WorldWideScience

Sample records for dependent child tuition

  1. Will Trustees Tame Tuition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.

    2001-01-01

    Explores reasons behind higher-than-inflation tuition increases at private colleges, the public interest in tuition rates at private institutions, and what trustees at private colleges and universities can do to bring tuition under control. (EV)

  2. Definition of a Dependent Child

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    The Department of Human Resources wishes to remind members of the personnel that, under the provisions of § 6 of Administrative Circular No. 5 “Dependent child”, in the case of a child over 18 years of age the status of dependent child comes to an end once a course of studies is completed. Consequently, the payment of the dependent child allowance and the child's membership of the CERN Health Insurance Scheme terminate with effect from the last day of the month in which the course of study concerned ends. In this connection, members of the personnel are reminded that children who are no longer dependent according to the Staff Rules and Regulations and who are less than 26 years of age can nevertheless opt for membership of the normal health insurance under the terms and conditions laid down in the CERN Health Insurance Rules. The Department of Human Resources also wishes to remind members of the personnel that, pursuant to Article R IV 1.17 of the Staff Regulations, a member of the personnel is requ...

  3. 20 CFR 725.221 - Determination of dependency; child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of dependency; child. 725.221... Determination of dependency; child. For the purposes of determining whether a child was dependent upon a... the eligibility of a child who is under a disability as defined in section 223(d) of the...

  4. Tax justice of the reform of higher education: tuition fees or tax relief?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Semerád

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the current reform of higher education which is now being discussed in the Czech Republic. The Government and the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports propose a tuition fee for students at universities but there is still no clear concept of it. University leaders and students are against the tuition fee because of their fear of getting into debt during their study. The aim of this paper is to show an alternative way of funding higher education without tuition fee loans and from the point of view of tax justice. According to the concept of horizontal justice (Mankiw, 1999 taxpayers should pay taxes at the same rate, but it does not work this way. The result of research is that changes in Act 586/1992 Coll., on income tax and in Act 117/1995 Coll., on state social welfare are required. Abolition of tax relief is proposed where discrimination against other taxpayers and groups of students could occur. By abolition of tax relief for a student and tax relief for a dependent child the amounts of 4,020 CZK and 13,404 CZK respectively could be saved. Changes in legislation could be politically more acceptable than the tuition fee. The solution could also lead to simplification for taxpayers. The target should be equal access to higher education for all students.

  5. 20 CFR 410.370 - Determination of dependency; child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of dependency; child. 410.370... dependency; child. For purposes of augmenting the benefits of a miner or widow (see § 410.510 (c)), the term....210); or, for purposes of an individual's entitlement to benefits as a surviving child (see §...

  6. Tuition Discounting for Revenue Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Nicholas W.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade, institutionally-funded financial aid (or "tuition discounts") have been the fastest-growing item within most public four-year college and university operating budgets. One explanation for this trend is due to the changing structure of public colleges' revenue streams, as tuition and fees have replaced state appropriations as…

  7. Tuition Discounting for Revenue Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Nicholas W.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade, institutionally-funded financial aid (or "tuition discounts") have been the fastest-growing item within most public four-year college and university operating budgets. One explanation for this trend is due to the changing structure of public colleges' revenue streams, as tuition and fees have replaced state appropriations as…

  8. Net Tuition Trends in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Andrew; Coleman, James; Zhong, Hans

    2008-01-01

    This report documents the latest trends in net tuition for American higher education. Affordability has become a topic of concern for many, but there is a lack of information on the relevant concepts of tuition, primarily published vs. net. This report seeks to shed light on this topic. While few doubt that published tuition rates (sticker price)…

  9. EDTA-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbayram, Sinan; Dogan, Murat; Akgun, Cihangir; Caksen, Hüseyin; Oner, Ahmet Faik

    2011-10-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia (PTCP) is the phenomenon of a spurious low platelet count due to antiplatelet antibodies that cause platelet clumping in blood anticoagulated with EDTA. The aggregation of platelets in EDTA-dependent PTCP is usually prevented by other anticoagulants, such as sodium citrate or heparin. EDTA-dependent PTCP has never been associated with hemorrhagic diathesis or platelet dysfunction. In this article, a 10-year-old boy with EDTA- and heparin-dependent PTCP is presented because of rare presentation. We report that EDTA and heparin can induce platelet clumping, and thus spuriously low platelet counts. However, aggregation of platelets was not detected in blood samples with sodium citrate, and platelet count was normal.

  10. Taxes, Tuition Fees and Education for Pleasure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Bo; Rose Skaksen, Jan; Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj

    2011-01-01

    are unconstrained, the optimal tax/fee system involves regressive income taxes and high tuition fees. A progressive labor income tax system may, on the other hand, be a second-best response to politically constrained, low tuition fees. Finally, the existence of individuals with different abilities will also move...

  11. Tuition Discounting to Optimize Enrollment and Revenue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Sarah A.

    2008-01-01

    As the borders between higher education systems continue to erode and competition for qualified students increases, many institutions are exploring variable pricing options, known in the USA as "tuition discounting." The goal of tuition discounting is to use institutional funds to attract and retain desired students while maximizing net…

  12. Adam Smith, Religion, and Tuition Tax Credits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Kern

    1983-01-01

    Examines tuition tax credit programs in framework of Adam Smith's ideas on the economic impact of established churches. Finds that tuition tax credits would amount to state expenditures to relieve the financial burden of parochial school parents and would allow churches to invest commercially to maintain their charitable functions. (JW)

  13. Many Private Colleges Report Small Tuition Increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraghty, Mary

    1997-01-01

    Many private colleges are reporting the lowest percentage tuition increases in a decade or more, four to five% at many institutions, but most increases still outpace inflation. A major reason for increasing tuition is to meet rising demand for student aid. Also, many institutional expenses are higher than for the average consumer, and facilities…

  14. State Legislatures Debate Tuition for Illegal Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Josh

    2007-01-01

    With plans for a sweeping federal immigration bill stuck in Congress, Arizona and a growing number of states have decided to try to deal with the in-state-tuition issue themselves. This spring lawmakers in at least 22 states have already considered or are debating legislation concerning in-state tuition to illegal immigrants. In about half of…

  15. Adam Smith, Religion, and Tuition Tax Credits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Kern

    1983-01-01

    Examines tuition tax credit programs in framework of Adam Smith's ideas on the economic impact of established churches. Finds that tuition tax credits would amount to state expenditures to relieve the financial burden of parochial school parents and would allow churches to invest commercially to maintain their charitable functions. (JW)

  16. FINAL REMINDER: Extension/suppression of allowance for dependent child

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 18 or above (or reaching 18 during the 2005/2006 school year) who have not yet provided a SCHOOL CERTIFICATE must do so as soon as possible. If we have not received this certificate by 2 December 2005 at the latest, the child allowance will be withdrawn retroactively as from 1 September 2005. Human Resources Department Tel. 72862

  17. The Impacts of State Control Policies on College Tuition Increase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mikyong Minsun; Ko, Jangwan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined state efforts to control tuition increases over the past 10 years. Using data from 50 states and 540 public 4-year universities and colleges, we examined average tuition increases in dollar amount and percentage of change by the type of state tuition control policy and by the authority for tuition-setting power. The state…

  18. Student Tuition Charges: Comparisons, Options, and Implications and An Appendix to Student Tuition Charges: Comparisons, Options, and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Porfirio R.

    National and state comparisons of tuition and fee charges, as well as various policy options presented to the New Mexico Commission on Higher Education, are provided. An introduction to tuition and fee calculation is followed by definitions of tuition, required student fees, and student residency status. A study of tuition and fees at New Mexico…

  19. 20 CFR 222.57 - When an equitably adopted child is dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... employee if the employee was either living with or contributing to the support of the child at the time of... railroad compensation as wages under that Act), the child is not considered dependent on the employee... dependent on the employee if the employee was living with or contributing to the support of the child at one...

  20. Congenital cataract in a child with pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Imran H; Sandford, Victoria; Hildebrand, Göran Darius

    2013-06-01

    Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy (PDE) is a cause of neonatal epileptic encephalopathy not previously known to cause ophthalmic disease. We describe the novel observation of a 5-year-old girl with pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy and bilateral cataracts. PDE is the result of mutations in the ALDH7A1 gene encoding antiquitin, an enzyme protective against cellular dehydration and osmotic stress. Accumulating metabolic precursors in PDE have been shown to be cataractogenic in vitro, and experimental pyridoxine deficiency has been associated with lenticular opacities in vivo. The association of ALDH7A1 haploinsufficiency in PDE and congenital cataract may offer insight into the relationship between osmotic stress and fetal cataract development. Bilateral progression of cataracts in this child suggests ongoing metabolic dysregulation within the crystalline lens despite pyridoxine supplementation at doses sufficient to control seizure activity.

  1. Parent-Child Relationships and the Management of Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Johnson, Shari; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined dimensions of parent-child relationships as predictors of adherence to treatment and metabolic control in study of 88 children/adolescents with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Ratings of parent-child discipline, warmth, and behavioral support were not significantly associated with diabetes outcome, but parent-child conflict was…

  2. Parent-Child Relationships and the Management of Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Johnson, Shari; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined dimensions of parent-child relationships as predictors of adherence to treatment and metabolic control in study of 88 children/adolescents with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Ratings of parent-child discipline, warmth, and behavioral support were not significantly associated with diabetes outcome, but parent-child conflict was…

  3. Does Typography of Substance Abuse and Dependence Differ as a Function of Exposure to Child Maltreatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Carla Kmett; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Dangelmaier, Ruth E.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the link between child maltreatment, including child sexual assault (CSA) and child physical assault (CPA), and addiction-related symptomatology in a subsample of adolescents from the National Survey of Adolescents, all of whom met DSM-IV criteria for substance abuse or dependence (N = 281). More than 60% of the sample reported a…

  4. Does Typography of Substance Abuse and Dependence Differ as a Function of Exposure to Child Maltreatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Carla Kmett; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Dangelmaier, Ruth E.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the link between child maltreatment, including child sexual assault (CSA) and child physical assault (CPA), and addiction-related symptomatology in a subsample of adolescents from the National Survey of Adolescents, all of whom met DSM-IV criteria for substance abuse or dependence (N = 281). More than 60% of the sample reported a…

  5. Decentralized University Budgeting, United with a More Flexible Tuition Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fethke, Gary

    2014-01-01

    With tuition revenues replacing state appropriations as the primary source of public university funding, it becomes difficult for universities to use historically based budget allocations and inflexible tuition structures to subsidize high-cost programs. It is argued here that combining targeted subsidies with a flexible tuition structure and…

  6. The Effect of Tuition Increases on Business Student Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godek, John; Murray, Kyle B.; Karns, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Tuition increases have become all too common as states have cut spending to public institutions and private schools face declining enrollments. As such, understanding the effects of various methods of framing tuition increases is an important, but infrequently researched topic. The authors examine different ways to frame tuition increases…

  7. The Goals for Regulating College Tuition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiaodong

    2009-01-01

    Regulation refers to governmental restrictions over enterprise in order to protect public interest. Research on governmental regulation in China primarily focuses on public utility, and inadequate attention has been paid to regulating college tuition. Currently, although the educational administrative agencies have successfully kept college…

  8. Childhood overweight dependence on mother-child relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Brødsgaard

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The causes of childhood overweight are numerous and inter-related. The mother-child relationship is of great significance for the child’s health. Previous studies have found patterns of dysfunctional interaction in families with obese children. Therefore, development of childhood overweight could be due to the mother-child relationship. The aim of this study was to investigate how, and to what degree, the mother-child relationship, assessed by the mothers, was related to overweight among children aged seven to nine years. The study was a cross sectional case-controlled one. It included 111 overweight and 149 non-overweight seven to nine year old children and their mothers. Weight status was determined according to the International Obesity Task Force reference for children Body Mass Index, age and gender adjusted. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to categorize the mother-child relationship as: complementary, asymmetrical, symmetrical or symbiotic prototypes. There was no difference in mother-child relationships – characterized by the prototypes – between the overweight and non-overweight mother-child pairs. Therefore, we conclude that the mother-child relationship has no bearing on the child’s weight status according to the prototypes. It is suggested that it is more the culture, or the universal phenomenon of expressing love through food, than the mother-child relationship, which influences the development of childhood overweight, or that the mothers are not capable of assess the true attachment style between themselves and their children.

  9. Childhood overweight dependence on mother-child relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Anne; Wagner, Lis; Poulsen, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    The causes of childhood overweight are numerous and inter-related. The mother-child relationship is of great significance for the child’s health. Previous studies have found patterns of dysfunctional interaction in families with obese children. Therefore, development of childhood overweight could...

  10. ATTITUDE OF PARENTS TOWARDS PRIVATE TUITION: A CASE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Tomba Chingthem; Laimayum David Sharma

    2015-01-01

    The present study attempts to explore the attitude of parents towards private tuition and its causes, effectiveness of private tuition and the problems on the lives of parents. From the result of the research the causes of increasing trend of private tuition are – overcrowded classroom and lack of individual attention in the school, heavy stress on academic performance, frequent bandhs, general strikes or blockade and other social issues, ineffective classroom teaching and rigid curriculum, e...

  11. 29 CFR 1949.1 - Policy regarding tuition fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... outreach trainer. (c) Additional exemptions may be made by the Director of the OSHA Training Institute on a... (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF TRAINING AND EDUCATION, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION OSHA Training Institute § 1949.1 Policy regarding tuition fees. (a) The OSHA Training Institute shall charge tuition...

  12. 42 CFR 136.373 - Scholarship and tuition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scholarship and tuition. 136.373 Section 136.373... J-8-Health Professions Pregraduate Scholarship Program for Indians § 136.373 Scholarship and tuition. (a) Scholarship grant awards under this subdivision shall consist of: (1) A stipend of $400 per...

  13. 42 CFR 136.323 - Scholarship and tuition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scholarship and tuition. 136.323 Section 136.323... J-3-Health Professions Preparatory Scholarship Program for Indians § 136.323 Scholarship and tuition. (a) Scholarship grant awards under this subdivision shall consist of: (1) A stipend of $400 per...

  14. Tuition Discounting: The Impact of Institutionally Funded Financial Aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbell, Loren Loomis

    This report presents a model and an approach that institutions of higher education can use to analyze and project the impact of endogenous and exogenous factors on both net and gross tuition in the context of the increasing practice of tuition discounting. It is noted that two key questions drive this effort: (1) what influence does gross tuition…

  15. Public and Private Schools: Evidence on Tuition Tax Credits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catterall, James S.; Levin, Henry M.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the conclusion reached by Coleman, Hoffer and Kilgore in their report "Public and Private Schools" that tuition tax credits would increase minority and low-income family participation in private, secondary schools. The implications of estimates of enrollment changes from tuition tax credits are analyzed. (AM)

  16. Battle Continues over In-State Tuition for Illegal Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilroy, Marilyn

    2009-01-01

    Ten states now offer in-state college tuition rates to illegal immigrant students. Others are struggling to enact similar policies. But while many advocates want to open the doors to higher education for undocumented students, critics say the laws granting in-state tuition discriminate against other low-income students and legal residents of the…

  17. Becoming a peter pan: omnipotence, dependency and the Ferenczian child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Haim, Shaul

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a short history of the changes in Ferenczi's concept of early childhood, during the two decade period, 1913-1932. Initially, Ferenczi mainly emphasized children's feelings of omnipotence, which enable them to perceive themselves as strong, independent and capable human beings. By the mid-1920s, however, he felt that his earlier work did not give a good account of what comes after the stage of omnipotence, and that it did not adequately describe the difficulties in the transition from pleasure to reality principles. However, in his Clinical Diary, Ferenczi became fully aware of how fragile and insecure children are, and therefore how dangerous-yet necessary-it is for them to abandon the "stage of omnipotence" and to gain a "sense of reality". For Ferenczi, traumatized children are children who had not been loved in their early childhood, and therefore could not develop the capacity to make the journey from pleasure principle to that of reality. It will be suggested that a paradigmatic example for this kind of child is Peter Pan.

  18. Pyridoxine-dependent seizures in an older child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, H; Abe, T; Oda, Y

    1999-10-01

    The case of a 12-year-old girl with pyridoxine-dependent seizures is reported. She developed status epilepticus just after birth and ordinary antiepileptic drugs were administered without effect. Her seizures ceased only on the administration of pyridoxine. Status epilepticus associated with the withdrawal of pyridoxine occurred three times, and ceased only after the renewed administration of pyridoxine. She now has mental retardation and mild spastic diplegia. The reported cases of pyridoxine-dependent seizures usually have been neonates and infants. Older patients were not fully investigated, and so we have reviewed these cases of pyridoxine-dependent seizures. As known previously, pediatricians should not forget that pyridoxine should be continued for life.

  19. REMINDER - Extension/suppression of allowance for dependent child

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 18 or above (or reaching 18 during the 2005/2006 school year) have received a QUESTIONNAIRE in July. If this questionnaire has not been completed and returned yet, they are requested to do so WITHOUT DELAY. (The deadline was 9 September.) Human Resources Department Tel. 72862

  20. REMINDER - Extension/suppression of allowance for dependent child

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 18 or above (or reaching 18 during the 2005/2006 school year) have received a QUESTIONNAIRE in July. If this questionnaire has not been completed and returned yet, they are requested to do so WITHOUT DELAY. (The deadline was 9 September.) Human Resources Department Tel. 72862

  1. 20 CFR 725.209 - Determination of dependency; child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FEDERAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT, AS AMENDED Persons Entitled to Benefits, Conditions, and Duration of Entitlement Conditions and Duration of Entitlement: Miner's Dependents (augmented Benefits) § 725.209... directly supported by the United States, or by a State or local government or political subdivision...

  2. Parent Feeding Behavior and Child Appetite: Associations Depend on Feeding Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnell, Susan; Benson, Leora; Driggin, Elissa; Kolbe, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Objective Eating behavior traits measured in early life predict eating behavior and weight trajectories later in development, and may be associated with certain parental feeding behaviors. Our goal was to investigate the relationship between a range of feeding behaviors, and preschoolers’ appetitive traits. Method Four hundred thirty-nine parents of UK 3–5 year olds completed scales measuring authoritarian vs. authoritative forms of limiting (Restriction vs. Monitoring) and promoting (Pressuring vs. Prompting) intake, as well as Emotional and Instrumental Feeding. Parents also completed scales measuring child Food responsiveness and Satiety responsiveness. Child BMI z-scores were calculated based on measured heights and weights. Results Parental Restriction was significantly associated with greater child Food responsiveness (p <.001), but parental Monitoring was not. Parental Pressuring was significantly associated with greater child Satiety responsiveness (p <.001), while parental Prompting was not. Parental Instrumental and Emotional feeding were both associated with greater child Food responsiveness (p <.001). All relationships were independent of child BMI z-score. Discussion Prospective data are needed to determine whether the parent–child feeding relationships identified here promote, or protect against, the development of eating pathology in children. However, our results suggest that cross-sectional associations depend on the style (e.g., authoritarian vs. authoritative), as well as the type of feeding behavior measured. PMID:24976396

  3. A Study of the Tuition of Middle Schools in Prwear Tokyo Prefecture

    OpenAIRE

    烏田, 直哉

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to clarifying the tuition in middle schools at the prewar Tokyo prefecture. The tuition differed between the public schools and the private schools. In the 1890s, most expenses required for management of middle schools was provided with tuition in both private amd public schools. At this time, the tuition of public schools was higher than the private schools. After 1900 tuition of public schools became cheaper than private schools. As expenses of public schools, i...

  4. FINAL REMINDER EXTENSION/SUPPRESSION OF ALLOWANCE FOR A DEPENDENT CHILD AGED 18 AND ABOVE

    CERN Multimedia

    Social and Statutory Conditions; Tel. 72862-74474

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 18 or above (or reaching 18 during the 2000/2001 school year) who have not yet provided a SCHOOL CERTIFICATE must do so as soon as possible. If we have not received this certificate by November 28, 2000 at the latest, the child allowance will be withdrawn retroactively as from September 1,2000.

  5. My Child Needs a Piece of Adaptive Equipment: Now What? Well, It Depends!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maly, Jennifer McLaughlin

    2007-01-01

    As a pediatric physical therapist, the author usually hears this question, "Now What?," after months of frustration as parents attempt to figure out the procedure of getting an item for their child. Unfortunately, there is not a specific answer except "it depends," which can be just as frustrating as the question at hand. Typically, a piece of…

  6. FINAL REMINDER EXTENSION/SUPPRESSION OF ALLOWANCE FOR A DEPENDENT CHILD AGED 18 AND ABOVE

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 18 or above (or reaching 18 during the 2001/2002 school year) who have not yet provided a SCHOOL CERTIFICATE must do so as soon as possible. If we have not received this certificate by December 11, 2001 at the latest, the child allowance will be withdrawn retroactively as from September 1, 2001.

  7. Child neglect and the development of externalizing behavior problems: associations with maternal drug dependence and neighborhood crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manly, Jody Todd; Oshri, Assaf; Lynch, Michael; Herzog, Margaret; Wortel, Sanne

    2013-02-01

    Given the high prevalence of child neglect among maltreatment subtypes, and its association with exposure to additional environmental adversity, understanding the processes that potentiate child neglect and link neglect to subsequent child externalizing psychopathology may shed light on key targets for preventive intervention. Among 170 urban low-income children (ages 4-9) and their mothers, this 5-year prospective study examined the effects of early neglect severity and maternal substance abuse, as well as neighborhood crime, on children's later externalizing behavior problems. Severity of child neglect (up to age 6 years) mediated the relation between maternal drug dependence diagnosis (MDDD), determined at children's age of 4 years, and children's externalizing behavior problems at age 9. Rates of neighborhood crime mediated the link between presence of child neglect and children's externalizing behavior problems. The roles of MDDD, child neglect, and community violence in the development of child psychopathology are discussed in terms of their implications for intervention.

  8. Depression with and without Comorbid Substance Dependence in a Child Welfare Sample of Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Orton Anderson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of depression with and without substance dependence and examine the effect of risk factors on subsequent disorders among a cohort of young adults in the US Child Welfare System (CWS. We used longitudinal data for 834 young adults age 18–21 from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being. Depressive symptoms and substance use were measured at baseline (age 11–15; diagnoses of depression and substance dependence were identified at the last wave of data collection (age 18–21. Likelihood of subsequent depression with or without substance dependence was three times higher for those with clinically significant depressive symptoms at baseline. Frequent use of substances at baseline significantly increased the likelihood of subsequent depression with comorbid substance dependence compared to depression alone. These results support screening youth in the CWS at younger ages for both depressive symptoms and substance use with the hope that these disorders can be detected earlier.

  9. Pricing and University Autonomy: Tuition Deregulation in Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongeun Kim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates changes in tuition policies in the wake of tuition deregulation in Texas, which in 2003 transferred tuition-setting authority from the state legislature to institutions. We find that price increases accelerated, particularly at the most selective institutions. Institutions also began differentiating price by undergraduate program, raising relative prices for the most costly and lucrative majors, including engineering, business, nursing, and architecture. Price increases were particularly large for institutions with the highest initial costs and for programs with a high earnings premium within institutions, though lower for institutions with more low-income students. These distinctions suggest that public postsecondary institutions respond to microeconomic incentives when given greater autonomy to set price, and take some measures to alleviate impacts on low-income students. The Texas experience suggests that decentralized price-setting generates greater price differentiation within the public higher education system, both across and within institutions.

  10. Tuition Prepurchase Plans: Why They're Needed and What's at Stake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Richard E.

    1987-01-01

    The current high rate of tuition inflation and the low rate of savings by parents for future college costs is fueling interest in tuition prepurchase plans that guarantee the price of college years in advance. Middle class interest, educational risks, investments vs. tuition, and tax issue are discussed. (MLW)

  11. Town Tuitioning in Maine: Parental Choice of Secondary Schools in Rural Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddaus, John; Mirochnik, Denise A.

    1992-01-01

    Explores the issue of school choice as it pertains to town tuitioning in Maine. Includes the historical development of town tuitioning and current patterns by region and school type. Argues that town tuitioning provides substantial numbers of rural high school students and their parents with opportunities to choose high schools. (KS)

  12. Child Maltreatment as a Risk Factor for Opioid Dependence: Comparison of Family Characteristics and Type and Severity of Child Maltreatment with a Matched Control Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Elizabeth; Degenhardt, Louisa; Mattick, Richard P.; Nelson, Elliot C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the prevalence, characteristics and risk factors for child maltreatment among opioid-dependent persons compared to a community sample of similar social disadvantage. Method: The study employed a case-control design. Cases had a history of opioid pharmacotherapy. Controls were frequency matched to cases with regard to age, sex…

  13. Educational Quality, Access, and Tuition Policy at State Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seneca, Joseph J.; Taussig, Michael K.

    1987-01-01

    A quantitative study of the relationship between educational quality, access, and tuition rates at state universities suggests that these institutions face a trade-off between the goals of improving educational program quality and providing greater access, but that increases in student financial aid can improve access. (MSE)

  14. Fixing the Net Tuition Revenue Dilemma: The Dickinson College Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Robert J.; Parker, Annette S.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter describes how Dickinson College, guided by a strategic plan, addressed its net tuition revenue problem through effective decision support, marketing and branding approaches, and pricing and financial aid strategies. The college's strategic plan guides allocation of resources toward fulfilling the college's purpose of providing an…

  15. A Tuition Bubble? Lessons from the Housing Bubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Systemic increases in tuition across the board indicate that the structure of the higher education market plays a fundamental role in encouraging these increases. Part of the problem is that public policy attempts to subsidize attendance for too many students on the assumption that this will increase access to higher education. These subsidies,…

  16. The Tuition Advance Fund: A Proposal for Funding Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silber, John R.

    Some of the faults and values implied by present methods of financing higher education are examined, and new financial arrangements are proposed. Problems with the current system include: the price to the consumer of higher education in relation to its cost of production, tuition gaps among schools, and evaluating the price in relation to value of…

  17. Global Tuition Pricing: An In-Depth Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupp, Jason W.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine if there is a relationship between select pricing schemes used throughout the world and positive social outcomes. The rising costs of college tuition and escalating student debt has raised the concern about how students should pay for financing their education and whether the current system is the most…

  18. Segregating Schools: The Foreseeable Consequences of Tuition Tax Credits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yale Law Journal, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Argues that the effect of a proposed tuition tax credit is school segregation, creating serious constitutional objections under the due process clause. A voucher system would avoid these constitutional objections. Available from the Yale Law Journal, 401A Yale Station, New Haven, CT 06520. (Author/IRT)

  19. Relating Child Care during Infancy to Externalizing and Internalizing Behaviors in Toddlerhood: How Specific Features of Child Care Quality Matter Depending on a Child's Gender and Temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemay, Lise; Bigras, Nathalie; Bouchard, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    This study explored whether the relationships between specific features of child care quality and externalizing and internalizing behaviors in 24-month-old children are moderated by gender and temperament. Questionnaires were used to record children's gender and measure their temperament. Child care quality was observed with the "Échelles…

  20. Professional Training Programs in Maternal and Child Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health Services and Mental Health Administration (DHEW), Rockville, MD. Maternal and Child Health Service.

    The Maternal and Child Health Service gives support to 13 graduate programs in maternal and child nursing with the objective of increasing the pool of nurse specialists in this field. Each program is briefly described in this pamphlet. Students accepted into a graduate program are eligible for stipends that cover living expenses, tuition, and a…

  1. Mother Tongue Tuition in Sweden - Curriculum Analysis and Classroom Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne REATH WARREN

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The model of Mother Tongue Tuition (MTT which has developed in Sweden since the 1970’s offers speakers of languages other than Swedish the opportunity to request tuition in their mother tongue, from kindergarten through to year 12. It is unique among the major immigrant-receiving countries of the world yet little is known about MTT and its syllabus outside of its Nordic context. This article examines the syllabus for MTT from two perspectives; firstly using the framework of Constructive Alignment, secondly from the perspective of what is hidden. The intended syllabus is revealed as well-aligned, but the hidden curriculum impedes successful enactment in many contexts. Examples from case studies in a larger on-going research project offer an alternate approach to syllabus implementation when the negative effects of the hidden curriculum are challenged. While highly context-specific, this model may represent a step in the right direction for implementation of the syllabus.

  2. Income taxation, tuition subsidies, and choice of occupation

    OpenAIRE

    Bjertnæs, Geir Haakon

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: Differentiated tax rates on labor and capital income are found to be optimal in this study, where agents choose occupation based on lifetime income net of tuition costs. Efficient revenue raising in a case where the government can not observe educational effort implies that the government should trade off efficiency in production for efficiency in intertemporal consumption. The subsequent wage difference between high and low-skilled occupations is increased compared t...

  3. Price Elasticity of Per-Credit-Hour Tuition Charges and the Effects on Four-Year Graduation Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMoranville, Carol W.; O'Donnell, Paula Bogott

    2001-01-01

    Examined whether changing tuition rates to a sliding scale based on the number of credit hours taken will increase 4-year graduation rates. Found that a sliding tuition rate scale does not increase 4-year graduation rates. (EV)

  4. 26 CFR 25.2503-6 - Exclusion for certain qualified transfer for tuition or medical expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... education. No unlimited exclusion is permitted for amounts paid for books, supplies, dormitory fees, board... tuition payment directly to a foreign university on behalf of B. A had no legal obligation to make this payment. The foreign university is described in section 170(b)(1)(A)(ii) of the Code. A's tuition...

  5. The Impact of Rising Tuition on the Low Income and Minority Populations of Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubi, David C.

    A study was conducted to determine whether college tuition increases in Arizona were placing a disproportionate burden on individuals at lower income levels. Statistical data from the 10-year census reports were analyzed to calculate tuition as a percentage of per capital income for the following groups: total population, White non-Hispanics,…

  6. Mother Tongue Tuition in Sweden--Curriculum Analysis and Classroom Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reath Warren, Anne

    2013-01-01

    The model of Mother Tongue Tuition (MTT) which has developed in Sweden since the 1970's offers speakers of languages other than Swedish the opportunity to request tuition in their mother tongue, from kindergarten through to year 12. It is unique among the major immigrant-receiving countries of the world yet little is known about MTT and its…

  7. Determining a Relationship between Higher Education Financial Position and Tuition Discount Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Julianna

    2013-01-01

    Institutions have increased the practice of tuition discounting, that is, the strategic use of price discrimination. During the past 30 years, both the average percent discount given to students and the proportion of students receiving tuition breaks have increased. As this practice has increased, there are financial determinants and implications…

  8. Low-Income Engineering Students: Considering Financial Aid and Differential Tuition

    Science.gov (United States)

    George-Jackson, Casey E.; Rincon, Blanca; Martinez, Mariana G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between tuition differentials and low-income students in Engineering fields at two public, research-intensive universities. Although current reports indicate the need for increased participation within the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) fields, rising tuition prices at the university…

  9. Tuition and Fee Policy Recommendations, 1981-1983. Report No. 81-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Denis J.; Fischer, Norman M.

    Comprehensive recommendations concerning tuition and fee policy for Washington public institutions of higher education are presented, based on 1981-83 rates calculated in compliance with statutory requirements. Under the new recommendations, the combined tuition and operating fees for resident undergraduate students at the University of Washington…

  10. Net Tuition and Net Price Trends in the United States: 2000-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Andrew; Robe, Jonathan; Garrett, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    While the most visible measure of college costs is published tuition, because of financial aid, this "sticker price" does not necessarily reflect the costs that students and their families actually pay. To the extent that students and their families are concerned about what costs they will need to pay to cover tuition charges, the relevant measure…

  11. 38 CFR 21.7075 - Entitlement to tuition assistance top-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entitlement to tuition assistance top-up. 21.7075 Section 21.7075 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... Program (Montgomery GI Bill-Active Duty) Entitlement § 21.7075 Entitlement to tuition assistance...

  12. The Impact of Tuition Increases on Undocumented College Students' Schooling Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, Dylan

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of a short-lived increase in tuition rates on undocumented college students' schooling decisions. In the spring of 2002, the City University of New York (CUNY) reversed its policy of charging in-state tuition rates to undocumented college students who could demonstrate that they migrated to New York at a relatively…

  13. Tuition Fee Policies in a Comparative Perspective: Theoretical and Political Rationales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcucci, Pamela N.; Johnstone, D. Bruce

    2007-01-01

    As governments are increasingly turning to cost sharing in order to meet the growing demand for, and decreasing government investment in, public higher education, the choice among different tuition fee policies becomes of great importance. Tuition fee policies and the financial assistance policies that accompany them are critical both for the very…

  14. Legislative Agenda Setting for In-State Resident Tuition Policies: Immigration, Representation, and Educational Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLendon, Michael K.; Mokher, Christine G.; Flores, Stella M.

    2011-01-01

    Few recent issues in higher education have been as contentious as that of legislation extending in-state college tuition benefits to undocumented students, initiatives now known as in-state resident tuition (ISRT) policies. Building on several strands of literature in political science and higher education studies, we analyze the effects of…

  15. A Regional Study of Attitudes toward Public Schools, Private Schools and Tuition Tax Credits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, John H.; Woodson, Marvin C., Jr.

    A questionnaire survey of 982 people in 4 shopping malls in the Piedmont region of South Carolina sought to assess public attitudes about the quality of public and private schools, proposed federal tuition tax credit legislation, tax support for private schools, and outcomes should tuition tax credits be adopted. Respondents were asked to "grade"…

  16. The International Market for MBA Qualifications: The Relationship between Tuition Fees and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Caroline; Soo, Kwok Tong

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between tuition fees charged by MBA programmes and the number of applications to these programmes, using a panel dataset comprising universities from countries across the world. Using Three-Stage-Least-Squares methods for simultaneous equations, we find a two-way relationship between tuition fees and…

  17. Analyzing Revenue Contribution Ratios: Net versus Gross Tuition and Fees Revenue Contribution Ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenny, Hans H.; Minter, W. John

    1994-01-01

    It is argued that analysis of tuition and fees revenue contributions can enable colleges and universities to develop pricing, admissions, and student aid policies that produce desired financial outcomes. Long-term trends of three tuition and fees revenue contribution ratios are explained and illustrated. (MSE)

  18. Tuition Fees and the Time to Graduation: Evidence from a Natural Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckmeier, Kerstin; Fischer, Georg-Benedikt; Wigger, Berthold U.

    2015-01-01

    We used the recent introduction of general tuition fees at public universities in several of the German federal states as a natural experiment to identify whether tuition fees reduce the time to graduation and the extent to which they do so. We employed a difference-in-differences approach with the states that introduced fees as the treatment…

  19. A Survey of Tuition-Free English Major Students' Use of Language Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jianfeng

    2013-01-01

    In order to have a clear understanding of the differences between tuition-free students and non-tuition-free students in the strategies they employ and to prepare for the conduction of the Language Learning Strategy Course to the two groups of students, the author decided to conduct a survey as to the students' current use of language learning…

  20. The International Market for MBA Qualifications: The Relationship between Tuition Fees and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Caroline; Soo, Kwok Tong

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between tuition fees charged by MBA programmes and the number of applications to these programmes, using a panel dataset comprising universities from countries across the world. Using Three-Stage-Least-Squares methods for simultaneous equations, we find a two-way relationship between tuition fees and…

  1. The Cost of a Tuition Tax Credit Reconsidered in the Light of New Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Donald E.

    1982-01-01

    Using regression analysis on 1976-78 data from the National Center for Education Statistics, the author estimates demand and supply elasticities for nonpublic school tuition and enrollment. Application of the elasticities to data from a 1978 study indicates that federal tuition tax credits would be more costly than previously projected. (Author/RW)

  2. 25 CFR 170.176 - Where can tribes get scholarships and tuition for Indian LTAP-sponsored education and training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Where can tribes get scholarships and tuition for Indian... tribes get scholarships and tuition for Indian LTAP-sponsored education and training? Tribes can get tuition and scholarship assistance for Indian LTAP-sponsored education and training from the...

  3. Investigating the status of supplementary tuition in the teaching and learning of mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Mogari

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The study seeks to investigate the status of supplementary tuition in the teaching and learning of mathematics and mathematical literacy. The study followed a descriptive survey design involving the use of learner and teacher questionnaires. A convenient sample of mathematics and mathematical literacy teachers together with a stratified sample of their Grade 11 learners were drawn from a purposive sample of highperforming high schools in the East London district of the Eastern Cape, South Africa. The results show that supplementary tuition is popular, especially among girls, and it is in three forms (i.e. private tuition, vacation school and problem-solving classes: Problemsolving classes dominated by working on past/model examination papers is the most preferred; in some instances supplementary tuition is offered for a fee; it is not only confined to poor performing learners; and participation in supplementary tuition is influenced by a variety of factors.

  4. ANALYSIS OF TUITION GROWTH RATES BASED ON CLUSTERING AND REGRESSION MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Cheng

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Tuition plays a significant role in determining whether a student could afford higher education, which is one of the major driving forces for country development and social prosperity. So it is necessary to fully understand what factors might affect the tuition and how they affect it. However, many existing studies on the tuition growth rate either lack sufficient real data and proper quantitative models to support their conclusions, or are limited to focus on only a few factors that might affect the tuition growth rate, failing to make a comprehensive analysis. In this paper, we explore a wide variety of factors that might affect the tuition growth rate by use of large amounts of authentic data and different quantitative methods such as clustering and regression models.

  5. Are tuition-free primary education policies associated with lower infant and neonatal mortality in low- and middle-income countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quamruzzaman, Amm; Mendoza Rodríguez, José M; Heymann, Jody; Kaufman, Jay S; Nandi, Arijit

    2014-11-01

    Robust evidence from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) suggests that maternal education is associated with better child health outcomes. However, whether or not policies aimed at increasing access to education, including tuition-free education policies, contribute to lower infant and neonatal mortality has not been empirically tested. We joined country-level data on national education policies for 37 LMICs to information on live births to young mothers aged 15-21 years, who were surveyed as part of the population-based Demographic and Health Surveys. We used propensity scores to match births to mothers who were exposed to a tuition-free primary education policy with births to mothers who were not, based on individual-level, household, and country-level characteristics, including GDP per capita, urbanization, and health expenditures per capita. Multilevel logistic regression models, fitted using generalized estimating equations, were used to estimate the effect of exposure to tuition-free primary education policies on the risk of infant and neonatal mortality. We also tested whether this effect was modified by household socioeconomic status. The propensity score matched samples for analyses of infant and neonatal mortality comprised 24,396 and 36,030 births, respectively, from 23 countries. Multilevel regression analyses showed that, on average, exposure to a tuition-free education policy was associated with 15 (95% CI=-32, 1) fewer infant and 5 (95% CI=-13, 4) fewer neonatal deaths per 1000 live births. We found no strong evidence of heterogeneity of this effect by socioeconomic level.

  6. Challenges of Tuition fee’s decision: Private Universities case in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besa Shahini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses Challenges that Private Universities in Kosovo face when employing tuition fee strategies. Data are collected on May - June 2012 through in-depth interview and questioners with supervisors and students of three Private Universities in Kosovo. As of low purchasing power of students and overall economic crises in Kosovo, students are very sensitive to pricing strategies employed and according to fee they evaluate before and after -enrollment assessment. Students’ academic expectations are much higher relative to their low tuition requirements. In transition economies, employing tuition strategies that satisfy both Universities and students is a challenge for higher educational institutions.

  7. Developmental pathways to adolescent cannabis abuse and dependence: child maltreatment, emerging personality, and internalizing versus externalizing psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshri, Assaf; Rogosch, Fred A; Burnette, Mandi L; Cicchetti, Dante

    2011-12-01

    Child maltreatment is strongly associated with adolescent psychopathology and substance abuse and dependence. However, developmental processes unfolding from childhood into adolescence that delineate this trajectory are not well understood. The current study used path analysis in a structural equation modeling framework to examine multiple mediator models, including ego control, ego resiliency, and internalizing and externalizing symptoms to investigate this developmental process. Participants were 415 children, assessed across 3 waves of data, (i.e., at ages 7 to 9, 10 to 12, and 13 to 15). The sample included maltreated (n = 259) and nonmaltreated (n = 156) children; groups were comparable in sociodemographic characteristics. Findings support an transactional-ecological model by revealing a developmental sequence in which severity of early childhood maltreatment potentiates less adaptive childhood personality functioning, followed by externalizing problems in preadolescence, and ultimately adolescent cannabis abuse and dependence symptoms. A developmental pathway from child maltreatment to adolescent cannabis abuse and dependence symptoms via personality and preadolescent internalizing problems was not supported. Understanding developmental pathways by which maltreatment experiences increase risk for substance abuse and dependence symptoms in youth has far-reaching implications for the treatment and prevention of substance use disorders.

  8. Drivers of overweight mothers' food choice behaviors depend on child gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhlal, Sofia; McBride, Colleen M; Ward, Dianne S; Persky, Susan

    2015-01-01

    National data suggest a higher prevalence of obesity among boys. One possible cause could be the food choices made by parents on behalf of their children. This study sought to determine whether and how mothers' food choices for their children differ by child gender and to understand the drivers of these differences. Data were analyzed from a randomized controlled trial conducted using a virtual reality-based buffet restaurant. Overweight mothers filled out questionnaires and received an information module. They were then immersed in a virtual buffet restaurant to select a lunch for their 4- to 5-year-old child. Of the 221 overweight mothers recruited, 55% identified their daughters as the child for whom they would be choosing the food. The caloric content of boys' meals was 43 calories higher than girls' (p = .015). This difference was due to extra calories from the less healthy food category (p = .04). Multivariate analyses identified more predictors of calorie choices for daughters' than sons' meals. Predictors of calories chosen for girls included: having both biological parents overweight (β = 0.26; p = .003), mother's weight (β = 0.17; p = .05), mother's education (β = -0.28; p = .001), her restriction of her child's food intake (β = -0.20; p = .02), and her beliefs about the importance of genetics in causing obesity (β = 0.19; p = .03). Mother's weight was the sole predictor of boys' meal calories (β = 0.20; p = .04). Differences in dietary choices made for young girls and boys may contribute to lifelong gender differences in eating patterns. A better understanding of differences in feeding choices made for girls versus boys could improve the design of childhood obesity prevention interventions. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Analysis of the Tuition Assistance Program: does the method of instruction matter in TA classes?

    OpenAIRE

    Mehay, Stephen L; Pema, Elda

    2010-01-01

    The Navy's Tuition Assistance (TA) program subsidizes the tuition costs of off-duty college classes for Navy personnel. Although prior studies have investigated the effect of completing college courses via TA on enlisted retention and promotion (Mehay and Pema, 2009), no prior study has examined the effect of the instructional methods in the courses taken via TA. Interest in course delivery methods has been stimulated by the rapid growth in online TA classes. This study analyzes the effects o...

  10. EQUAL OPPORTUNITY IN HIGHER EDUCATION THROUGH THE FREE TUITION PROGRAM FOR NEW STUDENTS IN SOUTH SULAWESI

    OpenAIRE

    IBRAHIM, MUHAMMAD AKMAL; Aslinda, Aslinda; Ikramullah, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    In implementing the mandate of Law No. 32 Year of 2004 on the regional autonomy, particularly in the field of education, the Governor of South Sulawesi Province take immediate measures to launch the policy package program of ???Free Tuition Fee (SPP)??? for two semesters for new students in public or private universities in the province. The purpose of the current study was to describe the "Free Tuition Fee Program" by using the theory of Edward III consisting of how the program is communicat...

  11. EQUAL OPPORTUNITY IN HIGHER EDUCATION THROUGH THE FREE TUITION PROGRAM FOR NEW STUDENTS IN SOUTH SULAWESI

    OpenAIRE

    IBRAHIM, MUHAMMAD AKMAL

    2017-01-01

    - In implementing the mandate of Law No. 32 Year of 2004 on the regional autonomy, particularly in the field of education, the Governor of South Sulawesi Province take immediate measures to launch the policy package program of ???Free Tuition Fee (SPP)??? for two semesters for new students in public or private universities in the province. The purpose of the current study was to describe the "Free Tuition Fee Program" by using the theory of Edward III consisting of how the program is commu...

  12. The Effects of Different Loan Schemes for Higher Education Tuition: An Analysis of Rates of Return and Tuition Revenue in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Bruce; Lounkaew, Kiatanantha

    2009-01-01

    In recent times there has been considerable change and instability with respect to Thailand student loans policy. The contribution of what follows is to compare and contrast the consequences of disparate possible approaches to the payment of tuition in two main respects: the effect on internal rates of return for higher education investments; and…

  13. Association between experience of child abuse and severity of drug addiction measured by the Addiction Severity Index among Japanese drug-dependent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogai, Yasukazu; Senoo, Eiichi; Gardner, Fumiyuki Chin; Haraguchi, Ayako; Saito, Tamaki; Morita, Nobuaki; Ikeda, Kazutaka

    2015-03-03

    The aim of the present study was to clarify the association between child abuse experiences and drug addiction severity among Japanese drug-dependent patients using the Addiction Severity Index-Japanese version (ASI-J). One hundred and eleven inpatients and outpatients with drug dependence participated in the study. Some of the questions on the ASI-J asked about lifetime experiences of abuse. A higher percentage of female participants experienced child abuse compared with male participants. Male participants who experienced child abuse (MEA) had a significantly higher severity of drug use than men who did not experience it (MNEA). Female participants who experienced child abuse (FEA) had significantly more serious problems in family/social relationships than female participants who did not experience it (FNEA). Patients in the MEA group were arrested less frequently for drug charges, experienced more serious problems with their fathers, and experienced more severe anxiety in their lifetime compared with the MNEA group. The FEA group experienced more serious troubles with their sexual partners, close friends, and families and experienced more severe psychiatric problems in their lifetime compared with the FNEA group. These results suggest gender differences in the problems experienced by drug-dependent patients with child abuse experiences, and gender-specific interventions may be more effective in treating their drug dependence.

  14. Association between Experience of Child Abuse and Severity of Drug Addiction Measured by the Addiction Severity Index among Japanese Drug-Dependent Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogai, Yasukazu; Senoo, Eiichi; Gardner, Fumiyuki Chin; Haraguchi, Ayako; Saito, Tamaki; Morita, Nobuaki; Ikeda, Kazutaka

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to clarify the association between child abuse experiences and drug addiction severity among Japanese drug-dependent patients using the Addiction Severity Index-Japanese version (ASI-J). One hundred and eleven inpatients and outpatients with drug dependence participated in the study. Some of the questions on the ASI-J asked about lifetime experiences of abuse. A higher percentage of female participants experienced child abuse compared with male participants. Male participants who experienced child abuse (MEA) had a significantly higher severity of drug use than men who did not experience it (MNEA). Female participants who experienced child abuse (FEA) had significantly more serious problems in family/social relationships than female participants who did not experience it (FNEA). Patients in the MEA group were arrested less frequently for drug charges, experienced more serious problems with their fathers, and experienced more severe anxiety in their lifetime compared with the MNEA group. The FEA group experienced more serious troubles with their sexual partners, close friends, and families and experienced more severe psychiatric problems in their lifetime compared with the FNEA group. These results suggest gender differences in the problems experienced by drug-dependent patients with child abuse experiences, and gender-specific interventions may be more effective in treating their drug dependence. PMID:25741639

  15. Association between Experience of Child Abuse and Severity of Drug Addiction Measured by the Addiction Severity Index among Japanese Drug-Dependent Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasukazu Ogai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to clarify the association between child abuse experiences and drug addiction severity among Japanese drug-dependent patients using the Addiction Severity Index-Japanese version (ASI-J. One hundred and eleven inpatients and outpatients with drug dependence participated in the study. Some of the questions on the ASI-J asked about lifetime experiences of abuse. A higher percentage of female participants experienced child abuse compared with male participants. Male participants who experienced child abuse (MEA had a significantly higher severity of drug use than men who did not experience it (MNEA. Female participants who experienced child abuse (FEA had significantly more serious problems in family/social relationships than female participants who did not experience it (FNEA. Patients in the MEA group were arrested less frequently for drug charges, experienced more serious problems with their fathers, and experienced more severe anxiety in their lifetime compared with the MNEA group. The FEA group experienced more serious troubles with their sexual partners, close friends, and families and experienced more severe psychiatric problems in their lifetime compared with the FNEA group. These results suggest gender differences in the problems experienced by drug-dependent patients with child abuse experiences, and gender-specific interventions may be more effective in treating their drug dependence.

  16. 2nd REMINDER: Extension/suppression of allowance for dependent child

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 18 or above (or reaching 18 during the 2005/2006 school year) who have not yet provided a SCHOOL CERTIFICATE must do so as soon as possible for secondary schools before 18 November 2005 for universities. Human Resources Department Tel. 72862

  17. Child physical abuse - High school students' mental health and parental relations depending on who perpetrated the abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, D; Nordås, E; Pribe, G; Svedin, C G

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to contribute to the research of child physical abuse (CPA) by examining if there were any differences in high school students' mental health (in this study symptoms of depression and anxiety, self-esteem and sense of coherence) and/or, in how they perceive their parents, depending on whether or not they had been subjected to CPA during childhood. In addition, if high school students reported different mental health and/or, relationships with their parents, depending on if their mother, father or both parents were the perpetrators of CPA. A representative national sample of high school students (N=3288, data collected 2009) participated in the study. Participants completed the following: questions about CPA and alleged perpetrators, the Hopkins Symptom Checklist, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Sense of Coherence Scale and Parental Bonding Instrument. The results showed students who reported experiences of CPA were more likely to report symptoms of mental illness and negative perceptions of their parents' parenting. However, there were no mental health differences depending on whether their mother, father or both parents were the perpetrators of CPA. Still, there were differences in perceived parenting indicating that mothers' parenting was perceived as more negative when mothers only or both parents were perpetrators of the abuse than when only fathers were perpetrators. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Educational "When," "Where," and "How" Implications of In-State Resident Tuition Policies for Latino Undocumented Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darolia, Rajeev; Potochnick, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the effects of in-state resident tuition (IRT) policies, which allow undocumented immigrants to pay in-state rather than out-of state tuition, on when and where undocumented immigrant students enroll, and how they finance their education. We identify effects based on differences in pre- and post-policy outcomes…

  19. Tuition and Fees and Tax Revolt Provisions: Exploring State Fiscal Policy Impacts Using Fixed-Effects Vector Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serna, Gabriel Ramom

    2012-01-01

    It is arguably the case that one of the most pressing issues in higher education finance is the increasing price of obtaining a college education, and, more specifically, rising tuition and fees. Because state support to public higher education and tuition and fees at publicly supported colleges and universities have been shown to share an inverse…

  20. 75 FR 66193 - Post-9/11 GI Bill 2010-2011 Tuition and Fee In-State Maximums

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... AFFAIRS Post-9/11 GI Bill 2010-2011 Tuition and Fee In-State Maximums AGENCY: Department of Veterans... GI Bill tuition and fee in-State maximum rates for the 2010- 2011 academic year. The Post-9/11 GI... amounts payable for training pursued under the Post-9/11 GI Bill after July 31, 2010, and before August 1...

  1. 77 FR 76169 - Increase in Maximum Tuition and Fee Amounts Payable under the Post-9/11 GI Bill

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... AFFAIRS Increase in Maximum Tuition and Fee Amounts Payable under the Post-9/11 GI Bill AGENCY: Department... of the increase in the Post-9/11 GI Bill maximum tuition and fee amounts payable and the increase in.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: For the 2011-2012 academic year, the Post-9/ 11 GI Bill allowed VA to pay the actual...

  2. The Effect of Tuition Fees on Student Enrollment and Location Choice: Interregional Migration, Border Effects and Gender Differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitze, Timo; Burgard, Claudia; Alecke, Bjoern

    This paper investigates the effects of tuition fees on the university enrollment and location decision of high school graduates in Germany. After a Federal Constitutional Court decision in 2005, 7 out of 16 German federal states introduced tuition fees for higher education. In the empirical...

  3. The Effect of Tuition Fees on Student Enrollment and Location Choice – Interregional Migration, Border Effects and Gender Differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alecke, Björn; Burgard, Claudia; Mitze, Timo

    This paper investigates the effects of tuition fees on the university enrollment and location decision of high school graduates in Germany. After a Federal Constitutional Court decision in 2005, 7 out of 16 German federal states introduced tuition fees for higher education. In the empirical...

  4. Parents' experiences of negotiating care for their technology-dependent child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Elizabeth; Timmons, Stephen; Dampier, Sally

    2006-09-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to understand the negotiation of care as experienced by the parents of technology-dependent children in a hospital context. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were undertaken with a group of six parents. Parents felt that their roles as parents were not considered enough by nurses and they tended to be seen as carers, not parents. Negotiation of care was not always apparent. Instead, nurses often made assumptions about parental involvement in care. Parents wanted to carry out care when in hospital, but were not always given choices. Parents also reported a desire for more confident nurses. This study highlights the need to gain insight into parents' experiences, in order that nurses can provide care in a way negotiated to suit the individual family. Suggestions for further research in this area are offered.

  5. Pre-University Tuition in Science and Technology Can Influence Executive Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Marta; Arias, Natalia; Menéndez, José R.; Villar, José R.; Neira, Ángel; Romano, Pedro V.; Núñez, José Carlos; Arias, Jorge L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Scientific and technological areas include tuition based on highly visuo-spatial specialization and problem solving. Spatial skills and problem solving are embedded in a curriculum that promotes understanding of Science and technical subjects. These abilities are related to the development of executive functions (EFs). We aim to…

  6. Florida's Prepaid College Tuition Program: Marketing a Pre-Need Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauff, Joseph F., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    A discussion of Florida's college tuition prepayment program describes the plan and its options and examines its marketing implications as a preneed service. It is concluded that the program makes saving for college easy, economical, and completely safe but requires rethinking of conventional marketing strategies and mix. (MSE)

  7. The Effect of Tuition Fees on Student Mobility: The UK and Ireland as a Natural Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeling, Paul; Jefferies, Katie

    2013-01-01

    We exploit changes in student funding policies across the four UK nations and the Republic of Ireland to conduct a natural experiment investigating the marginal effect of differing tuition fee levels on students' enrolment behaviour. Whilst previous international research suggests increases in fees suppress demand and disincentivise cross-border…

  8. Singing in Primary Schools: Case Studies of Good Practice in Whole Class Vocal Tuition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Alexandra; Daubney, Alison; Spruce, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Within the context of British initiatives in music education such as the Wider Opportunities programme in England and the recommendations of the Music Manifesto emphasising the importance of singing in primary schools, the current paper explores examples of good practice in whole-class vocal tuition. The research included seven different primary…

  9. Financing Higher Education in South Africa: Public Funding, Non-Government Revenue and Tuition Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangenge-Ouma, G.; Cloete, N.

    2008-01-01

    The funding of public higher education is currently a moot issue in South Africa. Public funding has been declining and opportunities for winning non-government revenue remain limited. The frequent raising of tuition fees, which is one of the main strategies public universities have resorted to mitigate declining state funding is not without…

  10. The Adoption of Prepaid Tuition and Savings Plans in the American States: An Event History Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, William R.; McLendon, Michael K.; Hearn, James C.

    2010-01-01

    The past two decades have been a period of far-reaching policy experimentation in state financing of higher education. Between 1986 and 1999, 21 states adopted prepaid college tuition plans. Thirty-one states adopted some form of college savings plan. Both kinds of policies were designed to enhance the affordability of higher education during a…

  11. Tuition Pricing and Aid Strategies: A Practical Approach. AIR 1994 Annual Forum Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Paul L.

    This paper examines the applicability of net tuition revenue models for a highly selective, elite priced, private research university in the southern U.S. Pricing and aid strategies for this university seem to be driven by intuitive assumptions about the economy, market forces, needs-blind admissions, student satisfaction, net price…

  12. The Adoption of Prepaid Tuition and Savings Plans in the American States: An Event History Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, William R.; McLendon, Michael K.; Hearn, James C.

    2010-01-01

    The past two decades have been a period of far-reaching policy experimentation in state financing of higher education. Between 1986 and 1999, 21 states adopted prepaid college tuition plans. Thirty-one states adopted some form of college savings plan. Both kinds of policies were designed to enhance the affordability of higher education during a…

  13. The Relationship of Institutional Tuition Discounts with Enrollment at Private, Not-for-Profit Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassila, Nathan E.

    2010-01-01

    Empirical studies exploring the impact of student aid on postsecondary enrollment often stop short of the specific examination of institutional tuition discounting. This research uses separate empirical ordinary least squares (OLS) regression models to examine three questions using public choice theory, positing that enrollment decisions may be…

  14. Critical Issue Bibliography (CRIB) Sheet: Maintaining Financial Health--Tuition Strategies, Cost Containment, and Fundraising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Higher Education, Washington, DC.

    This CRitical Issue Bibliography (CRIB) Sheet lists resources that focus on maintaining the financial health of an institution of higher education. It describes resources in three areas: (1) tuition strategies; (2) cost containment; and (3) fundraising. The focus of the bibliography, however, is on cost containment and efficiency, and it details…

  15. An Overwhelming Climb: The Complexities of Combining College, Full-Time Work, and Company Tuition Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Janelle L.; Packard, Becky Wai-Ling

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the complex experiences of full-time employed adults trying to climb the career ladder in their company by making use of company tuition assistance to earn their first college degree. Guided by Savickas' (2005) career construction theory, emphasizing the personal agency and meaning-making within career development, we conducted…

  16. Conditional Convergence of Nonresident Tuition Rates at Public Research Universities: A Panel Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, Marvin A.; Vamosiu, Adriana; Gupta, Anubha

    2015-01-01

    The current study examines how nonresident tuition among public research universities has converged toward a national average over the 1987-2006 time period in the USA. Using dynamic fixed-effect panel modeling estimated via GMM (and instrumental variables fixed-effect model to account for endogeneity), we inquire (1) how do competitive market…

  17. The Price of Higher Education: How Rational Is British Tuition Fee Policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brian

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the introduction of variable tuition fees for university students in the UK--an initiative that has become totemic in British higher education policy. The article seeks to identify the origin of this policy, using the work of Michael Oakeshott (1962) as a framework for discussing the rationality of new Labour. The rhetoric of…

  18. Elasticity of Demand for Tuition Fees at an Institution of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langelett, George; Chang, Kuo-Liang; Ola' Akinfenwa, Samson; Jorgensen, Nicholas; Bhattarai, Kopila

    2015-01-01

    Using a conjoint survey of 161 students at South Dakota State University (SDSU), we mapped a probability-of-enrolment curve for SDSU students, consistent with demand theory. A quasi-demand curve was created from the conditional-logit model. This study shows that along with the price of tuition fees, distance from home, availability of majors, and…

  19. Developing That Voice: Locating Academic Writing Tuition in the Mainstream of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, Julia

    2015-01-01

    This paper argues that all students, whatever their linguistic identities, can benefit from an explicit and structured introduction to academic writing. It argues that this tuition should no longer be seen as support, and therefore marginalised, but as a transformative process of acculturation that needs to be located in the mainstream of the…

  20. Florida's Prepaid College Tuition Program: Marketing a Pre-Need Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauff, Joseph F., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    A discussion of Florida's college tuition prepayment program describes the plan and its options and examines its marketing implications as a preneed service. It is concluded that the program makes saving for college easy, economical, and completely safe but requires rethinking of conventional marketing strategies and mix. (MSE)

  1. Tuition for Children Who Cannot Attend School Due to Illness in Scotland: Experiences of Home Tutors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Mercedes; Gilchrist, Anne

    2007-01-01

    We have explored the working patterns and perceptions of a group of teachers who provide home tuition for children who cannot attend school due to medical problems. These teachers reported high levels of experience in teaching, enthusiasm for their work, and clear managerial structures. Home tutors found it very rewarding to build relationships…

  2. Elasticity of Demand for Tuition Fees at an Institution of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langelett, George; Chang, Kuo-Liang; Ola' Akinfenwa, Samson; Jorgensen, Nicholas; Bhattarai, Kopila

    2015-01-01

    Using a conjoint survey of 161 students at South Dakota State University (SDSU), we mapped a probability-of-enrolment curve for SDSU students, consistent with demand theory. A quasi-demand curve was created from the conditional-logit model. This study shows that along with the price of tuition fees, distance from home, availability of majors, and…

  3. Assessing Tuition and Student Aid Strategies: Using Price-Response Measures to Simulate Pricing Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. John, Edward P.

    1994-01-01

    A study used price-response measures from recent national studies to assess college and university pricing (tuition and student aid) alternatives in diverse institutional settings. It is concluded that such analyses are feasible. Analysis indicated limits to "Robin Hood" pricing patterns are predominant in private colleges. Consideration…

  4. A Comparison of Tuition Disparities among City, Suburban, Town, and Rural Public Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Louis Charles

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine differences in tuition rates and college affordability indexes (CAIs) between and among U.S. public community colleges formulated upon urbanization criteria extracted from the Integrated Post Secondary Data System (IPEDS) maintained by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), which operates…

  5. Refinements on the age-dependent half-life model for estimating child body burdens of polychlorodibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerger, Brent D; Leung, Hon-Wing; Scott, Paul K; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2007-04-01

    We modified our prior age-dependent half-life model to characterize the range of child (ages 0-7) body burdens associated with dietary and environmental exposure to polychlorodibenzodioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs). Several exposure scenarios were evaluated. Infants were assumed to be either breast-fed or formula-fed from birth to 6 months of age. They then received intakes of PCDD/Fs through age 7 from foods based on weighted means estimates [JECFA, 2001. Joint FAO/WHO Committee on Food Additives. Fifty-seventh meeting, Rome, June 5-14 , 2001, pp. 24-40], and with or without exposures (ingestion and dermal) to urban residential soils at 1ppb TCDD toxic equivalents (TEQ). A one-compartment (adipose volume) toxicokinetic model for TCDD described by Kreuzer [Kreuzer, P.F., Csanady, Gy.A., et al., 1997. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and congeners in infants. A toxicokinetic model of human lifetime body burden by TCDD with special emphasis on its uptake by nutrition. Arch. Toxicol. 71, 383-400] was expanded to include the key non-TCDD congeners in human breast milk and adipose tissues, and two model parameter refinements were examined: (1) use of updated and more detailed age-correlated body fat mass data [CDC, 2000. Centers for Disease Control. CDC Growth Charts: United States. Advance Data from Vital and Health Statistics of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, Number 314, December 2000]; (2) use of breast milk PCDD/F concentration data from sampling completed in 2000-2003 [Wittsiepe, J., Fürst, P., et al., 2004. PCDD/F and dioxin-like PCB in human blood and milk from German mothers. Organohalogen Compd. 66, 2865-2872]. The updated body fat mass data nearly halved the predicted peak body burden for breast-feeding and lowered the time-weighted average (TWA) body burdens from ages 0-7 by 30-40% for breast-fed and formula-fed infants. Combined use of the updated breast milk PCDD/F concentration and body fat

  6. Income taxation, tuition subsidies, and choice of occupation : implications for production efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Bjertnæs, Geir Haakon

    2005-01-01

    The desirability for production efficiency is re-examined in this study, where agents choose occupation based on lifetime income net of tuition costs. Efficient revenue raising implies that the government should trade off efficiency in production for efficiency in intertemporal consumption, as capital income is taxed in optimum. The subsequent wage difference between high- and low-skilled occupations is increased compared to a production efficient outcome, which is in contrast to previous res...

  7. CHILD ALLOWANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    HR Division wishes to clarify to members of the personnel that the allowance for a dependent child continues to be paid during all training courses ('stages'), apprenticeships, 'contrats de qualification', sandwich courses or other courses of similar nature. Any payment received for these training courses, including apprenticeships, is however deducted from the amount reimbursable as school fees. HR Division would also like to draw the attention of members of the personnel to the fact that any contract of employment will lead to the suppression of the child allowance and of the right to reimbursement of school fees.

  8. Laparoscopy in the management of emphysematous cholecystitis and secondary appendicitis in an 11-year-old child with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamalesh Pal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute abdomen in a diabetic child may cause diagnostic dilemma. Acalculous emphysematous cholecystitis (EC, although reported among critically ill or diabetic adults, is an uncommon occurrence in the children. It may complicate the presentation due to its varied manifestations; especially when associated with other concomitant intra-abdominal inflammatory pathologies. We encountered a rare concurrence of acute EC complicated with pericholecystic fluid collection and secondary appendicitis causing non-specific acute abdomen in an 11-year-old obese boy with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Laparoscopy proved to be a highly useful tool in the diagnosis and treatment of this surgical dilemma.

  9. A randomized controlled trial comparing computer-aided learning with versus without tuition/lecture in promoting English proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitak-Arnnop, Kritsana; Moungsirithum, Pimpa; Pitak-Arnnop, Sonti; Dhanuthai, Kittipong; Pausch, Niels Christian; Pitak-Arnnop, Poramate

    2012-08-01

    To compare test scores in English-error detection between Thai high school students undergoing self-learning by an online tool (computer-assisted learning: CAL) with versus without tuition/lecture. This prospective, randomized, controlled study enrolled a sample of grade-12 high school students from a Thai secondary school. The predictor variable was the use of error-detection exercises in 9 separate 50-min tuition sessions during a 3-week period. Each subject was randomly assigned to receive a CAL program with or without tuition/lecture during the study interval: June-September 2009. The main outcome variable was the test scores of English-error identification. To measure the outcomes, the students were evaluated twice using the 25-question test within a 1-month interval (pre-test/post-test). Appropriate sample size estimates, descriptive, uni-, and bivariate statistics were calculated, and the level of statistical significance was set at P lecture was significantly associated with the improved post-test scores (P = 0.0012) and with a higher number of students showing improved post-test scores (P = 0.0007). The results of this study suggest that tuition/lecture facilitates self-learning with CAL. In this sample, tuition/lecture still seems to be necessary for nonnative-English-speaking high school students to improve their English proficiency. CAL alone should not be used to replace conventional teaching.

  10. Much Ado about €500: Do Tuition Fees Keep German Students from Entering University? Evidence from a Natural Experiment Using DiD Matching Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, Tina; Helbig, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    This paper estimates the effect of tuition fees on enrolment behaviour among prospective students in Germany. According to the rational choice theory (RCT), we argue that due to the higher costs brought on by such fees tuition fees should have a negative effect on student's enrolment. This should be even more pronounced among prospective students…

  11. Vertically transmitted HPV-dependent squamous cell carcinoma of the external auditory canal. Case report of a child

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snietura, Miroslaw; Pakulo, Slawomir; Kopec, Agnieszka; Piglowski, Wojciech; Stanek-Widera, Agata [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Tumor Pathology Department, Gliwice (Poland); Chelmecka-Wiktorczyk, Liliana [University Children' s Hospital of Cracow, Department of Oncology and Hematology, Cracow (Poland); Drabik, Grazyna [University Children' s Hospital of Cracow, Pathology Department, Cracow (Poland); Kosowski, Bogdan [NZOZ Prosmed, Cracow (Poland); Wyrobek, Lukasz [University Children' s Hospital of Cracow, Department of Radiology, Cracow (Poland); Balwierz, Walentyna [University Children' s Hospital of Cracow, Department of Oncology and Hematology, Cracow (Poland); Jagiellonian University in Cracow, Clinic of Oncology and Hematology, Polish-American Pediatric Institute, Cracow (Poland)

    2017-02-15

    There is much evidence that high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) plays a causative role in a subset of head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) in adults. HPV-positive tumors behave differently even in their response to treatment and are therefore a distinct subset. Both HPV-positive and HPV-negative tumors of the head and neck region are usually in the domain of adults and cases in children are rare; thus when a 2-year-old child was diagnosed with this cancer in the external auditory canal, an in-depth assessment of the tumor was considered necessary. A 2-year-old girl was born to a HPV-positive mother who was diagnosed with cervical cancer during pregnancy. The child was delivered by caesarean section and the mother died of her cancer 7 months after delivery. After the diagnosis of locally invasive HPV-positive squamous cell cancer of the external auditory canal, the child was treated surgically, and with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Full remission was obtained lasting up to 325 weeks since treatment was started, resulting in over 6 years of disease-free survival. This is the first case of advanced, HPV-related HNSCC in a 2-year-old child, in whom the tumor was located in the external auditory canal and who made a dramatic recovery after treatment with nonradical surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The child has currently been disease free for 6 years. This case supports the observation that HPV-related HNSCC tumors appear to respond favorably to treatment despite the patient's young age and the clinically advanced stage of the tumor. (orig.) [German] Es gibt reichlich Belege dafuer, dass das menschliche Papillomavirus vom Hochrisikotyp (HR-HPV) in einigen Faellen von Plattenepithelkarzinomen des Kopf- und Halsbereichs (HNSCC) eine Schluesselrolle spielt. HPV-positive Tumoren verhalten sich anders, auch bezueglich des Ansprechens auf die Behandlung. Deswegen stellen sie eine separate biologische Gruppe dar. Sowohl HPV-positive als auch HPV

  12. From policy design to campus: Implementation of a tuition decentralization policy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S. Harris

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the implementation of a tuition decentralization policy in North Carolina. Concepts of organizational culture served as a guiding framework for an interpretive analysis. Qualitative case study data for the research was collected from interviews with key policy makers within the University of North Carolina as well as an extensive collection of documents. The findings demonstrate the importance of shared norms and beliefs in achieving successful policy implementation through a case study where incongruence of stakeholder values, beliefs, and goals created institutional conflict.

  13. Deceit and facial expression in children: the enabling role of the "poker face" child and the dependent personality of the detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadea, Marien; Aliño, Marta; Espert, Raúl; Salvador, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the relation between the facial expression of a group of children when they told a lie and the accuracy in detecting the lie by a sample of adults. To evaluate the intensity and type of emotional content of the children's faces, we applied an automated method capable of analyzing the facial information from the video recordings (FaceReader 5.0 software). The program classified videos as showing a neutral facial expression or an emotional one. There was a significant higher mean of hits for the emotional than for the neutral videos, and a significant negative correlation between the intensity of the neutral expression and the number of hits from the detectors. The lies expressed with emotional facial expression were more easily recognized by adults than the lies expressed with a "poker face"; thus, the less expressive the child the harder it was to guess. The accuracy of the lie detectors was then correlated with their subclinical traits of personality disorders, to find that participants scoring higher in the dependent personality were significantly better lie detectors. A non-significant tendency for women to discriminate better was also found, whereas men tended to be more suspicious than women when judging the children's veracity. This study is the first to automatically decode the facial information of the lying child and relate these results with personality characteristics of the lie detectors in the context of deceptive behavior research. Implications for forensic psychology were suggested: to explore whether the induction of an emotion in a child during an interview could be useful to evaluate the testimony during legal trials.

  14. Deceit and facial expression in children: the enabling role of the poker face child and the dependent personality of the detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marien eGadea

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the relation between the facial expression of a group of children when they told a lie and the accuracy in detecting the lie by a sample of adults. To evaluate the intensity and type of emotional content of the children’s faces, we applied an automated method capable of analysing the facial information from the video recordings (FaceReader 5.0 software. The program classified videos as showing a neutral facial expression or an emotional one. There was a significant higher mean of hits for the emotional than for the neutral videos, and a significant negative correlation between the intensity of the neutral expression and the number of hits from the judges. The lies expressed with emotional facial expression were more easily recognized by adults than the lies expressed with a poker face; thus, the less expressive was the child the harder was to guess. The accuracy of the lie detectors was then correlated with their subclinical traits of personality disorders, to find that participants scoring higher in the dependent personality were significantly better lie detectors. A non-significant tendency for women to discriminate better was also found, whereas men tending to be more suspicious than women when judging the children’s veracity. This study is the first to automatically decoding the facial information of the liar child and relating the results with personality characteristics of the lie detectors in the context of deceptive behavior research. Implications for forensic psychology were suggested: to explore whether the induction of an emotion in a child during an interview could be useful to evaluate the testimony during legal trials.

  15. Hypophosphatemia Dependent Rickets with Failure to Thrive (FTT in a 4- Years Old Child: a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Ghaljaei

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundRickets is a disorder due to impaired metabolism of bone mineralization which caused by low concentrations of extra-cellular calcium or phosphate. In children, hypophosphatemic rickets (HR happen malabsorption of phosphate and increasing of renal tubular loss.Case Presentation We present the case of a 4-year-old girl who had medical history of HR with failure to thrive (FTT. Child hospitalized several times due to osteomalacia and leg fractures. In physical examinations, there were obvious signs of rickets such as bow legs and hands, deviations of the wrist and chest pigeon. The results of blood tests showed low level of Phosphorus; but the level of calcium was normal. Radiography showed deformity of wrists and hands. ConclusionHR should be considered as one of the childhood disorders which impairs metabolism of bone mineralization and cause osteomalacia and bones fractures. If HR undiagnosed and remedies poor during childhood, in older ages would reveal automatic fractures and mineralization defects.

  16. Funding and Focus: Resource Dependence in Public Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowles, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Utilizing resource dependence theory, this study investigates the relationship between institutional reliance on net tuition dollars as a source of revenue and institutional expenditures for education and related activities at public, four-year institutions of higher education in the United States. Drawing on an 11-year panel of university-level…

  17. Should higher education subsidies depend on parental income?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Dur (Robert); C.N. Teulings (Coen); T. van Rens (Thijs)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn many countries, student grants, tuition fees, and subsidized loans depend on parental income. This paper examines the efficiency and distributional effects of such conditioning, and assesses whether it is optimal practice when the government wants to reduce after-tax income inequality

  18. Deficit Prevention: Budget Control Model for Enrollment-Dependent Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsley, Michael K.

    1994-01-01

    An ongoing system of short-term budget controls that test actual performance against budget forecasts is essential for enrollment-dependent independent colleges. The budget control model presented here is a tool to inform the management continuously of changes in the all-important tuition revenue stream. (Author/MSE)

  19. The Effect of Tuition and Opportunity Cost on the Pursuit and Completion of a Graduate Management Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Mark; Powell, Irene

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors used multivariate statistical analysis to examine the impact of cost on the likelihood that a person will both enroll in and complete a Master of Business Administration (MBA) program. They considered both the "explicit" cost of paying tuition and the "implicit" cost, or opportunity cost, of earnings foregone while in…

  20. The Impact of "Tuition-Paying" Policy on Retention and Graduation Rates at the University of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atuahene, Francis

    2013-01-01

    African universities over the past decade have developed new modes of financial mobilization in search for fiscal solutions to the declining public support for higher education. The creation of the "tuition-paying" ("dual track" or "fee-paying") admission track policy, a variant of cost sharing, is one of such strategic initiatives that has gained…

  1. Joint Curriculum Development of the Training Program for Five-Year, Rural-Oriented, Tuition-Waived Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Xiang-Xin; Niu, Li; Xia, Xiu-Long; Wang, Xin

    2014-01-01

    To alleviate the shortage of competent undergraduate-level medical professionals in the central and western rural regions of China, from 2010 to 2012, the Chinese government mandated 100 medical colleges to recruit 30,000 rural-oriented, tuition-waived medical students (RTMS) for the township and village hospitals. But no educational curriculum is…

  2. Determinants of Participation and Expenditure Patterns of Private Tuition Received by Primary School Students in Penang, Malaysia: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelani, Juliana; Tan, Andrew K. G.

    2012-01-01

    In this exploratory study, the censored Tobit model is applied on primary data collected amongst parents of primary school students in Penang, Malaysia to examine the determinants of participation and expenditures on private tuition (PT). Results of the marginal effects indicate that socio-demographic characteristics--ethnicity, household income,…

  3. Determinants of Participation and Expenditure Patterns of Private Tuition Received by Primary School Students in Penang, Malaysia: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelani, Juliana; Tan, Andrew K. G.

    2012-01-01

    In this exploratory study, the censored Tobit model is applied on primary data collected amongst parents of primary school students in Penang, Malaysia to examine the determinants of participation and expenditures on private tuition (PT). Results of the marginal effects indicate that socio-demographic characteristics--ethnicity, household income,…

  4. Undocumented College Students in the United States: In-State Tuition Not Enough to Ensure Four-Year Degree Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, Dylan; Chellman, Colin C.

    2013-01-01

    Using restricted-access data from one of the largest urban public university systems in the United States--where many undocumented students are eligible for in-state tuition--we review the literature on undocumented college students in the United States and provide a comparison of the performance of undocumented students to that of U.S. citizens…

  5. The Impact of "Tuition-Paying" Policy on Retention and Graduation Rates at the University of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atuahene, Francis

    2013-01-01

    African universities over the past decade have developed new modes of financial mobilization in search for fiscal solutions to the declining public support for higher education. The creation of the "tuition-paying" ("dual track" or "fee-paying") admission track policy, a variant of cost sharing, is one of such…

  6. The Impact of "Tuition-Paying" Policy on Retention and Graduation Rates at the University of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atuahene, Francis

    2013-01-01

    African universities over the past decade have developed new modes of financial mobilization in search for fiscal solutions to the declining public support for higher education. The creation of the "tuition-paying" ("dual track" or "fee-paying") admission track policy, a variant of cost sharing, is one of such…

  7. 20 CFR 725.211 - Time of determination of relationship and dependency of spouse or child for purposes of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Time of determination of relationship and... and Duration of Entitlement: Miner's Dependents (augmented Benefits) § 725.211 Time of determination... surviving spouse entitled to benefits, the determination as to whether an individual purporting to be...

  8. Effects of Private Tuition on the Academic Achievement of Secondary School Students in Subject of Mathematics in Kohat Division, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qaiser Suleman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Research reveals that private or home tuition after school time plays a crucial role in strengthening and improving student’s academic achievement. The purpose of the study was to explore the effects of private tuition on the academic achievement of students in subject of mathematics at secondary school level. All the students at secondary school level in Kohat Division (Pakistan constituted the population of the study. The study was delimited to the students of Government High School Ahmadi Banda Karak only. Fifty students of class 09 were selected as sample of the study. Sample students were divided into two groups i.e. control group and experimental group by equating them on the basis of their previous knowledge in subject of mathematics as determined through a pre-test. Each group was composed of 25 students. Students of the experimental group were engaged in tuition for two hours after school time. The study was experimental in nature therefore, “The pre-test-post-test Equivalent Groups Design” was used for the collection of data. Statistical tools i.e. the mean, standard deviation and differences of means were computed for each group. Significance of difference between the mean scores of both the experimental and control groups on the variable of pre-test and post test scores was tested at 0.05 levels by applying t-test. After statistical analysis of the data, the researchers concluded that there is significant positive effect of private tuition on the academic achievement of students in subject of mathematics at secondary school level. Based on the findings, it was recommended that parents should arrange private tuition for their children to move up their achievement level in subject of mathematics.

  9. B-lymphocyte reconstitution after repeated rituximab treatment in a child with steroid-dependent autoimmune hemolytic anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther de Vries

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We report the detailed long-term reconstitution of B-lymphocyte subpopulations, immunoglobulins, and specific antibody production after two courses of rituximab in a young, previously healthy girl with steroid-dependent autoimmune hemolytic anemia. B-lymphocyte subpopulations were surprisingly normal directly after reconstitution. However, there was a slower reconstitution after the second rituximab course, especially of non-switched and switched memory B-lymphocytes, and a temporary decline in IgM below age-matched reference values.

  10. Child Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or puts a child at risk of harm. Child abuse can be physical, sexual or emotional. Neglect, or not providing for a child's needs, is also a form of abuse. Most abused children suffer greater emotional than physical ...

  11. Child Poverty and Child Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the evidence on the prevalence of child poverty in Britain including: (1) how child poverty has changed over the last 20 years; (2) how child poverty in Britain compares with that in other countries; (3) characteristics of poor children; (4) impact of poverty on child well-being; and (5) government attempts to abolish child poverty. (SD)

  12. The Effect of Tuition Fees on Student Enrollment and Location Choice: Interregional Migration, Border Effects and Gender Differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitze, Timo; Burgard, Claudia; Alecke, Bjoern

    show that there is generally no effect of tuition fees on internal enrollment rates. However, we find a redirecting effect on first-year students' migratory behavior as indicated by a significant drop in the gross in-migration rates in fee-charging states. Further, our results point at a stronger...... analysis, we use the variation over time and across regions in this institutional change in order to isolate the causal effect of tuition fees on student enrollment and migration. Controlling for a range of regional- and university-specific effects, our results from Difference-in-Differences estimations...... migration response of male students, which, however, can mainly be attributed to a 'border effect'. That is, interregional migration flows of male students are redirected from fee-charging universities to those universities that are geographically close by while being located in a non-charging neighboring...

  13. The Effect of Tuition Fees on Student Enrollment and Location Choice – Interregional Migration, Border Effects and Gender Differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alecke, Björn; Burgard, Claudia; Mitze, Timo

    show that there is generally no effect of tuition fees on internal enrollment rates. However, we find a redirecting effect on first-year students‘ migratory behavior as indicated by a signicant drop in the gross in-migration rates in fee-charging states. Further, our results point at a stronger...... analysis, we use the variation over time and across regions in this institutional change in order to isolate the causal effect of tuition fees on student enrollment and migration. Controlling for a range of regional- and university-specific effects, our results from Difference-in-Differences estimations...... migration response of male students, which, however, can mainly be attributed to a “border effect”. That is, interregional migration flows of male students are redirected from fee-charging universities to those universities that are geographically close by while being located in a non-charging neighboring...

  14. A predictive model of Health Related Quality of life of parents of chronically ill children: the importance of care-dependency of their child and their support system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heymans Hugo SA

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents of chronically ill children are at risk for a lower Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL. Insight in the dynamics of factors influencing parental HRQoL is necessary for development of interventions. Aim of the present study was to explore the influence of demographic and disease related factors on parental HRQoL, mediated by employment, income, leisure time, holiday and emotional support in a comprehensive model. Methods In a cross-sectional design, 543 parents of chronically ill children completed questionnaires. A conceptual model of parental HRQoL was developed. Structural equation modeling was performed to explore the relations in the conceptual model, and to test if the model fitted the data. Results The model fitted the data closely (CHISQ(14 = 11.37, p = 0.66; RMSEA = 0.0, 90%CI [0.00;0.034]. The effect of socio-demographic and medical data on HRQoL was mediated by days on holiday (MCS: β = .21 and emotional support (PCS: β = .14; MCS: β = .28. Also, female gender (β = -.10, age (β = .10, being chronically ill as a parent (β = -.34, and care dependency of the child (β = -.14; β = -.15 were directly related to parental HRQoL. Conclusion The final model was slightly different from the conceptual model. Main factors explaining parental HRQoL seemed to be emotional support, care dependency, days on holiday and being chronically ill as a parent. Holiday and emotional support mediated the effect of demographic and disease-related factors on HRQoL. Hours of employment, leisure time and household income did not mediate between background characteristics and HRQoL, contrasting the hypotheses.

  15. School Nurses Avoid Addressing Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engh Kraft, Lisbet; Rahm, GullBritt; Eriksson, Ulla-Britt

    2017-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a global public health problem with major consequences for the individual child and society. An earlier Swedish study showed that the school nurses did not initially talk about nor mention CSA as one form of child abuse. For the child to receive adequate support, the disclosure is a precondition and is dependent on an…

  16. A Study of Teacher Stereotypes: How Do Tuition-Free Teacher Candidates and General Undergraduates Think about Middle School and University Teachers in China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Youxia; Zhao, Yufang; Peng, Chunhua; Chen, Youguo

    2017-01-01

    A tuition-free teacher candidate is an undergraduate who receives tuition-free teacher education and must work as a teacher in a middle school after their graduation. Tuition-free candidates are of the focus of many researchers; however, no study reports how tuition-free teacher candidates think about teachers. The present study explored stereotypes about middle school and university teachers held by teacher candidates. Specifically, we looked for the differences between the stereotypes held by the teacher candidates and general undergraduates. This study attempted to provide a potential tool to predict the actual willingness of teacher candidates to work as middle school teachers. University and middle school teachers were evaluated using descriptive phrases or words on a five-point Likert scale by 116 tuition-free teacher candidates and 155 general undergraduates. Exploratory factor analyses revealed a three-factor stereotype model including occupational cognition, occupational personality, and occupational emotion. Compared with general undergraduates, teacher candidates held more positive occupational personality and emotions toward middle school teachers; they held more negative occupational emotions toward university teachers. Further, the undergraduates' willingness to be middle school teachers positively correlated with positive occupational emotions and negatively correlated with negative occupational personality and emotions toward middle school teachers. This supported previous studies that individuals' professional willingness were influenced by their stereotypes about professions. PMID:28469587

  17. The Relationship between Neighbourhood Green Space and Child Mental Wellbeing Depends upon Whom You Ask: Multilevel Evidence from 3083 Children Aged 12-13 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaoqi; Astell-Burt, Thomas

    2017-02-27

    Recent reviews of the rapidly growing scientific literature on neighbourhood green space and health show strong evidence for protective and restorative effects on mental wellbeing. However, multiple informants are common when reporting mental wellbeing in studies of children. Do different informants lead to different results? This study utilised nationally representative data on Goodman's 25-item Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire reported by 3083 children (aged 12-13 years old), and their parents and teachers. Multilevel models were used to investigate whether similar associations between child mental wellbeing (as measured using the total difficulties score and the internalising and externalising subscales) and neighbourhood green space quantity and quality are obtained regardless of the informant. After adjustment for confounders, higher green space quantity and quality were associated with consistently more favourable child mental wellbeing on all three measures, regardless of the informant. However, associations with green space quantity were statistically significant (p space quality were consistently observed for both parent- and child-reported outcomes. Teacher-reported outcomes were not significantly associated with green space exposure. Future studies of green space and child health should acknowledge when different informants of outcomes could lead to different conclusions.

  18. The tuition fee ‘shock’: Analysing the response of first-year students to a spatially discontinuous policy change in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitze, Timo Friedel; Burgard, Claudia; Alecke, Björn

    2015-01-01

    variation in tuition fee regimes as a result of a Federal Constitutional Court decision. Our empirical results show that the introduction of tuition fees had a particular impact on student migration. We observe three effects: first, male students show a stronger migration response compared to female...... students. Second, changes in migration behaviour are sensitive to geographical distance. Finally, comparing different types of higher education institutions, we find that the migration effect is larger for universities compared to technical colleges and colleges of arts or music....

  19. The tuition fee ‘shock’: Analysing the response of first-year students to a spatially discontinuous policy change in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitze, Timo Friedel; Burgard, Claudia; Alecke, Björn

    2015-01-01

    variation in tuition fee regimes as a result of a Federal Constitutional Court decision. Our empirical results show that the introduction of tuition fees had a particular impact on student migration. We observe three effects: first, male students show a stronger migration response compared to female...... students. Second, changes in migration behaviour are sensitive to geographical distance. Finally, comparing different types of higher education institutions, we find that the migration effect is larger for universities compared to technical colleges and colleges of arts or music....

  20. Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    As children grow older, they develop in several different ways. Child development includes physical, intellectual, social, and emotional changes. Children grow and mature at very different rates. It's ...

  1. Re-conceptualizing mother tongue tuition of Estonian abroad as a transnational phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarja Siiner

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The governmental initiative called the Compatriots Programme, which supports language tuition in Estonian schools and societies abroad, reveals an increased interest in developing intergenerational language transmission in the growing Estonian diaspora. This transnational language political activity signals a new era in language policy, where nation states are increasingly decentralized by migration. The evaluation of the program furthermore reveals that organizing such schools requires a willingness to take language political agency, typically conducted by well-educated and well-integrated resourceful transnational multilingual parents. The present article outlines the results of an ethnographic study of the process of establishing the Estonian School in Copenhagen. This step has demanded a change in the mindset still prevailing in Estonia that language political activities, such as planning language acquisition, are solely the responsibility of the state. Since the prevailing language ideology in Denmark is not favorable towards multilingualism in migrant languages, intergenerational language transmission furthermore presupposes a feeling of ownership of the language and high language self-esteem. "Hargmaise keelepoliitika sünd. Eesti keeleõppe korraldamise võimalikkusest välismaal Taani näitel" Hargmaisus, kasvav väljarändajate arv ja sellega ka eesti keele rääkijate hulk välismaal on jätnud oma jälje eesti keelepoliitikale. Kui varem uuriti peamiselt seda, kuidas eesti keel muukeelses kontekstis muutub, siis viimasel kümnendil on riik asunud aktiivselt toetama eesti keele jätkuvat kasutamist välismaal, rahastades rahvuskaaslaste programmi abil haridusprogramme. Kuid millised faktorid määravad selle, kas uus eestlaste põlvkond oskab ja tahab eesti keelt rääkida? Artikkel hindab etnograafilises ja sotsiolingvistilises võtmes Kopenhaagenis kolm aastat tegutsenud Eesti Kooli ja Lasteklubi näitel, millised on keelekasutust

  2. 低收费政策能改善教育公平和社会福利吗?——兼论高等教育不同收费政策的效应%Can low tuition fee policy improve higher education equity and social welfare?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    查显友; 丁守海

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally there has been a theoretical view that raising tuition fees will undermine education equity and social welfare. This study examines the effects of different tuition policies on both these factors. A statistical analysis is made on the theoretical relationship between higher education tuition fees and dropout probability, which leads to the conclusion that the effects of both policies on education equity vary with circumstances. Further, under severe polarization between the rich and the poor in China, low tuition fee policy fails to effectively improve access to higher education and social welfare for low-income groups. On the contrary, high tuition fee policy may have better effectiveness.

  3. 38 CFR 3.57 - Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Child. 3.57 Section 3.57..., and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Relationship § 3.57 Child. (a) General. (1) Except as provided in paragraphs (a)(2) and (3) of this section, the term child of the veteran means an...

  4. Cost and Price Increases in Higher Education: Evidence of a Cost Disease on Higher Education Costs and Tuition Prices and the Implications for Higher Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombella, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    As concern over rapidly rising college costs and tuition sticker prices have increased, a variety of research has been conducted to determine potential causes. Most of this research has focused on factors unique to higher education. In contrast, cost disease theory attempts to create a comparative context to explain cost increases in higher…

  5. Undocumented College Students in the United States: In-State Tuition Not Enough to Ensure Four-Year Degree Completion. IESP Policy Brief No. 01-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, David; Chellman, Colin C.

    2013-01-01

    This brief provides a comparison of the performance of undocumented students to that of U.S. citizens and other legal migrants using restricted-access data from one of the largest urban public university systems in the U.S. where many undocumented students are eligible for in-state tuition. Overall, undocumented students perform well in the…

  6. The tuition fee ‘shock’: Analysing the response of first-year students to a spatially discontinuous policy change in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitze, Timo Friedel; Burgard, Claudia; Alecke, Björn

    2015-01-01

    Using the introduction of tuition fees at German public universities as an exogenous shock, this paper investigates its causal impact on the enrolment and migration decision of high-school graduates. Specifically, we conduct a quasi-experimental analysis by exploiting the spatial and temporal...

  7. Tuition Fees in Primary and Secondary Education in Lesotho: The Levels and Implications for Access, Equity, and Efficiency. Financial Management of Education Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerotholi, Liteboho Maqalika

    This publication addresses tuition and other fees practiced in education as a means of cost sharing in Lesotho (a small, underdeveloped African nation). The case of Lesotho is an extreme example of household and community financing of education, both at the primary and secondary level, with parents paying for the bulk of their children's…

  8. Child Care and Child Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karolak, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The weak economy is challenging the child care program budget. Fluctuations in enrollment come up against rising costs making every penny count. So for many reasons a federal program that helps defray the costs of snacks and meals in child care programs is particularly important and timely. In this article, the author pushes for the…

  9. Child Care and Child Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karolak, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The weak economy is challenging the child care program budget. Fluctuations in enrollment come up against rising costs making every penny count. So for many reasons a federal program that helps defray the costs of snacks and meals in child care programs is particularly important and timely. In this article, the author pushes for the…

  10. Child Development & Behavior Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Child Topics Commentaries Featured Links Contact Us Child Development & Behavior Topics A B C D E F ... Seat Safety Carbon Monoxide Chewing Tobacco Child Care Child Development Milestones Child Development, What Do Grown-Ups Know ...

  11. Video-based instructions for surgical hand disinfection as a replacement for conventional tuition? A randomised, blind comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Uwe; Constantinescu, Mihai A.; Woermann, Ulrich; Schmitz, Felix; Schnabel, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Various different learning methods are available for planning tuition regarding the introduction to surgical hand disinfection. These learning methods should help to organise and deal with this topic. The use of a video film is an alternative to conventional tuition due to the real presentation possibilities of practical demonstration. Objective: This study examines by way of comparison which form of communication is more effective for learning and applying surgical hand disinfection for medical students in their first year of studies: video-based instruction or conventional tuition. Methodology: A total of 50 first-year medical students were randomly allocated either to the “Conventional Instruction” (CI) study group or to the “Video-based Instruction” (VI) study group. The conventional instruction was carried out by an experienced nurse preceptor/nurse educator for the operating theatre who taught the preparatory measures and the actual procedure in a two-minute lesson. The second group watched a two-minute video sequence with identical content. Afterwards, both groups demonstrated practically the knowledge they had acquired at an individual practical test station. The quality (a) of the preparation and (b) of the procedure as well as (c) the quality of the results was assessed by 6 blind experts using a check list. The acceptability of the respective teaching method was also asked about using a questionnaire. Results: The group performance did not differ either in the preparation (t=-78, p<0.44) or in the quality (t=-99, p<0.34). With respect to performance, it was possible to demonstrate a strong treatment effect. In the practical (t=-3.33, p<0.002, d=0.943) and in the total score (t=-2.65, p<0.011, d=0.751), the group with video-based instruction achieved a significantly better result. In response to the question as to which of the two learning methods they would prefer, the significant majority (60.4%) of students stated video

  12. Video-based instructions for surgical hand disinfection as a replacement for conventional tuition? A randomised, blind comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber, Uwe

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Various different learning methods are available for planning tuition regarding the introduction to surgical hand disinfection. These learning methods should help to organise and deal with this topic. The use of a video film is an alternative to conventional tuition due to the real presentation possibilities of practical demonstration. Objective: This study examines by way of comparison which form of communication is more effective for learning and applying surgical hand disinfection for medical students in their first year of studies: video-based instruction or conventional tuition. Methodology: A total of 50 first-year medical students were randomly allocated either to the “Conventional Instruction” (CI study group or to the “Video-based Instruction” (VI study group. The conventional instruction was carried out by an experienced nurse preceptor/nurse educator for the operating theatre who taught the preparatory measures and the actual procedure in a two-minute lesson. The second group watched a two-minute video sequence with identical content. Afterwards, both groups demonstrated practically the knowledge they had acquired at an individual practical test station. The quality (a of the preparation and (b of the procedure as well as (c the quality of the results was assessed by 6 blind experts using a check list. The acceptability of the respective teaching method was also asked about using a questionnaire.Results: The group performance did not differ either in the preparation (=-78, <0.44 or in the quality (=-99, <0.34. With respect to performance, it was possible to demonstrate a strong treatment effect. In the practical (=-3.33, <0.002, =0.943 and in the total score (=-2.65, <0.011, =0.751, the group with video-based instruction achieved a significantly better result. In response to the question as to which of the two learning methods they would prefer, the significant majority (60.4% of students stated video instruction

  13. [The place of the child].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenat, F

    2008-08-01

    A child's self-construction and access to his identity depend on the conditions of affective security in which he is raised and his genealogical references, the founders of his own place in society. The quality of the professional care at the different stages of the birth process is confirmed as a major variable in the parents' sense of security, followed by the child's. The drift toward the illusion of a right to a child is tempered by the attention that can be contributed by all healthcare providers who come into contact with couples when they request artificial procreation: recognition of their request, but also of their suffering, so as to separate the child's place from parental projections that may be poorly adjusted to the child's needs.

  14. Perceptions of parental substance use disorders in cross-system collaboration among child welfare, alcohol and other drugs, and dependency court organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Amy S; Traube, Dorian E; Young, Nancy K

    2014-05-01

    Cross-system collaboration among child welfare (CW), alcohol and other drugs (AOD), and court organizations shows promise in addressing the many needs of CW-involved families experiencing parental substance use disorders (SUDs). Research has suggested that differing perceptions of parents with SUDs among staff in these organizations may hinder the collaborative process. Using a sequential explanatory mixed-method approach, this study explored staff perceptions of parental SUDs among CW, AOD, and court organizations. Logistic regression analyses indicated that, compared to CW respondents, AOD respondents were: (a) less likely to believe that parents could provide effective parenting; (b) more likely to believe that abstinence should be a criterion for reunification; (c) more likely to agree that parents should receive jail time as a consequence for noncompliance with court orders; and (d) more likely to believe that parents could succeed in treatment. Thematic analyses of these focal areas identified two core themes (focus on the primary client and mandated time frames for permanency), as well as multiple subthemes, that provided a nuanced understanding of differing perceptions on these matters. Suggestions for the development of anticipatory cross-system training and practices and implications for policy evaluation are discussed.

  15. Prevent Child Abuse America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... call the police . Crisis and support contacts For Child Abuse Reporting Numbers in your State please visit: Child ... suspected child abuse and neglect. Parent Resources Prevent Child Abuse America (800) CHILDREN A resource for tips, referrals, ...

  16. Your Child's Development: Newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child Too Busy? Helping Your Child Adjust to Preschool School Lunches Kids and Food: 10 Tips for Parents Healthy Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Your Child's Development: Newborn KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Development: Newborn ...

  17. Can Closeness, Conflict, and Dependency Be Used to Characterize Students' Perceptions of the Affective Relationship with Their Teacher? Testing a New Child Measure in Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koomen, Helma M. Y.; Jellesma, Francine C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The constructs of closeness, conflict, and dependency, which are derived from attachment theory, are widely used to qualify teachers' perceptions of relationships with individual children. Aims: Our main aim was to reveal whether similar and reliable dimensions could be identified in middle childhood with a newly developed student…

  18. Can closeness, conflict, and dependency be used to characterize students’ perceptions of the affective relationship with their teacher? Testing a new child measure in middle childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koomen, H.M.Y.; Jellesma, F.C.

    2015-01-01

    Background The constructs of closeness, conflict, and dependency, which are derived from attachment theory, are widely used to qualify teachers’ perceptions of relationships with individual children. Aims Our main aim was to reveal whether similar and reliable dimensions could be identified in middl

  19. Child Laborers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    "When I was 12, I started working in a cotton mill as a child laborer." Fan Xiaofeng, the former vice-director of the Labor Protection Department of the All-China Federation of Trade Unions, wrote this sentence in one of her books. In 1932, she came to

  20. Investigation on Tuition-free Normal Students' Professional Quality of Mathematics%免费师范生数学专业素质的调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨承根; 胡典顺

    2012-01-01

    数学知识、数学能力和数学情意是影响数学免费师范生数学专业素质的主要因素.数学免费师范生的数学情意素质具备程度较高,数学能力素质具备程度较低;数学专业素质在性别和年级之间存在差异;数学专业素质与数学知识、数学能力和数学情意均存在显著的正相关;数学知识、数学能力和数学情意对数学免费师范生的数学专业素质的形成和发展有不同程度的影响。%Mathematical knowledge, mathematical ability and mathematical affection are major factors affecting tuition-free normal students' professional quality of mathematics. The study found that: The level of tuition-free normal students' mathematics affection quality is higher, The level of mathematical ability quality is lower; mathematics professional quality has difference between gender and grade; mathematics professional quality has a significant positive relationship with mathematics knowledge, mathematical ability, mathematics affection; mathematics knowledge, mathematical ability and mathematics affection have a varying degrees of influences on formation and development of tuition-free normal students' mathematics professional quality.

  1. Complement activation pathways associated with islet cell surface antibody (ICSA derived from child patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okada,Soji

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available We studied the pathways of complement activation associated with the islet cell surface antibody (ICSA obtained from sera of 7 patients (age less than 15 years with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM. The target cells were 51CR labelled rat islet cells and the complement source was human AB serum. Complement-dependent antibody mediated cytotoxicity (CAMC activity was obtained using the percentage of cytotoxicity. CAMC activity of untreated sera was significantly inhibited by treating with EGTA or EDTA (p less than 0.001. The CAMC activity of EDTA-treated sera was significantly lower than that of EGTA-treated sera (p less than 0.001. In the inactivated human AB serum, it was lower than that of EGTA-treated sera (p less than 0.05, but not different from that of EDTA-treated sera. These results show that the complement activation associated with ICSA in patients occurred not only via the classical pathway but also via the alternative pathway.

  2. Insight and Regulate on the Dual Structure of Higher Education Tuition%高等教育学费二元结构的审视与调控

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡茂波

    2013-01-01

    高等教育学费二元结构是公办和民办高校产权差异和学费制度差异的反映。公共财政不足造成了公办和民办高等教育的二元规制、市场的二元分割和市场功能定位的分化。这导致学费定价中政府与市场的边界不清、公办和民办高等教育学费标准的差异与质量的差异不对称、个人投资收益率的差异扩大、学费的资源配置功能弱化。“效率优先,兼顾公平”是其指导思想,其不利于先天禀赋不足的学生,其社会福利效应逐渐降低。在公共财政能力已经增强,高等教育已经大众化的背景下,应该取消对公办和民办高等教育的二元规制,加大民办高等教育的财政投入,提高民办高等教育的质量,加强民办高等教育的学生资助,消除高等教育学费二元结构的不利影响。%The dual structure of higher education tuition is difference on property and tuition system between public colleges and private colleges.The lack of public finance ,and the dual regulation ,the segmentation market , market function positioning differentiation between public higher education and private higher education are causes of the dual structure of higher education tuition.It leads to being unclear on the boundary of government and market in tuition pricing,asymmetry between tuition difference and quality difference,expansion of personal rate of return on investment difference between public higher education and private higher education , weakening tuition resource allocation.Its guiding ideology is “priority to efficiency with consideration fairness”.It is not conducive to congenital deficiency student. Its social welfare effect is gradually reduced. In order to eliminate the adverse effect of the dual structure of higher education tuition ,the dual regulation should be canceled ,and increasing financial input,improving quality,enhancing student financial assistance should to be done in

  3. Child poverty can be reduced.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnick, R D

    1997-01-01

    Child poverty can be reduced by policies that help families earn more and supplement earned income with other sources of cash. A comprehensive antipoverty strategy could use a combination of these approaches. This article reviews recent U.S. experience with these broad approaches to reducing child poverty and discusses lessons from abroad for U.S. policymakers. The evidence reviewed suggests that, although policies to increase earned incomes among low-wage workers can help, these earnings gains will not be sufficient to reduce child poverty substantially. Government income support programs, tax policy, and child support payments from absent parents can be used to supplement earned incomes of poor families with children. Until recently, Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) was the main government assistance program for low-income families with children. Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) has recently replaced AFDC. This article explains why TANF benefits are likely to be less than AFDC benefits. The article also examines the effects of Social Security and Supplemental Security Income on child poverty. The most encouraging recent development in antipoverty policy has been the decline in the federal tax burden on poor families, primarily as a result of the expansion of the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC), now the largest cash assistance program for families with children. In 1995, government transfer programs (including the value of cash, food, housing, medical care, and taxes) decreased child poverty by 38% (from 24.2% to 14.2% of children under 18). Child poverty may also be reduced by policies that increase contributions from absent single parents to support their children. Overall, evidence from the United States and other developed countries suggests that a variety of approaches to reducing child poverty are feasible. Implementation of effective programs will depend, however, on the nation's political willingness to devote more resources to

  4. Foundations of Child Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Emanuel, Ed.; And Others

    Twenty-eight papers examine basic theories and clinical methods in child psychiatry. Theories and methods discussed concern child psychiatry and the World Health Organization, pediatrics, child disturbances, observation, the psychodiagnostic approach, longitudinal research in child development, the comparative approach to early child development,…

  5. Office of Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Children & Families Office of Child Care By Office Administration for Native Americans (ANA) Administration on Children, ... Care Partnerships. Review the profiles. > What is the Office of Child Care (OCC)? The Office of Child ...

  6. Office of Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Children & Families Office of Child Care By Office Administration for Native Americans (ANA) Administration on Children, ... Learn more about this project > What is the Office of Child Care (OCC)? The Office of Child ...

  7. Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexual abuse is one form of child abuse. It includes a wide range of actions between a child ... to children or pressuring them for sex is sexual abuse. Using a child for pornography is also sexual ...

  8. DOD Education Benefits: Increased Oversight of Tuition Assistance Program Is Needed. Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Federal Financial Management, Government Information, Federal Services, and International Security, Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, United States Senate. GAO-11-300

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, George A.

    2011-01-01

    In fiscal year 2009, the Department of Defense's (DOD) Military Tuition Assistance (TA) Program provided $517 million in tuition assistance to approximately 377,000 service members. US Government Accountability Office (GAO) was asked to report on (1) DOD's oversight of schools receiving TA funds, and (2) the extent to which DOD coordinates with…

  9. DOD Education Benefits: Further Actions Needed to Improve Oversight of Tuition Assistance Program. Testimony before the Subcommittee on Federal Financial Management, Government Information, Federal Services, and International Security, Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, United States Senate. GAO-11-389T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, George A.

    2011-01-01

    This testimony discusses the Department of Defense's (DOD) oversight of its Military Tuition Assistance (TA) Program. In fiscal year 2010, the TA Program provided $531 million in tuition assistance to approximately 302,000 service members who elected to pursue off-duty postsecondary education. DOD offers these benefits to service members in order…

  10. Cohabitation and Child Wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Wendy D

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, writes Wendy Manning, cohabitation has become a central part of the family landscape in the United States-so much so that by age 12, 40 percent of American children will have spent at least part of their lives in a cohabiting household. Although many children are born to cohabiting parents, and cohabiting families come in other forms as well, the most common cohabiting arrangement is a biological mother and a male partner. Cohabitation, Manning notes, is associated with several factors that have the potential to reduce children's wellbeing. Cohabiting families are more likely than married families to be poor, and poverty harms children in many ways. Cohabiting parents also tend to have less formal education-a key indicator of both economic and social resources-than married parents do. And cohabiting parent families don't have the same legal protections that married parent families have. Most importantly, cohabitation is often a marker of family instability, and family instability is strongly associated with poorer outcomes for children. Children born to cohabiting parents see their parents break up more often than do children born to married parents. In this way, being born into a cohabiting family sets the stage for later instability, and children who are born to cohabiting parents appear to experience enduring deficits of psychosocial wellbeing. On the other hand, stable cohabiting families with two biological parents seem to offer many of the same health, cognitive, and behavioral benefits that stable married biological parent families provide. Turning to stepfamilies, cohabitation's effects are tied to a child's age. Among young children, living in a cohabiting stepfamily rather than a married stepfamily is associated with more negative indicators of child wellbeing, but this is not so among adolescents. Thus the link between parental cohabitation and child wellbeing depends on both the type of cohabiting parent family and the age of the

  11. Tuition fees and funding – barriers for non-traditional students? First results from the international research project Opening Universities for Lifelong Learning (OPULL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moissidis, Sonja; Schwarz, Jochen; Yndigegn, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Project OPULL – Opening Universities for Lifelong Learning – is undertaking research into ways of opening up higher education to vocationally qualified and experienced target groups in four European countries. Open university models in Germany, Denmark, Finland and the United Kingdom are being...... phase of the project indicate that while the long-term effect of an increase in tuition fees for non-traditional students is not yet known, current evidence suggests that other factors such as the recognition of vocational and experiential learning will most likely have an impact on widening...

  12. A study to assess and measure the breaches in the child rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Chaudhary

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children signify eternal optimism in the human being and provide potential for the development. Every nation whether developed or developing, links its future with the status of child. An understanding of the physical, social and behavioral factors is conducive to assess the current situation and vulnerability of any child. To ensure the utmost level of health and safety of a child, we need to have an insight of the violation of child rights. We conducted this study to assess and measure the breaches in child rights. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 200 children between 10 to 18 years of age in one of the field practice areas of Community Medicine department, B. J. Medical College, Ahmedabad. Results: More than 90% of the children were born in the hospital settings, fully vaccinated and living with their parents. Of these, 60% of the children reported to have some kind of illness in the past one year, and majority of them approached healthcare facility for that the treatment. Of these, 26% of them had low birth weight (LBW and 68% had body mass index (BMI <18.5. About 93% of the children were enrolled in either government or private school and out of them, 54% complained of the burden of either homework or tuition. Of these, 6.5% children were school dropouts and all of them were girls; 4% of them were child labors. Conclusion: The study indicated positive findings in the areas of child survival, development and to some extent, in the domain of right to participation, though there were poor environmental conditions and recreational activities. Prevalence of malnutrition and child labor was also high. Study results highlighted the need for adequate services in these areas.

  13. On Four Kinds of Model of Higher Education Tuition Pricing and Financing%高等教育学费定价与资助的四种模式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛建青; 杨斌

    2016-01-01

    The tuition pricing involves multi stakeholders, and its changes need policy support to ensure the effi-ciency and fairness. Four kinds of modes of Tuition Pricing and financing can be summed up according to tuition accounted for per capita GDP and per student funding for tuition, which are the United States as the representa-tive of the typical high tuition and high financing mode, the Germany as a typical representative of the low tui-tion and high financing mode, the China as a typical representative of the high tuition and low funding model and the India as a typical representative of the low tuition and low funding model. The four modes have their re-spective advantages and disadvantages. The efficiency and fairness of the orientation is not the same. We should choose proper mode according to the national characteristics and laws of the development of higher education.%学费定价涉及多方利益主体,其变动需资助政策的配套跟进,以确保效率和公平。根据生均学费占人均GDP和生均资助额占生均学费两个指标,可以归纳出学费定价与资助的四种模式:以美国为典型代表的高学费/高资助模式、以德国为典型代表的低学费/高资助模式、以中国为典型代表的高学费/低资助模式和以印度为典型代表的低学费/低资助模式。四种模式有各自的优缺点和适用性,其效率和公平的取向不尽相同。我们应根据国情特征和高等教育发展规律进行恰当模式的合理选择。

  14. Causes of Child Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Deveci,S.Erhan; Açık, Yasemin

    2014-01-01

    Child abuse is an important public health problem that is present almost in every society and environment at different level and intensities. For implementation of child abuse protection measures it is necessary to investigate its causes. In this review, causes of child abuse was attempted to investigate with respects to the society and institution, family and individual and child related factors.

  15. Study on Child TV dependence From the Perspective of Ecological System Theory%生态系统理论视角下的儿童电视依赖问题原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康淑娟

    2015-01-01

    进入21世纪,伴随着卫星电视、数字电视的普及与推广。电视已成为必须品渗入到人们生活中,尤其对在生长发育阶段的儿童有着巨大影响。儿童总是或多或少地接触、使用电视,儿童参与媒介的过程也是一个受电视影响的过程。随之电视对儿童的成长过程中扮演着不可或缺的社会角色。因此,电视对儿童成长的影响以及儿童对其的依赖,成为了值得思考的问题。文章通过运用生态系统理论从多元角度分析儿童电视依赖产生的多重环境系统,尝试以生态系统理论来透视儿童电视依赖问题,为儿童电视依赖问题的处理与研究提供一个新的视角和思考框架。%Enter twenty-first Century, with the popularization and popularization of satellite TV and digital TV. Television has become a necessity for the infiltration of people in the life, especially in the growth and development of children has a tremendous impact. Children always more or less contact, the use of television, the child's participation in the media is also a process of the television. And then the TV plays an indispensable part in the development of children. Therefore, the influence of TV on children's growth and the dependence on children become a problem worth thinking. The from the multi angle analysis of children's television relies on the creation of multiple environmental system with the ecological system theory, attempts to ecological system theory method on the perspective of children's television on, for children's TV dependent treatment of the problem provides a new perspective and thinking frame of reference, to advocate attention to children's rights and interests, for children's rights and interests of the maintenance and education of children right provides the feasibility analysis.

  16. Constitutional Law--Establishment Clause: No Tuition Grants, No Tax Benefits for Parents or Nonpublic School Children--Committee for Public Education and Religious Liberty v. Nyquist, 413 U.S. 756 (1973)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moquin, E. Michele

    1975-01-01

    This note considers the Supreme Court's treatment of New York State's tuition reimbursement and tax exemption provisions that were expected to equalize educational choice. Submits that the decision is unwarranted application of the constitutional prohibition against establishment of religion and discusses alternatives open to state legislators.…

  17. Funding child rearing: child allowance and parental leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J R

    1996-01-01

    This article proposes two financing plans to address what the author identifies as the two primary concerns in the child care field: (1) a child allowance for poor and near-poor households to address the child care problems of low-income families, and (2) a program of voluntary parental leave, available to all parents at child birth or adoption, to ensure the adequacy of infant care. The child allowance plan would cover the first three children in families up to 175% of the poverty level (more than 22 million children) at an annual cost of $45 billion. The author suggests that the allowance could be financed by redirecting funds from existing income support (for example, Aid to Families with Dependent Children), tax credit, and tax deduction programs. Financing the parental leave program would require new revenues, generated by an employee-paid increase in payroll tax totaling 3.5%. Each employee's contributions would create a parental leave account (PLA). Families could use the funds in these accounts to cover the cost of a one-year leave from work after the birth or adoption of a child. If families did not have enough dollars in their accounts to cover the cost of the leave, the federal government would extend a low-interest loan to them, which they would have to pay back. The amount individuals receive through Social Security would be adjusted upward or downward according to the balances in their parental leave accounts at retirement. The author suggests that both proposals would help parents balance work and family obligations and protect parental freedom of choice over the care and upbringing of their children.

  18. Remote Music Tuition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duffy, S.; Williams, D.; Kegel, I.; Stevens, T.; Jansen, A.J.; Cesar Garcia, P.S.; Healey, P.

    2012-01-01

    It is common to learn to play an orchestral musical instrument through one-to-one lessons with an experienced tutor. For musicians who choose to study performance at an undergraduate level and beyond, their tutor is an important part of their professional musical development. For many musicians, tra

  19. Remote Music Tuition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Duffy; D. Williams; I. Kegel; T. Stevens; A.J. Jansen (Jack); P.S. Cesar Garcia (Pablo Santiago); P. Healey

    2012-01-01

    htmlabstractIt is common to learn to play an orchestral musical instrument through one-to-one lessons with an experienced tutor. For musicians who choose to study performance at an undergraduate level and beyond, their tutor is an important part of their professional musical development. For many

  20. National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) Child File

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) Child File data set consists of child-specific data of all reports of maltreatment to State child...

  1. CASE REPORT OF A MENTALLY RETARDED CHILD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilka GALEVSKA

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Mental retardation is a complex individual and social problem. According to WHO, around 1-3 % of world population are mentally retarded people and the percentage between school children is around 2 %.The development of a mentally retarded child depends on factors related to the disability itself, all the limitations and characteristics which results from that. But, physical, psychical, educational and social development of a mentally retarded child, also, depend on other conditions, such as the family and the wider environment, their reactions, attitudes, awareness and sensitivity for special needs of the child, as well as their preparedness and possibilities to respond.At the same time, it is necessary that the mentally retarded child is detected and diagnosed in time, as well as the early start of an adequate treatment.

  2. Child labor and school policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago V. de V. Cavalcanti

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates whether child labor is socially inefficient. Baland and Robinson (2000 show that child labor might be inefficient when parents care for their children's welfare. In their model, child labor is explained by two factors: poverty and capital market imperfections. However, education in their model is readily available in terms of access, affordability and quality. This paper shows that the incidence of child labor is negatively related to school quality and positively related to the labor market conditions for children. It also shows that when children have no access to school or their access is limited, child labor is socially efficient. Therefore, a ban on child labor is not necessarily Pareto improving.Este artigo investiga se o trabalho infantil é socialmente ineficiente. Em recente artigo, Baland and Robinson (2000 mostram que, quando os pais se preocupam com o bem-estar dos filhos, o trabalho infantil é ineficiente. O emprego de crianças, no modelo desses autores, é explicado por dois fatores: pobreza e imperfeicões no mercado de crédito. No entanto, educação é prontamente disponível na economia de Baland e Robinson, tanto em termos de acesso, quanto de qualidade. Contudo, nos países em desenvolvimento, escolas não são disponíveis para todas as crianças, principalmente nas áreas rurais, onde o problema de emprego de menores é mais acentuado. Este artigo mostra que o grau de incidência de trabalho infantil nas sociedades depende da qualidade do sistema educacional e das condições de mercado de trabalho para as crianças. O artigo demonstra, ainda, que quando o acesso à escola é limitado, o trabalho infantil é socialmente eficiente. Assim, restrições legais de emprego de menores não necessariamente implicam uma melhora de Pareto.

  3. Child Care Subsidies and Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal

    2010-01-01

    Child care subsidies are an important part of federal and state efforts to move welfare recipients into employment. One of the criticisms of the current subsidy system, however, is that it overemphasizes work and does little to encourage parents to purchase high-quality child care. Consequently, there are reasons to be concerned about the…

  4. Child poverty and changes in child poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Hao; Corak, Miles

    2008-08-01

    This article offers a cross-country overview of child poverty, changes in child poverty, and the impact of public policy in North America and Europe. Levels and changes in child poverty rates in 12 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries during the 1990s are documented using data from the Luxembourg Income Study project, and a decomposition analysis is used to uncover the relative role of demographic factors, labor markets, and income transfers from the state in determining the magnitude and direction of the changes. Child poverty rates fell noticeably in only three countries and rose in three others. In no country were demographic factors a force for higher child poverty rates, but these factors were also limited in their ability to cushion children from adverse shocks originating in the labor market or the government sector. Increases in the labor market engagement of mothers consistently lowered child poverty rates, while decreases in the employment rates and earnings of fathers were a force for higher rates. Finally, there is no single road to lower child poverty rates. Reforms to income transfers intended to increase labor supply may or may not end up lowering the child poverty rate.

  5. Child-to-Child programme in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasim, M S; Abraham, S

    1982-09-01

    Even though Malaysia is a relatively prosperous country amongst the developing nations, it is still be set by problems of a rapidly increasing population. The economic cake is also unevenly distributed and there are pockets of poverty in the slums surrounding the towns as well as in the rural areas. Added to that is the problem of ignorance and superstition especially amongst its adult population. It is due to these problems that the Child-to-Child programme has found special application in Malaysia. The Child-to-Child has been introduced through either the government agencies or the voluntary organizations. Through the Ministry of Education, the concept has found its ways through the schools and the state department of education. The Ministry of Information and Broadcasting has also introduced the concept of Child-to-Child in the media. The voluntary organizations have also introduced the concept of Child-to-Child in their projects. The Sang Kancil project has to some extent used the idea in the running of its activities. The Health and Nutrition Education House have found that by applying the concept and using older children to help in running its activities, its over all objective which is the improvement of the health of the children in the slums could be reached more easily.

  6. Child Care Subsidies and Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal

    2010-01-01

    Child care subsidies are an important part of federal and state efforts to move welfare recipients into employment. One of the criticisms of the current subsidy system, however, is that it overemphasizes work and does little to encourage parents to purchase high-quality child care. Consequently, there are reasons to be concerned about the…

  7. Child abuse - physical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001552.htm Child abuse - physical To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Physical child abuse is a serious problem. Here are some facts: ...

  8. Child Dental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy teeth are important to your child's overall health. From the time your child is born, there are things you can do to promote healthy teeth and prevent cavities. For babies, you should clean ...

  9. Cholesterol and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Cholesterol and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Cholesterol and ... child's risk of developing heart disease later. About Cholesterol Cholesterol is a waxy substance produced by the ...

  10. Who Owns Child Abuse?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Cradock

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Expectations of contemporary child protection apparatuses are strongly influenced by beliefs inherited from the nineteenth century child rescue movement. In particular, the belief that child abuse determination is obvious. However, this assumption fails to make a distinction between nineteenth century’s emphasis on impoverished environments and the twentieth century introduction of the pathological child abuser. Moreover, the proliferation of kinds of child abuse, and the need to distinguish child abusers from non-abusers, means knowledge is now spread across an array of disciplines and professions, which necessarily destabilizes the definition of child abuse. The increasing exposure of alternate care systems as potentially abusive has similarly destabilized the old common sense solution to neglected children—namely removal. Finally, as uncertainty increases, and definitions become more divergent, the question of what child abuse is, and what should be done about it, becomes increasingly politicized.

  11. FPG Child Development Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Development, Teaching, and Learning The Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute will partner with Zero to Three to ... 25 September 21, 2017 More Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute The University of North Carolina at Chapel ...

  12. Toilet Teaching Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Toilet Teaching Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Toilet Teaching Your ... the process easier. previous continue Tips for Toilet Teaching Even before your child is ready to try ...

  13. Your Child's Development: 15 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child Too Busy? Helping Your Child Adjust to Preschool School Lunches Kids and Food: 10 Tips for Parents Healthy Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Your Child's Development: 15 Months KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Development: ...

  14. Your Child's Development: 6 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child Too Busy? Helping Your Child Adjust to Preschool School Lunches Kids and Food: 10 Tips for Parents Healthy Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Your Child's Development: 6 Months KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Development: ...

  15. Your Child's Development: 2 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child Too Busy? Helping Your Child Adjust to Preschool School Lunches Kids and Food: 10 Tips for Parents Healthy Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Your Child's Development: 2 Months KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Development: ...

  16. Your Child's Immunizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Your Child's Immunizations KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Immunizations Print A A A en español Las vacunas ... determine the best vaccinations and schedule for your child. Recommended vaccinations: ... (varicella) vaccine Diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccine ( ...

  17. Child Care Services Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval County School Board, Jacksonville, FL.

    A companion document to the curriculum guide for a secondary level child care services curriculum, this handbook contains a variety of administrative and program resources for the teacher: The vocational curriculum outline for child care services; a calendar of suggested public relations activities; procedures for building child care services…

  18. Supporting Each Child's Spirit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Jennifer J.; Buchanan, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    In using developmentally appropriate practices, teachers should intentionally address all aspects of a child's being, the spiritual along with the physical and the cognitive. Because spirituality is a vital part of human nature, a whole-child teaching approach must include the part of the child some call spirituality. Many have attempted to…

  19. [Autism and child protection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coron, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    The fostering of an autistic child deemed to be a child at risk leads one to question one's professional practices. In a children's home, an approach guided by psychoanalysis can recognise the benefits of behavioural or cognitive approaches. The aim of the professional's particular educational position is therefore to construct a relationship with each child.

  20. Children at the Front: A Different View of the War on Alcohol and Drugs. The CWLA North American Commission on Chemical Dependency and Child Welfare. Final Report and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Welfare League of America, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This report explores the impact of alcohol and drug problems on the children and families served by the child welfare system and outlines a comprehensive strategy to better respond to their needs. It contains more than 100 policy and action recommendations to enhance services to children and families affected by alcohol and other drugs (AOD), to…

  1. Child Labor - Moral Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Lagasse, Caitlin

    2014-01-01

    In many instances, child labor is a way to exploit the cheap labor a child has to offer. Although in many situations, the exploitation of child labor is not normally the case, such as families living in a developing country. What individuals raised in Western cultures fail to realize is that in some nations and for some families, child labor is a necessary resource to survive, children act as an exceptional resource in these situations. Without the extra income a child could make working in t...

  2. What If My Child Doesn't Take His or Her Asthma Medication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child Doesn't Take His or Her Asthma Medication? KidsHealth > For Parents > What if My Child Doesn' ... depending on what kind it is. What Controller Medications Do Also called preventive or maintenance medications, controller ...

  3. From child to child: children as communicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phinney, R; Evans, J

    1993-01-01

    Older children commonly care for their younger siblings while parents work to provide for the household. Through play, dance, and talk, children tend to interact with each other more intensely than do adults. In so doing, messages and awareness are exchanged more effectively. Child-to-Child is an active, child-centered learning approach which aims to capitalize on this phenomenon by training older siblings to be effective communicators. This approach has been formally practiced in over 70 countries since 1979. Child-to-Child encourages children to learn the meaning and importance of health messages on their own. Children will then be most likely to retain and communicate information throughout the family, to neighbors, and to the general community. No blueprint exists, however, on which program planners may base the design of new programs. Programs should instead be adapted by those living within the community and culture to fit local needs and circumstances. Nonetheless, the Aga Khan Foundation supported the study of 7 highly different Child-to-Child projects over 3 years in India to obtain some sense of which program elements are successful and potentially useful in other settings. The study revealed that all of the programs helped increase the health knowledge of children and teachers. Little information was obtained on the extent to which information was diffused by children within the community. Overall, the study produced the following results: planners should consider using Child-to-Child projects in schools; teacher training should be made a priority; administrative support should be provided; entire staffs should be made to feel involved in the decision making process; obstacles to changing teaching methods should not be underestimated; teaching materials should be locally made; projects should be integrated into official curricula; program topics should be relevant to local realities; respected authorities should be called upon to reinforce the validity

  4. Parental tobacco consumption and child development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine F. Santos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between parental tobacco consumption and the prevalence of psychomotor development disorders in children between 6 and 22 months of age.METHOD: One hundred and nine mothers, fathers, and their babies participated in the study. The sociodemographic and clinical conditions were assessed using questionnaires. Tobacco consumption was assessed using the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND. Child development was evaluated using the Scale of Psychomotor Development in Early Childhood.RESULTS: There was a significant negative correlation between the father's morning smoking (FTND and the child's language development quotient; r = -0.41, p = 0.005, r2 =0.15. The children of mothers without nicotine dependence had a higher mean language development quotient than children of mothers with nicotine dependence; F(1, 107 = 5.51, p = 0.021, ?p2 = 0.05.CONCLUSION: Parental smoking appears to have a detrimental effect on child development.

  5. [Pyridoxine dependent seizures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, K N; Ostergaard, J R; Møller, S M

    1994-10-17

    Pyridoxine dependent seizures is a rare autosomal recessive disorder. Its manifestations are intractable epilepsy leading to death in status epilepticus. Treatment with pyridoxine prevents the seizures and normalizes the EEG. Early diagnosis is important for the intellectual outcome. In Denmark, the disease has occurred in a child of healthy Tamil immigrants, who are first cousins. The child's case story is described and points to awareness of increased occurrence of rare autosomal recessive disorders in immigrants from cultures with traditional consanguinity. We suggest giving a pyridoxine test dosis to all cases of severe epilepsy and status epilepticus in infants younger than 18 months.

  6. CHILD WITNESSES AND THE CONFRONTATION CLAUSE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Thomas D; Dente, Julia A

    2012-01-01

    After the Supreme Court's ruling in Crawford v. Washington that a criminal defendant's right to confront the witnesses against him is violated by the admission of testimonial hearsay that has not been cross-examined, lower courts have overturned convictions in which hearsay from children was admitted after child witnesses were either unwilling or unable to testify. A review of social scientific evidence regarding the dynamics of child sexual abuse suggests a means for facilitating the fair receipt of children's evidence. Courts should hold that defendants have forfeited their confrontation rights if they exploited a child's vulnerabilities such that they could reasonably anticipate that the child would be unavailable to testify. Exploitation includes choosing victims on the basis of their filial dependency, their vulnerability, or their immaturity, as well as taking actions that create or accentuate those vulnerabilities.

  7. Teacher-Child Relationships: Contribution of Teacher and Child Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Young; Dobbs-Oates, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates potential predictors of teacher-child relationships (i.e., closeness and conflict) focusing on child gender, teacher-child ethnicity match, and teacher education. Additionally, the study explores the possible moderation effect of teacher education on the associations between teacher-child relationships and child gender or…

  8. International child health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Alexandra Y; Høgh, Birthe

    2007-01-01

    International child health has improved. Better healthcare strategies, like IMCI, have contributed implementing basic interventions: vaccinations, nutrition supplement, oral rehydration and antibiotics. But 11 million children still die every year before they turn five, most from infectious...... diseases and neonatal complications, over half associated with malnutrition. Conditions we could prevent and treat. One of UN's Millennium Development Goals is to reduce child mortality. However child health is more than mortality and morbidity indicators, it includes growth and development. Udgivelsesdato...

  9. International child health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Alexandra Y; Høgh, Birthe

    2007-01-01

    diseases and neonatal complications, over half associated with malnutrition. Conditions we could prevent and treat. One of UN's Millennium Development Goals is to reduce child mortality. However child health is more than mortality and morbidity indicators, it includes growth and development. Udgivelsesdato......International child health has improved. Better healthcare strategies, like IMCI, have contributed implementing basic interventions: vaccinations, nutrition supplement, oral rehydration and antibiotics. But 11 million children still die every year before they turn five, most from infectious...

  10. Towards understanding child abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Inés Carreño

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This research is a contribution to the understanding of childhood andthe child maltreatment within the framework of the state of the art of the knowledge produced in the experiences of research / intervention carried out under the Specialization Program on Child Maltreatment Prevention of Javeriana University, between 2002 to 2006. The article recreates the outstanding of this concern in Colombia, offers reinterpretations to the speech built and poses some bases to analyze the child maltreatment from the perspective of the adult-child relationships.

  11. Human immunodeficiency virus infection and child sexual abuse

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The risk of transmission during sexual abuse depends on factors such as the .... that this will have no impact on preventing HIV transmission. Screening for CSA in ... taken into account as in other countries, and some authors advise substituting .... The child has another acquired sexually transmitted disease. 2. The child has ...

  12. The Bing Nursery School. The Child's View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berquist, Robert, Ed.

    Photographs, diagrams, and words are used to tell about the nursery school at Stanford University. Supported largely by tuition, this school enrolls 270 pupils who attend school during one of three different session schedules. A full-time staff of 12 is assisted by students from psychology, education, and nursing. The environment offers…

  13. Evolutionary perspective in child growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochberg, Ze'ev

    2011-07-01

    Hereditary, environmental, and stochastic factors determine a child's growth in his unique environment, but their relative contribution to the phenotypic outcome and the extent of stochastic programming that is required to alter human phenotypes is not known because few data are available. This is an attempt to use evolutionary life-history theory in understanding child growth in a broad evolutionary perspective, using the data and theory of evolutionary predictive adaptive growth-related strategies. Transitions from one life-history phase to the next have inherent adaptive plasticity in their timing. Humans evolved to withstand energy crises by decreasing their body size, and evolutionary short-term adaptations to energy crises utilize a plasticity that modifies the timing of transition from infancy into childhood, culminating in short stature in times of energy crisis. Transition to juvenility is part of a strategy of conversion from a period of total dependence on the family and tribe for provision and security to self-supply, and a degree of adaptive plasticity is provided and determines body composition. Transition to adolescence entails plasticity in adapting to energy resources, other environmental cues, and the social needs of the maturing adolescent to determine life-span and the period of fecundity and fertility. Fundamental questions are raised by a life-history approach to the unique growth pattern of each child in his given genetic background and current environment.

  14. Talking to Your Child's Doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to 2-Year-Old Talking to Your Child's Doctor KidsHealth > For Parents > Talking to Your Child's Doctor ... an important role in your child's health? The Doctor-Patient Relationship Today, doctors are pressured to see ...

  15. What Is Child Traumatic Stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Awareness Sustainability Policy Issues What Is Child Traumatic Stress? Order NCTSN documents and other products where you ... these challenging times. Questions & Answers about Child Traumatic Stress Network experts answer questions about child trauma and ...

  16. Child neglect and emotional abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... poor weight gain Emotional issues such as low self-esteem, depression, and anxiety Extreme behavior such as acting ... child was abused The success of therapy and parenting classes Alternative Names Neglect - child; Emotional abuse - child ...

  17. Child Abuse or Osteogenesis Imperfecta?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Abuse or Osteogenesis Imperfecta? 804 W. Diamond Ave., Ste. 210 Gaithersburg, MD 20878 (800) 981-2663 (301) ... welfare services to report a suspected case of child abuse. The child is taken away from the parents ...

  18. Your child's first vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... has ever had a severe reaction after any vaccination. A child who has a severe (life-threatening) allergy to ... in 1,000); fever over 105°F (1 child in 16,000). Serious Problems: ... These reports are extremely rare. Pneumococcal Vaccine Mild ...

  19. Child Wellness and Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettew, David C.

    2009-01-01

    Wellness and happiness should be considered in the clinical treatment of child and adolescent psychiatry, in addition with thinking about illness. Meanwhile, various studies on child and adolescent psychiatry,which includes an article from the "Journal of Happiness Studies," are discussed.

  20. CRIMINAL PROCEEDINGS AGAINST CHILD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Jovanova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile criminal law is part of the criminal law of a country, it is set of rules and regulations governing the rights and obligations of the minors concerned. Criminal proceedings against a child will raise if there is a crime which has been committed by the child when the child or minor may be answerable for the deed pursuant to justice for children. When it comes to criminal proceedings against a child that is significantly different from the procedure against adult offenders because here we have a special category of people who still do not have sufficient mental maturity and procedures that would guide could have negative consequences child. What characterizes proceedings against a child is that the main emphasis is on offense but the offender. Another feature of the criminal proceedings against children that have some direct criminal proceeding in the direction of an alternative procedure , for example in front of Social Work or a procedure in which a whole would raise concerns about the child's personality , there are numerous variations and entire procedure is conducted in the best interest of the child.

  1. The Child Welfare Cartel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoesz, David

    2016-01-01

    The probity of the Children's Bureau's National Child Welfare Workforce Institute (NCWWI) is examined with respect to the status of child welfare as well as the performance of social work education. By requiring that funding go only to accredited schools of social work, which is not authorized by relevant provisions of the Social Security Act,…

  2. Ileostomy and your child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... change and empty their own pouch. Even a young child can learn to empty the pouch by themselves. ... it will help them avoid embarrassing situations. Your child should be able to take part in recess and sports, go camping and have other overnight trips, and ...

  3. Child Psychology Experiences Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walla Walla Coll., WA.

    Recognizing the need for trained teachers to enter the classroom with confidence and professional capacity, Walla Walla College introduced a Child Psychology Experience program. Personnel from several departments contribute to this program. In connection with the child psychology courses, the project features a laboratory/demonstration center…

  4. The Child Welfare Cartel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoesz, David

    2016-01-01

    The probity of the Children's Bureau's National Child Welfare Workforce Institute (NCWWI) is examined with respect to the status of child welfare as well as the performance of social work education. By requiring that funding go only to accredited schools of social work, which is not authorized by relevant provisions of the Social Security Act,…

  5. Child Wellness and Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettew, David C.

    2009-01-01

    Wellness and happiness should be considered in the clinical treatment of child and adolescent psychiatry, in addition with thinking about illness. Meanwhile, various studies on child and adolescent psychiatry,which includes an article from the "Journal of Happiness Studies," are discussed.

  6. Your Child's Checkups

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Social Media Your Child's Checkups KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Checkups Print A A A en español Las revisiones médicas de su hijo Our age-specific overviews give you a sense ...

  7. Child Poverty & Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafel, Judith A., Ed.

    This collection documents how far we still are in the United States from putting our knowledge about child well being and policy into practice. It provides an overview of the changing nature of child poverty in the United States through the contributions of authors who use a number of qualitative and quantitative approaches to look at children in…

  8. Divorce Child Custody Disputes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houlgate, Laurence D.

    1987-01-01

    Examines ethical issues in making policy decisions regarding divorce child custody disputes. Suggests dilemma occurs when legislator must decide between discretionary standard promoting best interest of child and nondiscretionary arbitrary assignment of custody. Advocates normative analysis of various types of dispute-settling processes and…

  9. 免费师范生积极心理健康教育探索与实践%A Study on Positive Mental Health Education for Tuition-Free Pedagogical Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈朝晖; 杜耀国

    2015-01-01

    免费师范生积极心理健康教育是免费师范生心理素质发展和从教农村心理准备的需要。积极心理学是其理论基础,免费师范生发展的需要是其现实依据。免费师范生积极心理健康教育的根本目标在于培养免费师范生积极心理品质,提高其心理素质。其对象不仅仅是有问题的学生和学生的问题,而是全体免费师范生心理潜能的全面开发和积极心理品质的全面发展。免费师范生积极心理健康教育的途径包括:建立组织领导机构,构建免费师范生积极心理健康教育支持系统;积极防控心理问题,开展心理咨询与辅导;建设积极心理健康教育课程;开展积极心理健康教育活动等。%Traditional psychological health education can not meet the needs of the development of psychological quality of tuition-free pedagogical students . Positive psychology is the basic theory of positive mental health education for tuition-free pedagogical students ,and psychological development is its realistic basis .The fundamental goal of positive mental health education for free normal education lies in the cultivation of positive psychological quality .The object of positive mental health education for tuition-free pedagogical students includes not only the students with psychological problems but also the all-round development of psychological potential and positive psychological quality . Ways of positive mental health education for the tuition-free pedagogical students are as follows:the establishment of organization and leadership mechanism , the construction of tuition-free pedagogical students’ positive mental health education supporting system;the active prevention and control of psychological problems as well as the service of psychological counseling and guidance;the construction of health education course for positive psychology;the promotion of positive mental health education activities .

  10. Child labour in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Dvořáková, Pavla

    2014-01-01

    Child labour in developing countries Abstract This bachelor thesis deals with the child labour and its occurence in developing countries. The main aim is to present the basic view of this problem. The term of child labour relies here on Convention on the Rights of the Child and conventions of International Labour Organization. There are several types of child labour, in which children appear most, including the worst forms of child labour. Every type includes description of activities perform...

  11. Why to Limit Your Child's Media Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at greater risk for sleep problems. Exposure to light (particularly blue light) and stimulating content from screens can delay or ... account each child's age, health, personality, and developmental stage. All children and teens need adequate sleep (8-12 hours, depending on age), physical activity ( ...

  12. A PSYCHOSOCIAL TOOL FOR CHILD'S DEVELOPMENT Nicholas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and depends on the parents for support and upbringing. Evidently, the child is the ... natural justices, fair play and the laws of the land. ... that occur in human beings over the course of their life ..... One of the important benefits of dance as a.

  13. Child prostitution in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Carmen

    2008-06-01

    Child prostitution is an old, global and complex phenomenon, which deprives children of their childhood, human rights and dignity. Child prostitution can be seen as the commercial sexual exploitation of children involving an element of forced labour, and thus can be considered as a contemporary form of slavery. Globally, child prostitution is reported to be a common problem in Central and South America and Asia. Of all the south-east Asian nations, the problem is most prolific in Thailand. In Thailand, there appears to be a long history of child prostitution, and this article explores the factors that underpin the Thai child sex industry and the lessons and implications that can be drawn for health care and nursing around the world.

  14. 5 CFR 843.406 - Proof of dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... considerable value; (5) Proof of coverage of the child as a family member under the employee's or retiree's... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proof of dependency. 843.406 Section 843... Proof of dependency. (a) A child is considered to have been dependent on the deceased employee or...

  15. [Tuitional-based promotion of social competencies and prevention of bullying in adolescence--the fairplayer.manual: results of a pilot evaluation study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheithauer, Herbert; Bull, Heike Dele

    2010-01-01

    The fairplayer.manual (Scheithauer u. Bull, 2008), a manualized, tuitional-based preventive intervention programme to facilitate social competence and prevent school bullying consists of at least 15 to 17 consecutive, ninety-minute-lessons using cognitive-behavioural methods (e. g. role plays, model-learning, social reinforcement, behaviour-feedback) and moral dilemma discussions amongst others. We present results from a pilot evaluation study with 138 students (between 13 and 21 years of age, from comprehensive and vocational school) and their teachers. Students and teachers were administered structured questionnaires considering e. g. the occurrence of bullying, prosocial behavior and student's empathy as well as legitimation of violence. For 113 students we obtained data for the two measurement points (pre-post). Due to a high attrition rate information of an initially recruited control group could not be considered. Results indicated partially impressive positive changes concerning the total number of bullies and victims as well as prosocial behavior. Results concerning legitimation of violence and empathy differed for classes according to treatment integrity.

  16. Child Development Associate. Child Growth and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oscar Rose Junior Coll., Midwest City, OK.

    The purpose of this Child Development Associate (CDA) training module, one of a series of 18, is to help the CDA intern understand the factors and principles which affect the total growth and development of children. Early sections of the module stipulate the module's competency-based objectives, define terms, and suggest procedures by which…

  17. Child maltreatment in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhi, Pratibha; Saini, Arushi Gahlot; Malhi, Prabhjot

    2013-11-01

    Child maltreatment is a global problem but is more difficult to assess and manage in developing countries such as India where one-fifth of the world's total child population resides. Certain forms of maltreatment such as feticide, infanticide, abandonment, child labour, street-begging, corporal punishment and battered babies are particularly prevalent in India. Most physicians still need to be sensitized in order to suspect child abuse on the basis of unexplained trauma, multiple fractures, parental conflict and other corroborative evidence. This article summarizes the various aspects of this major problem in resource-poor settings in the hope that it will assist in the planning of services addressing child physical and sexual abuse and neglect in India and in other developing countries. A culture of non-violence towards children needs to be built into communities in order to provide an environment conducive to the overall development of the child. Rehabilitation of abused children and their families requires a multi-disciplinary service including paediatricians, child psychologists and social workers, and the training of police forces in how to tackle the problem.

  18. In-State Tuition Policies under the Veterans Access, Choice and Accountability Act. ECS Education Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Mary; Sponsler, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Ensuring access and affordability to a postsecondary education for veterans and their dependents has long been a focus of federal and state education policy. Developing policy to support educational attainment among these individuals has required state policymakers to address residency requirements for veterans to determine eligibility for…

  19. FAQ: Child Sexual Exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as feelings of betrayal, powerlessness, worthlessness and low self-esteem. It is impossible to calculate how many times a child's pornographic image may be possessed and distributed online. Each and ...

  20. CHILD LABOR IN PALEMBANG

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ariyanti, Indri; Marwa, Taufiq; Tarmizi, Nurlina; Soebyakto, Bambang Bemby

    2016-01-01

    This research explains the effects of gender, parents’ education, parent’s income, the number of siblings, childbirth order, the presence of parents and patriarchal kinship system on the probability of child labor in Palembang...

  1. Your Child's Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as before falling to sleep or quietly listening to music. Some habits may be leftovers from ... THIS TOPIC First Aid: Nosebleeds Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Teaching Your Child Self-Control Temper Tantrums How Can ...

  2. Child Maltreatment Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents Have Safe, Stable, Nurturing Relationships [PDF 255KB] Essentials for Childhood Connecting the Dots: An Overview of the Links Among Multiple Forms of Violence [PDF 2.51MB] Economic Cost of Child Abuse Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) ...

  3. Dental care - child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002213.htm Dental care - child To use the sharing features on ... and rinsing daily. It also includes having routine dental exams, and getting necessary treatments such as fluoride, ...

  4. My Child Is Stealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... around. And there's often little sympathy for repeat offenders. Further punishment , particularly physical punishment, is not necessary and could make a child or teen angry and more likely to engage in even ...

  5. Asthma - child - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pediatric asthma - discharge; Wheezing - discharge; Reactive airway disease - discharge ... Your child has asthma , which causes the airways of the lungs to swell and narrow. In the hospital, the doctors and nurses helped ...

  6. Scoliosis surgery - child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007383.htm Scoliosis surgery - child To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Scoliosis surgery repairs abnormal curving of the spine ( scoliosis ). ...

  7. The child immigrant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonovitz, Jennifer M

    2004-06-01

    This article uses a developmental perspective to look at the effects of immigration on the young child. Factors influencing the way in which the immigrant family negotiates the ongoing process of settling into the new country are considered. It is argued that the ability of parents to provide an adequate holding environment to protect the young child from too much loss or dislocation is probably the most critical factor in determining whether the child's internal world will be enriched or impoverished by the immigration experience. It is emphasized that immigration is an ongoing process for the entire family. Some clinical material is presented to illustrate how the child's engagement in the process of separation-individuation both shapes and is shaped by, the immigration experience.

  8. My Child Is Stealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... there's often little sympathy for repeat offenders. Further punishment , particularly physical punishment, is not necessary and could make a child ... They should also know that stealing is a crime and can lead to consequences far worse than ...

  9. The Child in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Judith

    1979-01-01

    Describes the various displays and activities which make up a traveling exhibit, "Reflections: The Child in America." The exhibition is designed to enhance understanding of American children's lives and experiences from colonial times to the present. (SS)

  10. CDC Child Growth Charts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CDC child growth charts consist of a series of percentile curves that illustrate the distribution of selected body measurements in U.S. children. Pediatric growth...

  11. Toilet Teaching Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development ( ... when traveling, around the birth of a sibling , changing from the crib to the bed, moving to ...

  12. Weaning Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development ( ... cup, or maybe even just a cuddle. Try changing your daily routine so that you're otherwise ...

  13. Music in child care

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Polikandrioti; Ioannis Koutelekos

    2007-01-01

    Music has been used therapeutically for many centuries, and numerous studies have researched the curative and preventative powers of music in several diseases. Music, as a therapy was shown to have positive effects in child care, such as in premature infants, children in emergency care, children receiving surgery, children in oncology departments and handicapped children. The aim of this review was to study the therapeutic effects of music in child care at hospital. The method οf this study i...

  14. Music in child care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Polikandrioti

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Music has been used therapeutically for many centuries, and numerous studies have researched the curative and preventative powers of music in several diseases. Music, as a therapy was shown to have positive effects in child care, such as in premature infants, children in emergency care, children receiving surgery, children in oncology departments and handicapped children. The aim of this review was to study the therapeutic effects of music in child care at hospital. The method οf this study included bibliography research from both the review and the research internatio nal literature, which was referred to the therapeutic effects of music in Children's Hospital. Results: Most studies focus on the beneficial effects of music to child. The results of the study showed that music is widely used to enhance well‐being and appears to exert direct effects to child, which are mainly related to physiology and psychology, including changes in the vital signs, reductions in anxiety and pain, distraction of attention from unpleasant sensations and better communication with the environment at hospital. Furthermore, music exerts indirect effects to child since is able to cause positive modifications in nurses' behaviour and conduces to better performance in their duties. Conclusions: Music consists a low-cost "therapeutic instrument" for nurses to apply to child-patient and is found to be effective in producing positive outcomes. The nurses' knowledge of music therapy need to be improved and the therapeutic impact of music must be a result from systematic professional application.

  15. Social Factors Influencing Child Health in Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Quansah

    Full Text Available Social factors have profound effects on health. Children are especially vulnerable to social influences, particularly in their early years. Adverse social exposures in childhood can lead to chronic disorders later in life. Here, we sought to identify and evaluate the impact of social factors on child health in Ghana. As Ghana is unlikely to achieve the Millennium Development Goals' target of reducing child mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, we deemed it necessary to identify social determinants that might have contributed to the non-realisation of this goal.ScienceDirect, PubMed, MEDLINE via EBSCO and Google Scholar were searched for published articles reporting on the influence of social factors on child health in Ghana. After screening the 98 articles identified, 34 of them that met our inclusion criteria were selected for qualitative review.Major social factors influencing child health in the country include maternal education, rural-urban disparities (place of residence, family income (wealth/poverty and high dependency (multiparousity. These factors are associated with child mortality, nutritional status of children, completion of immunisation programmes, health-seeking behaviour and hygiene practices.Several social factors influence child health outcomes in Ghana. Developing more effective responses to these social determinants would require sustainable efforts from all stakeholders including the Government, healthcare providers and families. We recommend the development of interventions that would support families through direct social support initiatives aimed at alleviating poverty and inequality, and indirect approaches targeted at eliminating the dependence of poor health outcomes on social factors. Importantly, the expansion of quality free education interventions to improve would-be-mother's health knowledge is emphasised.

  16. Seat belts, airbags and child protection devices. [previously: Seat belts and child restraint seats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the use of seat belts results in a yearly reduction of hundreds of fatalities. Seat belts reduce the risk of fatal injury by 37 to 48%, depending on the position in the car. At 50%, the effect of child protection devices is even slightly higher. When last measured (in 2010), 97%

  17. Maternal thyroid dysfunction and risk of seizure in the child

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stine Linding; Laurberg, Peter; Wu, Chunsen

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are essential for brain development, and maternal thyroid disease may affect child neurocognitive development. Some types of seizures may also depend upon early exposure of the developing central nervous system, and we hypothesized that maternal thyroid dysfunction could increase...... the risk of seizure in the child. In a Danish population-based study we included 1,699,693 liveborn singletons, and from the Danish National Hospital Register we obtained information on maternal diagnosis of hyper- or hypothyroidism and neonatal seizure, febrile seizure, and epilepsy in the child. Maternal...... diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction before or after birth of the child was registered in two percent of the singleton births. In adjusted analyses, maternal hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism first time diagnosed after birth of the child were associated with a significant increased risk of epilepsy...

  18. Evolutionary Perspective in Child Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze’ev Hochberg

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary, environmental, and stochastic factors determine a child’s growth in his unique environment, but their relative contribution to the phenotypic outcome and the extent of stochastic programming that is required to alter human phenotypes is not known because few data are available. This is an attempt to use evolutionary life-history theory in understanding child growth in a broad evolutionary perspective, using the data and theory of evolutionary predictive adaptive growth-related strategies. Transitions from one life-history phase to the next have inherent adaptive plasticity in their timing. Humans evolved to withstand energy crises by decreasing their body size, and evolutionary short-term adaptations to energy crises utilize a plasticity that modifies the timing of transition from infancy into childhood, culminating in short stature in times of energy crisis. Transition to juvenility is part of a strategy of conversion from a period of total dependence on the family and tribe for provision and security to self-supply, and a degree of adaptive plasticity is provided and determines body composition. Transition to adolescence entails plasticity in adapting to energy resources, other environmental cues, and the social needs of the maturing adolescent to determine life-span and the period of fecundity and fertility. Fundamental questions are raised by a life-history approach to the unique growth pattern of each child in his given genetic background and current environment.

  19. Elemental analysis of human amniotic fluid and placenta by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence and energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence: child weight and maternal age dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, M. L.; Custódio, P. J.; Reus, U.; Prange, A.

    2001-11-01

    This work is an attempt to evaluate the possible influence of the mother's age in trace element concentrations in human amniotic fluid and placenta and whether these concentrations are correlated to the weight of the newborn infants. Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) was used to analyze 16 amniotic fluid samples, and the placenta samples were analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF). The whole samples were collected during delivery from healthy mothers and healthy infants and full-term pregnancies. According to the age of the mother, three different groups were considered: 20-25, 25-30 and 30-40 years old. Only two mothers were aged more than 35 years. The weight of the infants ranged from 2.56 to 4.05 kg and three groups were also considered: 2.5-3, 3-3.5 and 3.5-4 kg. The organic matrix of the amniotic fluid samples was removed by treatment with HNO 3 followed by oxygen plasma ashing. Yttrium was used as the internal standard for TXRF analysis. Placenta samples were lyophilized and analyzed by EDXRF without any chemical treatment. Very low levels of Ni and Sr were found in the amniotic fluid samples, and were independent of the age of the mother and weight of the child. Cr, Mn, Se and Pb were at the level of the detection limit. Zn, considered one of the key elements in neonatal health, was not significantly different in the samples analyzed; however, it was weakly related to birth weigh. The concentrations obtained ranged from 0.11 to 0.92 mg/l and 30 to 65 μg/g in amniotic fluid and placenta, respectively. The only two elements which seemed to be significantly correlated with mother's age and newborn weight were Ca and Fe for both types of sample: Ca levels were increased in heavier children and older mothers; however, Fe increased with increasing maternal age, but decreased for heavier babies. The same conclusions were obtained for placenta and amniotic fluid samples. Cu is closely associated with Fe in its function in the organism

  20. Agency Culture and Climate in Child Welfare: Do Perceptions Vary by Exposure to the Child Welfare System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielfogel, Jill E; Leathers, Sonya J; Christian, Errick

    2016-01-01

    Organizational culture and climate play a critical role in worker retention and outcomes, yet little is known about whether perceptions of culture and climate vary depending on the demands of particular roles. In this study, 113 staff from a child welfare agency completed Organizational Social Context profiles. Staff were divided into three groups according to their proximity to child welfare tasks to assess whether involvement in higher stress child welfare tasks is related to perceptions of the social context. Findings suggest possible differences across groups, with those involved in core child welfare tasks appearing to perceive higher resistance to new ways of providing services and those with the least involvement in traditional child welfare perceiving a more positive social context overall.

  1. Meet the good child

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Malene; Grønhøj, Alice

    2016-01-01

    to be appropriate child and parental behavior. The study takes a practice theoretical perspective, building on previous research on family consumption, and draws empirically on 35 interviews with 5–6 year-olds and 13 family interviews. Findings show that the children recognize the position of ‘the good child......’ and most often prefer to take on this position, which is confirmed by their parents. The children can describe how ‘the good child’—in their eyes—should behave. They prefer consensus and not being embarrassing or embarrassed. The study concludes that the children are strongly immersed in social norms...... and family practices, and that the Danish national/cultural context probably reinforces these children as independent consumers, who are well aware of the requirements of the consumer role. Childing practices are a standard with know-how and rules that these children argue they live by—at least most...

  2. The Child Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein abbasnezhadriyabi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available While a large number of children are losing their lives due to poverty, malnutrition, contagious diseases and war, we are witnessing hundreds of children death by reason of misbehaving. Today, "child abuse" as a social-cultural phenomenon which shows crisis in a society, has a growing process in our country. The goal of this research was to investigate the base factors of child abuse that according to the results are consist as follows, poverty, unemployment, addiction, large families, single-parent, Considering the increase of factors such as poverty, addiction, unemployment, divorce, temporary marriage, street children and other effective factors, the hypothesis based on growth of child abuse was proved in Iran.

  3. Child health in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niclasen, Birgit V L; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2007-01-01

    importance to the health of children in Greenland. More accurate data on child health are necessary in the future to secure better prioritization. It is suggested to construct a set of reliable indicators of child health in Greenland to monitor the health of children on a national and regional basis....... were sorted by topic, type, quality of study, and relevance for child health today, providing 47 articles. RESULTS: Children in Greenland have become taller and have improved their general health. The morbidity found in Greenlandic children is similar to that found elsewhere even though the magnitude....... Overweight and obesity have tripled in 20 years and are a health threat as well as constituting negative health behaviour. Social ill health, socioeconomic inequity, and sociocultural changes also influence health but their consequences are not well investigated in children. CONCLUSIONS: A relatively high...

  4. Nicotine Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicotine dependence Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Nicotine dependence ― also called tobacco dependence ― is an addiction to tobacco products caused by the drug nicotine. Nicotine dependence means you can't stop using the substance, ...

  5. Child mortality, commodity price volatility and the resource curse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhlouf, Yousef; Kellard, Neil M; Vinogradov, Dmitri

    2017-04-01

    Given many developing economies depend on primary commodities, the fluctuations of commodity prices may imply significant effects for the wellbeing of children. To investigate, this paper examines the relationship between child mortality and commodity price movements as reflected by country-specific commodity terms-of-trade. Employing a panel of 69 low and lower-middle income countries over the period 1970-2010, we show that commodity terms-of-trade volatility increases child mortality in highly commodity-dependent importers suggesting a type of 'scarce' resource curse. Strikingly however, good institutions appear able to mitigate the negative impact of volatility. The paper concludes by highlighting this tripartite relationship between child mortality, volatility and good institutions and posits that an effective approach to improving child wellbeing in low to lower-middle income countries will combine hedging, import diversification and improvement of institutional quality. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Factors predicting a child's dental fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majstorović, M; Skrinjarić, I; Glavina, D; Szirovicza, L

    2001-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine and assess the variables most involved in the etiology of a child's dental fear. The study was performed on a sample of 89 children aged from 5.5 to 12.5 years and their mothers. The sample comprised 37 children with experience of dental trauma (19 boys and 18 girls) and 52 children without experience of dental trauma (28 boys and 24 girls). Corah Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS) was applied to evaluate the level of the child's (CDAS) and mother's (MDAS) dental anxiety. Broome's Child Medical Fear Questionnaire (CMFQ) was used to assess the child's fear of medical treatment. Hollingshead Two Factor Index of Social Position (ISP) was calculated to assess socio-economic status of the family. Cluster analysis differentiated one group of dentally anxious children with the highest level of maternal anxiety (MDAS = 14.44) and the lowest socio-economic status (ISP = 41.94). Another group of extremely anxious children (CDAS = 14.31) showed the highest fear of medical treatment (CMFQ = 22.08) and rather low socio-economic status. One group represented children with the lowest CDAS (5.63), lowest MDAS (8.46), and lowest CMFQ (13.54). Linear regression analysis showed high correlation between previous traumatic medical experiences and a child's dental anxiety using the linear model CDAS' = b0 + b1 x CMFQ. The analysis revealed that a child's dental fear mostly depends on early negative medical experience, while material dental anxiety and socio-economic circumstances seem to be of less importance.

  7. Child Labor: A Forgotten Focus for Child Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otis, Jack; Pasztor, Eileen Mayers; McFadden, Emily Jean

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the worldwide problem of child labor and efforts to advocate for the welfare of these impoverished children. Considers factors that contribute to the continued use of child labor and the resistance of these labor practices to reform. Discusses child labor in the United States, and urges public advocacy for labor reform within child…

  8. Child Labor: A Forgotten Focus for Child Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otis, Jack; Pasztor, Eileen Mayers; McFadden, Emily Jean

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the worldwide problem of child labor and efforts to advocate for the welfare of these impoverished children. Considers factors that contribute to the continued use of child labor and the resistance of these labor practices to reform. Discusses child labor in the United States, and urges public advocacy for labor reform within child…

  9. Mother-Child Agreement on the Child's Past Food Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongudomporn, Udom; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Geater, Alan F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess mother-child agreement on the child's past food exposure, and factors affecting response discrepancy. Methods: Twelve- to 14-year-old children and their mothers (n = 78) in an urban community, a rural community, and 2 orthodontic clinics completed a 69-item food questionnaire to determine mother-child level of agreement on the…

  10. Mother-Child Agreement on the Child's Past Food Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongudomporn, Udom; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Geater, Alan F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess mother-child agreement on the child's past food exposure, and factors affecting response discrepancy. Methods: Twelve- to 14-year-old children and their mothers (n = 78) in an urban community, a rural community, and 2 orthodontic clinics completed a 69-item food questionnaire to determine mother-child level of agreement on the…

  11. Child Care Subsidy Use and Child Development: Potential Causal Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkinson, Laura E.

    2011-01-01

    Research using an experimental design is needed to provide firm causal evidence on the impacts of child care subsidy use on child development, and on underlying causal mechanisms since subsidies can affect child development only indirectly via changes they cause in children's early experiences. However, before costly experimental research is…

  12. Child Labor in America's History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Harold

    1976-01-01

    A brief history of child labor and the fight for legislation to control it at both the state and federal level. The current legal status and the continued existence of child labor in modern times are also discussed. (MS)

  13. Child Labor in America's History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Harold

    1976-01-01

    A brief history of child labor and the fight for legislation to control it at both the state and federal level. The current legal status and the continued existence of child labor in modern times are also discussed. (MS)

  14. Parent and Child Living Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushaw, David R.

    1978-01-01

    Parent and child living centers offer a program to improve parenting skills with areas of learning including child growth and development, family management, home care and repair, and personal growth and development. (MM)

  15. Vaginal itching and discharge - child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vulvae; Itching - vaginal area; Vulvar itching; Yeast infection - child ... To prevent and treat vaginal irritation, your child should: Avoid colored or perfumed toilet tissue and bubble bath. Use plain, unscented soap. Limit bath time to 15 minutes or less. Ask ...

  16. Child Abuse: The Hidden Bruises

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5; Updated November 2014 The statistics on physical child abuse are alarming. It is estimated hundreds of thousands ... Physical abuse is not the only kind of child abuse. Many children are also victims of neglect, or ...

  17. CPR - child (1 to 8 years old)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rescue breathing and chest compressions - child; Resuscitation - cardiopulmonary - child; Cardiopulmonary resuscitation - child ... All parents and those who take care of children should learn infant and child CPR if they ...

  18. Concussion - what to ask your doctor - child

    Science.gov (United States)

    What to ask your doctor about concussion - child; Mild brain injury - what to ask your doctor - child ... school people I should tell about my child's concussion? Can my child stay for a full day? ...

  19. Anesthesia - what to ask your doctor - child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... procedure that my child is having? General anesthesia Spinal or epidural anesthesia Conscious sedation When does my child need to ... have an upset stomach? If my child had spinal or epidural anesthesia, will my child have a headache afterwards? What ...

  20. The day of surgery for your child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Same-day surgery - child; Ambulatory surgery - child; Surgical procedure - child ... The anesthesia and surgery team will talk with you and your child before surgery. You may meet with them at an appointment before ...

  1. Internet and child pornography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seda Çağlar

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, internet use and access is becoming increasingly common as a great entertainment, communication and educational resource for children as well as for adults. Internet is a perfect environment for children, for exploring the world, learning and having fun. However, access to illegal sites that contain violence and sexuality, and contact dangerous people are among the particular risks for children using the internet. It is a known fact that, internet and developing technology make the production and distribution of child pornography cheaper and easier. There has been consensus on the need of creating a plan and increasing the awareness in the community for the fight against child pornography. Because of the increasing internet use and the risk for children mentioned, nurses got new responsibilities. Nurses have to inform society, especially families and children, about safe internet use. In this review, legal regulations about the fight against child pornography on the internet, the reasons that lay the ground for child pornography and their negative effects on children has been addressed.

  2. Child Indicators: Dental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewit, Eugene M.; Kerrebrock, Nancy

    1998-01-01

    Reviews measures of dental health in children and the evidence on child dental health. Although children's dental health has improved over the past two decades, many poor children do not receive necessary dental health services, and reasons for this failure are summarized. (SLD)

  3. Helping Your Overweight Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    Currently, at least one child in five is overweight. Although children have fewer health problems from weight than adults, overweight children are at high risk for many health problems including heart disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, and stroke. Several factors are cited as to why children become overweight. Genetics, lack of exercise, and…

  4. Child Care Aware

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a stream of our activity across multiple social networks by visiting the Child Care Aware® of America Social Dashboard. Visit Our Social Dashboard Follow and Engage ... Care Aware of America Home Newsroom Contact Us Log In Register Back About ...

  5. Child Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... misbehave some times. And some may have temporary behavior problems due to stress. For example, the birth of a sibling, a ... for school failure, mental health problems, and even suicide. Classes or ... limits. Talk therapy and behavior therapy for your child can also help.

  6. The Child Whisperer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Dane L.

    2012-01-01

    Unquestionably, Maria Montessori's insights into child development were both innate and learned, derived from her many years of working with children. Her work, practices, philosophy, and passion have staying power that, so far, spans a century and are a testament to her dedication and abilities. In this article, the author explains why he sees…

  7. Child Computer Interaction SIG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Read, Janet; Hourcade, Juan Pablo; Markopoulos, Panos

    The discipline of Child Computer Interaction (CCI) has been steadily growing and it is now firmly established as a community in its own right, having the annual IDC (Interaction and Design for Children) conference and its own journal and also enjoying its role as a highly recognisable and vibrant...

  8. Child Nutrition Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘志强

    2005-01-01

    The Child Nutrition Program invites all students to participate in the school breakfast and lunch program at school. Our goal is to improve the health and education of students by providing nutritious meals that promote food choices for a healthy diet. Failure to eat balanced meals increases the risk of illness including obesity ,

  9. Treatment for Child Abusers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, James J.; Clark, Elizabeth H.

    1974-01-01

    Staff of a child abuse program in a Philadelphia hospital worked with parents in their own homes to help them develop greater competence as adults and as parents. This article describes the use of social learning theory, with some techniques of behavior therapy, as the basis for treatment. (Author)

  10. The Gifted Dyslexic Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eide, Brock; Eide, Fernette

    2009-01-01

    A major reason why dyslexia is likely to be missed or mislabeled in an intellectually gifted child is the lack of a specific, clearly recognized definition to enable diagnosis of dyslexia. It's crucial that adults working with gifted students understand that average or even above reading comprehension does not by itself guarantee that a gifted…

  11. Child Care Centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Dept. of Labour and National Service, Melbourne. Women's Bureau.

    Based on a survey of legislation relating to full-day care for preschool children of working mothers and a study of records, this report: (1) covers the number of registered child care centers in Australia and the number of children being served, (2) sets the conditions applying to registration of centers, (3) indicates the extent and levels of…

  12. Measuring Child Rhythm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Elinor; Post, Brechtje; Astruc, Lluisa; Prieto, Pilar; Vanrell, Maria del Mar

    2012-01-01

    Interval-based rhythm metrics were applied to the speech of English, Catalan and Spanish 2, 4 and 6 year-olds, and compared with the (adult-directed) speech of their mothers. Results reveal that child speech does not fall into a well-defined rhythmic class: for all three languages, it is more "vocalic" (higher %V) than adult speech and has a…

  13. The Child as Craftsman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, David H.

    1976-01-01

    Perhaps the most important implication of the metaphor is to suggest that it may well be the main purpose of education to provide conditions under which each child will identify and find satisfaction through a chosen field or fields of work. (Author)

  14. Who Is This Child?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Robert D.

    1996-01-01

    An Idaho education dean recounts a moving encounter with a fatherless first-grader while visiting his grandson in Eugene, Oregon. Envisioning a deadbeat dad and a burned-out mother, he pondered the statistical odds of this child graduating from college. However, the girl's warm welcome from her teacher helped revise his hopes about the little…

  15. The Child Whisperer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Dane L.

    2012-01-01

    Unquestionably, Maria Montessori's insights into child development were both innate and learned, derived from her many years of working with children. Her work, practices, philosophy, and passion have staying power that, so far, spans a century and are a testament to her dedication and abilities. In this article, the author explains why he sees…

  16. CHILD PORNOGRAPHY ON THE INTERNET

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Negredo; Óscar Herrero

    2016-01-01

    Downloading, exchanging and producing child pornography is a criminal behaviour of growing relevance. The cruel exploitation of minors and its link with child sexual abuse raise great social and academic concern. The current paper approaches the nature of the phenomenon, the characteristics of the materials labelled as “child pornography”, the psychological traits of the users and the existing treatment programs

  17. Social Structure and Child Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferriss, Abbott L.

    2006-01-01

    Child poverty, as a critical indicator of the QOL, is intricately related to the social structure of the community. This hypothesis is explored for the 159 counties of Georgia for the year 2000. The influence of demographic, economic, family and health factors upon child poverty are explored through models of total, black and white child poverty.…

  18. CURRICULUM GUIDE, CHILD CARE CENTERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    CALIFORNIA CHILD CARE CENTERS WERE ESTABLISHED IN 1943 TO SUPPLY SERVICES TO CHILDREN OF WORKING MOTHERS. THE CHILD CARE PROGRAM PROVIDES, WITHIN NURSERY AND SCHOOLAGE CENTERS, CARE AND EDUCATIONAL SUPERVISION FOR PRESCHOOL AND ELEMENTARY SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN. THE PHILOSOPHY OF THE CHILD CENTER PROGRAM IS BASED UPON THE BELIEF THAT EACH CHILD…

  19. Child Abuse: The Educator's Responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Office of the Attorney General, Sacramento. School Safety Center.

    Addressing educators and citing the California Penal Code, this booklet discusses the legal responsibilities of persons in child care situations regarding incidents of suspected child abuse. Included are: (1) a definition of child abuse and neglect; (2) reporting procedures including liability of failure to report and immunity of the reporting…

  20. Child Mental Health - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Child Mental Health - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, ... Protecting Your Child from Suicide - English Protecting Your Child from Suicide - lea faka-Tonga (Tongan ) ... Brigham Young University Characters not displaying correctly on this page? See language display issues . Return to the MedlinePlus Health Information ...

  1. Parent-Child Agreement on Parent-to-Child Maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compier-de Block, Laura H C G; Alink, Lenneke R A; Linting, Mariëlle; van den Berg, Lisa J M; Elzinga, Bernet M; Voorthuis, Alexandra; Tollenaar, Marieke S; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J

    2017-01-01

    Parent-child agreement on child maltreatment was examined in a multigenerational study. Questionnaires on perpetrated and experienced child maltreatment were completed by 138 parent-child pairs. Multi-level analyses were conducted to explore whether parents and children agreed about levels of parent-to-child maltreatment (convergence), and to examine whether parents and children reported equal levels of child maltreatment (absolute differences). Direct and moderating effects of age and gender were examined as potential factors explaining differences between parent and child report. The associations between parent- and child-reported maltreatment were significant for all subtypes, but the strength of the associations was low to moderate. Moreover, children reported more parent-to-child neglect than parents did. Older participants reported more experienced maltreatment than younger participants, without evidence for differences in actual exposure. These findings support the value of multi-informant assessment of child maltreatment to improve accuracy, but also reveal the divergent perspectives of parents and children on child maltreatment.

  2. Infant mortality and child nutrition in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancer, Diane; Rammohan, Anu; Smith, Murray D

    2008-09-01

    The excess female infant mortality observed in South Asia has typically been attributed to gender discrimination in the intra-household allocation of food and medical care. However, studies on child nutrition find no evidence of gender differences. A natural explanation could be that in environments of high infant mortality of females, the surviving children are healthier, so that child nutrition cannot be studied independently of mortality. In this paper, we use data from the 2004 Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey to investigate if there are any gender differences in survival probabilities and whether this leads to differences in child nutrition. We argue the importance of establishing whether or not there exists a dependence relationship between the two random variables--infant mortality and child nutrition--and in order to detect this we employ a copula approach to model specification. The results suggest, for example, that while male children have a significantly lower likelihood of surviving their first year relative to female children, should they survive they have significantly better height-for-age Z-scores. From a policy perspective, household wealth and public health interventions such as vaccinations are found to be important predictors of better nutritional outcomes.

  3. Global Threats to Child Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Sharon E

    2016-02-01

    Children have rights, as enumerated in the Declaration of the Rights of the Child, and need protection from violence, exploitation, and abuse. Global threats to child safety exist. These threats include lack of basic needs (food, clean water, sanitation), maltreatment, abandonment, child labor, child marriage, female genital mutilation, child trafficking, disasters, and armed conflicts/wars. Recent disasters and armed conflicts have led to a record number of displaced people especially children and their families. Strategies and specific programs can be developed and implemented for eliminating threats to the safety of children.

  4. The unwanted child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trias, M

    1982-12-01

    The problem of the unwanted child is a most grievous aspect of the complex of negative factors associated with underdevelopment. Although the problem of the unwanted child exists in industrialized countries as well, the incidence is much higher in the 3rd world. In industrialized nations modern contraceptives are widely available, public awareness of them is high, and legal abortion may be an option in the event of contraceptive failure or nonuse. In Colombia alone, nearly 1 million women are living in immediate danger of an unwanted pregnancy. In the 3rd world as a whole there are an estimated 150 million who do not want another pregnancy but who lack access to contraceptive information and services. Research from a variety of sources suggests that being unwanted and unloved can have a lasting effect on a child's development. Sociological research confirms the need to preserve the bond between mother and child. Studies of adopted children have established a clear relationship between their physical and psychological development and the age at which they were adopted. If this affective bond is not established in the early months of life, the negative effects which result may prove difficult to overcome. Yet, however late it comes, adoption is always preferable to the relative deprivation a child experiences when institutionalized. Studies conducted in Eastern Europe comparing children whose parents had requested an abortion but had not been granted permission with a control group of children revealed a pattern of inferior physical development and social adjustment in the 1st group. Intelligence, in addition to its important genetic foundation, requires physical nurturing and psychological stimulation from the surrounding environment, provided during the final months of pregnancy or the 1st few years of life. Religious doctrine postulates that universal maternal instinct allows the mother to overcome her problems, but this is often not the case. Infanticide dates

  5. Family environment and child development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Kavčič

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an overview of research findings on influence of family environment, especially parental behaviour, on child's development. Contemporary authors question early socialization researchers' claims that family characteristics and parental behaviour have important influence on behaviour of their children. Later researchers examined the size and durability of possible effects of family environment on child development. In addition, they focused on establishing whether it is actually the parental behaviour that influences child's development or, on the contrary, parental behaviour represents mainly a reaction to child's characteristics. Behaviour genetic studies have provided evidence that many traditional measures of family environment, including measures of parental behaviour, show genetic influence, thus reflecting genetically influenced child characteristics. Behaviour geneticists also suggest that environmental influences on child (personality development include predominantly non-shared environment, i.e. individual child's specific experiences, his/her own perceptions and interpretations of objectively same events. Based on empirically determined significant genetic effects on most behavioural traits and inconclusive results of studies on effects of family environment on child development some authors believe that it is not the parents, but rather genetic factor and/or peers who have the key role in child development. With respect to findings of behaviour genetics numerous recent studies of relations between family environment and child development involve child specific measures of (extrafamilial environment and examine the interactions between characteristics of an individual and those of his/her environment.

  6. CHILD LABOR DISGRACE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Shanxi Province child labor scandal has shocked China to its core. Over 1,000 children were forced into illegal labor by morally bankrupt brick kiln businesses, throwing a depressing shroud over China’s rapid development. Uncovering these tales of abduction, death and the physical and mental abuse endured by these children has been a proud moment for China’s press. Several hundred of the kiln slave children have now been reunited with their families. Kiln owners, contractors and accomplices are being brought to justice or hunted down, some even charged with murder.However, in all this gloom some good has surfaced.Public and government attention is now focused on erasing child labor once and for all and for better protecting workers’ rights, hopefully ridding China of such disgraces in the future.

  7. Immigrant Child Poverty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galloway, Taryn Ann; Gustafsson, Björn; Pedersen, Peder J.

    2015-01-01

    Immigrant and native child poverty in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden 1993–2001 is studied using large sets of panel data. While native children face yearly poverty risks of less than 10 percent in all three countries and for all years studied the increasing proportion of immigrant children...... with an origin in middle- and low-income countries have poverty risks that vary from 38 up to as much as 58 percent. At the end of the observation period, one third of the poor children in Norway and as high as about a half in Denmark and in Sweden are of immigrant origin. The strong overrepresentation...... of immigrant children from low- and middle-income countries when measured in yearly data is also found when applying a longer accounting period for poverty measurement. We find that child poverty rates are generally high shortly after arrival to the new country and typically decrease with years since...

  8. [Resilience and child abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, Maria de Fátima Pinheiro da Silva; Deslandes, Suely Ferreira

    2003-01-01

    The article discusses the resilience concept from a critical review. It prioritizes texts produced by organizations with leading roles in the field of child and adolescent health (PAHO, Pan-American Health Organization; ASBRA, the Brazilian Association for Adolescence). The main definitions of resilience are discussed, along with a debate on the contributions and limitations of the current literature. Furthermore, the conceptual and operative possibilities of resilience when confronted with child abuse are discussed, specifically using intra-familial sexual abuse as an example. The authors conclude that the concept of resilience presents polarization around certain axes: "adaptation/overcoming process", "innate/acquired" "permanent/circumstantial". However, they all point to a common ground: the singularity and delicacy of micro-social health-promoting relationships.

  9. Child Health in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandeira, Teresa; Ferreira, Ricardo; Azevedo, Inês

    2016-10-01

    Portugal has experienced rapid decline of neonatal and infant mortality in the last century, similar to that of other western European states. The joint venture of pediatricians and obstetricians with adequate top-down government commissions for maternal and child health for the decision making by health administrators and a well-defined schedule of preventive and managerial measures in the community and in hospitals are the most likely explanations for this success. Another achievement of child health care services is the registry for special diseases. Education of health care workers plays a fundamental role in improving health statistics. Portugal has a reasonable number of doctors, nurses, and health technicians per capita. Quality assurance monitoring systems and implementation of evidence-based clinical guidelines with digital records, including international coding, are essential steps to improve health care systems.

  10. Mother-child communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin

    2015-01-01

    Communication with children plays a crucial role not only for cognitive and social-emotional development but also in a more general sense for an understanding of self and self in relation to others. Research from linguistic anthropology and cultural developmental psychology have shown...... will therefore ultimately lead to different cultural developmental pathways. While traditional research in developmental psychology has focused on mother–child dyads and experimental designs there is an increasing recognition of the need for naturalistic studies of everyday communication with children including...... that there exists a great variety of cultural genres of communicating with children that are in line with the relevant broader cultural ideologies of good child care. Culture, communication, and self- development are inextricably intertwined. Culturally distinct communicative practices in which children participate...

  11. The Odense Child Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyhl, Henriette Boye; Jensen, Tina Kold; Barington, Torben

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The importance of the environment on the development of the fetus and infant throughout early life is increasingly recognised. To study such effects, biological samples and accurate data records are required. Based on multiple data collection from a healthy pregnant population......, the Odense Childhood Cohort (OCC) study aims to provide new information about the environmental impact on child health by sequential follow-up to 18 years of age among children born between 2010 and 2012. METHODS: A total of 2874 of 6707 pregnancies (43%) were recruited between January 2010 and December 2012...... provides material for in-depth analysis of environmental and genetic factors that are important for child health and disease. Registry data from non-participating women and infants are available which ensures a high degree of comparable data....

  12. Mother-child communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin

    2015-01-01

    Communication with children plays a crucial role not only for cognitive and social-emotional development but also in a more general sense for an understanding of self and self in relation to others. Research from linguistic anthropology and cultural developmental psychology have shown...... that there exists a great variety of cultural genres of communicating with children that are in line with the relevant broader cultural ideologies of good child care. Culture, communication, and self- development are inextricably intertwined. Culturally distinct communicative practices in which children participate...... will therefore ultimately lead to different cultural developmental pathways. While traditional research in developmental psychology has focused on mother–child dyads and experimental designs there is an increasing recognition of the need for naturalistic studies of everyday communication with children including...

  13. Anesthetizing the obese child

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Anette; Lenz, Katja; Abildstrøm, Hanne

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood obesity is increasing. The focus of this review is the special anesthetic considerations regarding the perioperative management of obese children. With obesity the risk of comorbidity such as asthma, obstructive sleep apnea, hypertension, and diabetes increases....... The obese child has an increased risk of perioperative complications especially related to airway management and ventilation. There is a significantly increased risk of difficult mask ventilation and perioperative desaturation. Furthermore, obesity has an impact on the pharmacokinetics of most anesthetic...

  14. Child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymel, K P; Jenny, C

    1997-08-01

    Multiple obstacles can hinder the medical evaluation of suspected child sexual abuse in pediatric primary care. The need for diagnostic accuracy is high. Knowledge of sexual abuse risk factors, an understanding of the victimization process, and awareness of the varied clinical presentations of sexual abuse can be of assistance. Open-ended questioning of the suspected victim is the most critical component of the evaluation. Skillful medical interviewing requires time, training, patience, and practice. Pediatricians lacking any of these four requirements should defer interviewing in sexual abuse cases to other professionals. Abnormal physical findings from sexual abuse are uncommon. Colposcopy has assisted pediatricians greatly in reaching consensus regarding diagnostic physical findings. Cases of acute sexual assault require familiarity with the forensic rape examination, STD screening and prophylaxis, and pregnancy prevention. Victimization from sexual abuse continues long after the abusive acts end, often requiring long-term therapeutic intervention. An emerging standard of care for medical evaluations of suspected child sexual abuse recognizes the requirement for patience and compassion while retaining objectivity. The pediatrician's primary concern must be for the child's physical and emotional well-being.

  15. The Medical School Tuition Crunch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, John

    1978-01-01

    New federal policies on student aid favor guaranteed loans rather than direct government aid. Private medical schools may find themselves at a growing competitive disadvantage, and better financial-aid staffing will be needed by all schools. Trustees and administrators should encourage banks to participate in loan programs. (Author/LBH)

  16. Path Dependency

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Setterfield

    2015-01-01

    Path dependency is defined, and three different specific concepts of path dependency – cumulative causation, lock in, and hysteresis – are analyzed. The relationships between path dependency and equilibrium, and path dependency and fundamental uncertainty are also discussed. Finally, a typology of dynamical systems is developed to clarify these relationships.

  17. Are Cash Transfers a Silver Bullet? Evidence from the Zambian Child Grant

    OpenAIRE

    Sudhanshu Handa; David Seidenfeld; Benjamin Davis; Gelson Tembo; Zambia Cash Transfer Evaluation Team

    2014-01-01

    We document the broad impacts of the Zambian Government’s Child Support Grant , including on consumption, livelihood strengthening, material welfare of children, young child feeding, investment in assets, productive activities and housing after two years, making this one of the first studies to demonstrate both protective and productive impacts of a national unconditional cash transfer programme. However impacts in areas such as child nutritional status and schooling depend on initial conditi...

  18. Older Babies - More Active Mothers? How Maternal Labor Supply Changes as the Child Grows

    OpenAIRE

    Katrin Sommerfeld

    2009-01-01

    Female labor market activity is dependent on the presence and the age of a child, but how do the determinants develop in magnitude and significance with the child's age? Using German SOEP data from 1991 to 2006 for mothers with young children, the change in maternal labor supply when the child is one, two, and three years old is explicitly addressed. According to the tobit regression results for precise working hours, maternal labor supply becomes increasingly responsive to economic incentive...

  19. Girl child and social change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, P

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the state of social change and the disparity between India's Constitutional aims and actual practice in addressing gender inequality and the special risks of female children in India. The second part of this article summarizes Constitutional articles and laws relating to protection of women and a girl child. Before birth, a female child is at risk of fetal death. A woman is at risk of poorly performed abortions and maternal mortality. After birth, a girl child is at risk of child care of younger siblings, housework, lack of education, wage work for the household, sexual abuse, vulnerability at work or school or on the street, murder by her parents, abuse, malnutrition, and desertion. The SAARC summit declared 1990 the Year of the Girl Child. UN conventions and a world summit focused on the Rights of the Child. A child has a right to freedom from exploitation, neglect and abuse, and access to food, health care, and education. Articles 14, 15, and 16 of India's Constitution guarantee protection from discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, or place of birth and equality of opportunity in public employment. Article 23 prohibits trafficking in humans and forced labor. Article 24 prohibits child labor under the age of 14 years. Article 39 assures an adequate means of livelihood, equal pay, and protection from child abuse and economic pressure to work in jobs unsuitable to a child's age and strength. Article 45 provides for free and compulsory education up to 14 years of age. Article 51 prohibits derogatory practices against women. Article 325 and 326 prohibits sex discrimination. Other laws pertain to dowry, marriage age, prostitution, abortion, juvenile justice, kidnapping, obscenity, procurement of a minor, sexual offenses, divorce and child support, child care, maternity benefits, and cruelty by a husband or relatives. The girl child in India continues to live in perpetual threat, both physiological and psychological.

  20. Child-parent shared decision making about asthma management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnett, Victoria; Smith, Joanna; Ormandy, Paula

    2016-05-09

    Aim To explore and describe child-parent shared decision making for the management of childhood asthma. Methods A qualitative, descriptive, interview-based study was undertaken. Eight children and nine parents participated. The framework approach underpinned data analysis. Findings A dynamic model of the way children and parents transfer, shift and share asthma management decisions was uncovered. Asthma management decisions between children and parents were non-linear, with responsibility transferring from parent to child under different conditions. Children made a range of decisions about their asthma, often sharing decisions with their parents. However, during acute illness episodes, children often relied on parents to make decisions about their asthma. Conclusion Neither the child nor parent has complete autonomy over asthma management decisions. Decision making is a dynamic, shifting and shared process, dependent on contextual factors and child and parent decision preferences.

  1. Family stressors and child obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garasky, Steven a; Stewart, Susan D; Gundersen, Craig; Lohman, Brenda J; Eisenmann, Joey C

    2009-12-01

    Child obesity is a public health priority with numerous and complex causes. This study focuses on factors within the family, namely stressful experiences, which may be associated with child obesity. We examine data from the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics for children in two age groups: 5-11 and 12-17 years old. Results from an ordered probit regression model of child weight categorizations (healthy weight, overweight, obese) indicate positive associations between a range of family stressors (lack of cognitive stimulation and emotional support in the household among younger children, and mental and physical health problems and financial strain in the household among older children) and child overweight and obesity. We discuss how public policies that reduce family stressors may, in turn, help reduce child obesity.

  2. Child Marriages and Psychosocial Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Aktepe

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most frequent forms of child abuse worldwide is child marriage. Underage marriages are going on to keep their commonness in countries such as Turkey although frequencies of them are decreasing in the world. Child marriage generally refers to the marriage of a child who is under 18 years of age. Because the majority of these marriages are performed without the conscious consent of the child, they are also defined as “early and forced marriages. Child marriages seperate children from their families and friends, expose them to domestic violence, jeopardize their development and the opportunities in educational, social and occupational areas. Early marriages may lead to psychologi-cal problems as well as depression and suicide. The aim of this article is to evaluate the frequency and causes of early marriage and its psychosocial consequences. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(4.000: 410-420

  3. Exploration on Innovation Experiments for Tuition-free Normal College Students Majored in Chemistry%化学专业免费师范生开展创新性实验初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温丽丽; 胡宗球; 万坚

    2015-01-01

    Innovation experiments for undergraduates are important part of the teaching reform, and also are im-portant approaches for improving the quality of university education and overall qualities of undergraduates. Through examples, the article illustrates the role and significance of developing innovation experiments for tuition-free normal university students majored in chemistry.%大学生创新性实验是高等学校教学改革工程的重要组成部分,是提高本科教学质量和大学生综合素质的重要手段。本文通过具体实例,阐述化学专业免费师范生开展创新性实验的作用与意义。

  4. The Predicament of Teacher Career Development of Tuition-free Normal Students%免费师范生职后教师生涯发展的困境

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李录志; 陈一铭

    2015-01-01

    In terms of grounded theory and qualitative research,the paper analyzes the interview data collected from 10 newly-employed tuition-free normal students with one year teaching experience,and tries to describe the difficulties in their growth and to clarify their inner conflict. This study discovers:1)tuition-free normal students made their choices of career on the three reasons:personal factors,family factors,social factors;tuition-free policy is the main cause of personal choice;2 )professional impression and policy guidance made them to choose to be tuition-free normal students;the inconsistence between vocational ideal and vocational reality has brought about the inner conflicts;3)career confusion promotes the vocational ideal to turn into vocational reality. Career confusion is mainly in class management,teacher student relationship,the dealing with lower-achieved students, school environment,teachers’value;4)external factors urge them to seek help from their families,colleagues, friends. The internal cause:self reflection,making vocational planning.%从质性研究的角度运用扎根理论的方法通过对10位就业满一年的免费师范生访谈资料的分析,试图描述出免费师范生成长的困境,并理清免费师范生从选择到职后成长过程中的内心冲突。研究发现:(1)免费师范生在报考选择时基于三个维度的原因:个人因素、家庭因素、社会因素,免费师范生政策是个人选择的主要诱因;(2)职业印象、政策的引导促使学生选择免费师范生;职业理想与职业现实不一致,内心产生冲突;(3)职业困惑促使职业理想转变为职业现实。职业困惑主要表现为班级管理、师生关系、后进生、学校环境、教师价值;(4)外因促使免费师范生成长的方式为:向家人、同事、朋友寻求帮助。内因促使免费师范生成长的方式为:自我反思、制定职业规划。

  5. CHILD PORNOGRAPHY ON THE INTERNET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Negredo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Downloading, exchanging and producing child pornography is a criminal behaviour of growing relevance. The cruel exploitation of minors and its link with child sexual abuse raise great social and academic concern. The current paper approaches the nature of the phenomenon, the characteristics of the materials labelled as “child pornography”, the psychological traits of the users and the existing treatment programs

  6. Planning an outing from hospital for ventilator-dependent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilgoff, I S; Helgren, J

    1992-10-01

    Returning ventilator-dependent children to the home environment has become a well-accepted occurrence. The success of a home program depends on careful pre-discharge planning in order to ensure the child's medical safety, and adequate preparation to ensure the child's and family's adjustment to an active community life after discharge. To achieve this, involvement in community activities must begin while the child is still in hospital. As part of a complete rehabilitation program, nine ventilator-dependent children were taken on an inpatient outing to Disneyland. The planning and goals of the outing are described.

  7. Child neglect: assessment and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornor, Gail

    2014-01-01

    Neglect is often a neglected form of child maltreatment even though it is the most common and deadliest form of child maltreatment. Pediatric nurse practitioners (PNPs) will most likely encounter neglected children in their practice. It is crucial that PNPs recognize child neglect in a timely manner and intervene appropriately. This continuing education article will help PNPs understand and respond to child neglect. Neglect will be defined and risk factors will be discussed. Children who are neglected can experience serious and lifelong consequences. The medical assessment and plan of care for children with concerns of suspected neglect will be discussed.

  8. Diarrhea - what to ask your doctor - child

    Science.gov (United States)

    What to ask your doctor about diarrhea - child; Loose stools - what to ask your doctor - child ... FOODS What foods can make my child's diarrhea worse? How should I prepare the foods for my child? If my child is still breastfeeding or bottle feeding, do I ...

  9. Advocacy and child neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krugman, Scott D

    2014-11-01

    Pediatricians have a unique opportunity to intervene in the lives of children to identify and to prevent neglect. While it remains important to care for individual patients affected by neglect, the ecological model of child neglect requires intervention at the parent, family, community, and societal levels. Pediatricians can improve the outcomes for children by advocating for policies and interventions at each level. Effective advocacy principally requires the willingness to tackle broader issues beyond individual clinical care. Working with local, state, and national organizations, pediatricians can contribute a unified voice to promote evidence-based policies and programs that improve the well-being of children.

  10. Nigeria: child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amobi, I

    The child in Nigeria is loved and pampered but food may be scarce or inadequate in nutrients, and he/she has overcrowding and poor sanitation to deal with as well as a maze of conflicting and hybrid values and way of life. Statistics show that in black Africa 1 child out of 5 will survive up to his 5th birthday. The infant mortality rate is high primarily because of inadequate nutrition and communicable diseases. The 10 most common diseases in Africa from 4 sample countries, i.e., Ethiopia, Nigeria, Uganda, and Kenya are: malaria; gastroenteritis, measles; respiratory tract infections; malnutrition; intestinal worm, anemias; tetanus; meningitis; and tuberuclosis. All these diseases are preventable, but prevention is more difficult because there are few health workers and inadequate facilities. 80 pediatricians and a few unrecognized pediatric trained nurses look after about 40 million children in Nigeria. Nutrition plays a prominent role in both growth and development. Local food may be plentiful but some families are unable to balance their diets. There is malnutrition or undernutrition because of ignorance, poverty, and feeding habits. In Africa the effect of malnutrition is most marked during weaning. In a traditional African society a child does not lack for love and affection. There are no unwanted pregnancies, no motherless children, no unmarried women, for the extended family system absorbs many of these shocks. The circumstances of the family are related to the incidence of child abuse, which is increasing. Children are used as cheap labor by both parents and guardians. In the current 5-year development plan, the government is making a bold step in health care. Some of the major goals of this 4th 5-year development plan in health care delivery include: rapid expansion of facilities to achieve 100% primary health care coverage by the year 2000; emphasizing preventive care; decentralization so that the local government areas are implementation units

  11. Child health in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, G Arias; Mutis, F Suescun; Mercer, R; Bonati, M; Choonara, I

    2009-11-01

    Colombia is a country with major problems, mainly a high degree of inequality and an unacceptably high level of violence (both armed military conflict and crime related). There are unacceptably high variations in health and health provision. Despite these difficulties, there are important steps being taken by both the government and independent organisations to try and improve child health and to achieve the Millennium Development Goals in relation to poverty, hunger and health issues. The participation of different sectors and stakeholders (including government, non-governmental organisations and other organisations of civil society) is essential to overcome Colombian history and to promote a better place for children.

  12. Child Computer Interaction SIG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Read, Janet; Hourcade, Juan Pablo; Markopoulos, Panos

    The discipline of Child Computer Interaction (CCI) has been steadily growing and it is now firmly established as a community in its own right, having the annual IDC (Interaction and Design for Children) conference and its own journal and also enjoying its role as a highly recognisable and vibrant...... contributor to the ACM CHI conference. Having recently been given status as an IFIP (International Federation for Information Processing) TC13 working group, the community now needs to make plans around its academic themes and its coherence as a developing academic community. The CCI SIG at CHI aims to use...

  13. Active dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, R F

    1995-02-01

    Although dependency has long been associated with passivity, weakness, and submissiveness, a review of the empirical literature reveals that, in certain situations and settings, dependent persons actually exhibit a variety of active, assertive behaviors. In this article, I: a) trace the historical roots of the dependency-passivity link; b) review empirical studies from developmental, social, and clinical psychology which indicate that, in certain circumstances, dependency is associated with active, assertive behavior on the part of the dependent person; c) offer an alternative conceptual model of dependency that accounts for the entire range of behaviors-both passive and active-that are exhibited by the dependent person; and d) discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic implications of this alternative conceptual model of dependency.

  14. Child Maltreatment and Adolescent Mental Health Problems in a Large Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Ryan; Scott, James; Alati, Rosa; O'Callaghan, Michael; Najman, Jake M.; Strathearn, Lane

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether notified child maltreatment is associated with adverse psychological outcomes in adolescence, and whether differing patterns of psychological outcome are seen depending on the type of maltreatment. Methods: The participants were 7,223 mother and child pairs enrolled in a population-based birth cohort study in…

  15. Prevalence and Development of Child Delinquency. Child Delinquency Bulletin Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Howard N.; Espiritu, Rachele C.; Huizinga, David; Loeber, Rolf; Petechuk, David

    The number of child delinquents entering the juvenile justice system is increasing, as evidenced by rising arrest rates and court caseloads. Compared with adolescents who become involved in delinquency in their teens, child delinquents between the ages of 7 and 12 have a two- to threefold greater risk of becoming serious, violent, and chronic…

  16. Child Delinquency: Early Intervention and Prevention. Child Delinquency Bulletin Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeber, Rolf; Farrington, David P.; Petechuk, David

    Sparked by high-profile cases involving children who commit violent crimes, public concerns regarding child delinquents have escalated. Compared with juveniles who first become involved in delinquency in their teens, child delinquents (offenders younger than age 13) face a much greater risk of becoming serious, violent, and chronic juvenile…

  17. Child Trafficking: A Hindrance to the Girl-Child Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aibangbe, Mary O.

    2015-01-01

    Child trafficking continues to pose a major hindrance to the freedom and educational development of the girl-child in Nigeria. Most of the girls trafficked are forced into prostitution, forced labour and in some cases as human sacrifice. Some families support this trend because they see it as a means to break the yoke of economic hardship. The…

  18. Identifying Moderators of the Link Between Parent and Child Anxiety Sensitivity: The Roles of Gender, Positive Parenting, and Corporal Punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Rebecca A; Weems, Carl F

    2015-07-01

    A substantial body of literature suggests that anxiety sensitivity is a risk factor for the development of anxiety problems and research has now begun to examine the links between parenting, parent anxiety sensitivity and their child's anxiety sensitivity. However, the extant literature has provided mixed findings as to whether parent anxiety sensitivity is associated with child anxiety sensitivity, with some evidence suggesting that other factors may influence the association. Theoretically, specific parenting behaviors may be important to the development of child anxiety sensitivity and also in understanding the association between parent and child anxiety sensitivity. In this study, 191 families (n = 255 children and adolescents aged 6-17 and their parents) completed measures of child anxiety sensitivity (CASI) and parenting (APQ-C), and parents completed measures of their own anxiety sensitivity (ASI) and their parenting (APQ-P). Corporal punishment was associated with child anxiety sensitivity and the child's report of their parent's positive parenting behaviors moderated the association between parent and child anxiety sensitivity. The child's gender was also found to moderate the association between parent and child anxiety sensitivity, such that there was a positive association between girls' and their parents anxiety sensitivity and a negative association in boys. The findings advance the understanding of child anxiety sensitivity by establishing a link with corporal punishment and by showing that the association between parent and child anxiety sensitivity may depend upon the parenting context and child's gender.

  19. Child Shona noun prefixes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine R Sibanda

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article falls under the broad area of child language acquisition and it aims to present an analysis of the acquisition of Shona noun class prefixes. The data collection procedures involved fortnightly observation and audio-recording of the spontaneous speech of three children who were acquiring Shona as a mother tongue. The results of this investigation confirm findings from earlier studies and show that noun class prefixes are acquired in three partially overlapping stages. In the first stage, nouns are produced without class prefixes and as time progresses, in the second stage, they are produced with them but in the form of an onsetless vowel. In the third stage, nouns are produced with full and phonologically appropriate class prefixes. The empirical and theoretical findings of this investigation are expected to broaden and deepen our knowledge of morphology and the phonology-morphology interface in the context of child language acquisition. As there are few descriptive and theoretical studies on the acquisition of Shona, this research recommends more studies on this subject.

  20. Child abuse by drowning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griest, K J; Zumwalt, R E

    1989-01-01

    Drowning as a form of subtle fatal child abuse is difficult to distinguish from accidental immersion or from sudden unexpected natural death when the circumstances of immersion are concealed. Homicidal drownings are unwitnessed, usually occurring in the home, and the victims are young, either infants or toddlers. Accidental drownings are more likely to involve toddlers or older children in public areas such as swimming pools, drainage ditches, lakes, and rivers. This is especially true in rural areas. In cities, bathtubs remain a major site of accidental childhood drownings. Perpetrators of deliberate drownings often fit the sociopathologic profile of a child abuser. Because there is often a survival interval between immersion and death, pathologic findings consistent with postimmersion syndrome suggest the cause of death. Foreign material in the lungs, if immersion was other than in clear tap water, and injuries of the face are other positive correlating factors. A thorough investigation of the circumstances and cooperation between the investigating agency and the pathologist are essential to determine the correct manner of death in these cases.

  1. Multisensory Integration and Child Neurodevelopment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Dionne-Dostie

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A considerable number of cognitive processes depend on the integration of multisensory information. The brain integrates this information, providing a complete representation of our surrounding world and giving us the ability to react optimally to the environment. Infancy is a period of great changes in brain structure and function that are reflected by the increase of processing capacities of the developing child. However, it is unclear if the optimal use of multisensory information is present early in childhood or develops only later, with experience. The first part of this review has focused on the typical development of multisensory integration (MSI. We have described the two hypotheses on the developmental process of MSI in neurotypical infants and children, and have introduced MSI and its neuroanatomic correlates. The second section has discussed the neurodevelopmental trajectory of MSI in cognitively-challenged infants and children. A few studies have brought to light various difficulties to integrate sensory information in children with a neurodevelopmental disorder. Consequently, we have exposed certain possible neurophysiological relationships between MSI deficits and neurodevelopmental disorders, especially dyslexia and attention deficit disorder with/without hyperactivity.

  2. Utilização de serviços de reabilitação pelas crianças e adolescentes dependentes de tecnologia de um hospital materno-infantil no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Use of rehabilitation services by technology-dependent children and adolescents in a maternal and child hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Zornoff Gavazza

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo é caracterizar descritivamente a dependência tecnológica e a utilização de serviços de reabilitação pela população de crianças e adolescentes de um hospital materno-infantil do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. O estudo transversal descreveu as características demográficas da criança e sócio-econômicas do cuidador e família, como também o tipo de dependência tecnológica e a utilização de serviços de reabilitação. A população do estudo é composta de pré-escolares (56,3%, do sexo masculino (58,3%, residentes na região metropolitana do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (89,6%. São oriundos de famílias com rendimentos mensais até dois salários mínimos (70,9%, cuidados sobretudo por suas mãe (93,8%, que possuem escolaridade menor ou igual ao ensino fundamental (54,2% e não trabalham (89,6%. Dos entrevistados, um total de 22,9% depende de três tipos diferentes de tecnologias, sendo o suporte medicamentoso (87,5% a mais utilizada. O tratamento de reabilitação é financiado preponderantemente pelo Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS e instituições filantrópicas, sendo o fisioterapeuta motor (60,4% o profissional de maior demanda nesse tratamento. O hospital estudado concentra todos os atendimentos médicos especializados e a maior parte dos tratamentos em reabilitação.The objective of this study was to describe the dependence on technology and use of rehabilitation services by children and adolescents in a maternal and child hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Using a cross-sectional design, the following variables were analyzed: gender and age of the children and adolescents, socioeconomic characteristics of the family, technology dependence, and use of rehabilitation services. The majority of the study population consisted of preschoolers (56.3%, boys (58.3%, residing in Greater Metropolitan Rio de Janeiro (89.3%, from low-income families (70.9%, and cared for mainly by their mothers (93.8%, who in turn have

  3. Questions to ask your child's doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... families who are coping with this type of cancer? My child's life after treatment: Will my child grow normally? ... able to have children as an adult? Will cancer treatment put my child at risk for health problems later in life? ...

  4. Teaching Your Child Healthy Nail Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... public", "mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c Teaching your child healthy nail care Nails take a ... teach your child how to care for them. Teaching your child the following tips from dermatologists can ...

  5. Child Labour Remains "Massive Problem."

    Science.gov (United States)

    World of Work, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Despite significant progress in efforts to abolish child labor, an alarming number of children are engaged in its worst forms. Although 106 million are engaged in acceptable labor (light work for those above the minimum age for employment), 246 million are involved in child labor that should be abolished (under minimum age, hazardous work). (JOW)

  6. Preparing Your Child for Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child What Kids Say About: Handling Stress Anxiety, Fears, and Phobias Community Service: A Family's Guide to Getting Involved Teaching Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Preparing Your Child for Surgery ... Questions Explain the Problem Handle Fears Relieve Guilt Explaining What Will Happen Pre-Operative ...

  7. Child Abuse and Mandated Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woika, Shirley; Bowersox, Carissa

    2013-01-01

    Teachers and teachers-in-training are mandated reporters; they are legally required to report any suspected child abuse or neglect. This article describes: (1) How to file a report; (2) How prevalent child abuse is; (3) What abuse is; (4) What it means to be a mandated reporter; (5) When the report should be made; and (6) What to do if abuse is…

  8. Child Development: An Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, LaVerne Thornton, Comp.

    This annotated bibliography focuses on recent publications dealing with factors that influence child growth and development, rather than the developmental processes themselves. Topics include: general sources on child development; physical and perceptual-motor development; cognitive development; social and personality development; and play.…

  9. Child Abuse and Mandated Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woika, Shirley; Bowersox, Carissa

    2013-01-01

    Teachers and teachers-in-training are mandated reporters; they are legally required to report any suspected child abuse or neglect. This article describes: (1) How to file a report; (2) How prevalent child abuse is; (3) What abuse is; (4) What it means to be a mandated reporter; (5) When the report should be made; and (6) What to do if abuse is…

  10. Child Labour in Zaria, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    is the direct victim of the low purchasing power of his/her parents. ... educational and socio-economic conséquences of child labour in a Northern ... economic factors influencing child labour, impact on health status and school attendance and.

  11. Child mortality in rural India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. van der Klaauw (Bas); L. Wang (Lihong)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis paper focuses on infant and child mortality in rural areas of India. We construct a flexible duration model, which allows for frailty at multiple levels and interactions between the child's age and individual, socioeconomic, and environmental characteristics. The model is estimated

  12. Identifying the Gifted Child Humorist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fern, Tami L.

    1991-01-01

    This study attempted to identify gifted child humorists among 1,204 children in grades 3-6. Final identification of 13 gifted child humorists was determined through application of such criteria as funniness, originality, and exemplary performance or product. The influence of intelligence, development, social factors, sex differences, family…

  13. Birth of a Second Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Birth of a Second Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Birth of a Second Child Print A A A ... pregnant takes a lot of energy. After the birth, expect the first 6 to 8 weeks to ...

  14. The Child Welfare Cartel, "Redux"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoesz, David

    2016-01-01

    In response to "The Child Welfare Cartel," defenders of the National Child Welfare Workforce Institute (NCWWI) make three errors: First, restricting federal funds to schools of social work is "not" authorized by the statute cited in the creation of NCWWI. Second, social work is "not" the only discipline engaged in…

  15. Multidimensional child deprivation in Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yousefzadeh Faal Daghati, Sepideh; Mideros-Mora, Andrés; De Neubourg, Chris; Minujin, Alberto; Nandy, Shailen

    2012-01-01

    The chapter analyses children's multidimensional deprivation in Iran in 2009 and explores inequalities in different regions. The study focused on outcome indicators, with the level of analysis focusing on the individual child as well as the household. A child rights approach is applied to define dim

  16. The Child Welfare Cartel, "Redux"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoesz, David

    2016-01-01

    In response to "The Child Welfare Cartel," defenders of the National Child Welfare Workforce Institute (NCWWI) make three errors: First, restricting federal funds to schools of social work is "not" authorized by the statute cited in the creation of NCWWI. Second, social work is "not" the only discipline engaged in…

  17. Early Child Care in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luscher, Kurt K.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    This monograph provides a comprehensive description of the multiple, diverse, and complex systems of child care in Switzerland today. The following topics are discussed: prevailing conceptions of the child-rearing process, the relationship between family and society, socialization, training of personnel, information dissemination, mass media and…

  18. Flying and Your Child's Ears

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Media Flying and Your Child's Ears KidsHealth > For Parents > Flying and Your Child's Ears Print A A A What's in this article? Flying's Effects on Ears Tips for Easing Ear Pain en español Como cuidar los oídos de su hijo(a) cuando vuele en avión Flying's Effects on ...

  19. Child Malnutrition and Antenatal Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Forero-Ramirez; L.F. Gamboa (Luis); A.S. Bedi (Arjun Singh); R.A. Sparrow (Robert)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Objective. To examine the effect of prenatal care (PNC) on the level and distribution of child stunting in three Andean countries—Bolivia, Colombia, and Peru—where expanding access to such care has been an explicit policy intervention to tackle child malnutrition in

  20. Is My Child's Appetite Normal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... child’s appetite changes. Children do not grow as fast in their preschool years. That is why your child may have a smaller appetite now. That is normal. If he or she is not hungry or does not finish a meal, relax. Take the food away. Your child probably is eating enough if ...

  1. Your Child's Development: 1 Month

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child Too Busy? Helping Your Child Adjust to Preschool School Lunches Kids and Food: 10 Tips for Parents Healthy Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Your Child’s Development: 1 Month KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child’s Development: ...

  2. Your Child's Development: 3 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child Too Busy? Helping Your Child Adjust to Preschool School Lunches Kids and Food: 10 Tips for Parents Healthy Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Your Child’s Development: 3 Years KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child’s Development: ...

  3. Child Maltreatment and Adolescent Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trickett, Penelope K.; Negriff, Sonya; Ji, Juye; Peckins, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect, often collectively called child maltreatment, are huge social problems affecting millions of children and adolescents in America. Adolescents are affected both by maltreatment which occurred during childhood with lingering effects and by maltreatment that continues into or begins in adolescence. Several decades of research…

  4. Child Labor in the Global Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Edmonds, Eric V.; Nina Pavcnik

    2005-01-01

    Few issues in developing countries draw as much popular attention as child labor. This paper begins by quantifying the extent and main characteristics of child labor. It then considers the evidence on a range of issues about child labor. Fundamentally, child labor is a symptom of poverty. Low income and poor institutions are driving forces behind the prevalence of child labor worldwide. This study concludes by assessing the policy options to reduce worldwide child labor.

  5. Child Labor in the Global Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Eric V. Edmonds; Nina Pavcnik

    2005-01-01

    Few issues in developing countries draw as much popular attention as child labor. This paper begins by quantifying the extent and main characteristics of child labor. It then considers the evidence on a range of issues about child labor. Fundamentally, child labor is a symptom of poverty. Low income and poor institutions are driving forces behind the prevalence of child labor worldwide. This study concludes by assessing the policy options to reduce worldwide child labor.

  6. Let's Stop Playing Monopoly with the Child Welfare Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Robin Ernest

    2016-01-01

    Although the National Child Welfare Workforce Institute (NCWWI) is a specific focus of Stoesz's article, a more expansive and thought-provoking critique is made of the NCWWI within the context of a purported overreliance and dependency on the Children's Bureau, concerns regarding the quality of social work education, and the development of a…

  7. Child Sexual Abuse Suspicions: Treatment Considerations during Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehnle, Kathryn; Connell, Mary

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses what, if any, psychotherapeutic interventions should be provided to meet the emotional and clinical needs of alleged child victims of sexual abuse while they await judicial determinations from the family, dependency, or criminal courts. The discussion emphasizes that to minimize iatrogenic outcomes, professionals involved in…

  8. Child maltreatment: Abuse and neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengü Pala

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Each year, millions of children around the world are the victims and witnesses of physical, sexual and emotional violence. Child maltreatment is a major global problem with a serious impact on the victims’ physical and mental health, well-being and development throughout their lives and, by extension, on society in general. Family physicians who are involved in the care of children are likely to encounter child abuse and should be able to recognize its common presentations. There is sufficient evidence that child maltreatment can be prevented. The ultimate goal is to stop child maltreatment before it starts.In this paper, the characteristics of the perpetrators and victims of child maltreatment, maltreatment types, risk factors, differential diagnosis and discuss about strategies for preventing were summarized.

  9. Child health and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Arifeen, Shams

    2008-09-01

    Bangladesh is currently one of the very few countries in the world, which is on target for achieving the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 relating to child mortality. There have been very rapid reductions in mortality, especially in recent years and among children aged over one month. However, this rate of reduction may be difficult to sustain and may impede the achievement of MDG 4. Neonatal deaths now contribute substantially (57%) to overall mortality of children aged less than five years, and reductions in neonatal mortality are difficult to achieve and have been slow in Bangladesh. There are some interesting attributes of the mortality decline in Bangladesh. Mortality has declined faster among girls than among boys, but the poorest have not benefited from the reduction in mortality. There has also been a relative absence of a decline in mortality in urban areas. The age and cause of death pattern of under-five mortality indicate certain interventions that need to be scaled up rapidly and reach high coverage to achieve MDG 4 in Bangladesh. These include skilled attendance at delivery, postnatal care for the newborn, appropriate feeding of the young infant and child, and prevention and management of childhood infections. The latest (2007) Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey shows that Bangladesh has made sustained and remarkable progress in many areas of child health. More than 80% of children are receiving all vaccines. The use of oral rehydration solution for diarrhoea is high, and the coverage of vitamin A among children aged 9-59 months has been consistently increasing. However, poor quality of care, misperceptions regarding the need for care, and other social barriers contribute to low levels of care-seeking for illnesses of the newborns and children. Improvements in the health system are essential for removing these barriers, as are effective strategies to reach families and communities with targeted messages and information. Finally, there are

  10. Dependent Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasiunas, Vaidas; Mezini, Mira; Ostermann, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    Virtual classes allow nested classes to be refined in subclasses. In this way nested classes can be seen as dependent abstractions of the objects of the enclosing classes. Expressing dependency via nesting, however, has two limitations: Abstractions that depend on more than one object cannot...... be modeled and a class must know all classes that depend on its objects. This paper presents dependent classes, a generalization of virtual classes that expresses similar semantics by parameterization rather than by nesting. This increases expressivity of class variations as well as the flexibility...... of their modularization. Besides, dependent classes complement multi-methods in scenarios where multi-dispatched abstractions rather than multi-dispatched method are needed. They can also be used to express more precise signatures of multi-methods and even extend their dispatch semantics. We present a formal semantics...

  11. Have a Baby or Young Child With a Cold? Most Don't Need Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Baby or Young Child With a Cold? Most Don't Need Medicines Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... cold? It depends on the child’s age. Although most colds in children don’t have serious complications, ...

  12. Dependency Parsing

    CERN Document Server

    Kubler, Sandra; Nivre, Joakim

    2009-01-01

    Dependency-based methods for syntactic parsing have become increasingly popular in natural language processing in recent years. This book gives a thorough introduction to the methods that are most widely used today. After an introduction to dependency grammar and dependency parsing, followed by a formal characterization of the dependency parsing problem, the book surveys the three major classes of parsing models that are in current use: transition-based, graph-based, and grammar-based models. It continues with a chapter on evaluation and one on the comparison of different methods, and it close

  13. A child with narcolepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvério Macedo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Narcolepsy is a chronic disease characterized by sleep attacks, excessive daytime sleepiness and nocturnal sleep fragmentation. It can be associated cataplexy and other disturbance of REM sleep (sleep paralysis and hypnagogic hallucinations and hypnopompic. Case report: A 10-year old boy was referred to Pedopsychiatry because of behavioural disturbance, irritability, sleepiness and distraction, being interpreted as an “ill-mannered child.” After clinical evaluation and comprehensive laboratory studies we concluded that he presented narcolepsy with cataplexy. Discussion/conclusion: Patients with narcolepsy face several problems due to the disease which, if left untreated or ineffectively treated, cause embarrassing or distressing symptoms, affecting their quality of life. The purpose of this paper is to draw attention to this problem since it is a rare condition and therefore seldom not recognized by the general public or even by health professionals.

  14. [Affective dependency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M

    2013-01-01

    Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy.

  15. The Cognitive Dissonance between Child Rescue and Child Protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.E. Cheney (Kristen)

    2015-01-01

    textabstract‘Saving orphans’ has become an industry that irrevocably harms children and undermines the development of child welfare systems. We must replace the drive to rescue with the desire to protect.

  16. Foster Care and Child Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDavid, Lolita M

    2015-10-01

    Children in foster care need more from health providers than routine well-child care. The changes in legislation that were designed to prevent children from languishing in foster care also necessitate a plan that works with the child, the biological family, and the foster family in ensuring the best outcome for the child. This approach acknowledges that most foster children will return to the biological family. Recent research on the effect of adverse childhood experiences across all socioeconomic categories points to the need for specifically designed, focused, and coordinated health and mental health services for children in foster care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. 5 CFR 2634.309 - Spouses and dependent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... a spouse or dependent child. (c) Divorce and separation. A reporting individual need not report any... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spouses and dependent children. 2634.309....309 Spouses and dependent children. (a) Special disclosure rules. Each report required by...

  18. Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: Enhancing Parent-Child Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J. Urquiza

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Disruptive child behavior problems are common problems for parents and can be associated with serious delinquent behaviors and aggressive/violent behaviors in adolescence and adulthood. Parenting interventions to address disruptive child behavior problems has gained widespread acceptance. One of these parenting interventions is Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT. PCIT is a 14- to 20-week, founded on social learning and attachment theories, designed for children between 2 and 7 years of age with disruptive, or externalizing, behavior problems. This article will provide a brief review of the history of PCIT, a description of the basic components of PCIT, and an overview of recent developments that highlight the promise of PCIT with maltreating parent-child relationships, traumatized children, and in developing resilience in young children. In addressing the three basic treatment objectives for PCIT (i.e., reduction in child behavior problems, improving parenting skills, enhancing the quality of parent-child relationships, there is an abundance of research demonstrating very strong treatment effects and therefore, its value to the field. Recent research has also demonstrated the value of PCIT in reducing trauma symptoms in young children.

  19. Child rearing and child outcomes in Japan and the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, P

    1998-04-01

    Japan and the UK are compared in relation to various child health outcomes. It is noted that in the rates of child abuse and criminal activity, Japan is in a more favorable position. Rates of behavior problems and suicide rates are very similar in the two countries. Consideration is given to the reasons for the differences. The rates of single parents and divorce are much lower in Japan. The rates of working mothers are about the same, but Japanese women work longer hours. However, it is suggested that more important differences may lie in the greater respect for authority and emphasis on discipline and conformity in Japan. The effects of industrialization on family life and on child development are summarized. It is suggested that the separation of the adolescent age group from the rest of the population has had especially negative results in Western industrialized countries. Various suggestions are made concerning the positive role that pediatricians can play in promoting child development. In particular, pediatricians are encouraged to support and not undermine parents, to involve fathers in management of illness and disability, to press for full implementation of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, and for ready availability of good substitute child care facilities.

  20. Marketing child survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, J P

    1984-01-01

    Growth monitoring charts, packets of oral rehydration salts (ORS), and vaccines, are inexpensive, life-saving, growth-protecting technologies which can enable parents to protect their children against the worst effects of poverty. Similarly, a matrix of current and easily understandable information about pregnancy, breast feeding, weaning, feeding during and immediately after illness, child spacing, and preparing and using home-made oral rehydration solutions, also could empower parents to protect the lives and the health of their children. The question arises as to how can these technologies and this information be put at the disposal of millions of families in the low-income world. The initial task of the Child Survival and Development Revolution is the communication of what is now possible, yet little is known about how to communicate information whose principal value is to the poor. There are 2 large-scale precedents: the Green Revolution, which in many instances succeeded in putting into the hands of thousands of small and large farmers the techniques and the knowledge which enabled them to double and treble the yields from their lands; and the campaign to put the knowledge and the means of family planning at the disposal of many millions of people. There are 2 lessons to be learned from these precedents: they have shown that the way to promote a people's technology and to put information at the disposal of the majority is by mobilizing all possible resources and working through all possible channels both to create the demand and to meet it; and neither the Green Revolution nor the family planning movement rally took off until they were viewed as political and economic priorities and given the full support of the nation's political leadership. Nowhere are these 2 lessons more clearly illustrated than in present-day Indonesia. Because the campaign for family planning was given high personal and political priority by the President, and because 85% of all family

  1. Helping Your Child Deal with Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to tell you. Grandma died today." Pause to give your child a moment to take in your words. Listen and comfort. Every child ... being together helps people start to feel better." Give your child a role. ... if they want to take part, and how. Help your child remember the ...

  2. Infant Frontal Asymmetry Predicts Child Emotional Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licata, Maria; Paulus, Markus; Kühn-Popp, Nina; Meinhardt, Jorg; Sodian, Beate

    2015-01-01

    While factors influencing maternal emotional availability (EA) have been well investigated, little is known about the development of child EA. The present longitudinal study investigated the role of frontal brain asymmetry in young children with regard to child EA (child responsiveness and involvement) in mother-child interaction in a sample of 28…

  3. Substantiated Reports of Child Maltreatment From the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect 2008: Examining Child and Household Characteristics and Child Functional Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Tracie O; Taillieu, Tamara; Cheung, Kristene; Katz, Laurence Y; Tonmyr, Lil; Sareen, Jitender

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Identifying child and household characteristics that are associated with specific child maltreatment types and child functional impairment are important for informing prevention and intervention efforts. Our objectives were to examine the distribution of several child and household characteristics among substantiated child maltreatment types in Canada; to determine if a specific child maltreatment type relative to all other types was associated with increased odds of child functional impairment; and to determine which child and household characteristics were associated with child functional impairment. Method: Data were from the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (collection 2008) from 112 child welfare sites across Canada (n = 6163 children). Results: Physical abuse, sexual abuse, and emotional maltreatment were highly prevalent among children aged 10 to 15 years. For single types of child maltreatment, the highest prevalence of single-parent homes (50.6%), social assistance (43.0%), running out of money regularly (30.7%), and unsafe housing (30.9%) were reported for substantiated cases of neglect. Being male, older age, living in a single-parent home, household running out of money, moving 2 or more times in the past year, and household overcrowding were associated with increased odds of child functional impairment. Conclusions: More work is warranted to determine if providing particular resources for single-parent families, financial counselling, and facilitating adequate and stable housing for families with child maltreatment histories or at risk for child maltreatment could be effective for improving child functional outcomes. PMID:26175390

  4. Everyday Child Language Learning Early Intervention Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunst, Carl J.; Trivette, Carol M.; Raab, Melinda

    2014-01-01

    The language intervention model developed and evaluated at the Center on Everyday Child Language Learning (CECLL) is described. The model includes 4 components: interest-based child learning opportunities, the everyday family and community activities that are sources of interest-based child learning, the methods for increasing child participation…

  5. Recognizing Child Maltreatment in Bangladesh. Brief Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naila Z.; Lynch, Margaret A.

    1997-01-01

    Highlights the range of cases of child abuse and neglect already being identified by professionals in Bangladesh. Also discusses the larger paradoxes revolving around child protection related to sociocultural practices and economic factors, including early marriage of girls, domestic child workers, and child labor in export factories. (CR)

  6. A Critical Review of Child Labour in Nigeria and The Case for Child Entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Akpa AjaNwachuku

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria and the world over condemn forced or exploitative labour of a child, for the obvious reason of the adverse physical, psychological, mental and emotional effect of it on children. What is condemned is not child labour per se, but child forced or exploitative labour. This paper analyses the condemnable child forced or exploitative labour, distinguishes it from the accepted child labour and makes a case for the advancement from child labour to child entrepreneurship. It posits that the advancement to child entrepreneurship shall enable the Nigerian child to contribute their bit to the financial wellbeing of their family and the economic development of Nigeria.

  7. Schools and Child Antisocial Behavior

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lieven J. R. Pauwels; Robert Svensson

    2015-01-01

    .... Such characteristics may also shape delinquency. The present study aims to test the relationship between structural characteristics of schools and child antisocial behavior, using a sample of elementary school children (N...

  8. The syndromic child and anaesthesia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    When faced with a syndromic child presenting for surgery, the anaesthetist has to ensure .... midface hypoplasia and macroglossia (which may cause upper airway obstruction) .... due to mild trauma, and osteoporosis. Cardiac lesions may be.

  9. Treatment of the Hyperactive Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunderlich, Ray C.

    1973-01-01

    Described individually are the following forms of medical treatment for the hyperactive child: stimulants, tranquilizers, megavitamins, corticosteroids, antihistamines, anticonvulsants, food elimination, air filtration, allergic desensitization, perceptual motor training, and behavioral counseling. (DB)

  10. Declining child malnutrition: a reassessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Svedberg, Peter

    2006-01-01

    .... One method is to estimate changes over time with an alternative methodology and the same data set, and the other is to evaluate the inter-temporal comparability of the child surveys from India...

  11. Child health and parental relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loft, Lisbeth Trille Gylling

    2011-01-01

    Using longitudinal national-level representative data from Denmark, this study considers the link between child disability or chronic illness and parental relationship termination as measured by the point in time at which one parent, following the breakup of the relationship, no longer resides...... in the household. By means of event-history techniques, I examine whether a Danish family's experience of having a child diagnosed with a disability or chronic illness affects the chances of parental relationship termination. My findings suggest that families with a child with disabilities or chronic illness do...... have a higher risk of parental relationship termination, when compared to families where no diagnosis of child disability or chronic illness is reported....

  12. Child Welfare Outcomes Data Portal

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The most current Child Welfare Outcomes data is featured on this site. Through the site, you can view the data before the full report is published. The most recently...

  13. FastStats: Child Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Whooping Cough or Pertussis Family Life Marriage and Divorce Health Care and Insurance Access to Health Care ... Inflicted Injury Life Stages and Populations Age Groups Adolescent Health Child Health Infant Health Older Persons' Health ...

  14. Evaluation of the enuretic child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, H G

    1993-07-01

    Nocturnal enuresis is a symptom of environmental, physical, and psychosocial factors. In addition to a physical examination, the initial workup of the enuretic child should include a careful voiding, psychosocial, and family history. Studies have shown that the parents of enuretic children often have a history of enuresis. An increased incidence of enuresis has also been demonstrated in children from large families and lower socioeconomic groups. Daytime voiding symptoms (e.g., frequency, urgency, or enuresis) suggest the possibility of underlying voiding dysfunction. A complete urinalysis and urine culture also should be performed to exclude urinary infection and certain metabolic or nephrologic disorders. Finally, it is important that the treating physician understand the attitudes of both the child and the family concerning enuresis. Parents who feel that the child is at fault need to be educated and reassured. A careful, complete evaluation will allow the physician to tailor treatment to the individual child and family.

  15. Genetics of Stiff Child Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available A Chinese boy with a DYT1 gene mutation presented with muscle stiffness, painful muscle spasms, myoclonus, and dystonia, compatible with stiff child syndrome, and is reported from Queen Mary Hospital, the University of Hong Kong.

  16. Your child and the flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children 6 months or older should receive the vaccine. Children under 9 years will need a second flu ... severe or life-threatening flu infection. WILL THE VACCINE HARM MY CHILD? A small amount of mercury (called thimerosal) is ...

  17. challenges facing child headed households

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mugumbate

    This research employed qualitative methods to establish the daily experiences ... family support systems that view children as society's future and as an .... children's decision-making in 30 child-headed .... fetching water from nearby boreholes.

  18. Enteral nutrition - child - managing problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000164.htm Enteral nutrition - child - managing problems To use the sharing features ... trouble breathing, call 911. References Mcclave SA. Enteral nutrition. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil ...

  19. Does Your Child Have Glaucoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Donate In This Section Does Your Child Have Glaucoma? email Send this article to a friend by ... a pediatric ophthalmologist. Signs and Symptoms of Childhood Glaucoma What to watch for in children under the ...

  20. Allergy Relief for Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Allergy Relief for Your Child Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... counter (OTC) and prescription medicines that offer allergy relief as well as allergen extracts used to diagnose ...

  1. Strength Training and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Strength Training and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Strength Training ... prevent injuries and speed up recovery. About Strength Training Strength training is the practice of using free ...

  2. Trends in child mortality in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behl, A S

    2013-01-08

    To assess Indias recent trends in child mortality rates and disparities and identify ways to reduce child mortality and wealth-related health disparities, we analyzed three years of data from Indias National Family Health Survey related to child mortality. Nationally, declines in average child mortality were statistically significant, but declines in inequality were not. Urban areas had lower child mortality rates than rural areas but higher inequalities. Interstate differences in child mortality rates were significant, with rates in the highest-mortality states four to six times higher than in the lowest-mortality states. However, child mortality in most states declined.

  3. 45 CFR 98.20 - A child's eligibility for child care services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false A child's eligibility for child care services. 98.20 Section 98.20 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Eligibility for Services § 98.20 A child's eligibility for child...

  4. Children with Sickle-Cell Anemia: Parental Relations, Parent-Child Relations, and Child Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Robert C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Investigated the influence of a child with sickle-cell anemia on parental affiliation, parent-child relationships, and parents' perception of their child's behavior. In the sickle-cell group, parents' interpersonal relationship suffered; parent-child relationship and child behavior correlated significantly; and single-parent families estimated…

  5. Children with Sickle-Cell Anemia: Parental Relations, Parent-Child Relations, and Child Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Robert C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Investigated the influence of a child with sickle-cell anemia on parental affiliation, parent-child relationships, and parents' perception of their child's behavior. In the sickle-cell group, parents' interpersonal relationship suffered; parent-child relationship and child behavior correlated significantly; and single-parent families estimated…

  6. An Update on the CHILDES/BIB (formerly ISU/CHILDES) Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginson, Roy

    1990-01-01

    Describes the CHILDES/BIB electronic bibliographic database, its contents, and its relationship to the CHILDES database. CHILDES is a depository of child language corpora and is the publisher of CHAT (a transcription manual) and CLAN (an electronic package for child language research). (GLR)

  7. Fighting Child Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pesanayi Gwirayi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated secondary school pupils’ views on strategies that can be used to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA. A survey design was adopted as the operational framework for data gathering. Data were collected from three secondary schools, all in the Gweru district of Zimbabwe. The sample comprised 268 secondary pupils (50% female; M age = 15.42, SD = 1.376. Each participant was asked to write down three main strategies that can be used to fight CSA on a given questionnaire. The responses were then analyzed using the thematic content analysis technique. The study revealed that most pupils believed that CSA can be prevented through teaching them about it and also reporting to the police. Another significant finding was that pupils’ responses tended to vary with gender and level of education. Whereas female respondents suggested that CSA can be fought by avoiding strangers, saying no to sexual advances, and having reliable friends, their male counterparts suggested teaching the community about CSA, forming new clubs, and enacting life imprisonment for perpetrators, among other suggestions. In terms of level of education, Form 2 participants suggested avoiding strangers, staying home at night, whereas their Form 4 counterparts suggested lessons for Guidance and Counseling, saying no to sexual advances, and having reliable friends. These findings unequivocally demonstrate the need to vigorously engage secondary school pupils in activities aimed at fighting CSA to safeguard their inalienable human rights.

  8. Robotics in child neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgi, C; Sala, R; Riva, D; Cossu, A; Eisenberg, H

    2000-11-01

    We felt there was a need for a new device with "minimal invasive" tracking hardware, to be used in image-guided neurosurgery, and the system we designed to fill this need is now presented. It combines precision of movement, stability and self-positioning capabilities together with optically tracked registration and procedural control within the structure of a surgical microscope. The results are reduced setup time and minimal "distraction" from the procedure itself, factors of special relevance in child neurosurgery. The system is composed of a six-axis industrial robot suitable for use in the operating room, carrying a surgical microscope. Three progressive scan-synchronized infrared cameras mounted around the lenses of the scope are used to register the patient's position and track surgical instruments with reference to the registered space. Orientation of the microscope during surgery is obtained with a six-axis joystick used as a microscope handle. The system has been clinically used in 14 cases, and it has proven itself to be reliable, providing the expected performance advantages. The implementation of a tracked ultrasound or endoscope intraoperative imaging source is also described.

  9. Child custody evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernet, William

    2002-10-01

    Because divorce is so common, it is important for our society to find ways to minimize the psychological trauma that is experienced by children of divorced parents. Ideally, divorcing parents would not fight so much over the children, in front of the children, and through the children. When disputes do arise regarding custody, visitation, and parenting plans, mental health professionals can assist the judges who make the final decisions by performing competent custody evaluations. These evaluations should be conducted in a systematic manner, should consider several critical factors in an unbiased manner, and should result in recommendations that promote the best interests of the children. In most cases, the goal is for each child to have strong, healthy relationships with both parents. After conducting an evaluation, it is usually possible to make recommendations regarding custody, parenting arrangements, and forms of counseling and therapy that should be helpful to the family members. It is important to communicate these recommendations in an articulate manner, whether verbally or in the written report.

  10. the Parent Child Purchase Relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Nash, Catriona

    2009-01-01

    This is an interpretive inquiry into the ‘parent-child purchase relationship’. This study aims to understand the parent-child purchase relationship from the consumer perspective, rather than the much reported ‘vested interest’ perspective, in order to enhance and inform an understanding of the phenomenon. Commencing with an overview of current literature, specifically that of the pester power phenomenon, to contextualise the theoretical framework, the extant construct of pester power is exami...

  11. Combating Child Obesity in America

    OpenAIRE

    Canavan, Erin

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the child obesity epidemic that is gripping our nation, and explores various causes and treatments that may help to defeat child obesity. First there is a description of the obesity epidemic, its causal factors, and its consequences. Additionally there is a summary and critique of the FDA’s obesity report and recommendations. There is a description of drug treatments that are available for obese children and why more research is necessary to ensure the s...

  12. Does biological relatedness affect child survival?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We studied child survival in Rakai, Uganda where many children are fostered out or orphaned. Methods: Biological relatedness is measured as the average of the Wright's coefficients between each household member and the child. Instrumental variables for fostering include proportion of adult males in household, age and gender of household head. Control variables include SES, religion, polygyny, household size, child age, child birth size, and child HIV status. Results: Presence of both parents in the household increased the odds of survival by 28%. After controlling for the endogeneity of child placement decisions in a multivariate model we found that lower biological relatedness of a child was associated with statistically significant reductions in child survival. The effects of biological relatedness on child survival tend to be stronger for both HIV- and HIV+ children of HIV+ mothers. Conclusions: Reductions in the numbers of close relatives caring for children of HIV+ mothers reduce child survival.

  13. The Price of Welfare Dependency: Children Pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rebecca M.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses child poverty, the causes of high poverty rates among children, and proposals and programs aimed at reforming Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC). Proposes another approach to providing cash benefits to children in the form of a children's allowance or refundable tax credit similar to programs in other industrialized nations.…

  14. [Maternal alcoholism and its impact on child health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivolap, Y P

    2015-01-01

    Maternal alcoholism hinders the normal development of child and threatens his mental and physical health due to three factors: the hereditary transmission of predisposition to alcohol abuse; alcohol consumption during pregnancy; adverse family environment. The children of mothers suffering from alcoholism revealed are characterized by increased risk of depression, anxiety and other mental disorders, including alcohol and substance dependence. The adverse impact of maternal alcoholism (or, to speak more widely, parents' alcoholism) on the child health requires special preventive and treatment programs for both parents and children. Separation from the mother (even if the mother is addicted to alcohol) seriously injures the child, and therefore treatment programs for alcohol abusing women should be focused on the possible continuation of the parental rights of patients.

  15. Crime scene investigation in child-abuse cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, G N

    1986-06-01

    Although child abuse and neglect continue to appear in the medical literature frequently, little regarding scene investigation in such cases has been discussed. Many explanations have been offered for this deficit, the most common one is based on the time delay between infliction of the injury and discovery. At the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, child-abuse cases submitted for consultation repeatedly show deficits in the scene investigation and its documentation. Since the discovery of child abuse is dependent on either physical evidence of repetitive punitive measures or an injury pattern not in agreement with the alleged circumstances, it behooves the assigned investigator to make every attempt to document the scene(s) as in any other criminal investigation.

  16. Where Have We Been and Where Are We Going? A Conceptual Framework for Child Advocacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Cascardi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal of this article is to chart the development of child advocacy as an interdisciplinary field of study and conclude with a conceptual framework for research and higher education in child advocacy. Historically, child advocacy has justifiably focused on protection needs. Values and assumptions about children’s best interest have also governed child advocacy, in part because evidence to inform decisions was lacking and in part because of its history as an activist movement. Against this historical backdrop, we describe contemporary trends in child advocacy that reconcile children’s protection with their inherent rights to personhood. We rely on the principles and articles of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, most notably children’s rights to participation and self-expression. At the same time, we demonstrate how values and ideology are being integrated with empiricism and objective analysis to inform policy and practice in child advocacy. The future of child advocacy depends on continued synthesis of rights and protection as well as values and rigorous analysis. From this perspective, we offer a conceptual framework for research and education in child advocacy.

  17. The Child Rights System in Romanian Legislation

    OpenAIRE

    OANA-CARMEN RĂVAŞ

    2008-01-01

    Child rights are a set of international conventions which define the conditions for the normal development of a child. In Romania, child rights are now the subject of a specific law, law nr. 272/2004 on the Protection and Promotion of the Rights of the Child, which is in accordance with the international conventions. All children have their own rights - whether at home with their natural parents, in foster families, child care institutions or at school. Parents and families, the professional ...

  18. Child Social Exclusion Risk and Child Health Outcomes in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itismita Mohanty

    Full Text Available This paper studies the relationship between the risk of child social exclusion, as measured by the Child Social Exclusion (CSE index and its individual domains, and child health outcomes at the small area level in Australia. The CSE index is Australia's only national small-area index of the risk of child social exclusion. It includes five domains that capture different components of social exclusion: socio-economic background, education, connectedness, housing and health services.The paper used data from the National Centre for Social and Economic Modelling (NATSEM, University of Canberra for the CSE Index and its domains and two key Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW data sources for the health outcome measures: the National Hospital Morbidity Database and the National Mortality Database.The results show positive associations between rates of both of the negative health outcomes: potentially preventable hospitalisations (PPH and avoidable deaths, and the overall risk of child social exclusion as well as with the index domains. This analysis at the small-area level can be used to identify and study areas with unexpectedly good or bad health outcomes relative to their estimated risk of child social exclusion. We show that children's health outcomes are worse in remote parts of Australia than what would be expected solely based on the CSE index.The results of this study suggest that developing composite indices of the risk of child social exclusion can provide valuable guidance for local interventions and programs aimed at improving children's health outcomes. They also indicate the importance of taking a small-area approach when conducting geographic modelling of disadvantage.

  19. MOTHER – CHILD RELATION AND FACTORS AFFECTING T H I S RELATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma TEZEL ŞAHİ N

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The social institution where a child first meet with his birth and sets his social relations is his family. The communication of parents and other members of family determines the place of child in the family. In the preschool period when the basis of futu re lives is formed, healthy relations made with child are of great importance. What kind of a person the child starting to perceive himself and his environment in this period will be is determined with the life in this period. Family and relations within f amily as a structure have an impact on the child. Relations within family and experiences will be determinants of the relations with others. In particular, the tie formed in the earlier years between mother and child will have an effect on the personality creation and social relations in the period of adolescence and adulthood. Successful relations of the child and unconditioned love and trust that will be built with his mother is known to be the basis of their future life. In order that a mother could get in a healthy relation with her child, it is necessary that she should have an attitude of self - confidence, respectful, sensible to his problems, collaborative, sharing the feelings and views her children and accepting them. Mothers having an insisting atti tude not to accept their views and excluding them and not looking for a logic in their views cannot build a healthy relation. Children growing up with a healthy mother – child relation will become independent individuals with a self - esteem. The basis of a healthy mother – child relation depends on an infancy period starting with the process of pregnancy and going on with physical contact and nutrition after birth. Mother’s feeding of her baby, her care and preparation for life creates love and feeling of tr ust at child. When the child becomes an adult, he will guide his life with these two basic feelings. Mother should be a person giving her love to him, supporting the child

  20. [Child abuse in the family].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Almeida, Helena Nunes; André, Isabel Margarida; De Almeida, Ana Nunes

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study is to carry out a current survey of the situation of child abuse in the family. It is based on a national survey conducted in 1996, which was addressed to childcare professionals (in the areas of health, education and social services). This survey was based, on the one hand, on a wide-ranging definition of child abuse, including within it not just active forms of physical and psychic violence against the child, but also forms of (both material and affective) privation, omission or negligence which affect the child's growth and development. On the other hand, this study also favoured a contextual approach to child abuse. 1,126 institutions in Portugal were contacted and 755 valid survey responses were received. This report outlines some of the results obtained, namely by providing a description of the sample of the 755 child abuse victims, the respective social and family contexts to which they and the aggressors belong, as well as the types of abuse which have been committed against them; and a typology of forms of abuse and negligence, describing not just the internal aspects that make up child abuse directly, but also its relationship to the child's social and family contexts of belonging. The typology was derived from the statistical handling of the data gathered (factorial analysis of multiple matches, followed by a hierarchical analysis into clusters). A number of key concepts are summarised in the conclusion. Children of all age groups and of both sexes, and from all types of families and social backgrounds, regardless of their place in the phratry, are subject to abuse in Portugal. But different types of abuse and negligence are associated with the contexts to which the children and their families belong. Healthcare professionals are irreplaceable when it comes to detecting the wide variety of types of child abuse, and are an essential look-out post for two types of abuse which often slip through the net of other professionals

  1. The child anxiety impact scale: examining parent- and child-reported impairment in child anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Audra K; Falk, Avital; Peris, Tara; Wiley, Joshua F; Kendall, Philip C; Ginsburg, Golda; Birmaher, Boris; March, John; Albano, Ann Marie; Piacentini, John

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current investigation was to examine the factor structure, reliability, and construct validity of both the Child and Parent version of the Child Anxiety Impact Scale (CAIS) using data obtained from the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (Walkup et al., 2008 ). The CAIS child and parent versions measure anxiety-related functional impairment in school, social, and family domains. Participants were 488 children ages 7 to 17 (M age = 10.7, SD = 2.8 years) enrolled as part of the CAMS study across 6 sites and their primary parent or caregiver. Families participated in a structured diagnostic interview and then completed the CAIS along with other measures. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the a priori three-factor structure (school, social, and home/family) for the CAIS parent- and CAIS child-report was a reasonable fit, with a comparative fit index of .88 and root mean square error of approximation of .05. Internal consistency was very good for total score and subscales of both versions of the scale (Cronbach's α = .70-.90). The CAIS total scores demonstrated good construct validity, showing predicted significant correlations with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) Internalizing Scale, the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC) and Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) Total Scores, the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale, and the Children's Global Assessment Scale. In addition, CAIS Social and School subscales were significantly related to similar subscales on the CBCL, SCARED, and MASC. The results provide support that the CAIS is a reliable and valid measure for the assessment of the impact of anxiety on child and adolescent functioning.

  2. Path Dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mogens Ove

    Begrebet Path Dependence blev oprindelig udviklet inden for New Institutionel Economics af bl.a. David, Arthur og North. Begrebet har spredt sig vidt i samfundsvidenskaberne og undergået en udvikling. Dette paper propagerer for at der er sket så en så omfattende udvikling af begrebet, at man nu kan...... tale om 1. og 2. generation af Path Dependence begrebet. Den nyeste udvikling af begrebet har relevans for metodologi-diskusionerne i relation til Keynes...

  3. Trends in Child Poverty in Sweden: Parental and Child Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mood, Carina; Jonsson, Jan O

    We use several family-based indicators of household poverty as well as child-reported economic resources and problems to unravel child poverty trends in Sweden. Our results show that absolute (bread-line) household income poverty, as well as economic deprivation, increased with the recession 1991-96, then reduced and has remained largely unchanged since 2006. Relative income poverty has however increased since the mid-1990s. When we measure child poverty by young people's own reports, we find few trends between 2000 and 2011. The material conditions appear to have improved and relative poverty has changed very little if at all, contrasting the development of household relative poverty. This contradictory pattern may be a consequence of poor parents distributing relatively more of the household income to their children in times of economic duress, but future studies should scrutinze potentially delayed negative consequences as poor children are lagging behind their non-poor peers. Our methodological conclusion is that although parental and child reports are partly substitutable, they are also complementary, and the simultaneous reporting of different measures is crucial to get a full understanding of trends in child poverty.

  4. Adult headform impact tests of three Japanese child bicycle helmets into a vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Koji; Ito, Daisuke; Yoshida, Ryoichi; Masuda, Hiroyuki; Okada, Hiroshi; Nomura, Mitsunori; Fujii, Chikayo

    2014-12-01

    The head is the body region that most frequently incurs fatal and serious injuries of cyclists in collisions against vehicles. Many research studies investigated helmet effectiveness in preventing head injuries using accident data. In this study, the impact attenuation characteristics of three Japanese child bicycle helmets were examined experimentally in impact tests into a concrete surface and a vehicle. A pedestrian adult headform with and without a Japanese child bicycle helmet was dropped onto a concrete surface and then propelled into a vehicle at 35 km/h in various locations such as the bonnet, roof header, windshield and A-pillar. Accelerations were measured and head injury criterion (HIC) calculated. In the drop tests using the adult headform onto a concrete surface from the height of 1.5m, the HIC for a headform without a child helmet was 6325, and was reduced by around 80% when a child helmet was fitted to the headform. In the impact tests, where the headform was fired into the vehicle at 35 km/h at various locations on a car, the computed acceleration based HIC varied depending on the vehicle impact locations. The HIC was reduced by 10-38% for impacts headforms with a child helmet when the impact was onto a bonnet-top and roof header although the HIC was already less than 1000 in impacts with the headform without a child helmet. Similarly, for impacts into the windshield (where a cyclist's head is most frequently impacted), the HIC using the adult headform without a child helmet was 122; whereas when the adult headform was used with a child helmet, a higher HIC value of more than 850 was recorded. But again, the HIC values are below 1000. In impacts into the A-pillar, the HIC was 4816 for a headform without a child helmet and was reduced by 18-38% for a headform with a child helmet depending on the type of Japanese child helmet used. The tests demonstrated that Japanese child helmets are effective in reducing accelerations and HIC in a drop test using

  5. Predictors of mother–child interaction quality and child attachment security in at-risk families

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Child healthy development is largely influenced by parent–child interaction and a secure parent–child attachment is predictively associated with positive outcomes in numerous domains of child development. However, the parent–child relationship can be affected by several psychosocial and socio-demographic risk factors that undermine its quality and in turn play a negative role in short and long term child psychological health. Prevention and intervention programs that support parenting skills ...

  6. On Effect of Counselors Upon Career Planning Guidance to Tuition-free Normal College Students%试论辅导员在免费师范生职业生涯规划辅导中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺春湘

    2012-01-01

    The career planning is important for the career development of tuition-free normal college students.The students have their own particularity.It is an important duty for college counselors to know how to put the guidance of the career planning into effect and improve their professional sense of identity.The counselors have their own advantages,so it is beneficial to strengthen the career planning guidance to the students.%免费师范生的职业生涯规划对其今后的职业发展有着重要的意义,免费师范生具有自身的特殊性,如何对免费师范生开展有效的职业生涯规划辅导,增进其对教师的职业认同感,成为高校辅导员的重要职责;而高校辅导员在这方面具有自身的优势,有利于加强对免费师范生的职业生涯规划辅导。

  7. For profit versus non-profit: does economic sector make a difference in child-care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelles, E

    1999-01-01

    The child-care industry in a large, southeastern community serves as this study's vehicle for comparing non-profit with for profit dependent care in areas not easily observable to clients. The cross-sectional analysis compares child-care centers on marketed and actual staff-to-child ratio; staff salary; consistency in the child's group environment; staff stability; and extent of parental involvement. Findings are based on self-reports of directors and support hypotheses derived from the theory that for profit day care centers will use their discretionary authority to vary the care environment to achieve profit goals despite the potential effect on the quality of the child's environment. Further, despite potential cost economies and enhanced quality of care achievable as a non-profit entity, few for profit center directors consider becoming non-profit centers.

  8. A critical analysis of the concept and discourse of 'unborn child'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Laurence B; Chervenak, Frank A

    2008-07-01

    Despite its prominence in the abortion debate and in public policy, the discourse of 'unborn patient' has not been subjected to critical scrutiny. We provide a critical analysis in three steps. First, we distinguish between the descriptive and normative meanings of 'unborn child.' There is a long history of the descriptive use of 'unborn child.' Second, we argue that the concept of an unborn child has normative content but that this content does not do the work that opponents of abortion want it to do, namely, to establish the independent moral status of fetuses and their rights, the right to life in particular. Third, we argue that the normative content of 'unborn child' should be dependent moral status, not independent moral status. We conclude that the ethical concept of the fetus as a patient should replace the discourse of "unborn child" when that phrase is used normatively.

  9. CHILD LABOR ABUSE: LEGAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Majhoshev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the problem of child labor and ways of protection from child labor abuse. Child labor is a negative social phenomenon that is widespread throughout the world, and also in Republic of Macedonia. International and national institutions and organizations are making serious efforts to eradicate this negative phenomenon, through the adoption of numerous international legal instruments (conventions, recommendations, declarations, etc.. Child labor as a phenomenon refers to the employment of children in any work that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability of education, and that is socially, mentally, physically, or morally dangerous and harmful. All international organizations define this practice as exploitative and destructive to the development of the whole society. With international legal instruments of the UN, ILO, Council of Europe and the EU child labor is strictly prohibited. There are some important differences which exist between the many kinds of work that is done by children. Some of them are demanding and difficult, others are hazardous and morally reprehensible. Children are doing a very wide range of activities and tasks when they work.

  10. Child labor: An integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Técia Maria Santos Carneiro e Cordeiro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to identify the knowledge available in the SciELO database of regarding child labor. It is an integrative review in SciELO Brazil database with the following selection criteria: a articles published in national journals; b articles published between 2010 to June 2011; c articles indexed in Portuguese; d addressing the child labor. The documentary corpus consists of six papers. The results point to the scarcity of publications for health professionals and the state of Bahia, the largest proportion of exploitation of child labor in rural areas, in males and in low income families, interference with the growing and physical and psychological development of children, and strategic proposals to combat the exploitation of child labor, combat poverty and compliance of the laws. It is concluded that child labor need to be the subject of debates, lectures, seminars and scientific researches to address the importance of this issue in society, its consequences, constitute a problem that economic, social, collective and that involves public health

  11. CHILD LABOR: AN INTEGRATIVE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Técia Maria Santos Carneiro e Cordeiro

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to identify the knowledge available in the SciELO database of regarding child labor. It is an integrative review in SciELO Brazil database with the following selection criteria: a articles published in national journals; b articles published between 2010 to June 2011; c articles indexed in Portuguese; d addressing the child labor. The documentary corpus consists of six papers. The results point to the scarcity of publications for health professionals and the state of Bahia, the largest proportion of exploitation of child labor in rural areas, in males and in low income families, interference with the growing and physical and psychological development of children, and strategic proposals to combat the exploitation of child labor, combat poverty and compliance of the laws. It is concluded that child labor need to be the subject of debates, lectures, seminars and scientific researches to address the importance of this issue in society, its consequences, constitute a problem that economic, social, collective and that involves public health.

  12. Communication Skills of a Child with Down Syndrome at the End of the First Grade of Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivic, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    Each case of a child with Down syndrome is specific because it is directly related to the environment the child grows up in, develops, lives and learns. Although many conditions about Down syndrome tend to generalize the condition, particular characteristics are specific and depend on environment. In this respect, such issues must be approached as…

  13. Case Studies of Child Play Areas and Child Support Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-08-01

    at the edge of the park 0 Adler introduces use of color * Adler introduces moving things including a triple tire swing and a Tarzan rope e Adler...Parent-child challenge play where the child tried to extend his or her a- bility to do something like the Tarzan Swing. 0 Infants and very young...Attached to the tree house is the pulley-ride that provides the excitement of feet-off-the-ground transportation and is connected to the Tarzan swing at the

  14. Recognizing child maltreatment in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, N Z; Lynch, M A

    1997-08-01

    Concern is increasing in Bangladesh over child abuse, neglect, and exploitation. Children from all walks of life are being treated at the Child Development Center (CDC) Dhaka Shishu Hospital for neurodevelopmental problems resulting from abuse and neglect. Efforts to protect children from sexual harassment result in girls being isolated at home or married at an early age. Some young brides are eventually abandoned and forced into prostitution. Early marriage reflects the lack of acknowledgement of a period of adolescence and the belief that puberty is a marker of adulthood. Many girls aged 8-16 are employed as live-in domestic servants, and many suffer sexual as well as emotional abuse. Garment factories, on the other hand, offer girls an escape from extreme poverty, domestic service, and early marriage but are threatened by forces that condemn child labor. Rather than ending such opportunities, employers should be encouraged to provide employees with educational and welfare facilities. The CDC seeks to explore the extent and depth of the problem of child abuse while recognizing the special circumstances at work in Bangladesh. It is also necessary to raise awareness of these issues and of the discrepancies between the law and cultural practices. For example, the legal marriage age of 18 years for a woman and 21 years for a man is often ignored. Additional forms of abuse receiving the attention of women's organizations and human rights groups include the trafficking of children. A network of concerned organizations should be created to work against the child abuse, neglect, and exploitation that Bangladesh has pledged to overcome by signing the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child.

  15. Clinical analysis of pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy in a child and ALDH7A1 mutation%吡哆醇依赖性癫(癎)的临床及乙醛脱氢酶7家庭成员A1基因突变分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨志仙; 杨小玲; 王静敏; 张月华; 姜玉武; 秦炯

    2013-01-01

    目的 分析1例吡哆醇依赖性癫(癎)(PDE)的临床诊治过程及乙醛脱氢酶7家庭成员A1(ALDH7A1)基因突变特征.方法 对1例以早期癫(癎)起病的PDE患儿行临床诊治观察、神经电生理及神经影像学检查、以及ALDH7A1基因突变分析.结果 患儿出生2个月出现反复癫(癎)发作,多种抗癫(癎)药均不能控制发作,多次住院过程中在抗癫(癎)药治疗基础上给予吡哆醇静脉滴注使发作控制,出院后仅用抗癫(癎)药而未用吡哆醇维持治疗,癫(癎)发作分别在吡哆醇撤药后13 d、14 d及38 d出现复发,减停抗癫(癎)药物后仅单纯口服吡哆醇使发作完全控制.治疗前后多次EEG正常,头颅MRI检查正常.ALDH7A1基因检测发现1对新的复合杂合突变,第5外显子c.410G> A(p.G137E)和第11内含子IVS11 +1G>A剪切位点突变,其父携带G137E突变,其母携带IVS11 +1G>A突变.结论 本例癫(癎)发作早期起病、经吡哆醇治疗有效、撤药后复发临床提示了PDE的可能,ALDH7A1基因分析最终确诊了国内第1例PDE,本例携带的2个基因突变位点均为国际未报道的新位点.%Objective To analyze clinical diagnosis and treatment,aldehyde dehydrogenase 7 family member A1 (ALDH7A1) gene mutations in 1 Chinese child with pyridoxine dependent epilepsy(PDE).Methods The clinical manifestations and course of treatment were observed in a PDE patient with early epilepsy onset.Video-electroencephalogram(VEEG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed.The mutations of ALDH7A1 gene were examined.Results At the age of 2 months,recurrent epileptic seizures occurred and the child was resistant to antiepileptic drugs.Patient hospitalized several times due to frequent seizures and pyridoxine was used intravenously for several days.For each hospital stay,the frequent seizures were controlled completely under the treatment of pyridoxine and antiepileptic drugs.Seizures recurred at intervals of 13,14 and 38 days due to

  16. [Domestic accident or child abuse?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Wolf-Rüdiger; Faller-Marquardt, Maria; Henke, Peter

    2006-01-01

    While playing, a 33/4-year-old girl was hiding in a tumble dryer, which had been running before and started the drying process with rotation of the drum again after the girl had climbed into the machine and shut the door. The child suffered multiple haematomas, especially on the back and the lower arms, as well as second-degree burns on body regions not covered by the clothing. The injury pattern was consistent with the properties of the appliance, and the initial suspicion that the child had been physically abused could not be maintained.

  17. Parental Schooling and Child Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingley, Paul; Christensen, Kaare; Jensen, Vibeke Myrup

    . By differencing within identical twin pair we are able to take heritable endowments transmitted from parent to child into account. For all outcomes OLS is found to be upward biased. Father schooling is found to have no causal effect on infant and early childhood health. Mother schooling increases birth weight...... and the probability of high school completion. For older cohorts, we are able to replicate the findings of Behrman & Rosenzweig (2002) that fathers’ schooling has a positive causal effect on child schooling but mothers’ does not. However, this is reversed for parents born after 1945, when mothers’ schooling has...

  18. Dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Eswara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidermolysis Bullosa (EB is a form of severe skin adhesion defect due to the disruption of the dermal- epidermal junction. It is classified into simplex and dystrophic forms depending on the level at which the junction is compromised. Repeated ulcerations and bullae formation in the mouth lead to scarring that brings about various changes in the oral cavity. These include loss of sulcular depth, ankyloglossia, limited mouth opening and other dentoalveolar changes. At present while there is no cure for EB, the therapeutic approaches are essentially aimed at controlling the infections and maintaining an acceptable quality of life. Dental management should aim at maintaining a functional dentition that would help in mastication and favour nutrition. Oral manifestations and dental management in a child diagnosed with dystrophic EB since birth are presented here.

  19. Hyperkeratotic palmoplantar lichen planus in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhushan Madke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lichen planus (LP is a common idiopathic inflammatory disorder that affects the flexor aspect of the wrists, the legs, and the oral and genital mucosa. Depending upon the site of involvement, LP can be divided into mucosal, nail, scalp, or palmoplantar types. Palmoplantar LP can pose a diagnostic problem to the clinician as it resembles common dermatoses like psoriasis, verruca, corn, calluses, lichenoid drug eruption, and papular syphilide of secondary syphilis. In this case report, we describe a 4-year-old male child who presented with highly pruritic erythematous to violaceous hyperkeratotic papules and plaques on his palms and soles. Typical LP papules were noted on the upper back. Histopathology of the papular lesion showed features of LP. Dermatoscopy of a papule from the back showed the characteristic Wickham striae. We report this rare involvement of palm and soles in a case of childhood LP.

  20. Emergency Child Aid. Child Health and Safety Series (Module VI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iscoe, Louise; And Others

    This manual for child care personnel in day care homes and centers provides a step by step review of what to do in common emergency situations. It is emphasized that the manual is not a substitute for the complete first aid course which every careperson should have. Initial sections of the manual focus on preparing for emergency conditions,…

  1. Undetected and detected child sexual abuse and child pornography offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neutze, Janina; Grundmann, Dorit; Scherner, Gerold; Beier, Klaus Michael

    2012-01-01

    Current knowledge about risk factors for child sexual abuse and child pornography offenses is based on samples of convicted offenders, i.e., detected offenders. Only few studies focus on offenders not detected by the criminal justice system. In this study, a sample of 345 self-referred pedophiles and hebephiles was recruited from the community. All participants met DSM-IV-TR criteria for pedophilia or hebephilia (paraphilia not otherwise specified), were assured of confidentiality, and self-reported lifetime sexual offending against prepubescent and/or pubescent children. Two sets of group comparisons were conducted on self-report data of risk factors for sexual reoffending. Measures of risk factors address the following dimensions identified in samples of convicted offenders: sexual preferences (i.e. co-occurring paraphilias), sexual self-regulation problems, offense-supportive cognitions, diverse socio-affective deficits, and indicators of social functioning (e.g., education, employment). Men who admitted current or previous investigation or conviction by legal authorities (detected offenders) were compared with those who denied any detection for their sexual offenses against children (undetected offenders). Group comparisons (detected vs. undetected) were further conducted for each offense type separately (child pornography only offenders, child sexual abuse only offenders, mixed offenders). Although there were more similarities between undetected and detected offenders, selected measures of sexual-self regulation problems, socio-affective deficits, and social functioning data demonstrated group differences.

  2. Child Psychotherapy, Child Analysis, and Medication: A Flexible, Integrative Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Laura

    2015-01-01

    For children with moderate to severe emotional or behavioral problems, the current approach in child psychiatry is to make an assessment for the use of both psychotherapy and medication. This paper describes integration of antidepressants and stimulants with psychoanalytically oriented techniques.

  3. Defining Child Neglect Based on Child Protective Services Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubowitz, H.; Pitts, S.C.; Litrownik, A.J.; Cox, C.E.; Runyan, D.; Black, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives:: To compare neglect defined by Child Protective Services official codes with neglect defined by a review of CPS narrative data, and to examine the validity of the different neglect measures using children's functioning at age 8 years. Methods:: Data are from 740 children participating in a consortium of longitudinal studies on child…

  4. ``Battered child`` syndrome; Das ``Battered-Child``-Syndrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsner, K.; Merk, J.; Sokiranski, R. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Abt. Diagnostische Radiologie

    1997-10-01

    Synonyms for the `battered child` syndrome (BCS) are terms describing the physical and body aspects of the process, such as `child abuse`, or `non-accidental injury`. These are to be distinguished from the psychic aspects and abuse, emotional and bodily neglect, and sexual abuse. Most cases are one or another combination of these aspects. Radiology is the essential method for giving proof of such abuses, identifying the signs of maltreatment in a medical record, or for disproving suspected abuse. (orig./AJ) [Deutsch] Als Synonym fuer das `Battered-Child`-Syndrom (BCS) stehen die Begriffe der koerperlichen-/physikalischen-Kindesmisshandlung, im angelsaechsischen Sprachraum die Begriffe `Child Abuse` und `Nonaccidental Injury`. Vom Syndrom abzugrenzen sind die seelische Misshandlung, die seelische und koerperliche Vernachlaessigung, und der sexuelle Missbrauch. Kombinationsformen sind nicht selten. Bei der Diagnostik des Syndroms spielt die Radiologie eine entscheidende Rolle. So hilft der Einsatz adaequater Untersuchungsmethoden, den Tatbestand der Misshandlung zu identifizieren und zu dokumentieren, aber auch einen Verdacht zu widerlegen. (orig./AJ)

  5. Community paediatricians' counseling patterns and knowledge of recommendations relating to child restraint use in motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenstein, J; Howard, A; Parkin, P; Khambalia, A; Macarthur, C

    2004-04-01

    Road traffic injury is the leading cause of death among Canadian children and youth. Transport Canada recommends four types of child restraint depending on the size of the child, and recent studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of recommended restraint use. To determine community paediatricians' knowledge of Transport Canada recommendations for child restraint use in vehicles, and to examine paediatricians' counseling patterns in relation to child passenger safety. A mailed questionnaire survey of all community paediatricians affiliated with the Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto was conducted. A 16 item questionnaire gathered information on knowledge of Transport Canada recommendations for child restraint use, general counseling patterns in relation to child passenger safety, and demographic information. In total, 60 community paediatricians in active practice were identified. Of these, 48 (80%) responded to the mailed questionnaire. Almost all paediatricians (92%) correctly identified the recommended weight for transition to a forward-facing car seat, whereas fewer paediatricians (63%) correctly identified the recommended weight for transition to a booster seat from a forward-facing car seat, and only one third of paediatricians correctly identified the recommended weight for transition from a booster seat to a seat belt. Community paediatricians' knowledge of Transport Canada recommendations for child restraint use in vehicles is incomplete. There is a need for such recommendations to be better disseminated to paediatricians and parents so that information on child restraint use is delivered in a clear and consistent manner.

  6. I Am Your Child. Quality Child Care: Making the Right Choice for You and Your Child. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    I Am Your Child Foundation, Beverly Hills, CA.

    Finding the right child care is often challenging for parents, but it is one of the most important decisions a parent will ever make. This videotape is intended to help parents with the process of evaluating child care options. The 30-minute video is presented in seven parts. Part 1, "Choosing Child Care," discusses why quality child…

  7. The battered child syndrome; Die nicht unfallbedingte Verletzung (battered child)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorantin, E.; Lindbichler, F. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiologie, Graz (Austria). Abt. fuer Kinderradiologie

    2002-03-01

    The recognition of a battered child represents a challenge for all groups of adults dealing with children. Radiology plays a special role in this setting. By detection typical injuries, imaging is able to confirm the suspicion of a battered child. Recognition of those injuries on films, taken for other reasons, gives the caretaker an important hint, thus maybe preventing a fatal outcome for the child. One of the most important injury types is represented by the so called ''shakin baby syndrome''. The infant is held by the thorax and shaken. Thus causing a repetitive acceleration-deceleration trauma, which leads to the typical paravertebral rib fractures, intracranial bleeding and eye injuries. After shaking the child is thrown away, with subsequent injuries. The aim of this article is the presentation of an overview regarding the radiology of the battered child. Typical examples will be shown. (orig.) [German] Die Aufdeckung einer Kindesmisshandlung stellt eine grosse Herausforderung fuer alle in der Kinderbetreuung taetigen Berufsgruppen dar. Der Radiologie kommt eine besondere Rolle zu, da sie einerseits durch die Erkennung typischer Verletzungsmuster einen Verdacht bestaetigen, als auch bei ''Zufallsbefunden'' die moeglicherweise fatalen Folgen fuer die betroffenen Kinder verhindern kann. Der typische Verletzungsmechanismus im Rahmen einer Kindesmisshandlung stellt das sog. ''shakin baby syndrome'' dar. Dabei wird der Thorax mit beiden Haenden umfasst und das Kind geschuettelt. Durch dieses repetitive Akzelerations-Dezelerationstrauma entstehen typische Verletzungen mit paravertebralen Rippenfrakturen, ZNS- sowie Retinablutungen. Anschliessend wird das Kind weggeworfen mit entsprechend weiteren Verletzungen. Ziel dieses Artikels ist es, einen Ueberblick ueber die Radiologie der wichtigsten Verletzungen und deren Abklaerung im Rahmen einer Kindesmisshandlung zu geben sowie die Demonstration der Befunde

  8. When your child's treatment stops working

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... OK when your child dies and will take care of the people and animals your child loves. Alternative Names End of life care - children; Palliative care - children; Advance care planning - children ...

  9. Taking Your Child to a Therapist

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child What Kids Say About: Handling Stress Anxiety, Fears, and Phobias Community Service: A Family's Guide to Getting Involved ... PTSD) Helping Your Child Through a Divorce Anxiety, Fears, and Phobias Childhood Stress About Teen Suicide Talking About Your ...

  10. Family Problems concerning the Mentally Retarded Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klackenberg, Gunnar

    1969-01-01

    A mentally handicapped child causes familial pressures: concerns over future pregnancies, emotional strain, and the necessity for an ultimate decision on whether or not the child should be institutionalized. (JF)

  11. Liberia's Child Soldiers: Prospects and Problems I

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    civil war broke out in 1989 in which thousands of children were used as child soldiers. Surprisingly .... The lists of the rehabilitated child soldiers were obtained from ... Monrovia has not had water and electricity supply since 1992. Residents ...

  12. Helping Your Child Deal with Peer Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... child know how you feel about stealing, cheating, bullying, and more. When a child knows something is ... However, excessive shedding can result in balding. This type of…April 2017September 2000familydoctor.org editorial staff AboutAdvertise ...

  13. Caring for a Seriously Ill Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to your child, you may refer to your religious, spiritual, and cultural beliefs about death. You might ... The foremost — and perhaps trickiest — task for worried parents is to treat a sick child as normally ...

  14. Child Nutrition - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Child Nutrition URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Child Nutrition - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  15. Epilepsy - what to ask your doctor - child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000222.htm Epilepsy - what to ask your doctor - child To use ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Your child has epilepsy. Children with epilepsy have seizures. A seizure is ...

  16. The Posthuman Child as a Genderless Ideal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sagnika Chanda

    2016-01-01

    .... She addresses the role of technology in rendering the child's gendered body more opaque than ever as she installs the post-human child as an emancipatory site, resisting normativity of gendering...

  17. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... members of AACAP. Be CAPtivated - Child and Adolescent Psychiatry as a Career AACAP's Current Award Opportunities More... ... More... Copyright ©2016 - American Academy of Child Adolescent Psychiatry. All Rights Reserved. Contact Us | Disclaimer | Privacy Statement ...

  18. Child Abuse May Shorten Some Women's Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160478.html Child Abuse May Shorten Some Women's Lives Extreme stress may ... 300 middle-aged U.S. adults, female survivors of child abuse were more likely to die over the next ...

  19. Planning for Your Child's Surgery (Osteogenesis Imperfecta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blue Jeans for Better Bones Calendar Online Store Planning for Your Child's Surgery: What Parents Need to ... but the entire family as well. Before Surgery: Planning Become well informed. Taking care of your child ...

  20. Choking - adult or child over 1 year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdominal thrusts - adult or child over 1 year; Heimlich maneuver - adult or child over 1 year: Choking - back ... back blows, or both. To perform abdominal thrusts (Heimlich maneuver): Stand behind the person and wrap your arms ...

  1. Talking to Your Child about Menstruation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development (Birth to 3 Years) Feeding Your 1- to ... Otherwise, too much importance is placed on a single discussion and the ... child's maturity and ability to understand. Throughout childhood, kids ...

  2. Helping Your Child Who is Overweight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... often. If you do visit a fast-food restaurant, encourage your child to choose healthier options, such ... jungle gym at the playground or joining a sports team or dance class. Help your child find ...

  3. Macrotheories: child physical punishment, injury and abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousins, Judy

    2005-08-01

    This is the first paper in a series of two that focus on causational factors that contribute to child physical punishment and the continuum between physical punishment, injury and child physical abuse. The papers will explore macro and microtheoretical perspectives, examine their influence on child discipline and child physical abuse and propose a framework to guide and inform professional practice in the field of child physical maltreatment Paper one introduces the reader to the political context of child physical discipline and analyses current definitions. The extent of punishment and injuries sustained is explored and the relationship between macrotheoretical perspectives examined. The paper concludes by highlighting the continuum between child physical punishment and child physical abuse.

  4. Inhalant Abuse: Is Your Child at Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be valuable as well. With help, your child can end inhalant abuse and learn how to make healthy choices for a lifetime. References Baydala L. Inhalant abuse. Paediatrics and Child Health. 2010;15:443. Results from the 2013 ...

  5. Child Abuse - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Child Abuse URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Child Abuse - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  6. Teaching Your Child Healthy Hair Care Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... public", "mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c Teaching your child healthy hair care habits Many common ... your hair. Damaged hair looks and feels unhealthy. Teaching your child how to shampoo Healthy hair care ...

  7. Child sexual abuse in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria: a sociological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omorodion, F I

    1994-01-01

    A study is presented of the reported cases of child rape in Benin City, the capital of Edo State in Nigeria. The conditions that make children, particularly females, more vulnerable to sexual abuse are explored. The organization of family life places children in a dependency cycle that makes rape both inevitable and invisible. Change that is responsive to family needs is more likely to have a positive effect in preventing child rape.

  8. Fully immunized child

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutua, Martin Kavao; Kimani-Murage, Elizabeth; Ngomi, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Background: More efforts have been put in place to increase full immunization coverage rates in the last decade. Little is known about the levels and consequences of delaying or vaccinating children in different schedules. Vaccine effectiveness depends on the timing of its administration......, and it is not optimal if given early, delayed or not given as recommended. Evidence of non-specific effects of vaccines is well documented and could be linked to timing and sequencing of immunization. This paper documents the levels of coverage, timing and sequencing of routine childhood vaccines. Methods: The study...... was conducted between 2007 and 2014 in two informal urban settlements in Nairobi. A total of 3856 children, aged 12-23 months and having a vaccination card seen were included in analysis. Vaccination dates recorded from the cards seen were used to define full immunization coverage, timeliness and sequencing...

  9. “A fine balance”—how child welfare workers manage organizational changes within the Norwegian Welfare State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudrun Brottveit

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2004, the Child Welfare Reform (CWR was introduced in Norway. One of the most important goals of the reform was to strengthen State level authority in public child welfare and establish equal child welfare services across the country. The aim of this article is to study how this new reform affected the work of municipal child welfare professionals and led to the development of a regional project called New Child Welfare (NCW. Based on qualitative interviews with central actors in NCW, regarding the interaction between state and local child welfare professionals, the article shows how professionals within local child welfare reacted on the CWR. The NCW was established as a consequence of the professionals’ reaction on state governance and represent a new type of network. Inspired by Michel Foucaults’ concepts of governmentality and self-work, the article focuses on the development of the NCW as a result of child welfare workers’ confrontation with state governance and their fight for innovative solutions, knowing that the reform had direct impact on vulnerable children, youths, and their families. The local and collective self-work in NCW is an expression of a new form of productive power based on equality and cooperation, as well as a particular form of dependency between municipal and state levels of governance. The article highlights the importance of studying how reforms introduced by the state actually influence local child welfare work, policy, and professionalism within municipal child welfare.

  10. Does child gender moderate the relationship between interparental conflict and child outcomes? Findings from the Danish Longitudinal Study of Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhartha Baviskar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The hypothesis that child gender moderates the relationship between interparental conflict (IPC, conceptualized as a normative phenomenon, and child outcomes was evaluated using Danish mother data from the Danish Longitudinal Survey of Children (DALSC, which follows a nationally representative sample of children born in September-October 1995. IPC was assessed at age seven using a five-item scale measuring frequency of quarrels between parents on topics common to daily family life. Child outcomes were evaluated at age eleven using three indicators of internalizing (emotional problems, somatic symptoms, psychological symptoms and two indicators of externalizing symptoms (conduct problems and hyperactivity. OLS regression analyses indicated, overall, that the longitudinal association between IPC and the chosen outcomes was weak and child gender weakly moderated the association between IPC and child outcomes. Specifically, gender differences were limited only to conduct problems after controlling for the child’s psycho-social adjustment and health characteristics, mother’s depressive symptoms and disciplinary behaviour and parents’ socio-economic status at age 7. Furthermore, contrary to expectations derived from the male vulnerability and differential reactivity models, the IPC-conduct problems association was stronger among girls than among boys. In general, IPC predicted a number of outcomes among girls but did not predict any among boys. These findings suggest that it is important in both academic and professional work to consider that the impact of IPC on boys and girls may vary depending on the nature of the conflict and the type of families affected by it. Furthermore, while IPC may not have a direct impact over time, its effects may continue to be felt through other elements of the family system, such as the parent-child relationship.

  11. CHILD ABUSE, FENOMENA DAN KEBIJAKAN DI INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Suci Wulansari

    2012-01-01

    Research about child abuse in Indonesia done by United Nations Children's Funds (UNICEF) results a concerned condition. The same opinion is also declared by Indonesian Commission on Children Protection. The increasing number of child abuse in Indonesia is highlighted in international society. Child abuse causes many negative effects for physical, mental, and or sexual of children, that effect for the growth and development of child thus leads to rise the lost generation. Medical officers hope...

  12. Child Labor, Crop Shocks, and Credit Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Kathleen Beegle; Rajeev Dehejia; Roberta Gatti

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between household income shocks and child labor. In particular, we investigate the extent to which transitory income shocks lead to increases in child labor and whether household access to credit mitigates the effects of these shocks. Using panel data from a survey in Tanzania, we find that both relationships are significant. Our results suggest that credit constraints play a role in explaining child labor and consequently that child labor is inefficient, ...

  13. Domestic Violence and Dependency Courts: The "Greenbook" Demonstration Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Neena M.; Silverman, Jerry; Wang, Kathleen; Janczewski, Colleen

    2008-01-01

    This field study reports on a cross-site evaluation of dependency courts in communities receiving federal funding to implement the "Greenbook" initiative, a multisite demonstration for community improvement of coordinated responses to families victimized by domestic violence and child maltreatment. This article focuses on the dependency court,…

  14. Relationship-Focused Child Care Practices: Quality of Care and Child Outcomes for Children in Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Margaret Tresch; Klausli, Julia F.; Mata-Otero, Ana-Maria; Caughy, Margaret O'Brien

    2008-01-01

    Research Findings: Child care delivery practices promoting continuous, primary caregiver-child relationships (relationship-focused child care) were evaluated for 223 preschool-age children (45% African American, 55% Latino) attending child care centers serving low-income children. Both relationship-focused and non-relationship-focused centers were…

  15. Does Social Labelling Encourage Child Schooling and Discourage Child Labour in Nepal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Sayan; Grote, Ulrike; Luchters, Guido

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the determinants of child labour vis-a-vis child schooling. It further examines the influence of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) which are engaged in social labelling, on the incidence of child labour and schooling trade-off. The empirical results show that the probability of child schooling increases as well as child…

  16. Child Welfare Training in Child Psychiatry Residency: A Program Director Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Terry G.; Cox, Julia R.; Walker, Sarah C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study surveys child psychiatry residency program directors in order to 1) characterize child welfare training experiences for child psychiatry residents; 2) evaluate factors associated with the likelihood of program directors' endorsing the adequacy of their child welfare training; and 3) assess program directors'…

  17. 38 CFR 10.42 - Claim of child other than legitimate child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Claim of child other than legitimate child. 10.42 Section 10.42 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUSTED COMPENSATION Adjusted Compensation; General § 10.42 Claim of child other than legitimate child....

  18. Multiple Child Care Arrangements and Child Well Being: Early Care Experiences in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessens, Amy; Chen, Jen-Hao

    2013-01-01

    Nearly one quarter of Australian children under the age of 5 experience multiple non-parental child care arrangements. Research focused on the relationship between multiple child care arrangements and child socioemotional development is limited, particularly in Australia. Evidence from the United States and Europe has linked multiple child care…

  19. Teaching HIV/AIDS through a Child-to-Child Approach: A Teacher's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwebi, Bosire Monari

    2012-01-01

    This paper draws from a larger study conducted in Kenya, which was a narrative inquiry into a teacher's experiences of teaching the HIV/AIDS curriculum using a child-to-child approach. The two major research questions of this study were: 1) What are the experiences of a teacher teaching the HIV/AIDS curriculum using a child-to-child curriculum…

  20. Child-Mother and Child-Father Play Interaction Patterns with Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Aesha; Halliburton, Amy; Humphrey, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    The study focused on qualitative and quantitative differences between maternal and paternal play interaction behaviours with their preschool children. Home observations of 18 child-mother and child-father play interactions were qualitatively analysed to derive interaction themes. In addition, the quality of child-mother and child-father…