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Sample records for dependent functional status

  1. Roscovitine-induced apoptosis of H1299 cells depends on functional status of p53.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slovackova, J; Smarda, J; Smardova, J

    2012-01-01

    Roscovitine, an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases, is promising anticancer agent. Its antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects can be mediated by the p53 signaling pathway. To define the role of p53 in roscovitine-induced cell response, we prepared H1299/p53 cell lines inducibly expressing specific variants of p53 (p53wt and hotspot R175H, temperature-dependent P98A, A159V, S215G, Y220C, Y234C mutants). In the presence of roscovitine, each cell line variant behaved in specific way reflecting activity of the p53 protein. Roscovitine decreased production of the cell cycle inhibitor p21 and induced apoptosis. This effect was the most efficient in cells expressing p53wt protein with full activity. The cell expressing partially and conditionally active p53 mutants responded to roscovitine less efficiently. The cells expressing p53 mutants A159V and Y234C were very sensitive to roscovitine but their response was clearly temperature-dependent. The cells expressing P98A, S215G and Y220C p53 mutants exhibited only weak sensitivity to roscovitine and underwent apoptosis in low frequency. In principle, each td p53 mutant responded to roscovitine in distinct way. We showed clearly that the impact of roscovitine on H1299 cells depends on functional status of p53 they produce. This suggests that patients with tumors exhibiting specific p53 variants can benefit from the roscovitine therapy.

  2. Effects of psychological well-being, physical status, and social support on oxygen-dependent COPD patients' level of functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R N; Graydon, J E; Ross, E

    1991-10-01

    Thirty oxygen-dependent patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) participated in a descriptive correlational study in which investigators examined the relationship between oxygen-dependent COPD patients' psychological well-being, physical status, social support, and level of functioning. Lazarus and Folkman's (1984) theory of psychological stress and coping was used to guide the study. Using multiple regression analysis, physical symptoms had the most predictive power in relation to the level of functioning, accounting for 44.3% of the variance. Among the symptoms, dyspnea had the greatest influence on functioning.

  3. Fall Risk Factors in Community-Dwelling Elderly Depending on Their Physical Function, Cognitive Status and Symptoms of Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamińska, Magdalena Sylwia; Brodowski, Jacek; Karakiewicz, Beata

    2015-01-01

    Falls are the leading cause of unintentional injuries and injury-related disability, morbidity and mortality in the geriatric population. Therefore, they may also lower quality of life. The aim of this study was to analyze the fall risk factors in the community-dwelling elderly depending on their physical function, cognitive status and symptoms of depression. The study involved 304 individuals aged 65–100 years with a mean age of 78.6 ± 7.4. This survey-based study was conducted using the Geriatric Environmental Inquiry, the Barthel Scale (BS), the Abbreviated Mental Test Score (AMTS), the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and the Tinetti Test (TT). There was a statistically significant correlation between the BS, the TT and the incidence of falls (p < 0.05). The number of falls correlated significantly with the results of the BS (R = −0.39), the GDS (R = 0.18), and the TT (R = −0.40). A statistically significant correlation was also noted between the TT results and the results of the BS (R = 0.77), the AMTS (R = 0.40) and the GDS (R = −0.37). The incidence of falls may significantly increase in people with a lower functional status, which may be related to cognitive process disturbances and lower affective functioning. A comprehensive geriatric assessment, related to all aspects of advanced-age patients’ efficiency, is recommended. Fall prevention strategies should include actions undertaken to evaluate and treat depression and cognitive disturbances. PMID:25811765

  4. Functional status and dependency of stroke patients 5 years after clinical rehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, R.; Arendzen, J.H.; Eisma, W.H.

    1995-01-01

    Objectives. A population of stroke patients is described five years after discharge from a rehabilitation centre. The aim of the study was to obtain insight in a) long-term changes in functional capacities; b) disability and the perceived problems; and c) the sort of help needed. Methods. Fifty

  5. Concentration-dependent Sildenafil citrate (Viagra) effects on ROS production, energy status, and human sperm function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Maria Inês; Amaral, Sandra; Tavares, Renata Santos; Paiva, Carla; Ramalho-Santos, João

    2014-04-01

    Literature regarding the effects of sildenafil citrate on sperm function remains controversial. In the present study, we specifically wanted to determine if mitochondrial dysfunction, namely membrane potential, reactive oxygen species production, and changes in energy content, are involved in in vitro sildenafil-induced alterations of human sperm function. Sperm samples of healthy men were incubated in the presence of 0.03, 0.3, and 3 μM sildenafil citrate in a phosphate buffered saline (PBS)-based medium for 2, 3, 12, and 24 hours. Sperm motility and viability were evaluated and mitochondrial function, i.e., mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial superoxide production were assessed using flow-cytometry. Additionally, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Results show a decrease in sperm motility correlated with the level of mitochondria-generated superoxide, without a visible effect on mitochondrial membrane potential or viability upon exposure to sildenafil. The effect on both motility and superoxide production was higher for the intermediate concentration of sildenafil (0.3 µM) indicating that the in vitro effects of sildenafil on human sperm do not vary linearly with drug concentration. Adenosine triphosphate levels also decreased following sildenafil exposure, but this decrease was only detected after a decrease in motility was already evident. These results suggest that along with the level of ATP and mitochondrial function other factors are involved in the early sildenafil-mediated decline in sperm motility. However, the further decrease in ATP levels and increase in mitochondria-generated reactive oxygen species after 24 hours of exposure might further contribute towards declining sperm motility.

  6. Fall Risk Factors in Community-Dwelling Elderly Depending on Their Physical Function, Cognitive Status and Symptoms of Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Sylwia Kamińska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Falls are the leading cause of unintentional injuries and injury-related disability, morbidity and mortality in the geriatric population. Therefore, they may also lower quality of life. The aim of this study was to analyze the fall risk factors in the community-dwelling elderly depending on their physical function, cognitive status and symptoms of depression. The study involved 304 individuals aged 65–100 years with a mean age of 78.6 ± 7.4. This survey-based study was conducted using the Geriatric Environmental Inquiry, the Barthel Scale (BS, the Abbreviated Mental Test Score (AMTS, the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS and the Tinetti Test (TT. There was a statistically significant correlation between the BS, the TT and the incidence of falls (p < 0.05. The number of falls correlated significantly with the results of the BS (R = −0.39, the GDS (R = 0.18, and the TT (R = −0.40. A statistically significant correlation was also noted between the TT results and the results of the BS (R = 0.77, the AMTS (R = 0.40 and the GDS (R = −0.37. The incidence of falls may significantly increase in people with a lower functional status, which may be related to cognitive process disturbances and lower affective functioning. A comprehensive geriatric assessment, related to all aspects of advanced-age patients’ efficiency, is recommended. Fall prevention strategies should include actions undertaken to evaluate and treat depression and cognitive disturbances.

  7. Dependency Status and Happiness with Old Age on Java.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudkin, Laura

    1994-01-01

    Used data from survey of elderly persons on Java to investigate prevalence of dependency status (functional, economic, residential) and implications of dependency status for happiness with old age. Dependency on kin was not negative situation, but having economic dependents appeared burdensome. Gender, being able to provide inheritance, and…

  8. LDF (Lag Dependence Functions)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    LDF (Lag Dependence Functions) is an S-PLUS library for identification of non-linear dependencies in univariate time series. The methods can be considered generalizations of the tools applicable for linear time series.......LDF (Lag Dependence Functions) is an S-PLUS library for identification of non-linear dependencies in univariate time series. The methods can be considered generalizations of the tools applicable for linear time series....

  9. LDF (Lag Dependence Functions)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    LDF (Lag Dependence Functions) is an S-PLUS library for identification of non-linear dependencies in univariate time series. The methods can be considered generalizations of the tools applicable for linear time series.......LDF (Lag Dependence Functions) is an S-PLUS library for identification of non-linear dependencies in univariate time series. The methods can be considered generalizations of the tools applicable for linear time series....

  10. Functional Status of Patients on Maintenance Hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akash Nabil

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Factors associated with physical well being were examined in adults with end-stage renal disease (ESRD in two large hemodialysis units of the Royal Medical Services in Jordan. Utilizing the Karnofski scale we measured the functional status of 200 Patients who had been on maintenance hemodialysis for at least 12 months. A Marnofski scale of less than 70 incidents frank disability (Inability to perform routine living activities without assistance, in addition current vocational status was assessed as well as any existing comorbid conditions. The mean age of the study group was 45.2 years (range 16 to 70 and included 108 (54% males and 92 (46% females, there were 39 (19.5% diabetic patients and 27 (13.5% patients were receiving erythropoietin (EPO. The mean hematocrit of the entire group was 27.8%. As measured by Karnofski scale, 64 (32% of the patients were unable to perform routine living activity without assistance; dependence on wheelchair was reported by 9 (4.5% patients. The mean comorbidity index of patients who scored less than 70 on the Karnofski scale was 1.5 compared to 0.7 for those who scored at least 70 on the same scale (p< 0.001. Analysis of factors showed that age and diabetes mellitus affected functional status. Of the laboratory variables measured, only serum albumin concentration correlated significant with Karnofski scale. Fourteen (21.8% of the patients who scored below 70, had serum albumin concentration above 40g/L compared to 66 (48.5% of the patients who scored at least 70 on the Karnofski scale (p< 0.001. We conclude that a significant proportion of patients on maintenance hemodialysis is functionally disabled. The elderly, diabetics, patients with high co-morbidity index and those with low serum albumin are most likely to have poor functional status.

  11. Factores asociados al estado funcional en personas de 75 o más años de edad no dependientes Factors associated with functional status in a population aged >75 years without total dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Arnau

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Identificar los factores asociados al estado funcional en una población de ancianos de 75 o más años de edad sin dependencia grave. Métodos: Estudio transversal de una muestra aleatoria (n = 315 de personas del Centro de Atención Primaria El Remei (Vic, Barcelona, España. Se evaluó el estado funcional mediante el test de ejecución de extremidades inferiores (EEII de Guralnik, el Índice de Actividades Instrumentales de la Vida Diaria (AIVD de Lawton y el Índice de Actividades Básicas de la Vida Diaria (ABVD de Barthel. Se construyeron modelos de regresión lineal múltiple para identificar las variables asociadas al estado funcional. Resultados: La edad media fue de 81,9 años y el 60,6% eran mujeres. Casi la mitad de los ancianos de 75 o más años de edad sin dependencia grave presentaban discapacidad para las AIVD y una tercera parte limitaciones funcionales de las EEII. Los factores asociados al estado funcional de las EEII fueron el estado civil, el índice de masa corporal, el número de fármacos, y la agudeza visual y auditiva (R² = 0,208. Las variables asociadas a las AIVD fueron la edad, el número de fármacos, el estado cognitivo, la agudeza visual y auditiva, y el estado funcional de las EEII (R² = 0,434. Las variables asociadas a las ABVD fueron la edad, el sexo, la percepción subjetiva del estado de salud y el estado funcional de las EEII (R² = 0,389. Conclusiones: El número de fármacos y las alteraciones sensoriales son los factores de riesgo que se asociaron de forma más consistente con el estado funcional en nuestra población de ancianos no dependientes.Objectives: To identify the factors associated with functional status in a population aged > 75 years without severe dependence. Methods: A cross-sectional study of a random sample (n = 315 of elderly persons in a primary care setting (El Remei Primary Care Center, Vic, Barcelona, Spain was carried out. Functional status was evaluated by three

  12. Cognitive functions of regularly cycling women may differ throughout the month, depending on sex hormone status; A possible explanation to conflicting results of studies of ADHD in females.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronit eHaimov-Kochman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is considered as a model of neuro-developmental cognitive function. ADHD research previously studied mainly males. A major biological distinction between the genders is the presence of a menstrual cycle, which is associated with variations in sex steroid hormone levels. There is a growing body of literature showing that sex hormones have the ability to regulate intracellular signaling systems that are thought to be abnormal in ADHD. Thus, it is conceivable to believe that this functional interaction between sex hormones and molecules involved with synaptic plasticity and neurotransmitter systems may be associated with some of the clinical characteristics of women with ADHD. In spite of the impact of sex hormones on major neurotransmitter systems of the brain in a variety of clinical settings, the menstrual cycle is usually entered to statistical analyses as a nuisance or controlled for by only testing male samples. Evaluation of brain structure, function and chemistry over the course of the menstrual cycle as well as across the lifespan of women (premenarche, puberty, cycling period, premenopause, postmenopause is critical to understanding sex differences in both normal and aberrant mental function and behavior. The studies of ADHD in females suggest confusing and non-consistent conclusions. None of these studies examined the possible relationship between phase of the menstrual cycle, sex hormones levels and ADHD symptoms. The menstrual cycle should therefore be taken into consideration in future studies in the neurocognitive field since it offers a unique opportunity to understand whether and how subtle fluctuations of sex hormones and specific combinations of sex hormones influence neuronal circuits implicated in the cognitive regulation of emotional processing. The investigation of biological models involving the role of estrogen, progesterone, and other sex steroids has the potential to generate

  13. Nutritional intake and status in persons with alcohol dependency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilkens Knudsen, Anne; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck; Nordgaard-Lassen, Inge

    2014-01-01

    Malnutrition increases the risk of developing alcohol-related complications. The aim of this study was to describe nutrient intake, nutritional status and nutrition-related complications in a Danish population of outpatients with alcohol dependency.......Malnutrition increases the risk of developing alcohol-related complications. The aim of this study was to describe nutrient intake, nutritional status and nutrition-related complications in a Danish population of outpatients with alcohol dependency....

  14. [The study of functional status in the perception of visual information depending on the method of technical color mixing on LCD and DLP projectors technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkulova, A G; Osokina, E S; Bukhtiiarov, I V

    2014-10-01

    The case of compare two ways of projection color visual images, characterized by different spatial-temporal characteristics of visual stimuli, presents the methodology and the set of techniques. Received comparative data, identifying risks of regulation disorder of the functional state and development general, mental and visual fatigue during prolonged strenuous visual activity, according to two types of test tasks, which are the most typical for the use of modern projectors to work with the audience, both inthe process of implementation of learning technologies and the collective take responsible decisions by expert groups that control of complex technological processes.

  15. Functional status after childbirth and related concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktan, Nadine M

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore relationships between functional status after childbirth and related concepts. The sample consisted of 177 women. The Personal Resource Questionnaire (PRQ) 85-Part 2, the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and the Inventory of Functional Status After Childbirth (IFSAC) were used to measure variables. Data were collected during the third trimester of pregnancy and at 6 weeks postpartum. Overall, this group had relatively low levels of anxiety and high levels of social support and functional status after childbirth. The STAI demonstrated coefficient alphas from .90 to .93, the PRQ 85-Part 2 .87 to .93, and the IFSAC .90. The relationship between state anxiety in the postpartum period and FSAC (r = -.204, p = .008) was significant. Additional significant findings between social support, anxiety, and subscales of the IFSAC were found. Nurses must understand these relationships to develop and implement effective interventions. This study is clinically relevant to nurses involved in caring for pregnant and postpartum clients.

  16. Chewing ability and dental functional status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.C.; Witter, D.J.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Gerritsen, A.E.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this research was to explore the relationship between chewing ability and dental functional status, perceived oral health-related quality of life, and a number of background variables in a Vietnamese population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cluster stratified sample consisted of 2,

  17. FORENSIC INVESTIGATOR: HIS PROCEDURAL STATUS AND FUNCTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Meretukov G. M.

    2015-01-01

    The article covers the problems of procedural status and functions of a forensic investigator taking into account the provisions of p. 40 (1) art.5 of the Criminal Code, comparing with the previous position of the criminal procurators. The author suggests the wording of a new article 38(1) of the Criminal Code as a “forensic investigator” and defines his procedural status. Thus, a forensic investigator at the pre-trial proceedings should have the following powers: according to the investigato...

  18. Adjusting Population Risk for Functional Health Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Richard L; Hughes, John S; Goldfield, Norbert I

    2016-04-01

    Risk adjustment accounts for differences in population mix by reducing the likelihood of enrollee selection by managed care plans and providing a correction to otherwise biased reporting of provider or plan performance. Functional health status is not routinely included within risk-adjustment methods, but is believed by many to be a significant enhancement to risk adjustment for complex enrollees and patients. In this analysis a standardized measure of functional health was created using 3 different source functional assessment instruments submitted to the Medicare program on condition of payment. The authors use a 5% development sample of Medicare claims from 2006 and 2007, including functional health assessments, and develop a model of functional health classification comprising 9 groups defined by the interaction of self-care, mobility, incontinence, and cognitive impairment. The 9 functional groups were used to augment Clinical Risk Groups, a diagnosis-based patient classification system, and when using a validation set of 100% of Medicare data for 2010 and 2011, this study found the use of the functional health module to improve the fit of observed enrollee cost, measured by the R(2) statistic, by 5% across all Medicare enrollees. The authors observed complex nonlinear interactions across functional health domains when constructing the model and caution that functional health status needs careful handling when used for risk adjustment. The addition of functional health status within existing risk-adjustment models has the potential to improve equitable resource allocation in the financing of care costs for more complex enrollees if handled appropriately. (Population Health Management 2016;19:136-144).

  19. Does responsiveness to arbuscular mycorrhizas depend on plant invasive status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. Some posit invasive alien plants are less dependent on mycorrhizal associations than native plants, and thus weak mycorrhizal responsiveness may be a general mechanism of plant invasion. 2. Here, we tested whether mycorrhizal responsiveness varies by plant invasive status while controlling for ph...

  20. Spin dependent proton structure functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Florian, D.; Garcia Canal, C.A. [Laboratorio de Fisica Teorica, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de La Plata C.C. 67-1900 La Plata (Argentina); Sassot, R. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab. 1 1428 Bs.As. (Argentina)

    1996-02-01

    We address the issue of gluon contributions to the polarized deep inelastic asymmetries. Particularly, of their effects in the scale dependence induced by the usual leading order Altarelli-Parisi evolution equations and those arising from fixed order {alpha}{sub {ital s}} and {alpha}{sup 2}{sub {ital s}} evolution approximations. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. Fuzzy Functional Dependencies and Bayesian Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU WeiYi(刘惟一); SONG Ning(宋宁)

    2003-01-01

    Bayesian networks have become a popular technique for representing and reasoning with probabilistic information. The fuzzy functional dependency is an important kind of data dependencies in relational databases with fuzzy values. The purpose of this paper is to set up a connection between these data dependencies and Bayesian networks. The connection is done through a set of methods that enable people to obtain the most information of independent conditions from fuzzy functional dependencies.

  2. Hartree potential dependent exchange functional

    CERN Document Server

    Constantin, L A; Della Sala, F

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a novel non-local ingredient for the construction of exchange density functionals: the reduced Hartree parameter, which is invariant under the uniform scaling of the density and represents the exact exchange enhancement factor for one- and two-electron systems. The reduced Hartree parameter is used together with the conventional meta-generalized gradient approximation (meta-GGA) semilocal ingredients (i.e. the electron density, its gradient and the kinetic energy density) to construct a new generation exchange functional, termed u-meta-GGA. This u-meta-GGA functional is exact for {the exchange of} any one- and two-electron systems, is size-consistent and non-empirical, satisfies the uniform density scaling relation, and recovers the modified gradient expansion derived from the semiclassical atom theory. For atoms, ions, jellium spheres, and molecules, it shows a good accuracy, being often better than meta-GGA exchange functionals. Our construction validates the use of the reduced Hartree ingredie...

  3. Nutritional status and functional capacity of hospitalized elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro-Merhi Vânia A

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The nutritional status of the aging individual results from a complex interaction between personal and environmental factors. A disease influences and is influenced by the nutritional status and the functional capacity of the individual. We asses the relationship between nutritional status and indicators of functional capacity among recently hospitalized elderly in a general hospital. Methods A cross-sectional study was done with 240 elderly (women, n = 127 and men, n = 113 hospitalized in a hospital that provides care for the public and private healthcare systems. The nutritional status was classified by the MNA (Mini Nutritional Assessment into: malnourished, risk of malnutrition and without malnutrition (adequate. The functional autonomy indicators were obtained by the self-reported Instrumental Activity of Daily Living (IADL and Activity of Daily Living (ADL questionnaire. The chi-square test was used to compare the proportions and the level of significance was 5%. Results Among the assessed elderly, 33.8% were classified as adequate regarding nutritional status; 37.1% were classified as being at risk of malnutrition and 29.1% were classified as malnourished. All the IADL and ADL variables assessed were significantly more deteriorated among the malnourished individuals. Among the ADL variables, eating partial (42.9% or complete (12.9% dependence was found in more than half of the malnourished elderly, in 13.4% of those at risk of malnutrition and in 2.5% of those without malnutrition. Conclusion There is an interrelationship between the nutritional status of the elderly and reduced functional capacity.

  4. Predicting Sobriety from the Employment Status of Dually Diagnosed Clients Who Are Opiate Dependent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorzelli, James F.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (E. S. Neukrug & R. C. Fawcett, 2006) profiles and employment status for clients who are opiate dependent. A discriminant function analysis indicated that employment was a predictor in maintaining sobriety after 6 months. (Contains 4…

  5. Functional and Dysfunctional rumination in alcohol dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Grynberg, Delphine; Briane, Yasmine; Timary, Philippe De; Maurage, Pierre; 16th International Society of Addiction Medicine Annual Meeting

    2014-01-01

    Previous findings have shown that rumination predicts alcohol abuse independently of depression. However, the literature does not inform about the relationships between alcohol dependence and functional and dysfunctional rumination. It has indeed been suggested that there exist a functional form of rumination(concrete thinking) and a dysfunctional form of rumination (abstract thinking). In this study, our aim is to evaluate if alcohol dependence is similarly associated with functional/constru...

  6. King's theory of goal attainment: exploring functional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caceres, Billy A

    2015-04-01

    Imogene King's Theory of Goal Attainment provides a schema for nurses interested in functional status. However, the lack of a uniform definition for functional status has hindered development of a concise understanding of this phenomenon. Functional status is particularly important to nurses who are concerned with the safety and wellbeing of clients. With healthcare's increased focus on client-family-centered care it is important to develop innovative approaches for evaluating functional status that incorporate the client-family perspective. King's focus on mutual decision-making is an underutilized resource that can provide great insight into the study and understanding of functional status.

  7. FORENSIC INVESTIGATOR: HIS PROCEDURAL STATUS AND FUNCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meretukov G. M.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article covers the problems of procedural status and functions of a forensic investigator taking into account the provisions of p. 40 (1 art.5 of the Criminal Code, comparing with the previous position of the criminal procurators. The author suggests the wording of a new article 38(1 of the Criminal Code as a “forensic investigator” and defines his procedural status. Thus, a forensic investigator at the pre-trial proceedings should have the following powers: according to the investigator’s decision (the head of the investigation team or the head of the investigative body starting the production of a case he could be entitled to authorize the investigative and other procedures, as well as the participation in the investigation along with the investigator, in order to ensure the proper application of scientific and technical tools and procedural recordings during the investigation, addressing experts for help and cooperation with forensic institutions, and the use of the advanced features of forensic examinations; introduction of new science and technology excellence in the detection and investigation of crime; development of scientific-methodological and practical recommendations for the detection and investigation of crimes

  8. Discovery of functional and approximate functional dependencies in relational databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald S. King

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study develops the foundation for a simple, yet efficient method for uncovering functional and approximate functional dependencies in relational databases. The technique is based upon the mathematical theory of partitions defined over a relation's row identifiers. Using a levelwise algorithm the minimal non-trivial functional dependencies can be found using computations conducted on integers. Therefore, the required operations on partitions are both simple and fast. Additionally, the row identifiers provide the added advantage of nominally identifying the exceptions to approximate functional dependencies, which can be used effectively in practical data mining applications.

  9. Trait Routinization, Functional and Cognitive Status in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zisberg, Anna; Zysberg, Leehu; Young, Heather M.; Schepp, Karen G.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the associations between trait routinization and functional and cognitive as well as demographic indicators. A sample of American older adults living independently in a retirement community (n = 80) were assessed regarding their functional status, cognitive status, and preference for routine. Robust associations between…

  10. Regression-based estimates of observed functional status in centenarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Meghan B; Miller, L Stephen; Woodard, John L; Davey, Adam; Martin, Peter; Burgess, Molly; Poon, Leonard W

    2011-04-01

    There is lack of consensus on the best method of functional assessment, and there is a paucity of studies on daily functioning in centenarians. We sought to compare associations between performance-based, self-report, and proxy report of functional status in centenarians. We expected the strongest relationships between proxy reports and observed performance of basic activities of daily living (BADLs) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs). We hypothesized that the discrepancy between self-report and observed daily functioning would be modified by cognitive status. We additionally sought to provide clinicians with estimates of centenarians' observed daily functioning based on their mental status in combination with subjective measures of activities of daily living (ADLs). Two hundred and forty-four centenarians from the Georgia Centenarian Study were included in this cross-sectional population-based study. Measures included the Direct Assessment of Functional Status, self-report and proxy report of functional status, and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Associations between observed and proxy reports were stronger than between observed and self-report across BADL and IADL measures. A significant MMSE by type of report interaction was found, indicating that lower MMSE performance is associated with a greater discrepancy between subjective and objective ADL measures. Results demonstrate associations between 3 methods of assessing functional status and suggest proxy reports are generally more accurate than self-report measures. Cognitive status accounted for some of the discrepancy between observed and self-reports, and we provide clinicians with tables to estimate centenarians' performance on observed functional measures based on MMSE and subjective report of functional status.

  11. Springs as Ecosystems: Clarifying Groundwater Dependence and Wetland Status (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, L.; Springer, A. E.; Ledbetter, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    Springs ecosystems are among the most productive, biologically diverse and culturally important ecosystems on Earth. Net annual productivity of some springs exceeds 5 kg/m^2/yr. Springs support an estimated 19% of the endangered species and numerous rare taxa in the United States. Springs serve as keystone ecosystems in arid regions, and as cornerstones of indigenous cultural well-being, history, economics, and aesthetics. Despite their significance, the ecosystem ecology and stewardship of springs have received scant scientific and public attention, resulting in loss or impairment of 50-90% of the springs in many regions, both arid and temperate. Six reasons contribute to the lack of attention to springs. Springs are poorly mapped because: 1) their generally small size is less than the pixel area of most remote sensing analyses and they are overlooked; and 2) springs detection is often limited by emergence on cliff faces, beneath heavy vegetation cover, or under water. In addition, 3) high levels of ecosystem complexity at springs require multidisciplinary team approaches for inventory, assessment, and research, but collaboration between the fields of hydrogeology and ecology has been limited. 4) Protectionism by land owners and organizations that manage springs limits the availability information, preventing regional assessment of status. 5) Prior to recent efforts, the absence of a descriptive lexicon of springs types has limited discussion about variation in ecological characteristics and processes. 6) Neither regarded entirely as groundwater or as surface water, springs fall 'between jurisdictional cracks' and are not subject to clear legal and regulatory oversight. With regards to the latter point, two jurisdictional phrases have reduced scientific understanding and stewardship of springs ecosystems: 'jurisdictional wetlands' and 'groundwater-dependent ecosystems' (GDEs). Most springs have insufficient monitoring data to establish perenniality or the range of

  12. Unbiased spin-dependent Parton Distribution Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Nocera, Emanuele Roberto

    2014-01-01

    We present the first unbiased determination of spin-dependent, or polarized, Parton Distribution Functions (PDFs) of the proton. A statistically sound representation of the corresponding uncertainties is achieved by means of the NNPDF methodology: this was formerly developed for unpolarized distributions and is now generalized to the polarized here for the first time. The features of the procedure, based on robust statistical tools (Monte Carlo sampling for error propagation, neural networks for PDF parametrization, genetic algorithm for their minimization, and possibly reweighting for including new data samples without refitting), are illustrated in detail. Different sets of polarized PDFs are obtained at next-to-leading order accuracy in perturbative quantum chromodynamics, based on both fixed-target inclusive deeply-inelastic scattering data and the most recent polarized collider data. A quantitative appraisal on the potential role of future measurements at an Electron-Ion Collider is also presented. We st...

  13. Social Status-Dependent Shift in Neural Circuit Activation Affects Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Thomas H; Clements, Katie; Ahn, Sungwoo; Park, Choongseok; Hye Ji, Eoon; Issa, Fadi A

    2017-02-22

    In a social group, animals make behavioral decisions that fit their social ranks. These behavioral choices are dependent on the various social cues experienced during social interactions. In vertebrates, little is known of how social status affects the underlying neural mechanisms regulating decision-making circuits that drive competing behaviors. Here, we demonstrate that social status in zebrafish (Danio rerio) influences behavioral decisions by shifting the balance in neural circuit activation between two competing networks (escape and swim). We show that socially dominant animals enhance activation of the swim circuit. Conversely, social subordinates display a decreased activation of the swim circuit, but an enhanced activation of the escape circuit. In an effort to understand how social status mediates these effects, we constructed a neurocomputational model of the escape and swim circuits. The model replicates our findings and suggests that social status-related shift in circuit dynamics could be mediated by changes in the relative excitability of the escape and swim networks. Together, our results reveal that changes in the excitabilities of the Mauthner command neuron for escape and the inhibitory interneurons that regulate swimming provide a cellular mechanism for the nervous system to adapt to changes in social conditions by permitting the animal to select a socially appropriate behavioral response.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Understanding how social factors influence nervous system function is of great importance. Using zebrafish as a model system, we demonstrate how social experience affects decision making to enable animals to produce socially appropriate behavior. Based on experimental evidence and computational modeling, we show that behavioral decisions reflect the interplay between competing neural circuits whose activation thresholds shift in accordance with social status. We demonstrate this through analysis of the behavior and neural circuit

  14. Impact of Functional Capacity on Nutritional Status of Hospitalized Elderly in Qazvin, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehghankar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Lack of independence and unwanted dependence on others for activities of daily living (ADL and decreased functional capacity affect nutritional status of the elderly. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the impact of functional capacity on malnutrition status in hospitalized elderly patients in the Qazvin city of Iran. Patients and Methods This cross sectional study was conducted on patients 60 years or older hospitalized in two teaching hospitals of Qazvin, Iran, from May to October 2011. The nutritional status was assessed using the mini nutritional assessment (MNA questionnaire. Functional capacity of the elderly was assessed using self-report questionnaires of ADL and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL. Data were analyzed using the Chi-square test and logistic regression analysis. Results Of the 322 participant, 171 (53.1% were male. The mean age was 70.36 ± 7.8 years. Based on MNA, 96 patients (29.8% had normal nutritional status, 138 (42.9% were at risk of malnutrition and 43 (13.4% had malnutrition. Dependency on ADL and IADL was significantly associated with malnutrition and risk of malnutrition. In the logistic regression analysis, IADL was associated with malnutrition (OR: 1.19, 95% CI: 1.07 - 1.33; P < 0.001. Conclusions Risk of malnutrition as well as reduced functional ability was high among the hospitalized elderly of Qazvin. Nutritional status assessment of older adults is necessary, particularly when they are admitted to hospitals.

  15. Functional status assessment of adolescents with different forms of influence for performed offences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polovnikova А.А.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to compare the functional status of adolescents, depending on the measure of impact of the offense. The data received indicated lower functional status of convicted adolescents, especially those with para-suicide behavior. Adolescents who were used humane methods of punishment for committed offenses demonstrated changes in the cardiovascular and respiratory systems only in the form of significant increase of stress index, while other parameters remained normal. The role of physical exercise in the correction of violations was under the study

  16. HERPETIC KERATITIS OUTCOMES DEPENDING ON IMMUNE STATUS OF PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V. Aksenova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Herpetic keratitis with the formation frequency of several million patients a year occupy an important place in infectious pathology of the eye and remain one of actual problems of ophthalmology. The lack of reliable ways of dealing with ophthalmic herpes dictates the necessity of finding optimal ways to treat patients, what prompted us to conduct this research. Purpose of the study. To evaluate the effect of the standard treatment regimen herpetic keratitis on the parameters of the immune status of the patient. Materials and Methods. We examined and treated 15 patients (15 eyes with herpetic keratouveitis. The control group consisted of 20 healthy people of similar age (20 eyes. Comparative evaluation of clinical and immunological status of patients conducted before and after standard therapy. Results. In the study of these immunological parameters of examinees were detected increase in the number leucocytes, lymphocytes, neutrophils absorbency, HCT-activity of neutrophils, the CIC in patients with herpetic keratitis during exacerbation of the disease, however, a decrease amount of TFR and TFS cells with helper and suppressor activity. During treat-ment immunological parameters have normalized somewhat, but were higher than the reference value. Discussion and Conclusions. The research showed that the base therapy does not provide normalization of cellular immune status even when clinical recovery, with the result that retained the ability of cells to maintain local inflammatory focus, complicate the regeneration process, promote chronicity and recurrence of the herpetic keratitis. These facts make it necessary to change the program of treatment of patients with this pathology and introduce the recommended range of products such as antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities.

  17. The tools of disability outcomes research functional status measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M E; Marino, R J

    2000-12-01

    To review the major functional status measures currently used in rehabilitation research, including the domains and scope of functional status measures, as well as the psychometric properties of selected functional status measures and their use in adult rehabilitation populations. Measures of physical functioning widely used in rehabilitation research. Major generic measures included the following activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living: the FIM instrument, the Katz Activities of Daily Living Scale, the Level of Rehabilitation Scale, the Barthel index, and the Patient Evaluation and Conference System. Measures were evaluated based on published evidence of validity, reliability, and sensitivity. Measures were chosen on the basis of the amount and quality of published research on the functional measures widely used in rehabilitation medicine. Independent research of computer databases and reviews of functional measures were conducted to determine suitability for inclusion. The quality and validity of the measures were assessed using standard psychometric guidelines. Measures were evaluated based on published evidence of validity, reliability, sensitivity response and administrative burdens and instrument bias. Each criterion was graded on a 3-point scale reflecting the level of evidence. Researchers in the field of disabilities research need to consider carefully study objectives when measuring physical functioning in people with disabilities.

  18. APOE genotype influences functional status among elderly without dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, S.M.; Jacobs, D.M.; Stern, Y. [Gertrude H. Sergievsky Center, New York, NY (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-18

    The presence of apolipoprotein-{epsilon}4 (APOE-{epsilon}4) significantly increases the risk of Alzheimer`s disease (AD). The association between APOE-{epsilon}4 status and functional abilities was explored further in a multicultural sample of community-dwelling, nondemented elders. The sample was limited to cognitively-intact, community-dwelling elders, who were free of stroke or other neurologic disability. In 218 elders who met research criteria, the presence of APOE-{epsilon}4 was associated with poorer functional status, apart from the effects of neuropsychological performance, gender, age, and education (OR = 2.5, 95% CI: 1.3, 4.9). In 158 subjects without an APOE-{epsilon}4 allele, 50% reported no functional limitation; in the 60 subjects with an {epsilon}4 allele, only 28% reported no functional limitation (P < .01). The relationship was not explained by the distribution of co-morbidities. The association between poorer function and the presence of an APOE-{epsilon}4 allele was evident in each ethnic group. In path analyses, the presence of an APOE-{epsilon}4 allele was associated with decreased functional ability in non-demented elders not simply through an association with poorer cognitive status, but also independently. These results suggest that the APOE-{epsilon}4 genotype is associated with functional deficit in people with normal neuropsychological profiles. 29 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  19. Long-term functional health status of severely injured patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtslag, H. R.; Post, M. W.; Lindeman, E.; Van der Werken, Chr.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Studies of the consequences of major trauma have traditionally focused on mortality rates. The aims of this study were, firstly, to investigate the long-term functional health status in a large, unselected group of severely injured patients and to compare this with normative data, and se

  20. Developing Students’ Reflections about the Function and Status of Mathematical Modeling in Different Scientific Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Tinne Hoff; Blomhøj, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical models and mathematical modeling play different roles in the different areas and problems in which they are used. The function and status of mathematical modeling and models in the different areas depend on the scientific practice as well as the underlying philosophical and theoretical...... position held by the modeler(s) and the practitioners in the extra-mathematical domain. For students to experience the significance of different scientific practices and cultures for the function and status of mathematical modeling in other sciences, students need to be placed in didactical situations...... in situations in which they can experience and be challenged to reflect upon and criticize, the use of modeling and the significance of the context for the function and status of modeling and models in scientific practices. We present Nicolas Rashevsky’s model of cell division from the 1930s together...

  1. Mutant p53 accumulation in human breast cancer is not an intrinsic property or dependent on structural or functional disruption but is regulated by exogenous stress and receptor status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchalova, Pavla; Nenutil, Rudolf; Muller, Petr; Hrstka, Roman; Appleyard, M Virginia; Murray, Karen; Jordan, Lee B; Purdie, Colin A; Quinlan, Philip; Thompson, Alastair M; Vojtesek, Borivoj; Coates, Philip J

    2014-07-01

    Many human cancers contain missense TP53 mutations that result in p53 protein accumulation. Although generally considered as a single class of mutations that abrogate wild-type function, individual TP53 mutations may have specific properties and prognostic effects. Tumours that contain missense TP53 mutations show variable p53 stabilization patterns, which may reflect the specific mutation and/or aspects of tumour biology. We used immunohistochemistry on cell lines and human breast cancers with known TP53 missense mutations and assessed the effects of each mutation with four structure-function prediction methods. Cell lines with missense TP53 mutations show variable percentages of cells with p53 stabilization under normal growth conditions, ranging from approximately 50% to almost 100%. Stabilization is not related to structural or functional disruption, but agents that stabilize wild-type p53 increase the percentages of cells showing missense mutant p53 accumulation in cell lines with heterogeneous stabilization. The same heterogeneity of p53 stabilization occurs in primary breast cancers, independent of the effect of the mutation on structural properties or functional disruption. Heterogeneous accumulation is more common in steroid receptor-positive or HER2-positive breast cancers and cell lines than in triple-negative samples. Immunohistochemcal staining patterns associate with Mdm2 levels, proliferation, grade and overall survival, whilst the type of mutation reflects downstream target activity. Inhibiting Mdm2 activity increases the extent of p53 stabilization in some, but not all, breast cancer cell lines. The data indicate that missense mutant p53 stabilization is a complex and variable process in human breast cancers that associates with disease characteristics but is unrelated to structural or functional properties. That agents which stabilize wild-type p53 also stabilize mutant p53 has implications for patients with heterogeneous mutant p53 accumulation

  2. Root Endophyte Colletotrichum tofieldiae Confers Plant Fitness Benefits that Are Phosphate Status Dependent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiruma, Kei; Gerlach, Nina; Sacristán, Soledad; Nakano, Ryohei Thomas; Hacquard, Stéphane; Kracher, Barbara; Neumann, Ulla; Ramírez, Diana; Bucher, Marcel; O’Connell, Richard J.; Schulze-Lefert, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Summary A staggering diversity of endophytic fungi associate with healthy plants in nature, but it is usually unclear whether these represent stochastic encounters or provide host fitness benefits. Although most characterized species of the fungal genus Colletotrichum are destructive pathogens, we show here that C. tofieldiae (Ct) is an endemic endophyte in natural Arabidopsis thaliana populations in central Spain. Colonization by Ct initiates in roots but can also spread systemically into shoots. Ct transfers the macronutrient phosphorus to shoots, promotes plant growth, and increases fertility only under phosphorus-deficient conditions, a nutrient status that might have facilitated the transition from pathogenic to beneficial lifestyles. The host’s phosphate starvation response (PSR) system controls Ct root colonization and is needed for plant growth promotion (PGP). PGP also requires PEN2-dependent indole glucosinolate metabolism, a component of innate immune responses, indicating a functional link between innate immunity and the PSR system during beneficial interactions with Ct. PMID:26997485

  3. Root Endophyte Colletotrichum tofieldiae Confers Plant Fitness Benefits that Are Phosphate Status Dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiruma, Kei; Gerlach, Nina; Sacristán, Soledad; Nakano, Ryohei Thomas; Hacquard, Stéphane; Kracher, Barbara; Neumann, Ulla; Ramírez, Diana; Bucher, Marcel; O'Connell, Richard J; Schulze-Lefert, Paul

    2016-04-01

    A staggering diversity of endophytic fungi associate with healthy plants in nature, but it is usually unclear whether these represent stochastic encounters or provide host fitness benefits. Although most characterized species of the fungal genus Colletotrichum are destructive pathogens, we show here that C. tofieldiae (Ct) is an endemic endophyte in natural Arabidopsis thaliana populations in central Spain. Colonization by Ct initiates in roots but can also spread systemically into shoots. Ct transfers the macronutrient phosphorus to shoots, promotes plant growth, and increases fertility only under phosphorus-deficient conditions, a nutrient status that might have facilitated the transition from pathogenic to beneficial lifestyles. The host's phosphate starvation response (PSR) system controls Ct root colonization and is needed for plant growth promotion (PGP). PGP also requires PEN2-dependent indole glucosinolate metabolism, a component of innate immune responses, indicating a functional link between innate immunity and the PSR system during beneficial interactions with Ct.

  4. A hypo-status in drug-dependent brain revealed by multi-modal MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ze; Suh, Jesse; Duan, Dingna; Darnley, Stefanie; Jing, Ying; Zhang, Jian; O'Brien, Charles; Childress, Anna Rose

    2016-09-22

    Drug addiction is a chronic brain disorder with no proven effective cure. Assessing both structural and functional brain alterations by using multi-modal, rather than purely unimodal imaging techniques, may provide a more comprehensive understanding of the brain mechanisms underlying addiction, which in turn may facilitate future treatment strategies. However, this type of research remains scarce in the literature. We acquired multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging from 20 cocaine-addicted individuals and 19 age-matched controls. Compared with controls, cocaine addicts showed a multi-modal hypo-status with (1) decreased brain tissue volume in the medial and lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC); (2) hypo-perfusion in the prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, insula, right temporal cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and (3) reduced irregularity of resting state activity in the OFC and limbic areas, as well as the cingulate, visual and parietal cortices. In the cocaine-addicted brain, larger tissue volume in the medial OFC, anterior cingulate cortex and ventral striatum and smaller insular tissue volume were associated with higher cocaine dependence levels. Decreased perfusion in the amygdala and insula was also correlated with higher cocaine dependence levels. Tissue volume, perfusion, and brain entropy in the insula and prefrontal cortex, all showed a trend of negative correlation with drug craving scores. The three modalities showed voxel-wise correlation in various brain regions, and combining them improved patient versus control brain classification accuracy. These results, for the first time, demonstrate a comprehensive cocaine-dependence and craving-related hypo-status regarding the tissue volume, perfusion and resting brain irregularity in the cocaine-addicted brain. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  5. Bounds on transverse momentum dependent distribution functions

    CERN Document Server

    Henneman, A A

    2001-01-01

    When more than one hadron takes part in a hard process, an extended set of quark distribution and fragmentation functions becomes relevant. In this talk, the derivation of Soffer-like bounds for these functions, in the case of a spin-1/2 target, is sketched and some of their aspects are discussed.

  6. Bounds on transverse momentum dependent distribution functions

    OpenAIRE

    Henneman, A.

    2000-01-01

    When more than one hadron takes part in a hard process, an extended set of quark distribution and fragmentation functions becomes relevant. In this talk, the derivation of Soffer-like bounds for these functions, in the case of a spin-1/2 target, is sketched and some of their aspects are discussed.

  7. Bounds on transverse momentum dependent distribution functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneman, A.

    2001-01-01

    When more than one hadron takes part in a hard process, an extended set of quark distribution and fragmentation functions becomes relevant. In this talk, the derivation of Soffer-like bounds for these functions, in the case of a spin-1/2 target [1], is sketched and some of their aspects are discussed.

  8. Tubulin nucleotide status controls Sas-4-dependent pericentriolar material recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Jayachandran; Chim, Yiu-Cheung Frederick; Ha, Andrew; Basiri, Marcus L; Lerit, Dorothy A; Rusan, Nasser M; Avidor-Reiss, Tomer

    2012-08-01

    Regulated centrosome biogenesis is required for accurate cell division and for maintaining genome integrity. Centrosomes consist of a centriole pair surrounded by a protein network known as pericentriolar material (PCM). PCM assembly is a tightly regulated, critical step that determines the size and capability of centrosomes. Here, we report a role for tubulin in regulating PCM recruitment through the conserved centrosomal protein Sas-4. Tubulin directly binds to Sas-4; together they are components of cytoplasmic complexes of centrosomal proteins. A Sas-4 mutant, which cannot bind tubulin, enhances centrosomal protein complex formation and has abnormally large centrosomes with excessive activity. These results suggest that tubulin negatively regulates PCM recruitment. Whereas tubulin-GTP prevents Sas-4 from forming protein complexes, tubulin-GDP promotes it. Thus, the regulation of PCM recruitment by tubulin depends on its GTP/GDP-bound state. These results identify a role for tubulin in regulating PCM recruitment independent of its well-known role as a building block of microtubules. On the basis of its guanine-bound state, tubulin can act as a molecular switch in PCM recruitment.

  9. Functional Dependencies and Its Axiom System in XML

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xiangguo; WANG Guoren; HOU Huan; DING Dabin

    2007-01-01

    According to the analysis of existing complicated functional dependencies constraint, we conclude the conditions of defining functional dependency in XML, and then we introduce the concept of the node value equality. Anew path language and a new definition of functional dependencies in XML (XFD) are proposed.XFD includes the relative XFD and the absolute XFD, in which absolute key and relative key are the particular cases. We focus on the logical implication and the closure problems, and propose a group of inference rules. Finally, some proofs of the correctness and completeness are given. XFD is powerful on expressing functional dependencies in XML causing data redundancy, and has a complete axiom system.

  10. Empirical Research on the Developmental Status of Farmer Cooperatives’ Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In the paper, members in farmer cooperatives are selected as investigation subjects. By using fuzzy synthetic evaluation methods, functions of farmer cooperatives, which include six functions as follows: providing technology and information, marketing, processing and transportation, standardized services, and credit services and rights protection, are analyzed. The quantitative analysis is conducted on the developmental status of the functions of farmer cooperatives. The evaluation results are taken as evidence to anticipate the problems in the development of farmer cooperatives and then countermeasures are put forward, including intensifying the construction of actual functions of farmer cooperatives; contracting diversified credit and loan services; improving comprehensive strength of farmer cooperatives and taking the path of combining professional and comprehensive developmental paths. This study improves our knowledge on the development of farmer cooperatives and provides new insights to solve the problems that arise following the development.

  11. Age dependence of rat liver function measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer-Nielsen, A; Poulsen, H E; Hansen, B A

    1989-01-01

    Changes in the galactose elimination capacity, the capacity of urea-N synthesis and antipyrine clearance were studied in male Wistar rats at the age of 8, 20 and 44 weeks. Further, liver tissue concentrations of microsomal cytochrome P-450, microsomal protein and glutathione were measured. All...... liver function measurements increased from the age of 8 to 44 weeks when expressed in absolute values. In relation to body weight, these function measurements were unchanged or reduced from week 8 to week 20. At week 44, galactose elimination capacity and capacity of urea-N synthesis related to body...... weight were increased by 10% and 36%, respectively, and antipyrine plasma clearance was reduced to 50%. Liver tissue concentrations of microsomal cytochrome P-450 and microsomal protein increased with age when expressed in absolute values, but were unchanged per g liver, i.e., closely related to liver...

  12. CORRELATION AMONG CAR DEPENDENCY, SOCIAL STATUS AND CAR USE IN JAKARTA

    OpenAIRE

    Kharizsa, Ayu; Priyanto, Sigit; Jopson, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Aims of this research are to determine the prominent factor behind car dependency, examine the correlation between the factors that indicate car dependency, and the correlation between social status and car use in Jakarta. The primary question of this research is “What are the influence factors behind car dependency in Jakarta? Does prestige influence car use behavior in Jakarta?” By using Jakarta as a case study, the research applies Factor Analysis and Logistic Regression Analysis based on ...

  13. [Nutritional status, pulmonary functions, and exercise performance in COPD cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deveci, Figen; Tuğ, Tuncer; Turgut, Teyfik; Ogetürk, Murat; Kirkil, Gamze; Kaçar, Canan; Muz, M Hamdi

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was evaluation of nutritional status in attack and stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) cases, and investigating the relation between nutrition parameters and pulmonary functions, exercise performance and general healthy status. Anthropometric measures of 10 cases with attack (group 1), 14 stabilized COPD cases (group 2) and 10 control cases (group 3) were evaluated by measuring serum albumin, transferrin, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) levels, and fat-free mass (FFM) levels. Six minutes walking test (mwt) and SGRQ questionnaire were performed. Body mass index (BMI) of group 1 and 2 were significantly lower than group 3 (p= 0.023, p= 0.008, respectively). Albumin levels were significantly lower in group 1 than group 2 (pnutritional defect was seen and a significant relation was observed between nutrition parameters and effort capacity.

  14. IMPACT OF MORNING STIFFNESS, EDUCATION, AND AGE ON THE FUNCTIONAL STATUS OF PATIENTS WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahatçiu-Meka, Vjollca; Rexhepi, Sylejman; Manxhuka-Kerliu, Suzana; Pallaska, Kelmend; Murtezani, Ardiana; Osmani-Vllasolli, Teuta; Rexhepi, Mjellma; Rexhepi, Blerta

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between disability status and duration of morning stiffness in hands with regard to age, level of education, and gender in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Also, the authors wanted to investigate this relationship with regard to the presence of rheumatoid factor, i.e., the serological status. A retrospective study was conducted in 250 patients with the classic form of RA (186 females, s64 males, mean age Xb = 49.96 y ears, range 25-60 years, disease duration 1-27 years, Xb = 6.41) previously diagnosed with RA according to the ACR (American College of Rheumatology 1987 criteria). All patients were in Steinbrocker functional classes II and III. The probability level was expressed by p 0.05) seronegative, (r = 0.12, y = 0.00x + 2.30, p > 0.05) seropositive]. High positive values were obtained for the linear correlation coefficient between duration of the disease and functional class (p high values were obtained regarding the coefficient of correlation between age and functional class [(r = 0.29, p disability. Functional disability increased with the duration of the disease, depended on age and educational level, and was more pronounced in older age, regardless of RA serological status. With regard to serological status and sex, the differences were non-significant.

  15. Measuring functional status in children with genetic impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msall, M E; Tremont, M R

    1999-06-25

    One of the consequences of genetic impairments in early childhood is their long-term effect on children's developmental skills in communication, learning, and adaptive behaviors. Functional assessment provides families and clinicians with a common language for describing a child's strengths and limitations in self-care (feeding, dressing, grooming, bathing, continence), mobility, and communication/social cognition. The National Center for Medical Rehabilitation Research described a model of disablement that includes five dimensions: pathophysiology, impairment, functional limitations, disability, and societal limitations. Using this framework, along with the Functional Independence Measure for children, the WeeFIM(R), we describe functional strengths and challenges in children with Down syndrome, spina bifida, congenital limb anomalies, congenital heart disease, urea cycle disorders, severe multiple developmental disabilities, and DiGeorge malformation sequence. We also briefly describe several pediatric functional/adaptive assessment instruments used by developmental professionals (Battelle Developmental Inventory, Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Amount of Assistance Questionnaire). By tracking functional status, health professionals can prioritize secondary and tertiary prevention strategies that optimize self-care, mobility, communication, and learning. When functional limitations interfere with the acquisition of these essential skills, family and community support programs can be maximized.

  16. Physiotherapy improves patient reported shoulder function and health status in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, Filip Holst; Pedersen, Christina Gravgaard; Jensen, Majbritt Lykke

    Physiotherapy improves patient reported shoulder function and health status in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome.......Physiotherapy improves patient reported shoulder function and health status in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome....

  17. Personal anxiety - the determinant of the anthropometric and functional status of female students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanenko Valerij Aleksandrovich

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of dependence of the physical status of the students on their level of personal (genetic anxiety. The experiment involved 105 students aged 19-21 years. It is shown that between anxiety and performance of the genetic status of the students there anthropometric and functional ambiguous dependence. These relationships are determined by the peculiarities of somatotype, the oxygen-transport system and the mechanisms of energy. It is established that anxious students are characterized low level of physical development, insufficient capacity of the cardiorespiratory system. This corresponds to the same level of physical performance, aerobic capacity and resistance to hypoxia. These patterns remain when evaluating the power and capacity of the glycolytic mechanism of energy and non-anxious in anxious students.

  18. Oxidant-antioxidant status and pulmonary function in welding workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidan, Fatma; Unlü, Mehmet; Köken, Tülay; Tetik, Levent; Akgün, Sema; Demirel, Reha; Serteser, Mustafa

    2005-07-01

    Welding is a process during which fumes, gases, electromagnetic radiation and noise are emitted as by-products. Metal oxide particles are particularly hazardous components of welding fumes. Welding has been found to be associated with respiratory symptoms and our objective in the present study was to study the effects of welding on pulmonary function and serum oxidant-antioxidant status. Fifty-one welding workers and 31 control subjects were recruited. Face to face interviews were conducted using the respiratory illness questionnaire adapted from the American Thoracic Society with the addition of demographic characteristics, work history and working conditions. Additionally physical examinations and spirometric measurements were performed at workplaces. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), protein carbonyls, protein sulfhydryls (SH) and erythrocyte reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were measured to evaluate oxidant-antioxidant status in 34 welding workers and in 20 control subjects. No statistically significant differences were observed in age, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), smoking status and annual working durations between welding workers and controls. Coughing, sputting and wheezing were significantly higher in welding workers (pwelding work showed a significant risk for chronic bronchitis (OR: 4.78, 95%CI: 1.30-17.54). Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1))/forced vital capacity (FVC) and four parameters of forced expiratory flow (FEF: FEF(25), FEF(50), FEF(75), FEF(25-75)) levels measured in the welding workers were significantly lower than those in the control group (pwelding workers than those in controls (pwelding workers chronically exposed to welding fumes and gases. Preventive measures should be taken to improve the health status of these workers.

  19. Aging and estrogen status: a possible endothelium-dependent vascular coupling mechanism in bone remodeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhonda D Prisby

    Full Text Available Bone loss with aging and menopause may be linked to vascular endothelial dysfunction. The purpose of the study was to determine whether putative modifications in endothelium-dependent vasodilation of the principal nutrient artery (PNA of the femur are associated with changes in trabecular bone volume (BV/TV with altered estrogen status in young (6 mon and old (24 mon female Fischer-344 rats. Animals were divided into 6 groups: 1 young intact, 2 old intact, 3 young ovariectomized (OVX, 4 old OVX, 5 young OVX plus estrogen replacement (OVX+E2, and 6 old OVX+E2. PNA endothelium-dependent vasodilation was assessed in vitro using acetylcholine. Trabecular bone volume of the distal femoral metaphysis was determined by microCT. In young rats, vasodilation was diminished by OVX and restored with estrogen replacement (intact, 82±7; OVX, 61±9; OVX+E2, 90±4%, which corresponded with similar modifications in BV/TV (intact, 28.7±1.6; OVX, 16.3±0.9; OVX+E2, 25.7±1.4%. In old animals, vasodilation was unaffected by OVX but enhanced with estrogen replacement (intact, 55±8; OVX, 59±7; OVX+E2, 92±4%. Likewise, modifications in BV/TV followed the same pattern (intact, 33.1±1.6; OVX, 34.4±3.7; OVX+E2, 42.4±2.1%. Furthermore, in old animals with low endogenous estrogen (i.e., intact and old OVX, vasodilation was correlated with BV/TV (R(2 = 0.630; P<0.001. These data demonstrate parallel effects of estrogen on vascular endothelial function and BV/TV, and provide for a possible coupling mechanism linking endothelium-dependent vasodilation to bone remodeling.

  20. CORRELATION AMONG CAR DEPENDENCY, SOCIAL STATUS AND CAR USE IN JAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayu Kharizsa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims of this research are to determine the prominent factor behind car dependency, examine the correlation between the factors that indicate car dependency, and the correlation between social status and car use in Jakarta. The primary question of this research is “What are the influence factors behind car dependency in Jakarta? Does prestige influence car use behavior in Jakarta?” By using Jakarta as a case study, the research applies Factor Analysis and Logistic Regression Analysis based on Theory of Planned Behavior. It used to measure individual’s behavior based on attitudes toward behavior, subjective norm, and perceive behavior. The result shows that factors of dependency in term of car users consist of the starting place, habits, and control belief. While factors on car dependency for car users on occasion are intention and control belief. Correlation between prestige and car use is identified based on attitudes and subjective norm. For car users, attitudes are influenced by higher degrees of prestige which is slightly contrary to people who use cars occasionally. Other indicators of prestige are car types which can influence people’s behavior in using the car. The conclusion which can be drawn from the results are no significant correlation found between car dependency and social status, but significant in the case of correlation between car use and social status.

  1. Gene-environment interactions and alcohol use and dependence: current status and future challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaluw, C.S. van der; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2009-01-01

    To discuss the current status of gene-environment interaction research with regard to alcohol use and dependence. Further, we highlight the difficulties concerning gene-environment studies. Overview of the current evidence for gene-environment interactions in alcohol outcomes, and of the associated

  2. Socioeconomic Status and Longitudinal Lung Function of Healthy Mexican Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Martínez-Briseño

    Full Text Available Our aim was to estimate the longitudinal effect of Socioeconomic status (SES on lung function growth of Mexican children and adolescents.A cohort of Mexican children in third grade of primary school was followed with spirometry twice a year for 6 years through secondary school. Multilevel mixed-effects lineal models were fitted for the spirometric variables of 2,641 respiratory-healthy Mexican children. Monthly family income (in 2002 U.S. dollars [USD] and parents' years completed at school were used as proxies of SES.Individuals with higher SES tended to have greater height for age, and smaller sitting height/standing height and crude lung function. For each 1-year increase of parents' schooling, Forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1 and Forced vital capacity (FVC increased 8.5 (0.4% and 10.6 mL (0.4%, respectively (p <0.05 when models were adjusted for gender. Impact of education on lung function was reduced drastically or abolished on adjusting by anthropometric variables and ozone.Higher parental schooling and higher monthly family income were associated with higher lung function in healthy Mexican children, with the majority of the effect likely due to the increase in height-for-age.

  3. BALANCE FUNCTIONS : Multiplicity and transverse momentum dependence of the charge dependent correlations in ALICE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez Manso, A.

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of charge-dependent correlations between positively and negatively charged particles as a function of pseudorapidity and azimuthal angle, known as the \\emph{balance functions}, provide insight to the properties of matter created in high-energy collisions. The balance functions are ar

  4. Contingency management is effective across cocaine-dependent outpatients with different socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secades-Villa, Roberto; García-Fernández, Gloria; Peña-Suárez, Elsa; García-Rodríguez, Olaya; Sánchez-Hervás, Emilio; Fernández-Hermida, José Ramón

    2013-03-01

    Contingency management (CM) has demonstrated its efficacy for treating cocaine dependence, but there is still some controversy with regard to its dissemination. Understanding how individual differences affect CM outcomes is important for detecting barriers to its dissemination. The aim of this study is to examine the impact of socioeconomic variables in cocaine-dependent outpatients on the effectiveness of CM in a community setting. Cocaine-dependent outpatients (N=118) were randomized to community reinforcement approach (CRA) treatment or a CRA plus vouchers program. The impact of baseline economic variables, alone and in combination with treatment conditions, on abstinence and retention outcomes after 6 months of treatment was assessed. Results showed that income had no effect on retention or abstinence outcomes after 6 months of treatment in either treatment condition. The addition of a CM component was beneficial for individuals with any socioeconomic status. These results support the generalizability of CM strategies with patients of different socioeconomic status in community settings.

  5. Generalization of Dielectric-Dependent Hybrid Functionals to Finite Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawand, Nicholas P.; Vörös, Márton; Govoni, Marco; Galli, Giulia

    2016-10-01

    The accurate prediction of electronic and optical properties of molecules and solids is a persistent challenge for methods based on density functional theory. We propose a generalization of dielectric-dependent hybrid functionals to finite systems where the definition of the mixing fraction of exact and semilocal exchange is physically motivated, nonempirical, and system dependent. The proposed functional yields ionization potentials, and fundamental and optical gaps of many, diverse molecular systems in excellent agreement with experiments, including organic and inorganic molecules and semiconducting nanocrystals. We further demonstrate that this hybrid functional gives the correct alignment between energy levels of the exemplary TTF-TCNQ donor-acceptor system.

  6. Work function of elemental metals and its face dependence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics. Journal Home ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Work function of elemental metals and its face dependence: Stabilized Jellium approach.

  7. Vitamin C Status and Cognitive Function: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travica, Nikolaj; Ried, Karin; Sali, Avni; Scholey, Andrew; Hudson, Irene; Pipingas, Andrew

    2017-08-30

    Vitamin C plays a role in neuronal differentiation, maturation, myelin formation and modulation of the cholinergic, catecholinergic, and glutaminergic systems. This review evaluates the link between vitamin C status and cognitive performance, in both cognitively intact and impaired individuals. We searched the PUBMED, SCOPUS, SciSearch and the Cochrane Library from 1980 to January 2017, finding 50 studies, with randomised controlled trials (RCTs, n = 5), prospective (n = 24), cross-sectional (n = 17) and case-control (n = 4) studies. Of these, 36 studies were conducted in healthy participants and 14 on cognitively impaired individuals (including Alzheimer's and dementia). Vitamin C status was measured using food frequency questionnaires or plasma vitamin C. Cognition was assessed using a variety of tests, mostly the Mini-Mental-State-Examination (MMSE). In summary, studies demonstrated higher mean vitamin C concentrations in the cognitively intact groups of participants compared to cognitively impaired groups. No correlation between vitamin C concentrations and MMSE cognitive function was apparent in the cognitively impaired individuals. The MMSE was not suitable to detect a variance in cognition in the healthy group. Analysis of the studies that used a variety of cognitive assessments in the cognitively intact was beyond the scope of this review; however, qualitative assessment revealed a potential association between plasma vitamin C concentrations and cognition. Due to a number of limitations in these studies, further research is needed, utilizing plasma vitamin C concentrations and sensitive cognitive assessments that are suitable for cognitively intact adults.

  8. Oral mucosal status and major salivary gland function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, A.; Fox, P.C.; Ship, J.A.; Atkinson, J.C.; Macynski, A.A.; Baum, B.J. (National Institute of Dental Research, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1990-07-01

    Normal salivary function is considered to be critical for the maintenance of healthy oral mucosa. However, few studies have examined mucosal changes in patients with objectively documented salivary gland performance. In the present report, the mucosal status of 298 subjects being evaluated in a dry mouth clinic was assessed. A complete oral examination was performed and unstimulated and stimulated salivary samples were collected separately from the parotid and submandibular/sublingual glands. Data were analyzed according to diagnosis and salivary output after the assignment of an oral mucosal rating to each subject. In general, the mucosal surfaces were well preserved and infections were not seen. Patients evaluated for Sjoegren's syndrome and radiation-induced xerostomia had the lowest salivary gland performance but displayed a mucosal status similar to denture-wearing healthy subjects or patients with normal salivary flow who had idiopathic xerostomia. However, those patients with a total lack of salivary flow rarely had normal-appearing oral mucosa. These results confirm a role for saliva in oral mucosal preservation and also suggest that other factors may act to maintain oral mucosal integrity.

  9. State dependent matrices and balanced energy functions for nonlinear systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.; Gray, W. Steven

    2000-01-01

    The nonlinear extension of the balancing procedure requires the case of state dependent quadratic forms for the energy functions, i.e., the nonlinear extensions of the linear Gramians are state dependent matrices. These extensions have some interesting ambiguities that do not occur in the linear cas

  10. Heart valve surgery in hemodialysis-dependent patients: nutrition status impact on surgical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahito, Koji; Aizawa, Kei; Oki, Shinichi; Saito, Tsutomu; Misawa, Yoshio

    2016-06-01

    Valve surgery in hemodialysis-dependent patients is associated with postoperative complications and a high mortality rate, and such patients frequently suffer cachexia. This study aimed to determine pre- and intraoperative risk factors associated with in-hospital mortality and long-term survival in hemodialysis-dependent patients undergoing heart valve surgery from the viewpoint of nutrition status. Eighty-seven hemodialysis-dependent patients who underwent valve surgery between January 1998 and October 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Thirty-seven potential perioperative risk factors were evaluated. The in-hospital mortality rate was 12.6 % (11 patients). Univariate analysis identified New York Heart Association Functional Classification III or IV, emaciation (body mass index 3000 ml as predictors of in-hospital death. Multivariate logistic regression analysis confirmed low serum albumin <3.0 mg/dl (hazard ratio 7.22; p = 0.032) and emergent/urgent operation (hazard ratio 43.57; p = 0.035) as independent predictors of in-hospital death. The 1- and 3-year actuarial survival rates were 64.9 ± 5.4 and 51.8 ± 5.8 %, respectively. Long-term survival estimated by log-rank test was negatively impacted by anemia (hemoglobin <10 mg/dl), low serum albumin, emergent/urgent operation, and infective endocarditis. Multivariate analysis using Cox proportional hazards modeling indicated low serum albumin (hazard ratio 2.12; p = 0.047) and emergent/urgent operation (hazard ratio 8.97; p = 0.0002) as independent predictors of remote death. Hypoalbuminemia and emergent/urgent operation are strong predictors of in-hospital and remote death. Malnutrition before surgery should be considered for operative risk estimation, and adequate preoperative nutrition management may improve surgical outcomes for hemodialysis-dependent patients.

  11. A Study of Daily Living Dependency Status among Elderly in an Urban Slum area of Dehradun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Ohri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Population aging is observed world-wide. As per Census 2011, elderly constitutes 7.4% population of India. It is expected to increase to 20% in 2050. This segment of population faces multiple medical and psychological problems. To address and solve these problems great effort from the country and the community is required. Objective: To assess the daily living dependency status among elderly. Method:  A cross sectional study was conducted in Dehradun, among 215 elderly people, using a pre-structured questionnaire. Their activities of daily living (ADL and Instrumental activities of daily living (IADL were recorded by observation and interviewing them with their families. Results: Out of total, 93% individuals were independent in their ADLs, with more dependence in the very old elderly. Maximum inability was found in Bathing and dressing. 70.7% elderly were dependent on one or more IADLs, female elderly being more dependent than male (p<0.05. However there was no significant difference of dependence in the male and female elderly in performing ADLs. Education and socio-economic status had a positive effect on independence in IADLs. Among all IADLs male elderly showed a maximum dependency for cooking and laundry while females showed a greater dependency in using telephone, managing money and travelling.

  12. FUNCTIONAL STATUS IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE BEING TREATED WITH HEMODIALYSIS IN PKU MUHAMMADIYAH HOSPITAL, YOGYAKARTA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adiyati Mardiyah

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hemodialysis process is useful for patients with end-stage renal disease. However, this is a situation of abject dependence on a machine, a procedure and a group of qualified medical professionals for the rest of their lives that may influence their functional status. Objective: This study aims to describe the functional status of patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing hemodialysis. Method: This was a descriptive study with cross-sectional design, which conducted in the PKU Muhammadiyah Hospital Yogyakarta on March 2017. There were 78 patients selected using purposive sampling. Functional status was measured using SF-36 questionnaire. Descriptive statistic was performed for data analysis Result:. The total average of functional status level was 42.92, with Physical Component Scale (PCS of 42.31 and Mental Component Scale (MCS of 45.78. Conclusion: There were functional deficiencies in both physical and mental status in patients with CKD undergoing hemodialysis. Thus, it is suggested that pharmacological management of these patients need stringent monitoring on part of the psychiatrist to deal with mental health problems, and the interdisciplinary team need to do great efforts to improve functional status and quality of life of patients with CKD.

  13. From networks of protein interactions to networks of functional dependencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciani Davide

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As protein-protein interactions connect proteins that participate in either the same or different functions, networks of interacting and functionally annotated proteins can be converted into process graphs of inter-dependent function nodes (each node corresponding to interacting proteins with the same functional annotation. However, as proteins have multiple annotations, the process graph is non-redundant, if only proteins participating directly in a given function are included in the related function node. Results Reasoning that topological features (e.g., clusters of highly inter-connected proteins might help approaching structured and non-redundant understanding of molecular function, an algorithm was developed that prioritizes inclusion of proteins into the function nodes that best overlap protein clusters. Specifically, the algorithm identifies function nodes (and their mutual relations, based on the topological analysis of a protein interaction network, which can be related to various biological domains, such as cellular components (e.g., peroxisome and cellular bud or biological processes (e.g., cell budding of the model organism S. cerevisiae. Conclusions The method we have described allows converting a protein interaction network into a non-redundant process graph of inter-dependent function nodes. The examples we have described show that the resulting graph allows researchers to formulate testable hypotheses about dependencies among functions and the underlying mechanisms.

  14. Predicting cognitive function from clinical measures of physical function and health status in older adults.

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    Niousha Bolandzadeh

    Full Text Available Current research suggests that the neuropathology of dementia-including brain changes leading to memory impairment and cognitive decline-is evident years before the onset of this disease. Older adults with cognitive decline have reduced functional independence and quality of life, and are at greater risk for developing dementia. Therefore, identifying biomarkers that can be easily assessed within the clinical setting and predict cognitive decline is important. Early recognition of cognitive decline could promote timely implementation of preventive strategies.We included 89 community-dwelling adults aged 70 years and older in our study, and collected 32 measures of physical function, health status and cognitive function at baseline. We utilized an L1-L2 regularized regression model (elastic net to identify which of the 32 baseline measures were strongly predictive of cognitive function after one year. We built three linear regression models: 1 based on baseline cognitive function, 2 based on variables consistently selected in every cross-validation loop, and 3 a full model based on all the 32 variables. Each of these models was carefully tested with nested cross-validation.Our model with the six variables consistently selected in every cross-validation loop had a mean squared prediction error of 7.47. This number was smaller than that of the full model (115.33 and the model with baseline cognitive function (7.98. Our model explained 47% of the variance in cognitive function after one year.We built a parsimonious model based on a selected set of six physical function and health status measures strongly predictive of cognitive function after one year. In addition to reducing the complexity of the model without changing the model significantly, our model with the top variables improved the mean prediction error and R-squared. These six physical function and health status measures can be easily implemented in a clinical setting.

  15. Executive Functions in Tobacco Dependence: Importance of Inhibitory Capacities.

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    Valentin Flaudias

    Full Text Available Executive functions are linked to tobacco dependence and craving. In this cross-sectional study, we assessed the impact of three executive functions: updating, inhibition and shifting processes on tobacco craving and dependence.134 tobacco consumers were included in this study: 81 moderately (Fagerström score 7. Dependence was assessed with the Fagerström test and craving with the tobacco craving questionnaire (TCQ 12. We used the Stroop test and the Hayling test to measure inhibition, the Trail Making Test to measure shifting processes and the n-back test to measure updating processes. A multivariate logistic model was used to assess which variables explained best the level of nicotine dependence.Inhibition (p = 0.002 and updating (p = 0.014 processes, but not shifting processes, were associated with higher tobacco dependence. Inhibition capacity had a significant effect on the nicotine dependence level independently of age, education, time since last cigarette, intellectual quotient, craving, updating and shifting process.Nicotine dependence level seems better explained by inhibition capacities than by craving and updating effects. The capacity to inhibit our behaviours is a good predictor of the severity of tobacco dependence. Our results suggest a prefrontal cortex dysfunction affecting the inhibitory capacities of heavy tobacco dependent smokers. Further studies are needed to investigate the application of these findings in the treatment of tobacco dependence.

  16. Social status, glucocorticoids, immune function, and health: can animal studies help us understand human socioeconomic-status-related health disparities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavigelli, Sonia A; Chaudhry, Hashim S

    2012-08-01

    For humans in developed nations, socioeconomic status (SES)--relative income, education and occupational position in a society--is a strong predictor of morbidity and mortality rates, with increasing SES predicting longer life span (e.g. Marmot et al., 1991). Mechanisms underlying this relationship have been examined, but the relative role of each mechanism still remains unknown. By understanding the relative role of specific mechanisms that underlie dramatic health disparities between high and low social status individuals we can begin to identify effective, targeted methods to alleviate health disparities. In the current paper, we take advantage of a growing number of animal studies that have quantified biological health-related correlates (glucocorticoid production and immune function) of social status and compare these studies to the current literature on human SES and health to determine if and how animal studies can further our understanding of SES-associated human health disparities. Specifically, we compared social-status related glucocorticoid production and immune function in humans and animals. From the review, we show that our present understanding of the relationships between social status and glucocorticoid production/immune function is still growing, but that there are already identifiable parallels (and non-parallels) between humans and animals. We propose timely areas of future study focused on (1) specific aspects of social status that may influence stress-related physiology, (2) mechanisms underlying long-term influences of social status on physiology and health, and (3) intervention studies to alleviate potentially negative physiological correlates of social status.

  17. Intergroup differentiation: stereotyping as a function of status hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, N; Rae, C

    2001-06-01

    The authors explored how negative intergroup comparisons affect intergroup differentiation. More specifically, they tested the prediction that the in-group's negative intergroup comparisons with a high-status group would result in more negative stereotyping of a lower status out-group. The authors elicited stereotypes of a lower status university in 2 conditions. In the 1st, the participants judged only the middle-ranking university in-group and a lower status university. In the 2nd, those judgments followed comparison with a higher status university. In the 2nd condition, there was an increased differentiation between the in-group and the lower status out-group because of the more negative stereotyping of the lower status out-group. This evidence of intergroup differentiation was found only on the dimension judged most important and along which the in-group was negatively compared with the higher status group.

  18. The effect of functional status of the ovaries on the embryological results of controlled ovarian hyperstimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Mrugacz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Controlled ovarian hyperstimulation is an integral part of infertility treatment. Despite many years of use, some aspects of controlled ovarian stimulation have not yet been clarified, especially the role of the functional status of the ovaries before hormonal stimulation. Aim of the research: To assess the effect of the functional status of the ovaries on the embryological results of controlled ovarian hyperstimulation. Material and methods: The retrospective study included female patients treated for infertility. The patients were divided into two groups depending on the ultrasonographic appearance of the ovaries before controlled ovarian hyperstimulation. Patients with small antral follicles 0.05. The numbers of A, C, D quality embryos were comparable between the groups (p > 0.05. There were more B quality embryos in group I than II (p > 0.05. The embryo growth rate was significantly faster in group I than II. Conclusions: The results of the present study indicate that the functional status of the ovaries before controlled ovarian hyperstimulation plays a pivotal role in treatment outcome.

  19. Sensitive Dependence of Mental Function on Prefrontal Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Alen J Salerian

    2015-01-01

    This study offers evidence to suggest that both normalcy and psychiatric illness are sensitively dependent upon prefrontal cortex function. In general, the emergence of psychiatric symptoms coincide with diminished influence of prefrontal cortex function. The mediating influence of prefrontal cortex may be independent of molecular and regional brain dysfunctions contributory to psychiatric illness.

  20. Survivability Specification Framework for Dependability- Functionality Codesign of ERTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Yong-xian

    2005-01-01

    In order to maintain the dependability of system and meet the functional need of users desire, this paper introduces a survivability mechanism into embedded real-time system, and proposes a general comprehensive approach based on a rigorous definition of survivability. This approach permits a trade-off between the function and the cost of system development. It emphasizes the ultradependable implementation of crucial function without demanding that of entire system.

  1. Comparison of estrogenic responses in bone and uterus depending on the parity status in Lewis rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiler, Annekathrin Martina; Bernhardt, Ricardo; Scharnweber, Dieter; Jarry, Hubertus; Vollmer, Günter; Zierau, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    The reproductive transition of women through peri- to postmenopause is characterized by changes in steroid hormone levels due to the cessation of the ovarian function. Beside several complaints associated with these hormonal changes, the deterioration of the trabecular bone micro-architecture and the loss of skeletal mass can cause osteoporosis. At this life stage, women often have a reproductive history of one to several pregnancies. The ovariectomized skeletally mature rat (>10 months old) is one of the most commonly used animal models for postmenopausal osteoporosis research. Despite the fact that mammals can undergo up to several reproductive cycles (primi-/pluriparous), nulliparous animals are often used and the question whether changes in the hormonal milieu subsequently affect the skeleton and influence the outcome of intervention studies is often neglected in study designs. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to compare the estrogen responsiveness of nulliparous and pluriparous rats. For this purpose, one year old virgin or retired breeder Lewis rats were either sham operated or ovariectomized, whereas half of the ovariectomized animals received subcutaneous 17β-estradiol pellets eight weeks after surgery. After another four weeks, the effects on the uterus were determined by expression analysis of estrogen-dependently regulated steroid receptor genes and well-established marker genes. Moreover, trabecular bone parameters in the tibia were analyzed by micro-computed tomography (μCT). Parity-dependency in estrogen responsiveness was observed with respect to the achieved serum E2 levels in response to similar E2 treatment. This led to differences both on the uterus wet weight and on the expression level of uterine target genes. In addition, a reversal of the ovariectomy-induced changes of the bone architecture after 17β-estradiol substitution was only observed among the nulliparous. In conclusion, the observations of this study support parity-dependent

  2. Measuring developmental and functional status in children with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottenbacher, K J; Msall, M E; Lyon, N; Duffy, L C; Granger, C V; Braun, S

    1999-03-01

    This study compared performance on the Functional Independence Measure for Children (WeeFIM), the Battelle Developmental Inventory Screening Test (BDIST), and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) in children with developmental disabilities. The three instruments were administered to 205 children with identified disabilities. All 205 children were tested using the WeeFIM instrument. The BDIST was administered to 101 children and the VABS to the remaining 104 children. Administration was counterbalanced and randomized across all three instruments. A proportional sampling plan was used to select the 205 children, who ranged in age from 11 to 87 months. A variety of medical diagnoses and levels of severity of motor, cognitive, and communication impairments were systematically included in the sample. Correlations (r) among subscales for all three instruments ranged from 0.42 to 0.92. Correlations for total scores ranged from 0.72 to 0.94. Analyses of potential moderator variables found no significant relation between age and severity of disability (r=0.05) or between socioeconomic status (SES) and severity of disability (r=0.21). Correlations with age were strongest for those subscale scores involving gross and fine motor skills. Correlations with SES and subscale scores ranged from 0.03 to 0.18. The three instruments provide important information regarding childhood performance in motor, self-care, communicative, cognitive, and social skills. The WeeFIM instrument requires less administration time and provides information directly relevant to evaluating functional outcomes for children with disabilities and their families.

  3. Hemodynamics, functional state of endothelium and renal function, platelets depending on the body mass index in patients with chronic heart failure and preserved systolic function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kushnir Yu.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate hemodynamics, endothelium function of kidneys and platelets depending on the body mass index (BMI in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF and preserved systolic function. 42 patients (mean age - 76,690,83 years with CHF II-III FC NYHA with preserved systolic function (LVEF>45% were enrolled. Echocardiography was performed, endothelial function, serum creatinine levels and microalbuminuria were determined in patients. BMI and glomerulation filtration rate were calculated by formulas. The morphological and functional status of platelets was estimated by electronic microscopy. It was defined that increased BMI in patients with CHF and preserved systolic function determines the structural and functional changes of the myocardium and leads to the endothelial and renal functional changes. An increased risk of thrombogenesis was established in patients with overweight and obesity.

  4. The functional status of the professional football players during functional testing procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlichenko P.P.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the investigation was the analysis of the functional status of professional football players during the special functional testing procedure (shuttle test. We used different testing methods such as an ergometry, gas analyzing, pulsemetry, and biochemical blood lactate level measuring for checking up physical conditioning. The technique “PHAZAGRAF” was used for assessment of the functional status of players by measuring the ІТ -index of symmetry of T-wave in standard ECG and for testing of vegetative system tonus. We used mathematic methods for data processing. The test of physical readiness showed 11 players with high level capacity to aerobic work with the result of more than 885 seconds. Low result was fixed when the player`s run-time was less than 820 seconds. The findings showed that functional status failures are attendant with ІТ -increasing and lowering of total aerobic readiness. This is revealed in lowering of the maximum oxygen consumption that showed lowering of total aerobic capacity. There was also found that increasing of the standard deviation of ІТ -index could accompany lowering of the running time in the shuttle test. Therewith, vegetative tonus failures in the form of prevailing of sympathetic system activity are not obligatory followed with failures of special or total capacity to work.

  5. Is Rab25 a tumor promoter or suppressor--context dependency on RCP status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Bor Luen

    2010-08-01

    Conflicting reports in the literature suggest that Rab25 could either be a context dependent promoter or suppressor of tumorigenesis. We hypothesized that whether Rab25 acts as a promoter or suppressor in tumor progression depends on the expression status of its effector, the Rab coupling protein (RCP). An elevated expression of RCP resulting from genomic amplification may enhance Rab25's tumor progression activity. Elevation of Rab25 alone may sequester endogenous RCP, and attenuates its activating effect on other oncogenic products, such as mutant Ras.

  6. Parametric dependence of ocean wave-radar modulation transfer functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, W. J.; Keller, W. C.; Cross, A.

    1983-01-01

    Microwave techniques at X and L band were used to determine the dependence of ocean-wave radar modulation transfer functions (MTFs) on various environmental and radar parameters during the Marine Remote Sensing experiment of 1979 (MARSEN 79). These MIF are presented, as are coherence functions between the AM and FM parts of the backscattered microwave signal. It is shown that they both depend on several of these parameters. Besides confirming many of the properties of transfer functions reported by previous authors, indications are found that MTFs decrease with increasing angle between wave propagation and antenna-look directions but are essentially independent of small changes in air-sea temperature difference. However, coherence functions are much smaller when the antennas are pointed perpendicular to long waves. It is found that X band transfer functions measured with horizontally polarized microwave radiation have larger magnitudes than those obtained by using vertical polarization.

  7. Energy Dependence of String Fragmentation Function and φ Meson Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SA Ben-Hao; CAI Xu; Chinorat Kobdaj; WANG Zhong-Qi; YAN Yu-Peng; ZHOU Dai-Mei

    2004-01-01

    The φ meson productions in A u+A u and/or P b+Pb collisions at AGS, SPS, RHIC, and LHC energies have been studied systematically with a hadron and string cascade model LUCIAE.After considering the energy dependence of the model parameter α in string fragmentation function and adjusting it to the experimental data of charged multiplicity to a certain extent, the model predictions for φ meson yield, rapidity, and transverse mass distributions are compatible with the experimental data at AGS, SPS and RHIC energies. A calculation for Pb+Pb collisions at LHC energy is given as well. The obtained fractional variable in string fragmentation function shows a saturation in energy dependence. It is discussed that the saturation of fractional variable in string fragmentation function might be a qualitative representation of the energy dependence of nuclear transparency.

  8. Exact response functions within the time-dependent Gutzwiller approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bünemann, J.; Wasner, S.; Oelsen, E. v.; Seibold, G.

    2015-02-01

    We investigate the applicability of the two existing versions of a time-dependent Gutzwiller approach (TDGA) beyond the frequently used limit of infinite spatial dimensions. To this end, we study the two-particle response functions of a two-site Hubbard model where we can compare the exact results and those derived from the TDGA. It turns out that only the more recently introduced version of the TDGA can be combined with a diagrammatic approach which allows for the evaluation of Gutzwiller wave functions in finite dimensions. For this TDGA method, we derive the time-dependent Lagrangian for general single-band Hubbard models.

  9. The transverse momentum dependent distribution functions in the bag model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avakian, Harut; Efremov, Anatoly; Schweitzer, Peter; Yuan, Feng

    2010-01-29

    Leading and subleading twist transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions (TMDs) are studied in a quark model framework provided by the bag model. A complete set of relations among different TMDs is derived, and the question is discussed how model-(in)dependent such relations are. A connection of the pretzelosity distribution and quark orbital angular momentum is derived. Numerical results are presented, and applications for phenomenology discussed. In particular, it is shown that in the valence-x region the bag model supports a Gaussian Ansatz for the transverse momentum dependence of TMDs.

  10. Transverse momentum dependent distribution functions in the bag model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avakian, Harut A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Efremov, A. V. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation); Schweitzer, P. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Yuan, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). RIKEN Research Center; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Leading and subleading twist transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions (TMDs) are studied in a quark model framework provided by the bag model. A complete set of relations among different TMDs is derived, and the question is discussed how model-(in)dependent such relations are. A connection of the pretzelosity distribution and quark orbital angular momentum is derived. Numerical results are presented, and applications for phenomenology discussed. In particular, it is shown that in the valence-x region the bag model supports a Gaussian Ansatz for the transverse momentum dependence of TMDs.

  11. Nutrient intake, nutritional status, and cognitive function with aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Katherine L

    2016-03-01

    With the demographic aging of populations worldwide, diseases associated with aging are becoming more prevalent and costly to individuals, families, and healthcare systems. Among aging-related impairments, a decline in cognitive function is of particular concern, as it erodes memory and processing abilities and eventually leads to the need for institutionalized care. Accumulating evidence suggests that nutritional status is a key factor in the loss of cognitive abilities with aging. This is of tremendous importance, as dietary intake is a modifiable risk factor that can be improved to help reduce the burden of cognitive impairment. With respect to nutrients, there is evidence to support the critical role of several B vitamins in particular, but also of vitamin D, antioxidant vitamins (including vitamin E), and omega-3 fatty acids, which are preferentially taken up by brain tissue. On the other hand, high intakes of nutrients that contribute to hypertension, atherosclerosis, and poor glycemic control may have negative effects on cognition through these conditions. Collectively, the evidence suggests that considerable slowing and reduction of cognitive decline may be achieved by following a healthy dietary pattern, which limits intake of added sugars, while maximizing intakes of fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts, and seeds.

  12. Time-dependent density functional theory: Causality and other problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruggenthaler, Michael; Bauer, Dieter [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) is a reformulation of the time dependent many-body problem in quantum mechanics which is capable of reducing the computational cost to calculate, e.g., strongly driven many-electron systems enormously. Recent developments were able to overcome fundamental problems associated with ionization processes. Still vital issues have to be clarified. Besides the construction of the underlying functionals we investigate the causality problem of TDDFT by general considerations and by studying a exactly solvable system of two correlated electrons in an intense laser-pulse. For the latter system, the two alternative approaches to the construction of the action functional or a constrained functional derivative by van Leeuwen and Gal, respectively, are explored.

  13. Berberine regulates neurite outgrowth through AMPK-dependent pathways by lowering energy status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jiaqi; Cao, Yuanzhao; Cheng, Kuoyuan; Xu, Bo; Wang, Tianchang; Yang, Qi; Yang, Qin [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, Department of Chemical Biology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Feng, Xudong, E-mail: xudong.feng@childrens.harvard.edu [Department of Medicine, Children' s Hospital Boston, Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Ave, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Xia, Qing, E-mail: xqing@hsc.pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, Department of Chemical Biology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China)

    2015-06-10

    As a widely used anti-bacterial agent and a metabolic inhibitor as well as AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator, berberine (BBR) has been shown to cross the blood–brain barrier. Its efficacy has been investigated in various disease models of the central nervous system. Neurite outgrowth is critical for nervous system development and is a highly energy-dependent process regulated by AMPK-related pathways. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of BBR on AMPK activation and neurite outgrowth in neurons. The neurite outgrowth of primary rat cortical neurons at different stages of polarization was monitored after exposure of BBR. Intracellular energy level, AMPK activation and polarity-related pathways were also inspected. The results showed that BBR suppressed neurite outgrowth and affected cytoskeleton stability in the early stages of neuronal polarization, which was mediated by lowered energy status and AMPK activation. Liver kinase B1 and PI3K–Akt–GSK3β signaling pathways were also involved. In addition, mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum stress contributed to the lowered energy status induced by BBR. This study highlighted the knowledge of the complex activities of BBR in neurons and corroborated the significance of energy status during the neuronal polarization. - Highlights: • BBR inhibited neurite outgrowth in early stages of neuronal development. • Lowered neuronal energy status was induced by BBR treatment. • Neuronal energy stress induced by BBR activated AMPK-related pathways. • BBR induced mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum stress.

  14. Social status-dependent modulation of LG-flip habituation in the crayfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Makoto; Hasegawa, Takuya; Komatsuda, Shohei; Nagayama, Toshiki

    2013-02-15

    Strong stimuli applied to the tailfan of the crayfish Procambarus clarkii evoked lateral giant interneurone (LG)-mediated tailflips. When the sensory stimulus was applied repeatedly, the response of the LG habituated until it failed to give rise to a spike. We found that this LG-flip habituation was dependent on social status. With a short interstimulus interval of 5 s, the rate of habituation of the LG in both socially dominant and subordinate crayfish was lower than that in socially isolated animals. By contrast, with a long interstimulus interval of 60 s, the rate of habituation of subordinate animals was lower than that of both socially isolated and dominant animals. The excitability of the LGs following habituation was also dependent on social status. Following habituation, the spike response of LGs recovered within several minutes; however, they showed significant depression with a decrease in excitability. With a 5 or 60 s interstimulus interval, subordinate animals showed longer delays of depression compared with dominant animals. A decrease in the rate of habituation and a delay of depression in subordinate crayfish would be advantageous for maintaining an active escape response to evade repeated attacks of dominant animals and a reduced learning ability to adapt to social status.

  15. Significance tests for functional data with complex dependence structure

    KAUST Repository

    Staicu, Ana-Maria

    2015-01-01

    We propose an L (2)-norm based global testing procedure for the null hypothesis that multiple group mean functions are equal, for functional data with complex dependence structure. Specifically, we consider the setting of functional data with a multilevel structure of the form groups-clusters or subjects-units, where the unit-level profiles are spatially correlated within the cluster, and the cluster-level data are independent. Orthogonal series expansions are used to approximate the group mean functions and the test statistic is estimated using the basis coefficients. The asymptotic null distribution of the test statistic is developed, under mild regularity conditions. To our knowledge this is the first work that studies hypothesis testing, when data have such complex multilevel functional and spatial structure. Two small-sample alternatives, including a novel block bootstrap for functional data, are proposed, and their performance is examined in simulation studies. The paper concludes with an illustration of a motivating experiment.

  16. Effective Maxwell Equations from Time-dependent Density Functional Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weinan E; Jianfeng LU; Xu YANG

    2011-01-01

    The behavior of interacting electrons in a perfect crystal under macroscopic external electric and magnetic fields is studied. Effective Maxwell equations for the macroscopic electric and magnetic fields are derived starting from time-dependent density functional theory. Effective permittivity and permeability coefficients are obtained.

  17. Bias-corrected estimation of stable tail dependence function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beirlant, Jan; Escobar-Bach, Mikael; Goegebeur, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    We consider the estimation of the stable tail dependence function. We propose a bias-corrected estimator and we establish its asymptotic behaviour under suitable assumptions. The finite sample performance of the proposed estimator is evaluated by means of an extensive simulation study where...

  18. Bias-corrected estimation of stable tail dependence function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beirlant, Jan; Escobar-Bach, Mikael; Goegebeur, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    We consider the estimation of the stable tail dependence function. We propose a bias-corrected estimator and we establish its asymptotic behaviour under suitable assumptions. The finite sample performance of the proposed estimator is evaluated by means of an extensive simulation study where...

  19. Cocaine dependence and thalamic functional connectivity: a multivariate pattern analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cocaine dependence is associated with deficits in cognitive control. Previous studies demonstrated that chronic cocaine use affects the activity and functional connectivity of the thalamus, a subcortical structure critical for cognitive functioning. However, the thalamus contains nuclei heterogeneous in functions, and it is not known how thalamic subregions contribute to cognitive dysfunctions in cocaine dependence. To address this issue, we used multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA to examine how functional connectivity of the thalamus distinguishes 100 cocaine-dependent participants (CD from 100 demographically matched healthy control individuals (HC. We characterized six task-related networks with independent component analysis of fMRI data of a stop signal task and employed MVPA to distinguish CD from HC on the basis of voxel-wise thalamic connectivity to the six independent components. In an unbiased model of distinct training and testing data, the analysis correctly classified 72% of subjects with leave-one-out cross-validation (p < 0.001, superior to comparison brain regions with similar voxel counts (p < 0.004, two-sample t test. Thalamic voxels that form the basis of classification aggregate in distinct subclusters, suggesting that connectivities of thalamic subnuclei distinguish CD from HC. Further, linear regressions provided suggestive evidence for a correlation of the thalamic connectivities with clinical variables and performance measures on the stop signal task. Together, these findings support thalamic circuit dysfunction in cognitive control as an important neural marker of cocaine dependence.

  20. Pay-as-you-go data integration using functional dependencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayat, N.; Afsarmanesh, H.; Akbarinia, R.; Valduriez, P.

    2012-01-01

    Setting up a full data integration system for many application contexts, e.g. web and scientific data management, requires significant human effort which prevents it from being really scalable. In this paper, we propose IFD (Integration based on Functional Dependencies), a pay-as-you-go data integra

  1. Multicomponent density-functional theory for time-dependent systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butriy, O.; Ebadi, H.; de Boeij, P. L.; van Leeuwen, R.; Gross, E. K. U.

    2007-01-01

    We derive the basic formalism of density functional theory for time-dependent electron-nuclear systems. The basic variables of this theory are the electron density in body-fixed frame coordinates and the diagonal of the nuclear N-body density matrix. The body-fixed frame transformation is carried ou

  2. Linear-response thermal time-dependent density functional theory

    CERN Document Server

    Pribram-Jones, Aurora; Burke, Kieron

    2015-01-01

    The van Leeuwen proof of linear-response time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) is generalized to thermal ensembles. This allows generalization to finite temperatures of the Gross-Kohn relation, the exchange-correlation kernel of TDDFT, and fluctuation dissipation theorem for DFT. This produces a natural method for generating new thermal exchange-correlation (XC) approximations.

  3. Metabolic plasticity during mammalian development is directionally dependent on early nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluckman, Peter D; Lillycrop, Karen A; Vickers, Mark H; Pleasants, Anthony B; Phillips, Emma S; Beedle, Alan S; Burdge, Graham C; Hanson, Mark A

    2007-07-31

    Developmental plasticity in response to environmental cues can take the form of polyphenism, as for the discrete morphs of some insects, or of an apparently continuous spectrum of phenotype, as for most mammalian traits. The metabolic phenotype of adult rats, including the propensity to obesity, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperphagia, shows plasticity in response to prenatal nutrition and to neonatal administration of the adipokine leptin. Here, we report that the effects of neonatal leptin on hepatic gene expression and epigenetic status in adulthood are directionally dependent on the animal's nutritional status in utero. These results demonstrate that, during mammalian development, the direction of the response to one cue can be determined by previous exposure to another, suggesting the potential for a discontinuous distribution of environmentally induced phenotypes, analogous to the phenomenon of polyphenism.

  4. Perspective: Fundamental aspects of time-dependent density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitra, Neepa T.

    2016-06-01

    In the thirty-two years since the birth of the foundational theorems, time-dependent density functional theory has had a tremendous impact on calculations of electronic spectra and dynamics in chemistry, biology, solid-state physics, and materials science. Alongside the wide-ranging applications, there has been much progress in understanding fundamental aspects of the functionals and the theory itself. This Perspective looks back to some of these developments, reports on some recent progress and current challenges for functionals, and speculates on future directions to improve the accuracy of approximations used in this relatively young theory.

  5. Density-functional perturbation theory goes time-dependent

    OpenAIRE

    Gebauer, Ralph; Rocca, Dario; Baroni, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    The scope of time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) is limited to the lowest portion of the spectrum of rather small systems (a few tens of atoms at most). In the static regime, density-functional perturbation theory (DFPT) allows one to calculate response functions of systems as large as currently dealt with in ground-state simulations. In this paper we present an effective way of combining DFPT with TDDFT. The dynamical polarizability is first expressed as an off-diagonal matrix e...

  6. Identifying microproduction inaccuracies with Knudsen number depending correction functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groll, R.; Gomez, J.

    2016-11-01

    The pressure drop of a transonic Laval nozzle depends on the rarefaction of the gas flow. So relative deviations of the numerical data are a measure for describing the influence of the rarefaction of the gas flow. This deviation is predicted by using a second-order modeling approximation for the Knudsen number depending correction function in the slip-flow regime. The production accuracy is able to be read in these deviation functions because of a deviation from the analytical solutions of the slip-flow influence. With the usage of experimental data the correction function can be calibrated through elimination of the error resulting from the accuracy. The investigated case is a micronozzle flow with Knudsen numbers of slip-flow regime near the nozzle throat in vacuum environment. Compared gases are neon, argon, krypton and xenon.

  7. Functional-dependent and size-dependent uptake of nanoparticles in PC12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, N; Matsui, Y; Nakayama, A; Yoneda, M [Department of Environment Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, 4 Kyotodaigaku Katsura, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 6158540 (Japan); Tsuda, A, E-mail: sakai@risk.env.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2011-07-06

    It is suggested that the uptake of nanoparticles is changed by the particle size or the surface modification. In this study, we quantified the uptake of nanoparticles in PC12 cells exposed Quantum Dots with different surface modification or fluorescent polystyrene particles with different particle size. The PC12 cells were exposed three types of the Quantum Dots (carboxyl base-functionalized, amino base-functionalized or non-base-functionalized) or three types of the fluorescent particles (22 nm, 100 nm or 1000 nm) for 3 hours. The uptake of the nanoparticles was quantified with a spectrofluorophotometer. The carboxyl base-functionalized Quantum Dots were considerably taken up by the cells than the non-base-functionalized Quantum Dots. Conversely, the amino base-functionalized Quantum Dots were taken up by the cells less frequently than the non-base-functionalized Quantum Dots. The particle number of the 22 nm-nanoparticles taken up by the cells was about 53 times higher than the 100 nm-particles. However, the particle weight of the 100 nm-particles taken up by the cells was higher than that of the 22 nm-nanoparticles. The 1000 nm-particles were adhered to the cell membrane, but they were little taken up by the cells. We concluded that nanoparticles can be taken up nerve cells in functional-dependent and size-dependent manners.

  8. Exploration of a modified density dependence in the Skyrme functional

    CERN Document Server

    Erler, J; Reinhard, P -G

    2010-01-01

    A variant of the basic Skyrme-Hartree-Fock (SHF) functional is considered dealing with a new form of density dependence. It employs only integer powers and thus will allow a more sound basis for projection schemes (particle number, angular momentum). We optimize the new functional with exactly the same adjustment strategy as used in an earlier study with a standard Skyrme functional. This allows direct comparisons of the performance of the new functional relative to the standard one. We discuss various observables: bulk properties of finite nuclei, nuclear matter, giant resonances, super-heavy elements, and energy systematics. The new functional performs at least as well as the standard one, but offers a wider range of applicability (e.g. for projection) and more flexibility in the regime of high densities.

  9. [Frequency, diagnosis and dependance of duodenitis upon the morphological status of the gastric mucosa (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinidis, T; Wagner, P K

    1978-08-01

    In a attempt to prove the dependence of duodenitis upon the morphological status of the gastric mucosa, a biopsy of the corpus, antrum, and duodenal canal had been made of 354 patients. In 56 cases, a superficial duodenitis was histologically verified; however, this infection had not contaminated the Brunner' glands. A duodenitis was found to be more often associated with surface gastritis of the corpus and antrum than it was with atropic gastritis. A duodenitis was discovered by a biopsy in 16 patients possessing a normal antrum mucosa and in 25 patients having a normal corpus mucosa, thus proving the possibility of isolated duodenitis.

  10. Pain, functional status, social function and conditions of habitation in elderly unilaterally lower limb amputees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurović Aleksandar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Few authors are involved in home rehabilitation of amputees or their reintegration into the community. It has been remarked that there is a discontinuity between the phases of the amputee rehabilitation in Serbia. The aim of the study was to establish pain characteristics and functional status of amputees two months after the amputation and to determine their social function and the conditions of their habitation. Methods. This prospective observation study involved 38 elderly amputees with unilateral lower limb amputations. The patients were tested at the hospital on discharge and at their homes two months after the amputation. Pain intensity and functional status were measured by a visual analogue scale (VAS and by Functional Independence Measure (FIM. The patients’ social function was assessed using the Social Dysfunction Rating Scale (SDRS and conditions of their habitation by the self-created Scale of Conditions of Habitation (SCH. In statistic analysis we used the Student t test, χ2 test and Analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results. The majority of patients (63% underwent below knee amputation caused by diabetes (89%. A significant number of patients (84%, χ2 = 17.78; p < 0.01 was not visited by a physiotherapist nor an occupational therapist during two months at home. In this period, the majority of the amputees (68% had phantom pain or residual limb pain (21%. Two months after amputation the pain intensity was significantly lower (VAS = 4.07±2.19; 2.34±1.41; p < 0.001, and the functional status significantly better than on discharge (FIM = 75.13±16.52; 87.87±16.48; p < 0.001. The amputees had the average level of social dysfunction (SDRS = 62.00±11.68 and conditions of habitation (SCH = 7.81±1.97. Conclusion. A total 38 elderly amputees with unilateral lower limb amputations achieved significant functional improvement and reduction of pain, in spite of their social dysfunction, the absence of socio-medical support

  11. Direction-dependent learning approach for radial basis function networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Puneet; Subbarao, Kamesh; Junkins, John L

    2007-01-01

    Direction-dependent scaling, shaping, and rotation of Gaussian basis functions are introduced for maximal trend sensing with minimal parameter representations for input output approximation. It is shown that shaping and rotation of the radial basis functions helps in reducing the total number of function units required to approximate any given input-output data, while improving accuracy. Several alternate formulations that enforce minimal parameterization of the most general radial basis functions are presented. A novel "directed graph" based algorithm is introduced to facilitate intelligent direction based learning and adaptation of the parameters appearing in the radial basis function network. Further, a parameter estimation algorithm is incorporated to establish starting estimates for the model parameters using multiple windows of the input-output data. The efficacy of direction-dependent shaping and rotation in function approximation is evaluated by modifying the minimal resource allocating network and considering different test examples. The examples are drawn from recent literature to benchmark the new algorithm versus existing methods.

  12. Negative symptoms mediate the influence of theory of mind on functional status in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Urvakhsh Meherwan; Thirthalli, Jagadisha; Kumar, Channaveerachari Naveen; Kumar, J Keshav; Gangadhar, Bangalore N

    2014-07-01

    We aimed to assess the relationship between social cognition, neurocognition, negative symptoms and functional status in a homogeneous schizophrenia patient group remitted from positive symptoms. Sixty patients underwent assessments of social and neurocognition dimensions recommended by expert panels. A blind rater assessed their functional status. Second order theory of mind (ToM) and negative symptoms had significant correlations with functional status. A bootstrapping analysis used to test for specific mediation models revealed that the effect of second order ToM on functioning was mediated by negative symptoms. Future studies should examine if targeted remediation of ToM improves negative symptoms and thus functioning.

  13. Functional status measurement in COPD : a review of available methods and their feasibility in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocks, Janwillem W. H.; Asijee, Guus M.; Tsiligianni, Ioanna G.; Kerstjens, Huib A. M.; van der Molen, Thys

    2011-01-01

    Aims: Guidelines advocate that improvement in functional status should be a major goal in COPD treatment. Many tools are available to assess aspects of functional status. This review aims to categorise systematically the available tools based on their construct (i.e. what the tool intends to measure

  14. Focal status epilepticus as atypical presentation of pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshii, Akira; Takeoka, Masanori; Kelly, Peter J; Krishnamoorthy, Kalpahty S

    2005-08-01

    Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy usually presents in the neonatal period or even in utero, is refractory to antiepileptic medications, and is treatable with lifelong administration of pyridoxine. The seizures are typically generalized tonic-clonic, although myoclonic seizures or infantile spasms have been described. We report an infant who presented at 5 months of age with a right-sided clonic seizure with fever. Subsequently, she had recurrent right focal or generalized seizures despite sequential treatment with various antiepileptic medications. At 7 months, she was hospitalized with status epilepticus, which was finally controlled with pyridoxine. After she became seizure free, she continued to have a strong left arm preference with mild weakness of the right arm and delayed language skill. Eventually, she outgrew these symptoms. This case illustrates that pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy, although rare, must be included in the differential diagnosis of focal seizures, especially when the seizures are refractory to traditional antiepileptic drugs.

  15. Comorbid functional shoulder pain and zolpidem dependence treated with pramipexole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhiraj Kandre

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pramipexole is a dopamine agonist with higher affinity for D3 receptors. Treatment with pramipexole in clinical conditions such as restless legs syndrome, fibromyalgia, and parkinsonism has been found to significantly improve measures of pain and sleep along with the other symptoms. There is no research data available that explores the usefulness of pramipexole in somatoform/functional pain syndromes. We report a case of a 65-year-old male with bilateral functional shoulder pain associated with insomnia and zolpidem dependence effectively treated with pramipexole.

  16. Time-dependent density-functional theory concepts and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ullrich, Carsten A

    2011-01-01

    Time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) describes the quantum dynamics of interacting electronic many-body systems formally exactly and in a practical and efficient manner. TDDFT has become the leading method for calculating excitation energies and optical properties of large molecules, with accuracies that rival traditional wave-function based methods, but at a fraction of the computational cost.This book is the first graduate-level text on the concepts and applications of TDDFT, including many examples and exercises, and extensive coverage of the literature. The book begins with a s

  17. Time-dependent density functional theory for quantum transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiao; Chen, GuanHua; Mo, Yan; Koo, SiuKong; Tian, Heng; Yam, ChiYung; Yan, YiJing

    2010-09-21

    Based on our earlier works [X. Zheng et al., Phys. Rev. B 75, 195127 (2007); J. S. Jin et al., J. Chem. Phys. 128, 234703 (2008)], we propose a rigorous and numerically convenient approach to simulate time-dependent quantum transport from first-principles. The proposed approach combines time-dependent density functional theory with quantum dissipation theory, and results in a useful tool for studying transient dynamics of electronic systems. Within the proposed exact theoretical framework, we construct a number of practical schemes for simulating realistic systems such as nanoscopic electronic devices. Computational cost of each scheme is analyzed, with the expected level of accuracy discussed. As a demonstration, a simulation based on the adiabatic wide-band limit approximation scheme is carried out to characterize the transient current response of a carbon nanotube based electronic device under time-dependent external voltages.

  18. Measuring spin-dependent structure functions at CEBAF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, A. [Universitaet Frankfurt (Germany)

    1994-04-01

    The author analyses whether CEBAF with a 10 GeV beam could contribute significantly to the understanding of spin-dependent deep-inelastic scattering as well as semi-inclusive reactions. The main advantage of CEBAF is the much better attainable statistics, its great disadvantage its comparably low energy, which limits the accessible x-range to about 0.15 to 0.7. Within these constraints CEBAF could provide (1) high precision data which would be very valuable to understand the Q{sup 2} dependence of the spin-dependent structure functions g{sub 1}(x) and G{sub 2}(x) and (2) the by far most precise determination of the third moments of g{sub 1}(x) and g{sub 2}(x) the latter of which the author argues to be related to a fundamental property of the nucleon.

  19. Time dependent density functional calculation of plasmon response in clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Feng(王锋); Zhang Feng-Shou(张丰收); Eric Suraud

    2003-01-01

    We have introduced a theoretical scheme for the efficient description of the optical response of a cluster based on the time-dependent density functional theory. The practical implementation is done by means of the fully fledged timedependent local density approximation scheme, which is solved directly in the time domain without any linearization.As an example we consider the simple Na2 cluster and compute its surface plasmon photoabsorption cross section, which is in good agreement with the experiments.

  20. Precision measurement of the neutron spin dependent structure functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolomensky, Y.G.

    1997-02-01

    In experiment E154 at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center the spin dependent structure function g{sub 1}{sup n} (x, Q{sup 2}) of the neutron was measured by scattering longitudinally polarized 48.3 GeV electrons off a longitudinally polarized {sup 3}He target. The high beam energy allowed the author to extend the kinematic coverage compared to the previous SLAC experiments to 0.014 {le} x {le} 0.7 with an average Q{sup 2} of 5 GeV{sup 2}. The author reports the integral of the spin dependent structure function in the measured range to be {integral}{sub 0.014}{sup 0.7} dx g{sub 1}{sup n}(x, 5 GeV{sup 2}) = {minus}0.036 {+-} 0.004(stat.) {+-} 0.005(syst.). The author observes relatively large values of g{sub 1}{sup n} at low x that call into question the reliability of data extrapolation to x {r_arrow} 0. Such divergent behavior disagrees with predictions of the conventional Regge theory, but is qualitatively explained by perturbative QCD. The author performs a Next-to-Leading Order perturbative QCD analysis of the world data on the nucleon spin dependent structure functions g{sub 1}{sup p} and g{sub 1}{sup n} paying careful attention to the experimental and theoretical uncertainties. Using the parameterizations of the helicity-dependent parton distributions obtained in the analysis, the author evolves the data to Q{sup 2} = 5 GeV{sup 2}, determines the first moments of the polarized structure functions of the proton and neutron, and finds agreement with the Bjorken sum rule.

  1. A comparison of dependence function estimators in multivariate extremes

    KAUST Repository

    Vettori, Sabrina

    2017-05-11

    Various nonparametric and parametric estimators of extremal dependence have been proposed in the literature. Nonparametric methods commonly suffer from the curse of dimensionality and have been mostly implemented in extreme-value studies up to three dimensions, whereas parametric models can tackle higher-dimensional settings. In this paper, we assess, through a vast and systematic simulation study, the performance of classical and recently proposed estimators in multivariate settings. In particular, we first investigate the performance of nonparametric methods and then compare them with classical parametric approaches under symmetric and asymmetric dependence structures within the commonly used logistic family. We also explore two different ways to make nonparametric estimators satisfy the necessary dependence function shape constraints, finding a general improvement in estimator performance either (i) by substituting the estimator with its greatest convex minorant, developing a computational tool to implement this method for dimensions $$D\\\\ge 2$$D≥2 or (ii) by projecting the estimator onto a subspace of dependence functions satisfying such constraints and taking advantage of Bernstein–Bézier polynomials. Implementing the convex minorant method leads to better estimator performance as the dimensionality increases.

  2. Charge transfer in time-dependent density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitra, Neepa T.

    2017-10-01

    Charge transfer plays a crucial role in many processes of interest in physics, chemistry, and bio-chemistry. In many applications the size of the systems involved calls for time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) to be used in their computational modeling, due to its unprecedented balance between accuracy and efficiency. However, although exact in principle, in practise approximations must be made for the exchange-correlation functional in this theory, and the standard functional approximations perform poorly for excitations which have a long-range charge-transfer component. Intense progress has been made in developing more sophisticated functionals for this problem, which we review. We point out an essential difference between the properties of the exchange-correlation kernel needed for an accurate description of charge-transfer between open-shell fragments and between closed-shell fragments. We then turn to charge-transfer dynamics, which, in contrast to the excitation problem, is a highly non-equilibrium, non-perturbative, process involving a transfer of one full electron in space. This turns out to be a much more challenging problem for TDDFT functionals. We describe dynamical step and peak features in the exact functional evolving over time, that are missing in the functionals currently used. The latter underestimate the amount of charge transferred and manifest a spurious shift in the charge transfer resonance position. We discuss some explicit examples.

  3. Nutritional status and its relationship with different dimensions of functional status in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Rodrigues FONSECA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate whether there is a relationship between nutritional status and limitations in activities of daily living in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted from July to December 2011 in Santa Catarina. Seventeen chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients [age (years = 67±8; forced expiratory volume in one second (% of the predicted value = 38.6±16.1; body mass index (kg/m2 = 24.7±5.4] underwent the assessments: pulmonary function (spirometry; functional status (London Chest Activity of Daily Living scale, physical activities in daily life, and Glittre ADL-Test; nutritional status (anthropometry and dual-energy X-Ray absorptiometry. Results: The total score of the London Chest Activity of Daily Living scale correlated with fat-free mass (r=-0.50; p=0.04 and lean mass (r=-0.50; p=0.04. The lying time in physical activities in daily life correlated with bone mineral content (r=-0.50; p=0.04. Nutricional status was not correlated with time spent on Glittre ADL-test. Conclusion: Variables that reflect muscle mass depletion are related to variables of self-reported limitation in activities of daily living. Bone mineral content is correlated with time patients spend lying, reflecting the impact of inactive postures on the nutritional status of these patients.

  4. Sodium-dependent phosphate transporters in osteoclast differentiation and function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Albano

    Full Text Available Osteoclasts are multinucleated bone degrading cells. Phosphate is an important constituent of mineralized bone and released in significant quantities during bone resorption. Molecular contributors to phosphate transport during the resorptive activity of osteoclasts have been controversially discussed. This study aimed at deciphering the role of sodium-dependent phosphate transporters during osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. Our studies reveal RANKL-induced differential expression of sodium-dependent phosphate transport protein IIa (NaPi-IIa transcript and protein during osteoclast development, but no expression of the closely related NaPi-IIb and NaPi-IIc SLC34 family isoforms. In vitro studies employing NaPi-IIa-deficient osteoclast precursors and mature osteoclasts reveal that NaPi-IIa is dispensable for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation. These results are supported by the analysis of structural bone parameters by high-resolution microcomputed tomography that yielded no differences between adult NaPi-IIa WT and KO mice. By contrast, both type III sodium-dependent phosphate transporters Pit-1 and Pit-2 were abundantly expressed throughout osteoclast differentiation, indicating that they are the relevant sodium-dependent phosphate transporters in osteoclasts and osteoclast precursors. We conclude that phosphate transporters of the SLC34 family have no role in osteoclast differentiation and function and propose that Pit-dependent phosphate transport could be pivotal for bone resorption and should be addressed in further studies.

  5. Fatores determinantes da capacidade funcional entre idosos Determinant factors of functional status among the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Etsuko da Costa Rosa

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO; Investigar a influência de fatores socioeconômicos e demográficos relativos à saúde, bem como os fatores ligados às atividades sociais e à avaliação subjetiva da saúde sobre a capacidade funcional dos idosos. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, integrante de estudo multicêntrico, em amostra representativa do município de São Paulo, realizado em 1989. A capacidade funcional foi avaliada através da escala de atividades da vida diária pessoal e instrumental e investigada como variável dicotômica: ausência de dependência - incapacidade/dificuldade em nenhuma das atividades versus presença de dependência moderada/grave - incapacidade/dificuldade em 4 ou mais atividades. Análise de regressão logística múltipla foi aplicada aos fatores hierarquicamente agrupados. RESULTADOS: As características que se associaram com a dependência moderada/grave foram analfabetismo, ser aposentado, ser pensionista, ser dona de casa, não ser proprietário da moradia, ter mais de 65 anos, ter composição familiar multigeracional, ter sido internado nos últimos 6 meses, ser "caso" no rastreamento de saúde mental, não visitar amigos, ter problemas de visão, ter história de derrame, não visitar parentes e ter avaliação pessimista da saúde ao se comparar com seus pares. CONCLUSÕES: As características identificadas que se associaram à dependência moderada/grave sugerem uma complexa rede causal do declínio da capacidade funcional. Pode-se supor, entretanto, que ações preventivas especificamente voltadas para certos fatores podem propiciar benefícios para o prolongamento do bem estar da população idosa.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of health-related demographic and socioeconomic factors, as well as the impact of factors associated to social activity and the subjective health evaluation on the functional status of elderly people. METHODS: A cross-sectional multicentric study was conducted in a representative population

  6. RELATIONSHIP OF EXECUTIVE FUNCTION, EDUCATIONAL STATUS AND QUALITY OF LIFE WITH THE FUNCTIONAL BALANCE IN OLDER ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rushikesh K. Joshi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Balance is a complex construct which is affected by cognition. It is necessary to know the cognitive correlates of functional balance to design necessary interventions for the individuals with balance problems. Objectives: To determine the relationship of executive function, educational status and quality of life with the functional balance in older adults. Methodology: 120 healthy elderly subjects were taken for the study based on the inclusion criteria. Following the initial screening, the executive function, educational status and quality of life of the subjects were measured. Executive function performance test was used for measuring executive function. The quality of life was measured using SF36 questionnaire. The functional balance was measured using the berg balance scale and timed up and go test. The relationship among the outcome measure was found out using the Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: The results of the present study showed that EFPT and BBS are negatively correlated to each other with r-value -0.271. The educational status score showed a low positive correlation with functional balance with r-value 0.358. The quality of life did not show any significant correlation with functional balance. Interpretation & Conclusion: Executive function and functional balance showed a low correlation. This means that higher the executive function, better will be the functional balance of the individual. Moreover, educational status also affects the functional balance of the individual.

  7. The Transverse Momentum Dependent Fragmentation Function at NNLO

    CERN Document Server

    Echevarria, Miguel G; Vladimirov, Alexey

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the unpolarized non-singlet transverse momentum dependent fragmentation function (TMDFF) at next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO), evaluating separately TMD soft factor and TMD collinear correlator. For the first time the cancellation of spurious rapidity divergences in a properly defined individual TMD beyond the first non-trivial order is shown. This represents a strong check of the given TMD definition. We extract the matching coefficient necessary to perform the transverse momentum resummation at next-to-next-to-next-to-leading-logarithmic accuracy. The universal character of the soft function, which enters the definition of all (un)polarized TMD distribution/fragmentation functions, facilitates the future calculation of all the other TMDs and their coefficients at NNLO, pushing forward the accuracy of theoretical predictions for the current and next generation of high energy colliders.

  8. Evaluation of sexual functions in Turkish alcohol-dependent males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dişsiz, Melike; Oskay, Ümran Yeşiltepe

    2011-11-01

    It was reported that long-term and high amount of alcohol consumption cause sexual dysfunction in men. There is a lack of descriptive studies focusing on the sexual dysfunction of alcohol dependent men in Turkey. This study was conducted to evaluate sexual functions of alcohol dependent men. This descriptive study was performed at the Alcohol and Substance Research Treatment and Education Center (ASRTEC). The data was collected between 26 December 2007 and 26 December 2008. As research instruments, an interview form of 30 questions that questioned personal characteristics and was developed by researchers, and IIEF (International Index of Erectile Dysfunction) with 15 items that evaluated sexual dysfunction were used. Mean age of men was 41.22 ± 8.19; 36.5% of participants were graduated from primary school, and 57.5% were unemployed. Average daily alcohol consumption was 16.41 ± 4.90 standard alcohol. We found that 47% of alcohol-dependent men had their first sexual experience before they were 18 years old, 64.4% had multiple partners, 1.7% experienced a sexually transmitted disease, 7.7% had a chronic disease, and 18.3% had pain during intercourse. Mean total IIEF scores of alcohol-dependent men was 57 ± 9.23 (mean ED scores 23.41 ± 3.91). Therefore, 70.3% of participants had a mild (17-25), and 4.4% had a moderate (11-16) erectile dysfunction. With a multivariate analysis, predictors of erectile dysfunction in chronic alcohol dependent male were determined as age of subject, age of onset for alcohol, duration of alcoholism, and cigarette use. Chronic alcoholism affects sexual functions in men. Sexual dysfunction in alcohol addicted males is related with education level and unemployment and starting alcohol consumption at an early age and long-term cigarette smoking. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  9. The Universal Transverse Momentum Dependent Soft Function at NNLO

    CERN Document Server

    Echevarria, Miguel G; Vladimirov, Alexey

    2015-01-01

    All (un)polarized transverse momentum dependent functions (TMDs), both distribution and fragmentation functions, are defined with the same universal soft function, which cancels spurious rapidity divergences within an individual TMD and renders them well-defined hadronic quantities. Moreover, it is independent of the kinematics, whether it is Drell-Yan ($e^+e^-\\rightarrow 2$ hadrons) or deep inelastic scattering. In this paper we provide this soft function at next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO), necessary for the calculation of all TMDs at the same order, and to perform the resummation of large logarithms at next-to-next-to-next-to-leading-logarithmic accuracy. From the results we obtain the $D$ function at NNLO, which governs the evolution of all TMDs. This work represents the first independent and direct calculation of this quantity. Given the all order relation through a Casimir scaling between the soft function relevant for gluon TMDs and the one for quark TMDs, we also obtain the first at NNLO. The used...

  10. Balance functions: Multiplicity and transverse momentum dependence of the charge dependent correlations in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2078856; Snellings, Raimond; Christakoglou, Panos

    The measurement of charge-dependent correlations between positively and negatively charged particles as a function of pseudorapidity and azimuthal angle, known as the balance functions, provide insight to the properties of matter created in high-energy collisions. The balance functions are argued to probe the creation time of the particles and are also sensitive to the collective motion of the system. In this thesis, I present the results of the measured balance functions in p--Pb collisions at √sNN = 5.02~TeV obtained with the ALICE detector at the LHC. The results are compared with balance functions measured in pp and Pb--Pb collisions at √s=7~TeV and √sNN = 2.76~TeV$, respectively. The width of the balance functions in both pseudorapidity and azimuthal angle for non-identified charged particles decreases with increasing multiplicity in all three systems, for particles with low transverse momentum value pT < 2~GeV/c. For higher values of transverse momentum the balance functions become narrower and...

  11. Mortality and functional status at one-year of follow-up in elderly patients with prolonged ICU stay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintado, M C; Villa, P; Luján, J; Trascasa, M; Molina, R; González-García, N; de Pablo, R

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate mortality and functional status at one year of follow-up in patients>75 years of age who survive Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission of over 14 days. A prospective observational study was carried out. A Spanish medical-surgical ICU. Patients over 75 years of age admitted to the ICU. ICU admission: demographic data, baseline functional status (Barthel index), baseline mental status (Red Cross scale of mental incapacity), severity of illness (APACHE II and SOFA), stay and mortality. One-year follow-up: hospital stay and mortality, functional and mental status, and one-year follow-up mortality. A total of 176 patients were included, of which 22 had a stay of over 14 days. Patients with prolonged stay did not show more ICU mortality than those with a shorter stay in the ICU (40.9% vs 25.3% respectively, P=.12), although their hospital (63.6% vs 33.8%, P<.01) and one-year follow-up mortality were higher (68.2% vs 41.2%, P=.02). Among the survivors, one-year mortality proved similar (87.5% vs 90.6%, P=.57). These patients presented significantly greater impairment of functional status at hospital discharge than the patients with a shorter ICU stay, and this difference persisted after three months. The levels of independence at one-year follow-up were never similar to baseline. No such findings were observed in relation to mental status. Patients over 75 years of age with a ICU stay of more than 14 days have high hospital and one-year follow-up mortality. Patients who survive to hospital admission did not show greater mortality, though their functional dependency was greater. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  12. The Functions of RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerases in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willmann, Matthew R.; Endres, Matthew W.; Cook, Rebecca T.; Gregory, Brian D.

    2011-01-01

    One recently identified mechanism that regulates mRNA abundance is RNA silencing, and pioneering work in Arabidopsis thaliana and other genetic model organisms helped define this process. RNA silencing pathways are triggered by either self-complementary fold-back structures or the production of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) that gives rise to small RNAs (smRNAs) known as microRNAs (miRNAs) or small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs). These smRNAs direct sequence-specific regulation of various gene transcripts, repetitive sequences, viruses, and mobile elements via RNA cleavage, translational inhibition, or transcriptional silencing through DNA methylation and heterochromatin formation. Early genetic screens in Arabidopsis were instrumental in uncovering numerous proteins required for these important regulatory pathways. Among the factors identified by these studies were RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RDRs), which are proteins that synthesize siRNA-producing dsRNA molecules using a single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) molecule as a template. Recently, a growing body of evidence has implicated RDR-dependent RNA silencing in many different aspects of plant biology ranging from reproductive development to pathogen resistance. Here, we focus on the specific functions of the six Arabidopsis RDRs in RNA silencing, their ssRNA substrates and resulting RDR-dependent smRNAs, and the numerous biological functions of these proteins in plant development and stress responses. PMID:22303271

  13. Time-dependent density-functional theory for extended systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botti, Silvana [European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility (ETSF) (Country Unknown); Schindlmayr, Arno [European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility (ETSF) (Country Unknown); Del Sole, Rodolfo [European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility (ETSF) (Country Unknown); Reining, Lucia [European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility (ETSF) (Country Unknown)

    2007-03-15

    For the calculation of neutral excitations, time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) is an exact reformulation of the many-body time-dependent Schroedinger equation, based on knowledge of the density instead of the many-body wavefunction. The density can be determined in an efficient scheme by solving one-particle non-interacting Schroedinger equations-the Kohn-Sham equations. The complication of the problem is hidden in the-unknown-time-dependent exchange and correlation potential that appears in the Kohn-Sham equations and for which it is essential to find good approximations. Many approximations have been suggested and tested for finite systems, where even the very simple adiabatic local-density approximation (ALDA) has often proved to be successful. In the case of solids, ALDA fails to reproduce optical absorption spectra, which are instead well described by solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation of many-body perturbation theory (MBPT). On the other hand, ALDA can lead to excellent results for loss functions (at vanishing and finite momentum transfer). In view of this and thanks to recent successful developments of improved linear-response kernels derived from MBPT, TDDFT is today considered a promising alternative to MBPT for the calculation of electronic spectra, even for solids. After reviewing the fundamentals of TDDFT within linear response, we discuss different approaches and a variety of applications to extended systems.

  14. Improved protein structure selection using decoy-dependent discriminatory functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levitt Michael

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A key component in protein structure prediction is a scoring or discriminatory function that can distinguish near-native conformations from misfolded ones. Various types of scoring functions have been developed to accomplish this goal, but their performance is not adequate to solve the structure selection problem. In addition, there is poor correlation between the scores and the accuracy of the generated conformations. Results We present a simple and nonparametric formula to estimate the accuracy of predicted conformations (or decoys. This scoring function, called the density score function, evaluates decoy conformations by performing an all-against-all Cα RMSD (Root Mean Square Deviation calculation in a given decoy set. We tested the density score function on 83 decoy sets grouped by their generation methods (4state_reduced, fisa, fisa_casp3, lmds, lattice_ssfit, semfold and Rosetta. The density scores have correlations as high as 0.9 with the Cα RMSDs of the decoy conformations, measured relative to the experimental conformation for each decoy. We previously developed a residue-specific all-atom probability discriminatory function (RAPDF, which compiles statistics from a database of experimentally determined conformations, to aid in structure selection. Here, we present a decoy-dependent discriminatory function called self-RAPDF, where we compiled the atom-atom contact probabilities from all the conformations in a decoy set instead of using an ensemble of native conformations, with a weighting scheme based on the density scores. The self-RAPDF has a higher correlation with Cα RMSD than RAPDF for 76/83 decoy sets, and selects better near-native conformations for 62/83 decoy sets. Self-RAPDF may be useful not only for selecting near-native conformations from decoy sets, but also for fold simulations and protein structure refinement. Conclusions Both the density score and the self-RAPDF functions are decoy-dependent

  15. Families with children who are technology dependent: normalization and family functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toly, Valerie Boebel; Musil, Carol M; Carl, John C

    2012-02-01

    This cross-sectional study examined family functioning and normalization in 103 mothers of children ≤16 years of age dependent on medical technology (mechanical ventilation, intravenous nutrition/medication, respiratory/nutritional support) following initiation of home care. Differences in outcomes (mother's depressive symptoms, normalization, family functioning), based on the type of technology used, were also examined. Participants were interviewed face-to-face using the Demographic Characteristics Questionnaire, the Functional Status II-Revised Scale, the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale, a Normalization Scale subscale, and the Feetham Family Functioning Survey. Thirty-five percent of the variance in family functioning was explained primarily by the mothers' level of depressive symptoms. Several variables were significant predictors of normalization. Analysis of variance revealed no significant difference in outcomes based on the type of technology used. Mothers of technology-dependent children are at high risk for clinical depression that may affect family functioning. This article concludes with clinical practice and policy implications.

  16. Status and Functions of Regional Power Grid Corporations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Wei

    2007-01-01

    @@ In line with power institutional reform and formation of the state power grid, status and roles of regional power grid corporations experienced several variations and are now being incessantly marginalized and weakened. The reform of turning regional grid corporations into regional headquarters of State Grid Corporation may be a better choice beneficial to group operation, intensive development and precise management. This article can be regarded as the author's personal opinion.

  17. Personality Disorder Features and Insomnia Status amongst Hypnotic-Dependent Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiter, Megan E.; Lichstein, Kenneth L.; Nau, Sidney D.; Geyer, James

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of personality disorders and their relation to insomnia parameters among persons with chronic insomnia with hypnotic dependence. Methods Eighty-four adults with chronic insomnia with hypnotic dependence completed the SCID-II personality questionnaire, two-weeks of sleep diaries, polysomnography, and measures of insomnia severity, impact, fatigue severity, depression, anxiety, and quality of life. Frequencies, between-subjects t-tests and hierarchical regression models were conducted. Results Cluster C personality disorders were most prevalent (50%). Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) was most common (n=39). These individuals compared to participants with no personality disorders did not differ in objective and subjective sleep parameters. Yet, they had poorer insomnia-related daytime functioning. OCPD and Avoidant personality disorders features were associated with poorer daytime functioning. OCPD features were related to greater fatigue severity, and overestimation of time awake was trending. Schizotypal and Schizoid features were positively associated with insomnia severity. Dependent personality disorder features were related to underestimating time awake. Conclusions Cluster C personality disorders were highly prevalent in patients with chronic insomnia with hypnotic dependence. Features of Cluster C and A personality disorders were variously associated with poorer insomnia-related daytime functioning, fatigue, and estimation of nightly wake-time. Future interventions may need to address these personality features. PMID:22938862

  18. Free flexural vibration of functionally graded size-dependent nanoplates

    CERN Document Server

    Natarajan, S; Thangavel, M

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the linear free flexural vibration behaviour of functionally graded (FG) size-dependent nanoplates are investigated using the finite element method. The field variables are approximated by non-uniform rational B-splines. The size-dependent FG nanoplate is investigated by using Eringen's differential form of nonlocal elasticity theory. The material properties are assumed to vary only in the thickness direction and the effective properties for FG nanoplate are computed using Mori-Tanaka homogenization scheme. The accuracy of the present formulation is tested considering the problems for which solutions are available. A detailed numerical study is carried out to examine the effect of material gradient index, the characteristic internal length, the plate thickness, the plate aspect ratio and the boundary conditions on the global response of FG nanoplate.

  19. Oit1/Fam3D, a gut-secreted protein displaying nutritional status-dependent regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, Nicole J W; IJssennagger, Noortje; Oosterink, Els; Keshtkar, Shohreh; Hooiveld, Guido J E J; Mensink, Ronald P; Hammer, Sebastiaan; Smit, Johannes W A; Müller, Michael; van der Meer, Roelof

    2012-11-01

    Oncoprotein-induced transcript 1 (Oit1) was previously identified as a dietary fat-induced gene in the small intestine of C57Bl/6J mice. In this study, we further characterized Oit1 and its human ortholog family with sequence similarity 3, member D (Fam3D), on the messenger RNA as well as the protein level. Oit1 and Fam3D were found to be predominantly expressed in the gastrointestinal tract of mice and humans, respectively. Dietary fat induced a clear and acute up-regulation of Oit1, especially in the jejunum, whereas fasting led to a reduced gene expression in the small intestine. Regarding protein expression, we found a remarkable pattern of Oit1 along the longitudinal axis of the intestine, a predominant villus-restricted expression in the proximal small intestine and a more pronounced crypt expression in the distal parts of the intestine. Using transfection experiments, we confirmed secretion of the Oit1 protein, as was predicted by a signal peptide sequence. Detection of Oit1 and Fam3D in plasma samples indicated that both proteins are secreted to the basolateral site of enterocytes. Moreover, in human plasma samples, we also found an effect of nutritional status on Fam3D levels, with a postprandial elevation and a reduction after fasting. In conclusion, Oit1 and Fam3D are gut-derived proteins that are expressed and secreted in a nutritional status-dependent manner.

  20. The Effectiveness of Window Presentation Strategy and Cognitive Style of Field Dependence Status on Learning from Mediated Instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegulu, Patricia R.; Ikegulu, T. Nelson

    The primary purpose of this article is to review the literature on research studies conducted in the last five years on the effectiveness of window presentation strategies and the cognitive dependence status of field-dependent/independent (FD/FI) learners in a computer-mediated instruction (CMI). Secondary to this purpose is to summarize research…

  1. 8 CFR 204.11 - Special immigrant status for certain aliens declared dependent on a juvenile court (special...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... declared dependent on a juvenile court (special immigrant juvenile). 204.11 Section 204.11 Aliens and... Petitions § 204.11 Special immigrant status for certain aliens declared dependent on a juvenile court (special immigrant juvenile). (a) Definitions. Eligible for long-term foster care means that...

  2. The Palliative Function of Hostile Sexism among High and Low-Status Chilean Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Vargas-Salfate

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated that justifying the social, economic, and political systems is associated with psychological well-being, which has been termed as the palliative function of ideology. However, little research has been conducted on gender stereotypes among children, comparing by socioeconomic status. This study aimed to fill this gap in the system justification literature. We present data from the Chilean version of the International Survey of Children Well-Being (ISCWeB, which was conducted in 2012. We found that the palliative function of gender stereotypes is present among this sample, being qualified by a socioeconomic status by hostile gender stereotype interaction. In other words, the effect on the psychological well-being was observed in low-status, but not in high-status students. These results extend the previous knowledge about the palliative function of the ideology, suggesting why the low-status members of a society actively engage in system justification.

  3. Being in "Bad" Company: Power Dependence and Status in Adolescent Susceptibility to Peer Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Theories of susceptibility to peer influence have centered on the idea that lower status adolescents are likely to adopt the behaviors of high status adolescents. While status is important, social exchange theorists have shown the value of analyzing exchange relations between actors to understand differences in power. To build on status-based…

  4. Nucleon effective mass and the A dependence of structure functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Canal, C.A.; Santangelo, E.M.; Vucetich, H.

    1984-10-08

    The nucleon effective mass was successfully used, as the only free parameter, to adjust the ratio R(A) of structure functions measured in a nucleus of mass number A and in the deuteron, for each A value in the SLAC set of experimental data. The resulting A dependence of the effective mass, being linear in A/sup -1/3/, is consistent with the behavior expected from nuclear structure considerations. The extrapolated value of the effective mass for nuclear matter agrees with previous estimations.

  5. Time-dependent density-functional description of nuclear dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Nakatsukasa, Takashi; Matsuo, Masayuki; Yabana, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    We present the basic concepts and recent developments in the time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) for describing nuclear dynamics at low energy. The symmetry breaking is inherent in nuclear energy density functionals (EDFs), which provides a practical description of important correlations at the ground state. Properties of elementary modes of excitation are strongly influenced by the symmetry breaking and can be studied with TDDFT. In particular, a number of recent developments in the linear response calculation have demonstrated their usefulness in description of collective modes of excitation in nuclei. Unrestricted real-time calculations have also become available in recent years, with new developments for quantitative description of nuclear collision phenomena. There are, however, limitations in the real-time approach; for instance, it cannot describe the many-body quantum tunneling. Thus, we treat the quantum fluctuations associated with slow collective motions assuming that time evolution of...

  6. Loss of Olfactory Function and Nutritional Status in Vital Older Adults and Geriatric Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toussaint, N.; Roon, de M.; Campen, van J.P.C.M.; Kremer, S.; Boesveldt, S.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the association of olfactory function and nutritional status in vital older adults and geriatric patients. Three hundred forty-five vital (mean age 67.1 years) and 138 geriatric older adults (mean age 80.9 years) were included. Nutritional status w

  7. Studies of Spuriously Time-dependent Resonances in Time-dependent Density Functional Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Kai; Maitra, Neepa T

    2016-01-01

    Adiabatic approximations in time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) will in general yield unphysical time-dependent shifts in the resonance positions of a system driven far from its ground-state. This spurious time-dependence is rationalized in [J. I. Fuks, K. Luo, E. D. Sandoval and N. T. Maitra, Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 114}, 183002 (2015)] in terms of the violation of an exact condition by the non-equilibrium exchange-correlation kernel of TDDFT. Here we give details on the derivation and discuss reformulations of the exact condition that apply in special cases. In its most general form, the condition states that when a system is left in an arbitrary state, in the absence of time-dependent external fields nor ionic motion, the TDDFT resonance position for a given transition is independent of the state. Special cases include the invariance of TDDFT resonances computed with respect to any reference interacting stationary state of a fixed potential, and with respect to any choice of appropriate stationa...

  8. Age-dependent changes in intrinsic neuronal excitability in subiculum after status epilepticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungkwon Chung

    Full Text Available Kainic acid-induced status epilepticus (KA-SE in mature rats results in the development of spontaneous recurrent seizures and a pattern of cell death resembling hippocampal sclerosis in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. In contrast, KA-SE in young animals before postnatal day (P 18 is less likely to cause cell death or epilepsy. To investigate whether changes in neuronal excitability occur in the subiculum after KA-SE, we examined the age-dependent effects of SE on the bursting neurons of subiculum, the major output region of the hippocampus. Patch-clamp recordings were used to monitor bursting in pyramidal neurons in the subiculum of rat hippocampal slices. Neurons were studied either one or 2-3 weeks following injection of KA or saline (control in immature (P15 or more mature (P30 rats, which differ in their sensitivity to KA as well as the long-term sequelae of the KA-SE. A significantly greater proportion of subicular pyramidal neurons from P15 rats were strong-bursting neurons and showed increased frequency-dependent bursting compared to P30 animals. Frequency-dependent burst firing was enhanced in P30, but not in P15 rats following KA-SE. The enhancement of bursting induced by KA-SE in more mature rats suggests that the frequency-dependent limitation of repetitive burst firing, which normally occurs in the subiculum, is compromised following SE. These changes could facilitate the initiation of spontaneous recurrent seizures or their spread from the hippocampus to other parts of the brain.

  9. Hippocampal-dependent learning requires a functional circadian system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruby, Norman F; Hwang, Calvin E; Wessells, Colin; Fernandez, Fabian; Zhang, Pei; Sapolsky, Robert; Heller, H Craig

    2008-10-01

    Decades of studies have shown that eliminating circadian rhythms of mammals does not compromise their health or longevity in the laboratory in any obvious way. These observations have raised questions about the functional significance of the mammalian circadian system, but have been difficult to address for lack of an appropriate animal model. Surgical ablation of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and clock gene knockouts eliminate rhythms, but also damage adjacent brain regions or cause developmental effects that may impair cognitive or other physiological functions. We developed a method that avoids these problems and eliminates rhythms by noninvasive means in Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus). The present study evaluated cognitive function in arrhythmic animals by using a hippocampal-dependent learning task. Control hamsters exhibited normal circadian modulation of performance in a delayed novel-object recognition task. By contrast, arrhythmic animals could not discriminate a novel object from a familiar one only 20 or 60 min after training. Memory performance was not related to prior sleep history as sleep manipulations had no effect on performance. The GABA antagonist pentylenetetrazol restored learning without restoring circadian rhythms. We conclude that the circadian system is involved in memory function in a manner that is independent of sleep. Circadian influence on learning may be exerted via cyclic GABA output from the SCN to target sites involved in learning. Arrhythmic hamsters may have failed to perform this task because of chronic inhibitory signaling from the SCN that interfered with the plastic mechanisms that encode learning in the hippocampus.

  10. Implementation Strategies for Orbital-dependent Density Functionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, Marsal E.; Vieira, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    The development of density functional theory (DFT) has been focused primarily on two main pillars: (1) the pursuit of more accurate exchange-correlation (XC) density functionals; (2) the feasibility of computational implementation when dealing with many-body systems. In this context, this work is aimed on using one-dimensional quantum systems as theoretical laboratories to investigate the implementation of orbital functionals (OFs) of density. By definition, OFs are those which depend only implicitly on the density, via an explicit formulation in terms of Kohn-Sham orbitals. Typical examples are the XC functionals arising from the Perdew-Zunger self-interaction correction (PZSIC). Formally, via Kohn-Sham equations, the implementation of OFs must be performed by means of the optimized effective potential method (OEP), which is known by requiring an excessive computational effort even when dealing with few electrons systems. Here, we proceed a systematical investigation aiming to simplify or avoid the OEP procedure, taking as reference the implementation of the PZSIC correction applied to one-dimensional Hubbard chains.

  11. Density-functional perturbation theory goes time-dependent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebauer, Ralph

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The scope of time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT is limited to the lowest portion of the spectrum of rather small systems (a few tens of atoms at most. In the static regime, density-functional perturbation theory (DFPT allows one to calculate response functions of systems as large as currently dealt with in ground-state simulations. In this paper we present an effective way of combining DFPT with TDDFT. The dynamical polarizability is first expressed as an off-diagonal matrix element of the resolvent of the Kohn-Sham Liouvillian super-operator. A DFPT representation of response functions allows one to avoid the calculation of unoccupied Kohn-Sham orbitals. The resolvent of the Liouvillian is finally conveniently evaluated using a newly developed non-symmetric Lanczos technique, which allows for the calculation of the entire spectrum with a single Lanczos recursion chain. Each step of the chain essentially requires twice as many operations as a single step of the iterative diagonalization of the unperturbed Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian or, for that matter, as a single time step of a Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics run. The method will be illustrated with a few case molecular applications.

  12. Implementation Strategies for Orbital-dependent Density Functionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, Marsal E.; Vieira, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    The development of density functional theory (DFT) has been focused primarily on two main pillars: (1) the pursuit of more accurate exchange-correlation (XC) density functionals; (2) the feasibility of computational implementation when dealing with many-body systems. In this context, this work is aimed on using one-dimensional quantum systems as theoretical laboratories to investigate the implementation of orbital functionals (OFs) of density. By definition, OFs are those which depend only implicitly on the density, via an explicit formulation in terms of Kohn-Sham orbitals. Typical examples are the XC functionals arising from the Perdew-Zunger self-interaction correction (PZSIC). Formally, via Kohn-Sham equations, the implementation of OFs must be performed by means of the optimized effective potential method (OEP), which is known by requiring an excessive computational effort even when dealing with few electrons systems. Here, we proceed a systematical investigation aiming to simplify or avoid the OEP procedure, taking as reference the implementation of the PZSIC correction applied to one-dimensional Hubbard chains.

  13. A comparison between uni- and multidimensional frailty measures: prevalence, functional status, and relationships with disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roppolo M

    2015-10-01

    frailty prevalence rate is strictly dependent on the index used (CHS =12.7%; TFI =44.6%. Furthermore, frail individuals presented differences in terms of functional status in all the domains. Frailty measures were significantly correlated with each other (r=0.483, and with disability (CHS: r=0.423; TFI: r=0.475. Finally, the area under the curve of the TFI (0.833 for disability was higher with respect to the one of CHS (0.770.Conclusion: Data reported here confirm that different instruments capture different frail individuals. Clinicians and researchers have to consider the different abilities of the two measures to detect frail individuals. Keywords: functional decline, older adults, health outcomes, active aging, indexes selection 

  14. The generalized BLM approach to fix scale-dependence in QCD: the current status of investigations

    CERN Document Server

    Kataev, A L

    2014-01-01

    I present a brief review of the generalized Brodsky-Lepage-McKenzie (BLM) approaches to fix the scale-dependence of the renormalization group (RG) invariant quantities in QCD. At first, these approaches are based on the expansions of the coefficients of the perturbative series for the RG-invariant quantities in the products of the coefficients $\\beta_i$ of the QCD $\\beta$-function, which are evaluated in the MS-like schemes. As a next step all $\\beta_i$-dependent terms are absorbed into the BLM-type scale(s) of the powers of the QCD couplings. The difference between two existing formulations of the above mentioned generalizations based on the seBLM approach and the Principle of Maximal Conformality (PMC) are clarified in the case of the Bjorken polarized deep-inelastic scattering sum rule. Using the conformal symmetry-based relations for the non-singlet coefficient functions of the Adler D-function and of Bjorken polarized deep-inelastic scattering sum rules $C^{\\rm Bjp}_{\\rm NS}(a_s)$ the $\\beta_i$-dependent...

  15. Validation of the Sport Fitness Index for Quantification of Injury Effects on Functional Status

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    C S Baker; M Gross; S Shelton; M A Colston; G B Wilkerson

    2017-01-01

    ... for representation of change in functional status among high school and college athletes. Results show that substantial associations between PPE SFI score and prior injury for all 3 cohorts, with comparable cut-points (84-86/100...

  16. Temperature dependence of nitrogen mineralization and microbial status in OH horizon of a temperate forest ecosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali Bagherzadeh; Rainer Brumme; Friedrich Beese

    2008-01-01

    It was hypothesized that increasing air and/or soil temperature would increase rates of microbial processes including litter decomposition and net N mineralization, resulting in greater sequestration of carbon and nitrogen in humus, and consequently development in OH horizon (humus horizon). To quantify the effect of temperature on biochemical processes controlling the rate of OH layer development three adjacent forest floors under beech, Norway spruce and mixed species stands were investigated at Solling forest, Germany by an incubation experiment of OH layer for three months. Comparing the fitted curves for temperature sensitivity of OH layers in relation to net N mineralization revealed positive correlation across all sites. For the whole data set of all stands, a Q10 (temperature sensitivity index) value of 2.35-2.44 dependent on the measured units was found to be adequate for describing the temperature dependency of net N mineralization at experimental site. Species-specific differences of substrate quality did not result in changes in biochemical properties of OH horizon of the forest floors. Temperature elevation increased net N mineralization without significant changes in microbial status in the range of 1 to 15℃. A low Cmic /Corg (microbial carbon/organic carbon) ratio at 20℃ indicated that the resource availability for decomposers has been restricted as reflected in significant decrease of microbial biomass.

  17. Differential effects of genistein on prostate cancer cells depend on mutational status of the androgen receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer M Mahmoud

    Full Text Available Blocking the androgen receptor (AR activity is the main goal of therapies for advanced prostate cancer (PCa. However, relapse with a more aggressive, hormone refractory PCa arises, which harbors restored AR activity. One mechanism of such reactivation occurs through acquisition of AR mutations that enable its activation by various steroidal and non-steroidal structures. Thus, natural and chemical compounds that contribute to inappropriate (androgen-independent activation of the AR become an area of intensive research. Here, we demonstrate that genistein, a soy phytoestrogen binds to both the wild and the Thr877Ala (T877A mutant types of AR competitively with androgen, nevertheless, it exerts a pleiotropic effect on PCa cell proliferation and AR activity depending on the mutational status of the AR. Genistein inhibited, in a dose-dependent way, cell proliferation and AR nuclear localization and expression in LAPC-4 cells that have wild AR. However, in LNCaP cells that express the T877A mutant AR, genistein induced a biphasic effect where physiological doses (0.5-5 µmol/L stimulated cell growth and increased AR expression and transcriptional activity, and higher doses induced inhibitory effects. Similar biphasic results were achieved in PC-3 cells transfected with AR mutants; T877A, W741C and H874Y. These findings suggest that genistein, at physiological concentrations, potentially act as an agonist and activate the mutant AR that can be present in advanced PCa after androgen ablation therapy.

  18. Differential effects of genistein on prostate cancer cells depend on mutational status of the androgen receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Abeer M; Zhu, Tian; Parray, Aijaz; Siddique, Hifzur R; Yang, Wancai; Saleem, Mohammad; Bosland, Maarten C

    2013-01-01

    Blocking the androgen receptor (AR) activity is the main goal of therapies for advanced prostate cancer (PCa). However, relapse with a more aggressive, hormone refractory PCa arises, which harbors restored AR activity. One mechanism of such reactivation occurs through acquisition of AR mutations that enable its activation by various steroidal and non-steroidal structures. Thus, natural and chemical compounds that contribute to inappropriate (androgen-independent) activation of the AR become an area of intensive research. Here, we demonstrate that genistein, a soy phytoestrogen binds to both the wild and the Thr877Ala (T877A) mutant types of AR competitively with androgen, nevertheless, it exerts a pleiotropic effect on PCa cell proliferation and AR activity depending on the mutational status of the AR. Genistein inhibited, in a dose-dependent way, cell proliferation and AR nuclear localization and expression in LAPC-4 cells that have wild AR. However, in LNCaP cells that express the T877A mutant AR, genistein induced a biphasic effect where physiological doses (0.5-5 µmol/L) stimulated cell growth and increased AR expression and transcriptional activity, and higher doses induced inhibitory effects. Similar biphasic results were achieved in PC-3 cells transfected with AR mutants; T877A, W741C and H874Y. These findings suggest that genistein, at physiological concentrations, potentially act as an agonist and activate the mutant AR that can be present in advanced PCa after androgen ablation therapy.

  19. Relationship between body balance, lung function, nutritional status and functional capacity in adults with cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer T. S. Penafortes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis (CF is a hereditary condition in which lung disease affects all patients. In addition to pulmonary involvement, the multisystemic components of CF cause significant physical limitations. However, the impact of lung function on balance control in CF has not been studied. OBJECTIVE: To assess body balance in adults with CF and to test its possible associations with lung function, nutritional status, and functional capacity. METHOD: This was a cross-sectional study in which 14 adults with CF underwent pulmonary function testing (spirometry, body plethysmography, and carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DLco, respiratory muscle strength, 6-min walking distance (6MWD, Berg balance scale (BBS, nutritional analysis (body mass index and bioelectrical impedance, and stabilometry. Body balance was quantified using stabilometry; all participants performed the following two trials: opened base, eyes open (OBEO; closed base, eyes closed (CBEC. RESULTS: In stabilometry, the median for the lateral range and anterior-posterior range in the CBEC trial was 0.10 (0.08-0.11 and 0.13 (0.11-0.22, respectively (p<0.05. The maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP correlated inversely with the lateral standard deviation (ρ=–0.61; p<0.05 as the DLco correlated positively with the anterior-posterior range (ρ=0.54; p<0.05. There were significant relationships between body composition indexes and almost all stabilometric variables measured. There were no relationships of the BBS and 6MWD with the stabilometric variables. CONCLUSIONS: In adults with CF, imbalance occurs mainly in the anterior-posterior direction and is especially associated with body composition.

  20. Smoking status, nicotine dependence and happiness in nine countries of the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, Andrew; Koyanagi, Ai; Roberts, Bayard; Leinsalu, Mall; Goryakin, Yevgeniy; McKee, Martin

    2015-03-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration has established a policy of substantially discounting the health benefits of reduced smoking in its evaluation of proposed regulations because of the cost to smokers of the supposed lost pleasure they suffer by no longer smoking. This study used data from nine countries of the former Soviet Union (fSU) to explore this association in a setting characterised by high rates of (male) smoking and smoking-related mortality. Data came from a cross-sectional population-based study undertaken in 2010/2011 in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. Information was collected from 18 000 respondents aged ≥18 on smoking status (never, ex-smoking and current smoking), cessation attempts and nicotine dependence. The association between these variables and self-reported happiness was examined using ordered probit regression analysis. In a pooled country analysis, never smokers and ex-smokers were both significantly happier than current smokers. Smokers with higher levels of nicotine dependence were significantly less happy than those with a low level of dependence. This study contradicts the idea that smoking is associated with greater happiness. Moreover, of relevance for policy in the fSU countries, given the lack of public knowledge about the detrimental effects of smoking on health but widespread desire to quit reported in recent research, the finding that smoking is associated with lower levels of happiness should be incorporated in future public health efforts to help encourage smokers to quit by highlighting that smoking cessation may result in better physical and emotional health. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Social Status in Monkeys: Effects of Social Confrontation on Brain Function and Cocaine Self-Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Robert W; Czoty, Paul W; Porrino, Linda J; Nader, Michael A

    2017-04-01

    Individual differences in response to social stress and environmental enrichment may contribute to variability in response to behavioral and pharmacological treatments for drug addiction. In monkeys, social status influences the reinforcing effects of cocaine and the effects of some drugs on cocaine self-administration. In this study, we used male cynomolgus macaques (n=15) living in established social groups to examine the effects of social confrontation on the reinforcing effects of cocaine using a food-drug choice procedure. On the test day, a dominant or subordinate monkey was removed from his homecage and placed into another social pen; 30 min later he was studied in a cocaine-food choice paradigm. For the group, following social confrontation, sensitivity to cocaine reinforcement was significantly greater in subordinate monkeys compared with dominant animals. Examining individual-subject data revealed that for the majority of monkeys (9/15), serving as an intruder in another social group affected cocaine self-administration and these effects were dependent on the social rank of the monkey. For subordinate monkeys, sensitivity to the reinforcing effects of cocaine increased while sensitivity decreased in dominant monkeys. To investigate potential mechanisms mediating these effects, brain glucose metabolism was studied in a subset of monkeys (n=8) using [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([(18)F]FDG) with positron emission tomography. Dominant and subordinate monkeys displayed distinctly different patterns of brain glucose metabolism in their homecage, including areas associated with vigilance and stress/anxiety, respectively, and during social confrontation. These data demonstrate that, depending on an individual's social status, the same social experience can have divergent effects on brain function and cocaine self-administration. These phenotypic differences in response to social conditions support a personalized treatment approach to cocaine addiction.

  2. Functional Status, Anxiety, Cardiac Self-Efficacy, and Health Beliefs of Patients with Coronary Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Allahverdipour

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Beliefs and emotions could effect on functional status, quality of life, and mortality amongst patients who are suffering coronary heart disease (CHD. Current study examined the role of anxiety: trait/ state, self-efficacy, health beliefs, and functional status among patient with history of CHD. Method: In this correlational study, 105 hospitalized and outpatients patients suffering CHD in Tehran Heart Center Hospital participated by using convenience sampling method in 2012. Cardiac self-efficacy, Seattle Angina, and research- designed health beliefs questionnaires were used to gather data. Results: The functional status in CHD patients showed significant relationships with gender, job, and type of medical insurance of the participants (All ps<0.05. In addition , perceived vulnerability to face again cardiac attack in the future, perceived severity of next cardiac attack, anxiety, state anxiety and trait anxiety (All ps<0.05 had significant and negative relationships with functional status. Conversely, the cardiac self-efficacy had a positive and significant relationship (P<0.001 with functional status. Conclusion: Psychological factors have important role in functional status and quality of life of patients who suffering CHD. Therefore, it is necessary to emphasize on supportive and complementary programs to promote Cardiac Rehabilitation Programs.

  3. Functional status and its associated factors in Nigerian adolescents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mortality among children and adolescents.1 Bipolar disorder course is known to be .... scale (1 to 100) designed to be used by clinicians to rate functioning in children ..... enhancement program for bipolar disorder (STEP-BD). Biol. Psychiatry ...

  4. Does responsiveness to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi depend on plant invasive status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, Kurt O; Lekberg, Ylva; Klironomos, John; Maherali, Hafiz

    2017-08-01

    Differences in the direction and degree to which invasive alien and native plants are influenced by mycorrhizal associations could indicate a general mechanism of plant invasion, but whether or not such differences exist is unclear. Here, we tested whether mycorrhizal responsiveness varies by plant invasive status while controlling for phylogenetic relatedness among plants with two large grassland datasets. Mycorrhizal responsiveness was measured for 68 taxa from the Northern Plains, and data for 95 taxa from the Central Plains were included. Nineteen percent of taxa from the Northern Plains had greater total biomass with mycorrhizas while 61% of taxa from the Central Plains responded positively. For the Northern Plains taxa, measurable effects often depended on the response variable (i.e., total biomass, shoot biomass, and root mass ratio) suggesting varied resource allocation strategies when roots are colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. In both datasets, invasive status was nonrandomly distributed on the phylogeny. Invasive taxa were mainly from two clades, that is, Poaceae and Asteraceae families. In contrast, mycorrhizal responsiveness was randomly distributed over the phylogeny for taxa from the Northern Plains, but nonrandomly distributed for taxa from the Central Plains. After controlling for phylogenetic similarity, we found no evidence that invasive taxa responded differently to mycorrhizas than other taxa. Although it is possible that mycorrhizal responsiveness contributes to invasiveness in particular species, we find no evidence that invasiveness in general is associated with the degree of mycorrhizal responsiveness. However, mycorrhizal responsiveness among species grown under common conditions was highly variable, and more work is needed to determine the causes of this variation.

  5. The HUNT study: participation is associated with survival and depends on socioeconomic status, diseases and symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langhammer Arnulf

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population based studies are important for prevalence, incidence and association studies, but their external validity might be threatened by decreasing participation rates. The 50 807 participants in the third survey of the HUNT Study (HUNT3, 2006-08, represented 54% of the invited, necessitating a nonparticipation study. Methods Questionnaire data from HUNT3 were compared with data collected from several sources: a short questionnaire to nonparticipants, anonymous data on specific diagnoses and prescribed medication extracted from randomly selected general practices, registry data from Statistics Norway on socioeconomic factors and mortality, and from the Norwegian Prescription Database on drug consumption. Results Participation rates for HUNT3 depended on age, sex and type of symptoms and diseases, but only small changes were found in the overall prevalence estimates when including data from 6922 nonparticipants. Among nonparticipants, the prevalences of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and psychiatric disorders were higher both in nonparticipant data and data extracted from general practice, compared to that reported by participants, whilst the opposite pattern was found, at least among persons younger than 80 years, for urine incontinence, musculoskeletal pain and headache. Registry data showed that the nonparticipants had lower socioeconomic status and a higher mortality than participants. Conclusion Nonparticipants had lower socioeconomic status, higher mortality and showed higher prevalences of several chronic diseases, whilst opposite patterns were found for common problems like musculoskeletal pain, urine incontinence and headache. The impact on associations should be analyzed for each diagnosis, and data making such analyses possible are provided in the present paper.

  6. Discussion on Status and Functions of China’s Forestry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the quantity and quality of global forest resources are declining continually. Contrarily, the both in China are increasing, which is deeply related to the sustainable forest management and eco-system management in China. With the trend that world community knows more about the important role of forest, more and more functions of forest are recognized. The impact and functions of China's forestry deserve more concern. Based on some experiences in the field of forestry research, the authors ...

  7. Thyroid function and neuropsychological status in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Srishti; Bloom, Michael S; Yucel, Recai; Seegal, Richard F; Rej, Robert; McCaffrey, Robert J; Fitzgerald, Edward F

    2016-10-01

    Overt thyroid dysfunction is recognized as a risk factor for neuropsychological deficits in aging populations, yet evidence for how changes in levels of circulatory thyroid hormones impact specific neuropsychological domains is limited. Here we report cross-sectional associations between serum thyroid hormone concentrations and several neuropsychological function domains among men and women aged 55-74years. We administered neuropsychological tests to assess memory, learning, executive function, measures of attention, visuospatial function, affective state, and motor function. Multivariable linear regression analyses were performed adjusting for age, sex, education, and cigarette smoking. Effects were reported as differences in test scores per one interquartile range (IQR) increase in hormone concentration. Higher total thyroxine (T4) and free thyroxine (fT4) were associated with improved visuospatial function, as measured by Block Design Subtest total scores; associated increments per IQR differences in T4 and fT4 were 15% and 19%, respectively (false discovery rate q-values <0.05). We also detected statistical interactions between age and fT4 for effects in tasks of memory and learning. Concurrent increases in age and fT4 were associated with deficits in memory and learning as measured by California Verbal Learning Test subtests (10% and 16% deficits in t-score and short delay free recall score, respectively). Our findings suggest that changes in thyroid hormones may have important implications for neuropsychological function in aging populations. Further large-scale studies with comprehensive thyroid function and neuropsychological outcome assessments are warranted to confirm these results.

  8. Relativistic Spin-Isospin Dependent Response Function of Nucleus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Liang-Gang; CHEN Wei; AI Bao-Quan; ZHENG Xiao-Ping; Masahiro Nakano

    2000-01-01

    A full relativistic formalism is employed to derive the relativistic particle-hole and delta-hole excitation polariza tion insertion of pion propagator in nuclear matter. The spin-isospin-dependent response function of nucleus at high energy-momentum transfer is calculated with the nuclear matter approximation. The short range correlation effect, two-nucleon absorption and nucleus form factor effects are included in the calculation. The position and width of the resonance peak of the spin-isospin mode are reproduced and found to be coincident with experiment data. The position of the peak and its width is sensitive to Landau-Migdal parameter g' which is about 0.6.

  9. Transverse momentum-dependent parton distribution functions in lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelhardt, Michael G. [New Mexico State University; Musch, Bernhard U. [Tech. University Munich; Haegler, Philipp G. [Tech. University Munich; Negele, John W. [MIT; Schaefer, Andreas [Regensburg

    2013-08-01

    A fundamental structural property of the nucleon is the distribution of quark momenta, both parallel as well as perpendicular to its propagation. Experimentally, this information is accessible via selected processes such as semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) and the Drell-Yan process (DY), which can be parametrized in terms of transversemomentum-dependent parton distributions (TMDs). On the other hand, these distribution functions can be extracted from nucleon matrix elements of a certain class of bilocal quark operators in which the quarks are connected by a staple-shaped Wilson line serving to incorporate initial state (DY) or final state (SIDIS) interactions. A scheme for evaluating such matrix elements within lattice QCD is developed. This requires casting the calculation in a particular Lorentz frame, which is facilitated by a parametrization of the matrix elements in terms of invariant amplitudes. Exploratory results are presented for the time-reversal odd Sivers and Boer-Mulders transverse momentum shifts.

  10. TonB-dependent transporters: regulation, structure, and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noinaj, Nicholas; Guillier, Maude; Barnard, Travis J; Buchanan, Susan K

    2010-01-01

    TonB-dependent transporters (TBDTs) are bacterial outer membrane proteins that bind and transport ferric chelates, called siderophores, as well as vitamin B(12), nickel complexes, and carbohydrates. The transport process requires energy in the form of proton motive force and a complex of three inner membrane proteins, TonB-ExbB-ExbD, to transduce this energy to the outer membrane. The siderophore substrates range in complexity from simple small molecules such as citrate to large proteins such as serum transferrin and hemoglobin. Because iron uptake is vital for almost all bacteria, expression of TBDTs is regulated in a number of ways that include metal-dependent regulators, σ/anti-σ factor systems, small RNAs, and even a riboswitch. In recent years, many new structures of TBDTs have been solved in various states, resulting in a more complete understanding of siderophore selectivity and binding, signal transduction across the outer membrane, and interaction with the TonB-ExbB-ExbD complex. However, the transport mechanism is still unclear. In this review, we summarize recent progress in understanding regulation, structure, and function in TBDTs and questions remaining to be answered.

  11. Ubiquitination-dependent mechanisms regulate synaptic growth and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiAntonio, A; Haghighi, A P; Portman, S L; Lee, J D; Amaranto, A M; Goodman, C S

    2001-07-26

    The covalent attachment of ubiquitin to cellular proteins is a powerful mechanism for controlling protein activity and localization. Ubiquitination is a reversible modification promoted by ubiquitin ligases and antagonized by deubiquitinating proteases. Ubiquitin-dependent mechanisms regulate many important processes including cell-cycle progression, apoptosis and transcriptional regulation. Here we show that ubiquitin-dependent mechanisms regulate synaptic development at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Neuronal overexpression of the deubiquitinating protease fat facets leads to a profound disruption of synaptic growth control; there is a large increase in the number of synaptic boutons, an elaboration of the synaptic branching pattern, and a disruption of synaptic function. Antagonizing the ubiquitination pathway in neurons by expression of the yeast deubiquitinating protease UBP2 (ref. 5) also produces synaptic overgrowth and dysfunction. Genetic interactions between fat facets and highwire, a negative regulator of synaptic growth that has structural homology to a family of ubiquitin ligases, suggest that synaptic development may be controlled by the balance between positive and negative regulators of ubiquitination.

  12. Stochastic Time-Dependent Current-Density Functional Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agosta, Roberto

    2008-03-01

    Static and dynamical density functional methods have been applied with a certain degree of success to a variety of closed quantum mechanical systems, i.e., systems that can be described via a Hamiltonian dynamics. However, the relevance of open quantum systems - those coupled to external environments, e.g., baths or reservoirs - cannot be overestimated. To investigate open quantum systems with DFT methods we have introduced a new theory, we have named Stochastic Time-Dependent Current Density Functional theory (S-TDCDFT) [1]: starting from a suitable description of the system dynamics via a stochastic Schrödinger equation [2], we have proven that given an initial quantum state and the coupling between the system and the environment, there is a one-to-one correspondence between the ensemble-averaged current density and the external vector potential applied to the system.In this talk, I will introduce the stochastic formalism needed for the description of open quantum systems, discuss in details the theorem of Stochastic TD-CDFT, and provide few examples of its applicability like the dissipative dynamics of excited systems, quantum-measurement theory and other applications relevant to charge and energy transport in nanoscale systems.[1] M. Di Ventra and R. D'Agosta, Physical Review Letters 98, 226403 (2007)[2] N.G. van Kampen, Stochastic processes in Physics and Chemistry, (North Holland, 2001), 2nd ed.

  13. Sex Dependence of Cognitive Functions in Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Suwalska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to assess the performance of lithium treated euthymic bipolar patients in tests measuring spatial working memory (SWM, planning, and verbal fluency and to delineate the influence of gender on cognitive functioning. Fifty-nine euthymic bipolar patients, treated with lithium carbonate for at least 5 yr, were studied. Patients and controls underwent a neuropsychological assessment. Bipolar patients had significantly worse results than the healthy controls in the spatial memory and planning as well as verbal fluency tests. We detected a gender-related imbalance in the SWM results. Deficits in SWM were observed in male-only comparisons but not in female-only comparisons. The SWM scores were significantly poorer in male patients than in male controls. In female-only comparisons, female patients did not have significantly poorer SWM results in any category than their controls. Bipolar women scored worse in some other tests. The present study points to the different patterns of neuropsychological disturbances in female and male patients and suggests that sex-dependent differences should be taken into account in order to tailor the therapeutic intervention aimed at the improvement of cognitive functions.

  14. Functional assessment of ubiquitin-depended processes under microgravity conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhabereva, Anastasia; Shenkman, Boris S.; Gainullin, Murat; Gurev, Eugeny; Kondratieva, Ekaterina; Kopylov, Arthur

    , were separated by SDS-PAGE and subjected for mass spectrometry-based analysis.With the described workflow, we identified more than 200 proteins including of 26S proteasome subunits, members of SUMO (Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier) family and ubiquitylated substrates. On the whole, our results provide an unbiased view of ubiquitylation state under microgravity conditions and thereby demonstrate the utility of proposed combination of analytical methods for functional assessment of ubiquitin-depended processes. Acknowledgment - We thank teams of Institute of Biomedical Problems of Russian Academy of Sciences and TsSKB “Progress” Samara for organization and preparation for spaceflight. This work is partially supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant12-04-01836).

  15. The Assimilation of Diazotroph-Derived Nitrogen by Scleractinian Corals Depends on Their Metabolic Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarz, Vanessa N; Grover, Renaud; Maguer, Jean-François; Fine, Maoz; Ferrier-Pagès, Christine

    2017-01-10

    Tropical corals are associated with a diverse community of dinitrogen (N2)-fixing prokaryotes (diazotrophs) providing the coral an additional source of bioavailable nitrogen (N) in oligotrophic waters. The overall activity of these diazotrophs changes depending on the current environmental conditions, but to what extent it affects the assimilation of diazotroph-derived N (DDN) by corals is still unknown. Here, in a series of (15)N2 tracer experiments, we directly quantified DDN assimilation by scleractinian corals from the Red Sea exposed to different environmental conditions. We show that DDN assimilation strongly varied with the corals' metabolic status or with phosphate availability in the water. The very autotrophic shallow-water (~5 m) corals showed low or no DDN assimilation, which significantly increased under elevated phosphate availability (3 µM). Corals that depended more on heterotrophy (i.e., bleached and deep-water [~45 m] corals) assimilated significantly more DDN, which contributed up to 15% of the corals' N demand (compared to 1% in shallow corals). Furthermore, we demonstrate that a substantial part of the DDN assimilated by deep corals was likely obtained from heterotrophic feeding on fixed N compounds and/or diazotrophic cells in the mucus. Conversely, in shallow corals, the net release of mucus, rich in organic carbon compounds, likely enhanced diazotroph abundance and activity and thereby the release of fixed N to the pelagic and benthic reef community. Overall, our results suggest that DDN assimilation by corals varies according to the environmental conditions and is likely linked to the capacity of the coral to acquire nutrients from seawater.

  16. The Assimilation of Diazotroph-Derived Nitrogen by Scleractinian Corals Depends on Their Metabolic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Renaud; Maguer, Jean-François; Fine, Maoz; Ferrier-Pagès, Christine

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tropical corals are associated with a diverse community of dinitrogen (N2)-fixing prokaryotes (diazotrophs) providing the coral an additional source of bioavailable nitrogen (N) in oligotrophic waters. The overall activity of these diazotrophs changes depending on the current environmental conditions, but to what extent it affects the assimilation of diazotroph-derived N (DDN) by corals is still unknown. Here, in a series of 15N2 tracer experiments, we directly quantified DDN assimilation by scleractinian corals from the Red Sea exposed to different environmental conditions. We show that DDN assimilation strongly varied with the corals’ metabolic status or with phosphate availability in the water. The very autotrophic shallow-water (~5 m) corals showed low or no DDN assimilation, which significantly increased under elevated phosphate availability (3 µM). Corals that depended more on heterotrophy (i.e., bleached and deep-water [~45 m] corals) assimilated significantly more DDN, which contributed up to 15% of the corals’ N demand (compared to 1% in shallow corals). Furthermore, we demonstrate that a substantial part of the DDN assimilated by deep corals was likely obtained from heterotrophic feeding on fixed N compounds and/or diazotrophic cells in the mucus. Conversely, in shallow corals, the net release of mucus, rich in organic carbon compounds, likely enhanced diazotroph abundance and activity and thereby the release of fixed N to the pelagic and benthic reef community. Overall, our results suggest that DDN assimilation by corals varies according to the environmental conditions and is likely linked to the capacity of the coral to acquire nutrients from seawater. PMID:28074021

  17. Predicting Functional Status Following Amputation After Lower Extremity Bypass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckow, Bjoern D.; Goodney, Philip P.; Cambria, Robert A.; Bertges, Daniel J.; Eldrup-Jorgensen, Jens; Indes, Jeffrey E.; Schanzer, Andres; Stone, David H.; Kraiss, Larry W.; Cronenwett, Jack L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Some patients who undergo lower extremity bypass (LEB) for critical limb ischemia ultimately require amputation. The functional outcome achieved by these patients after amputation is not well known. Therefore, we sought to characterize the functional outcome of patients who undergo amputation after LEB, and to describe the pre- and perioperative factors associated with independent ambulation at home after lower extremity amputation. Methods Within a cohort of 3,198 patients who underwent an LEB between January, 2003 and December, 2008, we studied 436 patients who subsequently received an above-knee (AK), below-knee (BK), or minor (forefoot or toe) ipsilateral or contralateral amputation. Our main outcome measure consisted of a “good functional outcome,” defined as living at home and ambulating independently. We calculated univariate and multivariate associations among patient characteristics and our main outcome measure, as well as overall survival. Results Of the 436 patients who underwent amputation within the first year following LEB, 224 of 436 (51.4%) had a minor amputation, 105 of 436 (24.1%) had a BK amputation, and 107 of 436 (24.5%) had an AK amputation. The majority of AK (75 of 107, 72.8%) and BK amputations (72 of 105, 70.6%) occurred in the setting of bypass graft thrombosis, whereas nearly all minor amputations (200 of 224, 89.7%) occurred with a patent bypass graft. By life-table analysis at 1 year, we found that the proportion of surviving patients with a good functional outcome varied by the presence and extent of amputation (proportion surviving with good functional outcome = 88% no amputation, 81% minor amputation, 55% BK amputation, and 45% AK amputation, p = 0.001). Among those analyzed at long-term follow-up, survival was slightly lower for those who had a minor amputation when compared with those who did not receive an amputation after LEB (81 vs. 88%, p = 0.02). Survival among major amputation patients did not significantly

  18. The dependence of water potential in shoots of Picea abies on air and soil water status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sellin

    Full Text Available Where there is sufficient water storage in the soil the water potential (Ψx in shoots of Norway spruce [Picea abies (L. Karst.] is strongly governed by the vapour pressure deficit of the atmosphere, while the mean minimum values of Ψx usually do not drop below –1.5 MPa under meteorological conditions in Estonia. If the base water potential (Ψb is above –0.62 MPa, the principal factor causing water deficiency in shoots of P. abies may be either limited soil water reserves or atmospheric evaporative demand depending on the current level of the vapour pressure deficit. As the soil dries the stomatal control becomes more efficient in preventing water losses from the foliage, and the leaf water status, in turn, less sensitive to atmospheric demand. Under drought conditions, if Ψb falls below –0.62 MPa, the trees' water stress is mainly caused by low soil water availability. Further declines in the shoot water potential (below –1.5 MPa can be attributed primarily to further decreases in the soil water, i.e. to the static water stress.Key words. Hydrology (evapotranspiration · plant ecology · soil moisture.

  19. sup 99m Tc renal tubular function agents: Current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eshima, D.; Fritzberg, A.R.; Taylor, A. Jr. (Emory Univ. School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Orthoiodohippuric (OIH) acid labeled with 131I is a widely used renal radiopharmaceutical agent and has been the standard radiopharmaceutical agent for the measurement of effective renal plasma flow (EPRF). Limitations to the routine clinical use of 131I OIH are related to the suboptimal imaging properties of the 131I radionuclide and its relatively high radiation dose. 123I has been substituted for 131I; however, its high cost and short shelf-life have limited its widespread use. Recent work has centered on the development of a new 99mTc renal tubular function agent, which would use the optimal radionuclidic properties and availability of 99mTc and combine the clinical information provided by OIH. The search for a suitable 99mTc renal tubular function agent has focused on the diamide dithiolate (N2S2), the paraaminohippuric iminodiacetic acid (PAHIDA), and the triamide mercaptide (N3S) donor ligand systems. To date, the most promising 99mTc tubular function agent is the N3S complex: 99mTc mercaptoacetyltriglycine (99mTc MAG3). Studies in animal models in diuresis, dehydration, acid or base imbalance, ischemia, and renal artery stenosis demonstrate that 99mTc MAG3 behaves similarly to 131I OIH. A simple kit formulation is available that yields the 99mTc MAG3 complex in high radiochemical purity. Studies in normal subjects and patients indicate that 99mTc MAG3 is an excellent 99mTc renal tubular agent, but its plasma clearance is only 50% to 60% that of OIH. In an effort to develop an improved 99mTc renal tubular function agent, changes have been made in the core N3S donor ligand system, but to date no agent has been synthesized that is clinically superior to 99mTc MAG3. 61 references.

  20. What Are the Links between Maternal Social Status, Hippocampal Function, and HPA Axis Function in Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Margaret A.; How, Joan; Araujo, Melanie; Schamberg, Michelle A.; Nelson, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    The association of parental social status with multiple health and achievement indicators in adulthood has driven researchers to attempt to identify mechanisms by which social experience in childhood could shift developmental trajectories. Some accounts for observed linkages between parental social status in childhood and health have hypothesized…

  1. Decay of autoionizing states in time-dependent density functional and reduced density matrix functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapoor, Varun; Brics, Martins; Bauer, Dieter [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Rostock, 18051 Rostock (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Autoionizing states are inaccessible to time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) using known, adiabatic Kohn-Sham (KS) potentials. We determine the exact KS potential for a numerically exactly solvable model Helium atom interacting with a laser field that is populating an autoionizing state. The exact single-particle density of the population in the autoionizing state corresponds to that of the energetically lowest quasi-stationary state in the exact KS potential. We describe how this exact potential controls the decay by a barrier whose height and width allows for the density to tunnel out and decay with the same rate as in the ab initio time-dependent Schroedinger calculation. However, devising a useful exchange-correlation potential that is capable of governing such a scenario in general and in more complex systems is hopeless. As an improvement over TDDFT, time-dependent reduced density matrix functional theory has been proposed. We are able to obtain for the above described autoionization process the exact time-dependent natural orbitals (i.e., the eigenfunctions of the exact, time-dependent one-body reduced density matrix) and study the potentials that appear in the equations of motion for the natural orbitals and the structure of the two-body density matrix expanded in them.

  2. [Dynamics of functional status of submarine personnel during the pre-deployment period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khankevich, Iu R; Bloshchinskiĭ, I A; Val'skiĭ, A V; Nabokov, N L

    2014-09-01

    Authors came to conclusions that during the pre-deployment period submarine personnel are stressed out. During this period submarine personnel .usually resupply, conduct maintenance and other monitoring-and-checkout measures, which leads to functional stress. Authors came to conclusion that it is necessary to use simple and easy, but at the same time informative methods for early diagnosis of worsen functional health status. One of these methods is evaluation of indicators of cardiovascular system. This method is a base for functional health status prophylaxis.

  3. On the disciplinary and functional status of economic lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Dictionaries of Economics in the broad sense of the word have existed in the European context for more than 300 years. The article shows how these dictionaries have been extremely flexible in their adaptation to the complex and ever changing needs of their users. The great differences in terms...... of name, size, content, style, and structure may, at least partially, be explained by this fact. In this respect, the article systematizes the functions registered in economic dictionaries during the past 300 years, and presents some suggestions for the immediate future of online dictionaries....

  4. Physiological assessment of military professional adaptation and organism functional status of higher military schools resident students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondrashov V.V.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of the study of organism functional status of resident students of military medical higher schools in different situations and modes of professional education (during their study day, round-the clock shifts in a clinic, duties, and an examination period in the process of military professional adaptation have been analyzed. The technique of functional body status optimization which takes into account both psycho-physiological specificity of military professional training as well as the regularities of psycho-physiologic reserve-capacity changes and military professional adaptation has been worked out. It constitutes the sum total of physiologically proved structural and functional components such as adaptation improvements, correction and recreation of functional body status

  5. FUNCTIONAL STATUS AFTER INTENSIVE CARE: A CHALLENGE FOR REHABILITATION PROFESSIONALS TO IMPROVE OUTCOME

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van der Schaaf; A. Beelen; D.A. Dongelmans; M.B. Vroom; F. Nollet

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine restrictions in daily functioning from a rehabilitation perspective in patients one year after discharge front the intensive care unit, and to identify prognostic factors for functional status. Design: Cross-sectional design. Patients: Consecutive patients who were admitted to

  6. Parenting, Family Socioeconomic Status, and Child Executive Functioning: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochette, Émilie; Bernier, Annie

    2014-01-01

    Family socioeconomic status (SES) and the quality of maternal behavior are among the few identified predictors of child executive functioning (EF), and they have often been found to have interactive rather than additive effects on other domains of child functioning. The purpose of this study was to explore their interactive effects in the…

  7. How Socioeconomic Status, Executive Functioning and Verbal Interactions Contribute to Early Academic Achievement in Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kevin K. H.; Liu, Hongyun; McBride, Catherine; Wong, Anita M. -Y.; Lo, Jason C. M.

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the relative importance of executive functioning, parent-child verbal interactions, phonological awareness and visual skills on reading and mathematics for Chinese children from low-versus middle-socio economic status (SES) backgrounds. A total of 199 kindergarten children were assessed on executive functioning,…

  8. [Pulmonary function testing in Japan: present status and new developments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tojo, Naoko

    2012-09-01

    In 2004, the Japanese Respiratory Society issued an initial set of recommendations on the standardized measurement of the most frequently used tests for pulmonary function, i.e., tests to assess slow vital capacity, forced vital capacity, and single-breath carbon monoxide diffusing capacity. This statement has not been updated, and the prediction equations for pulmonary function testing are not fully established. Thus, the guidelines will need to be periodically updated in accordance with new developments in this rapidly evolving field. Nitric oxide (NO) is now recognized as a biological mediator in animals and humans. The human lung produces NO and exhales it in breath. The fractional nitric oxide (NO) concentration in exhaled breath (FE(NO)) can be quantitatively measured by a simple, safe, and noninvasive procedure as a complementary tool for assessing airway inflammation in airway diseases such as asthma. While the measurement of exhaled NO is standardized for clinical use, FE(NO) measurement is not approved or covered under the public health insurance system in Japan.

  9. Socioeconomic status, lung function and admission to hospital for COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, E; Lange, P; Vestbo, J

    1999-01-01

    This study analysed the effect of education and income on development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) assessing lung function and hospital admission. The study population consisted of 14,223 subjects, aged 20-90 yrs, randomly sampled from the population of Copenhagen in 1976...... and duration of smoking and inhalation, the difference was 220+/-31 mL and 363+/-39 mL in females and males, respectively. Results for FVC were of the same magnitude. Using a socioeconomic index which combined information on education and household income the association with lung function did not differ...... index in females were 0.74 (0.55-1.02) and 0.27 (0.10-0.73), respectively. Corresponding relative risks in males were 0.47 (0.36-0.63) and 0.35 (0.17-0.70). The results indicate that socioeconomic factors operating from early in life affect the adult risk of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary...

  10. Effect of Early Rehabilitation during Intensive Care Unit Stay on Functional Status: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Avila, Ana Cristina; Serón, Pamela; Fan, Eddy; Gaete, Mónica; Mickan, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Critically ill survivors may have functional impairments even five years after hospital discharge. To date there are four systematic reviews suggesting a beneficial impact for mobilisation in mechanically ventilated and intensive care unit (ICU) patients, however there is limited information about the influence of timing, frequency and duration of sessions. Earlier mobilisation during ICU stay may lead to greater benefits. This study aims to determine the effect of early rehabilitation for functional status in ICU/high-dependency unit (HDU) patients. Systematic review and meta-analysis. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINALH, PEDro, Cochrane Library, AMED, ISI web of science, Scielo, LILACS and several clinical trial registries were searched for randomised and non-randomised clinical trials of rehabilitation compared to usual care in adult patients admitted to an ICU/HDU. Results were screened by two independent reviewers. Primary outcome was functional status. Secondary outcomes were walking ability, muscle strength, quality of life, and healthcare utilisation. Data extraction and methodological quality assessment using the PEDro scale was performed by primary reviewer and checked by two other reviewers. The authors of relevant studies were contacted to obtain missing data. 5733 records were screened. Seven articles were included in the narrative synthesis and six in the meta-analysis. Early rehabilitation had no significant effect on functional status, muscle strength, quality of life, or healthcare utilisation. However, early rehabilitation led to significantly more patients walking without assistance at hospital discharge (risk ratio 1.42; 95% CI 1.17-1.72). There was a non-significant effect favouring intervention for walking distance and incidence of ICU-acquired weakness. Early rehabilitation during ICU stay was not associated with improvements in functional status, muscle strength, quality of life or healthcare utilisation outcomes, although it seems to improve walking

  11. Effect of Early Rehabilitation during Intensive Care Unit Stay on Functional Status: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Castro-Avila

    Full Text Available Critically ill survivors may have functional impairments even five years after hospital discharge. To date there are four systematic reviews suggesting a beneficial impact for mobilisation in mechanically ventilated and intensive care unit (ICU patients, however there is limited information about the influence of timing, frequency and duration of sessions. Earlier mobilisation during ICU stay may lead to greater benefits. This study aims to determine the effect of early rehabilitation for functional status in ICU/high-dependency unit (HDU patients.Systematic review and meta-analysis. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINALH, PEDro, Cochrane Library, AMED, ISI web of science, Scielo, LILACS and several clinical trial registries were searched for randomised and non-randomised clinical trials of rehabilitation compared to usual care in adult patients admitted to an ICU/HDU. Results were screened by two independent reviewers. Primary outcome was functional status. Secondary outcomes were walking ability, muscle strength, quality of life, and healthcare utilisation. Data extraction and methodological quality assessment using the PEDro scale was performed by primary reviewer and checked by two other reviewers. The authors of relevant studies were contacted to obtain missing data.5733 records were screened. Seven articles were included in the narrative synthesis and six in the meta-analysis. Early rehabilitation had no significant effect on functional status, muscle strength, quality of life, or healthcare utilisation. However, early rehabilitation led to significantly more patients walking without assistance at hospital discharge (risk ratio 1.42; 95% CI 1.17-1.72. There was a non-significant effect favouring intervention for walking distance and incidence of ICU-acquired weakness.Early rehabilitation during ICU stay was not associated with improvements in functional status, muscle strength, quality of life or healthcare utilisation outcomes, although it seems to

  12. Quantifying Health Status and Function in Marfan Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Sandesh S; Venuti, Kristen D; Dietz, Harry C; Sponseller, Paul D

    2016-01-01

    Two hundred thirty patients were prospectively enrolled in this study and completed various portions of the Short Form 36 and a study-specific questionnaire (visual analog scale 1 to 10, comprising three separate questionnaires) to evaluate quality of life and function in patients with Marfan syndrome. The greatest health concern was cardiac problems (high in 70% of patients), followed by spine issues and generalized fatigue (both high, in 53%). The most severe reported pain involved the back: 105 patients (46%) rated pain as 6 to 10 on the visual analog scale. Among the 72 patients who responded to work life questions, work hours were reduced because of treatment in 59 (82%) or directly because of Marfan syndrome in 29 (40%). Across all Short Form 36 domains, patients scored significantly lower than United States population norms (p<.05); physical health scores were considerably lower than mental health scores.

  13. Controlling Time-Dependent Confounding by Health Status and Frailty: Restriction Versus Statistical Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Leah J; Ellis, Alan R; Brookhart, M Alan

    2015-07-01

    Nonexperimental studies of preventive interventions are often biased because of the healthy-user effect and, in frail populations, because of confounding by functional status. Bias is evident when estimating influenza vaccine effectiveness, even after adjustment for claims-based indicators of illness. We explored bias reduction methods while estimating vaccine effectiveness in a cohort of adult hemodialysis patients. Using the United States Renal Data System and linked data from a commercial dialysis provider, we estimated vaccine effectiveness using a Cox proportional hazards marginal structural model of all-cause mortality before and during 3 influenza seasons in 2005/2006 through 2007/2008. To improve confounding control, we added frailty indicators to the model, measured time-varying confounders at different time intervals, and restricted the sample in multiple ways. Crude and baseline-adjusted marginal structural models remained strongly biased. Restricting to a healthier population removed some unmeasured confounding; however, this reduced the sample size, resulting in wide confidence intervals. We estimated an influenza vaccine effectiveness of 9% (hazard ratio = 0.91, 95% confidence interval: 0.72, 1.15) when bias was minimized through cohort restriction. In this study, the healthy-user bias could not be controlled through statistical adjustment; however, sample restriction reduced much of the bias.

  14. Functional status of United States children supported with a left ventricular assist device at heart transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulic, Anica; Maeda, Katsuhide; Zhang, Yulin; Chen, Sharon; McElhinney, Doff B; Dykes, John C; Hollander, Amanda M; Hollander, Seth A; Murray, Jenna; Reinhartz, Olaf; Gowan, Mary Alice; Rosenthal, David N; Almond, Christopher S

    2017-08-01

    As survival with pediatric left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) has improved, decisions regarding the optimal support strategy may depend more on quality of life and functional status (FS) rather than mortality alone. Limited data are available regarding the FS of children supported with LVADs. We sought to compare the FS of children supported with LVADs vs vasoactive infusions to inform decision making around support strategies. Organ Procurement and Transplant Network data were used to identify all United States children aged between 1 and 21 years at heart transplant (HT) between 2006 and 2015 for dilated cardiomyopathy and supported with an LVAD or vasoactive infusions alone at HT. FS was measured using the 10-point Karnofsky and Lansky scale. Of 701 children who met the inclusion criteria, 430 (61%) were supported with vasoactive infusions, and 271 (39%) were supported with an LVAD at HT. Children in the LVAD group had higher median FS scores at HT than children in the vasoactive infusion group (6 vs 5, p < 0.001) but lower FS scores at listing (4 vs 6, p < 0.001). The effect persisted regardless of patient location at HT (home, hospital, intensive care) or device type. Discharge by HT occurred in 46% of children in the LVAD group compared with 26% of children in the vasoactive infusion cohort (p = 0.001). Stroke was reported at HT in 3% of children in the LVAD cohort and in 1% in the vasoactive infusion cohort (p = 0.04). Among children with dilated cardiomyopathy undergoing HT, children supported with LVADs at HT have higher FS than children supported with vasoactive infusions at HT, regardless of device type or hospitalization status. Children supported with LVADs at HT were more likely to be discharged from the hospital but had a higher prevalence of stroke at HT. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Functional Characterization of Pseudomonas Contact Dependent Growth Inhibition (CDI) Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercy, Chryslène; Ize, Bérengère; Salcedo, Suzana P; de Bentzmann, Sophie; Bigot, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Contact-dependent inhibition (CDI) toxins, delivered into the cytoplasm of target bacterial cells, confer to host strain a significant competitive advantage. Upon cell contact, the toxic C-terminal region of surface-exposed CdiA protein (CdiA-CT) inhibits the growth of CDI- bacteria. CDI+ cells express a specific immunity protein, CdiI, which protects from autoinhibition by blocking the activity of cognate CdiA-CT. CdiA-CT are separated from the rest of the protein by conserved peptide motifs falling into two distinct classes, the "E. coli"- and "Burkholderia-type". CDI systems have been described in numerous species except in Pseudomonadaceae. In this study, we identified functional toxin/immunity genes linked to CDI systems in the Pseudomonas genus, which extend beyond the conventional CDI classes by the variability of the peptide motif that delimits the polymorphic CdiA-CT domain. Using P. aeruginosa PAO1 as a model, we identified the translational repressor RsmA as a negative regulator of CDI systems. Our data further suggest that under conditions of expression, P. aeruginosa CDI systems are implicated in adhesion and biofilm formation and provide an advantage in competition assays. All together our data imply that CDI systems could play an important role in niche adaptation of Pseudomonadaceae.

  16. Size Bounds for Conjunctive Queries with General Functional Dependencies

    CERN Document Server

    Valiant, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    This paper resolves the main open question left by Gottlob, Lee, and Valiant (PODS 2009)[GLV09], establishing tight worst-case bounds for the size of the result Q(D) of a conjunctive query Q to a database D given an arbitrary set of functional dependencies. We show that the lower bound presented in [GLV09] in which the variables of the query are "colored" so as to yield a coloring number C(Q) for each query Q is, in fact, also an upper bound. To show this, we formalize the original intuition that each color used represents some possible entropy of that variable, and express the maximum possible size increase as a linear program that seeks to maximize how much more entropy is in the result of the query than the input. Although this linear program has exponentially many variables, we also show that we can decide in polynomial time whether the result can be any larger than the input database.

  17. Functional Fixedness in Creative Thinking Tasks Depends on Stimulus Modality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysikou, Evangelia G; Motyka, Katharine; Nigro, Cristina; Yang, Song-I; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L

    2016-11-01

    Pictorial examples during creative thinking tasks can lead participants to fixate on these examples and reproduce their elements even when yielding suboptimal creative products. Semantic memory research may illuminate the cognitive processes underlying this effect. Here, we examined whether pictures and words differentially influence access to semantic knowledge for object concepts depending on whether the task is close- or open-ended. Participants viewed either names or pictures of everyday objects, or a combination of the two, and generated common, secondary, or ad hoc uses for them. Stimulus modality effects were assessed quantitatively through reaction times and qualitatively through a novel coding system, which classifies creative output on a continuum from top-down-driven to bottom-up-driven responses. Both analyses revealed differences across tasks. Importantly, for ad hoc uses, participants exposed to pictures generated more top-down-driven responses than those exposed to object names. These findings have implications for accounts of functional fixedness in creative thinking, as well as theories of semantic memory for object concepts.

  18. Simple preconditioning for time-dependent density functional perturbation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtovaara, Lauri; Marques, Miguel A. L.

    2011-07-01

    By far, the most common use of time-dependent density functional theory is in the linear-reponse regime, where it provides information about electronic excitations. Ideally, the linear-response equations should be solved by a method that avoids the use of the unoccupied Kohn-Sham states — such as the Sternheimer method — as this reduces the complexity and increases the precision of the calculation. However, the Sternheimer equation becomes ill-conditioned near and indefinite above the first resonant frequency, seriously hindering the use of efficient iterative solution methods. To overcome this serious limitation, and to improve the general convergence properties of the iterative techniques, we propose a simple preconditioning strategy. In our method, the Sternheimer equation is solved directly as a linear equation using an iterative Krylov subspace method, i.e., no self-consistent cycle is required. Furthermore, the preconditioner uses the information of just a few unoccupied states and requires simple and minimal modifications to existing implementations. In this way, convergence can be reached faster and in a considerably wider frequency range than the traditional approach.

  19. Developing Students' Reflections on the Function and Status of Mathematical Modeling in Different Scientific Practices: History as a Provider of Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjeldsen, Tinne Hoff; Blomhøj, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical models and mathematical modeling play different roles in the different areas and problems in which they are used. The function and status of mathematical modeling and models in the different areas depend on the scientific practice as well as the underlying philosophical and theoretical position held by the modeler(s) and the…

  20. Functional status in rate- versus rhythm-control strategies for atrial fibrillation: results of the Atrial Fibrillation Follow-Up Investigation of Rhythm Management (AFFIRM) Functional Status Substudy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Mina K; Shemanski, Lynn; Sherman, David G; Greene, H Leon; Hogan, David B; Kellen, Joyce C; Kim, Soo G; Martin, Lisa Warsinger; Rosenberg, Yves; Wyse, D George

    2005-11-15

    The Atrial Fibrillation Follow-up Investigation of Rhythm Management (AFFIRM) functional status substudy aimed to test the hypothesis that functional status is similar in rate-control and rhythm-control strategies. Randomized studies, including the AFFIRM study, have failed to demonstrate survival benefits between rate-control and rhythm-control strategies for atrial fibrillation (AF). However, AF may cause functional capacity or cognitive impairment that might justify maintenance of sinus rhythm. Investigators of the AFFIRM study enrolled 4,060 patients with AF who required long-term therapy and who were 65 years of age or older or who had another risk factor for stroke or death. New York Heart Association functional class (NYHA-FC) and Canadian Cardiovascular Society Angina Classification were assessed at initial and each follow-up visit. From 22 randomly chosen functional status substudy sites, 245 participants underwent 6-min walk tests and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at initial, two-month, and yearly visits. Patients were assigned randomly to rate-controlling drugs, allowing AF to persist, or rhythm-controlling antiarrhythmic drugs, to maintain sinus rhythm. The NYHA-FC worsened with time in both rate-control and rhythm-control groups, with no differences between groups. Presence of AF was associated with worse NYHA-FC (p Society Angina Classification or MMSE scores. Six-minute walk distance improved over time in both study arms. On average, walk distance was 94 feet greater in the rhythm-control group (adjusted p = 0.049). Modest improvement in 6-min walk distance was noted in the rhythm-control arm. Presence of AF was associated with worse NYHA-FC. No difference in cognitive function was detected.

  1. Quantum Drude friction for time-dependent density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhauser, Daniel; Lopata, Kenneth

    2008-10-01

    way to very simple finite grid description of scattering and multistage conductance using time-dependent density functional theory away from the linear regime, just as absorbing potentials and self-energies are useful for noninteracting systems and leads.

  2. Functional status of liverin conditions of radiation and chemical exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Severynovs’ka

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic influences of low-intensity X-rays in doses of 0.15 and 0.25 Gr and mix of heavy metals salts in a dose of 2 EPC (extreme permissible concentrations for each metal, as a single factor or as a combination of factors, on the state of pro-/antioxidative system in a rat liver have been studied. Analysis of the data concerning combined influences allows to conclude that effects under these doses have some differences: a splash of processes of lipid peroxidation are observed in both causes, but under the lower dose an additivity takes place, and under the dose of 0.25 Gr a synergism of the agent effects in relation to the development of peroxidative reactions is registered. The results testify that technogenic contamination of water with heavy metals worsens the action of radiation factor, specifically, eliminates a hormetic splash of antioxidative activity at 0.15 Gr. Biochemical indexes of the liver activity, as a central organ of a general metabolism, and a structure of morbidity have been studied in liquidators of the Chernobyl accident from industrial Prydnieprovie region. Disturbances of liver functions have been shown, especially in persons obtained the exposure dose about 0.25 Gr. A comparison of these results and data of tests with laboratory animals reveals their mutual accordance and supports a relevancy of extrapolation of data of model experiments on a person health state, which undergone a similar influence.

  3. Sex-dependent association between omega-3 index and body weight status in older Australians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwina Mingay

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: Omega-3 status was associated with weight status, particularly in older women but not in men. These results suggest the need for sex-based intervention trials to examine the role of dietary intake and/or supplementation of LCn-3PUFA in weight management of older adults.

  4. Active matrix metalloproteinase-8 and periodontal bacteria depending on periodontal status in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, A; Jäger, J; Krohn-Grimberghe, B; Patschan, S; Kottmann, T; Schmalz, G; Mausberg, R F; Haak, R; Ziebolz, D

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this clinical cross-sectional study was to determine the level of active matrix metalloproteinase-8 (aMMP-8) and periodontal pathogenic bacteria in gingival crevicular fluid in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with varying periodontal conditions. In total, 103 patients with RA and 104 healthy controls (HC) were included. The assessment of periodontal status included periodontal probing depth, bleeding on probing and clinical attachment loss. Periodontal disease was classified as healthy/mild, moderate or severe. For the determination of aMMP-8 levels using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and periodontal pathogenic bacteria using polymerase chain reaction, samples of gingival crevicular fluid were taken from the deepest gingival pockets. The statistical analyses used included a Mann-Whitney U-test, a chi-squared test or a Fisher's exact test, and the significance level was set at α = 5%. We found that 65% of patients with RA and 79% of HC had moderate to severe periodontal disease (p = 0.02). The prevalence of periodontal pathogens was almost equal (p > 0.05). Furthermore, depending on periodontal disease severity only minor differences in bacterial prevalence were detected. With increasing severity of periodontal disease, higher aMMP-8 levels were observed. Accordingly, a significant difference in patients with moderate periodontal disease (RA: 15.3 ± 13.8; HC: 9.1 ± 9.1; p ≤ 0.01) and severe periodontal disease (RA: 21.7 ± 13.3; HC: 13.1 ± 8.6; p = 0.07) was detected, with a greater tendency in the latter group. The increased aMMP-8 levels in the RA group indicate that the presence of RA appears to have an influence on the host response at a comparable level of bacterial load and periodontal disease severity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Method of Fusion Diagnosis for Dam Service Status Based on Joint Distribution Function of Multiple Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenxiang Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional methods of diagnosing dam service status are always suitable for single measuring point. These methods also reflect the local status of dams without merging multisource data effectively, which is not suitable for diagnosing overall service. This study proposes a new method involving multiple points to diagnose dam service status based on joint distribution function. The function, including monitoring data of multiple points, can be established with t-copula function. Therefore, the possibility, which is an important fusing value in different measuring combinations, can be calculated, and the corresponding diagnosing criterion is established with typical small probability theory. Engineering case study indicates that the fusion diagnosis method can be conducted in real time and the abnormal point can be detected, thereby providing a new early warning method for engineering safety.

  6. Bone T-scores and functional status: a cross-sectional study on German elderly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoma Berkemeyer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We explore the association between bone T-scores, used in osteoporosis diagnosis, and functional status since we hypothesized that bone health can impact elderly functional status and indirectly independence. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study (2005-2006 on community dwelling elderly (> = 75 years from Herne, Germany we measured bone T-scores with Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry, and functional status indexed by five geriatric tests: activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living, test of dementia, geriatric depression score and the timed-up-and-go test, and two pooled indexes: raw and standardized. Generalized linear regression was used to determine the relationship between T-scores and functional status. RESULTS: From 3243 addresses, only 632 (19% completed a clinical visit, of which only 440 (male:female, 243:197 could be included in analysis. T-scores (-0.99, 95% confidence interval [CI], -1.1-0.9 predicted activities of daily living (95.3 CI, 94.5-96.2, instrumental activities of daily living (7.3 CI, 94.5-96.2, and timed-up-and-go test (10.7 CI, 10.0-11.3 (P < = 0.05. Pooled data showed that a unit improvement in T-score improved standardized pooled functional status (15 CI, 14.7-15.3 by 0.41 and the raw (99.4 CI, 97.8-101.0 by 2.27 units. These results were limited due to pooling of different scoring directions, selection bias, and a need to follow-up with evidence testing. CONCLUSIONS: T-scores associated with lower functional status in community-dwelling elderly. Regular screening of osteoporosis as a preventive strategy might help maintain life quality with aging.

  7. Systemic Inflammation in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: Association with Muscle Function and Nutritional Status

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    Oriana del Rocío Cruz-Guzmán

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation described in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD may be related to loss of muscle function or to obesity. It is unknown if circulating proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1, and TNF-α levels are associated with muscle function. The purpose was to evaluate whether an association exists between systemic inflammation with muscle function and nutritional status in DMD patients. In 66 DMD patients without corticosteroid treatment, the following were evaluated in serum: cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-α, C-reactive protein (CRP, leptin, adiponectin, and creatine kinase (CK. Muscle function was evaluated using Vignos Scale. Patients with better muscle function had the highest concentration of CK, IL-1, and TNF-α compared with less muscle function. No differences in IL-6 and adiponectin concentration were identified among groups with different levels of muscle function. Also, no differences were observed in the concentration of cytokines among groups with different nutritional status levels (underweight, normal weight, and overweight/obese. However, CRP and leptin were increased in the obese group compared with normal and underweight subjects. Systemic inflammation is increased in patients with better muscle function and decreases in DMD patients with poorer muscle function; nevertheless, systemic inflammation is similar among different levels of nutritional status in DMD patients.

  8. Systemic Inflammation in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: Association with Muscle Function and Nutritional Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Guzmán, Oriana del Rocío; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Escobar Cedillo, Rosa Elena

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation described in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) may be related to loss of muscle function or to obesity. It is unknown if circulating proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1, and TNF-α) levels are associated with muscle function. The purpose was to evaluate whether an association exists between systemic inflammation with muscle function and nutritional status in DMD patients. In 66 DMD patients without corticosteroid treatment, the following were evaluated in serum: cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-α), C-reactive protein (CRP), leptin, adiponectin, and creatine kinase (CK). Muscle function was evaluated using Vignos Scale. Patients with better muscle function had the highest concentration of CK, IL-1, and TNF-α compared with less muscle function. No differences in IL-6 and adiponectin concentration were identified among groups with different levels of muscle function. Also, no differences were observed in the concentration of cytokines among groups with different nutritional status levels (underweight, normal weight, and overweight/obese). However, CRP and leptin were increased in the obese group compared with normal and underweight subjects. Systemic inflammation is increased in patients with better muscle function and decreases in DMD patients with poorer muscle function; nevertheless, systemic inflammation is similar among different levels of nutritional status in DMD patients. PMID:26380303

  9. Man-wetland dependency and socio-economic evaluation of wetland functions of rural India through participatory approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malabika Biswas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands are almost the exclusive source of natural resources upon which rural economic depend. In fact wetlands are generally highly productive eco-systems, providing many important benefits. These benefits are mainly flood control and ground water recharging and pollution reduction and act as filtering aquatic system. Wetland, however, contains numerous goods and services that have an economic value not only to the local populations, but also to people living outside the periphery of the wetland. Stakeholders’ participation is very essential to protect and preserve wetland because it plays a very important role economically as well as ecologically in the wetland system. The objective of the present paper is to analyze whether there is any dependency of the gender, educational status, mouzas (Mouzas are constituents of a block according to land reform of West Bengal Government in India and wetland functions on annual income of the local community. Considering a flood-plain wetland in rural India, the focus is extended to recognize the pattern of wetland functions according to the nature of involvement of people through cluster analysis for the male and the female population. Using the statistical software, R-2.8.1, ANOVA table is constructed. Since the p-value is lower than 0.5 for each case, it can be remarked that there is a significance dependency of gender, educational status, mouzas, and wetland functions on annual income. However, S-plus-2000 is applied to get a complete scenario of pattern of the wetland functions, in terms of involvement of males and females, through the cluster analysis. The main conclusion is that, the significance effects of gender, educational status, mouzas, and wetland function on annual income have been found to be satisfactory while the pattern of occupation of the local community based on wetland functions is completely different for the male and the female population.

  10. Lifestyle Engagement Affects Cognitive Status Differences and Trajectories on Executive Functions in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Frias, Cindy M.; Dixon, Roger A.

    2014-01-01

    The authors first examined the concurrent moderating role of lifestyle engagement on the relation between cognitive status (cognitively elite, cognitively normal [CN], and cognitively impaired [CI]) and executive functioning (EF) in older adults. Second, the authors examined whether baseline participation in lifestyle activities predicted differential 4.5-year stabilities and transitions in cognitive status. Participants (initial N = 501; 53–90 years) were from the Victoria Longitudinal Study. EF was represented by a 1-factor structure. Lifestyle activities were measured in multiple domains of engagement (e.g., cognitive, physical, and social). Two-wave status stability groups included sustained normal aging, transitional early impairment, and chronic impairment. Hierarchical regressions showed that baseline participation in social activities moderated cognitive status differences in EF. CI adults with high (but not low) social engagement performed equivalently to CN adults on EF. Longitudinally, logistic regressions showed that engagement in physical activities was a significant predictor of stability of cognitive status. CI adults who were more engaged in physical activities were more likely to improve in their cognitive status over time than their more sedentary peers. Participation in cognitive activities was a significant predictor of maintenance in a higher cognitive status group. Given that lifestyle engagement plays a detectable role in healthy, normal, and impaired neuropsychological aging, further research in activity-related associations and interventions is recommended. PMID:24323561

  11. Relativistic Adiabatic Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory Using Hybrid Functionals and Noncollinear Spin Magnetization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bast, Radovan; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aagaard; Saue, Trond

    2009-01-01

    We report an implementation of adiabatic time-dependent density functional theory based on the 4-component relativistic Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian and a closed-shell reference. The implementation includes noncollinear spin magnetization and full derivatives of functionals, including hybrid...... and time reversal symmetry on trial vectors to obtain even better reductions in terms of memory and run time, and without invoking approximations. Further reductions are obtained by exploiting point group symmetries for D2h and subgroups in a symmetry scheme where symmetry reductions translate...... into reduction of algebra from quaternion to complex or real. For hybrid GGAs with noncollinear spin magnetization we derive a new computationally advantageous equation for the full second variational derivatives of such exchange-correlation functionals. We apply our implementation to calculations on the ns2...

  12. Microenvironment Dependent Photobiomodulation on Function-Specific Signal Transduction Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timon Cheng-Yi Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular photobiomodulation on a cellular function has been shown to be homeostatic. Its function-specific pathway mechanism would be further discussed in this paper. The signal transduction pathways maintaining a normal function in its function-specific homeostasis (FSH, resisting the activation of many other irrelative signal transduction pathways, are so sparse that it can be supposed that there may be normal function-specific signal transduction pathways (NSPs. A low level laser irradiation or monochromatic light may promote the activation of partially activated NSP and/or its redundant NSP so that it may induce the second-order phase transition of a function from its dysfunctional one far from its FSH to its normal one in a function-specific microenvironment and may also induce the first-order functional phase transition of the normal function from low level to high level.

  13. Loss of olfactory function and nutritional status in vital older adults and geriatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, Nicole; de Roon, Margot; van Campen, Jos P C M; Kremer, Stefanie; Boesveldt, Sanne

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the association of olfactory function and nutritional status in vital older adults and geriatric patients. Three hundred forty-five vital (mean age 67.1 years) and 138 geriatric older adults (mean age 80.9 years) were included. Nutritional status was assessed using the mini nutritional assessment-short form. The Sniffin' Sticks was used to measure olfactory function. Eleven percentage of the vital older adults were at risk of malnutrition, whereas 60% of the geriatric participants were malnourished or at risk. Only 2% of the vital older adults were anosmic, compared with 46% of the geriatric participants. Linear regression demonstrated a significant association (P = 0.015) between olfactory function and nutritional status in the geriatric subjects. However, this association became insignificant after adjustment for confounders. Both crude and adjusted analysis in the vital older adults did not show a significant association. The results indicate that, in both groups of elderly, there is no direct relation between olfactory function and nutritional status. We suggest that a decline in olfactory function may still be considered as one of the risk-factors for malnutrition in geriatric patients-once co-occurring with other mental and/or physical problems that are more likely to occur in those patients experience.

  14. Depression and Functional Status Among African American Stroke Survivors in Inpatient Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Gabrielle M; Collins-McNeil, Janice; Yang, Qing; Nguyen, Vu Q C; Hirsch, Mark A; Rhoads, Charles F; Guerrier, Tami; Thomas, J George; Pugh, Terrence M; Hamm, Deanna; Pereira, Carol; Prvu Bettger, Janet

    2017-01-01

    To examine the prevalence of poststroke depression (PSD) among African American stroke survivors and the association of depression with functional status at inpatient rehabilitation facility (IRF) discharge. Secondary data analysis was conducted of a patient cohort who received care at 3 IRFs in the United States from 2009 to 2011. Functional status was measured by the Functional Independence Measure (FIM). Multiple linear regression models were used to examine associations of PSD and FIM motor and cognitive scores. Of 458 African American stroke survivors, 48.5% were female, 84% had an ischemic stroke, and the mean age was 60.8 ± 13.6 years. Only 15.4% (n = 71) had documentation of PSD. Bivariate analyses to identify factors associated with depression identified a higher percentage of patients with depression than without who were retired due to disability (17.1% versus 11.6%) or employed (31.4% versus 19.6%) prestroke (P = .041). Dysphagia, cognitive deficits, and a lower admission motor FIM score were also significantly more common among those with depression. There was no significant relationship between depression and functional status after adjusting for patient characteristics. In this study, 15% of the African Americans who received rehabilitation after a stroke had documentation of PSD but this was not associated with functional status at discharge. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. State-dependent Jastrow correlation functions for $^{4}He$ nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Guardiola, R

    1998-01-01

    We calculate the ground-state energy for the nucleus 4He with V4 nucleon interactions, making use of a Jastrow description of the corresponding wavefunction with state-dependent correlation factors. The effect related to the state dependence of the correlation is quite important, lowering the upper bound for the ground-state energy by some 2 MeV.

  16. Health-Related Quality of Life, Functional Status, and Cardiac Event-Free Survival in Patients With Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jia-Rong; Lennie, Terry A; Frazier, Susan K; Moser, Debra K

    2016-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL), functional status, and cardiac event-free survival are outcomes used to assess the effectiveness of interventions in patients with heart failure (HF). However, the nature of the relationships among HRQOL, functional status, and cardiac event-free survival remains unclear. The purpose of this study is to examine the nature of the relationships among HRQOL, functional status, and cardiac event-free survival in patients with HF. This was a prospective, observational study of 313 patients with HF that was a secondary analysis from a registry. At baseline, patient demographic and clinical data were collected. Health-related quality of life was assessed using the Minnesota Living With Heart Failure Questionnaire and functional status was measured using the Duke Activity Status Index. Cardiac event-free survival data were obtained by patient interview, hospital database, and death certificate review. Multiple linear and Cox regressions were used to explore the relationships among HRQOL, functional status, and cardiac event-free survival while adjusting for demographic and clinical factors. Participants (n = 313) were men (69%), white (79%), and aged 62 ± 11 years. Mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 35% ± 14%. The mean HRQOL score of 32.3 ± 20.6 indicated poor HRQOL. The mean Duke Activity Status Index score of 16.2 ± 12.9 indicated poor functional status. Cardiac event-free survival was significantly worse in patients who had worse HRQOL or poorer functional status. Patients who had better functional status had better HRQOL (P quality of life was not a significant predictor of cardiac event-free survival after entering functional status in the model (P = .54), demonstrating that it was a mediator of the relationship between HRQOL and outcome. Functional status was a mediator between HRQOL and cardiac event-free survival. These data suggest that intervention studies to improve functional status are needed.

  17. Risk factors of perinatal and obstetric pathology depending on cytokines and oxidative status of a pregnant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiridonava Ye.V.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine risk factors for perinatal damage in newborns depending on the level of cytokines secretion and nitrate/nitrite amount in the amniotic mileu. A total of 464 patients were examined. The content of IL-1І, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IFN-і, TNF-± in the amniotic fluid were determined by ELISA, evaluation of nitrate and nitrite amount was performed by Griess reaction in Veremey et al. modification. Outcomes of labor, neonatal status and morphological structure of placentas were studied. To determine the risk factors odds ratios (OR for delivery outcomes, perinatal pathology and damage the placenta were calculated. It was found that the exacerbation of chronic pyelonephritis during pregnancy increases the odds of perinatal pathology of the nervous system by 9.6 times ([95% CI 3.8, 17.0], p=0.008 and low birth weight – by 13.2 ([95% CI 4.3, 25.3]; p=0.03]. The syndrome of "short" cervix during pregnancy increases the odds of respiratory distress syndrome by 8.0 times ([95% CI 2.2, 16.7], p=0.019, perinatal pathology of the nervous system by 11.4 ([95% CI 2.8, 17.3], p=0.005. Acute respiratory infections up to 18 weeks increase the or of respiratory distress syndrome by 27.6 ([95% CI 11.7, 46.2], p=0.021, fetal growth retardation by 11.0 times ([95% CI 2 0, 21.6], p=0.006. Preterm delivery and implementation of intrauterine infection is followed by a decrease of IL-4, IL-10 concentration and enhancement of IL-2, IFN-і in the amniotic mileu with synergistic increase in the concentration of NO2-/NO3-. Perinatal damage of the nervous system in the presence of acute pyelonephritis, acute respiratory infections in the term of up to 18 weeks, syndrome of "short" cervix, PROM is preceded by reduction of IL-4 and IL-10, decrease of NO2- / NO3- and increased activity of TNF-± in the amniotic mileu.

  18. Evolution of transverse momentum dependent distribution and fragmentation functions

    CERN Document Server

    Henneman, A A; Mulders, P J; Boer, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    We use Lorentz invariance and the QCD equations of motion to study the evolution of functions that appear at leading order in a 1/Q expansion in azimuthal asymmetries. This includes the evolution equation of the Collins fragmentation function. The moments of these functions are matrix elements of known twist two and twist three operators. We present the evolution in the large N_c limit, restricting to non-singlet for the chiral-even functions.

  19. Evolution of transverse momentum dependent distribution and fragmentation functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henneman, A.A. E-mail: alex@nat.vu.nl; Boer, Danieel; Mulders, P.J

    2002-01-07

    We use Lorentz invariance and the QCD equations of motion to study the evolution of functions that appear at leading order in a 1/Q expansion in azimuthal asymmetries. This includes the evolution equation of the Collins fragmentation function. The moments of these functions are matrix elements of known twist two and twist three operators. We present the evolution in the large N{sub c} limit, restricting to non-singlet for the chiral-even functions.

  20. Evolution of transverse momentum dependent distribution and fragmentation functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneman, A. A.; Boer, Daniël; Mulders, P. J.

    2002-01-01

    We use Lorentz invariance and the QCD equations of motion to study the evolution of functions that appear at leading order in a 1/ Q expansion in azimuthal asymmetries. This includes the evolution equation of the Collins fragmentation function. The moments of these functions are matrix elements of known twist two and twist three operators. We present the evolution in the large Nc limit, restricting to non-singlet for the chiral-even functions.

  1. Parenting, socioeconomic status and psychosocial functioning in Peruvian families and their children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisse L. Manrique Millones

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the relation between two dimensions of parenting (Positive Parenting and Negative Behavioral Control and child psychosocial functioning, such as self-worth and problem behavior. We investigated (a whether socioeconomic status moderates the relationship between parenting and child psychosocial outcomes, (b whether parenting mediates the relation between socioeconomic status and psychosocial functioning in a Peruvian context and finally, (c whether there are interaction effects between positive parenting and negative behavioral control. Information was gathered on 591 Peruvian children and their families from the normal population in urban zones of Metropolitan Lima. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to investigate direct and indirect effects (mediation and moderation. Results revealed a significant mediation effect of positive parenting and negative behavioral control in the relationship between socioeconomic status and self-worth. Implications about the role played by context are discussed.

  2. Evolution of transverse momentum dependent distribution and fragmentation functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henneman, AA; Boer, D; Mulders, PJ

    2002-01-01

    We use Lorentz invariance and the QCD equations of motion to study the evolution of functions that appear at leading order in a I / Q expansion in azimuthal asymmetries. This includes the evolution equation of the Collins fragmentation function. The moments of these functions are matrix elements of

  3. The association of menopause status with physical function: the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Lisa A; El Khoudary, Samar R; Young, Elizabeth A; Farhat, Ghada N; Sowers, MaryFran; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Newman, Anne B

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether postmenopause status is associated with self-reported limitations in physical function. The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation is a multisite, multiethnic, longitudinal study of midlife women. Women aged 45 to 57 years (N = 2,566) completed the physical function scale of the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36 on visit 4 (2000-2001). Scores created a three-category variable of physical function limitations: none (86-100), moderate (51-85), and substantial (0-50). In the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation, menopause status is a five-category list variable based on menstrual bleeding patterns and gynecological surgery. Premenopausal and perimenopausal women using hormones (n = 284) or missing physical function scores (n = 46) were excluded. Multinomial logistic regression was used to relate physical function and menopause status after adjustment for age, ethnicity, site, education, body mass index (BMI), and self-reported diabetes, hypertension, arthritis, depressive symptoms, smoking, and hormone use among postmenopausal women. Of 2,236 women, 8% were premenopausal, 51% were early perimenopausal, 12% were late perimenopausal, 24% were naturally postmenopausal, and 5% were surgically postmenopausal. In the full model, substantial limitations in physical function were higher in postmenopausal women, whether naturally postmenopausal (odds ratio, 3.82; 95% CI, 1.46-10.0) or surgically postmenopausal (odds ratio, 3.54; 95% CI, 1.15-10.84), than in premenopausal women. These associations were attenuated by higher BMI and depressive symptoms but remained significant. Moderate limitations in physical function were not significantly related to menopause status. Women experiencing surgical or naturally occurring postmenopause report greater limitations in physical function compared with premenopausal women, independent of age and only partly explained by higher BMI and depressive symptoms. This suggests that

  4. Exact conditions on the temperature dependence of density functionals

    CERN Document Server

    Burke, Kieron; Grabowski, Paul E; Pribram-Jones, Aurora

    2015-01-01

    Universal exact conditions guided the construction of most ground-state density functional approximations in use today. We derive the relation between the entropy and Mermin free energy density functionals for thermal density functional theory. Both the entropy and sum of kinetic and electron-electron repulsion functionals are shown to be monotonically increasing with temperature, while the Mermin functional is concave downwards. Analogous relations are found for both exchange and correlation. The importance of these conditions is illustrated in two extremes: the Hubbard dimer and the uniform gas.

  5. Exact conditions on the temperature dependence of density functionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, K.; Smith, J. C.; Grabowski, P. E.; Pribram-Jones, A.

    2016-05-01

    Universal exact conditions guided the construction of most ground-state density functional approximations in use today. We derive the relation between the entropy and Mermin free energy density functionals for thermal density functional theory. Both the entropy and sum of kinetic and electron-electron repulsion functionals are shown to be monotonically increasing with temperature, while the Mermin functional is concave downwards. Analogous relations are found for both exchange and correlation. The importance of these conditions is illustrated in two extremes: the Hubbard dimer and the uniform gas.

  6. The Correlates of Tracking Policy: Opportunity Hoarding, Status Competition, or a Technical-Functional Explanation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Sean; Price, Heather

    2011-01-01

    In this analysis, the authors explore the relationship between the social context of high schools and school-to-school variation in tracking policies. The authors consider three explanations for the implementation of highly elaborated tracking systems: opportunity hoarding, status competition, and a technical-functional explanation. Building on…

  7. The Status of Functional Categories in Child Second Language Acquisition: Evidence from the Acquisition of CP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haznedar, Belma

    2003-01-01

    Examines the status of the functional categories in child second language (L2) acquisition of English. Results from longitudinally-collected data are reported, presenting counterevidence for recent hypotheses on early L2 acquisition that assume the following: (1) structure building approach according to which the acquisition of functional…

  8. Use of a geriatric home visit experience to teach medical students the functional status assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Ericka E; Thomas, Matthew R

    2009-02-01

    Functional status measures strongly predict hospital outcomes and mortality, yet teaching of these measures is often missing from medical schools' curricula. To address this deficiency, we developed a Geriatric Home-based Assessment (GHA) module for third-year medical students. The module was composed of a workshop and two to three home visits. To determine whether the GHA module would improve students' knowledge and proficiency in the functional status assessment. Students completed a validated questionnaire and evaluated a standardized patient in an Observed Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE). Scores from students completing the GHA were compared to the scores of students without this experience. Thirty-one students participated in the GHA module, and 19 students were in the control group. The mean score on the written assessment was 87% among GHA students vs. 46% in the control group (p students' knowledge and proficiency in the functional status assessment. "Hands on" experiences like the GHA allow students to develop a solid foundation for assessing functional status and mobility.

  9. The Revised Direct Assessment of Functional Status for Independent Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Graham J.; Becker, Heather; Vaughan, Phillip W.; Acee, Taylor W.; Delville, Carol L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The original version of the Direct Assessment of Functional Status (DAFS), a measure of instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), was found to have a ceiling effect in older adults living independently in the community. This suggested that the tasks measured, although relevant, do not require full use of this population's…

  10. Using multivariate diagnostics to assess the functional status of children with cerebral palsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vindiuk Pavel Andreevich

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The considered assessment of energy supply from children with cerebral palsy. The study involved 16 children with spastic forms of cerebral palsy secondary school age. The use of testimony bagatofaktonoї rapid diagnosis in this population. It is established that the rate of functional status of children with cerebral palsy grow under the influence of physical rehabilitation.

  11. Association between maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy and offspring cognitive function during childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veena, Sargoor R; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Thajna, Kotrangada P; Hegde, Bhavya G; Gale, Catharine R; Fall, Caroline Hd

    2017-05-01

    Animal studies have demonstrated poor cognitive outcomes in offspring in relation to maternal vitamin D deficiency before and/or during pregnancy. Human studies linking maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy with offspring cognitive function are limited. We aimed to test the hypothesis that lower maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy is associated with poor offspring cognitive ability in an Indian population. Cognitive function was assessed in children from the Mysore Parthenon birth cohort during childhood (age 9-10 years; n=468) and adolescence (age 13-14 years; n=472) using 3 core tests from the Kaufman Assessment Battery for children and additional tests measuring learning, long-term retrieval/ storage, short-term memory, reasoning, verbal fluency, visuo-spatial ability, and attention and concentration. Maternal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was measured at 30±2 weeks of gestation. During pregnancy 320 (68%) women had 'vitamin D deficiency' (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration range) was unrelated to offspring cognitive function at both ages, either unadjusted or after adjustment for the child's current age, sex, maternal age, parity, season at the time of blood sampling, gestational age, the child's birth and current size, socio-economic status, parents' education, maternal intelligence and home environment. In this population, despite a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy, there was no evidence of an association between maternal vitamin D status and offspring cognitive function.

  12. Developmental Status and Social-Emotional Functioning of Young Children Experiencing Homelessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskett, Mary E.; Armstrong, Jenna Montgomery; Tisdale, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The developmental status and social-emotional functioning of young children who are homeless has received inadequate attention in spite of high rates of homelessness among families with young children and the potentially negative impact of homelessness and associated stressors on children's well-being. The aim of this study was to gain…

  13. Existence of time-dependent density-functional theory for open electronic systems: time-dependent holographic electron density theorem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiao; Yam, ChiYung; Wang, Fan; Chen, GuanHua

    2011-08-28

    We present the time-dependent holographic electron density theorem (TD-HEDT), which lays the foundation of time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) for open electronic systems. For any finite electronic system, the TD-HEDT formally establishes a one-to-one correspondence between the electron density inside any finite subsystem and the time-dependent external potential. As a result, any electronic property of an open system in principle can be determined uniquely by the electron density function inside the open region. Implications of the TD-HEDT on the practicality of TDDFT are also discussed.

  14. Urinary iodine, thyroid function, and thyroglobulin as biomarkers of iodine status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Elizabeth N; Caldwell, Kathleen L

    2016-09-01

    The accurate assessment of population iodine status is necessary to inform public health policies and clinical research on iodine nutrition, particularly the role of iodine adequacy in normal neurodevelopment. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) directly reflects dietary iodine intake and is the most common indicator used worldwide to assess population iodine status. The CDC established the Ensuring the Quality of Iodine Procedures program in 2001 to provide laboratories that measure urinary iodine with an independent assessment of their analytic performance; this program fosters improvement in the assessment of UIC. Clinical laboratory tests of thyroid function (including serum concentrations of the pituitary hormone thyrotropin and the thyroid hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine) are sometimes used as indicators of iodine status, although such use is often problematic. Even in severely iodine-deficient regions, there is a great deal of intraindividual variation in the ability of the thyroid to adapt. In most settings and in most population subgroups other than newborns, thyroid function tests are not considered sensitive indicators of population iodine status. However, the thyroid-derived protein thyroglobulin is increasingly being used for this purpose. Thyroglobulin can be measured in either serum or dried blood spot (DBS) samples. The use of DBS samples is advantageous in resource-poor regions. Improved methodologies for ascertaining maternal iodine status are needed to facilitate research on developmental correlates of iodine status. Thyroglobulin may prove to be a useful biomarker for both maternal and neonatal iodine status, but validated assay-specific reference ranges are needed for the determination of iodine sufficiency in both pregnant women and neonates, and trimester-specific ranges are possibly needed for pregnant women. UIC is currently a well-validated population biomarker, but individual biomarkers that could be used for research, patient care

  15. Does the effect of vitamin A supplements depend on vaccination status?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Ane B; Aaby, Peter; Bale, Carlito

    2012-01-01

    Objective Vitamin A supplementation (VAS) is estimated to reduce all-cause mortality by 24%. Previous studies indicate that the effect of VAS may vary with vaccination status. The authors evaluated the effect of VAS provided in campaigns on child survival overall and by sex and vaccination status...... 2008 for children between 6 and 35 months of age. Vaccination status was ascertained by inspection of vaccination cards. All children were followed prospectively. Outcome measures Mortality rates for supplemented and non-supplemented children were compared in Cox models providing mortality rate ratios......-supplemented group (adjusted MRR=0.78 (0.46; 1.34)). The effect was similar in boys and girls. Vaccination cards were seen for 86% in 2007 and 84% in 2008. The effect of VAS in children who had measles vaccine as their last vaccine (2814 children, adjusted MRR=0.34 (0.14; 0.85)) differed from the effect in children...

  16. Transverse momentum dependence in gluon distribution and fragmentation functions

    CERN Document Server

    Mulders, P J

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the twist two gluon distribution functions for spin 1/2 hadrons, emphasizing intrinsic transverse momentum of the gluons. These functions are relevant in leading order in the inverse hard scale in scattering processes such as inclusive leptoproduction or Drell-Yan scattering, or more general in hard processes in which at least two hadrons are involved. They show up in azimuthal asymmetries. For future estimates of such observables, we discuss specific bounds on these functions.

  17. Effects of marital status and shift work on family function among registered nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Shu-Yu; Lin, Pei-Chen; Chen, Yao-Mei; Hung, Hsin-Chia; Pan, Chih-Hong; Pan, Shung-Mei; Lee, Chung-Yin; Huang, Chia-Tsuan; Wu, Ming-Tsang

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to assess the interactive effect of marital status and shift work on family function. A population-based sample of 1,438 nurses between the ages of 20-45 yr was recruited from Taiwan during the period from July 2005 to April 2006 using a mailed questionnaire. The self-administered questionnaire contained information about demographic data, work status, shift work schedule, and the Family APGAR (Adaptation, Partnership, Growth, Affection, and Resolve) Scale, to evaluate family function. Compared to day shift nurses, non-night and rotation shift nurses had 1.53- and 1.38-fold (95% CI=1.09-2.14 and 1.01-1.88) risk to have poor family function after adjusting for other covariates. Married nurses, by contrast, had a 0.44-fold (95% CI=0.29-0.66) risk to have poor family function compared to single nurses. In addition, married nurses who worked non-night or rotation shifts had a significantly higher percent of poor family function than those married nurses working day shifts; however, similar results were not replicated in single nurses. We concluded that shift work and marital status could influence family function.

  18. Race, Ethnicity and Nativity, Family Structure, Socioeconomic Status and Welfare Dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Hiromi; Becerra, Rosina M.

    2000-01-01

    Examined whether immigrant welfare recipients from particular racial and ethnic subgroups were more likely to depend on Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) than native-born recipients from other racial and ethnic subgroups. Results did not indicate that foreign-born racial and ethnic subgroups were more likely to depend on AFDC than…

  19. Emergence of ratio-dependent and predator-dependent functional responses for pollination mutualism and seed parasitism

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeAngelis, Donald L.; Holland, J. Nathaniel

    2006-01-01

    Prey (N) dependence [g(N)], predator (P) dependence [g(P) or g(N,P)], and ratio dependence [f(P/N)] are often seen as contrasting forms of the predator's functional response describing predator consumption rates on prey resources in predator–prey and parasitoid–host interactions. Analogously, prey-, predator-, and ratio-dependent functional responses are apparently alternative functional responses for other types of consumer–resource interactions. These include, for example, the fraction of flowers pollinated or seeds parasitized in pollination (pre-dispersal) seed-parasitism mutualisms, such as those between fig wasps and fig trees or yucca moths and yucca plants. Here we examine the appropriate functional responses for how the fraction of flowers pollinated and seeds parasitized vary with the density of pollinators (predator dependence) or the ratio of pollinator and flower densities (ratio dependence). We show that both types of functional responses can emerge from minor, but biologically important variations on a single model. An individual-based model was first used to describe plant–pollinator interactions. Conditional upon on whether the number of flowers visited by the pollinator was limited by factors other than search time (e.g., by the number of eggs it had to lay, if it was also a seed parasite), and on whether the pollinator could directly find flowers on a plant, or had to search, the simulation results lead to either a predator-dependent or a ratio-dependent functional response. An analytic model was then used to show mathematically how these two cases can arise.

  20. Role of Educational Status in Explaining the Association between Body Mass Index and Cognitive Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Yi-Te; Kao, Tung-Wei; Peng, Tao-Chun; Liaw, Fang-Yih; Yang, Hui-Fang; Sun, Yu-Shan; Chang, Yaw-Wen; Chen, Wei-Liang

    2016-02-01

    Preserving physical and cognitive function becomes an important issue as people age. A growing number of studies have found that the correlation between body mass index (BMI) and cognitive function changes in different age groups. It is obvious that higher educational status is linked to higher cognitive function in terms of numerous risk factors that influence cognitive function. This study aimed to investigate the interplay between obesity and cognitive function categorized by different educational status.This study included 5021 participants aged 20 to 59 years who completed 3 neurocognitive function tests, including a simple reaction time test (SRTT), a symbol digit substitution test (SDST), and a serial digit learning test (SDLT) as reported in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III database. The associations between neurocognitive function and BMI were analyzed using multivariate linear regression while controlling for confounders.After adjusting for pertinent covariates in mode 3, the β coefficients in the female participants with more than 12 years of education (interpreted as change of 3 neurocognitive function tests for each increment in BMI) comparing obesity groups to those with normal BMI were 16.2 (P education and female participants with fewer than 12 years of education demonstrated increased impairment as their BMI increased. However, this association was not significant after adjustments.Obese individuals had worse neurocognitive function than those of normal weight or overweight, especially in women with a high educational level.

  1. DEPENDENCE OF YKL-40 mRNA TISSUE LEVELS ON KRAS MUTATION STATUS IN COLORECTAL CANCER - PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Feodorova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is one of the most deadly cancers worldwide. Despite the introduction of targeted molecular therapies in the last 10 years, overall survival has not increased substantially. CRC progression is accompanied by numerous genetic and epigenetic alterations and dysregulation of several signaling pathways, among which activation of Wnt and inactivation of TGF-β signaling. The molecular heterogeneity of CRC, however, hinders the molecular subtyping of CRC and thus the identification of common biomarkers for this pathology. The only three well established biomarkers for advanced-colorectal-cancer drug treatment are negative biomarkers. These are mutations in the genes KRAS, NRAS and BRAF which determine resistance to therapy with anti-EGFR antibodies. YKL-40 is a chitin-binding glycoprotein that has been shown to play a role in extracellular tissue remodeling, angiogenesis, cell migration and inflammation. Increased serum levels of this protein have been detected in patients with CRC but the role of YKL-40 in this neoplastic disease has not been studied extensively and the precise function of YKL-40 in CRC progression is not known. In the present study we determined the KRAS mutation status and measured the mRNA levels of YKL-40 of 24 patients with sporadic CRC. In addition, we assessed the association between these two parameters by statistical analysis. We are the first to show that in CRC YKL-40 mRNA levels are dependent on the presence of KRAS mutations, being prominently elevated in the wild type background. Our results indicate the potential role of YKL-40 as a target molecule for CRC therapy.

  2. Density-dependent prophylaxis and condition-dependent immune function in Lepidopteran larvae: a multivariate approach

    OpenAIRE

    Cotter, Sheena; Hails, R. S.; Cory, J S; Wilson, K.

    2004-01-01

    1. The risk of parasitism and infectious disease is expected to increase with population density as a consequence of positive density-dependent transmission rates. Therefore, species that encounter large fluctuations in population density are predicted to exhibit plasticity in their immune system, such that investment in costly immune defences is adjusted to match the probability of exposure to parasites and pathogens (i.e. density-dependent prophylaxis).

  3. Psychiatric morbidity, pain perception, and functional status of chronic pain patients in palliative care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Rajmohan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Psychological factors, such as that exist when we experience pain, can profoundly alter the strength of pain perception. Aim: The study aims to estimate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders, and its association with perception of pain and functional status in chronic patients in palliative care. Materials and Methods: The sample was selected via simple randomisation and post consent were assessed using (1 a semi- structured questionnaire to elicit socio-demographic information and medical data (2 Brief Pain Inventory (3 ICD-10 Symptom Checklist (4 ICD-10-Diagnostic Criteria for Research (DCR (5 Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS (6 Covi Anxiety Rating Scale (7 Karnofsky Performance Status Scale. Data was analysed using independent sample t test and chi square test. Results: The psychiatric morbidity was 67% with depression and adjustment disorders being the major diagnosis. There was a significant association between psychiatric morbidity pain variables (P = 0.000. Psychiatric morbidity significantly impaired activity, mood, working, walk, sleep, relationship, and enjoyment. There was no association between aetiology of pain, type of cancer, treatment for primary condition and treatment for pain and psychiatric morbidity. The functional status of cancer patients was also poorer in patients with psychiatric morbidity (P = 0.008. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of psychiatric illness in chronic pain patients of any aetiology. Psychiatric morbidity is associated with increased pain perception, impairment in activity and poor functional status.

  4. Reading Skill-Fractional Anisotropy Relationships in Visuospatial Tracts Diverge Depending on Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullick, Margaret M.; Demir-Lira, Özlem Ece; Booth, James R.

    2016-01-01

    Low socioeconomic status (SES) has been repeatedly linked with decreased academic achievement, including lower reading outcomes. Some lower SES children do show skills and scores commensurate with those of their higher SES peers, but whether their abilities stem from the same systems as high SES children or are based on divergent strategies is…

  5. Reading Skill-Fractional Anisotropy Relationships in Visuospatial Tracts Diverge Depending on Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullick, Margaret M.; Demir-Lira, Özlem Ece; Booth, James R.

    2016-01-01

    Low socioeconomic status (SES) has been repeatedly linked with decreased academic achievement, including lower reading outcomes. Some lower SES children do show skills and scores commensurate with those of their higher SES peers, but whether their abilities stem from the same systems as high SES children or are based on divergent strategies is…

  6. Functional proteomics on zinc-dependent metalloproteinases using inhibitor probes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, Theo; Geurink, Paul P.; Overkleeft, Hermen S.; Kauffman, Henk K.; Bischoff, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    Metzincins ore a family of zinc(II)-dependent metolloproteinases with well known members such as the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and A disintegrin and metalloproteinases (ADAMs). Metzincins are largely responsible for the modulation and regulation of the extracellular matrix by proteolytic degr

  7. Functional proteomics on zinc-dependent metalloproteinases using inhibitor probes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, Theo; Geurink, Paul P.; Overkleeft, Hermen S.; Kauffman, Henk K.; Bischoff, Rainer

    Metzincins ore a family of zinc(II)-dependent metolloproteinases with well known members such as the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and A disintegrin and metalloproteinases (ADAMs). Metzincins are largely responsible for the modulation and regulation of the extracellular matrix by proteolytic

  8. OXPHOS-Dependent Cells Identify Environmental Disruptors of Mitochondrial Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with numerous chronic diseases including metabolic syndrome. Environmental chemicals can impair mitochondrial function through numerous mechanisms such as membrane disruption, complex inhibition and electron transport chain uncoupling. Curr...

  9. Sexual responsiveness is condition-dependent in female guppies, but preference functions are not

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooks Robert

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variation in mate choice behaviour among females within a population may influence the strength and form of sexual selection, yet the basis for any such variation is still poorly understood. Condition-dependence may be an important source of variation in female sexual responsiveness and in the preference functions for male display traits that she expresses when choosing. We manipulated food intake of female guppies (Poecilia reticulata, and examined the effect on several measures of condition and various components of mate choice behaviour. Results Diet significantly influenced four measures of female condition: standard length, weight, reproductive status and somatic fat reserves. Diet also significantly affected female sexual responsiveness, but not preference functions: females in good and poor condition prefer the same males. Conclusions Variation in female condition within populations is therefore unlikely to influence the direction of sexual selection imposed by female choice. It may, however, influence the strength of sexual selection due to its effects on female responsiveness. The relative importance of female choice as a sexually selective force may also covary with female condition, however, because low responsiveness may result in sneak copulations being relatively more important as a determinant of the paternity of offspring. Differences among populations in mean condition may also influence geographic differences in the strength of sexual selection.

  10. Angle-dependent strong-field molecular ionization rates with tuned range-separated time-dependent density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sissay, Adonay; Abanador, Paul; Mauger, François; Gaarde, Mette; Schafer, Kenneth J; Lopata, Kenneth

    2016-09-07

    Strong-field ionization and the resulting electronic dynamics are important for a range of processes such as high harmonic generation, photodamage, charge resonance enhanced ionization, and ionization-triggered charge migration. Modeling ionization dynamics in molecular systems from first-principles can be challenging due to the large spatial extent of the wavefunction which stresses the accuracy of basis sets, and the intense fields which require non-perturbative time-dependent electronic structure methods. In this paper, we develop a time-dependent density functional theory approach which uses a Gaussian-type orbital (GTO) basis set to capture strong-field ionization rates and dynamics in atoms and small molecules. This involves propagating the electronic density matrix in time with a time-dependent laser potential and a spatial non-Hermitian complex absorbing potential which is projected onto an atom-centered basis set to remove ionized charge from the simulation. For the density functional theory (DFT) functional we use a tuned range-separated functional LC-PBE*, which has the correct asymptotic 1/r form of the potential and a reduced delocalization error compared to traditional DFT functionals. Ionization rates are computed for hydrogen, molecular nitrogen, and iodoacetylene under various field frequencies, intensities, and polarizations (angle-dependent ionization), and the results are shown to quantitatively agree with time-dependent Schrödinger equation and strong-field approximation calculations. This tuned DFT with GTO method opens the door to predictive all-electron time-dependent density functional theory simulations of ionization and ionization-triggered dynamics in molecular systems using tuned range-separated hybrid functionals.

  11. Angle-dependent strong-field molecular ionization rates with tuned range-separated time-dependent density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sissay, Adonay; Abanador, Paul; Mauger, François; Gaarde, Mette; Schafer, Kenneth J.; Lopata, Kenneth

    2016-09-01

    Strong-field ionization and the resulting electronic dynamics are important for a range of processes such as high harmonic generation, photodamage, charge resonance enhanced ionization, and ionization-triggered charge migration. Modeling ionization dynamics in molecular systems from first-principles can be challenging due to the large spatial extent of the wavefunction which stresses the accuracy of basis sets, and the intense fields which require non-perturbative time-dependent electronic structure methods. In this paper, we develop a time-dependent density functional theory approach which uses a Gaussian-type orbital (GTO) basis set to capture strong-field ionization rates and dynamics in atoms and small molecules. This involves propagating the electronic density matrix in time with a time-dependent laser potential and a spatial non-Hermitian complex absorbing potential which is projected onto an atom-centered basis set to remove ionized charge from the simulation. For the density functional theory (DFT) functional we use a tuned range-separated functional LC-PBE*, which has the correct asymptotic 1/r form of the potential and a reduced delocalization error compared to traditional DFT functionals. Ionization rates are computed for hydrogen, molecular nitrogen, and iodoacetylene under various field frequencies, intensities, and polarizations (angle-dependent ionization), and the results are shown to quantitatively agree with time-dependent Schrödinger equation and strong-field approximation calculations. This tuned DFT with GTO method opens the door to predictive all-electron time-dependent density functional theory simulations of ionization and ionization-triggered dynamics in molecular systems using tuned range-separated hybrid functionals.

  12. Classical Solutions of Path-Dependent PDEs and Functional Forward-Backward Stochastic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaolin Ji

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the relationship between functional forward-backward stochastic systems and path-dependent PDEs. In the framework of functional Itô calculus, we introduce a path-dependent PDE and prove that its solution is uniquely determined by a functional forward-backward stochastic system.

  13. Calcium-dependent mitochondrial function and dysfunction in neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivovarova, Natalia B; Andrews, S Brian

    2010-09-01

    Calcium is an extraordinarily versatile signaling ion, encoding cellular responses to a wide variety of external stimuli. In neurons, mitochondria can accumulate enormous amounts of calcium, with the consequence that mitochondrial calcium uptake, sequestration and release play pivotal roles in orchestrating calcium-dependent responses as diverse as gene transcription and cell death. In this review, we consider the basic chemistry of calcium as a 'sticky' cation, which leads to extremely high bound/free ratios, and discuss areas of current interest or controversy. Topics addressed include methodologies for measuring local intracellular calcium, mitochondrial calcium buffering and loading capacity, mitochondrially directed spatial calcium gradients, and the role of calcium overload-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction in glutamate-evoked excitotoxic injury and neurodegeneration. Finally, we consider the relationship between delayed calcium de-regulation, the mitochondrial permeability transition and the generation of reactive oxygen species, and propose a unified view of the 'source specificity' and 'calcium overload' models of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-dependent excitotoxicity. Non-NMDA receptor mechanisms of excitotoxicity are discussed briefly. Journal compilation © 2010 FEBS. No claim to original US government works.

  14. Functionally diverse biotin-dependent enzymes with oxaloacetate decarboxylase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lietzan, Adam D; St Maurice, Martin

    2014-02-15

    Biotin-dependent enzymes catalyze carboxylation, decarboxylation and transcarboxylation reactions that participate in the primary metabolism of a wide range of organisms. In all cases, the overall reaction proceeds via two half reactions that take place in physically distinct active sites. In the first half-reaction, a carboxyl group is transferred to the 1-N' of a covalently tethered biotin cofactor. The tethered carboxybiotin intermediate subsequently translocates to a second active site where the carboxyl group is either transferred to an acceptor substrate or, in some bacteria and archaea, is decarboxylated to biotin and CO2 in order to power the export of sodium ions from the cytoplasm. A homologous carboxyltransferase domain is found in three enzymes that catalyze diverse overall reactions: carbon fixation by pyruvate carboxylase, decarboxylation and sodium transport by the biotin-dependent oxaloacetate decarboxylase complex, and transcarboxylation by transcarboxylase from Propionibacterium shermanii. Over the past several years, structural data have emerged which have greatly advanced the mechanistic description of these enzymes. This review assembles a uniform description of the carboxyltransferase domain structure and catalytic mechanism from recent studies of pyruvate carboxylase, oxaloacetate decarboxylase and transcarboxylase, three enzymes that utilize an analogous carboxyltransferase domain to catalyze the biotin-dependent decarboxylation of oxaloacetate.

  15. The functional central limit theorem for strong near-epoch dependent random variables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Jin; LIN Zhengyan

    2004-01-01

    The functional central limit theorem for strong near-epoch dependent sequences of random variables is proved.The conditions given improve on previous results in the literature concerning dependence and heterogeneity.

  16. Welfare: Income and Relative Poverty Status of AFDC (Aid to Families with Dependent Children) Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-04

    spending pat- terns of the poor . Also, some researchers believe that valuing medical care in determining incomes can distort recipients’ relative poverty ...faster than the overall cost of living, and recent surveys have found low - income fami- lies spend less than one-third of their income on food. The poverty ...AR9 995 NFARE: INCOME AND RELATIVE POVERTY STATUS OF AFDC i/ (AIDMON FA IIS11H U EN R CONIG OFWASHINGTO DC HUMN RESOURCES DIV. S4 MOV 67

  17. Fetal undernutrition is associated with perinatal sex-dependent alterations in oxidative status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Pilar; de Pablo, Angel Luis López; Condezo-Hoyos, Luis; Martín-Cabrejas, María Angeles; Aguilera, Yolanda; Ruiz-Hurtado, Gema; Gutierrez-Arzapalo, Perla Y; Ramiro-Cortijo, David; Fernández-Alfonso, María Soledad; González, María Del Carmen; Arribas, Silvia M

    2015-12-01

    Intrauterine growth retardation predisposes to hypertension development, known as fetal programming. Females are less susceptible, which has been mainly attributed to estrogen influence. We hypothesize that perinatal differences in oxidative status might also contribute. We studied 21-day-old (prepuberal) and 6-month-old male and female offspring from rats fed ad libitum during gestation (Control) or with 50% of Control daily intake from day 10 to delivery (maternal undernutrition, MUN). We assessed in vivo blood pressure and the following plasma biomarkers of oxidative status: protein carbonyls, thiols, reduced glutathione (GSH), total antioxidant capacity, superoxide anion scavenging activity (SOSA) and catalase activities; we calculated a global score (oxy-score) from them. Estradiol and melatonin concentration was measured in young rats. Prepuberal MUN males were normotensive but already exhibited increased carbonyls and lower thiols, GSH, SOSA and melatonin; oxy-score was significantly lower compared to Control males. Prepuberal MUN females only exhibited reduced SOSA compared to Control females. Adult rats from all experimental groups showed a significant increase in carbonyls and a decrease in antioxidants compared to prepuberal rats; oxy-score was negative in adult rats suggesting the development of a prooxidative status as rat age. Adult MUN males were hypertensive and exhibited the highest increase in carbonyls despite similar or even higher antioxidant levels compared to Controls. Adult MUN females remained normotensive and did not exhibit differences in any of the biomarkers compared to Controls. The better global antioxidant status developed by MUN females during perinatal life could contribute to their protection against hypertension programming.

  18. A-dependence of weak nuclear structure functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haider, H.; Athar, M. Sajjad [Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh-202 002 (India); Simo, I. Ruiz [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá degli studi di Trento Via Sommarive 14, Povo (Trento) I-38123 (Italy)

    2015-05-15

    Effect of nuclear medium on the weak structure functions F{sub 2}{sup A}(x, Q{sup 2}) and F{sub 3}{sup A}(x, Q{sup 2}) have been studied using charged current (anti)neutrino deep inelastic scattering on various nuclear targets. Relativistic nuclear spectral function which incorporate Fermi motion, binding and nucleon correlations are used for the calculations. We also consider the pion and rho meson cloud contributions calculated from a microscopic model for meson-nucleus self-energies. Using these structure functions, F{sub i}{sup A}/F{sub i}{sup proton} and F{sub i}{sup A}/F{sub i}{sup deuteron}(i=2,3, A={sup 12}C, {sup 16}O, CH and H{sub 2}O) are obtained.

  19. The Morphological Type Dependence of K-band Luminosity Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Devereux, Nick; Willner, S P; Ashby, M L N; Willmer, C N A

    2009-01-01

    Differential 2.2um (K-band) luminosity functions are presented for a complete sample of 1570 nearby Vgsr < 3000 km/s, where Vgsr is the velocity measured with respect to the Galactic standard of rest), bright (K < 10 mag), galaxies segregated by visible morphology. The K-band luminosity function for late-type spirals follows a power law that rises towards low luminosities whereas the K-band luminosity functions for ellipticals, lenticulars and bulge-dominated spirals are peaked with a fall off at both high and low luminosities. However, each morphological type (E, S0, S0/a-Sab, Sb-Sbc, Sc-Scd) contributes approximately equally to the overall K-band luminosity density in the local universe, and by inference, the stellar mass density as well.

  20. Four-year follow-up of retinal status and glycosylated haemoglobin in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantelau, E; Weiss, H; Weber, U; Sonnenberg, G E; Berger, M

    1988-01-01

    Retinal status and glycosylated hemoglobin (GHb) was followed in 32 patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (18 females; age upon entering the study 26 +/- 8 years; duration of diabetes 10 +/- 6 years; means +/- SD) during a total of 136 patient-years, i.e. during 4.3 +/- 0.6 years per patient. Annual mean GHb (given in percent of the mean normal GHb) was calculated from 7 +/- 3 determinations of GHb per patient-year. Fluorescein angiographs were performed at least once per patient-year, and retinal status was assessed by counting microaneurysms. Upon entering the study, early diabetic (background) retinopathy was present in 14 patients; at the end of the follow-up period, it was present in 20 patients. Retinal status deteriorated in 4/42 patient-years with excellent metabolic control (annual mean GHb less than or equal to 125%), in 13/70 patient-years with good control (annual mean GHb 126-150%) and in 8/24 patient-years with poor control (annual mean GHb greater than 150%). The incidence rate of retinal deterioration differed significantly between years with excellent control and years with poor control (X2 5.7, df = 1, p less than 0.05). It is concluded that excellent metabolic control within 14 +/- 6 years after onset of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus appears to be a protective factor against the development or progression of early diabetic retinopathy.

  1. Development of a Risk-adjustment Model for the Inpatient Rehabilitation Facility Discharge Self-care Functional Status Quality Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Anne; Pardasaney, Poonam; Iriondo-Perez, Jeniffer; Ingber, Melvin J; Porter, Kristie A; McMullen, Tara

    2017-07-01

    Functional status measures are important patient-centered indicators of inpatient rehabilitation facility (IRF) quality of care. We developed a risk-adjusted self-care functional status measure for the IRF Quality Reporting Program. This paper describes the development and performance of the measure's risk-adjustment model. Our sample included IRF Medicare fee-for-service patients from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services' 2008-2010 Post-Acute Care Payment Reform Demonstration. Data sources included the Continuity Assessment Record and Evaluation Item Set, IRF-Patient Assessment Instrument, and Medicare claims. Self-care scores were based on 7 Continuity Assessment Record and Evaluation items. The model was developed using discharge self-care score as the dependent variable, and generalized linear modeling with generalized estimation equation to account for patient characteristics and clustering within IRFs. Patient demographics, clinical characteristics at IRF admission, and clinical characteristics related to the recent hospitalization were tested as risk adjusters. A total of 4769 patient stays from 38 IRFs were included. Approximately 57% of the sample was female; 38.4%, 75-84 years; and 31.0%, 65-74 years. The final model, containing 77 risk adjusters, explained 53.7% of variance in discharge self-care scores (P<0.0001). Admission self-care function was the strongest predictor, followed by admission cognitive function and IRF primary diagnosis group. The range of expected and observed scores overlapped very well, with little bias across the range of predicted self-care functioning. Our risk-adjustment model demonstrated strong validity for predicting discharge self-care scores. Although the model needs validation with national data, it represents an important first step in evaluation of IRF functional outcomes.

  2. Fungal NRPS-dependent siderophores: From function to prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Knudsen, Michael; Hansen, Frederik Teilfeldt

    2014-01-01

    discuss the function of siderophores in relation to fungal iron uptake mechanisms and their importance for coexistence with host organisms. The chemical nature of the major groups of siderophores and their regulation is described along with the function and architecture of the large multi-domain enzymes...... responsible for siderophore synthesis, namely the non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs). Finally, we present the most recent advances in our understanding of the structural biology of fungal NRPSs and discuss opportunities for the development of a fungal NRPS prediction server...

  3. Fungal NRPS-dependent siderophores: From function to prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Knudsen, Michael; Hansen, Frederik Teilfeldt

    2014-01-01

    discuss the function of siderophores in relation to fungal iron uptake mechanisms and their importance for coexistence with host organisms. The chemical nature of the major groups of siderophores and their regulation is described along with the function and architecture of the large multi-domain enzymes...... responsible for siderophore synthesis, namely the non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs). Finally, we present the most recent advances in our understanding of the structural biology of fungal NRPSs and discuss opportunities for the development of a fungal NRPS prediction server...

  4. Emerging Microfluidic Tools for Functional Cellular Immunophenotyping: A New Potential Paradigm for Immune Status Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiqiang eChen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid, accurate, and quantitative characterization of immune status of patients is of utmost importance for disease diagnosis and prognosis, evaluating efficacy of immunotherapeutics and tailoring drug treatments. Immune status of patients is often dynamic and patient-specific, and such complex heterogeneity has made accurate, real-time measurements of patient immune status challenging in the clinical setting. Recent advances in microfluidics have demonstrated promising applications of microfluidics for immune monitoring with minimum sample requirement and rapid functional immunophenotyping capability. This review will highlight recent developments of microfluidic platforms that can perform rapid and accurate cellular functional assays on patient immune cells. We will also discuss the future potential of integrated microfluidics to perform rapid, accurate, and sensitive cellular functional assays at a single-cell resolution on different types or subpopulations of immune cells, to provide an unprecedented level of information depth on the distribution of immune cell functionalities. We envision that such microfluidic immunophenotyping tools will allow comprehensive and systems-level immunomonitoring, unlocking the potential to transform experimental clinical immunology into an information-rich science.

  5. Clinical interpretation of a masticatory normative indicator analysis of masticatory function in subjects with different occlusal and prosthodontic status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witter, D.J.; Woda, A.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To analyse the masticatory function of subjects characterised by different occlusal and prosthodontic status. Using Optosil((R)) as a test food, the masticatory normative indicator (MNIOPT) was used to differentiate between sufficient ('normal') and impaired masticatory function.

  6. Functional Status and Quality of Life in Survivors of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation After the Norwood Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedland-Little, Joshua M; Uzark, Karen; Yu, Sunkyung; Lowery, Ray; Aiyagari, Ranjit; Hirsch-Romano, Jennifer C

    2017-06-01

    Infants who require extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support after a Norwood operation are at increased risk for early and late death compared with patients who do not require ECMO post-Norwood. Little is known about the effect that ECMO post-Norwood has on functional status and quality of life among long-term survivors. We prospectively evaluated functional status and health-related quality of life in 12 surviving patients (cases) and 19 corresponding patients (controls) from a previous retrospective case-control assessment of long-term survival in patients requiring ECMO post-Norwood. Functional status was assessed with the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale-II, and health-related quality of life was assessed with the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) core and cardiac modules. There were no differences in demographics, extracardiac or genetic anomalies, or age at follow-up assessment between ECMO cases and non-ECMO controls. The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale-II scores were comparable between groups, with both groups demonstrating function in the normal range in all four domains tested. The only difference in PedsQL scores between cases and controls was perceived physical appearance, which was lower among ECMO survivors by both patient and proxy report. PedsQL scores of both groups were comparable to published scores for patients with single-ventricle congenital heart disease but generally lower than scores for the healthy population. The requirement for ECMO support after a Norwood operation does not appear to significantly affect functional status or quality of life among the subset of patients who achieve long-term survival. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Functional status, self-rated health and level of physical activity of patients with osteoarthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Val Jiménez, Carmen Llanos; López-Torres Hidalgo, Jesús; García Atienza, Eva María; Navarro Ruiz, María Soledad; Hernández Cerón, Inmaculada; Moreno de la Rosa, Lorena

    2017-04-01

    To describe the functional status and self-rated health of patients with osteoarthritis (OA) in Primary Care, and checking their relationship with the level of physical activity and sociodemographic characteristics. Study of prevalence and cross association. Primary Care Clinics. Adult patients with a diagnosis of OA in any joint in their clinical records. Out of a total of 487 selected, 346 (71.0%) took part in the study. Functional capacity (WOMAC scale), self-rated quality of life (EuroQol- 5D questionnaire), physical activity (IPAQ questionnaire), number of affected joints, pain level, and sociodemographic characteristics. A mean score of 30.2 (SD: 20.8; CI 95% CI: 28.0 to 32.4) was obtained on the WOMAC scale, with pain, stiffness, and functional capacity scores of 6.5 (SD: 4.8), 1.9 (SD: 2.0), and 21.7 (SD: 15.7), respectively. The score showed a linear trend (P<.001) compared to the level of physical activity, being 41.1 (SD: 19.9) in inactive subjects, 24.3 (SD: 18.7) in subjects with moderate activity, and 22.3 (SD: 19.8) in subjects with intense activity. In the multiple linear regression, the score on the WOMAC scale, as well as that obtained in self-rated health status, maintained their association with physical activity level after adjusting for sociodemographic variables and the number of affected joints. In patients with OA, pain and functional capacity are the most affected dimensions. Functional status and self-rated health status are higher in active patients, regardless of the number of joints affected and their demographic characteristics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Problem Decomposition Method to Compute an Optimal Cover for a Set of Functional Dependencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitalie COTELEA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a problem decomposition method for building optimal cover for a set of functional dependencies to decrease the solving time. At the beginning, the paper includes an overview of the covers of functional dependencies. There are considered definitions and properties of non redundant covers for sets of functional dependencies, reduced and canonical covers as well as equivalence classes of functional dependencies, minimum and optimal covers. Then, a theoretical tool for inference of functional dependencies is proposed, which possesses the uniqueness property. And finally, the set of attributes of the relational schema is divided into equivalence classes of attributes that will serve as the basis for building optimal cover for a set of functional dependencies.

  9. Structural and functional characteristics of cGMP-dependent methionine oxidation in Arabidopsis thaliana proteins

    KAUST Repository

    Marondedze, Claudius

    2013-01-05

    Background: Increasing structural and biochemical evidence suggests that post-translational methionine oxidation of proteins is not just a result of cellular damage but may provide the cell with information on the cellular oxidative status. In addition, oxidation of methionine residues in key regulatory proteins, such as calmodulin, does influence cellular homeostasis. Previous findings also indicate that oxidation of methionine residues in signaling molecules may have a role in stress responses since these specific structural modifications can in turn change biological activities of proteins. Findings. Here we use tandem mass spectrometry-based proteomics to show that treatment of Arabidopsis thaliana cells with a non-oxidative signaling molecule, the cell-permeant second messenger analogue, 8-bromo-3,5-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (8-Br-cGMP), results in a time-dependent increase in the content of oxidised methionine residues. Interestingly, the group of proteins affected by cGMP-dependent methionine oxidation is functionally enriched for stress response proteins. Furthermore, we also noted distinct signatures in the frequency of amino acids flanking oxidised and un-oxidised methionine residues on both the C- and N-terminus. Conclusions: Given both a structural and functional bias in methionine oxidation events in response to a signaling molecule, we propose that these are indicative of a specific role of such post-translational modifications in the direct or indirect regulation of cellular responses. The mechanisms that determine the specificity of the modifications remain to be elucidated. 2013 Marondedze et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  10. Bounds on Transverse Momentum Dependent Distribution and Fragmentation Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchetta, A.; Boglione, M.; Henneman, A.; Mulders, P. J.

    2000-07-01

    We give bounds on the distribution and fragmentation functions that appear at leading order in deep inelastic one-particle inclusive leptoproduction or in Drell-Yan processes. These bounds simply follow from positivity of the defining matrix elements and are an important guidance in estimating the magnitude of the azimuthal and spin asymmetries in these processes.

  11. Bounds on transverse momentum dependent distribution and fragmentation functions

    CERN Document Server

    Bacchetta, A; Henneman, A A; Mulders, P J

    2000-01-01

    We give bounds on the distribution and fragmentation functions that appear at leading order in deep inelastic 1-particle inclusive leptoproduction or in Drell-Yan processes. These bounds simply follow from positivity of the defining matrix elements and are an important guidance in estimating the magnitude of the azimuthal and spin asymmetries in these processes.

  12. Lipid dependence of ABC transporter localization and function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klappe, Karin; Hummel, Ina; Hoekstra, Dick; Kok, Jan Willem

    2009-01-01

    Lipid rafts have been implicated in many cellular functions, including protein and lipid transport and signal transduction. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters have also been localized in these membrane domains. In this review the evidence for this specific localization will be evaluated and dis

  13. Lipid dependence of ABC transporter localization and function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klappe, Karin; Hummel, Ina; Hoekstra, Dick; Kok, Jan Willem

    2009-01-01

    Lipid rafts have been implicated in many cellular functions, including protein and lipid transport and signal transduction. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters have also been localized in these membrane domains. In this review the evidence for this specific localization will be evaluated and dis

  14. Lipid dependence of ABC transporter localization and function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klappe, Karin; Hummel, Ina; Hoekstra, Dick; Kok, Jan Willem

    2009-01-01

    Lipid rafts have been implicated in many cellular functions, including protein and lipid transport and signal transduction. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters have also been localized in these membrane domains. In this review the evidence for this specific localization will be evaluated and

  15. Density-dependence of functional spiking networks in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, Michael I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gintautuas, Vadas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rodriguez, Marko A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bettencourt, Luis M A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bennett, Ryan [UNIV OF NORTH TEXAS; Santa Maria, Cara L [UNIV OF NORTH TEXAS

    2008-01-01

    During development, the mammalian brain differentiates into specialized regions with unique functional abilities. While many factors contribute to this functional specialization, we explore the effect neuronal density can have on neuronal interactions. Two types of networks, dense (50,000 neurons and glia support cells) and sparse (12,000 neurons and glia support cells), are studied. A competitive first response model is applied to construct activation graphs that represent pairwise neuronal interactions. By observing the evolution of these graphs during development in vitro we observe that dense networks form activation connections earlier than sparse networks, and that link-!llltropy analysis of the resulting dense activation graphs reveals that balanced directional connections dominate. Information theoretic measures reveal in addition that early functional information interactions (of order 3) are synergetic in both dense and sparse networks. However, during development in vitro, such interactions become redundant in dense, but not sparse networks. Large values of activation graph link-entropy correlate strongly with redundant ensembles observed in the dense networks. Results demonstrate differences between dense and sparse networks in terms of informational groups, pairwise relationships, and activation graphs. These differences suggest that variations in cell density may result in different functional specialization of nervous system tissue also in vivo.

  16. Direct and indirect effects of nutritional status, physical function and cognitive function on activities of daily living in Japanese older adults requiring long-term care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamo, Tomohiko; Nishida, Yuusuke

    2014-10-01

    To identify the direct and indirect effects of nutritional status, physical function, and cognitive function on activities of daily living in Japanese older adults requiring long-term care. In total, 179 participants aged ≥ 65 years who were eligible for long-term care insurance (mean age 85.5 ± 7.8 years) were recruited for this study. Nutritional status (Mini Nutritional Assessment, Short Form) and physical function (Short Physical Performance Battery) were examined. Activities of daily living, cognitive function and frailty were assessed using the Barthel Index, Mini-Mental State Examination and Clinical Frailty Scale, respectively. Path analysis was used to determine relationships between these factors and the activities of daily living. For Japanese older adults requiring long-term care, pathways were modeled for nutritional status, physical function and the activities of daily living. The total effect of nutritional status was 0.516 (Pnutritional status through physical function on the activities of daily living was 0.458 (Pnutritional status on activities of daily living was observed (b=0.058, P=0.258). The present study identified the complex pathway from nutritional status to the activities of daily living through physical function in aged Japanese people requiring long-term care. These findings suggest that maintaining good nutritional status and nutritional support might delay physical function decline, and prolong the activities of daily living. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  17. Sertoli cell only syndrome: Status of sertoli cell maturation and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Jain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background of the study: Mature and functional Sertoli cells are essential for the survival of germ cells in testes. In Sertoli cell only syndrome (SCOS, there is no germ cells. Then, question arises whether absence of germ cells in SCOS secondary to Sertoli cells immaturity or mal function. Sertoli cells maturational and functional status is unclear in SCOS. This study investigated status of maturation and function of Sertoli cells in patients with SCOS. Materials and Methods: The present study was comprised of 37 cases of SCOS and 50 normal control males. Detailed clinical examination and investigation were carried out as per pre-determined proforma. Semen analysis, hormonal analysis (FSH, LH, testosterone, etc., and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC of testes (bilateral were performed. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH with XY probes was carried out in addition to conventional chromosome analysis to find out chromosomal abnormalities, in particular sex chromosome aneuploidy, including mosaicism. Yq microdeletion status was also investigated. The anti-mullerian hormone (AMH, inhibin B, and seminal lactate were estimated by ELISA methods. Results: The study did not find any case of high AMH. About 78% cases had low inhibin B, and 60% had low AMH. FSH was high in about 78% cases. Low level of lactate was found in 49% cases. There was one case of high level of inhibin B. There were 6 (16.2% cases of chromosomal abnormality (2 mosaic Klinefelter and 4 Klinefelter syndrome and 4 (10.8% cases of Yq microdeletion. Conclusion: We conclude that Sertoli cell immaturity does not play any role in SCOS (no case of high AMH. It seems, in majority cases, Sertoli cells are functionally- and/or numerically-deficient (low inhibin B, AMH and lactate. However, in about 22% cases, Sertoli cell function and/or number remains normal (normal inhibin B, AMH. Inhibin B and FSH seems best predictor/marker of Sertoli cell function.

  18. Personality is associated with perceived health and functional status in older primary care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duberstein, Paul R; Sörensen, Silvia; Lyness, Jeffrey M; King, Deborah A; Conwell, Yeates; Seidlitz, Larry; Caine, Eric D

    2003-03-01

    Using data collected on 265 primary care medical patients 60 years of age and older, the authors examined the personality bases of subjective health (perceived health, functional status) after controlling for observer-rated depression and medical burden. Four hypotheses were tested: High Neuroticism is associated with poorer perceived health, low Extraversion is associated with poorer perceived health, low Openness to Experience is associated with worse functional status, and age moderates the relationships between personality and subjective health. Findings supported the notion that personality is associated with subjective health; moreover, this effect appeared to grow more pronounced with increasing age. This study underscores the conceptual and heuristic value of examining moderators of the links between personality variables and health.

  19. Renormalization Scheme Dependence and the Renormalization Group Beta Function

    OpenAIRE

    Chishtie, F. A.; McKeon, D. G. C.

    2016-01-01

    The renormalization that relates a coupling "a" associated with a distinct renormalization group beta function in a given theory is considered. Dimensional regularization and mass independent renormalization schemes are used in this discussion. It is shown how the renormalization $a^*=a+x_2a^2$ is related to a change in the mass scale $\\mu$ that is induced by renormalization. It is argued that the infrared fixed point is to be a determined in a renormalization scheme in which the series expan...

  20. Size dependence of complex refractive index function of growing nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremin, A.; Gurentsov, E.; Popova, E.; Priemchenko, K.

    2011-08-01

    The evidence of the change of the complex refractive index function E( m) of carbon and iron nanoparticles as a function of their size was found from two-color time-resolved laser-induced incandescence (TiRe-LII) measurements. Growing carbon particles were observed from acetylene pyrolysis behind a shock wave and iron particles were synthesized by pulse Kr-F excimer laser photo-dissociation of Fe(CO)5. The magnitudes of refractive index function were found through the fitting of two independently measured values of particle heat up temperature, determined by two-color pyrometry and from the known energy of the laser pulse and the E( m) variation. Small carbon particles of about 1-14 nm in diameter had a low value of E( m)˜0.05-0.07, which tends to increase up to a value of 0.2-0.25 during particle growth up to 20 nm. Similar behavior for iron particles resulted in E( m) rise from ˜0.1 for particles 1-3 nm in diameter up to ˜0.2 for particles >12 nm in diameter.

  1. Cognitive functions and neuropsychological status of medical students with different attitudes to alcohol use: a study conducted at the Belarusian State Medical University, Minsk, Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welcome, Menizibeya O; Razvodovsky, Yury E; Pereverzeva, Elena V; Pereverzev, Vladimir A

    2014-04-10

    This article presents findings on the effects of alcohol use on cognitive performance, functional (well-being, activity, mood) and neuropsychological status and anxiety levels of medical students. A total of 265 medical students (107 males and 158 females) from the Belarusian State Medical University, Minsk (Belarus) were administered questionnaire, containing the AUDIT, CAGE, MAST, and PAS, and other alcohol related questions. Academic Performance questionnaire was administered together with other tests. For analysis of cognitive functions, a "correction probe" test was used. The number of students who reported consumption of alcohol was 74 males and 142 females. Medical students who reported alcohol consumption had lower cognitive performance and academic success, poor self-assessment of their functional and neuropsychological states, compared to the non-alcohol users. The results of this study suggest an inverse dose-dependent relationship between alcohol consumption, and cognitive functions, academic performance and neuropsychological status of medical students. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Experience of studying of formation the morpho-functional status of the population of Eastern Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Nikolaev

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In a review results more than 20-years studying age, sexual, constitutional and ethnic laws of morpho-functional variability of the population of Eastern Siberia are presented. Distinctions between groups of the population on overall dimensions, body composition, proportionality of a constitution are shown. The phenomena secular trend, a phenomenon long living people are studied and influence of ecological factors on the physical status of a growing organism is shown

  3. Associations of smoking and alcohol consumption with disease activity and functional status in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bing; Rho, Young Hee; Cui, Jing; Iannaccone, Christine K; Frits, Michelle L; Karlson, Elizabeth W; Shadick, Nancy A

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the associations of smoking and alcohol consumption with disease activity and functional status in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We conducted a prospective study consisting of 662 patients with RA who were followed up to 7 years from the Brigham and Women's Hospital Rheumatoid Arthritis Sequential Study. Smoking and alcohol consumption were assessed through yearly questionnaires. The disease activity and functional status were measured annually by the Disease Activity Score examined in 28 commonly affected joints using C-reactive protein (DAS28-CRP3) and the Modified Health Assessment Questionnaire (MHAQ). Linear mixed models were developed to assess the longitudinal effects of smoking and alcohol consumption on DAS28-CRP3 and MHAQ after adjustment for potential confounders. The HLA-DRB1 shared epitope (HLA-SE) by smoking and alcohol interactions were also evaluated in the analysis. The median followup time of the cohort was 4 years. Current smoking was not associated with DAS28-CRP3 in our study, but was associated with a higher MHAQ than nonsmokers with seropositive RA (p = 0.05). Alcohol consumption showed an approximate J-shaped relationship with MHAQ, with the minima occurring at 5.1-10.0 g/day. Compared to no alcohol use, alcohol consumption of 5.1-10.0 g/day was associated with a significant decrease of MHAQ (p = 0.02). When stratified by HLA-SE, the effect of alcohol consumption appeared to be stronger in HLA-SE-positive RA than HLA-SE-negative RA. We found that current smoking was associated with a worse functional status, while moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a better functional status in RA. Replications of these findings in other prospective studies are needed.

  4. Mating a la Spence: Deriving the Market Demand Function for Status Goods

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Tobias

    2007-01-01

    Conspicuous consumption of luxuries plays a central role in the work of Thorstein B. Veblen. More recently, interpersonal effects have emerged as an important factor in consumption theory. However, the inadequate modelling of individuals' interaction often leads to questionable results with regard to the market demand function for status goods. Following Spence, who recommended the application of his Job Market Signaling to conspicuous consumption, in Mating a la Spence potential partners are...

  5. Vitamin status and cognitive function in a long-term care population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meckling Kelly A

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ageing can be associated with poor dietary intake, reduced nutrient absorption, and less efficient utilization of nutrients. Loss of memory and related cognitive function are also common among older persons. This study aimed to measure the prevalence of inadequate vitamin status among long-term care patients and determine if an association exists between vitamin status and each of three variables; cognitive function, vitamin supplementation, and medications which alter gastric acid levels. Methods Seventy-five patients in a long-term care hospital in Guelph, Ontario were recruited to a cross-sectional study. 47 were female and the mean age was 80.7 (+/-11.5 years, ranging from 48 to 100 years. Blood was used to measure levels of vitamins B12 (cobalamin, B6 (pyridoxal-5'-phosphate/PLP, erythrocyte folate, vitamin B3 (niacin and homocysteine (Hcy. The Standardized Mini-Mental State Examination (SMMSE was administered to measure cognitive function. A list of medications and vitamin supplementation for each patient was provided by the pharmacy. Results The prevalence of low vitamin (B12, B6, erythrocyte folate, niacin or high metabolite (homocysteine levels among 75 patients were as follows: B12 13.3 μmol/L in 31/75 (41.3%. There was no significant difference among residents grouped into marked (n = 44, mild (n = 14, or normal (n = 9 cognitive function when evaluating the effect of vitamin status. There were no significant differences in mean B12 and homocysteine levels between users and non-users of drug therapy (Losec, Zantac, or Axid. Compared to vitamin supplement non-users, supplemented residents had significantly higher mean B12 (p Conclusion Given the prevalence data on vitamin status in this sample population, the possible benefits of vitamin supplementation should be considered in clinical intervention studies using these populations of elderly.

  6. Functional status and its predictor among elderly population in a hilly state of North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Functional status can be conceptualized as an individual′s ability to manage activities related to personal self-care and self-maintenance. Functional status assessment is fundamental aspect of geriatric examination. This assessment helps clinicians and policymakers to design and implement interventions that help elderly to live safely and independently. Aims and Objectives: The primary aim was to assess the prevalence of limitation in activities of daily living (ADL and instrumental ADL (IADL among elderly population. The secondary aim was to identify the factors that predict IADL limitation among them. Materials and Methods: A total of 400 community dwelling elderly persons residing in Shimla hills of North India were interviewed using valid and reliable functional assessment scales namely Katz ADL and Lawton and Brody IADL. Statistical procedures for the analyses included descriptive statistics and logistic regression. Results: The prevalence of ADL and IADL activity limitation was 5.5% (22/400 and 21.8% (87/400, respectively. The results of logistic regression analysis revealed that advancing age (70 years and above, poor self-rated health and ailments namely musculoskeletal problems and cataract significantly predict functional limitation. Conclusions and Recommendation: Elderly having musculoskeletal problems should be provided with rehabilitative support in the community settings. Cataract surgeries patients should be identified and operated upon so as to improve visual functioning and thus their functional ability. Further, cities, towns, and rural areas should be made age-friendly.

  7. Functional neuroanatomy in depressed patients with sexual dysfunction: blood oxygenation level dependent functional MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jong Chul [Chonnam National Univ. Hospital, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-06-15

    To demonstrate the functional neuroanatomy associated with sexual arousal visually evoked in depressed males who have underlying sexual dysfunction using Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent-based fMRI. Ten healthy volunteers (age range 21-55: mean 32.5 years), and 10 depressed subjects (age range 23-51: mean 34.4 years, mean Beck Depression Inventory score of 39.6 {+-} 5.9, mean Hamilton Rating Scale Depression (HAMD)-17 score of 33.5 {+-} 6.0) with sexual arousal dysfunction viewed erotic and neutral video films during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with 1.5 T MR scanner (GE Signa Horizon). The fMRI data were obtained from 7 oblique planes using gradient-echo EPI (flip angle/TR/TE=90 .deg. /6000 ms/50 ms). The visual stimulation paradigm began with 60 sec of black screen, 150 sec of neutral stimulation with a documentary video film, 30 sec of black screen, 150 sec of sexual stimulation with an erotic video film followed by 30 sec of black screen. The brain activation maps and their quantification were analyzed by SPM99 program. There was a significant difference of brain activation between two groups during visual sexual stimulation. In depressed subjects, the level of activation during the visually evoked sexual arousal was significantly less than that of healthy volunteers, especially in the cerebrocortical areas of the hypothalamus, thalamus, caudate nucleus, and inferior and superior temporal gyri. On the other hand, the cerebral activation patterns during the neutral condition in both groups showed no significant differences ({rho} < 0.01). This study is the first demonstration of the functional neuroanatomy of the brain associated with sexual dysfunction in depressed patients using fMRI. In order to validate our physiological neuroscience results, further studies that would include patients with other disorders and sexual dysfunction, and depressed patients without sexual dysfunction and their treatment response are needed.

  8. Metabolic effects of milk protein intake strongly depend on pre-existing metabolic and exercise status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Milk protein intake has recently been suggested to improve metabolic health. This Perspective provides evidence that metabolic effects of milk protein intake have to be regarded in the context of the individual’s pre-existing metabolic and exercise status. Milk proteins provide abundant branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and glutamine. Plasma BCAAs and glutamine are increased in obesity and insulin resistance, but decrease after gastric bypass surgery resulting in weight loss and improved insulin sensitivity. Milk protein consumption results in postprandial hyperinsulinemia in obese subjects, increases body weight of overweight adolescents and may thus deteriorate pre-existing metabolic disturbances of obese, insulin resistant individuals. PMID:24225036

  9. Prefrontal response and frontostriatal functional connectivity to monetary reward in abstinent alcohol-dependent young adults

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Forbes, Erika E; Rodriguez, Eric E; Musselman, Samuel; Narendran, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    ... function that are central to addiction. In addition, few studies have examined function in these regions during young adulthood, when exposure is less chronic than in typical samples of alcohol-dependent adults...

  10. [Status of iodine nutrition of children until 1 year: consequences on the thyroid function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouessel, G; Damie, R; Soudan, B; Weill, J; Gottrand, F; Turck, D

    2008-08-01

    Iodine deficiency remains a major public health problem mainly in least-developed countries but also in many industrialized countries. The present study aimed at: (1) evaluating the status of iodine nutrition of children until 1 year in the North region of France; (2) studying risk factors for iodine deficiency; (3) evaluating relationship between iodine deficiency and thyroid disorders. This prospective study was conducted between 1st january and 31st May 2005 in the children's hospital of Lille (North of France) and all hospitalized children until the age of 1 year were enrolled. Urinary iodine assessment was obtained for 95 (83%) of the 114 infants hospitalized during the study period and TSH value was also determined in 57 (60%) of these 114 infants. Median urinary iodine concentration was 328 microg/L (range: 12-1580). Twenty-four (25%) of 95 infants had a high urinary iodine excretion (urinary iodine greater than 400 microg/L). Nineteen (20%) of the 95 infants were iodine deficient (urinary iodine less than 100 microg/L): severe iodine deficiency (less than 20 microg/L; n=5; 5%), moderate iodine deficiency (20-49 microg/L; n=6; 6%), mild iodine deficiency (50-99 microg/L; n=8; 8%). No relationship was found between iodine status and the following data: age, sex, familial thyroid disease history, term and type of delivery, nutritional status, type of feeding at inclusion, chronic disease, familial socioeconomic status. TSH value was high (greater than 5 microU/mL) in 7 (12%) of the 57 infants. Only 1 of these 7 infants was iodine deficient. Only 1 of the 19 infants with iodine deficiency had a high TSH value. Iodine status is not optimal in our population of hospitalized children until the age of 1 year. There is no clear relationship between iodine status and thyroid function.

  11. Electromagnetism and multiple-valued loop-dependent wave functionals

    CERN Document Server

    Leal, Lorenzo

    2009-01-01

    We quantize the Maxwell theory in the presence of a electric charge in a "dual" Loop Representation, i.e. a geometric representation of magnetic Faraday's lines. It is found that the theory can be seen as a theory without sources, except by the fact that the wave functional becomes multivalued. This can be seen as the dual counterpart of what occurs in Maxwell theory with a magnetic pole, when it is quantized in the ordinary Loop Representation. The multivaluedness can be seen as a result of the multiply-connectedness of the configuration space of the quantum theory.

  12. Intracellular mediators of JAM-A-dependent epithelial barrier function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Ana C; Parkos, Charles A

    2012-06-01

    Junctional adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A) is a critical signaling component of the apical junctional complex, a structure composed of several transmembrane and scaffold molecules that controls the passage of nutrients and solutes across epithelial surfaces. Observations from JAM-A-deficient epithelial cells and JAM-A knockout animals indicate that JAM-A is an important regulator of epithelial paracellular permeability; however, the mechanism(s) linking JAM-A to barrier function are not understood. This review highlights recent findings relevant to JAM-A-mediated regulation of epithelial permeability, focusing on the role of upstream and downstream signaling candidates. We draw on what is known about proteins reported to associate with JAM-A in other pathways and on known modulators of barrier function to propose candidate effectors that may mediate JAM-A regulation of epithelial paracellular permeability. Further investigation of pathways highlighted in this review may provide ideas for novel therapeutics that target debilitating conditions associated with barrier dysfunction, such as inflammatory bowel disease.

  13. Do early-life conditions predict functional health status in adulthood? The case of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng; Soldo, Beth J; Elo, Irma T

    2011-01-01

    Relatively few researchers have investigated early antecedents of adult functional limitations in developing countries. In this study, we assessed associations between childhood conditions and adult lower-body functional limitations (LBFL) as well as the potential mediating role of adult socioeconomic status, smoking, body mass index, and chronic diseases or symptoms. Based on data from the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS) of individuals born prior to 1951 and contacted in 2001 and 2003, we found that childhood nutritional deprivation, serious health problems, and family background predict adult LBFL in Mexico. Adjustment for the potential mediators in adulthood attenuates these associations only to a modest degree.

  14. Health-Related Quality of Life and Functional Status Are Associated with Cardiac Status and Clinical Outcome in Children with Cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeper, Lynn A; Towbin, Jeffrey A; Colan, Steven D; Hsu, Daphne; Orav, Endel J; Lemler, Matthew S; Clunie, Sarah; Messere, Jane; Fountain, Darlene; Miller, Tracie L; Wilkinson, James D; Lipshultz, Steven E

    2016-03-01

    To measure the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and functional status of children with cardiomyopathy and to determine whether they are correlated with sociodemographics, cardiac status, and clinical outcomes. Parents of children in the Pediatric Cardiomyopathy Registry completed the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ; age ≥ 5 years) and Functional Status II (Revised) (age ≤ 18 years) instruments. Linear and Cox regressions were used to examine hypothesized associations with HRQOL. The 355 children evaluated at ≥ 5 years (median 8.6 years) had lower functioning (CHQ Physical and Psychosocial Summary Scores 41.7 ± 14.4 and 47.8 ± 10.7) than that of healthy historical controls. The most extreme CHQ domain score, Parental Impact-Emotional, was one SD below normal. Younger age at diagnosis and smaller left ventricular end-diastolic dimension z score were associated independently with better physical functioning in children with dilated cardiomyopathy. Greater income/education correlated with better psychosocial functioning in children with hypertrophic and mixed/other types of cardiomyopathy. In the age ≥ 5 year cohort, lower scores on both instruments predicted earlier death/transplant and listing for transplant in children with dilated and mixed/other types of cardiomyopathy (P Status II (Revised) total score was 87.1 ± 16.4, and a lower score was associated with earlier death/transplant for all cardiomyopathies. HRQOL and functional status in children with cardiomyopathy is on average impaired relative to healthy children. These impairments are associated with older age at diagnosis, lower socioeconomic status, left ventricular size, and increased risk for death and transplant. Identification of families at risk for functional impairment allows for provision of specialized services early in the course of disease. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00005391. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Iodine status and thyroid function of Boston-area vegetarians and vegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Angela M; Lamar, Andrew; He, Xuemei; Braverman, Lewis E; Pearce, Elizabeth N

    2011-08-01

    Adequate dietary iodine is required for normal thyroid function. The iodine status and thyroid function of U.S. vegetarians and vegans have not been previously studied. Environmental perchlorate and thiocyanate (inhibitors of thyroid iodine uptake) exposures may adversely affect thyroid function. The objective of the study was to assess the iodine status and thyroid function of U.S. vegetarians (consume plant based products, eggs, milk; abstain from meat, poultry, fish, shellfish) and vegans (avoid all animal products) and whether these may be affected by environmental perchlorate and thiocyanate exposures. This was a cross-sectional assessment of urinary iodine, perchlorate, and thiocyanate concentrations and serum thyroid function in Boston-area vegetarians and vegans. One hundred forty-one subjects (78 vegetarians, 63 vegans) were recruited; one vegan was excluded. Median urinary iodine concentration of vegans (78.5 μg/liter; range 6.8-964.7 μg/liter) was lower than vegetarians (147.0 μg/liter; range 9.3-778.6 μg/liter) (P vegans (630 μg/liter; range 108-3085 μg/liter) was higher than vegetarians (341 μg/liter; range 31-1963 μg/liter) (P vegans may be at risk for low iodine intake, and vegan women of child-bearing age should supplement with 150 μg iodine daily. Environmental perchlorate and thiocyanate exposures are not associated with thyroid dysfunction in these groups.

  16. Signs of impaired cognitive function in adolescents with marginal cobalamin status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louwman, M W; van Dusseldorp, M; van de Vijver, F J; Thomas, C M; Schneede, J; Ueland, P M; Refsum, H; van Staveren, W A

    2000-09-01

    Lack of cobalamin may lead to neurologic disorders, which have been reported in strict vegetarians. The objective of this study was to investigate whether cognitive functioning is affected in adolescents (aged 10-16 y) with marginal cobalamin status as a result of being fed a macrobiotic diet up to an average age of 6 y. Data on dietary intake, psychological test performance, and biochemical variables of cobalamin status were collected from 48 adolescents who consumed macrobiotic (vegan type) diets up to the age of 6 y, subsequently followed by lactovegetarian or omnivorous diets, and from 24 subjects (aged 10-18 y) who were fed omnivorous diets from birth onward. Thirty-one subjects from the previously macrobiotic group were cobalamin deficient according to their plasma methylmalonic acid concentrations. Seventeen previously macrobiotic subjects and all control subjects had normal cobalamin status. The control subjects performed better on most psychological tests than did macrobiotic subjects with low or normal cobalamin status. A significant relation between test score and cobalamin deficiency (P: = 0.01) was observed for a test measuring fluid intelligence (correlation coefficient: -0.28; 95% CI: -0.48, -0.08). This effect became more pronounced (P: = 0.003) within the subgroup of macrobiotic subjects (correlation coefficient: -0.38; 95% CI: -0.62, - 0.14). Our data suggest that cobalamin deficiency, in the absence of hematologic signs, may lead to impaired cognitive performance in adolescents.

  17. Difficulties in social functioning of adolescents with different family and intellectual status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelić Marija M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bearing in mind limited effects of interventions focused on the child and its limitations the attention of researches is more and more directed to immediate and wider ambience factors in the prevention of negative forms of behaviour of children. The aim of the research was to determine the level of connectedness of family and intellectual status of adolescents and different aspects of their social functioning. The sample of 416 adolescents, aged 12 to 18, was divided into two groups. The group without parental care included 210 respondents (130 with typical development - TD and 80 with mild intellectual disability - MID, and the group with parental care (130 TD and 76 MID. We used Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire with subscales: behavioral problems, emotional problems and problems with peers. Family problems were divided in socioeconomic problems, partners' problem, mental health of parents, abuse, and neglect. The results confirmed that the young without parental care showed more problems in behavior than their peers with parental care, and that family status affects behavior more than intellectual status. Family is the protective factor for the development of emotional problems of the young TD students, while it is risky for MID students. Problems with peers are not significantly connected with family or intellectual status. Some implications of the results are stressed.

  18. Does parallel item content on WOMAC's Pain and Function Subscales limit its ability to detect change in functional status?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kennedy Deborah M

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC is considered the leading outcome measure for patients with osteoarthritis of the lower extremity, recent work has challenged its factorial validity and the physical function subscale's ability to detect valid change when pain and function display different profiles of change. This study examined the etiology of the WOMAC's physical function subscale's limited ability to detect change in the presence of discordant changes for pain and function. We hypothesized that the duplication of some items on the WOMAC's pain and function subscales contributed to this shortcoming. Methods Two eight-item physical function scales were abstracted from the WOMAC's 17-item physical function subscale: one contained activities and themes that were duplicated on the pain subscale (SIMILAR-8; the other version avoided overlapping activities (DISSIMILAR-8. Factorial validity of the shortened measures was assessed on 310 patients awaiting hip or knee arthroplasty. The shortened measures' abilities to detect change were examined on a sample of 104 patients following primary hip or knee arthroplasty. The WOMAC and three performance measures that included activity specific pain assessments – 40 m walk test, stair test, and timed-up-and-go test – were administered preoperatively, within 16 days of hip or knee arthroplasty, and at an interval of greater than 20 days following the first post-surgical assessment. Standardized response means were used to quantify change. Results The SIMILAR-8 did not demonstrate factorial validity; however, the factorial structure of the DISSIMILAR-8 was supported. The time to complete the performance measures more than doubled between the preoperative and first postoperative assessments supporting the theory that lower extremity functional status diminished over this interval. The DISSIMILAR-8 detected this deterioration in functional

  19. Nutritional status-dependent endocannabinoid signalling regulates the integration of rat visceral information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlaifia, Abdessattar; Matias, Isabelle; Cota, Daniela; Tell, Fabien

    2017-06-01

    Vagal sensory inputs transmit information from the viscera to brainstem neurones located in the nucleus tractus solitarii to set physiological parameters. These excitatory synapses exhibit a CB1 endocannabinoid-induced long-term depression (LTD) triggered by vagal fibre stimulation. We investigated the impact of nutritional status on long-term changes in this long-term synaptic plasticity. Food deprivation prevents LTD induction by disrupting CB1 receptor signalling. Short-term refeeding restores the capacity of vagal synapses to express LTD. Ghrelin and cholecystokinin, respectively released during fasting and refeeding, play a key role in the control of LTD via the activation of energy sensing pathways such as AMPK and the mTOR and ERK pathways. Communication form the viscera to the brain is essential to set physiological homoeostatic parameters but also to drive more complex behaviours such as mood, memory and emotional states. Here we investigated the impact of the nutritional status on long-term changes in excitatory synaptic transmission in the nucleus tractus solitarii, a neural hub integrating visceral signals. These excitatory synapses exhibit a CB1 endocannabinoid (eCB)-induced long-term depression (LTD) triggered by vagal fibre stimulation. Since eCB signalling is known to be an important component of homoeostatic regulation of the body and is regulated during various stressful conditions, we tested the hypothesis that food deprivation alters eCB signalling in central visceral afferent fibres. Food deprivation prevents eCB-LTD induction due to the absence of eCB signalling. This loss was reversed by blockade of ghrelin receptors. Activation of the cellular fuel sensor AMP-activated protein kinase or inhibition of the mechanistic target of rapamycin pathway abolished eCB-LTD in free-fed rats. Signals associated with energy surfeit, such as short-term refeeding, restore eCB-LTD induction, which in turn requires activation of cholecystokinin receptors and

  20. Nutritional status, physical performance and functional capacity in an elderly population in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Danielewicz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to investigate the association between nutritional status and functional limitation and disability in an elderly population in southern Brazil. Methods: epidemiological, cross-sectional household-based study carried out with 477 elderly of both sexes (60 to 100 years. Body mass index (BMI served to assess the nutritional status: underweight (BMI 27 kg/m2. The sum score (0-5 obtained in three tests: "chair stand" and "pick up a pen" (measured by time and standing balance (four static measurements assessed the functional limitation. The disability was evaluated by the difficulty in performing one or more self-reported tasks related to basic activities of daily living (ADLs and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs. Crude and adjusted analyzes (3 models were carried out using Poisson regression; prevalence ratios (PR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated. Results: crude analyzes showed a positive association between underweight and functional limitation (PR = 2.71, 95% CI = 1.63 to 4.51; overweight and disability in ADLs (PR = 2.20, CI 95% = 1.44 to 3.35; overweight and disability in IADLs (PR = 1.56, CI 95% = 1.20 to 2.03. The additional adjustments for gender, age, level of education, living arrangements, current work, cognitive function and number of morbidities reduced the strength of the associations, without changing the statistical strength. Conclusion: nutritional status is a factor that is independently and positively associated with functional limitation and disability. We recommend the use of this indicator to monitor the health of the elderly.

  1. Status of high temperature superconductor based magnets and the conductors they depend upon

    CERN Document Server

    Schwartz, J; Chan, W K; Gou, X F; Liu, X T; Phillips, M; Le, Q V; Naderi, G; Turenne, M; Ye, L

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the status of high temperature superconductors for high field magnets for future devices such as a high energy LHC or a muon collider. Some of the primary challenges faced for the implementation of systems are discussed. Two conductor technologies, Bi$_2$Sr$_2$CaCu$_2$O$_{8+x}$ and YBa$_2$Cu$_3$O$_{7-\\delta}$, have emerged as high field conductor options, but their relative advantages and disadvantages for high field magnets are quite different. These are reviewed from an engineering perspective, including coil manufacturing, electromechanical behaviour and quench behaviour. Lastly, the important roles of "system pull" upon conductor and magnet technology development, and of interactions between the materials and magnet communities for accelerating development, are discussed.

  2. Functional limitations and nativity status among older Arab, Asian, black, Hispanic, and white Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallo, Florence J; Booza, Jason; Nguyen, Norma D

    2015-04-01

    To examine the association between nativity status (foreign and US-born) by race/ethnicity (Arab, Asian, black, Hispanic, white) on having a functional limitation. We used American Community Survey data (2001-2007; n = 1,964,777; 65+ years) and estimated odds ratios (95% confidence intervals). In the crude model, foreign-born Blacks and Arabs were more likely, while Asians and Hispanics were less likely to report having a functional limitation compared to white. In the fully adjusted model, Blacks, Hispanics, and Asians were less likely, while Arabs were more likely to report having a functional limitation. In the crude model, US-born Blacks and Hispanics were more likely, while Asians and Arabs were less likely to report having a functional limitation compared to whites. Policies and programs tailored to foreign-born Arab Americans may help prevent or delay the onset of disability, especially when initiated shortly after their arrival to the US.

  3. Body weight decreases induced by estradiol in female rhesus monkeys are dependent upon social status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Wilson, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    Gonadal steroids regulate appetite and thus body weight. In addition, continuous exposure to stressors negatively influences appetite through circuits likely distinct from those of gonadal steroids. The occurrence of adverse metabolic consequences due to chronic exposure to psychosocial stressors is twice as frequent in women as men, implicating a role for ovarian hormones, estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4), in modulating stress-induced changes in appetite. Using social subordination in female macaques as a model of social stress, the current study tested the hypothesis that subordinate females would lose more weight during E2 treatment and gain less weight during P4 administration than dominant females. Because polymorphisms in the gene encoding the serotonin transporter (5HTT; SCL6A4) are known to alter responsivity to stress, we hypothesized that weight loss during E2 administration would be greatest in females with the short variant (s-variant) allele of 5HTT. Dominant females were significantly heavier than subordinate animals throughout the study, a result consistent with previous accounts of food intake when animals are fed a low-fat, high-fiber diet. Females with the s-variant 5HTT genotype weighed significantly less than l/l animals. Dominant animals lost significantly more weight than subordinate animals during E2 treatment. Administration of P4 blocked the weight-reducing effects of E2 in all females, regardless of social status. These data provide evidence that social subordination modulates the influence of ovarian steroid hormones on body weight in female rhesus monkeys independent of 5HTT genotype. Given the prosocial effects of these steroids, future studies are necessary to determine whether status differences in E2-induced weight loss are due to diminished food intake and or increases in energy expenditure and how the change in energy availability during E2 treatments relates to a female’s motivation to interact with conspecifics. PMID

  4. Measurement of the functional status of patients with different types of muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lue, Yi-Jing; Lin, Rong-Fong; Chen, Shun-Sheng; Lu, Yen-Mou

    2009-06-01

    Muscular dystrophy (MD) comprises a group of diseases characterized by progressive muscle weakness that induces functional deterioration. Clinical management requires the use of a well-designed scale to measure patients' functional status. This study aimed to investigate the quality of the functional scales used to assess patients with different types of MD. The Brooke scale and the Vignos scale were used to grade arm and leg function, respectively. The Barthel Index was used to evaluate the function of daily living activity. We performed tests to assess the acceptability of these scales. The characteristics of the different types of MD are discussed. This was a multicenter study and included patients diagnosed with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) (classified as severely progressive MD), Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD), limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) and facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD). BMD, LGMD, and FSHD were classified as slowly progressive MD. The results demonstrated that the Brooke scale was acceptable for grading arm function in DMD, but was unable to discriminate between differing levels of severity in slowly progressive MD. The floor effect was large for all types of slowly progressive MD (range, 20.0-61.9), and was especially high for BMD. The floor effect was also large for BMD (23.8%) and FSHD (50.0%) using the Vignos scale. Grades 6-8 of the Vignos scale were inapplicable because they included items involving the use of long leg braces for walking or standing, and some patients did not use long leg braces. In the Barthel Index, a ceiling effect was prominent for slowly progressive MD (58.9%), while a floor effect existed for DMD (17.9%). Among the slowly progressive MDs, FSHD patients had the best level of functioning; they had better leg function and their daily living activities were less affected than patients with other forms of slowly progressive MD. The results of this study demonstrate the acceptability of the different

  5. Measurement of the Functional Status of Patients with Different Types of Muscular Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Jing Lue

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Muscular dystrophy (MD comprises a group of diseases characterized by progressive muscle weakness that induces functional deterioration. Clinical management requires the use of a well-designed scale to measure patients' functional status. This study aimed to investigate the quality of the functional scales used to assess patients with different types of MD. The Brooke scale and the Vignos scale were used to grade arm and leg function, respectively. The Barthel Index was used to evaluate the function of daily living activity. We performed tests to assess the acceptability of these scales. The characteristics of the different types of MD are discussed. This was a multicenter study and included patients diagnosed with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD (classified as severely progressive MD, Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD, limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD and facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD. BMD, LGMD, and FSHD were classified as slowly progressive MD. The results demonstrated that the Brooke scale was acceptable for grading arm function in DMD, but was unable to discriminate between differing levels of severity in slowly progressive MD. The floor effect was large for all types of slowly progressive MD (range, 20.0–61.9, and was especially high for BMD. The floor effect was also large for BMD (23.8% and FSHD (50.0% using the Vignos scale. Grades 6–8 of the Vignos scale were inapplicable because they included items involving the use of long leg braces for walking or standing, and some patients did not use long leg braces. In the Barthel Index, a ceiling effect was prominent for slowly progressive MD (58.9%, while a floor effect existed for DMD (17.9%. Among the slowly progressive MDs, FSHD patients had the best level of functioning; they had better leg function and their daily living activities were less affected than patients with other forms of slowly progressive MD. The results of this study demonstrate the acceptability of the

  6. Socio-demographic factors related to functional limitations and care dependency among older Egyptians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boggatz, Thomas; Farid, Tamer; Mohammedin, Ahmed; Dijkstra, Ate; Lohrmann, Christa; Dassen, Theo

    P>Title. Socio-demographic factors related to functional limitations and care dependency among older Egyptians. Aim. This paper is a report of a study determining the relationship of socio-demographic factors to functional limitations and care dependency among older care recipients and non-care

  7. Fast Algorithms of Mining Probability Functional Dependency Rules in Relational Database

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Xiaopeng; ZHOU Aoying; HU Yunfa

    2000-01-01

    This paper defines a new kind of rule, probability functional dependency rule. The functional dependency degree can be depicted by this kind of rule. Five algorithms, from the simple to the complex, are presented to mine this kind of rule in different condition. The related theorems are proved to ensure the high efficiency and the correctness of the above algorithms.

  8. Effects of alcohol intake on brain structure and function in non-alcohol-dependent drinkers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, Eveline Astrid de

    2005-01-01

    About 85% of the adult population in the Netherlands regularly drinks alcohol. Chronic excessive alcohol intake in alcohol-dependent individuals is known to have damaging effects on brain structure and function. Relatives of alcohol-dependent individuals display differences in brain function that ar

  9. Socio-demographic factors related to functional limitations and care dependency among older Egyptians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boggatz, Thomas; Farid, Tamer; Mohammedin, Ahmed; Dijkstra, Ate; Lohrmann, Christa; Dassen, Theo

    2010-01-01

    P>Title. Socio-demographic factors related to functional limitations and care dependency among older Egyptians. Aim. This paper is a report of a study determining the relationship of socio-demographic factors to functional limitations and care dependency among older care recipients and non-care reci

  10. Effects of alcohol intake on brain structure and function in non-alcohol-dependent drinkers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, Eveline Astrid de

    2005-01-01

    About 85% of the adult population in the Netherlands regularly drinks alcohol. Chronic excessive alcohol intake in alcohol-dependent individuals is known to have damaging effects on brain structure and function. Relatives of alcohol-dependent individuals display differences in brain function that

  11. Study of the relationship of dyspnea with depression and functional status in patients with interstitial lung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda A. Abu Youssef

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Dyspnea is common in ILD and is strongly correlated with functional status and psychiatric disorders. Dyspnea score, functional status and psychiatric disorders are more affected in ILD with PHTN than in ILD without PHTN. Accordingly, routine screening for mental disorders is recommended for patients with ILD, and should be accompanied by accurate assessment of patient’s symptoms, particularly in patients with high levels of functional impairment.

  12. Orbital-Dependent-Functionals within Density Functional Theory: Methodology and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makmal, Adi

    I have designed and implemented a new numerical scheme for solving Kohn-Sham (KS) equations for diatomic systems, together with a full solution of the OEP equation. The equations are solved on a real-space prolate spheroidal coordinate grid, such that all the system's electrons are taken into account. The OEP equation is solved via the S-iteration scheme. This newly developed software package is called DARSEC (DiAtomic Real-Space Electronic structure Calculations). It involves no approximation except for the one inherent in the XC functional. Thus it is especially suitable for examining new functionals of any kind, and ODFs in particular. It is also an ideal tool for assessing the validity of commonly used approximations, for the same reasons. One case for which this uniqueness of DARSEC was exploited in this thesis is the examination of the validity of the pseudopotential approximation for KS gaps that are calculated with EXX OEP (xOEP). Before this study, use of the pseudopotential approximation in such calculations was called into question. I have shown that KS gaps obtained with pseudopotentials that have been constructed in a manner consistent with the exact-exchange functional agree with the all-electron results (i.e. without the pseudopotential approximation), for the cases studied. This confirmed the reliability of the pseudopotential approximation for ODFs such as EXX. Explicit density-dependent XC functionals traditionally fail to obtain atomization-energy as well as charge-dissociation curves that are, at least qualitatively, correct for diatomic systems. On the other hand, Hartree-Fock (HF) theory encounters no such problem. Hence, an additional goal of this research was to study the performances of the EXX functional (being the DFT counterpart of HF) in describing binding energies and charge dissociations for stretched diatomic molecules. Moreover, I wanted to investigate the special features of the resulting single and local EXX KS potential, as

  13. The Prognostic Impact of p53 Expression on Sporadic Colorectal Cancer Is Dependent on p21 Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruschewski, Martin, E-mail: martin.kruschewski@charite.de; Mueller, Kathrin; Lipka, Sybille [Department of Surgery, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Charité-University Medicine Berlin, Hindenburgdamm 30, 12200 Berlin (Germany); Budczies, Jan; Noske, Aurelia [Institute of Pathology, Campus Mitte, Charité-University Medicine Berlin, Charitéplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Buhr, Heinz Johannes [Department of Surgery, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Charité-University Medicine Berlin, Hindenburgdamm 30, 12200 Berlin (Germany); Elezkurtaj, Sefer [Institute of Pathology, Campus Mitte, Charité-University Medicine Berlin, Charitéplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany)

    2011-03-11

    The prognostic value of p53 and p21 expression in colorectal cancer is still under debate. We hypothesize that the prognostic impact of p53 expression is dependent on p21 status. The expression of p53 and p21 was immunohistochemically investigated in a prospective cohort of 116 patients with UICC stage II and III sporadic colorectal cancer. The results were correlated with overall and recurrence-free survival. The mean observation period was 51.8 ± 2.5 months. Expression of p53 was observed in 72 tumors (63%). Overall survival was significantly better in patients with p53-positive carcinomas than in those without p53 expression (p = 0.048). No differences were found in recurrence-free survival (p = 0.161). The p53+/p21− combination was seen in 68% (n = 49), the p53+/p21+ combination in 32% (n = 23). Patients with p53+/p21− carcinomas had significantly better overall and recurrence-free survival than those with p53+/p21+ (p < 0.0001 resp. p = 0.003). Our data suggest that the prognostic impact of p53 expression on sporadic colorectal cancer is dependent on p21 status.

  14. Superovulatory responses in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) depend on the interaction between donor status and superovulation method used

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIM, Ji-Su; YOON, Seung-Bin; JEONG, Kang-Jin; SIM, Bo-Woong; CHOI, Seon-A; LEE, Sang-Il; JIN, Yeung Bae; SONG, Bong-Seok; LEE, Sang-Rae; KIM, Sun-Uk; CHANG, Kyu-Tae

    2017-01-01

    The current study was performed to investigate the effect of oocyte donor status, including age and body weight, on metaphase II (MII) oocyte recovery using two superovulation methods in cynomolgus monkeys. The use of Method A [recombinant gonadotrophin (75 IU/kg, 3 ×, 3-day intervals) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)] led to great increases in ovary size and the mean number of MII oocytes retrieved in age- and body-weight-dependent manner; in contrast, both the parameters were similar in Method B [recombinant gonadotrophin (60 IU, twice daily, 6 days), recombinant gonadotropin and recombinant human luteinizing hormone (rhLH) (60 IU, twice daily, 3 days), and hCG]. Importantly, Method A showed maximal MII oocyte recovery rate in > 60-month-old or 4.5–5.0-kg female monkeys, whereas Method B was equally effective regardless of the donor age and body weight. These results indicate that superovulatory responses depend on the interaction between oocyte donor status and the superovulation method used in cynomolgus monkeys. PMID:28070055

  15. Psychosocial and metabolic function by smoking status in individuals with binge eating disorder and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udo, Tomoko; White, Marney A; Barnes, Rachel D; Ivezaj, Valentina; Morgan, Peter; Masheb, Robin M; Grilo, Carlos M

    2016-02-01

    Individuals with binge eating disorder (BED) report smoking to control appetite and weight. Smoking in BED is associated with increased risk for comorbid psychiatric disorders, but its impact on psychosocial functioning and metabolic function has not been evaluated. Participants were 429 treatment-seeking adults (72.4% women; mean age 46.2±11.0years old) with BED comorbid with obesity. Participants were categorized into current smokers (n=66), former smokers (n=145), and never smokers (n=218). Smoking status was unrelated to most historical eating/weight variables and to current eating disorder psychopathology. Smoking status was associated with psychiatric, psychosocial, and metabolic functioning. Compared with never smokers, current smokers were more likely to meet lifetime diagnostic criteria for alcohol (OR=5.51 [95% CI=2.46-12.33]) and substance use disorders (OR=7.05 [95% CI=3.37-14.72]), poorer current physical quality of life, and increased risk for metabolic syndrome (OR=1.80 [95% CI=0.97-3.35]) and related metabolic risks (reduced HDL, elevated total cholesterol). On the other hand, the odds of meeting criteria for lifetime psychiatric comorbidity or metabolic abnormalities were not significantly greater in former smokers, relative to never smokers. Our findings suggest the importance of promoting smoking cessation in treatment-seeking patients with BED and obesity for its potential long-term implications for psychiatric and metabolic functioning.

  16. Impaired cerebral autoregulation is associated with brain atrophy and worse functional status in chronic ischemic stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikio C Aoi

    Full Text Available Dynamic cerebral autoregulation (dCA is impaired following stroke. However, the relationship between dCA, brain atrophy, and functional outcomes following stroke remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to determine whether impairment of dCA is associated with atrophy in specific regions or globally, thereby affecting daily functions in stroke patients.We performed a retrospective analysis of 33 subjects with chronic infarctions in the middle cerebral artery territory, and 109 age-matched non-stroke subjects. dCA was assessed via the phase relationship between arterial blood pressure and cerebral blood flow velocity. Brain tissue volumes were quantified from MRI. Functional status was assessed by gait speed, instrumental activities of daily living (IADL, modified Rankin Scale, and NIH Stroke Score.Compared to the non-stroke group, stroke subjects showed degraded dCA bilaterally, and showed gray matter atrophy in the frontal, parietal and temporal lobes ipsilateral to infarct. In stroke subjects, better dCA was associated with less temporal lobe gray matter atrophy on the infracted side ([Formula: see text] = 0.029, faster gait speed ([Formula: see text] = 0.018 and lower IADL score ([Formula: see text]0.002. Our results indicate that better dynamic cerebral perfusion regulation is associated with less atrophy and better long-term functional status in older adults with chronic ischemic infarctions.

  17. Echocardiographic Measures of Diastolic Function Are Preload Dependent during Triggered Positive Pressure Ventilation: A Controlled Crossover Study in Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Juhl-Olsen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The use of echocardiography in intensive care settings impacts decision making. A prerequisite for the use of echocardiography is relative resistance to changes in volume status and levels of positive pressure ventilation (PPV. Studies on indices of diastolic function report conflicting results with regard to dependence on volume status. Evidence is scarce on PPV. Methods. Ten healthy subjects were exposed to 6 levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP and pressure support (PS following a baseline reading. All ventilator settings were performed at three positions: horizontal, reverse-Trendelenburg, and Trendelenburg. Echocardiography was performed throughout. Results. During spontaneous breathing, early diastolic transmitral velocity ( changed with positioning (, whereas early diastolic velocity of the mitral annulus ( was independent (. With PPV, and proved preload dependent (. Increases in PEEP, PS, or a combination influenced and in reverse-Trendelenburg- and horizontal positions, but not in the Trendelenburg position. Discussion. The change towards preload dependency of with PPV suggests that PPV increases myocardial preload sensitivity. The susceptibility of and to preload changes during PPV discourages their use in settings of volume shifts or during changes in ventilator settings. Conclusion. Positioning and PPV affect and .

  18. Association between maternal nutritional status in pregnancy and offspring cognitive function during childhood and adolescence; a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veena, Sargoor R; Gale, Catharine R; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Kehoe, Sarah H; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Fall, Caroline Hd

    2016-08-12

    The mother is the only source of nutrition for fetal growth including brain development. Maternal nutritional status (anthropometry, macro- and micro-nutrients) before and/or during pregnancy is therefore a potential predictor of offspring cognitive function. The relationship of maternal nutrition to offspring cognitive function is unclear. This review aims to assess existing evidence linking maternal nutritional status with offspring cognitive function. Exposures considered were maternal BMI, height and weight, micronutrient status (vitamins D, B12, folate and iron) and macronutrient intakes (carbohydrate, protein and fat). The outcome was any measure of cognitive function in children aged nutritional status during pregnancy as defined by BMI, single micronutrient studies, or macronutrient intakes influences offspring cognitive function is inconclusive. There is a need for more trials especially in populations with high rates of maternal undernutrition. Registered in PROSPERO CRD42013005702 .

  19. Association between Gc genotype and susceptibility to TB is dependent on vitamin D status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martineau, A R; Leandro, A C C S; Anderson, S T; Newton, S M; Wilkinson, K A; Nicol, M P; Pienaar, S M; Skolimowska, K H; Rocha, M A; Rolla, V C; Levin, M; Davidson, R N; Bremner, S A; Griffiths, C J; Eley, B S; Bonecini-Almeida, M G; Wilkinson, R J

    2010-05-01

    Group-specific component (Gc) variants of vitamin D binding protein differ in their affinity for vitamin D metabolites that modulate antimycobacterial immunity. We conducted studies to determine whether Gc genotype associates with susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB). The following subjects were recruited into case-control studies: in the UK, 123 adult TB patients and 140 controls, all of Gujarati Asian ethnic origin; in Brazil, 130 adult TB patients and 78 controls; and in South Africa, 281 children with TB and 182 controls. Gc genotypes were determined and their frequency was compared between cases versus controls. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations were obtained retrospectively for 139 Gujarati Asians, and case-control analysis was stratified by vitamin D status. Interferon (IFN)-gamma release assays were also performed on 36 Gujarati Asian TB contacts. The Gc2/2 genotype was strongly associated with susceptibility to active TB in Gujarati Asians, compared with Gc1/1 genotype (OR 2.81, 95% CI 1.19-6.66; p = 0.009). This association was preserved if serum 25(OH)D was or =20 nmol.L(-1) (p = 0.36). Carriage of the Gc2 allele was associated with increased PPD of tuberculin-stimulated IFN-gamma release in Gujarati Asian TB contacts (p = 0.02). No association between Gc genotype and susceptibility to TB was observed in other ethnic groups studied.

  20. Stress-induced modification of anxiety in rats is dependent on reproductive status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Brian J; Cook, Christian J

    2004-01-01

    Pregnancy and lactation are accompanied by behavioral changes that include altered responses to stress. Previous exposure to a stressor can also modulate subsequent stress-related behavior, and this effect is at least partly mediated by the reproductive hormone, estrogen. In this study, we sought to determine if the stress-related behavior of rats that had been exposed to a cat would vary with reproductive status. After exposure to a cat or a nonstress control procedure, pregnant, lactating, virgin female or male rats received two acoustic startle test sessions on consecutive days, followed 4 days later by testing on an elevated plus maze. Startle amplitudes tended to increase across trials in all groups, but were differentially enhanced in nonstressed pregnant and lactating rats. A 5-min exposure to a cat eliminated the enhanced responding in these two groups. The cat exposure attenuated startle stimulus-evoked freezing only in the pregnant rats and produced differential plus maze performance in this group. Cat exposure produced no differential effects in virgin females or males. These results suggest that reproductive state can influence the impact of a stressor on subsequent behavior, but does so in a rather complex way.

  1. Dependence of the conservation status of acid grasslands at the Pohorje and Kozjak on socioeconomic parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmen KETIŠ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Grassland habitats were studied on twenty farms on the area of the Radlje ob Dravi administration unit, in the transect from Kozjak to Pohorje at different altitudes. The aim of the study was to investigate how environmental and  socio-economic parameters influence the diversity of plant species and, consequently, the conservation of grassland on acid soils, which are rare in Slovenia and are therefore more protected. The socioeconomic structure of farms was studied on the basis of an inquiry carried out on farms. Part-time farms prevail; the average age of farmers is 56.5 years, and 30% of farmers has no education or just elementary school. The relationship among the environmental, socio-economic parameters and floristic structures of grasslands was studied using canonic-correspondence analysis. The impact of 16 parameters was analysed, of which six were determined not to be statistically significant. The occurrence of chosen plant species was analysed in relation to environmental and socioeconomic parameters. The efficiency of agro-environmental subsidies in relation to plant species diversity was evaluated. It was determined that the education and age of farmers influence the intensity of farming and consequently have an impact on the diversity of plants species and the conservation status of grasslands.

  2. H-Ras Exerts Opposing Effects on Type I Interferon Responses Depending on Its Activation Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guann-An; Lin, Yun-Ru; Chung, Hai-Ting; Hwang, Lih-Hwa

    2017-01-01

    Using shRNA high-throughput screening, we identified H-Ras as a regulator of antiviral activity, whose depletion could enhance Sindbis virus replication. Further analyses indicated that depletion of H-Ras results in a robust increase in vesicular stomatitis virus infection and a decrease in Sendai virus (SeV)-induced retinoic acid-inducible gene-I-like receptor (RLR) signaling. Interestingly, however, ectopic expression of wild-type H-Ras results in a biphasic mode of RLR signaling regulation: while low-level expression of H-Ras enhances SeV-induced RLR signaling, high-level expression of H-Ras significantly inhibits this signaling. The inhibitory effects correlate with the activation status of H-Ras. As a result, oncogenic H-Ras, H-RasV12, strongly inhibits SeV-induced IFN-β promoter activity and type I interferon signaling. Conversely, the positive effects exerted by H-Ras on RLR signaling are independent of its signaling activity, as a constitutively inactive form of H-Ras, H-RasN17, also positively regulates RLR signaling. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that depletion of H-Ras reduces the formation of MAVS-TNF receptor-associated factor 3 signaling complexes. These results reveal that the H-Ras protein plays a role in promoting MAVS signalosome assembly in the mitochondria, whereas oncogenic H-Ras exerts a negative effect on type I IFN responses.

  3. Iron status in elite young athletes: gender-dependent influences of diet and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Karsten; Braun, Hans; Achtzehn, Silvia; Hildebrand, Ursula; Predel, Hans-Georg; Mester, Joachim; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2012-02-01

    Iron depletion seems to occur more frequently among athletes than in the general population and may affect performance capacity. Only little information is available about the prevalence of iron status abnormalities in young elite athletes and whether iron depletion is associated with gender, sport, age or nutrition- and exercise-related factors in this group. Hence, diet, exercise and haematological data from 193 elite athletes (96 males, 97 females; 16.2 ± 2.7 years) from 24 different sports were analyzed retrospectively. Most female athletes failed to meet the recommended daily allowance for iron, even though dietary iron density was higher than in males (5.75 ± 0.78 vs. 6.17 ± 0.98 mg/1,000 kcal; P = 0.001). Iron depletion (serum ferritin athletes (P iron density (5.9 ± 0.8 vs. 6.6 ± 1.1 mg/1,000 kcal; P = 0.002). Males with iron depletion had a significantly higher estimated energy expenditure (48.7 ± 7.0 vs. 44.4 ± 7.6 kcal/kg/day; P = 0.009).

  4. Health and functional status among older people with HIV/AIDS in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scholten Francien

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about the health and functional status of older people who either themselves are HIV infected or are affected by HIV and AIDS in the family. This aim of this study was to describe health among older people in association with the HIV epidemic. Methods The cross-sectional survey consisted of 510 participants aged 50 years and older, equally divided into five study groups including; 1 HIV infected and on antiretroviral therapy (ART for at least 1 year; 2 HIV infected and not yet eligible for ART; 3 older people who had lost a child due to HIV/AIDS; 4 older people who have an adult child with HIV/AIDS; 5 older people not known to be infected or affected by HIV in the family. The participants were randomly selected from ongoing studies in a rural and peri-urban area in Uganda. Data were collected using a WHO standard questionnaire and performance tests. Eight indicators of health and functioning were examined in an age-adjusted bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results In total, 198 men and 312 women participated. The overall mean age was 65.8 and 64.5 years for men and women respectively. Men had better self-reported health and functional status than women, as well as lower self-reported prevalence of chronic diseases. In general, health problems were common: 35% of respondents were diagnosed with at least one of the five chronic conditions, including 15% with depression, based on algorithms; 31% of men and 35% of women had measured hypertension; 25% of men and 21% of women had poor vision test results. HIV-positive older people, irrespective of being on ART, and HIV-negative older people in the other study groups had very similar results for most health status and functioning indicators. The main difference was a significantly lower BMI among HIV-infected older people. Conclusion The systematic exploration of health and well being among older people, using eight self-reported and

  5. Blueberries affect neuroinflammation and cognition differentially depending on individual cognitive baseline status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aging and neurodegenerative diseases are thought to be the results of prolonged effects of oxidative stress and inflammation. Previously, we have shown that daily supplementation of blueberries (BBs) was able to reverse age-related deficits in behavioral and neuronal function in aged rats. However, ...

  6. Status of nicotine dependence and some related factors among waterpipe consumer women in Bushehr 2013-14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliha Saeed Firoozabadi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, water pipe smoking has been spread among adults especially in Asian African communities in the Middle East and Arabic countries. The aim of this study is determination of the nicotine dependence status and some related factors among women consumer in Bushehr. Material and Methods: 430 water pipe smoker women were examined in this cross-sectional study. Convenience and snowball sampling methods were used to collect data. After data collection, data were analyzed by SPSS software with using appropriate statistical tests. Results: In this study, 43.4% (N= 186 of women had moderate nicotine dependency. The overall mean and standard deviation score for nicotine dependence were 40.71±12.63. In this study, consumer’s education (p=0.004 and job (p=0.015, husband’s education (p=0.003, and job (p=0.043, history of water pipe smoking (p=0.000, intention to quit (p=0.021, and type of tobacco (p=0.003, significantly associated with nicotine dependence. Logit regression results showed that husband 's education level, age at onset of water pipe consuming and intention to quit water pipe explain nicotine dependence. Conclusion: Nicotine dependence among almost half of the consumer women was in average level and it is essential to design educational interventions for low socio - economic individuals particularly in teens and young people that this behavior has not institutionalized yet. Also for people who have no intention of quit water pipe, at first, we provide the conditions for their quitting through empowerment process and then encourage them to quit water pipe.

  7. Independent Effects of Bilingualism and Socioeconomic Status on Language Ability and Executive Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Alejandra; Bialystok, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    One hundred and seventy-five children who were 6-years old were assigned to one of four groups that differed in socioeconomic status (SES; working class or middle class) and language background (monolingual or bilingual). The children completed tests of nonverbal intelligence, language tests assessing receptive vocabulary and attention based on picture naming, and two tests of executive functioning. All children performed equivalently on the basic intelligence tests, but performance on the language and executive functioning tasks was influenced by both SES and bilingualism. Middle-class children outperformed working-class children on all measures, and bilingual children obtained lower scores than monolingual children on language tests but higher scores than monolingual children on the executive functioning tasks. There were no interactions with either group factors or task factors. Thus, each of SES and bilingualism contribute significantly and independently to children’s development irrespective of the child’s level on the other factor. PMID:24374020

  8. Effect of duration of pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus on subsequent cognitive function in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, S; Nidhi, G; Pandhi, P

    2001-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the duration of pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) on subsequent cognitive function in rats. SE was induced by pilocarpine (320 mg/kg i.p.) and was terminated by injection of 1 mg/kg diazepam at 30, 60 and 90 min in 3 groups of 10 rats each. Cognitive function was tested by a passive avoidance task and was assessed at the baseline and on days 1, 7, 14 and 21 (post SE). It was found that cognitive function was disrupted on days 7, 14 and 21 post SE in rats who had SE for 60 and 90 min, whereas it was not affected in rats that had 30 min of SE. Hence, the duration of SE may affect future cognitive performance and mandates emergency treatment.

  9. Independent effects of bilingualism and socioeconomic status on language ability and executive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Alejandra; Bialystok, Ellen

    2014-03-01

    One hundred and seventy-five children who were 6-years old were assigned to one of four groups that differed in socioeconomic status (SES; working class or middle class) and language background (monolingual or bilingual). The children completed tests of nonverbal intelligence, language tests assessing receptive vocabulary and attention based on picture naming, and two tests of executive functioning. All children performed equivalently on the basic intelligence tests, but performance on the language and executive functioning tasks was influenced by both SES and bilingualism. Middle-class children outperformed working-class children on all measures, and bilingual children obtained lower scores than monolingual children on language tests but higher scores than monolingual children on the executive functioning tasks. There were no interactions with either group factors or task factors. Thus, each of SES and bilingualism contribute significantly and independently to children's development irrespective of the child's level on the other factor. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Change of residence and functional status within three months and one year following hip fracture surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza-Vega, Patrocinio; Jiménez-Moleón, José Juan; Kristensen, Morten Tange

    2014-01-01

    To study the recovery of patients in terms of 18 activities of daily living and change of residence within the year following a hip fracture. This prospective cohort study was carried out in a trauma service of an acute hospital in southern Spain including 159 patients with a hip fracture, 65 years or older and allowed weight-bearing after surgery. Patients or their relatives were interviewed about their residential status and functional level at pre-fracture, three months and one year after surgery, using the Functional Independence Measure. Losses of function for the main activities affected were, at the first month, third month and one year relative to the pre-fracture status, 50%, 25% and 12%, respectively, for locomotion, 40%, 25% and 20%, respectively, for mobility and 27%, 17% and 15%, respectively, for self care (p loss of independence in the first year after a hip fracture is substantial for specific activities. Recovery mainly takes place during the first three months after surgery. Change of residence mostly involved those patients who lived alone in their own home at pre-fracture. Implications for Rehabilitation One year after fracture, patients did not recover their previous function, and the activities most affected at the one-year follow-up were: dressing lower body, bathing/showering, transfer bathtub/shower and walking up/down stairs. After a hip fracture, most recovery of the function happens within the first three months, though some functional activities continue recovering over the first year. Rehabilitation programs cannot be based only on mobility activities, the recovery of other daily living activities should also be included.

  11. Vitamin D Status in Population of Bukovyna and Subcarpathia Depending on Residence above Sea Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Povoroznyuk

    2016-08-01

    ding on the residence above sea level. Objective: to determine the level of vitamin D in the blood serum of people, who live in different regions of the Subcarpathia and Bukovyna, depending on the location of the settlement above sea le-vel. Material and methods. In the cross-sectional study, we have examined 353 individuals, aged 18 to 86 years, permanently residing in different parts of the Subcarpathia (Kolomyia, Kosiv, Verhovyna districts and Bukovyna (Vyzhny-tsia district. Results. Only in 28 cases (7.9 %, the content of 25(OHD in the blood serum was in the normal range, and in other cases (92.1 %, there was a deficiency and a lack of vitamin D. The severe form of vitamin D deficiency has been detected in 7 (1.9 % patients. When comparing the performance of 25(OHD in the areas of inspection, it was found that the level of vitamin D in the blood serum was significantly higher in residents of Verkhovyna and Kosiv districts (located higher than 450 meters above sea level as compared with residents of Vyzhnytsia and Kolomyia. Conclusion. The average level of vitamin D in the blood serum of the adult population depends on residence and increases with height above sea level.

  12. Satisfaction with hospital rehabilitation: is it related to life satisfaction, functional status, age or education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchignoni, Franco; Ottonello, Marcella; Benevolo, Emilio; Tesio, Luigi

    2002-05-01

    Satisfaction with care, functional and cognitive status, life satisfaction, anxiety, and sociodemographic variables were correlated in 55 in-patients admitted to a rehabilitation unit after hip or knee surgery. The study aimed at investigating whether, as an index of care quality, patient satisfaction can be considered as a distinct domain or instead is subsidiary to other patient characteristics. Patient satisfaction with rehabilitation care was measured through a questionnaire, SAT-16. The SAT-16 scores were moderately correlated with a short form of the Life Satisfaction Index (LSI-11: rs = 0.41, p = 0.001), but did not correlate with either the Functional Independence Measure (FIM), the STAI form X (the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory), age or educational level. According to the "discrepancy model", the fair degree of correlation between SAT-16 and LSI-11 could be explained by connecting both expressions of satisfaction with personal background expectations and their perceived degree of fulfilment. The results confirm, also for rehabilitation care, that patient satisfaction should be considered as a valuable specific outcome, independent of most of the patient characteristics investigated (functional and cognitive status, anxiety, age, and education).

  13. Impact of enteral nutrition on postoperative immune function and nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F; Hou, M X; Wu, X L; Bao, L D; Dong, P D

    2015-06-10

    We studied the effects of enteral nutrition (EN) support initiated 1 week before surgery on postoperative nutritional status, immune function, and inflammatory response in gastric cancer patients. A total of 200 gastric cancer patients were randomly divided into two groups: EN starting 1 week before surgery (study group) and EN starting early after surgery (control group). The two groups received EN support, following different therapeutic schedules, until the 9th day after operation. In the patients, body weight, skinfold thickness, upper-arm circumference, white blood cell count, albumin, prealbumin, C-reactive protein, peripheral immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG, and IgM), T lymphocyte subsets, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α were measured 10 days before and after surgery and on the first day after surgery. There was no statistically significant difference in the results of recovery time of passage of gas by anus, abdominal distension, stomachache, blood glucose, hepatic and renal functions, and electrolytes between the two groups of patients (P > 0. 05). Adverse reactions occurred to both groups at 1 and 2 days after operation. Such conditions was improved after the intravenous drip rate was adjusted. The albumin and prealbumin levels of the patients in both groups decreased at 1 day after operation (P gastric cancer patients can improve their postoperative nutritional status and immune function, can reduce inflammatory response, and is more conducive to the recovery of patients.

  14. The functional status of patients with AIDS attending antiretroviral treatment center

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    T J Thejus

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To assess the functional status of patients with Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS registered in the Anti-Retroviral Treatment (ART center. Materials and Methods: Design: Descriptive study. Study setting: ART center in Calicut Medical College, Kerala, India. Subjects: Cohorts of AIDS patients attending the ART center during the year 2007. Data collection: Done prospectively from the secondary data available from the center. Outcome measures: The demographic, morbidity, functional status and laboratory parameters were collected. Data processing was done using Excel datasheet and analysis were done using Epi info 2003. Results: One hundred and ninety-five patients received care during this period; 69% were males. The mean age was 38±9 years; 80% of them were married and in 50% of their spouses also tested positive for HIV. The mean CD4 count was 127 cells/microliter. The majority (90% were categorized as WHO Stage 3 or 4 of HIV. Only 52% of them were able to perform their usual work in or outside their house; the rest were not able to lead an economically productive life. Thirty-six per cent were only able to perform activities of daily living; 12% were bedridden.The functional status of the patients positively correlated with WHO disease stage ( P = < 0-0001, and CD4 count and hemoglobin levels negatively correlated with staging ( P = < 0.001. 62% are having any of the opportunistic infections. Conclusion: Fifty per cent of the AIDS patients are disabled and need support and care. As AIDS is a growing problem, community-based palliative care for AIDS patients should be strengthened in India.

  15. A CRITICAL REVIEW OF STATUS AND FUNCTIONS OF ART EDUCATION IN MODERN EDUCATION AND SOLUTIONAL PROPOPALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ertuğ YAVUZ

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, it is stressed that modern art education should be approached by determining planned, programmed, logical, and completely scientific methods. The functions and the status of art education is also examined in details in this essay. It is emphasized that education has a significant influence on individual behavioral variations and on society with its all components for forming national agreement, mutual support, sympathy, cooperation and unity. Art education’s responsibility of creating modern, dynamic, complete, rationalistic and new ideas in addition to its contemporary existence as an education of pleasure and impression is also stressed.

  16. Rural-urban differences in psychiatric status and functioning among clients with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dottl, S L; Greenley, J R

    1997-08-01

    Studies of clients with severe mental illness (SMI) typically focus on individuals in larger urban areas. Less is known about clients in rural and smaller urban areas. Here we compare the psychiatric status, home and community activities of daily living, and social and vocational functioning of 1600 adult clients with SMI from 18 small-city and rural Wisconsin counties. Rural clients are less likely to have a diagnosis of schizophrenia or organic brain syndrome; have higher levels of general pathology, including more belligerent, bizarre, nervous, and depressive behaviors; and engage in fewer vocational activities than urban clients.

  17. Zinc status and cognitive function of pregnant women in Southern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Stoecker, BJ; Abebe, Y; Hubbs-Tait, L; Kennedy, TS; Gibson, RS; Arbide, I; Teshome, A; Westcott, J; Krebs, NF; Hambidge, KM

    2009-01-01

    The relation between zinc status and cognitive function was examined in a cross-sectional study in the Sidama area of Southern Ethiopia. Pregnant women >24 weeks of gestation from three adjacent rural villages volunteered to participate. Mean (s.d.) plasma zinc of 99 women was 6.97 (1.07) μmol/l (below the cutoff of 7.6 μmol/l indicative of zinc deficiency at this stage of gestation). The Raven’s Coloured Progressive Matrices (CPM) test was administered individually. Scores for the Raven’s sc...

  18. Health Maintenance in Very Old Age : Medical Conditions, Functional Outcome and Nutritional Status

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Huan-Ji

    2014-01-01

    The overall aim of this thesis was to provide better understanding of the underlying factors related to health maintenance in very old people, with a focus on medical conditions, functional outcome and nutritional status. Data were gathered from the ELSA 85 project (Elderly in Linköping Screening Assessment). The ELSA 85 project was started in 2007 with a population-based survey of 85-year-old individuals (n = 650) residing in Linköping municipality, Sweden. During the study period from 2007 ...

  19. Being old in our society : health, functional status, and effects of research

    OpenAIRE

    von Strauss, Eva

    2000-01-01

    This thesis concerns health and functional status in old age, as well as older adults' attitudes towards research participation. Five studies were performed using data from the Kungsholmen Project, a population-based study on ageing and dementia ongoing in Stockholm since 1987. Occurrence of dementia. Both prevalence and incidence of dementia were investigated. In the 75-79 age group the incidence rates for dementia were 19.6 for women and 12.4 for men per 1,000 person-year...

  20. Vitamin D Status and Muscle Function Among Adolescent and Young Swimmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Nina Rica Wium; Larsen, Rikke; Hansen, Mette

    2017-01-01

    Impaired muscle function has been coupled to vitamin D insufficiency in young women and in elderly men and women. Those living at Northern latitudes are at risk of vitamin D insufficiency due to low sun exposure which may be more pronounced among elite swimmers because of their indoor training...... schedules. We aimed to examine vitamin D status among young elite swimmers and evaluate the association between vitamin D status and muscle strength. Twenty-nine swimmers, 12 female and 17 male (16-24 years) residing at latitude 55-56°N were studied in March and April. Blood samples were analysed for serum...... 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OH)D) and hand-grip strength was measured as marker of muscle strength. Subjects' vitamin D and calcium intake were assessed by food frequency questionnaire and sun exposure and training status by questionnaires. Mean (±SD) s-25(OH)D was 52.6 ± 18.3nmol/L among all swimmers...

  1. Predictors of Functional Improvement and Future Work Status After the Disability Benefit Claim : A Prospective Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelius, L. R.; van der Klink, J. J. L.; de Boer, M. R.; Groothoff, J. W.; Brouwer, S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective In most industrialized countries, disability benefit rates have increased substantially in the past decade. Few beneficiaries return into employment once disability benefit is awarded. The present study aims to investigate which factors predict functional improvement and future work status

  2. Nitroso-redox status and vascular function in marginal and severe ascorbate deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Saura, Maria-Francisca; Saijo, Fumito; Bryan, Nathan S; Bauer, Selena; Rodriguez, Juan; Feelisch, Martin

    2012-10-01

    Marginal vitamin C (ascorbic acid) deficiency is a prevalent yet underappreciated risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Along with glutathione, ascorbate plays important roles in antioxidant defense and redox signaling. Production of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species and their interaction, giving rise to nitroso and nitrosyl product formation, are key components of the redox regulation/signaling network. Numerous in vitro studies have demonstrated that these systems are interconnected via multiple chemical transformation reactions, but little is known about their dynamics and significance in vivo. We sought to investigate the time-course of changes in NO/redox status and vascular function during ascorbate depletion in rats unable to synthesize vitamin C. We here show that both redox and protein nitros(yl)ation status in blood and vital organs vary dynamically during development of ascorbate deficiency. Prolonged marginal ascorbate deficiency is associated with cell/tissue-specific perturbations in ascorbate and glutathione redox and NO status. Scurvy develops earlier in marginally deficient compared to adequately supplemented animals, with blunted compensatory NO production and a dissociation of biochemistry from clinical symptomology in the former. Paradoxically, aortic endothelial reactivity is enhanced rather than impaired, irrespective of ascorbate status. Innovation/Conclusion: Enhanced NO production and protein nitros(yl)ation are integral responses to the redox stress of acute ascorbate deprivation. The elevated cardiovascular risk in marginal ascorbate deficiency is likely to be associated with perturbations of NO/redox-sensitive signaling nodes unrelated to the regulation of vascular tone. This new model may have merit for the future study of redox-sensitive events in marginal ascorbate deficiency.

  3. Iron Status in Chronic Heart Failure: Impact on Symptoms, Functional Class and Submaximal Exercise Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enjuanes, Cristina; Bruguera, Jordi; Grau, María; Cladellas, Mercé; Gonzalez, Gina; Meroño, Oona; Moliner-Borja, Pedro; Verdú, José M; Farré, Nuria; Comín-Colet, Josep

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of iron deficiency and anemia on submaximal exercise capacity in patients with chronic heart failure. We undertook a single-center cross-sectional study in a group of stable patients with chronic heart failure. At recruitment, patients provided baseline information and completed a 6-minute walk test to evaluate submaximal exercise capacity and exercise-induced symptoms. At the same time, blood samples were taken for serological evaluation. Iron deficiency was defined as ferritin < 100 ng/mL or transferrin saturation < 20% when ferritin is < 800 ng/mL. Additional markers of iron status were also measured. A total of 538 heart failure patients were eligible for inclusion, with an average age of 71 years and 33% were in New York Heart Association class III/IV. The mean distance walked in the test was 285 ± 101 meters among those with impaired iron status, vs 322 ± 113 meters (P=.002). Symptoms during the test were more frequent in iron deficiency patients (35% vs 27%; P=.028) and the most common symptom reported was fatigue. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that increased levels of soluble transferrin receptor indicating abnormal iron status were independently associated with advanced New York Heart Association class (P < .05). Multivariable analysis using generalized additive models, soluble transferrin receptor and ferritin index, both biomarkers measuring iron status, showed a significant, independent and linear association with submaximal exercise capacity (P=.03 for both). In contrast, hemoglobin levels were not significantly associated with 6-minute walk test distance in the multivariable analysis. In patients with chronic heart failure, iron deficiency but not anemia was associated with impaired submaximal exercise capacity and symptomatic functional limitation. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Parental socioeconomic status and child intellectual functioning in a Norwegian sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilertsen, Thomas; Thorsen, Anders Lillevik; Holm, Silje Elisabeth Hasmo; Bøe, Tormod; Sørensen, Lin; Lundervold, Astri J

    2016-10-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) in childhood has been linked to cognitive function and future academic and occupational success in studies from several countries. However, previous Nordic studies have shown inconsistent results regarding the strength of this link. We therefore investigated the association between SES and cognitive functioning in a sample of 255 Norwegian children, including 151 typically developing children and 104 children with a psychiatric diagnosis. The third edition of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III) to assess cognitive function was used. SES was defined from maternal and paternal education and family income of typically developing children and of a subsample of children with a psychiatric diagnosis. Multiple adjusted regression analyses were used to investigate the relation between SES and cognitive functioning. The analyses showed that SES explained a significant part of the variance of the full-scale WISC-III score and two WISC-III indices (Verbal Comprehension and Freedom from Distractibility). Overall, the strength of the relations was weaker than expected from reports from other non-Nordic countries. Parental education was the only significant individual predictor, suggesting that income was of minor importance as a predictor of cognitive functioning. Further studies should investigate how diverse political and socioeconomic contexts influence the relation between SES and cognitive functioning. © 2016 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology published by Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Family socioeconomic status and child executive functions: the roles of language, home environment, and single parenthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarsour, Khaled; Sheridan, Margaret; Jutte, Douglas; Nuru-Jeter, Amani; Hinshaw, Stephen; Boyce, W Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The association between family socioeconomic status (SES) and child executive functions is well-documented. However, few studies have examined the role of potential mediators and moderators. We studied the independent and interactive associations between family SES and single parenthood to predict child executive functions of inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, and working memory and examined child expressive language abilities and family home environment as potential mediators of these associations. Sixty families from diverse SES backgrounds with a school-age target child (mean [SD] age = 9.9 [0.96] years) were evaluated. Child executive functioning was measured using a brief battery. The quality of the home environment was evaluated using the Home Observation for the Measurement of the Environment inventory. Family SES predicted the three child executive functions under study. Single parent and family SES were interactively associated with children's inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility; such that children from low SES families who were living with one parent performed less well on executive function tests than children from similarly low SES who were living with two parents. Parental responsivity, enrichment activities and family companionship mediated the association between family SES and child inhibitory control and working memory. This study demonstrates that family SES inequalities are associated with inequalities in home environments and with inequalities in child executive functions. The impact of these disparities as they unfold in the lives of typically developing children merits further investigation and understanding.

  6. Epilepsy as a pyridoxine-dependent condition: quantified urinary biomarkers for status evaluation and monitoring antiepileptic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolina, Svetlana; Margalit, Dov; Malitsky, Sergey; Pressman, Eugeny; Rabinkov, Aharon

    2012-08-01

    The study testifies an assumption on epilepsy as an inborn error of pyridoxine metabolism and suggests non-invasive quantitative biomarkers for clarified evaluation of clinical status and monitoring an individual treatment by antiepileptic drugs. Urinary parameters of pyridoxal-phosphate (PLP)-dependent tryptophan degradation and the level of 4-pyridoxic acid, the end product of pyridoxine metabolism, were measured by HPLC method with simultaneous ultraviolet and fluorimetric detection in children with different forms of epilepsy and matched healthy controls. The concentrations of compounds formed or metabolized in the course of tryptophan degradation (kynurenines, indoxyl-sulfate) along with correlations between them turned out to be quantitative biomarkers useful for both clarifying patient's clinical state and monitoring antiepileptic treatment. In particular, the value of the ratio of 4-pyridoxic acid to kynurenine appears to be an index of an experienced seizure attack, while the ratio of 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid to 3-hydroxykynurenine reflects activity of kynureninase, the enzyme of critical sensitivity to PLP supply. Growing progressively worse, epilepsy is accompanied by aggravation of PLP-dependent disturbances of tryptophan metabolism and expanding inhibition of kynureninase. The affected pyridoxine metabolism is discussed as an inborn genetic trait in epilepsy in general, rather than a specific sign of pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy solely.

  7. Radiation-induced cyclooxygenase 2 up-regulation is dependent on redox status in prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingyun; Steinauer, Kirsten K; Dirks, Amie J; Husbeck, Bryan; Gibbs, Iris; Knox, Susan J

    2003-12-01

    Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) is the inducible isozyme of COX, a key enzyme in arachidonate metabolism and the conversion of arachidonic acid (AA) to prostaglandins (PGs) and other eicosanoids. Previous studies have demonstrated that the COX2 protein is up-regulated in prostate cancer cells after irradiation and that this results in elevated levels of PGE(2). In the present study, we further investigated whether radiation-induced COX2 up-regulation is dependent on the redox status of cells from the prostate cancer cell line PC-3. l-Buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), which inhibits gamma glutamyl cysteine synthetase (gammaGCS), and the antioxidants alpha-lipoic acid and N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) were used to modulate the cellular redox status. BSO decreased the cellular GSH level and increased cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in PC-3 cells, whereas alpha-lipoic acid and NAC increased the GSH level and decreased cellular ROS. Both radiation and the oxidant H(2)O(2) had similar effects on COX2 up-regulation and PGE(2) production in PC-3 cells, suggesting that radiation-induced COX2 up-regulation is secondary to the production of ROS. The relative increases in COX2 expression and PGE(2) production induced by radiation and H(2)O(2) were even greater when PC-3 cells were pretreated with BSO. When the cells were pretreated with alpha-lipoic acid or NAC for 24 h, both radiation- and H(2)O(2)-induced COX2 up-regulation and PGE(2) production were markedly inhibited. These results demonstrate that radiation-induced COX2 up-regulation in prostate cancer cells is modulated by the cellular redox status. Radiation-induced increases in ROS levels contribute to the adaptive response of PC-3 cells, resulting in elevated levels of COX2.

  8. Fighting experience alters brain androgen receptor expression dependent on testosterone status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng-Yu; Earley, Ryan L.; Huang, Shu-Ping; Hsu, Yuying

    2014-01-01

    Contest decisions are influenced by the outcomes of recent fights (winner–loser effects). Steroid hormones and serotonin are closely associated with aggression and therefore probably also play important roles in mediating winner–loser effects. In mangrove rivulus fish, Kryptolebias marmoratus, individuals with higher testosterone (T), 11-ketotestosterone and cortisol levels are more capable of winning, but titres of these hormones do not directly mediate winner–loser effects. In this study, we investigated the effects of winning/losing experiences on brain expression levels of the receptor genes for androgen (AR), oestrogen α/β (ERα/β), glucocorticoid (GR) and serotonin (5-HT1AR). The effect of contest experience on AR gene expression depended on T levels: repeated losses decreased, whereas repeated wins increased AR gene expression in individuals with low T but not in individuals with medium or high T levels. These results lend strong support for AR being involved in mediating winner–loser effects, which, in previous studies, were more detectable in individuals with lower T. Furthermore, the expression levels of ERα/β, 5-HT1AR and GR genes were higher in individuals that initiated contests against larger opponents than in those that did not. Overall, contest experience, underlying endocrine state and hormone and serotonin receptor expression patterns interacted to modulate contest decisions jointly. PMID:25320171

  9. Reversal of density dependence of juvenile Littorina littorea (Gastropoda) growth in response to periphyton nutrient status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Ulrich

    2001-05-01

    Experimental periphyton communities were grown in aquaria receiving media of differently enriched seawater (fully enriched, without Si enrichment, without N and P enrichment) and supplied differently with medium (batch and weekly replacement). Periphyton was subject to grazing by 1-6 individuals of juvenile Littorina littorea. Periphyton biomass was higher in the replacement aquaria than in the batch aquaria and higher in the full and the -Si medium than in the -NP medium. The N:C ratio of the periphyton increased with Littorina number in the batch aquaria and was unaffected by Littorina number in the replacement aquaria. Diatoms were most dominant in the -NP treatments and rarest in the -Si treatments. Chlorophytes were dominant in the -Si and the fully enriched treatments, but also Cyanobacteria contributed significantly to periphyton biomass in those treatments under nutrient replacement. Somatic growth of Littorina was negatively correlated to Littorina density in the replacement aquaria and positively density dependent in the batch aquaria. The latter is explained by improved food quality under stronger grazing pressure.

  10. Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy: normal outcome in a patient with late diagnosis after prolonged status epilepticus causing cortical blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluger, G; Blank, R; Paul, K; Paschke, E; Jansen, E; Jakobs, C; Wörle, H; Plecko, B

    2008-10-01

    We report on a male proband with pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy (PDE) and neonatal seizure onset. At the age of 31 months, a prolonged status epilepticus led to severe neurological regression with cortical blindness, loss of speech and muscular hypotonia with slow recovery over the following 3 months. At 33 months of age pyridoxine therapy was initiated with excellent response and the boy remained seizure-free on pyridoxine monotherapy, except for two occasions with seizure recurrence 10 days after accidental pyridoxine withdrawal. alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (antiquitin) deficiency was indicated by elevated pipecolic acid concentrations in plasma and alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde excretion in urine. Molecular analysis of the antiquitin gene revealed a novel missense mutation c.57insA, while the mutation of the other allele remained unidentified so far. Despite the delay in diagnosis and prolonged status epilepticus, neuropsychological evaluations at the ages of 11 and 18 years demonstrated full-scale IQ of 93 and 92, respectively, with better verbal IQ (103 and 101) than performance IQ (85 and 82).

  11. Status differences in cross-functional teams: effects on individual member participation, job satisfaction, and intent to quit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, Richard; Alexander, Jeffrey A; McCarthy, John F; Wells, Rebecca

    2004-09-01

    Cross-functional teams (CFTs) play an increasingly important role in health care. However, despite their potential, CFTs often fail to function effectively. This paper contributes to the literature in medical sociology by examining how the steep and well-defined hierarchy characteristic of the health occupations proves to be dysfunctional in the CFT setting. Previous research has shown that status differences among members of work teams negatively affect their functioning. Yet the specific mechanisms that connect variations in status to poor team functioning remain unclear. We hypothesize that it is the suppression of participation among low status team members that leads to poor CFT functioning. Our theoretical model integrates status characteristics theory and the value attainment theory of job satisfaction to link team members' statuses to participation in team decision-making and, ultimately, to their attitudes about the job. We use causal modeling to test our hypotheses. Our results indicate that relationships between health professionals defined in broader social contexts affect status, roles, and functions within CFTs, and these, in turn, affect the team's interpersonal processes. We suggest changes in organizational structure and in team leadership styles that might make CFTs more effective.

  12. Carbohydrate dependence during hard-intensity exercise in trained cyclists in the competitive season: importance of training status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manetta, J; Brun, J F; Maimoun, L; Galy, O; Coste, O; Maso, F; Raibaut, J L; Benezis, C; Lac, G; Mercier, J

    2002-10-01

    To test the hypothesis that intensive endurance training increases CHO utilisation during hard-intensity exercise, seven competitive road cyclists (Cy) performed three 50-min steady-state exercise tests on a cycle ergometer above their ventilatory threshold (+ 15 %) over the course of a cycling season (January [ET1], May [ET2] and September [ET3]). We compared the data with the baseline values of seven sedentary controls (Sed). CHO oxidation in Cy was higher in ET2 and ET3 than in ET1 (p competitive cyclists increase CHO oxidation during hard-intensity exercise over the course of a season, but show a decline by the end of the season in association with the appearance of an overtraining state. Thus, well-trained cyclists develop a CHO dependence, which is modified with training status.

  13. Age-dependent effects of esculetin on mood-related behavior and cognition from stressed mice are associated with restoring brain antioxidant status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Aragón, Sagrario; Villar, Ángel; Benedí, Juana

    2016-02-01

    Dietary antioxidants might exert an important role in the aging process by relieving oxidative damage, a likely cause of age-associated brain dysfunctions. This study aims to investigate the influence of esculetin (6,7-dihydroxycoumarin), a naturally occurring antioxidant in the diet, on mood-related behaviors and cognitive function and its relation with age and brain oxidative damage. Behavioral tests were employed in 11-, 17- and 22-month-old male C57BL/6J mice upon an oral 35day-esculetin treatment (25mg/kg). Activity of antioxidant enzymes, GSH and GSSG levels, GSH/GSSG ratio, and mitochondrial function were analyzed in brain cortex at the end of treatment in order to assess the oxidative status related to mouse behavior. Esculetin treatment attenuated the increased immobility time and enhanced the diminished climbing time in the forced swim task elicited by acute restraint stress (ARS) in the 11- and 17-month-old mice versus their counterpart controls. Furthermore, ARS caused an impairment of contextual memory in the step-through passive avoidance both in mature adult and aged mice which was partially reversed by esculetin only in the 11-month-old mice. Esculetin was effective to prevent the ARS-induced oxidative stress mostly in mature adult mice by restoring antioxidant enzyme activities, augmenting the GSH/GSSG ratio and increasing cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity in cortex. Modulation of the mood-related behavior and cognitive function upon esculetin treatment in a mouse model of ARS depends on age and is partly due to the enhancement of redox status and levels of COX activity in cortex.

  14. Vitamin A status regulates glucocorticoid availability in Wistar rats: consequences on cognitive functions and hippocampal neurogenesis ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien eBonhomme

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A disruption of the vitamin A signaling pathway has been involved in age-related memory decline and hippocampal plasticity alterations. Using vitamin A deficiency (VAD, a nutritional model leading to a hyposignaling of the retinoid pathway, we have recently demonstrated that retinoic acid (RA, the active metabolite of vitamin A, is efficient to reverse VAD-induced spatial memory deficits and adult hippocampal neurogenesis alterations. Besides, excess of glucocorticoids (GCs occurring with aging is known to strongly inhibit hippocampal plasticity and functions and few studies report on the counteracting effects of RA signaling pathway on GCs action. Here, we have addressed whether the modulation of brain GCs availability could be one of the biological mechanisms involved in the effects of vitamin A status on hippocampal plasticity and functions. Thus, we have studied the effects of a vitamin A-free diet for 14 weeks and a 4-week vitamin A supplementation on plasma and hippocampal corticosterone (CORT levels in Wistar rats. We have also investigated corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG binding capacity and 11beta-Hydrosteroid Dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1 activity, both important modulators of CORT availability at the peripheral and hippocampal levels respectively. Interestingly, we show that the vitamin A status regulates levels of free plasma CORT and hippocampal CORT levels, by acting through a regulation of CBG binding capacity and 11β-HSD1 activity. Moreover, our results suggest that increased CORT levels in VAD rats could have some deleterious consequences on spatial memory, anxiety-like behavior and adult hippocampal neurogenesis whereas these effects could be corrected by a vitamin A supplementation. Thus, the modulation of GCs availability by vitamin A status is an important biological mechanism that should be taken into account in order to prevent age-related cognitive decline and hippocampal plasticity alterations.

  15. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in hepatic encephalopathy: current status and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Long Jiang; Wu, Shengyong; Ren, Jiaqian; Lu, Guang Ming

    2014-09-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a neuropsychiatric syndrome which develops in patients with severe liver diseases and/or portal-systemic shunting. Minimal HE, the earliest manifestation of HE, has drawn increasing attention in the last decade. Minimal HE is associated with a series of brain functional changes, such as attention, working memory, and so on. Blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) functional MRI (fMRI), especially resting-state fMRI has been used to explore the brain functional changes of HE, yielding important insights for understanding pathophysiological mechanisms and functional reorganization of HE. This paper briefly reviews the principles of BOLD fMRI, potential applications of resting-state fMRI with advanced post-processing algorithms such as regional homogeneity, amplitude of low frequency fluctuation, functional connectivity and future research perspective in this field.

  16. Voluntary leadership roles in religious groups and rates of change in functional status during older adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, R David; Krause, Neal

    2014-06-01

    Linear growth curve modeling was used to compare rates of change in functional status between three groups of older adults: Individuals holding voluntary lay leadership positions in a church, regular church attenders who were not leaders, and those not regularly attending church. Functional status was tracked longitudinally over a 4-year period in a national sample of 1,152 Black and White older adults whose religious backgrounds were either Christian or unaffiliated. Leaders had significantly slower trajectories of increase in both the number of physical impairments and the severity of those impairments. Although regular church attenders who were not leaders had lower mean levels of impairment on both measures, compared with those not regularly attending church, the two groups of non-leaders did not differ from one another in their rates of impairment increase. Leadership roles may contribute to longer maintenance of physical ability in late life, and opportunities for voluntary leadership may help account for some of the health benefits of religious participation.

  17. Validation of the Malay Version of the Inventory of Functional Status after Childbirth Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norhayati Mohd Noor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study was designed to examine the psychometric properties of Malay version of the Inventory of Functional Status after Childbirth (IFSAC. Design. A cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods. A total of 108 postpartum mothers attending Obstetrics and Gynaecology Clinic, in a tertiary teaching hospital in Malaysia, were involved. Construct validity and internal consistency were performed after the translation, content validity, and face validity process. The data were analyzed using Analysis of Moment Structure version 18 and Statistical Packages for the Social Sciences version 20. Results. The final model consists of four constructs, namely, infant care, personal care, household activities, and social and community activities, with 18 items demonstrating acceptable factor loadings, domain to domain correlation, and best fit (Chi-squared/degree of freedom = 1.678; Tucker-Lewis index = 0.923; comparative fit index = 0.936; and root mean square error of approximation = 0.080. Composite reliability and average variance extracted of the domains ranged from 0.659 to 0.921 and from 0.499 to 0.628, respectively. Conclusion. The study suggested that the four-factor model with 18 items of the Malay version of IFSAC was acceptable to be used to measure functional status after childbirth because it is valid, reliable, and simple.

  18. On asymptotically optimal wavelet estimation of trend functions under long-range dependence

    CERN Document Server

    Beran, Jan; 10.3150/10-BEJ332

    2012-01-01

    We consider data-adaptive wavelet estimation of a trend function in a time series model with strongly dependent Gaussian residuals. Asymptotic expressions for the optimal mean integrated squared error and corresponding optimal smoothing and resolution parameters are derived. Due to adaptation to the properties of the underlying trend function, the approach shows very good performance for smooth trend functions while remaining competitive with minimax wavelet estimation for functions with discontinuities. Simulations illustrate the asymptotic results and finite-sample behavior.

  19. Association between insulin and executive functioning in alcohol dependence: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Changwoo; Bae, Hwallip; Won, Sung-Doo; Lim, Jaeyoung; Kim, Dai-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol dependence is a disorder ascribable to multiple factors and leads to cognitive impairment. Given that insulin dysregulation can cause cognitive impairment, patients with alcohol dependence are likely to develop insulin dysregulation such as that in diabetes. The purposes of this study are to identify an association between cognitive functioning and insulin and to investigate insulin as the biomarker of cognitive functioning in alcohol-dependent patients. Serum insulin levels were measured and cognitive functions were assessed in 45 patients with chronic alcoholism. The Korean version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD-K), a battery of cognitive function tests, was used to assess cognitive functioning. Serum insulin levels were not significantly correlated with most CERAD-K scores, but there was a significant negative correlation with scores on the Trail Making Test B, which is designed to measure executive functioning. Lower serum insulin levels were associated with slower executive functioning responses on the Trail Making Test B, suggesting that executive functioning may be in proportion to serum insulin levels. Thus, in patients with alcohol dependence, insulin level is associated with cognitive functioning. In addition, the present findings suggest that insulin level is a potential biomarker for determining cognitive functioning.

  20. Temperature-dependent structural and functional features of a hyperthermostable enzyme using elastic neutron scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koutsopoulos, S; van der Oost, J; Norde, W

    2005-01-01

    The dynamic behavior of an endoglucanase from the hyperthermophilic microorganism Pyrococcus furiosus was investigated using elastic neutron scattering. The temperature dependence of the atomic motions was correlated with conformational. and functional characteristics of the enzyme. The onset of

  1. Temperature-dependent structural and functional features of a hyperthermostable enzyme using elastic neutron scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koutsopoulos, S.; Oost, van der J.; Norde, W.

    2005-01-01

    The dynamic behavior of an endoglucanase from the hyperthermophilic microorganism Pyrococcus furiosus was investigated using elastic neutron scattering. The temperature dependence of the atomic motions was correlated with conformational and functional characteristics of the enzyme. The onset of

  2. The Determining Method about the Conflict between the Null Constraints and the Set of Functional Dependencies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘惟一

    1989-01-01

    In this paper the conflict between the null constraints and the set of functional dependencies is defined.Some rules for determining the conflicts and a method for processing the conflicts are obtained.

  3. Functional status and its associated factors in Nigerian adolescents with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakare, M O; Agomoh, A O; Eaton, J; Ebigbo, P O; Onwukwe, J U

    2011-11-01

    This study assessed general functioning in Nigerian adolescents with bipolar disorder. It also determined the factors associated with functioning in these adolescents. Adolescents with bipolar disorder diagnosed over one year or more attending the outpatient unit of Federal Neuro-Psychiatric Hospital, Enugu (FNHE), Nigeria for follow-up visits were interviewed with a socio-demographic questionnaire and their functioning was rated with the Children Global Assessment Scale (C-GAS) based on the clinical information obtained from the children and their care givers during a one year follow-up period. Further information such as history of sexual risk behavior, pre-morbid peer relationship, relationship with siblings, level of religion activities among others were also obtained through clinical interview. A total of 46 adolescents with bipolar disorder were followed up. Minimal to moderate impairment in functioning in the past year was found in these adolescents. The mean score on C-GAS was 68.41 ± 16.63. Factors including co-morbidity, pre-morbid peer relationship, relationship with siblings, level of religion activities and history of sexual risk behavior were significantly associated with functioning (p = 0.000), while marital status of the parents showed a weak association with functioning in these adolescents (p = 0.068). Negative correlation was also found between mean number of hospital admissions in the past year during follow up and mean score on C-GAS (r = - 0.908, p = 0.000). Functional impairments complicate bipolar disorder in Nigerian adolescents. To ensure good overall outcome in these adolescents, attention needs to be focused on promoting those factors that help good functioning. Future longitudinal follow up studies that would assess long-term outcome and its correlates in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder in this environment are desirable.

  4. Clinical and functional evaluation of the joint status of hemophiliac adults at a Brazilian blood center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Aparecida Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hemophilia is a potentially disabling condition as hemophilic arthropathy develops early in life and is progressive, especially in patients treated in an on-demand regime. Objective: This study aimed to describe the structural joint status and the functional independence score of hemophiliac adults and correlate structural damage with the functional deficits found in these patients. METHODS: Hemophiliacs at the Juiz de Fora Regional Blood Center - HEMOMINAS Foundation, aged 18 years and over and treated in an on-demand regime, were clinically evaluated in respect to structural joint damage using the World Federation of Hemophilia Physical Examination Scale (WFH-PE and functional deficits using the Functional Independence Score in Hemophilia (FISH. The Spearman rank test was used to evaluate the correlation between the two scores. RESULTS: Thirty-nine patients were evaluated. The mean age was 36.8 years. Target joints were detected in 69.2% of patients studied. The mean Physical Examination Scale and Functional Independence Score were 16.87 and 25.64, respectively. Patients with mild hemophilia showed no significant joint involvement. Patients with severe or moderate hemophilia had similar results regarding structural damage (p-value < 0.001 and functional deficits (p-value = 0.001. There was statistical significance in the correlation between the two scores (r = -0.850; p-value = 0.01. CONCLUSIONS: The World Federation of Hemophilia Physical Examination Scale and Functional Independence Score in Hemophilia may be useful to clinically assess structural joint damage and functional deficits in hemophiliacs as the tools are inexpensive and easy to administer and may be able to detect hemophilic arthropathy, which results from recurrent hemarthrosis and is common in the population studied.

  5. Carnosine content in skeletal muscle is dependent on vitamin B6 status in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofya eSuidasari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Carnosine, a histidine-containing dipeptide, is well known to be associated with skeletal muscle performance. However, there is limited information on the effect of dietary micronutrients on muscle carnosine level. Pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP, the active form of vitamin B6, is involved in amino acid metabolisms in the body as a co-factor. We hypothesized that enzymes involved in β-alanine biosynthesis, the rate-limiting precursor of carnosine, may also be PLP-dependent. Thus, we examined the effects of dietary vitamin B6 on the muscle carnosine content of rats. Male and female rats were fed a diet containing 1, 7, or 35 mg pyridoxine HCl/kg for 6 weeks. Carnosine in skeletal muscles was quantified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS. In the gastrocnemius muscle of male rats, carnosine concentration was significantly higher in the 7 and 35 mg groups (+70% and +61%, respectively than in the 1 mg pyridoxine HCl/kg group, whereas that in the soleus muscle of male rats was significantly higher only in the 7 mg group (+43% than in the 1 mg pyridoxine HCl/kg group (P<0.05. In both muscles of female rats, carnosine concentration was significantly higher in the 7 and 35 mg groups (+32% ~ +226% than in the 1 mg pyridoxine HCl/kg group (P<0.05. We also found that compared to the 1 mg group, β-alanine concentrations in the 7 and 35 mg groups were markedly elevated in gastrocnemius muscles of male (+153% and +148%, respectively, P<0.05 and female (+381% and +437%, respectively, P<0.05 rats. Noteworthy, the concentrations of ornithine in the 7 and 35 mg groups were decreased in gastrocnemius muscles of male rats (−46% and −54%, respectively, P<0.05, which strongly inversely correlated with β-alanine concentration (r=−0.84, P<0.01. In humans, 19% lower muscle carnosine content was found in soleus muscle of women of the lower plasma PLP tertile, but this was not observed in gastrocnemius muscle

  6. Obesity and Diabetes as Accelerators of Functional Decline; Can Lifestyle Interventions Maintain Functional Status in High Risk Older Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Stephen D.; Karabetian, Christy; Naugle, Kelly; Buford, Thomas W.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and diabetes are known risk factors for the development of physical disability among older adults. With the number of seniors with these conditions rising worldwide, the prevention and treatment of physical disability in these persons has become a major public health challenge. Sarcopenia, the progressive loss of muscle mass and strength, has been identified as a common pathway associated with the initial onset and progression of physical disability among older adults. A growing body of evidence suggests that metabolic dysregulation associated with obesity and diabetes accelerates the progression of sarcopenia, and subsequently functional decline in older adults. The focus of this brief review is on the contributions of obesity and diabetes in accelerating sarcopenia and functional decline among older adults. We also briefly discuss the underexplored interaction between obesity and diabetes that may further accelerate sarcopenia and place obese older adults with diabetes at particularly high risk of disability. Finally, we review findings from studies that have specifically tested the efficacy of lifestyle-based interventions in maintaining the functional status of older persons with obesity and/or diabetes. PMID:23832077

  7. Obesity and diabetes as accelerators of functional decline: can lifestyle interventions maintain functional status in high risk older adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Stephen D; Karabetian, Christy; Naugle, Kelly; Buford, Thomas W

    2013-09-01

    Obesity and diabetes are known risk factors for the development of physical disability among older adults. With the number of seniors with these conditions rising worldwide, the prevention and treatment of physical disability in these persons have become a major public health challenge. Sarcopenia, the progressive loss of muscle mass and strength, has been identified as a common pathway associated with the initial onset and progression of physical disability among older adults. A growing body of evidence suggests that metabolic dysregulation associated with obesity and diabetes accelerates the progression of sarcopenia, and subsequently functional decline in older adults. The focus of this brief review is on the contributions of obesity and diabetes in accelerating sarcopenia and functional decline among older adults. We also briefly discuss the underexplored interaction between obesity and diabetes that may further accelerate sarcopenia and place obese older adults with diabetes at particularly high risk of disability. Finally, we review findings from studies that have specifically tested the efficacy of lifestyle-based interventions in maintaining the functional status of older persons with obesity and/or diabetes. © 2013.

  8. Phase-Space Explorations in Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Rajam, Arun K.; Hessler, Paul; Gaun, Christian; Maitra, Neepa T.

    2009-01-01

    We discuss two problems which are particularly challenging for approximations in time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) to capture: momentum-distributions in ionization processes, and memory-dependence in real-time dynamics. We propose an extension of TDDFT to phase-space densities, discuss some formal aspects of such a "phase-space density functional theory" and explain why it could ameliorate the problems in both cases. For each problem, a two-electron model system is exactly nume...

  9. Time-dependent density functional theory for strong-field ionization by circularly polarized pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirilă, Ciprian C.; Lein, Manfred

    2017-03-01

    By applying time-dependent density functional theory to a two-dimensional multielectron atom subject to strong circularly polarized light pulses, we confirm that the ionization of p orbitals with defined angular momentum depends on the sense of rotation of the applied field. A simple ad-hoc modification of the adiabatic local-density exchange-correlation functional is proposed to remedy its unphysical behavior under orbital depletion.

  10. Spinless relativistic particle in energy-dependent potential and normalization of the wave function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchikha, Amar; Chetouani, Lyazid

    2014-06-01

    The problem of normalization related to a Klein-Gordon particle subjected to vector plus scalar energy-dependent potentials is clarified in the context of the path integral approach. In addition the correction relating to the normalizing constant of wave functions is exactly determined. As examples, the energy dependent linear and Coulomb potentials are considered. The wave functions obtained via spectral decomposition, were found exactly normalized.

  11. The regulation of SIRT2 function by cyclin-dependent kinases affects cell motility.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pandithage, R.; Lilischkis, R.; Harting, K.; Wolf, A.; Jedamzik, B.; Luscher-Firzlaff, J.; Vervoorts, J.; Lasonder, E.; Kremmer, E.; Knoll, B.; Luscher, B.

    2008-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) fulfill key functions in many cellular processes, including cell cycle progression and cytoskeletal dynamics. A limited number of Cdk substrates have been identified with few demonstrated to be regulated by Cdk-dependent phosphorylation. We identify on protein express

  12. Origin of the Q^2-dependence of the DIS structure functions

    CERN Document Server

    Ermolaev, B I; Troyan, S I

    2012-01-01

    We consider in detail the Q^2 -dependence of the DIS structure functions, with Q being the virtual photon momentum. Quite often this dependence is claimed to be originated by the Q^2-dependence of the QCD coupling. This leads to the small-x asymptotics of the structure functions with Q^2 -dependent intercepts. We demonstrate that the DGLAP parametrization alpha_s = alpha_s (Q^2) is an approximation valid in the region of large x (where 2pq can be approximated by Q^2) only, providing the factorization scale is also large. Outside this region, the DGLAP parametrization fails, so alpha_s should be replaced by an effective coupling which is independent of Q^2 at small x. As a consequence, intercepts of the structure functions are independent of Q^2. Nevertheless, the small-x asymptotics of the structure functions explicitly depend on Q^2, even when the coupling does not depend on it. We also consider the structure functions at small Q^2 and give a comment on power-Q^2 corrections to the structure functions at lar...

  13. The Effects and Functions of Speaker Status in CALL-Oriented Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buendgens-Kosten, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Do you know how to change your relationship status on Facebook? What about your language status? In most web 2.0 contexts, music preference or relationship status are more important than information about one's linguistic repertoire. In language learning communities and affinity spaces (Gee, 2004), however, language status is forefronted. This…

  14. Non-weight-bearing status compromises the functional level up to 1 yr after hip fracture surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ariza-Vega, Patrocinio; Jiménez-Moleón, José Juan; Kristensen, Morten Tange

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the influence of weight-bearing (WB) status after hip fracture surgery on 1-yr functional outcome. DESIGN: This was a prospective cohort study, carried out in a public acute hospital trauma service. The 194 patients (36 men and 158 women), with a mean...... (SD) age of 81.4 (6.1) yrs, were admitted with a hip fracture within 2009 and were followed for 1 yr thereafter. The influence of postoperative WB status on the 1-yr functional outcome was assessed using the Functional Independence Measure (18-126 points), adjusting for other known factors by multiple...... linear regression. RESULTS: Seventy-five patients (39%) were not allowed WB for a period of 2-4 wks after surgery. Improved functional outcomes were associated positively with prefracture functional level and having a trochanteric fracture during the first year after fracture (P ≤ 0.01). Non-WB status...

  15. Family Functioning: Associations with Weight Status, Eating Behaviors, and Physical Activity in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M.; Wall, Melanie; Larson, Nicole; Loth, Katie A.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This paper examines the relationship between family functioning (e.g. communication, closeness, problem solving, behavioral control) and adolescent weight status and relevant eating and physical activity behaviors. Methods Data are from EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens), a population-based study that assessed eating and activity among socioeconomically and racially/ethnically diverse youth (n = 2,793). Adolescents (46.8% boys, 53.2% girls) completed anthropometric assessments and surveys at school in 2009–2010. Multiple linear regression was used to test the relationship between family functioning and adolescent weight, dietary intake, family meal patterns, and physical activity. Additional regression models were fit to test for interactions by race/ethnicity. Results For adolescent girls, higher family functioning was associated with lower body mass index z-score and percent overweight, less sedentary behavior, higher intake of fruits and vegetables, and more frequent family meals and breakfast consumption. For adolescent boys, higher family functioning was associated with more physical activity, less sedentary behavior, less fast food consumption, and more frequent family meals and breakfast consumption. There was one significant interaction by race/ethnicity for family meals; the association between higher family functioning and more frequent family meals was stronger for non-white boys compared to white boys. Overall, strengths of associations tended to be small with effect sizes ranging from - 0.07 to 0.31 for statistically significant associations. Conclusions Findings suggest that family functioning may be protective for adolescent weight and weight-related health behaviors across all race/ethnicities, although assumptions regarding family functioning in the homes of overweight children should be avoided given small effect sizes. PMID:23299010

  16. Frequency-dependent reliability of spike propagation is function of axonal voltage-gated sodium channels in cerebellar Purkinje cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhilai; Wang, Jin-Hui

    2013-12-01

    The spike propagation on nerve axons, like synaptic transmission, is essential to ensure neuronal communication. The secure propagation of sequential spikes toward axonal terminals has been challenged in the neurons with a high firing rate, such as cerebellar Purkinje cells. The shortfall of spike propagation makes some digital spikes disappearing at axonal terminals, such that the elucidation of the mechanisms underlying spike propagation reliability is crucial to find the strategy of preventing loss of neuronal codes. As the spike propagation failure is influenced by the membrane potentials, this process is likely caused by altering the functional status of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSC). We examined this hypothesis in Purkinje cells by using pair-recordings at their somata and axonal blebs in cerebellar slices. The reliability of spike propagation was deteriorated by elevating spike frequency. The frequency-dependent reliability of spike propagation was attenuated by inactivating VGSCs and improved by removing their inactivation. Thus, the functional status of axonal VGSCs influences the reliability of spike propagation.

  17. Functional status and all-cause mortality in serious mental illness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard D Hayes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Serious mental illness can affect many aspects of an individual's ability to function in daily life. The aim of this investigation was to determine if the environmental and functional status of people with serious mental illness contribute to the high mortality risk observed in this patient group. METHODS: We identified cases of schizophrenia, schizoaffective and bipolar disorder aged ≥ 15 years in a large secondary mental healthcare case register linked to national mortality tracing. We modelled the effect of activities of daily living (ADLs, living conditions, occupational and recreational activities and relationship factors (Health of the Nation Outcome Scale [HoNOS] subscales on all-cause mortality over a 4-year observation period (2007-10 using Cox regression. RESULTS: We identified 6,880 SMI cases (242 deaths in the observation period. ADL impairment was associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality (adjusted HR 1.9; 95% CI 1.3-2.8; p = 0.001, p for trend across ADL categories = 0.001 after controlling for a broad range of covariates (including demographic factors, physical health, mental health symptoms and behaviours, socio-economic status and mental health service contact. No associations were found for the other three exposures. Stratification by age indicated that ADLs were most strongly associated with mortality in the youngest (15 to <35 years and oldest (≥ 55 years groups. CONCLUSIONS: Functional impairment in people with serious mental illness diagnoses is a marker of increased mortality risk, possibly in younger age groups as a marker of negative symptomatology.

  18. Association of Fluid Status and Body Composition with Physical Function in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Shih-Ming; Tsai, Yi-Chun; Chen, Hui-Mei; Lin, Ming-Yen; Chiu, Yi-Wen; Chen, Tzu-Hui; Wang, Shu-Li; Hsiao, Pei-Ni; Kung, Lan-Fang; Hwang, Shang-Jyh; Huang, Mei-Feng; Yeh, Yi-Chun; Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Kuo, Mei-Chuan

    2016-01-01

    Background Impairment of physical function and abnormal body composition are the major presentations in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between body composition and physical function in CKD patients. Methods This cross-sectional study enrolled 172 of CKD stages 1–5 from February 2013 to September 2013. Handgrip strength (upper extremity muscle endurance), 30-second chair-stand test (lower extremity muscle endurance) and 2-minute step test (cardiorespiratory endurance) were used as indices of physical function. Body composition, including fluid status (extracellular water/total body water, ECW/TBW), lean tissue index (LTI), and fat tissue index (FTI), was measured using a bioimpedance spectroscopy method. Results All patients with high ECW/TBW had lower handgrip strength and 30-second chair-stand than those with low ECW/TBW (P<0.001 and P = 0.002). CKD patients with high FTI had lower handgrip strength and 30-second chair-stand than those with low FTI (P<0.001 and P = 0.002). These patients with low LTI had lower handgrip strength than those with high LTI (P = 0.04). In multivariate analysis, high ECW/TBW was positively associated with decreased handgrip strength (β = -41.17, P = 0.03) in CKD patients. High FTI was significantly correlated with decreased times of 30-second chair-stand (β = -0.13, P = 0.01). There was no significant relationship between body composition and 2-minute step test. Conclusions Our results show a significant association of impaired upper and lower extremity muscle endurance with high fluid status and fat tissue. Evaluation of body composition may assist in indentifying physical dysfunction earlier in CKD patients. PMID:27798648

  19. Discriminating cognitive status in Parkinson’s disease through functional connectomics and machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abós, Alexandra; Baggio, Hugo C.; Segura, Bàrbara; García-Díaz, Anna I.; Compta, Yaroslau; Martí, Maria José; Valldeoriola, Francesc; Junqué, Carme

    2017-01-01

    There is growing interest in the potential of neuroimaging to help develop non-invasive biomarkers in neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, connection-wise patterns of functional connectivity were used to distinguish Parkinson’s disease patients according to cognitive status using machine learning. Two independent subject samples were assessed with resting-state fMRI. The first (training) sample comprised 38 healthy controls and 70 Parkinson’s disease patients (27 with mild cognitive impairment). The second (validation) sample included 25 patients (8 with mild cognitive impairment). The Brainnetome atlas was used to reconstruct the functional connectomes. Using a support vector machine trained on features selected through randomized logistic regression with leave-one-out cross-validation, a mean accuracy of 82.6% (p < 0.002) was achieved in separating patients with mild cognitive impairment from those without it in the training sample. The model trained on the whole training sample achieved an accuracy of 80.0% when used to classify the validation sample (p = 0.006). Correlation analyses showed that the connectivity level in the edges most consistently selected as features was associated with memory and executive function performance in the patient group. Our results demonstrate that connection-wise patterns of functional connectivity may be useful for discriminating Parkinson’s disease patients according to the presence of cognitive deficits. PMID:28349948

  20. [The relationship between quality of life and functional status measurements in shoulder impingement syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Ayşe; Tulum, Zeliha; Bacakoğlu, A Kadir

    2003-01-01

    We compared three questionnaires that are used in the assessment of function and quality of life of patients with shoulder impingement syndrome. The study included 54 patients (42 females, 12 males; mean age 54 years) with a diagnosis of stage I or II shoulder impingement syndrome. All the patients were administered a standard questionnaire regarding their general health status (Short-Form 36 / SF-36). Functional evaluations were made using the UCLA (University of California at Los Angeles) and Constant scoring systems. The results of the UCLA and Constant scores were compared with those of SF-36 with the use of Pearson correlation analysis. A strong correlation was found between the UCLA and Constant scores (p=0.006). SF-36 parameters of physical function, vitality, and social function showed a strong correlation with the UCLA scores (p<0.005), whereas parameters of general health and role emotional exhibited a moderate correlation (p<0.05). When compared with the Constant scores, SF-36 showed a strong correlation only in parameters of pain and general health (p<0.005). The parameter of role emotional was negatively correlated with the Constant scores. Demonstration of correlations between some parameters of SF-36 and the UCLA and Constant scoring systems suggests that SF-36 can be used to assess quality of life of patients with shoulder impingement syndrome.

  1. Age- and Functional Status-Dependent Association Between Blood Pressure and Cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ogliari, Giulia; Sabayan, Behnam; Mari, Daniela;

    2015-01-01

    : Individuals aged 75 and older (N = 1,540). MEASUREMENTS: Blood pressure, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), basic activities of daily living (ADLs), and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) were assessed. Associations between BP measures and MMSE score were first analyzed in the total population...... arterial pressure (MAP) were all associated with higher MMSE score (all P MAP differed materially according to strata of age...

  2. Inhibition of central angiotensin II enhances memory function and reduces oxidative stress status in rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bild, Walther; Hritcu, Lucian; Stefanescu, Cristinel; Ciobica, Alin

    2013-06-03

    While it is now well established that the independent brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has some important central functions besides the vascular ones, the relevance of its main bioactive peptide angiotensin II (Ang II) on the memory processes, as well as on oxidative stress status is not completely understood. The purpose of the present work was to evaluate the effects of central Ang II administration, as well as the effects of Ang II inhibition with either AT1 and AT 2 receptor specific blockers (losartan and PD-123177, respectively) or an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor (captopril). These effects were studied on the short-term memory (assessed through Y-maze) or long-term memory (as determined in passive avoidance) and on the oxidative stress status of the hippocampus. Our results demonstrate memory deficits induced by the administration of Ang II, as showed by the significant decrease of the spontaneous alternation in Y-maze (p=0.015) and latency-time in passive avoidance task (p=0.001) when compared to saline. On the other side, the administration of all the aforementioned Ang II blockers significantly improved the spontaneous alternation in Y-maze task, while losartan also increased the latency time as compared to saline in step-through passive avoidance (p=0.042). Also, increased oxidative stress status was induced in the hippocampus by the administration of Ang II, as demonstrated by increased levels of lipid peroxidation markers (malondialdehyde-MDA concentration) (p0.0001) vs. saline. Moreover, significant correlations were found between all of the memory related behavioral parameters and the main oxidative stress markers from the hippocampus, which is known for its implication in the processes of memory and also where RAS components are well expressed. This could be relevant for the complex interactions between Ang II, behavioral processes and neuronal oxidative stress, and could generate important therapeutic approaches. Copyright

  3. Strength of knee flexors of the paretic limb as an important determinant of functional status in post-stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostka, Joanna; Czernicki, Jan; Pruszyńska, Magdalena; Miller, Elżbieta

    The purpose of the study was to assess the effectiveness of the multi-modal exercise program (MMEP) in patients after stroke, and to identify muscles that are the best predictors of functional performance and changes in functional status in a 3-week rehabilitation program. Thirty-one post-stroke patients (60.6±12.7 years) participating in a 3-week MMEP took part in the study. Measurements of extensor and flexor strength of the knee (Fext, Fflex) were done. Functional performance was measured using Timed Up & Go test (TUG), 6-Minute Walk Test (6-MWT) and Tinetti Test. The rehabilitation program improved all the results of functional tests, as well as the values of strength in the patients. Both baseline and post-rehabilitation functional status was associated with knee flexor and extensor muscle strength of paretic but not of non-paretic limbs. At baseline examination muscle strength difference between both Fflexkg(-1) and Fextkg(-1) had an influence on functional status. After rehabilitation the effect of muscle strength difference on functional status was not evident for Fextkg(-1) and, interestingly, even more prominent for Fflexkg(-1). MMEP can effectively increase muscle strength and functional capacity in post-stroke patients. Knee flexor muscle strength of the paretic limb and the knee flexor difference between the limbs is the best predictor of functional performance in stroke survivors. Copyright © 2017 Polish Neurological Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  4. Association between insulin and executive functioning in alcohol dependence: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han C

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Changwoo Han,1 Hwallip Bae,2 Sung-Doo Won,3 Jaeyoung Lim,3 Dai-Jin Kim41Department of Psychiatry, Ansan Hospital, College of Medicine, Korea University, Ansan, 2Department of Psychiatry, Myongji Hospital, College of Medicine, Seonam University, Goyang, 3Department of Clinical Psychology, Keyo Hospital, Keyo Medical Foundation, Uiwang, 4Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of KoreaAbstract: Alcohol dependence is a disorder ascribable to multiple factors and leads to cognitive impairment. Given that insulin dysregulation can cause cognitive impairment, patients with alcohol dependence are likely to develop insulin dysregulation such as that in diabetes. The purposes of this study are to identify an association between cognitive functioning and insulin and to investigate insulin as the biomarker of cognitive functioning in alcohol-dependent patients. Serum insulin levels were measured and cognitive functions were assessed in 45 patients with chronic alcoholism. The Korean version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease (CERAD-K, a battery of cognitive function tests, was used to assess cognitive functioning. Serum insulin levels were not significantly correlated with most CERAD-K scores, but there was a significant negative correlation with scores on the Trail Making Test B, which is designed to measure executive functioning. Lower serum insulin levels were associated with slower executive functioning responses on the Trail Making Test B, suggesting that executive functioning may be in proportion to serum insulin levels. Thus, in patients with alcohol dependence, insulin level is associated with cognitive functioning. In addition, the present findings suggest that insulin level is a potential biomarker for determining cognitive functioning.Keywords: insulin, alcohol dependence, executive function, trail making test

  5. The importance of species identity and interactions for multifunctionality depends on how ecosystem functions are valued.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Eleanor M; Kirwan, Laura; Bell, Thomas; Philipson, Christopher D; Lewis, Owen T; Roslin, Tomas

    2017-10-01

    overall multifunctionality depended on the weight given to individual functions. Optimal multifunctionality was context-dependent, and sensitive to the valuation of services. This combination of methodological approaches allowed us to resolve the interactions and indirect effects among species that drive ecosystem functioning, revealing how multiple aspects of biodiversity can simultaneously drive ecosystem functioning. Our results highlight the importance of a multifunctionality perspective for a complete assessment of species' functional contributions. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  6. Time-dependent current-density-functional theory for the metallic response of solids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romaniello, P; de Boeij, PL

    2005-01-01

    We extend the formulation of time-dependent current-density-functional theory for the linear response properties of dielectric and semi-metallic solids [Kootstra , J. Chem. Phys. 112, 6517 (2000)] to treat metals as well. To achieve this, the Kohn-Sham response functions have to include both interba

  7. Time-dependent current-density-functional theory for the metallic response of solids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romaniello, P; de Boeij, PL

    We extend the formulation of time-dependent current-density-functional theory for the linear response properties of dielectric and semi-metallic solids [Kootstra , J. Chem. Phys. 112, 6517 (2000)] to treat metals as well. To achieve this, the Kohn-Sham response functions have to include both

  8. The Keldysh formalism applied to time-dependent current-density-functional theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gidopoulos, NI; Wilson, S

    2003-01-01

    In this work we demonstrate how to derive the Kohn-Sham equations of time-dependent current-density functional theory from a generating action functional defined on a Keldysh time contour. These Kohn-Sham equations contain an exchange-correlation contribution to the vector potential. For this

  9. Transverse-momentum-dependent parton distribution/fragmentation functions at an electron-ion collider

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anselmino, M.; Avakian, H.; Boer, Daniël; Bradamante, F.; Burkardt, M.; Chen, J.P.; Cisbani, E.; Contalbrigo, M.; Crabb, D.; Dutta, D.; Gamberg, L.; Gao, H.; Hasch, D.; Huang, J.; Huang, M.; Kang, Z.; Keppel, C.; Laskaris, G.; Liang, Z.-T.; Liu, M.X.; Makins, N.; McKeown, R.D.; Metz, A.; Meziani, Z.-E.; Musch, B.; Peng, J.-C.; Prokudin, A.; Qian, X.; Qiang, Y.; Qiu, J.W.; Rossi, P.; SCHWEITZER, C.; Soffer, J.; Sulkosky, V.; Wang, Ying; Xiao, B.; Ye, Q.; Ye, Q.-J.; Yuan, F.; Zhan, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zheng, W.; Zhou, J.

    2011-01-01

    We present a summary of a recent workshop held at Duke University on Partonic Transverse Momentum in Hadrons: Quark Spin-Orbit Correlations and Quark-Gluon Interactions. The transverse-momentum-dependent parton distribution functions (TMDs), parton-to-hadron fragmentation functions, and multi-parton

  10. Interpersonal Attraction and Dependence as a Function of Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Joseph A.; Sesi, Maher S.

    This experiment tested the hypotheses that interpersonal dependence would be an inverse function of the individual's chronic and situational levels of self-esteem, and that interpersonal attraction would be an inverse function of the individual's induced/situational level of self-esteem, but would be unaffected by her chronic level. Subjects were…

  11. Gauge-fixing parameter dependence of two-point gauge variant correlation functions

    CERN Document Server

    Zhai, C

    1996-01-01

    The gauge-fixing parameter \\xi dependence of two-point gauge variant correlation functions is studied for QED and QCD. We show that, in three Euclidean dimensions, or for four-dimensional thermal gauge theories, the usual procedure of getting a general covariant gauge-fixing term by averaging over a class of covariant gauge-fixing conditions leads to a nontrivial gauge-fixing parameter dependence in gauge variant two-point correlation functions (e.g. fermion propagators). This nontrivial gauge-fixing parameter dependence modifies the large distance behavior of the two-point correlation functions by introducing additional exponentially decaying factors. These factors are the origin of the gauge dependence encountered in some perturbative evaluations of the damping rates and the static chromoelectric screening length in a general covariant gauge. To avoid this modification of the long distance behavior introduced by performing the average over a class of covariant gauge-fixing conditions, one can either choose ...

  12. Parameter-dependent Lyapunov functional for systems with multiple time delays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min WU; Yong HE

    2004-01-01

    The separation of the Lyapunov matrices and system matrices plays an important role when one uses parameter-dependent Lyapunov functional handling systems with polytopic type uncertainties.The delay-dependent robust stability problem for systems with polytopic type uncertainties is discussed by using parameter-dependent Lyapunov functional.The derivative term in the derivative of Lyapunov functional is reserved and the free weighting matrices are employed to express the relationship between the terms in the system equation such that the Lyapunov matrices are not involved in any product terms with the system matrices.In addition,the relationships between the terms in the Leibniz Newton formula are also described by some free weighting matrices and some delay-dependent stability conditions are derived.Numerical examples demonstrate that the proposed criteria are more effective than the previous results.

  13. Γ-CONVERGENCE OF INTEGRAL FUNCTIONALS DEPENDING ON VECTOR-VALUED FUNCTIONS OVER PARABOLIC DOMAINS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper studies Γ-convergence for a sequence of parabolic functionals, Fε(u) =∫TO∫Ωf(x/ε, t,Δu)dxdt as ε→ 0, where the integrand f is nonconvex, and periodic on the first variable. The author obtains the representation formula of the Γ-limit. The results in this paper support a conclusion which relates Γ-convergence of parabolic functionals to the associated gradient flows and confirms one of De Giorgi's conjectures partially.

  14. Assessment of the lung function status of the goldsmiths working in an unorganized sector of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhashis Sahu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Exposure to various types of fumes and gases are very common in Jewelery industries. No Report is available regarding the effects of those fumes and gases on the respiratory functions of the goldsmiths. Due to lack of proper monitoring of the workplace environments in these unorganized sectors, workers get very much affected by the occupational exposures to those irritants. Aims: The present study aimed to investigate whether the occupational exposures to fumes and gases might alter the lung functions of the goldsmiths. Materials and Methods: A total of 118 goldsmiths and 66 unexposed control subjects were taken randomly for the study. The goldsmiths were further classified in 3 groups according to duration (year of exposures in the work environment, ETA 1 (less than 5 years, ETA 2 (more than 5 years but less than 10 years, and ETA 3 (more than 10 years. Peak expiratory flow rates (PEFR, forced vital capacity (FVC, and forced expiratory flow rates of different intervals (FEF 25% , FEF 50% , FEF 75% , FEF 25-75% were measured using computerized Spirometer (Maestros Mediline, India. The statistical analyses were carried out using Minitab software version 3. Results: Lung functions of the goldsmiths significantly (P < 0.01 decreased from that of the control group. Inter-group comparison also showed the deteriorations of lung functions was associated with exposure time, and more exposed workers had significantly less (P < 0.01 efficiencies of lung functions. Conclusions: Workplace fumes and gases were responsible for deterioration of the lung function status of the goldsmiths.

  15. Physical activity and mortality related to obesity and functional status in older adults in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balboa-Castillo, Teresa; Guallar-Castillón, Pilar; León-Muñoz, Luz M; Graciani, Auxiliadora; López-García, Esther; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Older people who increase or maintain their physical activity have lower mortality than those who remain sedentary. This could result from a lower body weight and a better functional status that allow to be more active. However, this explanation would be unlikely if the benefits of physical activity on mortality were seen also in older people with obesity or functional limitations. This study examined the association between change in leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and mortality in older adults, and whether this association varied with obesity and functional limitations. Data were taken from a prospectively follow-up study of 2732 people representative of the Spanish population aged ≥60 years. Changes in LTPA from 2001 to 2003 were linked to all-cause mortality from 2003 to 2009. Analyses were performed in 2010 with Cox models adjusted for the main confounders, and were stratified by obesity and functional limitations. Compared with people who were continually sedentary from 2001 to 2003, those who increased their LTPA had 34% lower mortality (hazard ratio [HR]=0.66, 95% CI=0.52, 0.84), and those who were continually active had 45% lower mortality (HR=0.55; 95% CI=0.43, 0.70). These results did not vary in analyses stratified by obesity and functional limitations. Increasing or maintaining LTPA is associated with greater longevity in older adults, even those with obesity or functional limitations. Given the high frequency of these disorders, the current results suggest that most older adults can benefit from an active lifestyle. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Clinicohistopathological correlation and Helicobacter pylori status in patients with functional dyspepsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Basavaraj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Functional dyspepsia (FD is a condition of immense clinical significance. Helicobacter pylori may be responsible for FD in a subset of patients. Materials and Methods: Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was done in sixty patients of FD fulfilling ROME III criteria, and gastric and duodenal biopsies were taken. Duodenal histopathological findings and H. pylori status were correlated with the symptomatology. Standard treatment was given according to the H. pylori status, and the response was analyzed using 6-point Likert scale. Results: Sixty percent of cases were infected with H. pylori. 72.5% of cases with predominant epigastric pain were H. pylori-positive. 96.5% patients with early satiety had duodenal eosinophilia and duodenitis. Epigastric pain was significantly associated with H. pylori, and early satiety was associated with duodenal eosinophilia and duodenitis. Sixty-five percent of cases had increased duodenal intraepithelial lymphocyte count. 88.8% cases showing no response to treatment had duodenal eosinophilia. Conclusion: H. pylori infection constitutes an important subset of FD patients. H. pylori infection, duodenitis, and duodenal eosinophilia contribute to symptom generation. H. pylori eradication can provide symptomatic relief. A duodenal biopsy can identify an important subset of patients with duodenal eosinophilia and duodenitis which can be a contributor for poor treatment response and can be clinically amenable to new treatment avenues.

  17. Vibrationally resolved UV/Vis spectroscopy with time-dependent density functional based tight binding

    CERN Document Server

    Rüger, Robert; van Lenthe, Erik; Heine, Thomas; Visscher, Lucas

    2016-01-01

    We report a time-dependent density functional based tight-binding (TD-DFTB) scheme for the calculation of UV/Vis spectra, explicitly taking into account the excitation of nuclear vibrations via the harmonic approximation. The theory of vibrationally resolved UV/Vis spectroscopy is first summarized from the viewpoint of TD-DFTB. The method is benchmarked against time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations for strongly dipole allowed excitations in various aromatic and polar molecules. Using the recent 3ob:freq parameter set of Elstner's group, excellent agreement with TD-DFT calculations using local functionals was achieved.

  18. Modeling on the size dependent properties of InP quantum dots: a hybrid functional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Eunseog; Jang, Hyosook; Lee, Junho; Jang, Eunjoo

    2013-05-01

    Theoretical calculations based on density functional theory were performed to provide better understanding of the size dependent electronic properties of InP quantum dots (QDs). Using a hybrid functional approach, we suggest a reliable analytical equation to describe the change of energy band gap as a function of size. Synthesizing colloidal InP QDs with 2-4 nm diameter and measuring their optical properties was also carried out. It was found that the theoretical band gaps showed a linear dependence on the inverse size of QDs and gave energy band gaps almost identical to the experimental values.

  19. 2100-MHz electromagnetic fields have different effects on visual evoked potentials and oxidant/antioxidant status depending on exposure duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidisoglu, Enis; Kantar Gok, Deniz; Er, Hakan; Akpinar, Deniz; Uysal, Fatma; Akkoyunlu, Gokhan; Ozen, Sukru; Agar, Aysel; Yargicoglu, Piraye

    2016-03-15

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the duration effects of 2100-MHz electromagnetic field (EMF) on visual evoked potentials (VEPs) and to assess lipid peroxidation (LPO), nitric oxide (NO) production and antioxidant status of EMF exposed rats. Rats were randomized to following groups: Sham rats (S1 and S10) and rats exposed to 2100-MHz EMF (E1 and E10) for 2h/day for 1 or 10 weeks, respectively. At the end of experimental periods, VEPs were recorded under anesthesia. Brain thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) levels were significantly decreased in the E1 whereas increased in the E10 compared with their control groups. While brain catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities and NO and glutathione (GSH) levels were significantly increased in the E1, reduction of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was detected in the same group compared with the S1. Conversely, decreased CAT, GSH-Px activities and NO levels were observed in the E10 compared with the S10. Latencies of all VEP components were shortened in the E1 compared with the S1, whereas latencies of all VEP components, except P1, were prolonged in the E10 compared with the S10. There was a positive correlation between all VEP latencies and brain TBARS and 4-HNE values. Consequently, it could be concluded that different effects of EMFs on VEPs depend on exposure duration. In addition, our results indicated that short-term EMF could provide protective effects, while long-term EMF could have an adverse effect on VEPs and oxidant/antioxidant status.

  20. Integrative Functional Genomics of Hepatitis C Virus Infection Identifies Host Dependencies in Complete Viral Replication Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Qisheng Li; Yong-Yuan Zhang; Stephan Chiu; Zongyi Hu; Keng-Hsin Lan; Helen Cha; Catherine Sodroski; Fang Zhang; Ching-Sheng Hsu; Emmanuel Thomas; T Jake Liang

    2014-01-01

    Recent functional genomics studies including genome-wide small interfering RNA (siRNA) screens demonstrated that hepatitis C virus (HCV) exploits an extensive network of host factors for productive infection and propagation. How these co-opted host functions interact with various steps of HCV replication cycle and exert pro- or antiviral effects on HCV infection remains largely undefined. Here we present an unbiased and systematic strategy to functionally interrogate HCV host dependencies unc...

  1. Changes in bird functional diversity across multiple land uses: interpretations of functional redundancy depend on functional group identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luck, Gary W; Carter, Andrew; Smallbone, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Examinations of the impact of land-use change on functional diversity link changes in ecological community structure driven by land modification with the consequences for ecosystem function. Yet, most studies have been small-scale, experimental analyses and primarily focussed on plants. There is a lack of research on fauna communities and at large-scales across multiple land uses. We assessed changes in the functional diversity of bird communities across 24 land uses aligned along an intensification gradient. We tested the hypothesis that functional diversity is higher in less intensively used landscapes, documented changes in diversity using four diversity metrics, and examined how functional diversity varied with species richness to identify levels of functional redundancy. Functional diversity, measured using a dendogram-based metric, increased from high to low intensity land uses, but observed values did not differ significantly from randomly-generated expected values. Values for functional evenness and functional divergence did not vary consistently with land-use intensification, although higher than expected values were mostly recorded in high intensity land uses. A total of 16 land uses had lower than expected values for functional dispersion and these were mostly low intensity native vegetation sites. Relations between functional diversity and bird species richness yielded strikingly different patterns for the entire bird community vs. particular functional groups. For all birds and insectivores, functional evenness, divergence and dispersion showed a linear decline with increasing species richness suggesting substantial functional redundancy across communities. However, for nectarivores, frugivores and carnivores, there was a significant hump-shaped or non-significant positive linear relationship between these functional measures and species richness indicating less redundancy. Hump-shaped relationships signify that the most functionally diverse

  2. The Impact of Secondary Lymphedema after Head and Neck Cancer Treatment on Symptoms, Functional Status, and Quality Of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jie; Murphy, Barbara A.; Dietrich, Mary S.; Wells, Nancy; Wallston, Kenneth A.; Sinard, Robert J.; Cmelak, Anthony J.; Gilbert, Jill; Ridner, Sheila H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Lymphedema may disrupt local function and affect quality of life (QOL) in patients with head and neck cancer. The study aim was to examine the associations among severity of internal and external lymphedema, symptoms, functional status, and QOL in patients with head and neck cancer. Methods The sample included 103 patients who were ≥3 months post head and neck cancer treatment. Variables assessed included severity of internal and external lymphedema, physical/psychological symptoms, functional status, and QOL. Results Severity of internal and external lymphedema was associated with physical symptoms and psychological symptoms. Patients with more severe external lymphedema were more likely to have a decrease in neck left/right rotation. The combined effects of external and internal lymphedema severity were associated with hearing impairment and decreased QOL. Conclusions Lymphedema severity correlates with symptom burden, functional status, and QOL in patients post head and neck cancer treatment. PMID:22791550

  3. Meta-analysis of survival in patients with HNSCC discriminates risk depending on combined HPV and p16 status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coordes, Annekatrin; Lenz, Klaus; Qian, Xu; Lenarz, Minoo; Kaufmann, Andreas M; Albers, Andreas E

    2016-08-01

    Data indicate a better prognosis for human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). HPV and p16 detection are established markers for HPV-related HNSCC. Both are accepted as survival-independent predictors. Previous studies investigating the survival in HNSCC patients depending on HPV(+/-) and p16(+/-) status consistently found discordant results with p16(-)/HPV(+) and p16(+)/HPV(-). However, no meta-analysis regarding the survival according to combined HPV/p16 status has been performed yet. The objective of this study was to discriminate the impact of combined HPV(+/-) and p16(+/-) status on survival. Data sources were identification and review of publications assessing survival of the distinct subgroups with both p16 and HPV investigated in HNSCC until February, 2015. A meta-analysis was performed to classify survival and clinical outcomes. 18 out of 397 articles (4424 patients) were eligible for the meta-analysis. The percent proportion of the subgroups was 25 % for HPV(+)/p16(+), 61.2 % for HPV(-)/p16(-), 7.1 % for HPV(-)/p16(+) and 6.8 % for HPV(+)/P16(-). The meta-analysis showed a significantly improved 5-year overall survival (OS), 5-year disease-free survival and their corresponding hazard ratio for HPV(+)/p16(+) HNSCC in comparison to HPV(-)/p16(-), HPV(+)/p16(-) and HPV(-)/p16(+). The 5-year OS of the HPV(-)/p16(+) subgroup was intermediate while HPV(+)/p16(-) and HPV(-)/p16(-) HNSCC had the shortest survival. With current therapeutic strategies, survival of patients with HNSCC is better if associated with HPV(+)/p16(+) or HPV(-)/p16(+). Clinical trials are needed to confirm the distinct survival pattern and to investigate possible differences in survival for HPV(+)/p16(-) and HPV(-)/p16(+) HNSCC. To further differentiate p16(+) HNSCC, HPV testing may be advisable.

  4. A Structural Analysis of Executive Functions and Socioeconomic Status in School-Age Children: Cognitive Factors as Effect Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aran-Filippetti, Vanessa; Richaud de Minzi, Maria Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) is a well-known predictor of cognitive achievement and executive functioning, although the underlying cognitive mediating processes remain unclear. The authors analyze the association between different socioeconomic indicators and the executive functions (EF) of schoolchildren and the possible cognitive mediating factors…

  5. Determinants of DHA status and functional effects on metabolic markers and immune modulation in early life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harsløf, Laurine Bente Schram

    intake and other potential determinants in infancy and childhood. The first part of the PhD thesis describes several potential determinants of infant and young child DHA status including genetic variation in FADS, breastfeeding and fish intake. Results can be found in Paper 1. Evidence for effects of n-3...... LCPUFA on metabolic markers such as glucose homeostasis, lipid profile and blood pressure in young children is limited. No studies have explored whether polymorphisms of genes encoding proteins involved in the mechanisms behind the effect (such as PPARG2 and COX2) can support the findings of diet studies...... by identifying the involved pathways and genes. The second part of the PhD thesis explores whether functional effects of n-3 LCPUFA on metabolic markers and immune maturation in young children can be supported by polymorphisms in genes involved in the mechanisms (PPARG2, COX2 and NFKB1). Results can be found...

  6. Zinc status and cognitive function of pregnant women in Southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoecker, B J; Abebe, Y; Hubbs-Tait, L; Kennedy, T S; Gibson, R S; Arbide, I; Teshome, A; Westcott, J; Krebs, N F; Hambidge, K M

    2009-07-01

    The relation between zinc status and cognitive function was examined in a cross-sectional study in the Sidama area of Southern Ethiopia. Pregnant women >24 weeks of gestation from three adjacent rural villages volunteered to participate. Mean (s.d.) plasma zinc of 99 women was 6.97 (1.07) mumol/l (below the cutoff of 7.6 mumol/l indicative of zinc deficiency at this stage of gestation). The Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (CPM) test was administered individually. Scores for the Raven's scale A, which is the simplest scale, ranged from 4 to 10 of a possible 12. Women with plasma zinc 7.6 mumol/l. Plasma zinc and maternal age and education predicted 17% of the variation in Raven's CPM scale A scores. We conclude that zinc deficiency is a major factor affecting cognition in these pregnant women.

  7. Renal function markers and thyroid hormone status in undialyzed chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaji Rajagopalan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study was undertaken to quantify thyroid hormones in undialyzed chronic kidney disease patients’ verses controls and to study the correlation between renal function markers and thyroid hormones. Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD is associated with a higher prevalence of primary hypothyroidism (HT, but at the same studies on thyroid hormone status in uremic patients has reported conflicting results. Methods: Thyroid hormones and renal function parameters like serum urea, creatinine, creatinine clearance, total protein and albumin were estimated and correlations between thyroid hormones and renal function parameters were studied in 60 undialyzed chronic kidney disease patients’ verses 100 healthy controls. Results: We found both T3 and T4 were significantly reduced (p<0.0001 for T3 and 0.007 for T4 whereas TSH remains to be unchanged in patient group compared to controls. We also observed that urea and creatinine were negatively correlated whereas creatinine clearance was positively correlated with both T3 and T4 that has high statistical (two-tailed significance at 0.01 level. But urea alone is negatively correlated with TSH that has statistical (two-tailed significance at 0.05 level. Conclusion: From our data, we speculate that renal insufficiency may lead to thyroid hormone disturbances.

  8. Growth, Nutritional Status, and Pulmonary Function in Children with Chronic Recurrent Bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umławska, Wioleta; Lipowicz, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Bronchitis is a common health problem in children. Frequent bronchitis in infancy increases the risk of developing chronic respiratory diseases. The aim of the study was to assess the level of growth and the nutritional status in children and youths with special regard to the level of body fatness assessed by measuring skin-fold thickness. Relationships between somatic development, pulmonary function and the course of the disease were also explored. The study was carried out using anthropometric and spirometric measurements and also information on the severity and course of the disease in 141 children with chronic or recurrent bronchitis. All of the subjects were patients of the Pulmonary Medicine and Allergology Center in Karpacz, Poland. The mean body height did not differ significantly between the children examined and their healthy peers. However, the infection-prone children had excessive body fatness and muscle mass deficiency. The increased level of subcutaneous adipose tissue occurred especially in children with short duration of the disease, i.e. a maximum of 1 year. The functional lung parameters were generally normal. The presence of atopic diseases such as allergic rhinitis or atopic dermatitis did not impair the course of the children's somatic development. Also, long-term disease or the presence of additional allergic diseases did not impair lung function in the examined children. Taking appropriate preventive measures is recommended to achieve and maintain normal body weight in children who receive therapy due to bronchitis.

  9. A dependent stress-strength interference model based on mixed copula function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Jian Xiong; An, Zong Wen; Liu, Bo [School of Mechatronics Engineering, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou (China)

    2016-10-15

    In the traditional Stress-strength interference (SSI) model, stress and strength must satisfy the basic assumption of mutual independence. However, a complex dependence between stress and strength exists in practical engineering. To evaluate structural reliability under the case that stress and strength are dependent, a mixed copula function is introduced to a new dependent SSI model. This model can fully characterize the dependence between stress and strength. The residual square sum method and genetic algorithm are also used to estimate the unknown parameters of the model. Finally, the validity of the proposed model is demonstrated via a practical case. Results show that traditional SSI model ignoring the dependence between stress and strength more easily overestimates product reliability than the new dependent SSI model.

  10. Communication: Exciton analysis in time-dependent density functional theory: How functionals shape excited-state characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewes, Stefanie A; Plasser, Felix; Dreuw, Andreas

    2015-11-01

    Excited-state descriptors based on the one-particle transition density matrix referring to the exciton picture have been implemented for time-dependent density functional theory. State characters such as local, extended ππ(∗), Rydberg, or charge transfer can be intuitively classified by simple comparison of these descriptors. Strong effects of the choice of the exchange-correlation kernel on the physical nature of excited states can be found and decomposed in detail leading to a new perspective on functional performance and the design of new functionals.

  11. Neural Responses to Visual Food Cues According to Weight Status: A Systematic Review of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Studies

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Emerging evidence from recent neuroimaging studies suggests that specific food-related behaviors contribute to the development of obesity. The aim of this review was to report the neural responses to visual food cues, as assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in humans of differing weight status. Published studies to 2014 were retrieved and included if they used visual food cues, studied humans >18 years old, reported weight status, and included fMRI outcomes. Sixty studies...

  12. Timing of stroke onset determines discharge-functional status but not stroke severity: A hospital-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Min Liou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Circadian variation of the onset time of acute ischemic stroke has been well studied. However, little is mentioned about the circadian variation of discharge-stroke severity and discharge-functional status. This study evaluated the impact of onset time on discharge-stroke severity and the functional status of acute ischemic stroke. Brain magnetic resonance imaging was performed on 274 acute ischemic stroke patients (66.42% male; mean age = 64.81 ± 12.80 years. All times of onset were assigned to 4-hourly periods (six groups starting from midnight. Stroke severity/functional status was evaluated on admission and discharge using the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS score/modified Rankin Scale (mRS and Barthel Index (BI, respectively. Using mRS, but not NIHSS score and BI, it was possible to differentiate the best and worst groups on discharge. Patients in group 2 (4 to <8 am and group 6 (8 to <12 pm had best and worst functional status, respectively. To control other stroke risk factors, multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the role of onset time in discharge mRS. Aside from age, onset time was a significant indicator in mRS, while gender, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, atrial fibrillation, and current smoking were not. In conclusion, there is also circadian variation of discharge-functional status in patients with acute ischemic stroke when assessed by mRS.

  13. Arctigenin inhibits osteoclast differentiation and function by suppressing both calcineurin-dependent and osteoblastic cell-dependent NFATc1 pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Teruhito; Uehara, Shunsuke; Udagawa, Nobuyuki; Li, Feng; Kadota, Shigetoshi; Esumi, Hiroyasu; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Takahashi, Naoyuki

    2014-01-01

    -forming activity of osteoclast-like cells cultured on dentin slices. These results suggest that arctigenin induces a dominant negative species of NFATc1, which inhibits osteoclast differentiation and function by suppressing both calcineurin-dependent and osteoblastic cell-dependent NFATc1 pathways.

  14. Arctigenin Inhibits Osteoclast Differentiation and Function by Suppressing Both Calcineurin-Dependent and Osteoblastic Cell-Dependent NFATc1 Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Teruhito; Uehara, Shunsuke; Udagawa, Nobuyuki; Li, Feng; Kadota, Shigetoshi; Esumi, Hiroyasu; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Takahashi, Naoyuki

    2014-01-01

    -forming activity of osteoclast-like cells cultured on dentin slices. These results suggest that arctigenin induces a dominant negative species of NFATc1, which inhibits osteoclast differentiation and function by suppressing both calcineurin-dependent and osteoblastic cell-dependent NFATc1 pathways. PMID:24465763

  15. Arctigenin inhibits osteoclast differentiation and function by suppressing both calcineurin-dependent and osteoblastic cell-dependent NFATc1 pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teruhito Yamashita

    pit-forming activity of osteoclast-like cells cultured on dentin slices. These results suggest that arctigenin induces a dominant negative species of NFATc1, which inhibits osteoclast differentiation and function by suppressing both calcineurin-dependent and osteoblastic cell-dependent NFATc1 pathways.

  16. Frequency-dependent dielectric function of semiconductors with application to physisorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Fan; Tao, Jianmin; Rappe, Andrew M.

    2017-01-01

    The dielectric function is one of the most important quantities that describes the electrical and optical properties of solids. Accurate modeling of the frequency-dependent dielectric function has great significance in the study of the long-range van der Waals (vdW) interaction for solids and adsorption. In this work we calculate the frequency-dependent dielectric functions of semiconductors and insulators using the G W method with and without exciton effects, as well as efficient semilocal density functional theory (DFT), and compare these calculations with a model frequency-dependent dielectric function. We find that for semiconductors with moderate band gaps, the model dielectric functions, G W values, and DFT calculations all agree well with each other. However, for insulators with strong exciton effects, the model dielectric functions have a better agreement with accurate G W values than the DFT calculations, particularly in high-frequency region. To understand this, we repeat the DFT calculations with scissors correction, by shifting the DFT Kohn-Sham energy levels to match the experimental band gap. We find that scissors correction only moderately improves the DFT dielectric function in the low-frequency region. Based on the dielectric functions calculated with different methods, we make a comparative study by applying these dielectric functions to calculate the vdW coefficients (C3 and C5) for adsorption of rare-gas atoms on a variety of surfaces. We find that the vdW coefficients obtained with the nearly free electron gas-based model dielectric function agree quite well with those obtained from the G W dielectric function, in particular for adsorption on semiconductors, leading to an overall error of less than 7% for C3 and 5% for C5. This demonstrates the reliability of the model dielectric function for the study of physisorption.

  17. Away from generalized gradient approximation: orbital-dependent exchange-correlation functionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baerends, E J; Gritsenko, O V

    2005-08-08

    The local-density approximation of density functional theory (DFT) is remarkably accurate, for instance, for geometries and frequencies, and the generalized gradient approximations have also made bond energies quite reliable. Sometimes, however, one meets with failure in individual cases. One of the possible routes towards better functionals would be the incorporation of orbital dependence (which is an implicit density dependency) in the functionals. We discuss this approach both for energies and for response properties. One possibility is the use of the Hartree-Fock-type exchange energy expression as orbital-dependent functional. We will argue that in spite of the increasing popularity of this approach, it does not offer any advantage over Hartree-Fock for energies. We will advocate not to apply the separation of exchange and correlation, which is so ingrained in quantum chemistry, but to model both simultaneously. For response properties the energies and shapes of the virtual orbitals are crucial. We will discuss the benefits that Kohn-Sham potentials can offer which are derived from either an orbital-dependent energy functional, including the exact-exchange functional, or which can be obtained directly as orbital-dependent functional. We highlight the similarity of the Hartree-Fock and Kohn-Sham occupied orbitals and orbital energies, and the essentially different meanings the virtual orbitals and orbital energies have in these two models. We will show that these differences are beneficial for DFT in the case of localized excitations (in a small molecule or in a fragment), but are detrimental for charge-transfer excitations. Again, orbital dependency, in this case in the exchange-correlation kernel, offers a solution.

  18. Is there an association of vitamin B12 status with neurological function in older people? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Lisa M; Mills, Kerry; Clarke, Robert; Dangour, Alan D

    2015-08-28

    Low vitamin B12 status is common in older people; however, its public health significance in terms of neurological manifestations remains unclear. The present systematic review evaluated the association of vitamin B12 status with neurological function and clinically relevant neurological outcomes in adults aged 50+ years. A systematic search of nine bibliographic databases (up to March 2013) identified twelve published articles describing two longitudinal and ten cross-sectional analyses. The included study populations ranged in size (n 28-2287) and mean/median age (range 65-81 years). Studies reported various neurological outcomes: nerve function; clinically measured signs and symptoms of nerve function; self-reported neurological symptoms. Studies were assessed for risk of bias, and results were synthesised qualitatively. Among the general population groups of older people, one longitudinal study reported no association, and four of seven cross-sectional studies reported limited evidence of an association of vitamin B12 status with some, but not all, neurological outcomes. Among groups with clinical and/or biochemical evidence of low vitamin B12 status, one longitudinal study reported an association of vitamin B12 status with some, but not all, neurological outcomes and three cross-sectional analyses reported no association. Overall, there is limited evidence from observational studies to suggest an association of vitamin B12 status with neurological function in older people. The heterogeneity and quality of the evidence base preclude more definitive conclusions, and further high-quality research is needed to better inform understanding of public health significance in terms of neurological function of vitamin B12 status in older people.

  19. Trophic Mode-Dependent Proteomic Analysis Reveals Functional Significance of Light-Independent Chlorophyll Synthesis in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Longfa; Ge, Haitao; Huang, Xiahe; Liu, Ye; Lu, Min; Wang, Jinlong; Chen, Weiyang; Xu, Wu; Wang, Yingchun

    2017-01-09

    The photosynthetic model organism Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 can grow in different trophic modes, depending on the availability of light and exogenous organic carbon source. However, how the protein profile changes to facilitate the cells differentially propagate in different modes has not been comprehensively investigated. Using isobaric labeling-based quantitative proteomics, we simultaneously identified and quantified 45% Synechocystis proteome across four different trophic modes, i.e., autotrophic, heterotrophic, photoheterotrophic, and mixotrophic modes. Among the 155 proteins that are differentially expressed across four trophic modes, proteins involved in nitrogen assimilation and light-independent chlorophyll synthesis are dramatically upregulated in the mixotrophic mode, concomitant with a dramatic increase of PII phosphorylation that senses carbon and nitrogen assimilation status. Moreover, functional study using a mutant defective in light-independent chlorophyll synthesis revealed that this pathway is important for chlorophyll accumulation under a cycled light/dark illumination regime, a condition mimicking day/night cycles in certain natural habitats. Collectively, these results provide the most comprehensive information on trophic mode-dependent protein expression in cyanobacterium, and reveal the functional significance of light-independent chlorophyll synthesis in trophic growth.

  20. The hyporheic zone and its functions: revision and research status in Neotropical regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Mugnai

    functions and significance as an ecotone. We also highlighted the key aspects considering also the current status of research in Neotropical regions.

  1. The shape of things to come? household dependency ratio and adolescent nutritional status in rural and urban Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Craig; Belachew, Tefera; Lindstrom, David; Tessema, Fasil

    2011-04-01

    Several related demographic trends are occurring in developing countries: youth comprise a large portion of populations, fertility rates are declining, and urban dwellers are increasing. As fertility rates decline and populations age, the decline in the ratio of young dependents to working age adults is expected to free up household resources, which can be invested in human capital, including youth nutritional wellbeing. We test this hypothesis in a sample of youth (n = 1,934) in Southwestern Ethiopia. Multiple measures of achieved growth and nutritional status are explored (weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), body mass index (BMI) and body mass index for age z-score (BMIZ), weight for age z-score (WAZ), and height for age z-score (HAZ)). In multivariable models controlling for the effects of income, age, gender, and youth workloads, youth living in rural settings had significantly lower weight (1.24 kg lighter), MUAC (0.67 cm lower), BMI (0.45 BMI lower), BMIZ (0.27 lower), HAZ (0.14 HAZ lower), and WAZ (0.3 WAZ lower) than urban youth (all P populations urbanize.

  2. Dielectric-dependent Density Functionals for Accurate Electronic Structure Calculations of Molecules and Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skone, Jonathan; Govoni, Marco; Galli, Giulia

    Dielectric-dependent hybrid [DDH] functionals have recently been shown to yield highly accurate energy gaps and dielectric constants for a wide variety of solids, at a computational cost considerably less than standard GW calculations. The fraction of exact exchange included in the definition of DDH functionals depends (self-consistently) on the dielectric constant of the material. In the present talk we introduce a range-separated (RS) version of DDH functionals where short and long-range components are matched using material dependent, non-empirical parameters. Comparing with state of the art GW calculations and experiment, we show that such RS hybrids yield accurate electronic properties of both molecules and solids, including energy gaps, photoelectron spectra and absolute ionization potentials. This work was supported by NSF-CCI Grant Number NSF-CHE-0802907 and DOE-BES.

  3. Transverse Momentum Dependent Parton Distribution Functions through SIDIS and Drell-Yan at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2079419; Ramos, Sérgio; Quintans, Catarina

    The spin structure of the nucleon has been studied at the COMPASS experiment at CERN. The Semi-Inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering (SIDIS) measurements are a powerful tool to access the Parton Distribution Functions (PDFs) and the Transverse Momentum Dependent Parton Distribution Functions (TMD PDFs). The COMPASS polarised target gives the opportunity to measure the azimuthal modulations depending on the spin orientation and the extraction of the transverse spin asymmetries, which are convolutions of TMD PDFs of the nucleon and Fragmentation Functions (FF). The analysis of these data is done in several kinematic bins, which provides a vast input for the theoreticians to extract the TMDs and the FFs and their kinematic dependence. The TMD PDFs are also accessible through the measurement of the Drell-Yan process, in this case the transverse spin asymmetries are convolutions of two TMD PDFs, one corresponding to the annihilating quark from the beam hadron and the other to the annihilating quark from the target h...

  4. Cell-type-specific and differentiation-status-dependent variations in cytotoxicity of tributyltin in cultured rat cerebral neurons and astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyanagi, Koshi; Tashiro, Tomoko; Negishi, Takayuki

    2015-08-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) is an organotin used as an anti-fouling agent for fishing nets and ships and it is a widespread environmental contaminant at present. There is an increasing concern about imperceptible but serious adverse effect(s) of exposure to chemicals existing in the environment on various organs and their physiological functions, e.g. brain and mental function. Here, so as to contribute to improvement of and/or advances in in vitro cell-based assay systems for evaluating brain-targeted adverse effect of chemicals, we tried to evaluate cell-type-specific and differentiation-status-dependent variations in the cytotoxicity of TBT towards neurons and astrocytes using the four culture systems differing in the relative abundance of these two types of cells; primary neuron culture (> 95% neurons), primary neuron-astrocyte (2 : 1) mix culture, primary astrocyte culture (> 95% astrocytes), and passaged astrocyte culture (100% proliferative astrocytes). Cell viability was measured at 48 hr after exposure to TBT in serum-free medium. IC50's of TBT were 198 nM in primary neuron culture, 288 nM in primary neuron-astrocyte mix culture, 2001 nM in primary astrocyte culture, and 1989 nM in passaged astrocyte culture. Furthermore, in primary neuron-astrocyte mix culture, vulnerability of neurons cultured along with astrocytes to TBT toxicity was lower than that of neurons cultured purely in primary neuron culture. On the other hand, astrocytes in primary neuron-astrocyte mix culture were considered to be more vulnerable to TBT than those in primary or passaged astrocyte culture. The present study demonstrated variable cytotoxicity of TBT in neural cells depending on the culture condition.

  5. Abnormal intrinsic functional hubs in alcohol dependence: evidence from a voxelwise degree centrality analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiaoping; Guo, Linghong; Dai, Xi-Jian; Wang, Qinglai; Zhu, Wenzhong; Miao, Xinjun; Gong, Honghan

    2017-01-01

    To explore the abnormal intrinsic functional hubs in alcohol dependence using voxelwise degree centrality analysis approach, and their relationships with clinical features. Twenty-four male alcohol dependence subjects free of medicine (mean age, 50.21±9.62 years) and 24 age- and education-matched male healthy controls (mean age, 50.29±8.92 years) were recruited. The alcohol use disorders identification test and the severity of alcohol dependence questionnaire (SADQ) were administered to assess the severity of alcohol craving. Voxelwise degree centrality approach was used to assess the abnormal intrinsic functional hubs features in alcohol dependence. Simple linear regression analysis was performed to investigate the relationships between the clinical features and abnormal intrinsic functional hubs. Compared with healthy controls, alcohol dependence subjects exhibited significantly different degree centrality values in widespread left lateralization brain areas, including higher degree centrality values in the left precentral gyrus (BA 6), right hippocampus (BA 35, 36), and left orbitofrontal cortex (BA 11) and lower degree centrality values in the left cerebellum posterior lobe, bilateral secondary visual network (BA 18), and left precuneus (BA 7, 19). SADQ revealed a negative linear correlation with the degree centrality value in the left precentral gyrus (R(2)=0.296, P=0.006). The specific abnormal intrinsic functional hubs appear to be disrupted by alcohol intoxication, which implicates at least three principal neural systems: including cerebellar, executive control, and visual cortex, which may further affect the normal motor behavior such as an explicit type of impaired driving behavior. These findings expand our understanding of the functional characteristics of alcohol dependence and may provide a new insight into the understanding of the dysfunction and pathophysiology of alcohol dependence.

  6. Differential distribution and energy status-dependent regulation of the four CART neuropeptide genes in the zebrafish brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akash, G; Kaniganti, Tarun; Tiwari, Neeraj Kumar; Subhedar, Nishikant K; Ghose, Aurnab

    2014-07-01

    The cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) neuropeptide has been implicated in the neural regulation of energy homeostasis across vertebrate phyla. By using gene-specific in situ hybridization, we have mapped the distribution of the four CART mRNAs in the central nervous system of the adult zebrafish. The widespread neuronal expression pattern for CART 2 and 4 suggests a prominent role for the peptide in processing sensory information from diverse modalities including olfactory and visual inputs. In contrast, CART 1 and 3 have a much more restricted distribution, predominantly located in the nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus (NMLF) and entopeduncular nucleus (EN), respectively. Enrichment of CART 2 and 4 in the preoptic and tuberal areas emphasizes the importance of CART in neuroendocrine functions. Starvation resulted in a significant decrease in CART-positive cells in the nucleus recessus lateralis (NRL) and nucleus lateralis tuberis (NLT) hypothalamic regions, suggesting a function in energy homeostasis for these neurons. Similarly, the EN emerges as a novel energy status-responsive region. Not only is there abundant and overlapping expression of CART 2, 3, and 4 in the EN, but also starvation induced a decrease in CART-expressing neurons in this region. The cellular resolution mapping of CART mRNA and the response of CART-expressing nuclei to starvation underscores the importance of CART neuropeptide in energy processing. Additionally, the regional and gene-specific responses to energy levels suggest a complex, interactive network whereby the four CART gene products may have nonredundant functions in energy homeostasis.

  7. Towards efficient orbital-dependent density functionals for weak and strong correlation

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Igor Ying; Perdew, John P; Scheffler, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    We present a new paradigm for the design of exchange-correlation functionals in density-functional theory. Electron pairs are correlated explicitly by means of the recently developed second order Bethe-Goldstone equation (BGE2) approach. Here we propose a screened BGE2 (sBGE2) variant that efficiently regulates the coupling of a given electron pair. sBGE2 correctly dissociates H$_2$ and H$_2^+$, a problem that has been regarded as a great challenge in density-functional theory for a long time. The sBGE2 functional is then taken as a building block for an orbital-dependent functional, termed ZRPS, which is a natural extension of the PBE0 hybrid functional. While worsening the good performance of sBGE2 in H$_2$ and H$_2^{+}$, ZRPS yields a remarkable and consistent improvement over other density functionals across various chemical environments from weak to strong correlation.

  8. [Functional status of the bile excretion system and upper gastrointestinal tract in patients with duodenal ulcer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razarenova, T G; Koshel', A P; Klokov, S S; Dibina, T V

    2010-01-01

    The research of functional condition of biliary tract in 35 patients suffered from gastroduodenal ulcers compared with 30 almost healthy patients was conducted. Disorders of motor function were found out in 13.2% patients in control group. The motor-evacuative function of biliary tract conformed to average scores of healthy patients group in only 8.6% cases. The accelerated gallbladder empting (11.4%), the hypermotoric biliary dyskinesia with the absence of latent period of biliary excretion (17.1%), the hypomotoric dysfunction of biliary tract (34.3%) were found out in the rest cases. The separate group of patients were patients with distortion of biliary excretion that was consisted in periodic increase and decrease of gall bladder volume during the contraction. We concluded that motor-evacuative function of biliary tract doesn't depend on the type of pathological process in the stomach or duodenum but correlates with gastric evacuation contents, the rate of cholagogic meal advancement along the duodenum and acid-productive function of the stomach.

  9. Reference sequence (RefSeq) database at NCBI: current status, taxonomic expansion, and functional annotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Nuala A.; Wright, Mathew W.; Brister, J. Rodney; Ciufo, Stacy; Haddad, Diana; McVeigh, Rich; Rajput, Bhanu; Robbertse, Barbara; Smith-White, Brian; Ako-Adjei, Danso; Astashyn, Alexander; Badretdin, Azat; Bao, Yiming; Blinkova, Olga; Brover, Vyacheslav; Chetvernin, Vyacheslav; Choi, Jinna; Cox, Eric; Ermolaeva, Olga; Farrell, Catherine M.; Goldfarb, Tamara; Gupta, Tripti; Haft, Daniel; Hatcher, Eneida; Hlavina, Wratko; Joardar, Vinita S.; Kodali, Vamsi K.; Li, Wenjun; Maglott, Donna; Masterson, Patrick; McGarvey, Kelly M.; Murphy, Michael R.; O'Neill, Kathleen; Pujar, Shashikant; Rangwala, Sanjida H.; Rausch, Daniel; Riddick, Lillian D.; Schoch, Conrad; Shkeda, Andrei; Storz, Susan S.; Sun, Hanzhen; Thibaud-Nissen, Francoise; Tolstoy, Igor; Tully, Raymond E.; Vatsan, Anjana R.; Wallin, Craig; Webb, David; Wu, Wendy; Landrum, Melissa J.; Kimchi, Avi; Tatusova, Tatiana; DiCuccio, Michael; Kitts, Paul; Murphy, Terence D.; Pruitt, Kim D.

    2016-01-01

    The RefSeq project at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) maintains and curates a publicly available database of annotated genomic, transcript, and protein sequence records (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/refseq/). The RefSeq project leverages the data submitted to the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration (INSDC) against a combination of computation, manual curation, and collaboration to produce a standard set of stable, non-redundant reference sequences. The RefSeq project augments these reference sequences with current knowledge including publications, functional features and informative nomenclature. The database currently represents sequences from more than 55 000 organisms (>4800 viruses, >40 000 prokaryotes and >10 000 eukaryotes; RefSeq release 71), ranging from a single record to complete genomes. This paper summarizes the current status of the viral, prokaryotic, and eukaryotic branches of the RefSeq project, reports on improvements to data access and details efforts to further expand the taxonomic representation of the collection. We also highlight diverse functional curation initiatives that support multiple uses of RefSeq data including taxonomic validation, genome annotation, comparative genomics, and clinical testing. We summarize our approach to utilizing available RNA-Seq and other data types in our manual curation process for vertebrate, plant, and other species, and describe a new direction for prokaryotic genomes and protein name management. PMID:26553804

  10. Impact of nutritional status on body functioning in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and how to intervene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aniwidyaningsih, Wahju; Varraso, Raphaëlle; Cano, Noel; Pison, Christophe

    2008-07-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is the fifth leading cause of mortality in the world. This study reviews diet as a risk or protective factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, mechanisms of malnutrition, undernutrition consequences on body functioning and how to modulate nutritional status of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Different dietary factors (dietary pattern, foods, nutrients) have been associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and the course of the disease. Mechanical disadvantage, energy imbalance, disuse muscle atrophy, hypoxemia, systemic inflammation and oxidative stress have been reported to cause systemic consequences such as cachexia and compromise whole body functioning. Nutritional intervention makes it possible to modify the natural course of the disease provided that it is included in respiratory rehabilitation combining bronchodilators optimization, infection control, exercise and, in some patients, correction of hypogonadism. Diet, as a modifiable risk factor, appears more as an option to prevent and modify the course of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Reduction of mechanical disadvantage, physical training and anabolic agents should be used conjointly with oral nutrition supplements to overcome undernutrition and might change the prognosis of the disease in some cases. Major research challenges address the role of systemic inflammation and the best interventions for controlling it besides smoking cessation.

  11. Nutritional status and functional digestive histology of the carnivorous Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stannard, Hayley J; Tong, Lydia; Shaw, Michelle; Van Sluys, Monique; McAllan, Bronwyn; Raubenheimer, David

    2017-03-01

    Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii) are the largest carnivorous marsupial in Australia. Currently many animals are being held in captivity as a management procedure to combat Devil Facial Tumor Disease. Only one published study thus far has investigated nutrition in Tasmanian devils, determining their maintenance energy requirements and digestibility on a rodent diet. More information is needed on Tasmanian devil nutritional and gastrointestinal function to aid in their management. Our study aimed to investigate the current nutritional status of Tasmanian devils in a captive population and functional morphology and histology of their gastrointestinal tract. Animals were maintained on a diet of kangaroo, rabbit, quail and chicken wings and digestibility of these items by the devils was high (>85% for dry matter, protein and lipid). Kangaroo and rabbit were high protein diet items while the quail and chicken wings provided high lipid to the diet, and carbohydrates were minimal (≤3% energy). Maintenance energy requirements were determined to be 620kJkg(-0.75)d(-1) with no significant difference between males and females. Opportunistic samples for gastrointestinal morphology were obtained from captive specimens. Tasmanian devils have a simple digestive tract similar to other dasyurid species. Both the morphology and histology of the gastrointestinal tract show specialization for a high protein carnivorous diet. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Reference sequence (RefSeq) database at NCBI: current status, taxonomic expansion, and functional annotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Nuala A; Wright, Mathew W; Brister, J Rodney; Ciufo, Stacy; Haddad, Diana; McVeigh, Rich; Rajput, Bhanu; Robbertse, Barbara; Smith-White, Brian; Ako-Adjei, Danso; Astashyn, Alexander; Badretdin, Azat; Bao, Yiming; Blinkova, Olga; Brover, Vyacheslav; Chetvernin, Vyacheslav; Choi, Jinna; Cox, Eric; Ermolaeva, Olga; Farrell, Catherine M; Goldfarb, Tamara; Gupta, Tripti; Haft, Daniel; Hatcher, Eneida; Hlavina, Wratko; Joardar, Vinita S; Kodali, Vamsi K; Li, Wenjun; Maglott, Donna; Masterson, Patrick; McGarvey, Kelly M; Murphy, Michael R; O'Neill, Kathleen; Pujar, Shashikant; Rangwala, Sanjida H; Rausch, Daniel; Riddick, Lillian D; Schoch, Conrad; Shkeda, Andrei; Storz, Susan S; Sun, Hanzhen; Thibaud-Nissen, Francoise; Tolstoy, Igor; Tully, Raymond E; Vatsan, Anjana R; Wallin, Craig; Webb, David; Wu, Wendy; Landrum, Melissa J; Kimchi, Avi; Tatusova, Tatiana; DiCuccio, Michael; Kitts, Paul; Murphy, Terence D; Pruitt, Kim D

    2016-01-04

    The RefSeq project at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) maintains and curates a publicly available database of annotated genomic, transcript, and protein sequence records (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/refseq/). The RefSeq project leverages the data submitted to the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration (INSDC) against a combination of computation, manual curation, and collaboration to produce a standard set of stable, non-redundant reference sequences. The RefSeq project augments these reference sequences with current knowledge including publications, functional features and informative nomenclature. The database currently represents sequences from more than 55,000 organisms (>4800 viruses, >40,000 prokaryotes and >10,000 eukaryotes; RefSeq release 71), ranging from a single record to complete genomes. This paper summarizes the current status of the viral, prokaryotic, and eukaryotic branches of the RefSeq project, reports on improvements to data access and details efforts to further expand the taxonomic representation of the collection. We also highlight diverse functional curation initiatives that support multiple uses of RefSeq data including taxonomic validation, genome annotation, comparative genomics, and clinical testing. We summarize our approach to utilizing available RNA-Seq and other data types in our manual curation process for vertebrate, plant, and other species, and describe a new direction for prokaryotic genomes and protein name management.

  13. Executive functions and risky decision-making in patients with opiate dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Matthias; Roth-Bauer, Martina; Driessen, Martin; Markowitsch, Hans J

    2008-09-01

    Recent evidence suggests that individuals with opiate dependence may have cognitive dysfunctions particularly within the spectrum of executive functioning and emotional processing. Such dysfunctions can also compromise daily decisions associated with risk-taking behaviors. However, it remains unclear whether patients addicted to opiates show impaired decision-making on gambling tasks that specify explicit rules for rewards and punishments and provide information about probabilities associated with different long-term outcomes. In this study, we examined 18 individuals with opiate dependence and 18 healthy comparison subjects, matched for age, gender, and education with the Game of Dice Task (GDT). The GDT is a gambling task with explicit rules for gains and losses and fix winning probabilities. In addition, all subjects completed a neuropsychological test battery that primarily focused on executive functions and a personality questionnaire. On the GDT, patients chose the risky alternatives more frequently than the control group. Patients' GDT performance was related to executive functioning but not to other neuropsychological constructs, personality or dependence specific variables with one exception that is the number of days of abstinence. Thus, patients with opiate dependence demonstrate abnormalities in decision-making that might be neuropsychologically associated with dysfunctional behavior in patients' daily lives. Decision-making and other neuropsychological functioning should be considered in the treatment of opiate dependence.

  14. Reduced Density Matrix Functional Theory (RDMFT) and Linear Response Time-Dependent RDMFT (TD-RDMFT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernal, Katarzyna; Giesbertz, Klaas J H

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in reduced density matrix functional theory (RDMFT) and linear response time-dependent reduced density matrix functional theory (TD-RDMFT) are reviewed. In particular, we present various approaches to develop approximate density matrix functionals which have been employed in RDMFT. We discuss the properties and performance of most available density matrix functionals. Progress in the development of functionals has been paralleled by formulation of novel RDMFT-based methods for predicting properties of molecular systems and solids. We give an overview of these methods. The time-dependent extension, TD-RDMFT, is a relatively new theory still awaiting practical and generally useful functionals which would work within the adiabatic approximation. In this chapter we concentrate on the formulation of TD-RDMFT response equations and various adiabatic approximations. None of the adiabatic approximations is fully satisfactory, so we also discuss a phase-dependent extension to TD-RDMFT employing the concept of phase-including-natural-spinorbitals (PINOs). We focus on applications of the linear response formulations to two-electron systems, for which the (almost) exact functional is known.

  15. Swallowing Function and Nutritional Status in Japanese Elderly People Receiving Home-care Services: A 1-year Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabe, Y; Furuta, M; Akifusa, S; Takeuchi, K; Adachi, M; Kinoshita, T; Kikutani, T; Nakamura, S; Yamashita, Y

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition is a serious health concern for frail elderly people. Poor oral function leading to insufficient food intake can contribute to the development of malnutrition. In the present study, we explored the longitudinal association of malnutrition with oral function, including oral health status and swallowing function, in elderly people receiving home nursing care. Prospective observational cohort study with 1-year follow-up. Two mid-sized cities in Fukuoka, Japan from November 2010 to March 2012. One hundred and ninety-seven individuals, aged ≥ 60 years, living at home and receiving home-care services because of physical disabilities, without malnutrition. Oral health status, swallowing function, taking modified-texture diets such as minced or pureed foods, nutritional status, cognitive function, and activities of daily living were assessed at baseline. The associations between malnutrition at 1-year follow-up and these related factors were analyzed using a logistic regression model. Swallowing disorders [risk ratio (RR): 5.21, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.65-16.43] were associated with malnutrition. On the other hand, oral health status did not have a direct association with malnutrition. Swallowing disorders may be associated with the incidence of malnutrition in elderly people receiving home-care. The findings indicate that maintaining swallowing function may contribute to the prevention of malnutrition in frail elderly people.

  16. Shoulder Pain, Functional Status, and Health-Related Quality of Life after Head and Neck Cancer Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Lan Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Head and neck cancer (HNC patients experience treatment-related complications that may interfere with health-related quality of life (HRQOL. The purpose of this study was to describe the symptom experience (shoulder pain and functional status factors that are related to global and domain-specific HRQOL at one month after HNC surgery. In this exploratory study, we examined 29 patients. The outcome variables included global HRQOL as well as physical, functional, emotional, and social well-being. Symptom experience and functional status factors were the independent variables. In the symptom experience variables, shoulder pain distress was negatively associated with physical well-being (R2=0.24. Among the functional status variables, eating impairment was negatively related to global HRQOL (R2=0.18 and physical well-being (R2=0.21. Speaking impairment and impaired body image explained a large amount of the variance in functional well-being (R2=0.45. This study provided initial results regarding symptom experience and functional status factors related to poor HRQOL in the early postoperative period for HNC patients.

  17. Health-related quality of life and functional status quality indicators for older persons with multiple chronic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dy, Sydney M; Pfoh, Elizabeth R; Salive, Marcel E; Boyd, Cynthia M

    2013-12-01

    To explore central challenges with translating self-reported measurement tools for functional status and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) into ambulatory quality indicators for older people with multiple chronic conditions (MCCs). Review. Sources including the National Quality Measures Clearinghouse and National Quality Forum were reviewed for existing ambulatory quality indicators relevant to functional status, HRQOL, and people with MCCs. Seven informants with expertise in indicators using functional status and HRQOL. Informant interviews were conducted to explore knowledge about these types of indicators, particularly usability and feasibility. Nine important existing indicators were identified in the review. For process, identified indicators addressed whether providers assessed functional status; outcome indicators addressed quality of life. In interviews, informants agreed that indicators using self-reported data were important in this population. Challenges identified included concerns about usability due to inability to discriminate quality of care adequately between organizations and feasibility concerns regarding high data collection burden, with a correspondingly low response rate. Validity was also a concern because evidence is mixed that healthcare interventions can improve HRQOL or functional status for this population. As a possible first step, a structural standard could be systematic collection of these measures in a specific setting. Although functional status and HRQOL are important outcomes for older people with MCCs, few relevant ambulatory quality indicators exist, and there are concerns with usability, feasibility, and validity. Further research is needed on how best to incorporate these outcomes into quality indicators for people with MCCs. © Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the U.S.A.

  18. Use of functioning-disability and dependency for case-mix and subtyping of schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Ochoa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: To evaluate the utility of the constructs functioning and disability (F & D and dependency for case-mix and subtyping of patients with schizophrenia by psychosocial, clinical, use of services and attention received from informal carers. Methods: A randomly selected total of 205 people with schizophrenia, and their careers were evaluated through PANSS, DAS-sv, Objective and Subjective Burden Scale (ECFOS-II and use of services. Results: Two groups and Four profiles were identified according to levels of Dependency: The non-dependent group was made of two profiles: independent (I, and persons with disability in the community (DiC. The dependent group included persons with dependency in the community (DeC and persons with dependency in hospital care (DeH. There are clinical and psychosocial differences between these profiles being the dependent the most severe. Regarding use of services, DeC use the most resources, with the exception DeH (more hospitalization resources. The DeC profile generate greater family burden in the following areas; taking medication, being accompanied to appointments, and management than the DiC, despite both groups showing a high need for support. Conclusions: Dependency is a relevant construct for case-mix and subtyping in schizophrenia, and it is related to severity both at the social and clinical level. DeC generate more family burden than the other profiles, followed by DiC (patients with schizophrenia with disability but non-dependent.

  19. Time-dependent density functional theory study on direction-dependent electron and hole transfer processes in molecular systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partovi-Azar, Pouya; Kaghazchi, Payam

    2017-04-15

    We report on real-time time-dependent density functional theory calculations on direction-dependent electron and hole transfer processes in molecular systems. As a model system, we focus on α-sulfur. It is shown that time scale of the electron transfer process from a negatively charged S8 molecule to a neighboring neutral monomer is comparable to that of a strong infrared-active molecular vibrations of the dimer with one negatively charged monomer. This results in a strong coupling between the electrons and the nuclei motion which eventually leads to S8 ring opening before the electron transfer process is completed. The open-ring structure is found to be stable. The similar infrared-active peak in the case of hole transfer, however, is shown to be very weak and hence no significant scattering by the nuclei is possible. The presented approach to study the charge transfer processes in sulfur has direct applications in the increasingly growing research field of charge transport in molecular systems. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Vibrationally resolved UV/Vis spectroscopy with time-dependent density functional based tight binding

    OpenAIRE

    Rüger, Robert; Niehaus, Thomas; van Lenthe, Erik; Heine, Thomas; Visscher, Lucas

    2016-01-01

    We report a time-dependent density functional based tight-binding (TD-DFTB) scheme for the calculation of UV/Vis spectra, explicitly taking into account the excitation of nuclear vibrations via the adiabatic Hessian Franck-Condon (AH|FC) method with a harmonic approximation for the nuclear wavefunction. The theory of vibrationally resolved UV/Vis spectroscopy is first summarized from the viewpoint of TD-DFTB. The method is benchmarked against time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) ...

  1. Nutritional status and self-reported and performance-based evaluation of physical function of elderly persons in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdous, Tamanna; Cederholm, Tommy; Razzaque, Abdur; Wahlin, Ake; Nahar Kabir, Zarina

    2009-07-01

    To investigate the impact of nutritional status on self-reported as well as performance-based indicators of physical function in a rural elderly population in Bangladesh. A cross-sectional study conducted in Matlab, Bangladesh, included 457 randomly selected community-living elderly persons aged 60 years or more (60-92 years; 69 +/- 7 years). Mobility, activities of daily living (ADL), performance tests, handgrip strength, the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) and a structured questionnaire were used to assess physical function, nutritional status, socioeconomic status and health status, respectively. Descriptive and linear hierarchical regression analyses were applied. Seven per cent of the participants reported limitations in mobility, and 8% reported limitations in ADL. However, more than half of the participants had difficulties in performing one or more items in the performance tests. According to the MNA, 26% of the participants were undernourished and 62% were at risk of malnutrition. More undernourished participants than well-nourished participants reported limited mobility, impaired ADL and difficulties in the performance tests. A corresponding reduction in grip strength was observed in the undernourished group. Accordingly, higher MNA scores, indicating better nutritional status, were significantly associated with higher mobility index, higher ADL index, higher performance tests index, and higher scores in handgrip strength. These associations remained after adjusting for demographic, socioeconomic and health status differences. Good nutritional status is important for the physical function of elderly people, even after controlling for possible confounders. Performance tests indicated a higher degree of functional impairment than that observed by self-reported estimation.

  2. Decreased serum level of NGF in alcohol-dependent patients with declined executive function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bae H

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Hwallip Bae,1 Youngsun Ra,1 Changwoo Han,2 Dai-Jin Kim3 1Department of Psychiatry, Myongji Hospital, Goyang, 2Department of Psychiatry, Keyo Hospital, Uiwang, 3Department of Psychiatry, Seoul St Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, South Korea Abstract: The role of neurotrophic factors has been highlighted as a cause of decline in the cognitive function of alcohol-dependent patients. It is known that nerve-growth factor (NGF, one of the neurotrophins, is related to the growth and differentiation of nerve cells, as well as to a decline in cognitive function. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between decreased NGF levels and cognitive decline in alcohol-dependent patients. The serum concentration of NGF was measured in 38 patients with chronic alcohol dependence, and several neuropsychological tests were also performed for cognitive function assessment. The results indicated a significant correlation between serum NGF level and the trail-making test part B, which evaluates executive function, but did not show a significant correlation with other cognitive function tests. An increased serum level of NGF was associated with a decreased completion time in the trail-making test B, and this finding indicates that a high serum level of NGF is related to greater executive function. This finding may imply a protective role of NGF in preventing neuron damage among patients with alcohol dependence. Larger controlled studies will be necessary in the future to investigate this issue further. Keywords: nerve-growth factor, alcohol dependence, executive function, trail-making test

  3. Linear-response time-dependent density-functional theory with pairing fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Degao; van Aggelen, Helen; Yang, Yang; Yang, Weitao

    2014-05-14

    Recent development in particle-particle random phase approximation (pp-RPA) broadens the perspective on ground state correlation energies [H. van Aggelen, Y. Yang, and W. Yang, Phys. Rev. A 88, 030501 (2013), Y. Yang, H. van Aggelen, S. N. Steinmann, D. Peng, and W. Yang, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 174110 (2013); D. Peng, S. N. Steinmann, H. van Aggelen, and W. Yang, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 104112 (2013)] and N ± 2 excitation energies [Y. Yang, H. van Aggelen, and W. Yang, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 224105 (2013)]. So far Hartree-Fock and approximated density-functional orbitals have been utilized to evaluate the pp-RPA equation. In this paper, to further explore the fundamentals and the potential use of pairing matrix dependent functionals, we present the linear-response time-dependent density-functional theory with pairing fields with both adiabatic and frequency-dependent kernels. This theory is related to the density-functional theory and time-dependent density-functional theory for superconductors, but is applied to normal non-superconducting systems for our purpose. Due to the lack of the proof of the one-to-one mapping between the pairing matrix and the pairing field for time-dependent systems, the linear-response theory is established based on the representability assumption of the pairing matrix. The linear response theory justifies the use of approximated density-functionals in the pp-RPA equation. This work sets the fundamentals for future density-functional development to enhance the description of ground state correlation energies and N ± 2 excitation energies.

  4. The mediating effect of psychological distress on functional dependence in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui-Chuan; Huang, Li-Kai; Hu, Chaur-Jong; Chang, Chien-Hung; Lee, Hsin-Chien; Chi, Nai-Fang; Shyu, Meei-Ling; Chang, Hsiu-Ju

    2014-12-01

    To explore varied forms of psychological distress and to determine the mediating influence of psychological distress on functional outcomes in stroke patients. Previous studies attest to the influence of depression on poststroke functional recovery. While there is evidence for neuropathological deficits that occur after stroke to be associated with psychological distress, few studies have explored the effect of various types of psychological distress on functional recovery. A cross-sectional study was used. Data were collected from 178 first-time stroke patients. Study variables included demographic and disease characteristics (stroke location and stroke syndrome classification), psychological distress (the Chinese language version of the Emotional and Social Dysfunction Questionnaire) and functional outcome (Barthel index). Regression and mediation models were used to evaluate the effect of psychological distress on functional outcome. Results revealed that stroke patients experience various forms of mild psychological distress, including anger, helplessness, emotional dyscontrol, indifference, inertia and euphoria, after stroke. Regression and mediation analyses further confirmed that various forms of psychological distress significantly mediated the effect of severe stroke syndromes on functional dependence. The various forms of psychological distress after stroke might play a mediating role in functional recovery and explain how stroke severity affects functional dependence. By understanding the nature of various forms of psychological distress, healthcare professionals should adopt appropriate assessment instruments and design effective interventions to help improve mental and physical function of stroke patients. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. A mainstay of functional food science in Japan--history, present status, and future outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, S; Osawa, T; Ohigashi, H; Yoshikawa, M; Kaminogawa, S; Watanabe, M; Ogawa, T; Okubo, K; Watanabe, S; Nishino, H; Shinohara, K; Esashi, T; Hirahara, T

    2001-01-01

    The development of food science in the near future probably depends on the advance in functional food science, the concept of which was proposed first in Japan nearly 15 years ago. The new science has been internationally distributed and accepted as conceptually being beyond nutrition. In Japan, however, it traced a unique path of progress in the form of a product-driven rather than concept-driven science. Actually, a number of substances and products with potential for disease risk reduction rather than simply for health maintenance have been investigated for their body-modulating functions. Some of them have been applied in practice to the industrialization of functional foods in terms of "foods for specified health uses" legally defined by new legislation. A variety of sophisticated methods have been introduced as well, including the so-called "XYZ" evaluation system, database construction for assessment of the function, and even the DNA microarray technique. The Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries (MAFF) and the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MHW) also commenced their scientific as well as political activity, with its spread to industries which almost simultaneously began to vigorously investigate functional food products for enlargement of the food market. With all of this as a background, the Japan Liaison of the International Union of Food Science and Technology (IUFoST) hold a function food science symposium on behalf of related scientific bodies including the Japan Section of the International Life Science Institute (ILSI). This paper is an overview compiled from 12 presentations made in the symposium, with the aim of internationally publicizing the activity of functional food science in Japan.

  6. Time-dependent density functional theory for many-electron systems interacting with cavity photons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokatly, I V

    2013-06-07

    Time-dependent (current) density functional theory for many-electron systems strongly coupled to quantized electromagnetic modes of a microcavity is proposed. It is shown that the electron-photon wave function is a unique functional of the electronic (current) density and the expectation values of photonic coordinates. The Kohn-Sham system is constructed, which allows us to calculate the above basic variables by solving self-consistent equations for noninteracting particles. We suggest possible approximations for the exchange-correlation potentials and discuss implications of this approach for the theory of open quantum systems. In particular we show that it naturally leads to time-dependent density functional theory for systems coupled to the Caldeira-Leggett bath.

  7. Effect of RFRP-3 on reproduction is sex- and developmental status-dependent in the striped hamster (Cricetulus barabensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Zhong, Min; Xue, Hui-Liang; Ding, Ji-Shun; Wang, Shuo; Xu, Jin-Hui; Chen, Lei; Xu, Lai-Xiang

    2014-09-01

    has inhibitory and stimulatory effects on female and male adults respectively. Our results suggest that the effects of RFRP-3 on reproduction are sex- and developmental status-dependent in the striped hamster.

  8. Efficient temperature-dependent Green's function methods for realistic systems: using cubic spline interpolation to approximate Matsubara Green's functions

    CERN Document Server

    Kananenka, Alexei A; Lan, Tran Nguyen; Gull, Emanuel; Zgid, Dominika

    2016-01-01

    The popular, stable, robust and computationally inexpensive cubic spline interpolation algorithm is adopted and used for finite temperature Green's function calculations of realistic systems. We demonstrate that with appropriate modifications the temperature dependence can be preserved while the Green's function grid size can be reduced by about two orders of magnitude by replacing the standard Matsubara frequency grid with a sparser grid and a set of interpolation coefficients. We benchmarked the accuracy of our algorithm as a function of a single parameter sensitive to the shape of the Green's function. Through numerous examples, we confirmed that our algorithm can be utilized in a systematically improvable, controlled, and black-box manner and highly accurate one- and two-body energies and one-particle density matrices can be obtained using only around 5% of the original grid points. Additionally, we established that to improve accuracy by an order of magnitude, the number of grid points needs to be double...

  9. LD Status and Achievement: Confounding Variables in the Study of Children's Social Status, Self-Esteem, and Behavioral Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Greca, Annette M.; Stone, Wendy L.

    1990-01-01

    Compared to classmates with low and average reading achievement, 32 intermediate-grade students with learning disabilities (LD) had lower peer acceptance, lower feelings of self-worth, fewer positive nominations, and more negative self-perceptions regarding social acceptance. Different patterns of social and behavioral functioning distinguished LD…

  10. Orientation-dependent backbone-only residue pair scoring functions for fixed backbone protein design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bordner Andrew J

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Empirical scoring functions have proven useful in protein structure modeling. Most such scoring functions depend on protein side chain conformations. However, backbone-only scoring functions do not require computationally intensive structure optimization and so are well suited to protein design, which requires fast score evaluation. Furthermore, scoring functions that account for the distinctive relative position and orientation preferences of residue pairs are expected to be more accurate than those that depend only on the separation distance. Results Residue pair scoring functions for fixed backbone protein design were derived using only backbone geometry. Unlike previous studies that used spherical harmonics to fit 2D angular distributions, Gaussian Mixture Models were used to fit the full 3D (position only and 6D (position and orientation distributions of residue pairs. The performance of the 1D (residue separation only, 3D, and 6D scoring functions were compared by their ability to identify correct threading solutions for a non-redundant benchmark set of protein backbone structures. The threading accuracy was found to steadily increase with increasing dimension, with the 6D scoring function achieving the highest accuracy. Furthermore, the 3D and 6D scoring functions were shown to outperform side chain-dependent empirical potentials from three other studies. Next, two computational methods that take advantage of the speed and pairwise form of these new backbone-only scoring functions were investigated. The first is a procedure that exploits available sequence data by averaging scores over threading solutions for homologs. This was evaluated by applying it to the challenging problem of identifying interacting transmembrane alpha-helices and found to further improve prediction accuracy. The second is a protein design method for determining the optimal sequence for a backbone structure by applying Belief Propagation

  11. Delirium in advanced age and dementia: A prolonged refractory course of delirium and lower functional status

    Science.gov (United States)

    BOETTGER, SOENKE; JENEWEIN, JOSEF; BREITBART, WILLIAM

    2017-01-01

    Objective The factors associated with persistent delirium, in contrast to resolved delirium, have not been studied well. The aim of our present study was to identify the factors associated with delirium resolution as measured by the Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale (MDAS) and functional improvement as measured by the Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) scale. Method All subjects were recruited from psychiatric referrals at the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC). The two study instruments were performed at baseline (T1), at 2–3 days (T2), and at 4–7 days (T3). Subjects with persistent delirium were compared to those with resolved delirium in respect to sociodemographic and medical variables. Results Overall, 26 out of 111 patients had persistent delirium. These patients were older, predominantly male, and had more frequently preexisting comorbid dementia. Among cancer diagnoses and stage of illness, brain cancer and terminal illness contributed to persistent delirium or late response, whereas gastrointestinal cancer was associated with resolved delirium. Among etiologies, infection responded late to delirium management, usually at one week. Furthermore, delirium was more severe in patients with persistent delirium from baseline through one week. At baseline, MDAS scores were 20.1 in persistent delirium compared to 17 to 18.8 in resolved delirium (T2 and T3), and at one week of management (T3), MDAS scores were 15.2 and 4.7 to 7.4, respectively. At one week of management, persistent delirium manifested in more severe impairment in the domains of consciousness, cognition, organization, perception, psychomotor behavior, and sleep–wake cycle. In addition, persistent delirium caused more severe functional impairment. Significance of results In this delirium sample, advanced age and preexisting dementia, as well as brain cancer, terminal illness, infection, and delirium severity contributed to persistent delirium or late response, indicating a prolonged

  12. Analysis of Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory of Transition Wavelengths of Thioaldehydes and Thioketones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Xiang; WANG Fan

    2006-01-01

    @@ Thioaldehydes and thioketones are candidates of new photoluminescence materials. The time-dependent density functional theory is applied to calculate the absorption and emission wavelengths of ten thiocarbonyl compounds using both B3LYP and PBE0 functionals. The theoretical results are in agreement with the measurable ones.Furthermore, it is found that the maximum absorption and emission wavelengths are linearly correlated to the C-S bond lengths.

  13. Optical Absorption in Molecular Crystals from Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-23

    quantitatively and non-empirically within the framework of time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT), using the recently-developed optimally-tuned...showing that fundamental gaps and optical spectra of molecular solids can be predicted quantitatively and non-empirically within the framework of...II. THEORETICAL AND COMPUTATIONAL APPROACH A. Optimally-tuned range-separated hybrid functionals In the range-separated hybrid (RSH) method, the

  14. Brain functional connectivity in stimulant drug dependence and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, David; Ersche, Karen D; Craig, Kevin J; Fornito, Alex; Merlo-Pich, Emilio; Fineberg, Naomi A; Shabbir, Shaila S; Robbins, Trevor W; Bullmore, Edward T

    2012-01-16

    There are reasons for thinking that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and drug dependence, although conventionally distinct diagnostic categories, might share important cognitive and neurobiological substrates. We tested this hypothesis directly by comparing brain functional connectivity measures between patients with OCD, stimulant dependent individuals (SDIs; many of whom were non-dependent users of other recreational drugs) and healthy volunteers. We measured functional connectivity between each possible pair of 506 brain regional functional MRI time series representing low frequency (0.03-0.06 Hz) spontaneous brain hemodynamics in healthy volunteers (N=18), patients with OCD (N=18) and SDIs (N=18). We used permutation tests to identify i) brain regions where strength of connectivity was significantly different in both patient groups compared to healthy volunteers; and ii) brain regions and connections which had significantly different functional connectivity between patient groups. We found that functional connectivity of right inferior and superior orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) was abnormally reduced in both disorders. Whether diagnosed as OCD or SDI, patients with higher scores on measures of compulsive symptom severity showed greater reductions of right orbitofrontal connectivity. Functional connections specifically between OFC and dorsal medial pre-motor and cingulate cortex were attenuated in both patient groups. However, patients with OCD demonstrated more severe and extensive reductions of functional connectivity compared to SDIs. OCD and stimulant dependence are not identical at the level of brain functional systems but they have some important abnormalities in common compared with healthy volunteers. Orbitofrontal connectivity may serve as a human brain systems biomarker for compulsivity across diagnostic categories.

  15. Treadmill Exercise Improves Memory Function Depending on Circadian Rhythm Changes in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Dong Sup; Kwak, Hyo Bum; Ko, Il Gyu; Kim, Sung Eun; Jin, Jun Jang; Ji, Eun Sang; Choi, Hyun Hee; Kwon, Oh Young

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Exercise enhances memory function by increasing neurogenesis in the hippocampus, and circadian rhythms modulate synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. The circadian rhythm-dependent effects of treadmill exercise on memory function in relation with neurogenesis were investigated using mice. Methods The step-down avoidance test was used to evaluate short-term memory, the 8-arm maze test was used to test spatial learning ability, and 5-bromo-2’-deoxyuridine immunofluorescence was used t...

  16. Abnormal intrinsic functional hubs in alcohol dependence: evidence from a voxelwise degree centrality analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo X

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Xiaoping Luo,1,2 Linghong Guo,1 Xi-Jian Dai,3 Qinglai Wang,2 Wenzhong Zhu,2 Xinjun Miao,2 Honghan Gong1 1Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nangchang, Jiangxi, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Radiology, Wenzhou Chinese Medicine Hospital, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China Objective: To explore the abnormal intrinsic functional hubs in alcohol dependence using voxelwise degree centrality analysis approach, and their relationships with clinical features.Materials and methods: Twenty-four male alcohol dependence subjects free of medicine (mean age, 50.21±9.62 years and 24 age- and education-matched male healthy controls (mean age, 50.29±8.92 years were recruited. The alcohol use disorders identification test and the severity of alcohol dependence questionnaire (SADQ were administered to assess the severity of alcohol craving. Voxelwise degree centrality approach was used to assess the abnormal intrinsic functional hubs features in alcohol dependence. Simple linear regression analysis was performed to investigate the relationships between the clinical features and abnormal intrinsic functional hubs.Results: Compared with healthy controls, alcohol dependence subjects exhibited significantly different degree centrality values in widespread left lateralization brain areas, including higher degree centrality values in the left precentral gyrus (BA 6, right hippocampus (BA 35, 36, and left orbitofrontal cortex (BA 11 and lower degree centrality values in the left cerebellum posterior lobe, bilateral secondary visual network (BA 18, and left precuneus (BA 7, 19. SADQ revealed a negative linear correlation with the degree centrality value in the left precentral gyrus (R2=0.296, P=0.006.Conclusion: The specific abnormal intrinsic functional hubs appear

  17. turboTDDFT 2.0 - Hybrid functionals and new algorithms within time-dependent density-functional perturbation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Ge, Xiaochuan; Rocca, Dario; Gebauer, Ralph; Baroni, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    We present a new release of the turboTDDFT code featuring an implementation of hybrid functionals, a recently introduced pseudo-Hermitian variant of the Liouville-Lanczos approach to time-dependent density-functional perturbation theory, and a newly developed Davidson-like algorithm to compute selected interior eigenvalues/vectors of the Liouvillian super-operator. Our implementation is thoroughly validated against benchmark calculations performed on the cyanin (C$_{21}$O$_{11}$H$_{21}$) molecule using the Gaussian09 and turboTDDFT 1.0 codes.

  18. Benchmarks for electronically excited states: Time-dependent density functional theory and density functional theory based multireference configuration interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva-Junior, Mario R.; Schreiber, Marko; Sauer, Stephan P. A.;

    2008-01-01

    Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) and DFT-based multireference configuration interaction (DFT/MRCI) calculations are reported for a recently proposed benchmark set of 28 medium-sized organic molecules. Vertical excitation energies, oscillator strengths, and excited-state dipole...... moments are computed using the same geometries (MP2/6-31G*) and basis set (TZVP) as in our previous ab initio benchmark study on electronically excited states. The results from TD-DFT (with the functionals BP86, B3LYP, and BHLYP) and from DFT/MRCI are compared against the previous high-level ab initio...

  19. Cellular thiamine status is coupled to function of mitochondrial 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkrtchyan, G; Graf, A; Bettendorff, L; Bunik, V

    2016-12-01

    Decreased thiamine and reduced activity of thiamine diphosphate (ThDP)-dependent 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (OGDH) cause neurodegeneration. We hypothesized on concerted cell-specific regulation of the thiamine metabolism and ThDP-dependent reactions. We identified a smaller thiamine pool, a lower expression of the mitochondrial ThDP transporter, and a higher expression of OGDH in rat astrocytes versus neuroblastoma N2A. According to the data, the astrocytic OGDH may be up-regulated by an increase in intracellular ThDP, while the neuroblastomal OGDH functions at full ThDP saturation. Indeed, in rat astrocytes and brain cortex, OGDH inhibition by succinyl phosphonate (SP) enlarged the pool of thiamine compounds. Increased ThDP level in response to the OGDH inhibition presumably up-regulated the enzyme to compensate for a decrease in reducing power which occurred in SP-treated astrocytes. Under the same SP treatment of N2A cells, their thiamine pool and reducing power were unchanged, although SP action was evident from accumulation of glutamate. The presented data indicate that functional interplay between OGDH, other proteins of the tricarbocylic acid cycle and proteins of thiamine metabolism is an important determinant of physiology-specific networks and their homeostatic mechanisms.

  20. Functional traits shape size-dependent growth and mortality rates of dry forest tree species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prado-Junior, Jamir A.; Schiavini, Ivan; Vale, Vagner S.; Raymundo, Diego; Lopes, Sergio F.; Poorter, Lourens

    2016-01-01

    Aims

    Functional traits have emerged as an important tool to evaluate plant performance. However, the environmental conditions and ecological pressures that plants face change with their size, and the relationship between traits and plant performance should therefore be size-dependent, which

  1. Cognitive Functioning and Academic Achievement in Children with Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Clarissa S.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Consistent evidence relates insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) to lower intellectual functioning in children, although performance is still in the average range. Children with IDDM have received specialized classroom assistance at school. Boys with diabetes appear at greater risk for learning problems than girls. Evidence suggests both…

  2. Time-dependent density-functional theory in the projector augmented-wave method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, Michael; Häkkinen, Hannu; Lehtovaara, Lauri

    2008-01-01

    We present the implementation of the time-dependent density-functional theory both in linear-response and in time-propagation formalisms using the projector augmented-wave method in real-space grids. The two technically very different methods are compared in the linear-response regime where we...

  3. Multidrug Resistance-Related Protein 1 (MRP1) Function and Localization Depend on Cortical Actin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, Ina; Klappe, Karin; Ercan, Cigdem; Kok, Jan Willem

    2011-01-01

    MRP1 (ABCC1) is known to be localized in lipid rafts. Here we show in two different cell lines that localization of Mrp1/MRP1 (Abcc1/ABCC1) in lipid rafts and its function as an efflux pump are dependent on cortical actin. Latrunculin B disrupts both cortical actin and actin stress fibers. This resu

  4. The dependence of polymer conductivity on the work function of metallic electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunaevskii, M.S. [A. F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Nikolaeva, M.N. [Institute of Macromolecular Compounds of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Bolshoi Pr. 31, 199004 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Rentzsch, R. [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Freie Universitaet Berlin, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Ionov, A.N.

    2009-12-15

    It is shown that the occurrence of metallic conductivity in polymers is due to their electrification. In particular, the current density depends on the electron work function of metallic electrodes which are in contact with the polymer. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  5. The Correlation Function of Multiple Dependent Poisson Processes Generated by the Alternating Renewal Process Method

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Don H

    2008-01-01

    We derive conditions under which alternating renewal processes can be used to construct correlated Poisson processes. The pairwise correlation function is also derived, showing that the resulting correlations can be negative. The technique and the analysis can be extended to the generation of two or more dependent renewal processes.

  6. Lyapunov functions and global stability for SIR and SEIR models with age-dependent susceptibility

    KAUST Repository

    Korobeinikov, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    We consider global asymptotic properties for the SIR and SEIR age structured models for infectious diseases where the susceptibility depends on the age. Using the direct Lyapunov method with Volterra type Lyapunov functions, we establish conditions for the global stability of a unique endemic steady state and the infection-free steady state.

  7. Oxidation of intramyocellular lipids is dependent on mitochondrial function and the availability of extracellular fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corpeleijn, Eva; Hessvik, Nina P.; Bakke, Siril S.; Levin, Klaus; Blaak, Ellen E.; Thoresen, G. Hege; Gaster, Michael; Rustan, Arild C.

    2010-01-01

    Corpeleijn E, Hessvik NP, Bakke SS, Levin K, Blaak EE, Thoresen GH, Gaster M, Rustan AC. Oxidation of intramyocellular lipids is dependent on mitochondrial function and the availability of extracellular fatty acids. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 299: E14-E22, 2010. First published May 4, 2010; doi:1

  8. Lyapunov functions and global stability for SIR and SEIR models with age-dependent susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Andrey V; Korobeinikov, Andrei

    2013-04-01

    We consider global asymptotic properties for the SIR and SEIR age structured models for infectious diseases where the susceptibility depends on the age. Using the direct Lyapunov method with Volterra type Lyapunov functions, we establish conditions for the global stability of a unique endemic steady state and the infection-free steady state.

  9. Doping dependence of the spectral function in the t-J model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eder, R; Ohta, Y.

    1996-01-01

    We study the doping dependence of the electronic spectral function in small clusters of the t-J model. We find rigid-band behaviour near the chemical potential and weight transfer from deep below E(F) to above the chemical potential; the latter originates from strong dressing of hobs by spin fluctua

  10. Unpolarised Transverse Momentum Dependent Distribution and Fragmentation Functions from SIDIS Multiplicities

    CERN Document Server

    Anselmino, M; H., J O Gonzalez; Melis, S; Prokudin, A

    2013-01-01

    The unpolarised transverse momentum dependent distribution and fragmentation functions are extracted from HERMES and COMPASS experimental measurements of SIDIS multiplicities for charged hadron production. The data are grouped into independent bins of the kinematical variables, in which the TMD factorisation is expected to hold. A simple factorised functional form of the TMDs is adopted, with a Gaussian dependence on the intrinsic transverse momentum, which turns out to be quite adequate in shape. HERMES data do not need any normalisation correction, while fits of the COMPASS data much improve with a $y$-dependent overall normalisation factor. A comparison of the extracted TMDs with previous EMC and JLab data confirms the adequacy of the simple Gaussian distributions. The possible role of the TMD evolution is briefly considered.

  11. Testing the process dependence of the Sivers function via hadron distributions inside a jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Alesio, Umberto [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria, I-09042 Monserrato (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Cagliari, C.P. 170, I-09042 Monserrato (Italy); Gamberg, Leonard, E-mail: lpg10@psu.edu [Division of Science, Penn State Berks, Reading, PA 19610 (United States); Kang Zhongbo [RIKEN BNL Research Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Murgia, Francesco [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Cagliari, C.P. 170, I-09042 Monserrato (Italy); Pisano, Cristian [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria, I-09042 Monserrato (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Cagliari, C.P. 170, I-09042 Monserrato (Italy)

    2011-10-25

    We study the process dependence of the Sivers function by considering the impact of color-gauge invariant initial and final state interactions on transverse spin asymmetries in proton-proton scattering reactions within the framework of the transverse momentum dependent (TMD), generalized parton model. To this aim, we consider the azimuthal distribution of leading pions inside a fragmenting jet as well as single inclusive jet asymmetry in polarized proton-proton collisions. In contrast to single inclusive pion production, in both cases we can isolate the Sivers contribution and thereby study its process dependence. The predictions for the Sivers asymmetry obtained with and without inclusion of color gauge factors are comparable in size but with opposite signs. We conclude that both processes represent unique opportunities to discriminate among the two approaches and test the universality properties of the Sivers function in hadronic scattering reactions.

  12. Oral health status and need for oral care of care-dependent indwelling elderly : from admission to death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeksema, Arie R; Peters, Lilian L; Raghoebar, Gerry M; Meijer, Henny J A; Vissink, Arjan; Visser, Anita

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to assess oral health and oral status of elderly patients newly admitted to a nursing home from admission until death. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Oral health, oral status, need for dental care, cooperation with dental treatment, and given dental care were asses

  13. Oral health status and need for oral care of care-dependent indwelling elderly : from admission to death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeksema, Arie R; Peters, Lilian L; Raghoebar, Gerry M; Meijer, Henny J A; Vissink, Arjan; Visser, Anita

    The objective of this study is to assess oral health and oral status of elderly patients newly admitted to a nursing home from admission until death. Oral health, oral status, need for dental care, cooperation with dental treatment, and given dental care were assessed by two geriatric dentists in

  14. Cognitive functions after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus: changes during silent period precede appearance of spontaneous recurrent seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hort, J; Broźek, G; Mares, P; Langmeier, M; Komárek, V

    1999-09-01

    To study the possible relation between spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS) and the derangement of cognitive memory. Status epilepticus (SE) was induced in adult Long-Evans rats by pilocarpine (320 mg/kg, i.p.) and interrupted after 2 h by clonazepam (CZPs mg/kg, i.p.). In addition to the animals that were given pilocarpine and CZP (group P), two groups received ketamine (100 mg/kg, i.p.): the first group 15 minutes after SE onset (group K15), and the second immediately after the CZP (group K120). Control groups were formed from animals not treated with pilocarpine as well as animals that received pilocarpine but did not develop motor seizures. Spatial cognitive memory was tested in the Morris water maze. Testing was impossible for more than 6 days after SE in group P. Ketamine shortened this period for the two groups that received it. During the silent period, deteriorated cognitive memory progressively improved, but the performance of group P started to worsen before the appearance of SRS. Group K120 only expressed a tendency toward declining performance, whereas group K15 never developed SRS, and the behavior of these animals did not differ from that of the controls after the postseizure period was over. Histologically, massive hippocampal cell loss was seen in group P. Ketamine protected hippocampal cells in a time-dependent manner; group K15 did not exhibit any obvious necrosis in the hippocampus. There is no close relation between cognitive functions and the appearance of SRS, because ketamine, administered 120 min after the beginning of SE, prevented the derangment of cognitive functions but not the appearance of SRSs.

  15. Time-dependent density functional theory for open quantum systems with unitary propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen-Zhou, Joel; Tempel, David G; Rodríguez-Rosario, César A; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2010-01-29

    We extend the Runge-Gross theorem for a very general class of open quantum systems under weak assumptions about the nature of the bath and its coupling to the system. We show that for Kohn-Sham (KS) time-dependent density functional theory, it is possible to rigorously include the effects of the environment within a bath functional in the KS potential. A Markovian bath functional inspired by the theory of nonlinear Schrödinger equations is suggested, which can be readily implemented in currently existing real-time codes. Finally, calculations on a helium model system are presented.

  16. [Severity of alcohol dependence and social functioning of male patients with alcoholism. I. Functioning in the sharing of marital roles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabkowski, M; Rogiewicz, M; Ziółkowski, M; Rybakowski, J

    1989-01-01

    The relations between social functioning and severity of alcohol dependence of 40 male patients from Dependence Treatment Ward in Bydgoszcz were studied. Using the MAST, CAGE, and self clinical scale the cohort was divided into two groups: less and more severe dependent probands. The demographic and social data of patients from both groups did not differ significantly. Social functiong was evaluated by use the Scale of Social Roles taking into consideration the set of marital roles (with basic roles of sexual partner, friend, guardian, and family support). The disposition to perform the role, privileges, fulfilling the duties, activity, and harmonization of the role were estimated in each of the role mentioned above and in every patient. It was shown that subjects more dependent on alcohol are significantly less active in the role of sexual partner and in support of family, as well as are less effective in performing such roles and are more egoistic in the role of sexual partner than men less dependent on alcohol. No differences were found in other roles among studied groups. The revealed differences were discussed in the aspect of psychologica and interactive hanges in marital couple.

  17. Orbital-dependent exchange-correlation functionals in density-functional theory realized by the FLAPW method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betzinger, Markus

    2011-12-14

    In this thesis, we extended the applicability of the full-potential linearized augmented-plane-wave (FLAPW) method, one of the most precise, versatile and generally applicable electronic structure methods for solids working within the framework of density-functional theory (DFT), to orbital-dependent functionals for the exchange-correlation (xc) energy. Two different schemes that deal with orbital-dependent functionals, the Kohn-Sham (KS) and the generalized Kohn-Sham (gKS) formalism, have been realized. Hybrid functionals, combining some amount of the orbital-dependent exact exchange energy with local or semi-local functionals of the density, are implemented within the gKS scheme. We work in particular with the PBE0 hybrid of Perdew, Burke, and Ernzerhof. Our implementation relies on a representation of the non-local exact exchange potential - its calculation constitutes the most time consuming step in a practical calculation - by an auxiliary mixed product basis (MPB). In this way, the matrix elements of the Hamiltonian corresponding to the non-local potential become a Brillouin-zone (BZ) sum over vector-matrix-vector products. Several techniques are developed and explored to further accelerate our numerical scheme. We show PBE0 results for a variety of semiconductors and insulators. In comparison with experiment, the PBE0 functional leads to improved band gaps and an improved description of localized states. Even for the ferromagnetic semiconductor EuO with localized 4f electrons, the electronic and magnetic properties are correctly described by the PBE0 functional. Subsequently, we discuss the construction of the local, multiplicative exact exchange (EXX) potential from the non-local, orbital-dependent exact exchange energy. For this purpose we employ the optimized effective potential (OEP) method. Central ingredients of the OEP equation are the KS wave-function response and the single-particle density response function. We show that a balance between the LAPW

  18. The Environmental Dependence of the Galaxy Stellar Mass Function in the ECO Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richstein, Hannah; Berlind, Andreas A.; Calderon, Victor; Eckert, Kathleen D.; Kannappan, Sheila; Moffett, Amanda J.; Stark, David

    2017-01-01

    We study the environmental dependence of the galaxy stellar mass function in the ECO survey and compare it with models that associate galaxies with dark matter halos. Specifically, we quantify the environment of each galaxy in the ECO survey using an Nth nearest neighbor distance metric, and we measure how the galaxy stellar mass distribution varies from low density to high density environments. As expected, we find that massive galaxies preferentially populate high density regions, while low mass galaxies preferentially populate lower density environments. We investigate whether this trend can be explained simply by the stellar-to-halo mass relation combined with the environmental dependence of the halo mass function. In other words, we test the hypothesis that the stellar mass of a galaxy depends solely on the mass of its dark matter halo and does not exhibit a residual dependence on the halo’s larger environment. To test this hypothesis, we first construct mock ECO catalogs by populating dark matter halos in an N-body simulation with galaxies using a model that preserves the overall clustering strength of the galaxy population. We then assign stellar masses to the mock galaxies using physically motivated models that connect stellar mass to halo mass and are constrained to match the global ECO stellar mass function. Finally, we impose the radial and angular selection functions of the ECO survey and repeat our environmental analysis on the mock catalogs. We find that the environmental dependence of stellar mass in the mock catalogs is in agreement with that observed in the ECO survey. Our results are thus consistent with the simple hypothesis that galaxy stellar mass only depends on halo mass. The RESOLVE/ECO surveys were supported by NSF award AST-0955368.

  19. Modeling the critical safety functions status tree of a NPP using FPGA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, Marcos Santana; Oliveira, Mauro Vitor de; Jaime, Guilherme Dutra Gonzaga; Almeida, Jose Carlos Soares de; Augusto, Silas Cordeiro, E-mail: msantana@ien.gov.br, E-mail: mvitor@ien.gov.br, E-mail: gdjaime@ien.gov.br, E-mail: jcsa@ien.gov.br, E-mail: silas@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Divisao de Engenharia Nuclear

    2013-07-01

    Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) based systems and equipment are beginning to appear in new plants I and C applications, as well as in retrofits for operating plants, in particular for safety applications due to their capability to face the systems obsolescence since they are circuit independent. The circuits implemented can be portable to different FPGAs architectures. Moreover, they reduce complexity for regulatory approval as compared to conventional microprocessor-based systems. Critical safety function (CSF) is the most significant design concept for prioritize operator actions for NPP based on the potential threat to the three barriers (fuel cladding, primary coolant system boundary, and containment) and allows the operator to respond to these threats prior to event diagnosis. CSF has a hierarchical information structure that organizes the system variables affecting the plant safety in terms of goal-means relations. This paper describes the application of FPGA in the implementation of the CSFs status tree logic for a Westinghouse 3-loops NPP simulator. (author)

  20. Psychometric Properties of Questionnaires on Functional Health Status in Oropharyngeal Dysphagia: A Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speyer, Renée; Cordier, Reinie; Kertscher, Berit; Heijnen, Bas J

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Questionnaires on Functional Health Status (FHS) are part of the assessment of oropharyngeal dysphagia. Objective. To conduct a systematic review of the literature on the psychometric properties of English-language FHS questionnaires in adults with oropharyngeal dysphagia. Methods. A systematic search was performed using the electronic databases Pubmed and Embase. The psychometric properties of the questionnaires were determined based on the COSMIN taxonomy of measurement properties and definitions for health-related patient-reported outcomes and the COSMIN checklist using preset psychometric criteria. Results. Three questionnaires were included: the Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10), the Swallowing Outcome after Laryngectomy (SOAL), and the Self-report Symptom Inventory. The Sydney Swallow Questionnaire (SSQ) proved to be identical to the Modified Self-report Symptom Inventory. All FHS questionnaires obtained poor overall methodological quality scores for most measurement properties. Conclusions. The retrieved FHS questionnaires need psychometric reevaluation; if the overall methodological quality shows satisfactory improvement on most measurement properties, the use of the questionnaires in daily clinic and research can be justified. However, in case of insufficient validity and/or reliability scores, new FHS questionnaires need to be developed using and reporting on preestablished psychometric criteria as recommended in literature. PMID:24877095

  1. Evaluation of the function status of the ulnar nerve in carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Liu, N; Wang, Y W; Zhang, Z C; Zheng, L N; Zhu, J

    2015-04-17

    Many carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) patients have symptoms in both the median and ulnar digits more frequently than in the median digits alone. This is possibly because of close anatomical contiguity of the carpal tunnel and Guyon's canal, and the high pressure may also affect the latter, causing indirect compression of ulnar nerve fibers. Thus, we evaluated the functional status of the ulnar nerve in patients with CTS in order to investigate the relationship between ulnar nerve impairment and sensory symptoms of the ulnar territory. Electrophysiological studies were conducted in CTS patients and healthy controls. CTS patients were divided into the mild/moderate group and severe group; they were further divided into the symptomatic and asymptomatic subgroups according to the sensory symptom of the fifth digit region. The findings suggest that CTS patients could have coexisting ulnar nerve wrist entrapments that might exacerbate the severity of CTS. Sensory impairment in the ulnar territory was observed more frequently in the mild/moderate stage of CTS, which is associated with ulnar nerve involvement. These findings also suggest that damage to the ulnar nerve fibers caused by compression forces in Guyon's canal may underlie the ulnar spread of symptoms in CTS.

  2. Socioeconomic status and oppositional defiant disorder in preschoolers: parenting practices and executive functioning as mediating variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granero, Roser; Louwaars, Leonie; Ezpeleta, Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the mediating mechanisms of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) in preschoolers through pathways analysis, considering the family socioeconomic status (SES) as the independent variable and the parenting style and the children's executive functioning (EF) as the mediating factors. Method: The sample included 622 three-year-old children from the general population. Multi-informant reports from parents and teachers were analyzed. Results: Structural Equation Modeling showed that the associations between SES, EF, parenting style and ODD levels differed by children's gender: (a) for girls, the association of low SES and high ODD scores was partially mediated by difficulties in EF inhibition, and parenting practices defined by corporal punishment and inconsistent discipline obtained a quasi-significant indirect effect into the association between SES and ODD; (b) for boys, SES and EF (inhibition and emotional control) had a direct effect on ODD with no mediation. Conclusion: SES seems a good indicator to identify children at high-risk for prevention and intervention programs for ODD. Girls with ODD in families of low SES may particularly benefit from parent training practices and training in inhibition control. PMID:26441784

  3. Psychometric properties of questionnaires on functional health status in oropharyngeal dysphagia: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speyer, Renée; Cordier, Reinie; Kertscher, Berit; Heijnen, Bas J

    2014-01-01

    Questionnaires on Functional Health Status (FHS) are part of the assessment of oropharyngeal dysphagia. To conduct a systematic review of the literature on the psychometric properties of English-language FHS questionnaires in adults with oropharyngeal dysphagia. A systematic search was performed using the electronic databases Pubmed and Embase. The psychometric properties of the questionnaires were determined based on the COSMIN taxonomy of measurement properties and definitions for health-related patient-reported outcomes and the COSMIN checklist using preset psychometric criteria. Three questionnaires were included: the Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10), the Swallowing Outcome after Laryngectomy (SOAL), and the Self-report Symptom Inventory. The Sydney Swallow Questionnaire (SSQ) proved to be identical to the Modified Self-report Symptom Inventory. All FHS questionnaires obtained poor overall methodological quality scores for most measurement properties. The retrieved FHS questionnaires need psychometric reevaluation; if the overall methodological quality shows satisfactory improvement on most measurement properties, the use of the questionnaires in daily clinic and research can be justified. However, in case of insufficient validity and/or reliability scores, new FHS questionnaires need to be developed using and reporting on preestablished psychometric criteria as recommended in literature.

  4. STATUS OF ANTIOXIDANT AND LIVER FUNCTION IN TYPE-2 DIABETIC PATIENTS ATTENDING NEPALGUNJ MEDICAL COLLEGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Thanpari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Diabetes mellitus (DM is one of the most common metabolic disorders characterized by hyperglycemia due to defects in insulin secretion, insulin action or both. This study aims to investigate the status of antioxidants and liver function in type-2 diabetic patients among patients attending OPD of Nepalgunj Medical College, Banke, Nepal.Methods: A total of 280 samples were recruited to evaluate aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, total bilirubin (TB, glutathione (GSH, and superoxide dismutase (SOD.Determination of all biochemical parameters were carried out using Kit Methods.Results: AST level was elevated in maximum number of patients, 64 (36.57% out of175 males and 59 (56.19% out of 105 females followed by ALT elevation in females and ALP elevation in males, 50 (47.61% out of 105 and 57(32.57% out of 175 respectively.Conclusion: Antioxidants & LFTs were found to be statistically significant when compared with healthy controls.

  5. Measuring functional status of stroke patients with the Sickness Impact Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuling, J; Greidanus, J; Meyboom-de Jong, B

    1993-01-01

    Measuring outcome of stroke treatment has focused mostly on Activities of Daily Living. In our study we investigated the impact of stroke on the patient's daily life and the course of functional status over time. A community-based cohort of stroke patients was examined with the Barthel ADL Index and the Sickness Impact Profile at fixed intervals post-stroke. Data were compared with those of an elderly control group in the community. The scores of the stroke group on all the subscales of the SIP were much worse than in the control group. The differences were greatest for house management, recreation/pastime and mobility. While there was significant improvement of the mean Barthel score between 8 and 26 weeks post-stroke, the mean SIP scores at these intervals did not change, with the exception of the subscale house management, which showed some improvement. It would appear that the impact of stroke on daily life is greatest in the fields of house management, recreation/pastime and mobility.

  6. Socioeconomic status and Oppositional Defiant Disorder in preschoolers: parenting practices and executive functioning as mediating variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roser eGranero

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate the mediating mechanisms of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD in preschoolers through pathways analysis, considering the family socioeconomic status (SES as the independent variable and the parenting style and the children’s executive functioning (EF as the mediating factors.Method. Sample included 622 three years-old children from the general population. Multi-informant reports from parents and teachers were analyzed.Results. Structural Equation Modeling showed that children’s gender achieved a moderating role into the pathways valuing the underlying process between SES, EF, parenting style and ODD levels: a for girls, the association of low SES and high ODD scores was mediated by parenting practices (punishment and inconsistent discipline and by difficulties in EF inhibition, and a direct predictive effect on ODD level was achieved for SES, punishment and inconsistence in rearing style and inhibition; b for boys, SES and EF (inhibition and emotional control had a direct effect on ODD with no mediation.Conclusion. SES seems a good indicator to identify at high-risk children for prevention and intervention programs for ODD. Girls with ODD in families of low SES may particularly benefit from parent training practices and training in inhibition control.

  7. Socioeconomic status and oppositional defiant disorder in preschoolers: parenting practices and executive functioning as mediating variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granero, Roser; Louwaars, Leonie; Ezpeleta, Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the mediating mechanisms of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) in preschoolers through pathways analysis, considering the family socioeconomic status (SES) as the independent variable and the parenting style and the children's executive functioning (EF) as the mediating factors. The sample included 622 three-year-old children from the general population. Multi-informant reports from parents and teachers were analyzed. Structural Equation Modeling showed that the associations between SES, EF, parenting style and ODD levels differed by children's gender: (a) for girls, the association of low SES and high ODD scores was partially mediated by difficulties in EF inhibition, and parenting practices defined by corporal punishment and inconsistent discipline obtained a quasi-significant indirect effect into the association between SES and ODD; (b) for boys, SES and EF (inhibition and emotional control) had a direct effect on ODD with no mediation. SES seems a good indicator to identify children at high-risk for prevention and intervention programs for ODD. Girls with ODD in families of low SES may particularly benefit from parent training practices and training in inhibition control.

  8. Statistical Portfolio Estimation under the Utility Function Depending on Exogenous Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenta Hamada

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the estimation of portfolios, it is natural to assume that the utility function depends on exogenous variable. From this point of view, in this paper, we develop the estimation under the utility function depending on exogenous variable. To estimate the optimal portfolio, we introduce a function of moments of the return process and cumulant between the return processes and exogenous variable, where the function means a generalized version of portfolio weight function. First, assuming that exogenous variable is a random process, we derive the asymptotic distribution of the sample version of portfolio weight function. Then, an influence of exogenous variable on the return process is illuminated when exogenous variable has a shot noise in the frequency domain. Second, assuming that exogenous variable is nonstochastic, we derive the asymptotic distribution of the sample version of portfolio weight function. Then, an influence of exogenous variable on the return process is illuminated when exogenous variable has a harmonic trend. We also evaluate the influence of exogenous variable on the return process numerically.

  9. Velocity and Mass Functions of Galactic Halos Evolution and Environmental Dependence

    CERN Document Server

    Sigad, Y; Bullock, J S; Kravtsov, A V; Klypin, A A; Primack, Joel R; Dekel, A; Sigad, Yair; Kolatt, Tsafrir S.; Bullock, James S.; Kravtsov, Andrey V.; Klypin, Anatoly A.; Primack, Joel R.; Dekel, Avishai

    2000-01-01

    We study the distribution functions of mass and circular velocity for dark matter halos in N-body simulations of the $\\Lambda$CDM cosmology, addressing redshift and environmental dependence. The dynamical range enables us to resolve subhalos and distinguish them from "distinct" halos. The mass function is compared to analytic models, and is used to derive the more observationally relevant circular velocity function. The distribution functions in the velocity range 100--500 km/s are well fit by a power-law with two parameters, slope and amplitude. We present the parameter dependence on redshift and provide useful fitting formulae. The amplitudes of the mass functions decrease with z, but, contrary to naive expectation, the comoving density of halos of a fixed velocity ~200 km/s actually increases out to z=5. This is because high-z halos are denser, so a fixed velocity corresponds to a smaller mass. The slope of the velocity function at z=0 is as steep as ~ -4, and the mass and velocity functions of distinct ha...

  10. Voltage dependence of rate functions for Na+ channel inactivation within a membrane

    CERN Document Server

    Vaccaro, Samuel R

    2015-01-01

    The inactivation of a Na+ channel occurs when the activation of the charged S4 segment of domain IV, with rate functions $\\alpha_{i}$ and $\\beta_{i}$, is followed by the binding of an intracellular hydrophobic motif which blocks conduction through the ion pore, with rate functions $\\gamma_{i}$ and $\\delta_{i}$. During a voltage clamp of the Na+ channel, the solution of the master equation for inactivation reduces to the relaxation of a rate equation when the binding of the inactivation motif is rate limiting ($\\alpha_{i} \\gg \\gamma_{i}$ and $\\beta_{i} \\gg \\delta_{i}$). The voltage dependence of the derived forward rate function for Na+ channel inactivation has an exponential dependence on the membrane potential for small depolarizations and approaches a constant value for larger depolarizations, whereas the voltage dependence of the backward rate function is exponential, and each rate has a similar form to the Hodgkin-Huxley empirical rate functions for Na+ channel inactivation in the squid axon.

  11. Functional status in children with ADHD at age 6-8: a controlled community study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efron, Daryl; Sciberras, Emma; Anderson, Vicki; Hazell, Philip; Ukoumunne, Obioha C; Jongeling, Brad; Schilpzand, Elizabeth J; Bisset, Matthew; Nicholson, Jan M

    2014-10-01

    To examine the functional status (mental health, academic performance, peer problems) of a community-based sample of children who have attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and non-ADHD controls, and to investigate gender and subtype differences. Children aged 6 to 8 years were recruited through 43 Melbourne schools, using a 2-stage screening (parent and teacher Conners 3 ADHD index) and case confirmation (Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, Version IV; [DISC-IV]) procedure. Outcome measures were mental health disorders (DISC-IV), academic performance (Wide Range Achievement Test 4), and peer problems (Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire). Unadjusted and adjusted linear and logistic regression were used to compare ADHD and non-ADHD controls. A total of 179 children who have ADHD and 212 non-ADHD controls were recruited. Compared with controls, children who had ADHD had higher odds of externalizing (odds ratio [OR], 11.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.6-21.6; P < .001) and internalizing (OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.2-7.2; P = .02) disorders; poorer reading (effect size, -0.66) and mathematics (effect size, -0.69) performance; and more peer problems (P < .001). Boys and girls who had ADHD were equally impaired. Only 17% of children in our ADHD group had been previously diagnosed. Previous diagnosis was higher in the Combined group and for boys. In their second year of school, children who had ADHD performed worse than controls across all functional domains, yet only a minority had been formally diagnosed with ADHD. Findings highlight the need for earlier diagnosis and intervention. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  12. Vibrationally resolved UV/Vis spectroscopy with time-dependent density functional based tight binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüger, Robert; Niehaus, Thomas; van Lenthe, Erik; Heine, Thomas; Visscher, Lucas

    2016-11-01

    We report a time-dependent density functional based tight-binding (TD-DFTB) scheme for the calculation of UV/Vis spectra, explicitly taking into account the excitation of nuclear vibrations via the adiabatic Hessian Franck-Condon method with a harmonic approximation for the nuclear wavefunction. The theory of vibrationally resolved UV/Vis spectroscopy is first summarized from the viewpoint of TD-DFTB. The method is benchmarked against time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations for strongly dipole allowed excitations in various aromatic and polar molecules. Using the recent 3ob:freq parameter set of Elstner's group, very good agreement with TD-DFT calculations using local functionals was achieved.

  13. Vibrationally resolved UV/Vis spectroscopy with time-dependent density functional based tight binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüger, Robert; Niehaus, Thomas; van Lenthe, Erik; Heine, Thomas; Visscher, Lucas

    2016-11-14

    We report a time-dependent density functional based tight-binding (TD-DFTB) scheme for the calculation of UV/Vis spectra, explicitly taking into account the excitation of nuclear vibrations via the adiabatic Hessian Franck-Condon method with a harmonic approximation for the nuclear wavefunction. The theory of vibrationally resolved UV/Vis spectroscopy is first summarized from the viewpoint of TD-DFTB. The method is benchmarked against time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations for strongly dipole allowed excitations in various aromatic and polar molecules. Using the recent 3ob:freq parameter set of Elstner's group, very good agreement with TD-DFT calculations using local functionals was achieved.

  14. Time-dependent density functional theory quantum transport simulation in non-orthogonal basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Yan Ho; Xie, Hang; Yam, Chi Yung; Zheng, Xiao; Chen, Guan Hua

    2013-12-14

    Basing on the earlier works on the hierarchical equations of motion for quantum transport, we present in this paper a first principles scheme for time-dependent quantum transport by combining time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) and Keldysh's non-equilibrium Green's function formalism. This scheme is beyond the wide band limit approximation and is directly applicable to the case of non-orthogonal basis without the need of basis transformation. The overlap between the basis in the lead and the device region is treated properly by including it in the self-energy and it can be shown that this approach is equivalent to a lead-device orthogonalization. This scheme has been implemented at both TDDFT and density functional tight-binding level. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate our method and comparison with wide band limit approximation is made. Finally, the sparsity of the matrices and computational complexity of this method are analyzed.

  15. Magnetic circular dichroism in real-time time-dependent density functional theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, K -M; Bertsch, G F

    2010-01-01

    We apply the adiabatic time-dependent density functional theory to magnetic ci the real-space, real-time computational method. The standard formulas for the MCD response and its A and B terms are derived from the observables in the time-dependent wave function. We find the real time method is well suited for calculating the overall spectrum, particularly at higher excitation energies where individual excited states are numerous and overlapping. The MCD sum rules are derived and interpreted in the real-time formalism; we find that they are very useful for normalization purposes and assessing the accuracy of the theory. The method is applied to MCD spectrum of C-60 using the adiabatic energy functional from the local density approximation. The theory correctly predicts the signs of the A and B terms for the lowest allowed excitations. However, the magnitudes of the terms only show qualitative agreement with experiment.

  16. Dental functional status in a southern vietnamese adult population-a combined quantitative and qualitative classification system analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.C.; Witter, D.J.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Pham, L.H.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to explore the dental functional status of a Southern Vietnamese adult population using a new quantitative- and qualitative-based classification system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sample consisted of 2,809 dentate subjects aged =/> 20 years from urban and rural

  17. Which angiographic variable best describes functional status 6 months after successful single-vessel coronary balloon angiopasty?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.J.W.M. Rensing (Benno); W.R.M. Hermans (Walter); P.J. de Feyter (Pim); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); J.W. Deckers (Jaap)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES. The aim of this study was to determine which quantitative angiographic variable best describes functional status 6 months after coronary balloon angioplasty. BACKGROUND. Several angiographic restenosis criteria have been developed. These can be divided into those that describ

  18. Analysis of the effects of removable dentures on the psychological status, quality of life, and masticatory function of the elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyas, R.; Nathanael, M.; Indrasari, M.; Masulili, C.; Rahardjo, T. B.; Agustin, D.; Hogervorst, E.; Kusdhany, L.

    2017-08-01

    Older age is a major risk factor for diseases of the teeth and mouth and dementia. Diseases of the teeth and mouth can lead to tooth loss. The use of removable dentures can help the elderly to replace lost teeth; therefore, dentures are expected to improve the masticatory function, quality of life, and psychological status of the elderly. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of removable denture usage on the improvement of the psychological status, quality of life, and masticatory function of elderly people. The data was obtained from 30 respondents. The patients answered questionnaires before they used the dentures, 2 weeks after they began using dentures, and 2 months after they started wearing dentures. Four different questionnaires were used: EuroQol Five Dimensions questionnaire (EQ-5D) and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), to measure psychological status; a mastication questionnaire to measure masticatory function; and a validated quality of life questionnaire. Based on the results of this study, it is clear that after 2 months of denture usage, removable dentures in the elderly can significantly improve their quality of life, masticatory function, and psychological status(p<0.05).

  19. Predicting acceptance and popularity in early adolescence as a function of hearing status, gender, and educational setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolters, N.; Knoors, H.E.T.; Cillessen, A.H.N.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined associations of communicative skills, social behavior, and personality with acceptance and popularity as a function of hearing status, gender, and educational setting. Participants were 87 deaf and 672 hearing early adolescents of 52 6th grade classrooms in mainstream and special

  20. Patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorders. Relationship between clinical and psychological factors and functional health status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, M.A.; Meeteren, N.L. van; Wijer, A. de; Genderen, F.R. van; Graaf, Y.D. van; Helders, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    Schmitt MA, van Meeteren NL, de Wijer A, van Genderen FR, van der Graaf Y, Helders PJ: Patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorders: Relationship between clinical and psychological factors and functional health status. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2009;88:231-238. Objectives: To examine the relative