WorldWideScience

Sample records for dependent cross section

  1. Temperature-dependent absorption cross sections for hydrogen peroxide vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicovich, J. M.; Wine, P. H.

    1988-03-01

    Relative absorption cross sections for hydrogen peroxide vapor were measured over the temperature ranges 285-381 K for lambda = 230 nm-295 nm and 300-381 K for lambda = 193 nm-350 nm. The well established 298 K cross sections at 202.6 and 228.8 nm were used as an absolute calibration. A significant temperature dependence was observed at the important tropospheric photolysis wavelengths lambda over 300 nm. Measured cross sections were extrapolated to lower temperatures, using a simple model which attributes the observed temperature dependence to enhanced absorption by molecules possessing one quantum of O-O stretch vibrational excitation. Upper tropospheric photodissociation rates calculated using the extrapolated cross sections are about 25 percent lower than those calculated using currently recommended 298 K cross sections.

  2. Isotope Dependence of Superheavy Nucleus Formation Cross Section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zu-Hua; BAG Jing-Dong

    2006-01-01

    The dynamical process in the superheavy nucleus synthesis is studied on the basis of the two-dimensional Smolu-chowski equation. Special attention is paid to the isotope dependence of the cross section for the superheavy nucleus formation by means of making a comparison among the reaction systems of 54Fe + 204Pb, 56Fe + 206Pb, and 58Fe + 208Pb. It is found by this comparison that the formation cross section is very sensitive to the conditional saddle-point height and the neutron separation energy of the compound nucleus. Reaction systems with lower height of conditional saddle-point and smaller neutron separation energy are more favourable for the synthesis of the superheavy nucleus.

  3. Temperature-dependent high resolution absorption cross sections of propane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beale, Christopher A.; Hargreaves, Robert J.; Bernath, Peter F.

    2016-10-01

    High resolution (0.005 cm-1) absorption cross sections have been measured for pure propane (C3H8). These cross sections cover the 2550-3500 cm-1 region at five temperatures (from 296 to 700 K) and were measured using a Fourier transform spectrometer and a quartz cell heated by a tube furnace. Calibrations were made by comparison to the integrated cross sections of propane from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. These are the first high resolution absorption cross sections of propane for the 3 μm region at elevated temperatures. The cross sections provided may be used to monitor propane in combustion environments and in astronomical sources such as the auroral regions of Jupiter, brown dwarfs and exoplanets.

  4. Density-dependent photoabsorption cross sections of atomic Xe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Xiao-Guang

    2009-01-01

    The evolution of the photoabsorption cross sections of atomic xenon with number densities varying from ideal gas to condensed matter has been studied by an alternative view in the present work. The alternative expressions of the photoabsorption cross sections presented by Sun et al recently were used with the local field models that has proven to be generalized easily to multiatomic systems including molecules and condensed phase systems. The present results show that the variation of the photoabsorption cross sections of atomic xenon in the giant resonance region from the isolated to the condensed conditions is very small, which agrees well with the variation law of the solid and gas experiments.

  5. Dependence of Isoscaling Parameters on Nucleon-Nucleon Cross Section and Momentum-Dependent Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XING Yong-Zhong; HAO Huan-Feng; LIU Xiao-Bin; FANG Yu-Tian; LIU Bao-Yi

    2007-01-01

    @@ Influences of the isospin dependence of the in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross section and the momentum-dependent interaction (MDI) on the isotope scaling are investigated by using the isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics model (IQMD). The results show that both the isospin dependence of the in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross section and the momentum-dependent interaction affect the isoscaling parameters appreciably and independently. The influence caused by the isospin dependence of two-body collision is relatively larger than that from the MDI in the mean field. Aiming at exploring the implication of isoscaling behaviour, which the statistical equilibrium in the reaction is reached, the statistical properties in the mass distribution and the kinetic energy distribution of the fragments simulated by IQMD are presented.

  6. Renormalization Scheme Dependence in a QCD Cross Section

    CERN Document Server

    Chishtie, Farrukh

    2015-01-01

    From the perturbatively computed contributions to the $e^+e^- \\rightarrow$ hadrons cross section $R_{e^{+}e^{-}}$, we are able to determine the sum of all leading-log (LL), next-to-leading-log (NLL) etc. contributions to $R_{e^{+}e^{-}}$ up to four loop order (ie, the N$^3$LL contributions) by using the renormalization group equation. We then sum all logarithmic contributions, giving the result for $R_{e^{+}e^{-}}$ in terms of the log-independent contribution and the RG $\\beta$-function. Two renormalization schemes are then considered, both of which lead to an expression for $R_{e^{+}e^{-}}$ in terms of scheme-independent parameters. Both schemes result in expressions for $R_{e^{+}e^{-}}$ that are independent of the renormalization scale parameter $\\mu$. They are then compared with purely perturbative results and RG-summed N$^{3}$LL results.

  7. Areca nut chewing and dependency syndrome: Is the dependence comparable to smoking? a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafique Kashif

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Areca nut is the seed of fruit oriental palm known as Areca catechu. Many adverse effects of nut chewing have been well documented in the medical literature. As these nuts are mixed with some other substances like tobacco and flavouring agents, it has been hypothesized that it might also cause some dependency symptoms among its users. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate dependency syndrome among areca nut users with and without tobacco additives and compare it with dependency associated with cigarette smoking among the male Pakistani population. Methods This was an observational cross sectional study carried out on healthy individuals, who were users of any one of the three products (areca nut only, areca nut with tobacco additives, cigarette smokers. Participants were selected by convenience sampling of people coming to hospital to seek a free oral check up. Information was collected about the socio-demographic profile, pattern of use and symptoms of dependency using the DSM-IV criteria for substance dependence. We carried out multiple logistic regressions to investigate association between socio-demographic profile, pattern of substance use and dependency syndrome. Results We carried out final analysis on 851 individuals, of which 36.8% (n = 314 were areca nut users, 28.4% (n = 242 were the chewers of areca with tobacco additives and 34.7% (n = 295 were regular cigarette smokers. Multivariate analyses showed that individuals using areca nut with tobacco additives were significantly more likely to have dependency syndrome (OR = 2.17, 95% CI 1.39-3.40 while cigarette smokers were eight times more likely to have dependency syndrome as compared to areca nut only users. Conclusions Areca nut use with and without tobacco additives was significantly associated with dependency syndrome. In comparison to exclusive areca nut users, the smokers were eight times more likely to develop dependence while areca nut

  8. Estimation of Fractionally Integrated Panels with Fixed Effects and Cross-Section Dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ergemen, Yunus Emre; Velasco, Carlos

    We consider large N, T panel data models with fixed effects, common factors allowing cross-section dependence, and persistent data and shocks, which are assumed fractionally integrated. In a basic setup, the main interest is on the fractional parameter of the idiosyncratic component, which...... is estimated in first differences after factor removal by projection on the cross-section average. The pooled conditional-sum-of-squares estimate is root-NT consistent but the normal asymptotic distribution might not be centered, requiring the time series dimension to grow faster than the cross-section size...

  9. Energy-dependent relative charge transfer cross sections of Cs+ + Rb(5s, 5p)

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, H; Fléchard, X; DePaola, B D

    2013-01-01

    Magneto optical trap recoil ion momentum spectroscopy is used to measure energy-dependent charge exchange cross sections in the Cs+ + Rb(5s, 5p) system over a range of projectile energies from 3.2 to 6.4 keV. The measurements are kinematically complete and yield cross sections that are differential in collision energy, scattering angle, and initial and final states.

  10. Mass dependence of pion-induced fission cross sections on the level density parameter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zafar Yasin; Warda Iram; M.Ikram Shahzad

    2012-01-01

    Fission probabilities and fission cross sections strongly depend on the mass number of the target and energy of the projectile.In this research work,a cascade-exciton model (using CEM95 computer code) has been implemented to observe the dependence of pion-induced fission cross sections and fission probabilities on the target mass and ratio of the level density parameter in fission to neutron emission.The analysis has been performed for both the positive and negative pions as the projectile at 80,100 and 150 MeV energies.The computed cross sections satisfactorily reproduced the experimental findings when compared with the available experimental data in the literature.We observed a smooth dependence at 150 MeV,and a sharper dependence at 80 and 100 MeV pion energy,in the fissility region above 29.44.

  11. Measurement of the energy dependence of the total photon-proton cross section at HERA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abramowicz, H.; Abt, I.; Adamczykm, L.; Adamus, M.; Aggarwal, R.; Antonelli, S.; Antonioli, P.; Antonov, A.; Arneodo, M.; Aushev, V.; Aushev, Y.; Bachynska, O.; Bamberger, A.; Barakbaev, A. N.; Barbagli, G.; Bari, G.; Barreiro, F.; Bartsch, D.; Basile, M.; Behnke, O.; Behr, J.; Behrens, U.; Bellagamba, L.; Bertolin, A.; Bhadra, S.; Bindi, M.; Blohm, C.; Bokhonov, V.; Bold, T.; Boos, E. G.; Borras, K.; Boscherini, D.; Boutle, S. K.; Brock, I.; Brownson, E.; Brugnera, R.; Bruemmer, N.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Brzozowska, B.; Bussey, P. J.; Butterworth, J. M.; Bylsma, B.; Caldwell, A.; Capua, M.; Carlin, R.; Catterall, C. D.; Chekanov, S.; Chwastowski, J.; Ciborowski, J.; Ciesielski, R.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Contin, A.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Coppola, N.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Costa, M.; D'Agostini, G.; Dal Corso, F.; del Peso, J.; Dementiev, R. K.; De Pasquale, S.; Derrick, M.; Devenish, R. C. E.; Dobur, D.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Dolinska, G.; Doyle, A. T.; Drugakov, V.; Durkin, L. S.; Dusini, S.; Eisenberg, Y.; Ermolov, P. F.; Eskreys, A.; Fazio, S.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrero, M. I.; Figiel, J.; Forrest, M.; Foster, B.; Fourletov, S.; Gach, G.; Galas, A.; Gallo, E.; Garfagnini, A.; Geiser, A.; Gialas, I.; Gladilin, L. K.; Gladkov, D.; Glasman, C.; Gogota, O.; Golubkov, Yu. A.; Goettlicher, P.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Grebenyuk, J.; Gregor, I.; Grigorescu, G.; Grzelak, G.; Gueta, O.; Gwenlan, C.; Haas, T.; Hain, W.; Hamatsu, R.; Hart, J. C.; Hartmann, H.; Hartner, G.; Hilger, E.; Hochman, D.; Hori, R.; Horton, K.; Huettmann, A.; Iacobucci, G.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Iga, Y.; Ingbir, R.; Ishitsuka, M.; Jakob, H. -P.; Januschek, F.; Jimenez, M.; Jones, T. W.; Juengst, M.; Kadenko, I.; Kahle, B.; Kamauddin, B.; Kananov, S.; Kanno, T.; Karshon, U.; Karstens, F.; Katkov, I. I.; Kaurg, M.; Kaur, P.; Keramidas, A.; Khein, L. A.; Kim, J. Y.; Kisielewska, D.; Kitamura, S.; Klanner, R.; Klein, U.; Kooijman, P.; Korol, Ie.; Korzhavina, I. A.; Kotanski, A.; Koetz, U.; Kowalski, H.; Kulinski, P.; Kuprash, O.; Kuze, M.; Lee, A.; Levchenko, B. B.; Libov, V.; Limentani, S.; Ling, T. Y.; Lisovyi, M.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lohmann, W.; Loehr, B.; Lohrmann, E.; Loizides, J. H.; Long, K. R.; Longhin, A.; Lontkovskyi, D.; Lukina, O. Yu.; Luniak, P.; Maeda, J.; Magill, S.; Makarenko, I.; Malka, J.; Mankel, R.; Margotti, A.; Marini, G.; Mastroberardino, A.; Mattingly, M. C. K.; Melzer-Pellmann, I. -A.; Miglioranzi, S.; Idris, F. Mohamad; Monaco, V.; Montanari, A.; Mujkic, K.; Musgrave, B.; Nagano, K.; Namsoo, T.; Nania, R.; Nicholass, D.; Nigro, A.; Ning, Y.; Noor, U.; Notz, D.; Nowak, R. J.; Nuncio-Quiroz, A. E.; Oh, B. Y.; Okazaki, N.; Oliver, K.; Olkiewicz, K.; Onishchuk, Yu.; Papageorgiu, K.; Parenti, A.; Pawlak, J. M.; Pawlik, B.; Pelfer, P. C.; Pellegrino, A.; Perlanski, W.; Perrey, H.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Plucinski, P.; Pokrovskiy, N. S.; Polini, A.; Proskuryakov, A. S.; Przybycien, M.; Raval, A.; Reeder, D. D.; Reisert, B.; Ren, Z.; Repond, J.; Ri, Y. D.; Robertson, A.; Roloff, P.; Ron, E.; Rubinsky, I.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Salii, A.; Samson, U.; Sartorelli, G.; Savin, A. A.; Saxon, D. H.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenstedt, S.; Schleper, P.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schneekloth, U.; Schoenberg, V.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Schwartz, J.; Sciulli, F.; Shcheglova, L. M.; Shehzadi, R.; Singh, I.; Skillicorn, I. O.; Slominski, W.; Smith, W. H.; Sola, V.; Solano, A.; Son, D.; Sosnovtsev, V.; Spiridonov, A.; Stadie, H.; Stanco, L.; Stern, A.; Stewart, T. P.; Stifutkin, A.; Stopa, P.; Suchkov, S.; Susinno, G.; Suszycki, L.; Sztuk-Dambietz, J.; Szuba, D.; Szuba, J.; Tapper, A. D.; Tassi, E.; Terron, J.; Theedt, T.; Tiecke, H.; Tokushuku, K.; Tomalak, O.; Tomaszewska, J.; Tsurugai, T.; Turcatov, M.; Tymieniecka, T.; Uribe-Estrada, C.; Vazquez, M.; Verbytskyi, A.; Viazlo, O.; Vlasov, N. N.; Volynets, O.; Walczak, R.; Abdullah, W. A. T. Wan; Whitmore, J. J.; Whyte, J.; Wing, M.; Wlasenko, M.; Wolf, G.; Wolfe, H.; Wrona, K.; Yaguees-Molina, A. G.; Yamada, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yoshida, R.; Youngman, C.; Zarnecki, A. F.; Zawiejski, L.; Zenaiev, O.; Zeuner, W.; Zhautykov, B. O.; Zhmak, N.; Zichichi, A.; Zolko, M.; Zotkin, D. S.; Zulkapli, Z.

    2011-01-01

    The energy dependence of the photon-proton total cross section, sigma(gamma p)(tot), was determined from e(+) p scattering data collected with the ZEUS detector at HERA at three values of the center-of-mass energy, W, of the gamma p system in the range 194

  12. POINT 2011: ENDF/B-VII.1 Beta2 Temperature Dependent Cross Section Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cullen, D E

    2011-04-07

    This report is one in the series of 'POINT' reports that over the years have presented temperature dependent cross sections for the then current version of ENDF/B. In each case I have used my personal computer at home and publicly available data and codes. I have used these in combination to produce the temperature dependent cross sections used in applications and presented in this report. I should mention that today anyone with a personal computer can produce these results. The latest ENDF/B-VII.1 beta2 data library was recently and is now freely available through the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC), Brookhaven National Laboratory. This release completely supersedes all preceding releases of ENDF/B. As distributed the ENDF/B-VII.1 data includes cross sections represented in the form of a combination of resonance parameters and/or tabulated energy dependent cross sections, nominally at 0 Kelvin temperature. For use in our applications the ENDF/B-VII.1 library has been processed into cross sections at eight neutron reactor like temperatures, between 0 and 2100 Kelvin, in steps of 300 Kelvin (the exception being 293.6 Kelvin, for exact room temperature at 20 Celsius). It has also been processed to five astrophysics like temperatures, 1, 10, 100 eV, 1 and 10 keV. For reference purposes, 300 Kelvin is approximately 1/40 eV, so that 1 eV is approximately 12,000 Kelvin. At each temperature the cross sections are tabulated and linearly interpolable in energy. All results are in the computer independent ENDF-6 character format [R2], which allows the data to be easily transported between computers. In its processed form the POINT 2011 library is approximately 16 gigabyte in size and is distributed on one compressed DVDs (see, below for the details of the contents of each DVD).

  13. Measurement of the $Z/A$ dependence of neutrino charged-current total cross-sections

    CERN Document Server

    Kayis-Topaksu, A; Van Dantzig, R; De Jong, M; Konijn, J; Melzer, O; Oldeman, R G C; Pesen, E; Van der Poel, C A F J; Spada, F R; Visschers, J L; Güler, M; Serin-Zeyrek, M; Kama, S; Sever, R; Tolun, P; Zeyrek, M T; Armenise, N; Catanesi, M G; De Serio, M; Ieva, M; Muciaccia, M T; Radicioni, E; Simone, S; Bülte, A; Winter, Klaus; El-Aidi, R; Van de Vyver, B; Vilian, P; Wilquet, G; Saitta, B; Di Capua, E; Ogawa, S; Shibuya, H; Artamonov, A V; Brunner, J; Chizhov, M; Cussans, D G; Doucet, M; Fabre, Jean-Paul; Hristova, I R; Kawamura, T; Kolev, D; Litmaath, M; Meinhard, H; Panman, J; Papadopoulos, I M; Ricciardi, S; Rozanov, A; Saltzberg, D; Tsenov, R V; Uiterwijk, J W E; Zucchelli, P; Goldberg, J; Chikawa, M; Arik, E; Song, J S; Yoon, C S; Kodama, K; Ushida, N; Aoki, S; Hara, T; Delbar, T; Favart, D; Grégoire, G; Kalinin, S; Makhlyoueva, I V; Gorbunov, P; Khovanskii, V D; Shamanov, V V; Tsukerman, I; Bruski, N; Frekers, D; Rondeshagen, D; Wolff, T; Hoshino, K; Kawada, J; Komatsu, M; Miyanishi, M; Nakamura, M; Nakano, T; Narita, K; Niu, K; Niwa, K; Nonaka, N; Sato, O; Toshito, T; Buontempo, S; Cocco, A G; D'Ambrosio, N; De Lellis, G; De Rosa, G; Di Capua, F; Ereditato, A; Fiorillo, G; Marotta, A; Messina, M; Migliozzi, P; Pistillo, C; Santorelli, R; Scotto-Lavina, L; Strolin, P; Tioukov, V; Nakamura, K; Okusawa, T; Dore, U; Loverre, P F; Ludovici, L; Maslennikov, A L; Righini, P; Rosa, G; Santacesaria, R; Satta, A; Barbuto, E; Bozza, C; Grella, G; Romano, G; Sirignano, C; Sorrentino, S; Sato, Y; Tezuka, I

    2003-01-01

    A relative measurement of total cross-sections is reported for polyethylene, marble, iron, and lead targets for the inclusive charged-current reaction nu_mu + N -> mu^- + X. The targets, passive blocks of ~100kg each, were exposed simultaneously to the CERN SPS wide-band muon-neutrino beam over a period of 18 weeks. Systematics effects due to differences in the neutrino flux and detector efficiency for the different target locations were minimised by changing the position of the four targets on their support about every two weeks. The relative neutrino fluxes on the targets were monitored within the same experiment using charged-current interactions in the calorimeter positioned directly downstream of the four targets. From a fit to the Z/A dependence of the total cross-sections a value is deduced for the effective neutron-to-proton cross-section ratio.

  14. The isospin dependent nucleon-nucleon inelastic cross section in the nuclear medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingfeng; Li, Zhuxia

    2017-10-01

    The calculation of the energy-, density-, and isospin-dependent Δ production cross sections in nucleon-nucleon (NN) scattering σNN→ NΔ * has been performed within the framework of the relativistic BUU approach. The NΔ cross sections are calculated in Born approximation taking into account the effective mass splitting of the nucleons and Δs in asymmetric matter. Due to the different mass splitting for neutron, proton and differently charged Δs, it is shown that, similar to the NN elastic ones, the reductions of NΔ inelastic cross sections in isospin-asymmetric nuclear medium are different from each other for all the individual channels and the effect is largest and of opposite sign for the Δ++ and Δ- states. This approach is also compared to calculations without effective mass splitting and with splitting derived from Dirac-Brueckerner (DB) calculations. The isospin dependence of the NΔ cross sections is expected to influence the production of π+ and π- mesons as well as their yield ratio, and thus affect the use of the latter quantity as a probe of the stiffness of the symmetry energy at supranormal densities.

  15. First spin-dependent WIMP-nucleon cross section limits from the LUX experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Akerib, D S; Bai, X; Bailey, A J; Balajthy, J; Beltrame, P; Bernard, E P; Bernstein, A; Biesiadzinski, T P; Boulton, E M; Bradley, A; Bramante, R; Cahn, S B; Carmona-Benitez, M C; Chan, C; Chapman, J J; Chiller, A A; Chiller, C; Currie, A; Cutter, J E; Davison, T J R; de Viveiros, L; Dobi, A; Dobson, J E Y; Druszkiewicz, E; Edwards, B N; Faham, C H; Fiorucci, S; Gaitskell, R J; Gehman, V M; Ghag, C; Gibson, K R; Gilchriese, M G D; Hall, C R; Hanhardt, M; Haselschwardt, S J; Hertel, S A; Hogan, D P; Horn, M; Huang, D Q; Ignarra, C M; Ihm, M; Jacobsen, R G; Ji, W; Kazkaz, K; Khaitan, D; Knoche, R; Larsen, N A; Lee, C; Lenardo, B G; Lesko, K T; Lindote, A; Lopes, M I; Malling, D C; Manalaysay, A; Mannino, R L; Marzioni, M F; McKinsey, D N; Mei, D M; Mock, J; Moongweluwan, M; Morad, J A; Murphy, A St J; Nehrkorn, C; Nelson, H N; Neves, F; O'Sullivan, K; Oliver-Mallory, K C; Ott, R A; Palladino, K J; Pangilinan, M; Pease, E K; Phelps, P; Reichhart, L; Rhyne, C; Shaw, S; Shutt, T A; Silva, C; Solovov, V N; Sorensen, P; Stephenson, S; Sumner, T J; Szydagis, M; Taylor, D J; Taylor, W; Tennyson, B P; Terman, P A; Tiedt, D R; To, W H; Tripathi, M; Tvrznikova, L; Uvarov, S; Verbus, J R; Webb, R C; White, J T; Whitis, T J; Witherell, M S; Wolfs, F L H; Yazdani, K; Young, S K; Zhang, C

    2016-01-01

    We present the first experimental constraints on the spin-dependent WIMP-nucleon elastic cross sections from LUX data acquired in 2013. LUX is a dual-phase xenon time projection chamber operating at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (Lead, South Dakota), which is designed to observe the recoil signature of galactic WIMPs scattering from xenon nuclei. A profile likelihood ratio analysis of $1.4~\\times~10^{4}~\\text{kg}\\cdot~\\text{days}$ of fiducial exposure allows 90% CL upper limits to be set on the WIMP-neutron (WIMP-proton) cross section of $\\sigma_n~=~9.4~\\times~10^{-41}~\\text{cm}^2$ ($\\sigma_p~=~2.9~\\times~10^{-39}~\\text{cm}^2$) at 33~GeV/c$^2$. The spin-dependent WIMP-neutron limit is the most sensitive constraint to date for this channel.

  16. The isospin dependent nucleon-nucleon inelastic cross section in the nuclear medium

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Qingfeng

    2016-01-01

    A theoretical calculation on the energy-, density-, and isospin-dependent nucleon-nucleon (NN) inelastic cross section $\\sigma^*_{NN\\rightarrow N\\Delta}$, based on the self-consistent relativistic Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck microscopic transport theory, has been performed. It is found that the decrease of $\\sigma^*_{NN\\rightarrow N\\Delta}$ with the increase of density is relatively stronger than in previous isospin-averaged calculations by Mao {\\it et al.} [Phys. Lett. B {\\bf 327}, 183 (1994)], owing to a novel choice of the density-dependent parameter set for the equation of state. The reduction of the inelastic in-medium cross section is also compared with that of elastic and inelastic cross sections adopted in numerical model calculations, and it is found that the current calculation behaves reasonably well. Owing to the mass-splitting effect of both nucleons and $\\Delta$s, all individual channels are different from each other in the isospin-asymmetric nuclear medium, similar to the NN elastic cross secti...

  17. t dependence of the slope of the high energy elastic pp cross section

    CERN Document Server

    Khoze, V A; Ryskin, M G

    2014-01-01

    We consider the main factors which cause the variation of the value of the local slope of the elastic pp cross section B(t)=d[\\ln(d\\sigma_el(pp)/dt]/dt with t. Namely, we discuss the role of the pion-loop insertion in the pomeron trajectory, the t-dependence of the pomeron-nucleon coupling and the role of the eikonalization of the proton-proton amplitude in both the one- and two-channel eikonal models.

  18. Temperature dependence of cross sections for meson-meson nonresonant reactions in hadronic matter

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Zhen-Yu

    2014-01-01

    We study unpolarized cross sections for the endothermic nonresonant reactions: pion pion to rho rho for I=2, KK to K*K* for I=1, KK* to K*K* for I=1, pion K to rho K* for I=3/2, pion K* to rho K* for I=3/2, rho K to rho K* for I=3/2, and pion K* to rho K for I=3/2, which take place in hadronic matter. We provide a potential that is given by perturbative QCD with loop corrections at short distances, becomes a distance-independent and temperature-dependent value at long distances, and has a spin-spin interaction with relativistic modifications. The Schrodinger equation with the potential yields temperature-dependent meson masses and mesonic quark-antiquark relative-motion wave functions. In the first Born approximation with the quark-interchange mechanism, the temperature dependence of the potential, meson masses and wave functions brings about temperature dependence of unpolarized cross sections for the seven nonresonant reactions. Noticeably, rapid changes of pion and K radii cause an increase in peak cross s...

  19. The dependence of J/ψ-nucleon inelastic cross section on the Feynman variable

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Chun-Gui; LIU Na; MIAO Wen-Dan

    2011-01-01

    By means of two typical sets of nuclear parton distribution functions,meanwhile taking account of the energy loss of the beam proton and the nuclear absorption of the charmonium states traversing the nuclear matter in the uniform framework of the Glauber model,a leading order phenomenological analysis is given in the color evaporation model of the E866 experimental data on J/Ψ production differential cross section ratios RFe/Be(xF).It is shown that the energy loss effect of beam proton on RFe/Be(xF)is more important than the nuclear effects on parton distribution functions in the high Feynman variable xF region.It is found that the J/Ψ-nucleon inelastic cross section depends on the Feynman variable XF and increases linearly with XF in the region xF > 0.2.

  20. Energy dependence of potential barriers and its effect on fusion cross-sections

    CERN Document Server

    Umar, A S; Oberacker, V E

    2014-01-01

    Couplings between relative motion and internal structures are known to affect fusion barriers by dynamically modifying the densities of the colliding nuclei. The effect is expected to be stronger at energies near the barrier top, where changes in density have longer time to develop than at higher energies. Quantitatively, modern TDHF calculations are able to predict realistic fusion thresholds. However, the evolution of the potential barrier with bombarding energy remains to be confronted with the experimental data. The aim is to find signatures of the energy dependence of the barrier by comparing fusion cross-sections calculated from potentials obtained at different bombarding energies with the experimental data. This comparison is made for the $^{40}$Ca+$^{40}$Ca and $^{16}$O+$^{208}$Pb systems. Fusion cross-sections are computed from potentials calculated with the density-constrained TDHF method. The couplings decrease the barrier at low-energy in both cases. A deviation from the Woods-Saxon nuclear potent...

  1. The $Q^{2}$ Dependence of Dijet Cross Sections in $\\gamma p$ Interactions at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Breitweg, J; Derrick, Malcolm; Krakauer, D A; Magill, S; Musgrave, B; Pellegrino, A; Repond, J; Stanek, R; Yoshida, R; Mattingly, M C K; Abbiendi, G; Anselmo, F; Antonioli, P; Bari, G; Basile, M; Bellagamba, L; Boscherini, D; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Cara Romeo, G; Castellini, G; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Contin, A; Coppola, N; Corradi, M; De Pasquale, S; Giusti, P; Iacobucci, G; Laurenti, G; Levi, G; Margotti, A; Massam, Thomas; Nania, R; Palmonari, F; Pesci, A; Polini, A; Sartorelli, G; Zamora-Garcia, Yu E; Zichichi, A; Amelung, C; Bornheim, A; Brock, I; Coboken, K; Crittenden, James Arthur; Deffner, R; Hartmann, H; Heinloth, K; Hilger, E; Irrgang, P; Jakob, H P; Kappes, A; Katz, U F; Kerger, R; Paul, E; Schnurbusch, H; Stifutkin, A; Tandler, J; Voss, K C; Weber, A; Wieber, H; Bailey, D S; Barret, O; Brook, N H; Foster, B; Heath, G P; Heath, H F; McFall, J D; Piccioni, D; Rodrigues, E; Scott, J; Tapper, R J; Capua, M; Mastroberardino, A; Schioppa, M; Susinno, G; Jeoung, H Y; Kim, J Y; Lee, J H; Lim, I T; Ma, K J; Pac, M Y; Caldwell, A; Liu, W; Liu, X; Mellado, B; Paganis, S; Sacchi, R; Sampson, S; Sciulli, F; Chwastowski, J; Eskreys, Andrzej; Figiel, J; Klimek, K H; Olkiewicz, K; Piotrzkowski, K; Przybycien, M B; Stopa, P; Zawiejski, L; Adamczyk, L; Bednarek, B; Jelen, K; Kisielewska, D; Kowal, A M; Kowalski, T; Rulikowska-Zarebska, E; Suszycki, L; Szuba, D; Kotanski, Andrzej; Bauerdick, L A T; Behrens, U; Bienlein, J K; Burgard, C; Desler, K; Drews, G; Fox-Murphy, A; Fricke, U; Göbel, F; Göttlicher, P; Graciani, R; Haas, T; Hain, W; Hartner, G F; Hasell, D; Hebbel, K; Johnson, K F; Kasemann, M; Koch, W; Kötz, U; Kowalski, H; Lindemann, L; Löhr, B; Martínez, M; Milite, M; Monteiro, T; Moritz, M; Notz, D; Pelucchi, F; Petrucci, M C; Rohde, M; Saull, P R B; Savin, A A; Schneekloth, U; Selonke, F; Sievers, M; Stonjek, S; Tassi, E; Wolf, G; Wollmer, U; Youngman, C; Zeuner, W; Coldewey, C; Grabosch, H J; López-Duran-Viani, A; Meyer, A; Schlenstedt, S; Straub, P B; Barbagli, G; Gallo, E; Pelfer, P G; Maccarrone, G D; Votano, L; Bamberger, Andreas; Benen, A; Eisenhardt, S; Markun, P; Raach, H; Wölfle, S; Bussey, Peter J; Doyle, A T; Lee, S W; MacDonald, N; McCance, G J; Saxon, D H; Sinclair, L E; Skillicorn, Ian O; Waugh, R; Bohnet, I; Gendner, N; Holm, U; Meyer-Larsen, A; Salehi, H; Wick, K; Dannheim, D; Garfagnini, A; Gialas, I; Gladilin, L K; Kcira, D; Klanner, Robert; Lohrmann, E; Poelz, G; Zetsche, F; Goncalo, R; Long, K R; Miller, D B; Tapper, A D; Walker, R; Mallik, U; Cloth, P; Filges, D; Ishii, T; Kuze, M; Nagano, K; Tokushuku, K; Yamada, S; Yamazaki, Y; Ahn, S H; An Shiz Hong; Hong, S J; Lee, S B; Nam, S W; Park, S K; Lim, H; Park, I H; Son, D; Barreiro, F; García, G; Glasman, C; González, O; Labarga, L; Del Peso, J; Redondo, I; Terron, J; Barbi, M S; Corriveau, F; Hanna, D S; Ochs, A; Padhi, S; Riveline, M; Stairs, D G; Wing, M; Tsurugai, T; Bashkirov, V; Dolgoshein, B A; Dementev, R K; Ermolov, P F; Golubkov, Yu A; Katkov, I I; Khein, L A; Korotkova, N A; Korzhavina, I A; Kuzmin, V A; Lukina, O Yu; Proskuryakov, A S; Shcheglova, L M; Solomin, A N; Vlasov, N N; Zotkin, S A; Bokel, C; Botje, M; Brümmer, N; Engelen, J; Grijpink, S; Koffeman, E; Kooijman, P M; Schagen, S; Van Sighem, A; Tiecke, H G; Tuning, N; Velthuis, J J; Vossebeld, Joost Herman; Wiggers, L; De Wolf, E; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Gilmore, J; Ginsburg, C M; Kim, C L; Ling, T Y; Nylander, P; Boogert, S; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Devenish, R C E; Grosse-Knetter, J; Matsushita, T; Ruske, O; Sutton, M R; Walczak, R; Bertolin, A; Brugnera, R; Carlin, R; Dal Corso, F; Dosselli, U; Dusini, S; Limentani, S; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Stanco, L; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Iannotti, L; Oh, B Y; Okrasinski, J R; Toothacker, W S; Whitmore, J J; Iga, Y; D'Agostini, Giulio; Marini, G; Nigro, A; Cormack, C; Hart, J C; McCubbin, N A; Shah, T P; Epperson, D E; Heusch, C A; Sadrozinski, H F W; Seiden, A; Wichmann, R; Williams, D C; Pavel, N; Abramowicz, H; Dagan, S; Kananov, S; Kreisel, A; Levy, A; Abe, T; Fusayasu, T; Umemori, K; Yamashita, T; Hamatsu, R; Hirose, T; Inuzuka, M; Kitamura, S; Nishimura, T; Arneodo, M; Cartiglia, N; Cirio, R; Costa, M; Ferrero, M I; Maselli, S; Monaco, V; Peroni, C; Ruspa, M; Solano, A; Staiano, A; Dardo, M; Bailey, D C; Fagerstroem, C P; Galea, R; Koop, T; Levman, G M; Martin, J F; Orr, R S; Polenz, S; Sabetfakhri, A; Simmons, D; Butterworth, J M; Catterall, C D; Hayes, M E; Heaphy, E A; Jones, T W; Lane, J B; West, B J; Ciborowski, J; Ciesielski, R; Grzelak, G; Nowak, R J; Pawlak, J M; Pawlak, R; Smalska, B; Tymieniecka, T; Wróblewski, A K; Zakrzewski, J A; Adamus, M; Gadaj, T; Deppe, O; Eisenberg, Y; Hochman, D; Karshon, U; Badgett, W F; Chapin, D; Cross, R; Foudas, C; Mattingly, S E K; Reeder, D D; Smith, W H; Vaiciulis, A W; Wildschek, T; Wodarczyk, M; Deshpande, A A; Dhawan, S K; Hughes, V W; Bhadra, S; Cole, J E; Frisken, W R; Hall-Wilton, R; Khakzad, M; Menary, S R; Schmidke, W B

    2000-01-01

    The dependence of the photon structure on the photon virtuality, Q^2, isstudied by measuring the reaction e^+p\\to e^+ + {\\rm jet} + {\\rm jet} + {\\rm X}at photon-proton centre-of-mass energies 134 5.5 GeV in the final state.The dijet cross section has been measured as a function of the fractionalmomentum of the photon participating in the hard process, x_gamma. The ratio ofthe dijet cross section with x_gamma 0.75decreases as Q^2 increases. The data are compared with the predictions of NLOpQCD and leading-order Monte Carlo programs using various parton distributionfunctions of the photon. The measurements can be interpreted in terms of aresolved photon component that falls with Q^2 but remains present at values ofQ^2 up to 4.5 GeV^2. However, none of the models considered gives a gooddescription of the data.

  2. Metabolic syndrome in alcohol-dependent men: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitender Aneja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the context to mental illness metabolic syndrome (MS has gained significant attention in the last decade. The present research aimed to study the prevalence of MS and its correlates among the alcohol-dependent men at a deaddiction center in Northern India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional analysis was done for consecutive male subjects who met the diagnosis of alcohol-dependence syndrome currently using alcohol according to the International Clinical Diagnostic criteria- tenth revision mental and behavioral disorder- Clinical description and diagnostic guidelines criteria (ICD-10. The subjects were evaluated for alcohol consumption and the components of MS as per the International Diabetic Federation (IDF and National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel-III (NCEP ATP-III. Results: A total of 200 male subjects were studied: 100 subjects meeting ICD-10 criteria for alcohol dependence currently using alcohol; 50 each of genetically related controls and nongenetically related healthy controls. As per the IDF (with ethnicity specific modifications for waist circumference and NCEP ATP- III definitions, respectively, MS was found to be less prevalent in alcohol-dependent subjects (27% and 18% in comparison the healthy controls (30% and 20%. Conclusion: Findings of the study suggest that irrespective of the amount the current alcohol intake is associated with a lower prevalence of MS and a favorable effect on serum high density lipoproteins and waist circumference. However, the cross-sectional nature of our study does not allow any definitive causal inference.

  3. Pressure-dependent water absorption cross sections for exoplanets and other atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Emma J.; Hill, C.; Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Tennyson, Jonathan; Dudaryonok, Anna S.; Lavrentieva, Nina N.

    2017-01-01

    Many atmospheres (cool stars, brown dwarfs, giant planets, extrasolar planets) are predominately composed of molecular hydrogen and helium. H216O is one of the best measured molecules in extrasolar planetary atmospheres to date and a major compound in the atmospheres of brown-dwarfs and oxygen-rich cool stars, yet the scope of experimental and theoretical studies on the pressure broadening of water vapour lines by collision with hydrogen and helium remains limited. Theoretical H2- and He-broadening parameters of water vapour lines (rotational quantum number J up to 50) are obtained for temperatures in the range 300-2000 K. Two approaches for calculation of line widths were used: (i) the averaged energy difference method and (ii) the empirical expression for J ‧ J ″ -dependence. Voigt profiles based on these widths and the BT2 line list are used to generate high resolution (Δ ν ˜ = 0.01cm-1) pressure broadened cross sections for a fixed range of temperatures and pressures between 300 and 2000 K and 0.001-10 bar. An interpolation procedure which can be used to determine cross sections at intermediate temperature and pressure is described. Pressure broadening parameters and cross sections are presented in new ExoMol format.

  4. Jet-radius dependence of inclusive-jet cross sections in deep inelastic scattering at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Chekanov, S; Abt, I; Adamczyk, L; Adamus, M; Adler, V; Allfrey, P D; Antonelli, S; Antonioli, P; Antonov, A; Arneodo, M; Bamberger, A; Barakbaev, A N; Barbagli, G; Bari, G; Barreiro, F; Bartsch, D; Basile, M; Behrens, U; Bell, M A; Bellagamba, L; Bellan, P M; Bertolin, A; Bhadra, S; Bindi, M; Bloch, I; Bold, T; Bonato, A; Boos, E G; Borras, K; Boscherini, D; Boutle, S K; Brock, I; Brook, N H; Brownson, E; Brugnera, R; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Brzozowska, B; Brümmer, N; Bussey, P J; Butterworth, J M; Bylsma, B; Büttner, C; Caldwell, A; Capua, M; Carlin, R; Catterall, C D; Chwastowski, J; Ciborowski, J; Ciesielski, R; Cifarelli, L; Cindolo, F; Cole, J E; Contin, A; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Coppola, N; Corradi, M; Corriveau, F; Cottrell, A; Cui, Y; D'Agostini, G; Dal Corso, F; Danielson, T; De Favereau, J; De Pasquale, S; Del Peso, J; Dementiev, R K; Derrick, M; Devenish, R C E; Dobur, D; Dolgoshein, B A; Dossanov, A; Doyle, A T; Dunne, W; Durkin, L S; Dusini, S; Eisenberg, Y; Ermolov, P F; Eskreys, A; Everett, A; Fazio, S; Ferrando, J; Ferrero, M I; Figiel, J; Foster, B; Foudas, C; Fourletov, S; Fourletova, J; Fry, C; Gabareen, A; Galas, A; Gallo, E; Garfagnini, A; Geiser, A; Gialas, I; Gil, M; Giller, I; Gladilin, L K; Gladkov, D; Glasman, C; Goers, S; Gosau, T; Grabowska-Bold, I; Gregor, I; Grigorescu, G; Grzelak, G; Gwenlan, C; Göttlicher, P; Haas, T; Hain, W; Hamatsu, R; Hart, J C; Hartmann, H; Hartner, G; Heath, G P; Hilger, E; Hochman, D; Holm, U; Hori, R; Horn, C; Iacobucci, G; Ibrahim, Z A; Iga, Y; Ingbir, R; Jakob, H P; Jechow, M; Jiménez, M; Jones, T W; Jüngst, M; Kagawa, S; Kahle, B; Kaji, H; Kamaluddin, B; Kananov, S; Karshon, U; Karstens, F; Kataoka, M; Katkov, I I; Kcira, D; Keramidas, A; Khein, L A; Kim, J Y; Kind, O M; Kisielewska, D; Kitamura, S; Klanner, R; Koffeman, E; Kollar, D; Kooijman, P; Korcsak-Gorzo, K; Korzhavina, I A; Kotanski, A; Kowalski, H; Kulinski, P; Kuze, M; Kuzmin, V A; Kötz, U; Labarga, L; Lee, A; Levchenko, B B; Levy, A; Limentani, S; Ling, T Y; Liu, C; Lobodzinska, E; Lohmann, W; Lohrmann, E; Loizides, J H; Long, K R; Longhin, A; Lukasik, J; Lukina, O Yu; Luzniak, P; Löhr, B; Ma, K J; Magill, S; Malka, J; Mankel, R; Margotti, A; Marini, G; Martin, J F; Mastroberardino, A; Matsumoto, T; Mattingly, M C K; Melzer-Pellmann, I A; Menary, S; Miglioranzi, S; Monaco, V; Montanari, A; Morris, J D; Musgrave, B; Nagano, K; Namsoo, T; Nania, R; Nicholass, D; Nigro, A; Ning, Y; Noor, U; Notz, D; Nowak, R J; Nuncio-Quiroz, A E; Oh, B Y; Okazaki, N; Olkiewicz, K; Ota, O; Patel, S; Paul, E; Pavel, N; Pawlak, J M; Pelfer, P G; Pellegrino, A; Piotrzkowski, K; Plucinsky, P P; Pokrovskiy, N S; Polini, A; Proskuryakov, A S; Przybycien, M; Rautenberg, J; Raval, A; Reeder, D D; Ren, Z; Renner, R; Repond, J; Ri, Y D; Rinaldi, L; Roberfroid, V; Robertson, A; Ron, E; Rosin, M; Rubinsky, I; Ruspa, M; Ryan, P; Sacchi, R; Salehi, H; Samson, U; Santamarta, R; Sartorelli, G; Savin, A A; Saxon, D H; Schioppa, M; Schlenstedt, S; Schleper, P; Schmidke, W B; Schneekloth, U; Schonberg, V; Schörner-Sadenius, T; Sciulli, F; Shcheglova, L M; Shehzadi, R; Shimizu, S; Skillicorn, I O; Slominski, W; Smith, W H; Soares, M; Solano, A; Son, D; Sosnovtsev, V; Spiridonov, A; Stadie, H; Stanco, L; Standage, J; Stifutkin, A; Stopa, P; Straub, P B; Stösslein, U; Suchkov, S; Susinno, G; Suszycki, L; Sutiak, J; Sutton, M R; Sztuk, J; Szuba, D; Szuba, J; Tapper, A D; Targett-Adams, C; Tassi, E; Tawara, T; Terron, J; Theedt, T; Tiecke, H; Tokushuku, K; Tsurugai, T; Turcato, M; Tymieniecka, T; Ukleja, A; Ukleja, J; Uribe-Estrada, C; Vlasov, N N; Vázquez, M; Walczak, R; Walsh, R; Wan-Abdullah, W A T; Wang, M; Whitmore, J J; Whyte, J; Wichmann, K; Wick, K; Wiggers, L; Wing, M; Wlasenko, M; Wolf, G; Wolfe, H; Wrona, K; Yagues-Molina, A G; Yamada, S; Yamazaki, Y; Yoshida, R; Youngman, C; Zambrana, M; Zarnecki, A F; Zaw, I; Zeuner, W; Zhautykov, B O; Zhou, C; Zichichi, A; Zotkin, D S; Zotkin, S A

    2007-01-01

    Differential inclusive-jet cross sections have been measured for different jet radii in neutral current deep inelastic ep scattering for boson virtualities Q^2 > 125 GeV^2 with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 81.7 pb^-1. Jets were identified in the Breit frame using the k_T cluster algorithm in the longitudinally inclusive mode for different values of the jet radius R. Differential cross sections are presented as functions of Q^2 and the jet transverse energy, E_T,B^jet. The dependence on R of the inclusive-jet cross section has been measured for Q^2 > 125 and 500 GeV^2 and found to be linear with R in the range studied. Next-to-leading-order QCD calculations give a good description of the measurements for 0.5 500 GeV^2: alpha_s(M_Z) = 0.1207 +- 0.0014 (stat.) -0.0028 +0.0030 (exp.) -0.0023 +0.0022 (th.). The variation of alpha_s with E_T,B^jet is in good agreement with the running of alpha_s as predicted by QCD.

  5. POINT 2012: ENDF/B-VII.1 Final Temperature Dependent Cross Section Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cullen, D E

    2012-02-26

    This report is one in the series of 'POINT' reports that over the years have presented temperature dependent cross sections for the then current version of ENDF/B [R1]. In each case I have used my personal computer at home and publicly available data and codes: (1) publicly available nuclear data (the current ENDF/B data, available on-line at the National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/) and, (2) publicly available computer codes (the current PREPRO codes, available on-line at the Nuclear Data Section, IAEA, Vienna, Austria, http://www-nds.iaea.or.at/ndspub/endf/prepro/) and, (3) My own personal computer located in my home. I have used these in combination to produce the temperature dependent cross sections used in applications and described in this report. I should mention that today anyone with a personal computer can produce these results: by its very nature I consider this data to be born in the public domain.

  6. POINT 2012: ENDF/B-VII.1 Final Temperature Dependent Cross Section Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cullen, D E

    2012-02-26

    This report is one in the series of 'POINT' reports that over the years have presented temperature dependent cross sections for the then current version of ENDF/B [R1]. In each case I have used my personal computer at home and publicly available data and codes: (1) publicly available nuclear data (the current ENDF/B data, available on-line at the National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/) and, (2) publicly available computer codes (the current PREPRO codes, available on-line at the Nuclear Data Section, IAEA, Vienna, Austria, http://www-nds.iaea.or.at/ndspub/endf/prepro/) and, (3) My own personal computer located in my home. I have used these in combination to produce the temperature dependent cross sections used in applications and described in this report. I should mention that today anyone with a personal computer can produce these results: by its very nature I consider this data to be born in the public domain.

  7. Jet-radius dependence of inclusive-jet cross sections in deep inelastic scattering at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (US)] (and others)

    2006-12-15

    Differential inclusive-jet cross sections have been measured for different jet radii in neutral current deep inelastic ep scattering for boson virtualities Q{sup 2}>125 GeV{sup 2} with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 81.7 pb{sup -1}. Jets were identified in the Breit frame using the k{sub T} cluster algorithm in the longitudinally inclusive mode for different values of the jet radius R. Differential cross sections are presented as functions of Q{sup 2} and the jet transverse energy, E{sub T,B}{sup jet}. The dependence on R of the inclusive-jet cross section has been measured for Q{sup 2} > 125 and 500 GeV{sup 2} and found to be linear with R in the range studied. Next-to-leading-order QCD calculations give a good description of the measurements for 0.5<=R<=1. A value of {alpha}{sub s}(M{sub Z}) has been extracted from the measurements of the inclusive-jet cross-section d{sigma}/dQ{sup 2} with R=1 for Q{sup 2} > 500 GeV{sup 2}: {alpha}{sub s}(M{sub Z})=0.1207{+-}0.0014(stat.){sub -0.0028}{sup +0.0030}(exp.){sub -0.0023}{sup +0.0022}(th.). The variation of {alpha}{sub s} with E{sub T,B}{sup jet} is in good agreement with the running of {alpha}{sub s} as predicted by QCD. (orig.)

  8. Infrared cross-sections and integrated band intensities of propylene: Temperature-dependent studies

    KAUST Repository

    Es-sebbar, Et-touhami

    2014-01-01

    Propylene, a by-product of biomass burning, thermal cracking of hydrocarbons and incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, is a ubiquitous molecule found in the environment and atmosphere. Accurate infrared (IR) cross-sections and integrated band intensities of propylene are essential for quantitative measurements and atmospheric modeling. We measured absolute IR cross-sections of propylene using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy over the wavenumber range of 400-6500cm-1 and at gas temperatures between 296 and 460K. We recorded these spectra at spectral resolutions ranging from 0.08 to 0.5cm-1 and measured the integrated band intensities for a number of vibrational bands in certain spectral regions. We then compared the integrated band intensities measured at room temperature with values derived from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) databases. Our results agreed well with the results reported in the two databases with a maximum deviation of about 4%. The peak cross-sections for the primary bands decreased by about 20-54% when the temperature increased from 296 to 460K. Moreover, we determined the integrated band intensities as a function of temperature for certain features in various spectral regions; we found no significant temperature dependence over the range of temperatures considered here. We also studied the effect of temperature on absorption cross-section using a Difference Frequency Generation (DFG) laser system. We compared the DFG results with those obtained from the FTIR study at certain wavenumbers over the 2850-2975cm-1 range and found a reasonable agreement with less than 10% discrepancy. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Infrared cross-sections and integrated band intensities of propylene: Temperature-dependent studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Es-sebbar, Et-touhami; Alrefae, Majed; Farooq, Aamir

    2014-01-01

    Propylene, a by-product of biomass burning, thermal cracking of hydrocarbons and incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, is a ubiquitous molecule found in the environment and atmosphere. Accurate infrared (IR) cross-sections and integrated band intensities of propylene are essential for quantitative measurements and atmospheric modeling. We measured absolute IR cross-sections of propylene using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy over the wavenumber range of 400-6500 cm-1 and at gas temperatures between 296 and 460 K. We recorded these spectra at spectral resolutions ranging from 0.08 to 0.5 cm-1 and measured the integrated band intensities for a number of vibrational bands in certain spectral regions. We then compared the integrated band intensities measured at room temperature with values derived from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) databases. Our results agreed well with the results reported in the two databases with a maximum deviation of about 4%. The peak cross-sections for the primary bands decreased by about 20-54% when the temperature increased from 296 to 460 K. Moreover, we determined the integrated band intensities as a function of temperature for certain features in various spectral regions; we found no significant temperature dependence over the range of temperatures considered here. We also studied the effect of temperature on absorption cross-section using a Difference Frequency Generation (DFG) laser system. We compared the DFG results with those obtained from the FTIR study at certain wavenumbers over the 2850-2975 cm-1 range and found a reasonable agreement with less than 10% discrepancy.

  10. A cross-sectional study on tobacco use and dependence among women: Does menthol matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenbloom Judith

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The question of whether mentholation of cigarettes enhances tobacco dependence has generated conflicting findings. Potential mediating factors in a putative relationship between menthol use and tobacco dependence may include race and gender. While an association between menthol use and dependence is mixed, research on the role of race solely among women smokers is scarce. This study examined whether women menthol smokers have higher tobacco use and dependence than non-menthol smokers. Further, the study investigated differences between White and African American smokers. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 928 women seeking tobacco dependence treatment in Boston, Massachusetts. Measures obtained included preferred brand and menthol content, dependence markers (cigarettes per day (CPD; time to first cigarette in the morning; number of and longest previous quit attempts and smoking history (age of initiation; years smoking; menthol or non-menthol cigarette preference. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to detect interactions between menthol preference by race for continuous variables, and Pearson’s chi-squared test was used for analyses with dichotomous variables. Results A greater proportion of menthol smokers smoked their first cigarette within five minutes of waking (p Conclusions Women menthol smokers showed signs of greater tobacco dependence than non-menthol smokers. African Americans smoked fewer CPD but nevertheless had evidence of greater dependence.

  11. The tunneling magnetoresistance current dependence on cross sectional area, angle and temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z. H., E-mail: zhaohui@physics.umanitoba.ca; Bai, Lihui; Hu, C.-M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, R3T 2N2 Canada (Canada); Hemour, S.; Wu, K. [École Polytechnique de Montréal, Montréal, H3T 1J4 Canada (Canada); Fan, X. L.; Xue, D. S. [The Key Lab for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Houssameddine, D. [Everspin Technologies, 1347 N. Alma School Road, Chandler, Arizona 85224 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    The magnetoresistance of a MgO-based magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) was studied experimentally. The magnetoresistance as a function of current was measured systematically on MTJs for various MgO cross sectional areas and at various temperatures from 7.5 to 290.1 K. The resistance current dependence of the MTJ was also measured for different angles between the two ferromagnetic layers. By considering particle and angular momentum conservation of transport electrons, the current dependence of magnetoresistance can be explained by the changing of spin polarization in the free magnetic layer of the MTJ. The changing of spin polarization is related to the magnetoresistance, its angular dependence and the threshold current where TMR ratio equals zero. A phenomenological model is used which avoid the complicated barrier details and also describes the data.

  12. The tunneling magnetoresistance current dependence on cross sectional area, angle and temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. H. Zhang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The magnetoresistance of a MgO-based magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ was studied experimentally. The magnetoresistance as a function of current was measured systematically on MTJs for various MgO cross sectional areas and at various temperatures from 7.5 to 290.1 K. The resistance current dependence of the MTJ was also measured for different angles between the two ferromagnetic layers. By considering particle and angular momentum conservation of transport electrons, the current dependence of magnetoresistance can be explained by the changing of spin polarization in the free magnetic layer of the MTJ. The changing of spin polarization is related to the magnetoresistance, its angular dependence and the threshold current where TMR ratio equals zero. A phenomenological model is used which avoid the complicated barrier details and also describes the data.

  13. Sub-LET Threshold SEE Cross Section Dependency With Ion Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Alia, Ruben Garcia; Brandenburg, Sytze; Brugger, Markus; Daly, Eamonn; Ferlet-Cavrois, Veronique; Gaillard, Remi; Hoeffgen, Stefan; Menicucci, Alessandra; Metzger, Stefan; Zadeh, Ali; Muschitiello, Michele; Noordeh, Emil; Santin, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the ion species and energy dependence of the heavy ion SEE cross section in the sub-LET threshold region through a set of experimental data. In addition, a Monte Carlo based model is introduced and applied, showing a good agreement with the data in the several hundred MeV/n range while evidencing large discrepancies with the measurements in the 10-30 MeV/n interval, notably for the Ne ion. Such discrepancies are carefully analyzed and discussed.

  14. Flavor-dependent azimuthal modulations in unpolarized SIDIS cross section at HERMES

    CERN Document Server

    Giordano, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    The $\\cos\\phi_h$ and $\\cos2\\phi_h$ azimuthal modulations of the unpolarized hadron Semi-Inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering cross section are sensitive to the quark intrinsic transverse momentum and transverse spin. These modulations have been measured at HERMES in a fully differential way by means of a 4-dimensional unfolding procedure to correct for instrumental effects. Results have been extracted for hydrogen and deuterium targets and separately for positively and negatively charged pions and kaons, to access flavor-dependent information about the nucleon internal transverse degrees of freedom.

  15. Sub-LET Threshold SEE Cross Section Dependency with Ion Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia Alia, Ruben; Brandenburg, Sytze; Brugger, Markus; Daly, Eamonn; Ferlet-Cavrois, Veronique; Gaillard, Remi; Hoeffgen, Stefan; Menicucci, Alessandra; Metzger, Stefan; Zadeh, Ali; Muschitiello, Michele; Noordeh, Emil; Santin, Giovanni; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the ion species and energy dependence of the heavy ion SEE cross section in the sub-let threshold region through a set of experimental data. In addition, a Monte Carlo based model is introduced and applied, showing a good agreement with the data in the several hundred MeV/n range while evidencing large discrepancies with the measurements in the 10-30 MeV/n interval, notably for the NE ion. Such discrepancies are carefully analysed and discussed.

  16. Total Reaction Cross Section in an Isospin-Dependent Quantum Molecular Dynamics Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏义彬; 蔡翔舟; 沈文庆; 马余刚; 张虎勇; 钟晨; 郭威; 陈金根; 马国亮; 王鲲

    2003-01-01

    The isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics (IDQMD) model is used to study the total reaction cross section σR. The energy-dependent Pauli volumes of neutrons and protons have been discussed and introduced into the IDQMD calculation to replace the widely used energy-independent Pauli volumes. The modified IDQMD calculation can reproduce the experimental cr R well for both stable and exotic nuclei induced reactions. Comparisons of the calculated σn induced by 11Li with different initial density distributions have been performed. It is shown that the calculation by using the experimentally deduced density distribution with a long tail can fit the experimental excitation function better than that by using the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock calculated density without long tails. It is also found that σR at high energy is sensitive to the long tail of density distribution.

  17. Measurement of the energy dependence of the total photon-proton cross section at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramowicz, H. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences; Univ. Coll. London (United Kingdom); Krakow Univ. of Technology (Poland). Faculty of Physics, Mathematics and Applied Computer Science; Abt, I. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Adamczyk, L. [AGH-Univ. of Science and Technology, Cracow (PL). Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science] (and others)

    2010-10-15

    The energy dependence of the photon-proton total cross section, {sigma}{sub tot}{sup {gamma}}{sup p}, was determined from e{sup +}p scattering data collected with the ZEUS detector at HERA at three values of the center-of-mass energy, W, of the {gamma}p system in the range 194dependence of {sigma}{sub tot}{sup {gamma}}{sup p} from a single experiment at high W. Parameterizing {sigma}{sub tot}{sup {gamma}}{sup p} {proportional_to} W{sup 2c}, {epsilon}=0.111{+-}0.009 (stat.){+-}0.036 (syst.) was obtained. (orig.)

  18. Sensitivity of the fusion cross section to the density dependence of the symmetry energy

    CERN Document Server

    Reinhard, P -G; Stevenson, P D; Piekarewicz, J; Oberacker, V E; Maruhn, J A

    2016-01-01

    It is the aim of this paper to discuss the impact of nuclear fusion on the EOS. This is a timely subject given the expected availability of increasingly exotic beams at rare isotope facilities\\,\\cite{balantekin2014}. In practice, we focus on $^{48}$Ca+$^{48}$Ca fusion. We employ three different approaches to calculate fusion cross-sections for a set of energy density functionals with systematically varying nuclear matter properties. Fusion calculations are performed using frozen densities, using a dynamic microscopic method based on density-constrained time-dependent Hartree-Fock (DC-TDHF) approach, as well as direct TDHF study of above barrier cross-sections. For these studies, we employ a family of Skyrme parametrizations with systematically varied nuclear matter properties. We find a slight preference for forces which deliver a slope of symmetry energy of $L\\approx 50$\\,MeV that corresponds to a neutron-skin thickness of $^{48}$Ca of $R_\\mathrm{skin}\\!=\\!(0.180\\!-\\!0.210)$\\,fm.

  19. The $t$-dependence of the pure DVCS cross section at COMPASS arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Joerg, P.

    The key reactions to study the Generalised Parton Distributions are Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) and Deeply Virtual Meson Production (DVMP). At COMPASS, these processes are investigated using a high intensity muon beam with a momentum of 160\\,GeV/c and a 2.5\\,m-long liquid hydrogen target. In order to optimize the selection of exclusive reactions at these energies, the target is surrounded by a new barrel-shaped time-of-flight system to detect the recoiling particles. COMPASS-II covers the up to now unexplored $x_{B}$ domain ranging from 0.01 to 0.15. From the sum of cross sections measured with positive and negative beam polarities, the pure DVCS cross-section and its $t$-dependence have been extracted resulting in a first model-independent determination of the transverse size of the partonic distribution of the nucleon $\\sqrt{}= (0.578 \\ \\pm \\ 0.042\\ _{- \\ 0.018}^{+ \\ 0.006})\\,\\textsf{fm} $ at a mean $x_{B}$ value of 0.056.

  20. Energy consumption and economic growth revisited. Structural breaks and cross-section dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobnik, Frauke

    2011-07-01

    This paper examines the causal relationship between real GDP and energy consumption for 23 OECD countries from 1971 to 2009. Using recently developed panel econometric techniques the present paper takes into account structural breaks and cross-section dependence when analysing the energy consumption-growth nexus. The empirical results of this study indicate that there exists a long-run equilibrium relationship between real GDP and energy consumption, and the impact of real GDP on energy consumption is larger than vice versa. Furthermore, the empirical evidence of a dynamic panel error-correction model reveals a bidirectional causal relationship between economic growth and energy consumption in both the short and long run. (orig.)

  1. Shape dependency of the extinction and absorption cross sections of dust aerosols modeled as randomly oriented spheroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Wagner

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We present computational results on the shape dependency of the extinction and absorption cross sections of dustlike aerosol particles that were modeled as randomly oriented spheroids. Shape dependent variations in the extinction cross sections are largest in the size regime that is governed by the interference structure. Elongated spheroids best fitted measured extinction spectra of re-dispersed Saharan dust samples. For dust particles smaller than 1.5 μm in diameter and low absorption potential, shape effects on the absorption cross sections are very small.

  2. FEMA DFIRM Cross Sections

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — FEMA Cross Sections are required for any Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map database where cross sections are shown on the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). Normally...

  3. Energy dependence of the 4He(π+,π-) total cross section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gräter, J.; Bilger, R.; Clement, H.; Meier, R.; Wagner, G. J.; Friedman, E.; Schepkin, M.; Amaudruz, P. A.; Felawka, L.; Ottewell, D.; Smith, G. R.; Ambardar, A.; Hofman, G. J.; Kermani, M.; Tagliente, G.; Bonutti, F.; Camerini, P.; Grion, N.; Rui, R.; Hong, P.; Mathie, E. L.; Tacik, R.; Clark, J.; Sevior, M. E.; Patarakin, O.

    1998-09-01

    The total cross section of the 4He(π+,π-) reaction was measured for π+ kinetic energies ranging from 70 to 130 MeV using the CHAOS spectrometer at TRIUMF and a liquid 4He target. Around Tπ=90 MeV, total cross sections exceed conventional model predictions by a factor of 3, whereas at Tπ=70 MeV and for Tπ>130 MeV the data are consistent with these calculations. An attempt is made to understand this behavior by assuming the production of the hypothetical d' dibaryon.

  4. Experimental study on the temperature dependence of ultraviolet absorption cross-sections of sulfur dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The photoabsorption cross-sections of sulfur dioxide were measured in the spectral regions of 200-230 nm and 275 315 nm at 298-415 K,using a grating monochromator with a resolution of 0.2 nm.The discrete absorption cross-section is directly correlated with the number of quantum excited from the base state.The absorption cross-sections at the peaks of discrete bands decreased linearly with the increase of temperature,which corresponded to the decrease in the population of vibrational and rotational transitions from the base level to higher excitation levels.The absorption cross-section peaks decreased linearly when the temperature increased from 298 to 415 K,with relative drops of 74.0% and 75.8% at 200-230 nm and 275-315 nm,respectively.Another distinctive feature of sulfur dioxide absorption spectra in the above two spectral regions was the quasiperiodic structure of the absorption peaks,whose equal wavelength intervals were 1.53 nm and 1.95 nm,respectively.Red and blue shifts were not found at the absorption peak positions.

  5. Disparities in safe sex counseling & behavior among individuals with substance dependence: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D’Amore Meredith M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the vast literature examining disparities in medical care, little is known about racial/ethnic and mental health disparities in sexual health care. The objective of this study was to assess disparities in safe sex counseling and resultant behavior among a patient population at risk of negative sexual health outcomes. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional analysis among a sample of substance dependent men and women in a metropolitan area in the United States. Multiple logistic regression models were used to explore the relationship between race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic black; Hispanic; non-Hispanic white and three indicators of mental illness (moderately severe to severe depression; any manic episodes; ≥3 psychotic symptoms with two self-reported outcomes: receipt of safe sex counseling from a primary care physician and having practiced safer sex because of counseling. Results Among 275 substance-dependent adults, approximately 71% (195/275 reported ever being counseled by their regular doctor about safe sex. Among these 195 subjects, 76% (149/195 reported practicing safer sex because of this advice. Blacks (adjusted odds ratio (AOR: 2.71; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.36,5.42 and those reporting manic episodes (AOR: 2.41; 95% CI: 1.26,4.60 had higher odds of safe sex counseling. Neither race/ethnicity nor any indicator of mental illness was significantly associated with practicing safer sex because of counseling. Conclusions Those with past manic episodes reported more safe sex counseling, which is appropriate given that hypersexuality is a known symptom of mania. Black patients reported more safe sex counseling than white patients, despite controlling for sexual risk. One potential explanation is that counseling was conducted based on assumptions about sexual risk behaviors and patient race. There were no significant disparities in self-reported safer sex practices because of counseling, suggesting that increased

  6. Limits on spin-dependent WIMP-nucleon cross-sections from the first ZEPLIN-II data

    CERN Document Server

    Alner, G J; Bungau, C; Camanzi, B; Carson, M J; Cashmore, R J; Chagani, H; Chepel, V; Cline, D; Davidge, D; Davies, J C; Daw, E; Dawson, J; Durkin, T; Edwards, B; Gamble, T; Gao, J; Ghag, C; Howard, A S; Jones, W G; Joshi, M; Korolkova, E V; Kudryavtsev, V A; Lawson, T; Lebedenko, V N; Lewin, J D; Lightfoot, P; Lindote, A; Liubarsky, I; Lopes, M I; Lüscher, R; Majewski, P; Mavrokoridis, K; McMillan, J E; Morgan, B; Muna, D; Murphy, A St J; Neves, F; Nicklin, G G; Ooi, W; Paling, S M; Pinto da Cunha, J; Plank, S J S; Preece, R M; Quenby, J J; Robinson, M; Salinas, G; Sergiampietri, F; Silva, C; Solovov, V N; Smith, N J T; Smith, P F; Spooner, N J C; Sumner, T J; Thorne, C; Tovey, D R; Tziaferi, E; Walker, R J; Wang, H; White, J; Wolfs, F L H

    2007-01-01

    The first underground data run of the ZEPLIN-II experiment has set a limit on the nuclear recoil rate in the two-phase xenon detector for direct dark matter searches. In this paper the results from this run are converted into the limits on spin-dependent WIMP-proton and WIMP-neutron cross-sections. The minimum of the curve for WIMP-neutron cross-section corresponds to 0.07 pb at a WIMP mass of around 65 GeV.

  7. Limits on spin-dependent WIMP-nucleon cross sections from 225 live days of XENON100 data

    CERN Document Server

    Aprile, E; Arisaka, K; Arneodo, F; Balan, C; Baudis, L; Bauermeister, B; Behrens, A; Beltrame, P; Bokeloh, K; Brown, A; Brown, E; Bruno, G; Budnik, R; Cardoso, J M R; Chen, W -T; Choi, B; Colijn, A P; Contreras, H; Cussonneau, J P; Decowski, M P; Duchovni, E; Fattori, S; Ferella, A D; Fulgione, W; Gao, F; Garbini, M; Ghag, C; Giboni, K -L; Goetzke, L W; Grignon, C; Gross, E; Hampel, W; Kaether, F; Kish, A; Lamblin, J; Landsman, H; Lang, R F; Calloch, M Le; Lellouch, D; Levy, C; Lim, K E; Lin, Q; Lindemann, S; Lindner, M; Lopes, J A M; Lung, K; Undagoitia, T Marrodan; Massoli, F V; Fernandez, A J Melgarejo; Meng, Y; Messina, M; Molinario, A; Ni, K; Oberlack, U; Orrigo, S E A; Pantic, E; Persiani, R; Plante, G; Priel, N; Rizzo, A; Rosendahl, S; Santos, J M F dos; Sartorelli, G; Schreiner, J; Schumann, M; Lavina, L Scotto; Scovell, P R; Selvi, M; Shagin, P; Simgen, H; Teymourian, A; Thers, D; Vitells, O; Wang, H; Weber, M; Weinheimer, C

    2013-01-01

    We present new experimental constraints on the elastic, spin-dependent WIMP-nucleon cross section using recent data from the XENON100 experiment, operated in the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso in Italy. An analysis of 224.6 live days x 34 kg of exposure acquired during 2011 and 2012 revealed no excess signal due to axial-vector WIMP interactions with 129-Xe and 131-Xe nuclei. This leads to the most stringent upper limits on WIMP-neutron cross sections for WIMP masses above 6 GeV, with a minimum cross section of 3.5 x 10^{-40} cm^2 at a WIMP mass of 45 GeV, at 90% confidence level.

  8. Substructure dependence of jet cross sections at HERA and determination of $\\alpha_{s}$

    CERN Document Server

    Chekanov, S; Abt, I; Adamczyk, L; Adamus, M; Adler, V; Aghuzumtsyan, G; Antonioli, P; Antonov, A; Arneodo, M; Bailey, D S; Bamberger, A; Barakbaev, A N; Barbagli, G; Barbi, M; Bari, G; Barreiro, F; Bartsch, D; Basile, M; Behrens, U; Bellagamba, L; Bellan, P M; Benen, A; Bertolin, A; Bhadra, S; Bloch, I; Bold, T; Boos, E G; Borras, K; Boscherini, D; Brock, I; Brook, N H; Brugnera, R; Brümmer, N; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Bussey, P J; Butterworth, J M; Büttner, C; Bylsma, B; Caldwell, A; Capua, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carli, T; Carlin, R; Catterall, C D; Chiochia, V; Chwastowski, J; Ciborowski, J; Ciesielski, R; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Cloth, P; Cole, J E; Collins-Tooth, C; Contin, A; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Coppola, N; Cormack, C; Corradi, M; Corriveau, F; Costa, M; Cottrell, A; D'Agostini, Giulio; Dal Corso, F; Danilov, P; Dannheim, D; De Pasquale, S; Dementiev, R K; Derrick, M; Devenish, R C E; Dhawan, S; Dobur, D; Dolgoshein, B A; Doyle, A T; Drews, G; Durkin, L S; Dusini, S; Eisenberg, Y; Ermolov, P F; Eskreys, Andrzej; Everett, A; Ferrando, J; Ferrero, M I; Figiel, J; Filges, D; Foster, B; Foudas, C; Fourletov, S; Fourletova, J; Fricke, U; Fusayasu, T; Gabareen, A; Galas, A; Gallo, E; Garfagnini, A; Geiser, A; Genta, C; Gialas, I; Giusti, P; Gladilin, L K; Gladkov, D; Glasman, C; Gliga, S; Goers, S; Goncalo, R; González, O; Gosau, T; Göttlicher, P; Grabowska-Bold, I; Grigorescu, G; Grijpink, S; Grzelak, G; Gutsche, O; Gwenlan, C; Haas, T; Hain, W; Hall-Wilton, R; Hamatsu, R; Hamilton, J; Hanlon, S; Hart, J C; Hartmann, H; Hartner, G; Heaphy, E A; Heath, G P; Helbich, M; Heusch, C A; Hilger, E; Hillert, S; Hirose, T; Hochman, D; Holm, U; Horn, C; Iacobucci, G; Iga, Y; Inuzuka, M; Irrgang, P; Jakob, H P; Jones, T W; Kagawa, S; Kahle, B; Kaji, H; Kananov, S; Karshon, M; Karstens, F; Kataoka, M; Katkov, I I; Kcira, D; Keramidas, A; Khein, L A; Kim, J Y; Kind, O; Kisielewska, D; Kitamura, S; Koffeman, E; Kohno, T; Kooijman, P; Koop, T; Korzhavina, I A; Kotanski, A; Kötz, U; Kowal, A M; Kowal, M; Kowalski, H; Kramberger, G; Kreisel, A; Krumnack, N; Kuze, M; Kuzmin, V A; Labarga, L; Labes, H; Lainesse, J; Lammers, S; Lelas, D; Levchenko, B B; Levy, A; Li, L; Lightwood, M S; Lim, H; Lim, I T; Limentani, S; Ling, T Y; Liu, X; Löhr, B; Lohrmann, E; Loizides, J H; Long, K R; Longhin, A; Lukina, O Yu; Luzniak, P; Ma, K J; Maddox, E; Magill, S; Mankel, R; Margotti, A; Marini, G; Martin, J F; Mastroberardino, A; Matsuzawa, K; Mattingly, M C K; McCubbin, N A; Melzer-Pellmann, I A; Menary, S R; Metlica, F; Meyer, U; Miglioranzi, S; Milite, M; Mirea, A; Monaco, V; Montanari, A; Musgrave, B; Nagano, K; Namsoo, T; Nania, R; Nguyen, C N; Nigro, A; Ning, Y; Notz, D; Nowak, R J; Nuncio, A E; Oh, B Y; Olkiewicz, K; Pac, M Y; Padhi, S; Palmonari, F; Parenti, A; Park, I H; Patel, S; Paul, E; Pavel, Usan; Pawlak, J M; Pelfer, P G; Pellegrino, A; Pesci, A; Piotrzkowski, K; Plucinsky, P P; Pokrovskiy, N S; Polini, A; Posocco, M; Proskuryakov, A S; Przybycien, M B; Rautenberg, J; Raval, A; Reeder, D D; Ren, Z; Renner, R; Repond, J; Rinaldi, L; Riveline, U; Robins, S; Rosin, M; Ruspa, M; Ryan, P; Sacchi, R; Salehi, H; Sartorelli, G; Savin, A A; Saxon, D H; Schagen, S; Schioppa, M; Schlenstedt, S; Schleper, P; Schmidke, W B; Schneekloth, U; Schörner-Sadenius, T; Sciulli, F; Shcheglova, L M; Skillicorn, I O; Slominski, W; Smith, W H; Soares, M; Solano, A; Son, D; Sosnovtsev, V V; Stairs, D G; Stanco, L; Standage, J; Stifutkin, A; Stonjek, S; Stopa, P; Stösslein, U; Straub, P B; Suchkov, S; Susinno, G; Suszycki, L; Sutiak, J; Sutton, M R; Sztuk, J; Szuba, D; Szuba, J; Tandler, J; Tapper, A D; Targett-Adams, C; Tassi, E; Tawara, T; Terron, J; Tiecke, H G; Tokushuku, K; Tsurugai, T; Turcato, M; Tymieniecka, T; Ukleja, A; Ukleja, J; Vázquez, M; Vlasov, N N; Voss, K C; Walczak, R; Walsh, R; Wang, M; Whitmore, J J; Wichmann, K; Wick, K; Wiggers, L; Wills, H H; Wing, M; Wolf, G; Yamada, S; Yamashita, T; Yamazaki, Y; Yoshida, R; Youngman, C; Zambrana, M; Zawiejski, L; Zeuner, W; Zhautykov, B O; Zichichi, A; Ziegler, A; Zotkin, S A; De Favereau, J; De Wolf, E; Del Peso, J

    2004-01-01

    Jet substructure and differential cross sections for jets produced in the photoproduction and deep inelastic ep scattering regimes have been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 82.2 pb-1. The substructure of jets has been studied in terms of the jet shape and subjet multiplicity for jets with transverse energies Et(jet) > 17 GeV. The data are well described by the QCD calculations. The jet shape and subjet multiplicity are used to tag gluon- and quark-initiated jets. Jet cross sections as functions of Et(jet), jet pseudorapidity, the jet-jet scattering angle, dijet invariant mass and the fraction of the photon energy carried by the dijet system are presented for gluon- and quark-tagged jets. The data exhibit the behaviour expected from the underlying parton dynamics. A value of alphas(Mz) of alphas(Mz) = 0.1176 +-0.0009(stat.) -0.0026 +0.0009 (exp.) -0.0072 +0.0091 (th.) was extracted from the measurements of jet shapes in deep inelastic scattering.

  9. Neutron-energy-dependent defect production cross sections for fission and fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odette, G.R.; Doiron, D.R.

    1976-06-01

    Neutron cross sections for displacements and post-short-term cascade annealing defects are derived from nuclear kinematics calculations of primary atomic recoil energy distributions and the number of secondary defects produced per primary as a function of recoil energy. For the first time, recoil kinematics of charged- and multiple-particle emission reactions are treated rigorously using a compound-nucleus evaporation spectrum nuclear model. Secondary-defect production functions, derived from computer simulation experiments, are taken from the literature. Spectral-averaged defect production cross sections for a fusion reactor first-wall-type environment are on the order of 1.5 to 2.5 times those for a fast fission reactor core-type spectrum. The indicated range of uncertainty is primarily due to secondary-defect production model sensitivity. Nuclear model and data errors are expected to become more significant at high neutron energies, greater than approximately 20 MeV. Fusion reactor environments are found to produce some very energetic recoils and high-energy release events due to charged-particle reactions such as (n,..cap alpha..).

  10. Measurement of the cross section of charmed hadrons and the nuclear dependence alpha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco-Covarrubias, Ernesto Alejandro [Autonomous Univ. of San Luis Potosi, San Luis Potosi (Mexico)

    2009-12-03

    With data from the SELEX experiment we study charm hadro-production. We report the differential production cross sections as function of the longitudinal and transverse momentum, as well as for two different target materials, of 14 charmed hadron and/or their decay modes. This is the most extensive study to date. SELEX is a fixed target experiment at Fermilab with high forward acceptance; it took data during 1996-1997 with 600 GeV/c Σ- and π-, and 540 GeV/c proton and π+ beams. It used 5 target foils (two copper and three diamond). We use the results to determine α, used in parametrizing the production cross section as ∞ Aα, where A is the mass number of the target nuclei. We found within our statistics that α is independent of the longitudinal momentum fraction xF in the interval 0.1 < xF < 1.0, with α = 0.778 ± 0.014. The average value of α} for charm production by pion beams is α meson = 0.850 ± 0.028. This is somewhat larger than the corresponding average αbaryon = 0.755 ± 0.016 for charm production by baryon beams (Σ- and protons).

  11. Temperature-dependent cross sections for πΦ and pΦ nonresonant reactions in hadronic matter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Zhi-Feng; XU Xiao-Ming

    2012-01-01

    With a potential of which the large-distance part reflects lattice gauge results and of which the short-distance part is given by one gluon exchange plus perturbative one- and two-loop corrections,the Schr(o)dinger equation brings about temperature dependence of meson masses and mesonic quark-antiquark relative-motion wave functions.The ground-state meson masses drop with increasing temperature.The transition amplitude calculated from the potential,the meson masses and the wave functions gives temperaturedependent cross sections for the five nonresonant reactions πΦ → K(K)* (or K*(K)),πΦ → K*(K)*,pΦ → K(K),pΦ → K(K)* (or K*(K)) and ΡΦ → K*(K)*.The numerical temperature-dependent cross sections are parametrized.The peak cross section of either πΦ → K(K)* or πΦ → K*(K)* increases from T =0 to T =0.75Tc and decreases with further increasing temperature.The cross section for pΦ → K(K),pΦ → K(K)* or pΦ → K*(K)* has a decreasing trend while the temperature increases from 0.75Tc.

  12. Experimental verification of the individual energy dependencies of the partial L-shell photoionization cross sections of Pd and Mo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hönicke, Philipp; Kolbe, Michael; Müller, Matthias; Mantler, Michael; Krämer, Markus; Beckhoff, Burkhard

    2014-10-17

    An experimental method for the verification of the individually different energy dependencies of L(1)-, L(2)-, and L(3)- subshell photoionization cross sections is described. The results obtained for Pd and Mo are well in line with theory regarding both energy dependency and absolute values, and confirm the theoretically calculated cross sections by Scofield from the early 1970 s and, partially, more recent data by Trzhaskovskaya, Nefedov, and Yarzhemsky. The data also demonstrate the questionability of quantitative x-ray spectroscopical results based on the widely used fixed jump ratio approximated cross sections with energy independent ratios. The experiments are carried out by employing the radiometrically calibrated instrumentation of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt at the electron storage ring BESSY II in Berlin; the obtained fluorescent intensities are thereby calibrated at an absolute level in reference to the International System of Units. Experimentally determined fixed fluorescence line ratios for each subshell are used for a reliable deconvolution of overlapping fluorescence lines. The relevant fundamental parameters of Mo and Pd are also determined experimentally in order to calculate the subshell photoionization cross sections independently of any database.

  13. Photodissociation in the atmosphere of Mars - Impact of high resolution, temperature-dependent CO2 cross-section measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbar, A. D.; Allen, M.; Nair, H. A.

    1993-01-01

    We have investigated the impact of high resolution, temperature-dependent CO2 cross-section measurements, reported by Lewis and Carver (1983), on calculations of photodissociation rate coefficients in the Martian atmosphere. We find that the adoption of 50 A intervals for the purpose of computational efficiency results in errors in the calculated values for photodissociation of CO2, H2O, and O2 which are generally not above 10 percent, but as large as 20 percent in some instances. These are acceptably small errors, especially considering the uncertainties introduced by the large temperature dependence of the CO2 cross section. The inclusion of temperature-dependent CO2 cross sections is shown to lead to a decrease in the diurnally averaged rate of CO2 photodissociation as large as 33 percent at some altitudes, and increases of as much as 950 percent and 80 percent in the photodissociation rate coefficients of H2O and O2, respectively. The actual magnitude of the changes depends on the assumptions used to model the CO2 absorption spectrum at temperatures lower than the available measurements, and at wavelengths longward of 1970 A.

  14. Spin-dependent WIMP-nucleon cross section limits from first data of PandaX-II experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Fu, Changbo; Zhou, Xiaopeng; Chen, Xun; Chen, Yunhua; Fang, Deqing; Giboni, Karl; Giuliani, Franco; Han, Ke; Huang, Xingtao; Ji, Xiangdong; Ju, Yonglin; Lei, Siao; Li, Shaoli; Liu, Huaxuan; Liu, Jianglai; Ma, Yugang; Mao, Yajun; Ren, Xiangxiang; Tan, Andi; Wang, Hongwei; Wang, Jiming; Wang, Meng; Wang, Qiuhong; Wang, Siguang; Wang, Xuming; Wang, Zhou; Wu, Shiyong; Xiao, Mengjiao; Xie, Pengwei; Yan, Binbin; Yang, Yong; Yue, Jianfeng; Zhang, Hongguang; Zhang, Tao; Zhao, Li; Zhou, Ning

    2016-01-01

    We report new constrains on the spin-dependent WIMP-neutron and WIMP-proton cross sections using recently released data from the PandaX-II experiment, a dual phase liquid xenon dark matter experiment at the China JinPing Underground Laboratory, with a total exposure of 3.3$\\times10^4$ kg-day. Assuming a standard axial-vector spin-dependent WIMP interaction with $^{129}$Xe and $^{131}$Xe nuclei, the most stringent upper limits on WIMP-neutron cross sections for WIMPs with masses above 10 GeV/c$^{2}$ are set in all direct detection experiments, with a minimum upper limit of $4.1\\times 10^{-41}$ cm$^2$ at 90\\% confidence level for a WIMP mass of 40 GeV/c$^{2}$, representing more than a factor of two improvement on the best available limits at high masses.

  15. On the angular dependence of differential and total M-shell X-ray production cross-sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mainardi, Raul T. [Facultad de Matematica, Astronomia y Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina)], E-mail: mainardi@famaf.unc.edu.ar

    2009-06-01

    The article 'Differential and total M-shell X-ray production cross-sections of some selected elements between Au and U at 5.96 keV', published in NIMB 256 (2007) 581 claims that the measured data of differential photoelectric cross-sections for inner atomic shells has an angular dependence with the scattering angle. It is not possible to demonstrate the existence of a physical dependence on the angle between the paths of the incident and exiting X-ray beams from a sample based on this data with large experimental errors. A rigorous analysis of the article reveals that the description of the experimental set-up is deficient and incomplete, many assumptions are based on dubious grounds and the data reported is not statistically evaluated with the appropriate tools.

  16. The Nexus between Military Spending and Economic Growth in Newly Industrialized Countries: Panel Evidence from CrossSectional Dependency

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Akif DESTEK

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the long term relationship between military spending and economic growth in newly industrialized countries is analyzed with panel data methods for the years of 1988-2013. The study, where panel unit root, panel co-integration, panel co-integration estimator and panel causality tests that allow cross-sectional dependence are used, shows that the feedback hypothesis is valid in newly industrialized countries. And when these countries are analyzed separately, it is ...

  17. Does employee participation in workplace health promotion depend on the working environment? A cross-sectional study of Danish workers

    OpenAIRE

    Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Villadsen, Ebbe; Burr, Hermann; Punnett, Laura; Holtermann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate if participation in workplace health promotion (WHP) depends on the work environment. Methods Questionnaire data on participation in WHP activities (smoking cessation, healthy diet, exercise facilities, weekly exercise classes, contact with health professionals, health screenings) and the work environment (social support, fatiguing work, physical, quantitative and emotional demands, job control and WHP availability setting) were collected cross-sectionally in 2010 in...

  18. Floodplain Cross Section Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This table is required for any Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map database where cross sections are shown on the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). Normally any FIRM...

  19. Effect of isospin-dependent cross-section on fragment production in the collision of charge asymmetric nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anupriya Jain; Suneel Kumar

    2012-05-01

    To understand the role of isospin effects on fragmentation due to the collisions of charge asymmetric nuclei, we have performed a complete systematical study using isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics model. Here simulations have been carried out for ${}^{124}X_n + {}^{124}X_n$ ,where varies from 47 to 59 and for 40Y$_m$ + 40Y$_m$ , where varies from 14 to 23. Our study shows that isospin-dependent cross-section shows its influence on fragmentation in the collision of neutron-rich nuclei.

  20. Angular dependence of the cross section asymmetry of the. gamma. p. -->. p. pi. /sup 0/ reaction in resonance region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avakyan, R.O.; Bagdasaryan, A.S.; Vartapetyan, G.A.; Oganesyan, A.A.; Petrosyan, Zh.V. (Erevanskij Fizicheskij Inst. (USSR))

    1984-10-01

    Angular dependences of cross section asymmetry of ..pi../sup 0/-meson photoproduction in the ..gamma..p ..-->.. p..pi../sup 0/ reaction on energy of primary ..gamma..-quanta in the Esub(..gamma..)=(0.7+-1.3) GeV range are analyzed. Recent data on cross section asymmetry for angles of ..pi../sup 0/-meson production in c. m. s. THETAsub(..pi..)=65 deg - 80 deg are presented. The measurements have been conducted on a quasimonochromatic polarized photon beam of the Yerevan synchrotron by means of a two-arm installation intended for recoil proton detection from ..gamma..p ..-->.. p..pi../sup 0/ reaction in coincidence with one ..gamma..-quantum from ..pi../sup 0/-meson decay. Data are compared with different theoretical analyses. None of the present analyses describes of the measured energy and angular dependences of polarization parameters ..sigma.., Psub(y), Psub(xz) for ..gamma..p ..-->.. p..pi../sup 0/ reaction in the range of 2-3-resonances where ..sigma..-asymmetry of the reaction cross section, Psub(y), Psub(xz) - constituent of polarization vector lying in the plane of the reaction and perpendicular.

  1. Limits on spin-dependent WIMP-nucleon cross-sections from the first ZEPLIN-II data

    OpenAIRE

    Alner, G.J.; Araújo, H. M.; Bewick, A.; Bungau, C.; Camanzi, B.; Carson, M. J.; Cashmore, R J; Chagani, H.; Chepel, V.; Cline, D.; Davidge, D.; Davies, J. C.; Daw, E.; Dawson, J.; Durkin, T.

    2007-01-01

    The first underground data run of the ZEPLIN-II experiment has set a limit on the nuclear recoil rate in the two-phase xenon detector for direct dark matter searches. In this Letter the results from this run are converted into the limits on spin-dependent WIMP-proton and WIMP-neutron cross-sections. The minimum of the curve for WIMP-neutron cross-section corresponds to 7×10-2 pb at a WIMP mass of around 65 GeV. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6TVN-4PF1WBV-2/1/40c5c64881e3df4f...

  2. Codeine use, dependence and help-seeking behaviour in the UK and Ireland: an online cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimergård, A; Foley, M; Davey, Z; Dunne, J; Drummond, C; Deluca, P

    2017-09-01

    Codeine misuse and dependence poses a clinical and public health challenge. However, little is known about dependence and treatment needs in the UK and Ireland. To characterize codeine use, dependence and help-seeking behaviour. An online cross-sectional survey advertised on Facebook, Twitter, health and drug websites and e-mail circulars. The survey collected data on demographics and codeine use amongst adults from the UK and Ireland. The Severity of Dependence Scale measured the level of codeine dependence. The sample of 316 respondents had a mean age of 35.3 years (SD = 12.3) and 67% were women. Of the 316 respondents, 54 scored ≥5 on the Severity of Dependence Scale indicating codeine dependence (17.1%). Our study found that codeine dependence is a problem with both prescribed and 'over-the-counter' codeine. Codeine dependence was associated with daily use of codeine, faking or exaggerating symptoms to get a prescription for codeine and 'pharmacy shopping' ( P < 0.01). A higher number of respondents had sought advice on the Internet (12%) rather than from their general medical practitioner (GP) (5.4%). Less than 1% of respondents had sought advice from a pharmacist. Codeine dependent users were more likely to seek help on the Internet to control their use of codeine than from a GP, which may indicate a potential for greater specialized addiction treatment demand through increased identification and referrals in primary care.

  3. [Cross-sectional study of informal caregiver burden and the determinants related to the care of dependent persons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-González, Ana María; Rodríguez-Míguez, Eva; Duarte-Pérez, Ana; Díaz-Sanisidro, Eduardo; Barbosa-Álvarez, Ángel; Clavería, Ana

    2017-03-01

    To describe the burden of informal carers of dependent people and to identify related variables. Descriptive observational cross-sectional study. Primary Health Care in the southern area of Pontevedra. 97 caregivers of dependent persons. We collected socioeconomic data and health conditions from caregivers and dependent persons, time spent on the daily care and caregiver burden (Zarit abbreviate) through a personal interview. Besides the description of the sample-including their burden level-, a contrast mean was used to identify characteristics that influenced in punctuation of Zarit scale. A logistic regression was used to analyse characteristics that increase the likelihood to experiment burden. 61.9% of caregivers are subject to intense burden. The item on the scale which contributes most to the caregiver burden is the lack of time for oneself, followed by the negative effects of interpersonal relationships. Contrast means shows that degree of relationship, number of care hours, caregiver health and aggressiveness of dependent persons produce significant differences in Zarit scale. Physic and psychological health of caregivers and aggressiveness of dependent persons is associated with the likelihood of developing caregiver burden. Informal caregivers of dependent persons show a high level of burden, both related to their characteristics and those of the dependent persons. Caregiver burden rethinks the need for public policies focused on dependence to adopt an integrative caregiver-dependent vision. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. First measurement of the helicity-dependent vector gamma)vector(p)->p eta differential cross-section

    CERN Document Server

    Ahrens, J; Aulenbacher, K; Beck, R; Drechsel, D; Von Harrach, D; Heid, E; Altieri, S; Annand, J R M; Anton, G; Bradtke, C; Görtz, S; Harmsen, J; Braghieri, A; D'Hose, N; Dutz, H; Grabmayr, P; Hansen, K; Hasegawa, S; Hasegawa, T; Helbing, K; Holvoet, H; Van Hoorebeke, L; Horikawa, N; Iwata, T; Jahn, O; Jennewein, P; Kageya, T; Kiel, B; Klein, F; Kondratiev, R; Kossert, K; Krimmer, J; Lang, M; Lannoy, B; Leukel, R; Lisin, V; Matsuda, T; McGeorge, J C; Meier, A; Menze, D; Meyer, Werner T; Michel, T; Naumann, J; Panzeri, A; Pedroni, P; Pinelli, T; Preobrajenski, I; Radtke, E; Reichert, E; Reicherz, G; Rohlof, C; Rosner, G; Ryckbosch, D; Sauer, M C; Schoch, B; Schumacher, M; Seitz, B; Speckner, T; Takabayashi, N; Tamas, G; Thomas, A; Van De Vyver, R; Wakai, A; Weihofen, W; Wissmann, F; Zapadtka, F; Zeitler, G

    2003-01-01

    The helicity dependence of the vector(gamma)vector(p)->p eta reaction has been measured for the first time at a center-of-mass angle theta sup * subeta=70 in the photon energy range from 780 MeV to 790 MeV. The experiment, performed at the Mainz microtron MAMI, used a 4 pi-detector system, a circularly polarized, tagged photon beam, and a longitudinally polarized frozen-spin target. The helicity 3/2 cross-section is found to be small and the results for helicity 1/2 agree with predictions from the MAID analysis. (orig.)

  5. Waterpipe tobacco dependence in U.K. male adult residents: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassim, Saba; Al-Bakri, Ali; Al'Absi, Mustafa; Croucher, Ray

    2014-03-01

    The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking (WPTS) is increasing worldwide. The aims of this study were (a) to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Lebanon Waterpipe Dependence Scale (LWDS-11), and (b) to assess, estimate, and identify factors associated with waterpipe tobacco dependence symptoms among U.K. male adult resident waterpipe tobacco smokers. A total of 180 waterpipe tobacco smokers were recruited during random visits to 7 outlets serving waterpipe tobacco. Data were collected via face-to-face interviews using the WPTS module of the Global Adult Tobacco Survey and the LWDS-11. Descriptive statistics, exploratory psychometric, univariate, and Poisson regression analysis were employed. Participants' M/SD age was 29.46/±9.41 years, Arabic ethnicity accounted for 58.3%, and 53.9% had completed more than secondary education. Psychometric analyses for the LWDS-10, after removing 1 item from the generic scale, revealed Cronbach's alpha coefficient = 0.74. About 47% of the sample demonstrated waterpipe tobacco dependence. Being Arab (p = .040, OR = 2.63, 95% CI = 1.05-6.62), smoking waterpipe daily in the past (p = .003, OR = 2.13, 95% CI = 1.30-3.49), and an increase in length in the last session of WPTS (p = .044, OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.00-1.32) were identified as risk factors for waterpipe tobacco dependence. This study demonstrated the potential of LWDS-11 and revealed 2 domains: positive and negative reinforcement and physiological dependence. Results indicated that waterpipe tobacco smokers in the United Kingdom demonstrated tobacco dependence symptoms, which were associated with socio-behavioral factors. Generalizability of these findings and their implications in public health are yet to be investigated.

  6. Nuclear energy consumption and economic growth in OECD countries: Cross-sectionally dependent heterogeneous panel causality analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazlioglu, Saban, E-mail: snazlioglu@pau.edu.tr [Department of Econometrics, Pamukkale University, Denizli (Turkey); Lebe, Fuat, E-mail: fuat.lebe@bozok.edu.tr [Department of Economics, Bozok University, Yozgat (Turkey); Kayhan, Selim, E-mail: selim.kayhan@bozok.edu.tr [Department of Economics, Bozok University, Yozgat (Turkey)

    2011-10-15

    The purpose of this study is to determine the direction causality between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth in OECD countries. The empirical model that includes capital and labor force as the control variables is estimated for the panel of fourteen OECD countries during the period 1980-2007. Apart from the previous studies in the nuclear energy consumption and economic growth relationship, this study utilizes the novel panel causality approach, which allows both cross-sectional dependency and heterogeneity across countries. The findings show that there is no causality between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth in eleven out of fourteen cases, supporting the neutrality hypothesis. As a sensitivity analysis, we also conduct Toda-Yamamoto time series causality method and find out that the results from the panel causality analysis are slightly different than those from the time-series causality analysis. Thereby, we can conclude that the choice of statistical tools in analyzing the nature of causality between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth may play a key role for policy implications. - Highlights: > Causality between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth is examined for OECD countries. > Panel causality method, which allows cross-sectional dependency and heterogeneity, is utilized. > The neutrality hypothesis is supported.

  7. Orientation dependence of the differential cross section in elastic electron scattering from CH{sub 3}I molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkmer, M.; Meier, C.; Lieschke, J.; Mihill, A.; Fink, M.; Boewering, N. [Fakultaet fuer Physik, Universitaet Bielefeld, D-33501 Bielefeld (Germany)]|[Center for Advanced Microstructures and Devices, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States)]|[Physics Department, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    1996-03-01

    The elastic differential electron cross section of CH{sub 3}I molecules, state selected with an electrostatic hexapole and oriented in an electric field by the linear Stark effect, was measured as a function of the transferred momentum at electron energies of 700, 1000, and 1250 eV. The molecular-state ensemble was oriented with a preferential direction of the molecular symmetry axis parallel or antiparallel to the electron beam. By switching the orientation on and off, the orientation-dependent interference contribution {bar {ital M}}, normalized to the differential cross section of unoriented molecules, was determined, independently of a model, for scattering angles of 4{degree}{endash}15{degree}. The results, which can be divided into pure orientation and alignment parts, display different dependences on the electron energy and the degree of orientation. Model calculations based on the independent atom model (IAM) were carried out for the state mixture present in the scattering region. They reproduce the orientation contributions fairly well, but show some deviations for the stronger alignment contributions. Assuming the validity of the IAM, a Legendre expansion analysis was carried out to extract the leading Legendre moments characterizing the oriented molecular-state ensemble. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  8. Imprisonment, alcohol dependence and risk of delusional disorder: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarlon, E; Duburcq, A; Neveu, X; Morvan-Duru, E; Tremblay, R; Rouillon, F; Falissard, B

    2012-06-01

    Compared to the general population, an excess of psychotic illnesses, major depression and dependence disorders among prisoners has been reported. However, the impact of prison on detainees' psychopathology has rarely been studied. To determine the mental disorders liable to develop or regress on entry into prison and over time. Two samples of French prisoners detained in local prisons were interviewed using the same methodology. The first sample consisted of 267 new arrivals. The second was a random sample of 450 prisoners. Diagnoses were assessed using a thorough methodology: each prisoner was interviewed for approximately 2 hours by two clinicians. One of the clinicians used a structured clinical interview, which generates DSM IV diagnoses (MINI plus v 5.0); the second completed the procedure with an open clinical interview. The final DSM IV diagnoses were obtained as a consensus between the two approaches. Multilevel logistic regressions were used to take into account potential confounders. Prevalence rates of mental disorders were substantially higher in prison even for the sample of newcomers (major depression disorder: 24.7%, substance dependence: 17.6% and schizophrenia: 4.1%). Alcohol dependence disorder was significantly more frequent in the sample of newcomers (OR 1.84 [1.01-3.51]). No significant difference was evidenced between samples for substance dependence disorder. Psychotic disorders were significantly less frequent at entry into prison, particularly delusional disorder (OR 0.29 [0.08-0.98]). This study shows the contrasted potential effects of prison on psychopathology: alcohol dependence disorders were significantly more frequent for the newcomers, while the frequency of delusional disorders was lower. This evidence is arguing in favour of the validity of the old concept: prison psychosis. Moreover, prisoners should receive relevant help from clinicians to cope with these disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. How to measure a complete set of polarization-dependent differential cross sections in a scattering experiment with aligned reagents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengyan; Lin, Jui-San; Liu, Kopin

    2014-02-28

    Polarization-dependent differential cross section (PDDCS) is one of the three-vector correlations (k, k('), j) in molecular collisions, which provides the most detailed insights into the steric requirements of chemical reactions, i.e., how the reactivity depends on the polarization of reagents. Only quite recently has such quantity been fully realized experimentally in the study of the reaction of the aligned CHD3(v1 = 1, |jK⟩ = |10⟩) molecules with Cl((2)P3/2) atoms. Theoretically, PDDCS is a relatively new concept; experimental realization of the theoretical construct requires some careful considerations that are not readily available in the literature. Here, we present the "know-how" behind the full PDDCS measurements to fill the gaps and to provide a clear roadmap for future applications. To make the connection apparent between the methodology presented here and the stereodynamics revealed in previous reports, the same Cl + aligned CHD3 reaction is used for illustration.

  10. Effect of temperature-dependent cross sections on O4 slant column density estimation by a space-borne UV-visible hyperspectral sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Seo; Takemura, Toshihiko; Kim, Jhoon

    2017-03-01

    The sensitivities of oxygen dimer (O4) slant column densities (SCDs) were examined by applying temperature-dependent O4 cross sections using the radiative transfer model (RTM) calculation with the linearized pseudo-spherical vector discrete ordinate radiative transfer model. For the sensitivity study, we used a newly developed cross section database in place of the database used in the operational algorithm. Newly investigated O4 cross section databases for 203 K and 293 K were used for the radiance simulation by interpolating temperature for each atmospheric layer based on the vertical profile of standard atmosphere in the RTM. The effect of the temperature-dependent cross sections was a significant O4 SCD increase of 8.3% with dependence on satellite and solar viewing geometries. Furthermore, the O4 SCD generally increased by an estimated 3.9% based on the observation geometries of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument. For the long-term comparison, the O4 SCD estimated from the temperature-dependent cross sections corrects 20% of the total underestimation of O4 SCD between the observation and simulation. Although the surface pressure variation and background aerosol effect also correct the O4 SCD discrepancy, the effect of temperature-dependent cross sections was more important than the effects of surface pressure variation and background aerosols. Therefore, temperature dependence of the cross section in the RTM calculation is essential for the accurate simulation of O4 SCD.

  11. Probing Isospin Dependence of In-medium Nucleon-nucleon Cross Section by Nucleon Emissions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Fig.1 shows the impact parameter-averaged asymptotic values of the number of the emitted neutrons N_n and the number of the emitted protons N_p(when the values of N_p and N_n at t=200 fm/c become nearly constants) i.e.b(top window)andb(bottom window)as a function of the beam energy with momentum dependent intraction for the systems~(76)Kr+~(40)Ca(left windows)and ~(76)Kr+~(76)Kr(right windows)in five cases:

  12. Pressure-dependent water absorption cross sections for exoplanets and other atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Barton, Emma J; Yurchenko, Sergei N; Tennyson, Jonathan; Dudaryonok, Anna S; Lavrentieva, Nina N

    2016-01-01

    Many atmospheres (cool stars, brown dwarfs, giant planets, extrasolar planets) are predominately composed of molecular hydrogen and helium. H$_2{}^{16}$O is one of the best measured molecules in extrasolar planetary atmospheres to date and a major compound in the atmospheres of brown-dwarfs and oxygen-rich cool stars, yet the scope of experimental and theoretical studies on the pressure broadening of water vapour lines by collision with hydrogen and helium remains limited. Theoretical H$_2$- and He-broadening parameters of water vapour lines (rotational quantum number $J$ up to 50) are obtained for temperatures in the range 300 - 2000 K. Two approaches for calculation of line widths were used: (i) the averaged energy difference method and (ii) the empirical expression for $J$\\p $J$\\pp-dependence. Voigt profiles based on these widths and the BT2 line list are used to generate high resolution ($\\Delta \\tilde{\

  13. Temperature-dependent absorption cross sections of ozone in the Wulf-Chappuis band at 759-768 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enami, Shinichi; Ueda, Junya; Nakano, Yukio; Hashimoto, Satoshi; Kawasaki, Masahiro

    2004-03-01

    Absorption cross sections of ozone in the Wulf-Chappuis band at 759-768 nm have been determined using cavity ring-down spectroscopy at 215-298 K. Precise measurements at 762.07 and 764.47 nm revealed a slight temperature dependence of the absorption cross sections: ?(762.07 nm, 298 K) = (2.86 ± 0.04) × 10-22 cm2 molecule-1; ?(762.07 nm, 215 K) = (2.62 ± 0.04) × 10-22; ?(764.47 nm, 296 K) = (2.70 ± 0.03) × 10-22; and ?(764.47 nm, 214 K) = (2.44 ± 0.03) × 10-22. Results at 762.07 nm are indistinguishable within the experimental uncertainties from those reported by [1994]. Results from the present work facilitate a more accurate retrieval of atmospheric temperature, cloud height, and cloud coverage data from satellite measurements of absorption by O2 in the A band around 761 nm.

  14. Excitation and charge transfer in He/sup +/+H collisions. A study of the origin dependence of calculated cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macias, A.; Riera, A.; Yanez, M.

    1983-01-01

    A treatment of the He/sup +/-H collision is presented in an impact-parameter formalism for collision energies 0.5--30 keV. The origin dependence of the calculated total cross sections is studied in detail. It is shown that the branching ratio between reactions He/sup +/(1s)+H(1s)..-->..He/sup +/(1s)+H(2n) and He/sup +/(1s)+H(1s)..-->..He(1s2p)+H/sup +/ oscillates as a function of the origin of electronic coordinates chosen in the calculation. This oscillation is strong enough so that at nuclear velocity 0.5 a.u., either both reactions are competitive or one of them can have a cross section for the reaction He(1s/sup 2/)+H/sup +/..-->..He/sup +/(1s)+H(1s) can either be negligble or comparable to those of the other reactions. We study the oscillatory behavior of the charge-exchange-transition probability as a function of 1/v. We show the similarity, for high velocity, between nonresonant and resonant change-exhange processes, the origin of the damping factor, and the influence of the rotatioal coupling on the transition probabilities as functions of 1/v. A connection between Lichten's and Denkov's models is established.

  15. Radar cross section

    CERN Document Server

    Knott, Gene; Tuley, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This is the second edition of the first and foremost book on this subject for self-study, training, and course work. Radar cross section (RCS) is a comparison of two radar signal strengths. One is the strength of the radar beam sweeping over a target, the other is the strength of the reflected echo sensed by the receiver. This book shows how the RCS ?gauge? can be predicted for theoretical objects and how it can be measured for real targets. Predicting RCS is not easy, even for simple objects like spheres or cylinders, but this book explains the two ?exact? forms of theory so well that even a

  16. The epidemiology of dependency among urban-dwelling older people in the Dominican Republic; a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferri Cleusa P

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Demographic ageing, and the health transition will soon lead to large increases in the number of dependent older people in low and middle income countries. Despite its importance, this topic has not previously been studied. Methods A cross sectional catchment area one-phase survey of health conditions, dependency, care arrangements and caregiver strain among 2011 people aged 65 years and over in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic Results 7.1% of participants required much care and a further 4.7% required at least some care. The prevalence of dependency increased sharply with increasing age. Dependent older people were less likely than others to have a pension and much less likely to have paid work, but no more likely to benefit from financial support from their family. Needing much care was strongly associated with comorbidity between cognitive, psychological and physical health problems. However, dementia made the strongest independent contribution. Among those needing care, those with dementia stood out as being more disabled, as needing more care (particularly support with core activities of daily living, and as being more likely to have paid caregivers. Dementia caregivers experienced more strain than caregivers of those with other health conditions, an effect mediated by behavioural and psychological symptoms. Conclusion Dependency among older people is nearly as prevalent in Dominican Republic as in developed western settings. Non-communicable diseases, particularly dementia are the main contributing factors. Attention needs to be directed towards the development of age-appropriate healthcare, a long-term care policy, and mechanisms for ensuring the social protection of older persons.

  17. Tobacco dependence among people with mental illness: a facility-based cross sectional study from Southwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molla, Zemenay; Dube, Lamesa; Krahl, Wolfgang; Soboka, Matiwos

    2017-07-17

    Tobacco smoking is a health care issue in developed as well as in developing countries. Tobacco smoking among people with mental illness is significantly higher than in the general population. Tobacco smoking has negative effects on physical, mental and financial well-being of people with mental illness but little is known about tobacco dependence among mental health service users in sub-Saharan African countries, including Ethiopia. Therefore, this study attempted to assess the prevalence of tobacco dependence and associated factors among mental health service users at Jimma University teaching hospital. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 305 male and 117 female mental health service users at Jimma University teaching Hospital in 2014. The Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) was used to assess tobacco dependence. Logistic regression analysis was used for bivariate and multivariate analysis. Variables with a P value of mental health service users with tobacco dependence were males. There was a significant association between tobacco dependence and high school education (AOR 3.02, 95% CI 1.07, 8. 48), alcohol use disorder (AOR 4.14, 95% CI = 1.54, 11.11), daily khat chewing (AOR 13.51, 95% CI = 4.27, 42.74), chewing khat 2-3 times per week (AOR 5.09, 95% CI = 1.37,18.95), chewing khat once a week (AOR 4.31, 95%CI = 1.04,17.78), having friends who smoke tobacco (AOR 4.88, 95% CI = 2.12, 11.25) and being diagnosed with schizophrenia compared to a diagnosis of major depression (AOR 5.26, 95% CI = 2.07, 13.37). However, daily attendance at a place of worship (AOR 0.46, 95% CI = 0.22, 0.95) was associated negatively with tobacco dependence. In this study, there was a high prevalence of tobacco dependence among mental health services users. There is a pressing need to increase availability of psychological and pharmacological interventions to reduce tobacco dependence and tobacco-related medical illness in this vulnerable group.

  18. Cascade-exciton model analysis of level density parameter dependence in proton induced fission cross sections of some sub-actinide nuclei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zafar Yasin; Warda Iram; Muhammad Asghar; M. Ikram Shahzad

    2011-01-01

    Fission cross sections strongly depend on the ratio of the level density parameter in fission to neutron emission,af/an.In this work,a cascade-exciton model implemented in the code CEM95 has been used to observe this effect for proton induced fission cross sections of tungsten,lead and bismuth.The method was employed using different level density parameter ratios for each fission cross section calculation.The calculated fission cross sections are compared with the available experimental data in the literature.It has been observed that a change of the ratio of the level density parameter,af/an,is necessary with the incident energy of the proton,to best estimate the fission cross sections in CEM95.

  19. New Arsenic Cross Section Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawano, Toshihiko [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-04

    This report presents calculations for the new arsenic cross section. Cross sections for 73,74,75 As above the resonance range were calculated with a newly developed Hauser-Feshbach code, CoH3.

  20. Ion mobility studies of carbohydrates as group I adducts: isomer specific collisional cross section dependence on metal ion radius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuting; Dodds, Eric D

    2013-10-15

    Carbohydrates play numerous critical roles in biological systems. Characterization of oligosaccharide structures is essential to a complete understanding of their functions in biological processes; nevertheless, their structural determination remains challenging in part due to isomerism. Ion mobility spectrometry provides the means to resolve gas phase ions on the basis of their shape-to-charge ratios, thus providing significant potential for separation and differentiation of carbohydrate isomers. Here, we report on the determination of collisional cross sections for four groups of isomeric carbohydrates (including five isomeric disaccharides, four isomeric trisaccharides, two isomeric pentasaccharides, and two isomeric hexasaccharides) as their group I metal ion adducts (i.e., [M + Li](+), [M + Na](+), [M + K](+), [M + Rb](+), and [M + Cs](+)). In all, 65 collisional cross sections were measured, the great majority of which have not been previously reported. As anticipated, the collisional cross sections of the carbohydrate metal ion adducts generally increase with increasing metal ion radius; however, the collisional cross sections were found to scale with the group I cation size in isomer specific manners. Such measurements are of substantial analytical value, as they illustrate how the selection of charge carrier influences carbohydrate ion mobility determinations. For example, certain pairs of isomeric carbohydrates assume unique collisional cross sections upon binding one metal ion, but not another. On the whole, these data suggest a role for the charge carrier as a probe of carbohydrate structure and thus have significant implications for the continued development and application of ion mobility spectrometry for the distinction and resolution of isomeric carbohydrates.

  1. ARP: Automatic rapid processing for the generation of problem dependent SAS2H/ORIGEN-s cross section libraries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal, L.C.; Hermann, O.W.; Bowman, S.M.; Parks, C.V.

    1998-04-01

    In this report, a methodology is described which serves as an alternative to the SAS2H path of the SCALE system to generate cross sections for point-depletion calculations with the ORIGEN-S code. ARP, Automatic Rapid Processing, is an algorithm that allows the generation of cross-section libraries suitable to the ORIGEN-S code by interpolation over pregenerated SAS2H libraries. The interpolations are carried out on the following variables: burnup, enrichment, and water density. The adequacy of the methodology is evaluated by comparing measured and computed spent fuel isotopic compositions for PWR and BWR systems.

  2. Energy dependence of fusion evaporation-residue cross sections in the sup 28 Si+ sup 28 Si reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vineyard, M.F.; Bauer, J.S.; Gosdin, C.H.; Trotter, R.S. (Department of Physics, University of Richmond, Richmond, Virginia 23173 (USA)); Kovar, D.G.; Beck, C.; Henderson, D.J.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Wilkins, B.D.; Rosner, G.; Chowdhury, P.; Ikezoe, H.; Kuhn, W. (Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (USA)); Kolata, J.J.; Hinnefeld, J.D. (Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (USA)); Maguire, C.F. (Department of Physics Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (USA)); Mateja, J.F. (Division of Educational Programs, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (USA)); Prosser, F.W. (Department of Physics, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66045 (USA)); Stephans, G.S.F. (Laboratory for Nuclear Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (USA))

    1990-03-01

    Velocity distributions of mass-identified evaporation residues produced in the {sup 28}Si+{sup 28}Si reaction have been measured at bombarding energies of 174, 215, 240, 309, 397, and 452 MeV using time-of-flight techniques. These distributions were used to identify evaporation residues and to separate the complete-fusion and incomplete-fusion components. Angular distributions and total cross sections were extracted at all six bombarding energies. The complete-fusion evaporation-residue cross sections and the deduced critical angular momenta are compared with lower energy data and the predictions of existing models.

  3. Insight into the Narrow Structure in η Photoproduction on the Neutron from Helicity-Dependent Cross Sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witthauer, L; Dieterle, M; Abt, S; Achenbach, P; Afzal, F; Ahmed, Z; Annand, J R M; Arends, H J; Bashkanov, M; Beck, R; Biroth, M; Borisov, N S; Braghieri, A; Briscoe, W J; Cividini, F; Costanza, S; Collicott, C; Denig, A; Downie, E J; Drexler, P; Ferretti-Bondy, M I; Gardner, S; Garni, S; Glazier, D I; Glowa, D; Gradl, W; Günther, M; Gurevich, G M; Hamilton, D; Hornidge, D; Huber, G M; Käser, A; Kashevarov, V L; Kay, S; Keshelashvili, I; Kondratiev, R; Korolija, M; Krusche, B; Lazarev, A B; Linturi, J M; Lisin, V; Livingston, K; Lutterer, S; MacGregor, I J D; Mancell, J; Manley, D M; Martel, P P; Metag, V; Meyer, W; Miskimen, R; Mornacchi, E; Mushkarenkov, A; Neganov, A B; Neiser, A; Oberle, M; Ostrick, M; Otte, P B; Paudyal, D; Pedroni, P; Polonski, A; Prakhov, S N; Rajabi, A; Reicherz, G; Ron, G; Rostomyan, T; Sarty, A; Sfienti, C; Sikora, M H; Sokhoyan, V; Spieker, K; Steffen, O; Strakovski, I I; Strub, Th; Supek, I; Thiel, A; Thiel, M; Thomas, A; Unverzagt, M; Usov, Yu A; Wagner, S; Walford, N K; Watts, D P; Werthmüller, D; Wettig, J; Wolfes, M; Zana, L

    2016-09-23

    The double polarization observable E and the helicity dependent cross sections σ_{1/2} and σ_{3/2} were measured for η photoproduction from quasifree protons and neutrons. The circularly polarized tagged photon beam of the A2 experiment at the Mainz MAMI accelerator was used in combination with a longitudinally polarized deuterated butanol target. The almost 4π detector setup of the Crystal Ball and TAPS is ideally suited to detect the recoil nucleons and the decay photons from η→2γ and η→3π^{0}. The results show that the narrow structure previously observed in η photoproduction from the neutron is only apparent in σ_{1/2} and hence, most likely related to a spin-1/2 amplitude. Nucleon resonances that contribute to this partial wave in η production are only N 1/2^{-} (S_{11}) and N 1/2^{+} (P_{11}). Furthermore, the extracted Legendre coefficients of the angular distributions for σ_{1/2} are in good agreement with recent reaction model predictions assuming a narrow resonance in the P_{11} wave as the origin of this structure.

  4. Insight into the Narrow Structure in η Photoproduction on the Neutron from Helicity-Dependent Cross Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witthauer, L.; Dieterle, M.; Abt, S.; Achenbach, P.; Afzal, F.; Ahmed, Z.; Annand, J. R. M.; Arends, H. J.; Bashkanov, M.; Beck, R.; Biroth, M.; Borisov, N. S.; Braghieri, A.; Briscoe, W. J.; Cividini, F.; Costanza, S.; Collicott, C.; Denig, A.; Downie, E. J.; Drexler, P.; Ferretti-Bondy, M. I.; Gardner, S.; Garni, S.; Glazier, D. I.; Glowa, D.; Gradl, W.; Günther, M.; Gurevich, G. M.; Hamilton, D.; Hornidge, D.; Huber, G. M.; Käser, A.; Kashevarov, V. L.; Kay, S.; Keshelashvili, I.; Kondratiev, R.; Korolija, M.; Krusche, B.; Lazarev, A. B.; Linturi, J. M.; Lisin, V.; Livingston, K.; Lutterer, S.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Mancell, J.; Manley, D. M.; Martel, P. P.; Metag, V.; Meyer, W.; Miskimen, R.; Mornacchi, E.; Mushkarenkov, A.; Neganov, A. B.; Neiser, A.; Oberle, M.; Ostrick, M.; Otte, P. B.; Paudyal, D.; Pedroni, P.; Polonski, A.; Prakhov, S. N.; Rajabi, A.; Reicherz, G.; Ron, G.; Rostomyan, T.; Sarty, A.; Sfienti, C.; Sikora, M. H.; Sokhoyan, V.; Spieker, K.; Steffen, O.; Strakovski, I. I.; Strub, Th.; Supek, I.; Thiel, A.; Thiel, M.; Thomas, A.; Unverzagt, M.; Usov, Yu. A.; Wagner, S.; Walford, N. K.; Watts, D. P.; Werthmüller, D.; Wettig, J.; Wolfes, M.; Zana, L.; A2 Collaboration at MAMI

    2016-09-01

    The double polarization observable E and the helicity dependent cross sections σ1 /2 and σ3 /2 were measured for η photoproduction from quasifree protons and neutrons. The circularly polarized tagged photon beam of the A2 experiment at the Mainz MAMI accelerator was used in combination with a longitudinally polarized deuterated butanol target. The almost 4 π detector setup of the Crystal Ball and TAPS is ideally suited to detect the recoil nucleons and the decay photons from η →2 γ and η →3 π0. The results show that the narrow structure previously observed in η photoproduction from the neutron is only apparent in σ1 /2 and hence, most likely related to a spin-1 /2 amplitude. Nucleon resonances that contribute to this partial wave in η production are only N 1 /2- (S11) and N 1 /2+ (P11). Furthermore, the extracted Legendre coefficients of the angular distributions for σ1 /2 are in good agreement with recent reaction model predictions assuming a narrow resonance in the P11 wave as the origin of this structure.

  5. Energy dependence of the total reaction cross section of isomeric F-18(m) on silicon below 400 MeV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roberts, DA; Becchetti, FD; Janecke, J; Lee, MY; O'Donnell, TW; Pham, K; Warner, RE; Ronningen, RM; Wilschut, HW

    2002-01-01

    A 25 MeV/nucleon primary O-17 beam was used to produce an isomeric state F-18(m) beam via the single-nucleon transfer reaction O-17 (C-12, B-11)F-18(m). The total nuclear reaction cross section, sigma(R), of F-18(m) (metastable) on silicon was measured using a stack of silicon surface barrier detect

  6. Microscopic cross sections: An utopia?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilaire, S. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, DIF 91 (France); Koning, A.J. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, PO Box 25, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Goriely, S. [Institut d' Astronomie et d' Astrophysique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Campus de la Plaine, CP 226, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2010-07-01

    The increasing need for cross sections far from the valley of stability poses a challenge for nuclear reaction models. So far, predictions of cross sections have relied on more or less phenomenological approaches, depending on parameters adjusted to available experimental data or deduced from systematical relations. While such predictions are expected to be reliable for nuclei not too far from the experimentally known regions, it is clearly preferable to use more fundamental approaches, based on sound physical bases, when dealing with very exotic nuclei. Thanks to the high computer power available today, all major ingredients required to model a nuclear reaction can now be (and have been) microscopically (or semi-microscopically) determined starting from the information provided by a nucleon-nucleon effective interaction. We have implemented all these microscopic ingredients in the TALYS nuclear reaction code, and we are now almost able to perform fully microscopic cross section calculations. The quality of these ingredients and the impact of using them instead of the usually adopted phenomenological parameters will be discussed. (authors)

  7. Nucleon-XcJ Dissociation Cross Sections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯又层; 许晓明; 周代翠

    2002-01-01

    Nucleon-XcJ dissociation cross sections are calculated in a constituent interexchange model in which quark-quark potential is derived from the Buchmüller-Tye quark-anti-quark potential. These new cross sections for dominant reaction channels depend on the centre-of-mass energy of the nucleon and the charmonium.

  8. Energy dependence of the cross sections of some copper photospallation reactions induced by photons of coherent and incoherent bremsstrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avakyan, A.R.; Vartapetyan, G.A.; Grigoryan, E.O.; Deme-dieresiskhina, N.A.

    1986-09-01

    Cross sections have been calculated for the photospallation of copper with production of the residual nuclei /sup 57/Ni, /sup 56/Co, /sup 56/Mn, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 52/Mn, /sup 44//sup m/Sc, /sup 43/K, /sup 42/K, and /sup 24/Na. The calculation was carried out by solution of the Fredholm equation of the first kind by the Tikhonov regularization method. The yields of these reactions were measured in bombardment of a copper target by coherent and incoherent photon beams obtained from bremsstrahlung in a diamond crystal of electrons accelerated to energy 3.75 GeV. The excitation functions obtained as the result of the calculations showed that in the cross sections of all reactions investigated a broad maximum is observed in the region 300--500 MeV made with data on the spallation of copper by high-energy protons.

  9. Temperature-dependent absorption cross-section measurements of 1-butene (1-C4H8) in VUV and IR

    KAUST Repository

    Es-sebbar, Et-touhami

    2013-01-01

    Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and infrared (IR) absorption cross-section measurements of 1-butene (1-C4H8; CH2=CHCH2CH3; Butylene) are reported over the temperature range of 296-529K. The VUV measurements are performed between 115 and 205nm using synchrotron radiation as a tunable VUV light source. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is employed to measure absorption cross-section and band strengths in the IR region between 1.54 and 25μm (~6500-400cm-1). The measured room-temperature VUV and IR absorption cross-sections are compared with available literature data and are found to be in good agreement. The oscillator strength for the electronic transition (A1A\\'→X1A\\') around 150-205nm is determined to be 0.32±0.01.The gas temperature has a strong effect on both VUV and IR spectra. Measurements made in the VUV region show that the peak value of the band cross-section decreases and the background continuum increases with increasing gas temperature. This behavior is due to a change in the rotational and vibrational population distribution of 1-butene molecule. Similar changes in rotational population are observed in the IR spectra. Moreover, variation of the IR spectra with temperature is used to measure the enthalpy difference between syn and skew conformations of 1-butene and is found to be 0.24±0.03. kcal/mol, which is in excellent agreement with values reported in the literature. The measurements reported in this work will provide the much-needed spectroscopic information for the development of high-temperature quantitative diagnostics in combustion applications and validation of atmospheric chemistry models of extra-solar planets. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Aspects of the EOS momentum dependence and of the residual NN cross section on the featuring of nuclear stopping

    CERN Document Server

    Basrak, Z; de la Mota, V

    2016-01-01

    With the semiclassical Landau-Vlasov transport model studied is the stopping observable $R_E$, the energy-based isotropy ratio, for the $^{129}$Xe\\,+\\,$^{120}$Sn reaction at beam energies spanning 12$A$ to 100$A$ MeV. Investigated is the impact of the non-locality of the nuclear mean field, of the in-medium modified nucleon-nucleon ($NN$) cross-section and of the reaction centrality. A fixed set of model parameters yield the $R_E$ values that favourably compares with the experimental ones but only for energies below the Fermi energy $E_F$. Above $E_F$ the agreement is readily possible but by a smooth evolution with energy of the parameter that controls the in-medium modification of $NN$ cross-section. By confronting the simulation correction factor ${\\cal F}$ to be applied to the free $NN$ cross-section with the one which has been deduced from experimental data [Phys.\\ Rev.\\ C\\,{\\bf 90}, 064602 (2014)] one infers that the zero-range mean field almost entirely reproduces it. Also, in accordance with what has b...

  11. A measurement of the change of the energy dependence of the total cross-section of phase II solid methane from confinement in aerogel glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, H., E-mail: haiyan@umail.iu.ed [Department of Physics, Indiana University/IUCF, 2401 Milo B. Sampson Lane, Bloomington, IN 47408 (United States); Baxter, D.V.; Jiang, C.Y.; Kaiser, H.; Shin, Y.C.; Snow, W.M.; Tong, X. [Department of Physics, Indiana University/IUCF, 2401 Milo B. Sampson Lane, Bloomington, IN 47408 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    We report measurements of the energy dependence of the total neutron scattering cross-section of CH{sub 4} both in bulk and confined in aerogel glass for neutron energies between {approx}0.3and {approx}200 meV. Solid CH{sub 4} in phase II is an effective slow neutron moderation medium. Aerogel glass is one example of a broad class of disordered porous media with a large internal surface area. Many disordered materials possess excess low energy modes which have been seen in neutron scattering, and it is known that the confinement of materials inside porous media can produce modifications of the thermodynamic and excitation properties large enough to influence the neutron scattering cross-section. Our measurement shows that the confinement of the methane in pores of aerogel modifies the energy dependence total cross-section relative to bulk CH{sub 4}.

  12. Angular dependence of the asymmetry of the cross section for the reaction. gamma. p. -->. p. pi. /sup 0/ in the resonance region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avakyan, R.O.; Bagdasaryan, A.S.; Vartapetyan, G.A.; Oganesyan, A.A.; Petrosyan, Z.V.

    1984-10-01

    We report measurements of the angular dependence of the asymmetry of the cross section for the reaction ..gamma..p..-->..p..pi../sup 0/ for ..pi../sup 0/-meson production angles theta(0 = 65--80/sup 0/ in the resonance region. The data are compared with various theoretical analyses.

  13. Size dependence of the spontaneous emission rate and absorption cross section of CdSe and CdTe quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Mello Donega, C.; Koole, R.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the size dependence of the band gap, of the spontaneous emission rate, and of the absorption cross section of quantum dots is systematically investigated over a wide size range, using colloidal CdSe and CdTe QDs as model systems (diameters ranging from 1.2 to 8 nm and from 2 to 9.5 nm

  14. Q-Dependence of the double capture cross sections measured by electron spectroscopy at 10 qkeV (q = 4-8). Comparison with other experimental data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordenave-Montesquieu, A.; Boudjema, M.; Benoit-Cattin, P.; Gleizes, A.; Moretto-Capelle, P.

    1989-01-01

    The q dependence of cross sections for double capture into autoionising states has been investigated by electron spectroscopy. It is shown that they are independent of the ionic core. Our results are compared with all other available experimental data obtained at 10 qkeV collision energy.

  15. XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 8 XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database (Web, free access)   A web database is provided which can be used to calculate photon cross sections for scattering, photoelectric absorption and pair production, as well as total attenuation coefficients, for any element, compound or mixture (Z <= 100) at energies from 1 keV to 100 GeV.

  16. The total charm cross section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, R

    2007-09-14

    We assess the theoretical uncertainties on the total charm cross section. We discuss the importance of the quark mass, the scale choice and the parton densities on the estimate of the uncertainty. We conclude that the uncertainty on the total charm cross section is difficult to quantify.

  17. Dependence of Nucleon and Pion-Induced Fission Cross Sections on the Level Density Parameter in the Cascade-Exciton Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zafar Yasin

    2009-01-01

    A new method is used to compute the fission cross sections in which a change of the ratio of the level density parameter in fission to neutron emission channels is taken into account with the change of the incident energy of the projectile.It is shown that fission cross sections induced by nucleons and pions depend on the ratio of the level density parameter in the fission and evaporation modes,i.e.αf/αn,respectively.We are unable to describe well the cross sections for fission without using this new method.The computed values exhibit reasonable agreement with the experimental data found in the literature across a wide range of beam energies.

  18. Evaluation of n + /sup 242/Pu reactions from 10 keV to 20 MeV. [Total cross sections, neutron emission energy dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madland, D.G.; Young, P.G.

    1978-10-01

    An evaluation of the n + /sup 242/Pu cross sections is presented for the neutron energy range of 10 keV to 20 MeV. The total fission and radiative capture cross sections are based upon experimental measurements on /sup 242/Pu. The remaining cross sections, together with the elastic and inelastic angular distributions to low-lying states, were calculated using various reaction models. An expression is presented for the energy dependence of the average number of neutrons produced per fission. The results were placed in ENDF/B-V format and combined with a recent evaluation of data below 10 keV by the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, so that a complete data set covering the energy range of 10/sup -5/ eV to 20 MeV is available. 41 references. (JFP)

  19. Temperature dependent ozone absorption cross section spectra measured with the GOME-2 FM3 spectrometer and first application in satellite retrievals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Chehade

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME-2 Flight Model (FM absorption cross section spectra of ozone were measured under representative atmospheric conditions in the laboratory setup at temperatures between 203 K and 293 K in the wavelength range of 230–790 nm at a medium spectral resolution of 0.24 to 0.54 nm. Since the exact ozone amounts were unknown in the gas flow system used, the measured ozone cross sections were required to be scaled to absolute cross section units using published literature data. The Hartley, Huggins and Chappuis bands were recorded simultaneously and their temperature dependence is in good agreement with previous studies (strong temperature effect in the Huggins band and weak in the Hartley and Chappuis bands. The overall agreement of the GOME-2 FM cross sections with the literature data is well within 3%. The total ozone column retrieved from the GOME-2/MetOp-A satellite using the new cross section data is within 1% compared to the ozone amounts retrieved routinely from GOME-2.

  20. First measurement of the polarization observable E and helicity-dependent cross sections in single π0 photoproduction from quasi-free nucleons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dieterle

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The double-polarization observable E and the helicity-dependent cross sections σ1/2 and σ3/2 have been measured for the first time for single π0 photoproduction from protons and neutrons bound in the deuteron at the electron accelerator facility MAMI in Mainz, Germany. The experiment used a circularly polarized photon beam and a longitudinally polarized deuterated butanol target. The reaction products, recoil nucleons and decay photons from the π0 meson were detected with the Crystal Ball and TAPS electromagnetic calorimeters. Effects from nuclear Fermi motion were removed by a kinematic reconstruction of the π0N final state. A comparison to data measured with a free proton target showed that the absolute scale of the cross sections is significantly modified by nuclear final-state interaction (FSI effects. However, there is no significant effect on the asymmetry E since the σ1/2 and σ3/2 components appear to be influenced in a similar way. Thus, the best approximation of the two helicity-dependent cross sections for the free neutron is obtained by combining the asymmetry E measured with quasi-free neutrons and the unpolarized cross section corrected for FSI effects under the assumption that the FSI effects are similar for neutrons and protons.

  1. Fourier analysis of iteration schemes for k-eigenvalue transport problems with flux-dependent cross sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochunas, Brendan; Fitzgerald, Andrew; Larsen, Edward

    2017-09-01

    A central problem in nuclear reactor analysis is calculating solutions of steady-state k-eigenvalue problems with thermal hydraulic feedback. In this paper we propose and utilize a model problem that permits the theoretical analysis of iterative schemes for solving such problems. To begin, we discuss a model problem (with nonlinear cross section feedback) and its justification. We proceed with a Fourier analysis for source iteration schemes applied to the model problem. Then we analyze commonly-used iteration schemes involving non-linear diffusion acceleration and feedback. For each scheme we show (1) that they are conditionally stable, (2) the conditions that lead to instability, and (3) that traditional relaxation approaches can improve stability. Lastly, we propose a new iteration scheme that theory predicts is an improvement upon the existing methods.

  2. Spin-Dependent Weakly-Interacting-Massive-Particle-Nucleon Cross Section Limits from First Data of PandaX-II Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Changbo; Cui, Xiangyi; Zhou, Xiaopeng; Chen, Xun; Chen, Yunhua; Fang, Deqing; Giboni, Karl; Giuliani, Franco; Han, Ke; Huang, Xingtao; Ji, Xiangdong; Ju, Yonglin; Lei, Siao; Li, Shaoli; Liu, Huaxuan; Liu, Jianglai; Ma, Yugang; Mao, Yajun; Ren, Xiangxiang; Tan, Andi; Wang, Hongwei; Wang, Jiming; Wang, Meng; Wang, Qiuhong; Wang, Siguang; Wang, Xuming; Wang, Zhou; Wu, Shiyong; Xiao, Mengjiao; Xie, Pengwei; Yan, Binbin; Yang, Yong; Yue, Jianfeng; Zhang, Hongguang; Zhang, Tao; Zhao, Li; Zhou, Ning; PandaX-II Collaboration

    2017-02-01

    New constraints are presented on the spin-dependent weakly-interacting-massive-particle- (WIMP-)nucleon interaction from the PandaX-II experiment, using a data set corresponding to a total exposure of 3.3 ×104 kg day . Assuming a standard axial-vector spin-dependent WIMP interaction with Xe 129 and Xe 131 nuclei, the most stringent upper limits on WIMP-neutron cross sections for WIMPs with masses above 10 GeV /c2 are set in all dark matter direct detection experiments. The minimum upper limit of 4.1 ×10-41 cm2 at 90% confidence level is obtained for a WIMP mass of 40 GeV /c2 . This represents more than a factor of 2 improvement on the best available limits at this and higher masses. These improved cross-section limits provide more stringent constraints on the effective WIMP-proton and WIMP-neutron couplings.

  3. An investigation on the determinants of carbon emissions for OECD countries: empirical evidence from panel models robust to heterogeneity and cross-sectional dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Eyup; Seker, Fahri

    2016-07-01

    This empirical study analyzes the impacts of real income, energy consumption, financial development and trade openness on CO2 emissions for the OECD countries in the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) model by using panel econometric approaches that consider issues of heterogeneity and cross-sectional dependence. Results from the Pesaran CD test, the Pesaran-Yamagata's homogeneity test, the CADF and the CIPS unit root tests, the LM bootstrap cointegration test, the DSUR estimator, and the Emirmahmutoglu-Kose Granger causality test indicate that (i) the panel time-series data are heterogeneous and cross-sectionally dependent; (ii) CO2 emissions, real income, the quadratic income, energy consumption, financial development and openness are integrated of order one; (iii) the analyzed data are cointegrated; (iv) the EKC hypothesis is validated for the OECD countries; (v) increases in openness and financial development mitigate the level of emissions whereas energy consumption contributes to carbon emissions; (vi) a variety of Granger causal relationship is detected among the analyzed variables; and (vii) empirical results and policy recommendations are accurate and efficient since panel econometric models used in this study account for heterogeneity and cross-sectional dependence in their estimation procedures.

  4. The temperature dependence of the cross section for the energy pooling process Na(3P)+Na(3P) to Na(4D)+Na(3S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvatic, V.; Movre, M.; Vadla, C.

    1999-10-01

    We report the measurements of the temperature dependence of the cross section σ4D for the energy pooling process Na(3P)+Na(3P) to Na(4D)+Na(3S). The latest two, as yet undisputed, results for σ4D obtained by different authors at T = 597 K and T = 483 K suggest that this cross section decreases with increasing T, which contradicts the theory and other experiments on similar processes. To resolve this controversy and to examine the temperature trend of the cross section, we have measured the σ4D in the temperature range 567-705 K, covering the high-temperature region that has not yet been investigated experimentally. To determine σ4D we have excited sodium atoms in the quasistatic wing of the D1 line using a cw dye laser and measured the fluorescence intensity for the 4D to 3P3/2 transition, relative to the intensity of the optically thin quasistatic wing of the D2 line. The spatial distribution of the number density of the sodium atoms in the 3P3/2 state and the sodium ground-state number density were measured too. The method used for the determination of the cross section is advantageous since it entirely circumvents the need to account for the radiation trapping of 3P level radiation, which was substantial under experimental conditions of the ground-state densities being 1014-1016 cm-3. The measurements of the cross section σ4D in the investigated temperature range have shown that it increases as ~exp(-Δ E/kT). From the experiment we obtained Δ E = (608±95) cm-1, which is in excellent agreement with the energy defect (613 cm-1) for the considered process, and in fair agreement with the values which follow from recent theoretical calculations.

  5. Z-dependence analysis of M x-ray production cross sections for heavy elements with 60≤Z≤90 by protons impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deghfel, B., E-mail: b-deghfel@yahoo.fr [Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences, M’Sila University, 28000 M’Sila (Algeria); Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Bordj-Bou-Arreridj University, Bordj-Bou-Arreridj 34000 (Algeria); Kahoul, A. [Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Bordj-Bou-Arreridj University, Bordj-Bou-Arreridj 34000 (Algeria); LESIMS laboratory, Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences, Ferhat Abbas University of Setif, 19000 Setif (Algeria); Nekkab, M. [Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences, M’Sila University, 28000 M’Sila (Algeria); LESIMS laboratory, Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences, Ferhat Abbas University of Setif, 19000 Setif (Algeria)

    2015-03-30

    Motivated by the large deviation between the experiment and the predictions of the most often used model of ionization process by a charged particle, namely ECPSSR model, a large database of experimental M-shell X-ray production cross-sections by protons energies varying from 0.1 to 4.0 MeV for elements with atomic number 60 ≤ Z ≤ 90, is collected from various sources published from 1980 till 2009 to deduce an empirical M x-ray production cross section. This latter is then deduced from the available experimental data as a function of the scaled velocity parameter by using the whole range of elements (collective analysis) or by introducing the dependence of these cross sections on the atomic number of the target, noted as “Z-dependence analysis” in addition to the collective one. The corresponding results and their deviation from the experimental data are presented for selected elements. Also, a comparison is made for selected elements between our results and other theoretical as well as experimental works.

  6. [Fast neutron cross section measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoll, G.F.

    1992-10-26

    From its inception, the Nuclear Data Project at the University of Michigan has concentrated on two major objectives: (1) to carry out carefully controlled nuclear measurements of the highest possible reliability in support of the national nuclear data program, and (2) to provide an educational opportunity for students with interests in experimental nuclear science. The project has undergone a successful transition from a primary dependence on our photoneutron laboratory to one in which our current research is entirely based on a unique pulsed 14 MeV fast neutron facility. The new experimental facility is unique in its ability to provide nanosecond bursts of 14 MeV neutrons under conditions that are clean'' and as scatter-free as possible, and is the only one of its type currently in operation in the United States. It has been designed and put into operation primarily by graduate students, and has met or exceeded all of its important initial performance goals. We have reached the point of its routine operation, and most of the data are now in hand that will serve as the basis for the first two doctoral dissertations to be written by participating graduate students. Our initial results on double differential neutron cross sections will be presented at the May 1993 Fusion Reactor Technology Workshop. We are pleased to report that, after investing several years in equipment assembly and optimization, the project has now entered its data production'' phase.

  7. Blood lead level in opium dependents and its association with anemia: A cross-sectional study from the capital of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrooz Hashemi Domeneh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Opium dependence is one of the most challenging health problems in the developing countries as well as Iran. Among several health problems due to opium dependence, there are limited reports indicating the presence of lead in opium. The aim of this study is to investigate the blood lead level (BLL in oral and inhalational opium dependents and its association with anemia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was done among 86 opium dependent patients who were referred to five large detoxification centers in Tehran city and 48 healthy individuals. BLL was assessed using the atomic absorption spectrometry technique. Multivariate analysis of variance and binary logistic regression analysis were performed for statistical assessment using SPSS version 18 for Windows. Results: The highest BLL was detected in oral opium dependent group (mean = 11.75, standard deviation (SD = 6.06 in comparison to inhalational opium dependent group (mean = 7.07, SD = 3.61 and healthy control group (mean = 6.05, SD = 1.83. Anemia was detected in 38% of oral-opium dependent and 43% of inhalational-opium dependent group. Age (odds ratio (OR: 1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.03-1.09 and opium dependence (OR: 3.59, 95% CI: 1.69-7.59 were significant predictors of anemia in these patients (P < 0.001. Conclusion: The results of this study confirmed the higher BLL in opium dependents, especially with an oral form of consumption.

  8. Terahertz radar cross section measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Heiselberg, Henning; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2010-01-01

    We perform angle- and frequency-resolved radar cross section (RCS) measurements on objects at terahertz frequencies. Our RCS measurements are performed on a scale model aircraft of size 5-10 cm in polar and azimuthal configurations, and correspond closely to RCS measurements with conventional radar...

  9. Revolutionizing Cross-sectional Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Yifang; Luo, Liangping; Lin, Wentao; Li, Zhiyu; Zhong, Xin; Shi, Changzheng; Newman, Tony; Zhou, Yi; Lv, Changsheng; Fan, Yuzhou

    2014-01-01

    Cross-sectional imaging is so important that, six Nobel Prizes have been awarded to the field of nuclear magnetic resonance alone because it revolutionized clinical diagnosis. The BigBrain project supported by up to 1 billion euro each over a time period of 10 years predicts to "revolutionize our ability to understand internal brain organization" (Evan 2013). If we claim that cross-sectional imaging diagnosis is only semi-quantitative, some may believe because no doctor would ever tell their patient that we can observe the changes of this cross-sectional image next time. If we claim that BigBrain will make no difference in clinical medicine, then few would believe because no doctor would ever tell their patient to scan this part of the image and compare it with that from the BigBrain. If we claim that the BigBrain Project and the Human Brain Project have defects in their key method, one might believe it. But this is true. The key lies in the reconstruction of any cross-sectional image along any axis. Using Ga...

  10. Path forward for dosimetry cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, P.J. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185-1146 (United States); Peters, C.D. [Sandia Staffing Alliance, Albuquerque, NM 87110 (United States)

    2011-07-01

    In the 1980's the dosimetry community embraced the need for a high fidelity quantification of uncertainty in nuclear data used for dosimetry applications. This led to the adoption of energy-dependent covariance matrices as the accepted manner of quantifying the uncertainty data. The trend for the dosimetry community to require high fidelity treatment of uncertainty estimates has continued to the current time where requirements on nuclear data are codified in standards such as ASTM E 1018. This paper surveys the current state of the dosimetry cross sections and investigates the quality of the current dosimetry cross section evaluations by examining calculated-to-experimental ratios in neutron benchmark fields. In recent years more nuclear-related technical areas are placing an emphasis on uncertainty quantification. With the availability of model-based cross sections and covariance matrices produced by nuclear data codes, some nuclear-related communities are considering the role these covariance matrices should play. While funding within the dosimetry community for cross section evaluations has been very meager, other areas, such as the solar-related astrophysics community and the US Nuclear Criticality Safety Program, have been supporting research in the area of neutron cross sections. The Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) is responsible for the creation and maintenance of the ENDF/B library which has been the mainstay for the reactor dosimetry community. Given the new trends in cross section evaluations, this paper explores the path forward for the US nuclear reactor dosimetry community and its use of the ENDF/B cross-sections. The major concern is maintenance of the sufficiency and accuracy of the uncertainty estimate when used for dosimetry applications. The two major areas of deficiency in the proposed ENDF/B approach are: 1) the use of unrelated covariance matrices in ENDF/B evaluations and 2) the lack of 'due consideration' of

  11. Probing the medium effect and isospin dependence of the in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross section in heavy ion collisions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jian-Ye; Guo Wen-Jun; Xing Yong-Zhong

    2007-01-01

    Probing in-medium nucleon-nucleon (NN) cross section σ(1N)N(α) in heavy ion collisions has been investigated by means of the isospin-depeadent quantum molecular dynamics (IQMD) with the isospin-and momentum-dependent interaction (IMDI(τ)). It is found that there are the very obvious medium effect and the sensitive isospin-dependence of nuclear stopping R on the in-medium NN cross section σ(1N)N(α) in the nuclear reactions induced by halo-neutron projectile and the same-mass stable projectile. However, R induced by the neutron-halo projectile is obviously lower than that induced by the corresponding stable projectile. In particular, there is a very obvious dependence of R on the medium effect of σ(1N)N(α) in the whole beam energy region for the above two kinds of projectiles. Therefore, the comparison between the results of R's in the reactions induced by the neutron-halo projectile and the corresponding same-mass stable projectile is a more favourable probe for extracting the information of σ(1N)N(α) because of adding a new judgement.

  12. Temperature dependent emission and absorption cross section of Yb3+ doped yttrium lanthanum oxide (YLO) ceramic and its application in diode pumped amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Saumyabrata; Koerner, Joerg; Siebold, Mathias; Yang, Qiuhong; Ertel, Klaus; Mason, Paul D; Phillips, P Jonathan; Loeser, Markus; Zhang, Haojia; Lu, Shenzhou; Hein, Joachim; Schramm, Ulrich; Kaluza, Malte C; Collier, John L

    2013-07-01

    Temperature dependent absorption and emission cross-sections of 5 at% Yb(3+) doped yttrium lanthanum oxide (Yb:YLO) ceramic between 80K and 300 K are presented. In addition, we report on the first demonstration of ns pulse amplification in Yb:YLO ceramic. A pulse energy of 102 mJ was extracted from a multi-pass amplifier setup. The amplification bandwidth at room temperature confirms the potential of Yb:YLO ceramic for broad bandwidth amplification at cryogenic temperatures.

  13. Angular dependence of Ll, L $\\alpha$ , L $\\beta$ and L $\\gamma$ X-ray differential and fluorescence cross-sections for Er, Ta, W, Au, Hg and Tl

    CERN Document Server

    Demir, L; Kurucu, Y; Karabulut, A; Sahin, Y; 10.1016/S0969-806X(02)00501-7

    2003-01-01

    Ll, L alpha , L beta and L gamma X-ray differential cross-sections, fluorescence cross-sections and L/sub i/-subshell ( sigma /sub L1/, sigma /sub L2/, and sigma /sub L3/) fluorescence cross-sections were measured for Er, Ta, W, Au, Hg, and Tl at an excitation energy of 59.6 keV using a Si(Li) detector. The differential cross-sections for these elements have been measured at different angles varying from 54 degrees to 153 degrees at intervals of 9 degrees . The Ll and L alpha groups in the L X-ray lines are found to be spatially anisotropic, while those in the L beta and L gamma peaks are isotropic. Experimental and theoretical values of L X-ray fluorescence cross- sections and L/sub i/-subshell X-ray fluorescence cross-sections were compared. (20 refs).

  14. Sensorimotor and cognitive factors associated with the age-related increase of visual field dependence: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agathos, Catherine P; Bernardin, Delphine; Huchet, Delphine; Scherlen, Anne-Catherine; Assaiante, Christine; Isableu, Brice

    2015-08-01

    Reliance on the visual frame of reference for spatial orientation (or visual field dependence) has been reported to increase with age. This has implications on old adults' daily living tasks as it affects stability, attention, and adaptation capacities. However, the nature and underlying mechanisms of this increase are not well defined. We investigated sensorimotor and cognitive factors possibly associated with increased visual field dependence in old age, by considering functions that are both known to degrade with age and important for spatial orientation and sensorimotor control: reliance on the (somatosensory-based) egocentric frame of reference, visual fixation stability, and attentional processing of complex visual scenes (useful field of view, UFOV). Twenty young, 18 middle-aged, and 20 old adults completed a visual examination, three tests of visual field dependence (RFT, RDT, and GEFT), a test of egocentric dependence (subjective vertical estimation with the body erect and tilted at 70°), a visual fixation task, and a test of visual attentional processing (UFOV®). Increased visual field dependence with age was associated with reduced egocentric dependence, visual fixation stability, and visual attentional processing. In addition, visual fixation instability and reduced UFOV were correlated. Results of middle-aged adults fell between those of the young and old, revealing the progressive nature of the age effects we evaluated. We discuss results in terms of reference frame selection with respect to ageing as well as visual and non-visual information processing. Inter-individual differences amongst old adults are highlighted and discussed with respect to the functionality of increased visual field dependence.

  15. Transverse Spin Dependent Identified Hadron Cross-sections in p^+p Collisions at √s = 62.4 and 200 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. H.; Videbaek, Flemming

    2007-10-01

    Transverse spin dependence of particle production, Single Spin Asymmetries (SSAs), at the energy regime where pQCD is applicable are expected to be negligibly small in the lowest-order QCD approximation, whereas experimentally large SSAs have been observed at high Feynman-x(xF). Recently, new measurements of SSAs have been available from semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering and p^+p at RHIC providing more insight into the fundamental mechanisms of SSAs as well as the relevant hadron structure. The BRAHMS experiment at RHIC has unique capabilities to explore the high-xF kinematic region with particle identification. Measurements of cross-sections and single spin asymmetries of identified charged hadrons, &±circ;, K^±, p, and p, from transversely polarized proton collisions at √s = 62.4 and 200 GeV are presented. The results are discussed in the context of theoretical models based on pQCD. The energy and flavor dependent SSAs combined with the cross-sections at high-xF bring new insight into the perturbative Quantum Chromodynamical description of partonic dynamics at RHIC.

  16. Dijet cross sections in photoproduction at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Derrick, Malcolm; Magill, S; Mikunas, D; Musgrave, B; Repond, J; Stanek, R; Talaga, R L; Zhang, H; Ayad, R; Bari, G; Basile, M; Bellagamba, L; Boscherini, D; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Bruni, P; Cara Romeo, G; Castellini, G; Chiarini, M; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Contin, A; Corradi, M; Gialas, I; Giusti, P; Iacobucci, G; Laurenti, G; Levi, G; Margotti, A; Massam, Thomas; Nania, R; Nemoz, C; Palmonari, F; Polini, A; Sartorelli, G; Timellini, R; Zamora-Garcia, Yu E; Zichichi, Antonino; Bargende, A; Crittenden, James Arthur; Desch, Klaus; Diekmann, B; Doeker, T; Eckert, M; Feld, L; Frey, A; Geerts, M; Geitz, G; Grothe, M; Haas, T; Hartmann, H; Haun, D; Heinloth, K; Hilger, E; Jakob, H P; Katz, U F; Mari, S M; Mass, A; Mengel, S; Mollen, J; Paul, E; Rembser, C; Schattevoy, R; Schramm, D; Stamm, J; Wedemeyer, R; Campbell-Robson, S; Cassidy, A; Dyce, N; Foster, B; George, S; Gilmore, R; Heath, G P; Heath, H F; Llewellyn, T J; Morgado, C J S; Norman, D J P; O'Mara, J A; Tapper, R J; Wilson, S S; Yoshida, R; Rau, R R; Arneodo, M; Iannotti, L; Schioppa, M; Susinno, G; Bernstein, A M; Caldwell, A; Cartiglia, N; Parsons, J A; Ritz, S; Sciulli, F; Straub, P B; Wai, L; Yang, S; Zhu, Q; Borzemski, P; Chwastowski, J; Eskreys, Andrzej; Piotrzkowski, K; Zachara, M; Zawiejski, L; Adamczyk, L; Bednarek, B; Jelen, K; Kisielewska, D; Kowalski, T; Rulikowska-Zarebska, E; Suszycki, L; Zajac, J; Kotanski, Andrzej; Przybycien, M B; Bauerdick, L A T; Behrens, U; Beier, H; Bienlein, J K; Coldewey, C; Deppe, O; Desler, K; Drews, G; Flasinski, M; Gilkinson, D J; Glasman, C; Göttlicher, P; Grosse-Knetter, J; Gutjahr, B; Hain, W; Hasell, D; Hessling, H; Hultschig, H; Iga, Y; Joos, P; Kasemann, M; Klanner, Robert; Koch, W; Köpke, L; Kötz, U; Kowalski, H; Labs, J; Ladage, A; Löhr, B; Loewe, M; Lüke, D; Manczak, O; Ng, J S T; Nickel, S; Notz, D; Ohrenberg, K; Roco, M T; Rohde, M; Roldán, J; Schneekloth, U; Schulz, W; Selonke, F; Stiliaris, E; Surrow, B; Voss, T; Westphal, D; Wolf, G; Youngman, C; Zhou, J F; Grabosch, H J; Kharchilava, A I; Leich, A; Mattingly, M C K; Meyer, A; Schlenstedt, S; Wulff, N; Barbagli, G; Pelfer, P G; Anzivino, Giuseppina; Maccarrone, G D; De Pasquale, S; Votano, L; Bamberger, Andreas; Eisenhardt, S; Freidhof, A; Söldner-Rembold, S; Schröder, J; Trefzger, T M; Brook, N H; Bussey, Peter J; Doyle, A T; Fleck, I; Saxon, D H; Utley, M L; Wilson, A S; Dannemann, A; Holm, U; Horstmann, D; Neumann, T; Sinkus, R; Wick, K; Badura, E; Burow, B D; Hagge, L; Lohrmann, E; Mainusch, J; Milewski, J; Nakahata, M; Pavel, N; Poelz, G; Schott, W; Zetsche, F; Bacon, Trevor C; Butterworth, Ian; Gallo, E; Harris, V L; Hung, B Y H; Long, K R; Miller, D B; Morawitz, P P O; Prinias, A; Sedgbeer, J K; Whitfield, A F; Mallik, U; McCliment, E; Wang, M Z; Wang, S M; Wu, J T; Zhang, Y; Cloth, P; Filges, D; An Shiz Hong; Hong, S M; Nam, S W; Park, S K; Suh, M H; Yon, S H; Imlay, R; Kartik, S; Kim, H J; McNeil, R R; Metcalf, W; Nadendla, V K; Barreiro, F; Cases, G; Graciani, R; Hernández, J M; Hervás, L; Labarga, L; Del Peso, J; Puga, J; Terrón, J; De Trocóniz, J F; Smith, G R; Corriveau, F; Hanna, D S; Hartmann, J; Hung, L W; Lim, J N; Matthews, C G; Patel, P M; Sinclair, L E; Stairs, D G; Saint-Laurent, M G; Ullmann, R T; Zacek, G; Bashkirov, V; Dolgoshein, B A; Stifutkin, A; Bashindzhagian, G L; Ermolov, P F; Gladilin, L K; Golubkov, Yu A; Kobrin, V D; Kuzmin, V A; Proskuryakov, A S; Savin, A A; Shcheglova, L M; Solomin, A N; Zotov, N P; Botje, M; Chlebana, F S; Dake, A P; Engelen, J; De Kamps, M; Kooijman, P M; Kruse, A; Tiecke, H G; Verkerke, W; Vreeswijk, M; Wiggers, L; De Wolf, E; Van Woudenberg, R; Acosta, D; Bylsma, B G; Durkin, L S; Honscheid, K; Li Chuan; Ling, T Y; McLean, K W; Murray, W N; Park, I H; Romanowsky, T A; Seidlein, R; Bailey, D S; Blair, G A; Byrne, A; Cashmore, Roger J; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Daniels, D C; Devenish, R C E; Harnew, N; Lancaster, M; Luffman, P; Lindemann, L; McFall, J D; Nath, C; Noyes, V A; Quadt, A; Uijterwaal, H; Walczak, R; Wilson, F F; Yip, T; Abbiendi, G; Bertolin, A; Brugnera, R; Carlin, R; Dal Corso, F; De Giorgi, M; Dosselli, U; Limentani, S; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Stanco, L; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Bulmahn, J; Butterworth, J M; Feild, R G; Oh, B Y; Whitmore, J; D'Agostini, Giulio; Marini, G; Nigro, A; Tassi, E; Hart, J C; McCubbin, N A; Prytz, K; Shah, T P; Short, T L; Barberis, E; Dubbs, T; Heusch, C A; Van Hook, M; Hubbard, B; Lockman, W; Rahn, J T; Sadrozinski, H F W; Seiden, A; Biltzinger, J; Seifert, R J; Walenta, Albert H; Zech, G; Abramowicz, H; Briskin, G M; Dagan, S; Levy, A; Hasegawa, T; Hazumi, M; Ishii, T; Kuze, M; Mine, S; Nagasawa, Y; Nakao, M; Susuki, I; Tokushuku, K; Yamada, S; Yamazaki, Y; Chiba, M; Hamatsu, R; Hirose, T; Homma, K; Kitamura, S; Nakamitsu, Y; Yamauchi, K; Cirio, R; Costa, M; Ferrero, M I; Lamberti, L; Maselli, S; Peroni, C; Sacchi, R; Solano, A; Staiano, A; Dardo, M; Bailey, D C; Bandyopadhyay, D; Bénard, F; Brkic, M; Crombie, M B; Gingrich, D M; Hartner, G F; Joo, K K; Levman, G M; Martin, J F; Orr, R S; Sampson, C R; Teuscher, R; Catterall, C D; Jones, T W; Kaziewicz, P B; Lane, J B; Saunders, R L; Shulman, J; Blankenship, K; Kochocki, J A; Lu, B; Mo, L W; Bogusz, W; Charchula, K; Ciborowski, J; Gajewski, J; Grzelak, G; Kasprzak, M; Krzyzanowski, M; Muchorowski, K; Nowak, R J; Pawlak, J M; Tymieniecka, T; Wróblewski, A K; Zakrzewski, J A; Zarnecki, A F; Adamus, M; Eisenberg, Y; Karshon, U; Revel, D; Zer-Zion, D; Ali, I; Badgett, W F; Behrens, B H; Dasu, S; Fordham, C; Foudas, C; Goussiou, A; Loveless, R J; Reeder, D D; Silverstein, S; Smith, W H; Vaiciulis, A W; Wodarczyk, M; Tsurugai, T; Bhadra, S; Cardy, M L; Fagerstroem, C P; Frisken, W R; Furutani, K M; Khakzad, M; Schmidke, W B; Levy, A

    1995-01-01

    Dijet production by almost real photons has been studied at HERA with the ZEUS detector. Jets have been identified using the cone algorithm. A cut on xg, the fraction of the photon energy participating in the production of the two jets of highest transverse energy, is used to define cross sections sensitive to the parton distributions in the proton and in the photon. The dependence of the dijet cross sections on pseudorapidity has been measured for xg \\ge 0.75 and xg < 0.75. The former is sensitive to the gluon momentum density in the proton. The latter is sensitive to the gluon in the photon. The cross sections are corrected for detector acceptance and compared to leading order QCD calculations.

  17. Reduction Methods for Total Reaction Cross Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, P. R. S.; Mendes Junior, D. R.; Canto, L. F.; Lubian, J.; de Faria, P. N.

    2016-03-01

    The most frequently used methods to reduce fusion and total reaction excitation functions were investigated in a very recent paper Canto et al. (Phys Rev C 92:014626, 2015). These methods are widely used to eliminate the influence of masses and charges in comparisons of cross sections for weakly bound and tightly bound systems. This study reached two main conclusions. The first is that the fusion function method is the most successful procedure to reduce fusion cross sections. Applying this method to theoretical cross sections of single channel calculations, one obtains a system independent curve (the fusion function), that can be used as a benchmark to fusion data. The second conclusion was that none of the reduction methods available in the literature is able to provide a universal curve for total reaction cross sections. The reduced single channel cross sections keep a strong dependence of the atomic and mass numbers of the collision partners, except for systems in the same mass range. In the present work we pursue this problem further, applying the reduction methods to systems within a limited mass range. We show that, under these circumstances, the reduction of reaction data may be very useful.

  18. Pathological Internet use and psychiatric disorders: A cross-sectional study on psychiatric phenomenology and clinical relevance of Internet dependency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bert Theodor te Wildt

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: With the Cyberspace´s exponential growth of influence questions arise about its mental impacts. The presented study examines the question whether the dependent use of the Internet can be understood as an impulse control disorder, an addiction or as a symptom of other psychiatric conditions. Methods: Internet dependent patients seeking for psychiatric assistance and fulfilling the criteria for pathological Internet use (PIU were examined with the Structured Clinical Interview according to DSM-IV (SCID, and a variety of questionnaires including the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI and the Dissociative Experience Scale (DES. The patient group was compared to a matched group of healthy controls. Results: The adult patient-group consisted of 25 subjects, 76% male, with a mean age of 29.36 years. Average time spent in Cyberspace was 6.47 h/d, mostly in online-role-playing games. According to SCID I and BDI, 19 patients (76% suffered from a depressive syndrome, with 10 cases of major depressive disorder (40% and 8 cases of adjustment disorder with depression (32%. Six patients (24% suffered from a comorbid anxiety disorder. Compared to controls, the patient group presented significantly higher levels of depression (BDI, impulsivity (BIS and dissociation (DES. Conclusions: PIU shares common psychopathological features and comorbidities with substance related disorders. Therefore, it might be seen as a diagnostic entity in itself in a spectrum of behavioural and substance dependencies. Especially Internet role play may contain an addictive potential for adolescents and adults with subclinical psychopathology.

  19. Neuroticism associated with cocaine-induced psychosis in cocaine-dependent patients: a cross-sectional observational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roncero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cocaine consumption can induce transient psychotic symptoms, which has been correlated with more severe addiction and aggressive behavior. However, little is known about the nature of the relationship between personality traits and psychotic symptoms in cocaine-dependent patients. This study examined the relationship between neuroticism and cocaine-induced psychosis. METHODS: A total of 231 cocaine-dependent patients seeking treatment were recruited to the study. Personality was evaluated by the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire. Cocaine-induced psychosis questionnaire, SCID-I, and SCID-II were used to evaluate comorbidity and clinical characteristics. Data analysis was performed in three steps: descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: Cocaine-induced psychosis was reported in 65.4% of the patients and some personality disorder in 46.8%. Two personality dimensions (Neuroticism-Anxiety and Aggression-Hostility presented a significant effect on the risk of experiencing psychotic symptoms (t(229 = 2.69, p = 0.008; t(229 = 2.06, p = 0.004, and patients with psychotic symptoms showed higher scores in both variables. On the multivariate analysis, only Neuroticism remained as a significant personality factor independently associated with psychotic symptoms (Wald = 7.44, p<0.05, OR = 1.08, CI 95% 1.02-1.16 after controlling for age, gender and number of consumption substances. CONCLUSIONS: An association between high neuroticism scores and presence of psychotic symptoms induced by cocaine has been found, independently of other consumption variables. Personality dimensions should be evaluated in cocaine-dependent patients in order to detect high scores of neuroticism and warn patients about the risk of developing cocaine-induced psychotic symptoms.

  20. Wind Turbine Radar Cross Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Jenn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The radar cross section (RCS of a wind turbine is a figure of merit for assessing its effect on the performance of electronic systems. In this paper, the fundamental equations for estimating the wind turbine clutter signal in radar and communication systems are presented. Methods of RCS prediction are summarized, citing their advantages and disadvantages. Bistatic and monostatic RCS patterns for two wind turbine configurations, a horizontal axis three-blade design and a vertical axis helical design, are shown. The unique electromagnetic scattering features, the effect of materials, and methods of mitigating wind turbine clutter are also discussed.

  1. Time-Dependent Quantum Wave Packet Study of the Si + OH → SiO + H Reaction: Cross Sections and Rate Constants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero Santamaría, Alejandro; Dayou, Fabrice; Rubayo-Soneira, Jesus; Monnerville, Maurice

    2017-02-15

    The dynamics of the Si((3)P) + OH(X(2)Π) → SiO(X(1)Σ(+)) + H((2)S) reaction is investigated by means of the time-dependent wave packet (TDWP) approach using an ab initio potential energy surface recently developed by Dayou et al. ( J. Chem. Phys. 2013 , 139 , 204305 ) for the ground X(2)A' electronic state. Total reaction probabilities have been calculated for the first 15 rotational states j = 0-14 of OH(v=0,j) at a total angular momentum J = 0 up to a collision energy of 1 eV. Integral cross sections and state-selected rate constants for the temperature range 10-500 K were obtained within the J-shifting approximation. The reaction probabilities display highly oscillatory structures indicating the contribution of long-lived quasibound states supported by the deep SiOH/HSiO wells. The cross sections behave with collision energies as expected for a barrierless reaction and are slightly sensitive to the initial rotational excitation of OH. The thermal rate constants show a marked temperature dependence below 200 K with a maximum value around 15 K. The TDWP results globally agree with the results of earlier quasi-classical trajectory (QCT) calculations carried out by Rivero-Santamaria et al. ( Chem. Phys. Lett. 2014 , 610-611 , 335 - 340 ) with the same potential energy surface. In particular, the thermal rate constants display a similar temperature dependence, with TDWP values smaller than the QCT ones over the whole temperature range.

  2. Effects of temperature-dependent viscosity variation on entropy generation, heat and fluid flow through a porous-saturated duct of rectangular cross-section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. Hooman; H. Gurgenci

    2007-01-01

    Effect of temperature-dependent viscosity on fully developed forced convection in a duct of rectangular cross-section occupied by a fluid-saturated porous medium is investigated analytically. The Darcy flow model is applied and the viscosity-temperature relation is assumed to be an inverse-linear one. The case of uniform heat flux on the walls,i.e. the H boundary condition in the terminology of Kays and Crawford [12], is treated.For the case of a fluid whose viscosity decreases with temperature, it is found that the effect of the variation is to increase the Nusselt number for heated wails. Having found the velocity and the temperature distribution, the second law of thermodynamics is invoked to find the local and average entropy generation rate. Expressions for the entropy generation rate, the Bejan number, the heat transfer irreversibility, and the fluid flow viscosity variation number, the dimensionless wall heat flux, and the aspect ratio (width to height ratio). These expressions let a parametric study of the problem based on which it is observed that the entropy generated due to flow in a duct of square cross-section is more than those of rectangular counterparts while increasing the aspect ratio decreases the entropy generation rate similar to what previously reported for the clear flow case by Ratts and Raut [14].

  3. Association between current smoking and cognitive impairment depends on age: A cross-sectional study in Xi'an, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Shang, Suhang; Li, Pei; Deng, Meiying; Chen, Chen; Jiang, Yu; Dang, Liangjun; Qu, Qiumin

    2017-09-08

    Cigarette smoking is a modifiable risk factor for cognitive impairment, while the relationship between current smoking and cognitive impairment is not fully understood. The objectives were to identify a possible association between current smoking and cognitive impairment depending on age in the Chinese rural population. Data for the study consisted of 1,782 participants (40 years and older) who lived in a rural village in the vicinity of Xi'an, China. Data about smoking history and cognitive function were collected. Cognitive function was scored by the Mini-Mental State Examination. The effect of age on the relationship between current smoking and cognitive impairment was analyzed with interaction and stratified analysis by logistic regression models. Interaction analysis showed that current smoking is positively related with cognitive impairment (odds ratio [OR]=9.067; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.305-62.979; P=.026). However, the interaction term, age by current smoking, is negatively related with cognitive impairment (OR=0.969; 95%CI 0.939-0.999; P=.045). Stratified logistic regression showed that in the 40-65 years of age sublayer, OR of current smoking is 1.966 (P=.044), whereas in the>65 years of age sublayer, the OR is 0.470 (P=.130). This means that the association between current smoking and cognitive impairment with age might be positive (OR>1) in lower age sublayers, but no significant difference in higher age sublayers. In conclusion, current smoking might be positively associated with cognitive impairment in the middle-aged but the relationship declines with increasing age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. 46 CFR 64.25 - Cross section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cross section. 64.25 Section 64.25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.25 Cross section. A tank must have a cross section design that is— (a...

  5. The Investigation of Tramadol Dependence with No History of Substance Abuse: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Spontaneously Reported Cases in Guangzhou City, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haoran; Liu, Zhimin

    2013-01-01

    The study was to survey and assess the drug dependence and abuse potential of tramadol with no history of substance abuse. Subjects of tramadol dependence with no prior history of substance abuse were surveyed by interview. Physical dependence of tramadol was assessed using 10 items opiate withdrawal scale (OWS), and psychological dependence was assessed by Addiction Research Center Inventory—Chinese Version (ARCI-CV). Twenty-three male subjects (the median age was 23.4 ± 4.1 years) referred to the addiction unit in Medical Hospital of Guangzhou with tramadol abuse problems were included in this cross-sectional study. The control group included 87 heroin addicts, 60 methamphetamine (MA) abusers, and 50 healthy men. The scores of OWS of tramadol were 0.83–2.30; the mean scores of identifying euphoric effects–MBG, sedative effects–PCAG, and psychotomimetic effects–LSD of ARCI were 8.96 ± 3.08, 6.52 ± 3.25, and 6.65 ± 2.50, respectively, F = 4.927, P tramadol did not differ from those in heroin and MA groups (P > 0.05) but were higher than those in healthy men (P Tramadol with no history of substance abuse has a clear risk of producing high abuse potential under the long-term infrequent abuse and the high doses. PMID:24151592

  6. The Investigation of Tramadol Dependence with No History of Substance Abuse: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Spontaneously Reported Cases in Guangzhou City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoran Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was to survey and assess the drug dependence and abuse potential of tramadol with no history of substance abuse. Subjects of tramadol dependence with no prior history of substance abuse were surveyed by interview. Physical dependence of tramadol was assessed using 10 items opiate withdrawal scale (OWS, and psychological dependence was assessed by Addiction Research Center Inventory—Chinese Version (ARCI-CV. Twenty-three male subjects (the median age was 23.4±4.1 years referred to the addiction unit in Medical Hospital of Guangzhou with tramadol abuse problems were included in this cross-sectional study. The control group included 87 heroin addicts, 60 methamphetamine (MA abusers, and 50 healthy men. The scores of OWS of tramadol were 0.83–2.30; the mean scores of identifying euphoric effects–MBG, sedative effects–PCAG, and psychotomimetic effects–LSD of ARCI were 8.96±3.08, 6.52±3.25, and 6.65±2.50, respectively, F = 4.927, P0.05 but were higher than those in healthy men (P<0.05. Tramadol with no history of substance abuse has a clear risk of producing high abuse potential under the long-term infrequent abuse and the high doses.

  7. MCNPX Simulations for Neutron Cross Section Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Tesinsky, Milan

    2010-01-01

    This thesis presents MCNPX simulations of the SCANDAL set-up used at the Theodor Svedberg Laboratory for neutron scattering cross-section measurements. The thesis describes processes and data important for the upcoming off-line data analysis. In the experiment, neutrons scattered off the target are converted to protons which are stopped in scintillator crystals. The results of presented simulations include a description of the proton spectra in dependence of the neutron-to-proton conversion a...

  8. Photoproduction total cross section and shower development

    CERN Document Server

    Cornet, F; Grau, A; Pancheri, G; Sciutto, S J

    2015-01-01

    The total photoproduction cross section at ultra-high energies is obtained using a model based on QCD minijets and soft-gluon resummation and the ansatz that infrared gluons limit the rise of total cross sections. This cross section is introduced into the Monte Carlo system AIRES to simulate extended air-showers initiated by cosmic ray photons. The impact of the new photoproduction cross section on common shower observables, especially those related to muon production, is compared with previous results.

  9. Distortion dependent intersystem crossing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephansen, Anne Boutrup; Sølling, Theis Ivan

    2017-01-01

    The competition between ultrafast intersystem crossing and internal conversion in benzene, toluene, and p-xylene is investigated with time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations. By exciting to S2 out-of-plane symmetry breaking, distortions are activated at early ti...

  10. Photon-exposure-dependent photon-stimulated desorption for obtaining photolysis cross section of molecules adsorbed on surface by monochromatic soft x-ray photons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, L-C; Jang, C-Y; Wu, Y-H; Tsai, W-C; Wang, S-K; Chen, J; Chang, S-C; Liu, C-C; Shai, Y; Wen, C-R

    2008-12-07

    Photon-exposure-dependent positive- and negative-ion photon-stimulated desorption (PSD) was proposed to study the photoreactions and obtain the photolysis cross sections of molecules adsorbed on a single-crystal surface by monochromatic soft x-ray photons with energy near the core level of adsorbate. The changes in the F(+) and F(-) PSD ion yields were measured from CF(3)Cl molecules adsorbed on Si(111)-7x7 at 30 K (CF(3)Cl dose=0.3x10(15) molecules/cm(2), approximately 0.75 monolayer) during irradiation of monochromatic soft x-ray photons near the F(1s) edge. The PSD ion yield data show the following characteristics: (a) The dissociation of adsorbed CF(3)Cl molecules is due to a combination of direct photodissociation via excitation of F(1s) core level and substrate-mediated dissociation [dissociative attachment and dipolar dissociation induced by the photoelectrons emitting from the silicon substrate]. (b) the F(+) ion desorption is associated with the bond breaking of the surface CF(3)Cl, CF(2)Cl, CFCl, and SiF species. (c) the F(-) yield is mainly due to DA and DD of the adsorbed CF(3)Cl molecules. (d) The surface SiF is formed by reaction of the surface Si atom with the neutral fluorine atom, F(+), or F(-) ion produced by scission of C-F bond of CF(3)Cl, CF(2)Cl, or CFCl species. A kinetic model was proposed for the explanation of the photolysis of this submonolayer CF(3)Cl-covered surface. Based on this model and the variation rates of the F(+)F(-) signals during fixed-energy monochromatic photon bombardment at 690.2 and 692.6 eV [near the F(1s) edge], the photolysis cross section was deduced as a function of energy.

  11. Inelastic cross section measurements at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Bindi, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The dependence of the rate of proton–proton interactions on the centre-of-mass collision energy, √s, is of fundamental importance for both hadron collider physics and particle astrophysics. The dependence cannot yet be calculated from first principles; therefore, experimental measurements are needed. Here we present the first measurements of the inelastic proton–proton interaction cross-section at a centre-of-mass energy, √s, of 7 TeV using the ATLAS and CMS detectors at the Large Hadron Collider. For ATLAS the events are selected by requiring hits on scintillation counters mounted in the forward region of the detector. An inelastic cross-section of 60.3 ± 2.1 mb is measured for ξ > 5×10−6, where ξ is calculated from the invariant mass, MX, of hadrons selected using the largest rapidity gap in the event. For diffractive events, this corresponds to requiring at least one of the dissociation masses to be larger than 15.7 GeV. For CMS a new method to measure the inelastic pp cross section ha...

  12. Reaction cross sections and elastic scattering energy dependence around the Coulomb barrier for the {sup 7}Be+{sup 27}Al system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morcelle, Viviane; Gomes, P.R.S.; Lubian, J.; Mendes Junior, D.R. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Lichtenthaeler, R.; Guimaraes, V.; Lepine-Szily, A.; Camargo, O.; Faria, P.N. de; Gasquez, L.; Morais, M.C.; Condori, R.P.; Pires, K.C.C.; Scarduelli, V. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil); Barioni, A. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Shorto, J.M.B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Zamora, J.C. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany); Aguilera, E.; Martinez-Quiroz, E. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (Mexico); Kolata, J.; Jiang, H. [University of Notre Dame, IN (United States); Bechetti, F.D.; Lamm, L.O. [Michigan University, MI (United States); Lizcano, D. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: Elastic scattering measurements were performed at energies around the Coulomb barrier at the Tandem Accelerators of the Sao Paulo (USP - Brazil ) and Notre Dame (UND - USA) Universities. The {sup 7}Be is a radioactive nucleus and has been produced by the reaction {sup 6}He({sup 6}Li,{sup 9}Be) and impinged on {sup 27}Al and {sup 197}Au secondary targets using a double superconducting systems RIBRAS ( USP ) and Twinsol (UND). The elastic scattering angular distributions were analyzed through the optical model calculations, using the Woods- Saxon form factors [1] and the Sao Paulo potential [2] to fit the experimental data. The total reaction cross sections were also derived and compared with others presented at the literature for other systems. In addition, a study of the nuclear potential energy dependence has been carried out in this work in the dispersion relation context. Due to the fact that {sup 7}Be has a small breakup threshold energy, the results can provide significant information of the influence of the breakup channel on the reactions involving this projectile. For this purpose, {chi}{sup 2}- data analysis with different kind of potentials were performed to identify the energy dependence of the real (V) and imaginary (W) parts of the potential. [1] L.C. Chamon et al., Phys. Rev. C 66, (2002) 014610. [2] R.D. Wood e D.S. Saxon, Phys. Rev. 95 ( 1954) 577. (author)

  13. Electron capture cross sections for stellar nucleosynthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Giannaka, P G

    2015-01-01

    In the first stage of this work, we perform detailed calculations for the cross sections of the electron capture on nuclei under laboratory conditions. Towards this aim we exploit the advantages of a refined version of the proton-neutron quasi-particle random-phase approximation (pn-QRPA) and carry out state-by-state evaluations of the rates of exclusive processes that lead to any of the accessible transitions within the chosen model space. In the second stage of our present study, we translate the above mentioned $e^-$-capture cross sections to the stellar environment ones by inserting the temperature dependence through a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution describing the stellar electron gas. As a concrete nuclear target we use the $^{66}Zn$ isotope, which belongs to the iron group nuclei and plays prominent role in stellar nucleosynthesis at core collapse supernovae environment.

  14. SNL RML recommended dosimetry cross section compendium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, P.J.; Kelly, J.G.; Luera, T.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); VanDenburg, J. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-11-01

    A compendium of dosimetry cross sections is presented for use in the characterization of fission reactor spectrum and fluence. The contents of this cross section library are based upon the ENDF/B-VI and IRDF-90 cross section libraries and are recommended as a replacement for the DOSCROS84 multigroup library that is widely used by the dosimetry community. Documentation is provided on the rationale for the choice of the cross sections selected for inclusion in this library and on the uncertainty and variation in cross sections presented by state-of-the-art evaluations.

  15. Tobacco use and nicotine dependency in a cross-sectional representative sample of 18,018 individuals in Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manimunda Sathya

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data on prevalence, pattern of tobacco use, proportion of population dependent on nicotine and their determinants are important for developing and implementing tobacco control strategies. The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence and determinants of tobacco use and nicotine dependency. Methods A cross-sectional survey among a representative sample of 18,018 individuals in the age group of >=14 years was conducted in the Union Territory of Andaman and Nicobar Islands during 2007–09. A structured questionnaire, a modified version of an instrument which was used successfully in several multi-country epidemiological studies of the World Health Organisation, was used to survey individual socio-demographic details, known co-morbid conditions, tobacco use and alcohol use. Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND was used to estimate nicotine dependence. Results The response rate of our survey was 97% (18,018/18,554. Females (n = 8,888 were significantly younger than males (34.3 + 14.6 Vs 36.2 + 15.4 years. The prevalence of current tobacco use in any form was 48.9% (95% CI: 48.2–49.6. Tobacco chewing alone was prevalent in 40.9% (95% CI: 40.1–41.6 of the population. While one tenth of males (9.7%, 95% CI: 9.1–10.4 were nicotine dependent, it was only 3% (95% CI: 2.7–3.4 in females. Three fourth of the tobacco users initiated use of tobacco before reaching 21 years of age. Age, current use of alcohol, poor educational status, marital status, social groups, and co-morbidities were the main determinants of tobacco use and nicotine dependence in the population. Conclusion The high prevalence of tobacco use especially the chewing form of tobacco in the Union Territory of Andaman and Nicobar Islands and the differences in prevalence and pattern of tobacco use and nicotine dependency observed across subgroups warrants implementation of culturally specific tobacco control activities in this

  16. Temperature dependent O3 absorption cross sections for GOME, SCIAMACHY and GOME-2: I. Re-analysis of Flight Model Data and Retrieval Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chehade, Wissam; Weber, Mark; Gorshelev, Victor; Serdyuchenko, Anna; Burrows, John P.

    For a long term coverage of global O3 measurements from SCIAMACHY (SCanning Imag-ing Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY), GOME1, and GOME2 (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment), high quality absorption cross section spectra is a pre-requisite. Laboratory measurements of cross section spectra of O3 (at 203K, 223K, 243K, 273K and 293K) were performed using CATGAS (Calibration Apparatus for Trace Gas Absorption Spec-troscopy) under representative in-flight conditions with SCIAMACHY and GOME-2 spectrom-eters to obviate the need of an instrumental slit function correction. For the data acquired from the CATGAS campaigns, a re-analysis is carried out to improve the overestimation in the total O3 retrieval by SCIAMACHY and GOME2 using the flight model (FM) reference data from SCIAMACHY and GOME2, respectively, with respect to GOME1. The reanalysis attempts to re-evaluate the concatenation of ozone optical density measurements obtained from CATGAS measurements and applying new ways to absolutely calibrate the cross-.sections using absolute reference cross-section data at reference wavelengths, Finally, a satellite retrieval error analy-sis will be performed to validate the updated satellite reference cross-sections. The updated reference data can be used for combining the data from the three instruments (plus the two upcoming GOME-2) generating a consisting long-term dataset of total ozone.

  17. Temperature-dependent infrared cross sections for CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-13, CFC-14, CFC-22, CFC-113, CFC-114, and CFC-115. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massie, S.T.; Goldman, A.; McDaniel, A.H.; Cantrell, C.A.; Davidson, J.A.

    1991-02-01

    The Technical Note presents absorption cross sections at temperatures of 293, 273, 253, 233, 213, and 203K for the chlorofluorocarbon species CFC-11, (CCI3F), CFC-12 (CCI2F2), CFC-13 (CCIF3), CFC-14 (CF4), CFC-22 (CHCIF2), CFC-113 (C2CI3FI3), CFC-114 (C2CI2F4), and CFC-115 (C2CIF5). The infrared cross sections are those reported by McDaniel et al. (1990), and are displayed in graphical form to facilitate quick identification and quantification of CFC gases in high and medium resolution remote sensing studies.

  18. A cross-sectional survey of mental health clinicians' knowledge, attitudes, and practice relating to tobacco dependence among young people with mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Meghana; Huddlestone, Lisa; Taylor, Anne; Sayal, Kapil; Ratschen, Elena

    2014-11-26

    Mental health services in England are smoke-free by law and expected to provide comprehensive support to patients who smoke. Although clinicians' knowledge in this area is reported to be limited, research exploring the issue in Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) is lacking. This study aimed to investigate the knowledge, attitudes, and practice of clinicians working within specialist and highly specialist Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) relating to tobacco dependence, its treatment and its relation to mental disorder. A cross-sectional survey of clinicians working across all CAMHS teams of a large UK National Health Service mental health Trust. Sixty clinicians (50% response rate) completed the survey. Less than half (48.3%) believed that addressing smoking was part of their responsibility, and half (50%) asserted confidence in supporting patients in a cessation attempt. Misconceptions relating to smoking were present across all staff groups: e.g. only 40% of respondents were aware of potential interactions between smoking and antipsychotic medications, although psychiatrists were more knowledgeable than non-medical clinicians (91.6% vs 27.1%; OR 3.4, p knowledge, capacity and confidence in effectively identifying, motivating, supporting and treating young smokers in the context of treatment for mental disorders.

  19. Measurements of the Electron-Helicity Dependent Cross Sections of Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering with CEBAF at 12 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Roche; C. E. Hyde-Wright; B. Michel; C. Munoz Camacho; et al. (The Jefferson Lab Hall A Collaboration)

    2006-09-11

    We propose precision measurements of the helicity-dependent and helicity independent cross sections for the ep {yields} ep{gamma} reaction in Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) kinematics. DVCS scaling is obtained in the limits Q{sup 2} >> {Lambda}{sub QCD}{sup 2}, x{sub Bj} fixed, and -{Delta}{sup 2} = -(q-q{prime}){sup 2} << Q{sup 2}. We consider the specific kinematic range Q{sup 2} > 2 GeV{sup 2}, W > 2 GeV, and -{Delta}{sup 2} {le} 1 GeV{sup 2}. We will use our successful technique from the 5.75 GeV Hall A DVCS experiment (E00-110). With polarized 6.6, 8.8, and 11 GeV beams incident on the liquid hydrogen target, we will detect the scattered electron in the Hall A HRS-L spectrometer (maximum central momentum 4.3 GeV/c) and the emitted photon in a slightly expanded PbF{sub 2} calorimeter. In general, we will not detect the recoil proton. The H(e,e{prime}{gamma})X missing mass resolution is sufficient to isolate the exclusive channel with 3% systematic precision.

  20. Measurements of the Electron-Helicity Dependent Cross Sections of Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering with CEBAF at 12 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Roche, J; Hyde-Wright, E; Gavalian, G; Amarian, M; Bltmann, S; Dodge, G E; Juengst, H; Lachniet, J; Radyushkin, A; Ulmer, P E; Weinstein, L B; Ball, J; Bertin, P Y; Brossard, M; De Masi, R; Garçon, M; Girod, F X; Guidal, M; MacCormick, M; Mazouz, M; Niccolai, S; Pire, B; Procureur, S; Sabatie, F; Voutier, E; Wallon, S; Muoz Camacho, C; Camsonne, A; Chen, J P; Chudakov, E; Deur, A; Gaskell, D; Higinbotham, D; De Jager, C; Le Rose, J; Hansen, O; Michaels, R; Nanda, S; Saha, A; Stepanyan, S; Wojtsekhowski, B; Markowitz, P E C; Zheng, X; Gilman, R; Jiang, X; Kuchina, E; Ransome, R; Deshpande, Abhay A; Liyanage, N; Choi, S; Kang, H; Lee, B; Yumin, Oh; Jongsog, S; Sirca, S

    2006-01-01

    We propose precision measurements of the helicity-dependent and helicity independent cross sections for the ep->epg reaction in Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) kinematics. DVCS scaling is obtained in the limits Q^2>>Lambda_{QCD}^2, x_Bj fixed, and -\\Delta^2=-(q-q')^22 GeV^2, W>2 GeV, and -\\Delta^21 GeV^2. We will use our successful technique from the 5.75 GeV Hall A DVCS experiment (E00-110). With polarized 6.6, 8.8, and 11 GeV beams incident on the liquid hydrogen target, we will detect the scattered electron in the Hall A HRS-L spectrometer (maximum central momentum 4.3 GeV/c) and the emitted photon in a slightly expanded PbF_2 calorimeter. In general, we will not detect the recoil proton. The H(e,e'g)X missing mass resolution is sufficient to isolate the exclusive channel with 3% systematic precision.

  1. Vertically stabilized elongated cross-section tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, George V.

    1977-01-01

    This invention provides a vertically stabilized, non-circular (minor) cross-section, toroidal plasma column characterized by an external separatrix. To this end, a specific poloidal coil means is added outside a toroidal plasma column containing an endless plasma current in a tokamak to produce a rectangular cross-section plasma column along the equilibrium axis of the plasma column. By elongating the spacing between the poloidal coil means the plasma cross-section is vertically elongated, while maintaining vertical stability, efficiently to increase the poloidal flux in linear proportion to the plasma cross-section height to achieve a much greater plasma volume than could be achieved with the heretofore known round cross-section plasma columns. Also, vertical stability is enhanced over an elliptical cross-section plasma column, and poloidal magnetic divertors are achieved.

  2. Nucleon-x sub c sub J dissociation cross sections

    CERN Document Server

    Feng You Ceng; Xu Xiao Ming

    2002-01-01

    Nucleon-x sub c sub J dissociation cross sections are calculated in a constituent inter-exchange model in which quark-quark potential is derived from the Buchmueller-Type quark-anti-quark potential. These new cross sections for dominant reaction channels depend on the centre-of-mass energy of the nucleon and the charmonium

  3. Cross Sections for Electron Collisions with Methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Mi-Young, E-mail: mysong@nfri.re.kr; Yoon, Jung-Sik [Plasma Technology Research Center, National Fusion Research Institute, 814-2 Osikdo-dong, Gunsan, Jeollabuk-do 573-540 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Hyuck [Department of Physics, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Itikawa, Yukikazu [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Sagamihara 252-5210 (Japan); Karwasz, Grzegorz P. [Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Applied Informatics, University Nicolaus Copernicus, Grudziadzka 5, 87100 Toruń (Poland); Kokoouline, Viatcheslav [Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Nakamura, Yoshiharu [6-1-5-201 Miyazaki, Miyamae, Kawasaki 216-0033 (Japan); Tennyson, Jonathan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-15

    Cross section data are compiled from the literature for electron collisions with methane (CH{sub 4}) molecules. Cross sections are collected and reviewed for total scattering, elastic scattering, momentum transfer, excitations of rotational and vibrational states, dissociation, ionization, and dissociative attachment. The data derived from swarm experiments are also considered. For each of these processes, the recommended values of the cross sections are presented. The literature has been surveyed through early 2014.

  4. Annular-Cross-Section CFE Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharnez, Rizwan; Sammons, David W.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed continuous-flow-electrophoresis (CFE) chamber of annular cross section offers advantages over conventional CFE chamber, and wedge-cross-section chamber described in "Increasing Sensitivity in Continuous-Flow Electrophoresis" (MFS-26176). In comparison with wedge-shaped chamber, chamber of annular cross section virtually eliminates such wall effects as electro-osmosis and transverse gradients of velocity. Sensitivity enhanced by incorporating gradient maker and radial (collateral) flow.

  5. Systematics of fission cross sections at the intermediate energy region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukahori, Tokio; Chiba, Satoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    The systematics was obtained with fitting experimental data for proton induced fission cross sections of Ag, {sup 181}Ta, {sup 197}Au, {sup 206,207,208}Pb, {sup 209}Bi, {sup 232}Th, {sup 233,235,238}U, {sup 237}Np and {sup 239}Pu above 20 MeV. The low energy cross section of actinoid nuclei is omitted from systematics study, since the cross section has a complicated shape and strongly depends on characteristic of nucleus. The fission cross sections calculated by the systematics are in good agreement with experimental data. (author)

  6. Improved Empirical Parametrization of Fragmentation Cross Sections

    CERN Document Server

    Sümmerer, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    A new version is proposed for the universal empirical formula, EPAX, which describes fragmentation cross sections in high-energy heavy-ion reactions. The new version, EPAX 3, can be shown to yield cross sections that are in better agreement with experimental data for the most neutron-rich fragments than the previous version. At the same time, the very good agreement of EPAX 2 with data on the neutron-deficient side has been largely maintained. Comparison with measured cross sections show that the bulk of the data is reproduced within a factor of about 2, for cross sections down to the pico-barn range.

  7. Total cross sections for neutron scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, C. R.; Elster, Ch.; Thaler, R. M.; Weppner, S. P.

    1995-02-01

    Measurements of neutron total cross sections are both extensive and extremely accurate. Although they place a strong constraint on theoretically constructed models, there are relatively few comparisons of predictions with experiment. The total cross sections for neutron scattering from 16O and 40Ca are calculated as a function of energy from 50 to 700 MeV laboratory energy with a microscopic first-order optical potential derived within the framework of the Watson expansion. Although these results are aleady in qualitative agreement with the data, the inclusion of medium corrections to the propagator is essential to correctly predict the energy dependence given by the experiment. In the region between 100 and 200 MeV, where off-shell tρ calculations for both 16O and 40Ca overpredict the experiment, the modification due to the nuclear medium reduces the calculated values. Above 300 MeV these corrections are very small and depending on the employed nuclear mean field tend to compensate for the underprediction of the off-shell tρ results.

  8. Total cross sections for neutron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinn, C.R.; Elster, C.; Thaler, R.M.; Weppner, S.P. (Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States) Center for Computationally Intensive Physics, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States) Institute of Nuclear Particle Physics and Department of Physics, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 45701 (United States) Physics Department, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States))

    1995-02-01

    Measurements of neutron total cross sections are both extensive and extremely accurate. Although they place a strong constraint on theoretically constructed models, there are relatively few comparisons of predictions with experiment. The total cross sections for neutron scattering from [sup 16]O and [sup 40]Ca are calculated as a function of energy from 50 to 700 MeV laboratory energy with a microscopic first-order optical potential derived within the framework of the Watson expansion. Although these results are aleady in qualitative agreement with the data, the inclusion of medium corrections to the propagator is essential to correctly predict the energy dependence given by the experiment. In the region between 100 and 200 MeV, where off-shell [ital t][rho] calculations for both [sup 16]O and [sup 40]Ca overpredict the experiment, the modification due to the nuclear medium reduces the calculated values. Above 300 MeV these corrections are very small and depending on the employed nuclear mean field tend to compensate for the underprediction of the off-shell [ital t][rho] results.

  9. CORRELATION BETWEEN SEVERITY OF ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE WITH AGE OF ONSET AND FAMILY HISTORY AMONG URBAN ALCOHOLICS: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hariharan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND A potentially powerful predictor of progression to alcohol-related harm is age at first use. Evidence suggests that the earlier the age at which young people take their first drink of alcohol, the greater the risk of abusive consumption and the development of alcohol related disorders. Equally important is the family history of alcoholism, which is associated with early age of drinking. AIM This study specifically aims to explore the relationship between severity of alcohol dependence with family history of alcoholism and age of onset of alcohol use. MATERIALS AND METHODS For a period of six months, we conducted a cross sectional study among 200 male subjects aged between 20–50 years who reported the alcohol and drug dependence clinic of a tertiary care hospital in Chennai, Tamilnadu State with problem drinking in the past one year. We used Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT, Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol (CIWA-AD, Severity of Alcohol Dependence Questionnaire (SADQ, Family History Method, and Schedule for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN for assessment. 123 subjects were Family History Positive (FHP and 77 were family history negative (FHN. The data was analysed using a computerized Statistical Software programme (SPSS version 20.0 for windows. Descriptive statistics was used to describe the socio-demographic variables. Student t-test was used to compare between ordinal groups. Pearson’s correlation was used for assessing the correlation between the variables. RESULTS The mean severity scores were significantly different between the early age of onset and late age of onset groups. The mean current age in the FHP was 38.61±8.59 and 42.12±6.90 in FHN. The Mean AOO in the FHP was 22.89±4.61 and in the FHN was 26.51±26.51 and was significantly different from each other (P<0.000. The Mean SADQ score were 44.59±10.79 in FHP and 38.96±11.50 in the FHN. This was also significantly

  10. Neutrino Cross Sections at Solar Energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strigari, Louis

    2017-01-01

    I will review neutrino nucleus cross section measurements and uncertainties for energies applicable to solar neutrinos. I will discuss how these cross sections are important for interpreting solar neutrino experimental data, and highlight the most important neutrino-nucleus interactions that will be relevant for forthcoming dark matter direct detection experiments. NSF PHY-1522717.

  11. Temperature and Input Energy Dependence of the 946-nm Stimulated Emission Cross Section of Nd3+:YAG Pumped by a Flashlamp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seyed Ebrahim Pourmand; Noriah Bidin; Hazri Bakhtiar

    2012-01-01

    The thermal effect on the laser transition at 946nm is investigated.The temperature of the cooling system is verified in the range 2-60℃.A Nd:YAG laser crystal is utilized as a gain medium and is pumped by a newly developed flashlamp. The variable pumping energy is accomplished within the 5-40 d range. The stimulated emission cross section of the 946-nm line is estimated based on the fluorescence spectrum of the Nd:YAG laser.The stimulated emission cross section of the 946-nm line is found to be inversely proportional to the temperature and to the input energy due to the increase of the thermal population at the ground level.

  12. Recommended evaluation procedure for photonuclear cross section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young-Ouk; Chang, Jonghwa; Fukahori, Tokio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    In order to generate photonuclear cross section library for the necessary applications, data evaluation is combined with theoretical evaluation, since photonuclear cross sections measured cannot provide all necessary data. This report recommends a procedure consisting of four steps: (1) analysis of experimental data, (2) data evaluation, (3) theoretical evaluation and, if necessary, (4) modification of results. In the stage of analysis, data obtained by different measurements are reprocessed through the analysis of their discrepancies to a representative data set. In the data evaluation, photonuclear absorption cross sections are evaluated via giant dipole resonance and quasi-deutron mechanism. With photoabsorption cross sections from the data evaluation, theoretical evaluation is applied to determine various decay channel cross sections and emission spectra using equilibrium and preequilibrium mechanism. After this, the calculated results are compared with measured data, and in some cases the results are modified to better describe measurements. (author)

  13. One size doesn't fit all: cross-sectional associations between neighborhood walkability, crime and physical activity depends on age and sex of residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Andrea S; Troxel, Wendy M; Ghosh-Dastidar, Madhumita B; Beckman, Robin; Hunter, Gerald P; DeSantis, Amy S; Colabianchi, Natalie; Dubowitz, Tamara

    2017-01-19

    Low-income African American adults are disproportionately affected by obesity and are also least likely to engage in recommended levels of physical activity (Flegal et al. JAMA 303(3):235-41, 2010; Tucker et al. Am J Prev Med 40(4):454-61, 2011). Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is an important factor for weight management and control, as well as for reducing disease risk (Andersen et al. Lancet 368(9532):299-304, 2006; Boreham and Riddoch J Sports Sci 19(12):915-29, 2001; Carson et al. PLoS One 8(8):e71417, 2013). While neighborhood greenspace and walkability have been associated with increased MVPA, evidence also suggests that living in areas with high rates of crime limits MVPA. Few studies have examined to what extent the confluence of neighborhood greenspace, walkability and crime might impact MVPA in low-income African American adults nor how associations may vary by age and sex. In 2013 we collected self-reported data on demographics, functional limitations, objective measures of MVPA (accelerometry), neighborhood greenspace (geographic information system), and walkability (street audit) in 791 predominantly African-American adults (mean age 56 years) living in two United States (U.S.) low-income neighborhoods. We also acquired data from the City of Pittsburgh on all crime events within both neighborhoods. To examine cross-sectional associations of neighborhood-related variables (i.e., neighborhood greenspace, walkability and crime) with MVPA, we used zero-inflated negative binomial regression models. Additionally, we examined potential interactions by age (over 65 years) and sex on relationships between neighborhood variables and MVPA. Overall, residents engaged in very little to no MVPA regardless of where they lived. However, for women, but not men, under the age of 65 years, living in more walkable neighborhoods was associated with more time engaged in MVPA in (β = 0.55, p = 0.007) as compared to their counterparts living in less

  14. Flow in Tubes of Non-Circular Cross-Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadir, Raushan Ara

    In this thesis steady, laminar, viscous, incompressible flow in tubes of non-circular cross sections is investigated. The specific aims of the investigation are (a) to look at the problems of both developing flow and fully developed flow, (b) to consider non-circular cross sections in a more systematic manner than has been done in the past, and (c) to develop a relatively simple finite element technique for producing accurate numerical solutions of flow in tubes of fairly arbitrary cross sections. Fully developed flow in tubes is governed by a Poisson type equation for the mainstream velocity. Both analytical and numerical solutions are considered. The cross sections studied include elliptic and rectangular cross sections of different aspect ratios, some triangular cross sections, and a series of crescent-shaped cross sections. The physical characteristics of the flow are examined in a systematic manner in order to determine how these characteristics are affected by certain geometrical features of the cross section. Solutions fall into three basic categories depending on the shape of the cross section. In the first category, which includes circular and elliptic cross sections, solutions are possible in closed form. In the second, including rectangular and some triangular cross sections, solutions are in the form of infinite series. In the third, including cross sections of more complicated or irregular shapes, only numerical solutions are possible. Results of calculations of velocity profiles, flow rate, pumping power, and friction factor are presented in a way which can be useful for engineering applications. In numerical studies of both developing and fully developed flow finite element techniques are used. Results are obtained for tubes of rectangular and elliptic cross sections of different aspect ratios, for tubes of crescent -shaped cross sections and a tube whose cross section is an oval of Cassini. For fully developed flow, results are compared with the

  15. Differential cross sections of positron hydrogen collisions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于荣梅; 濮春英; 黄晓玉; 殷复荣; 刘旭焱; 焦利光; 周雅君

    2016-01-01

    We make a detailed study on the angular differential cross sections of positron–hydrogen collisions by using the momentum-space coupled-channels optical (CCO) method for incident energies below the H ionization threshold. The target continuum and the positronium (Ps) formation channels are included in the coupled-channels calculations via a complex equivalent-local optical potential. The critical points, which show minima in the differential cross sections, as a function of the scattering angle and the incident energy are investigated. The resonances in the angular differential cross sections are reported for the first time in this energy range. The effects of the target continuum and the Ps formation channels on the different cross sections are discussed.

  16. A nuclear cross section data handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, H.O.M.

    1989-12-01

    Isotopic information, reaction data, data availability, heating numbers, and evaluation information are given for 129 neutron cross-section evaluations, which are the source of the default cross sections for the Monte Carlo code MCNP. Additionally, pie diagrams for each nuclide displaying the percent contribution of a given reaction to the total cross section are given at 14 MeV, 1 MeV, and thermal energy. Other information about the evaluations and their availability in continuous-energy, discrete-reaction, and multigroup forms is provided. The evaluations come from ENDF/B-V, ENDL85, and the Los Alamos Applied Nuclear Science Group T-2. Graphs of all neutron and photon production cross-section reactions for these nuclides have been categorized and plotted. 21 refs., 5 tabs.

  17. Systematics of (n,2n) Cross Sections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The experimental data of (n, 2n) cross sections were collected and evaluated as complete as possible. There are 640 sets of experimental data for 130 nuclei. The data were fitted to the expressions that describe the

  18. Total Cross Sections for Neutron Scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Chinn, C. R.; Elster, Ch.; Thaler, R. M.; Weppner, S. P.

    1994-01-01

    Measurements of neutron total cross-sections are both extensive and extremely accurate. Although they place a strong constraint on theoretically constructed models, there are relatively few comparisons of predictions with experiment. The total cross-sections for neutron scattering from $^{16}$O and $^{40}$Ca are calculated as a function of energy from $50-700$~MeV laboratory energy with a microscopic first order optical potential derived within the framework of the Watson expansion. Although ...

  19. Neutron capture cross sections from Surrogate measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scielzo N.D.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The prospects for determining cross sections for compound-nuclear neutron-capture reactions from Surrogate measurements are investigated. Calculations as well as experimental results are presented that test the Weisskopf-Ewing approximation, which is employed in most analyses of Surrogate data. It is concluded that, in general, one has to go beyond this approximation in order to obtain (n,γ cross sections of sufficient accuracy for most astrophysical and nuclear-energy applications.

  20. Modified Empirical Parametrization of Fragmentation Cross Sections

    CERN Document Server

    Sümmerer, K

    2000-01-01

    New experimental data obtained mainly at the GSI/FRS facility allow to modify the empirical parametrization of fragmentation cross sections, EPAX. It will be shown that minor modifications of the parameters lead to a much better reproduction of measured cross sections. The most significant changes refer to the description of fragmentation yields close to the projectile and of the memory effect of neutron-deficient projectiles.

  1. Calculating Cross Sections of Composite Interstellar Grains

    CERN Document Server

    Voshchinnikov, N V; Voshchinnikov, Nikolai V.; Mathis, John S.

    1999-01-01

    Interstellar grains may be composite collections of particles of distinct materials, including voids, agglomerated together. We determine the various optical cross sections of such composite grains, given the optical properties of each constituent, using an approximate model of the composite grain. We assume it consists of many concentric spherical layers of the various materials, each with a specified volume fraction. In such a case the usual Mie theory can be generalized and the extinction, scattering, and other cross sections determined exactly. We find that the ordering of the materials in the layering makes some difference to the derived cross sections, but averaging over the various permutations of the order of the materials provides rapid convergence as the number of shells (each of which is filled by all of the materials proportionately to their volume fractions) is increased. Three shells, each with one layer of a particular constituent material, give a very satisfactory estimate of the average cross...

  2. Transverse-spin dependence of the p-p total cross section. delta. sigma/sub T/ from 0. 8 to 2. 5 GeV/c

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madigan, W.P.; Bell, D.A.; Buchanan, J.A.; Calkin, M.M.; Clement, J.M.; Copel, M.; Corcoran, M.D.; Johns, K.A.; Lesikar, J.D.; Miettinen, H.E.; Mutchler, G.S.; Naudet, C.J.; Pepin, G.P.; Phillips, G.C.; Roberts, J.B.; Turpin, S.E.; Hungerford, E.V.; Mayes, B.W.; Hancock, A.D.; Pinsky, L.S.; Sekharan, K.K.; Hollas, C.L.; Riley, P.J.; Allred, J.C.; Bonner, B.E.; Cameron, P.; Linn, S.T.; von Witsch, W.; Furic, M.; Valkovic, V.

    1985-03-01

    The difference ..delta..sigma/sub T/ = sigma(arrow-downup-arrow)-sigma(up-arrowup-arrow) between the proton-proton total cross sections for protons in pure transverse-spin states, was measured at incident momenta 0.8 to 2.5 GeV/c in experiments performed at the Los Alamos Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility and the Argonne Zero Gradient Synchrotron. In agreement with other data, peaks were observed at center-of-mass energies of 2.14 and 2.43 GeV/c/sup 2/, where /sup 1/D/sub 2/ and /sup 1/G/sub 4/ dibaryon resonances have been proposed.

  3. Hazardous, harmful and dependent drinking in hostel-dwelling students at the University of the Free State, Bloemfontein: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zyl, Paulina; Botha, Julie; van Wyk, Michelle; Breytenbach, Jaco; Nel, Christiaan; van Niekerk, Michael; Breytenbach, Wilma

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of hazardous, harmful and dependent drinking among hostel-dwelling students on the main campus of the University of the Free State (UFS), and the influence of sex and academic year on the habit. A quarter of all hostel-dwelling students of UFS were selected by systematic random sampling. Willing participants completed a questionnaire comprising a demographic section and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Of the 339 participants with total AUDIT scores, 15.6% exhibited hazardous drinking, 4.1% harmful drinking and 5.6% alcohol dependence. Male students had a statistically significant higher prevalence (32.8%) of hazardous, harmful or dependent drinking than female students (18.9%). Women, however, are biologically more vulnerable to the ill effects of alcohol due to altered pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of alcohol. In addition, intoxicated women suffer more biological and social risks. When the cut-off point for hazardous drinking was adapted to account for the increased biological vulnerability of women, the difference between female and male participants was no longer significant. First year male students were less likely to engage in unsafe drinking than senior students. Female students in the alcohol dependent category showed an increasing trend over advancing academic year. Follow-up studies are needed to confirm whether a significant difference in hazardous drinking of first year male students compared to seniors reflects the influence of university policy or merely precedes drinking acculturation.

  4. Top quark production cross-section measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, Shota; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of the inclusive and differential cross-sections for top-quark pair and single top production cross sections in proton-proton collisions with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider are presented at center-of-mass energies of 8 TeV and 13 TeV. The inclusive measurements reach high precision and are compared to the best available theoretical calculations. These measurements, including results using boosted tops, probe our understanding of top-pair production in the TeV regime. The results are compared to Monte Carlo generators implementing LO and NLO matrix elements matched with parton showers and NLO QCD calculations. For the t-channel single top measurement, the single top-quark and anti-top-quark total production cross-sections, their ratio, as well as differential cross sections are also presented. A measurement of the production cross-section of a single top quark in association with a W boson, the second largest single-top production mode, is also presented. Finally, measurements of ...

  5. Prospects for Precision Neutrino Cross Section Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Deborah A. [Fermilab

    2016-01-28

    The need for precision cross section measurements is more urgent now than ever before, given the central role neutrino oscillation measurements play in the field of particle physics. The definition of precision is something worth considering, however. In order to build the best model for an oscillation experiment, cross section measurements should span a broad range of energies, neutrino interaction channels, and target nuclei. Precision might better be defined not in the final uncertainty associated with any one measurement but rather with the breadth of measurements that are available to constrain models. Current experience shows that models are better constrained by 10 measurements across different processes and energies with 10% uncertainties than by one measurement of one process on one nucleus with a 1% uncertainty. This article describes the current status of and future prospects for the field of precision cross section measurements considering the metric of how many processes, energies, and nuclei have been studied.

  6. Reaction cross section of 22C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togano, Yasuhiro; Samurai Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    Reaction cross section of 22C on a carbon target at an energy of 240 MeV/nucleon have been measured by using the transmission method. The most neutron-rich carbon isotopes 22C is a candidate of a two-neutron halo nucleus. Tanaka et al. [1] measured the reaction cross section of 22C on a hydrogen target at 40 MeV/nucleon. It is showed 22C to have a large matter radius of 5 . 9 +/- 0 . 9 fm, which is much larger than the ones of carbon isotopes with N SAMURAI spectrometer at RIBF. The 22C beam at 240 MeV/nucleon was impinged on a carbon target, and the reaction product was identified by using SAMURAI spectrometer. In the present talk, the extracted reaction cross section and derived matter density distribution of 22C will be presented.

  7. Photodisintegration Cross Section of 241Am

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonchev, A. P.; Hammond, S.; Howell, C. R.; Huibregtse, C.; Hutcheson, A.; Karwowski, H. J.; Kelley, J. H.; Kwan, E.; Rusev, G.; Tornow, W.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.

    2009-03-01

    The photodisintegration cross section of radioactive 241Am has been obtained for the first time using monoenergetic γ-ray beams from the HIγS facility. The induced activity of 240Am produced via the 241Am(γ,n) reaction in the γ-ray energy range from 9.5 to 16 MeV was measured by the activation technique utilizing high resolution HPGe detectors. The 241Am(γ,n) cross section was determined both by measuring the absolute γ-ray flux and by comparison to the 197Au(γ,n) and 58Ni(γ,n) cross section standards. The experimental data for the 241Am(γ,n) reaction in the giant dipole resonance energy region is compared with statistical nuclear-model calculations.

  8. Calculation of vibrational excitation cross-sections in resonant electron-molecule scattering using the time-dependent wave packet (TDWP) approach with application to the 2 CO- shape resonance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Raman Kumar Singh; Manabendra Sarma; Ankit Jain; Satrajit Adhikari; Manoj K Mishra

    2007-09-01

    Results from application of a new implementation of the time-dependent wave packet (TDWP) approach to the calculation of vibrational excitation cross-sections in resonant e-CO scattering are presented to examine its applicability in the treatment of e-molecule resonances. The results show that the SCF level local complex potential (LCP) in conjunction with the TDWP approach can reproduce experimental features quite satisfactorily.

  9. Top Quark Production Cross Section Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Massa, Lorenzo; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of the inclusive and differential cross-sections for top-quark pair and single top production cross sectionsinproton-proton collisions with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider are presented at centre of mass energies of 8 TeV and 13 TeV. The inclusive measurements reach high precision and are compared to the best available theoretical calculations. These measurements, including results using boosted tops, probe our understanding of top-pair production in the TeV regime. The results are compared to Monte Carlo generators implementing LO and NLO matrix elements matched with parton showers and NLO QCD calculations. For the t-channel single top measurement, the single top-quark and anti-top-quark total production cross-sections, their ratio, as well as differential cross sections are also presented. A measurement of the production cross section of a single top quark in association witha W boson, the second largest single-top production mode, is also presented. Finally, measurements of t...

  10. The hadronic cross section measurement at KLOE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aloisio, A.; Ambrosino, F.; Antonelli, A.; Antonelli, M.; Bacci, C.; Barva, M.; Bencivenni, G.; Bertolucci, S.; Bini, C.; Bloise, C.; Bocci, V.; Bossi, F.; Branchini, P.; Bulychjov, S.A.; Caloi, R.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Capussela, T.; Carboni, G.; Ceradini, F.; Cervelli, F.; Cevenini, F.; Chiefari, G.; Ciambrone, P.; Conetti, S.; De Lucia, E.; De Santis, A.; De Simone, P.; De Zorzi, G.; Dell' Agnello, S.; Denig, A.; Di Domenico, A.; Di Donato, C.; Di Falco, S.; Di Micco, B.; Doria, A.; Dreucci, M.; Erriquez, O.; Farilla, A.; Felici, G.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrer, M.L.; Finocchiaro, G.; Forti, C.; Franzini, P.; Gatti, C.; Gauzzi, P.; Giovannella, S.; Gorini, E.; Graziani, E.; Incagli, M.; Kluge, W.; Kulikov, V.; Lacava, F.; Lanfranchi, G.; Lee-Franzini, J.; Leone, D. [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Universitaet Karlsruhe Postfach 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Lu, F.; Martemianov, M.; Martini, M.; Matsyuk, M.; Mei, W.; Merola, L.; Messi, R.; Miscetti, S.; Moulson, M.; Mueller, S.; Murtas, F.; Napolitano, M.; Nguyen, F.; Palutan, M.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passalacqua, L.; Passeri, A.; Patera, V.; Perfetto, F.; Petrolo, E.; Pontecorvo, L.; Primavera, M.; Santangelo, P.; Santovetti, E.; Saracino, G.; Schamberger, R.D.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Scuri, F.; Sfiligoi, I.; Sibidanov, A.; Spadaro, T.; Spiriti, E.; Tabidze, M.; Testa, M.; Tortora, L.; Valente, P.; Valeriani, B.; Venanzoni, G.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Versaci, R.; Villella, I.; Xu, G

    2005-07-15

    KLOE uses the radiative return to measure cross section {sigma}(e{sup +}e{sup -}->{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{gamma}) at the electron-positron collider DA{phi}NE. Divinding by a theoretical radiator function, we obtain the cross section {sigma}(e{sup +}e{sup -}->{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{gamma}) for the mass range 0.35

  11. Optical Model and Cross Section Uncertainties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman,M.W.; Pigni, M.T.; Dietrich, F.S.; Oblozinsky, P.

    2009-10-05

    Distinct minima and maxima in the neutron total cross section uncertainties were observed in model calculations using spherical optical potential. We found this oscillating structure to be a general feature of quantum mechanical wave scattering. Specifically, we analyzed neutron interaction with 56Fe from 1 keV up to 65 MeV, and investigated physical origin of the minima.We discuss their potential importance for practical applications as well as the implications for the uncertainties in total and absorption cross sections.

  12. Covariance Evaluation Methodology for Neutron Cross Sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman,M.; Arcilla, R.; Mattoon, C.M.; Mughabghab, S.F.; Oblozinsky, P.; Pigni, M.; Pritychenko, b.; Songzoni, A.A.

    2008-09-01

    We present the NNDC-BNL methodology for estimating neutron cross section covariances in thermal, resolved resonance, unresolved resonance and fast neutron regions. The three key elements of the methodology are Atlas of Neutron Resonances, nuclear reaction code EMPIRE, and the Bayesian code implementing Kalman filter concept. The covariance data processing, visualization and distribution capabilities are integral components of the NNDC methodology. We illustrate its application on examples including relatively detailed evaluation of covariances for two individual nuclei and massive production of simple covariance estimates for 307 materials. Certain peculiarities regarding evaluation of covariances for resolved resonances and the consistency between resonance parameter uncertainties and thermal cross section uncertainties are also discussed.

  13. Neutron capture cross section of Am241

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandel, M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Bond, E. M.; Chadwick, M. B.; Clement, R. R.; Couture, A.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Haight, R. C.; Kawano, T.; Reifarth, R.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wouters, J. M.; Agvaanluvsan, U.; Parker, W. E.; Wu, C. Y.; Becker, J. A.

    2008-09-01

    The neutron capture cross section of Am241 for incident neutrons from 0.02 eV to 320 keV has been measured with the detector for advanced neutron capture experiments (DANCE) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The thermal neutron capture cross section was determined to be 665±33 b. Our result is in good agreement with other recent measurements. Resonance parameters for Enwell with the measured data, and the extracted averaged resonance parameters in the unresolved resonance region are consistent with those for the resolved resonances.

  14. Neutron Capture Cross Section of 239Pu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosby, S.; Arnold, C.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Jandel, M.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rusev, G.; Ullmann, J. L.; Chyzh, A.; Henderson, R.; Kwan, E.; Wu, C. Y.

    2014-09-01

    The 239Pu(n,γ) cross section has been measured over the energy range 10 eV - 10 keV using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) as part of a campaign to produce precision (n,γ) measurements on 239Pu in the keV region. Fission coincidences were measured with a PPAC and used to characterize the prompt fission γ-ray spectrum in this region. The resulting spectra will be used to better characterize the fission component of another experiment with a thicker target to extend the (n,γ) cross section measurement well into the keV region.

  15. [Fast neutron cross section measurements]. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoll, G.F.

    1992-10-26

    From its inception, the Nuclear Data Project at the University of Michigan has concentrated on two major objectives: (1) to carry out carefully controlled nuclear measurements of the highest possible reliability in support of the national nuclear data program, and (2) to provide an educational opportunity for students with interests in experimental nuclear science. The project has undergone a successful transition from a primary dependence on our photoneutron laboratory to one in which our current research is entirely based on a unique pulsed 14 MeV fast neutron facility. The new experimental facility is unique in its ability to provide nanosecond bursts of 14 MeV neutrons under conditions that are ``clean`` and as scatter-free as possible, and is the only one of its type currently in operation in the United States. It has been designed and put into operation primarily by graduate students, and has met or exceeded all of its important initial performance goals. We have reached the point of its routine operation, and most of the data are now in hand that will serve as the basis for the first two doctoral dissertations to be written by participating graduate students. Our initial results on double differential neutron cross sections will be presented at the May 1993 Fusion Reactor Technology Workshop. We are pleased to report that, after investing several years in equipment assembly and optimization, the project has now entered its ``data production`` phase.

  16. Top quark production cross-section measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Massa, Lorenzo; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of the inclusive and differential cross-sections for top-quark pair and single top production cross sections in proton-proton collisions with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider are presented at centre-of-mass energies of 8 TeV and 13 TeV. The inclusive measurements reach high precision and are compared to the best available theoretical calculations. These measurements, including results using boosted tops, probe our understanding of top-pair production in the TeV regime. The results are compared to Monte Carlo generators implementing LO and NLO matrix elements matched with parton showers and NLO QCD calculations. For the t-channel single top measurement, the single top-quark and anti-top-quark total production cross-sections, their ratio, as well as differential cross sections are also presented. A measurement of the production crosssection of a single top quark in association with a W boson, the second largest single-top production mode, is also presented. Finally, measurements of t...

  17. Cotton fibre cross-section properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    From a structural perspective the cotton fibre is a singularly discrete, elongated plant cell with no junctions or inter-cellular boundaries. Its form in nature is essentially unadulterated from the field to the spinning mill where its cross-section properties, as for any textile fibre, are central ...

  18. Power corrections in eikonal cross sections

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    We discuss power corrections associated with the infrared behavior of the perturbative running coupling in the eikonal approximation to Drell-Yan and other annihilation cross sections in hadron-hadron scattering. General properties of the eikonal approximation imply that only even powers of the energy scale are necessary.

  19. Regional cross section program for Illinois basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treworgy, J.D.; Whitaker, S.T. (Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign (USA))

    1989-08-01

    For the first time, the Illinois State Geological Survey will publish a network of regional cross sections portraying the structural and stratigraphic framework of the entire Illinois basin. The network of 16 structural cross sections radiating outward from the Union Oil 1 Cisne Community well (Sec. 3, T1N, 7E, Wayne County, Illinois) will consist of wireline logs showing formation boundaries and gross lithofacies of the entire stratigraphic column for over 140 wells. Indiana and Kentucky portions of the network will be prepared in conjunction with their respective state geological surveys. Wireline logs are being digitized and stored to allow reproduction of log curves at different scales and in various combinations. Initial cross sections will be published at a vertical scale of 1 in. = 400 ft and a horizontal scale of 1 in. = 8 mi (1:500,000). To assure the most accurate structural and lithologic portrayals possible, numerous wireline logs are being examined in addition to the 140 illustrated on the sections. Available seismic data, sample and core descriptions, and existing structure, isopach, and facies maps are also being used. Text describing the sections will be included on each sheet. Topics will cover a brief history of deposition and structural evolution, distribution of source rocks, reservoir rocks and seals, and significant fields and plays.

  20. Time dependent quantum dynamics study of the Ne + H2(+)(v0 = 0-4, j0 = 1) → NeH(+) + H proton transfer reaction, including the Coriolis coupling. A system with oscillatory cross sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamallo, Pablo; Defazio, Paolo; González, Miguel

    2011-10-27

    The Ne + H(2)(+)(v(0) = 0-4, j(0) = 1) proton transfer reaction has been studied in a wide collision energy (E(col)) interval, using the time dependent real wave packet method and taking into account the Coriolis coupling (CC-RWP method) and employing a recent ab initio potential energy surface, widely extending the reaction conditions previously explored at the CC level. The reaction probability shows a strong oscillatory behavior vs E(col) and the presence of sharp resonances, arising from metastable NeH(2)(+) states. The behavior of the reaction cross section σ vs E(col) depends on the vibrational level and can in general be interpreted in terms of the late barrier character of the potential energy surface and the existence (or not) of threshold energy. The situation is particularly complex for v(0) = 2, as σ(v0=2, j0=1) presents significant oscillations with E(col) up to ≈0.33 eV, which probably reflect the resonances found in the reaction probability. Hence, it would be particularly interesting to investigate the Ne + H(2)(+)(v(0) = 2, j(0) = 1) reaction experimentally, as some resonances survive the partial wave summation. The state selected cross sections compare well with previous CC quantum and experimental results, and although the previous centrifugal sudden RWP cross sections are reasonable, the inclusion of the Coriolis coupling is important to achieve a quantitative description of this and similar systems.

  1. The photon scattering cross-sections of atomic hydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Grunefeld, Swaantje J; Cheng, Yongjun

    2016-01-01

    We present a unified view of the frequency dependence of the various scattering processes involved when a neutral hydrogen atom interacts with a monochromatic, linearly-polarized photon. A computational approach is employed of the atom trapped by a finite-sized-box due to a finite basis-set expansion, which generates a set of transition matrix elements between $E0$ pseudostates. We introduce a general computational methodology that enables the computation of the frequency-dependent dipole transition polarizability with one real and two different imaginary contributions. These dipole transition polarizabilities are related to the cross-sections of one-photon photoionization, Rayleigh, Raman, and Compton scattering. Our numerical calculations reveal individual Raman scattering cross-sections above threshold that can rapidly vanish and revive. Furthermore, our numerical Compton cross-sections do not overtly suffer from the infra-red divergence problem, and are three orders-of-magnitude higher than previous analy...

  2. The thermal neutron scattering cross section of {sup 86}Kr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terburg, B.P.

    1992-05-01

    The availability of 27 1 STP krypton-86 gas, an isotope with unknown thermal neutron scattering cross section, was an excellent occasion to determine the (bound atom) scattering cross section and its coherent part by application of the neutron transmission method and neutron interferometry. The transmission method was applied in a diffractometer, a Larmor spectrometer and a TOF-spectrometer. In addition to {sup 86}Kr also natural krypton ({sup n}Kr) was used for sample in the diffractometer. The diffractometer measurements result in bound atom scattering cross sections {sigma}{sub s}=8.92(46) b for {sup 86}Kr and {sigma}{sub s}=7.08(95) b for {sup n}Kr. The Larmor transmission measurements lead to a final result {sigma}{sub s}=8.44(9) b for {sup 86}Kr. In the TOF-spectrometer the wavelength-dependent total cross section of water was determined. Coherent neutron scattering lengths were determined using the neutron interferometry method with a skew symmetric neutron interferometer. Scans with {sup 86}Kr and {sup n}Kr led to b{sub c}=8.07(26) fm for {sup 86}Kr and 7.72(33) fm for {sup n}Kr, corresponding to coherent scattering cross sections {sigma}{sub c}=8.18(53) b and 7.49(64) b respectively. Due to the large errors in the bound atom scattering cross section and coherent scattering cross section of {sup 86}Kr and {sup n}Kr, the incoherent cross section of both gases, {sigma}{sub i} = 0 within its inaccuracy, {sigma}{sub i}=0.26(54) b for {sup 86}Kr and {sigma}{sub i}=0.41(1.15) b for {sup n}Kr. (orig.).

  3. Modelling interaction cross sections for intermediate and low energy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toburen, L.H.; Shinpaugh, J.L.; Justiniano, E.L.B

    2002-07-01

    When charged particles slow in tissue they undergo electron capture and loss processes than can have profound effects on subsequent interaction cross sections. Although a large amount of data exists for the interaction of bare charged particles with atoms and molecules, few experiments have been reported for these 'dressed' particles. Projectile electrons contribute to an impact-parameter-dependent screening of the projectile charge that precludes straightforward scaling of energy loss cross sections from those of bare charged particles. The objective of this work is to develop an analytical model for the energy-loss-dependent effects of screening on differential ionisation cross sections that can be used in track structure calculations for high LET ions. As a first step a model of differential ionisation cross sections for bare ions has been combined with a simple screening model to explore cross sections for intermediate and low energy dressed ions in collisions with atomic and molecular gas targets. The model is described briefly and preliminary results compared to measured electron energy spectra. (author)

  4. Modelling interaction cross sections for intermediate and low energy ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toburen, L H; Shinpaugh, J L; Justiniano, E L B

    2002-01-01

    When charged particles slow in tissue they undergo electron capture and loss processes that can have profound effects on subsequent interaction cross sections. Although a large amount of data exists for the interaction of bare charged particles with atoms and molecules, few experiments have been reported for these 'dressed' particles. Projectile electrons contribute to an impact-parameter-dependent screening of the projectile charge that precludes straightforward scaling of energy loss cross sections from those of bare charged particles. The objective of this work is to develop an analytical model for the energy-loss-dependent effects of screening on differential ionisation cross sections that can be used in track structure calculations for high LET ions. As a first step a model of differential ionisation cross sections for bare ions has been combined with a simple screening model to explore cross sections for intermediate and low energy dressed ions in collisions with atomic and molecular gas targets. The model is described briefly and preliminary results compared to measured ejected electron energy spectra.

  5. (n,{alpha}) cross section measurement of gaseous sample using gridded ionization chamber. Cross section determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanami, Toshiya; Baba, Mamoru; Saito, Keiichiro; Ibara, Yasutaka; Hirakawa, Naohiro [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-03-01

    We are developing a method of (n,{alpha}) cross section measurement using gaseous samples in a gridded ionization chamber (GIC). This method enables cross section measurements in large solid angle without the distortion by the energy loss in a sample, but requires a method to estimate the detection efficiency. We solve this problem by using GIC signals and a tight neutron collimation. The validity of this method was confirmed through the {sup 12}C(n,{alpha}{sub 0}){sup 9}Be measurement. We applied this method to the {sup 16}O(n,{alpha}){sup 13}C cross section around 14.1 MeV. (author)

  6. Phase shifts as functions of the cross section

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atkinson, D.; Kaekebeke, M.; Roo, M. de

    1975-01-01

    We show that an elastic scattering amplitute may be defined as an implicit function of the differential cross section. A practical method is given for a numerical investigation of this dependence, both in the elastic and in the inelastic regions. In particular, we consider the case of a polynomial a

  7. Rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friese, Daniel H., E-mail: daniel.h.friese@uit.no; Beerepoot, Maarten T. P.; Ruud, Kenneth [Centre for Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, University of Tromsø — The Arctic University of Norway, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway)

    2014-11-28

    Rotational averaging of tensors is a crucial step in the calculation of molecular properties in isotropic media. We present a scheme for the rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections. We extend existing literature on rotational averaging to even-rank tensors of arbitrary order and derive equations that require only the number of photons as input. In particular, we derive the first explicit expressions for the rotational average of five-, six-, and seven-photon absorption cross sections. This work is one of the required steps in making the calculation of these higher-order absorption properties possible. The results can be applied to any even-rank tensor provided linearly polarized light is used.

  8. Rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friese, Daniel H.; Beerepoot, Maarten T. P.; Ruud, Kenneth

    2014-11-01

    Rotational averaging of tensors is a crucial step in the calculation of molecular properties in isotropic media. We present a scheme for the rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections. We extend existing literature on rotational averaging to even-rank tensors of arbitrary order and derive equations that require only the number of photons as input. In particular, we derive the first explicit expressions for the rotational average of five-, six-, and seven-photon absorption cross sections. This work is one of the required steps in making the calculation of these higher-order absorption properties possible. The results can be applied to any even-rank tensor provided linearly polarized light is used.

  9. Measurements of neutron spallation cross section. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, E.; Nakamura, T. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center; Imamura, M.; Nakao, N.; Shibata, S.; Uwamino, Y.; Nakanishi, N.; Tanaka, Su.

    1997-03-01

    Neutron spallation cross section of {sup 59}Co(n,xn){sup 60-x}Co, {sup nat}Cu(n,sp){sup 56}Mn, {sup nat}Cu(n,sp){sup 58}Co, {sup nat}Cu(n,xn){sup 60}Cu, {sup nat}Cu(n,xn){sup 61}Cu and {sup nat}Cu(n,sp){sup 65}Ni was measured in the quasi-monoenergetic p-Li neutron fields in the energy range above 40 MeV which have been established at three AVF cyclotron facilities of (1) INS of Univ. of Tokyo, (2) TIARA of JAERI and (3) RIKEN. Our experimental data were compared with the ENDF/B-VI high energy file data by Fukahori and the calculated cross section data by Odano. (author)

  10. Inclusive jet cross section at D0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharjee, M. [Delhi Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics and Astrophysics

    1996-09-01

    Preliminary measurement of the central ({vert_bar}{eta}{vert_bar} {<=} 0.5) inclusive jet cross sections for jet cone sizes of 1.0, 0.7, and 0.5 at D{null} based on the 1992-1993 (13.7 {ital pb}{sup -1}) and 1994-1995 (90 {ital pb}{sup -1}) data samples are presented. Comparisons to Next-to-Leading Order (NLO) Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) calculations are made.

  11. Inclusive jet cross section measurement at CDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagliarone, C. [Universita di Torino and INFN, Trieste (Italy)

    1996-08-01

    The CDF Collaboration has measured the inclusive jet cross section using 1992-93 collider data at 1.8 TeV. The CDF measurement is in very good agreement with NLO QCD predictions for transverse energies (E{sub T}) below 200 GeV. However, it is systematically higher than NLO QCD predictions for E{sub T} above 200 GeV.

  12. Measurements of Fission Cross Sections of Actinides

    CERN Multimedia

    Wiescher, M; Cox, J; Dahlfors, M

    2002-01-01

    A measurement of the neutron induced fission cross sections of $^{237}$Np, $^{241},{243}$Am and of $^{245}$Cm is proposed for the n_TOF neutron beam. Two sets of fission detectors will be used: one based on PPAC counters and another based on a fast ionization chamber (FIC). A total of 5x10$^{18}$ protons are requested for the entire fission measurement campaign.

  13. Cross section of the CMS solenoid

    CERN Multimedia

    Tejinder S. Virdee, CERN

    2005-01-01

    The pictures show a cross section of the CMS solenoid. One can see four layers of the superconducting coil, each of which contains the superconductor (central part, copper coloured - niobium-titanium strands in a copper coating, made into a "Rutherford cable"), surrounded by an ultra-pure aluminium as a magnetic stabilizer, then an aluminium alloy as a mechanical stabilizer. Besides the four layers there is an aluminium mechanical piece that includes pipes that transport the liquid helium.

  14. Fully double-logarithm-resummed cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albino, S.; Bolzoni, P.; Kniehl, B.A. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Kotikov, A. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Joint Inst. of Nuclear Research, Moscow (Russian Federation). Bogoliubov Lab. of Theoretical Physics

    2011-04-15

    We calculate the complete double logarithmic contribution to cross sections for semi-inclusive hadron production in the modified minimal-subtraction (MS) scheme by applying dimensional regularization to the double logarithm approximation. The full double logarithmic contribution to the coefficient functions for inclusive hadron production in electron-positron annihilation is obtained in this scheme for the first time. Our result agrees with all fixed order results in the literature, which extend to next-next-to-leading order. (orig.)

  15. Dijet cross sections in photoproduction at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarenko, Inna [DESY, Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    At high collision energies accessible at ep collider HERA hard hadronic jets can be produced. At leading order, at low virtualities of the exchanged photon, two processes contribute to the jet production. In the direct photon process an almost real photon interacts as a point-like particle with a parton of the proton. In contrast in resolved processes the photon fluctuates to an hadronic state. The measurements of the jet production give an important information about the structure of the photon and the proton. Dijet cross sections have been measured in the reaction ep{yields} e+jet+jet+X with the ZEUS detector using an integrated luminosity of 189 pb{sup -1}. Differential cross sections are presented as functions of average jet transverse energy and presudorapidity for dijet events with E{sub T}{sup jet1} > 21 GeV, E{sub T}{sup jet2} > 17 GeV, -1 < {eta}{sup jet1(2)} < 3 for {gamma}p centre-of-mass energies in range 142 < W{sub {gamma}p} < 293 GeV and photon virtuality Q{sup 2} < 1 GeV{sup 2}. In addition, the dijet cross section was measured as a function of the fraction of the incoming photon momentum taken by the dijet system. The dijet cross sections were also measured as functions of the dijet invariant mass, M{sub jj} and scattering angle in the dijet centre-of-mass system for E{sub T}{sup jet1(2)} > 17 GeV, -1 < {eta}{sup jet1(2)} < 3 and M{sub jj} > 60 GeV. Next-to-leading order calculations give a good description of the measurements. These measurements can be used to further constraint the gluon component of the proton parton density function at medium to high x.

  16. Fusion cross sections measurements with MUSIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnelli, P. F. F.; Fernández Niello, J. O.; Almaraz-Calderon, S.; Rehm, K. E.; Albers, M.; Digiovine, B.; Esbensen, H.; Henderson, D.; Jiang, C. L.; Nusair, O.; Palchan-Hazan, T.; Pardo, R. C.; Ugalde, C.; Paul, M.; Alcorta, M.; Bertone, P. F.; Lai, J.; Marley, S. T.

    2014-09-01

    The interaction between exotic nuclei plays an important role for understanding the reaction mechanism of the fusion processes as well as for the energy production in stars. With the advent of radioactive beams new frontiers for fusion reaction studies have become accessible. We have performed the first measurements of the total fusion cross sections in the systems 10 , 14 , 15C + 12C using a newly developed active target-detector system (MUSIC). Comparison of the obtained cross sections with theoretical predictions show a good agreement in the energy region accessible with existing radioactive beams. This type of comparison allows us to calibrate the calculations for cases that cannot be studied in the laboratory with the current experimental capabilities. The high efficiency of this active detector system will allow future measurements with even more neutron-rich isotopes. The interaction between exotic nuclei plays an important role for understanding the reaction mechanism of the fusion processes as well as for the energy production in stars. With the advent of radioactive beams new frontiers for fusion reaction studies have become accessible. We have performed the first measurements of the total fusion cross sections in the systems 10 , 14 , 15C + 12C using a newly developed active target-detector system (MUSIC). Comparison of the obtained cross sections with theoretical predictions show a good agreement in the energy region accessible with existing radioactive beams. This type of comparison allows us to calibrate the calculations for cases that cannot be studied in the laboratory with the current experimental capabilities. The high efficiency of this active detector system will allow future measurements with even more neutron-rich isotopes. This work is supported by the U.S. DOE Office of Nuclear Physics under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357 and the Universidad Nacional de San Martin, Argentina, Grant SJ10/39.

  17. Determining the partial photoionization cross-sections of ethyl radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzPatrick, B L; Maienschein-Cline, M; Butler, L J; Lee, S-H; Lin, J J

    2007-12-13

    Using a crossed laser-molecular beam scattering apparatus, these experiments photodissociate ethyl chloride at 193 nm and detect the Cl and ethyl products, resolved by their center-of-mass recoil velocities, with vacuum ultraviolet photoionization. The data determine the relative partial cross-sections for the photoionization of ethyl radicals to form C2H5+, C2H4+, and C2H3+ at 12.1 and 13.8 eV. The data also determine the internal energy distribution of the ethyl radical prior to photoionization, so we can assess the internal energy dependence of the photoionization cross-sections. The results show that the C2H4++H and C2H3++H2 dissociative photoionization cross-sections strongly depend on the photoionization energy. Calibrating the ethyl radical partial photoionization cross-sections relative to the bandwidth-averaged photoionization cross-section of Cl atoms near 13.8 eV allows us to use these data in conjunction with literature estimates of the Cl atom photoionization cross-sections to put the present bandwidth-averaged cross-sections on an absolute scale. The resulting bandwidth-averaged cross-section for the photoionization of ethyl radicals to C2H5+ near 13.8 eV is 8+/-2 Mb. Comparison of our 12.1 eV data with high-resolution ethyl radical photoionization spectra allows us to roughly put the high-resolution spectrum on the same absolute scale. Thus, one obtains the photoionization cross-section of ethyl radicals to C2H5+ from threshold to 12.1 eV. The data show that the onset of the C2H4++H dissociative photoionization channel is above 12.1 eV; this result offers a simple way to determine whether the signal observed in photoionization experiments on complex mixtures is due to ethyl radicals. We discuss an application of the results for resolving the product branching in the O+allyl bimolecular reaction.

  18. Radar cross section measurements using terahertz waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Heiselberg, Henning; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2010-01-01

    Radar cross sections at terahertz frequencies are measured on scale models of aircrafts. A time domain broadband THz system generates freely propagating THz pulses measured with sub-picosecond time resolution. The THz radiation is generated using fs laser pulses by optical rectification in a lith......Radar cross sections at terahertz frequencies are measured on scale models of aircrafts. A time domain broadband THz system generates freely propagating THz pulses measured with sub-picosecond time resolution. The THz radiation is generated using fs laser pulses by optical rectification...... in a lithium niobate crystal with application of the tilted wave front method, resulting in high electric field THz pulses with a broad band spectrum from 100 GHz up to 4 THz. The corresponding wave lengths are two orders of magnitude smaller than normal radars and we therefore use scale models of size 5-10 cm...... in order to measure realistic radar cross sections. RCS polar and azimuthal angle plots of F-16 and F-35 are presented....

  19. Active-beam cross-sectional modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesnik, Carlos E. S.; Ortega-Morales, Miguel

    2000-06-01

    A finite-element based analysis for modeling active composite beams with embedded anisotropic actuation is presented. It is derived from three-dimensional electroelasticity, where the original problem is reduced via the variational asymptotic method. The resulting cross-sectional analysis takes into consideration passive and active anisotropic and nonhomogeneous materials, and represents general (thin-walled, thick-walled, solid) cross-sectional geometries. The formulation requires neither the costly use of 3-D finite element discretization nor the loss of accuracy inherent to any simplified representation of the cross section. The developed formulation is numerically implemented in VABS-A, and several numerical and experimental tests cases are used to support validation of the proposed theory. Also, the effect of the presence of a core in originally hallow configurations is presented and counter-intuitive conclusions are discussed. The generality of the method and accuracy of the results increase confidence at the design stage that the active beam structure will perform as expected and, consequently, should lower costs from experimental tests and further adjustments.

  20. Reaction cross sections of the deformed halo nucleus 31Ne

    CERN Document Server

    Urata, Y; Sagawa, H

    2012-01-01

    Using the Glauber theory, we calculate reaction cross sections for the deformed halo nucleus $^{31}$Ne. To this end, we assume that the $^{31}$Ne nucleus takes the $^{30}$Ne + $n$ structure. In order to take into account the rotational excitation of the core nucleus $^{30}$Ne, we employ the particle-rotor model (PRM). We compare the results to those in the adiabatic limit of PRM, that is, the Nilsson model, and show that the Nilsson model works reasonably well for the reaction cross sections of $^{31}$Ne. We also investigate the dependence of the reaction cross sections on the ground state properties of $^{31}$Ne, such as the deformation parameter and the p-wave component in the ground state wave function.

  1. New cross sections for H on H2 collisional transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Qianxia

    The cross section for H on H2 collisions is important for astrophysics as well as our understanding of the simple chemical systems. This is the simplest atom-molecule cross section. With a new H3 potential surface by Mielke et al., we have modified the ABC code by Skouteris, Castillo and Manolopoulos to calculate new cross sections. These cross sections are compared to previous cross section calculations.

  2. Averaging cross section data so we can fit it

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). NNDC

    2014-10-23

    The 56Fe cross section we are interested in have a lot of fluctuations. We would like to fit the average of the cross section with cross sections calculated within EMPIRE. EMPIRE is a Hauser-Feshbach theory based nuclear reaction code, requires cross sections to be smoothed using a Lorentzian profile. The plan is to fit EMPIRE to these cross sections in the fast region (say above 500 keV).

  3. Fission cross section measurements for minor actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fursov, B. [IPPE, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-03-01

    The main task of this work is the measurement of fast neutron induced fission cross section for minor actinides of {sup 238}Pu, {sup 242m}Am, {sup 243,244,245,246,247,248}Cm. The task of the work is to increase the accuracy of data in MeV energy region. Basic experimental method, fissile samples, fission detectors and electronics, track detectors, alpha counting, neutron generation, fission rate measurement, corrections to the data and error analysis are presented in this paper. (author)

  4. Neutron capture cross section of $^{93}$Zr

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to measure the neutron capture cross section of the radioactive isotope $^{93}$Zr. This project aims at the substantial improvement of existing results for applications in nuclear astrophysics and emerging nuclear technologies. In particular, the superior quality of the data that can be obtained at n_TOF will allow on one side a better characterization of s-process nucleosynthesis and on the other side a more accurate material balance in systems for transmutation of nuclear waste, given that this radioactive isotope is widely present in fission products.

  5. Automatic Computation of Cross Sections in HEP

    CERN Document Server

    Yuasa, F; Ishikawa, T; Jimbo, M; Kaneko, T; Kato, K; Kawabata, S; Kon, T; Kurihara, Y; Kuroda, M; Nakazawa, N; Shimizu, Y; Tanaka, H

    2000-01-01

    For the study of reactions in High Energy Physics (HEP) automatic computation systems have been developed and are widely used nowadays. GRACE is one of such systems and it has achieved much success in analyzing experimental data. Since we deal with the cross section whose value can be given by calculating hundreds of Feynman diagrams, we manage the large scale calculation, so that effective symbolic manipulation, the treat of singularity in the numerical integration are required. The talk will describe the software design of GRACE system and computational techniques in the GRACE.

  6. Critical behavior of cross sections at LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dremin, I. M.

    2016-07-01

    Recent experimental data on elastic scattering of high energy protons show that the critical regime has been reached at LHC energies. The approach to criticality is demonstrated by increase of the ratio of elastic to total cross sections from ISR to LHC energies. At LHC it reaches the value which can result in principal change of the character of proton interactions. The treatment of new physics of hollowed toroid-like hadrons requires usage of another branch of the unitarity condition. Its further fate is speculated and interpreted with the help of the unitarity condition in combination with present experimental data. The gedanken experiments to distinguish between different possibilities are proposed.

  7. LEP vacuum chamber, cross-section

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1983-01-01

    Cross-section of the final prototype for the LEP vacuum chamber. The elliptic main-opening is for the beam. The small channel to the left is for the cooling water, to carry away the heat deposited by the synchrotron radiation. The square channel to the right houses the Non-Evaporable Getter (NEG) pump. The chamber is made from extruded aluminium. Its outside is clad with lead, to stop the synchrotron radiation emitted by the beam. For good adherence between Pb and Al, the Al chamber was coated with a thin layer of Ni. Ni being slightly magnetic, some resulting problems had to be overcome. See also 8301153.

  8. Critical behavior of cross sections at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Dremin, I M

    2016-01-01

    Recent experimental data on elastic scattering of high energy protons show that the critical regime has been reached at LHC energies. The approach to criticality is demonstrated by increase of the ratio of elastic to total cross sections from ISR to LHC energies. At LHC it reaches the value which can result in principal change of the character of proton interactions. The treatment of new physics of hollowed toroid-like hadrons requires usage of another branch of the unitarity condition. Its further fate is speculated and interpreted with the help of the unitarity condition in combination with present experimental data. The gedanken experiments to distinguish between different possibilities are proposed.

  9. Nuclear interaction cross sections for proton radiotherapy

    CERN Document Server

    Chadwick, M B; Arendse, G J; Cowley, A A; Richter, W A; Lawrie, J J; Newman, R T; Pilcher, J V; Smit, F D; Steyn, G F; Koen, J W; Stander, J A

    1999-01-01

    Model calculations of proton-induced nuclear reaction cross sections are described for biologically-important targets. Measurements made at the National Accelerator Centre are presented for double-differential proton, deuteron, triton, helium-3 and alpha particle spectra, for 150 and 200 MeV protons incident on C, N, and O. These data are needed for Monte Carlo simulations of radiation transport and absorbed dose in proton therapy. Data relevant to the use of positron emission tomography to locate the Bragg peak are also described.

  10. Multicollinearity in cross-sectional regressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauridsen, Jørgen; Mur, Jesùs

    2006-10-01

    The paper examines robustness of results from cross-sectional regression paying attention to the impact of multicollinearity. It is well known that the reliability of estimators (least-squares or maximum-likelihood) gets worse as the linear relationships between the regressors become more acute. We resolve the discussion in a spatial context, looking closely into the behaviour shown, under several unfavourable conditions, by the most outstanding misspecification tests when collinear variables are added to the regression. A Monte Carlo simulation is performed. The conclusions point to the fact that these statistics react in different ways to the problems posed.

  11. Fission cross section measurements for minor actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fursov, B. [IPPE, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-03-01

    The main task of this work is the measurement of fast neutron induced fission cross section for minor actinides of {sup 238}Pu, {sup 242m}Am, {sup 243,244,245,246,247,248}Cm. The task of the work is to increase the accuracy of data in MeV energy region. Basic experimental method, fissile samples, fission detectors and electronics, track detectors, alpha counting, neutron generation, fission rate measurement, corrections to the data and error analysis are presented in this paper. (author)

  12. Top cross section measurements at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Okumura, Y; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    We present a measurement of the top-quark pair-production in proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider using the full 2010 data sample. The cross sections are measured in the lepton+jets and dilepton channels. This is a 15 minute talk (+ 6min discussion) to be given at "DIS2011" Workshop , Newport News, VA USA. The conference starts on April 11, 2011. The talk is scheduled for April 13, 2011.

  13. Can Simulator Immersion Change Cognitive Style? Results from a Cross-Sectional Study of Field-Dependence--Independence in Air Traffic Control Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eck, Richard N.; Fu, Hongxia; Drechsel, Paul V. J.

    2015-01-01

    Air traffic control (ATC) operations are critical to the U.S. aviation infrastructure, making ATC training a critical area of study. Because ATC performance is heavily dependent on visual processing, it is important to understand how to screen for or promote relevant visual processing abilities. While conventional wisdom has maintained that such…

  14. Top quark cross section measurements with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Skubic, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of the inclusive top quark pair production cross sections in proton-proton collisions with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider are presented. The measurements are performed requiring one or two electrons or muons in the final state. Various experimental techniques are compared. The most precise result requires events with an electron and a muon of opposite sign and uses the full data-set at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV. The data are in good agreement with a recent NNLO+NNLL QCD calculation. Measurements of the differential top quark pair production cross sections in proton-proton collisions with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider are also presented. The measurements are performed requiring one electron or muon in the final state and are carried out differentially in the reconstructed top transverse momentum, and the invariant mass, rapidity and transverse momentum of the top pair system. These measurements probe our understanding of top pair production in the TeV regi...

  15. Musical practice and cognitive aging: two cross-sectional studies point to phonemic fluency as a potential candidate for a use-dependent adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Fauvel, Baptiste; Groussard, Mathilde; Mutlu, Justine; Arenaza-Urquijo, Eider M.; Eustache, Francis; Desgranges, Béatrice; Platel, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    Because of permanent use-dependent brain plasticity, all lifelong individuals' experiences are believed to influence the cognitive aging quality. In older individuals, both former and current musical practices have been associated with better verbal skills, visual memory, processing speed, and planning function. This work sought for an interaction between musical practice and cognitive aging by comparing musician and non-musician individuals for two lifetime periods (middle and late adulthood...

  16. Musical practice and cognitive aging: two cross-sectional studies point phonemic fluency as a potential candidate for a use-dependent adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Baptiste eFAUVEL; Mathilde eGroussard; Justine eMUTLU; Eider Martinez Arenaza-Urquijo; Francis eEUSTACHE; Béatrice eDesgranges; Hervé ePlatel

    2014-01-01

    Because of permanent use-dependent cerebral plasticity, all lifelong individuals’ experiences are believed to influence the cognitive aging quality. In old individuals, both former and current musical practices have been associated with better verbal skills, visual memory, processing speed, and planning function. This work sought for an interaction between musical practice and cognitive aging by comparing musician and nonmusician individuals for two periods of life (late adulthood and old age...

  17. Musical practice and cognitive aging: two cross-sectional studies point to phonemic fluency as a potential candidate for a use-dependent adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Fauvel, Baptiste; Mathilde, Groussard; Justine, Mutlu; M., Arenaza-Urquijo Eider; Francis, Eustache; Béatrice, Desgranges; Hervé, Platel

    2015-01-01

    Because of permanent use-dependent brain plasticity, all lifelong individuals' experiences are believed to influence the cognitive aging quality. In older individuals, both former and current musical practices have been associated with better verbal skills, visual memory, processing speed, and planning function. This work sought for an interaction between musical practice and cognitive aging by comparing musician and non-musician individuals for two lifetime periods (middle and late adulthood...

  18. Musical practice and cognitive aging: two cross-sectional studies point to phonemic fluency as a potential candidate for a use-dependent adaptation.

    OpenAIRE

    Fauvel, Baptiste; Mathilde, Groussard; Justine, Mutlu; Eider M., Arenaza-Urquijo; Francis, Eustache; Béatrice, Desgranges; Hervé, Platel

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Because of permanent use-dependent brain plasticity, all lifelong individuals' experiences are believed to influence the cognitive aging quality. In older individuals, both former and current musical practices have been associated with better verbal skills, visual memory, processing speed, and planning function. This work sought for an interaction between musical practice and cognitive aging by comparing musician and non-musician individuals for two lifetime periods (m...

  19. Misuse and dependence on non-prescription codeine analgesics or sedative H1 antihistamines by adults: a cross-sectional investigation in France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Roussin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Given the growing worldwide market of non-prescription drugs, monitoring their misuse in the context of self-medication represents a particular challenge in Public Health. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of misuse, abuse, and dependence on non-prescription psychoactive drugs. METHOD: During one month, in randomly solicited community pharmacies, an anonymous questionnaire was offered to adults requesting paracetamol (control group, codeine combined with paracetamol in analgesics, or sedative H1 antihistamines. Responses about misuse (drug use not in agreement with the Patient Information Leaflet abuse (excessive drug use having detrimental consequences, and dependence (established according to questions adapted from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition criteria on psychoactive drugs were compared to those of the paracetamol control group. RESULTS: 295 patients (mean age 48.5 years, 68.5% of women having used one of the studied drugs during the previous month were included. Misuse and dependence to codeine analgesics concerned 6.8% and 17.8% of the patients exposed to these drugs, respectively, (n = 118, which was significantly higher than for paracetamol. 19.5% had used codeine analgesics daily for more than six months. Headache was the most frequent reason for persistent daily use. A high prevalence of persistent daily users of sedative H1 antihistamines was also observed. Whereas these drugs are recommended only for short treatment courses of occasional insomnia, 72.2% of the participants having taken doxylamine (n = 36 were daily users, predominantly for more than six months. CONCLUSIONS: Results on misuse and dependence on non-prescription codeine analgesics suggest that chronic pain, in particular chronic cephalalgia, requires better medical care. In addition, as for hypnotics on prescription, persistent use of doxylamine for self-medication is not justified until

  20. The total top-pair production cross section at NNLL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beneke, M. [Physik Department T31, James-Franck-Straße, Technische Universität München, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Institut für Theoretische Teilchenphysik und Kosmologie, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen (Germany); Falgari, P., E-mail: p.falgari@uu.nl [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Klein, S. [Institut für Theoretische Teilchenphysik und Kosmologie, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen (Germany); Piclum, J. [Physik Department T31, James-Franck-Straße, Technische Universität München, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Institut für Theoretische Teilchenphysik und Kosmologie, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen (Germany); Schwinn, C. [Albert-Ludwigs Universität Freiburg, Physikalisches Institut, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Ubiali, M.; Yan, F. [Institut für Theoretische Teilchenphysik und Kosmologie, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    We present results for the total top-pair production cross section at the Tevatron and the LHC. Our predictions supplement fixed-order results with resummation of soft logarithms and Coulomb singularities to next-to-next-to-leading (NNLL) logarithmic accuracy and include top-antitop bound-state effects. The effects of resummation, the dependence on the PDF set used, the residual sources of theoretical uncertainty and their implication for measurements of the top-quark mass are discussed.

  1. SU-E-I-43: Photoelectric Cross Section Revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haga, A; Nakagawa, K [The University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Kotoku, J [Teikyo University, Tokyo (Japan); Horikawa, Y [Juntendo University, Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The importance of the precision in photoelectric cross-section value increases for recent developed technology such as dual energy computed tomography, in which some reconstruction algorithms require the energy dependence of the photo-absorption in each material composition of human being. In this study, we revisited the photoelectric cross-section calculation by self-consistent relativistic Hartree-Fock (HF) atomic model and compared with that widely distributed as “XCOM database” in National Institute of Standards and Technology, which was evaluated with localdensity approximation for electron-exchange (Fock)z potential. Methods: The photoelectric cross section can be calculated with the electron wave functions in initial atomic state (bound electron) and final continuum state (photoelectron). These electron states were constructed based on the selfconsistent HF calculation, where the repulsive Coulomb potential from the electron charge distribution (Hartree term) and the electron exchange potential with full electromagnetic interaction (Fock term) were included for the electron-electron interaction. The photoelectric cross sections were evaluated for He (Z=2), Be (Z=4), C (Z=6), O (Z=8), and Ne (Z=10) in energy range of 10keV to 1MeV. The Result was compared with XCOM database. Results: The difference of the photoelectric cross section between the present calculation and XCOM database was 8% at a maximum (in 10keV for Be). The agreement tends to be better as the atomic number increases. The contribution from each atomic shell has a considerable discrepancy with XCOM database except for K-shell. However, because the photoelectric cross section arising from K-shell is dominant, the net photoelectric cross section was almost insensitive to the different handling in Fock potential. Conclusion: The photoelectric cross-section program has been developed based on the fully self-consistent relativistic HF atomic model. Due to small effect on the Fock

  2. Determination of Ultimate Torque for Multiply Connected Cross Section Rod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. L. Danilov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to determine load-carrying capability of the multiply cross-section rod. This calculation is based on the model of the ideal plasticity of the material, so that the desired ultimate torque is a torque at which the entire cross section goes into a plastic state.The article discusses the cylindrical multiply cross-section rod. To satisfy the equilibrium equation and the condition of plasticity simultaneously, two stress function Ф and φ are introduced. By mathematical transformations it has been proved that Ф is constant along the path, and a formula to find its values on the contours has been obtained. The paper also presents the rationale of the line of stress discontinuity and obtained relationships, which allow us to derive the equations break lines for simple interaction of neighboring circuits, such as two lines, straight lines and circles, circles and a different sign of the curvature.After substitution into the boundary condition at the end of the stress function Ф and mathematical transformations a formula is obtained to determine the ultimate torque for the multiply cross-section rod.Using the doubly connected cross-section and three-connected cross-section rods as an example the application of the formula of ultimate torque is studied.For doubly connected cross-section rod, the paper offers a formula of the torque versus the radius of the rod, the aperture radius and the distance between their centers. It also clearly demonstrates the torque dependence both on the ratio of the radii and on the displacement of hole. It is shown that the value of the torque is more influenced by the displacement of hole, rather than by the ratio of the radii.For the three-connected cross-section rod the paper shows the integration feature that consists in selection of a coordinate system. As an example, the ultimate torque is found by two methods: analytical one and 3D modeling. The method of 3D modeling is based on the Nadai

  3. ISSUES IN NEUTRON CROSS SECTION COVARIANCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattoon, C.M.; Oblozinsky,P.

    2010-04-30

    We review neutron cross section covariances in both the resonance and fast neutron regions with the goal to identify existing issues in evaluation methods and their impact on covariances. We also outline ideas for suitable covariance quality assurance procedures.We show that the topic of covariance data remains controversial, the evaluation methodologies are not fully established and covariances produced by different approaches have unacceptable spread. The main controversy is in very low uncertainties generated by rigorous evaluation methods and much larger uncertainties based on simple estimates from experimental data. Since the evaluators tend to trust the former, while the users tend to trust the latter, this controversy has considerable practical implications. Dedicated effort is needed to arrive at covariance evaluation methods that would resolve this issue and produce results accepted internationally both by evaluators and users.

  4. Surface Reconstruction for Cross Sectional Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐美和; 唐泽圣

    1996-01-01

    In this paper,a new solution to the problem of reconstructing the surface of 3D objects over a set of cross-sectional contours is proposed.An algorithm for single branch contours connection,which is based on the closest local polar angle method,is first presented.Then the branching problems(including non-singular branchin and singular branching)are completely solved by decomposing them into several single-branching problems.Finally,these methods are applied to the reconstruction of the external surface of a complexly shaped object such as the cellular region of human brain.The results show that the presented methods are practical and satisfactory.

  5. Absolute photoneutron cross sections of Sm isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gheorghe, I.; Glodariu, T. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering Horia Hulubei, str. Atomistilor nr. 407 (Romania); Utsunomiya, H. [Department of Physics, Konan University, Okamoto 8-9-1, Higashinada, Kobe 658-8501 (Japan); Filipescu, D. [Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics, str. Atomistilor nr. 407, Bucharest-Magurele, P.O.BOX MG6 and National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering Horia Hulubei, str. Atomistilor nr. 407 (Romania); Nyhus, H.-T.; Renstrom, T. [Department of Physics, University of Oslo, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Tesileanu, O. [Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics, str. Atomistilor nr. 407, Bucharest-Magurele, P.O.BOX MG6 (Romania); Shima, T.; Takahisa, K. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Miyamoto, S. [Laboratory of Advanced Science and Technology for Industry, University of Hyogo, 3-1-2 Kouto, Kamigori, Hyogo 678-1205 (Japan)

    2015-02-24

    Photoneutron cross sections for seven samarium isotopes, {sup 144}Sm, {sup 147}Sm, {sup 148}Sm, {sup 149}Sm, {sup 150}Sm, {sup 152}Sm and {sup 154}Sm, have been investigated near neutron emission threshold using quasimonochromatic laser-Compton scattering γ-rays produced at the synchrotron radiation facility NewSUBARU. The results are important for nuclear astrophysics calculations and also for probing γ-ray strength functions in the vicinity of neutron threshold. Here we describe the neutron detection system and we discuss the related data analysis and the necessary method improvements for adapting the current experimental method to the working parameters of the future Gamma Beam System of Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics facility.

  6. Measurement of thermal neutron capture cross section

    CERN Document Server

    Huang Xiao Long; LuHanLin; Yu Wei Xiang; Zhao Wen Rong

    2001-01-01

    The thermal neutron capture cross sections of sup 7 sup 1 Ga(n, gamma) sup 7 sup 2 Ga, sup 9 sup 4 Zr(n, gamma) sup 9 sup 5 Zr and sup 1 sup 9 sup 1 Ir(n, gamma) sup 1 sup 9 sup 2 Ir sup m sup 1 sup + sup g sup , sup m sup 2 reactions were measured by using activation method and compared with other measured data. Meanwhile the half-life of sup 7 sup 2 Ga was also measured. The samples were irradiated with the neutron in the thermal column of heavy water reactor of China Institute of Atomic Energy. The activities of the reaction products were measured by well-calibrated Ge(Li) detector

  7. Lunar Radar Cross Section at Low Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, P.; Kennedy, E. J.; Kossey, P.; McCarrick, M.; Kaiser, M. L.; Bougeret, J.-L.; Tokarev, Y. V.

    2002-01-01

    Recent bistatic measurements of the lunar radar cross-section have extended the spectrum to long radio wavelength. We have utilized the HF Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) radar facility near Gakona, Alaska to transmit high power pulses at 8.075 MHz to the Moon; the echo pulses were received onboard the NASA/WIND spacecraft by the WAVES HF receiver. This lunar radar experiment follows our previous use of earth-based HF radar with satellites to conduct space experiments. The spacecraft was approaching the Moon for a scheduled orbit perturbation when our experiment of 13 September 2001 was conducted. During the two-hour experiment, the radial distance of the satellite from the Moon varied from 28 to 24 Rm, where Rm is in lunar radii.

  8. ISSUES IN NEUTRON CROSS SECTION COVARIANCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattoon, C.M.; Oblozinsky,P.

    2010-04-30

    We review neutron cross section covariances in both the resonance and fast neutron regions with the goal to identify existing issues in evaluation methods and their impact on covariances. We also outline ideas for suitable covariance quality assurance procedures.We show that the topic of covariance data remains controversial, the evaluation methodologies are not fully established and covariances produced by different approaches have unacceptable spread. The main controversy is in very low uncertainties generated by rigorous evaluation methods and much larger uncertainties based on simple estimates from experimental data. Since the evaluators tend to trust the former, while the users tend to trust the latter, this controversy has considerable practical implications. Dedicated effort is needed to arrive at covariance evaluation methods that would resolve this issue and produce results accepted internationally both by evaluators and users.

  9. Electroweak Boson Cross-Section Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    This report summarises the ATLAS prospects for the measurement of W and Z pro- duction cross-section at the LHC. The electron and muon decay channels are considered. Focusing on the early data taking phase, strategies are presented that allow a fast and robust extraction of the signals. An overall uncertainty of about 5% can be achieved with 50 pb−1 in the W channels, where the background uncertainty dominates (the luminosity measurement uncertainty is not discussed here). In the Z channels, the expected preci- sion is 3%, the main contribution coming from the lepton selection efficiency uncertainty. Extrapolating to 1 fb−1 , the uncertainties shrink to incompressible values of 1-2%, de- pending on the final state. This irreducible uncertainty is essentially driven by strong interaction effects, notably parton distribution uncertainties and non-perturbative effects, affecting the W and Z rapidity and transverse momentum distributions. These effects can be constrained by measuring these distributions. Al...

  10. Radar Cross Section of Moving Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Gholizade, H

    2013-01-01

    I investigate the effects of movement on radar cross section calculations. The results show that relativistic effects (the constant velocity case) can change the RCS of moving targets by changing the incident plane wave field vectors. As in the Doppler effect, the changes in the fields are proportional to $\\frac{v}{c}$. For accelerated objects, using the Newtonian equations of motion yields an effective electric field (or effective current density) on the object due to the finite mass of the conducting electrons. The results indicate that the magnetic moment of an accelerated object is different from that of an un-accelerated object, and this difference can change the RCS of the object. Results for moving sphere and non-uniformly rotating sphere are given and compared with static (\\textbf{v}=0) case.

  11. Plasma-based radar cross section reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Hema; Jha, Rakesh Mohan

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive review of plasma-based stealth, covering the basics, methods, parametric analysis, and challenges towards the realization of the idea. The concealment of aircraft from radar sources, or stealth, is achieved through shaping, radar absorbing coatings, engineered materials, or plasma, etc. Plasma-based stealth is a radar cross section (RCS) reduction technique associated with the reflection and absorption of incident electromagnetic (EM) waves by the plasma layer surrounding the structure. A plasma cloud covering the aircraft may give rise to other signatures such as thermal, acoustic, infrared, or visual. Thus it is a matter of concern that the RCS reduction by plasma enhances its detectability due to other signatures. This needs a careful approach towards the plasma generation and its EM wave interaction. The book starts with the basics of EM wave interactions with plasma, briefly discuss the methods used to analyze the propagation characteristics of plasma, and its generatio...

  12. Musical practice and cognitive aging: two cross-sectional studies point to phonemic fluency as a potential candidate for a use-dependent adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauvel, Baptiste; Groussard, Mathilde; Mutlu, Justine; Arenaza-Urquijo, Eider M; Eustache, Francis; Desgranges, Béatrice; Platel, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    Because of permanent use-dependent brain plasticity, all lifelong individuals' experiences are believed to influence the cognitive aging quality. In older individuals, both former and current musical practices have been associated with better verbal skills, visual memory, processing speed, and planning function. This work sought for an interaction between musical practice and cognitive aging by comparing musician and non-musician individuals for two lifetime periods (middle and late adulthood). Long-term memory, auditory-verbal short-term memory, processing speed, non-verbal reasoning, and verbal fluencies were assessed. In Study 1, measures of processing speed and auditory-verbal short-term memory were significantly better performed by musicians compared with controls, but both groups displayed the same age-related differences. For verbal fluencies, musicians scored higher than controls and displayed different age effects. In Study 2, we found that lifetime period at training onset (childhood vs. adulthood) was associated with phonemic, but not semantic, fluency performances (musicians who had started to practice in adulthood did not perform better on phonemic fluency than non-musicians). Current frequency of training did not account for musicians' scores on either of these two measures. These patterns of results are discussed by setting the hypothesis of a transformative effect of musical practice against a non-causal explanation.

  13. Musical practice and cognitive aging: two cross-sectional studies point phonemic fluency as a potential candidate for a use-dependent adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baptiste eFAUVEL

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Because of permanent use-dependent cerebral plasticity, all lifelong individuals’ experiences are believed to influence the cognitive aging quality. In old individuals, both former and current musical practices have been associated with better verbal skills, visual memory, processing speed, and planning function. This work sought for an interaction between musical practice and cognitive aging by comparing musician and nonmusician individuals for two periods of life (late adulthood and old age. Long-term memory, auditory verbal short-term memory, processing speed, nonverbal reasoning, and verbal fluencies were assessed. In study 1, measures of processing speed and auditory verbal short-term memory showed significant better performances for musicians compared with controls, but both groups displayed the same age-related difference. For verbal fluencies, musician individuals scored higher and displayed different age effects compared with controls. In study 2, we revealed that the life period at training onset (childhood versus adulthood was associated with phonemic, but not semantic fluency performances (musicians who had started practice in adulthood did not perform better on phonemic fluency compared with nonmusicians. For these two measures, current frequency of training did not account for musicians’ scores. These patterns of results are discussed by confronting the hypothesis of a transformative effect of musical practice with non-causal explanation.

  14. Measurement of MA fission cross sections at YAYOI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohkawachi, Yasushi; Ohki, Shigeo; Wakabayashi, Toshio [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1998-03-01

    Fission cross section ratios of minor actinide nuclides (Am-241, Am-243) relative to U-235 in the fast neutron energy region have been measured using a back-to-back (BTB) fission chamber at YAYOI fast neutron source reactor. A small BTB fission chamber was developed to measure the fission cross section ratios in the center of the core at YAYOI reactor. Dependence of the fission cross section ratios on neutron spectra was investigated by changing the position of the detector in the reactor core. The measurement results were compared with the fission cross sections in the JENDL-3.2, ENDF/B-VI and JEF-2.2 libraries. It was found that calculated values of Am-241 using the JENDL-3.2, ENDF/B-VI and JEF-2.2 data are lower by about 15% than the measured value in the center of the core (the neutron average energy is 1.44E+6(eV)). And, good agreement can be seen the measured value and calculated value of Am-243 using the JENDL-3.2 data in the center of the core (the neutron average energy is 1.44E+6)(eV), but calculated values of Am-243 using the ENDF/B-VI and JEF-2.2 data are lower by 11% and 13% than the measured value. (author)

  15. Measurement of proton inelastic scattering cross sections on fluorine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiari, M.; Caciolli, A.; Calzolai, G.; Climent-Font, A.; Lucarelli, F.; Nava, S.

    2016-10-01

    Differential cross-sections for proton inelastic scattering on fluorine, 19F(p,p')19F, from the first five excited levels of 19F at 110, 197, 1346, 1459 and 1554 keV were measured for beam energies from 3 to 7 MeV at a scattering angle of 150° using a LiF thin target (50 μg/cm2) evaporated on a self-supporting C thin film (30 μg/cm2). Absolute differential cross-sections were calculated with a method not dependent on the absolute values of collected beam charge and detector solid angle. The validity of the measured inelastic scattering cross sections was then tested by successfully reproducing EBS spectra collected from a thick Teflon (CF2) target. As a practical application of these measured inelastic scattering cross sections in elastic backscattering spectroscopy (EBS), the feasibility of quantitative light element (C, N and O) analysis in aerosol particulate matter samples collected on Teflon by EBS measurements and spectra simulation is demonstrated.

  16. Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Surveys of Dental Student Values: Limitations of Cross-Sectional Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakumura, Joseph S.

    Surveys of dental student values are described that were designed to assess value ratings by four dental classes in 1976, annual value ratings of a freshman class as they progressed through their four year program, and the usefulness of the cross-sectional design versus the longitudinal design. Each of the two surveys, which were conducted by the…

  17. Total and ionization cross sections of electron scattering by fluorocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antony, B K [Department of Physics, Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar-388 120, Gujarat (India); Joshipura, K N [Department of Physics, Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar-388 120, Gujarat (India); Mason, N J [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Open University, Milton Keynes-MK7 6AA (United Kingdom)

    2005-02-14

    Electron impact total cross sections (50-2000 eV) and total ionization cross sections (threshold to 2000 eV) are calculated for typical plasma etching molecules CF{sub 4}, C{sub 2}F{sub 4}, C{sub 2}F{sub 6}, C{sub 3}F{sub 8} and CF{sub 3}I and the CF{sub x} (x 1-3) radicals. The total elastic and inelastic cross sections are determined in the spherical complex potential formalism. The sum of the two gives the total cross section and the total inelastic cross section is used to calculate the total ionization cross sections. The present total and ionization cross sections are found to be consistent with other theories and experimental measurements, where they exist. Our total cross section results for CF{sub x} (x = 1-3) radicals presented here are first estimates on these species.

  18. Experiments on Antiprotons: Antiproton-Nucleon Cross Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Owen; Keller, Donald V.; Mermond, Ronald; Segre, Emilio; Steiner, Herbert M.; Ypsilantis, Tom

    1957-07-22

    In this paper experiments are reported on annihilation and scattering of antiprotons in H{sub 2}O , D{sub 2}O, and O{sub 2}. From the data measured it is possible to obtain an antiproton-proton and an antiproton-deuteron cross section at 457 Mev (lab). Further analysis gives the p-p and p-n cross sections as 104 mb for the p-p reaction cross section and 113 mb for the p-n reaction cross section. The respective annihilation cross sections are 89 and 74 mb. The Glauber correction necessary in order to pass from the p-d to the p-n cross section by subtraction of the p-p cross section is unfortunately large and somewhat uncertain. The data are compared with the p-p and p-n cross sections and with other results on p-p collisions.

  19. Electron Elastic-Scattering Cross-Section Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 64 NIST Electron Elastic-Scattering Cross-Section Database (PC database, no charge)   This database provides values of differential elastic-scattering cross sections, corresponding total elastic-scattering cross sections, phase shifts, and transport cross sections for elements with atomic numbers from 1 to 96 and for electron energies between 50 eV and 20,000 eV (in steps of 1 eV).

  20. Dependence on the cross section of {Lambda} and anti-{Lambda} strange baryons production with the mass number; Dependencia da secao de choque de producao dos barions estranhos {Lambda} e anti-{Lambda} com o numero de massa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandelman, Miriam Mendes

    1992-07-01

    In this work the A dependence of the {lambda} and {lambda}{sup -} production cross sections is studied using the E769 data for the 250 GeV/c{pi}{sup -} beam interacting on Be, Cu, Al and W targets. The measured mean value of {alpha} in the region - 0.2 < x{sub f} < 0.3 and p{sub t} < 2 GeV/c is 1.03 {+-} 0.02 for the {lambda} baryon and 1.01 {+-} 0.02 for the {lambda}{sup -}. No difference is measured between the values of {alpha} for {lambda} and {lambda}{sup -}: {alpha} is a global decreasing function of x{sub f} and has no significant variation with p{sub t}. (author). 31 refs, 48 figs, 16 tabs.

  1. Mental Visualization of Objects from Cross-Sectional Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bing; Klatzky, Roberta L.; Stetten, George D.

    2012-01-01

    We extended the classic anorthoscopic viewing procedure to test a model of visualization of 3D structures from 2D cross-sections. Four experiments were conducted to examine key processes described in the model, localizing cross-sections within a common frame of reference and spatiotemporal integration of cross sections into a hierarchical object…

  2. Finite sum expressions for elastic and reaction cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werneth, Charles M., E-mail: charles.m.werneth@nasa.gov [NASA Langley Research Center, 2 West Reid Street, Hampton, VA 23681 (United States); Maung, Khin Maung, E-mail: khin.maung@usm.edu [University of Southern Mississippi, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 118 College Drive, Box 5046, Hattiesburg, MS (United States); Mead, Lawrence R., E-mail: lawrence.mead@usm.edu [University of Southern Mississippi, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 118 College Drive, Box 5046, Hattiesburg, MS (United States); Blattnig, Steve R., E-mail: steve.r.blattnig@nasa.gov [NASA Langley Research Center, 2 West Reid Street, Hampton, VA 23681 (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Nuclear cross section calculations are often performed by using the partial wave method or the Eikonal method through Glauber theory. The expressions for the total cross section, total elastic cross section, and total reaction cross section in the partial wave method involve infinite sums and do not utilize simplifying approximations. Conversely, the Eikonal method gives these expressions in terms of integrals but utilizes the high energy and small angle approximations. In this paper, by using the fact that the lth partial wave component of the T-matrix can be very accurately approximated by its Born term, the infinite sums in each of the expressions for the differential cross section, total elastic cross section, total cross section, and total reaction cross section are re-written in terms of finite sums plus closed form expressions. The differential cross sections are compared to the Eikonal results for {sup 16}O+{sup 16}O,{sup 12}C+{sup 12}C, and p+{sup 12}C elastic scattering. Total cross sections, total reaction cross sections, and total elastic cross sections are compared to the Eikonal results for {sup 12}C+{sup 12}C scattering.

  3. CMB Constraints On The Thermal WIMP Annihilation Cross Section

    CERN Document Server

    Steigman, Gary

    2015-01-01

    A thermal relic, often referred to as a weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP),is a particle produced during the early evolution of the Universe whose relic abundance (e.g., at present) depends only on its mass and its thermally averaged annihilation cross section (annihilation rate factor) sigma*v_ann. Late time WIMP annihilation has the potential to affect the cosmic microwave background (CMB) power spectrum. Current observational constraints on the absence of such effects provide bounds on the mass and the annihilation cross section of relic particles that may, but need not be dark matter candidates. For a WIMP that is a dark matter candidate, the CMB constraint sets an upper bound to the annihilation cross section, leading to a lower bound to their mass that depends on whether or not the WIMP is its own antiparticle. For a self-conjugate WIMP, m_min = 50f GeV, where f is an electromagnetic energy efficiency factor. For a non self-conjugate WIMP, the minimum mass is a factor of two larger. For a WIMP t...

  4. Systematic effects on cross-section data derived from reaction rates at a cold neutron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Žerovnik, Gašper, E-mail: gasper.zerovnik@ijs.si [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel (Belgium); Becker, Björn [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel (Belgium); Belgya, Tamás, E-mail: belgya.tamas@energia.mta.hu [Institute for Energy Security and Environmental Safety, Centre for Energy Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 29-33 Konkoly-Thege Miklós Street, H-1121 Budapest (Hungary); Genreith, Christoph, E-mail: christoph.genreith@frm2.tum.de [Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum (MLZ), Technische Universität München, Lichtenbergstr. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Harada, Hideo, E-mail: harada.hideo@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, 319-1195 Ibaraki (Japan); Kopecky, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.kopecky@ec.europa.eu [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel (Belgium); Radulović, Vladimir, E-mail: vladimir.radulovic@ijs.si [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); CEA, DEN, DER, Instrumentation, Sensors and Dosimetry Laboratory, Cadarache, F-13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Sano, Tadafumi, E-mail: t-sano@rri.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori-cho, 590-0494 Osaka (Japan); Schillebeeckx, Peter, E-mail: peter.schillebeeckx@ec.europa.eu [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel (Belgium); and others

    2015-11-01

    The methodology to derive cross-section data from measurements in a cold neutron beam was studied. Mostly, capture cross-sections at thermal energy are derived relative to a standard cross-section, e.g. the cross-section of the {sup 1}H(n,γ), {sup 14}N(n,γ), or {sup 197}Au(n,γ) reaction, and proportionality between the standard and the measured cross-section, evaluated at different energies in the sub-thermal region, is often assumed. Due to this assumption the derived capture cross-section at thermal energy can be biased by more than 10%. Evidently the bias depends on how much the energy dependence of the cross-section deviates from a direct proportionality with the inverse of the neutron speed. The effect is reduced in case the cross-section is not derived at thermal energy but at an energy close to the average energy of the cold neutron beam. Nevertheless, it is demonstrated that the bias can only be avoided in case the energy dependence of the cross-section is known and proper correction factors are applied. In some cases the results are also biased when the attenuation of the neutron beam within the sample is neglected in the analysis. Some of the cross-section data reported in the literature suffer from such bias effects. Hence, the results have to be corrected using the correction factors presented in this paper.

  5. A study of the temperature dependence of the infrared absorption cross-sections of 2,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropanol in the range of 298-362 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Paul J.; Cabaj, Alex; Xu, Li-Hong; Le Bris, Karine; Strong, Kimberly

    2017-01-01

    Absorption cross-sections of 2,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropanol (PFPO) were derived from Fourier transform infrared spectra recorded from 565 to 3400 cm-1 with a resolution of 0.1 cm-1 over a temperature range of 298-362 K. These results were compared to previously published theoretical density functional theory (DFT) calculations and experimental measurements made at room temperature. We find good agreement between our experimentally derived results, DFT calculations, and previously published data. The only temperature dependence observed was in the centroid shift of the 850-1500 cm-1 band and in the amplitude of some of the absorption peaks. However, this temperature dependence does not result in a significant trend in integrated band strength as a function of temperature. We calculate an average integrated band strength of (1.991±0.001)×10-16 cm molecule-1 for PFPO over the spectral range studied. Radiative efficiencies (REs) and the global warming potential (GWP) for PFPO were also derived. We find an average RE of 0.2603 ± 0.0007 Wm-2ppbv-1 and a GWP100 of 19.8. The calculated radiative efficiencies show that no dependence on temperature and our findings are consistent with previous studies, increasing our confidence in the value of the GWP of PFPO.

  6. Precision predictions of exclusive jet cross sections at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangal, Shireen

    2015-10-15

    With the discovery of the Higgs boson, a central objective of the LHC Higgs program is to study its properties in detail by exploring different production and decay channels. This requires precise theoretical predictions of inclusive cross sections as well as differential and exclusive cross sections. In this thesis, we study perturbative uncertainties in the fixed-order (FO) predictions of exclusive jet cross sections and obtain resummed predictions for a new class of rapidity-dependent jet veto observables, focusing on Higgs production via gluon gluon fusion (ggF) at the LHC. Experimental analyses at the LHC often use jet binning and jet selection cuts to distinguish between different Higgs production mechanisms and to separate signal from backgrounds. Such jet vetoes and jet selection cuts induce Sudakov logarithms of the ratio of the veto scale and the hard scale in the process. In the limit of very tight jet vetoes, these logarithms can become large and introduce large uncertainties in the FO predictions of cross sections. By resumming these large logarithms to all orders, the perturbative uncertainties can be considerably reduced. Whether in FO or resummed predictions, a consistent treatment of uncertainties in different jet bins is required. In the first part of the thesis, we studied in detail the perturbative uncertainties in the NLO predictions for pp→H+2-jets via ggF for the vector boson fusion (VBF) selection cuts used by ATLAS and CMS in their H→γγ analyses. Our study shows that, while applying strong restrictions on additional emissions is expected to increase the sensitivity to the VBF signal and reduce the ggF contribution, it is not necessarily beneficial for distinguishing the VBF and ggF production modes because of the quickly increasing ggF uncertainties. In the second part of the thesis, we introduce rapidity-dependent jet veto observables for which the transverse momentum of a jet is weighted by a smooth function of the jet rapidity

  7. KAERI charged particle cross section library for radioisotope production

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, J H; Kim, D H; Lee, Y O; Zhuang, Y X

    2001-01-01

    This report summarized information and figures describing the 'KAERI Charged Particle Cross Section Library for Radioisotope production' The library contains proton-, deutron-, He-3-, and alpha-induced monitor cross sections, and gamma- and positron-emitter production cross sections. Experimental data and evaluation methods are described, and the evaluated cross sections are compared with those of the IAEA, MENDL, and LA150. The library has cross sections and emission spectra suitable for the transport analysis in the design of radioisotope production system, and are available at http://atom.kaeri.re.kr/ in ENDF-6 format.

  8. Radar Cross-section Measurement Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Borkar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Radar cross-section (RCS is an important study parameter for defence applications specially dealing with airborne weapon system. The RCS parameter guides the detection range for a target and is therefore studied to understand the effectiveness of a weapon system. It is not only important to understand the RCS characteristics of a target but also to look into the diagnostic mode of study where factors contributing to a particular RCS values are studied. This further opens up subject like RCS suppression and stealth. The paper discusses the RCS principle, control, and need of measurements. Classification of RCS in terms of popular usage is explained with detailed theory of RF imaging and inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR. The various types of RCS measurement ranges are explained with brief discussion on outdoor RCS measurement range. The RCS calibration plays a critical role in referencing the measurement to absolute values and has been described.The RCS facility at Reseach Centre Imarat, Hyderabad, is explained with some details of different activities that are carried out including RAM evaluation, scale model testing, and diagnostic imaging.Defence Science Journal, 2010, 60(2, pp.204-212, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.60.341

  9. Resonance capture cross section of 207Pb

    CERN Document Server

    Domingo-Pardo, C; Aerts, G; Alvarez-Pol, H; Alvarez-Velarde, F; Andrzejewski, J; Andriamonje, Samuel A; Assimakopoulos, P A; Audouin, L; Badurek, G; Baumann, P; Becvar, F; Berthoumieux, E; Bisterzo, S; Calviño, F; Cano-Ott, D; Capote, R; Carrapico, C; Chepel, V; Cennini, P; Chiaveri, Enrico; Colonna, N; Cortés, G; Couture, A; Cox, J; Dahlfors, M; David, S; Dillman, I; Dolfini, R; Dridi, W; Durán, I; Eleftheriadis, C; Embid-Segura, M; Ferrant, L; Ferrari, A; Ferreira-Marques, R; Fitzpatrick, L; Frais-Kölbl, H; Fujii, K; Furman, W; Gallino, R; Gonçalves, I; González-Romero, E M; Goverdovski, A; Gramegna, F; Griesmayer, E; Guerrero, C; Gunsing, F; Haas, B; Haight, R; Heil, M; Herrera-Martínez, A; Igashira, M; Isaev, S; Jericha, E; Kadi, Y; Käppeler, F K; Karamanis, D; Karadimos, D; Kerveno, M; Ketlerov, V; Köhler, P; Konovalov, V; Kossionides, E; Krticka, M; Lamboudis, C; Leeb, H; Lindote, A; Lopes, I; Lozano, M; Lukic, S; Marganiec, J; Marrone, S; Mastinu, P; Mengoni, A; Milazzo, P M; Moreau, C; Mosconi, M; Neves, F; Oberhummer, Heinz; Oshima, M; O'Brien, S; Pancin, J; Papachristodoulou, C; Papadopoulos, C; Paradela, C; Patronis, N; Pavlik, A; Pavlopoulos, P; Perrot, L; Plag, R; Plompen, A; Plukis, A; Poch, A; Pretel, C; Quesada, J; Rauscher, T; Reifarth, R; Rosetti, M; Rubbia, Carlo; Rudolf, G; Rullhusen, P; Salgado, J; Sarchiapone, L; Savvidis, I; Stéphan, C; Tagliente, G; Taín, J L; Tassan-Got, L; Tavora, L; Terlizzi, R; Vannini, G; Vaz, P; Ventura, A; Villamarín, D; Vincente6, M C; Vlachoudis, V; Vlastou, R; Voss, F; Walter, S; Wendler, H; Wiescher, M; Wisshak, K

    2006-01-01

    The radiative neutron capture cross section of 207Pb has been measured at the CERN neutron time of flight installation n_TOF using the pulse height weighting technique in the resolved energy region. The measurement has been performed with an optimized setup of two C6D6 scintillation detectors, which allowed us to reduce scattered neutron backgrounds down to a negligible level. Resonance parameters and radiative kernels have been determined for 16 resonances by means of an R-matrix analysis in the neutron energy range from 3 keV to 320 keV. Good agreement with previous measurements was found at low neutron energies, whereas substantial discrepancies appear beyond 45 keV. With the present results, we obtain an s-process contribution of 77(8)% to the solar abundance of 207Pb. This corresponds to an r-process component of 23(8)%, which is important for deriving the U/Th ages of metal poor halo stars.

  10. Estimation of double differential angle-dependent neutron production cross sections from tritons on 197Au at energies from 5.97 to 19.14 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Drosg, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Estimated cross sections for neutron production from triton bombardment of gold are deduced from measurements of triton interactions with gas targets that used gold as a triton beam stop material. Differential cross sections for production of neutrons from 5.97-, 7.47-, 10.45-, 16.41- and 19.14-MeV tritons on 197Au were evaluated. Corrections for the neutron interaction in gold, in the target structure and in the air of the flight path were obtained by means of a Monte Carlo technique. Uncorrelated scale uncertainties range from 24 to 41% whereas those of double differential cross sections range from 0.2 to 5%. Based on these cross section data, calculation of neutron yield at 0o from fully stopped tritons at 20.22 MeV agree with an independent measurement. Least-squares fits with a gamma distribution model indicate an anisotropy in the high energy portion of the neutron spectra. Legendre polynomial fits of differential cross sections are reported. All neutron cross section data are made available through the...

  11. First measurement of unpolarized SIDIS cross section and cross section ratios from a $^3$He target

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, X; Aniol, K; Annand, J R M; Averett, T; Benmokhtar, F; Bertozzi, W; Bradshaw, P C; Bosted, P; Camsonne, A; Canan, M; Cates, G D; Chen, C; Chen, J -P; Chen, W; Chirapatpimol, K; Chudakov, E; Cisbani, E; Cornejo, J C; Cusanno, F; Dalton, M M; Deconinck, W; de Jager, C W; De Leo, R; Deng, X; Deur, A; Ding, H; Dolph, P A M; Dutta, C; Dutta, D; Fassi, L El; Frullani, S; Gao, H; Garibaldi, F; Gaskell, D; Gilad, S; Gilman, R; Glamazdin, O; Golge, S; Guo, L; Hamilton, D; Hansen, O; Higinbotham, D W; Holmstrom, T; Huang, J; Huang, M; Ibrahim, H F; Iodice, M; Jiang, X; Jin, G; Jones, M K; Katich, J; Kelleher, A; Kim, W; Kolarkar, A; Korsch, W; LeRose, J J; Li, X; Li, Y; Lindgren, R; Liu, T; Liyanage, N; Long, E; Lu, H -J; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; Marrone, S; McNulty, D; Meziani, Z -E; Michaels, R; Moffit, B; Camacho, C Munoz; Nanda, S; Narayan, A; Nelyubin, V; Norum, B; Oh, Y; Osipenko, M; Parno, D; Peng, J -C; Phillips, S K; Posik, M; Puckett, A J R; Qian, X; Qiang, Y; Rakhman, A; Ransome, R; Riordan, S; Saha, A; Sawatzky, B; Schulte, E; Shahinyan, A; Shabestari, M H; Sirca, S; Stepanyan, S; Subedi, R; Sulkosky, V; Tang, L -G; Tobias, W A; Urciuoli, G M; Vilardi, I; Wang, K; Wojtsekhowski, B; Wang, Y; Yan, X; Yao, H; Ye, Y; Ye, Z; Yuan, L; Zhan, X; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Y -W; Zhao, B; Zhao, Y X; Zheng, X; Zhu, L; Zhu, X; Zong, X

    2016-01-01

    The unpolarized semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering (SIDIS) differential cross sections in $^3$He($e,e^{\\prime}\\pi^{\\pm}$)$X$ have been measured for the first time in Jefferson Lab experiment E06-010 performed with a $5.9\\,$GeV $e^-$ beam on a $^3$He target. The experiment focuses on the valence quark region, covering a kinematic range $0.12 < x_{bj} < 0.45$, $1 < Q^2 < 4 \\, \\textrm{(GeV/c)}^2$, $0.45 < z_{h} < 0.65$, and $0.05 < P_t < 0.55 \\, \\textrm{GeV/c}$. The extracted SIDIS differential cross sections of $\\pi^{\\pm}$ production are compared with existing phenomenological models while the $^3$He nucleus approximated as two protons and one neutron in a plane wave picture, in multi-dimensional bins. Within the experimental uncertainties, the azimuthal modulations of the cross sections are found to be consistent with zero.

  12. Mid-IR Absorption Cross-Section Measurements of Hydrocarbons

    KAUST Repository

    Alrefae, Majed Abdullah

    2013-05-01

    helium-neon (HeNe) laser at 3.39 μm is used to measure the absorption cross-section of the fuels mentioned above. The dependence on temperature, pressure and bath gas (helium, argon and nitrogen) is also examined. The temperature and pressure ranges of this study are 296 – 800 K and 250 – 1000 Torr, respectively. These are the first measured cross-sections at HeNe laser wavelength that are applicable at combustion-relevant conditions.

  13. Microscopic description of production cross sections including deexcitation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekizawa, Kazuyuki

    2017-07-01

    Background: At the forefront of the nuclear science, production of new neutron-rich isotopes is continuously pursued at accelerator laboratories all over the world. To explore the currently unknown territories in the nuclear chart far away from the stability, reliable theoretical predictions are inevitable. Purpose: To provide a reliable prediction of production cross sections taking into account secondary deexcitation processes, both particle evaporation and fission, a new method called TDHF+GEMINI is proposed, which combines the microscopic time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) theory with a sophisticated statistical compound-nucleus deexcitation model, GEMINI++. Methods: Low-energy heavy ion reactions are described based on three-dimensional Skyrme-TDHF calculations. Using the particle-number projection method, production probabilities, total angular momenta, and excitation energies of primary reaction products are extracted from the TDHF wave function after collision. Production cross sections for secondary reaction products are evaluated employing GEMINI++. Results are compared with available experimental data and widely used grazing calculations. Results: The method is applied to describe cross sections for multinucleon transfer processes in 40Ca+124Sn (Ec .m .≃128.54 MeV ), 48Ca+124Sn (Ec .m .≃125.44 MeV ), 40Ca+208Pb (Ec .m .≃208.84 MeV ), 58Ni+208Pb (Ec .m .≃256.79 MeV ), 64Ni+238U (Ec .m .≃307.35 MeV ), and 136Xe+198Pt (Ec .m .≃644.98 MeV ) reactions at energies close to the Coulomb barrier. It is shown that the inclusion of secondary deexcitation processes, which are dominated by neutron evaporation in the present systems, substantially improves agreement with the experimental data. The magnitude of the evaporation effects is very similar to the one observed in grazing calculations. TDHF+GEMINI provides better description of the absolute value of the cross sections for channels involving transfer of more than one proton, compared to the grazing

  14. Catalyst shape engineering for anisotropic cross-sectioned nanowire growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calahorra, Yonatan; Kelrich, Alexander; Cohen, Shimon; Ritter, Dan

    2017-01-01

    The ability to engineer material properties at the nanoscale is a crucial prerequisite for nanotechnology. Hereunder, we suggest and demonstrate a novel approach to realize non-hemispherically shaped nanowire catalysts, subsequently used to grow InP nanowires with a cross section anisotropy ratio of up to 1:1.8. Gold was deposited inside high aspect ratio nanotrenches in a 5 nm thick SiNx selective area mask; inside the growth chamber, upon heating to 455 °C, the thin gold stripes agglomerated, resulting in an ellipsoidal dome (hemiellipsoid). The initial shape of the catalyst was preserved during growth to realize asymmetrically cross-sectioned nanowires. Moreover, the crystalline nature of the nanowire side facets was found to depend on the nano-trench orientation atop the substrate, resulting in hexagonal or octagonal cross-sections when the nano-trenches are aligned or misaligned with the [1¯10] orientation atop a [111]B substrate. These results establish the role of catalyst shape as a unique tool to engineer nanowire growth, potentially allowing further control over its physical properties.

  15. Heart rate dependency of JT interval sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnatkova, Katerina; Johannesen, Lars; Vicente, Jose; Malik, Marek

    2017-08-09

    Little experience exists with the heart rate correction of J-Tpeak and Tpeak-Tend intervals. In a population of 176 female and 176 male healthy subjects aged 32.3±9.8 and 33.1±8.4years, respectively, curve-linear and linear relationship to heart rate was investigated for different sections of the JT interval defined by the proportions of the area under the vector magnitude of the reconstructed 3D vectorcardiographic loop. The duration of the JT sub-section between approximately just before the T peak and almost the T end was found heart rate independent. Most of the JT heart rate dependency relates to the beginning of the interval. The duration of the terminal T wave tail is only weakly heart rate dependent. The Tpeak-Tend is only minimally heart rate dependent and in studies not showing substantial heart rate changes does not need to be heart rate corrected. For any correction formula that has linear additive properties, heart rate correction of JT and JTpeak intervals is practically the same as of the QT interval. However, this does not apply to the formulas in the form of Int/RR(a) since they do not have linear additive properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The study of the dependency of critical current density on cross section of sample in Bi1.6Pb0.4Sr2Ca2Cu3Oy and YBa2Cu3O7-& delta ceramic superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Zargar Shoushtari

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available  In this paper, the effect of the cross-section on the critical current density (Jc of a sample in ceramic superconductors YBa2Cu3O7-­δ (YBCO and Bi1.6Pb0.4Sr2Ca2cu3Oy (BPSCCO has been studied. Five orthorhombic bar samples of YBCO with cross-sections of 6.25, 7.67, 9.25, 11.76, 14.67 mm2­ and also five orthorhombic bar samples of BPSCCO with cross-section of 6.4, 9.01, 11.88, 13.86, 14.98 mm2­ with the same synthesis conditions by the solid state reaction method were prepared. After the preparation of the samples, the Meissner effect, the critical temperature (Tc, and the critical current density (Jc measurements, XRD and SEM have been done on the samples. The results of XRD show that the dominant phase in YBCO and BPSCCO are 123 and 2223, respectively. The results of Jc measurements in 77 K show that in both superconductors, the Jc decreases with increasing of cross-section (A. The type of dissipation obeys a power law with the relation . For a given cross-section, Jc of the BPSCCO sample is smaller than the YBCO sample.

  17. Truncated cross-sectional average length of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Guillot, Michel

    2015-01-01

    of developed countries. The truncated cross-sectional average length of life (TCAL) is a new measure that captures historical information about all cohorts present at a given moment and is not limited to countries with complete cohort mortality data. The value of TCAL depends on the rates used to complete...... the cohort series, but differences between TCALs of two populations remain similar irrespective of the data used to complete the cohort series. This result is illustrated by a comparison of TCALs for the US with those for Denmark, Japan, and other high-longevity countries. Specific cohorts that account...

  18. Phenomenological dirac optical potential for neutron cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, Shin-ichi; Kitsuki, Hirohiko; Shigyo, Nobuhiro; Ishibashi, Kenji [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-03-01

    Because of limitation on neutron-incident data, it is difficult to obtain global optical model potential for neutrons. In contrast, there are some global optical model potentials for proton in detail. It is interesting to convert the proton-incident global optical potentials into neutron-incident ones. In this study we introduce (N-Z)/A dependent symmetry potential terms into the global proton-incident optical potentials, and then obtain neutron-incident ones. The neutron potentials reproduce total cross sections in an acceptable degree. However, a comparison with potentials proposed by other authors brings about a confused situation in the sign of the symmetry terms. (author)

  19. Proton radiography, nuclear cross sections and multiple Coulomb scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjue, Sky K. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-04

    The principles behind proton radiography including multiple Coulomb scattering are discussed for a purely imaginary square well nucleus in the eikonal approximation. It is found that a very crude model can reproduce the angular dependence of the cross sections measured at 24 GeV/c. The largest differences are ~3% for the 4.56 mrad data, and ~4% for the 6.68 mrad data. The prospect of understanding how to model deterministically high-energy proton radiography over a very large range of energies is promising, but it should be tested more thoroughly.

  20. Total and partial photoneutron cross sections for Pb isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, T.; Utsunomiya, H.; Goriely, S.; Daoutidis, I.; Iwamoto, C.; Akimune, H.; Okamoto, A.; Yamagata, T.; Kamata, M.; Itoh, O.; Toyokawa, H.; Lui, Y.-W.; Harada, H.; Kitatani, F.; Hilaire, S.; Koning, A. J.

    2012-07-01

    Using quasimonochromatic laser-Compton scattering γ rays, total photoneutron cross sections were measured for 206,207,208Pb near neutron threshold with a high-efficiency 4π neutron detector. Partial E1 and M1 photoneutron cross sections along with total cross sections were determined for 207,208Pb at four energies near threshold by measuring anisotropies in photoneutron emission with linearly polarized γ rays. The E1 strength dominates over the M1 strength in the neutron channel where E1 photoneutron cross sections show extra strength of the pygmy dipole resonance in 207,208Pb near the neutron threshold corresponding to 0.32%-0.42% of the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule. Several μN2 units of B(M1)↑ strength were observed in 207,208Pb just above neutron threshold, which correspond to an M1 cross section less than 10% of the total photoneutron cross section.

  1. Partial Photoneutron Cross Sections for 207,208Pb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, T.; Utsunomiya, H.; Goriely, S.; Iwamoto, C.; Akimune, H.; Yamagata, T.; Toyokawa, H.; Harada, H.; Kitatani, F.; Lui, Y.-W.; Hilaire, S.; Koning, A. J.

    2014-05-01

    Using linearly-polarized laser-Compton scattering γ-rays, partial E1 and M1 photoneutron cross sections along with total cross sections were determined for 207,208Pb at four energies near neutron threshold by measuring anisotropies in photoneutron emission. Separately, total photoneutron cross sections were measured for 207,208Pb with a high-efficiency 4π neutron detector. The partial cross section measurement provides direct evidence for the presence of pygmy dipole resonance (PDR) in 207,208Pb in the vicinity of neutron threshold. The strength of PDR amounts to 0.32%-0.42% of the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule. Several μN2 units of B(M1)↑ strength were observed in 207,208Pb just above neutron threshold, which correspond to M1 cross sections less than 10% of the total photoneutron cross sections.

  2. Projectile and Lab Frame Differential Cross Sections for Electromagnetic Dissociation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, John W.; Adamczyk, Anne; Dick, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Differential cross sections for electromagnetic dissociation in nuclear collisions are calculated for the first time. In order to be useful for three - dimensional transport codes, these cross sections have been calculated in both the projectile and lab frames. The formulas for these cross sections are such that they can be immediately used in space radiation transport codes. Only a limited amount of data exists, but the comparison between theory and experiment is good.

  3. A Theoretical Study of Photoabsorption Cross Sections of Na2+

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei-Hua; GAO Xiang; HAN Xiao-Ying; LI Jia-Ming

    2007-01-01

    @@ In the framework of quantum defect theory, we calculate photoabsorption cross sections of Na2+. Based on our calculations, there is an absorption window in the photoabsorption cross sections of Na2+, and more than one bump above the absorption window. The calculated photoabsorption cross sections provide an explanation for the abnormal bump in the experimental measurements of Hudson, which is a long-standing experimental puzzle.

  4. VELOCITY AND CONCENTRATION OF BUBBLES IN OZONIZATION COLUMNS WITH CROSS SECTIONS OF DIFFERENT SIZES

    OpenAIRE

    Salla, Marcio Ricardo; Vieira Soares,Leonardo; Alamy Filho,José Eduardo; Daniel,Luiz Antonio; Schulz, Harry Edmar

    2008-01-01

    The size of the cross section of an ozonization column influences its hydrodynamic characteristics, which, on its turn, has effects on phenomena that depend on the relative movement between gas bubbles and liquid. To observe the influence of the cross sectional area on gas concentration and bubbles velocity, two columns were used. The first column had a square cross section with side of 0.19m and the second had a circular cross section with diameter of 0.10 m. The ascendant velocities of the ...

  5. Neutron-capture cross sections from indirect measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scielzo N.D.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Cross sections for compound-nuclear reactions reactions play an important role in models of astrophysical environments and simulations of the nuclear fuel cycle. Providing reliable cross section data remains a formidable task, and direct measurements have to be complemented by theoretical predictions and indirect methods. The surrogate nuclear reactions method provides an indirect approach for determining cross sections for reactions on unstable isotopes, which are difficult or impossible to measure otherwise. Current implementations of the method provide useful cross sections for (n,f reactions, but need to be improved upon for applications to capture reactions.

  6. Positive Scattering Cross Sections using Constrained Least Squares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahl, J.A.; Ganapol, B.D.; Morel, J.E.

    1999-09-27

    A method which creates a positive Legendre expansion from truncated Legendre cross section libraries is presented. The cross section moments of order two and greater are modified by a constrained least squares algorithm, subject to the constraints that the zeroth and first moments remain constant, and that the standard discrete ordinate scattering matrix is positive. A method using the maximum entropy representation of the cross section which reduces the error of these modified moments is also presented. These methods are implemented in PARTISN, and numerical results from a transport calculation using highly anisotropic scattering cross sections with the exponential discontinuous spatial scheme is presented.

  7. Capture cross sections from (p,d) reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escher, J. E.; Burke, J. T.; Casperson, R. J.; Hughes, R. O.; Ota, S.; Scielzo, N. D.

    2017-09-01

    Cross sections for compound-nuclear reactions involving unstable targets are important for many applications, but can often not be measured directly. Several indirect methods have been proposed to determine neutron capture cross sections for unstable isotopes. We consider an approach that aims at constraining statistical calculations of capture cross sections with data obtained from light-ion transfer reactions such as (p,d). We discuss the theoretical descriptions that have to be developed in order to extract meaningful cross section constraints from such data and show some benchmark results.

  8. Single boson production and differential cross section measurements in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Debenedetti, Chiara; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    High-precision measurements of the Drell-Yan production allow to extract information on different aspects contributing to the process, such as parton distribution functions (PDFs), and to compare with the current precision reached theoretically on the calculations of the cross sections of such process. This document describes ATLAS measurements, performed at different centre of mass energies of vector boson (W and Z) cross sections and cross-section ratios, and ratios of Z-boson and top-quark pair production cross sections, obtaining important information on the proton PDFs.

  9. Neutron-capture Cross Sections from Indirect Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escher, J E; Burke, J T; Dietrich, F S; Ressler, J J; Scielzo, N D; Thompson, I J

    2011-10-18

    Cross sections for compound-nuclear reactions play an important role in models of astrophysical environments and simulations of the nuclear fuel cycle. Providing reliable cross section data remains a formidable task, and direct measurements have to be complemented by theoretical predictions and indirect methods. The surrogate nuclear reactions method provides an indirect approach for determining cross sections for reactions on unstable isotopes, which are difficult or impossible to measure otherwise. Current implementations of the method provide useful cross sections for (n,f) reactions, but need to be improved upon for applications to capture reactions.

  10. The immutability of the critical current under any sample cross-sectional form modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogolyubov, N.A. [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Lavrent' eva 3, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: bna@che.nsk.su

    2008-11-24

    The temperature and size dependences of the critical currents in bismuth-based high-temperature superconducting ceramic samples consisting of randomly oriented grains have been studied in zero magnetic field. It is shown that the critical current is a function of the sample cross-sectional area only. At constant sample cross-sectional area the value of the critical current is independent of any variation of a sample cross-sectional shape. At the same time the distributions of the critical current density and induced magnetic field in ceramics are functions of the sample cross-sectional shape. These values very in accordance with a change of the sample cross-sectional shape (at constant cross-sectional area i.e. at constant value of the critical current). The field and current distributions in the rectangular sample are reported.

  11. Elastic and total cross sections for simple biomolecules in the intermediate energy range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanoj Gupta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The elastic and total cross sections for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, 2-butanone and formamide are calculated using the spherical complex optical potential formalism in the intermediate energy range from 50 eV to 10 keV. These cross sections find application to various fields like radiation damage and biological sciences. The present results are compared with the available experimental and theoretical data and are found to give excellent agreement. The elastic cross sections reported for most of the targets in the present energy range are done for the first time. The energy dependence of the contribution of ionization and elastic cross section with respect to the total cross section and the correlation of total cross section with polarizability of the molecules are also studied.

  12. Elastic and total cross sections for simple biomolecules in the intermediate energy range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Dhanoj; Naghma, Rahla; Antony, Bobby, E-mail: bka.ism@gmail.com [Atomic and Molecular Physics Lab, Department of Applied Physics, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad 826004, JH (India)

    2015-09-15

    The elastic and total cross sections for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, 2-butanone and formamide are calculated using the spherical complex optical potential formalism in the intermediate energy range from 50 eV to 10 keV. These cross sections find application to various fields like radiation damage and biological sciences. The present results are compared with the available experimental and theoretical data and are found to give excellent agreement. The elastic cross sections reported for most of the targets in the present energy range are done for the first time. The energy dependence of the contribution of ionization and elastic cross section with respect to the total cross section and the correlation of total cross section with polarizability of the molecules are also studied.

  13. Neutrino-nucleon cross section measurements in NOMAD

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Qun

    2006-01-01

    The NOMAD (Neutrino Oscillation MAgnetic Detector) experiment, using the SPS (Super Proton Syncrotron) neutrino beam (1 GeV < E [nu] < 200 GeV) at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research), has collected more than 1.7 million neutrino induced charged and neutral current (CC and NC) events. This data is the largest high resolution neutrino nucleon scattering data to date and is ideal for precision measurements and searches in neutrino-physics. This thesis presents the precise measurement of the inclusive neutrino CC cross section in 2.5 GeV < E [nu] < 150 GeV region. The linear dependence of the inclusive CC cross section ([Special characters omitted.] ) versus the incoming neutrino energy ( E [nu] ) is observed in the high energy region of 30 GeV < E [nu] < 150 GeV. Especially, the measurement in 2.5 GeV < E [nu] < 30 GeV region provides the first precise determination of [Special characters omitted.] . The significant deviation from the linear dependence for [Special character...

  14. Ni elemental neutron induced reaction cross-section evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Divadeenam, M.

    1979-03-01

    A completely new evaluation of the nickel neutron induced reaction cross sections was undertaken as a part of the ENDF/B-V effort. (n,xy) reactions and capture reaction time from threshold to 20 MeV were considered for /sup 58/ /sup 60/ /sup 61/ /sup 62/ /sup 64/Ni isotopes to construct the corresponding reaction cross section for natural nickel. Both experimental and theoretical calculated results were used in evaluating different partial cross sections. Precompound effects were included in calculating (n,xy) reaction cross sections. Experimentally measured total section data extending from 0.7 MeV to 20 MeV were used to generate smooth cross section. Below 0.7 to MeV elastic and capture cross sections are represented by resonance parameters. Inelastic angular distributions to the discrete isotopic levels and elemental elastic angular distributions are included in the evaluated data file. Gamma production cross sections and energy distribution due to capture and the (n,xy) reactions were evaluated from experimental data. Finally, error files are constructed for all partial cross sections.

  15. Comments on high-energy total cross sections in QCD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Giordano

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We discuss how hadronic total cross sections at high energy depend on the details of QCD, namely on the number of colours Nc and the quark masses. We find that while a “Froissart”-type behaviour σtot∼Blog2⁡s is rather general, relying only on the presence of higher-spin stable particles in the spectrum, the value of B depends quite strongly on the quark masses. Moreover, we argue that B is of order O(Nc0 at large Nc, and we discuss a bound for B which does not become singular in the Nf=2 chiral limit, unlike the Froissart–Łukaszuk–Martin bound.

  16. Dutch Cross Serial Dependencies in HPSG

    CERN Document Server

    Rentier, G

    1994-01-01

    We present an analysis of Dutch cross serial dependencies in Head-driven Phrase Structure Grammar. Arguably, our analysis differs from other analyses in that we do not refer to `additional' mechanisms (e.g., sequence union, head wrapping): just standard structure sharing, an immediate dominance schema and a linear precedence rule.

  17. Re/Os cosmochronometer: measurement of neutron cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosconi, M.

    2007-12-21

    This experimental work is devoted to the improved assessment of the Re/Os cosmochronometer. The dating technique is based on the decay of {sup 187}Re (t{sub 1/2}=41.2 Gyr) into {sup 187}Os and determines the age of the universe by the time of onset of nucleosynthesis. The nucleosynthesis mechanisms, which are responsible for the {sup 187}Re/{sup 187}Os pair, provide the possibility to identify the radiogenic fraction of {sup 187}Os exclusively by nuclear physics considerations. Apart from its radiogenic component, {sup 187}Os can be synthesized otherwise only by the s process, which means that this missing fraction can be reliably determined and subtracted by proper s-process modeling. On the other hand, {sup 187}Re is almost completely produced by the r process. The only information needed for the interpretation as a cosmic clock is the production rate of {sup 187}Re as a function of time. The accuracy of the s-process calculations that are needed to determine the nucleosynthetic abundance of {sup 187}Os depends on the quality of the neutron capture cross sections averaged over the thermal neutron spectrum at the s-process sites. Laboratory measurements of these cross sections have to be corrected for the effect of nuclear levels, which can be significantly populated at the high stellar temperatures during the s process. The neutron capture cross sections of {sup 186}Os, {sup 187}Os and {sup 188}Os have been measured at the CERN n TOF facility in the range between 0.7 eV and 1 MeV. From these data, Maxwellian averaged cross sections have been determined for thermal energies from 5 to 100 keV with an accuracy around 4%, 3%, and 5% for {sup 186}Os, {sup 187}Os, and {sup 188}Os, respectively. Since, the first excited state in {sup 187}Os occurs at 9.75 keV, the cross section of this isotope requires a substantial correction for thermal population of low lying nuclear levels. This effect has been evaluated on the basis of resonance data derived in the (n, {gamma

  18. Re/Os cosmochronometer: measurement of neutron cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosconi, M.

    2007-12-21

    This experimental work is devoted to the improved assessment of the Re/Os cosmochronometer. The dating technique is based on the decay of {sup 187}Re (t{sub 1/2}=41.2 Gyr) into {sup 187}Os and determines the age of the universe by the time of onset of nucleosynthesis. The nucleosynthesis mechanisms, which are responsible for the {sup 187}Re/{sup 187}Os pair, provide the possibility to identify the radiogenic fraction of {sup 187}Os exclusively by nuclear physics considerations. Apart from its radiogenic component, {sup 187}Os can be synthesized otherwise only by the s process, which means that this missing fraction can be reliably determined and subtracted by proper s-process modeling. On the other hand, {sup 187}Re is almost completely produced by the r process. The only information needed for the interpretation as a cosmic clock is the production rate of {sup 187}Re as a function of time. The accuracy of the s-process calculations that are needed to determine the nucleosynthetic abundance of {sup 187}Os depends on the quality of the neutron capture cross sections averaged over the thermal neutron spectrum at the s-process sites. Laboratory measurements of these cross sections have to be corrected for the effect of nuclear levels, which can be significantly populated at the high stellar temperatures during the s process. The neutron capture cross sections of {sup 186}Os, {sup 187}Os and {sup 188}Os have been measured at the CERN n TOF facility in the range between 0.7 eV and 1 MeV. From these data, Maxwellian averaged cross sections have been determined for thermal energies from 5 to 100 keV with an accuracy around 4%, 3%, and 5% for {sup 186}Os, {sup 187}Os, and {sup 188}Os, respectively. Since, the first excited state in {sup 187}Os occurs at 9.75 keV, the cross section of this isotope requires a substantial correction for thermal population of low lying nuclear levels. This effect has been evaluated on the basis of resonance data derived in the (n, {gamma

  19. Nuclear characteristics of Pu fueled LWR and cross section sensitivities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Toshikazu [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1998-03-01

    The present status of Pu utilization to thermal reactors in Japan, nuclear characteristics and topics and cross section sensitivities for analysis of Pu fueled thermal reactors are described. As topics we will discuss the spatial self-shielding effect on the Doppler reactivity effect and the cross section sensitivities with the JENDL-3.1 and 3.2 libraries. (author)

  20. Evaluation of neutron cross sections for Er isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harun-ar-Rashid, A.K.M. [Univ. of Chittagong, Department of Physics, Chittagong (Bangladesh); Shibata, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Igashira, M. [Tokyo Inst. of Technology, Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    The neutron reaction cross sections of {sup 166,167,168,170}Er from 10{sup -5} eV to 20 MeV were studied. The cross sections were calculated with a variety of nuclear-reaction models by different codes. The calculations were mainly based on the statistical and optical modes. In the calculation, the Optical Model Parameters (OMP) for {sup nat}Er were determined. The calculated capture cross sections are in good agreement with the very recent measurements. The calculated total cross sections of {sup 166,168,170}Er are also in good agreement with the experimental results at 14 MeV. The direct inelastic scattering cross sections for the first excited state of the above nuclei were calculated by Distorted-Wave Born-Approximation (DWBA). The direct and semi-direct (DSD) capture cross sections were also calculated. The pre-equilibrium correction was done. The parameters for the electric-dipole pygmy resonance and the depression factor were extracted from a comparison between the calculated and very recent observed capture gamma-ray spectra. The other cross sections, such as (n,n'), (n,2n) and (n,p) reactions and, the emitted-particle (n,p,d,etc.) spectra from these reactions were also calculated. In the thermal and resonance region, the total, elastic scattering and capture cross sections were derived from the resonance parameters. (author)

  1. Modeling and analysis of ground target radiation cross section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Xiang; LOU GuoWei; LI XingGuo

    2008-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the passive millimeter wave (MMW) radiometer detection, the ground target radiation cross section is modeled as the new token for the target MMW radiant characteristics. Its ap-plication and actual testing are discussed and analyzed. The essence of passive MMW stealth is target radiation cross section reduction.

  2. On the scattering cross section of passive linear arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solymar, L.

    1973-01-01

    A general formula is derived for the scattering cross section of a passiven-element linear array consisting of isotropic radiators. When all the reactances are tuned out and scattering in the mirror direction is investigated, it is found thatA_{sr}, the relative scattering cross section is equal ...

  3. Determination of Electron Collision Cross Sections Set for Tetramethysilane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marie-Claude BORDAGE

    2007-01-01

    A swarm analysis technique based on the solution of the Boltzmann equation is used to derive low energy electron collision cross sections for tetramethylsilane (TMS).The calculated swarm parameters with this first available cross sections set is consistent with measured values of the swarm parameters.Calculations of transport parameters in mixtures of TMS with argon are also presented.

  4. Parametric equations for calculation of macroscopic cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botelho, Mario Hugo; Carvalho, Fernando, E-mail: mariobotelho@poli.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    Neutronic calculations of the core of a nuclear reactor is one thing necessary and important for the design and management of a nuclear reactor in order to prevent accidents and control the reactor efficiently as possible. To perform these calculations a library of nuclear data, including cross sections is required. Currently, to obtain a cross section computer codes are used, which require a large amount of processing time and computer memory. This paper proposes the calculation of macroscopic cross section through the development of parametric equations. The paper illustrates the proposal for the case of macroscopic cross sections of absorption (Σa), which was chosen due to its greater complexity among other cross sections. Parametric equations created enable, quick and dynamic way, the determination of absorption cross sections, enabling the use of them in calculations of reactors. The results show efficient when compared with the absorption cross sections obtained by the ALPHA 8.8.1 code. The differences between the cross sections are less than 2% for group 2 and less than 0.60% for group 1. (author)

  5. Electron induced inelastic and ionization cross section for plasma modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Pankaj; Mahato, Dibyendu; Kaur, Jaspreet; Antony, Bobby

    2016-09-01

    The present paper reports electron impact total inelastic and ionization cross section for silicon, germanium, and tin tetrahalides at energies varying from ionization threshold of the target to 5000 eV. These cross section data over a wide energy domain are very essential to understand the physico-chemical processes involved in various environments such as plasma modeling, semiconductor etching, atmospheric sciences, biological sciences, and radiation physics. However, the cross section data on the above mentioned molecules are scarce. In the present article, we report the computation of total inelastic cross section using spherical complex optical potential formalism and the estimation of ionization cross section through a semi-empirical method. The present ionization cross section result obtained for SiCl4 shows excellent agreement with previous measurements, while other molecules have not yet been investigated experimentally. Present results show more consistent behaviour than previous theoretical estimates. Besides cross sections, we have also studied the correlation of maximum ionization cross section with the square root of the ratio of polarizability to ionization potential for the molecules with known polarizabilities. A linear relation is observed between these quantities. This correlation is used to obtain approximate polarizability volumes for SiBr4, SiI4, GeCl4, GeBr4, and GeI4 molecules.

  6. Learning of Cross-Sectional Anatomy Using Clay Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chang-Seok; Kim, Ji-Young; Choe, Yeon Hyeon

    2009-01-01

    We incorporated clay modeling into gross anatomy and neuro-anatomy courses to help students understand cross-sectional anatomy. By making clay models, cutting them and comparing cut surfaces to CT and MR images, students learned how cross-sectional two-dimensional images were created from three-dimensional structure of human organs. Most students…

  7. Total Cross Sections at High Energies An update

    CERN Document Server

    Fazal-e-Aleem, M; Alam, Saeed; Qadee-Afzal, M

    2002-01-01

    Current and Future measurements for the total cross sections at E-811, PP2PP, CSM, FELIX and TOTEM have been analyzed using various models. In the light of this study an attempt has been made to focus on the behavior of total cross section at very high energies.

  8. Heisenberg's Universal (lns)**2 Increase of Total Cross Sections

    CERN Document Server

    Dosch, H G; Nicolescu, Basarab

    2003-01-01

    The (lns)**2 behaviour of total cross-sections, first obtained by Heisenberg 50 years ago, receives now increased interest both on phenomenological and theoretical levels. In this paper we present a modification of the Heisenberg's model in connection with the presence of glueballs and we show that it leads to a realistic description of all existing hadron total cross-section data.

  9. Cross-section measurements in the NOMAD experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Petti, R

    2006-01-01

    The NOMAD experiment collected valuable neutrino data samples, matching both the large statistics of massive calorimeters and the reconstruction quality of bubble chambers. This paper describes the recent measurements of neutrino cross-sections on carbon target. The approach followed for cross-section modeling is also explained.

  10. Cross sections for electron collisions with nitric oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itikawa, Yukikazu

    2016-09-01

    Cross section data are reviewed for electron collisions with nitric oxide. Collision processes considered are total scattering, elastic scattering, momentum transfer, excitations of rotational, vibrational, and electronic states, ionization, and dissociative electron attachment. After a survey of the literature (up to the end of 2015), recommended values of the cross section are determined, as far as possible.

  11. Applications of the BEam Cross section Analysis Software (BECAS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blasques, José Pedro Albergaria Amaral; Bitsche, Robert; Fedorov, Vladimir;

    2013-01-01

    A newly developed framework is presented for structural design and analysis of long slender beam-like structures, e.g., wind turbine blades. The framework is based on the BEam Cross section Analysis Software – BECAS – a finite element based cross section analysis tool. BECAS is used for the gener......A newly developed framework is presented for structural design and analysis of long slender beam-like structures, e.g., wind turbine blades. The framework is based on the BEam Cross section Analysis Software – BECAS – a finite element based cross section analysis tool. BECAS is used...... for the generation of beam finite element models which correctly account for effects stemming from material anisotropy and inhomogeneity in cross sections of arbitrary geometry. These type of modelling approach allows for an accurate yet computationally inexpensive representation of a general class of three...

  12. On river cross-sectional change in the Niger Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abam, T. K. S.; Omuso, W. O.

    2000-08-01

    A network of dominantly distributary river systems dissects the superficial deposits of the Niger Delta comprising alluvial sediments. Changes in river cross-sections are instigated mainly by bank failures, fluctuations in discharge, and bed degradation by fluvial processes. The relative importance of factors causing river cross-sectional change was ranked, based on a deterministic sensitivity technique involving partial differentiation of soil properties, flow characteristics, and geometrical parameters of the river channels. Analysis suggests that steep bank inclination and high flow velocity/discharge are the major causes of cross-sectional change, while interlocking of soil grains is the major erosion-restraining factor. Sensitivity coefficients were used further to generate susceptibility indices, indicating the vulnerability of channel cross-sections to change. Based on this, the risks of channel cross-sectional change were compared at different sites.

  13. Relations between photoionization cross sections and photon radius

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Shan-Liang

    2016-01-01

    The relations between photoionization cross sections and photon radius are obtained on basis of quantum mechanics and the particle-like properties of a photon. The photoionization cross sections of H atom and H-like ions, He atom and He like ions, alkali metal atoms, and Rydberg atoms are calculated using the relations. The calculation results are found to be good agreement with the known experimental data. The results show that the photoionization cross section is always smaller than the cross section of the photon to ionize the atom or ion and can be expressed as the product of the cross section of the photon and the probability that electron meets with the photon. These provide the intuitive understanding for the photoionization phenomena and open a new avenue of research on interaction between a photon and an atom or ion.

  14. WHEELSET AXLE WITH THE CAVITY OF UNIFORM CROSS SECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Kolesnykov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Due to operation in complex loading conditions, the rolling stock wheelsets should provide high reliability, since the train traffic safety largely depends on them. Design and technical condition of wheelsets affect the smoothness, intensity of forces generated by the interaction between the car and track, and the motion resistance. Specificity of the axle operation consists in the fact that it undergoes the bending stresses under loading. These stresses are unevenly distributed along the cross-sectional area, reaching the highest values in the outer fibers and the minimal values in the internal ones. This aspect sets the problem of replacement of the uniform cross section with the hollow cross section. The disadvantages of hollow axle design, which are used at the present time, should include a significant manufacturing complexity of the variable section cavity. The purpose is to develop a modernized design of the wheelset axle. Methodology. A construction of the hollow axle having an inner longitudinal cylindrical through hole of the constant diameter throughout its length was proposed. The item is made of steel seamless tube. The inner surface of the tube is treated by mechanical means to remove the voltage concentrations in the internal longitudinal cylindrical through hole, which has a constant diameter along the entire length of the axle. Findings. Application of this design will facilitate manufacturing of the hollow axle and the machining of the inner longitudinal through hole, while retaining all the use advantages of the hollow axle in the rolling stock wheel pairs. Another use advantage of the hollow axle of this design is the absence of partial heterogeneity of the metal, which is inevitably, occurs during the solid axles blanking. Originality. A new design of the wheelset hollow axle of railway rolling stock was proposed. Practical value. Introduction of the new design simplifying the manufacture and mechanical treatment of

  15. Cross sections for electron collisions with dimethyl ether

    OpenAIRE

    Sugohara, RT; Homem, MGP; Iga, I; de Souza, GLC; MACHADO, LE; Ferraz, JR; dos Santos, AS; Brescansin, LM; Lucchese, RR; Lee, MT

    2013-01-01

    We report a joint theoretical-experimental investigation of electron collision with dimethyl ether (DME) in the low- and intermediate-energy ranges. Experimental absolute differential, integral, and momentum-transfer cross sections for elastic e(-)-DME scattering are reported in the 100-1000 eV energy range. Our measurements were performed using a crossed electron-beam-molecular-beam geometry. The angular distribution of the scattered electrons was converted to absolute cross section using th...

  16. Neutron Cross Section Covariances for Structural Materials and Fission Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoblit, S.; Cho, Y.-S.; Herman, M.; Mattoon, C. M.; Mughabghab, S. F.; Obložinský, P.; Pigni, M. T.; Sonzogni, A. A.

    2011-12-01

    We describe neutron cross section covariances for 78 structural materials and fission products produced for the new US evaluated nuclear reaction library ENDF/B-VII.1. Neutron incident energies cover full range from 10 eV to 20 MeV and covariances are primarily provided for capture, elastic and inelastic scattering as well as (n,2n). The list of materials follows priorities defined by the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative, the major application being data adjustment for advanced fast reactor systems. Thus, in addition to 28 structural materials and 49 fission products, the list includes also 23Na which is important fast reactor coolant. Due to extensive amount of materials, we adopted a variety of methodologies depending on the priority of a specific material. In the resolved resonance region we primarily used resonance parameter uncertainties given in Atlas of Neutron Resonances and either applied the kernel approximation to propagate these uncertainties into cross section uncertainties or resorted to simplified estimates based on integral quantities. For several priority materials we adopted MF32 covariances produced by SAMMY at ORNL, modified by us by adding MF33 covariances to account for systematic uncertainties. In the fast neutron region we resorted to three methods. The most sophisticated was EMPIRE-KALMAN method which combines experimental data from EXFOR library with nuclear reaction modeling and least-squares fitting. The two other methods used simplified estimates, either based on the propagation of nuclear reaction model parameter uncertainties or on a dispersion analysis of central cross section values in recent evaluated data files. All covariances were subject to quality assurance procedures adopted recently by CSEWG. In addition, tools were developed to allow inspection of processed covariances and computed integral quantities, and for comparing these values to data from the Atlas and the astrophysics database KADoNiS.

  17. Neutron Cross Section Covariances for Structural Materials and Fission Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoblit, S.; Hoblit,S.; Cho,Y.-S.; Herman,M.; Mattoon,C.M.; Mughabghab,S.F.; Oblozinsky,P.; Pigni,M.T.; Sonzogni,A.A.

    2011-12-01

    We describe neutron cross section covariances for 78 structural materials and fission products produced for the new US evaluated nuclear reaction library ENDF/B-VII.1. Neutron incident energies cover full range from 10{sup -5} eV to 20 MeV and covariances are primarily provided for capture, elastic and inelastic scattering as well as (n,2n). The list of materials follows priorities defined by the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative, the major application being data adjustment for advanced fast reactor systems. Thus, in addition to 28 structural materials and 49 fission products, the list includes also {sup 23}Na which is important fast reactor coolant. Due to extensive amount of materials, we adopted a variety of methodologies depending on the priority of a specific material. In the resolved resonance region we primarily used resonance parameter uncertainties given in Atlas of Neutron Resonances and either applied the kernel approximation to propagate these uncertainties into cross section uncertainties or resorted to simplified estimates based on integral quantities. For several priority materials we adopted MF32 covariances produced by SAMMY at ORNL, modified by us by adding MF33 covariances to account for systematic uncertainties. In the fast neutron region we resorted to three methods. The most sophisticated was EMPIRE-KALMAN method which combines experimental data from EXFOR library with nuclear reaction modeling and least-squares fitting. The two other methods used simplified estimates, either based on the propagation of nuclear reaction model parameter uncertainties or on a dispersion analysis of central cross section values in recent evaluated data files. All covariances were subject to quality assurance procedures adopted recently by CSEWG. In addition, tools were developed to allow inspection of processed covariances and computed integral quantities, and for comparing these values to data from the Atlas and the astrophysics database KADoNiS.

  18. MOX Cross-Section Libraries for ORIGEN-ARP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauld, I.C.

    2003-07-01

    The use of mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel in commercial nuclear power reactors operated in Europe has expanded rapidly over the past decade. The predicted characteristics of MOX fuel such as the nuclide inventories, thermal power from decay heat, and radiation sources are required for design and safety evaluations, and can provide valuable information for non-destructive safeguards verification activities. This report describes the development of computational methods and cross-section libraries suitable for the analysis of irradiated MOX fuel with the widely-used and recognized ORIGEN-ARP isotope generation and depletion code of the SCALE (Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation) code system. The MOX libraries are designed to be used with the Automatic Rapid Processing (ARP) module of SCALE that interpolates appropriate values of the cross sections from a database of parameterized cross-section libraries to create a problem-dependent library for the burnup analysis. The methods in ORIGEN-ARP, originally designed for uranium-based fuels only, have been significantly upgraded to handle the larger number of interpolation parameters associated with MOX fuels. The new methods have been incorporated in a new version of the ARP code that can generate libraries for low-enriched uranium (LEU) and MOX fuel types. The MOX data libraries and interpolation algorithms in ORIGEN-ARP have been verified using a database of declared isotopic concentrations for 1042 European MOX fuel assemblies. The methods and data are validated using a numerical MOX fuel benchmark established by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Working Group on burnup credit and nuclide assay measurements for irradiated MOX fuel performed as part of the Belgonucleaire ARIANE International Program.

  19. Electron impact rotationally elastic total cross section for formamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinodkumar, Minaxi, E-mail: minaxivinod@yahoo.co.in [V P and R P T P Science College, Vallabh Vidyanagar 388120 (India); Limbachiya, Chetan, E-mail: chetanlimbachiya2@yahoo.com [Department of Applied Physics, The M.S. University of Baroda, Vadodara 390001 (India); Desai, Hardik, E-mail: hardikdesai.phy@gmail.com; Vinodkumar, P. C., E-mail: p.c.vinodkumar@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar 388120 (India)

    2014-09-28

    This paper reports computational results of the total cross sections for electron impact on formamide (HCONH₂) over a wide range of energies from 0.01 eV to 5 keV. Total cross sections over such a wide range are reported for the first time as the earlier reported data is up to maximum of 12 eV. Below ionization threshold of the target, we performed ab initio calculations using UK molecular R-Matrix code within static, exchange plus polarization (SEP), and close coupling approximations. Twenty eight target states are included in close coupling formalism. Total 350 channels and 2410 configuration state functions are included in the calculations. We observe a π* shape resonance at 3.41 eV and a σ* resonance at 15.3 eV as against similar resonances reported at 3.77 eV and 14.9 eV, respectively, by Goumans et al. [J. Chem. Theory Comput. 5, 217 (2009)] using SEP model. The cross sections at higher energies are evaluated using the spherical complex optical potential formalism. The two methods are found to be consistent with a smooth cross over at 18 eV. The vertical excitation energies, electronic excitation cross sections, differential cross sections, momentum transfer, and total cross sections are computed. In absence of experimental data, we compared our computed total cross sections with available other theoretical results.

  20. Numerical computation of discrete differential scattering cross sections for Monte Carlo charged particle transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Jonathan A., E-mail: walshjon@mit.edu [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, 24-107, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Palmer, Todd S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Health Physics, Oregon State University, 116 Radiation Center, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Urbatsch, Todd J. [XTD-IDA: Theoretical Design, Integrated Design and Assessment, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Generation of discrete differential scattering angle and energy loss cross sections. • Gauss–Radau quadrature utilizing numerically computed cross section moments. • Development of a charged particle transport capability in the Milagro IMC code. • Integration of cross section generation and charged particle transport capabilities. - Abstract: We investigate a method for numerically generating discrete scattering cross sections for use in charged particle transport simulations. We describe the cross section generation procedure and compare it to existing methods used to obtain discrete cross sections. The numerical approach presented here is generalized to allow greater flexibility in choosing a cross section model from which to derive discrete values. Cross section data computed with this method compare favorably with discrete data generated with an existing method. Additionally, a charged particle transport capability is demonstrated in the time-dependent Implicit Monte Carlo radiative transfer code, Milagro. We verify the implementation of charged particle transport in Milagro with analytic test problems and we compare calculated electron depth–dose profiles with another particle transport code that has a validated electron transport capability. Finally, we investigate the integration of the new discrete cross section generation method with the charged particle transport capability in Milagro.

  1. α scattering and α -induced reaction cross sections of 64Zn at low energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornelas, A.; Mohr, P.; Gyürky, Gy.; Elekes, Z.; Fülöp, Zs.; Halász, Z.; Kiss, G. G.; Somorjai, E.; Szücs, T.; Takács, M. P.; Galaviz, D.; Güray, R. T.; Korkulu, Z.; Özkan, N.; Yalçın, C.

    2016-11-01

    Background: α -nucleus potentials play an essential role for the calculation of α -induced reaction cross sections at low energies in the statistical model. Uncertainties of these calculations are related to ambiguities in the adjustment of the potential parameters to experimental elastic scattering angular distributions and to the energy dependence of the effective α -nucleus potentials. Purpose: The present work studies the total reaction cross section σreac of α -induced reactions at low energies which can be determined from the elastic scattering angular distribution or from the sum over the cross sections of all open nonelastic channels. Method: Elastic and inelastic 64Zn(α ,α )64Zn angular distributions were measured at two energies around the Coulomb barrier, at 12.1 and 16.1 MeV. Reaction cross sections of the (α ,γ ) , (α ,n ) , and (α ,p ) reactions were measured at the same energies using the activation technique. The contributions of missing nonelastic channels were estimated from statistical model calculations. Results: The total reaction cross sections from elastic scattering and from the sum of the cross sections over all open nonelastic channels agree well within the uncertainties. This finding confirms the consistency of the experimental data. At the higher energy of 16.1 MeV, the predicted significant contribution of compound-inelastic scattering to the total reaction cross section is confirmed experimentally. As a by-product it is found that most recent global α -nucleus potentials are able to describe the reaction cross sections for 64Zn around the Coulomb barrier. Conclusions: Total reaction cross sections of α -induced reactions can be well determined from elastic scattering angular distributions. The present study proves experimentally that the total cross section from elastic scattering is identical to the sum of nonelastic reaction cross sections. Thus, the statistical model can reliably be used to distribute the total reaction

  2. Experimental cross-sections energy dependence and an ab initio electronic structure survey of the ground singlet potential surface for reactive Li(+) + n-C(3)H(7)Cl collisions at low energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, José María; de Andrés, Jaime; Albertí, Margarita; Bofill, Josep Maria; Bassi, Davide; Aguilar, Antonio

    2010-11-07

    Reactive collisions between n-C(3)H(7)Cl molecules and lithium ions both in their ground electronic state have been studied in the 0.05-7.00 eV center of mass energy range using an octopole radio frequency guided-ion beam apparatus developed in our laboratory and recently modified. At low collision energies, dehydrohalogenation reactions leading to Li(C(3)H(6))(+) and Li(HCl)(+) are the main reaction channels, while on increasing energies C(3)H(7)(+) and C(2)H(3)(+) formation become dominant. Cross section energy dependences in arbitrary units for all these reactions have been measured. Also, ab initio electronic structure calculations at the MP2 level have been performed to obtain information about the potential energy surface on which the reactive processes take place. The reactants' entrance channel leads to the formation of a stable [Li-n-C(3)H(7)Cl](+) ion-molecule adduct that, following an intrinsic-reaction-coordinate pathway and surmounting a transition state, isomerizes to [Li-i-C(3)H(7)Cl](+). From this second minimum, dehydrohalogenation reactions for both n-C(3)H(7)Cl and i-C(3)H(7)Cl share a common reaction pathway leading to the same products. All potential barriers explored by reactions always lie below the reactants' energy. The entrance reaction channel [Li-n-C(3)H(7)Cl](+) adduct also leads adiabatically to C(3)H(7)(+) formation which, on increasing collision energy generates C(2)H(3)(+)via a unimolecular decomposition. A qualitative interpretation of the experimental results based on our ab initio calculations is also given.

  3. Alveolar echinococcosis: spectrum of findings at cross-sectional imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantarci, Mecit; Bayraktutan, Ummugulsum; Karabulut, Nevzat; Aydinli, Bulent; Ogul, Hayri; Yuce, Ihsan; Calik, Muhammet; Eren, Suat; Atamanalp, Sabri Selcuk; Oto, Aytekin

    2012-01-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis is a rare parasitic disease caused by the fox tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, which is endemic in many parts of the world. Without timely diagnosis and therapy, the prognosis is dismal, with death the eventual outcome in most cases. Diagnosis is usually based on findings at radiologic imaging and in serologic analyses. Because echinococcal lesions can occur almost anywhere in the body, familiarity with the spectrum of cross-sectional imaging appearances is advantageous. Echinococcal lesions may produce widely varied imaging appearances depending on the parasite's growth stage, the tissues or organs affected, and the presence of associated complications. Although the liver is the initial site of mass infestation by E multilocularis, the parasite may disseminate from there to other organs and tissues, such as the lung, heart, brain, bones, and ligaments. In severe infestations, the walls of the bile ducts and blood vessels may be invaded. Disseminated parasitic lesions in unusual locations with atypical imaging appearances may make it difficult to narrow the differential diagnosis. Ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with standard and diffusion-weighted sequences, and MR cholangiopancreatography all provide useful information and play complementary roles in detecting and characterizing echinococcal lesions. Cross-sectional imaging is crucial for differentiating echinococcosis from malignant processes: CT is most useful for depicting the peripheral calcifications surrounding established echinococcal cysts, and MR imaging is most helpful for identifying echinococcosis of the central nervous system.

  4. Validation of elastic cross section models for space radiation applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werneth, C. M.; Xu, X.; Norman, R. B.; Ford, W. P.; Maung, K. M.

    2017-02-01

    The space radiation field is composed of energetic particles that pose both acute and long-term risks for astronauts in low earth orbit and beyond. In order to estimate radiation risk to crew members, the fluence of particles and biological response to the radiation must be known at tissue sites. Given that the spectral fluence at the boundary of the shielding material is characterized, radiation transport algorithms may be used to find the fluence of particles inside the shield and body, and the radio-biological response is estimated from experiments and models. The fidelity of the radiation spectrum inside the shield and body depends on radiation transport algorithms and the accuracy of the nuclear cross sections. In a recent study, self-consistent nuclear models based on multiple scattering theory that include the option to study relativistic kinematics were developed for the prediction of nuclear cross sections for space radiation applications. The aim of the current work is to use uncertainty quantification to ascertain the validity of the models as compared to a nuclear reaction database and to identify components of the models that can be improved in future efforts.

  5. Numerical calculation of charge exchange cross sections for plasma diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Luis

    2016-09-01

    The diagnostics of impurity density and temperature in the plasma core in tokamak plasmas is carried out by applying the charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) technique, where a fast beam of H atoms collides with the plasma particles leading to electron capture reactions with the impurity ions. The diagnostics is based on the emission of the excited ions formed in the electron capture. The application of the CXRS requires the knowledge of accurate state-selective cross sections, which in general are not accessible experimentally, and the calculation of cross sections for the high n capture levels, required for the diagnostics in the intermediate energy domain of the probe beam, is particularly difficult. In this work, we present a lattice numerical method to solve the time dependent Schrödinger equation. The method is based on the GridTDSE package, it is applicable in the wide energy range 1 - 500 keV/u and can be used to assess the accuracy of previous calculations. The application of the method will be illustrated with calculations for collisions of multiply charged ions with H. Work partially supported by project ENE2014-52432-R (Secretaria de Estado de I+D+i, Spain).

  6. PWR Cross Section Libraries for ORIGEN-ARP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGraw, Carolyn [Texas A& M University; Ilas, Germina [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    New pressurized water reactor (PWR) cross-section libraries were generated for use with the ORIGEN-ARP depletion sequence in the SCALE nuclear analysis code system. These libraries are based on ENDF/B-VII nuclear data and were generated using the two-dimensional depletion sequence, TRITON/NEWT, in SCALE 6.1. The libraries contain multiple burnup-dependent cross-sections for seven PWR fuel designs, with enrichments ranging from 1.5 to 6 wt% 235U. The burnup range has been extended from the 72 GWd/MTU used in previous versions of the libraries to 90 GWd/MTU. Validation of the libraries using radiochemical assay measurements and decay heat measurements for PWR spent fuel showed good agreement between calculated and experimental data. Verification against detailed TRITON simulations for the considered assembly designs showed that depletion calculations performed in ORIGEN-ARP with the pre-generated libraries provide similar results as obtained with direct TRITON depletion, while greatly reducing the computation time.

  7. Total cross sections for pion charge exchange on the proton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breitschopf, J.

    2006-04-28

    This work describes the measurement of total SCX cross sections employing a new 4{pi} scintillation counter to perform transmission measurements in the incident pion energy range from about 38 to 250 MeV. A small 4{pi} detector box consisting of thin plastic scintillators has been constructed. The transmission technique, which was used, relates the number of transmitted charged pions to that of incident beam pions and this way effectively counts events with neutral products. The incoming negative pions were counted by three beam defining counters before they hit a target of very well known size and chemical composition. The target was placed in the box detector which was not sensitive to the neutral particles resulting from the SCX. The total cross section for emerging neutral particles was derived from the comparison of the numbers of the incoming and transmitted charged particles. The total SCX cross section on hydrogen was derived from the transmissions of a CH{sub 2} target, a carbon target and an empty target. For a detailed offline analysis all TDC, QDC and FADC information was recorded in an event by event mode for each triggered beam event. Various corrections had to be applied to the data, such as random correction, the detection of neutrals in the detector, Dalitz decay, pion decay and the radiative pion capture. This measurement covers, as the only experiment, the whole {delta}-resonance and the sp-interference region in one single experimental setup and improves the available data base for the SCX reaction. It is shown that the description of the SCX cross sections is improved if the s-wave amplitudes, that have been fixed essentially by elastic pion-nucleon scattering data, is reduced by (4{+-}1.5)%. The exact value depends on the SCX literature data included and on the parameters of the {delta}{sup 0} Breit-Wigner resonance describing the p{sub 33}-waves. This shows that p-wave as well as s-wave effects should be considered in studies of isospin

  8. Cross section data for ionization of important cyanides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Jaspreet; Antony, Bobby, E-mail: bka.ism@gmail.com

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Multi centre spherical complex optical potential formalism used to find the CS. • Effective method (CSP-ic) to derive ionization contribution from inelastic CS. • Result shows excellent accord with previous results and consistent behaviour. • Maiden attempt to find CS for many cyanide molecules. • Strong correlation observed between peak of ionization with target properties. - Abstract: This article presents cross section calculations for interactions of important cyanides with electrons possessing energies beginning from ionization threshold of the target molecule to 5 keV. These data are pursued to meet the ever increasing demand for cross sections by the relevant atomic and molecular community for modelling astrophysical, atmospheric and technological domains. The calculations have been executed using an amalgam of multi centre spherical complex optical potential (MSCOP) formalism and complex scattering potential-ionization contribution (CSP-ic) method. Cross sections are compared with experimental and theoretical data wherever available. Strong correlations are observed for the cross sections which affirms consistent and reliable cross sections. Isomeric effect has been interpreted using variation of cross section with structure and target properties. Our cross sections will be tabulated in atomic collision database for use in modelling various statistical and dynamical quantities.

  9. Cross-Sectional Drawing Techniques And The Artist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, William A.

    1980-07-01

    Although Democritus, a Greek pholosopher of the fifth century B.C. described the use of cross-sections in analyzing a solid form, this method was not extensively developed in art until the Renaissance. The earliest treatise documenting the integration of the cross-section and linear perspective is Piero della Francesca's De prospective pingendi (c. 1480), in which a drawing of the human head is mathematically conceived and plotted by means of cross-section contours. Piero's method anticipates contemporary biostereometric techniques and current theories of visual perception. Outside of theoretical treatises the complete cross-section rarely occurs in art, though certain pictorial elements such as the religious halo can be interpreted as cross-sections. The chan-ging representation of the halo in art of the Medieval, Renaissance and Baroque periods parallels the development of the artist's concepts and techniques for representing form and space. During the Renaissance and Baroque periods the widespread use of contour hatching, a drawing technique based on the cross-section, indicates that the cross-section concept has played a greater role in pictorial representation than has generally been recognized.

  10. Cross section to multiplicity ratios at very high energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Block, M.M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Stodolsky, L. [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany)

    2014-06-27

    Recent data from the LHC makes it possible to examine an old speculation that at very high energy the total multiplicity and the cross section in elementary particle interactions vary in parallel with energy. Using fits incorporating the new data, it appears that the ratios of the total, elastic, and inelastic cross sections to the average multiplicity N can in fact approach constants at very high energy. The approach to the limit is however quite slow for the total and inelastic cross sections and is not yet reached at LHC energies. The elastic ratio σ{sup el}/N at 7 TeV, however, is not far from its asymptotic value.

  11. LHCb cross-section measurements with heavy flavour jets

    CERN Multimedia

    Michielin, Emanuele

    2017-01-01

    Cross-section measurements of jets originating from the hadronization of beauty ($b$) and charm ($c$) quarks at LHCb give the unique opportunity to probe Parton Distribution Functions (PDFs) at low and large momentum fraction and to test the Standard Model in the forward region. In this poster the production of $t\\bar{t}$ pairs in the forward region, the measurement of the $W+b\\bar{b}$ and $W+c\\bar{c}$ cross-section and the measurement of the $Z\\rightarrow b\\bar{b}$ cross-section are presented.

  12. Ionization cross section of partially ionized hydrogen plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baimbetov, F B; Kudyshev, Z A [Department of Physics, al - Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty (Kazakhstan)], E-mail: Bfb77@kazsu.kz, E-mail: Z.Kudyshev@mail.ru

    2008-05-01

    In present work the electron impact ionization cross section is considered. The electron impact ionization cross section is calculated, based on pseudopotential model of interaction between plasma particles which accounts correlation effects. It is calculated with help of two methods: classical and quantum - mechanical (Born approximation). The ionization cross section is compared with corresponding results of other authors and experimental data. It has been shown that it is very important to take into account an influence of the surrounding during consideration of ionization processes.

  13. Scattering cross section of unequal length dipole arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Hema; Jha, Rakesh Mohan

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a detailed and systematic analytical treatment of scattering by an arbitrary dipole array configuration with unequal-length dipoles, different inter-element spacing and load impedance. It provides a physical interpretation of the scattering phenomena within the phased array system. The antenna radar cross section (RCS) depends on the field scattered by the antenna towards the receiver. It has two components, viz. structural RCS and antenna mode RCS. The latter component dominates the former, especially if the antenna is mounted on a low observable platform. The reduction in the scattering due to the presence of antennas on the surface is one of the concerns towards stealth technology. In order to achieve this objective, a detailed and accurate analysis of antenna mode scattering is required. In practical phased array, one cannot ignore the finite dimensions of antenna elements, coupling effect and the role of feed network while estimating the antenna RCS. This book presents the RCS estimati...

  14. Cross sections, multiplicity and moment distributions at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Beggio, P C

    2013-01-01

    The unitarity of the $S$-matrix requires that the absorptive part of the elastic scattering amplitude receives contributions from both the inelastic and the elastic channels. We explore this unitarity condition in order to describe, in a connected way, hadron-hadron observables like the total and elastic differential cross sections, the ratio of the real to imaginary part of the forward scattering amplitude and the inclusive multiplicity distributions in full phase space, over a large range of energies. We introduce non-perturbative QCD effects in the forward scattering amplitude by using the infrared QCD effective charge dependent on the dynamical gluon mass. In our analysis we pay special attention to the theoretical uncertainties in the predictions due to this mass scale variation. We also present quantitative predictions for the $H_{q}$ moments at high energies. Our results reproduce the moment oscillations observed in experimental data, and are consistent with the behavior predicted by QCD.

  15. Cross sections, multiplicity and moment distributions at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beggio, P.C. [Laboratório de Ciências Matemáticas, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, 28013-602, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil); Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, CP 15051, 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Luna, E.G.S. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, CP 15051, 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-09-15

    The unitarity of the S-matrix requires that the absorptive part of the elastic scattering amplitude receives contributions from both the inelastic and the elastic channels. We explore this unitarity condition in order to describe, in a connected way, hadron–hadron observables like the total and elastic differential cross sections, the ratio of the real to imaginary part of the forward scattering amplitude and the inclusive multiplicity distributions in full phase space, over a large range of energies. We introduce non-perturbative QCD effects in the forward scattering amplitude by using the infrared QCD effective charge dependent on the dynamical gluon mass. In our analysis we pay special attention to the theoretical uncertainties in the predictions due to this mass scale variation. We also present quantitative predictions for the H{sub q} moments at high energies. Our results reproduce the moment oscillations observed in experimental data, and are consistent with the behavior predicted by QCD.

  16. Measurements of effective total macroscopic cross sections and effective energy of continuum beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Hisao [Rikkyo Univ., Yokosuka, Kanagawa (Japan). Inst. for Atomic Energy

    1998-03-01

    Two practically useful quantities are introduced in this study to characterize a continuum neutron beam and to describe transmission phenomena of the beam in field of quantitative neutron radiography: an effective energy instead of a peak energy or a mean energy of the spectrum and an effective total macroscopic (ETM) cross section instead of a total macroscopic (TM) cross section defined at the monochromatic energy. The effective energy was evaluated by means of energy dependence of ETM cross section. To realize the method a beam quality indicator (BQI) has been proposed recently. Several effective energies were measured for non-filtered, filtered neutron beams, and outputs of neutron guide tubes in world by the BQI. A thermal neutron beam and three beams modulated by Pb filters with different thicknesses are studied to measure ETM cross sections for various materials and summarized in a table. Validity of the effective energy determined by the BQI is discussed relating with ETM cross sections of materials. (author)

  17. Electron-Molecule Cross Sections for Plasma Applications: the Role of Internal Energy of the Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitelli, M.; Celiberto, R.

    The role of internal excitation in affecting electron-molecule cross sections is analyzed for H2, N2 and O2 systems. Particula emphasis is given to the role of vibrational energy in affecting both resonant and non-resonant electron molecule cross sections. In general for resonant transitions the cross sections dramatically depends on the initial vibrational quantum number of the target, while a minor effect if found for direct (non-resonant) transitions. Cross sections in this last case reflect the form of Franck-Condon factors and Franck-Condon densities linking the relevant boun-bound or bound-continuum transitions. A similar behaviour is presented when the target is electronically excited. In this case, however, the enhancement of cross section is much higher.

  18. Impact of photon cross section systematic uncertainties on Monte Carlo-determined depth-dose distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Aguirre, Eder; David, Mariano; deAlmeida, Carlos E

    2016-01-01

    This work studies the impact of systematic uncertainties associated to interaction cross sections on depth dose curves determined by Monte Carlo simulations. The corresponding sensitivity factors are quantified by changing cross sections in a given amount and determining the variation in the dose. The influence of total cross sections for all particles, photons and only for Compton scattering is addressed. The PENELOPE code was used in all simulations. It was found that photon cross section sensitivity factors depend on depth. In addition, they are positive and negative for depths below and above an equilibrium depth, respectively. At this depth, sensitivity factors are null. The equilibrium depths found in this work agree very well with the mean free path of the corresponding incident photon energy. Using the sensitivity factors reported here, it is possible to estimate the impact of photon cross section uncertainties on the uncertainty of Monte Carlo-determined depth dose curves.

  19. Parameter-free calculation of charge-changing cross sections at high energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Y.; Horiuchi, W.; Terashima, S.; Kanungo, R.; Ameil, F.; Atkinson, J.; Ayyad, Y.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Dillmann, I.; Estradé, A.; Evdokimov, A.; Farinon, F.; Geissel, H.; Guastalla, G.; Janik, R.; Knoebel, R.; Kurcewicz, J.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Marta, M.; Mostazo, M.; Mukha, I.; Nociforo, C.; Ong, H. J.; Pietri, S.; Prochazka, A.; Scheidenberger, C.; Sitar, B.; Strmen, P.; Takechi, M.; Tanaka, J.; Tanihata, I.; Vargas, J.; Weick, H.; Winfield, J. S.

    2016-07-01

    Charge-changing cross sections at high energies are expected to provide useful information on nuclear charge radii. No reliable theory to calculate the cross section has yet been available. We develop a formula using Glauber and eikonal approximations and test its validity with recent new data on carbon isotopes measured at around 900 A MeV. We first confirm that our theory reproduces the cross sections of 12,13,14C+12C consistently with the known charge radii. Next we show that the cross sections of C-1912 on a proton target are all well reproduced provided the role of neutrons is accounted for. We also discuss the energy dependence of the charge-changing cross sections.

  20. A genetic algorithm to reduce stream channel cross section data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenbrock, C.

    2006-01-01

    A genetic algorithm (GA) was used to reduce cross section data for a hypothetical example consisting of 41 data points and for 10 cross sections on the Kootenai River. The number of data points for the Kootenai River cross sections ranged from about 500 to more than 2,500. The GA was applied to reduce the number of data points to a manageable dataset because most models and other software require fewer than 100 data points for management, manipulation, and analysis. Results indicated that the program successfully reduced the data. Fitness values from the genetic algorithm were lower (better) than those in a previous study that used standard procedures of reducing the cross section data. On average, fitnesses were 29 percent lower, and several were about 50 percent lower. Results also showed that cross sections produced by the genetic algorithm were representative of the original section and that near-optimal results could be obtained in a single run, even for large problems. Other data also can be reduced in a method similar to that for cross section data.

  1. Total cross-section measurements progress in nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Giacomelli, G; Mulvey, J H

    2013-01-01

    Total Cross-Section Measurements discusses the cross-sectional dimensions of elementary hadron collisions. The main coverage of the book is the resonance and high energy area of the given collision. A section of the book explains in detail the characteristic of a resonance region. Another section is focused on the location of the high energy region of collision. Parts of the book define the meaning of resonance in nuclear physics. Also explained are the measurement of resonance and the identification of the area where the resonance originates. Different experimental methods to measure the tota

  2. Measurement of Heavy Quark cross-sections at CDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annovi, Alberto; /Frascati

    2007-09-01

    Abstract: The measurement of heavy quark cross-sections provides important tests of the QCD theory. This paper reviews recent measurements of single b-quark and correlated b-quark cross-sections at CDF. Two new measurements of the single b-quark production at CDF agree with the first result from CDF Run II. This clarifies the experimental situation and confirms the recent agreement of theoretical prediction with data. A new measurement of the correlated b{bar b} cross-section with dimuon events at CDF is presented. It agrees with theory and it does not confirm the anomalously large b{bar b} cross-section seen in Run I by CDF and D0 in dimuon events.

  3. Theoretical Studies on Photoionization Cross Sections of Solid Gold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Xiao-Guang; SUN Wei-Guo; CHENG Yah-Song

    2005-01-01

    Accurate expression for photoabsorption (photoionization) cross sections of high density system proposed recently is used to study the photoionization of solid gold. The results show that the present theoretical photoionization cross sections have good agreement both in structure and in magnitude with the experimental results of gold crystal.The studies also indicate that both the real part ε'and the imaginary part ε" of the complex dielectric constant ε,and the dielectric influence function of a nonideal system have rich structures in low energy side with a range about 50 eV, and suggest that the influence of particle interactions of surrounding particles with the photoionized particle on the photoionization cross sections can be easily investigated using the dielectric influence function. The electron overlap effects are suggested to be implemented in the future studies to improve the accuracy of theoretical photoionization cross sections of a solid system.

  4. Hadronic cross sections, elastic slope and physical bounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagundes, D. A.; Menon, M. J. [Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, UNICAMP, 13083-859 Campinas SP (Brazil)

    2013-03-25

    An almost model-independent parametrization for the ratio of the total hadronic cross section to elastic slope is discussed. Its applicability in studies of asymptotia and analyses of extensive air shower in cosmic-ray physics is also outlined.

  5. Fully differential cross sections for heavy particle impact ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGovern, M; Walters, H R J [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Queen' s University, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Assafrao, D; Mohallem, J R [Laboratorio de Atomos e Moleculas Especiais, Departamento de Fisica, ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, P.O Box 702, 30123-970 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Whelan, Colm T, E-mail: mmcgovern06@qub.ac.u [Department of Physics, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529-0116 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    We describe a procedure for extracting fully differential ionization cross sections from an impact parameter coupled pseudostate treatment of the collision. Some examples from antiproton impact ionization of atomic Hydrogen are given.

  6. Inclusive and pion production neutrino-nucleus cross sections

    CERN Document Server

    Martini, M

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the experimental data on the inclusive double differential cross section by neutrinos charged current, measured by T2K, with the same model which was successful for the MiniBooNE quasielastic cross sections. As in our previous analysis the multinucleon component is needed in order to reproduce the data. For the total cross section our evaluation is smaller than the SciBooNE data above 1 GeV. This indicates the opening of a new channel not included in our evaluation, presumably the two pion emission channel. We also check that our description holds for the exclusive single pion production channel by confronting our evaluation with the MiniBooNE double differential cross section for a single charged pion and the Q^2 distribution. Both are compatible with data.

  7. differential cross sections of electron silver scattering at varying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    occur in quantum mechanics, quantum electrodynamics and partial wave expansion. The main ... The differential cross section is the main observable in quantum scattering experiments. .... program at run-time and have the exertion. DAT.

  8. Trilogy of LHC Higgs Cross Section Working Group

    CERN Document Server

    Tanaka, R; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    Slide shown at Aspen 2013 - Higgs Quo Vadis, March 10-15, 2013, Aspen, CO, USA. The activity of LHC Higgs Cross Section Woking Group was reported putting emphasis on current theoretical issues in Higgs physics towards precision Higgs measurements.

  9. Total cross sections for ultracold neutrons scattered from gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seestrom, S. J.; Adamek, E. R.; Barlow, D.; Blatnik, M.; Broussard, L. J.; Callahan, N. B.; Clayton, S. M.; Cude-Woods, C.; Currie, S.; Dees, E. B.; Fox, W.; Hoffbauer, M.; Hickerson, K. P.; Holley, A. T.; Liu, C.-Y.; Makela, M.; Medina, J.; Morley, D. J.; Morris, C. L.; Pattie, R. W.; Ramsey, J.; Roberts, A.; Salvat, D. J.; Saunders, A.; Sharapov, E. I.; Sjue, S. K. L.; Slaughter, B. A.; Walstrom, P. L.; Wang, Z.; Wexler, J.; Womack, T. L.; Young, A. R.; Vanderwerp, J.; Zeck, B. A.

    2017-01-01

    We have followed up on our previous measurements of upscattering of ultracold neutrons (UCNs) from a series of gases by making measurements of total cross sections on the following gases hydrogen, ethane, methane, isobutene, n -butane, ethylene, water vapor, propane, neopentane, isopropyl alcohol, and 3He . The values of these cross sections are important for estimating the loss rate of trapped neutrons due to residual gas and are relevant to neutron lifetime measurements using UCNs. The effects of the UCN velocity and path-length distributions were accounted for in the analysis using a Monte Carlo transport code. Results are compared to our previous measurements and with the known absorption cross section for 3He scaled to our UCN energy. We find that the total cross sections for the hydrocarbon gases are reasonably described by a function linear in the number of hydrogen atoms in the molecule.

  10. Highlights of top quark cross-section measurements at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Berta, Peter; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The highlights of the measurements of top quark production in proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider with the ATLAS detector are presented. The inclusive measurements of the top-pair production cross section have reached high precision and are compared to the best available theoretical calculations. The differential cross section measurements, including results using boosted top quarks, probe our understanding of top-pair production in the TeV regime. The results are compared to Monte Carlo generators implementing LO and NLO matrix elements matched with parton showers. Measurements of the single top quark production cross section are presented in the t-channel and s-channel, and with associated production with a W boson. For the t-channel production, results on the ratio between top quark and antitop quark production cross sections and differential measurements are also included.

  11. Top quark pair cross section prospects in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Gaponenko, Andrei

    2009-01-01

    The observation of the top quark will be an important milestone in ATLAS. This talk reviews methods that ATLAS plans to use to observe the top quark pair production process and measure its cross section.

  12. Evaluation of nuclear reaction cross section of some isotopes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of nuclear reaction cross section of some isotopes of plutonium at energy range ... Nigerian Journal of Chemical Research ... Their choice is as a result of their importance in the modern day nuclear reactor and the energy range 10 ...

  13. Longitudinal Vibrations of Rheological Rod With Variable Cross Section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Katica(Stevanovic)HEDRIH; AleksandarFILIPOVSKI

    1999-01-01

    Longitudinal vibrations of rheological rod with variable cross section are examined.Particular solutions and eigenfunction are accomplished for natural vibrations of the rod with hereditary material of standard hereditary body.Some examples are given.

  14. Hadronic Cross Sections, Elastic Slope and Physical Bounds

    CERN Document Server

    Fagundes, D A

    2012-01-01

    An almost model-independent parametrization for the ratio of the total hadronic cross section to elastic slope is discussed. Its applicability in studies of asymptotia and analyses of extensive air shower in cosmic-ray physics is also outlined.

  15. A new technique for dosimetry reaction cross-section evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badikov, S.A. [JSC Energy and Industry Analytica, 127287, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-01

    Document available in abstract form only, full text of document follows: An objective of this paper is a unification of the procedure for dosimetry reaction cross-section evaluation. A set of requirements for the unified evaluation procedure is presented. A new code (ORTHO) was developed in order to meet these requirements. A statistical model, an algorithm, and the basic formulae employed in the code are described. The code was used for Ti48(n,p) reaction cross-section evaluation. The results of the evaluation are compared to International Reactor Dosimetry File (IRDF)-2002 data. The evaluated cross-sections and their correlations from this work are in good agreement with the IRDF-2002 evaluated data, whereas the uncertainties of the evaluated cross-sections are inconsistent. (authors)

  16. Charm meson scattering cross sections by pion and rho meson

    CERN Document Server

    Lin Zi Wei; Ko, C M

    2001-01-01

    Using the local flavor SU(4) gauge invariance in the limit of vanishing vector-meson masses, we extend our previous study of charm-meson scattering cross sections by pion and rho meson, which is based only on the pseudoscalar-pseudoscalar-vector meson couplings, to include also contributions from the couplings among three vector mesons and among four particles. We find that diagrams with light-meson exchanges usually dominate the cross sections. For the processes considered previously, the additional interactions lead only to diagrams involving charm-meson exchanges and contact interactions, and the cross sections for these processes are thus not much affected. Nevertheless, these additional interactions introduce new processes with light-meson exchanges and increase significantly the total scattering cross sections of charm mesons by pion and rho meson.

  17. Modelling of reaction cross sections and prompt neutron emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambsch, F.-J.; Tudora, A.; Oberstedt, S.

    2010-10-01

    Accurate nuclear data concerning reaction cross sections and the emission of prompt fission neutrons (i.e. multiplicity and spectra) as well as other fission fragment data are of great importance for reactor physics design, especially for the new Generation IV nuclear energy systems. During the past years for several actinides (238U(n, f) and 237Np(n, f)) both the reaction cross sections and prompt neutron multiplicities and spectra have been calculated within the frame of the EFNUDAT project.

  18. Single Boson Production Cross Section Measurements in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Kyeongpil

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of single boson production cross sections are presented. They are based on proton-proton collision data at 8 and 13 TeV recorded with the CMS detector at the LHC. Inclusive and differential cross sections with respect to various observables are measured in various phase spaces.These measurements are compared to perturbative QCD predictions and generally show good agreement with the prediction.

  19. Partial wave scattering cross sections for He-HBr collision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Chun-Ri; Feng Er-Yin; Wang Rong-Kai; Yang Xiang-Dong

    2006-01-01

    A new anisotropic potential is fitted to ab initio data. The close-coupling approach is utilized to calculate state-to-state rotational excitation partial wave cross sections for elastic and inelastic collisions of He atom with HBr molecule based on the fitted potential. The calculation is performed separately at the incident energies: 75, 100 and 200 meV. The tendency of the elastic and inelastic rotational excitation partial wave cross sections varying with total angular quantum number J is obtained.

  20. Thermal neutron capture cross sections of tellurium isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomandl, I.; Honzátko, J.; von Egidy, T.; Wirth, H.-F.; Belgya, T.; Lakatos, M.; Szentmiklósi, L.; Révay, Zs.; Molnár, G. L.; Firestone, R. B.; Bondarenko, V.

    2003-12-01

    New values for thermal neutron capture cross sections of the tellurium isotopes 122 Te , 124 Te , 125 Te , 126 Te , 128 Te , and 130 Te are reported. These values are based on a combination of newly determined partial γ -ray cross sections obtained from experiments on targets contained natural Te and γ intensities per capture of individual Te isotopes. Isomeric ratios for the thermal neutron capture on the even tellurium isotopes are also given.

  1. Top Quark Pair Production Cross Section at the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Reinhild Yvonne [Manchester U.

    2015-09-25

    The top quark, discovered in 1995 by the CDF and D0 collaborations at the Tevatron proton antiproton collider at Fermilab, has undergone intense studies in the last 20 years. Currently, CDF and D0 converge on their measurements of top-antitop quark production cross sections using the full Tevatron data sample. In these proceedings, the latest results on inclusive and differential measurements of top-antitop quark production cross sections at the Tevatron are reported.

  2. Nucleon-nucleon collision profile and cross section fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Rybczynski, Maciej

    2013-01-01

    The nucleon-nucleon collision profile, being the basic entity of the wounded nucleon model, is usually adopted in the form of hard sphere or the Gaussian shape. We suggest that the cross section fluctuations given by the gamma distribution leads to the profile function which smoothly ranges between the both limiting forms. Examples demonstrating sensitivity of profile function on cross section fluctuations are discussed.

  3. Photoproduction models for total cross section and shower development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornet, Fernando; Garcia Canal, Carlos; Grau, Agnes; Pancheri, Giulia; Sciutto, Sergio

    2015-08-01

    A model for the total photoproduction cross section, based on the ansatz that resummation of infrared gluons limits the rise induced by QCD minijets in all the total cross-sections, is used to simulate extended air showers initiated by cosmic rays with the AIRES simulation program. The impact on common shower observables, especially those related with muon production, is analysed and compared with the corresponding results obtained with previous photoproduction models.

  4. Photoproduction models for total cross section and shower development

    CERN Document Server

    Cornet, Fernando; Grau, Agnes; Pancheri, Giulia; Sciutto, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    A model for the total photoproduction cross section based on the ansatz that resummation of infrared gluons limits the rise induced by QCD minijets in all the total cross-sections, is used to simulate extended air showers initiated by cosmic rays with the AIRES simulation program. The impact on common shower observables, especially those related with muon production, is analysed and compared with the corresponding results obtained with previous photoproduction models.

  5. Photoproduction models for total cross section and shower development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornet Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A model for the total photoproduction cross section, based on the ansatz that resummation of infrared gluons limits the rise induced by QCD minijets in all the total cross-sections, is used to simulate extended air showers initiated by cosmic rays with the AIRES simulation program. The impact on common shower observables, especially those related with muon production, is analysed and compared with the corresponding results obtained with previous photoproduction models.

  6. MINERvA - neutrino nucleus cross section experiment

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    Recent results from MINERvA, a neutrino cross section experiment at Fermilab, are presented. MINERVA has the goal of providing precision results which will have important impact on oscillation experiments.  Initial data runs for muon neutrino and antineutrino beams of ~3.5 GeV have produced a large number of new results. This seminar will introduce the experiment and describe results for quasielastic, pion production, and inclusive cross sections.

  7. Elastic cross sections for electron-carbon scattering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jun-Bo; Wang Yang; Zhou Ya-Jun

    2007-01-01

    We used the close-coupling optical (CCO) approach to investigate the open-shell carbon atom. The elastic cross sections have been presented at the energies below 90eV, and the present CCO results have been compared with other theoretical results. We found that polarization and the continuum states have significant contributions to the elastic cross sections. The present calculations show that the CCO method is capable of calculating electron scattering from open-shell atoms.

  8. Thermal neutron capture cross sections of tellurium isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomandl, I.; Honzatko, J.; von Egidy, T.; Wirth, H.-F.; Belgya, T.; Lakatos, M.; Szentmiklosi, L.; Revay, Zs.; Molnar, G.L.; Firestone, R.B.; Bondarenko, V.

    2004-03-01

    New values for thermal neutron capture cross sections of the tellurium isotopes 122Te, 124Te, 125Te, 126Te, 128Te, and 130Te are reported. These values are based on a combination of newly determined partial g-ray cross sections obtained from experiments on targets contained natural Te and gamma intensities per capture of individual Te isotopes. Isomeric ratios for the thermal neutron capture on the even tellurium isotopes are also given.

  9. Electron cross-sections and transport in liquids and biomolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Ronald; Casey, M.; Cocks, D.; Konvalov, D.; Brunger, M. J.; Garcia, G.; Petrovic, Z.; McEachran, R.; Buckman, S. J.; de Urquijo, J.

    2016-09-01

    Modelling of electron induced processes in plasma medicine and radiation damage is reliant on accurate self-consistent sets of cross-sections for electrons in tissue. These cross-sections (and associated transport theory) must accurately account not only the electron-biomolecule interactions but also for the soft-condensed nature of tissue. In this presentation, we report on recent swarm experiments for electrons in gaseous water and tetrahydrofuran using the pulsed-Townsend experiment, and the associated development of self-consistent cross-section sets that arise from them. We also report on the necessary modifications to gas-phase cross-sections required to accurately treat electron transport in liquids. These modifications involve the treatment of coherent scattering and screening of the electron interaction potential as well as the development of a new transport theory to accommodate these cross-sections. The accuracy of the ab-initio cross-sections is highlighted through comparison of theory and experiment for electrons in liquid argon and xenon.

  10. Coulomb and nuclear effects in breakup and reaction cross sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descouvemont, P.; Canto, L. F.; Hussein, M. S.

    2017-01-01

    We use a three-body continuum discretized coupled channel (CDCC) model to investigate Coulomb and nuclear effects in breakup and reaction cross sections. The breakup of the projectile is simulated by a finite number of square integrable wave functions. First we show that the scattering matrices can be split in a nuclear term and in a Coulomb term. This decomposition is based on the Lippmann-Schwinger equation and requires the scattering wave functions. We present two different methods to separate both effects. Then, we apply this separation to breakup and reaction cross sections of 7Li+208Pb . For breakup, we investigate various aspects, such as the role of the α +t continuum, the angular-momentum distribution, and the balance between Coulomb and nuclear effects. We show that there is a large ambiguity in defining the Coulomb and nuclear breakup cross sections, since both techniques, although providing the same total breakup cross sections, strongly differ for the individual components. We suggest a third method which could be efficiently used to address convergence problems at large angular momentum. For reaction cross sections, interference effects are smaller, and the nuclear contribution is dominant above the Coulomb barrier. We also draw attention to different definitions of the reaction cross section which exist in the literature and which may induce small, but significant, differences in the numerical values.

  11. Photodissociation cross section of ClOOCl at 330 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Bing; Chen, I-Cheng; Huang, Wen-Tsung; Lien, Chien-Yu; Guchhait, Nikhil; Lin, Jim J

    2010-04-15

    The photolysis rate of ClOOCl is crucial in the catalytic destruction of polar stratospheric ozone. In this work, we determined the photodissociation cross section of ClOOCl at 330 nm with a molecular beam and with mass-resolved detection. The photodissociation cross section is the product of the absorption cross section and the dissociation quantum yield. We formed an effusive molecular beam of ClOOCl at a nozzle temperature of 200 or 250 K and determined its photodissociation probability by measuring the decrease of the ClOOCl intensity upon laser irradiation. By comparing with a reference molecule (Cl(2)), of which the absorption cross section and dissociation quantum yield are well-known, we determined the absolute photodissociation cross section of ClOOCl at 330 nm to be (2.31 +/- 0.11) x 10(-19) cm(2) at 200 K and (2.47 +/- 0.12) x 10(-19) cm(2) at 250 K. Impurity interference has been a well-recognized problem in conventional spectroscopic studies of ClOOCl; our mass-resolved measurement directly overcomes such a problem. This measurement of the ClOOCl photolysis cross section at 330 nm is particularly useful in constraining its atmospheric photolysis rate, which in the polar stratosphere peaks near this wavelength.

  12. Status of the Neutron Cross-Section Standards Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Carlson, Allan D.; Vonach, Herbert

    2005-05-01

    A new evaluation of the neutron cross-section standards is now underway. This evaluation has been supported by the Working Party on International Evaluation Cooperation (WPEC), the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG), and an International Atomic Energy Agency Coordinated Research Program (CRP). The CRP has had the dominant role in producing these evaluations. An important goal is to produce the standards needed for the upcoming new ENDF/B-VII library. Since most neutron cross-section measurements are made relative to neutron cross-section standards, the standards evaluation is of crucial importance. The standard reactions to be evaluated are: H(n,n), 3He(n,p), 6Li(n,t), 10B(n,α), 10B(n,α1γ), C(n,n), Au(n,γ), 235U(n,f), and 238U(n,f). These standards should receive international acceptance to ensure that all evaluation projects use the same set of standards. The last complete evaluation of the standards dates back almost 20 years. In the meantime quite a number of new and improved measurements have occurred for the cross-section standards. International efforts are presently underway to update the experimental database and to improve the evaluation process. Due to the need for high-energy standards, the energy range is being extended to 200 MeV for some of the cross-section standards.

  13. Studies of 54,56Fe Neutron Scattering Cross Sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hicks S. F.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Elastic and inelastic neutron scattering differential cross sections and γ-ray production cross sections have been measured on 54,56Fe at several incident energies in the fast neutron region between 1.5 and 4.7 MeV. All measurements were completed at the University of Kentucky Accelerator Laboratory (UKAL using a 7-MV Model CN Van de Graaff accelerator, along with the neutron production and neutron and γ-ray detection systems located there. The facilities at UKAL allow the investigation of both elastic and inelastic scattering with nearly mono-energetic incident neutrons. Time-of-flight techniques were used to detect the scattered neutrons for the differential cross section measurements. The measured cross sections are important for fission reactor applications and also for testing global model calculations such as those found at ENDF, since describing both the elastic and inelastic scattering is important for determining the direct and compound components of the scattering mechanism. The γ-ray production cross sections are used to determine cross sections to unresolved levels in the neutron scattering experiments. Results from our measurements and comparisons to model calculations are presented.

  14. Calculation of the intermediate energy activation cross section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furihata, Shiori; Yoshizawa, Nobuaki [Mitsubishi Research Inst., Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    We discussed the activation cross section in order to predict accurately the activation of soil around an accelerator with high energy and strong intensity beam. For the assessment of the accuracy of activation cross sections estimated by a numerical model, we compared the calculated cross section with various experimental data, for Si(p,x){sup 22}Na, Al(p,x){sup 22}Na, Fe(p,x){sup 22}Na, Si(p,x){sup 7}Be, O(p,x){sup 3}H, Al(p,x){sup 3}H and Si(p,x){sup 3}H reactions. We used three computational codes, i.e., quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) plus statistical decay model (SDM), HETC-3STEP and the semiempirical method developed by Silberberg et.al. It is observed that the codes are accurate above 1GeV, except for {sup 7}Be production. We also discussed the difference between the activation cross sections of proton- and neutron-induced reaction. For the incident energy at 40MeV, it is found that {sup 3}H production cross sections of neutron-induced reaction are ten times as large as those of proton-induced reaction. It is also observed that the choice of the activation cross sections seriously affects to the estimate of saturated radioactivity, if the maximum energy of neutron flux is below 100MeV. (author)

  15. Methodology Series Module 3: Cross-sectional Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Maninder Singh

    2016-01-01

    Cross-sectional study design is a type of observational study design. In a cross-sectional study, the investigator measures the outcome and the exposures in the study participants at the same time. Unlike in case-control studies (participants selected based on the outcome status) or cohort studies (participants selected based on the exposure status), the participants in a cross-sectional study are just selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria set for the study. Once the participants have been selected for the study, the investigator follows the study to assess the exposure and the outcomes. Cross-sectional designs are used for population-based surveys and to assess the prevalence of diseases in clinic-based samples. These studies can usually be conducted relatively faster and are inexpensive. They may be conducted either before planning a cohort study or a baseline in a cohort study. These types of designs will give us information about the prevalence of outcomes or exposures; this information will be useful for designing the cohort study. However, since this is a 1-time measurement of exposure and outcome, it is difficult to derive causal relationships from cross-sectional analysis. We can estimate the prevalence of disease in cross-sectional studies. Furthermore, we will also be able to estimate the odds ratios to study the association between exposure and the outcomes in this design.

  16. Fragmentation cross-sections and binding energies of neutron-rich nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Tsang, M B; Friedman, W A; Mocko, M; Sun, Z Y; Aoi, N; Cook, J M; Delaunay, F; Famiano, M A; Hui, H; Imai, N; Iwasaki, H; Motobayashi, T; Niikura, M; Onishi, T; Rogers, A M; Sakuraï, H; Suzuki, H; Takeshita, E; Takeuchi, S; Wallace, M S

    2007-01-01

    An exponential dependence of the fragmentation cross-section on the average binding energy is observed and reproduced with a statistical model. The observed functional dependence is robust and allows the extraction of binding energies from measured cross-sections. From the systematics of 75,77,78,79Cu isotope cross-sections have been extracted. They are 636.94 +/- 0.40 MeV, 647.1 +/- 0.4 MeV, 651.6 +/- 0.4 MeV and 657.8 +/- 0.5 MeV, respectively. Specifically, the uncertainty of the binding energy of 75Cu is reduced from 980 keV (listed value in the 2003 mass table of Audi and Wapstra) to 400 keV. The predicted cross-sections of two near drip-line nuclei, 39Na and 40Mg, from the fragmentation of 48Ca are discussed.

  17. Fragmentation cross sections and binding energies of neutron-rich nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, M. B.; Lynch, W. G.; Friedman, W. A.; Mocko, M.; Sun, Z. Y.; Aoi, N.; Cook, J. M.; Delaunay, F.; Famiano, M. A.; Hui, H.; Imai, N.; Iwasaki, H.; Motobayashi, T.; Niikura, M.; Onishi, T.; Rogers, A. M.; Sakurai, H.; Suzuki, H.; Takeshita, E.; Takeuchi, S.; Wallace, M. S.

    2007-10-01

    An exponential dependence of the fragmentation cross section on the average binding energy is observed and reproduced with a statistical model. The observed functional dependence is robust and allows the extraction of binding energies from measured cross sections. From the systematics of Cu isotope cross sections, the binding energies of Cu76,77,78,79 have been extracted. They are 636.94±0.4,647.1±0.4,651.6±0.4, and 657.8±0.5 MeV, respectively. Specifically, the uncertainty of the binding energy of Cu75 is reduced from 980 keV, as listed in the 2003 mass table of Audi, Wapstra, and Thibault to 400 keV. The predicted cross sections of two near drip-line nuclei, Na39 and Mg40 from the fragmentation of Ca48 are discussed.

  18. Compton Scattering Cross Section on the Proton at High Momentum Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Danagoulian; V.H. Mamyan; M. Roedelbronn; K.A. Aniol; J.R.M. Annand; P.Y. Bertin; L. Bimbot; P. Bosted; J.R. Calarco; A. Camsonne; C.C. Chang; T.-H. Chang; J.-P. Chen; Seonho Choi; E. Chudakov; P. Degtyarenko; C.W. de Jager; A. Deur; D. Dutta; K. Egiyan; H. Gao; F. Garibaldi; O. Gayou; R. Gilman; A. Glamazdin; C. Glashausser; J. Gomez; D.J. Hamilton; J.-O. Hansen; D. Hayes; D.W. Higinbotham; W. Hinton; T. Horn; C. Howell; T. Hunyady; C.E. Hyde-Wright; X. Jiang; M.K. Jones; M. Khandaker; A. Ketikyan; V. Koubarovski; K. Kramer; G. Kumbartzki; G. Laveissiere; J. LeRose; R.A. Lindgren; D.J. Margaziotis; P. Markowitz; K. McCormick; Z.-E. Meziani; R. Michaels; P. Moussiegt; S. Nanda; A.M. Nathan; D.M. Nikolenko; V. Nelyubin; B.E. Norum; K. Paschke; L. Pentchev; C.F. Perdrisat; E. Piasetzky; R. Pomatsalyuk; V.A. Punjabi; I. Rachek; A. Radyushkin; B. Reitz; R. Roche; G. Ron; F. Sabatie; A. Saha; N. Savvinov; A. Shahinyan; Y. Shestakov; S. Sirca; K. Slifer; P. Solvignon; P. Stoler; S. Tajima; V. Sulkosky; L. Todor; B. Vlahovic; L.B. Weinstein; K. Wang; B. Wojtsekhowski; H. Voskanyan; H. Xiang; X. Zheng; L. Zhu

    2007-01-29

    Cross-section values for Compton scattering on the proton were measured at 25 kinematic settings over the range s = 5-11 and -t = 2-7 GeV2 with statistical accuracy of a few percent. The scaling power for the s-dependence of the cross section at fixed center of mass angle was found to be 8.0 +/- 0.2, strongly inconsistent with the prediction of perturbative QCD. The observed cross section values are in fair agreement with the calculations using the handbag mechanism, in which the external photons couple to a single quark.

  19. Compton Scattering Cross Section on the Proton at High Momentum Transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Danagoulian, A; Annand, J R M; Bertin, P Y; Bimbot, L; Bosted, P; Calarco, J R; Camsonne, A; Chang, C C; Chang, T H; Chen, J P; Choi, Seonho; Chudakov, E; De Jager, C W; Degtyarenko, P; Deur, A; Dutta, D; Egiyan, K; Gao, H; Garibaldi, F; Gayou, O; Gilman, R; Glamazdin, A; Glashausser, C; Gómez, J; Hamilton, D J; Hansen, J O; Hayes, D; Higinbotham, D W; Hinton, W; Horn, T; Howell, C; Hunyady, T; Hyde-Wright, C E; Jiang, X; Jones, M K; Ketikyan, A; Khandaker, M; Koubarovski, V; Krämer, K; Kumbartzki, G; Laveissière, G; Le Rose, J; Lindgren, R A; Mamyan, V H; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; McCormick, K; Meziani, Z E; Michaels, R; Moussiegt, P; Nanda, S; Nathan, A M; Nelyubin, V V; Nikolenko, D M; Norum, B E; Paschke, K; Pentchev, L; Perdrisat, C F; Piasetzky, E; Pomatsalyuk, R I; Punjabi, V A; Rachek, Igor A; Radyushkin, A; Reitz, B; Roché, R; Roedelbronn, M; Ron, G; Sabatie, F; Saha, A; Savvinov, N; Shahinyan, A; Shestakov, Yu V; Sirca, S; Slifer, K J; Solvignon, P; Stoler, P; Sulkosky, V; Tajima, S; Todor, L; Vlahovic, B; Voskanyan, H; Wang, K; Weinstein, L B; Wojtsekhowski, B; Xiang, H; Zheng, X; Zhu, L

    2007-01-01

    Cross-section values for Compton scattering on the proton were measured at 25 kinematic settings over the range s = 5-11 and -t = 2-7 GeV2 with statistical accuracy of a few percent. The scaling power for the s-dependence of the cross section at fixed center of mass angle was found to be 8.0 +/ 0.2, strongly inconsistent with the prediction of perturbative QCD. The observed cross-section values are in fair agreement with the calculations using the handbag mechanism, in which the external photons couple to a single quark.

  20. Double Helicity Asymmetry and Cross Section for eta Production in Polarized pp Collisions at PHENIX

    OpenAIRE

    Ellinghaus, Frank

    2006-01-01

    Measurements of double helicity asymmetries for inclusive hadron production in polarized proton-proton collisions are sensitive to spin-dependent parton distribution functions, in particular to the gluon distribution, Delta g. This study presents the double helicity asymmetry and the cross section for eta production. The cross section measurement yields valuable data for the extraction of the fragmentation functions, which are unknown at present but are a prerequisite for the extraction of th...

  1. Deformation effect on reaction cross sections for neutron-rich Ne-isotopes induced reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Minomo, Kosho; Kimura, Masaaki; Ogata, Kazuyuki; Shimizu, Yoshifumi R; Yahiro, Masanobu

    2011-01-01

    Isotope-dependence of measured reaction cross sections in scattering of $^{28-32}$Ne isotopes from $^{12}$C target at 240 MeV/nucleon is analyzed by the double-folding model with the Melbourne $g$-matrix. The density of projectile is calculated by the mean-field model with the deformed Wood-Saxon potential. The deformation is evaluated by the antisymmetrized molecular dynamics. The deformation of projectile enhances calculated reaction cross sections to the measured values.

  2. Cross-section library and processing techniques within the SCALE system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westfall, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    A summary of each of the SCALE system features involved in problem-dependent cross section processing is presented. These features include criticality libraries, shielding libraries, the Standard Composition Library, the SCALE functional modules: BONAMI-S, NITAWL-S, XSDRNPM-S, ICE-S, and the Material Information Processor. The automated procedure for cross-section processing is described with examples. 15 refs.

  3. Stratospheric Determination of Effective Photodissociation Cross Sections for Molecular Oxygen: 191-204 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-20

    near 200 nm, is greater than expected, indicating that the recoin- mended 6 02 Herzberg continuum cross sections may be too large. Photo- -~ chemical...ToT(A) convolved with altitude-dependent effective absorption cross sections, t’eff(ZAX)9󈧎 (Allen & Frederick , 1982, ref. 10, will subsequently be 1...The preliminary data from that flight will be used to augment this study and tighten the error estimates. IV. Theory: As Allen and Frederick 10

  4. Models for Pooled Time-Series Cross-Section Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence E Raffalovich

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Several models are available for the analysis of pooled time-series cross-section (TSCS data, defined as “repeated observations on fixed units” (Beck and Katz 1995. In this paper, we run the following models: (1 a completely pooled model, (2 fixed effects models, and (3 multi-level/hierarchical linear models. To illustrate these models, we use a Generalized Least Squares (GLS estimator with cross-section weights and panel-corrected standard errors (with EViews 8 on the cross-national homicide trends data of forty countries from 1950 to 2005, which we source from published research (Messner et al. 2011. We describe and discuss the similarities and differences between the models, and what information each can contribute to help answer substantive research questions. We conclude with a discussion of how the models we present may help to mitigate validity threats inherent in pooled time-series cross-section data analysis.

  5. Measurements of neutron cross sections of radioactive waste nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katoh, Toshio [Gifu College of Medical Technology, Seki, Gifu (Japan); Harada, Hideo; Nakamura, Shoji; Tanase, Masakazu; Hatsukawa, Yuichi

    1998-01-01

    Accurate nuclear reaction cross sections of radioactive fission products and transuranic elements are required for research on nuclear transmutation methods in nuclear waste management. Important fission products in the nuclear waste management are {sup 137}Cs, {sup 135}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc and {sup 129}I because of their large fission yields and long half-lives. The present authors have measured the neutron capture cross sections and resonance integrals of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 99}Tc. The purpose of this study is to measure the neutron capture cross sections and resonance integrals of nuclides, {sup 129}I and {sup 135}Cs accurately. Preliminary experiments were performed by using Rikkyo University Reactor and JRR-3 reactor at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). Then, it was decided to measure the cross section and resonance integral of {sup 135}Cs by using the JRR-3 Reactor because this measurement required a high flux reactor. On the other hand, those of {sup 129}I were measured at the Rikkyo Reactor because the product nuclides, {sup 130}I and {sup 130m}I, have short half-lives and this reactor is suitable for the study of short lived nuclide. In this report, the measurements of the cross section and resonance integral of {sup 135}Cs are described. To obtain reliable values of the cross section and resonance integral of {sup 135}Cs(n, {gamma}){sup 136}Cs reaction, a quadrupole mass spectrometer was used for the mass analysis of nuclide in the sample. A progress report on the cross section of {sup 134}Cs, a neighbour of {sup 135}Cs, is included in this report. A report on {sup 129}I will be presented in the Report on the Joint-Use of Rikkyo University Reactor. (author)

  6. Why photoproduction of charmonium on nuclei does not measure the charmonium-nucleon total cross section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benhar, O.; Kopeliovich, B.Z.; Mariotti, C.; Nikolaev, N.N.; Zakharov, B.G. (Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States) Laboratory of Nuclear Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Head Post Office, P. O. Box 79, 101000 Moscow (Russia) Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Sezione Sanita, Physics Laboratory-Istituto Superiore di Sanita, viale Regina Elena 299, I-00161 Roma (Italy) Dipartimento di Fisica Teorica, Universita di Torino and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino, via P. Giuria, 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy) L. D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, GSP-1, 117940, ul. Kosygina 2, V-334 Moscow (Russia) Nuclear Research Institute, High Energy Laboratory, Moscow State University, 177234 Moscow (Russia))

    1992-08-24

    We show that color transparency produces either strong nuclear shadowing or antishadowing, depending on the specific (semi)exclusive photoproduction reaction off nuclei. Neither coherent nor quasielastic diffractive photoproduction of charmonium on nuclei measures the charmonium-nucleon total cross section and the vector-dominance-model interpretation of nuclear photoproduction data cannot be applied. We relate the {ital A} dependence of the coherent and quasielastic photoproduction cross sections and derive the energy dependence of shadowing. The results are in good agreement with the New Muon Collaboration data.

  7. Investigates on Aerodynamic Characteristics of Projectile with Triangular Cross Section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI Wen-jun; WANG Zhong-yuan; LI Yan; QIAN Ji-sheng

    2009-01-01

    The aerodynamic characteristics of projectiles with triangular and circular cross sections are investigated respectively by use of free-flight experiment. Processed the experiment data, curves of flight velocity variation and nutation of both projectiles are obtained, based on the curves, their aerodynamic force and moment coefficients are found out by data fitting, and their aerodynamic performances are compared and analyzed. Results show that the projectile with triangular cross section has smaller resistance, higher lift-drag ratio, better static stability, higher stability capability and more excellent maneuverability than those of the projectile with circular cross section, therefore it can be used in the guided projectiles; under lower rotation speed, the triangular section projectile has greater Magnus moment leading to bigger projectile distribution.

  8. Improved Actinide Neutron Capture Cross Sections Using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauder, W.; Pardo, R. C.; Kondev, F. G.; Kondrashev, S.; Nair, C.; Nusair, O.; Palchan, T.; Scott, R.; Seweryniak, D.; Vondrasek, R.; Collon, P.; Paul, M.; Youinou, G.; Salvatores, M.; Palmotti, G.; Berg, J.; Maddock, T.; Imel, G.

    2014-09-01

    The MANTRA (Measurement of Actinide Neutron TRAnsmutations) project will improve energy-integrated neutron capture cross section data across the actinide region. These data are incorporated into nuclear reactor models and are an important piece in understanding Generation IV reactor designs. We will infer the capture cross sections by measuring isotopic ratios from actinide samples, irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor at INL, with Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) at ATLAS (ANL). The superior sensitivity of AMS allows us to extract multiple cross sections from a single sample. In order to analyze the large number of samples needed for MANTRA and to meet the goal of extracting multiple cross sections per sample, we have made a number of modifications to the AMS setup at ATLAS. In particular, we are developing a technique to inject solid material into the ECR with laser ablation. With laser ablation, we can better control material injection and potentially increase efficiency in the ECR, thus creating less contamination in the source and reducing cross talk. I will present work on the laser ablation system and preliminary results from our AMS measurements. The MANTRA (Measurement of Actinide Neutron TRAnsmutations) project will improve energy-integrated neutron capture cross section data across the actinide region. These data are incorporated into nuclear reactor models and are an important piece in understanding Generation IV reactor designs. We will infer the capture cross sections by measuring isotopic ratios from actinide samples, irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor at INL, with Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) at ATLAS (ANL). The superior sensitivity of AMS allows us to extract multiple cross sections from a single sample. In order to analyze the large number of samples needed for MANTRA and to meet the goal of extracting multiple cross sections per sample, we have made a number of modifications to the AMS setup at ATLAS. In particular, we are

  9. Cross-section fluctuations in chaotic scattering systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericson, Torleif E. O.; Dietz, Barbara; Richter, Achim

    2016-10-01

    Exact analytical expressions for the cross-section correlation functions of chaotic scattering systems have hitherto been derived only under special conditions. The objective of the present article is to provide expressions that are applicable beyond these restrictions. The derivation is based on a statistical model of Breit-Wigner type for chaotic scattering amplitudes which has been shown to describe the exact analytical results for the scattering (S )-matrix correlation functions accurately. Our results are given in the energy and in the time representations and apply in the whole range from isolated to overlapping resonances. The S -matrix contributions to the cross-section correlations are obtained in terms of explicit irreducible and reducible correlation functions. Consequently, the model can be used for a detailed exploration of the key features of the cross-section correlations and the underlying physical mechanisms. In the region of isolated resonances, the cross-section correlations contain a dominant contribution from the self-correlation term. For narrow states the self-correlations originate predominantly from widely spaced states with exceptionally large partial width. In the asymptotic region of well-overlapping resonances, the cross-section autocorrelation functions are given in terms of the S -matrix autocorrelation functions. For inelastic correlations, in particular, the Ericson fluctuations rapidly dominate in that region. Agreement with known analytical and experimental results is excellent.

  10. Electromagnetic Dissociation Cross Sections using Weisskopf-Ewing Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Anne M.; Norbury, John W.

    2011-01-01

    It is important that accurate estimates of crew exposure to radiation are obtained for future long-term space missions. Presently, several space radiation transport codes exist to predict the radiation environment, all of which take as input particle interaction cross sections that describe the nuclear interactions between the particles and the shielding material. The space radiation transport code HZETRN uses the nuclear fragmentation model NUCFRG2 to calculate Electromagnetic Dissociation (EMD) cross sections. Currently, NUCFRG2 employs energy independent branching ratios to calculate these cross sections. Using Weisskopf-Ewing (WE) theory to calculate branching ratios, however, is more advantageous than the method currently employed in NUCFRG2. The WE theory can calculate not only neutron and proton emission, as in the energy independent branching ratio formalism used in NUCFRG2, but also deuteron, triton, helion, and alpha particle emission. These particles can contribute significantly to total exposure estimates. In this work, photonuclear cross sections are calculated using WE theory and the energy independent branching ratios used in NUCFRG2 and then compared to experimental data. It is found that the WE theory gives comparable, but mainly better agreement with data than the energy independent branching ratio. Furthermore, EMD cross sections for single neutron, proton, and alpha particle removal are calculated using WE theory and an energy independent branching ratio used in NUCFRG2 and compared to experimental data.

  11. Theoretical Formalism To Estimate the Positron Scattering Cross Section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Suvam; Dutta, Sangita; Naghma, Rahla; Antony, Bobby

    2016-07-21

    A theoretical formalism is introduced in this article to calculate the total cross sections for positron scattering. This method incorporates positron-target interaction in the spherical complex optical potential formalism. The study of positron collision has been quite subtle until now. However, recently, it has emerged as an interesting area due to its role in atomic and molecular structure physics, astrophysics, and medicine. With the present method, the total cross sections for simple atoms C, N, and O and their diatomic molecules C2, N2, and O2 are obtained and compared with existing data. The total cross section obtained in the present work gives a more consistent shape and magnitude than existing theories. The characteristic dip below 10 eV is identified due to the positronium formation. The deviation of the present cross section with measurements at energies below 10 eV is attributed to the neglect of forward angle-discrimination effects in experiments, the inefficiency of additivity rule for molecules, empirical treatment of positronium formation, and the neglect of annihilation reactions. In spite of these deficiencies, the present results show consistent behavior and reasonable agreement with previous data, wherever available. Besides, this is the first computational model to report positron scattering cross sections over the energy range from 1 to 5000 eV.

  12. Progress on FP13 Total Cross Section Measurements Capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullmann, John Leonard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Couture, Aaron Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Koehler, Paul E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mocko, Michal [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mosby, Shea Morgan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wender, Stephen Arthur [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-26

    An accurate knowledge of the neutron capture cross section is important for many applications. Experimental measurements are important since theoretical calculations of capture have been notoriously difficult, with the ratio of measured to calculated cross sections often a factor of 2 or more in the 10 keV to 1 MeV region. However, a direct measurement of capture cannot be made on many interesting radioactive nuclides because of their short half-life or backgrounds caused by their nuclear decay. On the other hand, neutron transmission measurements of the total cross section are feasible for a wide range of radioactive nuclides since the detectors are far from the sample, and often are less sensitive to decay radiation. The parameters extracted from a total cross section measurement, which include the average resonance spacing, the neutron strength function, and the average total radiation width, (Γγ), provide tight constraints on the calculation of the capture cross section, and when applied produce much more accurate results. These measurements can be made using the intense epithermal neutron flux at the Lujan Center on relatively small quantities of target material. It was the purpose of this project to investigate and develop the capability to make these measurements. A great deal of progress was made towards establishing this capability during 2016, including setting up the flight path and obtaining preliminary results, but more work remains to be done.

  13. Simulation of multistatic and backscattering cross sections for airborne radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Albert W.

    1986-07-01

    In order to determine susceptibilities of airborne radar to electronic countermeasures and electronic counter-countermeasures simulations of multistatic and backscattering cross sections were developed as digital modules in the form of algorithms. Cross section algorithms are described for prolate (cigar shape) and oblate (disk shape) spheroids. Backscattering cross section algorithms are also described for different categories of terrain. Backscattering cross section computer programs were written for terrain categorized as vegetation, sea ice, glacial ice, geological (rocks, sand, hills, etc.), oceans, man-made structures, and water bodies. PROGRAM SIGTERRA is a file for backscattering cross section modules of terrain (TERRA) such as vegetation (AGCROP), oceans (OCEAN), Arctic sea ice (SEAICE), glacial snow (GLASNO), geological structures (GEOL), man-made structures (MAMMAD), or water bodies (WATER). AGCROP describes agricultural crops, trees or forests, prairies or grassland, and shrubs or bush cover. OCEAN has the SLAR or SAR looking downwind, upwind, and crosswind at the ocean surface. SEAICE looks at winter ice and old or polar ice. GLASNO is divided into a glacial ice and snow or snowfields. MANMAD includes buildings, houses, roads, railroad tracks, airfields and hangars, telephone and power lines, barges, trucks, trains, and automobiles. WATER has lakes, rivers, canals, and swamps. PROGRAM SIGAIR is a similar file for airborne targets such as prolate and oblate spheroids.

  14. Theoretical study relating the two-photon absorption cross section to the susceptibility controlling four-wave mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burris, J.; Mcilrath, T. J.

    1985-01-01

    A theory that it is necessary to extract a two-photon absorption cross section from a mixing signal is developed. The dependence of the cross section on the third-order susceptibility is shown and both the mixing signal and reference signal dependences on the susceptibility are given. Techniques to process the measured value of the susceptibility and relate it to the cross section are developed and limits of validity are established. Finally, a comparison is made between the expression for the cross section presently reported and values given elsewhere.

  15. Lactiferous vessel detection from microscopic cross-sectional images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jariyawatthananon, Jirapath; Cooharojananone, Nagul; Lipikorn, Rajalida

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents the methods to detect and segment lactiferous vessels or rubber latex vessels from gray scale microscopic cross-sectional images using polynomial curve-fitting with maximum and minimum stationary points. Polynomial curve-fitting is used to detect the location of lactiferous vessels from an image of a non-dyed cross-sectional slice which was taken by a digital camera through microscope lens. The lactiferous vessels are then segmented from an image using maximum and minimum stationary points with morphological closing operation. Two species of rubber trees of age between one to two years old are sampled namely, RRIM600 and RRIT251. Two data sets contain 30 microscopic cross-sectional images of one-year old rubber tree's stems from each species are used in the experiments and the results reveal that most of the lactiferous vessel areas can be segmented correctly.

  16. High Energy Measurement of the Deuteron Photodisintegration Differential Cross Section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elaine Schulte

    2002-05-01

    New measurements of the high energy deuteron photodisintegration differential cross section were made at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in Newport News, Virginia. Two experiments were performed. Experiment E96-003 was performed in experimental Hall C. The measurements were designed to extend the highest energy differential cross section values to 5.5 GeV incident photon energy at forward angles. This builds upon previous high energy measurements in which scaling consistent with the pQCD constituent counting rules was observed at 90 degrees and 70 degrees in the center of mass. From the new measurements, a threshold for the onset of constituent counting rule scaling seems present at transverse momentum approximately 1.3 GeV/c. The second experiment, E99-008, was performed in experimental Hall A. The measurements were designed to explore the angular distribution of the differential cross section at constant energy. The measurements were made symmetric about 90 degrees

  17. Carbonyl Sulfide Isotopologues: Ultraviolet Absorption Cross Sections and Stratospheric Photolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielache, Sebastian Oscar; Nanbu, Shinkoh; Eskebjerg, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    Ultraviolet absorption cross sections of the main and substituted carbonyl sulfide isotopologues were calculated using wavepacket dynamics. The calculated absorption cross section of 16O12C32S is in very good agreement with the accepted experimental spectrum between 190 and 250 nm. Relative to 16O......12C32S, isotopic substitution shows a significant enhancement of the cross section for 16O13C32S, a significant reduction for 18O12C32S and 17O12C32S and almost no change for the sulfur isotopologues 16O12C33S, 16O12C34S, and 16O12C36S. The analysis of the initial wavepackets shows that these changes...

  18. High Energy Measurement of the Deuteron Photodisintegration Differential Cross Section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte, Elaine [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    2002-05-01

    New measurements of the high energy deuteron photodisintegration differential cross section were made at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in Newport News, Virginia. Two experiments were performed. Experiment E96-003 was performed in experimental Hall C. The measurements were designed to extend the highest energy differential cross section values to 5.5 GeV incident photon energy at forward angles. This builds upon previous high energy measurements in which scaling consistent with the pQCD constituent counting rules was observed at 90 degrees and 70 degrees in the center of mass. From the new measurements, a threshold for the onset of constituent counting rule scaling seems present at transverse momentum approximately 1.3 GeV/c. The second experiment, E99-008, was performed in experimental Hall A. The measurements were designed to explore the angular distribution of the differential cross section at constant energy. The measurements were made symmetric about 90 degrees

  19. Electron impact double ionization cross sections of light elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talukder, M.R. [Rajshahi Univ., Dept. of Applied Physics and Electronic Engineering (Bangladesh); Haque, A.K.F.; Uddin, M.A. [Rajshahi Univ., Dept. of Physics (Bangladesh)

    2009-06-15

    A simple user-friendly semiempirical model is proposed to calculate electron impact double ionization cross sections of He, Li, Li{sup +}, B{sup +}, C{sup +}, C{sup 3+}, O, O{sup 2+}, O{sup 3+}, Ne, Ne{sup +}, Ne{sup 2+}, Na, Mg, Al{sup 3+}, S, and Ar{sup q+} (q equals 0 - 7) targets for the incident electron energies from threshold to 10{sup 6} eV. The contributions in the total double ionization cross sections from the direct double ionization and inner-shell ionization processes are taken into account on the basis of experimental data considered. The results of the present analysis are compared with the available experimental data and theoretical calculations. The model is found successful for the description of experimental cross sections. Since, this model may be a prudent selection to meet the demand level in plasma modeling due to its simple inherent structure. (authors)

  20. Parameterized total cross sections for pion production in nuclear collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Norbury, J W; Norbury, John W.; Townsend, Lawrence W.

    2006-01-01

    Total inclusive cross sections for neutral and charged pion production in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus reactions have been calculated and compared to experiment. Nucleon-nucleon theoretical cross sections have been scaled up to nuclear collisions using a scaling factor similar to $(A_PA_T)^{2/3}$, where $A_P$ and $A_T$ are the nucleon numbers of the projectile and target nuclei. Variations in the power of this scaling factor have been studied and a good fit to experiment is obtained with a small modification of the power. Theoretical cross sections are written in a form that is very suitable for immediate input into transport codes.

  1. Proton-air and proton-proton cross sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Ralf

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Different attempts to measure hadronic cross sections with cosmic ray data are reviewed. The major results are compared to each other and the differences in the corresponding analyses are discussed. Besides some important differences, it is crucial to see that all analyses are based on the same fundamental relation of longitudinal air shower development to the observed fluctuation of experimental observables. Furthermore, the relation of the measured proton-air to the more fundamental proton-proton cross section is discussed. The current global picture combines hadronic proton-proton cross section data from accelerator and cosmic ray measurements and indicates a good consistency with predictions of models up to the highest energies.

  2. Total Cross Section in $\\gamma\\gamma$ Collisions at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Acciarri, M; Adriani, O; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Ambrosi, G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Angelescu, T; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Bajo, A; Baksay, L; Balandras, A; Baldew, S V; Todorova-Nová, S; Banerjee, Sw; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Bartalini, P; Basile, M; Batalova, N; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Bellucci, L; Berbeco, R; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Bhattacharya, S; Biasini, M; Biland, A; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brochu, F; Buffini, A; Buijs, A; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Castellini, G; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada, M; Cesaroni, F; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chang, Y H; Chaturvedi, U K; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chiefari, G; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Civinini, C; Clare, I; Clare, R; Coignet, G; Colino, N; Costantini, S; Cotorobai, F; de la Cruz, B; Csilling, Akos; Cucciarelli, S; Dai, T S; van Dalen, J A; D'Alessandro, R; De Asmundis, R; Déglon, P L; Degré, A; Deiters, K; Della Volpe, D; Delmeire, E; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; De Salvo, A; Diemoz, M; Dierckxsens, M; Van Dierendonck, D N; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, Michael; Dominguez, A; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Duchesneau, D; Dufournaud, D; Duinker, P; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Erné, F C; Ewers, A; Extermann, Pierre; Fabre, M; Falagán, M A; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, Marta; Ferguson, T; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, Frank; Fisher, P H; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gataullin, M; Gau, S S; Gentile, S; Gheordanescu, N; Giagu, S; Gong, Z F; Grenier, G; Grimm, O; Grünewald, M W; Guida, M; van Gulik, R; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haas, D; Hasan, A; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Hidas, P; Hirschfelder, J; Hofer, H; Holzner, G; Hoorani, H; Hou, S R; Hu, Y; Iashvili, I; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Khan, R A; Käfer, D; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, D; Kim, J K; Kirkby, Jasper; Kiss, D; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Kopal, M; Kopp, A; Koutsenko, V F; Kräber, M H; Krämer, R W; Krenz, W; Krüger, A; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Laktineh, I; Landi, G; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Lee, H J; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Levchenko, P M; Li Chuan; Likhoded, S A; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lü, Y S; Lübelsmeyer, K; Luci, C; Luckey, D; Lugnier, L; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Maity, M; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mangeol, D J J; Mans, J; Marian, G; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Mazumdar, K; McNeil, R R; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Von der Mey, M; Mihul, A; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Mohanty, G B; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Muijs, A J M; Musicar, B; Musy, M; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Niessen, T; Nisati, A; Nowak, H; Ofierzynski, R A; Organtini, G; Oulianov, A; Palomares, C; Pandoulas, D; Paoletti, S; Paolucci, P; Paramatti, R; Park, H K; Park, I H; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Pedace, M; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Piccolo, D; Pierella, F; Pieri, M; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Postema, H; Pothier, J; Prokofiev, D O; Prokofev, D; Quartieri, J; Rahal-Callot, G; Rahaman, M A; Raics, P; Raja, N; Ramelli, R; Rancoita, P G; Ranieri, R; Raspereza, A V; Raven, G; Razis, P A; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Riemann, S; Riles, K; Rodin, J; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosca, A; Rosier-Lees, S; Roth, S; Rosenbleck, C; Roux, B; Rubio, Juan Antonio; Ruggiero, G; Rykaczewski, H; Saremi, S; Sarkar, S; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Sanders, M P; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schmidt-Kärst, S; Schmitz, D; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Schwering, G; Sciacca, C; Seganti, A; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A V; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Smith, B; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stone, A; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Sushkov, S V; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Szillási, Z; Sztaricskai, T; Tang, X W; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Tellili, B; Teyssier, D; Timmermans, C; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tung, K L; Uchida, Y; Ulbricht, J; Valente, E; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Vicinanza, D; Viertel, Gert M; Villa, S; Vivargent, M; Vlachos, S; Vodopyanov, I; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Vorvolakos, A; Wadhwa, M

    2001-01-01

    The reaction e+e- -> e+e- gamma* gamma* -> e+e- hadrons for quasi-real photons is studied using data from root(s) = 183 GeV up to 202 GeV. Results on the total cross sections sigma(e+e- -> e+e- hadrons) and sigma(+e- gamma* gamma* -> e+e- hadrons) are given for the two-photon centre-of-mass energies 5 GeV < Wgammagamma < 185 GeV. The total cross section of two real photons is described by a Regge parametrisation. We observe a steeper rise with the two-photon centre-of-mass energy as compared to the hadron-hadron and the photon-proton cross sections. The data are also compared to the expectations of different theoretical models.

  3. Pion photoproduction cross section at large momentum transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoegren, Johan [Univ. of Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom

    2015-02-27

    The Real Compton Scattering experiment was performed in Hall A at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. It was designed to measure, for Compton scattering and π0-photoproduction, the differential cross section over a range of kinematic points and the polarisation transfer to the proton at a single kinematic point. The full range of the experiment in Mandelstam variables t and s was 1.6-6.46 GeV2 and 4.82-10.92 GeV2 respectively with beam energies of 2-6 GeV. The motivation for the experiment is to test the cross section and polarisation transfer predictions of perturbative QCD versus that of predictions from Generalised Parton Distribution models. This thesis will give an overview of the pertinent theory, experimental setup in Hall A and the extracting of the π0-photoproduction cross section.

  4. Light stops emerging in WW cross section measurements?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolbiecki, Krzysztof [IFT-UAM/CSIC, Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Fisica Teorica; Sakurai, Kazuki [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-03-15

    Recent ATLAS and CMS measurements show a slight excess in the WW cross section measurement. While still consistent with the Standard Model within 1-2{sigma}, the excess could be also a first hint of physics beyond the Standard Model. We argue that this effect could be attributed to the production of scalar top quarks within supersymmetric models. The stops of m{sub t{sub 1}}{proportional_to}200 GeV has the right cross section and under some assumptions can significantly contribute to the final state of two leptons and missing energy. We scan this region of parameter space to find particle masses preferred by the WW cross section measurements. Taking one sample benchmark point we show that it can be consistent with low energy observables and Higgs sector measurements and propose a method to distinguish supersymmetric signal from the Standard Model contribution.

  5. Charmonium dissociation cross sections and charmonium dissociation rates in hadronic matter

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Feng-Rong; Xu, Xiao-Ming

    2016-01-01

    K*-charmonium dissociation reactions in hadronic matter are studied in the Born approximation, in the quark-interchange mechanism, and with a temperature-dependent quark potential. We obtain the temperature dependence of unpolarized cross sections for K*-charmonium dissociation reactions which produce charmed mesons and charmed strange mesons. We use the cross sections for charmonium dissociation in collisions with pion, rho meson, kaon, vector kaon, and eta meson to calculate dissociation rates of charmonium with the five types of mesons. Because of the temperature dependence of the meson masses, dissociation cross sections, and meson distribution functions, the charmonium dissociation rates generally increase with the increase of temperature and decrease with the increase of charmonium momentum from 2.2 GeV/c. We find that the first derivative of the dissociation rate with respect to the charmonium momentum is zero when the charmonium is at rest. While the eta + psi' and eta + chi_c dissociation reactions c...

  6. Top quark pair cross section measurements in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres

    2016-01-01

    This document presents the latest results in the measurement of the top-quark pair production cross section obtained with data collected by the CMS detector at LHC accelerator. The analyses are performed in the dilepton, single lepton and full hadronic decay modes. Additionally to the inclusive measurements of $\\mathrm{\\sigma_{\\mathrm{t\\bar{t}}}}$ at 7, 8 and 13$\\mathrm{\\;TeV}$, the CMS collaboration provides for the first time the cross section at 5.02$\\mathrm{\\;TeV}$. Results are confronted with the latest and most precise theoretical calculations.

  7. Heat Transfer in a Concrete Composite Cross-Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klabník Maroš

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The work is concerned with the spread of heat in 2D coupled cross section with respect to the material characteristics and boundary conditions of calculation. Heat transfer was simulated in the program ANSYS in time interval up to 180 minutes. Nine various models were created to investigate the rate of influence of the changes in thermal material characteristics such as the specific heat capacity coefficient and thermal conductivity, upon the course and difference of temperature in the concrete cross-section. The comparison of results obtained using non-linear and constant values of the variables in simulation was made, too.

  8. Recent integral cross section validation measurements at the ASP facility

    CERN Document Server

    Packer, L W; Gilbert, M; Lilley, S; Pampin, R

    2013-01-01

    This work presents new integral data measured at the ASP 14 MeV neutron irradiation facility at Aldermaston in the UK, which has recently become available for fusion-related work through the CCFE materials programme. Measurements of reaction products from activation experiments using elemental foils were carried out using gamma spectrometry in a high efficiency, high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector and associated digital signal processing hardware. Following irradiation and rapid extraction to the measurement cell, gamma emissions were acquired with both energy and time bins. Integral cross section and half-life data have been derived from these measurements. Selected integral cross section values are presented from the measurement campaigns.

  9. Modelling of reaction cross sections and prompt neutron emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oberstedt S.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Accurate nuclear data concerning reaction cross sections and the emission of prompt fission neutrons (i.e. multiplicity and spectra as well as other fission fragment data are of great importance for reactor physics design, especially for the new Generation IV nuclear energy systems. During the past years for several actinides (238U(n, f and 237Np(n, f both the reaction cross sections and prompt neutron multiplicities and spectra have been calculated within the frame of the EFNUDAT project.

  10. Electron transport in silicon nanowires having different cross-sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muscato Orazio

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Transport phenomena in silicon nanowires with different cross-section are investigated using an Extended Hydrodynamic model, coupled to the Schrödinger-Poisson system. The model has been formulated by closing the moment system derived from the Boltzmann equation on the basis of the maximum entropy principle of Extended Thermodynamics, obtaining explicit closure relations for the high-order fluxes and the production terms. Scattering of electrons with acoustic and non polar optical phonons have been taken into account. The bulk mobility is evaluated for square and equilateral triangle cross-sections of the wire.

  11. LHC and Tevatron results on the tt differential cross sections

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00213443; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    In this talk I will present a review of the most recent $t\\bar{t}$ differential cross sections measurement performed by LHC and Tevatron experiments. After a brief introduction, I will describe the mea- surements of fiducial and full phase-space differential cross sections based on events with exactly two, one or zero charged leptons in the final state. These results are compared to predictions made with Monte Carlo generators with next-to-leading order accuracy or next-to-next-to leading order numerical calculations.

  12. Electromagnetic Cylindrical Transparent Devices with Irregular Cross Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Yang

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic transparent device is very important for antenna protection. In this paper, the material parameters for the cylindrical transparent devices with arbitrary cross section are developed based on the coordinate transformation. The equivalent two-dimensional (2D transparent devices under TE plane and cylindrical wave irradiation is designed and studied by full-wave simulation, respectively. It shows that although the incident waves are distorted in the transformation region apparently, they return to the original wavefronts when passing through the device. All theoretical and numerical results validate the material parameters for the cylindrical transparent devices with arbitrary cross section we developed.

  13. Ozone absorption cross section measurements in the Wulf bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Stuart M.; Hupalo, Peter; Mauersberger, Konrad

    1993-08-01

    A tandem dual-beam spectrometer has been developed to determine ozone absorption cross sections for 13 selected wavelengths between 750 and 975 nm at room temperature. The increasingly pronounced structure in this region may interfere with atmospheric trace gas transitions that are useful for remote sensing and complicate the measurement of aerosols. Ozone concentrations were determined by absorption at the common HeNe laser transition near 632.8 nm using the absolute cross section reported previously. The overall accuracy of these room temperature measurements is generally better than 2 percent. A synoptic near-IR spectrum scaled to these measurements is employed for comparison with results of previous studies.

  14. Neutron capture cross section standards for BNL 325, Fourth Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holden, N.E.

    1981-01-01

    This report evaluates the experimental data and recommends values for the thermal neutron cross sections and resonance integrals for the neutron capture reactions: /sup 55/Mn(n,..gamma..), /sup 59/Co(n,..gamma..) and /sup 197/Au(n,..gamma..). The failure of lithium and boron as standards due to the natural variation of the absorption cross sections of these elements is discussed. The Westcott convention, which describes the neutron spectrum as a thermal Maxwellian distribution with an epithermal component, is also discussed.

  15. Transition to chaotic scattering: signatures in the differential cross section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelin, Adriane B; de Moura, Alessandro P S; Grebogi, Celso

    2008-10-01

    We show that bifurcations in chaotic scattering manifest themselves through the appearance of an infinitely fine-scale structure of singularities in the cross section. These "rainbow singularities" are created in a cascade, which is closely related to the bifurcation cascade undergone by the set of trapped orbits (the chaotic saddle). This cascade provides a signature in the differential cross section of the complex pattern of bifurcations of orbits underlying the transition to chaotic scattering. We show that there is a power law with a universal coefficient governing the sequence of births of rainbow singularities and we verify this prediction by numerical simulations.

  16. Controlling inclusive cross sections in parton shower + matrix element merging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plaetzer, Simon

    2012-11-15

    We propose an extension of matrix element plus parton shower merging at tree level to preserve inclusive cross sections obtained from the merged and showered sample. Implementing this constraint generates approximate next-to-leading order (NLO) contributions similar to the LoopSim approach. We then show how full NLO, or in principle even higher order, corrections can be added consistently, including constraints on inclusive cross sections to account for yet missing parton shower accuracy at higher logarithmic order. We also show how NLO accuracy below the merging scale can be obtained.

  17. Kriging approach for the experimental cross-section covariances estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garlaud A.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the classical use of a generalized χ2 to determine the evaluated cross section uncertainty, we need the covariance matrix of the experimental cross sections. The usual propagation error method to estimate the covariances is hardly usable and the lack of data prevents from using the direct empirical estimator. We propose in this paper to apply the kriging method which allows to estimate the covariances via the distances between the points and with some assumptions on the covariance matrix structure. All the results are illustrated with the 2555Mn nucleus measurements.

  18. Differential Cross Sections for Proton-Proton Elastic Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Ryan B.; Dick, Frank; Norbury, John W.; Blattnig, Steve R.

    2009-01-01

    Proton-proton elastic scattering is investigated within the framework of the one pion exchange model in an attempt to model nucleon-nucleon interactions spanning the large range of energies important to cosmic ray shielding. A quantum field theoretic calculation is used to compute both differential and total cross sections. A scalar theory is then presented and compared to the one pion exchange model. The theoretical cross sections are compared to proton-proton scattering data to determine the validity of the models.

  19. Theoretical results for top-quark cross sections and distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Kidonakis, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    I present new results and updates for total cross sections and differential distributions in top-antitop pair and single-top production. Soft-gluon corrections are added to exact fixed-order results to provide the best predictions at approximate N$^3$LO for $t{\\bar t}$ production and approximate NNLO for single-top production. Total cross sections and top-quark transverse-momentum and rapidity distributions are presented and compared with data at LHC and Tevatron energies. The cusp anomalous dimension at three and higher loops is also discussed.

  20. High-mass dijet cross sections in photoproduction at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, T; Adamczyk, L; Adamus, M; Aghuzumtsyan, G; Ahn, S H; Antonioli, P; Antonov, A; Arneodo, M; Bailey, D S; Bamberger, A; Barakbaev, A N; Barbagli, G; Barbi, M; Bari, G; Barreiro, F; Bartsch, D; Bashkirov, V; Basile, M; Bauerdick, L A T; Bednarek, B; Behrens, U; Bell, M; Bellagamba, L; Benen, A; Bertolin, A; Bhadra, S; Bodmann, B; Bokel, C; Boogert, S; Boos, E G; Borras, K; Boscherini, D; Breitweg, J; Brock, I; Brook, N H; Brugnera, R; Brümmer, N; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Bussey, P J; Butterworth, J M; Bylsma, B; Caldwell, A; Capua, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carli, T; Carlin, R; Cartiglia, N; Catterall, C D; Chapin, D; Chekanov, S; Chiochia, V; Chwastowski, J; Ciborowski, J; Ciesielski, R; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Cirio, R; Cloth, P; Coldewey, C; Cole, J E; Collins-Tooth, C; Contin, A; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Coppola, N; Cormack, C; Corradi, M; Corriveau, F; Costa, M; Crittenden, J; Cross, R; D'Agostini, Giulio; Dagan, S; Dal Corso, F; Danilov, P; Dannheim, D; De Pasquale, S; Dementiev, R K; Derrick, M; Deshpande, Abhay A; Desler, K; Devenish, R C E; Dhawan, S; Dolgoshein, B A; Doyle, A T; Drews, G; Durkin, L S; Dusini, S; Eisenberg, Y; Engelen, J; Ermolov, P F; Eskreys, Andrzej; Ferrando, J; Ferrero, M I; Figiel, J; Filges, D; Foster, B; Foudas, C; Fourletov, S; Fourletova, J; Fox-Murphy, A; Fricke, U; Fusayasu, T; Gabareen, A; Galea, R; Gallo, E; García, G; Garfagnini, A; Geiser, A; Genta, C; Gialas, I; Gilmore, J; Ginsburg, C M; Giusti, P; Gladilin, L K; Gladkov, D; Glasman, C; Göbel, F; Goers, S; Golubkov, Yu A; Goncalo, R; González, O; Göttlicher, P; Grabowska-Bold, I; Graciani, R; Grijpink, S; Grzelak, G; Gwenlan, C; Haas, T; Hain, W; Hall-Wilton, R; Hamatsu, R; Hanlon, S; Hart, J C; Hartmann, H; Hartner, G F; Hayes, M E; Heaphy, E A; Heath, G P; Heath, H F; Helbich, M; Heusch, C A; Hilger, E; Hillert, S; Hirose, T; Hochman, D; Holm, U; Hughes, V W; Iacobucci, G; Iga, Y; Inuzuka, M; Irrgang, P; Jakob, H P; Jelen, K; Jeoung, H Y; Jones, T W; Kananov, S; Kappes, A; Karshon, U; Katkov, I I; Katz, U F; Kcira, D; Kerger, R; Khein, L A; Kim, C L; Kim, J Y; Kind, O; Kisielewska, D; Kitamura, S; Klimek, K; Koffeman, E; Kohno, T; Kooijman, P; Koop, T; Korotkova, N A; Korzhavina, I A; Kotanski, A; Kötz, U; Kowal, A M; Kowal, M; Kowalski, H; Kowalski, T; Krakauer, D A; Kreisel, A; Kuze, M; Kuzmin, V A; Labarga, L; Labes, H; Lammers, S; Lane, J B; Lee, J H; Lee, S B; Lee, S W; Lelas, D; Levchenko, B B; Levi, G; Levman, G M; Levy, A; Lightwood, M S; Lim, H; Lim, I T; Limentani, S; Ling, T Y; Liu, X; Löhr, B; Lohrmann, E; Long, K R; Longhin, A; Lopez-Duran Viani, A; Lukina, O Yu; Lupi, A; Ma, K J; Maddox, E; Magill, S; Mankel, R; Margotti, A; Marini, G; Markun, P; Martens, J; Martin, J F; Martínez, M; Maselli, S; Massam, Thomas; Mastroberardino, A; Matsushita, T; Matsuzawa, K; Mattingly, M C K; McCubbin, N A; Mellado, B; Menary, S R; Metlica, F; Meyer, A; Milite, M; Miller, D B; Mindur, B; Mirea, A; Monaco, V; Moritz, M; Musgrave, B; Nagano, K; Nania, R; Nigro, A; Nishimura, T; Notz, D; Nowak, R J; Ochs, A; Oh, B Y; Olkiewicz, K; Pac, M Y; Padhi, S; Paganis, S; Palmonari, F; Parenti, A; Park, I H; Park, S K; Paul, E; Pavel, N; Pawlak, J M; Pelfer, P G; Pellegrino, A; Peroni, C; Pesci, A; Petrucci, M C; Plucinsky, P P; Pokrovskiy, N S; Polini, A; Posocco, M; Proskuryakov, A S; Przybycien, M B; Raach, H; Rautenberg, J; Redondo, I; Reeder, D D; Renner, R; Repond, J; Rigby, M; Robins, S; Rodrigues, E; Rulikowska-Zarebska, E; Ruske, O; Ruspa, M; Sabetfakhri, A; Sacchi, R; Salehi, H; Sar, G; Saull, P R B; Savin, A A; Saxon, D H; Schagen, S; Schioppa, M; Schlenstedt, S; Schmidke, W B; Schneekloth, U; Schnurbusch, H; Sciulli, F; Scott, J; Selonke, F; Shche, L M; Skillicorn, I O; Slominski, W; Smalska, B; Smith, W H; Soares, M; Solano, A; Solomin, A N; Son, D; Sosnovtsev, V V; Saint-Laurent, M G; Staiano, A; Stairs, D G; Stanco, L; Standage, J; Stifutkin, A; Stonjek, S; Stopa, P; Straub, P B; Suchkov, S; Surrow, B; Susinno, G; Suszycki, L; Sutton, M R; Sztuk, J; Szuba, D; Szuba, J; Tandler, J; Tapper, A D; Tapper, R J; Tassi, E; Terron, J; Tiecke, H G; Tokushuku, K; Tsurugai, T; Tuning, N; Turcato, M; Tymieniecka, T; Ukleja, A; Ukleja, J; Umemori, K; Vázquez, M; Velthuis, J J; Vlasov, N N; Voss, K C; Walczak, R; Walker, R; Weber, A; Wessoleck, H; West, B J; Whitmore, J J; Wichmann, R; Wick, K; Wiggers, L; Wing, M; Wolf, G; Wölfle, S; Yamada, S; Yamashita, T; Yamazaki, Y; Yoshida, R; Youngman, C; Za, L; Zakrzewski, J A; Zeuner, W; Zhautykov, B O; Zichichi, A; Ziegler, A; Zotkin, S A; De Wolf, E; Del Peso, J

    2002-01-01

    Dijet differential cross sections for the reaction e+p -> e+ + jet + jet + X in the photoproduction regime have been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 42.7 pb**{-1}. The cross sections are given for photon-proton centre-of-mass energies in the range 134 e+ Z0 X} < 5.9 pb. Upper limits on the photoproduction of new heavy resonances decaying into two jets are also presented for masses in the range between 60 GeV and 155 GeV.

  1. Absolute Photoionization Cross Sections of Two Cyclic Ketones: Cyclopentanone & Cyclohexanone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Chelsea; Fathi, Yasmin; Meloni, Giovanni

    2017-02-23

    Absolute photoionization cross sections for cyclopentanone and cyclohexanone, as well as partial ionization cross sections for the dissociative ionized fragments, are presented in this investigation. Experiments are performed via a multiplexed photoionization mass spectrometer utilizing VUV synchrotron radiation supplied by the Advanced Light Source of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. These results allow the quantification of these species that is relevant to investigate the kinetics and combustion reactions of potential biofuels. The CBS-QB3 calculated values for the adiabatic ionization energies agree well with the experimental values and the identification of possible dissociative fragments is discussed for both systems.

  2. The 237U(n,f) Cross Section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younes, W; Britt, H C; Wilhelmy, J B

    2003-03-03

    The purpose of this note is to combine existing information on the {sup 237}U(n,f) cross section to determine if some consistency can be obtained for the neutron induced fission excitation of {sup 237}U. The neutron induced fission cross section of the 6.8 day {sup 237}U was measured directly by McNally et al. in 1968 using the Pommard nuclear device test. At the same time critical assembly measurements were done at Los Alamos using the Flattop assembly. A previous measurement was also made at LASL in 1954 with two different neutron sources, each peaked near 200 keV. The results were 0.66 {+-} 0.10 b and 0.70 {+-} 0.07 b for the (n,f) cross section. More recently Younes and Britt have reanalyzed direct reaction charged particle data of Cramer and Britt that had determined the fission probability of the {sup 238}U compound nucleus as a function of nuclear excitation energy. They have combined fission probabilities with calculated neutron absorption cross sections, including corrections for the differences in angular momentum between the direct and neutron induced reactions. From this analysis they have extracted equivalent {sup 237}U(n,f) cross sections. The technique for extracting surrogate (n,f) cross sections from (t,pf) data has been demonstrated in a recent publication for the test case {sup 235}U(n,f). In addition to this experimental information, Lynn and Hayes have recently done a new theoretical study of the fission cross sections for a series of isotopes in this region. A summary plot of the data is shown in Fig. 1. Below 0.5 MeV the McNally, Cowan, and Younes-Britt results are in reasonable agreement. The average cross section in the Younes-Britt results, for En = 0.1 to 0.4 MeV, is 0.80 times the McNally values which is well within the errors of the McNally experiment. Above 0.5 MeV the McNally results diverge toward higher values. It should be noted that this divergence begins approximately at the {sup 237}Np threshold and that {sup 237}Np is the

  3. Absolute cross-sections from X-{gamma} coincidence measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemasson, A. [GANIL, CEA/DSM - CNRS/IN2P3, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); Shrivastava, A. [Nuclear Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Navin, A. [GANIL, CEA/DSM - CNRS/IN2P3, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France)], E-mail: navin@ganil.fr; Rejmund, M. [GANIL, CEA/DSM - CNRS/IN2P3, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); Nanal, V. [Department of Nuclear and Atomic Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Bhattacharyya, S. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Chatterjee, A.; Kailas, S.; Mahata, K.; Parkar, V.V. [Nuclear Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Pillay, R.G. [Department of Nuclear and Atomic Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Ramachandran, K.; Rout, P.C. [Nuclear Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2009-01-11

    An activation technique using coincidences between characteristic X-rays and {gamma}-rays to obtain absolute cross-sections is described. This method is particularly useful in the case of nuclei that decay by electron capture. In addition to the reduction of possible contamination, an improved detection sensitivity is achieved as compared to inclusive measurements, thereby allowing the extraction of absolute fusion cross-sections in the nano-barn range. Results of this technique for {sup 6}Li+{sup 198}Pt system, at energies around the Coulomb barrier are described. Future applications with low intensity radioactive ion beams are also discussed.

  4. PCS a code system for generating production cross section libraries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, L.J.

    1997-04-01

    This document outlines the use of the PCS Code System. It summarizes the execution process for generating FORMAT2000 production cross section files from FORMAT2000 reaction cross section files. It also describes the process of assembling the ASCII versions of the high energy production files made from ENDL and Mark Chadwick`s calculations. Descriptions of the function of each code along with its input and output and use are given. {ital This document is under construction. Please submit entries, suggestions, questions, and corrections to} {bold (ljc@llnl.gov)} 3 tabs.

  5. Approximate formulas for total cross section for moderately small eikonal

    CERN Document Server

    Kisselev, A V

    2016-01-01

    The eikonal representation for the total cross section is considered. The approximate formulas for a moderately small eikonal are derived. In contrast to the standard eikonal integrals, they contain no Bessel functions, and, hence, no rapidly oscillating integrands. The formulas obtained are applied to numerical evaluations of the total cross section for a number of particular expressions for the eikonal. It is shown that for pure imaginary eikonals the relative error of O(10^(-5)) can be achieved. Also two improper triple integrals are analytically calculated.

  6. Review of multigroup nuclear cross-section processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trubey, D.K.; Hendrickson, H.R. (comps.)

    1978-10-01

    These proceedings consist of 18 papers given at a seminar--workshop on ''Multigroup Nuclear Cross-Section Processing'' held at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, March 14--16, 1978. The papers describe various computer code systems and computing algorithms for producing multigroup neutron and gamma-ray cross sections from evaluated data, and experience with several reference data libraries. Separate abstracts were prepared for 13 of the papers. The remaining five have already been cited in ERA, and may be located by referring to the entry CONF-780334-- in the Report Number Index. (RWR)

  7. Timoshenko beam element with anisotropic cross-sectional properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stäblein, Alexander; Hansen, Morten Hartvig

    2016-01-01

    Beam models are used for the aeroelastic time and frequency domain analysis of wind turbines due to their computational efficiency. Many current aeroelastic tools for the analysis of wind turbines rely on Timoshenko beam elements with classical crosssectional properties (EA, EI, etc.). Those cross......-sectional properties do not reflect the various couplings arising from the anisotropic behaviour of the blade material. A twonoded, three-dimensional Timoshenko beam element was therefore extended to allow for anisotropic cross-sectional properties. For an uncoupled beam, the resulting shape functions are identical...

  8. Drell-Yan differential cross section measurement at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Kyeongpil

    2016-01-01

    Measurement of the differential Drell-Yan cross sections in the dimuon channel is presented. It is based on proton-proton collision data at 13 TeV recorded with the CMS detector at the LHC, and the integrated luminosity of the data is 2.8fb − 1 . The differential cross section in the dilepton mass range from 15 to 3000 GeV is measured and corrected to the full phase space and the detector acceptance. These measurements are compared to higher order perturbative QCD predictions and show good agreement with the predictions.

  9. Higher order corrections to jet cross sections in hadron colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Giele, W T; Kosower, D A; Giele, Walter T.; Kosower, David A.

    1993-01-01

    We describe a general method of calculating the fully differential cross section for the production of jets at next-to-leading order in a hadron collider. This method is based on a `crossing' of next-to-leading order calculations with all partons in the final state. The method introduces universal crossing functions that allow a modular approach to next-to-leading order calculations for any process with initial state partons. These techniques are applied to the production of jets in association with a vector boson including all decay correlations of the final state observables.

  10. VUV-absorption cross section of CO2 at high temperatures and impact on exoplanet atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Venot, Olivia; Bénilan, Yves; Gazeau, Marie-Claire; Hébrard, Eric; Larcher, Gwenaelle; Schwell, Martin; Dobrijevic, Michel; Selsis, Franck

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) absorption cross sections are an essential ingredient of photochemical atmosphere models. Exoplanet searches have unveiled a large population of short-period objects with hot atmospheres, very different from what we find in our solar system. Transiting exoplanets whose atmospheres can now be studied by transit spectroscopy receive extremely strong UV fluxes and have typical temperatures ranging from 400 to 2500 K. At these temperatures, UV photolysis cross section data are severely lacking. Our goal is to provide high-temperature absorption cross sections and their temperature dependency for important atmospheric compounds. This study is dedicated to CO2, which is observed and photodissociated in exoplanet atmospheres. We performed these measurements for the 115 - 200 nm range at 300, 410, 480, and 550 K. In the 195 - 230 nm range, we worked at seven temperatures between 465 and 800 K. We found that the absorption cross section of CO2 is very sensitive to temperature, especially above 160 nm....

  11. Odderon and Pomeron as Fractal Dimension in $pp$ and $\\bar{p}p$ Total Cross Sections

    CERN Document Server

    Borcsik, F S

    2016-01-01

    In this paper one presents a naive parametrization to $pp$ and $\\bar{p}p$ total cross sections. The main goal of this parametrization is to study the possible fractal structure present in the total cross section. The result of the fitting procedure shows two different fractal dimensions: a negative (low-energies) and a positive (high-energies). The negative fractal dimension represents the emptiness of the total cross section structure and the positive represents the filling up process with the energy increase. Hence, the total cross section presents a multifractal behavior. At low-energies, the odderon exchange may be associated with the negative fractal dimension and at high-energies, the pomeron may be associated with the positive fractal dimension. Therefore, the exchange of odderons and pomerons may be viewed as a transition from a less well-defined to a more well-defined internal structure, depending on the energy.

  12. Total reaction cross sections for {sup 8}Li + {sup 90}Zr at near-barrier energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakou, A.; Aslanoglou, X.; Sgouros, O.; Soukeras, V. [The University of Ioannina, Department of Physics and HINP, Ioannina (Greece); Pierroutsakou, D.; Boiano, A.; Parascandolo, C. [INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Napoli (Italy); Mazzocco, M.; Soramel, F.; Strano, E.; Torresi, D. [Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Padova (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy); Acosta, L.; Marquinez-Duran, G.; Martel, I. [Universidad de Huelva, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Huelva (Spain); Boiano, C. [INFN, Sezione di Milano, Milano (Italy); Carbone, D.; Cavallaro, M. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Grebosz, J. [The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics (IFJ PAN), Krakow (Poland); Keeley, N. [National Center for Nuclear Research, Otwock Warsaw (Poland); La Commara, M. [INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Napoli (Italy); Universita di Napoli ' ' Federico II' ' , Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Napoli (Italy); Manea, C. [INFN, Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy); Rusek, K.; Trzcinska, A. [University of Warsaw, Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw (Poland); Sanchez-Benitez, A.M. [Centro de Fisica Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); Signorini, C. [INFN, LNL, Legnaro (Italy); Stiliaris, E. [University of Athens, Institute of Accelerating Systems and Applications and Department of Physics, Athens (Greece); Watanabe, Y.X. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies (IPNS), Ibaraki (Japan); Yamaguchi, H. [University of Tokyo, Center for Nuclear Study (CNS), Saitama (Japan)

    2015-05-15

    Total reaction cross sections for the radioactive nucleus {sup 8}Li on {sup 90}Zr are reported at the near-barrier energies of 18.5 and 21.5MeV, derived from quasi-elastic scattering measurements. An analysis of the quasi-elastic scattering results is performed within an optical model framework using the BDM3Y1 interaction and total reaction cross sections are deduced. These quantities, appropriately reduced, are compared with previous data obtained in elastic scattering measurements with well and weakly bound projectiles on various targets and a formula for predicting total reaction cross sections with an uncertainty of ∝ 20 % is obtained. Further on, the ratios of direct to total reaction cross sections are estimated for {sup 6,8}Li on various targets and are compared with CDCC or CRC calculations. The energy dependence of the optical potential is also discussed. (orig.)

  13. Total reaction cross sections for 8Li + 90Zr at near-barrier energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakou, A.; Pierroutsakou, D.; Mazzocco, M.; Acosta, L.; Aslanoglou, X.; Boiano, A.; Boiano, C.; Carbone, D.; Cavallaro, M.; Grebosz, J.; Keeley, N.; La Commara, M.; Manea, C.; Marquinez-Duran, G.; Martel, I.; Parascandolo, C.; Rusek, K.; Sánchez-Benítez, A. M.; Sgouros, O.; Signorini, C.; Soramel, F.; Soukeras, V.; Stiliaris, E.; Strano, E.; Torresi, D.; Trzcinska, A.; Watanabe, Y. X.; Yamaguchi, H.

    2015-05-01

    Total reaction cross sections for the radioactive nucleus 8Li on 90Zr are reported at the near-barrier energies of 18.5 and 21.5MeV, derived from quasi-elastic scattering measurements. An analysis of the quasi-elastic scattering results is performed within an optical model framework using the BDM3Y1 interaction and total reaction cross sections are deduced. These quantities, appropriately reduced, are compared with previous data obtained in elastic scattering measurements with well and weakly bound projectiles on various targets and a formula for predicting total reaction cross sections with an uncertainty of % is obtained. Further on, the ratios of direct to total reaction cross sections are estimated for 6,8Li on various targets and are compared with CDCC or CRC calculations. The energy dependence of the optical potential is also discussed.

  14. Propagation of sound waves in tubes of noncircular cross section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, W. B.

    1986-01-01

    Plane-acoustic-wave propagation in small tubes with a cross section in the shape of a flattened oval is described. Theoretical descriptions of a plane wave propagating in a tube with circular cross section and between a pair of infinite parallel plates, including viscous and thermal damping, are expressed in similar form. For a wide range of useful duct sizes, the propagation constant (whose real and imaginary parts are the amplitude attenuation rate and the wave number, respectively) is very nearly the same function of frequency for both cases if the radius of the circular tube is the same as the distance between the parallel plates. This suggests that either a circular-cross-section model or a flat-plate model can be used to calculate wave propagation in flat-oval tubing, or any other shape tubing, if its size is expressed in terms of an equivalent radius, given by g = 2 x (cross-sectional area)/(length of perimeter). Measurements of the frequency response of two sections of flat-oval tubing agree with calculations based on this idea. Flat-plate formulas are derived, the use of transmission-line matrices for calculations of plane waves in compound systems of ducts is described, and examples of computer programs written to carry out the calculations are shown.

  15. Odds for C-Section May Depend on Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Odds for C-Section May Depend on Hospital Consumer Reports finds rates vary from 7 to ... undergoing an unnecessary C-section can be the hospital she chooses for the delivery, a new analysis ...

  16. Modeling plasma-based CO2 conversion: crucial role of the dissociation cross section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaerts, Annemie; Wang, Weizong; Berthelot, Antonin; Guerra, Vasco

    2016-10-01

    Plasma-based CO2 conversion is gaining increasing interest worldwide. A large research effort is devoted to improving the energy efficiency. For this purpose, it is very important to understand the underlying mechanisms of the CO2 conversion. The latter can be obtained by computer modeling, describing in detail the behavior of the various plasma species and all relevant chemical processes. However, the accuracy of the modeling results critically depends on the accuracy of the assumed input data, like cross sections. This is especially true for the cross section of electron impact dissociation, as the latter process is believed to proceed through electron impact excitation, but it is not clear from the literature which excitation channels effectively lead to dissociation. Therefore, the present paper discusses the effect of different electron impact dissociation cross sections reported in the literature on the calculated CO2 conversion, for a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) and a microwave (MW) plasma. Comparison is made to experimental data for the DBD case, to elucidate which cross section might be the most realistic. This comparison reveals that the cross sections proposed by Itikawa and by Polak and Slovetsky both seem to underestimate the CO2 conversion. The cross sections recommended by Phelps with thresholds of 7 eV and 10.5 eV yield a CO2 conversion only slightly lower than the experimental data, but the sum of both cross sections overestimates the values, indicating that these cross sections represent dissociation, but most probably also include other (pure excitation) channels. Our calculations indicate that the choice of the electron impact dissociation cross section is crucial for the DBD, where this process is the dominant mechanism for CO2 conversion. In the MW plasma, it is only significant at pressures up to 100 mbar, while it is of minor importance for higher pressures, when dissociation proceeds mainly through collisions of CO2 with heavy

  17. Average cross section measurement for 162Er (γ, n) reaction compared with theoretical calculations using TALYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagena, E.; Stoulos, S.

    2017-01-01

    Bremsstrahlung photon beam delivered by a linear electron accelerator has been used to experimentally determine the near threshold photonuclear cross section data of nuclides. For the first time, (γ, n) cross section data was obtained for the astrophysical important nucleus 162Er. Moreover, theoretical calculations have been applied using the TALYS 1.6 code. The effect of the gamma ray strength function on the cross section calculations has been studied. A satisfactorily reproduction of the available experimental data of photonuclear cross section at the energy region below 20 MeV could be achieved. The photon flux was monitored by measuring the photons yield from seven well known (γ, n) reactions from the threshold energy of each reaction up to the end-point energy of the photon beam used. An integrated cross-section 87 ± 14 mb is calculated for the photonuclear reaction 162Er (γ, n) at the energy 9.2-14 MeV. The effective cross section estimated using the TALYS code range between 89 and 96 mb depending on the γ-strength function used. To validate the method for the estimation of the average cross-section data of 162Er (γ, n) reaction, the same procedure has been performed to calculate the average cross-section data of 197Au (γ, n) and 55Mn (γ, n) reactions. In this case, the photons yield from the rest well known (γ, n) reactions was used in order to monitoring the photon flux. The results for 162Er (γ, n), 197Au (γ, n) and 55Mn (γ, n) are found to be in good agreement with the theoretical values obtained by TALYS 1.6. So, the present indirect process could be a valuable tool to estimate the effective cross section of (γ, n) reaction for various isotopes using bremsstrahlung beams.

  18. Oscillation of cylinders of rectangular cross section immersed in fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumley, Douglas R.; Willcox, Michelle; Sader, John E.

    2010-05-01

    The ability to calculate flows generated by oscillating cylinders immersed in fluid is a cornerstone in micro- and nanodevice development. In this article, we present a detailed theoretical analysis of the hydrodynamic load experienced by an oscillating rigid cylinder, of arbitrary rectangular cross section, that is immersed in an unbounded viscous fluid. We also consider the formal limit of inviscid flow for which exact analytical and asymptotic solutions are derived. Due to its practical importance in application to the atomic force microscope and nanoelectromechanical systems, we conduct a detailed assessment of the dependence of this load on the cylinder thickness-to-width ratio. We also assess the validity and accuracy of the widely used infinitely-thin blade approximation. For thin rectangular cylinders of finite thickness, this approximation is found to be excellent for out-of-plane motion, whereas for in-plane oscillations it can exhibit significant error. A database of accurate numerical results for the hydrodynamic load as a function of the thickness-to-width ratio and normalized frequency is also presented, which is expected to be of value in practical application and numerical benchmarking.

  19. Relaxation and cross section effects in valence band photoemission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFeely, F.R.

    1976-09-01

    Various problems relating to the interpretation of valence band x-ray photoemission (XPS) spectra of solids are discussed. The experiments and calculations reported herein deal with the following questions: (1) To what extent do many-body effects manifest themselves in an XPS valence band spectrum, and thus invalidate a direct comparison between the photoemission energy distribution, I(E), and the density of states, N(E), calculated on the basis of ground-state one-electron theory. (2) The effect of the binding-energy-dependent photoemission cross section on I(E) at XPS energies. (3) In favorable cases indicated by (1) and (2) we examine the effect of the interaction of the crystal field with the apparent spin-orbit splittings of core levels observed in XPS spectra. (4) The use of tight binding band structure calculations to parameterize the electronic band structure from XPS and other data is described. (5) The use of high energy angle-resolved photoemission on oriented single crystals to gain orbital symmetry information is discussed. (6) The evolution of the shape of the photoemission energy distribution (of polycrystalline Cu) as a function of photon energy from 50 less than or equal h ..omega.. less than or equal 175 is discussed.

  20. A Cross-sectional Assessment of Knowledge of ASHA Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Kori

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Government of India launched the th National Rural Health Mission on 5 April 2005. A new band of community based functionaries, named as Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA was proposed to escort and transport the client to reach the hospital and provide referral services in case of complications. A time to time assessment of the knowledge of ASHAs is essential as the success of government's health programmes in rural areas depends on them and hence the present study was undertaken. Material and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in the Barai block rural area of Gwalior district and 88 ASHAs were included in the study as per the eligibility criteria. Results: 88.6 % & 85.2% of ASHAs responded for abdominal pain & bleeding respectively as complications during pregnancy and 88.6% and 85.20 % ASHAs responded for obstructed labor and excessive bleeding as complications during delivery.73.8 % ASHAs responded for antenatal care counseling followed by family planning (70.4%. Conclusion: There is a need to revise and update the knowledge of ASHA workers from time to time. On the job trainings of the ASHAs should be in process to develop necessary knowledge and skills with recent updates. The block level meetings should be utilized for the feedback, enhancing knowledge & solving the problem faced by the ASHAs.

  1. Radial Eigenmodes for a Toroidal Waveguide with Rectangular Cross Section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rui Li

    2012-07-01

    In applying mode expansion to solve the CSR impedance for a section of toroidal vacuum chamber with rectangular cross section, we identify the eigenvalue problem for the radial eigenmodes which is different from that for cylindrical structures. In this paper, we present the general expressions of the radial eigenmodes, and discuss the properties of the eigenvalues on the basis of the Sturm-Liouville theory.

  2. Multilevel Cross-Dependent Binary Longitudinal Data

    KAUST Repository

    Serban, Nicoleta

    2013-10-16

    We provide insights into new methodology for the analysis of multilevel binary data observed longitudinally, when the repeated longitudinal measurements are correlated. The proposed model is logistic functional regression conditioned on three latent processes describing the within- and between-variability, and describing the cross-dependence of the repeated longitudinal measurements. We estimate the model components without employing mixed-effects modeling but assuming an approximation to the logistic link function. The primary objectives of this article are to highlight the challenges in the estimation of the model components, to compare two approximations to the logistic regression function, linear and exponential, and to discuss their advantages and limitations. The linear approximation is computationally efficient whereas the exponential approximation applies for rare events functional data. Our methods are inspired by and applied to a scientific experiment on spectral backscatter from long range infrared light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data. The models are general and relevant to many new binary functional data sets, with or without dependence between repeated functional measurements.

  3. The effective cross section for double parton scattering within a holographic AdS/QCD approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traini, Marco; Rinaldi, Matteo; Scopetta, Sergio; Vento, Vicente

    2017-05-01

    A first attempt to apply the AdS/QCD framework for a bottom-up approach to the evaluation of the effective cross section for double parton scattering in proton-proton collisions is presented. The main goal is the analytic evaluation of the dependence of the effective cross section on the longitudinal momenta of the involved partons, obtained within the holographic Soft-Wall model. If measured in high-energy processes at hadron colliders, this momentum dependence could open a new window on 2-parton correlations in a proton.

  4. The effective cross section for double parton scattering within a holographic AdS/QCD approach

    CERN Document Server

    Traini, Marco; Rinaldi, Matteo; Vento, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    A first attempt to apply the AdS/QCD framework for a bottom-up approach to the evaluation of the effective cross section for double parton scattering in proton-proton collisions is presented. The main goal is the analytic evaluation of the dependence of the effective cross section on the longitudinal momenta of the involved partons, obtained within the holographic Soft-Wall model. If measured in high-energy processes at hadron colliders, this momentum dependence could open a new window on 2-parton correlations in a proton.

  5. On the maximum backscattering cross section of passive linear arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solymar, L.; Appel-Hansen, Jørgen

    1974-01-01

    The maximum backscattering cross section of an equispaced linear array connected to a reactive network and consisting of isotropic radiators is calculated forn = 2, 3, and 4 elements as a function of the incident angle and of the distance between the elements. On the basis of the results obtained...

  6. Cross-sectional investigation of HEMS activities in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Bartolomeo, Stefano; Gava, Paolo; Truhlář, Anatolij

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To gather information on helicopter emergency medical services (HEMSs) activities across Europe. METHODS: Cross-sectional data-collection on daily (15 November 2013) activities of a sample of European HEMSs. A web-based questionnaire with both open and closed questions was used, devel...

  7. Total cross sections for (e sup - -He) ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, K.K. (Novodaya Vidyalaya, Manipur, (IN)); Keka Basu Choudhury, (Jadavpur Univ. Calcutta, (IN). Dept. of Physics); Mazumdar, P.S.; Brajamani, S. (Manipur Univ. (IN). Dept. of Physics)

    1991-01-01

    Total cross sections for electron impact ionization have been calculated in the energy range 40-150 eV in a distorted wave model which employs distorted waves for the incident, scattered and ejected electrons. The present results are compared with experimental results and other theoretical predictions.

  8. Long Memory, Fractional Integration, and Cross-Sectional Aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldrup, Niels; Vera-Valdés, Eduardo

    It is commonly argued that observed long memory in time series variables can result from cross-sectional aggregation of dynamic heterogeneous micro units. For instance, Granger (1980) demonstrated that aggregation of AR(1) processes with a Beta distributed AR coefficient can exhibit long memory...

  9. Coulomb and nuclear effects in breakup and reaction cross sections

    CERN Document Server

    Descouvemont, Pierre; Hussein, Mahir S

    2016-01-01

    We use a three-body Continuum Discretized Coupled Channel (CDCC) model to investigate Coulomb and nuclear effects in breakup and reaction cross sections. The breakup of the projectile is simulated by a finite number of square integrable wave functions. First we show that the scattering matrices can be split in a nuclear term, and in a Coulomb term. This decomposition is based on the Lippmann-Schwinger equation, and requires the scattering wave functions. We present two different methods to separate both effects. Then, we apply this separation to breakup and reaction cross sections of 7Li + 208Pb. For breakup, we investigate various aspects, such as the role of the alpha + t continuum, the angular-momentum distribution, and the balance between Coulomb and nuclear effects. We show that there is a large ambiguity in defining the 'Coulomb' and 'nuclear' breakup cross sections, since both techniques, although providing the same total breakup cross sections, strongly differ for the individual components. We suggest...

  10. NNLO corrections to the Higgs production cross section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravindran, V. [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhusii, Allahabad, 211019 (India); Smith, J. [C.N. Yang Institute for Theoretical Physics, State University of New York at Stony Brook, New York 11794-3840 (United States); Neerven, W.L. van [Instituut-Lorentz, Universiteit Leiden, PO Box 9506, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2004-10-01

    We discuss the next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) corrections to the total cross section for (pseudo-) scalar Higgs boson production. The computation is carried out in the e.ective Lagrangian approach which emerges from the standard model by taking the limit mt->{approx} where mt denotes the mass of the top quark.

  11. Fission Product Neutron Cross Section Library and Its Reliability Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN; Jing; SUN; Zheng-jun; LIU; Ting-jin; SHU; Neng-chuan

    2013-01-01

    A complete library of neutron cross section data has been developed for fission product nuclides.It contains data for 1 121 fission product nuclides of mass number A from 66 to 172 and atomic numbers Z from 22 to 72,where involves a lot of very short-lived radioactive ones.The data were taken from better

  12. Single top cross section and properties measurements in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Komm, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Single top quarks can be produced via the t, tW, and s channel. Studying these processes provides a test of the theory of electroweak interactions involving heavy quarks. Recent results on cross section and property measurements in pp collisions by the CMS collaboration at center-of-mass energies of 7, 8, and 13 TeV are reviewed.

  13. Photodissociation of Acetaldehyde and the Photoionization Cross Section of HCO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubert, V. Alvin; Pratt, Stephen T.

    2010-06-01

    Acetaldehyde was photodissociated with near UV laser light, and the methyl (CH_3) and formyl (HCO) radical fragments were photoionized with vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light. The fragments were detected by using both time of flight mass spectrometry and velocity ion map imaging. With the former technique, simultaneous detection of both fragments provided the intensity of HCO+ relative to CH_3+ with I(HCO+)/I(CH_3+) ≈ 0.8. Because the absolute photoionization cross section of the CH_3 radical has been characterized (≈ 5 Mb) at the VUV energies of interest, the absolute photoionization cross section of HCO could be determined from the intensity ratio, yielding an HCO cross section of ≈ 4 Mb at 10.3 eV. However, because some of the HCO fragments could be formed with enough internal energy to undergo secondary dissociation, velocity ion map imaging was employed to determine the extent of any secondary dissociation that occurred. The translational energy distributions obtained for both the CH_3 and HCO fragments are nearly identical, indicating that no HCO fragments underwent secondary dissociation. A surprising result was the smaller photoionization cross section of HCO relative to CH_3. Comparison to the isoelectronic species of NO will be discussed and a potential explanation will be offered for this observation. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences under contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  14. (, 3) Differential cross section of He (21) and He (23)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kshamata Muktavat; M K Srivastava

    2002-01-01

    The angular distribution of the five-fold differential cross section for the electron impact double ionization of He (21 ) and He (23 ) has been studied. The kinematical conditions for maxima/minima in the angular distribution for the two cases have been compared. The two-step process for the double ionization is found to contribute very little in the triplet case.

  15. Electron Impact Ionization Cross Section of Nitrogen Atoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Rong-Mei; ZHOU Ya-Jun; WANG Yang; JIAO Li-Guang

    2006-01-01

    The direct ionization cross sections for electron scattering by nitrogen are calculated by applying an equivalentlocal optical model from 15eV to 1100eV. The present results are compared with the experimental data and other theoretical calculation results.

  16. Event history analysis and the cross-section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Niels

    2006-01-01

    Examples are given of problems in event history analysis, where several time origins (generating calendar time, age, disease duration, time on study, etc.) are considered simultaneously. The focus is on complex sampling patterns generated around a cross-section. A basic tool is the Lexis diagram....

  17. Estimating Dynamic Models from Repeated Cross-Sections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, M.J.C.M.; Vella, F.

    2000-01-01

    A major attraction of panel data is the ability to estimate dynamic models on an individual level. Moffitt (1993) and Collado (1998) have argued that such models can also be identified from repeated cross-section data. In this paper we reconsider this issue. We review the identification conditions u

  18. Cross-sectional imaging patterns of desmoplastic fibroma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahnken, A.H.; Nolte-Ernsting, C.C.; Wildberger, J.E.; Guenther, R.W. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital, University of Technology, Aachen (Germany); Wirtz, D.C. [Dept. of Orthopaedics, University Hospital, University of Technology, Aachen (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    The aim of this study was to work out the cross-sectional imaging characteristics of desmoplastic fibroma (DF). In 3 patients with histologically proven DF, the imaging characteristics obtained with cross-sectional techniques were reviewed retrospectively. Radiographs and CT scans were available in all patients, and plain and contrast-enhanced MR examinations in 2 patients. Compared with conventional radiographs, CT allowed more accurate assessment of the extent of bone destruction including cortical breakthrough and articular invasion. Intramedullary tumor growth and soft tissue extension was best detected with MRI. Apart from heterogeneity on MR images, DF displayed nonspecific low signal intensity on unenhanced T1-weighted images and an intermediate to high signal intensity including areas of low intensity on T2-weighted images. Desmoplastic fibroma showed a distinct, inhomogeneous gadolinium enhancement. Although cross-sectional imaging features of DF are nonspecific, some MR characteristics, such as inhomogeneous contrast enhancement and the presence of low-intensity regions on T2-weighted images, are helpful in determining the differential diagnosis. Cross-sectional imaging of DF is useful for local staging of the tumor because it provides valuable information about the extent of bone destruction as well as medullary and extraosseous spread. (orig.)

  19. Scattering cross section of metal catalyst atoms in silicon nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Troels; Rurali, R.; Cartoixa, X.

    2010-01-01

    strength of the different metal atoms. We find that Au, Ag, and Cu impurities have very similar scattering cross sections, while Al differs from the rest. Impurities located in the center of the wires scatter significantly more than impurities close to or at the surface. The results for nanowires...

  20. Skin Diseases: Cross-section of human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Cross-section of human skin Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... Logical Images, Inc. I n the areas of skin health and skin diseases, the NIH's National Institute ...

  1. Absolute measurements of chlorine Cl+ cation single photoionization cross section

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez, E. M.; Juarez, A. M.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Aguilar, A.; Hernandez, L.; Antillon, A.; Macaluso, D.; Morales-Mori, A.; Gonzalez-Magana, O.; Hanstorp, D.; Covington, A. M.; Davis, V.; Calabrese, D.; Hinojosa, G.

    2015-01-01

    The photoionization of Cl+ leading to Cl2+ was measured in the photon energy range of 19.5-28.0 eV. A spectrum with a photon energy resolution of 15 meV normalized to absolute cross-section measurements is presented. The measurements were carried out by merging a Cl+ ion beam with a photon beam of h

  2. C+C Fusion Cross Sections Measurements for Nuclear Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaraz-Calderon, S.; Carnelli, P. F. F.; Rehm, K. E.; Albers, M.; Alcorta, M.; Bertone, P. F.; Digiovine, B.; Esbensen, H.; Fernandez Niello, J. O.; Henderson, D.; Jiang, C. L.; Lai, J.; Marley, S. T.; Nusair, O.; Palchan-Hazan, T.; Pardo, R. C.; Paul, M.; Ugalde, C.

    2015-06-01

    Total fusion cross section of carbon isotopes were obtained using the newly developed MUSIC detector. MUSIC is a highly efficient, active target-detector system designed to measure fusion excitation functions with radioactive beams. The present measurements are relevant for understanding x-ray superbursts. The results of the first MUSIC campaign as well as the astrophysical implications are presented in this work.

  3. C+C Fusion Cross Sections Measurements for Nuclear Astrophysics

    OpenAIRE

    Almaraz-Calderon S.; Carnelli P. F. F.; Rehm K. E.; Albers M.; Alcorta M.; Bertone P.F.; Digiovine B.; Esbensen H.; Fernandez Niello J. O.; Henderson D.; Jiang C.L.; Lai J; Marley S. T.; Nusair O.; Palchan-Hazan T.

    2015-01-01

    Total fusion cross section of carbon isotopes were obtained using the newly developed MUSIC detector. MUSIC is a highly efficient, active target-detector system designed to measure fusion excitation functions with radioactive beams. The present measurements are relevant for understanding x-ray superbursts. The results of the first MUSIC campaign as well as the astrophysical implications are presented in this work.

  4. Absolute measurements of chlorine Cl+ cation single photoionization cross section

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez, E. M.; Juarez, A. M.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Aguilar, A.; Hernandez, L.; Antillon, A.; Macaluso, D.; Morales-Mori, A.; Gonzalez-Magana, O.; Hanstorp, D.; Covington, A. M.; Davis, V.; Calabrese, D.; Hinojosa, G.

    The photoionization of Cl+ leading to Cl2+ was measured in the photon energy range of 19.5-28.0 eV. A spectrum with a photon energy resolution of 15 meV normalized to absolute cross-section measurements is presented. The measurements were carried out by merging a Cl+ ion beam with a photon beam of

  5. Electron-silane scattering cross section for plasma assisted processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Pankaj; Kaur, Jaspreet; Antony, Bobby

    2017-03-01

    Silane is an important molecule with numerous applications to natural and technological plasmas. In such environments, where plasma assisted processes are vital, electron induced reactions play a major role in its chemistry. In view of this, electron induced scattering of molecules such as silane finds significance. This article reports a comprehensive study of electron impact cross sections for silane over a wide energy range. In particular, the emphasis is given in providing a complete dataset for various electron scattering events possible with silane. Such dataset is the need for the plasma modeling community. Moreover, literature survey shows that the cross section database for silane is fragmentary. To fill this void, we have computed the differential elastic, total, rotational excitation, and momentum transfer cross sections. Two formalisms that are reliable in their energy domain are employed to accomplish the task: the R-matrix method through QUANTEMOL-N at low incident energies and the spherical complex optical potential formalism at intermediate to high energies. Interestingly, the comparison of the present cross section exhibits a good concurrence with the previous data, wherever available.

  6. The value of blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD MR imaging in differentiation of renal solid mass and grading of renal cell carcinoma (RCC: analysis based on the largest cross-sectional area versus the entire whole tumour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Yu Wu

    Full Text Available To study the value of assessing renal masses using different methods in parameter approaches and to determine whether BOLD MRI is helpful in differentiating RCC from benign renal masses, differentiating clear-cell RCC from renal masses other than clear-cell RCC and determining the tumour grade.Ninety-five patients with 139 renal masses (93 malignant and 46 benign who underwent abdominal BOLD MRI were enrolled. R2* values were derived from the largest cross-section (R2*largest and from the whole tumour (R2*whole. Intra-observer and inter-observer agreements were analysed based on two measurements by the same observer and the first measurement from each observer, respectively, and these agreements are reported with intra-class correlation coefficients and 95% confidence intervals. The diagnostic value of the R2* value in the evaluation was assessed with receiver-operating characteristic analysis.The intra-observer agreement was very good for R2*largest and R2*whole (all > 0.8. The inter-observer agreement of R2*whole (0.75, 95% confidence interval: 0.69~0.79 was good and was significantly improved compared with the R2*largest (0.61, 95% confidence interval: 0.52~0.68, as there was no overlap in the 95% confidence interval of the intra-class correlation coefficients. The diagnostic value in differentiating renal cell carcinoma from benign lesions with R2*whole (AUC=0.79/0.78[observer1/observer2] and R2*largest (AUC=0.75[observer1] was good and significantly higher (p=0.01 for R2*largest[observer2] vs R2*whole[observer2], p 0.7 and were not significantly different (p=0.89/0.93 for R2*largest vs R2*whole[observer1/observer2], 0.96 for R2*whole[observer1] vs R2*largest[observer2] and 0.96 for R2*whole [observer2] vs R2*largest[observer1].BOLD MRI could provide a feasible parameter for differentiating renal cell carcinoma from benign renal masses and for predicting clear-cell renal cell carcinoma grading. Compared with the largest cross-section

  7. Turbulent combustion flow through variable cross section channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogov, B.V.; Sokolova, I.A.

    1999-07-01

    The object of this study is to develop a new evolutionary numerical method for solving direct task of Laval nozzle, which provides non-iterative calculations of chemical reacting turbulent flows with detailed kinetic chemistry. The numerical scheme of fourth order along the normal coordinate and second order along the streamwise one is derived for calculation of difference-differential equations of the second order and the first order. Marching method provides the possibility of computing field flow in subsonic section of nozzle and near an expansion. Critical mass consumption is calculated with controlled accuracy. After critical cross section of nozzle a combined marching method with global iterations over axial pressure (only) makes it possible to overcome ill posedness of mixed supersonic flow and calculate the whole flow field near and after critical cross section. Numerical results are demonstrated on turbulent burning hydrogen-oxygen flow through Laval nozzle with curvature of wall K{sub w} = 0.5.

  8. Open system of interacting fermions: statistical properties of cross sections and fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celardo, G L; Izrailev, F M; Zelevinsky, V G; Berman, G P

    2007-09-01

    Statistical properties of cross sections are studied for an open system of interacting fermions. The description is based on the effective non-Hermitian Hamiltonian that accounts for the existence of open decay channels preserving the unitarity of the scattering matrix. The intrinsic interaction is modeled by the two-body random ensemble of variable strength. In particular, the crossover region from isolated to overlapping resonances accompanied by the effect of the width redistribution creating superradiant and trapped states is studied in detail. The important observables, such as average cross section, its fluctuations, autocorrelation functions of the cross section, and scattering matrix, are very sensitive to the coupling of the intrinsic states to the continuum around the crossover. A detailed comparison is made of our results with standard predictions of statistical theory of cross sections, such as the Hauser-Feshbach formula for the average cross section and Ericson theory of fluctuations and correlations of cross sections. Strong deviations are found in the crossover region, along with the dependence on intrinsic interactions and the degree of chaos inside the system.

  9. Impact of photon cross section uncertainties on Monte Carlo-determined depth-dose distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, E; David, M; deAlmeida, C E; Bernal, M A

    2016-09-01

    This work studies the impact of systematic uncertainties associated to interaction cross sections on depth dose curves determined by Monte Carlo simulations. The corresponding sensitivity factors are quantified by changing cross sections by a given amount and determining the variation in the dose. The influence of total and partial photon cross sections is addressed. Partial cross sections for Compton and Rayleigh scattering, photo-electric effect, and pair production have been accounted for. The PENELOPE code was used in all simulations. It was found that photon cross section sensitivity factors depend on depth. In addition, they are positive and negative for depths below and above an equilibrium depth, respectively. At this depth, sensitivity factors are null. The equilibrium depths found in this work agree very well with the mean free path of the corresponding incident photon energy. Using the sensitivity factors reported here, it is possible to estimate the impact of photon cross section uncertainties on the uncertainty of Monte Carlo-determined depth dose curves.

  10. UV absorption cross-sections of selected sulfur-containing compounds at temperatures up to 500°C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grosch, Helge; Fateev, Alexander; Clausen, Sønnik

    2015-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the ultraviolet absorption cross-sections of three different sulfur containing compounds, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), carbon disulfide (CS2) and carbonyl sulfide (OCS), are presented between 200nm and 360nm at a resolution of 0.018nm. The absorption cross-sections for each...

  11. VUV-absorption cross section of CO2 at high temperatures and impact on exoplanet atmospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venot Olivia

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet (UV absorption cross sections are an essential ingredient of photochemical atmosphere models. Exoplanet searches have unveiled a large population of short-period objects with hot atmospheres, very different from what we find in our solar system. Transiting exoplanets whose atmospheres can now be studied by transit spectroscopy receive extremely strong UV fluxes and have typical temperatures ranging from 400 to 2500 K. At these temperatures, UV photolysis cross section data are severely lacking. Our goal is to provide high-temperature absorption cross sections and their temperature dependency for important atmospheric compounds. This study is dedicated to CO2, which is observed and photodissociated in exoplanet atmospheres. We performed these measurements for the 115 - 200 nm range at 300, 410, 480, and 550 K. In the 195 - 230 nm range, we worked at seven temperatures between 465 and 800 K. We found that the absorption cross section of CO2 is very sensitive to temperature, especially above 160 nm. Within the studied range of temperature, the CO2 cross section can vary by more than two orders of magnitude. This, in particular, makes the absorption of CO2 significant up to wavelengths as high as 230 nm, while it is negligible above 200 nm at 300 K. To investigate the influence of these new data on the photochemistry of exoplanets, we implemented the measured cross section into a 1D photochemical model. The model predicts that accounting for this temperature dependency of CO2 cross section can affect the computed abundances of NH3, CO2, and CO by one order of magnitude in the atmospheres of hot Jupiter and hot Neptune.

  12. Developing Scientific Reasoning Through Drawing Cross-Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannula, K. A.

    2012-12-01

    Cross-sections and 3D models of subsurface geology are typically based on incomplete information (whether surface geologic mapping, well logs, or geophysical data). Creating and evaluating those models requires spatial and quantitative thinking skills (including penetrative thinking, understanding of horizontality, mental rotation and animation, and scaling). However, evaluating the reasonableness of a cross-section or 3D structural model also requires consideration of multiple possible geometries and geologic histories. Teaching students to create good models requires application of the scientific methods of the geosciences (such as evaluation of multiple hypotheses and combining evidence from multiple techniques). Teaching these critical thinking skills, especially combined with teaching spatial thinking skills, is challenging. My Structural Geology and Advanced Structural Geology courses have taken two different approaches to developing both the abilities to visualize and to test multiple models. In the final project in Structural Geology (a 3rd year course with a pre-requisite sophomore mapping course), students create a viable cross-section across part of the Wyoming thrust belt by hand, based on a published 1:62,500 geologic map. The cross-section must meet a number of geometric criteria (such as the template constraint), but is not required to balance. Each student tries many potential geometries while trying to find a viable solution. In most cases, the students don't visualize the implications of the geometries that they try, but have to draw them and then erase their work if it does not meet the criteria for validity. The Advanced Structural Geology course used Midland Valley's Move suite to test the cross-sections that they made in Structural Geology, mostly using the flexural slip unfolding algorithm and testing whether the resulting line lengths balanced. In both exercises, students seemed more confident in the quality of their cross-sections when the

  13. Absorption cross-section measurements of methane, ethane, ethylene and methanol at high temperatures

    KAUST Repository

    Alrefae, Majed

    2014-09-01

    Mid-IR absorption cross-sections are measured for methane, ethane, ethylene and methanol over 2800-3400 cm-1 (2.9-3.6 μm) spectral region. Measurements are carried out using a Fourier-Transform-Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer with temperatures ranging 296-1100 K and pressures near atmospheric. As temperature increases, the peak cross-sections decrease but the wings of the bands increase as higher rotational lines appear. Integrated band intensity is also calculated over the measured spectral region and is found to be a very weak function of temperature. The absorption cross-sections of the relatively small fuels studied here show dependence on the bath gas. This effect is investigated by studying the variation of absorption cross-sections at 3.392 μm using a HeNe laser in mixtures of fuel and nitrogen, argon, or helium. Mixtures of fuel with He have the highest value of absorption cross-sections followed by Ar and N2. Molecules with narrow absorption lines, such as methane and methanol, show strong dependence on bath gas than molecules with relatively broader absorption features i.e. ethane and ethylene. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Absorption cross-section measurements of methane, ethane, ethylene and methanol at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrefae, Majed; Es-sebbar, Et-touhami; Farooq, Aamir

    2014-09-01

    Mid-IR absorption cross-sections are measured for methane, ethane, ethylene and methanol over 2800-3400 cm-1 (2.9-3.6 μm) spectral region. Measurements are carried out using a Fourier-Transform-Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer with temperatures ranging 296-1100 K and pressures near atmospheric. As temperature increases, the peak cross-sections decrease but the wings of the bands increase as higher rotational lines appear. Integrated band intensity is also calculated over the measured spectral region and is found to be a very weak function of temperature. The absorption cross-sections of the relatively small fuels studied here show dependence on the bath gas. This effect is investigated by studying the variation of absorption cross-sections at 3.392 μm using a HeNe laser in mixtures of fuel and nitrogen, argon, or helium. Mixtures of fuel with He have the highest value of absorption cross-sections followed by Ar and N2. Molecules with narrow absorption lines, such as methane and methanol, show strong dependence on bath gas than molecules with relatively broader absorption features i.e. ethane and ethylene.

  15. Advanced Neutron Source Cross Section Libraries (ANSL-V): ENDF/B-V based multigroup cross-section libraries for advanced neutron source (ANS) reactor studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, W.E. III; Arwood, J.W.; Greene, N.M.; Moses, D.L.; Petrie, L.M.; Primm, R.T. III; Slater, C.O.; Westfall, R.M.; Wright, R.Q.

    1990-09-01

    Pseudo-problem-independent, multigroup cross-section libraries were generated to support Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Reactor design studies. The ANS is a proposed reactor which would be fueled with highly enriched uranium and cooled with heavy water. The libraries, designated ANSL-V (Advanced Neutron Source Cross Section Libraries based on ENDF/B-V), are data bases in AMPX master format for subsequent generation of problem-dependent cross-sections for use with codes such as KENO, ANISN, XSDRNPM, VENTURE, DOT, DORT, TORT, and MORSE. Included in ANSL-V are 99-group and 39-group neutron, 39-neutron-group 44-gamma-ray-group secondary gamma-ray production (SGRP), 44-group gamma-ray interaction (GRI), and coupled, 39-neutron group 44-gamma-ray group (CNG) cross-section libraries. The neutron and SGRP libraries were generated primarily from ENDF/B-V data; the GRI library was generated from DLC-99/HUGO data, which is recognized as the ENDF/B-V photon interaction data. Modules from the AMPX and NJOY systems were used to process the multigroup data. Validity of selected data from the fine- and broad-group neutron libraries was satisfactorily tested in performance parameter calculations.

  16. Description of alpha-nucleus interaction cross sections for cosmic ray shielding studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Wilson, John W.

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear interactions of high-energy alpha particles with target nuclei important for cosmic ray studies are discussed. Models for elastic, quasi-elastic, and breakup reactions are presented and compared with experimental data. Energy-dependent interaction cross sections and secondary spectra are presented based on theoretical models and the limited experimental data base.

  17. Experimental Investigation Of Polymeric Compound Cross Section Springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayas Al-Mahasne

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental investigation of the characteristic of the compound cross section springs on models made from polymeric materials (organic glass. Two constructive variants of the compound spring sections were specified with the help of criteria of similarity. The criterion of similarity of natural and model springs was determined by the simulation method at particular spring deflection. The problem of simulation was brought to accurate determination of the magnitudes that characterize the physical and mechanical properties of materials for natural and model springs. It was experimentally proved that the use of the proposed new type of springs significantly increases the spring stiffness.

  18. Simultaneous Evaluation of Fission Cross Sections for Cm Isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Y.-O.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Fission Cross Sections for a complete set of Cm-isotopes, 240-250Cm, have been calculated in the incident energy range from above resonance region to 20 MeV. This work aims at providing the fission cross sections with consistent set of model parameters for Cm isotopes, as a part of a complete evaluation including covariance files for several minor actinides which play a great role in the Advanced Fuel Cycle (AFC design and applications as well as the design of new generation of nuclear reactors (GEN-IV. This was accomplished by means of computational analyses carried out with the nuclear model code EMPIRE-2.19 which is the modular system of nuclear reaction codes. A Fission model of this work took into account transmission derived in the WKB approximation within an optical model through a double-humped fission barrier.

  19. Deuterium target data and precision neutrino-nucleus cross sections

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Aaron S; Gran, Richard; Hill, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Amplitudes derived from scattering data on elementary targets are basic inputs to neutrino-nucleus cross section predictions. A prominent example is the isovector axial nucleon form factor, $F_A(q^2)$, which controls charged current signal processes at accelerator-based neutrino oscillation experiments. Previous extractions of $F_A$ from neutrino-deuteron scattering data rely on a dipole shape assumption that introduces an unquantified error. A new analysis of world data for neutrino-deuteron scattering is performed using a model-independent, and systematically improvable, representation of $F_A$. A complete error budget for the nucleon isovector axial radius leads to $r_A^2=0.46(22) \\,{\\rm fm}^2$, with a much larger uncertainty than determined in the original analyses. The quasielastic neutrino-neutron cross section is determined as $\\sigma(\

  20. Simultaneous Evaluation of Fission Cross Sections for Cm Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H. I.; Gil, C.-S.; Lee, Y.-O.

    2010-03-01

    Fission Cross Sections for a complete set of Cm-isotopes, 240-250Cm, have been calculated in the incident energy range from above resonance region to 20 MeV. This work aims at providing the fission cross sections with consistent set of model parameters for Cm isotopes, as a part of a complete evaluation including covariance files for several minor actinides which play a great role in the Advanced Fuel Cycle (AFC) design and applications as well as the design of new generation of nuclear reactors (GEN-IV). This was accomplished by means of computational analyses carried out with the nuclear model code EMPIRE-2.19 which is the modular system of nuclear reaction codes. A Fission model of this work took into account transmission derived in the WKB approximation within an optical model through a double-humped fission barrier.

  1. Cross section generation for LWR pin lattices simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasquez, Carlos E.; Macedo, Anderson A.P.; Cardoso, Fabiano S.; Pereira, Claubia; Veloso, Maria Auxiliadora F.; Costa, Antonella L. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Reatores Nucleares Inovadores/CNPq, Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Barros, Graiciany de P. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The majority of the neutron data library provided with the MCNP code is set at room temperature. Therefore, it is important to generate continuous energy cross section library for MCNP code for different temperatures. To evaluate the methodology used, the criticality calculations obtained using MCNP with the cross section generated at DEN/UFMG, are compared with the criticality data from the International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmarks Experiments about the PIN lattices for light water reactors. It was used nuclear data from the ENDF-VII.1, JEFF-3.1 and TENDL-2014, which were processed using the NJOY99 code for different energies and temperatures. This code provides the nuclear data in ACE libraries, which then are added to MCNP libraries to perform the simulations. The results indicate the methodology efficiency developed by DEN/UFMG. (author)

  2. NIFFTE Time Projection Chamber for Fission Cross Section Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Ryan; Neutron Induced Fission Fragment Tracking Experiment Collaboration

    2011-10-01

    In order to design safer and more efficient Generation IV nuclear reactors, more accurate knowledge of fission cross sections is needed. The goal of the Time Projection Chamber (TPC) used by the Neutron Induced Fission Fragment Tracking Experiment (NIFFTE) collaboration is to measure the cross sections of several fissile materials to within 1% uncertainty. The ability of the TPC to produce 3D ``pictures'' of charged particle trajectories will eliminate unwanted alpha particles in the data. Another important source of error is the normalization of data the U-235 standard. NIFFTE will use the H(n,n)H reaction instead, which is known to better than 0.2%. The run control and monitoring system will eventually allow for nearly complete automation and off-site monitoring of the experiment. This presentation will cover the need for precision measurements and an overview of the experiment. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Division of Energy Research.

  3. Near-Field Cross Section Imaging of Wideband Millimeter Wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kan Yingzhi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Near-field millimeter wave imaging has been a hot topic recent years for its importance applications in the area of anti-terrorism. The penetrating characteristic of millimeter wave is of significant importance to security, such as the concealed weapons detection, ground-penetrating radar imaging, through-barrier imaging and so on. Cross section imaging is a basic aspect for near-field millimeter wave imaging, which includes antenna array distribution and wideband signal processing. This paper utilizes back projection method in space area to realize ultra-band nearfield cross section imaging. We induce two dimensional direction integral formulas to obtain the reconstruction image of the near-field imaging area, and the simulation results validate the effectiveness of this imaging algorithm.

  4. Influence of the target excitations on neutron cross section calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabezas, R.; Lubian, J. [Center for Applied Studies to Nuclear Development, Havana (Cuba)

    1994-12-31

    Considerable progress has been made in the use of the nuclear models and methods to derive physically meaningful parameters for model calculations. In this sense, we analyze the influence of the collective modes of excitation of the target nucleus on the cross section calculations in some medium atomic-weight nuclei, where spectroscopic studies show evidence of anharmonic vibrations, nonaxial deformations and so on. Coupled channel calculations for low-energy neutron inelastic scattering to collective states in {sup 48}Ti, {sup 54}Cr and {sup 62}Ni isotopes are made using the Davydov-Chaban model (DCM). It is shown, that the consideration of the structural features of the target nucleus excitation in the cross section calculations guarantees the agreement with the experimental measurements.

  5. Cross-Section Measurements with the Radioactive Isotope Accelerator (RIA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoyer, M A; Moody, K J; Wild, J F; Patin, J B; Shaughnessy, D A; Stoyer, N J; Harris, L J

    2002-11-19

    RIA will produce beams of exotic nuclei of unprecedented luminosity. Preliminary studies of the feasibility of measuring cross-sections of interest to the science based stockpile stewardship (SBSS) program will be presented, and several experimental techniques will be discussed. Cross-section modeling attempts for the A = 95 mass region will be shown. In addition, several radioactive isotopes could be collected for target production or medical isotope purposes while the main in-beam experiments are running. The inclusion of a broad range mass analyzer (BRAMA) capability at RIA will enable more effective utilization of the facility, enabling the performance of multiple experiments at the same time. This option will be briefly discussed.

  6. Improved estimate of the cross section for inverse beta decay

    CERN Document Server

    Ankowski, Artur M

    2016-01-01

    The hypothesis of the conserved vector current, relating the vector weak and isovector electromagnetic currents, plays a fundamental role in quantitative description of neutrino interactions. Despite being experimentally confirmed with great precision, it is not fully implemented in existing calculations of the cross section for inverse beta decay, the dominant mechanism of antineutrino scattering at energies below a few tens of MeV. In this article, I estimate the corresponding cross section and its uncertainty, ensuring conservation of the vector current. While converging to previous calculations at energies of several MeV, the obtained result is appreciably lower and predicts more directional positron production near the reaction threshold. These findings suggest that in the current estimate of the flux of geologically produced antineutrinos the 232Th and 238U components may be underestimated by 6.1 and 3.7%, respectively. The proposed search for light sterile neutrinos using a 144Ce--144Pr source is predi...

  7. Radar Cross Section measurements on the stealth metamaterial objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Fan, Kim; Strikwerda, Andrew C.

    have been realized in the form of thin, flexible metallized films of polyimide [1]. Here we apply a near-unity absorbing MM as a way to reduce the radar cross section of an object, and consider the real-life situation where the probe beam is significantly larger than the MM film and the object under...... investigation. We use a terahertz radar cross section (RCS) setup [2] for the characterization of the RCS of a real object covered with an absorbing MM film designed for high absorption in the THz frequency range, specifically at 0.8 THz. The results are in a form of 2D maps (sinograms), from which the RCS...

  8. PIA and REWIND: Two New Methodologies for Cross Section Adjustment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmiotti, G.; Salvatores, M.

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents two new cross section adjustment methodologies intended for coping with the problem of compensations. The first one PIA, Progressive Incremental Adjustment, gives priority to the utilization of experiments of elemental type (those sensitive to a specific cross section), following a definite hierarchy on which type of experiment to use. Once the adjustment is performed, both the new adjusted data and the new covariance matrix are kept. The second methodology is called REWIND (Ranking Experiments by Weighting for Improved Nuclear Data). This new proposed approach tries to establish a methodology for ranking experiments by looking at the potential gain they can produce in an adjustment. Practical applications for different adjustments illustrate the results of the two methodologies against the current one and show the potential improvement for reducing uncertainties in target reactors.

  9. Neutron Capture Cross Sections of 236U and 234U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundberg, R. S.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Bond, E. M.; Haight, R. C.; Hunt, L. F.; Kronenberg, A.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Schwantes, J. M.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wouters, J. M.

    2006-03-01

    Accurate neutron capture cross sections of the actinide elements at neutron energies up to 1 MeV are needed to better interpret archived nuclear test data, for post-detonation nuclear attribution, and the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative. The Detector for Advance Neutron Capture Experiments, DANCE, has unique capabilities that allow the differentiation of capture gamma rays from fission gamma rays and background gamma rays from scattered neutrons captured by barium isotopes in the barium fluoride scintillators. The DANCE array has a high granularity, 160 scintillators, high efficiency, and nearly 4-π solid angle. Through the use of cuts in cluster multiplicity and calorimetric energy the capture gamma-rays are differentiated from other sources of gamma rays. The preliminary results for the capture cross sections of 236U are in agreement with the ENDF/B-VI evaluation. The preliminary results for 234U lower are than ENDF/B-VI evaluation and are closer to older evaluations.

  10. Shrink-wrapped isosurface from cross sectional images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Y K; Hahn, J K

    2007-12-01

    This paper addresses a new surface reconstruction scheme for approximating the isosurface from a set of tomographic cross sectional images. Differently from the novel Marching Cubes (MC) algorithm, our method does not extract the iso-density surface (isosurface) directly from the voxel data but calculates the iso-density point (isopoint) first. After building a coarse initial mesh approximating the ideal isosurface by the cell-boundary representation, it metamorphoses the mesh into the final isosurface by a relaxation scheme, called shrink-wrapping process. Compared with the MC algorithm, our method is robust and does not make any cracks on surface. Furthermore, since it is possible to utilize lots of additional isopoints during the surface reconstruction process by extending the adjacency definition, theoretically the resulting surface can be better in quality than the MC algorithm. According to experiments, it is proved to be very robust and efficient for isosurface reconstruction from cross sectional images.

  11. Carbon Fragmentation Cross Sections for Hadrontherapy and Space Radiation Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Napoli, M.; Agodi, C.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Nicolosi, D.; Pandola, L.; Raciti, G.; Romano, F.; Sardina, D.; Scuderi, V.; Tropea, S.; Bondì, M.; Cappuzzello, F.; Carbone, D.; Cavallaro, M.

    2014-05-01

    Fragmentation reactions represent a serious complication in hadrontherapy and space radiation protection. In order to predict their effects, both reliable Monte Carlo codes and experimental data are needed. The shortage of precise measurements, especially of double differential cross sections, has triggered many dedicated experiments at relativistic energies. Aiming to explore the Fermi energy regime, as well, where different reaction mechanisms are involved, we measured the 12C fragmentation at 62 AMeV on a 12C and a 197Au target. A high granularity Si-CsI hodoscope allowed to identify the charge and the mass of detected fragments and measure their energy and emission angle. In this work we report the double differential cross sections for the production of different fragments as a function of the emission angle. Experimental results are compared with the GEANT-4 Monte Carlo predictions performed using two reaction models, the Quantum Molecular Dynamic and the Binary Light Ion Cascade.

  12. Determining the Factorizability of Hard Scattering Cross-Sections

    CERN Document Server

    Hornig, Andrew; Ovanesyan, Grigory

    2009-01-01

    The rules of soft-collinear effective theory can be used naively to write hard scattering cross-sections as convolutions of separate hard, jet, and soft functions. We describe an intuitive method to determine, at a given order in perturbation theory, whether these functions are truly infrared safe or not and, thus, whether or not the cross-sections factorize. Using angularity distributions as an illustrative example, we look for regions of integration in the sum of Feynman diagrams contributing to the jet and soft functions where the integrals become infrared divergent. Our analysis is independent of an explicit infrared regulator, and simultaneously clarifies how to distinguish infrared and ultraviolet singularities when pure dimensional regularization is used to regulate both.

  13. Evolving roles of cross-sectional imaging in Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magarotto, Andrea; Orlando, Stefania; Coletta, Marina; Conte, Dario; Fraquelli, Mirella; Caprioli, Flavio

    2016-09-01

    The implementation of cross-sectional imaging techniques for the clinical management of Crohn's disease patients has steadily grown over the recent years, thanks to a series of technological advances, including the evolution of contrast media for magnetic resonance, computed tomography and bowel ultrasound. This has resulted in a continuous improvement of diagnostic accuracy and capability to detect Crohn's disease-related complications. Additionally, a progressive widening of indications for cross-sectional imaging in Crohn's disease has been put forward, thus leading to hypothesize that in the near future imaging techniques can increasingly complement endoscopy in most clinical settings, including the grading of disease activity and the assessment of mucosal healing or Crohn's disease post-surgical recurrence.

  14. Elastic breakup cross sections of well-bound nucleons

    CERN Document Server

    Wimmer, K; Gade, A; Tostevin, J A; Baugher, T; Chajecki, Z; Coupland, D; Famiano, M A; Ghosh, T K; Howard, G F Grinyer M E; Kilburn, M; Lynch, W G; Manning, B; Meierbachtol, K; Quarterman, P; Ratkiewicz, A; Sanetullaev, A; Showalter, R H; Stroberg, S R; Tsang, M B; Weisshaar, D; Winkelbauer, J; Winkler, R; Youngs, M

    2014-01-01

    The 9Be(28Mg,27Na) one-proton removal reaction with a large proton separation energy of Sp(28Mg)=16.79 MeV is studied at intermediate beam energy. Coincidences of the bound 27Na residues with protons and other light charged particles are measured. These data are analyzed to determine the percentage contributions to the proton removal cross section from the elastic and inelastic nucleon removal mechanisms. These deduced contributions are compared with the eikonal reaction model predictions and with the previously measured data for reactions involving the re- moval of more weakly-bound protons from lighter nuclei. The role of transitions of the proton between different bound single-particle configurations upon the elastic breakup cross section is also quantified in this well-bound case. The measured and calculated elastic breakup fractions are found to be in good agreement.

  15. Estimation of the Human Absorption Cross Section Via Reverberation Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinböck, Gerhard; Pedersen, Troels; Fleury, Bernard Henri;

    2016-01-01

    Since the presence of persons affects the reverberation time observed for in-room channels, the absorption cross section of a person can be estimated from measurements via Sabine's and Eyring's models for the reverberation time. We propose an estimator relying on the more accurate model by Eyring...... and compare the obtained results to those of Sabine's model. We find that the absorption by persons is large enough to be measured with a wideband channel sounder and that estimates of the human absorption cross section differ for the two models. The obtained values are comparable to values reported...... in the literature. We also suggest the use of controlled environments with low average absorption coefficients to obtain more reliable estimates. The obtained values can be used to predict the change of reverberation time with persons in the propagation environment. This allows prediction of channel characteristics...

  16. Inclusive photon cross section at 13 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Cueto , Ana; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of prompt photon production in proton-proton collisions provide a testing ground for perturbative QCD with a hard colourless probe. This kind of measurements were recently used to investigate novel approaches to the description of parton radiation, showcasing the importance of resummation of threshold logarithms in QCD and of electroweak corrections, further they are also sensitive at leading order to the gluon density in the proton. ATLAS has made public very recently the first measurements of inclusive photon production in the new kinematic regime opened by the 13 TeV collisions with an integrated luminosity of 3.2 fb^{-1}. The inclusive photo-production cross section is measured as a function of the photon transverse energy above 125 GeV in different regions of photon pseudorapidity. Next-to-leading-order perturbative QCD and Monte Carlo event-generator predictions are compared to the measured cross section and provide an adequate description of the data.

  17. Inclusive jet cross-section measurement at CDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norniella, Olga; /Barcelona, IFAE

    2007-05-01

    The CDF Collaboration has measured the inclusive jet cross section using 1992-93 collider data at 1.8 TeV. The CDF measurement is in very good agreement with NLO QCD predictions for transverse energies (E{sub T}) below 200 GeV. However, it is systematically higher than NLO QCD predictions for E{sub T} above 200 GeV.

  18. Top quark pair production cross section at the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortiana, Giorgio; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.

    2008-04-01

    Top quark pair production cross section has been measured at the Tevatron by CDF and D0 collaborations using different channels and methods, in order to test standard model predictions, and to search for new physics hints affecting the t{bar t} production mechanism or decay. Measurements are carried out with an integrated luminosity of 1.0 to 2.0 fb{sup -1}, and are found to be consistent with standard model expectations.

  19. Neutrino and Antineutrino Cross sections at MiniBooNE

    CERN Document Server

    Dharmapalan, Ranjan

    2011-01-01

    The MiniBooNE experiment has reported a number of high statistics neutrino and anti-neutrino cross sections-among which are the charged current quasi-elastic (CCQE) and neutral current elastic (NCE) neutrino scattering on mineral oil. Recently a study of the neutrino contamination of the anti-neutrino beam has concluded and the analysis of the anti-neutrino CCQE and NCE scattering is ongoing.

  20. Total ionisation cross sections in (e/sup +/-Li) scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, K.K.; Mazumdar, P.S.

    1988-06-28

    Total ionisation cross sections for the positron impact ionisation of the lithium atom are calculated using a distorted-wave approximation in which both the effect of screening in the final state of the system and the distortion of the outgoing waves are taken into account. The present results are different from those using the first Born approximation and from an earlier distorted-wave calculation by other workers.

  1. The physics of neutrino cross sections: theoretical studies

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez-Ruso, Luis

    2016-01-01

    The present status of neutrino cross section physics is reviewed focusing on the recent theoretical developments in quasielastic scattering, multi-nucleon contributions to the inclusive scattering and pion production on nucleons and nuclei. A good understanding of these processes is crucial to meet the precision needs of neutrino oscillation experiments. Some of the challenges that arise in the consistent description of MiniBooNE and MINERvA recent data are discussed.

  2. Measuring the JPsi-Nucleon dissociation cross section with PANDA

    CERN Document Server

    Bühler, Paul

    2011-01-01

    With the PANDA detector at the HESR at FAIR it will be possible to study the production and absorption of charmed hadrons in nuclear targets. Of special interest in this context is the determination of the JPsi-nucleon dissociation cross section. This can be determined with measurements of the JPsi yield in antiproton-nucleus reactions using different target materials. The experiment is described and numerical simulations are presented.

  3. Relativistic elastic differential cross sections for equal mass nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Werneth

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of relativistic kinematics are studied for nuclear collisions of equal mass nuclei. It is found that the relativistic and non-relativistic elastic scattering amplitudes are nearly indistinguishable, and, hence, the relativistic and non-relativistic differential cross sections become indistinguishable. These results are explained by analyzing the Lippmann–Schwinger equation with the first order optical potential that was employed in the calculation.

  4. Relativistic elastic differential cross sections for equal mass nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werneth, C.M., E-mail: charles.m.werneth@nasa.gov [NASA Langley Research Center, 2 West Reid Street, Hampton, VA 23681 (United States); Maung, K.M.; Ford, W.P. [The University of Southern Mississippi, 118 College Drive, Box 5046, Hattiesburg, MS 39406 (United States)

    2015-10-07

    The effects of relativistic kinematics are studied for nuclear collisions of equal mass nuclei. It is found that the relativistic and non-relativistic elastic scattering amplitudes are nearly indistinguishable, and, hence, the relativistic and non-relativistic differential cross sections become indistinguishable. These results are explained by analyzing the Lippmann–Schwinger equation with the first order optical potential that was employed in the calculation.

  5. Semiclassical limit of the scattering cross section as a distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Lakshtanov, E.

    2007-01-01

    We consider quantum scattering from a compactly supported potential $q$. The semiclassical limit amounts to letting the wavenumber $k \\to \\infty$ while rescaling the potential as $k^2 q$ (alternatively, one can scale Planck's constant $\\hbar \\searrow 0$). It is well-known that, under appropriate conditions, for $\\om \\in \\bbS_{n-1}$ such that there is exactly one outgoing ray with direction $\\om$ (in the sense of geometric optics), the differential scattering cross section $|f(\\om,k)|^{2}$ ten...

  6. Top Quark Production Cross Section at the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabalina, E.; /Chicago U.

    2006-05-01

    An overview of the preliminary results of the top quark pair production cross section measurements at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV carried out by the CDF and D0 collaborations is presented. The data samples used for the analyses are collected in the current Tevatron run and correspond to an integrated luminosity from 360 pb{sup -1} up to 760 pb{sup -1}.

  7. ${\\rm t\\bar{t}}$ cross section measurements in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Diez, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    An overview of the most recent measurements of inclusive top quark pair production cross section is presented. The results are obtained using data collected with the CMS experiment in proton-proton collisions at centre-of-mass energies of 5.02, 7, 8 and 13 TeV. The data are compared with the predictions from perturbative QCD calculations at full NNLO+NNLL accuracy.

  8. Lifestyle factors and multimorbidity: a cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background Lifestyle factors have been associated mostly with individual chronic diseases. We investigated the relationship between lifestyle factors (individual and combined) and the co-occurrence of multiple chronic diseases. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of results from the Program of Research on the Evolution of a Cohort Investigating Health System Effects (PRECISE) in Quebec, Canada. Subjects aged 45 years and older. A randomly-selected cohort in the general population recruited by te...

  9. The tau+ tau- production cross section near threshold revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-Femenia, Pedro

    2002-01-01

    Next-to-next-to-leading contributions to the cross section sigma(e+e- -> tau+tau-) at energies close to threshold are analysed, taking into account the known non-relativistic effects and O(alpha^2) corrections. The numerical changes with respect to previous works are small, but the new corrections give a true estimate of the uncertainty in the theoretical calculation.

  10. An Analysis of EM Railgun Cross Section Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-14

    release; distribution is unlimited. i Introduction Electromagnetic (EM) railguns are of interest to the military due to their ability to achieve...state of the art technology. While other organizations worked on the power supply and other aspects of the railgun , Benét’s goal was to develop ways... Railgun Cross Section Designs 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Joshua B. Root Vince

  11. Cross sections and kinematics of proton induced fragmentation of carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streibel, T.; Roecher, H.; Huentrup, G.; Heinrich, W. [Siegen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Physics

    1997-09-01

    Charge changing fragmentation cross sections for C at a proton energy of about 70 MeV were measured. The discrepancies between measurement and model predictions indicate the necessity of further investigations. We have also measured distributions of fragment emission angles which can be described using a model with a momentum transfer to the fragmenting nucleus. The developed model leads to predictions for momentum distributions of proton induced target fragments of C at small energies. (orig.)

  12. Slow Wave Characteristics of Helix Structure with Elliptical Cross Section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Jian-Xiang; WEI Yan-Yu; GONG Yu-Bin; Fu Cheng-Fang; YUE Ling-Na; WANG Wen-Xiang

    2007-01-01

    We present a novel helix slow wave structure with an elliptical cross section shielded by an elliptical waveguide.The rf characteristics including dispersion properties,interaction impedance of zero mode in this structure have been studied in detail.The theoretical results reveal that weaker dispersion even abnormal dispersion characteristics is obtained with the increasing eccentricity of the elliptical waveguide,while the interaction impedance is enhanced by enlarging the eccentricity of elliptical helix.

  13. Humeral cross-sectional shape in suspensory primates and sloths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Biren A; Ruff, Christopher B; Simons, Erin L R; Organ, Jason M

    2013-04-01

    Studies on the cross-sectional geometry of long bones in African apes have documented that shape ratios derived from second moments of area about principle axes (e.g., Imax /Imin ) are often correlated with habitual locomotor behaviors. For example, humeral cross-sections tend to appear more circular in more arboreal and forelimb suspensory chimpanzees compared with terrestrial quadrupedal gorillas. These data support the hypothesis that cross-sections that are more circular in shape are adapted for multidirectional loading regimes and bending moments encountered when using acrobatic locomotor behaviors. Whether a more circular humerus reflects greater use of forelimb suspension in other primates and nonprimate mammals is unknown. In this study, cross-sections at or near midshaft of the humerus were obtained from anthropoid primates that differ in their use of forelimb suspension, as well as from two genera of suspensory sloths. Imax /Imin ratios were compared within and between groups, and correlations were made with behavioral data. In broad comparisons, observed differences in morphology follow predicted patterns. Humeri of suspensory sloths are circular. Humeri of the more suspensory hominoids tend to be more circular than those of quadrupedal taxa. Humeri of the suspensory atelines are similar to hominoids, while those of Cebus are more like nonsuspensory cercopithecoids. There is, however, considerable overlap between taxa and within finer comparisons variation between species are not in the predicted direction. Thus, although Imax /Imin ratios of the humerus are informative for characterizing generalized locomotor modes (i.e., forelimb suspensory vs. quadrupedal), additional structural information is needed for more fine-grained assessments of locomotion.

  14. nxs a program library for neutron cross section calculations

    OpenAIRE

    Boin, M.

    2012-01-01

    A collection of routines for calculating neutron scattering and absorption cross sections on the basis of crystal structure descriptions is presented and implemented in the new and reusable nxs program library. An example program providing a graphical user interface to the nxs functions is created to demonstrate their usage. The flexibility of the library and the possibilities for multiple areas of application are shown by further examples involving Monte Carlo neutron simulations concerned ...

  15. NURSE STAFFING AND MEDICATION ERRORS: CROSS SECTIONAL OR LONGITUDINAL RELATIONSHIPS?

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    We used autoregressive latent trajectory (ALT) modeling to examine the relationship between change in nurse staffing and change in medication errors over 6 months in 284 general medical-surgical nursing units. We also investigated the impact of select hospital and nursing unit characteristics on the baseline level and rate of change in medication errors. We found essentially no support for a nurse staffing – medication error relationship either cross-sectionally or longitudinally. Few hospita...

  16. Overview of recent U235 neutron cross section evaluation work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubitz, C. [Lockheed Martin Corp., Schenectady, NY (United States)

    1998-10-01

    This report is an overview (through 1997) of the U235 neutron cross section evaluation work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), AEA Technology (Harwell) and Lockheed Martin Corp.-Schenectady (LMS), which has influenced, or appeared in, ENDF/B-VI through Release 5. The discussion is restricted to the thermal and resolved resonance regions, apart from some questions about the unresolved region which still need investigation. The important role which benchmark testing has played will be touched on.

  17. W and Z Boson Production Cross Section Measurements in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Outschoorn, Verena Martinez

    2011-01-01

    The electroweak boson inclusive production cross sections and their ratios are described in the electron and muon decay channels. The observation of W and Z bosons in the tau decay channel is also presented. The data from pp collisions at 7 TeV were collected during 2010 using the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider and the results are compared to predictions at NNLO in perturbative QCD.

  18. C+C Fusion Cross Sections Measurements for Nuclear Astrophysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almaraz-Calderon S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Total fusion cross section of carbon isotopes were obtained using the newly developed MUSIC detector. MUSIC is a highly efficient, active target-detector system designed to measure fusion excitation functions with radioactive beams. The present measurements are relevant for understanding x-ray superbursts. The results of the first MUSIC campaign as well as the astrophysical implications are presented in this work.

  19. Measurement of Charmonium Production Cross Section at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Frosini, M

    2010-01-01

    The great abundance of charmonium states, collected from the start up of LHC, allows to study its production mechanism. In particular the total and differential $J/\\psi$ production cross section are measured in the transverse momentum range [0;10] GeV/$c$ and in the pseudorapidity range $y \\in$ [2.5;4]. The measurements are performed disentagling the prompt (direct production in $pp$ collisions and feed down from excited charmonium states) and delayed ($b$-hadron decays products) component.

  20. Radar cross-sectional study using noise radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freundorfer, A. P.; Siddiqui, J. Y.; Antar, Y. M. M.

    2015-05-01

    A noise radar system is proposed with capabilities to measure and acquire the radar cross-section (RCS) of targets. The proposed system can cover a noise bandwidth of near DC to 50 GHz. The noise radar RCS measurements were conducted for selective targets like spheres and carpenter squares with and without dielectric bodies for a noise band of 400MHz-5000MHz. The bandwidth of operation was limited by the multiplier and the antennae used.