

  9. miR-138 inhibits proliferation by targeting 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 in non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xian-wei; Yu, Hong; Jin, Yan-kun; Jing, Xiao-ting; Xu, Mei; Wan, Zi-fen; Zhang, Xiang-yan

    2015-01-01

    Underlying mechanisms of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) development remain poorly understood. miR-138 and 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) have been reported to be involved in the genesis of NSCLC. The aim of this study was to investigate the role and mechanisms of miR-138 and PDK1 in human NSCLC cells. The effect of miR-138 on proliferation of A549 lung cancer cells was first examined using 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay. The expression of PDK1 in A549 lung cancer cells was assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction further. A luciferase reporter activity assay was conducted to confirm target association between miR-138 and 3' untranslated region (3'-UTR) of PDK1. Finally, the role of PDK1 on proliferation of A549 cells was evaluated by transefection of PDK1 small interfering RNA (siRNA). Proliferation of A549 lung cancer cells was suppressed by miR-138 in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, miR-138 can bind to the 3'-UTR of PDK1 and downregulate expression of PDK1 at both mRNA and protein levels. Knockdown of PDK1 by siRNA significantly inhibits the proliferation of A549 lung cancer cells. These findings suggest that miR-138 as a potential tumor suppressor could inhibit cell proliferation by targeting PDK1 in NSCLC cells, which could be employed as a potential therapeutic target for miRNA-based NSCLC therapy. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Atrial natriuretic peptide-mediated inhibition of microcirculatory endothelial Ca2+ and permeability response to histamine involves cGMP-dependent protein kinase I and TRPC6 channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen; Oberwinkler, Heike; Werner, Franziska; Gaßner, Birgit; Nakagawa, Hitoshi; Feil, Robert; Hofmann, Franz; Schlossmann, Jens; Dietrich, Alexander; Gudermann, Thomas; Nishida, Motohiro; Del Galdo, Sabrina; Wieland, Thomas; Kuhn, Michaela

    2013-09-01

    Histamine increases microvascular endothelial leakage by activation of complex calcium-dependent and -independent signaling pathways. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) via its cGMP-forming guanylyl cyclase-A (GC-A) receptor counteracts this response. Here, we characterized the molecular mechanisms underlying this interaction, especially the role of cGMP-dependent protein kinase I (cGKI). We combined intravital microscopy studies of the mouse cremaster microcirculation with experiments in cultured microvascular human dermal endothelial cells. In wild-type mice, ANP had no direct effect on the extravasation of fluorescent dextran from postcapillary venules, but strongly reduced the histamine-provoked vascular leakage. This anti-inflammatory effect of ANP was abolished in mice with endothelial-restricted inactivation of GC-A or cGKI. Histamine-induced increases in endothelial [Ca(2+)]i in vitro and of vascular leakage in vivo were markedly attenuated by the Ca(2+)-entry inhibitor SKF96365 and in mice with ablated transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) 6 channels. Conversely, direct activation of TRPC6 with hyperforin replicated the hyperpermeability responses to histamine. ANP, via cGKI, stimulated the inhibitory phosphorylation of TRPC6 at position Thr69 and prevented the hyperpermeability responses to hyperforin. Moreover, inhibition of cGMP degradation by the phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor sildenafil prevented the edematic actions of histamine in wild types but not in mice with endothelial GC-A or cGKI deletion. ANP attenuates the inflammatory actions of histamine via endothelial GC-A/cGMP/cGKI signaling and inhibitory phosphorylation of TRPC6 channels. The therapeutic potential of this novel regulatory pathway is indicated by the observation that sildenafil improves systemic endothelial barrier functions by enhancing the endothelial effects of endogenous ANP.

  11. cGMP-dependent protein kinase II modulates mPer1 and mPer2 gene induction and influences phase shifts of the circadian clock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oster, Henrik; Werner, Claudia; Magnone, Maria Chiara; Mayser, Helmut; Feil, Robert; Seeliger, Mathias W; Hofmann, Franz; Albrecht, Urs

    2003-04-29

    In mammals, the master circadian clock that drives many biochemical, physiological, and behavioral rhythms is located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the hypothalamus. Generation and maintenance of circadian rhythmicity rely on complex interlocked transcriptional/translational feedback loops involving a set of clock genes. Among the molecular components driving the mammalian circadian clock are the Period 1 and 2 (mPer1 and mPer2) genes. Because the periodicity of the clock is not exactly 24 hr, it has to be adjusted periodically. The major stimulus for adjustment (resetting) of the clock is nocturnal light. It evokes activation of signaling pathways in the SCN that ultimately lead to expression of mPer1 and mPer2 genes conveying adjustment of the clock. We show that mice deficient in cGMP-dependent protein kinase II (cGKII, also known as PKGII), despite regular retinal function, are defective in resetting the circadian clock, as assessed by changes in the onset of wheel running activity after a light pulse. At the molecular level, light induction of mPer2 in the SCN is strongly reduced in the early period of the night, whereas mPer1 induction is elevated in cGKII-deficient mice. Additionally, we show that light induction of cfos and light-dependent phosphorylation of CREB at serine 133 are not affected in these animals. cGKII plays a role in the clock-resetting mechanism. In particular, the ability to delay clock phase is affected in cGKII-deficient mice. It seems that the signaling pathway involving cGKII influences in an opposite manner the light-induced induction of mPer1 and mPer2 genes and thereby influences the direction of a phase shift of the circadian clock.

  12. Protein Interacting with C Kinase 1 (PICK1) Reduces Reinsertion Rates of Interaction Partners Sorted to Rab11-dependent Slow Recycling Pathway*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Kenneth L.; Thorsen, Thor S.; Rahbek-Clemmensen, Troels; Eriksen, Jacob; Gether, Ulrik

    2012-01-01

    The scaffolding protein PICK1 (protein interacting with C kinase 1) contains an N-terminal PSD-95/Discs large/ZO-1 (PDZ) domain and a central lipid-binding Bin/amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR) domain. PICK1 is thought to regulate trafficking of its PDZ binding partners but different and even opposing functions have been suggested. Here, we apply ELISA-based assays and confocal microscopy in HEK293 cells with inducible PICK1 expression to assess in an isolated system the ability of PICK1 to regulate trafficking of natural and engineered PDZ binding partners. The dopamine transporter (DAT), which primarily sorts to degradation upon internalization, did not form perinuclear clusters with PICK1, and PICK1 did not affect DAT internalization/recycling. However, transfer of the PICK1-binding DAT C terminus to the β2-adrenergic receptor, which sorts to recycling upon internalization, led to formation of PICK1 co-clusters in Rab11-positive compartments. Furthermore, PICK1 inhibited Rab11-mediated recycling of the receptor in a BAR and PDZ domain-dependent manner. In contrast, transfer of the DAT C terminus to the δ-opioid receptor, which sorts to degradation, did not result in PICK1 co-clusters or any change in internalization/recycling. Further support for a role of PICK1 determined by its PDZ cargo was obtained for the PICK1 interaction partner prolactin-releasing peptide receptor (GPR10). GPR10 co-localized with Rab11 and clustered with PICK1 upon constitutive internalization but co-localized with the late endosomal marker Rab7 and did not cluster with PICK1 upon agonist-induced internalization. Our data suggest a selective role of PICK1 in clustering and reducing the recycling rates of PDZ domain binding partners sorted to the Rab11-dependent recycling pathway. PMID:22303009

  13. The μ opioid agonist morphine modulates potentiation of capsaicin-evoked TRPV1 responses through a cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A pathway

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    Roberts-Thomson Sarah J

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1 is critical in the development of inflammatory hyperalgesia. Several receptors including G-protein coupled prostaglandin receptors have been reported to functionally interact with the TRPV1 through a cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA pathway to potentiate TRPV1-mediated capsaicin responses. Such regulation may have significance in inflammatory pain. However, few functional receptor interactions that inhibit PKA-mediated potentiation of TRPV1 responses have been described. Results In the present studies we investigated the hypothesis that the μ opioid receptor (MOP agonist morphine can modulate forskolin-potentiated capsaicin responses through a cAMP-dependent PKA pathway. HEK293 cells were stably transfected with TRPV1 and MOP, and calcium (Ca2+ responses to injection of the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin were monitored in Fluo-3-loaded cells. Pre-treatment with morphine did not inhibit unpotentiated capsaicin-induced Ca2+ responses but significantly altered capsaicin responses potentiated by forskolin. TRPV1-mediated Ca2+ responses potentiated by the direct PKA activator 8-Br-cAMP and the PKC activator Phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetatewere not modulated by morphine. Immunohistochemical studies confirmed that the TRPV1 and MOP are co-expressed on cultured Dorsal Root Ganglion neurones, pointing towards the existence of a functional relationship between the G-protein coupled MOP and nociceptive TRPV1. Conclusion The results presented here indicate that the opioid receptor agonist morphine acts via inhibition of adenylate cyclase to inhibit PKA-potentiated TRPV1 responses. Targeting of peripheral opioid receptors may therefore have therapeutic potential as an intervention to prevent potentiation of TRPV1 responses through the PKA pathway in inflammation.

  14. Lidocaine inhibits NIH-3T3 cell multiplication by increasing the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (p21).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Sukumar P; Kojima, Koji; Vacanti, Charles A; Kodama, Shohta

    2008-11-01

    We explored molecular mechanisms by which lidocaine inhibits growth in the murine embryonic fibroblast cell line NIH-3T3. Local anesthetics can adversely affect cell growth in vitro. Their effects on wound healing are controversial. We examined the effects and novel mechanisms by which lidocaine affects in vitro multiplication of the murine fibroblast cell line NIH-3T3. NIH-3T3 cells were grown in culture with lidocaine [0, 0.05, 0.5, 1, 2, and 5 mM]. Cell multiplication was assessed by determining cell counts on subsequent days, while mechanisms by which inhibition occurred were evaluated by bromodeoxyuridine uptake, gene expression using polymerase chain reaction array, and Western blot analysis to verify increased levels of affected proteins. Lidocaine caused dose-dependent inhibition of multiplication of NIH-3T3 cells. Effects ranged from no inhibition [0.05 and 0.5 mM] and mild inhibition [1 mM], to severe inhibition [2 and 5 mM] [P = 0.006]. Lidocaine 2 mM inhibited bromodeoxyuridine uptake at day 3.5 [P = 0.02 versus control, and P = 0.0495 vs 1 mM lidocaine]. On day 1.5, lidocaine upregulated expression of cyclin-D1 and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A [p21]. On day 2.5, lidocaine increased the levels of p21 protein. Low concentrations of lidocaine, as would be seen in plasma after spinal, epidural, or plexus anesthesia, do not significantly affect multiplication of fibroblasts. Higher doses of lidocaine arrest cell multiplication at the S-phase of the growth cycle by upregulation of p21, an extremely potent inhibitor of cell multiplication. Higher concentrations, as would be seen after tissue infiltration, severely inhibit fibroblast multiplication and thus may impair wound healing.

  15. The MLL fusion gene, MLL-AF4, regulates cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor CDKN1B (p27kip1) expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Zhen-Biao; Popovic, Relja; Chen, Jing; Theisler, Catherine; Stuart, Tara; Santillan, Donna A.; Erfurth, Frank; Diaz, Manuel O.; Zeleznik-Le, Nancy J.

    2005-01-01

    MLL, involved in many chromosomal translocations associated with acute myeloid and lymphoid leukemia, has >50 known partner genes with which it is able to form in-frame fusions. Characterizing important downstream target genes of MLL and of MLL fusion proteins may provide rational therapeutic strategies for the treatment of MLL-associated leukemia. We explored downstream target genes of the most prevalent MLL fusion protein, MLL-AF4. To this end, we developed inducible MLL-AF4 fusion cell lines in different backgrounds. Overexpression of MLL-AF4 does not lead to increased proliferation in either cell line, but rather, cell growth was slowed compared with similar cell lines inducibly expressing truncated MLL. We found that in the MLL-AF4-induced cell lines, the expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor gene CDKN1B was dramatically changed at both the RNA and protein (p27kip1) levels. In contrast, the expression levels of CDKN1A (p21) and CDKN2A (p16) were unchanged. To explore whether CDKN1B might be a direct target of MLL and of MLL-AF4, we used chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays and luciferase reporter gene assays. MLL-AF4 binds to the CDKN1B promoter in vivo and regulates CDKN1B promoter activity. Further, we confirmed CDKN1B promoter binding by ChIP in MLL-AF4 as well as in MLL-AF9 leukemia cell lines. Our results suggest that CDKN1B is a downstream target of MLL and of MLL-AF4, and that, depending on the background cell type, MLL-AF4 inhibits or activates CDKN1B expression. This finding may have implications in terms of leukemia stem cell resistance to chemotherapy in MLL-AF4 leukemias. PMID:16169901

  16. The human red cell voltage-dependent cation channel. Part III: Distribution homogeneity and pH dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennekou, P.; Barksmann, T. L.; Christophersen, P.

    2006-01-01

    The homogeneity of the distribution of the non-selective voltage-dependent cation channel (the NSVDC channel) in the human erythrocyte, and the pH dependence was investigated. Activation of this channel caused a uniform cellular dehydration, which was characterized by the changes in the erythrocy...... - but not the extracellular - pH. The apparent pKA value for the effect was estimated to be 6.5, and the specific histidine reagent 2.4'-dibromoacetophenone (DBAB) inactivated the NSVDC channel....

  17. Transforming growth factor-β1 induces cell cycle arrest by activating atypical cyclin-dependent kinase 5 through up-regulation of Smad3-dependent p35 expression in human MCF10A mammary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seong Ji; Yang, Sun Woo; Kim, Byung-Chul

    2016-04-08

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) play important roles in control of cell division. Cdk5 is an atypical member of Cdk family with non-cyclin-like regulatory subunit, p35, but its role in cell cycle progression is still unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of Cdk5/p35 on transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-induced cell cycle arrest. In human MCF10A mammary epithelial cells, TGF-β1 induced cell cycle arrest at G1 phase and increased p27KIP1 expression. Interestingly, pretreatment with roscovitine, an inhibitor of Cdk5, or transfection with small interfering (si) RNAs specific to Cdk5 and p35 significantly attenuated the TGF-β1-induced p27KIP1 expression and cell cycle arrest. TGF-β1 increased Cdk5 activity via up-regulation of p35 gene at transcriptional level, and these effects were abolished by transfection with Smad3 siRNA or infection of adenovirus carrying Smad3 mutant at the C-tail (3SA). Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay further revealed that wild type Smad3, but not mutant Smad3 (3SA), binds to the region of the p35 promoter region (-1000--755) in a TGF-β1-dependent manner. These results for the first time demonstrate a role of Cdk5/p35 in the regulation of cell cycle progression modulated by TGF-β1. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Accessory Factor Nef Links HIV-1 to Tec/Btk Kinases in an Src Homology 3 Domain-dependent Manner*♦

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarafdar, Sreya; Poe, Jerrod A.; Smithgall, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    The HIV-1 Nef virulence factor interacts with multiple host cell-signaling proteins. Nef binds to the Src homology 3 domains of Src family kinases, resulting in kinase activation important for viral infectivity, replication, and MHC-I down-regulation. Itk and other Tec family kinases are also present in HIV target cells, and Itk has been linked to HIV-1 infectivity and replication. However, the molecular mechanism linking Itk to HIV-1 is unknown. In this study, we explored the interaction of Nef with Tec family kinases using a cell-based bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay. In this approach, interaction of Nef with a partner kinase juxtaposes nonfluorescent YFP fragments fused to the C terminus of each protein, resulting in YFP complementation and a bright fluorescent signal. Using bimolecular fluorescence complementation, we observed that Nef interacts with the Tec family members Bmx, Btk, and Itk but not Tec or Txk. Interaction with Nef occurs through the kinase Src homology 3 domains and localizes to the plasma membrane. Allelic variants of Nef from all major HIV-1 subtypes interacted strongly with Itk in this assay, demonstrating the highly conserved nature of this interaction. A selective small molecule inhibitor of Itk kinase activity (BMS-509744) potently blocked wild-type HIV-1 infectivity and replication, but not that of a Nef-defective mutant. Nef induced constitutive Itk activation in transfected cells that was sensitive to inhibitor treatment. Taken together, these results provide the first evidence that Nef interacts with cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases of the Tec family and suggest that Nef provides a mechanistic link between HIV-1 and Itk signaling in the viral life cycle. PMID:24722985

  19. The accessory factor Nef links HIV-1 to Tec/Btk kinases in an Src homology 3 domain-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarafdar, Sreya; Poe, Jerrod A; Smithgall, Thomas E

    2014-05-30

    The HIV-1 Nef virulence factor interacts with multiple host cell-signaling proteins. Nef binds to the Src homology 3 domains of Src family kinases, resulting in kinase activation important for viral infectivity, replication, and MHC-I down-regulation. Itk and other Tec family kinases are also present in HIV target cells, and Itk has been linked to HIV-1 infectivity and replication. However, the molecular mechanism linking Itk to HIV-1 is unknown. In this study, we explored the interaction of Nef with Tec family kinases using a cell-based bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay. In this approach, interaction of Nef with a partner kinase juxtaposes nonfluorescent YFP fragments fused to the C terminus of each protein, resulting in YFP complementation and a bright fluorescent signal. Using bimolecular fluorescence complementation, we observed that Nef interacts with the Tec family members Bmx, Btk, and Itk but not Tec or Txk. Interaction with Nef occurs through the kinase Src homology 3 domains and localizes to the plasma membrane. Allelic variants of Nef from all major HIV-1 subtypes interacted strongly with Itk in this assay, demonstrating the highly conserved nature of this interaction. A selective small molecule inhibitor of Itk kinase activity (BMS-509744) potently blocked wild-type HIV-1 infectivity and replication, but not that of a Nef-defective mutant. Nef induced constitutive Itk activation in transfected cells that was sensitive to inhibitor treatment. Taken together, these results provide the first evidence that Nef interacts with cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases of the Tec family and suggest that Nef provides a mechanistic link between HIV-1 and Itk signaling in the viral life cycle. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Vault mobility depends in part on microtubules and vaults can be recruited to the nuclear envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zon, Arend van; Mossink, Marieke H.; Houtsmuller, Adriaan B.; Schoester, Martijn; Scheffer, George L.; Scheper, Rik J.; Sonneveld, Pieter; Wiemer, Erik A.C.

    2006-01-01

    Vaults are ribonucleoproteins that may function in intracellular transport processes. We investigated the intracellular distribution and dynamics of vaults in non-small cell lung cancer cells in which vaults are labeled with the green fluorescent protein. Immunofluorescence experiments showed that vaults are dispersed throughout the cytoplasm; a small fraction is found in close proximity to microtubules. Immunoprecipitation experiments corroborated these results showing co-precipitation of MVP and β-tubulin. Using quantitative fluorescence-recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), we demonstrated that vault mobility over longer distances in part depends on intact microtubules; vaults moving slower when microtubules are depolymerized by nocodazole. Biochemical fractionation indicated a small fraction of MVP associated with the nucleus, however, no GFP-tagged vaults could be observed inside the nucleus. We observed an accumulation of vaults at the nuclear envelope upon treatment of cells with the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. Analysis of nucleo-cytoplasmic transport using a fluorescent substrate containing a classical NLS and NES expressed in MVP +/+ and MVP -/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts indicated no differences in nuclear import/export kinetics, suggesting no role for vaults in these processes. We hypothesize that a subset of vaults moves directionally via microtubules, possibly towards the nucleus

  1. Population dynamics of minimally cognitive individuals. Part 2: Dynamics of time-dependent knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmieder, R.W.

    1995-07-01

    The dynamical principle for a population of interacting individuals with mutual pairwise knowledge, presented by the author in a previous paper for the case of constant knowledge, is extended to include the possibility that the knowledge is time-dependent. Several mechanisms are presented by which the mutual knowledge, represented by a matrix K, can be altered, leading to dynamical equations for K(t). The author presents various examples of the transient and long time asymptotic behavior of K(t) for populations of relatively isolated individuals interacting infrequently in local binary collisions. Among the effects observed in the numerical experiments are knowledge diffusion, learning transients, and fluctuating equilibria. This approach will be most appropriate to small populations of complex individuals such as simple animals, robots, computer networks, agent-mediated traffic, simple ecosystems, and games. Evidence of metastable states and intermittent switching leads them to envision a spectroscopy associated with such transitions that is independent of the specific physical individuals and the population. Such spectra may serve as good lumped descriptors of the collective emergent behavior of large classes of populations in which mutual knowledge is an important part of the dynamics.

  2. Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II and Androgen Signaling Pathways Modulate MEF2 Activity in Testosterone-Induced Cardiac Myocyte Hypertrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Duran

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone is known to induce cardiac hypertrophy through androgen receptor (AR-dependent and -independent pathways, but the molecular underpinnings of the androgen action remain poorly understood. Previous work has shown that Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII and myocyte-enhancer factor 2 (MEF2 play key roles in promoting cardiac myocyte growth. In order to gain mechanistic insights into the action of androgens on the heart, we investigated how testosterone affects CaMKII and MEF2 in cardiac myocyte hypertrophy by performing studies on cultured rat cardiac myocytes and hearts obtained from adult male orchiectomized (ORX rats. In cardiac myocytes, MEF2 activity was monitored using a luciferase reporter plasmid, and the effects of CaMKII and AR signaling pathways on MEF2C were examined by using siRNAs and pharmacological inhibitors targeting these two