WorldWideScience

Sample records for dependent branching processes

  1. Age-dependent branching processes in random environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    We consider an age-dependent branching process in random environments. The environments are represented by a stationary and ergodic sequence ξ = (ξ0,ξ1,...) of random variables. Given an environment ξ, the process is a non-homogenous Galton-Watson process, whose particles in n-th generation have a life length distribution G(ξn) on R+, and reproduce independently new particles according to a probability law p(ξn) on N. Let Z(t) be the number of particles alive at time t. We first find a characterization of the conditional probability generating function of Z(t) (given the environment ξ) via a functional equation, and obtain a criterion for almost certain extinction of the process by comparing it with an embedded Galton-Watson process. We then get expressions of the conditional mean EξZ(t) and the global mean EZ(t), and show their exponential growth rates by studying a renewal equation in random environments.

  2. Age-dependent branching processes in random environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI YingQiu; LIU QuanSheng

    2008-01-01

    We consider an age-dependent branching process in random environments.The environments are represented by a stationary and ergodic sequence ξ = (ξ0,ξ1,...) of random variables.Given an environment ξ,the process is a non-homogenous Galton-Watson process,whose particles in n-th generation have a life length distribution G(ξn) on R+,and reproduce independently new particles according to a probability law p(ξn) on N.Let Z(t) be the number of particles alive at time t.We first find a characterization of the conditional probability generating function of Z(t) (given the environment ξ) via a functional equation,and obtain a criterion for almost certain extinction of the process by comparing it with an embedded Galton-Watson process.We then get expressions of the conditional mean EξZ(t) and the global mean EZ(t),and show their exponential growth rates by studying a renewal equation in random environments.

  3. Properties of Super-Poisson Processes and Super-Random Walks with Spatially Dependent Branching Rates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Xia REN

    2008-01-01

    The global supports of super-Poisson processes and super-random walks with a branching mechanism ψ(z)=z2 and constant branching rate are known to be noncompact. It turns out that, for any spatially dependent branching rate, this property remains true. However, the asymptotic extinction property for these two kinds of superprocesses depends on the decay rate of the branching-rate function at infinity.

  4. Critical Age-Dependent Branching Markov Processes and their Scaling Limits

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Krishna B Athreya; Siva R Athreya; Srikanth K Iyer

    2010-06-01

    This paper studies: (i) the long-time behaviour of the empirical distribution of age and normalized position of an age-dependent critical branching Markov process conditioned on non-extinction; and (ii) the super-process limit of a sequence of age-dependent critical branching Brownian motions.

  5. Age-dependent branching processes for surveillance of vaccine-preventable diseases with incubation period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marusia N Bojkova

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to review the recent results of the authors in the area of infectious disease modelling by means of branching stochastic processes. This is a new approach involving age-dependent branching models, which turned out to be more appropriate and flexible for describing the spread of an infection in a given population, than discrete time ones. Concretely, Bellman-Harris and Sevast’yanov’s branching processes are investigated. It is justified that the proposed models are proper candidates as models of infectious diseases with incubation period like measles, mumps, avian flu, etc. It is worth to notice that in general the developed methodology is applicable to the diseases that follow the so-called SIR (susceptible- infected-removed scheme in terms of epidemiological models. Two policies of extra-vaccination level are proposed and compared on the ground of simulation examples.

  6. Processing Branches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schindler, Christoph; Tamke, Martin; Tabatabai, Ali;

    2014-01-01

    Angled and forked wood – a desired material until 19th century, was swept away by industrialization and its standardization of processes and materials. Contemporary information technology has the potential for the capturing and recognition of individual geometries through laser scanning and compu...

  7. Continuous-state branching processes

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zenghu

    2012-01-01

    These notes were used in a short graduate course on branching processes the author gave in Beijing Normal University. The following main topics are covered: scaling limits of Galton--Watson processes, continuous-state branching processes, extinction probabilities, conditional limit theorems, decompositions of sample paths, martingale problems, stochastic equations, Lamperti's transformations, independent and dependent immigration processes. Some of the results are simplified versions of those in the author's book "Measure-valued branching Markov processes" (Springer, 2011). We hope these simplified results will set out the main ideas in an easy way and lead the reader to a quick access of the subject.

  8. Branching processes in biology

    CERN Document Server

    Kimmel, Marek

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a theoretical background of branching processes and discusses their biological applications. Branching processes are a well-developed and powerful set of tools in the field of applied probability. The range of applications considered includes molecular biology, cellular biology, human evolution and medicine. The branching processes discussed include Galton-Watson, Markov, Bellman-Harris, Multitype, and General Processes. As an aid to understanding specific examples, two introductory chapters, and two glossaries are included that provide background material in mathematics and in biology. The book will be of interest to scientists who work in quantitative modeling of biological systems, particularly probabilists, mathematical biologists, biostatisticians, cell biologists, molecular biologists, and bioinformaticians. The authors are a mathematician and cell biologist who have collaborated for more than a decade in the field of branching processes in biology for this new edition. This second ex...

  9. Koenigs function and branching processes

    CERN Document Server

    Chikilev, O G

    2001-01-01

    An explicit solution of time-homogeneous pure birth branching processes is described. It gives alternative extensions for the negative binomial distribution (branching processes with immigration) and for the Furry-Yule distribution (branching processes without immigration).

  10. Path-valued branching processes and nonlocal branching superprocesses

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zenghu

    2012-01-01

    A family of continuous-state branching processes with immigration are constructed as the solution flow of a stochastic equation system driven by time-space noises. The family can be regarded as an inhomogeneous increasing path-valued branching process with immigration. Two nonlocal branching immigration superprocesses can be defined from the flow. We identify explicitly the branching and immigration mechanisms of those processes. The results provide new perspectives into the tree-valued Markov processes of Aldous and Pitman [Ann. Inst. H. Poincare Probab. Statist. 34 (1998), 637--686] and Abraham and Delmas [Ann. Probab. To appear].

  11. 3rd Workshop on Branching Processes and their Applications

    CERN Document Server

    González, Miguel; Gutiérrez, Cristina; Martínez, Rodrigo; Minuesa, Carmen; Molina, Manuel; Mota, Manuel; Ramos, Alfonso; WBPA15

    2016-01-01

    This volume gathers papers originally presented at the 3rd Workshop on Branching Processes and their Applications (WBPA15), which was held from 7 to 10 April 2015 in Badajoz, Spain (http://branching.unex.es/wbpa15/index.htm). The papers address a broad range of theoretical and practical aspects of branching process theory. Further, they amply demonstrate that the theoretical research in this area remains vital and topical, as well as the relevance of branching concepts in the development of theoretical approaches to solving new problems in applied fields such as Epidemiology, Biology, Genetics, and, of course, Population Dynamics. The topics covered can broadly be classified into the following areas: 1. Coalescent Branching Processes 2. Branching Random Walks 3. Population Growth Models in Varying and Random Environments 4. Size/Density/Resource-Dependent Branching Models 5. Age-Dependent Branching Models 6. Special Branching Models 7. Applications in Epidemiology 8. Applications in Biology and Genetics Offer...

  12. Branching processes and neutral evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Taïb, Ziad

    1992-01-01

    The Galton-Watson branching process has its roots in the problem of extinction of family names which was given a precise formulation by F. Galton as problem 4001 in the Educational Times (17, 1873). In 1875, an attempt to solve this problem was made by H. W. Watson but as it turned out, his conclusion was incorrect. Half a century later, R. A. Fisher made use of the Galton-Watson process to determine the extinction probability of the progeny of a mutant gene. However, it was J. B. S. Haldane who finally gave the first sketch of the correct conclusion. J. B. S. Haldane also predicted that mathematical genetics might some day develop into a "respectable branch of applied mathematics" (quoted in M. Kimura & T. Ohta, Theoretical Aspects of Population Genetics. Princeton, 1971). Since the time of Fisher and Haldane, the two fields of branching processes and mathematical genetics have attained a high degree of sophistication but in different directions. This monograph is a first attempt to apply the current sta...

  13. Branching process models of cancer

    CERN Document Server

    Durrett, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This volume develops results on continuous time branching processes and applies them to study rate of tumor growth, extending classic work on the Luria-Delbruck distribution. As a consequence, the authors calculate the probability that mutations that confer resistance to treatment are present at detection and quantify the extent of tumor heterogeneity. As applications, the authors evaluate ovarian cancer screening strategies and give rigorous proofs for results of Heano and Michor concerning tumor metastasis. These notes should be accessible to students who are familiar with Poisson processes and continuous time. Richard Durrett is mathematics professor at Duke University, USA. He is the author of 8 books, over 200 journal articles, and has supervised more than 40 Ph.D. students. Most of his current research concerns the applications of probability to biology: ecology, genetics, and most recently cancer.

  14. Residence times of branching diffusion processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumonteil, E.; Mazzolo, A.

    2016-07-01

    The residence time of a branching Brownian process is the amount of time that the mother particle and all its descendants spend inside a domain. Using the Feynman-Kac formalism, we derive the residence-time equation as well as the equations for its moments for a branching diffusion process with an arbitrary number of descendants. This general approach is illustrated with simple examples in free space and in confined geometries where explicit formulas for the moments are obtained within the long time limit. In particular, we study in detail the influence of the branching mechanism on those moments. The present approach can also be applied to investigate other additive functionals of branching Brownian process.

  15. Branching Processes with Immigration and Related Topics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zeng-hu

    2006-01-01

    This is a survey on the recent progresses in the study of branching processes with immigration,generalized Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes,and affine Markov processes.We mainly focus on the applications of skew convolution semigroups and the connections in those processes.

  16. General collision branching processes with two parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN AnYue; LI JunPing

    2009-01-01

    A new class of branching models, the general collision branching processes with two parameters, is considered in this paper. For such models, it is necessary to evaluate the absorbing probabilities and mean extinction times for both absorbing states. Regularity and uniqueness criteria are firstly established. Explicit expressions are then obtained for the extinction probability vector, the mean extinction times and the conditional mean extinction times. The explosion behavior of these models is investigated and an explicit expression for mean explosion time is established. The mean global holding time is also obtained. It is revealed that these properties are substantially different between the super-explosive and sub-explosive cases.

  17. [Bundle-branch block depending on the heart rate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolov, L

    1975-01-01

    Five patients are reported, admitted to the hospital, with diseases predominantly of the cardio-vascular system. During the electrocardiographic examinations bundle branch block was established, depending on heart rate. It fluctuated within the physiological limits from 50 to 90/min. In three of the patients, the bundle branch block appeared with the quickening of the heart rate (tachycardia-depending bundle branch block) and in two of the patients--the bundle branch block appeared during the slowing down of the heart action and disappeared with its quickening (bradicardia-depending bundle branch block). A brief literature review is presented and attention is paid to the possible diagnostic errors and the treatment mode of those patients with cardiac tonic and antiarrhythmic medicaments.

  18. General collision branching processes with two parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A new class of branching models,the general collision branching processes with two parameters,is considered in this paper.For such models,it is necessary to evaluate the absorbing probabilities and mean extinction times for both absorbing states.Regularity and uniqueness criteria are firstly established.Explicit expressions are then obtained for the extinction probability vector,the mean extinction times and the conditional mean extinction times.The explosion behavior of these models is investigated and an explicit expression for mean explosion time is established.The mean global holding time is also obtained.It is revealed that these properties are substantially different between the super-explosive and sub-explosive cases.

  19. Branch Processes of Regular Magnetic Monopole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MO Shu-Fan; REN Ji-Rong; ZHU Tao

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, by making use of Duan's topological current theory, the branch process of regular magnetic monopoles is discussed in detail Regular magnetic monopoles are found generating or annihilating at the limit point and encountering, splitting, or merging at the bifurcation point and the degenerate point systematically of the vector order parameter field φ(x).Furthermore, it is also shown that when regular magnetic monopoles split or merge at the degenerate point of field function φ, the total topological charges of the regular magnetic monopoles axe still unchanged.

  20. Anomalous scaling in an age-dependent branching model

    OpenAIRE

    Keller-Schmidt, Stephanie; Tugrul, Murat; Eguíluz, Víctor M; Hernández-García, Emilio; Klemm, Konstantin

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a one-parametric family of tree growth models, in which branching probabilities decrease with branch age $\\tau$ as $\\tau^{-\\alpha}$. Depending on the exponent $\\alpha$, the scaling of tree depth with tree size $n$ displays a transition between the logarithmic scaling of random trees and an algebraic growth. At the transition ($\\alpha=1$) tree depth grows as $(\\log n)^2$. This anomalous scaling is in good agreement with the trend observed in evolution of biological species, thus p...

  1. Anomalous scaling in an age-dependent branching model

    OpenAIRE

    Keller-Schmidt, Stephanie; Tugrul, Murat; Eguíluz, Víctor M.; Hernández-García, Emilio; Klemm, Konstantin

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a one-parametric family of tree growth models, in which branching probabilities decrease with branch age $\\tau$ as $\\tau^{-\\alpha}$. Depending on the exponent $\\alpha$, the scaling of tree depth with tree size $n$ displays a transition between the logarithmic scaling of random trees and an algebraic growth. At the transition ($\\alpha=1$) tree depth grows as $(\\log n)^2$. This anomalous scaling is in good agreement with the trend observed in evolution of biological species, thus p...

  2. Asymptotic behaviour near extinction of continuous-state branching processes

    OpenAIRE

    Pardo, Juan Carlos; Berzunza, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    In this note, we study the asymptotic behaviour near extinction of (sub-) critical continuous state branching processes. In particular, we establish an analogue of Khintchin's law of the iterated logarithm near extinction time for a continuous state branching process whose branching mechanism satisfies a given condition and its reflected process at its infimum.

  3. Scale dependence of branching in arterial and bronchial trees

    CERN Document Server

    Restrepo, J G; Hunt, B R; Restrepo, Juan G.; Ott, Edward; Hunt, Brian R.

    2005-01-01

    Although models of branching in arterial and bronchial trees often predict a dependence of bifurcation parameters on the scale of the bifurcating vessels, direct verifications of this dependence with data are uncommon. We compare measurements of bifurcation parameters in airways and arterial trees of different mammals as a function of scale to general features predicted by theoretical models. We find that the size dependence is more complex than existing theories based solely on energy minimization explain, and suggest additional factors that may govern the branching at different scales.

  4. Anomalous scaling in an age-dependent branching model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller-Schmidt, Stephanie; Tuğrul, Murat; Eguíluz, Víctor M; Hernández-García, Emilio; Klemm, Konstantin

    2015-02-01

    We introduce a one-parametric family of tree growth models, in which branching probabilities decrease with branch age τ as τ(-α). Depending on the exponent α, the scaling of tree depth with tree size n displays a transition between the logarithmic scaling of random trees and an algebraic growth. At the transition (α=1) tree depth grows as (logn)(2). This anomalous scaling is in good agreement with the trend observed in evolution of biological species, thus providing a theoretical support for age-dependent speciation and associating it to the occurrence of a critical point.

  5. A Branching Process for Virus Survival

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, J Theodore

    2011-01-01

    Quasispecies theory predicts that there is a critical mutation probability above which a viral population will go extinct. Above this threshold the virus loses the ability to replicate the best adapted genotype, leading to a population composed of low replicating mutants that is eventually doomed. We propose a new branching model that shows that this is not necessarily so. That is, a population composed of ever changing mutants may survive.

  6. Limit Theorems for some Branching Measure-Valued Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Cloez, Bertrand

    2011-01-01

    We consider a particles system, where, the particles move independently according to a Markov process and branching event occurs at an inhomogeneous time. The offspring locations and their number may depend on the position of the mother. Our setting capture, for instance, the processes indexed by Galton-Watson tree. We first determine the asymptotic behaviour of the empirical measure. The proof is based on an expression of the empirical measure using an auxiliary process. This latter is not distributed as a one cell lineage, there is a biased phenomenon. Our model is a microscopic description of a random (discrete) population of individuals. We then obtain a large population approximation as weak solution of a growth- fragmentation equation. We illustrate our result with two examples. The first one is a size-structured population model which describes the mitosis and the second one can model a parasite infection.

  7. Continuous state branching processes in random environment: The Brownian case

    OpenAIRE

    Palau, Sandra; Pardo, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    We consider continuous state branching processes that are perturbed by a Brownian motion. These processes are constructed as the unique strong solution of a stochastic differential equation. The long-term extinction and explosion behaviours are studied. In the stable case, the extinction and explosion probabilities are given explicitly. We find three regimes for the asymptotic behaviour of the explosion probability and, as in the case of branching processes in random environment, we find five...

  8. Processability improvement of polyolefins through radiation-induced branching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Song; Phillips, Ed; Parks, Lewis

    2010-03-01

    Radiation-induced long-chain branching for the purpose of improving melt strength and hence the processability of polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene (PE) is reviewed. Long-chain branching without significant gel content can be created by low dose irradiation of PP or PE under different atmospheres, with or without multifunctional branching promoters. The creation of long-chain branching generally leads to improvement of melt strength, which in turn may be translated into processability improvement for specific applications in which melt strength plays an important role. In this paper, the changes of the melt flow rate and the melt strength of the irradiated polymer and the relationship between long-chain branching and melt strength are reviewed. The effects of the atmosphere and the branching promoter on long-chain branching vs. degradation are discussed. The benefits of improved melt strength on the processability, e.g., sag resistance and strain hardening, are illustrated. The implications on practical polymer processing applications such as foams and films are also discussed.

  9. Near Critical Catalyst Reactant Branching Processes with Controlled Immigration

    CERN Document Server

    Budhiraja, Amarjit

    2012-01-01

    Near critical catalyst-reactant branching processes with controlled immigration are studied. The reactant population evolves according to a branching process whose branching rate is proportional to the total mass of the catalyst. The bulk catalyst evolution is that of a classical continuous time branching process; in addition there is a specific form of immigration. Immigration takes place exactly when the catalyst population falls below a certain threshold, in which case the population is instantaneously replenished to the threshold. Such models are motivated by problems in chemical kinetics where one wants to keep the level of a catalyst above a certain threshold in order to maintain a desired level of reaction activity. A diffusion limit theorem for the scaled processes is presented, in which the catalyst limit is described through a reflected diffusion, while the reactant limit is a diffusion with coefficients that are functions of both the reactant and the catalyst. Stochastic averaging principles under ...

  10. A computable branching process for the Wigner quantum dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Shao, Sihong

    2016-01-01

    A branching process treatment for the nonlocal Wigner pseudo-differential operator and its numerical applications in quantum dynamics is proposed and analyzed. We start from the discussion on two typical truncations of the nonlocal term, i.e., the $k$-truncated and $y$-truncated models. After introducing an auxiliary function $\\gamma(\\bm{x})$, the (truncated) Wigner equation is reformulated into the integral formulation as well as its adjoint correspondence, both of which can be regarded as the renewal-type equations and have transparent stochastic interpretation. We prove that the moment of a branching process happens to be the solution for the adjoint equation, which connects rigorously the Wigner quantum dynamics to the stochastic branching process, and thus a sound mathematical framework for the Wigner Monte Carlo methods is established. Within the framework, the branching process for the $y$-truncated model recovers the popular signed particle Monte Carlo method which needs a discretization of the moment...

  11. Backbone decomposition for continuous-state branching processes with immigration

    CERN Document Server

    Ren, A E Kyprianou Y-X

    2011-01-01

    In the spirit of Duqesne and Winkel (2007) and Berestycki et al. (2011) we show that supercritical continuous-state branching process with a general branching mechanism and general immigration mechanism is equal in law to a continuous-time Galton Watson process with immigration with Poissonian dressing. The result also characterises the limiting backbone decomposition which is predictable from the work on consistent growth of Galton-Watson trees with immigration in Cao and Winkel (2010).

  12. Fluctuation limit theorems for age-dependent critical binary branching systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murillo-Salas Antonio

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We consider an age-dependent branching particle system in ℝd, where the particles are subject to α-stable migration (0 < α ≤ 2, critical binary branching, and general (non-arithmetic lifetimes distribution. The population starts off from a Poisson random field in ℝd with Lebesgue intensity. We prove functional central limit theorems and strong laws of large numbers under two rescalings: high particle density, and a space-time rescaling that preserves the migration distribution. Properties of the limit processes such as Markov property, almost sure continuity of paths and generalized Langevin equation, are also investigated.

  13. Catalyst-dependent selectivity in the relay catalytic branching cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansode, Avinash H; Shaikh, Aslam C; Kavthe, Rahul D; Thorat, Shridhar; Gonnade, Rajesh G; Patil, Nitin T

    2015-02-02

    The synthesis of small organic molecules as probes for discovering new therapeutic agents has been an important aspect of chemical biology. One of the best ways to access collections of small molecules is to use various techniques in diversity-oriented synthesis (DOS). Recently, a new form of DOS, namely "relay catalytic branching cascades" (RCBCs), has been introduced, wherein a common type of starting material reacts with several scaffold-building agents (SBAs) to obtain structurally diverse molecular scaffolds under the influence of catalysts. Herein, the RCBC reaction of a common type of substrate with SBAs is reported to give two different types of molecular scaffolds and their formation is essentially dependent on the type of catalyst used.

  14. POISSON REPRESENTATIONS OF BRANCHING MARKOV AND MEASURE-VALUED BRANCHING PROCESSES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurtz, Thomas G.; Rodrigues, Eliane R.

    2011-01-01

    Representations of branching Markov processes and their measure-valued limits in terms of countable systems of particles are constructed for models with spatially varying birth and death rates. Each particle has a location and a "level," but unlike earlier constructions, the levels change with time.

  15. Random self-similar trees and a hierarchical branching process

    CERN Document Server

    Kovchegov, Yevgeniy

    2016-01-01

    We study self-similarity in random binary rooted trees. In a well-understood case of Galton-Watson trees, a distribution is called self-similar if it is invariant with respect to the operation of pruning, which cuts the tree leaves. This only happens in the critical case (a constant process progeny), which also exhibits other special symmetries. We extend the prune-invariance set-up to a non-Markov situation and trees with edge lengths. In this general case the class of self-similar processes becomes much richer and covers a variety of practically important situations. The main result is construction of the hierarchical branching processes that satisfy various self-similarity constraints (distributional, mean, in edge-lengths) depending on the process parameters. Taking the limit of averaged stochastic dynamics, as the number of trajectories increases, we obtain a deterministic system of differential equations that describes the process evolution. This system is used to establish a phase transition that separ...

  16. Bisexual Galton-Watson Branching Processes in Random Environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-xia Ma

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a bisexual Galton-Watson branching process whose offspring probability distribution is controlled by a random environment process. Some results for the probability generating functions associated with the process are obtained and sufficient conditions for certain extinction and for non-certain extinction are established.

  17. Large Deviation for Supercritical Branching Processes with Immigration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Ning LIU; Mei ZHANG

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study the large deviation for a supercritical branching process with immigration controlled by a sequence of non-negative integer-valued independently identical distributed random variables, improving the previous results for non immigration processes. We rely heavily on the detail description and limit property of the generating function of immigration processes.

  18. Decay parameter and related properties of 2-type branching processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI JunPing

    2009-01-01

    We consider the decay parameter, invariant measures/vectors and quasi-stationary dis-tributions for 2-type Markov branching processes. Investigating such properties is crucial in realizing life period of branching models. In this paper, some important properties of the generating functions for 2-type Markov branching q-matrix are firstly investigated in detail. The exact value of the decay parameter λC of such model is given for the communicating class C = Z+2\\ 0. It is shown that this λC can be directly obtained from the generating functions of the corresponding q-matrix. Moreover, the λC-invariant measures/vectors and quasi-distributions of such processes are deeply considered. A λC-invariant vector for the q-matrix (or for the process) on C is given and the generating functions of λC-invariant measures and quasi-stationary distributions for the process on C are presented.

  19. Decay parameter and related properties of 2-type branching processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    We consider the decay parameter, invariant measures/vectors and quasi-stationary dis- tributions for 2-type Markov branching processes. Investigating such properties is crucial in realizing life period of branching models. In this paper, some important properties of the generating functions for 2-type Markov branching q-matrix are firstly investigated in detail. The exact value of the decay parameter λC of such model is given for the communicating class C = Z+2 \\ 0. It is shown that this λC can be directly obtained from the generating functions of the corresponding q-matrix. Moreover, the λC-invariant measures/vectors and quasi-distributions of such processes are deeply considered. A λC-invariant vector for the q-matrix (or for the process) on C is given and the generating functions of λC-invariant measures and quasi-stationary distributions for the process on C are presented.

  20. The sector constants of continuous state branching processes with immigration

    CERN Document Server

    Handa, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    Continuous state branching processes with immigration are studied. We are particularly concerned with the associated (non-symmetric) Dirichlet form. After observing that gamma distributions are only reversible distributions for this class of models, we prove that every generalized gamma convolution is a stationary distribution of the process with suitably chosen branching mechanism and with continuous immigration. For such non-reversible processes, the strong sector condition is discussed in terms of a characteristic called the Thorin measure. In addition, some connections with notion from noncommutative probability theory will be pointed out through calculations involving the Stieltjes transform.

  1. Neutron fluctuations a treatise on the physics of branching processes

    CERN Document Server

    Pazsit, Imre; Pzsit, Imre

    2007-01-01

    The transport of neutrons in a multiplying system is an area of branching processes with a clear formalism. This book presents an account of the mathematical tools used in describing branching processes, which are then used to derive a large number of properties of the neutron distribution in multiplying systems with or without an external source. In the second part of the book, the theory is applied to the description of the neutron fluctuations in nuclear reactor cores as well as in small samples of fissile material. The question of how to extract information about the system under study is discussed. In particular the measurement of the reactivity of subcritical cores, driven with various Poisson and non-Poisson (pulsed) sources, and the identification of fissile material samples, is illustrated. The book gives pragmatic information for those planning and executing and evaluating experiments on such systems. - Gives a complete treatise of the mathematics of branching particle processes, and in particular n...

  2. An introduction to branching measure-valued processes

    CERN Document Server

    Dynkin, Eugene B

    1994-01-01

    For about half a century, two classes of stochastic processes-Gaussian processes and processes with independent increments-have played an important role in the development of stochastic analysis and its applications. During the last decade, a third class-branching measure-valued (BMV) processes-has also been the subject of much research. A common feature of all three classes is that their finite-dimensional distributions are infinitely divisible, allowing the use of the powerful analytic tool of Laplace (or Fourier) transforms. All three classes, in an infinite-dimensional setting, provide means for study of physical systems with infinitely many degrees of freedom. This is the first monograph devoted to the theory of BMV processes. Dynkin first constructs a large class of BMV processes, called superprocesses, by passing to the limit from branching particle systems. Then he proves that, under certain restrictions, a general BMV process is a superprocess. A special chapter is devoted to the connections between ...

  3. An investigation of cognitive 'branching' processes in major depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Steven CR

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with depression demonstrate cognitive impairment on a wide range of cognitive tasks, particularly putative tasks of frontal lobe function. Recent models of frontal lobe function have argued that the frontal pole region is involved in cognitive branching, a process requiring holding in mind one goal while performing sub-goal processes. Evidence for this model comes from functional neuroimaging and frontal-pole lesion patients. We have utilised these new concepts to investigate the possibility that patients with depression are impaired at cognitive 'branching'. Methods 11 non-medicated patients with major depression were compared to 11 matched controls in a behavioural study on a task of cognitive 'branching'. In the version employed here, we recorded participant's performance as they learnt to perform the task. This involved participants completing a control condition, followed by a working memory condition, a dual-task condition and finally the branching condition, which integrates processes in the working memory and dual-task conditions. We also measured participants on a number of other cognitive tasks as well as mood-state before and after the branching experiment. Results Patients took longer to learn the first condition, but performed comparably to controls after six runs of the task. Overall, reaction times decreased with repeated exposure on the task conditions in controls, with this effect attenuated in patients. Importantly, no differences were found between patients and controls on the branching condition. There was, however, a significant change in mood-state with patients increasing in positive affect and decreasing in negative affect after the experiment. Conclusion We found no clear evidence of a fundamental impairment in anterior prefrontal 'branching processes' in patients with depression. Rather our data argue for a contextual learning impairment underlying cognitive dysfunction in this disorder. Our

  4. Branch dependence in the "consistent histories" approach to quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, T

    2005-01-01

    In the consistent histories formalism one specifies a family of histories as an exhaustive set of pairwise exclusive descriptions of the dynamics of a quantum system. We define branching families of histories, which strike a middle ground between the two available mathematically precise definitions of families of histories, viz., product families and Isham's history projector operator formalism. The former are too narrow for applications, and the latter's generality comes at a certain cost, barring an intuitive reading of the ``histories''. Branching families retain the intuitiveness of product families, they allow for the interpretation of a history's weight as a probability, and they allow one to distinguish two kinds of coarse-graining. It is shown that for branching families, the ``consistency condition'' is not a precondition for assigning probabilities, but for a specific kind of coarse-graining.

  5. Agriculture and Food Processes Branch program summary document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    The work of the Agriculture and Food Processes Branch within the US DOE's Office of Industrial Programs is discussed and reviewed. The Branch is responsible for assisting the food and agricultural sectors of the economy in increasing their energy efficiency by cost sharing with industry the development and demonstration of technologies industry by itself would not develop because of a greater than normal risk factor, but have significant energy conservation benefits. This task is made more difficult by the diversity of agriculture and the food industry. The focus of the program is now on the development and demonstration of energy conservation technology in high energy use industry sectors and agricultural functions (e.g., sugar processing, meat processing, irrigation, and crop drying, high energy use functions common to many sectors of the food industry (e.g., refrigeration, drying, and evaporation), and innovative concepts (e.g., energy integrated farm systems. Specific projects within the program are summarized. (LCL)

  6. Some distance bounds of branching processes and their diffusion limits

    CERN Document Server

    Kammerer, Niels B

    2010-01-01

    We compute exact values respectively bounds of "distances" - in the sense of (transforms of) power divergences and relative entropy - between two discrete-time Galton-Watson branching processes with immigration GWI for which the offspring as well as the immigration is arbitrarily Poisson-distributed (leading to arbitrary type of criticality). Implications for asymptotic distinguishability behaviour in terms of contiguity and entire separation of the involved GWI are given, too. Furthermore, we determine the corresponding limit quantities for the context in which the two GWI converge to Feller-type branching diffusion processes, as the time-lags between observations tend to zero. Some applications to (static random environment like) Bayesian decision making and Neyman-Pearson testing are presented as well.

  7. Asymptotic behaviour of extinction probability of interacting branching collision processes

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Anyue; Li, Junping; Chen, Yiqing; Zhou, Dingxuan

    2014-01-01

    Although the exact expressions for the extinction probabilities of the Interacting Branching Collision Processes (IBCP) were very recently given by Chen et al. [4], some of these expressions are very complicated; hence, useful information regarding asymptotic behaviour, for example, is harder to obtain. Also, these exact expressions take very different forms for different cases and thus seem lacking in homogeneity. In this paper, we show that the asymptotic behaviour of these extr...

  8. Age-Dependent Branching Processes with Static Immigration in Random Environments%静态迁徙下依赖于年龄的随机环境中分枝过程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕平; 杨广宇; 胡迪鹤

    2011-01-01

    引进了静态迁徙下依赖于年龄的随机环境中分枝过程的模型,给出了该模型的条件母函教的更新方程并考虑了特殊情形下的随机Kolmogorov方程.与此同时,通过研究更新芳程得到了分枝过程的各阶矩,考虑了简单情形下的灭绝概率.最后给出了一个开问题.%The model of age-independent branching processes with static immigration in random environments is introduced. Giving the renewal equation of conditional generation function and considering the Kolmogorov equation for the special case.Moreover, we obtain the moments through studying the renewal equation and consider the extinction probability simply. Finally, we give an open problem.

  9. Branch dependent shear coefficients and their influence on the free vibration of Mindlin plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakawicz, Joseph M.; Bottega, William J.

    2017-02-01

    The effect of the shear correction coefficient on the branches of the frequency spectrum for the free vibrations of Mindlin plates is studied. Each of the three branches of the frequency spectrum for the Mindlin plate is associated with its corresponding branch of the frequency spectrum of the infinite elastodynamic plate through direct comparison. The use of branch dependent shear correction coefficients is proposed, and is utilized to bring each of the three branches of the Mindlin plate into best agreement with their corresponding elastodynamic branches. Conclusions with respect to the accuracy and range of applicability of the Mindlin frequency spectrum are drawn, with emphasis on the second flexural (Mindlin w2) frequency branch. For the plate that is simply-supported on all of its edges, each of the three frequency branches contributes to the motion of the plate independently of the other two branches. Hence, only one of the branches is active for a given vibration mode, which allows one to solve for unique natural frequencies for each of the branches and to quantify their accuracy as well as to study the motion of each branch separately. This is not, however, the case for plates with other support conditions. In these cases, the vibrational motion corresponding to each of the branches of the frequency spectrum contributes to a given vibration mode. This, in turn, alters the implementation of Mindlin theory for these plates. Results for natural frequency predictions are compared to those of other studies in the literature as well as to those of the classical case when a single shear correction coefficient is employed. It is shown that natural frequency predictions are improved for the plate with all of its edges simply-supported, while the accuracy of the mode shape is improved for other boundary conditions.

  10. Stable continuous branching processes with immigration and Beta-Fleming-Viot processes with immigration

    CERN Document Server

    Foucart, Clément

    2012-01-01

    Branching processes and Fleming-Viot processes are two main models in stochastic population theory. Incorporating an immigration in both models, we generalize the results of Shiga (1990) and Birkner et al. (2005) which respectively connect the Feller diffusion with the classical Fleming-Viot process and the alpha-stable continuous state branching process with the Beta(2-alpha, alpha)-generalized Fleming-Viot process. In a recent work, a new class of probability-measure valued processes, called M-generalized Fleming-Viot processes with immigration, has been set up in duality with the so-called M-coalescents. The purpose of this article is to investigate the links between this new class of processes and the continuous-state branching processes with immigration. In the specific case of the $\\alpha$-stable branching process conditioned to be never extinct, we get that its genealogy is given, up to a random time change, by a Beta(2-alpha, alpha-1)-coalescent.

  11. Using multitype branching processes to quantify statistics of disease outbreaks in zoonotic epidemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sarabjeet; Schneider, David J.; Myers, Christopher R.

    2014-03-01

    Branching processes have served as a model for chemical reactions, biological growth processes, and contagion (of disease, information, or fads). Through this connection, these seemingly different physical processes share some common universalities that can be elucidated by analyzing the underlying branching process. In this work we focus on coupled branching processes as a model of infectious diseases spreading from one population to another. An exceedingly important example of such coupled outbreaks are zoonotic infections that spill over from animal populations to humans. We derive several statistical quantities characterizing the first spillover event from animals to humans, including the probability of spillover, the first passage time distribution for human infection, and disease prevalence in the animal population at spillover. Large stochastic fluctuations in those quantities can make inference of the state of the system at the time of spillover difficult. Focusing on outbreaks in the human population, we then characterize the critical threshold for a large outbreak, the distribution of outbreak sizes, and associated scaling laws. These all show a strong dependence on the basic reproduction number in the animal population and indicate the existence of a novel multicritical point with altered scaling behavior. The coupling of animal and human infection dynamics has crucial implications, most importantly allowing for the possibility of large human outbreaks even when human-to-human transmission is subcritical.

  12. Investigation of 74As decay branching ratio dependence on the host material

    CERN Document Server

    Gyürky, Gy; Yalcin, C; Kiss, G G; Elekes, Z; Fülöp, Z; Somorjai, E

    2008-01-01

    The branching ratio between the beta- and beta+/electron capture decay of 74As has been measured in different host materials such as Ta, Al, Ge and mylar. No significant dependence of the branching ratio on the host material has been observed. The half-life of 74As has also been measured in metallic Ta and in semiconductor Ge, no difference has been found and the results are in agreement with the literature value. The obtained results provide an upper limit for the possible host material dependence of the decay rate in 74As.

  13. sl(2) Operators and Markov Processes on Branching Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Petrov, Leonid

    2011-01-01

    We present a unified approach to various examples of Markov dynamics on partitions studied by Borodin, Olshanski, Fulman, and the author. Our technique generalizes the Kerov's operators first appeared in [Okounkov, arXiv:math/0002135], and also stems from the study of duality of graded graphs in [Fomin, 1994]. Our main object is a countable branching graph carrying an sl(2,C)-module of a special kind. Using this structure, we introduce distinguished probability measures on the floors of the graph, and define two related types of Markov dynamics associated with these measures. We study spectral properties of the dynamics, and our main result is the explicit description of eigenfunctions of the Markov generator of one of the processes. For the Young graph our approach reconstructs the z-measures on partitions and the associated dynamics studied by Borodin and Olshanski [arXiv:math-ph/0409075, arXiv:0706.1034]. The generator of the dynamics of [arXiv:math-ph/0409075] is diagonal in the basis of the Meixner symme...

  14. Statistical inference for critical continuous state and continuous time branching processes with immigration

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    We study asymptotic behavior of conditional least squares estimators for critical continuous state and continuous time branching processes with immigration based on discrete time (low frequency) observations.

  15. Discriminating between Weibull distributions and log-normal distributions emerging in branching processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Segun; Kwon, H. W.; Choi, M. Y.

    2014-06-01

    We consider the Yule-type multiplicative growth and division process, and describe the ubiquitous emergence of Weibull and log-normal distributions in a single framework. With the help of the integral transform and series expansion, we show that both distributions serve as asymptotic solutions of the time evolution equation for the branching process. In particular, the maximum likelihood method is employed to discriminate between the emergence of the Weibull distribution and that of the log-normal distribution. Further, the detailed conditions for the distinguished emergence of the Weibull distribution are probed. It is observed that the emergence depends on the manner of the division process for the two different types of distribution. Numerical simulations are also carried out, confirming the results obtained analytically.

  16. Pressure- and Temperature-Dependent Branching Ratios of the OH + NO2 Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messinger, J. P.; Mertens, L. A.; Amedro, D.; Okumura, M.; Sander, S. P.

    2016-12-01

    The reaction of OH and NO2 to form nitric acid, HONO2, is critical in atmospheric chemistry, as nitric acid is an unreactive reservoir species and thus serves as a sink of both HOx and NOx. This chain termination step plays a key role in ozone formation in polluted air and the nonlinearities that lead to the Weekend Effect. Complicating our understanding of this reaction, however, is the fact that OH and NO2 can also react to form peroxynitrous acid, HOONO, which in the troposphere quickly dissociates back to OH and NO2, regenerating these key species. Experimental rate measurements measure only total loss, but the HOONO/HONO2 branching ratio must be known to establish the net chain termination rate. The temperature dependence of this branching ratio is one of the largest errors in current atmospheric models, leading to significant uncertainty in predictions of HOx, NOx, HONO2 and ozone throughout the atmosphere and inhibiting our ability to reduce atmospheric pollution. We have previously used pulsed laser photolysis cavity ringdown spectroscopy (PLP-CRDS) in the mid-infrared (3200 - 3750 cm-1) to detect HONO2 and HOONO via their OH stretch, and have measured the branching ratio at room temperature between 25 and 760 Torr. In this work, we extend our previous results to determine the pressure dependent branching ratio over a range of tropospherically relevant temperatures (250 - 350 K) and pressures (50 - 700 Torr). Our results quantify how the branching ratio of changes with temperature, and provides a greatly needed input for atmospheric models.

  17. Branch and price for the time-dependent vehicle routing problem with time windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabia, Said; Van Woensel, Tom; De Kok, Ton

    2013-01-01

    solution methods to the DM-TDVRPTW are based on (meta-)heuristics. The decomposition of an arc-based formulation leads to a setpartitioning problem as the master problem, and a time-dependent shortest path problem with resource constraints as the pricing problem. The master problem is solved by means...... of column generation, and a tailored labeling algorithm is used to solve the pricing problem. We introduce new dominance criteria that allow more label dominance. For our numerical results, we modified Solomon's data sets by adding time dependency. Our algorithm is able to solve about 63% of the instances......This paper presents a branch-and-price algorithm for the time-dependent vehicle routing problem with time windows (TDVRPTW). We capture road congestion by considering time-dependent travel times, i.e., depending on the departure time to a customer, a different travel time is incurred. We consider...

  18. Temperature-Dependent Deicing Properties of Electrostatically Anchored Branched Brush Layers of Poly(ethylene oxide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Golrokh; Tyrode, Eric; Visnevskij, Ceslav; Makuska, Ricardas; Claesson, Per M

    2016-05-03

    The hydration water of hydrophilic polymers freezes at subzero temperatures. The adsorption of such polymers will result in a hydrophilic surface layer that strongly binds water. Provided this interfacial hydration water remains liquidlike at subzero temperatures, its presence could possibly reduce ice adhesion, in particular, if the liquidlike layer is thicker than or comparable to the surface roughness. To explore this idea, a diblock copolymer, having one branched bottle-brush block of poly(ethylene oxide) and one linear cationic block, was electrostatically anchored on flat silica surfaces. The shear ice adhesion strength on such polymer-coated surfaces was investigated down to -25 °C using a homebuilt device. In addition, the temperature dependence of the ice adhesion on surfaces coated with only the cationic block, only the branched bottle-brush block, and with linear poly(ethylene oxide) was investigated. Significant ice adhesion reduction, in particular, at temperatures above -15 °C, was observed on silica surfaces coated with the electrostatically anchored diblock copolymer. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements on bulk polymer solutions demonstrate different thermal transitions of water interacting with branched and linear poly(ethylene oxide) (with hydration water melting points of about -18 and -10 °C, respectively). This difference is consistent with the low shear ice adhesion strength measured on surfaces carrying branched bottle-brush structured poly(ethylene oxide) at -10 °C, whereas no significant adhesion reduction was obtained with linear poly(ethylene oxide) at this temperature. We propose a lubrication effect of the hydration water bound to the branched bottle-brush structured poly(ethylene oxide), which, in the bulk, does not freeze until -18 °C.

  19. Asymptotic behavior of critical primitive multi-type branching processes with immigration

    CERN Document Server

    Ispány, Márton

    2012-01-01

    Under natural assumptions a Feller type diffusion approximation is derived for critical multi-type branching processes with immigration when the offspring mean matrix is primitive (in other words, positively regular). Namely, it is proved that a sequence of appropriately scaled random step functions formed from a sequence of critical primitive multi-type branching processes with immigration converges weakly towards a squared Bessel process supported by a ray determined by the Perron vector of the offspring mean matrix.

  20. Mathematical Modeling of the Process for Microbial Production of Branched Chained Amino Acids

    OpenAIRE

    Todorov K.; Georgiev T.; Ratkov A.

    2009-01-01

    This article deals with modelling of branched chained amino acids production. One of important branched chained amino acid is L-valine. The aim of the article is synthesis of dynamic unstructured model of fed-batch fermentation process with intensive droppings for L-valine production. The presented approach of the investigation includes the following main procedures: description of the process by generalized stoichiometric equations; preliminary data processing and calculation of specific rat...

  1. On Branching Processes and the Early Stages of the Spread of an Epidemic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmed E; Yassen M T

    1998-01-01

    Branching process (BP) is used to model the early stages of the spread of a sexually transmitted disease. The early stages of AIDS spread which is transmitted both homosexually and heterosexually are studied as a BP.

  2. Dependence of anatomical structure features on morphological form of branching of grass shoots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leontyna Olszewska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of different shoot forms in Dactylis glomerata L., Festuca arundinacea Schreb., Holcus lanatus L., Avena fatua L. and other grass species was observed in investigations on vegetative reproduction modes deviating from normal. The relationship between the morphological and anatomical structure of these shoots, depends on the grass species as well as on ecological and biotic factors. The anatomical structure of elongated vegetative tillers and pseudostolons as well as underground rooting stems regrowing in the soil approximates that of stolons in Poa trivialis L. Branching generative shoots show the same arrangement of tissues as that encountered in non-branching ones. Shoots with such a structure are resistant to bending and, therefore, their contact with the soil and rooting of aerial tillers meet, as a rule, with difficulties. All kinds of parental branching shoots under study, irrespective of whether they developed above or in the soil, are usually short lived, provided with sheaths and leaf blades, similarly as stolons. It was found that in many grass species different tillering forms occur generally in vegetative reproduction what would require a definition and unification of names of such differentiated shoots.

  3. Asymptotic behaviour of the S-stopped branching processes with countable state space

    CERN Document Server

    Kyrychynska, Iryna; Yeleyko, Yaroslav

    2011-01-01

    he starting process with countable number of types \\mu(t) generates a stopped branching process \\xi(t). The starting process stops, by falling into the nonempty set S. It is assumed, that the starting process is subcritical, indecomposable and noncyclic. It is proved, that the extinction probability converges to the cyclic function with period 1.

  4. SDF1 reduces interneuron leading process branching through dual regulation of actin and microtubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysko, Daniel E; Putt, Mary; Golden, Jeffrey A

    2014-04-02

    Normal cerebral cortical function requires a highly ordered balance between projection neurons and interneurons. During development these two neuronal populations migrate from distinct progenitor zones to form the cerebral cortex, with interneurons originating in the more distant ganglionic eminences. Moreover, deficits in interneurons have been linked to a variety of neurodevelopmental disorders underscoring the importance of understanding interneuron development and function. We, and others, have identified SDF1 signaling as one important modulator of interneuron migration speed and leading process branching behavior in mice, although how SDF1 signaling impacts these behaviors remains unknown. We previously found SDF1 inhibited leading process branching while increasing the rate of migration. We have now mechanistically linked SDF1 modulation of leading process branching behavior to a dual regulation of both actin and microtubule organization. We find SDF1 consolidates actin at the leading process tip by de-repressing calpain protease and increasing proteolysis of branched-actin-supporting cortactin. Additionally, SDF1 stabilizes the microtubule array in the leading process through activation of the microtubule-associated protein doublecortin (DCX). DCX stabilizes the microtubule array by bundling microtubules within the leading process, reducing branching. These data provide mechanistic insight into the regulation of interneuron leading process dynamics during neuronal migration in mice and provides insight into how cortactin and DCX, a known human neuronal migration disorder gene, participate in this process.

  5. SDF1 Reduces Interneuron Leading Process Branching through Dual Regulation of Actin and Microtubules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysko, Daniel E.; Putt, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Normal cerebral cortical function requires a highly ordered balance between projection neurons and interneurons. During development these two neuronal populations migrate from distinct progenitor zones to form the cerebral cortex, with interneurons originating in the more distant ganglionic eminences. Moreover, deficits in interneurons have been linked to a variety of neurodevelopmental disorders underscoring the importance of understanding interneuron development and function. We, and others, have identified SDF1 signaling as one important modulator of interneuron migration speed and leading process branching behavior in mice, although how SDF1 signaling impacts these behaviors remains unknown. We previously found SDF1 inhibited leading process branching while increasing the rate of migration. We have now mechanistically linked SDF1 modulation of leading process branching behavior to a dual regulation of both actin and microtubule organization. We find SDF1 consolidates actin at the leading process tip by de-repressing calpain protease and increasing proteolysis of branched-actin-supporting cortactin. Additionally, SDF1 stabilizes the microtubule array in the leading process through activation of the microtubule-associated protein doublecortin (DCX). DCX stabilizes the microtubule array by bundling microtubules within the leading process, reducing branching. These data provide mechanistic insight into the regulation of interneuron leading process dynamics during neuronal migration in mice and provides insight into how cortactin and DCX, a known human neuronal migration disorder gene, participate in this process. PMID:24695713

  6. Mathematical Modeling of the Process for Microbial Production of Branched Chained Amino Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorov K.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with modelling of branched chained amino acids production. One of important branched chained amino acid is L-valine. The aim of the article is synthesis of dynamic unstructured model of fed-batch fermentation process with intensive droppings for L-valine production. The presented approach of the investigation includes the following main procedures: description of the process by generalized stoichiometric equations; preliminary data processing and calculation of specific rates for main kinetic variables; identification of the specific rates takes into account the dissolved oxygen tension; establishment and optimisation of dynamic model of the process; simulation researches. MATLAB is used as a research environment.

  7. Estimating the Propagation of Interdependent Cascading Outages with Multi-Type Branching Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Qi, Junjian; Sun, Kai

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the multi-type branching process is applied to describe the statistics of line outages, the load shed, and isolated buses. The offspring mean matrix of the multi-type branching process is estimated by the Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm and can quantify the extent of outage propagation. The joint distribution of two types of outages is estimated by the multi-type branching process via the Lagrange-Good inversion. The proposed model is tested with data generated by the AC OPA cascading simulations on the IEEE 118-bus system. The largest eigenvalues of the offspring mean matrix indicate that the system is closer to criticality when considering the interdependence of different types of outages. Compared with empirically estimating the joint distribution of the total outages, good estimate is obtained by using the multi-type branching process with a much smaller number of cascades, thus greatly improving the efficiency. It is shown that the multi-type branching process can effectively predi...

  8. Estimating the Propagation of Interdependent Cascading Outages With Multi-Type Branching Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Junjian; Yu, Wenyun; Sun, Kai

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, the multi-type branching process is applied to describe the statistics and interdependencies of line outages, the load shed, and isolated buses. The offspring mean matrix of the multi-type branching process is estimated by the Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm and can quantify the extent of outage propagation. The joint distribution of two types of outages is estimated by the multi-type branching process via the Lagrange-Good inversion. The proposed model is tested with data generated by the AC OPA cascading simulations on the IEEE 118-bus system. The largest eigenvalues of the offspring mean matrix indicate that the system is closer to criticality when considering the interdependence of different types of outages. Compared with empirically estimating the joint distribution of the total outages, good estimate is obtained by using the multitype branching process with a much smaller number of cascades, thus greatly improving the efficiency. It is shown that the multitype branching process can effectively predict the distribution of the load shed and isolated buses and their conditional largest possible total outages even when there are no data of them.

  9. THE ASYMPTOTIC PROPERTIES OF SUPERCRITICAL BISEXUAL GALTON-WATSON BRANCHING PROCESSES WITH IMMIGRATION OF MATING UNITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In this article the supercritical bisexual Galton-Watson branching processes with the immigration of mating units is considered. A necessary condition for the almost sure convergence, and a sufficient condition for the L1 convergence are given for the process with the suitably normed condition.

  10. Experimental characterization of nonlinear processes of whistler branch waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejero, E. M.; Crabtree, C.; Blackwell, D. D.; Amatucci, W. E.; Ganguli, G.; Rudakov, L.

    2016-05-01

    Experiments in the Space Physics Simulation Chamber at the Naval Research Laboratory isolated and characterized important nonlinear wave-wave and wave-particle interactions that can occur in the Earth's Van Allen radiation belts by launching predominantly electrostatic waves in the intermediate frequency range with wave normal angle greater than 85 ° and measuring the nonlinearly generated electromagnetic scattered waves. The scattered waves have a perpendicular wavelength that is nearly an order of magnitude larger than that of the pump wave. Calculations of scattering efficiency from experimental measurements demonstrate that the scattering efficiency is inversely proportional to the damping rate and trends towards unity as the damping rate approaches zero. Signatures of both wave-wave and wave-particle scatterings are also observed in the triggered emission process in which a launched wave resonant with a counter-propagating electron beam generates a large amplitude chirped whistler wave. The possibility of nonlinear scattering or three wave decay as a saturation mechanism for the triggered emission is suggested. The laboratory experiment has inspired the search for scattering signatures in the in situ data of chorus emission in the radiation belts.

  11. The s-Process in Rotating Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Herwig, F; Lugaro, M

    2003-01-01

    (abridged) We model the nucleosynthesis during the thermal pulse phase of a rotating, solar metallicity AGB star of 3M_sun. Rotationally induced mixing during the thermal pulses produces a layer (~2E-5M_sun) on top of the CO-core where large amounts of protons and C12 co-exist. We follow the abundance evolution in this layer, in particular that of the neutron source C13 and of the neutron poison N14. In our AGB model mixing persists during the entire interpulse phase due to the steep angular velocity gradient at the core-envelope interface. We follow the neutron production during the interpulse phase, and find a resulting maximum neutron exposure of tau_max =0.04 mbarn^-1, which is too small to produce any significant s-process. In parametric models, we then investigate the combined effects of diffusive overshooting from the convective envelope and rotationally induced mixing. Models with overshoot and weaker interpulse mixing - as perhaps expected from more slowly rotating stars - yield larger neutron exposu...

  12. Temperature dependence of {beta}{sup -} and {beta}{sup +}/{epsilon} decay branching ratio of embedded {sup 74}As

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, Janos; Gyuerky, Gyoergy; Elekes, Zoltan; Kiss, Gabor G.; Fulop, Zsolt; Somorjai, Endre; Vad, Kalman; Hakl, Jozsef; Meszaros, Sandor [Institute of Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), Debrecen (Hungary); Yalcin, Caner [Institute of Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), Debrecen (Hungary); Kocaeli University, Dept. of Physics, Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2009-07-01

    The branching ratio between the {beta}{sup -} and {beta}{sup +}/{epsilon} decays of {sup 74}As has been measured recently in different environments at room temperature. We extended the measurement to the temperature range of 250 mK-300 K using Ge and Ta host materials. The performed experiment represents the first decay branching ratio measurement down to the millikelvin range. No significant dependence on the temperature or on the host materials has been found.

  13. The Specific Features of design and process engineering in branch of industrial enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosedko, V. V.; Yanishevskaya, A. G.

    2017-06-01

    Production output of industrial enterprise is organized in debugged working mechanisms at each stage of product’s life cycle from initial design documentation to product and finishing it with utilization. The topic of article is mathematical model of the system design and process engineering in branch of the industrial enterprise, statistical processing of estimated implementation results of developed mathematical model in branch, and demonstration of advantages at application at this enterprise. During the creation of model a data flow about driving of information, orders, details and modules in branch of enterprise groups of divisions were classified. Proceeding from the analysis of divisions activity, a data flow, details and documents the state graph of design and process engineering was constructed, transitions were described and coefficients are appropriated. To each condition of system of the constructed state graph the corresponding limiting state probabilities were defined, and also Kolmogorov’s equations are worked out. When integration of sets of equations of Kolmogorov the state probability of system activity the specified divisions and production as function of time in each instant is defined. On the basis of developed mathematical model of uniform system of designing and process engineering and manufacture, and a state graph by authors statistical processing the application of mathematical model results was carried out, and also advantage at application at this enterprise is shown. Researches on studying of loading services probability of branch and third-party contractors (the orders received from branch within a month) were conducted. The developed mathematical model of system design and process engineering and manufacture can be applied to definition of activity state probability of divisions and manufacture as function of time in each instant that will allow to keep account of loading of performance of work in branches of the enterprise.

  14. Dual Weighted Markov Branching Processes%对偶加权Markov分支过程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡雨; 李扬荣

    2008-01-01

    研究对偶加权Markov分支过程的正则性、唯一性、单调性和Feller性, 得到了判断这些性质的充要以及充分或必要条件.%This paper focuses on discussing some basic properties of the dual weighted Markov branching processes which are by definition of a Siegmund's pre-dual of some weighted Markov branching processes. The regularity and uniqueness criteria, which are very easy to verify, are established. And the Feller property and monotonicity are obtained.

  15. Activity-dependent branching ratios in stocks, solar x-ray flux, and the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld sandpile model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Elliot; Shreim, Amer; Paczuski, Maya

    2010-01-01

    We define an activity-dependent branching ratio that allows comparison of different time series Xt . The branching ratio bx is defined as bx=E[ξx/x] . The random variable ξx is the value of the next signal given that the previous one is equal to x , so ξx={Xt+1∣Xt=x} . If bx>1 , the process is on average supercritical when the signal is equal to x , while if bxefficient market hypothesis.” For stock volumes, solar x-ray flux intensities, and the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld (BTW) sandpile model, bx is supercritical for small values of activity and subcritical for the largest ones, indicating a tendency to return to a typical value. For stock volumes this tendency has an approximate power-law behavior. For solar x-ray flux and the BTW model, there is a broad regime of activity where bx≃1 , which we interpret as an indicator of critical behavior. This is true despite different underlying probability distributions for Xt and for ξx . For the BTW model the distribution of ξx is Gaussian, for x sufficiently larger than 1, and its variance grows linearly with x . Hence, the activity in the BTW model obeys a central limit theorem when sampling over past histories. The broad region of activity where bx is close to one disappears once bulk dissipation is introduced in the BTW model—supporting our hypothesis that it is an indicator of criticality.

  16. Light-dependent maintenance of hydraulic function in mangrove branches: do xylary chloroplasts play a role in embolism repair?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, N; Egerton, J J G; Lovelock, C E; Ball, M C

    2012-07-01

    • To clarify the role of branch photosynthesis in tree functioning, the presence and function of chloroplasts in branch xylem tissue were studied in a diverse range of mangrove species growing in Australia. • The presence of xylary chloroplasts was observed via chlorophyll fluorescence of transverse sections. Paired, attached branches were selected to study the effects of covering branches with aluminium foil on the gas exchange characteristics of leaves and the hydraulic conductivity of branches. • Xylary chloroplasts occurred in all species, but were differently distributed among living cell types in the xylem. Covering stems altered the gas exchange characteristics of leaves, such that water-use efficiency was greater in exposed leaves of covered than of uncovered branches. • Leaf-specific hydraulic conductivity of stems was lower in covered than in uncovered branches, implicating stem photosynthesis in the maintenance of hydraulic function. Given their proximity to xylem vessels, we suggest that xylary chloroplasts may play a role in light-dependent repair of embolized xylem vessels.

  17. Anomalous power law distribution of total lifetimes of branching processes: application to earthquake aftershock sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saichev, A; Sornette, D

    2004-10-01

    We consider a general stochastic branching process, which is relevant to earthquakes, and study the distributions of global lifetimes of the branching processes. In the earthquake context, this amounts to the distribution of the total durations of aftershock sequences including aftershocks of arbitrary generation number. Our results extend previous results on the distribution of the total number of offspring (direct and indirect aftershocks in seismicity) and of the total number of generations before extinction. We consider a branching model of triggered seismicity, the epidemic-type aftershock sequence model, which assumes that each earthquake can trigger other earthquakes ("aftershocks"). An aftershock sequence results in this model from the cascade of aftershocks of each past earthquake. Due to the large fluctuations of the number of aftershocks triggered directly by any earthquake ("productivity" or "fertility"), there is a large variability of the total number of aftershocks from one sequence to another, for the same mainshock magnitude. We study the regime where the distribution of fertilities mu is characterized by a power law approximately 1/ mu(1+gamma) and the bare Omori law for the memory of previous triggering mothers decays slowly as approximately 1/ t(1+theta;) , with 0aftershock lifetimes scales as approximately 1/ t(1+theta;/gamma) when the average branching ratio is critical (n=1) . The coefficient 1aftershocks with mainshock magnitude m (productivity), with 0.5branching cascade process. In the subcritical case n<1 , the crossover from approximately 1/ t(1+theta;/gamma) at early times to approximately 1/ t(1+theta;) at longer times is described. More generally, our results apply to any stochastic

  18. Thickness dependence of the L{sub 2,3} branching ratio of Cr thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aksoy, F. [Physics Department, University of Cukurova, 01330 Adana (Turkey); Physics Department, University of Nigde, 51100 Nigde (Turkey); Akguel, G. [Physics Department, University of Cukurova, 01330 Adana (Turkey); Ufuktepe, Y., E-mail: ufuk@cu.edu.t [Physics Department, University of Cukurova, 01330 Adana (Turkey); Nordlund, D. [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2010-10-22

    We report the electronic structure of chromium (Cr) thin films depending on its thickness using two measures, total electron yield (TEY) and transmission yield mode. The Cr L edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) spectrum shows strong thickness dependence with broader line widths observed for L{sub 2,3} edge peaks for thinner films. The white line ratio (L{sub 3}/L{sub 2}) was found to be 1.25 from the integrated area under each L{sub 3} and L{sub 2} peak and 1.36 from the ratio of the amplitudes of each L{sub 3} and L{sub 2} peak after the deconvolution. Additionally, we show that full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) at the L{sub 2} and L{sub 3} edges and the branching ratio of Cr change as a function of film thickness and these are discussed in detail. Using L{sub 2,3} resonance intensity variation as a function of film thickness we calculated the electron escape depth and X-ray attenuation length in Cr. Comparing our results with the literature, there was good agreement for the L{sub 3}-L{sub 2} ratio although the detailed shape can show additional solid state and atomic effects.

  19. Variance estimators in critical branching processes with non-homogeneous immigration

    CERN Document Server

    Rahimov, Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    The asymptotic normality of conditional least squares estimators for the offspring variance in critical branching processes with non-homogeneous immigration is established, under moment assumptions on both reproduction and immigration. The proofs use martingale techniques and weak convergence results in Skorokhod spaces.

  20. Stochastic Equations for Two-type Continuous-state Branching Processes with Immigration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ru Gang MA

    2013-01-01

    A two-dimensional stochastic integral equation system with jumps is studied.We first prove its unique weak solution is a two-type continuous-state branching process with immigration.Then the comparison property of the solution is established.These results imply the existence and uniqueness of the strong solution of the stochastic equation system.

  1. Metal dependence and branched RNA cocrystal structures of the RNA lariat debranching enzyme Dbr1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Nathaniel E.; Katolik, Adam; Roberts, Kenneth M.; Taylor, Alexander B.; Holloway, Stephen P.; Schuermann, Jonathan P.; Montemayor, Eric J.; Stevens, Scott W.; Fitzpatrick, Paul F.; Damha, Masad J.; Hart, P. John (UW); (Texas); (McGill); (UTSMC); (Cornell); (SC)

    2016-12-06

    Intron lariats are circular, branched RNAs (bRNAs) produced during pre-mRNA splicing. Their unusual chemical and topological properties arise from branch-point nucleotides harboring vicinal 2',5'- and 3',5'-phosphodiester linkages. The 2',5'-bonds must be hydrolyzed by the RNA debranching enzyme Dbr1 before spliced introns can be degraded or processed into small nucleolar RNA and microRNA derived from intronic RNA. Here, we measure the activity of Dbr1 from Entamoeba histolytica by using a synthetic, dark-quenched bRNA substrate that fluoresces upon hydrolysis. Purified enzyme contains nearly stoichiometric equivalents of Fe and Zn per polypeptide and demonstrates turnover rates of ~3 s-1. Similar rates are observed when apo-Dbr1 is reconstituted with Fe(II)+Zn(II) under aerobic conditions. Under anaerobic conditions, a rate of ~4.0 s-1 is observed when apoenzyme is reconstituted with Fe(II). In contrast, apo-Dbr1 reconstituted with Mn(II) or Fe(II) under aerobic conditions is inactive. Diffraction data from crystals of purified enzyme using X-rays tuned to the Fe absorption edge show Fe partitions primarily to the β-pocket and Zn to the α-pocket. Structures of the catalytic mutant H91A in complex with 7-mer and 16-mer synthetic bRNAs reveal bona fide RNA branchpoints in the Dbr1 active site. A bridging hydroxide is in optimal position for nucleophilic attack of the scissile phosphate. The results clarify uncertainties regarding structure/function relationships in Dbr1 enzymes, and the fluorogenic probe permits high-throughput screening for inhibitors that may hold promise as treatments for retroviral infections and neurodegenerative disease.

  2. A Lamperti type representation of Continuous-State Branching Processes with Immigration

    CERN Document Server

    Caballero, Ma Emilia; Bravo, Gerónimo Uribe

    2010-01-01

    Guided by the relationship between the breadth-first walk of a rooted tree and its sequence of generation sizes, we extend the Lamperti representation of continuous-state branching processes to allow immigration. The representation is obtained by solving a random ordinary differential equation defined by a pair of independent L\\'evy processes. Stability of the solutions is studied and gives, in particular, limit theorems (of a type previously studied by Grimvall, Kawazu and Watanabe, and Li) and a simulation scheme for continuous-state branching processes with immigration. We further apply our stability analysis to extend Pitman's limit theorem concerning Galton-Watson processes conditioned on total population size to more general offspring laws.

  3. The Effectiveness Analysis of Waiting Processes in the Different Branches of a Bank by Queue Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah ÖZÇİL

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the appreciable increase in the number of bank branches every year, nowadays queues for services don’t decrease and even become parts of our daily lives. By minimizing waiting processes the least, increasing customer satisfaction should be one of branch managers’ main goals. A quick and also customer oriented service with high quality is the most important factor for customer loyalty. In this study, Queueing theory, one of Operation Research techniques, is handled and in application, the data are obtained related to waiting in queue of customer in six different branches of two banks operating in Denizli and then they are analyzed by Queueing theory and also calculated the average effectiveness of the system. The study’s data are obtained by six branches of two banks called as A1, A2, A3, B1, B2 and B3. At the end of study it is presented to the company some advices that can bring benefits to the staff and customers. In this study, Queueing theory, one of Operation Research techniques, is handled and in application, the data are obtained related to waiting in queue of customer in three different branches of a bank operating in Denizli and then they are analyzed by Queueing theory and also calculated the average effectiveness of the system. The study’s data are obtained by three branches of the bank called A1, A2 and A3. At last it is presented to the company some advices that can bring more benefits to the staff and clients.

  4. Activity-dependent branching ratios in stocks, solar x-ray flux, and the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld sandpile model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Elliot; Shreim, Amer; Paczuski, Maya

    2010-01-01

    We define an activity-dependent branching ratio that allows comparison of different time series X(t). The branching ratio b(x) is defined as b(x)=E[xi(x)/x]. The random variable xi(x) is the value of the next signal given that the previous one is equal to x, so xi(x)=[X(t+1) | X(t)=x]. If b(x)>1, the process is on average supercritical when the signal is equal to x, while if b(x)market hypothesis." For stock volumes, solar x-ray flux intensities, and the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld (BTW) sandpile model, b(x) is supercritical for small values of activity and subcritical for the largest ones, indicating a tendency to return to a typical value. For stock volumes this tendency has an approximate power-law behavior. For solar x-ray flux and the BTW model, there is a broad regime of activity where b(x) approximately equal 1, which we interpret as an indicator of critical behavior. This is true despite different underlying probability distributions for X(t) and for xi(x). For the BTW model the distribution of xi(x) is Gaussian, for x sufficiently larger than 1, and its variance grows linearly with x. Hence, the activity in the BTW model obeys a central limit theorem when sampling over past histories. The broad region of activity where b(x) is close to one disappears once bulk dissipation is introduced in the BTW model-supporting our hypothesis that it is an indicator of criticality.

  5. Laws of Large Numbers for the Occupation Time of an Age-Dependent Critical Binary Branching System

    OpenAIRE

    López-Mimbela, José Alfredo; Salas, Antonio Murillo

    2009-01-01

    The occupation time of an age-dependent branching particle system in $\\Rd$ is considered, where the initial population is a Poisson random field and the particles are subject to symmetric $\\alpha$-stable migration, critical binary branching and random lifetimes. Two regimes of lifetime distributions are considered: lifetimes with finite mean and lifetimes belonging to the normal domain of attraction of a $\\gamma$-stable law, $\\gamma\\in(0,1)$. It is shown that in dimensions $d>\\alpha\\gamma$ fo...

  6. Measurement of Branching Fraction and Time-Dependent CP Asymmetry Parameters in B0 -> D*+ D*- Ks Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Dalseno, J; Aihara, H; Aushev, T; Bakich, A M; Balagura, V; Bay, A; Bitenc, U; Bizjak, I; Bozek, A; Bracko, M; Browder, T E; Chao, Y; Chen, A; Cheon, B G; Chistov, R; Cho, I S; Choi, Y; Choi, Y K; Danilov, M; Dash, M; Drutskoy, A; Eidelman, S; Go, A; Ha, H; Hayasaka, K; Hazumi, M; Heffernan, D; Hokuue, T; Hyun, H J; Inami, K; Ishikawa, A; Ishino, H; Iwasaki, M; Iwasaki, Y; Joshi, N J; Kah, D H; Kang, J H; Kapusta, P; Katayama, N; Kawai, H; Kawasaki, T; Kichimi, H; Kim, H J; Kim, Y J; Kinoshita, K; Krizan, P; Krokovnyi, P P; Kumar, R; Kuo, C C; Kuzmin, A; Kwon, Y J; Lee, J S; Lee, S E; Lesiak, T; Li, J; Limosani, A; Lin, S W; Liventsev, D; Mandl, F; Matsumoto, T; McOnie, S; Medvedeva, T; Mitaroff, W A; Miyake, H; Miyata, H; Moloney, G R; Nakano, E; Nakao, M; Nishida, S; Nitoh, O; Ogawa, S; Ohshima, T; Okuno, S; Onuki, Y; Ostrowicz, W; Ozaki, H; Pakhlov, P; Pakhlova, G; Park, C W; Park, H; Park, K S; Pestotnik, R; Piilonen, L E; Sahoo, H; Sakai, Y; Schneider, O; Schümann, J; Seidl, R; Sekiya, A; Senyo, K; Sevior, M E; Shapkin, M; Shibuya, H; Singh, J B; Sokolov, A; Somov, A; Stanic, S; Staric, M; Stöck, H; Sumisawa, K; Sumiyoshi, T; Takasaki, F; Tanaka, M; Taylor, G N; Teramoto, Y; Tian, X C; Tsukamoto, T; Uehara, S; Ueno, K; Uglov, T; Unno, Y; Uno, S; Urquijo, P; Varner, G; Villa, S; Vinokurova, A; Wang, C C; Wang, C H; Watanabe, Y; Wedd, R; Won, E; Yabsley, B D; Yamaguchi, A; Yamashita, Y; Yamauchi, M; Zhang, Z P; Zhilich, V; Zupanc, A

    2007-01-01

    We present a measurement of the branching fraction and time-dependent CP violation parameters for B0 -> D*+ D*- Ks decays. We also obtain an upper limit on the product branching fraction for the possible two-body decay, B0 -> Ds1+(2536) D*-. These results are obtained from a 414 fb-1 data sample that contains 449e10^6 BBbar pairs collected at the Upsilon(4S) resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric e+e- collider.

  7. Prospects for direct neutron capture measurements on s-process branching point isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero, C.; Lerendegui-Marco, J.; Quesada, J.M. [Universidad de Sevilla, Dept. de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Sevilla (Spain); Domingo-Pardo, C. [CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Valencia (Spain); Kaeppeler, F. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Palomo, F.R. [Universidad de Sevilla, Dept. de Ingenieria Electronica, Sevilla (Spain); Reifarth, R. [Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2017-05-15

    The neutron capture cross sections of several unstable key isotopes acting as branching points in the s-process are crucial for stellar nucleosynthesis studies, but they are very challenging to measure directly due to the difficult production of sufficient sample material, the high activity of the resulting samples, and the actual (n, γ) measurement, where high neutron fluxes and effective background rejection capabilities are required. At present there are about 21 relevant s-process branching point isotopes whose cross section could not be measured yet over the neutron energy range of interest for astrophysics. However, the situation is changing with some very recent developments and upcoming technologies. This work introduces three techniques that will change the current paradigm in the field: the use of γ-ray imaging techniques in (n, γ) experiments, the production of moderated neutron beams using high-power lasers, and double capture experiments in Maxwellian neutron beams. (orig.)

  8. Sensitivity analysis of a branching process evolving on a network with application in epidemiology

    CERN Document Server

    Hautphenne, Sophie; Delvenne, Jean-Charles; Blondel, Vincent D

    2015-01-01

    We perform an analytical sensitivity analysis for a model of a continuous-time branching process evolving on a fixed network. This allows us to determine the relative importance of the model parameters to the growth of the population on the network. We then apply our results to the early stages of an influenza-like epidemic spreading among a set of cities connected by air routes in the United States. We also consider vaccination and analyze the sensitivity of the total size of the epidemic with respect to the fraction of vaccinated people. Our analysis shows that the epidemic growth is more sensitive with respect to transmission rates within cities than travel rates between cities. More generally, we highlight the fact that branching processes offer a powerful stochastic modeling tool with analytical formulas for sensitivity which are easy to use in practice.

  9. Make It Go Viral! Rate-optimal Control for Resource-Constrained Branching Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Kuang

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new class of controlled multi-type branching processes with a per-step linear resource constraint, motivated by applications in quantitative marketing, and study the associated growth-rate maximizing control strategies. We show that the optimal growth rate can be achieved by maintaining a single optimal ratio among different population types, for both deterministic and stochastic branching processes. In the special case of a two-type population and with a symmetric revenue structure, the optimal ratio is obtained in closed-form. As a proof of concept, the methodology is applied to the linkage structure of the 2004 US Presidential Election blogosphere, where the optimal growth rate achieves sizable gains over a uniform selection strategy.

  10. An analytical and numerical study of Galton-Watson branching processes relevant to population dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sa-Han

    Galton-Watson branching processes of relevance to human population dynamics are the subject of this thesis. We begin with an historical survey of the invention of the invention of this model in the middle of the 19th century, for the purpose of modelling the extinction of unusual surnames in France and Britain. We then review the principal developments and refinements of this model, and their applications to a wide variety of problems in biology and physics. Next, we discuss in detail the case where the probability generating function for a Galton-Watson branching process is a geometric series, which can be summed in closed form to yield a fractional linear generating function that can be iterated indefinitely in closed form. We then describe the matrix method of Keyfitz and Tyree, and use it to determine how large a matrix must be chosen to model accurately a Galton-Watson branching process for a very large number of generations, of the order of hundreds or even thousands. Finally, we show that any attempt to explain the recent evidence for the existence thousands of generations ago of a 'mitochondrial Eve' and a 'Y-chromosomal Adam' in terms of a the standard Galton-Watson branching process, or indeed any statistical model that assumes equality of probabilities of passing one's genes to one's descendents in later generations, is unlikely to be successful. We explain that such models take no account of the advantages that the descendents of the most successful individuals in earlier generations enjoy over their contemporaries, which must play a key role in human evolution.

  11. The McMillan Theorem for Colored Branching Processes and Dimensions of Random Fractals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Bakhtin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available For the simplest colored branching process, we prove an analog to the McMillan theorem and calculate the Hausdorff dimensions of random fractals defined in terms of the limit behavior of empirical measures generated by finite genetic lines. In this setting, the role of Shannon’s entropy is played by the Kullback–Leibler divergence, and the Hausdorff dimensions are computed by means of the so-called Billingsley–Kullback entropy, defined in the paper.

  12. Fringe trees, Crump-Mode-Jagers branching processes and $m$-ary search trees

    OpenAIRE

    Holmgren, Cecilia; Janson, Svante

    2016-01-01

    This survey studies asymptotics of random fringe trees and extended fringe trees in random trees that can be constructed as family trees of a Crump-Mode-Jagers branching process, stopped at a suitable time. This includes random recursive trees, preferential attachment trees, fragmentation trees, binary search trees and (more generally) $m$-ary search trees, as well as some other classes of random trees. We begin with general results, mainly due to Aldous (1991) and Jagers and Nerman (1984). T...

  13. Energy- and Time-Dependent Branching to Competing Paths in Coupled Unimolecular Dissociations of Chlorotoluene Radical Cations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jongcheol; Shin, Seung Koo [Pohang Univ. of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung Joon [Hannam Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    The energy- and time-dependent branching to the competing dissociation paths are studied by theory for coupled unimolecular dissociations of the o-, m-, and p-chlorotoluene radical cations to C{sub 7}H{sub 7}{sup +} (benzylium and tropylium). There are four different paths to C{sub 7}H{sub 7}{sup +}, three to the benzylium ion and one to the tropylium ion, and all of them are coupled together. The branching to the multiple paths leads to the multiexponential decay of reactant with the branching ratio depending on both internal energy and time. To gain insights into the multipath branching, we study the detailed kinetics as a function of time and internal energy on the basis of ab inito/RRKM calculations. The number of reaction steps to C{sub 7}H{sub 7}{sup +} is counted for each path. Of the three isomers, the meta mostly goes through the coupling, whereas the para proceeds with little or no coupling. In the beginning, some reactants with high internal energy decay fast to the benzylium ion without any coupling and others rearrange to the other isomers. Later on all three isomers dissociate to the products via long-lived intermediates. Thus, the reactant shows a multiexponential decay and the branching ratio varies with time as the average internal energy decreases with time. The reciprocal of the effective lifetime is taken as the rate constant. The resulting rate-energy curves are in line with experiments. The present results suggest that the coupling between the stable isomers is thermodynamically controlled, whereas the branching to the product is kinetically controlled.

  14. Simulating the Emergence and Survival of Mutations Using a Self Regulating Multitype Branching Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles J. Mode

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is difficult for an experimenter to study the emergence and survival of mutations, because mutations are rare events so that large experimental population must be maintained to ensure a reasonable chance that a mutation will be observed. In his famous book, The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection, Sir R. A. Fisher introduced branching processes into evolutionary genetics as a framework for studying the emergence and survival of mutations in an evolving population. During the lifespan of Fisher, computer technology had not advanced to a point at which it became an effective tool for simulating the phenomenon of the emergence and survival of mutations, but given the wide availability of personal desktop and laptop computers, it is now possible and financially feasible for investigators to perform Monte Carlo Simulation experiments. In this paper all computer simulation experiments were carried out within a framework of self regulating multitype branching processes, which are part of a stochastic working paradigm. Emergence and survival of mutations could also be studied within a deterministic paradigm, which raises the issue as to what sense are predictions based on the stochastic and deterministic models are consistent. To come to grips with this issue, a technique was used such that a deterministic model could be embedded in a branching process so that the predictions of both the stochastic and deterministic compared based on the same assigned values of parameters.

  15. On SDE associated with continuous-state branching processes conditioned to never be extinct

    CERN Document Server

    Fittipaldi, M C

    2012-01-01

    We study the pathwise description of a (sub-)critical continuous-state branching process (CSBP) conditioned to be never extinct, as the solution to a stochastic differential equation driven by Brownian motion and Poisson point measures. The interest of our approach, which relies on applying Girsanov theorem on the SDE that describes the unconditioned CSBP, is that it points out an explicit mechanism to build the immigration term appearing in the conditioned process, by randomly selecting jumps of the original one. These techniques should also be useful to represent more general h-transforms of diffusion-jump processes.

  16. Existence,uniqueness and ergodicity of Markov branching processes with immigration and instantaneous resurrection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    We consider a modified Markov branching process incorporating with both state-independent immigration and instantaneous resurrection.The existence criterion of the process is firstly considered.We prove that if the sum of the resurrection rates is finite,then there does not exist any process.An existence criterion is then established when the sum of the resurrection rates is infinite.Some equivalent criteria,possessing the advantage of being easily checked,are obtained for the latter case.The uniqueness criterion for such process is also investigated.We prove that although there exist infinitely many of them,there always exists a unique honest process for a given q-matrix.This unique honest process is then constructed.The ergodicity property of this honest process is analysed in detail.We prove that this honest process is always ergodic and the explicit expression for the equilibrium distribution is established.

  17. Existence,uniqueness and ergodicity of Markov branching processes with immigration and instantaneous resurrection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI JunPing; CHEN AnYue

    2008-01-01

    We consider a modified Markov branching process incorporating with both stateindependent immigration and instantaneous resurrection. The existence criterion of the process is firstly considered. We prove that if the sum of the resurrection rates is finite, then there does not exist any process. An existence criterion is then established when the sum of the resurrection rates is infinite.Some equivalent criteria, possessing the advantage of being easily checked, are obtained for the latter case. The uniqueness criterion for such process is also investigated. We prove that although there exist infinitely many of them, there always exists a unique honest process for a given q-matrix. This unique honest process is then constructed. The ergodicity property of this honest process is analysed in detail.We prove that this honest process is always ergodic and the explicit expression for the equilibrium distribution is established.

  18. COP9 limits dendritic branching via Cullin3-dependent degradation of the actin-crosslinking BTB-domain protein Kelch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Djagaeva

    Full Text Available Components of the COP9 signalosome (CSN, a key member of the conserved 26S proteasome degradation pathway, have been detected to be altered in patients of several debilitating syndromes. These findings suggest that CSN acts in neural circuits, but the exact function of CSN in brain remains unidentified. Previously, using Drosophila peripheral nervous system (PNS as a model system, we determined that CSN is a critical regulator of dendritic morphogenesis. We found that defects in CSN led to the strikingly contrast phenotype of either reducing or stimulating dendritic branching. In particular, we have reported that CSN stimulates dendritic branching via Cullin1-mediated proteolysis. Here we describe that CSN inhibits dendritic arborization in PNS neurons acting via control of Cullin3 function: loss of Cullin3 causes excessive dendritic branching. We also identified a downstream target for Cullin3-dependent degradation in neurons--the actin-crosslinking BTB-domain protein Kelch. Inappropriate accumulation of Kelch, either due to the impaired Cullin3-dependent turnover, or ectopic expression of Kelch, leads to uncontrolled dendritic branching. These findings indicate that the CSN pathway modulates neuronal network in a multilayer manner, providing the foundation for new insight into the CSN role in human mental retardation disorders and neurodegenerative disease.

  19. Origin and diversification of living cycads: a cautionary tale on the impact of the branching process prior in Bayesian molecular dating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condamine, Fabien L; Nagalingum, Nathalie S; Marshall, Charles R; Morlon, Hélène

    2015-04-17

    Bayesian relaxed-clock dating has significantly influenced our understanding of the timeline of biotic evolution. This approach requires the use of priors on the branching process, yet little is known about their impact on divergence time estimates. We investigated the effect of branching priors using the iconic cycads. We conducted phylogenetic estimations for 237 cycad species using three genes and two calibration strategies incorporating up to six fossil constraints to (i) test the impact of two different branching process priors on age estimates, (ii) assess which branching prior better fits the data, (iii) investigate branching prior impacts on diversification analyses, and (iv) provide insights into the diversification history of cycads. Using Bayes factors, we compared divergence time estimates and the inferred dynamics of diversification when using Yule versus birth-death priors. Bayes factors were calculated with marginal likelihood estimated with stepping-stone sampling. We found striking differences in age estimates and diversification dynamics depending on prior choice. Dating with the Yule prior suggested that extant cycad genera diversified in the Paleogene and with two diversification rate shifts. In contrast, dating with the birth-death prior yielded Neogene diversifications, and four rate shifts, one for each of the four richest genera. Nonetheless, dating with the two priors provided similar age estimates for the divergence of cycads from Ginkgo (Carboniferous) and their crown age (Permian). Of these, Bayes factors clearly supported the birth-death prior. These results suggest the choice of the branching process prior can have a drastic influence on our understanding of evolutionary radiations. Therefore, all dating analyses must involve a model selection process using Bayes factors to select between a Yule or birth-death prior, in particular on ancient clades with a potential pattern of high extinction. We also provide new insights into the

  20. Stochastic continuous time neurite branching models with tree and segment dependent rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Elburg, Ronald A. J.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a continuous time stochastic neurite branching model closely related to the discrete time stochastic BES-model. The discrete time BES-model is underlying current attempts to simulate cortical development, but is difficult to analyze. The new continuous time formulation fac

  1. Lévy-driven polling systems and continuous-state branching processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Mandjes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider a ring of N ≥ 1 queues served by a single server in a cyclic order. After having served a queue (according to a service discipline that may vary from queue to queue, there is a switch-over period and then the server serves the next queue and so forth. This model is known in the literature as a polling model.Each of the queues is fed by a non-decreasing Lévy process, which can be different during each of the consecutive periods within the server's cycle. The N-dimensional Lévy processes obtained in this fashion are described by their (joint Laplace exponent, thus allowing for non-independent input streams. For such a system we derive the steady-state distribution of the joint workload at embedded epochs, i.e. polling and switching instants. Using the Kella-Whitt martingale, we also derive the steady-state distribution at an arbitrary epoch.Our analysis heavily relies on establishing a link between fluid (Lévy input polling systems and multi-type Jiřina processes (continuous-state discrete-time branching processes. This is done by properly defining the notion of the branching property for a discipline, which can be traced back to Fuhrmann and Resing. This definition is broad enough to contain the most important service disciplines, like exhaustive and gated.

  2. A Note on Multitype Branching Process with Bounded Immigration in Random Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Ming WANG

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,we study the total number of progeny,W,before regenerating of multitype branching process with immigration in random environment.We show that the tail probability of |W| is of order t-κ as t → ∞,with κ some constant.As an application,we prove a stable law for (L-1) random walk in random environment,generalizing the stable law for the nearest random walk in random environment (see "Kesten,Kozlov,Spitzer:A limit law for random walk in a random environment.Compositio Math.,30,145-168 (1975)").

  3. Asymptotic regimes for the partition into colonies of a branching process with emigration

    CERN Document Server

    Bertoin, Jean

    2009-01-01

    We consider a spatial branching process with emigration in which children either remain at the same site as their parents or migrate to new locations and then found their own colonies. We are interested in asymptotics of the partition of the total population into colonies for large populations with rare migrations. Under appropriate regimes, we establish weak convergence of the rescaled partition to some random measure that is constructed from the restriction of a Poisson point measure to a certain random region, and whose cumulant solves a simple integral equation.

  4. The Branch Process of Skyrmions in the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Yi-Shi; ZHANG Xiu-Ming; TIAN Miao

    2005-01-01

    @@ The branch process of the skyrmions in the fractional quantum Hall effect is studied from the φ-mapping topo logical current. It is shown that there exists a field ζ whose Hopf indices and Brouwer degrees characterize thetopological structure of the skyrmions. Based on the bifurcation theory of the φ-mapping theory, it is found that the skyrmions can be generated or annihilated at the limit points and they encounter, split or merge at the bifurcation points of the new field ζ.

  5. Statistical inference for 2-type doubly symmetric critical irreducible continuous state and continuous time branching processes with immigration

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    We study asymptotic behavior of conditional least squares estimators for 2-type doubly symmetric critical irreducible continuous state and continuous time branching processes with immigration based on discrete time (low frequency) observations.

  6. Study on color identification for monitoring and controlling fermentation process of branched chain amino acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lei; Wang, Yizhong; Chen, Ning; Liu, Tiegen; Xu, Qingyang; Kong, Fanzhi

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, a new method for monitoring and controlling fermentation process of branched chain amino acid (BCAA) was proposed based on color identification. The color image of fermentation broth of BCAA was firstly taken by a CCD camera. Then, it was changed from RGB color model to HIS color model. Its histograms of hue H and saturation S were calculated, which were used as the input of a designed BP network. The output of the BP network was the description of the color of fermentation broth of BCAA. After training, the color of fermentation broth was identified by the BP network according to the histograms of H and S of a fermentation broth image. Along with other parameters, the fermentation process of BCAA was monitored and controlled to start the stationary phase of fermentation soon. Experiments were conducted with satisfied results to show the feasibility and usefulness of color identification of fermentation broth in fermentation process control of BCAA.

  7. Neutron capture at the s-process branching points $^{171}$Tm and $^{204}$Tl

    CERN Multimedia

    Branching points in the s-process are very special isotopes for which there is a competition between the neutron capture and the subsequent b-decay chain producing the heavy elements beyond Fe. Typically, the knowledge on the associated capture cross sections is very poor due to the difficulty in obtaining enough material of these radioactive isotopes and to measure the cross section of a sample with an intrinsic activity; indeed only 2 out o the 21 ${s}$-process branching points have ever been measured by using the time-of-flight method. In this experiment we aim at measuring for the first time the capture cross sections of $^{171}$Tm and $^{204}$Tl, both of crucial importance for understanding the nucleosynthesis of heavy elements in AGB stars. The combination of both (n,$\\gamma$) measurements on $^{171}$Tm and $^{204}$Tl will allow one to accurately constrain neutron density and the strength of the 13C(α,n) source in low mass AGB stars. Additionally, the cross section of $^{204}$Tl is also of cosmo-chrono...

  8. Genetic drift in populations governed by a Galton-Watson branching process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, Conrad J; Simon, Helmut

    2016-06-01

    Most population genetics studies have their origins in a Wright-Fisher or some closely related fixed-population model in which each individual randomly chooses its ancestor. Populations which vary in size with time are typically modelled via a coalescent derived from Wright-Fisher, but use a nonlinear time-scaling driven by a deterministically imposed population growth. An alternate, arguably more realistic approach, and one which we take here, is to allow the population size to vary stochastically via a Galton-Watson branching process. We study genetic drift in a population consisting of a number of distinct allele types in which each allele type evolves as an independent Galton-Watson branching process. We find the dynamics of the population is determined by a single parameter κ0=(2m0/σ(2))logλ, where m0 is the initial population size, λ is the mean number of offspring per individual; and σ(2) is the variance of the number of offspring. For 0≲κ0≪1, the dynamics are close to those of Wright-Fisher, with the added property that the population is prone to extinction. For κ0≫1 allele frequencies and ancestral lineages are stable and individual alleles do not fix throughout the population. The existence of a rapid changeover regime at κ0≈1 enables estimates to be made, together with confidence intervals, of the time and population size of the era of mitochondrial Eve.

  9. The neutron capture cross section of the ${s}$-process branch point isotope $^{63}$Ni

    CERN Multimedia

    Neutron capture nucleosynthesis in massive stars plays an important role in Galactic chemical evolution as well as for the analysis of abundance patterns in very old metal-poor halo stars. The so-called weak ${s}$-process component, which is responsible for most of the ${s}$ abundances between Fe and Sr, turned out to be very sensitive to the stellar neutron capture cross sections in this mass region and, in particular, of isotopes near the seed distribution around Fe. In this context, the unstable isotope $^{63}$Ni is of particular interest because it represents the first branching point in the reaction path of the ${s}$-process. We propose to measure this cross section at n_TOF from thermal energies up to 500 keV, covering the entire range of astrophysical interest. These data are needed to replace uncertain theoretical predicitons by first experimental information to understand the consequences of the $^{63}$Ni branching for the abundance pattern of the subsequent isotopes, especially for $^{63}$Cu and $^{...

  10. Machine scheduling with resource dependent processing times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigoriev, A.; Sviridenko, M.; Uetz, Marc Jochen

    We consider machine scheduling on unrelated parallel machines with the objective to minimize the schedule makespan. We assume that, in addition to its machine dependence, the processing time of any job is dependent on the usage of a discrete renewable resource, e.g. workers. A given amount of that

  11. The Werner syndrome helicase/exonuclease processes mobile D-loops through branch migration and degradation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia L Opresko

    Full Text Available RecQ DNA helicases are critical for preserving genome integrity. Of the five RecQ family members identified in humans, only the Werner syndrome protein (WRN possesses exonuclease activity. Loss of WRN causes the progeroid disorder Werner syndrome which is marked by cancer predisposition. Cellular evidence indicates that WRN disrupts potentially deleterious intermediates in homologous recombination (HR that arise in genomic and telomeric regions during DNA replication and repair. Precisely how the WRN biochemical activities process these structures is unknown, especially since the DNA unwinding activity is poorly processive. We generated biologically relevant mobile D-loops which mimic the initial DNA strand invasion step in HR to investigate whether WRN biochemical activities can disrupt this joint molecule. We show that WRN helicase alone can promote branch migration through an 84 base pair duplex region to completely displace the invading strand from the D-loop. However, substrate processing is altered in the presence of the WRN exonuclease activity which degrades the invading strand both prior to and after release from the D-loop. Furthermore, telomeric D-loops are more refractory to disruption by WRN, which has implications for tighter regulation of D-loop processing at telomeres. Finally, we show that WRN can recognize and initiate branch migration from both the 5' and 3' ends of the invading strand in the D-loops. These findings led us to propose a novel model for WRN D-loop disruption. Our biochemical results offer an explanation for the cellular studies that indicate both WRN activities function in processing HR intermediates.

  12. On the Limit Distributions of Continuous-State Branching Processes with Immigration

    CERN Document Server

    Keller-Ressel, Martin

    2011-01-01

    We consider the class of continuous-state branching processes with immigration (CBI-processes), introduced by Kawazu and Watanabe [1971], and give a deterministic characterisation for the convergence of a CBI-process to a limit distribution L, which also turns out to be the stationary distribution of the CBI-process, as time tends to infinity. We give an explicit description of the Levy-Khintchine triplet of L in terms of the characteristic triplets of the Levy subordinator and the spectrally positive Levy process, which arise in the definition of the CBI-process and determine it uniquely. We show that the Levy density of L is given by the generator of the Levy subordinator applied to the scale function of the spectrally positive Levy process. This formula allows us to describe the support of L and characterise the absolute continuity and the asymptotic behavior of the density of L at the boundary of the support. Finally we show that the class of limit distributions of CBI-processes is strictly larger (resp. ...

  13. Genealogy of flows of continuous-state branching processes via flows of partitions and the Eve property

    CERN Document Server

    Labbé, Cyril

    2012-01-01

    We encode the genealogy of a continuous-state branching process associated with a branching mechanism $\\Psi$ - or $\\Psi$-CSBP in short - using a stochastic flow of partitions. This encoding holds for all branching mechanisms and appears as a very tractable object to deal with asymptotic behaviours and convergences. In particular we study the so-called Eve property - the existence of an ancestor from which the entire population descends asymptotically - and give a necessary and sufficient condition on the $\\Psi$-CSBP for this property to hold. Finally, we show that the flow of partitions unifies the lookdown representation and the flow of subordinators when the Eve property holds.

  14. Smaller population size at the MRCA time for stationary branching processes

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yu-Ting

    2010-01-01

    We present an elementary model of random size varying population given by a stationary continuous state branching process. For this model we compute the joint distribution of: the time to the most recent common ancestor, the size of the current population and the size of the population just before the most recent common ancestor (MRCA). In particular we show a natural mild bottleneck effect as the size of the population just before the MRCA is stochastically smaller than the size of the current population. We also compute the number of old families which corresponds to the number of individuals involved in the last coalescent event of the genealogical tree. By studying more precisely the genealogical structure of the population, we get asymptotics for the number of ancestors just before the current time. We give explicit computations in the case of the quadratic branching mechanism. In this case, the size of the population at the MRCA is, in mean, less by 1/3 than size of the current population size. We also ...

  15. Mechanical properties of branched actin filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Razbin, Mohammadhosein; Benetatos, Panayotis; Zippelius, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Cells moving on a two dimensional substrate generate motion by polymerizing actin filament networks inside a flat membrane protrusion. New filaments are generated by branching off existing ones, giving rise to branched network structures. We investigate the force-extension relation of branched filaments, grafted on an elastic structure at one end and pushing with the free ends against the leading edge cell membrane. Single filaments are modeled as worm-like chains, whose thermal bending fluctuations are restricted by the leading edge cell membrane, resulting in an effective force. Branching can increase the stiffness considerably; however the effect depends on branch point position and filament orientation, being most pronounced for intermediate tilt angles and intermediate branch point positions. We describe filament networks without cross-linkers to focus on the effect of branching. We use randomly positioned branch points, as generated in the process of treadmilling, and orientation distributions as measur...

  16. Sensory processing disorders among substance dependents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batya Engel-Yeger

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: (1 To compare sensory processing patterns as expressed in daily life between substance dependents and typical controls; (2 profile the prevalence of sensory processing disorders (SPD among substance dependents; and (3 examine gender effect on SPD within and between groups. Methods: Two hundred ninety people aged 19-64 participated in this study. The study group included 145 individuals who lived in the community or took part in an outpatient program because of addiction to drugs/alcohol and had been clean for over three months. The control group included 145 individuals who were not exposed to drugs or alcohol on a regular basis and did not suffer from addictive behavior. All participants filled a demographic questionnaire. Those who met the inclusion criteria completed the Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile (AASP so that their sensory processing patterns could be assessed. Results: When comparing both groups, the study group showed greater sensory sensitivity and significantly higher prevalence of SPD. Significant group/gender interaction was found in regard to sensation seeking. Discussion: SPD among substance dependents may be expressed in daily life by either hypersensitivity or hyposensitivity. The behavioral outcomes reflected by the AASP support neurophysiological manifestations about SPD of substance dependents. The evaluation process of substance dependents should refer to their sensory processing abilities. In case SPD is diagnosed, Occupational Therapy and specific sensory–based interventions should be considered in order to fit the specific needs of individuals and enhance their performance, meaningful participation, and quality of life.

  17. Branching Markov processes on fragmentation trees generated from the paintbox process

    CERN Document Server

    Crane, Harry

    2011-01-01

    A fragmentation of a set $A$ is a graph with vertices labeled by subsets of $A$ which obey a certain parent-child relationship. A random fragmentation tree is a probability distribution on the space of fragmentations of a set. It is often convenient to regard a fragmentation tree as a collection of subsets such that each subset is associated with a non-trivial partition of itself, called its children. In this paper, we study a Markov process on the space of fragmentation trees whose transition probabilities are a product of consistent transition probabilities on the space of partitions. The result is a consistent family of transition probabilities on fragmentation trees which characterizes an infinitely exchangeable process on trees labeled by subsets of the natural numbers. We show that this process possesses a unique stationary measure and can be extended to a process on weighted trees, or trees with edge lengths, as well as mass fragmentations.

  18. Conditional limit theorems for intermediately subcritical branching processes in random environment

    CERN Document Server

    Afanasyev, Valeriy; Kersting, Götz; Vatutin, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    For a branching process in random environment it is assumed that the offspring distribution of the individuals varies in a random fashion, independently from one generation to the other. For the subcritical regime a kind of phase transition appears. In this paper we study the intermediately subcritical case, which constitutes the borderline within this phase transition. We study the asymptotic behavior of the survival probability. Next the size of the population and the shape of the random environment conditioned on non-extinction is examined. Finally we show that conditioned on non-extinction periods of small and large population sizes alternate. This kind of 'bottleneck' behavior appears under the annealed approach only in the intermediately subcritical case.

  19. The (n, $\\gamma$) reaction in the s-process branching point $^{59}$Ni

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to measure the $^{59}$Ni(n,$\\gamma$)$^{56}$Fe cross section at the neutron time of flight (n TOF) facility with a dedicated chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond detector. The (n, ) reaction in the radioactive $^{59}$Ni is of relevance in nuclear astrophysics as it can be seen as a rst branching point in the astrophysical s-process. Its relevance in nuclear technology is especially related to material embrittlement in stainless steel. There is a strong discrepancy between available experimental data and the evaluated nuclear data les for this isotope. The aim of the measurement is to clarify this disagreement. The clear energy separation of the reaction products of neutron induced reactions in $^{59}$Ni makes it a very suitable candidate for a rst cross section measurement with the CVD diamond detector, which should serve in the future for similar measurements at n_TOF.

  20. The (n, α) Reaction in the s-process Branching Point 59Ni

    CERN Document Server

    Weiß, C; Griesmayer, E.; Andrzejewski, J.; Badurek, G.; Chiaveri, E.; Dressler, R.; Ganesan, S.; Jericha, E.; Käppeler, F.; Koehler, P.; Lederer, C.; Leeb, H.; Marganiec, J.; Pavlik, A.; Perkowski, J.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Schumann, D.; Tagliente, G.; Vlachoudis, V.; Altstadt, S.; Audouin, L.; Barbagallo, M.; Bécares, V.; Bečvář, F.; Belloni, F.; Berthoumieux, E.; Billowes, J.; Boccone, V.; Bosnar, D.; Brugger, M.; Calviani, M.; Calviño, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Carrapiço, C.; Cerutti, F.; Chin, M.; Colonna, N.; Cortés, G.; Cortés-Giraldo, M.A.; Diakaki, M.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Duran, I.; Dzysiuk, N.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Ferrari, A.; Fraval, K.; García, A.R.; Giubrone, G.; Gómez-Hornillos, M.B.; Gonçalves, I.F.; González-Romero, E.; Gunsing, F.; Gurusamy, P.; Hernández-Prieto, A.; Jenkins, D.G.; Kadi, Y.; Karadimos, D.; Kivel, N.; Kokkoris, M.; Krtička, M.; Kroll, J.; Lampoudis, C.; Langer, C.; Leal-Cidoncha, E.; Leong, L.S.; Losito, R.; Mallick, A.; Manousos, A.; Martínez, T.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P.F.; Mastromarco, M.; Meaze, M.; Mendoza, E.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P.M.; Mingrone, F.; Mirea, M.; Mondalaers, W.; Paradela, C.; Plompen, A.; Praena, J.; Quesada, J.M.; Riego, A.; Robles, M.S.; Roman, F.; Rubbia, C.; Sabaté-Gilarte, M.; Sarmento, R.; Saxena, A.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Schmidt, S.; Tain, J.L.; Tarrío, D.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tsinganis, A.; Valenta, S.; Vannini, G.; Variale, V.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Versaci, R.; Vermeulen, M.J.; Vlastou, R.; Wallner, A.; Ware, T.; Weigand, M.; Wright, T.; Žugec, P.

    The (n, α) reaction in the radioactive 59Ni is of relevance in nuclear astrophysics as 59Ni can be considered as the first branching point in the astrophysical s-process. Its relevance in nuclear technology is especially related to material embrittlement in stainless steel. However, there is a discrepancy between available experimental data and the evaluated nuclear data files for this reaction. At the n_TOF facility at CERN, a dedicated system based on sCVD diamond diodes was set up to measure the 59Ni(n, α)56Fe cross section. The results of this measurement, with special emphasis on the dominant resonance at 203 eV, are presented here.

  1. The coalescent point process of branching trees and spine decompositions at the first survivor

    CERN Document Server

    Lambert, Amaury

    2011-01-01

    We define a quasistationary monotone labelling of Bienaym\\`E--Galton--Watson (BGW) genealogies. The genealogy of the current generation backwards in time is uniquely determined by the coalescent point process $(A_i;i\\ge 1)$, where $A_i$ is the coalescence time between individuals $i$ and $i+1$. There is a Markov process of point measures $(B_i;i\\ge 1)$ keeping track of more ancestral relationships, such that $A_i$ is also the first point mass of $B_i$. We further give an inhomogeneous spine decomposition ending at the first surviving particle of generation $h$ in a plane BGW tree conditioned to survive $h$ generations. The decomposition involves a point measure $\\rho$ storing the number of subtrees on the right-hand side of the spine. Under appropriate conditions, we prove convergence of this point measure to a point measure on $\\RR_+$ associated with the limiting continuous-state branching process. We prove the associated invariance principle for the coalescent point process, after we discretize the limiting...

  2. Shielding effects in polymer-polymer reactions. V. Concentration dependence of contact formation between star-branched and linear chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardai, Michael M; Zifferer, Gerhard

    2013-07-19

    By use of the Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) simulation technique mixtures of star-branched (arm number F = 4) and linear chains in athermal (good) solvent are analyzed regarding probabilities for intermolecular contacts of various reactive sites within different polymer coils. The accompanying sterical hindrances are described in the framework of shielding factors in order to investigate reactions and side reactions in radical polymerization and other techniques that involve polymer-polymer coupling. The shielding factors are studied as a function of total concentration from high dilution up to the bulk for different chain lengths of star-shaped and linear chains. Results indicate that their concentration dependence can be described by a power law for systems above the overlap concentration, whereas the chain length dependence vanishes when extrapolating to infinite chain lengths in that concentration range. Also the influence of the ratio of star chains and linear chains is studied for various concentrations.

  3. Galton-Watson分支过程的谱半径%SPECTRAL RADIUSES OF THE GALTON-WATSON BRANCHING PROCESSES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐群芳; 赵敏智; 应坚刚

    2006-01-01

    The spectral radiuses of Galton-Watson branching processes which describes the speed of the process escaping from any state are calculated.Under the condition of irreducibility,it is show that this is equal to the spectral radius of Jacobi matrix of its generating function.

  4. Improved zeolite regeneration processes for preparing saturated branched-chain fatty acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrierite zeolite solid is an excellent catalyst for the skeletal isomerization of unsaturated linear-chain fatty acids (i.e., oleic acid) to unsaturated branched-chain fatty acids (i.e., iso-oleic acid) follow by hydrogenation to give saturated branched-chain fatty acids (i.e., isostearic acid). ...

  5. Mass loss on the red giant branch: the value and metallicity dependence of Reimers' {\\eta} in globular clusters

    CERN Document Server

    McDonald, Iain

    2015-01-01

    The impact of metallicity on the mass-loss rate from red giant branch (RGB) stars is studied through its effect on the parameters of horizontal branch (HB) stars. The scaling factors from Reimers (1975) and Schroder & Cuntz (2005) are determined for 56 well-studied Galactic globular clusters (GCs). The median values among clusters are, respectively, {\\eta}_R = 0.477 +/- 0.070 (+0.050/-0.062) and {\\eta}_SC = 0.172 +/- 0.024 (+0.018/-0.023) (standard deviation and systematic uncertainties, respectively). Mass-loss mechanisms on the RGB have very little metallicity dependence: over a factor of 200 in iron abundance, {\\eta} varies by <~30 per cent, within the current systematic uncertainties on cluster ages and evolution models. Since {\\eta} incorporates cluster age, the low standard deviation of {\\eta} among clusters (~14 per cent) suggests that age can almost entirely account for the "second parameter problem". The remaining spread in {\\eta} correlates with cluster mass and density, suggesting helium enr...

  6. EXPERIMENTS AND SIMULATIONS OF A NEW DEVELOPED FORMING TECHNOLOGY-SHEAR-EXTRUSION PROCESS OF COMPONENTS WITH BRANCHES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.L. Yang; D.C. Kang; Z.L. Zhang; X.H. Piao; Z.D. Shi

    2001-01-01

    Shear-extrusion process and its forming parameters are proposed, whilst its laborsae ing characteristic is utilized to forge large-size shutoff valve body on middle-due pre ss.This new process is intended for the manufacture of large-size forged tubular components with branches on middle-due press. Experiments are carried out and proeessing parameters are obtained regarding the shear-extrusion process of a large-size shutoff valve body. Deformation and metal flow in the shear-extrnsion process are investigated. In order to verify the laborsaving characteristic of this new procss some contrastive experiments of extrusion foree are performed between shear-extrusion and upsetting-extrusion for forming tubular components with branches. Based on rigidplastic FEM a plane-strain model is established to analyze shear-extrusion process of tubular components with branches. The analysis results by 2-dimensions FEM are comparatively quite well consistent with those of experiments. Both simulated anl etperimental results show that this new forming process is feasible for forging large-size tubular components with branches on middle-due press.

  7. Adaptive dynamics of Lotka-Volterra systems with trade-offs: the role of interspecific parameter dependence in branching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Andrew; Bowers, Roger G

    2005-01-01

    We determine the adaptive dynamics of a general Lotka-Volterra system containing an intraspecific parameter dependency--in the form of an explicit functional trade-off between evolving parameters--and interspecific parameter dependencies--arising from modelling species interactions. We develop expressions for the fitness of a mutant strategy in a multi-species resident environment, the position of the singular strategy in such systems and the non-mixed second-order partial derivatives of the mutant fitness. These expressions can be used to determine the evolutionary behaviour of the system. The type of behaviour expected depends on the curvature of the trade-off function and can be interpreted in a biologically intuitive manner using the rate of acceleration/deceleration of the costs implicit in the trade-off function. We show that for evolutionary branching to occur we require that one (or both) of the traded-off parameters includes an interspecific parameter dependency and that the trade-off function has weakly accelerating costs. This could have important implications for understanding the type of mechanisms that cause speciation. The general theory is motivated by using adaptive dynamics to examine evolution in a predator-prey system. The applicability of the general theory as a tool for examining specific systems is highlighted by calculating the evolutionary behaviour in a three species (prey-predator-predator) system.

  8. Measurement of the Branching Fraction and Time-Dependent CP Asymmetry in the Decay B0->D*+D*-Ks

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, B; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Karyotakis, Yu; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Graugès-Pous, E; Palano, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Gill, M S; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadyk, J A; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Wenzel, W A; Del, P; Amo Sanchez; Barrett, M; Ford, K E; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hawkes, C M; Watson, A T; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schröder, T; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Burke, J P; Cottingham, W N; Walker, D; Asgeirsson, D J; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Saleem, M; Sherwood, D J; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Bondioli, M; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M A; Mommsen, R K; Röthel, W; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Buchanan, C; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Long, O; Shen, B C; Wang, K; Zhang, L; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Nesom, G; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dvoretskii, A; Fang, F; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Mishra, K; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P C; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nagel, M; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Ruddick, W O; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Chen, A; Eckhart, E A; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Zeng, Q; Altenburg, D D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Merkel, J; Petzold, A; Spaan, B; Brandt, T; Klose, V; Lacker, H M; Mader, W F; Nogowski, R; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Latour, E; Thiebaux, C; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Robertson, A I; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Prencipe, E; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; De Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Contri, R; Lo, M; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Brandenburg, G; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bard, D J; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Flack, R L; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Panduro-Vazquez, W; Behera, P K; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Meyer, N T; Ziegler, V; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gritsan, A V; Denig, A G; Fritsch, M; Schott, G; Arnaud, N; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Le Diberder, F R; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Oyanguren, A; Pruvot, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Stocchi, A; Wang, W F; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Chavez, C A; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; George, K A; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; Di Lodovico, F; Menges, W; Sacco, R; Cowan, G; Flächer, H U; Hopkins, D A; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Wren, A C; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Chia, Y M; Edgar, C L; Lafferty, G D; Naisbit, M T; Williams, J C; Yi, J I; Chen, C; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Lae, C K; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Li, X; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Stängle, H; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Kim, H; Mclachlin, S E; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Simard, M; Taras, P; Viaud, F B; Nicholson, H; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, Gallieno; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; LoSecco, J M; Allmendinger, T; Benelli, G; Corwin, L A; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Jackson, P D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Rahimi, A M; Regensburger, J J; Ter-Antonian, R; Wong, Q K; Blount, N L; Brau, J E; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Kolb, J A; Lu, M; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Gaz, A; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Pompili, A; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; Del, L; Buono; La Vaissière, C de; Hamon, O; Hartfiel, B L; Leruste, P; Malcles, J; Ocariz, J; Roos, L; Therin, G; Gladney, L; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Mazur, M A; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Wagoner, D E; Biesiada, J; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lü, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; D'Orazio, A; Del Re, D; Di Marco, E; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Safai-Tehrani, F; Voena, C; Ebert, M; Schröder, H; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Olaiya, E O; Wilson, F F; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, Witold; Legendre, M; Vasseur, G; Yéche, C; Zito, M; Chen, X R; Liu, H; Park, W; Purohit, M V; Wilson, J R; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Bechtle, P; Berger, N; Claus, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; Dingfelder, J C; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W M; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Graham, M T; Grenier, P; Halyo, V; Hast, C; Hrynóva, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Leith, D W G S; Li, S; Luitz, S; Lüth, V; Lynch, H L; MacFarlane, D B; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Müller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Pulliam, T; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Thompson, J M; Vavra, J; Van Bakel, N; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Wilden, L; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Bula, R; Ernst, J A; Jain, V; Pan, B; Saeed, M A; Wappler, F R; Zain, S B; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Satpathy, A; Schilling, C J; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Azzolini, V; Lopez-March, N; Martínez-Vidal, F; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R V; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Pappagallo, M; Band, H R; Chen, X; Cheng, B; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Flood, K T; Hollar, J J; Kutter, P E; Mellado, B; Mihályi, A; Pan, Y; Pierini, M; Prepost, R; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2006-01-01

    We study the decay B0->D*+D*-Ks using (230 +/- 2) x 10^{6} BBbar pairs collected by the Babar detector at the PEP-II B factory. We measure a branching fraction B(B0->D*+D*-Ks)=(4.4\\pm0.4\\pm0.7)\\times 10^{-3} and find evidence for the decay B0->D*- D+_{s1}(2536) with a statistical significance of $4.6 \\sigma$. A time-dependent CP asymmetry analysis is also performed to study the possible resonant contributions to B0->D*+D*-Ks and the sign of cos2beta . Our measurement indicates that there is a sizable resonant contribution to the decay B0->D*+D*-Ks from a unknown $D^+_{s1}$ state with large width, and that cos2beta is positive at the 94 % confidence level under certain theoretical assumptions.

  9. Measurements of branching fractions and time-dependent CP-violating asymmetries in B --> eta'K decays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, B; Barate, R; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Grauges-Pous, E; Palano, A; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Wenzel, W A; Barrett, M; Ford, K E; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hawkes, C M; Morgan, S E; Watson, A T; Fritsch, M; Goetzen, K; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schroeder, T; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Burke, J P; Chevalier, N; Cottingham, W N; Kelly, M P; Latham, T E; Wilson, F F; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Thiessen, D; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, A E; Blinov, V E; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Ivanchenko, V N; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M; Mommsen, R K; Roethel, W; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; Hartfiel, B L; Weinstein, A J R; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Long, O; Shen, B C; Wang, K; Del Re, D; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; Macfarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, Sh; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Lu, A; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Nesom, G; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Yang, S; Jayatilleke, S; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Rankin, P; Ruddick, W O; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Chen, A; Eckhart, E A; Harton, J L; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zeng, Q; Spaan, B; Altenburg, D; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Dickopp, M; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Lacker, H M; Maly, E; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Petzold, A; Schott, G; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Grenier, P; Schrenk, S; Thiebaux, Ch; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Bard, D J; Clark, P J; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Azzolini, V; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Piemontese, L; Sarti, A; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Crosetti, G; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Bailey, S; Brandenburg, G; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Won, E; Dubitzky, R S; Langenegger, U; Marks, J; Uwer, U; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Gaillard, J R; Morton, G W; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Taylor, G P; Charles, M J; Grenier, G J; Mallik, U; Mohapatra, A K; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Lamsa, J; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Yi, J; Arnaud, N; Davier, M; Giroux, X; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Le Diberder, F; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Petersen, T C; Pierini, M; Plaszczynski, S; Schune, M H; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Simani, M C; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Chavez, C A; Coleman, J P; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Hutchcroft, D E; Parry, R J; Payne, D J; Touramanis, C; Cormack, C M; Di Lodovico, F; Brown, C L; Cowan, G; Flack, R L; Flaecher, H U; Green, M G; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Winter, M A; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Hodgkinson, M C; Lafferty, G D; Naisbit, M T; Williams, J C; Chen, C; Farbin, A; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Lillard, V; Roberts, D A; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Koptchev, V B; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Staengle, H; Willocq, S; Cowan, R; Koeneke, K; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Cerizza, G; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Taras, P; Nicholson, H; Cavallo, N; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M; Bulten, H; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Wilden, L; Jessop, C P; Losecco, J M; Allmendinger, T; Benelli, G; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pulliam, T; Rahimi, A M; Ter-Antonyan, R; Wong, Q K; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Lu, M; Potter, C T; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Colecchia, F; Dorigo, A; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; Del Buono, L; de la Vaissière, Ch; Hamon, O; John, M J J; Leruste, Ph; Malclès, J; Ocariz, J; Roos, L; Therin, G; Behera, P K; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Pioppi, M; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bondioli, M; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Simi, G; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Paick, K; Wagoner, D E; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lu, C; Miftakov, V; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; D'Orazio, A; Di Marco, E; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Safai Tehrani, F; Voena, C; Christ, S; Schröder, H; Wagner, G; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Gopal, G P; Olaiya, E O; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Giraud, P-F; de Monchenault, G Hamel; Kozanecki, W; Legendre, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Zito, M; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Wilson, J R; Yumiceva, F X; Abe, T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Buchmueller, O L; Claus, R; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; De Nardo, G; Dingfelder, J C; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Fan, S; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Hadig, T; Halyo, V; Hast, C; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Libby, J; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Soha, A; Stelzer, J; Strube, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Va'vra, J; Wagner, S R; Weaver, M; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Ahmed, M; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Saeed, M A; Saleem, M; Wappler, F R; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Kim, H; Ritchie, J L; Satpathy, A; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Bona, M; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Poropat, P; Vitale, L; Vuagnin, G; Martinez-Vidal, F; Panvini, R S; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Hamano, K; Jackson, P D; Kowalewski, R; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Mohanty, G B; Band, H R; Chen, X; Cheng, B; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Flood, K T; Graham, M; Hollar, J J; Johnson, J R; Kutter, P E; Li, H; Liu, R; Mihalyi, A; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Tan, P; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J H; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Greene, M G; Neal, H

    2005-05-20

    We present measurements of the B --> eta(')K branching fractions; for B(+) --> eta(')K(+) we measure also the time-integrated charge asymmetry Alpha(ch), and for B(0) --> eta(')K(0)(S) the time-dependent CP-violation parameters S and C. The data sample corresponds to 232 x 10(6) BB pairs produced by e(+)e(-) annihilation at the Upsilon (4S). The results are Beta(B --> eta(')K(+)) = (68.9 +/- 2.0 +/- 3.2) x 10(-6), Beta(B(0) --> eta(')K(0)) = (67.4 +/- 3.2) x 10(-6), Alpha(ch) = 0.033 +/- 0.028 +/- 0.005, S = 0.30 +/- 0.140 +/- 0.02, and C = -0.21 +/- 0.10 +/- 0.02, where the first error quoted is statistical and the second is systematic.

  10. Measurements of Branching Fractions and Time-Dependent CP-Violating Asymmetries in B to eta' K Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, B; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Karyotakis, Yu; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Graugès-Pous, E; Palano, A; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, Michael T; Wenzel, W A; Barrett, M; Ford, K E; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hawkes, C M; Morgan, S E; Watson, A T; Fritsch, M; Goetzen, K; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schröder, T; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Burke, J P; Chevalier, N; Cottingham, W N; Kelly, M P; Latham, T E; Wilson, F F; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Thiessen, D; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, A E; Blinov, V E; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Ivanchenko, V N; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M A; Mommsen, R K; Röthel, W; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; Hartfiel, B L; Weinstein, A J R; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Long, O; Shen, B C; Wang, K; Del Re, D; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; MacFarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Lu, A; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Nesom, G; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Yang, S; Jayatilleke, S M; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Rankin, P; Ruddick, W O; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Chen, A; Eckhart, E A; Harton, J L; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zeng, Q; Spaan, B; Altenburg, D; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Dickopp, M; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Lacker, H M; Maly, E; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Petzold, A; Schott, G; Schubert, J; Schubert, Klaus R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Grenier, P; Schrenk, S; Thiebaux, C; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Bard, D J; Clark, P J; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Azzolini, V; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Piemontese, L; Sarti, A; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; De, R; Sangro; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Crosetti, G; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Bailey, S; Brandenburg, G; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Won, E; Dubitzky, R S; Langenegger, U; Marks, J; Uwer, U; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Gaillard, J R; Morton, G W; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Taylor, G P; Charles, M J; Grenier, G J; Mallik, U; Mohapatra, A K; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Lamsa, J; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Yi, J; Arnaud, N; Davier, M; Giroux, X; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Le Diberder, F R; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Petersen, T C; Pierini, M; Plaszczynski, S; Schune, M H; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Simani, M C; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Chavez, C A; Coleman, J P; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gamet, R; Hutchcroft, D E; Parry, R J; Payne, D J; Touramanis, C; Cormack, C M; Di Lodovico, F; Brown, C L; Cowan, G; Flack, R L; Flächer, H U; Green, M G; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Winter, M A; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Hodgkinson, M C; Lafferty, G D; Naisbit, M T; Williams, J C; Chen, C; Farbin, A; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Lillard, V; Roberts, D A; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Koptchev, V B; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Stängle, H; Willocq, S; Cowan, R; Koeneke, K; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Cerizza, G; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L M; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Taras, P; Nicholson, H; Cavallo, N; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M; Bulten, H; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Wilden, L; Jessop, C P; LoSecco, J M; Allmendinger, T; Benelli, G; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pulliam, T; Rahimi, A M; Ter-Antonian, R; Wong, Q K; Brau, J E; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Lu, M; Potter, C T; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Colecchia, F; Dorigo, A; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; Del Buono, L; La Vaissière, C de; Hamon, O; John, M J J; Leruste, P; Malcles, J; Ocariz, J; Roos, L; Therin, G; Behera, P K; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Pioppi, M; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bondioli, M; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Simi, G; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Paick, K; Wagoner, D E; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lü, C; Miftakov, V; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; D'Orazio, A; Di, E; Marco, J; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Safai-Tehrani, F; Voena, C; Christ, S; Schröder, H; Wagner, G; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B J; Gopal, G P; Olaiya, E O; Aleksan, Roy; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Giraud, P F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, Witold; Legendre, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Vasseur, G; Yéche, C; Zito, M; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Wilson, J R; Yumiceva, F X; Abe, T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Buchmüller, O L; Claus, R; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; De Nardo, Gallieno; Dingfelder, J C; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W M; Fan, S; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Hadig, T; Halyo, V; Hast, C; Hrynóva, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Libby, J; Luitz, S; Lüth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Müller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Soha, A; Stelzer, J; Strube, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Vavra, J; Wagner, S R; Weaver, M; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Young, C C; Burchat, Patricia R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Ahmed, M; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Saeed, M A; Saleem, M; Wappler, F R; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Kim, H; Ritchie, J L; Satpathy, A; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Bóna, M; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Poropat, P; Vitale, L; Vuagnin, G; Martínez-Vidal, F; Panvini, R S; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Hamano, K; Jackson, P D; Kowalewski, R V; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Mohanty, G B; Band, H R; Chen, X; Cheng, B; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Flood, K T; Graham, M; Hollar, J J; Johnson, J R; Kutter, P E; Li, H; Liu, R; Mihályi, A; Pan Yi Bin; Prepost, R; Tan, P; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Greene, M G; Neal, H

    2005-01-01

    We present measurements of the B -> eta' K branching fractions;for B+ -> eta' K+ we measure also the time-integrated charge asymmetry Ach, and for B0 -> eta' K0S the time dependent CP-violation parameters S and C. The data sample corresponds to 232 million B Bbar pairs produced by e+ e- annihilation at the Upsilon(4S). The results are BF(B+ -> eta' K+) = (68.9 +- 2.0 +- 3.2) * 10^-6, BF(B0 -> eta' K0) = (67.4 +- 3.3 +- 3.2) * 10^-6, Ach = 0.033 +- 0.028 +- 0.005, S=0.30 +- 0.14 +- 0.02, C=-0.21 +- 0.10 +- 0.02, where the first error is statistical and the second systematic.

  11. Asymptotic theory of weakly dependent random processes

    CERN Document Server

    Rio, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    Presenting tools to aid understanding of asymptotic theory and weakly dependent processes, this book is devoted to inequalities and limit theorems for sequences of random variables that are strongly mixing in the sense of Rosenblatt, or absolutely regular. The first chapter introduces covariance inequalities under strong mixing or absolute regularity. These covariance inequalities are applied in Chapters 2, 3 and 4 to moment inequalities, rates of convergence in the strong law, and central limit theorems. Chapter 5 concerns coupling. In Chapter 6 new deviation inequalities and new moment inequalities for partial sums via the coupling lemmas of Chapter 5 are derived and applied to the bounded law of the iterated logarithm. Chapters 7 and 8 deal with the theory of empirical processes under weak dependence. Lastly, Chapter 9 describes links between ergodicity, return times and rates of mixing in the case of irreducible Markov chains. Each chapter ends with a set of exercises. The book is an updated and extended ...

  12. Syntactic processing depends on dorsal language tracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Stephen M; Galantucci, Sebastiano; Tartaglia, Maria Carmela; Rising, Kindle; Patterson, Dianne K; Henry, Maya L; Ogar, Jennifer M; DeLeon, Jessica; Miller, Bruce L; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

    2011-10-20

    Frontal and temporal language areas involved in syntactic processing are connected by several dorsal and ventral tracts, but the functional roles of the different tracts are not well understood. To identify which white matter tract(s) are important for syntactic processing, we examined the relationship between white matter damage and syntactic deficits in patients with primary progressive aphasia, using multimodal neuroimaging and neurolinguistic assessment. Diffusion tensor imaging showed that microstructural damage to left hemisphere dorsal tracts--the superior longitudinal fasciculus including its arcuate component--was strongly associated with deficits in comprehension and production of syntax. Damage to these dorsal tracts predicted syntactic deficits after gray matter atrophy was taken into account, and fMRI confirmed that these tracts connect regions modulated by syntactic processing. In contrast, damage to ventral tracts--the extreme capsule fiber system or the uncinate fasciculus--was not associated with syntactic deficits. Our findings show that syntactic processing depends primarily on dorsal language tracts.

  13. Long-distance nitrate signaling displays cytokinin dependent and independent branches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sandrine Ruffel; Arthur Poitout; Gabriel Krouk; Gloria M Coruzzi; Benoit Lacombe

    2016-01-01

    Summary The long-distance signaling network allowing a plant to properly develop its root system is crucial to optimize root foraging in areas where nutrients are available. Cytokinin is an essential element of the systemic signaling network leading to the enhancement of lateral root proliferation in areas where nitrate is available. Here, we explore more precisely: (i) which particular traits of lateral root growth (density and length of emerged lateral roots) are the targets of systemic signaling in a context of heterogeneous nitrate supply; and (i ) if the systemic signaling depends only on cytokinin or on a combination of several signalings.

  14. Measurements of conversion electrons in the s-process branching point nucleus {sup 176}Lu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaglia, A.; Tan, W.; Avetisyan, R.; Casarella, C.; Gyurijinyan, A.; Manukyan, K.V.; Marley, S.T.; Nystrom, A.; Paul, N.; Siegl, K.; Smith, K.; Smith, M.K.; Strauss, S.Y.; Aprahamian, A. [University of Notre Dame, Department of Physics, Notre Dame, IN (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Conversion coefficients, gamma-gamma and gamma-electron coincidences were measured in the s-process branching point nucleus {sup 176}Lu. Our goal was to determine the multipolarities of the γ-ray transitions that connect the high and low K states of {sup 176}Lu. This {sup 176}Lu nucleus has a long-lived ground state (K=7{sup -}) of 37.6 Gy, a short-lived isomeric state (K=0{sup -}) at 122.8 keV with half-life of 3.6 h, as well as a 58 μs isomer at 1588 keV (K=14{sup +}). The excitation structure of this nucleus contains bands of intermediate spins of both positive and negative parities. The intermediate states can under certain stellar temperatures completely change the equilibrium between the isomer and ground state of {sup 176}Lu and change the abundance of this nucleus. We populated 37 previously known levels in this nucleus via the {sup 176}Yb(p,n) reaction and measured 42 conversion coefficients for γ-ray transitions including 17 of them for the first time. (orig.)

  15. Growth of Preferential Attachment Random Graphs Via Continuous-Time Branching Processes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Krishna B Athreya; Arka P Ghosh; Sunder Sethuraman

    2008-08-01

    Some growth asymptotics of a version of `preferential attachment’ random graphs are studied through an embedding into a continuous-time branching scheme. These results complement and extend previous work in the literature.

  16. THE EFFECTS OF ROTATION ON s-PROCESS NUCLEOSYNTHESIS IN ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piersanti, L.; Cristallo, S.; Straniero, O., E-mail: piersanti@oa-teramo.inaf.it [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Collurania, via Maggini snc, I-64100 Teramo (Italy)

    2013-09-10

    In this paper, we analyze the effects induced by rotation on low-mass asymptotic giant branch stars. We compute two sets of models, M = 2.0 M{sub Sun} at [Fe/H] = 0 and M = 1.5 M{sub Sun} at [Fe/H] = -1.7, by adopting main-sequence rotation velocities in the range 0-120 km s{sup -1}. At high metallicity, we find that the Goldreich-Schubert-Fricke instability, active at the interface between the convective envelope and the rapid rotating core, contaminates the {sup 13}C-pocket (the major neutron source) with {sup 14}N (the major neutron poison), thus reducing the neutron flux available for the synthesis of heavy elements. As a consequence, the yields of heavy-s elements (Ba, La, Nd, Sm) and, to a lesser extent, those of light-s elements (Sr, Y, Zr) decrease with increasing rotation velocities up to 60 km s{sup -1}. However, for larger initial rotation velocities, the production of light-s and, to a lesser extent, that of heavy-s, begins again to increase, due to mixing induced by meridional circulations. At low metallicity, the effects of meridional circulations are important even at rather low rotation velocity. The combined effect of the Goldreich-Schubert-Fricke instability and meridional circulations determines an increase of light-s and, to a lesser extent, heavy-s elements, while lead is strongly reduced. For both metallicities, the rotation-induced instabilities active during the interpulse phase reduce the neutron-to-seed ratio, so that the spectroscopic indexes [hs/ls] and [Pb/hs] decrease by increasing the initial rotation velocity. Our analysis suggests that rotation could explain the spread in the s-process indexes, as observed in s-process enriched stars at different metallicities.

  17. BRANCHING FRACTION AND TIME-DEPENDENT CP ASYMMETRY IN NEUTRAL B DECAYS TO PSI AND A NEUTRAL PION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soha, Aron L

    2003-05-23

    The invariance of physical laws under the combination of exchange of particles with antiparticles (charge conjugation, C) and reversal of coordinates (parity, P) is called CP symmetry. The violation of CP symmetry was first discovered in 1964 in the neutral kaon system, and is in general one of the great puzzles of particle physics. The recent observation of CP violation in the B meson system has been a simultaneous success for model predictions and experiment. The opportunity now exists to probe details of the underlying mechanisms. This thesis presents measurements of the branching fraction and time-dependent CP-violating asymmetry in neutral B decays to J/{psi}{pi}{sup 0}. The decay amplitude for this channel features both tree and penguin diagram contributions, the interference of which can yield a result for the asymmetry differing from that found in the ''golden mode'' B{sup 0} {yields} J/{psi} K{sub s}{sup 0}. Using the measured branching fraction and CP asymmetry, constraints are placed on the ratio of penguin to tree amplitudes in B{sup 0} {yields} J/{psi}{pi}{sup 0}. In addition, the impact on the CP asymmetry measurement in B{sup 0} {yields} J/{psi} K{sub s}{sup 0} is discussed. The results are presented for e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation data collected with the BABAR detector on the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B Factory at SLAC. The measurement of the branching fraction, based on about 23 million B{bar B} pairs collected between October 1999 and October 2000, yields BF(B{sup 0} {yields} J/{psi}{pi}{sup 0}) = (2.0 {+-} 0.6 (stat) {+-} 0.2(syst)) x 10{sup -5}. With about 88 million B{bar B} pairs collected during the years 1999-2002, our results for the coefficients of the cosine and sine terms of the CP asymmetry are C{sub J/{psi}{pi}{sup 0}} = 0.38 {+-} 0.41 (stat) {+-} 0.09 (syst) and S{sub J/{psi}{pi}{sup 0}} = 0.05 {+-} 0.49 (stat) {+-} 0.16 (syst).

  18. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase alpha-dependent regulation of branching morphogenesis in murine embryonic lung: evidence for a role in determining morphogenic properties of FGF7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Edward; Miron-Buchacra, Gabriela; Goldoni, Silvia; Danahay, Henry; Westwick, John; Watson, Malcolm L; Tosh, David; Ward, Stephen G

    2014-01-01

    Branching morphogenesis is a critical step in the development of many epithelial organs. The phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) pathway has been identified as a central component of this process but the precise role has not been fully established. Herein we sought to determine the role of PI3K in murine lung branching using a series of pharmacological inhibitors directed at this pathway. The pan-class I PI3K inhibitor ZSTK474 greatly enhanced the branching potential of whole murine lung explants as measured by an increase in the number of terminal branches compared with controls over 48 hours. This enhancement of branching was also observed following inhibition of the downstream signalling components of PI3K, Akt and mTOR. Isoform selective inhibitors of PI3K identified that the alpha isoform of PI3K is a key driver in branching morphogenesis. To determine if the effect of PI3K inhibition on branching was specific to the lung epithelium or secondary to an effect on the mesenchyme we assessed the impact of PI3K inhibition in cultures of mesenchyme-free lung epithelium. Isolated lung epithelium cultured with FGF7 formed large cyst-like structures, whereas co-culture with FGF7 and ZSTK474 induced the formation of defined branches with an intact lumen. Together these data suggest a novel role for PI3K in the branching program of the murine embryonic lung contradictory to that reported in other branching organs. Our observations also point towards PI3K acting as a morphogenic switch for FGF7 signalling.

  19. Gravity-Dependent Transport in Industrial Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrach, Simon; Kamotani, Yasuhiro

    1996-01-01

    Gravity dependent transport phenomena in various industrial processes are investigated in order to indicate new directions for micro-gravity research that enhance the commercial success of the space program. The present article describes the commercialization possibilities of such topics associated with physicochemical transport phenomena. The topics are: coating flow, rotating electrochemical system, and convection in low Plandtl number fluids. The present study is directed to understand these phenomena, and to develop a knowledge base for their applications with emphasis to a micro-gravity environment.

  20. A new branch solution for the nonlinear fin problem with temperature-dependent thermal conductivity and heat transfer coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivanian, Elyas; Hosseini Ghoncheh, S. J.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, the nonlinear fin problem with temperature-dependent thermal conductivity and heat transfer coefficient is revisited. In this problem, it has been assumed that the heat transfer coefficient is expressed in a power-law form and the thermal conductivity is a linear function of temperature. A method based on the traditional shooting method and the homotopy analysis method is applied, the so-called shooting homotopy analysis method (SHHAM), to the governing nonlinear differential equation. In this technique, more high-order approximate solutions are computable and multiple solutions are easily searched and discovered due to being free of the symbolic variable. It is found that the solution might be empty, unique or dual depending on the values of the parameters of the model. Furthermore, corresponding fin efficiencies with high accuracy are computed. As a consequence, a new branch solution for this nonlinear problem by a new proposed method, based on the traditional shooting method and the homotopy analysis method, is obtained.

  1. Synthesis of porous carbon nanofiber with bamboo-like carbon nanofiber branches by one-step carbonization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Seung Hwa; Joh, Han-Ik; Lee, Sungho

    2017-04-01

    Porous carbon nanofibers (PCNFs) with CNF branches (PCNF/bCNF) were synthesized by a simple heat treatment method. Conventional methods to synthesize this unique structure usually follow a typical route, which consists of CNF preparation, catalyst deposition, and secondary CNF growth. In contrast, our method utilized a one-step carbonization process of polymer nanofibers, which were electrospun from a one-pot solution consisted of polyacrylonitrile, polystyrene (PS), and iron acetylacetonate. Various structures of PCNF/CNF were synthesized by changing the solution composition and molecular weight of PS. It was verified that the content and molecular weight of PS were critical for the growth of catalyst particles and subsequent growth of CNF branches. The morphology, phase of catalyst, and carbon structure of PCNF/bCNF were analyzed at different temperature steps during carbonization. It was found that pores were generated by the evaporation of PS and the catalyst particles were formed on the surface of PCNF at 700 °C. The gases originated from the evaporation of PS acted as a carbon source for the growth of CNF branches that started at 900 °C. Finally, when the carbonization process was finished at 1200 °C, uniform and abundant CNF branches were formed on the surface of PCNF.

  2. Pressure dependence and branching ratios in the decomposition of 1-pentyl radicals: shock tube experiments and master equation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awan, Iftikhar A; Burgess, Donald R; Manion, Jeffrey A

    2012-03-22

    The decomposition and intramolecular H-transfer isomerization reactions of the 1-pentyl radical have been studied at temperatures of 880 to 1055 K and pressures of 80 to 680 kPa using the single pulse shock tube technique and additionally investigated with quantum chemical methods. The 1-pentyl radical was generated by shock heating dilute mixtures of 1-iodopentane and the stable products of its decomposition have been observed by postshock gas chromatographic analysis. Ethene and propene are the main olefin products and account for >97% of the carbon balance from 1-pentyl. Also produced are very small amounts of (E)-2-pentene, (Z)-2-pentene, and 1-butene. The ethene/propene product ratio is pressure dependent and varies from about 3 to 5 over the range of temperatures and pressures studied. Formation of ethene and propene can be related to the concentrations of 1-pentyl and 2-pentyl radicals in the system and the relative rates of five-center intramolecular H-transfer reactions and β C-C bond scissions. The 3-pentyl radical, formed via a four-center intramolecular H transfer, leads to 1-butene and plays only a very minor role in the system. The observed (E/Z)-2-pentenes can arise from a small amount of beta C-H bond scission in the 2-pentyl radical. The current experimental and computational results are considered in conjunction with relevant literature data from lower temperatures to develop a consistent kinetics model that reproduces the observed branching ratios and pressure effects. The present experimental results provide the first available data on the pressure dependence of the olefin product branching ratio for alkyl radical decomposition at high temperatures and require a value of = (675 ± 100) cm(-1) for the average energy transferred in deactivating collisions in an argon bath gas when an exponential-down model is employed. High pressure rate expressions for the relevant H-transfer reactions and β bond scissions are derived and a Rice Ramsberger

  3. Stochastic processes and long range dependence

    CERN Document Server

    Samorodnitsky, Gennady

    2016-01-01

    This monograph is a gateway for researchers and graduate students to explore the profound, yet subtle, world of long-range dependence (also known as long memory). The text is organized around the probabilistic properties of stationary processes that are important for determining the presence or absence of long memory. The first few chapters serve as an overview of the general theory of stochastic processes which gives the reader sufficient background, language, and models for the subsequent discussion of long memory. The later chapters devoted to long memory begin with an introduction to the subject along with a brief history of its development, followed by a presentation of what is currently the best known approach, applicable to stationary processes with a finite second moment. The book concludes with a chapter devoted to the author’s own, less standard, point of view of long memory as a phase transition, and even includes some novel results. Most of the material in the book has not previously been publis...

  4. Towards a Quantitative Analysis of the Temperature Dependence of Electron Attachment Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-24

    chemical methods . All other molecular parameters needed in the modeling followed from quantum-chemical calculations done at the University of New Mexico ...of experimental observables such as pressure and temperature dependences of electron attachment rate constants and product branching ratios. Likewise... method for the treatment of such complicated kinetic processes was developed which will find application in many areas of chemical kinetics such as

  5. Barium isotopic composition of mainstream silicon carbides from Murchison: Constraints for s-process nucleosynthesis in asymptotic giant branch stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Nan; Davis, Andrew M.; Pellin, Michael J.; Dauphas, Nicolas [Department of the Geophysical Sciences, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Savina, Michael R. [Chicago Center for Cosmochemistry, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Gallino, Roberto; Bisterzo, Sara [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Torino, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Straniero, Oscar; Cristallo, Sergio [INAF–Osservatorio Astronomico di Collurania, via Maggini snc, I-64100 Teramo (Italy); Gyngard, Frank [Laboratory for Space Sciences, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Willingham, David G. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Pignatari, Marco [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Basel CH-4056 (Switzerland); Herwig, Falk, E-mail: lnsmile@uchicago.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8P5C2 (Canada)

    2014-05-01

    We present barium, carbon, and silicon isotopic compositions of 38 acid-cleaned presolar SiC grains from Murchison. Comparison with previous data shows that acid washing is highly effective in removing barium contamination. Strong depletions in δ({sup 138}Ba/{sup 136}Ba) values are found, down to –400‰, which can only be modeled with a flatter {sup 13}C profile within the {sup 13}C pocket than is normally used. The dependence of δ({sup 138}Ba/{sup 136}Ba) predictions on the distribution of {sup 13}C within the pocket in asymptotic giant branch (AGB) models allows us to probe the {sup 13}C profile within the {sup 13}C pocket and the pocket mass in AGB stars. In addition, we provide constraints on the {sup 22}Ne(α, n){sup 25}Mg rate in the stellar temperature regime relevant to AGB stars, based on δ({sup 134}Ba/{sup 136}Ba) values of mainstream grains. We found two nominally mainstream grains with strongly negative δ({sup 134}Ba/{sup 136}Ba) values that cannot be explained by any of the current AGB model calculations. Instead, such negative values are consistent with the intermediate neutron capture process (i process), which is activated by the very late thermal pulse during the post-AGB phase and characterized by a neutron density much higher than the s process. These two grains may have condensed around post-AGB stars. Finally, we report abundances of two p-process isotopes, {sup 130}Ba and {sup 132}Ba, in single SiC grains. These isotopes are destroyed in the s process in AGB stars. By comparing their abundances with respect to that of {sup 135}Ba, we conclude that there is no measurable decay of {sup 135}Cs (t {sub 1/2} = 2.3 Ma) to {sup 135}Ba in individual SiC grains, indicating condensation of barium, but not cesium into SiC grains before {sup 135}Cs decayed.

  6. Bi-directional processing of pri-miRNAs with branched terminal loops by Arabidopsis Dicer-like1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongliang; Zhou, Yuyi; Castillo-González, Claudia; Lu, Amber; Ge, Chunxiao; Zhao, Ying-Tao; Duan, Liusheng; Li, Zhaohu; Axtell, Michael J.; Wang, Xiu-Jie; Zhang, Xiuren

    2013-01-01

    miRNAs originate from primary transcripts (pri-miRNAs) with characteristic stem-loop structures. Accurate processing of pri-miRNAs is required for functional miRNAs. Here, using pri-miR166 family as a paradigm, we report the decisive role of pri-miRNA terminal loops in miRNA biogenesis. We found that multi-branched terminal loops in pri-miR166s substantially suppressed miR166 expression in vivo. Unlike canonical processing of pri-miRNAs, terminal-loop-branched (TLBed) pri-miRNAs can be processed by Dicer-like1 (DCL1) complexes bi-directionally: from base to loop and from loop to base, resulting in productive and abortive processing of miRNAs, respectively. In either case, DCL1 complexes canonically cut pri-miRNAs at a distance of 16-17 base pairs (bp) from a reference single-stranded loop region. DCL1 also adjusts processing sites toward an internal loop through its helicase domain. Thus, these results provide new insight into the poorly understood processing mechanism of pri-miRNAs with complicated secondary structures. PMID:23934148

  7. Sheets of branched poly(lactic acid obtained by one step reactive extrusion calendering process: Melt rheology analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cailloux

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available One-step reactive extrusion-calendering process (REX-Calendering was used in order to obtain sheets of 1mm from two PD,L-LA extrusion grades modified with a styrene-acrylic multifunctional oligomeric agent. In a preliminary internal mixer study, torque versus time was monitored in order to determine chain extender ratios and reaction time. Once all parameters were optimized, reactive extrusion experiments were performed. Independently of the processing method employed, under the same processing conditions, PD,L-LA with the lower D enantiomer molar content revealed a higher reactivity towards the reactive agent, induced by its higher thermal sensitivity. REXCalendering process seemed to minimize the degradations reactions during processing, although a competition between degradation and chain extension/branching reactions took place in both processes. Finally, the rheological characterization revealed a higher degree of modification in the melt rheological behaviour for REX-Calendered samples.

  8. Revisiting the upper bounding process in a safe Branch and Bound algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Goldsztejn, Alexandre; Michel, Claude; Rueher, Michel

    2008-01-01

    Finding feasible points for which the proof succeeds is a critical issue in safe Branch and Bound algorithms which handle continuous problems. In this paper, we introduce a new strategy to compute very accurate approximations of feasible points. This strategy takes advantage of the Newton method for under-constrained systems of equations and inequalities. More precisely, it exploits the optimal solution of a linear relaxation of the problem to compute efficiently a promising upper bound. First experiments on the Coconuts benchmarks demonstrate that this approach is very effective.

  9. A single carbon fiber microelectrode with branching carbon nanotubes for bioelectrochemical processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xueyan; Lu, Xin; Tze, William T Y; Wang, Ping

    2010-06-15

    Carbon fiber electrodes are greatly promising for microelectronic applications including high performance biosensors, miniaturized transmitters, and energy storage and generation devices. For biosensor applications, one drawback of using carbon fiber microelectrodes, especially single fiber electrodes, is the weak electronic signals, a consequence of low surface area of fibers, which ultimately limit the sensitivity of the sensors. In this paper, we report a novel single fiber microelectrode with branched carbon nanotubes for enhanced sensing performance. The fiber microelectrode was prepared from carbonization of cellulose fibers. Upon introduction of carbon nanotubes, the carbon fibers exhibited a significant increase in the specific surface area from carbon nanotubes enhanced the redox reactions on surfaces of the electrode by reducing the oxidation potential of NAD(H) from 0.8 to 0.55 V. The single carbon fiber with branched nanotubes was also examined for the detection of glycerol, and the results showed linear responding signals in a concentration range of 40-250 microM. These results are comparable to the properties of fossil-based carbon materials, and thus our cellulose-based carbon electrodes provide a potentially sustainable alternative in bioelectrochemical applications.

  10. Cookie branching random walks

    CERN Document Server

    Bartsch, Christian; Kochler, Thomas; Müller, Sebastian; Popov, Serguei

    2011-01-01

    We consider a branching random walk on $\\Z$, where the particles behave differently in visited and unvisited sites. Informally, each site on the positive half-line contains initially a cookie. On the first visit of a site its cookie is removed and particles at positions with a cookie reproduce and move differently from particles on sites without cookies. Therefore, the movement and the reproduction of the particles depend on the previous behaviour of the population of particles. We study the question if the process is recurrent or transient, i.e., whether infinitely many particles visit the origin or not.

  11. Anomalous Power Law Distribution of Total Lifetimes of Branching Processes Relevant to Earthquakes

    CERN Document Server

    Saichev, A

    2004-01-01

    We consider a branching model of triggered seismicity, the ETAS (epidemic-type aftershock sequence) model which assumes that each earthquake can trigger other earthquakes (``aftershocks''). An aftershock sequence results in this model from the cascade of aftershocks of each past earthquake. Due to the large fluctuations of the number of aftershocks triggered directly by any earthquake (``productivity'' or ``fertility''), there is a large variability of the total number of aftershocks from one sequence to another, for the same mainshock magnitude. We study the regime where the distribution of fertilities $\\mu$ is characterized by a power law $\\sim 1/\\mu^{1+\\gamma}$ and the bare Omori law for the memory of previous triggering mothers decays slowly as $\\sim 1/t^{1+\\theta}$, with $0 < \\theta <1$ relevant for earthquakes. Using the tool of generating probability functions and a quasistatic approximation which is shown to be exact asymptotically for large durations, we show that the density distribution of to...

  12. A Game-Theoretic Approach to Branching Time Abstract-Check-Refine Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Tamai, Tetsuo

    2009-01-01

    Since the complexity of software systems continues to grow, most engineers face two serious problems: the state space explosion problem and the problem of how to debug systems. In this paper, we propose a game-theoretic approach to full branching time model checking on three-valued semantics. The three-valued models and logics provide successful abstraction that overcomes the state space explosion problem. The game style model checking that generates counter-examples can guide refinement or identify validated formulas, which solves the system debugging problem. Furthermore, output of our game style method will give significant information to engineers in detecting where errors have occurred and what the causes of the errors are.

  13. Sheets of branched poly(lactic acid) obtained by one step reactive extrusion calendering process: Physical Aging and Fracture Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Cailloux, Jonathan; Santana Pérez, Orlando Onofre; FRANCO URQUIZA, EDGAR ADRIAN; Bou Serra, Jordi; Carrasco Alonso, Félix Ángel; Maspoch Rulduà, Mª Lluïsa

    2014-01-01

    The architectural modifications of a linear poly(D,L-Lactide) acid (PD,L-LA) commercial grade were induced by a one-step reactive extrusion-calendering process using a styrene-glycidyl acrylate copolymer as reactive agent. The melt degradation was counteracted by chain extension and branching reactions, leading to a stabilization of the melt properties and an increase in the molecular weight. For such modified samples [poly(lactic acid) (PLA)-reactive extrusion (REX)], the rate of physical ag...

  14. Assessing local population vulnerability to wind energy development with branching process models: an application to wind energy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Richard A.; Eager, Eric A.; Stanton, Jessica C.; Beston, Julie A.; Diffendorfer, James E.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying the impact of anthropogenic development on local populations is important for conservation biology and wildlife management. However, these local populations are often subject to demographic stochasticity because of their small population size. Traditional modeling efforts such as population projection matrices do not consider this source of variation whereas individual-based models, which include demographic stochasticity, are computationally intense and lack analytical tractability. One compromise between approaches is branching process models because they accommodate demographic stochasticity and are easily calculated. These models are known within some sub-fields of probability and mathematical ecology but are not often applied in conservation biology and applied ecology. We applied branching process models to quantitatively compare and prioritize species locally vulnerable to the development of wind energy facilities. Specifically, we examined species vulnerability using branching process models for four representative species: A cave bat (a long-lived, low fecundity species), a tree bat (short-lived, moderate fecundity species), a grassland songbird (a short-lived, high fecundity species), and an eagle (a long-lived, slow maturation species). Wind turbine-induced mortality has been observed for all of these species types, raising conservation concerns. We simulated different mortality rates from wind farms while calculating local extinction probabilities. The longer-lived species types (e.g., cave bats and eagles) had much more pronounced transitions from low extinction risk to high extinction risk than short-lived species types (e.g., tree bats and grassland songbirds). High-offspring-producing species types had a much greater variability in baseline risk of extinction than the lower-offspring-producing species types. Long-lived species types may appear stable until a critical level of incidental mortality occurs. After this threshold, the risk of

  15. On the Inclusion of Self Regulating Branching Processes in the Working Paradigm of Evolutionary and Population Genetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles J Mode

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The principal goal of this methodological paper is to suggest to a generalaudience in the genetics community that the consideration of recentdevelopments of self regulating branching processes may lead to thepossibility of including this class of stochastic processes as part ofworking paradigm of evolutionary and population genetics. This class ofbranching processes is self regulating in the sense that an evolvingpopulation will grow only to a total population size that can be sustainedby the environment. From the mathematical point of view the class processesunder consideration belongs to a subfield of probability and statisticssometimes referred to as computational applied probability and stochasticprocesses. Computer intensive methods based on Monte Carlo simulationprocedures have been used to empirically work out the predictions of aformulation by assigning numerical values to some point in the parameterspace and computing replications of realizations of the process overthousands of generations of evolution. Statistical methods are then used onsuch samples of simulated data to produce informative summarizations of thedata that provide insights into the evolutionary implications of computerexperiments. Briefly, it is also possible to embed deterministic non-lineardifference equations in the stochastic process by using a statisticalprocedure to estimate the sample functions of the process, which hasinteresting methodological implications as to whether stochastic ordeterministic formulations may be applied separately or in combination inthe study of evolution. It is recognized that the literature on populationgenetics contains a substantial number of papers in which Monte Carlosimulation methods have been used. But, this extensive literature is beyondthe scope of this paper, which is focused on potential applications of selfregulating branching processes in evolutionary and population genetics.

  16. Efficient bootstrap with weakly dependent processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bravo, Francesco; Crudu, Federico

    2012-01-01

    The efficient bootstrap methodology is developed for overidentified moment conditions models with weakly dependent observation. The resulting bootstrap procedure is shown to be asymptotically valid and can be used to approximate the distributions of t-statistics, the J-statistic for overidentifying

  17. Efficient bootstrap with weakly dependent processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bravo, Francesco; Crudu, Federico

    2012-01-01

    The efficient bootstrap methodology is developed for overidentified moment conditions models with weakly dependent observation. The resulting bootstrap procedure is shown to be asymptotically valid and can be used to approximate the distributions of t-statistics, the J-statistic for overidentifying

  18. Color identification and fuzzy reasoning based monitoring and controlling of fermentation process of branched chain amino acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lei; Wang, Yizhong; Xu, Qingyang; Huang, Huafang; Zhang, Rui; Chen, Ning

    2009-11-01

    The main production method of branched chain amino acid (BCAA) is microbial fermentation. In this paper, to monitor and to control the fermentation process of BCAA, especially its logarithmic phase, parameters such as the color of fermentation broth, culture temperature, pH, revolution, dissolved oxygen, airflow rate, pressure, optical density, and residual glucose, are measured and/or controlled and/or adjusted. The color of fermentation broth is measured using the HIS color model and a BP neural network. The network's input is the histograms of hue H and saturation S, and output is the color description. Fermentation process parameters are adjusted using fuzzy reasoning, which is performed by inference rules. According to the practical situation of BCAA fermentation process, all parameters are divided into four grades, and different fuzzy rules are established.

  19. Parton Branching in Color Mutation Model

    CERN Document Server

    Hwa, R C

    1999-01-01

    The soft production problem in hadronic collisions as described in the eikonal color mutation branching model is improved in the way that the initial parton distribution is treated. Furry branching of the partons is considered as a means of describing the nonperturbative process of parton reproduction in soft interaction. The values of all the moments, and $C_q$, for q=2,...,5, as well as their energy dependences can be correctly determined by the use of only two parameters.

  20. First measurements of the total and partial stellar cross section to the $s$-process branching-point $^{79}$Se

    CERN Document Server

    Dillmann, I; Käppeler, F; Fästermann, T; Knie, K; Korschinek, G; Poutivtsev, M; Rugel, G; Wallner, A; Rauscher, T

    2008-01-01

    Although $^{79}$Se represents an important branching in the weak s process, the stellar neutron capture cross sections to this isotope have not yet been measured experimentally. In this case, experimental data is essential for evaluating the important branching in the s-process reaction path at $^{79}$Se. The total cross section of $^{78}$Se at a stellar energy of kT = 25 keV has been investigated with a combination of the activation technique and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), since offline decay counting is prohibitive due to the long terrestrial half life of $^{79}$Se (2.80$\\pm$0.36 $\\times10^5$ y) as well as the absence of suitable $\\gamma$-ray transitions. The preliminary result for the total Maxwellian averaged cross section is $_{30 keV}$= 60.1$\\pm$9.6 mbarn, significantly lower than the previous recommended value. In a second measurement, also the partial cross section to the 3.92 min-isomer was determined via $\\gamma$-spectroscopy and yielded $_{30 keV}$(part.)= 42.0$\\pm$2.0 mbarn.

  1. Glutathione-Dependent Detoxification Processes in Astrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dringen, Ralf; Brandmann, Maria; Hohnholt, Michaela C

    2015-01-01

    component in many of the astrocytic detoxification processes is the tripeptide glutathione (GSH) which serves as electron donor in the GSH peroxidase-catalyzed reduction of peroxides. In addition, GSH is substrate in the detoxification of xenobiotics and endogenous compounds by GSH-S-transferases which......Astrocytes have a pivotal role in brain as partners of neurons in homeostatic and metabolic processes. Astrocytes also protect other types of brain cells against the toxicity of reactive oxygen species and are considered as first line of defence against the toxic potential of xenobiotics. A key...... generate GSH conjugates that are efficiently exported from the cells by multidrug resistance proteins. Moreover, GSH reacts with the reactive endogenous carbonyls methylglyoxal and formaldehyde to intermediates which are substrates of detoxifying enzymes. In this article we will review the current...

  2. Measurements of the Branching Fraction and Time-Dependent CP Asymmetries of B0 to J/Psi pi0 Decays.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, B.

    2005-08-04

    The authors present measurements of the branching fraction and time-dependent CP asymmetries in B{sup 0} {yields} J/{psi} {pi}{sup 0} decays based on (231.8 {+-} 2.6) x 10{sup 6} {Upsilon}(4S) {yields} B{bar B} decays collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B factory at SLAC during the years 1999-2004. We obtain a branching fraction {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} J/{psi}{pi}{sup 0}) = (1.94 {+-} 0.22 (stat) {+-} 0.17 (syst)) x 10{sup -5}. They also measure the CP asymmetry parameters C = -0.21 {+-} 0.26 (stat) {+-} 0.09 (syst) and S = -0.68 {+-} 0.30 (stat) {+-} 0.04 (syst). All results presented in this paper are preliminary.

  3. Measurements of the Branching Fraction and Time-Dependent CP Asymmetries of B0 to J/Psi Pi0 decays

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, B; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Karyotakis, Yu; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Grauges,; Palano, A; Pappagallo, M; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Best, D S; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J A; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Wenzel, W A; Barrett, M; Ford, 7K E; Harrison, 7T J; Hart, A J; Hawkes, C M; Morgan, S E; Watson, A T; Fritsch, M; Goetzen, K; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schröder, T; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Burke, J P; Cottingham, W N; Walker, D; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Saleem, M; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, Yu K; Bondioli, M; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M A; Mommsen, R K; Röthel, W; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Buchanan, C; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Long, O; Shen, B C; Wang, K; Zhang, L; Del Re, D; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Nesom, G; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Andreassen, R; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P C; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Ruddick, W O; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Chen, A; Eckhart, E A; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Zeng, Q; Altenburg, D D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Spaan, B; Brandt, T; Dickopp, M; Klose, V; Lacker, H M; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Petzold, A; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Grenier, P; Latour, E; Schrenk, S; Thiebaux, C; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Bard, D J; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Piemontese, L; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; De Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Brandenburg, G; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Flack, R L; Gaillard, J R; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Panduro-Vazquez, W; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mader, W F; Mallik, U; Ziegler, V; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Schott, G; Arnaud, N; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Le Diberder, F R; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Oyanguren, A; Petersen, T C; Pruvot, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Stocchi, A; Wang, W F; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Chavez, C A; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; George, K A; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Di Lodovico, F; Menges, W; Sacco, R; Brown, C L; Cowan, G; Flächer, H U; Green, M G; Hopkins, D A; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Chia, Y M; Edgar, C L; Kelly, M P; Lafferty, G D; Naisbit, M T; Williams, J C; Yi, J I; Chen, C; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Li, X; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Stängle, H; Willocq, S Y; Cowan, R; Koeneke, K; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Kim, H; Patel, P M; Potter, C T; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, 7F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Taras, P; Viaud, F B; Nicholson, H; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, Gallieno; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, S; Sciacca, C; Baak, M; Bulten, H; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; LoSecco, J M; Allmendinger, A; Benelli, G; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Jackson, P D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pulliam, T; Rahimi, A M; Antonyan, R T; Wong, Q K; Blount, N L; Brau, J E; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Lu, M; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, Eric; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Pompili, A; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Chauveau, J; David, P; Del Buono, L; de La Vaissière, C; Hamon, E O; Hartfiel, B L; John, M J J; Leruste, P; Malclès, J; Ocariz, J; Roos, L; Therin, G; Behera, P K; Gladney, L; Panetta, J; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Pioppi, M; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Mazur, M A; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Wagoner, D E; Biesiada, J; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lau, P; Lü, C; Olsen, J; Smith, S J S; Telnov, A V; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; Orazio, M; Di Marco, E; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Li Gioi, L; Mazzon, m A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Safai-Tehrani, F; Voena, C; Schröder, H; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Olaiya, O E O; Wilson, F F; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, Witold; Legendre, M; Mayer, B; Vasseur, G; Yche, C; Zito, M; Park, W; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Wilson, J R; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Claus, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; Dingfelder, J C; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W M; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Halyo, V; Hast, C; Hryn, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Libby, J; Luitz, S; Lüth, V; Lynch, H L; MacFarlane, D B; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Müller, D R; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Thompson, J M; Va, J; Van Bakel, N; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Wilden, L; Ahmed, S; Salam, M; Bula, R; Ernst, A; Jain, V; Pan, B; Saeed, M S; Wappler, F R; Zain, S B; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Satpathy, A; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Bóna, M; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Azzolini, V; Martinez Vidal, F; Panvini, R S; Banerjee, S W; Bhuyan, B; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R V; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Band, H R; Chen, X; Cheng, B; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Flood, K T; Graham, M T; Hollar, J J; Johnson, J R; Kutter, P E; Li, H; Liu, R; Mellado, B; Mihályi, A; Mohapatra, A K; Pan, Y; Pierini, M; Prepost, R; Tan, P; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2006-01-01

    We present measurements of the branching fraction and time-dependent CP asymmetries in B0 -> JPsi pi0 decays based on (231.8 +/- 2.6) x 10**6 asymmetries Y(4S) -> BBbar decays collected with the BaBar detector at the SLAC PEP-II asymmetric-energy B factory. We obtain a branching fraction B(B0 -> JPsi pi0) = (1.94 +/- 0.22 (stat.) +/- 0.17 (syst.)) x 10**-5. We also measure the CP asymmetry parameters C = -0.21 +/- 0.26 (stat.) +/- 0.06 (syst.) and S = -0.68 +/- 0.30 (stat.) +/- 0.04 (syst.).

  4. Measurements of the Branching Fraction and Time-Dependent CP-Asymmetries of B0->J/Psi pi0 Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, B; Abrams, G S; Adye, T; Ahmed, M; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Albert, J; Aleksan, Roy; Allen, M T; Allison, J; Allmendinger, T; Altenburg, D; Andreassen, R; Andreotti, M; Angelini, C; Anulli, F; Arnaud, N; Aston, D; Azzolini, V; Baak, M; Back, J J; Bakel, N; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Band, H R; Banerjee, Sw; Barate, R; Bard, D J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Barrett, M; Bartoldus, R; Batignani, G; Battaglia, M; Bauer, J M; Beck, T W; Behera, P K; Bellini, F; Benayoun, M; Benelli, G; Berger, N; Bernard, D; Berryhill, J W; Best, D; Bettarini, S; Bettoni, D; Bevan, A J; Bhimji, W; Bhuyan, B; Bianchi, F; Biasini, M; Biesiada, J; Blanc, F; Blaylock, G; Blinov, A E; Blinov, V E; Bloom, P; Bomben, M; Bóna, M; Bondioli, M; Bonneaud, G R; Bosisio, L; Boutigny, D; Bowerman, D A; Boyarski, A M; Boyd, J T; Bozzi, C; Brandenburg, G; Brandt, T; Brau, J E; Breon, A B; Briand, H; Brose, J; Brown, C L; Brown, C M; Brown, D; Brown, D N; Bruinsma, M; Brunet, S; Bucci, F; Buchanan, C; Buchmüller, O L; Bugg, W; Bukin, A D; Bulten, H; Burchat, P R; Burke, J P; Button-Shafer, J; Buzzo, A; Côté, D; Cahn, R N; Calabrese, R; Calcaterra, A; Calderini, G; Campagnari, C; Capra, R; Carpinelli, M; Cartaro, C; Cavallo, N; Cavoto, G; Cenci, R; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Chao, M; Charles, E; Charles, M J; Chauveau, J; Chavez, C A; Chen, A; Chen, C; Chen, E; Chen, J C; Chen, S; Chen, X; Cheng, B; Cheng, C H; Chevalier, N; Cibinetto, G; Clark, P J; Claus, R; Cochran, J; Coleman, J P; Contri, R; Convery, M R; Cormack, C M; Cossutti, F; Cottingham, W N; Couderc, F; Covarelli, R; Cowan, G; Cowan, R; Crawley, H B; Cremaldi, L; Cristinziani, M; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Cunha, A; Curry, S; D'Orazio, A; Dahmes, B; Dallapiccola, C; Danielson, N; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Dauncey, P D; David, P; Davier, M; Davis, C L; Day, C T; De Groot, N; De Nardo, Gallieno; Del Buono, L; Della Ricca, G; Di Lodovico, F; Di Marco, E; Dickopp, M; Dingfelder, J C; Dittongo, S; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Druzhinin, V P; Dubitzky, R S; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W M; Dvoretskii, A; Eckhart, E A; Eckmann, R; Edgar, C L; Edwards, A J; Egede, U; Eichenbaum, A M; Eigen, G; Eisner, A M; Elmer, P; Emery, S; Ernst, J A; Eschenburg, V; Eschrich, I; Eyges, V; Fabozzi, F; Faccini, R; Fan, S; Feltresi, E; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Field, R C; Finocchiaro, G; Flacco, C J; Flack, R L; Flächer, H U; Flood, K T; Ford, K E; Ford, W T; Forster, I J; Forti, F; Fortin, D; Foulkes, S D; Franek, B; Frey, R; Fritsch, M; Fry, J R; Fulsom, B G; Gabathuler, E; Gaidot, A; Gaillard, J R; Galeazzi, F; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Gamet, R; Gan, K K; Ganzhur, S F; Gary, J W; Gaspero, M; Gatto, C; George, K A; Gill, M S; Giorgi, M A; Giraud, P F; Giroux, X; Gladney, L; Glanzman, T; Godang, R; Goetzen, K; Golubev, V B; Gopal, G P; Gowdy, S J; Gradl, W; Graham, M; Grancagnolo, S; Graugès-Pous, E; Graziani, G; Green, M G; Grenier, P; Gritsan, A V; Grosdidier, G; Groysman, Y; Guo, Q H; Hadavand, H K; Hadig, T; Haire, M; Halyo, V; Hamano, K; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Hamon, O; Harrison, P F; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hartfiel, B L; Harton, J L; Hast, C; Hauke, A; Hawkes, C M; Hearty, C; Held, T; Hertzbach, S S; Heusch, C A; Hill, E J; Hirschauer, J F; Hitlin, D G; Höcker, A; Hodgkinson, M C; Hollar, J J; Hong, T M; Honscheid, K; Hopkins, D A; Hrynóva, T; Hufnagel, D; Hulsbergen, W D; Hutchcroft, D E; Igonkina, O; Innes, W R; Izen, J M; Jackson, P D; Jackson, P S; Jacobsen, R G; Jawahery, A; Jayatilleke, S M; Jessop, C P; John, M J J; Johnson, J R; Judd, D; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kagan, H; Karyotakis, Yu; Kass, R; Kelly, M P; Kelsey, M H; Kerth, L T; Khan, A; Kim, H; Kim, P; Kirkby, D; Kitayama, I; Klose, V; Knecht, N S; Koch, H; Kocian, M L; Koeneke, K; Kofler, R; Kolomensky, Yu G; Koptchev, V B; Kovalskyi, D; Kowalewski, R V; Kozanecki, Witold; Kravchenko, E A; Kreisel, A; Krishnamurthy, M; Kroeger, R; Kroseberg, J; Kukartsev, G; Kutter, P E; Kyberd, P; Lacker, H M; Lae, C K; Lafferty, G D; Lanceri, L; Lange, D J; Langenegger, U; Lankford, A J; Latham, T E; Lau, Y P; Lazzaro, A; Le Diberder, F R; Lees, J P; Legendre, M; Leith, D W G S; Lepeltier, V; Leruste, P; Levesque, J A; Lewandowski, B; Li, H; Li, L; Li, X; Libby, J; Lista, L; Liu, R; LoSecco, J M; Lo Vetere, M; Lockman, W S; Lombardo, V; London, G W; Long, O; Lou, X C; Lü, C; Lu, M; Luitz, S; Lund, P; Luppi, E; Lusiani, A; Lüth, V; Lutz, A M; Lynch, G; Lynch, H L; MacFarlane, D B; Macri, M; Mader, W F; Majewski, S A; Malcles, J; Mallik, U; Mancinelli, G; Mandelkern, M A; Marchiori, G; Margoni, M; Marks, J; Marsiske, H; Martínez-Vidal, F; Mattison, T S; Mayer, B; Mazur, M A; Mazzoni, M A; McKenna, J A; McMahon, T R; Meadows, B T; Mellado, B; Menges, W; Messner, R; Meyer, W T; Mihályi, A; Mir, L M; Mohanty, G B; Mohapatra, A K; Mommsen, R K; Monge, M R; Monorchio, D; Moore, T B; Morandin, M; Morgan, S E; Morganti, M; Morganti, S; Morii, M; Morton, G W; Muheim, F; Müller, D R; Naisbit, M T; Narsky, I; Nash, J A; Nauenberg, U; Neal, H; Negrini, M; Neri, N; Nesom, G; Nicholson, H; Nikolich, M B; Nogowski, R; O'Grady, C P; Ocariz, J; Oddone, P J; Ofte, I; Olaiya, E O; Olivas, A; Olsen, J; Onuchin, A P; Orimoto, T J; Otto, S; Oyanguren, A; Ozcan, V E; Paar, H P; Pacetti, S; Palano, A; Palombo, F; Pan, Y; Panetta, J; Panvini, R S; Paoloni, E; Paolucci, P; Pappagallo, M; Parry, R J; Passaggio, S; Patel, P M; Patrignani, C; Patteri, P; Payne, D J; Pelizaeus, M; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Peruzzi, I M; Peters, K; Petersen, B A; Petersen, T C; Petzold, A; Piatenko, T; Piccolo, D; Piccolo, M; Piemontese, L; Pierini, M; Pioppi, M; Piredda, G; Plaszczynski, S; Playfer, S; Poireau, V; Polci, F; Pompili, A; Porter, F C; Posocco, M; Potter, C T; Prell, S; Prepost, R; Pripstein, M; Pulliam, T; Purohit, M V; Qi, N D; Rahatlou, S; Rahimi, A M; Rama, M; Rankin, P; Ratcliff, B N; Raven, G; Reidy, J; Ricciardi, S; Richman, J D; Ritchie, J L; Rizzo, G; Roat, C; Roberts, D A; Robertson, S H; Robutti, E; Rodier, S; Roe, N A; Röthel, W; Ronan, M T; Roney, J M; Rong, G; Roodman, A; Roos, L; Rosenberg, E I; Rotondo, M; Roudeau, P; Rubin, A E; Ruddick, W O; Ryd, A; Sacco, R; Saeed, M A; Safai-Tehrani, F; Saleem, M; Salnikov, A A; Salvatore, F; Samuel, A; Sanders, D A; Santroni, A; Saremi, S; Satpathy, A; Schalk, T; Schenk, S; Schindler, R H; Schofield, K C; Schott, G; Schrenk, S; Schröder, H; Schröder, T; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schumm, B A; Schune, M H; Schwiening, J; Schwierz, R; Schwitters, R F; Sciacca, C; Sciolla, G; Seiden, A; Sekula, S J; Serednyakov, S I; Sharma, V; Shen, B C; Simani, M C; Simi, G; Simonetto, F; Sinev, N B; Skovpen, Yu I; Smith, A J S; Smith, J G; Snoek, H L; Snyder, A; Sobie, R J; Soffer, A; Sokoloff, M D; Solodov, E P; Spaan, B; Spanier, S M; Spitznagel, M; Spradlin, P; Stängle, H; Steinke, M; Stelzer, J; Stocchi, A; Stoker, D P; Stroili, R; Strom, D; Strube, J; Stugu, B; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Summers, D J; Sundermann, J E; Suzuki, K; Swain, S; Tan, P; Taras, P; Taylor, F; Taylor, G P; Telnov, A V; Teodorescu, L; Ter-Antonian, R; Therin, G; Thiebaux, C; Thompson, J M; Tisserand, V; Toki, W H; Torrence, E; Tosi, S; Touramanis, C; Ulmer, K A; Uwer, U; Vasileiadis, G; Vasseur, G; Vavra, J; Vazquez, W P; Verderi, M; Verkerke, W; Viaud, B; Vitale, L; Voci, C; Voena, C; Wagner, G; Wagner, S R; Wagoner, D E; Waldi, R; Walsh, J; Wang, K; Wang, P; Wappler, F R; Watson, A T; Weaver, M; Weidemann, A W; Weinstein, A J R; Wenzel, W A; Wilden, L; Williams, D C; Williams, J C; Willocq, S; Wilson, F F; Wilson, J R; Wilson, M G; Wilson, R J; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Won, E; Wong, Q K; Wormser, G; Wright, D H; Wright, D M; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Xie, Y; Yamamoto, R K; Yarritu, A K; Ye, S; Yéche, C; Yi, J; Yi, K; Young, C C; Yu, Z; Yumiceva, F X; Yushkov, A N; Zain, S B; Zallo, A; Zeng, Q; Zghiche, A; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, H W; Zhu, Y S; Zito, M; De Sangro, R; Del Re, D; La Vaissière, C de; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H

    2005-01-01

    We present measurements of the branching fraction and time-dependent CP asymmetries in B0->J/Psi pi0 decays based on (231.8 +/- 2.6)*10^6 Upsilon(4S) -> BBbar decays collected with the BaBar detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B factory at SLAC during the years 1999-2004. We obtain a branching fraction B(B0->J/Psi pi0) = (1.94 +/- 0.22 (stat) +/- 0.17 (syst))*10^-5. We also measure the CP asymmetry parameters C = -0.21 +/- 0.26 (stat) +/- 0.09 (syst) and S = -0.68 +/- 0.30 (stat) +/- 0.04 (syst). All results presented in this paper are preliminary.

  5. Measurements of the Branching Fraction and Time-Dependent CP Asymmetries of B0 to J/Psi pi0 Decays.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, B.

    2005-08-04

    The authors present measurements of the branching fraction and time-dependent CP asymmetries in B{sup 0} {yields} J/{psi} {pi}{sup 0} decays based on (231.8 {+-} 2.6) x 10{sup 6} {Upsilon}(4S) {yields} B{bar B} decays collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B factory at SLAC during the years 1999-2004. We obtain a branching fraction {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} J/{psi}{pi}{sup 0}) = (1.94 {+-} 0.22 (stat) {+-} 0.17 (syst)) x 10{sup -5}. They also measure the CP asymmetry parameters C = -0.21 {+-} 0.26 (stat) {+-} 0.09 (syst) and S = -0.68 {+-} 0.30 (stat) {+-} 0.04 (syst). All results presented in this paper are preliminary.

  6. Measurements of the Branching Fraction and Time-Dependent CP Asymmetries of B0 to J/Psi pi0 Decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, K

    2006-03-10

    We present measurements of the branching fraction and time-dependent CP asymmetries in B{sup 0} {yields} J/{psi}{pi}{sup 0} decays based on (231.8 {+-} 2.6) x 10{sup 6} {Upsilon}(4S) {yields} B{bar B} decays collected with the BABAR detector at the SLAC PEP-II asymmetric-energy B factory. We obtain a branching fraction {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} J/{psi}{pi}{sup 0}) = (1.94 {+-} 0.22 (stat) {+-} 0.17 (syst)) x 10{sup -5}. We also measure the CP asymmetry parameters C = -0.21 {+-} 0.26 (stat) {+-} 0.06 (syst) and S = -0.68 {+-} 0.30 (stat) {+-} 0.04 (syst).

  7. Bidirectional processing of pri-miRNAs with branched terminal loops by Arabidopsis Dicer-like1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongliang; Zhou, Yuyi; Castillo-González, Claudia; Lu, Amber; Ge, Chunxiao; Zhao, Ying-Tao; Duan, Liusheng; Li, Zhaohu; Axtell, Michael J; Wang, Xiu-Jie; Zhang, Xiuren

    2013-09-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) originate from primary transcripts (pri-miRNAs) with characteristic stem-loop structures, and their accurate processing is required for the production of functional miRNAs. Here, using the pri-miR-166 family in Arabidopsis thaliana as a paradigm, we report the crucial role of pri-miRNA terminal loops in miRNA biogenesis. We found that multibranched terminal loops in pri-miR-166s substantially suppress miR-166 expression in vivo. Unlike canonical processing of pri-miRNAs, terminal loop-branched pri-miRNAs can be processed by Dicer-like 1 (DCL1) complexes bidirectionally from base to loop and from loop to base, resulting in productive and abortive processing of miRNAs, respectively. In both cases, DCL1 complexes canonically cut pri-miRNAs at a distance of 16-17 bp from a reference single-stranded loop region. DCL1 also adjusts processing sites toward an internal loop through its helicase domain. These results provide new insight into the poorly understood processing mechanism of pri-miRNAs with complex secondary structures.

  8. Development of Processable PMR-Type Polymides with Star-Branched Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Baochau N.; Eby, R. K.; Meador, Michael A.

    1999-01-01

    In the last two decades, high temperature polyimide matrix composites have found broad applications in aerospace structural components, due to their high specific modulus and high specific strength. As matrix resins, aromatic polyimides exhibit exceptional thermal stability and mechanical properties. However, their rodlike structures often result in poor solubility in most common organic solvents, as well as high melt temperature and melt viscosity, making them difficult to process. To overcome this difficulty, flexible linkages including O, SO2 or CH2 non coplanar biphenyl moieties, bulky lateral substituents, and crankshaft structures are often incorporated into the polymer backbones. Addition-curing of low molecular weight polyimides (resins) is another approach to improve processability. One of the most successfully developed materials has been PMR-15 (Polymerization of Monomer Reactants, molecular weight of 1500 g/mol), because of its good combination of thermal and mechanical properties and ease of processability. However, due to the high melt viscosity of PMR-type resins, use of more economical processing methods, such as resin transfer molding (RTM), is not possible. Recent research has focused on the incorporation of trifunctional monomers into addition-curing polyimides in an attempt to improve the processability of these polymers. The objective of this research is to use an aromatic triamine, 1,3,5 tris (4-aminophenoxy) benzene, to prepare new resin systems with starbranched structures. The glass transition temperatures (Tg's) and thermal oxidative stability TOS) of these polymers are compared to their linear counterparts and PMR-15.

  9. High host density favors greater virulence: a model of parasite-host dynamics based on multi-type branching processes

    CERN Document Server

    Borovkov, Konstantin; Rice, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    We use a multitype continuous time Markov branching process model to describe the dynamics of the spread of parasites of two types that can mutate into each other in a common host population. Instead of using a single virulence characteristic which is typical of most mathematical models for infectious diseases, our model uses a combination of two characteristics: lethality and transmissibility. This makes the model capable of reproducing the empirically observed fact that the increase in the host density can lead to the prevalence of the more virulent pathogen type. We provide some numerical illustrations and discuss the effects of the size of the enclosure containing the host population on the encounter rate in our model that plays the key role in determining what pathogen type will eventually prevail. We also present a multistage extension of the model to situations where there are several populations and parasites can be transmitted from one of them to another.

  10. PROCESS PERFORMANCE LASER CUTTING THROUGH PRACTICE DRY BRANCH IN METAL-MECHANIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deivis Zismann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The quest for optimization and quality of products has caused many organizations to eliminate the inefficiencies of their production processes, to reduce costs and increase profitability so that they can ensure their survival in the current economic scenario. Thus, it is necessary to use methods and techniques that help in getting better results. Minimize waste and promote overall product quality has become one of the main goals of the organizations. This study is Bibliographically the concept of Lean Manufacturing (Lean Manufacturing, which focused on eliminating waste, served as the basis for this study, which through an action - research aimed to applying lean practices for performance improvement the laser cutting process for an industry of the metalmechanic sector. The results show that the identification of the main sources of waste and the constant search for its elimination brought productivity advantages for the company, by reducing the processes of machines and minimize production costs time. With this, the company started to produce more, and improve their processes in the proper use of available resources.

  11. A framework for analysis of abortive colony size distributions using a model of branching processes in irradiated normal human fibroblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Sakashita

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clonogenicity gives important information about the cellular reproductive potential following ionizing irradiation, but an abortive colony that fails to continue to grow remains poorly characterized. It was recently reported that the fraction of abortive colonies increases with increasing dose. Thus, we set out to investigate the production kinetics of abortive colonies using a model of branching processes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We firstly plotted the experimentally determined colony size distribution of abortive colonies in irradiated normal human fibroblasts, and found the linear relationship on the log-linear or log-log plot. By applying the simple model of branching processes to the linear relationship, we found the persistent reproductive cell death (RCD over several generations following irradiation. To verify the estimated probability of RCD, abortive colony size distribution (≤ 15 cells and the surviving fraction were simulated by the Monte Carlo computational approach for colony expansion. Parameters estimated from the log-log fit demonstrated the good performance in both simulations than those from the log-linear fit. Radiation-induced RCD, i.e. excess probability, lasted over 16 generations and mainly consisted of two components in the early (<3 generations and late phases. Intriguingly, the survival curve was sensitive to the excess probability over 5 generations, whereas abortive colony size distribution was robust against it. These results suggest that, whereas short-term RCD is critical to the abortive colony size distribution, long-lasting RCD is important for the dose response of the surviving fraction. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our present model provides a single framework for understanding the behavior of primary cell colonies in culture following irradiation.

  12. A branching process model for the analysis of abortive colony size distributions in carbon ion-irradiated normal human fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakashita, Tetsuya; Hamada, Nobuyuki; Kawaguchi, Isao; Hara, Takamitsu; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Saito, Kimiaki

    2014-05-01

    A single cell can form a colony, and ionizing irradiation has long been known to reduce such a cellular clonogenic potential. Analysis of abortive colonies unable to continue to grow should provide important information on the reproductive cell death (RCD) following irradiation. Our previous analysis with a branching process model showed that the RCD in normal human fibroblasts can persist over 16 generations following irradiation with low linear energy transfer (LET) γ-rays. Here we further set out to evaluate the RCD persistency in abortive colonies arising from normal human fibroblasts exposed to high-LET carbon ions (18.3 MeV/u, 108 keV/µm). We found that the abortive colony size distribution determined by biological experiments follows a linear relationship on the log-log plot, and that the Monte Carlo simulation using the RCD probability estimated from such a linear relationship well simulates the experimentally determined surviving fraction and the relative biological effectiveness (RBE). We identified the short-term phase and long-term phase for the persistent RCD following carbon-ion irradiation, which were similar to those previously identified following γ-irradiation. Taken together, our results suggest that subsequent secondary or tertiary colony formation would be invaluable for understanding the long-lasting RCD. All together, our framework for analysis with a branching process model and a colony formation assay is applicable to determination of cellular responses to low- and high-LET radiation, and suggests that the long-lasting RCD is a pivotal determinant of the surviving fraction and the RBE.

  13. Identifying influential factors of business process performance using dependency analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzstein, Branimir; Leitner, Philipp; Rosenberg, Florian; Dustdar, Schahram; Leymann, Frank

    2011-02-01

    We present a comprehensive framework for identifying influential factors of business process performance. In particular, our approach combines monitoring of process events and Quality of Service (QoS) measurements with dependency analysis to effectively identify influential factors. The framework uses data mining techniques to construct tree structures to represent dependencies of a key performance indicator (KPI) on process and QoS metrics. These dependency trees allow business analysts to determine how process KPIs depend on lower-level process metrics and QoS characteristics of the IT infrastructure. The structure of the dependencies enables a drill-down analysis of single factors of influence to gain a deeper knowledge why certain KPI targets are not met.

  14. Neutron Capture Cross Sections of the s-Process Branching Points 147Pm, 171Tm, and 204Tl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Carlos; Domingo-Pardo, Cesar; Lerendegui-Marco, Jorge; Casanovas, Adria; Cortes-Giraldo, Miguel A.; Dressler, Rugard; Halfon, Shlomi; Heinitz, Stephan; Kivel, Niko; Köster, Ulli; Paul, Michael; Quesada-Molina, Jose Manuel; Schumann, Dorothea; Tarifeño-Saldivia, Ariel; Tessler, Moshe; Weissman, Leo

    The neutron capture cross section of several key unstable isotopes acting as branching points in the s-process are crucial for stellar nucleosynthesis studies, but they are very challenging to measure due to the difficult production of sufficient sample material, the high activity of the resulting samples, and the actual (n, γ) measurement, for which high neutron fluxes and effective background rejection capabilities are required. As part of a new program to measure some of these important branching points, radioactive targets of 147Pm, 171Tm, and 204Tl have been produced by irradiation of stable isotopes (146Nd, 170Er, and 203Tl) at the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) high flux reactor. After breeding in the reactor and a certain cooling period, the resulting mixed 204Tl/203Tl sample was used directly while 147Pm and 171Tm were radiochemically separated in non-carrier-added quality at the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), then prepared as targets. A set of theses samples has been used for time-of-flight measurements at the CERN n_TOF facility using the 19 and 185 m beam lines, during 2014 and 2015. The capture cascades were detected with a set of four C6D6 scintillators, allowing to observe the associated neutron capture resonances. The results presented in this work are the first ever determination of the resonance capture cross sections of 147Pm, 171Tm, and 204Tl. Activation experiments on the same 147Pm and 171Tm targets with a high-intensity quasi-Maxwellian flux of neutrons have been performed using the SARAF accelerator and the Liquid-Lithium Target (LiLiT) in order to extract the corresponding Maxwellian Average Cross Section (MACS). The experimental setups are here described together with the first, preliminary results of the n_TOF measurement.

  15. Purification, molecular cloning, and expression of 2-hydroxyphytanoyl- CoA lyase, a peroxisomal thiamine pyrophosphate-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the carbon-carbon bond cleavage during à-oxidation of 3- methyl-branched fatty acids

    CERN Document Server

    Foulon, V; Croes, K; Waelkens, E

    1999-01-01

    Purification, molecular cloning, and expression of 2-hydroxyphytanoyl- CoA lyase, a peroxisomal thiamine pyrophosphate-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the carbon-carbon bond cleavage during à-oxidation of 3- methyl-branched fatty acids

  16. Time Dependent CP Asymmetries and Branching RatioMeasurements in Charmless Three Body B Decays at BABAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Marco, Emanuele [Sapienza Univ. of Rome (Italy)

    2007-05-01

    In this work we presented measurements of CP violation and decay rates of B decays in final states not involving a charm quark in the final state. In particular, the time-dependent CP asymmetries of decays which proceed through b → s elementary transition is a particularly sensitive probe of physics beyond the Standard Model. In fact, even if the precise measurements of CP conserving and CP violating processes show the success of the CKM picture of the flavour physics, the sector of b → s transitions is still not strongly constrained and leaves room for new physics contributions. In particular, we considered the decays which have the cleanest theoretical prediction within the Standard Model: B0 → ΦK0 and B0 → K$0\\atop{s}$K$0\\atop{s}$K$0\\atop{s}$ β$eff\\atop{SM}$ = 0.379. We examined the former with a completely new approach with respect to the past: the study of CP violation in the whole K+K-K0phase space through a time-dependent Dalitz plot analysis. With this approach, we simultaneously measured the CP-violating asymmetries of the ΦKJ0, f0(980)K0 resonant and K+K-K0 non-resonant contributions, avoiding one of the largest uncertainties which affected the previous measurements of B0 → ΦK0. We find β eff(B0 → ΦK0) = 0.06 ± 0.16 ± 0.05, which is lower than the Standard Model expectation, but it is consistent with it within two standard deviations. Moreover, only a recently developed experimental technique, which allows the determination of the position of B decay vertex when no charged tracks are originating from it, has made possible the measurement of the time-dependent CP asymmetry in B0 → K$0\\atop{s}$K$0\\atop{s}$K$0\\atop{s}$ decays. The mixing-induced CP parameter S in the Standard Model should be equal to sin 2β parameter, which is

  17. Polynomial Time Algorithms for Branching Markov Decision Processes and Probabilistic Min(Max) Polynomial Bellman Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Etessami, Kousha; Yannakakis, Mihalis

    2012-01-01

    We show that one can approximate the least fixed point solution for a multivariate system of monotone probabilistic max(min) polynomial equations, referred to as maxPPSs (and minPPSs, respectively), in time polynomial in both the encoding size of the system of equations and in log(1/epsilon), where epsilon > 0 is the desired additive error bound of the solution. (The model of computation is the standard Turing machine model.) We establish this result using a generalization of Newton's method which applies to maxPPSs and minPPSs, even though the underlying functions are only piecewise-differentiable. This generalizes our recent work which provided a P-time algorithm for purely probabilistic PPSs. These equations form the Bellman optimality equations for several important classes of infinite-state Markov Decision Processes (MDPs). Thus, as a corollary, we obtain the first polynomial time algorithms for computing to within arbitrary desired precision the optimal value vector for several classes of infinite-state...

  18. On the metallicity dependence of crystalline silicates in oxygen-rich asymptotic giant branch stars and red supergiants

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, O C; Sargent, B A; McDonald, I; Gielen, C; Woods, Paul M; Sloan, G C; Boyer, M L; Zijlstra, A A; Clayton, G C; Kraemer, K E; Srinivasan, S; Ruffle, P M E

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the occurrence of crystalline silicates in oxygen-rich evolved stars across a range of metallicities and mass-loss rates. It has been suggested that the crystalline silicate feature strength increases with increasing mass-loss rate, implying a correlation between lattice structure and wind density. To test this, we analyse Spitzer IRS and Infrared Space Observatory SWS spectra of 217 oxygen-rich asymptotic giant branch stars and 98 red supergiants in the Milky Way, the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds and Galactic globular clusters. These encompass a range of spectral morphologies from the spectrally-rich which exhibit a wealth of crystalline and amorphous silicate features to 'naked' (dust-free) stars. We combine spectroscopic and photometric observations with the GRAMS grid of radiative transfer models to derive (dust) mass-loss rates and temperature. We then measure the strength of the crystalline silicate bands at 23, 28 and 33 microns. We detect crystalline silicates in stars with dust ma...

  19. Processing multiple non-adjacent dependencies: evidence from sequence learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Meinou H; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Geukes, Sebastian; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Christiansen, Morten H

    2012-07-19

    Processing non-adjacent dependencies is considered to be one of the hallmarks of human language. Assuming that sequence-learning tasks provide a useful way to tap natural-language-processing mechanisms, we cross-modally combined serial reaction time and artificial-grammar learning paradigms to investigate the processing of multiple nested (A(1)A(2)A(3)B(3)B(2)B(1)) and crossed dependencies (A(1)A(2)A(3)B(1)B(2)B(3)), containing either three or two dependencies. Both reaction times and prediction errors highlighted problems with processing the middle dependency in nested structures (A(1)A(2)A(3)B(3)_B(1)), reminiscent of the 'missing-verb effect' observed in English and French, but not with crossed structures (A(1)A(2)A(3)B(1)_B(3)). Prior linguistic experience did not play a major role: native speakers of German and Dutch-which permit nested and crossed dependencies, respectively-showed a similar pattern of results for sequences with three dependencies. As for sequences with two dependencies, reaction times and prediction errors were similar for both nested and crossed dependencies. The results suggest that constraints on the processing of multiple non-adjacent dependencies are determined by the specific ordering of the non-adjacent dependencies (i.e. nested or crossed), as well as the number of non-adjacent dependencies to be resolved (i.e. two or three). Furthermore, these constraints may not be specific to language but instead derive from limitations on structured sequence learning.

  20. Modeling the Dependency Structure of Integrated Intensity Processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Ki Ma

    Full Text Available This paper studies an important issue of dependence structure. To model this structure, the intensities within the Cox processes are driven by dependent shot noise processes, where jumps occur simultaneously and their sizes are correlated. The joint survival probability of the integrated intensities is explicitly obtained from the copula with exponential marginal distributions. Subsequently, this result can provide a very useful guide for credit risk management.

  1. Expectation-maximization algorithm for determining natural selection of Y-linked genes through two-sex branching processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, M; Gutiérrez, C; Martínez, R

    2012-09-01

    A two-dimensional bisexual branching process has recently been presented for the analysis of the generation-to-generation evolution of the number of carriers of a Y-linked gene. In this model, preference of females for males with a specific genetic characteristic is assumed to be determined by an allele of the gene. It has been shown that the behavior of this kind of Y-linked gene is strongly related to the reproduction law of each genotype. In practice, the corresponding offspring distributions are usually unknown, and it is necessary to develop their estimation theory in order to determine the natural selection of the gene. Here we deal with the estimation problem for the offspring distribution of each genotype of a Y-linked gene when the only observable data are each generation's total numbers of males of each genotype and of females. We set out the problem in a non parametric framework and obtain the maximum likelihood estimators of the offspring distributions using an expectation-maximization algorithm. From these estimators, we also derive the estimators for the reproduction mean of each genotype and forecast the distribution of the future population sizes. Finally, we check the accuracy of the algorithm by means of a simulation study.

  2. Theoretical and experimental analysis of dynamic processes of pipe branch for supply water to the Pelton turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Miomir Lj.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the analysis of pipe branch A6 to feed the Hydropower Plant ”Perućica” with integrated action Pelton turbines. The analysis was conducted experimentally (tensometric and numerically. The basis of the experimental research is the numerical finite element analysis of pipe branch A6 in pipeline C3. Pipe branch research was conducted in order to set the experiment and to determine extreme stress states. The analysis was used to perform the determination of the stress state of a geometrically complex assembly. This was done in detail as it had never been done before, even in the design phase. The actual states of the body pipe branch were established, along with the possible occurrence of water hammer accompanied by the appearance of hydraulic oscillation. This provides better energetic efficiency of the turbine devices. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR35049 and br. TR 33040

  3. Ultrasound attenuation dependence on air compression or expansion processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakevicius, L.; Demcenko, A.; Mardosaite, R.

    2010-01-01

    In this work variation of ultrasonic attenuation coefficient is analyzed in terms of air compression or expansion processes. In closed spaces changing air volume, the ultrasound attenuation coefficient depends on thermodynamic processes which occur during the air volume change. Two limiting cases ar

  4. Indication on the process-dependence of the Sivers effect

    CERN Document Server

    Gamberg, Leonard; Prokudin, Alexei

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the spin asymmetry for single inclusive jet production in proton-proton collisions collected by AnDY experiment and the Sivers asymmetry data from semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering experiments. In particular, we consider the role color gauge invariance plays in determining the process-dependence of the Sivers effect. We find that after carefully taking into account the initial-state and final-state interactions between the active parton and the remnant of the polarized hadron, the calculated jet spin asymmetry based on the Sivers functions extracted from HERMES and COMPASS experiments is consistent with the AnDY experimental data. This provides a first indication for the process-dependence of the Sivers effect in different processes. We also make predictions for both direct photon and Drell-Yan spin asymmetry, to further test the process-dependence of the Sivers effect in future experiments.

  5. Indication on the process dependence of the Sivers effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamberg, Leonard; Kang, Zhong-Bo; Prokudin, Alexei

    2013-06-01

    We analyze the spin asymmetry for single inclusive jet production in proton-proton collisions collected by the AnDY experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and the Sivers asymmetry data from semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering experiments. In particular, we consider the role color gauge invariance plays in determining the process dependence of the Sivers effect. We find that after carefully taking into account the initial-state and final-state interactions between the active parton and the remnant of the polarized hadron, the calculated jet spin asymmetry based on the Sivers functions extracted from HERMES and COMPASS experiments is consistent with the AnDY experimental data. This provides a first indication for the process dependence of the Sivers effect in these processes. We also make predictions for both direct photon and Drell-Yan spin asymmetry, to further test the process dependence of the Sivers effect in future experiments.

  6. Autism and Folate-dependent One-carbon Metabolism: Serendipity and Critical Branch-point Decisions in Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, S Jill

    2013-11-01

    Folate-dependent one-carbon metabolism is present in every cell of the body. It represents a central systems biology hub that reverberates into countless other pathways with more specialized roles in specialized cell types throughout the body. I have spent 25 years of research on this core biochemical pathway with several unanticipated iterations that led me from Down syndrome to congenital heart defects to leukemia and finally to autism about 12 years ago. Figure 1 provides an overview of the three interdependent pathways involved in folate-dependent methionine "transmethylation" and "transsulfuration." Methionine is necessary for the synthesis of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), the major methyl donor for all cellular methylation reactions. It is also the major precursor for cysteine, the rate-limiting amino acid for glutathione synthesis linking transmethylation and transsulfuration pathways. Methionine levels can be negatively affected by genetic and environmental factors that reduce folate availability and/or oxidative inhibition of the methionine synthase enzyme. Because these three metabolic pathways are mutually interdependent, genetic or environmental perturbation of folate or methionine metabolism will indirectly impact glutathione synthesis, and conversely, alterations in glutathione synthesis will alter flux through pathways of folate and methionine metabolism. This interdependency translates into broader impact on essential cellular functions.

  7. Ductal branch-oriented pancreatic resection for an intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm in the uncinate process that caused recurrent acute pancreatitis: a case report of successful treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsume, Toshiyuki; Maruyama, Takashi; Kobayashi, Akitoshi; Shimizu, Shinichiro; Tanaka, Hajime; Matsuzaki, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Akinari; Ohta, Takumi; Sato, Yayoi; Yamamoto, Yuji; Aikawa, Mizuho; Otsuka, Ryota; Yanagihara, Akitoshi

    2013-12-01

    Acute pancreatitis reportedly occurs in about 15 % of cases of branch duct (BD)-intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs), with two-thirds of BD-IPMNs being located in the head or uncinate process of the pancreas. However, the surgical indications and optimal treatment methods for BD-IPMNs have not been established. A 59-year-old Japanese male with epigastralgia was admitted to our hospital. A multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) scan disclosed grade I acute pancreatitis. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography disclosed a 1.5-cm BD-IPMN in the uncinate process. Two months after discharge, the epigastralgia recurred, and MDCT again revealed grade I pancreatitis. Due to the repeated episodes of pancreatitis, we performed ductal branch-oriented pancreatic resection. To detect the inferior branch of the Wirsung duct and avoid the development of a pancreatic fistula, we injected indigo carmine into the tumor which confirmed ligation of the inferior branch. Histopathologically, the tumor proved to be an adenoma. The postoperative course was uneventful in both the short- and long-term follow-up and, to date, there has been no recurrence of pancreatitis, or diabetes mellitus during the 6 years since pancreatectomy. This procedure is one of the methods that can be used for the successful resection of a BD-IPMN in the uncinate process that caused recurrent acute pancreatitis.

  8. Branch formation during organ development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjorevski, Nikolce; Nelson, Celeste M.

    2010-01-01

    Invertebrates and vertebrates use branching morphogenesis to build epithelial trees to maximize the surface area of organs within a given volume. Several molecular regulators of branching have recently been discovered, a number of which are conserved across different organs and species. Signals that control branching at the cellular and tissue levels are also starting to emerge, and are rapidly unveiling the physical nature of branch development. Here we discuss the molecular, cellular and physical processes that govern branch formation and highlight the major outstanding questions in the field. PMID:20890968

  9. Intertime jump statistics of state-dependent Poisson processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Edoardo; Porporato, Amilcare

    2007-01-01

    A method to obtain the probability distribution of the interarrival times of jump occurrences in systems driven by state-dependent Poisson noise is proposed. Such a method uses the survivor function obtained by a modified version of the master equation associated to the stochastic process under analysis. A model for the timing of human activities shows the capability of state-dependent Poisson noise to generate power-law distributions. The application of the method to a model for neuron dynamics and to a hydrological model accounting for land-atmosphere interaction elucidates the origin of characteristic recurrence intervals and possible persistence in state-dependent Poisson models.

  10. Intertime jump statistics of state-dependent Poisson processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Edoardo; Porporato, Amilcare

    2007-01-01

    A method to obtain the probability distribution of the interarrival times of jump occurrences in systems driven by state-dependent Poisson noise is proposed. Such a method uses the survivor function obtained by a modified version of the master equation associated to the stochastic process under analysis. A model for the timing of human activities shows the capability of state-dependent Poisson noise to generate power-law distributions. The application of the method to a model for neuron dynamics and to a hydrological model accounting for land-atmosphere interaction elucidates the origin of characteristic recurrence intervals and possible persistence in state-dependent Poisson models.

  11. Plexin A3 and turnout regulate motor axonal branch morphogenesis in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Sainath

    Full Text Available During embryogenesis motor axons navigate to their target muscles, where individual motor axons develop complex branch morphologies. The mechanisms that control axonal branching morphogenesis have been studied intensively, yet it still remains unclear when branches begin to form or how branch locations are determined. Live cell imaging of individual zebrafish motor axons reveals that the first axonal branches are generated at the ventral extent of the myotome via bifurcation of the growth cone. Subsequent branches are generated by collateral branching restricted to their synaptic target field along the distal portion of the axon. This precisely timed and spatially restricted branching process is disrupted in turnout mutants we identified in a forward genetic screen. Molecular genetic mapping positioned the turnout mutation within a 300 kb region encompassing eight annotated genes, however sequence analysis of all eight open reading frames failed to unambiguously identify the turnout mutation. Chimeric analysis and single cell labeling reveal that turnout function is required cell non-autonomously for intraspinal motor axon guidance and peripheral branch formation. turnout mutant motor axons form the first branch on time via growth cone bifurcation, but unlike wild-type they form collateral branches precociously, when the growth cone is still navigating towards the ventral myotome. These precocious collateral branches emerge along the proximal region of the axon shaft typically devoid of branches, and they develop into stable, permanent branches. Furthermore, we find that null mutants of the guidance receptor plexin A3 display identical motor axon branching defects, and time lapse analysis reveals that precocious branch formation in turnout and plexin A3 mutants is due to increased stability of otherwise short-lived axonal protrusions. Thus, plexin A3 dependent intrinsic and turnout dependent extrinsic mechanisms suppress collateral branch

  12. On the necessity of composition-dependent low-temperature opacity in models of metal-poor asymptotic giant branch stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constantino, Thomas; Campbell, Simon; Lattanzio, John [Monash Centre for Astrophysics, School of Mathematical Sciences, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Gil-Pons, Pilar, E-mail: thomas.constantino@monash.edu [Department of Applied Physics, Polytechnic University of Catalonia, 08860 Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-03-20

    The vital importance of composition-dependent low-temperature opacity in low-mass (M ≤ 3 M {sub ☉}) asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stellar models of metallicity Z ≥ 0.001 has recently been demonstrated. Its significance to more metal-poor, intermediate-mass (M ≥ 2.5 M {sub ☉}) models has yet to be investigated. We show that its inclusion in lower-metallicity models ([Fe/H] ≤–2) is essential and that there exists no threshold metallicity below which composition-dependent molecular opacity may be neglected. We find it to be crucial in all intermediate-mass models investigated ([Fe/H] ≤–2 and 2.5 ≤ M/M {sub ☉} ≤ 5), because of the evolution of the surface chemistry, including the orders of magnitude increase in the abundance of molecule-forming species. Its effect on these models mirrors that previously reported for higher-metallicity models—increase in radius, decrease in T {sub eff}, faster mass loss, shorter thermally pulsing AGB lifetime, reduced enrichment in third dredge-up products (by a factor of 3-10), and an increase in the mass limit for hot bottom burning. We show that the evolution of low-metallicity models with composition-dependent low-temperature opacity is relatively independent of initial metal abundance because its contribution to the opacity is far outweighed by changes resulting from dredge-up. Our results imply a significant reduction in the expected number of nitrogen-enhanced metal-poor stars, which may help explain their observed paucity. We note that these findings are partially a product of the macrophysics adopted in our models, in particular, the Vassiliadis and Wood mass loss rate which is strongly dependent on radius.

  13. STRONG APPROXIMATION FOR MOVING AVERAGE PROCESSES UNDER DEPENDENCE ASSUMPTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Let {Xt, t ≥ 1} be a moving average process defined by Xt = ∞Σk=0akξt-k,where {ak,k ≥ 0} is a sequence of real numbers and {ξt,-∞< t <∞} is a doubly infinite sequence of strictly stationary dependent random variables. Under the conditions of {ak, k ≥ 0} which entail that {Xt, t ≥ 1} is either a long memory process or a linear process, the strong approximation of {Xt, t ≥ 1} to a Gaussian process is studied. Finally,the results are applied to obtain the strong approximation of a long memory process to a fractional Brownian motion and the laws of the iterated logarithm for moving average processes.

  14. Model Penjadwalan Batch Multi Item dengan Dependent Processing Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukoyo Sukoyo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates a development of single machine batch scheduling for multi items with dependent processing time. The batch scheduling problem is to determine simultaneously number of batch (N, which item and its size allocated for each batch, and processing sequences of resulting batches. We use total actual flow time as the objective of schedule performance. The multi item batch scheduling problem could be formulated into a biner-integer nonlinear programming model because the number of batch should be in integer value, the allocation of items to resulting batch need binary values, and also there are some non-linearity on objective function and constraint due to the dependent processing time. By applying relaxation on the decision variable of number of batch (N as parameter, a heuristic procedure could be applied to find solution of the single machine batch scheduling problem for multi items.

  15. Process-dependent residual trapping of CO2 in sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Lin; Benson, Sally M.

    2014-04-01

    This paper demonstrates that the nature and extent of residual CO2 trapping depend on the process by which the CO2 phase is introduced into the rock. We compare residual trapping of CO2 in Berea Sandstone by imbibing water into a core containing either exsolved CO2 or CO2 introduced by drainage. X-ray computed tomography measurements are used to map the spatial distribution of CO2 preimbibition and postimbibition. Unlike during drainage where the CO2 distribution is strongly influenced by the heterogeneity of the rock, the distribution of exsolved CO2 is comparatively uniform. Postimbibition, the CO2 distribution retained the essential features for both the exsolved and drainage cases, but twice as much residual trapping is observed for exsolved CO2 even with similar preimbibition gas saturations. Residually trapped exsolved gas also disproportionately reduced water relative permeability. Development of process-dependent parameterization will help better manage subsurface flow processes and unlock benefits from gas exsolution.

  16. Common Hepatic Branch of Vagus Nerve-Dependent Expression of Immediate Early Genes in the Mouse Brain by Intraportal L-Arginine: Comparison with Cholecystokinin-8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Yamada

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Information from the peripheral organs is thought to be transmitted to the brain by humoral factors and neurons such as afferent vagal or spinal nerves. The common hepatic branch of the vagus (CHBV is one of the main vagus nerve branches, and consists of heterogeneous neuronal fibers that innervate multiple peripheral organs such as the bile duct, portal vein, paraganglia, and gastroduodenal tract. Although, previous studies suggested that the CHBV has a pivotal role in transmitting information on the status of the liver to the brain, the details of its central projections remain unknown. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the brain regions activated by the CHBV. For this purpose, we injected L-arginine or anorexia-associated peptide cholecystokinin-8 (CCK, which are known to increase CHBV electrical activity, into the portal vein of transgenic Arc-dVenus mice expressing the fluorescent protein Venus under control of the activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc promotor. The brain slices were prepared from these mice and the number of Venus positive cells in the slices was counted. After that, c-Fos expression in these slices was analyzed by immunohistochemistry using the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method. Intraportal administration of L-arginine increased the number of Venus positive or c-Fos positive cells in the insular cortex. This action of L-arginine was not observed in CHBV-vagotomized Arc-dVenus mice. In contrast, intraportal administration of CCK did not increase the number of c-Fos positive or Venus positive cells in the insular cortex. Intraportal CCK induced c-Fos expression in the dorsomedial hypothalamus, while intraportal L-arginine did not. This action of CCK was abolished by CHBV vagotomy. Intraportal L-arginine reduced, while intraportal CCK increased, the number of c-Fos positive cells in the nucleus tractus solitarii in a CHBV-dependent manner. The present results suggest that the CHBV

  17. Structural basis for λN-dependent processive transcription antitermination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Nelly; Krupp, Ferdinand; Anedchenko, Ekaterina; Santos, Karine F; Dybkov, Olexandr; Huang, Yong-Heng; Lee, Chung-Tien; Loll, Bernhard; Behrmann, Elmar; Bürger, Jörg; Mielke, Thorsten; Loerke, Justus; Urlaub, Henning; Spahn, Christian M T; Weber, Gert; Wahl, Markus C

    2017-04-28

    λN-mediated processive antitermination constitutes a paradigmatic transcription regulatory event, during which phage protein λN, host factors NusA, NusB, NusE and NusG, and an RNA nut site render elongating RNA polymerase termination-resistant. The structural basis of the process has so far remained elusive. Here we describe a crystal structure of a λN-NusA-NusB-NusE-nut site complex and an electron cryo-microscopic structure of a complete transcription antitermination complex, comprising RNA polymerase, DNA, nut site RNA, all Nus factors and λN, validated by crosslinking/mass spectrometry. Due to intrinsic disorder, λN can act as a multiprotein/RNA interaction hub, which, together with nut site RNA, arranges NusA, NusB and NusE into a triangular complex. This complex docks via the NusA N-terminal domain and the λN C-terminus next to the RNA exit channel on RNA polymerase. Based on the structures, comparative crosslinking analyses and structure-guided mutagenesis, we hypothesize that λN mounts a multipronged strategy to reprogram the transcriptional machinery, which may include (1) the λN C terminus clamping the RNA exit channel, thus stabilizing the DNA:RNA hybrid; (2) repositioning of NusA and RNAP elements, thus redirecting nascent RNA and sequestering the upstream branch of a terminator hairpin; and (3) hindering RNA engagement of termination factor ρ and/or obstructing ρ translocation on the transcript.

  18. Sustainable Engineering and Improved Recycling of PET for High-Value Applications: Transforming Linear PET to Lightly Branched PET with a Novel, Scalable Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Cynthia; Torkelson, John

    2009-03-01

    A major challenge for the most effective recycling of poly(ethylene terephthalate) concerns the fact that initial melt processing of PET into a product leads to substantial degradation of molecular weight. Thus, recycled PET has insufficient melt viscosity for reuse in high-value applications such as melt-blowing of PET bottles. Academic and industrial research has tried to remedy this situation by synthesis and use of ``chain extenders'' that can lead to branched PET (with higher melt viscosity than the linear recycled PET) via condensation reactions with functional groups on the PET. Here we show that simple processing of PET via solid-state shear pulverization (SSSP) leads to enhanced PET melt viscosity without need for chemical additives. We hypothesize that this branching results from low levels of chain scission accompanying SSSP, leading to formation of polymeric radicals that participate in chain transfer and combination reactions with other PET chains and thereby to in situ branch formation. The pulverized PET exhibits vastly enhanced crystallization kinetics, eliminating the need to employ cold crystallization to achieve maximum PET crystallinity. Results of SSSP processing of PET will be compared to results obtained with poly(butylene terephthalate).

  19. The Correlation Function of Multiple Dependent Poisson Processes Generated by the Alternating Renewal Process Method

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Don H

    2008-01-01

    We derive conditions under which alternating renewal processes can be used to construct correlated Poisson processes. The pairwise correlation function is also derived, showing that the resulting correlations can be negative. The technique and the analysis can be extended to the generation of two or more dependent renewal processes.

  20. Histogram bin width selection for time-dependent Poisson processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, Shinsuke; Shinomoto, Shigeru [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2004-07-23

    In constructing a time histogram of the event sequences derived from a nonstationary point process, we wish to determine the bin width such that the mean squared error of the histogram from the underlying rate of occurrence is minimized. We find that the optimal bin widths obtained for a doubly stochastic Poisson process and a sinusoidally regulated Poisson process exhibit different scaling relations with respect to the number of sequences, time scale and amplitude of rate modulation, but both diverge under similar parametric conditions. This implies that under these conditions, no determination of the time-dependent rate can be made. We also apply the kernel method to these point processes, and find that the optimal kernels do not exhibit any critical phenomena, unlike the time histogram method.

  1. Histogram bin width selection for time-dependent Poisson processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Shinsuke; Shinomoto, Shigeru

    2004-07-01

    In constructing a time histogram of the event sequences derived from a nonstationary point process, we wish to determine the bin width such that the mean squared error of the histogram from the underlying rate of occurrence is minimized. We find that the optimal bin widths obtained for a doubly stochastic Poisson process and a sinusoidally regulated Poisson process exhibit different scaling relations with respect to the number of sequences, time scale and amplitude of rate modulation, but both diverge under similar parametric conditions. This implies that under these conditions, no determination of the time-dependent rate can be made. We also apply the kernel method to these point processes, and find that the optimal kernels do not exhibit any critical phenomena, unlike the time histogram method.

  2. The Tip of the Red Giant Branch Distances to Type Ia Supernova Host Galaxies. IV. Color Dependence and Zero-point Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, In Sung; Lee, Myung Gyoon

    2017-01-01

    We present a revised Tip of the Red Giant Branch (TRGB) calibration, accurate to 2.7% of distance. A modified TRGB magnitude corrected for its color dependence, the QT magnitude, is introduced for better measurement of the TRGB. We determine the color–magnitude relation of the TRGB from photometry of deep images of HST/ACS fields around eight nearby galaxies. The zero-point of the TRGB at the fiducial metallicity ([Fe/H] = ‑1.6 ({(V-I)}0,{TRGB}=1.5)) is obtained from photometry of two distance anchors, NGC 4258 (M106) and the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), to which precise geometric distances are known: MQT,TRGB = ‑4.023 ± 0.073 mag from NGC 4258 and MQT,TRGB = ‑4.004 ± 0.096 mag from the LMC. A weighted mean of the two zero-points is MQT,TRGB = ‑4.016 ± 0.058 mag. Quoted uncertainty is ∼2× smaller than those of previous calibrations. We compare the empirical TRGB calibration derived in this study with theoretical stellar models, finding that there are significant discrepancies, especially for red color ({({{F}}606{{W}}-{{F}}814{{W}})}0≳ 2.5). We provide the revised TRGB calibration in several magnitude systems for future studies.

  3. Wavelength dependence of silicon avalanche photodiode fabricated by CMOS process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed Napiah, Zul Atfyi Fauzan; Hishiki, Takuya; Iiyama, Koichi

    2017-07-01

    Avalanche photodiodes fabricated by CMOS process (CMOS-APDs) have features of high avalanche gain below 10 V, wide bandwidth over 5 GHz, and easy integration with electronic circuits. In CMOS-APDs, guard ring structure is introduced for high-speed operation by canceling photo-generated carriers in the substrate at the sacrifice of the responsivity. We describe here wavelength dependence of the responsivity and the bandwidth of the CMOS-APDs with shorted and opened guard ring structure.

  4. Process depending morphology and resulting physical properties of TPU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frick, Achim, E-mail: achim.frick@hs-aalen.de; Spadaro, Marcel, E-mail: marcel.spadaro@hs-aalen.de [Institute of Polymer Science and Processing (iPSP), Aalen University (Germany)

    2015-12-17

    Thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) is a rubber like material with outstanding properties, e.g. for seal applications. TPU basically provides high strength, low frictional behavior and excellent wear resistance. Though, due to segmented structure of TPU, which is composed of hard segments (HSs) and soft segments (SSs), physical properties depend strongly on the morphological arrangement of the phase separated HSs at a certain ratio of HSs to SSs. It is obvious that the TPU deforms differently depending on its bulk morphology. Basically, the morphology can either consist of HSs segregated into small domains, which are well dispersed in the SS matrix or of few strongly phase separated large size HS domains embedded in the SS matrix. The morphology development is hardly ruled by the melt processing conditions of the TPU. Depending on the morphology, TPU provides quite different physical properties with respect to strength, deformation behavior, thermal stability, creep resistance and tribological performance. The paper deals with the influence of important melt processing parameters, such as temperature, pressure and shear conditions, on the resulting physical properties tested by tensile and relaxation experiments. Furthermore the morphology is studied employing differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), transmission light microscopy (TLM), scanning electron beam microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron beam microscopy (TEM) investigations. Correlations between processing conditions and resulting TPU material properties are elaborated. Flow and shear simulations contribute to the understanding of thermal and flow induced morphology development.

  5. Magnesium-dependent processes are targets of bacterial manganese toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohle, Thomas H.; O’Brian, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    A Bradyrhizobium japonicum mutant defective in the gene encoding the high affinity Mn2+ transporter MntH has a severe growth phenotype under manganese limitation. Here, we isolated suppressor mutants of an mntH strain that grew under manganese limitation, and activities of high affinity Mn2+ transport and Mn2+-dependent enzymes were partially rescued. The suppressor strains harbor gain-of-function mutations in the gene encoding the Mg2+ channel MgtE. The MgtE variants likely allow Mn2+ entry via loss of a gating mechanism that normally holds the transporter in the closed state when cellular Mg2+ levels are high. Both MgtE-dependent and -independent suppressor phenotypes were recapitulated by magnesium-limited growth of the mntH strain. Growth studies of wild type cells suggest that manganese is toxic to cells when environmental magnesium is low. Moreover, extracellular manganese and magnesium levels were manipulated to inhibit growth without substantially altering the intracellular content of either metal, implying that manganese toxicity depends on its cellular distribution rather than the absolute concentration. Mg2+-dependent enzyme activities were found to be inhibited or stimulated by Mn2+. We conclude that Mn2+ can occupy Mg2+-binding sites in cells, and suggest that Mg2+-dependent processes are targets of manganese toxicity. PMID:24975873

  6. Magnesium-dependent processes are targets of bacterial manganese toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohle, Thomas H; O'Brian, Mark R

    2014-08-01

    A Bradyrhizobium japonicum mutant defective in the gene encoding the high-affinity Mn(2+) transporter MntH has a severe growth phenotype under manganese limitation. Here, we isolated suppressor mutants of an mntH strain that grew under manganese limitation, and activities of high-affinity Mn(2+) transport and Mn(2+) -dependent enzymes were partially rescued. The suppressor strains harbour gain-of-function mutations in the gene encoding the Mg(2+) channel MgtE. The MgtE variants likely allow Mn(2+) entry via loss of a gating mechanism that normally holds the transporter in the closed state when cellular Mg(2+) levels are high. Both MgtE-dependent and MgtE-independent suppressor phenotypes were recapitulated by magnesium-limited growth of the mntH strain. Growth studies of wild-type cells suggest that manganese is toxic to cells when environmental magnesium is low. Moreover, extracellular manganese and magnesium levels were manipulated to inhibit growth without substantially altering the intracellular content of either metal, implying that manganese toxicity depends on its cellular distribution rather than the absolute concentration. Mg(2+) -dependent enzyme activities were found to be inhibited or stimulated by Mn(2+) . We conclude that Mn(2+) can occupy Mg(2+) binding sites in cells, and suggest that Mg(2+) -dependent processes are targets of manganese toxicity.

  7. Damage Tolerance Assessment Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, James L.

    2013-01-01

    The Damage Tolerance Assessment Branch evaluates the ability of a structure to perform reliably throughout its service life in the presence of a defect, crack, or other form of damage. Such assessment is fundamental to the use of structural materials and requires an integral blend of materials engineering, fracture testing and analysis, and nondestructive evaluation. The vision of the Branch is to increase the safety of manned space flight by improving the fracture control and the associated nondestructive evaluation processes through development and application of standards, guidelines, advanced test and analytical methods. The Branch also strives to assist and solve non-aerospace related NDE and damage tolerance problems, providing consultation, prototyping and inspection services.

  8. Understanding and managing the morphology of Rhine Delta branches incising into sand-clay deposits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloff, C.J.; Van Spijk, A.; Stouthamer, E.; Sieben, A.

    2011-01-01

    In the Rhine-Meuse delta in the south-western part of the Netherlands, the morphology of the river branches is highly dependent on the erodibility of the subsoil. Erosion processes that were initiated after closure of the Haringvliet estuary branch by a dam (in 1970), caused a strong incision of sev

  9. Hybrid colored noise process with space-dependent switching rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressloff, Paul C.; Lawley, Sean D.

    2017-07-01

    A fundamental issue in the theory of continuous stochastic process is the interpretation of multiplicative white noise, which is often referred to as the Itô-Stratonovich dilemma. From a physical perspective, this reflects the need to introduce additional constraints in order to specify the nature of the noise, whereas from a mathematical perspective it reflects an ambiguity in the formulation of stochastic differential equations (SDEs). Recently, we have identified a mechanism for obtaining an Itô SDE based on a form of temporal disorder. Motivated by switching processes in molecular biology, we considered a Brownian particle that randomly switches between two distinct conformational states with different diffusivities. In each state, the particle undergoes normal diffusion (additive noise) so there is no ambiguity in the interpretation of the noise. However, if the switching rates depend on position, then in the fast switching limit one obtains Brownian motion with a space-dependent diffusivity of the Itô form. In this paper, we extend our theory to include colored additive noise. We show that the nature of the effective multiplicative noise process obtained by taking both the white-noise limit (κ →0 ) and fast switching limit (ɛ →0 ) depends on the order the two limits are taken. If the white-noise limit is taken first, then we obtain Itô, and if the fast switching limit is taken first, then we obtain Stratonovich. Moreover, the form of the effective diffusion coefficient differs in the two cases. The latter result holds even in the case of space-independent transition rates, where one obtains additive noise processes with different diffusion coefficients. Finally, we show that yet another form of multiplicative noise is obtained in the simultaneous limit ɛ ,κ →0 with ɛ /κ2 fixed.

  10. Angular-dependent magnetization reversal processes in artificial spin ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burn, D. M.; Chadha, M.; Branford, W. R.

    2015-12-01

    The angular dependence of the magnetization reversal in interconnected kagome artificial spin ice structures has been studied through experimental MOKE measurements and micromagnetic simulations. This reversal is mediated by the propagation of magnetic domain walls along the interconnecting bars, which either nucleate at the vertex or arrive following an interaction in a neighboring vertex. The physical differences in these processes show a distinct angular dependence allowing the different contributions to be identified. The configuration of the initial magnetization state, either locally or on a full sublattice of the system, controls the reversal characteristics of the array within a certain field window. This shows how the available magnetization reversal routes can be manipulated and the system can be trained.

  11. Limit Theorems for Competitive Density Dependent Population Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Parsons, Todd L

    2010-01-01

    Near the beginning of the century, Wright and Fisher devised an elegant, mathematically tractable model of gene reproduction and replacement that laid the foundation for contemporary population genetics. The Wright-Fisher model and its extensions have given biologists powerful tools of statistical inference that enabled the quantification of genetic drift and selection. Given the utility of these tools, we often forget that their model - for mathematical, and not biological reasons - makes assumptions that are violated in most real-world populations. In this paper, I consider an alternative framework that merges P. A. P. Moran's continuous-time Markov chain model of allele frequency with the density dependent models of ecological competition proposed by Gause, Lotka and Volterra, that, unlike Moran's model allow for a stochastically varying -- but bounded -- population size. I require that allele numbers vary according to a density-dependent population process, for which the limiting law of large numbers is a...

  12. The Feller Property for Generalized Branching Processes with Resurrection%有恢复的生成分支过程的Feller性质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀珍; 李扬荣

    2011-01-01

    首先,当Q是一个拟单调的q矩阵的时候,我们找出最小的Q函数是一个Feller的转移函数的准则.然后我们把这个结论应用于生成分支q矩阵并得到相应的生成分支过程的Feller准则.特别地,设θ是分支q矩阵中的非线性数,总是存在一个分点θ0满足1≤θ0≤2或θ0θ0.%We first establish a criterion for the minimal Q-function to be a Feller transition function when Q is a quasi-monotone q-matrix. We then apply this result to generalized branching q-matrices and obtain the corresponding Feller criteria for generalized branching processes.In particular,it is shown that there always exists a separating point θ0 with 1 ≤θ0≤ 2 or θ0θ0,where θ is the nonlinear number given in the branching q-matrix.

  13. Functional assessment of ubiquitin-depended processes under microgravity conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhabereva, Anastasia; Shenkman, Boris S.; Gainullin, Murat; Gurev, Eugeny; Kondratieva, Ekaterina; Kopylov, Arthur

    Ubiquitylation, a widespread and important posttranslational modification of eukaryotic proteins, controls a multitude of critical cellular processes, both in normal and pathological conditions. The present work aims to study involvement of ubiquitin-dependent regulation in adaptive response to the external stimuli. Experiments were carried out on C57BL/6 mice. The microgravity state under conditions of real spaceflight on the biosatellite “BION-M1” was used as a model of stress impact. Additionally, number of control series including the vivarium control and experiments in Ground-based analog were also studied. The aggregate of endogenously ubiquitylated proteins was selected as specific feature of ubiquitin-dependent processes. Dynamic changes of modification pattern were characterized in liver tissue by combination of some methods, particularly by specific isolation of explicit protein pool, followed by immunodetection and/or mass spectrometry-based identification. The main approach includes specific extraction of proteins, modified by multiubiquitin chains of different length and topology. For this purpose two techniques were applied: 1) immunoprecipitation with antibodies against ubiquitin and/or multiubiquitin chains; 2) pull-down using synthetic protein construct termed Tandem Ubiquitin Binding Entities (TUBE, LifeSensors). TUBE represents fusion protein, composed of well characterized ubiquitin-binding domains, and thereby allows specific high-affinity binding and extraction of ubiquitylated proteins. Resulting protein fractions were analyzed by immunoblotting with antibodies against different types of multiubiquitin chains. Using this method we mapped endogenously modified proteins involved in two different types of ubiquitin-dependent processes, namely catabolic and non-catabolic ubiquitylation, in liver tissues, obtained from both control as well as experimental groups of animals, mentioned above. Then, isolated fractions of ubiquitylated proteins

  14. Cross-Section Measurements of the 86Kr(g,n) Reaction to Probe the s-Process Branching at 85Kr

    CERN Document Server

    Raut, R; Rusev, G; Tornow, W; Iliadis, C; Lugaro, M; Buntain, J; Goriely, S; Kelley, J H; Schwengner, R; Banu, A; Tsoneva, N

    2013-01-01

    We have carried out photodisintegration cross-section measurements on 86Kr using monoenergetic photon beams ranging from the neutron separation energy, S_n = 9.86 MeV, to 13 MeV. We combine our experimental 86Kr(g,n)85Kr cross section with results from our recent 86Kr(g,g') measurement below the neutron separation energy to obtain the complete nuclear dipole response of 86Kr. The new experimental information is used to predict the neutron capture cross section of 85Kr, an important branching point nucleus on the abundance flow path during s-process nucleosynthesis. Our new and more precise 85Kr(n,g)86Kr cross section allows to produce more precise predictions of the 86Kr abundance from s-process models. In particular, we find that the models of the s-process in asymptotic giant branch stars of mass < 1.5 Msun, where the 13C neutron source burns convectively rather than radiatively, represent a possible solution for the highest 86Kr/82Kr ratios observed in meteoritic stardust SiC grains.

  15. Bicarbonate-dependent secretion and proteolytic processing of recombinant myocilin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Daniel Aroca-Aguilar

    Full Text Available Myocilin is an extracellular glycoprotein of poorly understood function. Mutations of this protein are involved in glaucoma, an optic neuropathy characterized by a progressive and irreversible visual loss and frequently associated with elevated intraocular pressure. We previously showed that recombinant myocilin undergoes an intracellular proteolytic processing by calpain II which cleaves the central region of the protein, releasing one N- and one C-terminal fragment. Myocilin cleavage is reduced by glaucoma mutations and it has been proposed to participate in intraocular pressure modulation. To identify possible factors regulating the proteolytic processing of recombinant myocilin, we used a cellular model in which we analyzed how different culture medium parameters (i.e., culture time, cell density, pH, bicarbonate concentration, etc. affect the presence of the extracellular C-terminal fragment. Extracellular bicarbonate depletion associated with culture medium acidification produced a reversible intracellular accumulation of full-length recombinant myocilin and incremented its intracellular proteolytic processing, raising the extracellular C-terminal fragment percentage. It was also determined that myocilin intracellular accumulation depends on its N-terminal region. These data suggest that aqueous humor bicarbonate variations could also modulate the secretion and cleavage of myocilin present in ocular tissues.

  16. Processing dependent properties of silica xerogels for interlayer dielectric applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anurag

    One of the current and near future research focus in microelectronics is to integrate copper with a new low dielectric constant (K) material. The traditional low K is dense SiO2 (K = 4). Introducing porosity in materials with silica backbone is promising as processing and integration methods are well known. This thesis focuses on studying silica xerogel, also known as nanoporous silica. A new low-K material has to be tested for an array of electrical, mechanical, thermal, and chemical properties before it is deemed successful to replace dense SiO2. These properties of silica xerogels are characterized using various analytical techniques and the effect of processing conditions is studied. The property data is explained by the models and mechanisms relating processing-structure-property behavior. The processing effects on thermal and mechanical properties are studied in great detail and the theories for generic porous low-K materials are developed. The xerogel films are processed at ambient conditions and crack free, thick (0.5--4 mum), highly porous (˜25--90%) films are obtained. Two methods of porosity control were used. One is the traditional single solvent (ethanol) method and another is a binary solvent (mixture of ethanol and ethylene glycol) method. The films underwent aging and silylation procedures to make the backbone stiff and hydrophobic. Sintering of xerogel films eliminates defects and organics and additional condensation reactions make matrix more connected, dense and ordered. Films were characterized for their refractive index, thickness, porosity, pore size and surface roughness. Dielectric constant measurements at 1 MHz show that K varies linearly with porosity. Dielectric loss tangents are low and breakdown strength meets the standards. FTIR and XPS analysis show that films are stable chemically and remain hydrophobic even after boiling in water. Mechanical and thermal properties of porous materials are dependent on the microstructure and various

  17. Temperature dependent dynamic ESD processes in alkali halides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolodziej, J.; Czuba, P.; Piatkowski, P.; Poradzisz, A.; Postawa, Z. (Inst. of Physics, Jagellonian Univ., Krakow (Poland)); Szymonski, M. (Inst. for Materials Research, McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)); Fine, J. (Surface and Microanalysis Div., National Inst. of Standards and Tech., Gaithersburg, MD (United States))

    1992-03-01

    The effect of the sample temperature on angular-resolved kinetic-energy distributions of alkali and halogen atoms, electronically desorbed from single crystal alkali halides, has been measured. It was found that while the emission of particles with thermal energies increased by about a factor of 40 in the temperature range 90-300degC, the nonthermal halogen atom intensity decreased by about a factor of 3. From these temperature dependent measurements the activation energies for thermally assisted defect migration processes have been estimated. The results will be compared with the data available in the literature and the predictions of a recently proposed model for electron-stimulated desorption (ESD) of alkali halides. (orig.).

  18. Generalized Markov branching models

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Junping

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, we first considered a modified Markov branching process incorporating both state-independent immigration and resurrection. After establishing the criteria for regularity and uniqueness, explicit expressions for the extinction probability and mean extinction time are presented. The criteria for recurrence and ergodicity are also established. In addition, an explicit expression for the equilibrium distribution is presented.\\ud \\ud We then moved on to investigate the basic proper...

  19. Generalized Markov branching models

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Junping

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, we first considered a modified Markov branching process incorporating both state-independent immigration and resurrection. After establishing the criteria for regularity and uniqueness, explicit expressions for the extinction probability and mean extinction time are presented. The criteria for recurrence and ergodicity are also established. In addition, an explicit expression for the equilibrium distribution is presented. We then moved on to investigate the basic proper...

  20. On exceedance times for some processes with dependent increments

    CERN Document Server

    Asmussen, Søren

    2012-01-01

    Let ${Z_n}_{n\\ge 0}$ be a random walk with a negative drift and i.i.d. increments with heavy-tailed distribution and let $M=\\sup_{n\\ge 0}Z_n$ be its supremum. Asmussen & Kl{\\"u}ppelberg (1996) considered the behavior of the random walk given that $M>x$, for $x$ large, and obtained a limit theorem, as $x\\to\\infty$, for the distribution of the quadruple that includes the time $\\rtreg=\\rtreg(x)$ to exceed level $x$, position $Z_{\\rtreg}$ at this time, position $Z_{\\rtreg-1}$ at the prior time, and the trajectory up to it (similar results were obtained for the Cram\\'er-Lundberg insurance risk process). We obtain here several extensions of this result to various regenerative-type models and, in particular, to the case of a random walk with dependent increments. Particular attention is given to describing the limiting conditional behavior of $\\tau$. The class of models include Markov-modulated models as particular cases. We also study fluid models, the Bj{\\"o}rk-Grandell risk process, give examples where the or...

  1. Two-Agent Single-Machine Scheduling of Jobs with Time-Dependent Processing Times and Ready Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Yee Kung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Scheduling involving jobs with time-dependent processing times has recently attracted much research attention. However, multiagent scheduling with simultaneous considerations of jobs with time-dependent processing times and ready times is relatively unexplored. Inspired by this observation, we study a two-agent single-machine scheduling problem in which the jobs have both time-dependent processing times and ready times. We consider the model in which the actual processing time of a job of the first agent is a decreasing function of its scheduled position while the actual processing time of a job of the second agent is an increasing function of its scheduled position. In addition, each job has a different ready time. The objective is to minimize the total completion time of the jobs of the first agent with the restriction that no tardy job is allowed for the second agent. We propose a branch-and-bound and several genetic algorithms to obtain optimal and near-optimal solutions for the problem, respectively. We also conduct extensive computational results to test the proposed algorithms and examine the impacts of different problem parameters on their performance.

  2. Serial Branches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schindler, Christoph; Tamke, Martin; Tabatabai, Ali;

    2013-01-01

    Within a 8-day workshop 19 students of KADK explored the performative potential of naturally angled and forked wood – a desired material until 19th century, but swept away by industrialization and its standardization of processes and materials. The workshop questioned whether contemporary...

  3. Epidemic processes over adaptive state-dependent networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Masaki; Preciado, Victor M.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we study the dynamics of epidemic processes taking place in adaptive networks of arbitrary topology. We focus our study on the adaptive susceptible-infected-susceptible (ASIS) model, where healthy individuals are allowed to temporarily cut edges connecting them to infected nodes in order to prevent the spread of the infection. In this paper we derive a closed-form expression for a lower bound on the epidemic threshold of the ASIS model in arbitrary networks with heterogeneous node and edge dynamics. For networks with homogeneous node and edge dynamics, we show that the resulting lower bound is proportional to the epidemic threshold of the standard SIS model over static networks, with a proportionality constant that depends on the adaptation rates. Furthermore, based on our results, we propose an efficient algorithm to optimally tune the adaptation rates in order to eradicate epidemic outbreaks in arbitrary networks. We confirm the tightness of the proposed lower bounds with several numerical simulations and compare our optimal adaptation rates with popular centrality measures.

  4. A density-dependent endochronic plasticity for powder compaction processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshiani, A.; Khoei, A. R.; Mofid, M.

    This paper is concerned with the numerical modeling of powder cold compaction process using a density-dependent endochronic plasticity model. Endochronic plasticity theory is developed based on a large strain plasticity to describe the nonlinear behavior of powder material. The elastic response is stated in terms of hypoelastic model and endochronic plasticity constitutive equations are stated in unrotated frame of reference. A trivially incrementally objective integration scheme for rate constitutive equations is established. Algorithmic modulus consistent with numerical integration algorithm of constitutive equations is extracted. It is shown how the endochronic plasticity describes the behavior of powder material from the initial stage of compaction to final stage, in which material behaves as solid metals. It is also shown that some commonly used plasticity models for powder material can be derived as special cases of the proposed endochronic theory. Finally, the numerical schemes are examined for efficiency in the modeling of a plain bush, a rotational-flanged and a shaped tablet powder compaction component.

  5. Sheets of branched poly(lactic acid) obtained by one step reactive extrusion calendering process: Melt rheology analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cailloux, J.; Santana, O.O.; E. Franco-Urquiza; Bou, J. J.; F. Carrasco; J. Gamez-Perez; M. L. Maspoch

    2013-01-01

    One-step reactive extrusion-calendering process (REX-Calendering) was used in order to obtain sheets of 1mm from two PD,L-LA extrusion grades modified with a styrene-acrylic multifunctional oligomeric agent. In a preliminary internal mixer study, torque versus time was monitored in order to determine chain extender ratios and reaction time. Once all parameters were optimized, reactive extrusion experiments were performed. Independently of the processing method employed, under the same pro...

  6. Independent Sampling vs Interitem Dependencies in Whole Report Processing: Contributions of Processing Architecture and Variable Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busey, Thomas A.; Townsend, James T.

    2001-04-01

    All current models of visual whole report processing assume perceptual independence among the displayed items in which the perceptual processing of individual items is not affected by other items in the display. However, models proposed by Townsend (1981, Acta Psychologica 47, 149-173), Shibuya and Bundesen (1988, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 14, 591-600), and Bundesen (1990, Psychological Review 97, 523-547) contain postperceptual buffers that must predict negative dependencies. The perceptual-independence assumption forms what we term the modal model class. A recent example of a model that assumes perceptual independence is the Independent Sampling Model of Loftus, Busey, and Senders (1993, Perception and Psychophysics 54, 535-554). The fundamental independence assumption has only been directly tested once before, where tests revealed no dependencies except those produced by guessing. The present study tests the independence assumption using several different statistics and, contrary to most extant models of whole report, finds significant positive dependence. Poisson models do predict a positive dependence and we develop a succinctly parameterized version, the Weighted Path Poisson Model, which allows the finishing order to be a weighted probabilistic mechanism. However, it does not predict the data quite as well as a new model, the Variable Attention Model, which allows independence within trials (unlike the Poisson models). This model assumes that attention (or, potentially, other aspects such as signal quality) varies widely across trials, thus predicting an overall positive dependence. Intuitions for and against the competing models are discussed. In addition, we show, through mimicking formulae, that models which contain the proper qualitative type of dependence structure can be cast in either serial or parallel form. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  7. Gene expression profiles of mouse submandibular gland development: FGFR1 regulates branching morphogenesis in vitro through BMP- and FGF-dependent mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Matthew P; Kidder, Benjamin L; Steinberg, Zachary L; Lakhani, Saba; Ho, Susan; Kleinman, Hynda K; Larsen, Melinda

    2002-12-01

    Analyses of gene expression profiles at five different stages of mouse submandibular salivary gland development provide insight into gland organogenesis and identify genes that may be critical at different stages. Genes with similar expression profiles were clustered, and RT-PCR was used to confirm the developmental changes. We focused on fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1), as its expression is highest early in gland development. We extended our array results and analyzed the developmental expression patterns of other FGFR and FGF isoforms. The functional significance of FGFR1 was confirmed by submandibular gland organ culture. Antisense oligonucleotides decreased expression of FGFR1 and reduced branching morphogenesis of the glands. Inhibiting FGFR1 signaling with SU5402, a FGFR1 tyrosine kinase inhibitor, reduced branching morphogenesis. SU5402 treatment decreased cell proliferation but did not increase apoptosis. Fgfr, Fgf and Bmp gene expression was localized to either the mesenchyme or the epithelium by PCR, and then measured over time by real time PCR after SU5402 treatment. FGFR1 signaling regulates Fgfr1, Fgf1, Fgf3 and Bmp7 expression and indirectly regulates Fgf7, Fgf10 and Bmp4. Exogenous FGFs and BMPs added to glands in culture reveal distinct effects on gland morphology. Glands cultured with SU5402 were then rescued with exogenous BMP7, FGF7 or FGF10. Taken together, our results suggest specific FGFs and BMPs play reciprocal roles in regulating branching morphogenesis and FGFR1 signaling plays a central role by regulating both FGF and BMP expression.

  8. Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Tagging Promotes Dendritic Branch Variability through the Capture of Ca2+/Calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase II α (CaMKIIα) mRNAs by the RNA-binding Protein HuD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosanya, Natasha M; Cacheaux, Luisa P; Workman, Emily R; Niere, Farr; Perrone-Bizzozero, Nora I; Raab-Graham, Kimberly F

    2015-06-26

    The fate of a memory, whether stored or forgotten, is determined by the ability of an active or tagged synapse to undergo changes in synaptic efficacy requiring protein synthesis of plasticity-related proteins. A synapse can be tagged, but without the "capture" of plasticity-related proteins, it will not undergo long lasting forms of plasticity (synaptic tagging and capture hypothesis). What the "tag" is and how plasticity-related proteins are captured at tagged synapses are unknown. Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II α (CaMKIIα) is critical in learning and memory and is synthesized locally in neuronal dendrites. The mechanistic (mammalian) target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a protein kinase that increases CaMKIIα protein expression; however, the mechanism and site of dendritic expression are unknown. Herein, we show that mTOR activity mediates the branch-specific expression of CaMKIIα, favoring one secondary, daughter branch over the other in a single neuron. mTOR inhibition decreased the dendritic levels of CaMKIIα protein and mRNA by shortening its poly(A) tail. Overexpression of the RNA-stabilizing protein HuD increased CaMKIIα protein levels and preserved its selective expression in one daughter branch over the other when mTOR was inhibited. Unexpectedly, deleting the third RNA recognition motif of HuD, the domain that binds the poly(A) tail, eliminated the branch-specific expression of CaMKIIα when mTOR was active. These results provide a model for one molecular mechanism that may underlie the synaptic tagging and capture hypothesis where mTOR is the tag, preventing deadenylation of CaMKIIα mRNA, whereas HuD captures and promotes its expression in a branch-specific manner.

  9. Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Tagging Promotes Dendritic Branch Variability through the Capture of Ca2+/Calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase II α (CaMKIIα) mRNAs by the RNA-binding Protein HuD*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosanya, Natasha M.; Cacheaux, Luisa P.; Workman, Emily R.; Niere, Farr; Perrone-Bizzozero, Nora I.; Raab-Graham, Kimberly F.

    2015-01-01

    The fate of a memory, whether stored or forgotten, is determined by the ability of an active or tagged synapse to undergo changes in synaptic efficacy requiring protein synthesis of plasticity-related proteins. A synapse can be tagged, but without the “capture” of plasticity-related proteins, it will not undergo long lasting forms of plasticity (synaptic tagging and capture hypothesis). What the “tag” is and how plasticity-related proteins are captured at tagged synapses are unknown. Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II α (CaMKIIα) is critical in learning and memory and is synthesized locally in neuronal dendrites. The mechanistic (mammalian) target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a protein kinase that increases CaMKIIα protein expression; however, the mechanism and site of dendritic expression are unknown. Herein, we show that mTOR activity mediates the branch-specific expression of CaMKIIα, favoring one secondary, daughter branch over the other in a single neuron. mTOR inhibition decreased the dendritic levels of CaMKIIα protein and mRNA by shortening its poly(A) tail. Overexpression of the RNA-stabilizing protein HuD increased CaMKIIα protein levels and preserved its selective expression in one daughter branch over the other when mTOR was inhibited. Unexpectedly, deleting the third RNA recognition motif of HuD, the domain that binds the poly(A) tail, eliminated the branch-specific expression of CaMKIIα when mTOR was active. These results provide a model for one molecular mechanism that may underlie the synaptic tagging and capture hypothesis where mTOR is the tag, preventing deadenylation of CaMKIIα mRNA, whereas HuD captures and promotes its expression in a branch-specific manner. PMID:25944900

  10. Branch management into micropipeline joint dot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitar Tyanev

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers problems related to hardware implementation of computational process with conditional jumps. Hardware refers to asynchronous pipeline organization at microoperational level. Exploration is dedicated to one of the tasks presented in (Tyanev, D., 2009 concerning to micropipeline controller design to control micropipeline stage into joint dot of branch algorithm. Joint dot is the point at which few preceding branches are combined. It appears inevitably into conditional jump structures and this is the reason for the actuality of its problem. Analysis of this new task is presented and request arbitration functioning principles are formulated for the incoming to joint dot requests. The arbiter is responsible for the fair choice on which depends steady peformance of separate pipeline brances. Paper also describes pipeline controller synthesis and analysis of its operation in two variants: about 2-phase and 4-phase data transfer protocol. The synthesized asynchronous arbiter scheme is invariant to the type of pipeline protocol.

  11. Branching Dynamics of Viral Information Spreading

    CERN Document Server

    Iribarren, José Luis

    2011-01-01

    Despite its importance for rumors or innovations propagation, peer-to-peer collaboration, social networking or Marketing, the dynamics of information spreading is not well understood. Since the diffusion depends on the heterogeneous patterns of human behavior and is driven by the participants' decisions, its propagation dynamics shows surprising properties not explained by traditional epidemic or contagion models. Here we present a detailed analysis of our study of real Viral Marketing campaigns where tracking the propagation of a controlled message allowed us to analyze the structure and dynamics of a diffusion graph involving over 31,000 individuals. We found that information spreading displays a non-Markovian branching dynamics that can be modeled by a two-step Bellman-Harris Branching Process that generalizes the static models known in the literature and incorporates the high variability of human behavior. It explains accurately all the features of information propagation under the "tipping-point" and can...

  12. Understanding and managing the morphology of branches incising into sand-clay deposits in the Dutch Rhine Delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloff, C.J.; van Spijk, A.; Stouthamer, E.; Sieben, A.

    2013-01-01

    In the Rhine-Meuse delta in the south-western part of the Netherlands, the morphology of the river branches is highly dependent on the erodibility of the subsoil. Erosion processes that were initiated after closure of the Haringvliet estuary branch by a dam (in 1970), caused a strong incision of sev

  13. Statistical γ -decay properties of 64Ni and deduced (n ,γ ) cross section of the s -process branch-point nucleus 63Ni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo Campo, L.; Bello Garrote, F. L.; Eriksen, T. K.; Görgen, A.; Guttormsen, M.; Hadynska-Klek, K.; Klintefjord, M.; Larsen, A. C.; Renstrøm, T.; Sahin, E.; Siem, S.; Springer, A.; Tornyi, T. G.; Tveten, G. M.

    2016-10-01

    Particle-γ coincidence data have been analyzed to obtain the nuclear level density and the γ -strength function of 64Ni by means of the Oslo method. The level density found in this work is in very good agreement with known energy levels at low excitation energies as well as with data deduced from particle-evaporation measurements at excitation energies above Ex≈5.5 MeV. The experimental γ -strength function presents an enhancement at γ energies below Eγ≈3 MeV and possibly a resonancelike structure centered at Eγ≈9.2 MeV. The obtained nuclear level density and γ -strength function have been used to estimate the (n ,γ ) cross section for the s -process branch-point nucleus 63Ni, of particular interest for astrophysical calculations of elemental abundances.

  14. Integrated Semigroups Generated by Generalized Branching Processes%广义分支过程矩阵生成的积分半群及其性质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常小新; 李杨荣

    2008-01-01

    This paper concentrates on investigating the condition on which q-matrix Q for generalized branching processes generates a positive once integrated semigroup of contractions on L∞, and a necessary and sufficient condi-tion is obtained. Some basic properties of the integrated semigroups generated by them, i.e. stochastic sub-monoto-ny and Feller property, are discussed.%探讨了广义分支过程矩阵在向量空间L∞生成正压缩积分半群的充分必要条件.并且进一步讨论了该积分半群的次随机单调性和Feller性质.

  15. Real time process algebra with time-dependent conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baeten, J.C.M.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2000-01-01

    We extend the main real time version of ACP presented in [6] with conditionals in which the condition depends on time. This extension facilitates flexible dependence of proccess behaviour on initialization time. We show that the conditions concerned generalize the conditions introduced earlier in a

  16. Real time process algebra with time-dependent conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baeten, J.C.M.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    We extend the main real time version of ACP presented in [6] with conditionals in which the condition depends on time. This extension facilitates flexible dependence of proccess behaviour on initialization time. We show that the conditions concerned generalize the conditions introduced earlier in a

  17. Real time process algebra with time-dependent conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baeten, J.C.M.; Middelburg, C.A.

    We extend the main real time version of ACP presented in [6] with conditionals in which the condition depends on time. This extension facilitates flexible dependence of proccess behaviour on initialization time. We show that the conditions concerned generalize the conditions introduced earlier

  18. New particle dependant parameterizations of heterogeneous freezing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Karoline; Mitra, Subir K.

    2014-05-01

    For detailed investigations of cloud microphysical processes an adiabatic air parcel model with entrainment is used. It represents a spectral bin model which explicitly solves the microphysical equations. The initiation of the ice phase is parameterized and describes the effects of different types of ice nuclei (mineral dust, soot, biological particles) in immersion, contact, and deposition modes. As part of the research group INUIT (Ice Nuclei research UnIT), existing parameterizations have been modified for the present studies and new parameterizations have been developed mainly on the basis of the outcome of INUIT experiments. Deposition freezing in the model is dependant on the presence of dry particles and on ice supersaturation. The description of contact freezing combines the collision kernel of dry particles with the fraction of frozen drops as function of temperature and particle size. A new parameterization of immersion freezing has been coupled to the mass of insoluble particles contained in the drops using measured numbers of ice active sites per unit mass. Sensitivity studies have been performed with a convective temperature and dew point profile and with two dry aerosol particle number size distributions. Single and coupled freezing processes are studied with different types of ice nuclei (e.g., bacteria, illite, kaolinite, feldspar). The strength of convection is varied so that the simulated cloud reaches different levels of temperature. As a parameter to evaluate the results the ice water fraction is selected which is defined as the relation of the ice water content to the total water content. Ice water fractions between 0.1 and 0.9 represent mixed-phase clouds, larger than 0.9 ice clouds. The results indicate the sensitive parameters for the formation of mixed-phase and ice clouds are: 1. broad particle number size distribution with high number of small particles, 2. temperatures below -25°C, 3. specific mineral dust particles as ice nuclei such

  19. Branched silver nanowires as controllable plasmon routers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yurui; Li, Zhipeng; Huang, Yingzhou; Zhang, Shunping; Nordlander, Peter; Halas, Naomi J; Xu, Hongxing

    2010-05-12

    Using polarization dependent scattering spectroscopy, we investigate plasmon propagation on branched silver nanowires. By controlling the polarization of the incident laser light, the wire plasmons can be routed into different wire branches and result in light emission from the corresponding wire ends. This routing behavior is found to be strongly dependent on the wavelength of light. Thus for certain incident polarizations, light of different wavelength will be routed into different branches. The branched nanowire can thus serve as a controllable router and multiplexer in integrated plasmonic circuits.

  20. A note on asymptotic behavior of Galton-Watson branching processes in random environments%关于随机环境中的Galton-Watson分枝过程渐近性质的一个注记

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王汉兴; 赵飞; 卢金余

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate Galton-Watson branching processes in random environments. In the case where the environmental process is a Markov chain which is positive recurrent or has a transition matrix Q (θ,α) such that supθ Q (θ,α)> 0 for some α, we prove that the model has the asymptotic behavior being similar to that of Galton-Watson branching processes. In other case where the environments are non-stationary independent, the sufficient conditions are obtained for certain extinction and uncertain extinction for the model.

  1. Charged Lepton Flavor Violating Processes and Scalar Leptoquark Decay Branching Ratios in the Colored Zee-Babu Model

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, We-Fu; Wong, Chi-Fong; Xu, Fanrong

    2016-01-01

    We considered a neutrino mass generating model which employs a scalar leptoquark, $\\Delta$, and a scalar diquark, $S$. The new scalars $\\Delta$ and $S$ carry the standard model $SU(3)_c\\times SU(2)_L\\times U(1)_Y$ quantum numbers $(3,1,-1/3)$ and $(6,1,-2/3)$ respectively. The neutrino masses are generated at the two-loop level similar to that in the Zee-Babu model\\cite{Zee-Babu}. And $\\Delta/S$ plays the role of the doubly/singly charged scalar in the Zee-Babu model. With a moderate working assumption that the magnitudes of the six Yukawa couplings between $S$ and the down-type quarks are of the same order, strong connections were found between the neutrino masses and the charged lepton flavor violating(cLFV) processes. In particular, $Z\\rightarrow \\overline{l} l'$, and $l\\rightarrow l' \\gamma$ were studied and it was found that some portions of the parameter space of this model are within the reach of the planned cLFV experiments. Interesting lower bounds on the cLFV processes were predicted that $B(Z\\right...

  2. Principles of branch formation and branch patterning in Hydrozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berking, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    The freshwater polyp Hydra produces buds which separate from the parent. Other Hydrozoa produce branches which remain connected to the parent, thus forming a colony. Some Hydrozoa grow by means of an organ that is like a shoot apical meristem. Others display a sympodial type of growth. In this article, I propose that these different types of branches are organized by a common pattern-forming system. This system has self-organizing properties. It causes branch tip formation and is kept active in the tip when the tip finally differentiates into a hypostome of a polyp. The system does not cause structure formation directly but rather, determines a tissue property called positional value, in such a way that a gradient of values forms in the tissue of the bud or branch. The local value determines the local morphodynamic processes, including differentiation of the hypostome (highest positional value), tentacles and basal disc and of the exoskeleton pattern along the shoot. A high positional value favors the onset of a new self-organizing process and by lateral inhibition, such a process prevents the initiation of a further process in its surroundings. Small quantitative differences in the range of the signals involved determine whether a bud or a branch forms and whether monopodial and sympodial growth follows.

  3. Stability of earthquake clustering models: Criticality and branching ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jiancang; Werner, Maximilian J.; Harte, David S.

    2013-12-01

    We study the stability conditions of a class of branching processes prominent in the analysis and modeling of seismicity. This class includes the epidemic-type aftershock sequence (ETAS) model as a special case, but more generally comprises models in which the magnitude distribution of direct offspring depends on the magnitude of the progenitor, such as the branching aftershock sequence (BASS) model and another recently proposed branching model based on a dynamic scaling hypothesis. These stability conditions are closely related to the concepts of the criticality parameter and the branching ratio. The criticality parameter summarizes the asymptotic behavior of the population after sufficiently many generations, determined by the maximum eigenvalue of the transition equations. The branching ratio is defined by the proportion of triggered events in all the events. Based on the results for the generalized case, we show that the branching ratio of the ETAS model is identical to its criticality parameter because its magnitude density is separable from the full intensity. More generally, however, these two values differ and thus place separate conditions on model stability. As an illustration of the difference and of the importance of the stability conditions, we employ a version of the BASS model, reformulated to ensure the possibility of stationarity. In addition, we analyze the magnitude distributions of successive generations of the BASS model via analytical and numerical methods, and find that the compound density differs substantially from a Gutenberg-Richter distribution, unless the process is essentially subcritical (branching ratio less than 1) or the magnitude dependence between the parent event and the direct offspring is weak.

  4. Stability of earthquake clustering models: criticality and branching ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jiancang; Werner, Maximilian J; Harte, David S

    2013-12-01

    We study the stability conditions of a class of branching processes prominent in the analysis and modeling of seismicity. This class includes the epidemic-type aftershock sequence (ETAS) model as a special case, but more generally comprises models in which the magnitude distribution of direct offspring depends on the magnitude of the progenitor, such as the branching aftershock sequence (BASS) model and another recently proposed branching model based on a dynamic scaling hypothesis. These stability conditions are closely related to the concepts of the criticality parameter and the branching ratio. The criticality parameter summarizes the asymptotic behavior of the population after sufficiently many generations, determined by the maximum eigenvalue of the transition equations. The branching ratio is defined by the proportion of triggered events in all the events. Based on the results for the generalized case, we show that the branching ratio of the ETAS model is identical to its criticality parameter because its magnitude density is separable from the full intensity. More generally, however, these two values differ and thus place separate conditions on model stability. As an illustration of the difference and of the importance of the stability conditions, we employ a version of the BASS model, reformulated to ensure the possibility of stationarity. In addition, we analyze the magnitude distributions of successive generations of the BASS model via analytical and numerical methods, and find that the compound density differs substantially from a Gutenberg-Richter distribution, unless the process is essentially subcritical (branching ratio less than 1) or the magnitude dependence between the parent event and the direct offspring is weak.

  5. Half-lives and branchings for {\\beta}-delayed neutron emission for neutron-rich Co-Cu isotopes in the r-process

    CERN Document Server

    Hosmer, P; Aprahamian, A; Arndt, O; Clement, R R C; Estrade, A; Farouqi, K; Kratz, K -L; Liddick, S N; Lisetskiy, A F; Mantica, P F; Möller, P; Mueller, W F; Montes, F; Morton, A C; Ouellette, M; Pellegrini, E; Pereira, J; Pfeiffer, B; Reeder, P; Santi, P; Steiner, M; Stolz, A; Tomlin, B E; Walters, W B; Wöhr, A; 10.1103/PhysRevC.82.025806

    2010-01-01

    The {\\beta} decays of very neutron-rich nuclides in the Co-Zn region were studied experimentally at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory using the NSCL {\\beta}-counting station in conjunction with the neutron detector NERO. We measured the branchings for {\\beta}-delayed neutron emission (Pn values) for 74Co (18 +/- 15%) and 75-77Ni (10 +/- 2.8%, 14 +/- 3.6%, and 30 +/- 24%, respectively) for the first time, and remeasured the Pn values of 77-79Cu, 79,81Zn, and 82Ga. For 77-79Cu and for 81Zn we obtain significantly larger Pn values compared to previous work. While the new half-lives for the Ni isotopes from this experiment had been reported before, we present here in addition the first half-life measurements of 75Co (30 +/- 11 ms) and 80Cu (170+110 -50 ms). Our results are compared with theoretical predictions, and their impact on various types of models for the astrophysical rapid neutron-capture process (r-process) is explored. We find that with our new data, the classical r-process model is bet...

  6. Hawkes process model with a time-dependent background rate and its application to high-frequency financial data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omi, Takahiro; Hirata, Yoshito; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2017-07-01

    A Hawkes process model with a time-varying background rate is developed for analyzing the high-frequency financial data. In our model, the logarithm of the background rate is modeled by a linear model with a relatively large number of variable-width basis functions, and the parameters are estimated by a Bayesian method. Our model can capture not only the slow time variation, such as in the intraday seasonality, but also the rapid one, which follows a macroeconomic news announcement. By analyzing the tick data of the Nikkei 225 mini, we find that (i) our model is better fitted to the data than the Hawkes models with a constant background rate or a slowly varying background rate, which have been commonly used in the field of quantitative finance; (ii) the improvement in the goodness-of-fit to the data by our model is significant especially for sessions where considerable fluctuation of the background rate is present; and (iii) our model is statistically consistent with the data. The branching ratio, which quantifies the level of the endogeneity of markets, estimated by our model is 0.41, suggesting the relative importance of exogenous factors in the market dynamics. We also demonstrate that it is critically important to appropriately model the time-dependent background rate for the branching ratio estimation.

  7. Structure-Property Relationships for Branched Worm-Like Micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaucage, Gregory; Rai, Durgesh

    2013-03-01

    Micellar solutions can display a wide range of phase structure as a function of counter ion content, surfactant concentration, and the presence of ternary components. Under some conditions, common to consumer products, extended cylindrical structures that display persistence and other chain features of polymers are produced. These worm-like micelles (WLMs) can form branched structures that dynamically change under shear and even in quiescent conditions. The rheology of these branched WLMs is strongly dependent on migration of the branch points, and the dynamics of branch formation and removal. Persistence and other polymer-based descriptions are also of importance. We have recently developed a scattering model for branched polyolefins and other topologically complex materials that can quantify the branching density, branch length, branch functionality and the hyperbranch (branch-on-branch) content of polymers. This work is being extended to study branching in WLMs in work coupled with Ron Larson at UMich to predict rheological properties.

  8. Framework to study dynamic dependencies in networks of interacting processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicharro, Daniel; Ledberg, Anders

    2012-10-01

    The analysis of dynamic dependencies in complex systems such as the brain helps to understand how emerging properties arise from interactions. Here we propose an information-theoretic framework to analyze the dynamic dependencies in multivariate time-evolving systems. This framework constitutes a fully multivariate extension and unification of previous approaches based on bivariate or conditional mutual information and Granger causality or transfer entropy. We define multi-information measures that allow us to study the global statistical structure of the system as a whole, the total dependence between subsystems, and the temporal statistical structure of each subsystem. We develop a stationary and a nonstationary formulation of the framework. We then examine different decompositions of these multi-information measures. The transfer entropy naturally appears as a term in some of these decompositions. This allows us to examine its properties not as an isolated measure of interdependence but in the context of the complete framework. More generally we use causal graphs to study the specificity and sensitivity of all the measures appearing in these decompositions to different sources of statistical dependence arising from the causal connections between the subsystems. We illustrate that there is no straightforward relation between the strength of specific connections and specific terms in the decompositions. Furthermore, causal and noncausal statistical dependencies are not separable. In particular, the transfer entropy can be nonmonotonic in dependence on the connectivity strength between subsystems and is also sensitive to internal changes of the subsystems, so it should not be interpreted as a measure of connectivity strength. Altogether, in comparison to an analysis based on single isolated measures of interdependence, this framework is more powerful to analyze emergent properties in multivariate systems and to characterize functionally relevant changes in the

  9. Gluon transverse momentum dependent correlators in polarized high energy processes

    CERN Document Server

    Boer, Daniel; van Daal, Tom; Mulders, Piet J; Signori, Andrea; Zhou, Yajin

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the gluon transverse momentum dependent correlators as Fourier transform of matrix elements of nonlocal operator combinations. At the operator level these correlators include both field strength operators and gauge links bridging the nonlocality. In contrast to the collinear PDFs, the gauge links are no longer unique for transverse momentum dependent PDFs (TMDs) and also Wilson loops lead to nontrivial effects. We look at gluon TMDs for unpolarized, vector and tensor polarized targets. In particular a single Wilson loop operators become important when one considers the small-x limit of gluon TMDs.

  10. Acceptability and processing of long-distance dependencies in Danish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads

    2008-01-01

    Long-distance dependencies have been the object of much theoretical interest in the Scandinavian languages and in general, but the empirical foundation for theorizing has been limited. The present paper investigates extraction from complement and adverbial clauses in Danish using acceptability...

  11. Processing Dependencies between Segmental and Suprasegmental Features in Mandarin Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yunxia; Francis, Alexander L.; Gandour, Jackson T.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine processing interactions between segmental (consonant, vowel) and suprasegmental (tone) dimensions of Mandarin Chinese. Using a speeded classification paradigm, processing interactions were examined between each pair of dimensions. Listeners were asked to attend to one dimension while ignoring the variation…

  12. Puzzling Origin of CEMP-r/s Stars: An Interpretation of Abundance and Enrichment of s- and r-Process Elements from Asymptotic Giant Branch Supernovae

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jiang Zhang; Fang Zhao; Yanping Chen; Wenyuan Cui; Bo Zhang

    2013-12-01

    CEMP-r/s stars at low metallicity are known as double-enhanced stars that show enhancements of both r-process and s-process elements. The chemical abundances of these very metal-poor stars provide us a lot of information for putting new restraints on models of neutron-capture processes. In this article, we put forward an accreted scenario in which the double enrichment of r-process and s-process elements is caused by a former intermediate-mass Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) companion in a detached binary system. As the AGB superwind is only present at the ultimate phase of AGB stars, there is thus a lot of potential that the degenerate-core mass of an intermediate-mass AGB star reaches the Chandrasekhar limit before the AGB superwind. In these circumstances, both s-process elements produced in the AGB shell and r-process elements synthesized in the subsequent explosion would be sprayed contemporaneously and accreted by its companion. Despite similarity to physical conditions of a core-collapse supernova, a major focus in this scenario is the degenerate C–O core surrounded by an envelope of a former intermediate-mass AGB donor that may collapse and explode. Due to the existence of an outer envelope, r-process nucleosynthesis is expected to occur. Hypothesizing the material-rich europium (Eu) accreted by the secondary via the wind from the supernova to be in proportion to the geometric fraction of the companion with respect to the exploding donor star, we find that the estimated yield of Eu (as representative of r-process elements) per AGB supernova event is about 1 × 10-9⊙ ∼ 5 × 10-9⊙. Using the yields of Eu, the overabundance of r-process elements in CEMP-r/s stars can be accounted for. The calculated results show that the value of parameter , standing for efficiency of wind pollution from the AGB supernova, will reach about 104, which means that the enhanced factor is much larger than unity due to the impact of gravity of the donor and the result of the

  13. A role for mesenchyme dynamics in mouse lung branching morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Blanc

    Full Text Available Mammalian airways are highly ramified tree-like structures that develop by the repetitive branching of the lung epithelium into the surrounding mesenchyme through reciprocal interactions. Based on a morphometric analysis of the epithelial tree, it has been recently proposed that the complete branching scheme is specified early in each lineage by a programme using elementary patterning routines at specific sites and times in the developing lung. However, the coupled dynamics of both the epithelium and mesenchyme have been overlooked in this process. Using a qualitative and quantitative in vivo morphometric analysis of the E11.25 to E13.5 mouse whole right cranial lobe structure, we show that beyond the first generations, the branching stereotypy relaxes and both spatial and temporal variations are common. The branching pattern and branching rate are sensitive to the dynamic changes of the mesoderm shape that is in turn mainly dependent upon the volume and shape of the surrounding intrathoracic organs. Spatial and temporal variations of the tree architecture are related to local and subtle modifications of the mesoderm growth. Remarkably, buds never meet after suffering branching variations and continue to homogenously fill the opening spaces in the mesenchyme. Moreover despite inter-specimen variations, the growth of the epithelial tree and the mesenchyme remains highly correlated over time at the whole lobe level, implying a long-range regulation of the lung lobe morphogenesis. Together, these findings indicate that the lung epithelial tree is likely to adapt in real time to fill the available space in the mesenchyme, rather than being rigidly specified and predefined by a global programme. Our results strongly support the idea that a comprehensive understanding of lung branching mechanisms cannot be inferred from the branching pattern or behavior alone. Rather it needs to be elaborated upon with the reconsideration of mesenchyme

  14. FINAL PROCESS DEPENDENT DIMENSIONAL CHANGES OF DOUBLE KNIT FABRICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedat ÖZYAZGAN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper Ne 30/1 cotton yarn obtained by using pure cotton fibers is employed. 1x1, 2x1 and 3x1 Rib fabrics were knitted with yarns at different gauges. During the knitting process, the tension was kept constant. In order to investigate the relaxation on the knitting process fabric samples were treated using three relaxation processes; dry, wet and full respectively. After each relaxation process, stitches dimensions were measured. As a result of these measurements, it is observed that as the relaxation increases the stitches length decreases while the stitches width increases. In rib knitting, As the fabric stretches increases the stitch length increases. As a result it is observed that as the stitch length increases, the width of the stitches increases linearly. In all rib fabrics, increase in the stitch density leads to an increase in the weight of the fabric.

  15. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    1999-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...

  16. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2002-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...

  17. Relax, Tensors Are Here: Dependencies in International Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Minhas, Shahryar; Ward, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    Previous models of international conflict have suffered two shortfalls. They tended not to embody dynamic changes, focusing rather on static slices of behavior over time. These models have also been empirically evaluated in ways that assumed the independence of each country, when in reality they are searching for the interdependence among all countries. We illustrate a solution to these two hurdles and evaluate this new, dynamic, network based approach to the dependencies among the ebb and flow of daily international interactions using a newly developed, and openly available, database of events among nations.

  18. Time dependent atomic processes in discharge produced low Z plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuyama, M.; Sasaki, T.; Horioka, K.; Kawamura, T.

    2008-05-01

    The z-pinch simulation have been performed with magneto-hydro dynamics and atomic population kinetics codes. A factor associated with transient atomic processes was proposed. The atomic transient degrees of dopant lithium in hydrogen plasma were calculated with initial plasma densities of 1.0 × 1016 ~ 5.0 × 1017cm-3. The higher initial plasma density is, the lower is the transient degree generally. It is also found that the transient properties of the atomic processes are sensitive to ionization energy and electron temperature.

  19. Understanding scale dependency of climatic processes with diarrheal disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr Azadani, F.; Jutla, A.; Akanda, A. S. S.; Colwell, R. R.

    2015-12-01

    The issue of scales in linking climatic processes with diarrheal diseases is perhaps one of the most challenging aspect to develop any predictive algorithm for outbreaks and to understand impacts of changing climate. Majority of diarrheal diseases have shown to be strongly associated with climate modulated environmental processes where pathogens survive. Using cholera as an example of characteristic diarrheal diseases, this study will provide methodological insights on dominant scale variability in climatic processes that are linked with trigger and transmission of disease. Cholera based epidemiological models use human to human interaction as a main transmission mechanism, however, environmental conditions for creating seasonality in outbreaks is not explicitly modeled. For example, existing models cannot create seasonality, unless some of the model parameters are a-priori chosen to vary seasonally. A systems based feedback approach will be presented to understand role of climatic processes on trigger and transmission disease. In order to investigate effect of changing climate on cholera, a downscaling approach using support vector machine will be used. Our preliminary results using three climate models, ECHAM5, GFDL, and HADCM show that varying modalities in future cholera outbreaks.

  20. Image quality dependence on image processing software in computed radiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourens Jochemus Strauss

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Image post-processing gives computed radiography (CR a considerable advantage over film-screen systems. After digitisation of information from CR plates, data are routinely processed using manufacturer-specific software. Agfa CR readers use MUSICA software, and an upgrade with significantly different image appearance was recently released: MUSICA2. Aim. This study quantitatively compares the image quality of images acquired without post-processing (flatfield with images processed using these two software packages. Methods. Four aspects of image quality were evaluated. An aluminium step-wedge was imaged using constant mA at tube voltages varying from 40 to 117kV. Signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs and contrast-to-noise Ratios (CNRs were calculated from all steps. Contrast variation with object size was evaluated with visual assessment of images of a Perspex contrast-detail phantom, and an image quality figure (IQF was calculated. Resolution was assessed using modulation transfer functions (MTFs. Results. SNRs for MUSICA2 were generally higher than the other two methods. The CNRs were comparable between the two software versions, although MUSICA2 had slightly higher values at lower kV. The flatfield CNR values were better than those for the processed images. All images showed a decrease in CNRs with tube voltage. The contrast-detail measurements showed that both MUSICA programmes improved the contrast of smaller objects. MUSICA2 was found to give the lowest (best IQF; MTF measurements confirmed this, with values at 3.5 lp/mm of 10% for MUSICA2, 8% for MUSICA and 5% for flatfield. Conclusion. Both MUSICA software packages produced images with better contrast resolution than unprocessed images. MUSICA2 has slightly improved image quality than MUSICA.

  1. Three-dimensional self-assembly of networked branched TiO₂ nanocrystal scaffolds for efficient room-temperature processed depleted bulk heterojunction solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiudice, Anna; Grancini, Giulia; Taurino, Antonietta; Corricelli, Michela; Belviso, Maria R; Striccoli, Marinella; Agostiano, Angela; Curri, M Lucia; Petrozza, Annamaria; Cozzoli, P Davide; Rizzo, Aurora; Gigli, Giuseppe

    2014-04-09

    In this work, we report on ∼4% power conversion efficiency (PCE) depleted bulk heterojunction (DBH) solar cells based on a high-quality electrode with a three-dimensional nanoscale architecture purposely designed so as to maximize light absorption and charge collection. The newly conceived architecture comprises a mesoporous electron-collecting film made of networked anisotropic metal-oxide nanostructures, which accommodates visible-to-infrared light harvesting quantum dots within the recessed regions of its volume. The three-dimensional electrodes were self-assembled by spin-coating a solution of colloidal branched anatase TiO2 NCs (BNC), followed by photocatalytic removal of the native organic capping from their surface by a mild UV-light treatment and filling with small PbS NCs via infiltration. The PCE ∼ 4% of our TiO2 BNC/PbS QD DBH solar cell features an enhancement of 84% over the performance obtained for a planar device fabricated under the same conditions. Overall, the DBH device fabrication procedure is entirely carried out under mild processing conditions at room temperature, thus holding promise for low-cost and large-scale manufacturing.

  2. Temperature-dependent potential in cluster-decay process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharaei, R.; Zanganeh, V.

    2016-08-01

    Role of the thermal effects of the parent nucleus in the Coulomb barrier and the half-life of 28 cluster-decays is systematically analyzed within the framework of the proximity formalism, namely proximity potential 2010. The WKB approximation is used to determine the penetration probability of the emitted cluster. It is shown that the height and width of the Coulomb barrier in the temperature-dependent proximity potential are less than its temperature-independent version. Moreover, this investigation reveals that the calculated values of half-life for selected cluster-decays are in better agreement with the experimental data when the mentioned effects are imposed on the proximity approach. A discussion is also presented about the predictions of the present thermal approach for cluster-decay half-lives of the super-heavy-elements.

  3. Evidence that logical reasoning depends on conscious processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWall, C Nathan; Baumeister, Roy F; Masicampo, E J

    2008-09-01

    Humans, unlike other animals, are equipped with a powerful brain that permits conscious awareness and reflection. A growing trend in psychological science has questioned the benefits of consciousness, however. Testing a hypothesis advanced by [Lieberman, M. D., Gaunt, R., Gilbert, D. T., & Trope, Y. (2002). Reflection and reflexion: A social cognitive neuroscience approach to attributional inference. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 34, 199-249], four studies suggested that the conscious, reflective processing system is vital for logical reasoning. Substantial decrements in logical reasoning were found when a cognitive load manipulation preoccupied conscious processing, while hampering the nonconscious system with consciously suppressed thoughts failed to impair reasoning (Experiment 1). Nonconscious activation (priming) of the idea of logical reasoning increased the activation of logic-relevant concepts, but failed to improve logical reasoning performance (Experiments 2a-2c) unless the logical conclusions were largely intuitive and thus not reliant on logical reasoning (Experiment 3). Meanwhile, stimulating the conscious goal of reasoning well led to improvements in reasoning performance (Experiment 4). These findings offer evidence that logical reasoning is aided by the conscious, reflective processing system.

  4. Short Lives with Long-Lasting Effects: Filopodia Protrusions in Neuronal Branching Morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Leondaritis

    Full Text Available The branching behaviors of both dendrites and axons are part of a neuronal maturation process initiated by the generation of small and transient membrane protrusions. These are highly dynamic, actin-enriched structures, collectively called filopodia, which can mature in neurons to form stable branches. Consequently, the generation of filopodia protrusions is crucial during the formation of neuronal circuits and involves the precise control of an interplay between the plasma membrane and actin dynamics. In this issue of PLOS Biology, Hou and colleagues identify a Ca2+/CaM-dependent molecular machinery in dendrites that ensures proper targeting of branch formation by activation of the actin nucleator Cobl.

  5. Four-State Model for Three-Branch Molecule's Two-Photon Absorption Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Yan; WANG Pei-Ji; ZHAO Peng; RONG Zhen-Yu

    2006-01-01

    @@ We present a four-state model for calculating the two-photon absorption of multi-branched molecules by using the time-depended function method. The numerical results indicate that the two-photon absorption cross section has a strong enhancement for three-branch molecules compared to two-branch structures. The maximal two-photon-absorption cross section is 2.358 × 10-47 cm 4 s/photon. At the same time, the charge-transfer process for the charge-transfer states is visualized in order to explain mechanism about the maximal TPA cross section.

  6. Dependence on supernovae light-curve processing in void models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengochea, Gabriel R., E-mail: gabriel@iafe.uba.ar [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE), UBA-CONICET, CC 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); De Rossi, Maria E., E-mail: derossi@iafe.uba.ar [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE), UBA-CONICET, CC 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2014-06-02

    In this work, we show that when supernova Ia (SN Ia) data sets are used to put constraints on the free parameters of inhomogeneous models, certain extra information regarding the light-curve fitter used in the supernovae Ia luminosity fluxes processing should be taken into account. We found that the size of the void as well as other parameters of these models might be suffering extra degenerations or additional systematic errors due to the fitter. A recent proposal to relieve the tension between the results from Planck satellite and SNe Ia is re-analyzed in the framework of these subjects.

  7. Intratidal and neap-spring variations of suspended sediment concentrations and sediment transport processes in the North Branch of the Changjiang Estuary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhanhai; LI Michael Z; DAI Zhijun; ZHAO Fangfang; LI Jiufa

    2015-01-01

    Profiles of tidal current and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) were measured in the North Branch of the Changjiang Estuary from neap tide to spring tide in April 2010. The measurement data were analyzed to determine the characteristics of intratidal and neap-spring variations of SSC and suspended sediment transport. Modulated by tidal range and current speed, the tidal mean SSC increased from 0.5 kg/m3in neap tide to 3.5 kg/m3 in spring tide. The intratidal variation of the depth-mean SSC can be summarized into three types: V-shape variation in neap tide, M-shape and mixed M-V shape variation in medium and spring tides. The occurrence of these variation types is controlled by the relative intensity and interaction of resuspension, settling and impact of water exchange from the rise and fall of tide. In neap tide the V-shape variation is mainly due to the dominant effect of the water exchange from the rise and fall of tide. During medium and spring tides, resuspension and settling processes become dominant. The interactions of these processes, together with the sustained high ebb current and shorter duration of low-tide slack, are respon-sible for the M-shape and M-V shape SSC variation. Weakly consolidated mud and high current speed cause significant resuspension and remarkable flood and ebb SSC peaks. Settling occurs at the slack water periods to cause SSC troughs and formation of a thin fluff layer on the bed. Fluxes of water and suspended sediment averaged over the neap-spring cycle are all seawards, but the magnitude and direction of tidal net sediment flux is highly variable.

  8. EUROPIUM s-PROCESS SIGNATURE AT CLOSE-TO-SOLAR METALLICITY IN STARDUST SiC GRAINS FROM ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, Janaina N.; Ireland, Trevor R.; Holden, Peter [Research School of Earth Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Lugaro, Maria [Monash Centre for Astrophysics, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800 (Australia); Gyngard, Frank; Zinner, Ernst [Laboratory for Space Sciences and the Department of Physics, Washington University, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Cristallo, Sergio [Osservatorio Astronomico di Collurania, INAF, via Maggini snc, Teramo I-64100 (Italy); Rauscher, Thomas, E-mail: janaina.avila@anu.edu.au [Centre for Astrophysics Research, School of Physics, Astronomy, and Mathematics, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom)

    2013-05-01

    Individual mainstream stardust silicon carbide (SiC) grains and a SiC-enriched bulk sample from the Murchison carbonaceous meteorite have been analyzed by the Sensitive High Resolution Ion Microprobe-Reverse Geometry for Eu isotopes. The mainstream grains are believed to have condensed in the outflows of {approx}1.5-3 M{sub Sun} carbon-rich asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars with close-to-solar metallicity. The {sup 151}Eu fractions [fr({sup 151}Eu) = {sup 151}Eu/({sup 151}Eu+{sup 153}Eu)] derived from our measurements are compared with previous astronomical observations of carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars enriched in elements made by slow neutron captures (the s-process). Despite the difference in metallicity between the parent stars of the grains and the metal-poor stars, the fr({sup 151}Eu) values derived from our measurements agree well with fr({sup 151}Eu) values derived from astronomical observations. We have also compared the SiC data with theoretical predictions of the evolution of Eu isotopic ratios in the envelope of AGB stars. Because of the low Eu abundances in the SiC grains, the fr({sup 151}Eu) values derived from our measurements show large uncertainties, in most cases being larger than the difference between solar and predicted fr({sup 151}Eu) values. The SiC aggregate yields a fr({sup 151}Eu) value within the range observed in the single grains and provides a more precise result (fr({sup 151}Eu) = 0.54 {+-} 0.03, 95% conf.), but is approximately 12% higher than current s-process predictions. The AGB models can match the SiC data if we use an improved formalism to evaluate the contribution of excited nuclear states in the calculation of the {sup 151}Sm(n, {gamma}) stellar reaction rate.

  9. Dependence of the cyclization of branched tetraethers (CBT) on soil moisture in the Chinese Loess Plateau and the adjacent areas: implications for palaeorainfall reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Liu, W.; Zhang, C. L.

    2014-06-01

    Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (bGDGTs) have been show promising for continental paleotemperature studies in loess-paleosol sequences (LPSs). Thus far, however, little is known about the effect of soil moisture on their distributions on the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP). In this study, the relationships between environmental variables and the cyclization of bGDGTs (the so called CBT index) were investigated in a comprehensive set of surface soils in the CLP and its adjacent arid/semi-arid areas. We find that CBT correlates best with soil water content (SWC) or mean annual precipitation (MAP) for the total sample set. Particularly for the CLP soils, there is a significant positive relationship between CBT and MAP (CBT = -0.0021 · MAP + 1.7, n = 37, R2 = 0.87; MAP range: 210-680 mm). This indicates that CBT is mainly controlled by soil moisture in the alkalescent soils (pH > 7) in arid/semi-arid regions, where it is not sensitive to soil pH. Therefore, we suggest that CBT can potentially be used as a palaeorainfall proxy on the CLP. According to the preliminary CBT-MAP relationship for modern CLP soils, palaeorainfall history was reconstructed from three LPSs (Yuanbao, Lantian, and Mangshan) with published bGDGT data spanning the past 70 ka. The CBT-derived MAP records of the three sites consistently show precession-driven variations resembling the speleothem δ18O monsoon record, and are also in general accord with the fluctuations of the respective magnetic susceptibility (MS) record, supporting CBT as a reasonable proxy for palaeorainfall reconstruction in LPS studies. Moreover, the comparison of CBT-derived MAP and bGDGT-derived temperature may enable us to further assess the relative timing and magnitude of hydrological and thermal changes on the CLP, independent of chronology.

  10. Carrier-dependent temporal processing in an auditory interneuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabourin, Patrick; Gottlieb, Heather; Pollack, Gerald S

    2008-05-01

    Signal processing in the auditory interneuron Omega Neuron 1 (ON1) of the cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus was compared at high- and low-carrier frequencies in three different experimental paradigms. First, integration time, which corresponds to the time it takes for a neuron to reach threshold when stimulated at the minimum effective intensity, was found to be significantly shorter at high-carrier frequency than at low-carrier frequency. Second, phase locking to sinusoidally amplitude modulated signals was more efficient at high frequency, especially at high modulation rates and low modulation depths. Finally, we examined the efficiency with which ON1 detects gaps in a constant tone. As reflected by the decrease in firing rate in the vicinity of the gap, ON1 is better at detecting gaps at low-carrier frequency. Following a gap, firing rate increases beyond the pre-gap level. This "rebound" phenomenon is similar for low- and high-carrier frequencies.

  11. A spatially-averaged mathematical model of kidney branching morphogenesis

    KAUST Repository

    Zubkov, V.S.

    2015-08-01

    © 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Kidney development is initiated by the outgrowth of an epithelial ureteric bud into a population of mesenchymal cells. Reciprocal morphogenetic responses between these two populations generate a highly branched epithelial ureteric tree with the mesenchyme differentiating into nephrons, the functional units of the kidney. While we understand some of the mechanisms involved, current knowledge fails to explain the variability of organ sizes and nephron endowment in mice and humans. Here we present a spatially-averaged mathematical model of kidney morphogenesis in which the growth of the two key populations is described by a system of time-dependant ordinary differential equations. We assume that branching is symmetric and is invoked when the number of epithelial cells per tip reaches a threshold value. This process continues until the number of mesenchymal cells falls below a critical value that triggers cessation of branching. The mathematical model and its predictions are validated against experimentally quantified C57Bl6 mouse embryonic kidneys. Numerical simulations are performed to determine how the final number of branches changes as key system parameters are varied (such as the growth rate of tip cells, mesenchyme cells, or component cell population exit rate). Our results predict that the developing kidney responds differently to loss of cap and tip cells. They also indicate that the final number of kidney branches is less sensitive to changes in the growth rate of the ureteric tip cells than to changes in the growth rate of the mesenchymal cells. By inference, increasing the growth rate of mesenchymal cells should maximise branch number. Our model also provides a framework for predicting the branching outcome when ureteric tip or mesenchyme cells change behaviour in response to different genetic or environmental developmental stresses.

  12. Cash efficiency for bank branches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Julia García

    2013-01-01

    Bank liquidity management has become a major issue during the financial crisis as liquidity shortages have intensified and have put pressure on banks to diversity and improve their liquidity sources. While a significant strand of the literature concentrates on wholesale liquidity generation and on the alternative to deposit funding, the management of an inventory of cash holdings within the banks' branches is also a relevant issue as any significant improvement in cash management at the bank distribution channels may have a positive effect in reducing liquidity tensions. In this paper, we propose a simple programme of cash efficiency for the banks' branches, very easy to implement, which conform to a set of instructions to be imposed from the bank to their branches. This model proves to significantly reduce cash holdings at branches thereby providing efficiency improvements in liquidity management. The methodology we propose is based on the definition of some stochastic processes combined with renewal processes, which capture the random elements of the cash flow, before applying suitable optimization programmes to all the costs involved in cash movements. The classical issue of the Transaction Demand for the Cash and some aspects of Inventory Theory are also present. Mathematics Subject Classification (2000) C02, C60, E50.

  13. Mechanisms of side branching and tip splitting in a model of branching morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yina Guo

    Full Text Available Recent experimental work in lung morphogenesis has described an elegant pattern of branching phenomena. Two primary forms of branching have been identified: side branching and tip splitting. In our previous study of lung branching morphogenesis, we used a 4 variable partial differential equation (PDE, due to Meinhardt, as our mathematical model to describe the reaction and diffusion of morphogens creating those branched patterns. By altering key parameters in the model, we were able to reproduce all the branching styles and the switch between branching modes. Here, we attempt to explain the branching phenomena described above, as growing out of two fundamental instabilities, one in the longitudinal (growth direction and the other in the transverse direction. We begin by decoupling the original branching process into two semi-independent sub-processes, 1 a classic activator/inhibitor system along the growing stalk, and 2 the spatial growth of the stalk. We then reduced the full branching model into an activator/inhibitor model that embeds growth of the stalk as a controllable parameter, to explore the mechanisms that determine different branching patterns. We found that, in this model, 1 side branching results from a pattern-formation instability of the activator/inhibitor subsystem in the longitudinal direction. This instability is far from equilibrium, requiring a large inhomogeneity in the initial conditions. It successively creates periodic activator peaks along the growing stalk, each of which later on migrates out and forms a side branch; 2 tip splitting is due to a Turing-style instability along the transversal direction, that creates the spatial splitting of the activator peak into 2 simultaneously-formed peaks at the growing tip, the occurrence of which requires the widening of the growing stalk. Tip splitting is abolished when transversal stalk widening is prevented; 3 when both instabilities are satisfied, tip bifurcation occurs

  14. Dependent Neyman type A processes based on common shock Poisson approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadilar, Gamze Özel; Kadilar, Cem

    2016-04-01

    The Neyman type A process is used for describing clustered data since the Poisson process is insufficient for clustering of events. In a multivariate setting, there may be dependencies between multivarite Neyman type A processes. In this study, dependent form of the Neyman type A process is considered under common shock approach. Then, the joint probability function are derived for the dependent Neyman type A Poisson processes. Then, an application based on forest fires in Turkey are given. The results show that the joint probability function of the dependent Neyman type A processes, which is obtained in this study, can be a good tool for the probabilistic fitness for the total number of burned trees in Turkey.

  15. Melons are branched polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Gurau, Razvan

    2013-01-01

    Melonic graphs constitute the family of graphs arising at leading order in the 1/N expansion of tensor models. They were shown to lead to a continuum phase, reminiscent of branched polymers. We show here that they are in fact precisely branched polymers, that is, they possess Hausdorff dimension 2 and spectral dimension 4/3.

  16. Branching dynamics of viral information spreading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iribarren, José Luis; Moro, Esteban

    2011-10-01

    Despite its importance for rumors or innovations propagation, peer-to-peer collaboration, social networking, or marketing, the dynamics of information spreading is not well understood. Since the diffusion depends on the heterogeneous patterns of human behavior and is driven by the participants’ decisions, its propagation dynamics shows surprising properties not explained by traditional epidemic or contagion models. Here we present a detailed analysis of our study of real viral marketing campaigns where tracking the propagation of a controlled message allowed us to analyze the structure and dynamics of a diffusion graph involving over 31 000 individuals. We found that information spreading displays a non-Markovian branching dynamics that can be modeled by a two-step Bellman-Harris branching process that generalizes the static models known in the literature and incorporates the high variability of human behavior. It explains accurately all the features of information propagation under the “tipping point” and can be used for prediction and management of viral information spreading processes.

  17. Coherent branching feature bisimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa Belder

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Progress in the behavioral analysis of software product lines at the family level benefits from further development of the underlying semantical theory. Here, we propose a behavioral equivalence for feature transition systems (FTS generalizing branching bisimulation for labeled transition systems (LTS. We prove that branching feature bisimulation for an FTS of a family of products coincides with branching bisimulation for the LTS projection of each the individual products. For a restricted notion of coherent branching feature bisimulation we furthermore present a minimization algorithm and show its correctness. Although the minimization problem for coherent branching feature bisimulation is shown to be intractable, application of the algorithm in the setting of a small case study results in a significant speed-up of model checking of behavioral properties.

  18. Synthesis and Characterization of Branched Poly(ester urea)s with Different Branch Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiayi; Becker, Matthew

    2015-03-01

    A new class of L-phenylalanine-based poly(ester urea)s (PEU) was developed that possess tunable mechanical properties, water uptake ability and degradation rates. Our preliminary data has shown that 1,6-hexanediol L - phenylalanine-based poly(ester urea)s possesses an elastic modulus nearly double that of poly(lactic acid). My work details the synthesis of a series of L - phenylalanine-based poly(ester urea)s possessing a variation in diol chain length and in branch density and shows how these subtle structural differences influence the mechanical properties and in vitro biodegradation rates. The elastic moduli span a range of values that overlap with several currently clinically available degradable polymers. Increasingly the diol chain lengths increases the amount of flexible segment in the chemical structure, which results in reduced elastic modulus values and increased values of elongation at break. Increasing the amount of branch monomer incorporated into the system reduces the molecular entanglement, which also results in decreased elastic modulus values and increased values of elongation at break. The L - phenylalanine-based poly(ester urea)s also exhibited a diol length dependent degradation process that varied between 1-5 % over 16 weeks. Compared with PLLA, PEUs degrade more quickly and the rate can be tuned by changing the diol chain length. PEUs absorb more water and the water uptake ability can be tuned by changing the branch density. This work was supported by Akron Functional Materials Center.

  19. The Tip of the Red Giant Branch Distances to Type Ia Supernova Host Galaxies. IV. Color Dependence and Zero-Point Calibration

    CERN Document Server

    Jang, In Sung

    2016-01-01

    We present a revised TRGB calibration, accurate to 2.7% of distance. A modified TRGB magnitude corrected for the color dependence of the TRGB, the QT magnitude, is introduced for better measurement of the TRGB. We determine the color-magnitude relation of the TRGB from photometry of deep images of HST/ACS fields around eight nearby galaxies. The zero-point of the TRGB at the fiducial metallicity ([Fe/H]=-1.6 ((V-I)_{0,TRGB}=1.5)) is obtained from photometry of two distance anchors, NGC 4258 (M106) and the LMC, to which precise geometric distances are known: M_{QT,TRGB}=-4.023+-0.073 mag from NGC 4258 and M_{QT,TRGB}=-4.004+-0.096 mag from the LMC. A weighted mean of the two zero-points is M_{QT,TRGB}=-4.016+-0.058 mag. Quoted uncertainty is ~2 times smaller than those of the previous calibrations. We compare the empirical TRGB calibration derived in this study with theoretical stellar models, finding that there are significant discrepancies, especially for red color ((F606W-F814W)_0 > 2.5). We provide the rev...

  20. Limit Distributions for Generalized Ji(r)ina Processes with Immigration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Qiang LI

    2011-01-01

    A relationship between continuous state population-size-dependent branching(CSDB)processes with or without immigration and discrete state population-size-dependent branching(DSDB)processes with or without immigration is established via the representation of the former.Based on this relationship,some limiting distributions of CSDB processes with or without immigration are obtained.

  1. Time-dependent density functional theory study on direction-dependent electron and hole transfer processes in molecular systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partovi-Azar, Pouya; Kaghazchi, Payam

    2017-04-15

    We report on real-time time-dependent density functional theory calculations on direction-dependent electron and hole transfer processes in molecular systems. As a model system, we focus on α-sulfur. It is shown that time scale of the electron transfer process from a negatively charged S8 molecule to a neighboring neutral monomer is comparable to that of a strong infrared-active molecular vibrations of the dimer with one negatively charged monomer. This results in a strong coupling between the electrons and the nuclei motion which eventually leads to S8 ring opening before the electron transfer process is completed. The open-ring structure is found to be stable. The similar infrared-active peak in the case of hole transfer, however, is shown to be very weak and hence no significant scattering by the nuclei is possible. The presented approach to study the charge transfer processes in sulfur has direct applications in the increasingly growing research field of charge transport in molecular systems. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. 随机环境中的两性Galton-Watson分枝过程的极限行为%The Limit Behavior for the Bisexual Galton-Watson Branching Processes in Random Environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马世霞; 李晋枝

    2011-01-01

    考虑了后代概率分布受一个独立同分布环境过程所控制的两性Galton-Watson分枝过程,得到了有关过程渐进增长的若干结果.%A bisexual Galton-Watson branching process is considered,where the offspring probability distribution is controlled by an independent and identically environment process.Some results for the asymptotic growth associated with the process are obtained.

  3. Phenomenological approach to describe logistic growth and carrying capacity-dependent growth processes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    DIBYENDU BISWAS; SWARUP PORIA; SANKAR NARAYAN PATRA

    2016-11-01

    In this communication, different classes of phenomenological universalities of carrying capacity dependent growth processes have been proposed. The logistic as well as carrying capacity-dependent West-type allometry-based biological growths can be explained in this proposed framework. It is shown that logistic and carrying capacity-dependent West-type growths are phenomenologically identical in nature. However, there is a difference between them in terms of coefficients involved in the phenomenological descriptions. Involuted Gompertz function, used to describe biological growth processes undergoing atrophy or a demographic and economic system undergoing involution or regression, can be addressed in this proposed environment-dependent description. It is also found phenomenologically that the energy intake of an organism depends on carrying capacity whereas metabolic cost does not depend on carrying capacity. In addition, some other phenomenologicaldescriptions have been examined in this proposed framework and graphical representations of variation of different parameters involved in the description are executed.

  4. Study of the kinematic dependences of $\\Lambda_b^0$ production in $pp$ collisions and a measurement of the $\\Lambda_b^0 \\rightarrow \\Lambda_c^+ \\pi^-$ branching fraction

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassen, Rolf; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Balagura, Vladislav; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Bauer, Thomas; Bay, Aurelio; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Belogurov, Sergey; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Bizzeti, Andrea; Bjørnstad, Pål Marius; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borgia, Alessandra; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Brambach, Tobias; van den Brand, Johannes; Bressieux, Joël; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brook, Nicholas; Brown, Henry; Bursche, Albert; Busetto, Giovanni; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Callot, Olivier; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Camboni, Alessandro; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carranza-Mejia, Hector; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Ciba, Krzystof; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coca, Cornelia; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Counts, Ian; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pascal; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farry, Stephen; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; Garofoli, Justin; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gaspar, Clara; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Giani', Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, Vladimir; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gordon, Hamish; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Hampson, Thomas; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; Hartmann, Thomas; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Hunt, Philip; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jaton, Pierre; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jezabek, Marek; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kaballo, Michael; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Korolev, Mikhail; Kozlinskiy, Alexandr; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; La Thi, Viet Nga; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lambert, Robert W; Lanciotti, Elisa; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leo, Sabato; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Liu, Guoming; Lohn, Stefan; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lopez-March, Neus; Lowdon, Peter; Lu, Haiting; Lucchesi, Donatella; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Machefert, Frederic; Machikhiliyan, Irina V; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Malde, Sneha; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Manzali, Matteo; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Märki, Raphael; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martens, Aurelien; Martín Sánchez, Alexandra; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; McSkelly, Ben; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Merk, Marcel; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monteil, Stephane; Moran, Dermot; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Katharina; Muresan, Raluca; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nicol, Michelle; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Oggero, Serena; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Orlandea, Marius; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Arantza; Pal, Bilas Kanti; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Parkes, Christopher; Parkinson, Christopher John; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pazos Alvarez, Antonio; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perez Trigo, Eliseo; Perret, Pascal; Perrin-Terrin, Mathieu; Pescatore, Luca; Pesen, Erhan; Petridis, Konstantin; Petrolini, Alessandro; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Powell, Andrew; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rakotomiaramanana, Barinjaka; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Alexander; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Roa Romero, Diego; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruffini, Fabrizio; Ruiz, Hugo; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Sabatino, Giovanni; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sapunov, Matvey; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Savrie, Mauro; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Seco, Marcos; Semennikov, Alexander; Senderowska, Katarzyna; Sepp, Indrek; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Anthony; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Sparkes, Ailsa; Spinella, Franco; Spradlin, Patrick; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Sascha; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Stroili, Roberto; Subbiah, Vijay Kartik; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szilard, Daniela; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teodorescu, Eliza; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ubeda Garcia, Mario; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; Voss, Helge; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Webber, Adam Dane; Websdale, David; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wiedner, Dirk; Wilkinson, Guy; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wu, Suzhi; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Wen Chao; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang; Zvyagin, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The kinematic dependences of the relative production rates, $f_{\\Lambda_b^0}/f_d$, of $\\Lambda_b^0$ baryons and $\\bar{B}^0$ mesons are measured using $\\Lambda_b^0 \\rightarrow \\Lambda_c^+ \\pi^-$ and $\\bar{B}^0 \\rightarrow D^+ \\pi^-$ decays. The measurements use proton-proton collision data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1 fb$^{-1}$ at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV, recorded in the forward region with the LHCb experiment. The relative production rates are observed to depend on the transverse momentum, $p_T$, and pseudorapidity, $\\eta$, of the beauty hadron, in the studied kinematic region $1.5 < p_T < 40$ GeV/$c$ and $2 < \\eta < 5$. Using a previous LHCb measurement of $f_{\\Lambda_b^0}/f_d$ in semileptonic decays, the branching fraction $\\mathcal{B}(\\Lambda_b^0 \\rightarrow \\Lambda_c^+ \\pi^-) = \\Big( 4.30 \\pm 0.03 \\,\\, ^{+0.12}_{-0.11} \\pm 0.26 \\pm 0.21 \\Big) \\times 10^{-3}$ is obtained, where the first uncertainty is statistical, the second is systematic, the third is from the prev...

  5. Attentional resource allocation in visuotactile processing depends on the task, but optimal visuotactile integration does not depend on attentional resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basil eWahn

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Humans constantly process and integrate sensory input from multiple sensory modalities. However, the amount of input that can be processed is constrained by limited attentional resources. A matter of ongoing debate is whether attentional resources are shared across sensory modalities, and whether multisensory integration is dependent on attentional resources. Previous research suggested that the distribution of attentional resources across sensory modalities depends on the the type of tasks. Here, we tested a novel task combination in a dual task paradigm: Participants performed a self-terminated visual search task and a localization task in either separate sensory modalities (i.e., haptics and vision or both within the visual modality. Tasks considerably interfered. However, participants performed the visual search task faster when the localization task was performed in the tactile modality in comparison to performing both tasks within the visual modality. This finding indicates that tasks performed in separate sensory modalities rely in part on distinct attentional resources. Nevertheless, participants integrated visuotactile information optimally in the localization task even when attentional resources were diverted to the visual search task. Overall, our findings suggest that visual search and tactile localization partly rely on distinct attentional resources, and that optimal visuotactile integration is not dependent on attentional resources.

  6. LP rounding and an almost harmonic algorithm for scheduling with resource dependent processing times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigoriev, A.; Sviridenko, M.; Uetz, M.J.; DÍaz, J.; Jansen, K.; Rolim, J.D.P.; Zwick, U.

    2006-01-01

    We consider a scheduling problem on unrelated parallel machines with the objective to minimize the makespan. In addition to its machine dependence, the processing time of any job is dependent on the usage of a scarce renewable resource, e.g. workers. A given amount of that resource can be distribute

  7. Coherent branching feature bisimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Belder (Tessa); M.H. ter Beek (Maurice); E.P. de Vink (Erik Peter)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractProgress in the behavioral analysis of software product lines at the family level benefits from further development of the underlying semantical theory. Here, we propose a behavioral equivalence for feature transition systems (FTS) generalizing branching bisimulation for labeled

  8. An archetypal mechanism for branching organogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Raphaël; Mauroy, Benjamin

    2014-02-01

    Branched structures are ubiquitous in nature, both in living and non-living systems. While the functional benefits of branching organogenesis are straightforward, the developmental mechanisms leading to the repeated branching of epithelia in surrounding mesoderm remain unclear. Both molecular and physical aspects of growth control seem to play a critical role in shape emergence and maintenance. On the molecular side, the existence of a gradient of growth-promoting ligand between epithelial tips and distal mesenchyme seems to be common to branched organs. On the physical side, the branching process seems to require a mechanism of real-time adaptation to local geometry, as suggested by the self-avoiding nature of branching events. In this paper, we investigate the outcomes of a general three-dimensional growth model, in which epithelial growth is implemented as a function of ligand income, while the mesenchyme is considered as a proliferating viscous medium. Our results suggest that the existence of a gradient of growth-promoting ligand between distal and proximal mesenchyme implies a growth instability of the epithelial sheet, resulting in spontaneous self-avoiding branching morphogenesis. While the general nature of the model prevents one from fitting the development of specific organs, it suggests that few ingredients are actually required to achieve branching organogenesis.

  9. Efficiency of the Inertia Friction Welding Process and Its Dependence on Process Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senkov, O. N.; Mahaffey, D. W.; Tung, D. J.; Zhang, W.; Semiatin, S. L.

    2017-07-01

    It has been widely assumed, but never proven, that the efficiency of the inertia friction welding (IFW) process is independent of process parameters and is relatively high, i.e., 70 to 95 pct. In the present work, the effect of IFW parameters on process efficiency was established. For this purpose, a series of IFW trials was conducted for the solid-state joining of two dissimilar nickel-base superalloys (LSHR and Mar-M247) using various combinations of initial kinetic energy ( i.e., the total weld energy, E o), initial flywheel angular velocity ( ω o), flywheel moment of inertia ( I), and axial compression force ( P). The kinetics of the conversion of the welding energy to heating of the faying sample surfaces ( i.e., the sample energy) vs parasitic losses to the welding machine itself were determined by measuring the friction torque on the sample surfaces ( M S) and in the machine bearings ( M M). It was found that the rotating parts of the welding machine can consume a significant fraction of the total energy. Specifically, the parasitic losses ranged from 28 to 80 pct of the total weld energy. The losses increased (and the corresponding IFW process efficiency decreased) as P increased (at constant I and E o), I decreased (at constant P and E o), and E o (or ω o) increased (at constant P and I). The results of this work thus provide guidelines for selecting process parameters which minimize energy losses and increase process efficiency during IFW.

  10. Branched Polymer Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Aoki, H; Kawai, H; Kitazawa, Y; Aoki, Hajime; Iso, Satoshi; Kawai, Hikaru; Kitazawa, Yoshihisa

    2000-01-01

    We show that correlation functions for branched polymers correspond to those for $\\phi^3$ theory with a single mass insertion, not those for the $\\phi^3$ theory themselves, as has been widely believed. In particular, the two-point function behaves as 1/p^4, not as 1/p^2. This behavior is consistent with the fact that the Hausdorff dimension of the branched polymer is four.

  11. Critical Multitype Branching Systems: Extinction Results

    CERN Document Server

    Kevei, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We consider a critical branching particle system in $\\R^d$, composed of individuals of a finite number of types $i\\in\\{1,...,K\\}$. Each individual of type $i$ moves independently according to a symmetric $\\alpha_i$-stable motion. We assume that the particle lifetimes and offspring distributions are type-dependent. Under the usual independence assumptions in branching systems, we prove extinction theorems in the following cases: (1) all the particle lifetimes have finite mean, or (2) there is a type whose lifetime distribution has heavy tail, and the other lifetimes have finite mean. We get a more complex dynamics by assuming in case (2) that the most mobile particle type corresponds to a finite-mean lifetime: in this case, local extinction of the population is determined by an interaction of the parameters (offspring variability, mobility, longevity) of the long-living type and those of the most mobile type. The proofs are based on a precise analysis of the occupation times of a related Markov renewal process...

  12. 加权分支过程的单调性、对偶性和Feller性质%The Monotonicity, Duality and Feller Property of Weighted Markov Branching Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁水琴; 李扬荣

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the monotonicity, duality and Feller property of weighted Markov branching processes are studied and some necessary and sufficient conditions for the minimal Q-function being an monotone or dual transition function are obtained, where Q is a weighted Markov branching q-matrix. Especially, Feller criteria are obtained when Q is neither dual nor monotone.%研究加权分支过程的单调性, 对偶性以及Feller性质, 并得到了加权分支q矩阵的最小Q函数成为单调或对偶时的充要条件, 特别是得到了当Q既不对偶也不单调时的Feller准则.

  13. The interplay of matrix metalloproteinases, morphogens and growth factors is necessary for branching of mammary epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simian, M.; Harail, Y.; Navre, M.; Werb, Z.; Lochter, A.; Bissell, M.J.

    2002-03-06

    The mammary gland develops its adult form by a process referred to as branching morphogenesis. Many factors have been reported to affect this process. We have used cultured primary mammary epithelial organoids and mammary epithelial cell lines in three-dimensional collagen gels to elucidate which growth factors, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and mammary morphogens interact in branching morphogenesis. Branching stimulated by stromal fibroblasts, epidermal growth factor, fibroblast growth factor 7, fibroblast growth factor 2 and hepatocyte growth factor was strongly reduced by inhibitors of MMPs, indicating the requirement of MMPs for three-dimensional growth involved in morphogenesis. Recombinant stromelysin 1/MMP-3 alone was sufficient to drive branching in the absence of growth factors in the organoids. Plasmin also stimulated branching; however, plasmin-dependent branching was abolished by both inhibitors of plasmin and MMPs, suggesting that plasmin activates MMPs. To differentiate between signals for proliferation and morphogenesis, we used a cloned mammary epithelial cell line that lacks epimorphin, an essential mammary morphogen. Both epimorphin and MMPs were required for morphogenesis, but neither was required for epithelial cell proliferation. These results provide direct evidence for a critical role of MMPs in branching in mammary epithelium and suggest that, in addition to epimorphin, MMP activity is a minimum requirement for branching morphogenesis in the mammary gland.

  14. BDC 500 branch driver controller

    CERN Document Server

    Dijksman, A

    1981-01-01

    This processor has been designed for very fast data acquisition and date pre-processing. The dataway and branch highway speeds have been optimized for approximately 1.5 mu sec. The internal processor cycle is approximately 0.8 mu sec. The standard version contains the following functions (slots): crate controller type A1; branch highway driver including terminator; serial I/O port (TTY, VDU); 24 bit ALU and 24 bit program counter; 16 bit memory address counter and 4 word stack; 4k bit memory for program and/or data; battery backup for the memory; CNAFD and crate LAM display; request/grant logic for time- sharing operation of several BDCs. The free slots can be equipped with e.g. extra RAM, computer interfaces, hardware multiplier/dividers, etc. (0 refs).

  15. A computational model of dendrite elongation and branching based on MAP2 phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hely, T A; Graham, B; Ooyen, A V

    2001-06-07

    We introduce a new computational model of dendritic development in neurons. In contrast to previous models, our model explicitly includes cellular mechanisms involved in dendritic development. It is based on recent experimental data which indicates that the phosphorylation state of microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) may play a key role in controlling dendritic elongation and branching (Audesirk et al., 1997). Dephosphorylated MAP2 favours elongation by promoting microtubule polymerization and bundling, whilst branching is more likely to occur when MAP2 is phosphorylated and microtubules are spaced apart. In the model, the rate of elongation and branching is directly determined by the ratio of phosphorylated to dephosphorylated MAP2. This is regulated by calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and calcineurin, which are both dependent on the intracellular calcium concentration. Results from computer simulations of the model suggest that the wide variety of branching patterns observed among different cell types may be generated by the same underlying mechanisms and that elongation and branching are not necessarily independent processes. The model predicts how the branching pattern will change following manipulations with calcium, CaMKII and MAP2 phosphorylation.

  16. ON THE EXTINCTION OF POPULATION-SIZE-DEPENDENT BISEXUAL GALTON-WATSON PROCESSES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the population-size-dependent bisexual Galton-Watson processes are considered. Under some suitable conditions on the mating functions and the offspring distribution, existence of the limit of mean growth rate per mating unit is proved. And based on the limit, a criterion to identify whether the process admits ultimate extinct with probability one is obtained.

  17. Feller property and exponential ergodicity of diffusion processes with state-dependent switching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XI FuBao

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we consider the Feller property and the exponential ergodicity for general diffusion processes with State-dependent switching. We prove their Feller continuity by means of intro-ducing some auxiliary processes and by making use of the Radon-Nikodym derivatives. Furthermore, we also prove their strong Feller continuity and their exponential ergodicity under some reasonable conditions.

  18. On the stability of diffusion processes with state-dependent switching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XI Fubao; ZHAO Liqin

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we consider the stability for diffusion processes with state-dependent switching. We first prove their Feller continuity by the coupling methods. Furthermore, we also prove their strong Feller continuity and their exponential ergodicity under some reasonable conditions. Finally, we append a very brief discussion about the regularity of these processes.

  19. Science Process Skills of Students Having Field Dependent and Field Independent Cognitive Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Mehmet; Temiz, Burak Kagan

    2013-01-01

    This study has been carried out to compare the integrated science process of the students having field dependent and independent cognitive style. A total of 496 students (285 female, 211 male) participated using by stratified sampling method from seven high schools located in the Cappadocia Region of Turkey. While students' science process skills…

  20. Feller property and exponential ergodicity of diffusion processes with state-dependent switching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we consider the Feller property and the exponential ergodicity for general diffusion processes with state-dependent switching. We prove their Feller continuity by means of intro- ducing some auxiliary processes and by making use of the Radon-Nikodym derivatives. Furthermore, we also prove their strong Feller continuity and their exponential ergodicity under some reasonable conditions.

  1. Motivational influences on impression formation: outcome dependency, accuracy-driven attention, and individuating processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberg, S L; Fiske, S T

    1987-09-01

    How might being outcome dependent on another person influence the processes that one uses to form impressions of that person? We designed three experiments to investigate this question with respect to short-term, task-oriented outcome dependency. In all three experiments, subjects expected to interact with a young man formerly hospitalized as a schizophrenic, and they received information about the person's attributes in either written profiles or videotapes. In Experiment 1, short-term, task-oriented outcome dependency led subjects to use relatively individuating processes (i.e., to base their impressions of the patient on his particular attributes), even under conditions that typically lead subjects to use relatively category-based processes (i.e., to base their impressions on the patient's schizophrenic label). Moreover, in the conditions that elicited individuating processes, subjects spent more time attending to the patient's particular attribute information. Experiment 2 demonstrated that the attention effects in Experiment 1 were not merely a function of impression positivity and that outcome dependency did not influence the impression formation process when attribute information in addition to category-level information was unavailable. Finally, Experiment 3 manipulated not outcome dependency but the attentional goal of forming an accurate impression. We found that accuracy-driven attention to attribute information also led to individuating processes. The results of the three experiments indicate that there are important influences of outcome dependency on impression formation. These results are consistent with a model in which the tendency for short-term, task-oriented outcome dependency to facilitate individuating impression formation processes is mediated by an increase in accuracy-driven attention to attribute information.

  2. The impact of updated Zr neutron-capture cross sections and new asymptotic giant branch models on our understanding of the s process and the origin of stardust

    CERN Document Server

    Lugaro, Maria; Karakas, Amanda I; Milazzo, Paolo M; Kaeppeler, Franz; Davis, Andrew M; Savina, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    We present model predictions for the Zr isotopic ratios produced by slow neutron captures in C-rich asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars of masses 1.25 to 4 Msun and metallicities Z=0.01 to 0.03, and compare them to data from single meteoritic stardust silicon carbide (SiC) and high-density graphite grains that condensed in the outflows of these stars. We compare predictions produced using the Zr neutron-capture cross section from Bao et al. (2000) and from n_TOF experiments at CERN, and present a new evaluation for the neutron-capture cross section of the unstable isotope 95Zr, the branching point leading to the production of 96Zr. The new cross sections generally presents an improved match with the observational data, except for the 92Zr/94Zr ratios, which are on average still substantially higher than predicted. The 96Zr/94Zr ratios can be explained using our range of initial stellar masses, with the most 96Zr-depleted grains originating from AGB stars of masses 1.8 - 3 Msun, and the others from either lowe...

  3. Spike timing dependent plasticity (STDP) can ameliorate process variations in neuromorphic VLSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Katherine; Boonsobhak, Vasin; Murray, Alan; Renshaw, David

    2005-11-01

    A transient-detecting very large scale integration (VLSI) pixel is described, suitable for use in a visual-processing, depth-recovery algorithm based upon spike timing. A small array of pixels is coupled to an adaptive system, based upon spike timing dependent plasticity (STDP), that aims to reduce the effect of VLSI process variations on the algorithm's performance. Results from 0.35 microm CMOS temporal differentiating pixels and STDP circuits show that the system is capable of adapting to substantially reduce the effects of process variations without interrupting the algorithm's natural processes. The concept is generic to all spike timing driven processing algorithms in a VLSI.

  4. Controlled synthesis of hyper-branched inorganic nanocrystals withrich three-dimensional structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanaras, Antonios G.; Sonnichsen, Carsten; Liu, Haitao; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2005-07-27

    Studies of crystal growth kinetics are tightly integrated with advances in the creation of new nanoscale inorganic building blocks and their functional assemblies 1-11. Recent examples include the development of semiconductor nanorods which have potential uses in solar cells 12-17, and the discovery of a light driven process to create noble metal particles with sharp corners that can be used in plasmonics 18,19. In the course of studying basic crystal growth kinetics we developed a process for preparing branched semiconductor nanocrystals such as tetrapods and inorganic dendrimers of precisely controlled generation 20,21. Here we report the discovery of a crystal growth kinetics regime in which a new class of hyper-branched nanocrystals are formed. The shapes range from 'thorny balls', to tree-like ramified structures, to delicate 'spider net'-like particles. These intricate shapes depend crucially on a delicate balance of branching and extension. The multitudes of resulting shapes recall the diverse shapes of snowflakes 22.The three dimensional nature of the branch points here, however, lead to even more complex arrangements than the two dimensionally branched structures observed in ice. These hyper-branched particles not only extend the available three-dimensional shapes in nanoparticle synthesis ,but also provide a tool to study growth kinetics by carefully observing and modeling particle morphology.

  5. Right bundle branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bussink, Barbara E; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Jespersen, Lasse

    2013-01-01

    AimsTo determine the prevalence, predictors of newly acquired, and the prognostic value of right bundle branch block (RBBB) and incomplete RBBB (IRBBB) on a resting 12-lead electrocardiogram in men and women from the general population.Methods and resultsWe followed 18 441 participants included.......5%/2.3% in women, P Right bundle branch block was associated with significantly...... increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in both genders with age-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of 1.31 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-1.54] and 1.87 (95% CI, 1.48-2.36) in the gender pooled analysis with little attenuation after multiple adjustment. Right bundle branch block was associated...

  6. Branching diffusions in random environment

    CERN Document Server

    Böinghoff, Christian

    2011-01-01

    We consider the diffusion approximation of branching processes in random environment (BPREs). This diffusion approximation is similar to and mathematically more tractable than BPREs. We obtain the exact asymptotic behavior of the survival probability. As in the case of BPREs, there is a phase transition in the subcritical regime due to different survival opportunities. In addition, we characterize the process conditioned to never go extinct and establish a backbone construction. In the strongly subcritical regime, mean offspring numbers are increased but still subcritical in the process conditioned to never go extinct. Here survival is solely due to an immortal individual, whose offspring are the ancestors of additional families. In the weakly subcritical regime, the mean offspring number is supercritical in the process conditioned to never go extinct. Thus this process survives with positive probability even if there was no immortal individual.

  7. Effects of the structure of the branches on the two-photon absorption properties for the multi-branched molecules with nitrogen (N) as coupling center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects of the structure of branches on the TPA properties for multi-branched molecules, the TPA cross section is calculated by using ZINDO/SOS method. The investigated mole- cules have different branches (chomorfores based on stilbene, dithienothiophene and flourene) with nitrogen(N) as coupling center. The results show that the cooperative enhancement in multi-branched molecules depends on the structures of the branches and the structures of branches play an important role in the enhancement of the TPA cross section. The designed molecules with stilbene and dithie- nothiophene as branched possess relatively larger two-photon absorption cross sections.

  8. Effects of the structure of the branches on the two-photon absorption properties for the multi-branched molecules with nitrogen (N) as coupling center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects of the structure of branches on the TPA properties for multi-branched molecules, the TPA cross section is calculated by using ZINDO/SOS method. The investigated molecules have different branches (chomorfores based on stilbene, dithienothiophene and flourene) with nitrogen(N) as coupling center. The results show that the cooperative enhancement in multi-branched molecules depends on the structures of the branches and the structures of branches play an important role in the enhancement of the TPA cross section. The designed molecules with stilbene and dithienothiophene as branched possess relatively larger two-photon absorption cross sections.

  9. Testing the process dependence of the Sivers function via hadron distributions inside a jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Alesio, Umberto [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria, I-09042 Monserrato (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Cagliari, C.P. 170, I-09042 Monserrato (Italy); Gamberg, Leonard, E-mail: lpg10@psu.edu [Division of Science, Penn State Berks, Reading, PA 19610 (United States); Kang Zhongbo [RIKEN BNL Research Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Murgia, Francesco [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Cagliari, C.P. 170, I-09042 Monserrato (Italy); Pisano, Cristian [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria, I-09042 Monserrato (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Cagliari, C.P. 170, I-09042 Monserrato (Italy)

    2011-10-25

    We study the process dependence of the Sivers function by considering the impact of color-gauge invariant initial and final state interactions on transverse spin asymmetries in proton-proton scattering reactions within the framework of the transverse momentum dependent (TMD), generalized parton model. To this aim, we consider the azimuthal distribution of leading pions inside a fragmenting jet as well as single inclusive jet asymmetry in polarized proton-proton collisions. In contrast to single inclusive pion production, in both cases we can isolate the Sivers contribution and thereby study its process dependence. The predictions for the Sivers asymmetry obtained with and without inclusion of color gauge factors are comparable in size but with opposite signs. We conclude that both processes represent unique opportunities to discriminate among the two approaches and test the universality properties of the Sivers function in hadronic scattering reactions.

  10. The impact of updated Zr neutron-capture cross sections and new asymptotic giant branch models on our understanding of the S process and the origin of stardust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugaro, Maria [Monash Centre for Astrophysics (MoCA), Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800 (Australia); Tagliente, Giuseppe [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Bari (Italy); Karakas, Amanda I. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Milazzo, Paolo M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Trieste (Italy); Käppeler, Franz [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Campus North, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Davis, Andrew M. [The Department of the Geophysical Sciences, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Savina, Michael R., E-mail: maria.lugaro@monash.edu, E-mail: giuseppe.tagliente@ba.infn.it, E-mail: amanda.karakas@anu.edu.au, E-mail: paolo.milazzo@ts.infn.it, E-mail: franz.kaeppeler@kit.edu, E-mail: a-davis@uchicago.edu, E-mail: msavina@anl.gov [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    We present model predictions for the Zr isotopic ratios produced by slow neutron captures in C-rich asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars of masses 1.25-4 M {sub ☉} and metallicities Z = 0.01-0.03, and compare them to data from single meteoritic stardust silicon carbide (SiC) and high-density graphite grains that condensed in the outflows of these stars. We compare predictions produced using the Zr neutron-capture cross sections from Bao et al. and from n{sub T}OF experiments at CERN, and present a new evaluation for the neutron-capture cross section of the unstable isotope {sup 95}Zr, the branching point leading to the production of {sup 96}Zr. The new cross sections generally present an improved match with the observational data, except for the {sup 92}Zr/{sup 94}Zr ratios, which are on average still substantially higher than predicted. The {sup 96}Zr/{sup 94}Zr ratios can be explained using our range of initial stellar masses, with the most {sup 96}Zr-depleted grains originating from AGB stars of masses 1.8-3 M {sub ☉} and the others from either lower or higher masses. The {sup 90,} {sup 91}Zr/{sup 94}Zr variations measured in the grains are well reproduced by the range of stellar metallicities considered here, which is the same needed to cover the Si composition of the grains produced by the chemical evolution of the Galaxy. The {sup 92}Zr/{sup 94}Zr versus {sup 29}Si/{sup 28}Si positive correlation observed in the available data suggests that stellar metallicity rather than rotation plays the major role in covering the {sup 90,} {sup 91,} {sup 92}Zr/{sup 94}Zr spread.

  11. BOOTSTRAP WAVELET IN THE NONPARAMETRIC REGRESSION MODEL WITH WEAKLY DEPENDENT PROCESSES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林路; 张润楚

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces a method of bootstrap wavelet estimation in a nonparametric regression model with weakly dependent processes for both fixed and random designs. The asymptotic bounds for the bias and variance of the bootstrap wavelet estimators are given in the fixed design model. The conditional normality for a modified version of the bootstrap wavelet estimators is obtained in the fixed model. The consistency for the bootstrap wavelet estimator is also proved in the random design model. These results show that the bootstrap wavelet method is valid for the model with weakly dependent processes.

  12. Radioiodinated branched carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Mark M.; Knapp, Jr., Furn F.

    1989-01-01

    A radioiodinated branched carbohydrate for tissue imaging. Iodine-123 is stabilized in the compound by attaching it to a vinyl functional group that is on the carbohydrate. The compound exhibits good uptake and retention and is promising in the development of radiopharmaceuticals for brain, heart and tumor imaging.

  13. Multimode geodesic branching components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, D.; Voges, E.

    1983-01-01

    Geodesic branching components are investigated for multimode guided wave optics. Geodesic structures with particular properties, e.g. focussing star couplers, are derived by a synthesis technique based on a theorem of Toraldo di Francia. Experimentally, the geodesic surfaces are printed on acrylic glass and are spin-coated with organic film waveguides.

  14. Tracheobronchial Branching Anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Min Ji; Kim, Young Tong; Jou, Sung Shick [Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Park, A Young [Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Asan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    There are various congenital anomalies with respect to the number, length, diameter, and location of tracheobronchial branching patterns. The tracheobronchial anomalies are classified into two groups. The first one, anomalies of division, includes tracheal bronchus, cardiac bronchus, tracheal diverticulum, pulmonary isomerism, and minor variations. The second one, dysmorphic lung, includes lung agenesis-hypoplasia complex and lobar agenesis-aplasia complex

  15. Understanding scaling through history-dependent processes with collapsing sample space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corominas-Murtra, Bernat; Hanel, Rudolf; Thurner, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    History-dependent processes are ubiquitous in natural and social systems. Many such stochastic processes, especially those that are associated with complex systems, become more constrained as they unfold, meaning that their sample space, or their set of possible outcomes, reduces as they age. We demonstrate that these sample-space-reducing (SSR) processes necessarily lead to Zipf’s law in the rank distributions of their outcomes. We show that by adding noise to SSR processes the corresponding rank distributions remain exact power laws, p(x)∼x−λ, where the exponent directly corresponds to the mixing ratio of the SSR process and noise. This allows us to give a precise meaning to the scaling exponent in terms of the degree to which a given process reduces its sample space as it unfolds. Noisy SSR processes further allow us to explain a wide range of scaling exponents in frequency distributions ranging from α=2 to ∞. We discuss several applications showing how SSR processes can be used to understand Zipf’s law in word frequencies, and how they are related to diffusion processes in directed networks, or aging processes such as in fragmentation processes. SSR processes provide a new alternative to understand the origin of scaling in complex systems without the recourse to multiplicative, preferential, or self-organized critical processes. PMID:25870294

  16. EigenGP: Sparse Gaussian process models with data-dependent eigenfunctions

    OpenAIRE

    Qi, Yuan; Dai, Bo; Zhu, Yao

    2012-01-01

    Gaussian processes (GPs) provide a nonparametric representation of functions. However, classical GP inference suffers from high computational cost and it is difficult to design nonstationary GP priors in practice. In this paper, we propose a sparse Gaussian process model, EigenGP, based on the Karhunen-Loeve (KL) expansion of a GP prior. We use the Nystrom approximation to obtain data dependent eigenfunctions and select these eigenfunctions by evidence maximization. This selection reduces the...

  17. Kinetic Energy Release in Fragmentation Processes following Electron Emission: A time dependent approach

    CERN Document Server

    Chiang, Ying-Chih; Meyer, Hans-Dieter; Cederbaum, Lorenz S

    2012-01-01

    A time-dependent approach for the kinetic energy release (KER) spectrum is developed for a fragmentation of a diatomic molecule after an electronic decay process, e.g. Auger process. It allows one to simulate the time-resolved spectra and provides more insight into the molecular dynamics than the time-independent approach. Detailed analysis of the time-resolved emitted electron and KER spectra sheds light on the interrelation between wave packet dynamics and spectra.

  18. Definition of Metric Dependencies for Monitoring the Impact of Quality of Services on Quality of Processes

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Service providers have to monitor the quality of offered services and to ensure the compliance of service levels provider and requester agreed on. Thereby, a service provider should notify a service requester about violations of service level agreements (SLAs). Furthermore, the provider should point to impacts on affected processes in which services are invoked. For that purpose, a model is needed to define dependencies between quality of processes and quality of invoked services. In order to...

  19. Energetic Constraints on H-2-Dependent Terminal Electron Accepting Processes in Anoxic Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heimann, Axel Colin; Jakobsen, Rasmus; Blodau, C.

    2010-01-01

    Microbially mediated terminal electron accepting processes (TEAPs) to a large extent control the fate of redox reactive elements and associated reactions in anoxic soils, sediments, and aquifers. This review focuses on thermodynamic controls and regulation of H-2-dependent TEAPs, case studies...... illustrating this concept and the quantitative description of thermodynamic controls in modeling. Other electron transfer processes are considered where appropriate. The work reviewed shows that thermodynamics and microbial kinetics are connected near thermodynamic equilibrium. Free energy thresholds...

  20. Modelling and assessment of dependent performance shaping factors through Analytic Network Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Ambroggi, Massimiliano, E-mail: massimiliano.deambroggi@mail.polimi.i [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Management, Economics and Industrial Engineering, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, Milan 20132 (Italy); Trucco, Paolo [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Management, Economics and Industrial Engineering, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, Milan 20132 (Italy)

    2011-07-15

    Despite continuous progresses in research and applications, one of the major weaknesses of current HRA methods dwells in their limited capability of modelling the mutual influences between performance shaping factors (PSFs). Indeed at least two types of dependencies between PSFs can be defined: (i) dependency between the states of the PSFs; (ii) dependency between the influences (impacts) of the PSFs on the human performance. This paper introduces a method, based on Analytic Network Process (ANP), for the quantification of the latter, where the overall contribution of each PSF (weight) to the human error probability (HEP) is eventually returned. The core of the method is the modelling process, articulated into two steps: firstly, a qualitative network of dependencies between PSFs is identified, then, the importance of each PSF is quantitatively assessed using ANP. The model allows to distinguish two components of the PSF influence: direct influence that is the influence that the considered PSF is able to express by itself, notwithstanding the presence of other PSFs and indirect influence that is the incremental influence of the considered PSF through its influence on other PSFs. A case study in Air Traffic Control is presented where the proposed approach is integrated into the cognitive simulator PROCOS. The results demonstrated a significant modification of the influence of PSFs over the operator performance when dependencies are taken into account, underlining the importance of considering not only the possible correlation between the states of PSFs but also their mutual dependency in affecting human performance in complex systems.

  1. Synthesis of carbon fibers with branched nanographene sheets for electrochemical double layer capacitor application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushima, Masahiro; Kalita, Golap; Kato, Kimitoshi; Noda, Mikio; Uchida, Hideo; Wakita, Koichi; Umeno, Masayoshi; Tanemura, Masaki

    2014-03-01

    We demonstrate a one step technique to synthesis the carbon fibers (CNFs) with branched nanographene sheets by the pulsed discharge (PD) plasma chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. Highly crystalline branched nanographene sheets were directly grown from the surface of the carbon fibers to obtain a three dimensional (3D) nanostructure. The growth process can be explained from the catalyst support growth of the CNFs, and subsequently nucleation and growth of the nanographene sheets from the crystalline surface of the CNF. The deposited nanostructured films with different pulse discharge were used as an electrode for electrochemical double-layer capacitors (EDLC). It is observed that the capacitance is dependent on the morphology of the electrode materials and an optimum capacitance is obtained with the branched nanographene on CNFs.

  2. Possible Role of Histone H1 in the Regulation of Furin-dependent Proprotein Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinbo HAN; Jianxin GU; Chengwu CHI

    2007-01-01

    Histone H1 and its C-terminal lysine rich fragments were recently found to be potent inhibitors of furin,a mammalian proprotein convertase.However,its role in the regulation of furin-dependent proprotein processing remains unclear.Here we report that histone H1 efficiently blocks furin-dependent pro-von Willebrand factor(pro-vWF)processing in a dose-dependent manner.Coimmunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence studies confirmed that histone H1 could interact with furin,and the interaction mainly took place on the cell surface.We noted that histone H1 was released from cells undergoing necrosis and apoptosis induced by H2O2.Our findings suggested that histone H1 might be involved in extracellular and/or intracellular furin regulation.

  3. An age-dependent population equation with diffusion and delayed birth process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Fragnelli

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new age-dependent population equation which takes into account not only a delay in the birth process, but also other events that may take place during the time between conception and birth. Using semigroup theory, we discuss the well posedness and the asymptotic behavior of the solution.

  4. INHOMOGENEITY IN SPATIAL COX POINT PROCESSES – LOCATION DEPENDENT THINNING IS NOT THE ONLY OPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Prokešová

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the literature on point processes the by far most popular option for introducing inhomogeneity into a point process model is the location dependent thinning (resulting in a second-order intensity-reweighted stationary point process. This produces a very tractable model and there are several fast estimation procedures available. Nevertheless, this model dilutes the interaction (or the geometrical structure of the original homogeneous model in a special way. When concerning the Markov point processes several alternative inhomogeneous models were suggested and investigated in the literature. But it is not so for the Cox point processes, the canonical models for clustered point patterns. In the contribution we discuss several other options how to define inhomogeneous Cox point process models that result in point patterns with different types of geometric structure. We further investigate the possible parameter estimation procedures for such models.

  5. Color effects for transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions in hadronic processes

    CERN Document Server

    Buffing, M G A

    2014-01-01

    In the Drell-Yan process (DY) a quark and an antiquark, coming from two different protons, produce a colorless virtual photon. In the proton description, we include transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions (TMD PDFs), which go beyond the ordinary collinear PDFs. As such, we become sensitive to polarization modes of the partons and protons that one cannot probe without accounting for transverse momenta of partons, in particular when one looks at azimuthal asymmetries. Matrix elements used in the description of hadronic processes, such as DY, require the inclusion of gauge links, coming from gluon contributions in the process, which are path-ordered exponentials tracing the color flow. In processes with two hadrons in the initial state the color flow between different parts of the process causes entanglement. We show that in the process of color disentangling each gauge link remains sensitive to this color flow. After disentanglement, we find that particular combinations of TMDs require a dif...

  6. Accelerated evolution after gene duplication: a time-dependent process affecting just one copy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegueroles, Cinta; Laurie, Steve; Albà, M Mar

    2013-08-01

    Gene duplication is widely regarded as a major mechanism modeling genome evolution and function. However, the mechanisms that drive the evolution of the two, initially redundant, gene copies are still ill defined. Many gene duplicates experience evolutionary rate acceleration, but the relative contribution of positive selection and random drift to the retention and subsequent evolution of gene duplicates, and for how long the molecular clock may be distorted by these processes, remains unclear. Focusing on rodent genes that duplicated before and after the mouse and rat split, we find significantly increased sequence divergence after duplication in only one of the copies, which in nearly all cases corresponds to the novel daughter copy, independent of the mechanism of duplication. We observe that the evolutionary rate of the accelerated copy, measured as the ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions, is on average 5-fold higher in the period spanning 4-12 My after the duplication than it was before the duplication. This increase can be explained, at least in part, by the action of positive selection according to the results of the maximum likelihood-based branch-site test. Subsequently, the rate decelerates until purifying selection completely returns to preduplication levels. Reversion to the original rates has already been accomplished 40.5 My after the duplication event, corresponding to a genetic distance of about 0.28 synonymous substitutions per site. Differences in tissue gene expression patterns parallel those of substitution rates, reinforcing the role of neofunctionalization in explaining the evolution of young gene duplicates.

  7. Extended forms of the second law for general time-dependent stochastic processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Hao

    2009-08-01

    The second law of thermodynamics represents a universal principle applicable to all natural processes, physical systems, and engineering devices. Hatano and Sasa have recently put forward an extended form of the second law for transitions between nonequilibrium stationary states [Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3463 (2001)]. In this paper we further extend this form to an instantaneous interpretation, which is satisfied by quite general time-dependent stochastic processes including master-equation models and Langevin dynamics without the requirements of the stationarity for the initial and final states. The theory is applied to several thermodynamic processes, and its consistence with the classical thermodynamics is shown.

  8. Modeling spiking behavior of neurons with time-dependent Poisson processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinomoto, S; Tsubo, Y

    2001-10-01

    Three kinds of interval statistics, as represented by the coefficient of variation, the skewness coefficient, and the correlation coefficient of consecutive intervals, are evaluated for three kinds of time-dependent Poisson processes: pulse regulated, sinusoidally regulated, and doubly stochastic. Among these three processes, the sinusoidally regulated and doubly stochastic Poisson processes, in the case when the spike rate varies slowly compared with the mean interval between spikes, are found to be consistent with the three statistical coefficients exhibited by data recorded from neurons in the prefrontal cortex of monkeys.

  9. Modeling spiking behavior of neurons with time-dependent Poisson processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinomoto, Shigeru; Tsubo, Yasuhiro

    2001-10-01

    Three kinds of interval statistics, as represented by the coefficient of variation, the skewness coefficient, and the correlation coefficient of consecutive intervals, are evaluated for three kinds of time-dependent Poisson processes: pulse regulated, sinusoidally regulated, and doubly stochastic. Among these three processes, the sinusoidally regulated and doubly stochastic Poisson processes, in the case when the spike rate varies slowly compared with the mean interval between spikes, are found to be consistent with the three statistical coefficients exhibited by data recorded from neurons in the prefrontal cortex of monkeys.

  10. The Branchings of the Main s-process: Their Sensitivity to alpha-induced Reactions on 13C and 22Ne and to the Uncertainties of the Nuclear Network

    CERN Document Server

    Bisterzo, Sara; Kaeppeler, Franz; Wiescher, Michael; Imbriani, Gianluca; Straniero, Oscar; Cristallo, Sergio; Goerres, Joachim; deBoer, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed analysis of the main component of the slow neutron capture process (the s-process), which accounts for the solar abundances of half of the nuclei with 90 <~ A <~ 208. We examine the impact of the uncertainties of the two neutron sources operating in low-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars: the 13C(alpha, n)16O reaction, which releases neutrons radiatively during interpulse periods (kT ~ 8 keV), and the 22Ne(alpha, n)25Mg reaction, partially activated during the convective thermal pulses (TPs). We focus our attention on the branching points that mainly influence the abundance of s-only isotopes. In our AGB models, the 13C is fully consumed radiatively during interpulse. In this case, we find that the present uncertainty associated to the 13C(alpha, n)16O reaction has marginal effects on s-only nuclei. On the other hand, a reduction of this rate may increase the amount of residual (or unburned) 13C at the end of the interpulse: in this condition, the residual 13C is bur...

  11. Critical branching neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kello, Christopher T

    2013-01-01

    It is now well-established that intrinsic variations in human neural and behavioral activity tend to exhibit scaling laws in their fluctuations and distributions. The meaning of these scaling laws is an ongoing matter of debate between isolable causes versus pervasive causes. A spiking neural network model is presented that self-tunes to critical branching and, in doing so, simulates observed scaling laws as pervasive to neural and behavioral activity. These scaling laws are related to neural and cognitive functions, in that critical branching is shown to yield spiking activity with maximal memory and encoding capacities when analyzed using reservoir computing techniques. The model is also shown to account for findings of pervasive 1/f scaling in speech and cued response behaviors that are difficult to explain by isolable causes. Issues and questions raised by the model and its results are discussed from the perspectives of physics, neuroscience, computer and information sciences, and psychological and cognitive sciences.

  12. Measuring temperature-dependent activation energy in thermally activated processes: a 2D Arrhenius plot method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian V; Johnston, Steven W; Yan, Yanfa; Levi, Dean H

    2010-03-01

    Thermally activated processes are characterized by two key quantities, activation energy (E(a)) and pre-exponential factor (nu(0)), which may be temperature dependent. The accurate measurement of E(a), nu(0), and their temperature dependence is critical for understanding the thermal activation mechanisms of non-Arrhenius processes. However, the classic 1D Arrhenius plot-based methods cannot unambiguously measure E(a), nu(0), and their temperature dependence due to the mathematical impossibility of resolving two unknown 1D arrays from one 1D experimental data array. Here, we propose a 2D Arrhenius plot method to solve this fundamental problem. Our approach measures E(a) at any temperature from matching the first and second moments of the data calculated with respect to temperature and rate in the 2D temperature-rate plane, and therefore is able to unambiguously solve E(a), nu(0), and their temperature dependence. The case study of deep level emission in a Cu(In,Ga)Se(2) solar cell using the 2D Arrhenius plot method reveals clear temperature dependent behavior of E(a) and nu(0), which has not been observable by its 1D predecessors.

  13. Tau leptonic branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Garrido, L; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    A sample of 62249 \\tau-pair events is selected from data taken with the ALEPH detector in 1991, 1992 and 1993. The measurement of the branching fractions for \\tau decays into electrons and muons is presented with emphasis on the study of systematic effects from selection, particle identification and decay classification. Combined with the most recent ALEPH determination of the \\tau lifetime, these results provide a relative measurement of the leptonic couplings in the weak charged current for transverse W bosons.

  14. Electrochemical Energy Storage Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The activities of the Electrochemical Energy Storage Branch are highlighted, including the Technology Base Research and the Exploratory Technology Development and Testing projects within the Electrochemical Energy Storage Program for the 1984 fiscal year. General Headquarters activities are presented first; and then, a summary of the Director Controlled Milestones, followed by other major accomplishments. A listing of the workshops and seminars held during the year is also included.

  15. Capability-oriented agent theory and its applications in dependable systems and process engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thunem, Atoosa P-J.

    2004-04-15

    During the rapid growth of computerised systems in the past 15 years, the variety of services and their efficiency have been the strongest deciding factors in design and development of the systems within various industrial branches. At the same time, the introduction and popularity of emerging design and development techniques seems to have forced the industry to include these in their product development process. Unfortunately, too many examples of lack of use or erroneous use of these techniques within industries such as telecommunications, telemedicine, aerospace and indeed the energy sector indicate that a common understanding of and belief in the rationale behind the techniques and their solution domains has not been obtained. At the same time, a tremendous increase in the number of emerging techniques has made such an understanding difficult to gain, especially when the techniques share the same application field, but differ in few yet important issues. Finally, the lack of knowledge about system aspects and the integration of various abstraction levels to describe them have added even more to the confusion on how to use different techniques. The work resulting in the Capability-Oriented Agent Theory began while trying to find more descriptive system models, taking into account a wider selection of system aspects. Although related to object-oriented and agent-oriented principles, the theory differs from such principles in many respects. Among others, its focal point is on a category of system aspects neither addressed nor recognised within such principles before. Additionally, the theory opposes the well-established idea of distinct separation between requirement, design, implementation and test specifications, but suggests a systematic integration of the related activities, hence to increase their traceability and intercommunication in both a top-down and a bottom-up manner along the development process. (Author)

  16. Stochasticity and determinism: how density-independent and density-dependent processes affect population variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlberger, Jan; Rogers, Lauren A; Stenseth, Nils Chr

    2014-01-01

    A persistent debate in population ecology concerns the relative importance of environmental stochasticity and density dependence in determining variability in adult year-class strength, which contributes to future reproduction as well as potential yield in exploited populations. Apart from the strength of the processes, the timing of density regulation may affect how stochastic variation, for instance through climate, translates into changes in adult abundance. In this study, we develop a life-cycle model for the population dynamics of a large marine fish population, Northeast Arctic cod, to disentangle the effects of density-independent and density-dependent processes on early life-stages, and to quantify the strength of compensatory density dependence in the population. The model incorporates information from scientific surveys and commercial harvest, and dynamically links multiple effects of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on all life-stages, from eggs to spawners. Using a state-space approach we account for observation error and stochasticity in the population dynamics. Our findings highlight the importance of density-dependent survival in juveniles, indicating that this period of the life cycle largely determines the compensatory capacity of the population. Density regulation at the juvenile life-stage dampens the impact of stochastic processes operating earlier in life such as environmental impacts on the production of eggs and climate-dependent survival of larvae. The timing of stochastic versus regulatory processes thus plays a crucial role in determining variability in adult abundance. Quantifying the contribution of environmental stochasticity and compensatory mechanisms in determining population abundance is essential for assessing population responses to climate change and exploitation by humans.

  17. NRAGE: a potential rheostat during branching morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikopoulos, George N; Martins, Joao Ferreira; Adams, Tamara L; Karaczyn, Aldona; Adams, Derek; Vary, Calvin; Oxburgh, Leif; Verdi, Joseph M

    2009-01-01

    Branching morphogenesis is a developmental process characteristic of many organ systems. Specifically, during renal branching morphogenesis, its been postulated that the final number of nephrons formed is one key clinical factor in the development of hypertension in adulthood. As it has been established that BMPs regulate, in part, renal activity of p38 MAP kinase (p38(MAPK)) and it has demonstrated that the cytoplasmic protein Neurotrophin Receptor MAGE homologue (NRAGE) augments p38(MAPK) activation, it was hypothesized that a decrease in the expression of NRAGE during renal branching would result in decreased branching of the UB that correlated with changes in p38(MAPK) activation. To verify this, the expression of NRAGE was reduced in ex vivo kidney explants cultures using antisense morpholino. Morpholino treated ex vivo kidney explants expression were severely stunted in branching, a trait that was rescued with the addition of exogenous GDNF. Renal explants also demonstrated a precipitous drop in p38(MAPK) activation that too was reversed in the presence of recombinant GDNF. RNA profiling of NRAGE diminished ex vivo kidney explants resulted in altered expression of GDNF, Ret, BMP7 and BMPRIb mRNAs. Our results suggested that in early kidney development NRAGE might have multiple roles during renal branching morphogenesis through association with both the BMP and GDNF signaling pathways.

  18. Sensitivity to discontinuous dependencies in language learners: evidence for limitations in processing space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santelmann, L M; Jusczyk, P W

    1998-12-01

    Five experiments using the Headturn Preference Procedure examined 15- and 18-month-old children's sensitivity to morphosyntactic dependencies in English. In each experiment, the children were exposed to two types of passages. Passages in the experimental condition contained a well-formed English dependency between the auxiliary verb is and a main verb with the ending -ing. Passages in the control condition contained an ungrammatical combination of the modal auxiliary can and a main verb with the ending -ing. In the experiments, the distance between the dependent morphemes was systematically varied by inserting an adverbial of a specified length between the auxiliary and main verbs. The results indicated that 18-month-olds are sensitive to the basic relationship between is and -ing, but that 15-month-olds are not. The 18-month-olds, but not the 15-month-olds, listened significantly longer to the passages with the well-formed English dependency. In addition, the 18-month-olds showed this preference for the well-formed dependency only over a limited domain of 1-3 syllables. Over domains of 4-5 syllables, they showed no significant preference for the experimental over the control passages. These findings indicate that 18-month-olds can track relationships between functor morphemes. Additionally, these findings are consistent with the hypothesis that 18-month-olds are working with a limited processing window, and that they are only picking up relevant dependencies that fall within this window.

  19. Process parameter dependent growth phenomena of naproxen nanosuspension manufactured by wet media milling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitterlich, A; Laabs, C; Krautstrunk, I; Dengler, M; Juhnke, M; Grandeury, A; Bunjes, H; Kwade, A

    2015-05-01

    The production of nanosuspensions has proved to be an effective method for overcoming bioavailability challenges of poorly water soluble drugs. Wet milling in stirred media mills and planetary ball mills has become an established top-down-method for producing such drug nanosuspensions. The quality of the resulting nanosuspension is determined by the stability against agglomeration on the one hand, and the process parameters of the mill on the other hand. In order to understand the occurring dependencies, a detailed screening study, not only on adequate stabilizers, but also on their optimum concentration was carried out for the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) naproxen in a planetary ball mill. The type and concentration of the stabilizer had a pronounced influence on the minimum particle size obtained. With the best formulation the influence of the relevant process parameters on product quality was investigated to determine the grinding limit of naproxen. Besides the well known phenomenon of particle agglomeration, actual naproxen crystal growth and morphology alterations occurred during the process which has not been observed before. It was shown that, by adjusting the process parameters, those effects could be reduced or eliminated. Thus, besides real grinding and agglomeration a process parameter dependent ripening of the naproxen particles was identified to be a concurrent effect during the naproxen fine grinding process.

  20. Crack branching in carbon steel. Fracture mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syromyatnikova, A. S.; Alekseev, A. A.; Levin, A. I.; Lyglaev, A. V.

    2010-04-01

    The fracture surfaces of pressure vessels made of carbon steel that form during crack branching propagation are examined by fractography. Crack branching is found to occur at a crack velocity higher than a certain critical value V > V c . In this case, the material volume that is involved in fracture and depends on the elastoplastic properties of the material and the sample width has no time to dissipate the energy released upon crack motion via the damage mechanisms intrinsic in the material under given deformation conditions (in our case, via cracking according to intragranular cleavage).

  1. Feynman–Kac equation for anomalous processes with space- and time-dependent forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairoli, Andrea; Baule, Adrian

    2017-04-01

    Functionals of a stochastic process Y(t) model many physical time-extensive observables, for instance particle positions, local and occupation times or accumulated mechanical work. When Y(t) is a normal diffusive process, their statistics are obtained as the solution of the celebrated Feynman–Kac equation. This equation provides the crucial link between the expected values of diffusion processes and the solutions of deterministic second-order partial differential equations. When Y(t) is non-Brownian, e.g. an anomalous diffusive process, generalizations of the Feynman–Kac equation that incorporate power-law or more general waiting time distributions of the underlying random walk have recently been derived. A general representation of such waiting times is provided in terms of a Lévy process whose Laplace exponent is directly related to the memory kernel appearing in the generalized Feynman–Kac equation. The corresponding anomalous processes have been shown to capture nonlinear mean square displacements exhibiting crossovers between different scaling regimes, which have been observed in numerous experiments on biological systems like migrating cells or diffusing macromolecules in intracellular environments. However, the case where both space- and time-dependent forces drive the dynamics of the generalized anomalous process has not been solved yet. Here, we present the missing derivation of the Feynman–Kac equation in such general case by using the subordination technique. Furthermore, we discuss its extension to functionals explicitly depending on time, which are of particular relevance for the stochastic thermodynamics of anomalous diffusive systems. Exact results on the work fluctuations of a simple non-equilibrium model are obtained. An additional aim of this paper is to provide a pedagogical introduction to Lévy processes, semimartingales and their associated stochastic calculus, which underlie the mathematical formulation of anomalous diffusion as a

  2. The impact of negative emotions on self-concept abstraction depends on accessible information processing styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbell, Linda M; Rovenpor, Daniel R; Lair, Elicia C

    2016-10-01

    Research suggests that anger promotes global, abstract processing whereas sadness and fear promote local, concrete processing (see Schwarz & Clore, 2007 for a review). Contrary to a large and influential body of work suggesting that specific affective experiences are tethered to specific cognitive outcomes, the affect-as-cognitive-feedback account maintains that affective experiences confer positive or negative value on currently dominant processing styles, and thus can lead to either global or local processing (Huntsinger, Isbell, & Clore, 2014). The current work extends this theoretical perspective by investigating the impact of discrete negative emotions on the self-concept. By experimentally manipulating information processing styles and discrete negative emotions that vary in appraisals of certainty, we demonstrate that the impact of discrete negative emotions on the spontaneous self-concept depends on accessible processing styles. When global processing was accessible, individuals in angry (negative, high certainty) states generated more abstract statements about themselves than individuals in either sad (Experiment 1) or fearful (Experiment 2; negative, low certainty) states. When local processing was made accessible, however, the opposite pattern emerged, whereby individuals in angry states generated fewer abstract statements than individuals in sad or fearful states. Together these studies provide new insights into the mechanisms through which discrete emotions influence cognition. In contrast to theories assuming a dedicated link between emotions and processing styles, these results suggest that discrete emotions provide feedback about accessible ways of thinking, and are consistent with recent evidence suggesting that the impact of affect on cognition is highly context-dependent. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. CHARACTERISTIC DIMENSIONLESS NUMBERS IN MULTI-SCALE AND RATE-DEPENDENT PROCESSES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yilong Bai; Mengfen Xia; Haiying Wang; Fujiu Ke

    2003-01-01

    Multi-scale modeling of materials properties and chemical processes has drawn great attention from science and engineering. For these multi-scale and rate-dependent processes, how to characterize their trans-scale formulation is a key point. Three questions should be addressed:● How do multi-sizes affect the problems?● How are length scales coupled with time scales?● How to identify emergence of new structure in process and its effect?For this sake, the macroscopic equations of mechanics and the kinetic equations of the microstructural transformations should form a unified set that be solved simultaneously.As a case study of coupling length and time scales, the trans-scale formulation of wave-induced damage evolution due to mesoscopic nucleation and growth is discussed. In this problem, the trans-scaling could be reduced to two independent dimensionless numbers: the imposed Deborah number De*=(ac*)/(LV*) and the intrinsic Deborah number D* = (nN*c*5)/V* , where a, L, c*, V* and nN* are wave speed, sample size, microcrack size, the rate of microcrack growth and the rate of microcrack nucleation density, respectively. Clearly, the dimensionless number De*=(ac*)/(LV*) includes length and time scales on both meso- and macro- levels and governs the progressive process.Whereas, the intrinsic Deborah number D* indicates the characteristic transition of microdamage to macroscopic rupture since D* is related to the criterion of damage localization, which is a precursor of macroscopic rupture. This case study may highlight the scaling in multi-scale and rate-dependent problems.Then, more generally, we compare some historical examples to see how trans-scale formulations were achieved and what are still open now. The comparison of various mechanisms governing the enhancement of meso-size effects reminds us of the importance of analyzing multi-scale and rate-dependent processes case by case.For multi-scale and rate-dependent processes with chemical reactions and

  4. Earthquake recurrence on the south Hayward fault is most consistent with a time dependent, renewal process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, T.

    2008-01-01

    Elastic rebound and stress renewal are important components of earthquake forecasting because if large earthquakes can be shown to be periodic, then rupture probability is time dependent. While renewal models are used in formal forecasts, it has not been possible to exclude the alternate view that repeated large earthquakes can happen in rapid succession without requiring time for stress regeneration. Here a consistency test between time dependent and time independent recurrence distributions is made using a Monte Carlo method to replicate the paleoseismic series on the south Hayward fault. Time dependent distributions with recurrence interval of 210 years and coefficient of variation of 0.6 reproduce the event series on the south Hayward 5 times more often than any exponential distribution: a highly significant difference as determined using a two-tailed Z-test for relative proportions. Therefore large Hayward fault earthquakes are quasi-periodic and are most consistent with a stress renewal process.

  5. Polarization dependent dispersion and its impact on optical parametric process in high nonlinear microstructure fibre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Li; Zhang Wei; Huang Yi-Dong; Peng Jiang-De

    2008-01-01

    High nonlinear microstructure fibre (HNMF) is preferred in nonlinear fibre optics, especially in the applications of optical parametric effects, due to its high optical nonlinear coefficient. However, polarization dependent dispersion will impact the nonlinear optical parametric process in HNMFs. In this paper, modulation instability (MI) method is used to measure the polarization dependent dispersion of a piece of commercial HNMF, including the group velocity dispersion, the dispersion slope, the fourth-order dispersion and group birefringence. It also experimentally demonstrates the impact of the polarization dependent dispersion on the continuous wave supercontinuum (SC) generation. On one axis MI sidebands with symmetric frequency dctunings are generated, while on the other axis with larger MI frequency detuning, SC is generated by soliton self-frequency shift.

  6. A variable depth search branching

    OpenAIRE

    Cornillier, Fabien; Pécora, José Eduardo; Charles, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a variable depth search branching, an extension to the local branching for solving Mixed-Integer Programs. Two strategies are assessed, a best improvement strategy and a first improvement strategy. The extensive computational assessment evidences a significant improvement over the local branching for both strategies. This record was migrated from the OpenDepot repository service in June, 2017 before shutting down.

  7. Density dependence in a recovering osprey population: demographic and behavioural processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretagnolle, V; Mougeot, F; Thibault, J-C

    2008-09-01

    1. Understanding how density-dependent and independent processes influence demographic parameters, and hence regulate population size, is fundamental within population ecology. We investigated density dependence in growth rate and fecundity in a recovering population of a semicolonial raptor, the osprey Pandion haliaetus [Linnaeus, 1758], using 31 years of count and demographic data in Corsica. 2. The study population increased from three pairs in 1974 to an average of 22 pairs in the late 1990s, with two distinct phases during the recovery (increase followed by stability) and contrasted trends in breeding parameters in each phase. 3. We show density dependence in population growth rate in the second phase, indicating that the stabilized population was regulated. We also show density dependence in productivity (fledging success between years and hatching success within years). 4. Using long-term data on behavioural interactions at nest sites, and on diet and fish provisioning rate, we evaluated two possible mechanisms of density dependence in productivity, food depletion and behavioural interference. 5. As density increased, both provisioning rate and the size of prey increased, contrary to predictions of a food-depletion mechanism. In the time series, a reduction in fledging success coincided with an increase in the number of non-breeders. Hatching success decreased with increasing local density and frequency of interactions with conspecifics, suggesting that behavioural interference was influencing hatching success. 6. Our study shows that, taking into account the role of non-breeders, in particular in species or populations where there are many floaters and where competition for nest sites is intense, can improve our understanding of density-dependent processes and help conservation actions.

  8. Study of polycrystalline silicon obtained by aluminum-induced crystallization depending on process conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereyaslavtsev, Alexander; Sokolov, Igor; Sinev, Leonid

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we have decided to consider an alternative method of producing polycrystalline silicon and study change of its electrophysical characteristics depending on process parameters. As an alternative low-pressure chemical vapor deposition method appears aluminum-induced crystallization (AIC), which allows to obtain a polycrystalline silicon film is significantly larger grain size, thereby reducing contribution of grain boundaries. A comprehensive study of polycrystalline silicon was carried out using a variety of microscopic (OM, SEM) and spectroscopic (RAMAN, XPS) and diffraction (EBSD, XRD) analytic methods. We also considered possibility of self-doping in AIC, result of which was obtained polycrystalline silicon with different resistance. Additionally considered changes in temperature coefficient of resistance depending on technological parameters of AIC process.

  9. Influence of neurotropic compounds on the calmodulin- and troponin C-dependent processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldenkov, G.N.; Men' shikov, M.Yu.; Feoktistov, I.A.; Tkachuk, V.A.

    1986-01-20

    An analysis was made of the effects of neurotropic compounds on the Ca-binding proteins - calmodulin and troponin C. It was shown that most of the neuroleptics of the phenothiazine group interact effectively both with calmodulin and with troponin C and also inhibit the calmodulin-dependent phosphodiesterase of cyclic nucleotides and calcium-activated actomyosin ATPase. Neuroleptics of the butyrophenone group, as well as imipramine and diphenhydramine, are capable of a low-efficiency interaction only with calmodulin. It was found that one of the phenothiazines - methophenazine, which is an effective inhibitor of calmodulin and calmodulin-dependent phosphodiesterase - does not affect troponin C and Ca-dependent actomyosin ATPase. As a result of this, methophenazine can serve as a convenient tool for studying processes regulated by these Ca-binding proteins. It was concluded that troponin C possesses Ca-dependent binding sites for drugs structurally similar to those of calmodulin but binding the drugs less effectively and exhibiting selectivity with respect to certain preparations. It was shown that despite the homology of the two Ca-binding proteins, calmodulin and troponin C, a selective action on the processes regulated by them is possible.

  10. Field Dependence, Efficiency of Information Processing in Working Memory and Susceptibility to Orientation Illusions among Architects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Młyniec Agnieszka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined cognitive predictors of susceptibility to orientation illusions: Poggendorff, Ponzo, and Zöllner. It was assumed that lower efficiency of information processing in WM and higher field dependence are conducive to orientation illusions. 61 architects (30 women aged M = 29, +/- 1.6, and 49 university students (29 women aged M = 23.53, +/- 4.24, were tested with Witkin’s EFT to assess their field dependence; the SWATT method was used as a measure of WM efficiency, and susceptibility to visual illusions was verified with a series of computer tasks. We obtained a small range of the explained variance in the regression models including FDI and WM indicators. On the basis of WM efficiency indicators, we managed to confirm the existence of memory predictors of susceptibility to illusions (they are rather weak, as they explain from 6% to 14% of the variance of the dependent variable. Among the architects, lower efficiency of WM processing (weaker inhibition, task-switching and higher field dependence are responsible for greater susceptibility to orientation illusions.

  11. Multivariate Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes with mean-field dependent coefficients: Application to postural sway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, T. D.; Daffertshofer, A.; Beek, P. J.

    2001-01-01

    We study the transient and stationary behavior of many-particle systems in terms of multivariate Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes with friction and diffusion coefficients that depend nonlinearly on process mean fields. Mean-field approximations of this kind of system are derived in terms of Fokker-Planck equations. In such systems, multiple stationary solutions as well as bifurcations of stationary solutions may occur. In addition, strictly monotonically decreasing steady-state autocorrelation functions that decay faster than exponential functions are found, which are used to describe the erratic motion of the center of pressure during quiet standing.

  12. Time-dependent processes in stem cell-based tissue engineering of articular cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadjanski, Ivana; Spiller, Kara; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2012-01-01

    Articular cartilage (AC), situated in diarthrodial joints at the end of the long bones, is composed of a single cell type (chondrocytes) embedded in dense extracellular matrix comprised of collagens and proteoglycans. AC is avascular and alymphatic and is not innervated. At first glance, such a seemingly simple tissue appears to be an easy target for the rapidly developing field of tissue engineering. However, cartilage engineering has proven to be very challenging. We focus on time-dependent processes associated with the development of native cartilage starting from stem cells, and the modalities for utilizing these processes for tissue engineering of articular cartilage. PMID:22016073

  13. Numerical Modeling of Friction Stir Welding Process by Using Rate-dependent Constitutive Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongwu ZHANG; Zhao ZHANG

    2007-01-01

    Rate-dependent constitutive model was used to simulate the friction stir welding process. The effect of the viscosity coefficient and the process parameters on the material behaviors and the stress distributions around the pin were studied. Results indicate that the stress in front of the pin is larger than that behind the pin. The difference between the radial/circumferential stress in front of the pin and that behind it becomes smaller when the material gets closer to the top surface. This difference increases with increasing the viscosity coefficient and becomes smaller when the welding speed decreases. The variation of the angular velocity does not significantly affect the difference.

  14. Cyclin-dependent kinase 9 links RNA polymerase II transcription to processing of ribosomal RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Kaspar; Mühl, Bastian; Rohrmoser, Michaela; Coordes, Britta; Heidemann, Martin; Kellner, Markus; Gruber-Eber, Anita; Heissmeyer, Vigo; Strässer, Katja; Eick, Dirk

    2013-07-19

    Ribosome biogenesis is a process required for cellular growth and proliferation. Processing of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is highly sensitive to flavopiridol, a specific inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (Cdk9). Cdk9 has been characterized as the catalytic subunit of the positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII). Here we studied the connection between RNAPII transcription and rRNA processing. We show that inhibition of RNAPII activity by α-amanitin specifically blocks processing of rRNA. The block is characterized by accumulation of 3' extended unprocessed 47 S rRNAs and the entire inhibition of other 47 S rRNA-specific processing steps. The transcription rate of rRNA is moderately reduced after inhibition of Cdk9, suggesting that defective 3' processing of rRNA negatively feeds back on RNAPI transcription. Knockdown of Cdk9 caused a strong reduction of the levels of RNAPII-transcribed U8 small nucleolar RNA, which is essential for 3' rRNA processing in mammalian cells. Our data demonstrate a pivotal role of Cdk9 activity for coupling of RNAPII transcription with small nucleolar RNA production and rRNA processing.

  15. Microbiology, ecology, and application of the nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation process

    OpenAIRE

    Li-Dong eShen; Bao-lan eHu

    2012-01-01

    Nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (n-damo), which couples the anaerobic oxidation of methane to denitrification, is a recently discovered process observed in Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera. M. oxyfera is affiliated with the NC10 phylum, a phylum having no members in pure culture. Based on the isotopic labeling experiments, it is hypothesized that M. oxyfera has an unusual intra-aerobic pathway for the production of oxygen via the dismutation of nitric oxide into dinitrogen ga...

  16. An analytical method for determining the temperature dependent moisture diffusivities of pumpkin seeds during drying process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Can, Ahmet [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Trakya, 22030 Edirne (Turkey)

    2007-02-15

    This paper presents an analytical method, which determines the moisture diffusion coefficients for the natural and forced convection hot air drying of pumpkin seeds and their temperature dependence. In order to obtain scientific data, the pumpkin seed drying process was investigated under both natural and forced hot air convection regimes. This paper presents the experimental results in which the drying air was heated by solar energy. (author)

  17. Stochasticity and Determinism: How Density-Independent and Density-Dependent Processes Affect Population Variability

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Ohlberger; Rogers, Lauren A.; Nils Chr. Stenseth

    2014-01-01

    A persistent debate in population ecology concerns the relative importance of environmental stochasticity and density dependence in determining variability in adult year-class strength, which contributes to future reproduction as well as potential yield in exploited populations. Apart from the strength of the processes, the timing of density regulation may affect how stochastic variation, for instance through climate, translates into changes in adult abundance. In this study, we develop a lif...

  18. Measurements of Time-Dependent CP-Asymmetry Parameters in B Meson Decays to η' K0 and of Branching Fractions of SU(3) Related Modes with BaBar Experiment at SLAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biassoni, Pietro [Univ. of Milan (Italy)

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis work we have measured the following upper limits at 90% of confidence level, for B meson decays (in units of 10-6), using a statistics of 465.0 x 106 B$\\bar{B}$ pairs: β(B0 → ηK0) < 1.6 β(B0 → ηη) < 1.4 β(B0 → η'η') < 2.1 β(B0 → ηΦ) < 0.52 β(B0 → ηω) < 1.6 β(B0 → η'Φ) < 1.2 β(B0 → η'ω) < 1.7 We have no observation of any decay mode, statistical significance for our measurements is in the range 1.3-3.5 standard deviation. We have a 3.5σ evidence for B → ηω and a 3.1 σ evidence for B → η'ω. The absence of observation of the B0 → ηK0 open an issue related to the large difference compared to the charged mode B+ → ηK+ branching fraction, which is measured to be 3.7 ± 0.4 ± 0.1 [118]. Our results represent substantial improvements of the previous ones [109, 110, 111] and are consistent with theoretical predictions. All these results were presented at Flavor Physics and CP Violation (FPCP) 2008 Conference, that took place in Taipei, Taiwan. They will be soon included into a paper to be submitted to Physical Review D. For time-dependent analysis, we have reconstructed 1820 ± 48 flavor-tagged B0 → η'K0 events, using the final BABAR statistic of 467.4 x 106 B$\\bar{B}$ pairs. We use these events to measure the time-dependent asymmetry parameters S and C. We find S = 0.59 ± 0.08 ± 0.02, and C = -0.06 ± 0.06 ± 0.02. A non-zero value of C would represent a directly CP non-conserving component in B0 → η'K0, while S would be equal to sin2β measured in B0 → J/ΨKs0 [108], a mixing-decay interference effect, provided the decay is dominated by amplitudes of a single weak phase. The new measured value of S can be considered in

  19. More than a mere sequence: predictive processing of wh-dependencies in early bilinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kljajevic Vanja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to determine whether early bilingual Basque-Spanish speakers, who acquired Spanish by the age of 5, comprehend Spanish wh-dependences as effortlessly as native Spanish speakers. Given that Basque and Spanish are structurally different languages, we hypothesized that predictive processing strategies from the first language (L1 would interfere with predictive processing strategies in the second language (L2. More specifically, since Basque overtly marks the semantic role of agent/subject position, whereas Spanish overtly marks the role of patient/object position, we looked at whether the difference in overt marking of semantic roles would affect comprehension of subject vs. object quien “who” and qué “which” direct and embedded questions as well as subject vs. object relative clauses introduced by qué. The main finding of the study is that overall early Basque-Spanish bilinguals needed more time for the comprehension of wh-dependencies in Spanish compared to native Spanish speakers, as indicated by statistically significant group differences in response times in 9 out of 10 conditions. The results of this exploratory study indicate that a difference in overt marking of semantic roles between the two languages affects the ease of processing of Spanish wh-dependencies in early Basque-Spanish bilinguals, interfering with their ability to make native-like predictions in L2.

  20. More than a mere sequence: predictive processing of wh-dependencies in early bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kljajevic, Vanja

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of the present study was to determine whether early bilingual Basque-Spanish speakers, who acquired Spanish by the age of 5, comprehend Spanish wh-dependences as effortlessly as native Spanish speakers. Given that Basque and Spanish are structurally different languages, we hypothesized that predictive processing strategies from the first language (L1) would interfere with predictive processing strategies in the second language (L2). More specifically, since Basque overtly marks the semantic role of agent/subject position, whereas Spanish overtly marks the role of patient/object position, we looked at whether the difference in overt marking of semantic roles would affect comprehension of subject vs. object quien “who” and qué “which” direct and embedded questions as well as subject vs. object relative clauses introduced by qué. The main finding of the study is that overall early Basque-Spanish bilinguals needed more time for the comprehension of wh-dependencies in Spanish compared to native Spanish speakers, as indicated by statistically significant group differences in response times in 9 out of 10 conditions. The results of this exploratory study indicate that a difference in overt marking of semantic roles between the two languages affects the ease of processing of Spanish wh-dependencies in early Basque-Spanish bilinguals, interfering with their ability to make native-like predictions in L2. PMID:28123832

  1. Experience shapes our odor perception but depends on the initial perceptual processing of the stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinding, Charlotte; Coureaud, Gérard; Bervialle, Boris; Martin, Christophe; Schaal, Benoist; Thomas-Danguin, Thierry

    2015-07-01

    The questions of whether configural and elemental perceptions are competitive or exclusive perceptual processes and whether they rely on independent or dependent mechanisms are poorly understood. To examine these questions, we modified perceptual experience through preexposure to mixed or single odors and measured the resulting variation in the levels of configural and elemental perception of target odor mixtures. We used target mixtures that were spontaneously processed in a configural or an elemental manner. The AB binary mixture spontaneously involved the configural perception of a pineapple odor, whereas component A smelled like strawberry and component B smelled like caramel. The CD mixture produced the elemental perceptions of banana (C) and smoky (D) odors. Perceptual experience was manipulated through repeated exposure to either a mixture (AB or CD) or the components (A and B or C and D). The odor typicality rating data recorded after exposure revealed different influences of experience on odor mixtures and single-component perception, depending both on the type of exposure (components or mixture) and the mixture's initial perceptual property (configural or elemental). Although preexposure to A and B decreased the pineapple typicality of the configural AB mixture, preexposure to AB did not modify its odor quality. In contrast, preexposure to the CD elemental mixture induced a quality transfer between the components. These results emphasize the relative plasticity of odor mixture perception, which is prone to experience-induced modulations but depends on the stimulus's initial perceptual properties, suggesting that configural and elemental forms of odor mixture perception rely on rather independent processes.

  2. Rheology modulated non-equilibrium fluctuations in time-dependent diffusion processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Debonil; Bandopadhyay, Aditya; Chakraborty, Suman

    2016-11-01

    The effect of non-Newtonian rheology, manifested through a viscoelastic linearized Maxwell model, on the time-dependent non-equilibrium concentration fluctuations due to free diffusion as well as thermal diffusion of a species is analyzed theoretically. Contrary to the belief that non-equilibrium Rayleigh line is not influenced by viscoelastic effects, through rigorous calculations, we put forward the fact that viscoelastic effects do influence the non-equilibrium Rayleigh line, while the effects are absent for the equilibrium scenario. The non-equilibrium process is quantified through the concentration fluctuation auto-correlation function, also known as the structure factor. The analysis reveals that the effect of rheology is prominent for both the cases of free diffusion and thermal diffusion at long times, where the influence of rheology dictates not only the location of the peaks in concentration dynamic structure factors, but also the magnitudes; such peaks in dynamic structure factors are absent in the case of Newtonian fluid. At smaller times, for the case of free diffusion, presence of time-dependent peak(s) are observed, which are weakly dependent on the influence of rheology, a phenomenon which is absent in the case of thermal diffusion. Different regimes of the frequency dependent overall dynamic structure factor, depending on the interplay of the fluid relaxation time and momentum diffusivity, are evaluated. The static structure factor is not affected to a great extent for the case of free-diffusion and is unaffected for the case of thermal diffusion.

  3. Combustion Branch Website Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Eric

    2004-01-01

    The NASA combustion branch is a leader in developing and applying combustion science to focused aerospace propulsion systems concepts. It is widely recognized for unique facilities, analytical tools, and personnel. In order to better communicate the outstanding research being done in this Branch to the public and other research organization, a more substantial website was desired. The objective of this project was to build an up-to-date site that reflects current research in a usable and attractive manner. In order to accomplish this, information was requested from all researchers in the Combustion branch, on their professional skills and on the current projects. This information was used to fill in the Personnel and Research sections of the website. A digital camera was used to photograph all personnel and these photographs were included in the personnel section as well. The design of the site was implemented using the latest web standards: xhtml and external css stylesheets. This implementation conforms to the guidelines recommended by the w3c. It also helps to ensure that the web site is accessible by disabled users, and complies with Section 508 Federal legislation (which mandates that all Federal websites be accessible). Graphics for the new site were generated using the gimp (www.gimp.org) an open-source graphics program similar to Adobe Photoshop. Also, all graphics on the site were of a reasonable size (less than 20k, most less than 2k) so that the page would load quickly. Technologies such as Macromedia Flash and Javascript were avoided, as these only function on some clients which have the proper software installed or enabled. The website was tested on different platforms with many different browsers to ensure there were no compatibility issues. The website was tested on windows with MS IE 6, MSIE 5 , Netscape 7, Mozilla and Opera. On a Mac, the site was tested with MS IE 5 , Netscape 7 and Safari.

  4. The Horizontal Branch of the Sculptor Dwarf galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Salaris, Maurizio; Tolstoy, Eline; Fiorentino, Giuliana; Cassisi, Santi

    2013-01-01

    We have performed the first detailed simulation of the horizontal branch of the Sculptor dwarf spheroidal galaxy by means of synthetic modelling techniques,taking consistently into account the star formation history and metallicity evolution as determined from the main sequence and red giant branch spectroscopic observations. The only free parameter in the whole analysis is the integrated mass loss of red giant branch stars. This is the first time that synthetic horizontal branch models, consistent with the complex star formation history of a galaxy, are calculated and matched to the observations. We find that the metallicity range covered by the star formation history, as constrained by observations, plus a simple mass loss law, enable us to cover both the full magnitude and colour range of HB stars. In addition the number count distribution along the observed horizontal branch, can be also reproduced, provided that the red giant branch mass loss is mildly metallicity dependent, with a very small dispersion ...

  5. The branch librarians' handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Rivers, Vickie

    2004-01-01

    ""Recommended""--Booklist; ""an excellent addition...highly recommended""--Public Libraries; ""clear...very sound advice...strongly recommend""--Catholic Library World; ""excellent resource...organized...well written""--Against the Grain; ""interesting...thoroughly practical...a very good book...well organized...clearly written""--ARBA. This handbook covers a wide variety of issues that the branch librarian must deal with every day. Chapters are devoted to mission statements (the Dallas Public Library and Dayton Metro Library mission statements are highlighted as examples), library systems,

  6. Microbiology, ecology and application of the nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Dong eShen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (n-damo, which couples the anaerobic oxidation of methane to denitrification, is a recently discovered process observed in Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera. M. oxyfera is affiliated with the NC10 phylum, a phylum having no members in pure culture. Based on the isotopic labeling experiments, it is hypothesized that M. oxyfera has an unusual intra-aerobic pathway for the production of oxygen via the dismutation of nitric oxide into dinitrogen gas and oxygen. In addition, the bacterial species has a unique ultrastructure that is distinct from that of other previously described bacterial shapes. M. oxyfera-like sequences have been recovered from different natural habitats, suggesting that the n-damo process potentially contributes to global carbon and nitrogen cycles. The n-damo process is an ecological process that can reduce the greenhouse effect, as methane is more effective in heat-trapping than carbon dioxide. The n-damo process, which uses methane instead of organic matter to drive denitrification, is also an economical nitrogen removal process because methane is a relatively inexpensive electron donor. This mini-review summarizes the peculiar microbiology of M. oxyfera and discusses the potential ecological importance and engineering application of the n-damo process.

  7. Microbiology, ecology, and application of the nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Li-Dong; He, Zhan-Fei; Zhu, Qun; Chen, Dong-Qing; Lou, Li-Ping; Xu, Xiang-Yang; Zheng, Ping; Hu, Bao-Lan

    2012-01-01

    Nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (n-damo), which couples the anaerobic oxidation of methane to denitrification, is a recently discovered process mediated by "Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera." M. oxyfera is affiliated with the "NC10" phylum, a phylum having no members in pure culture. Based on the isotopic labeling experiments, it is hypothesized that M. oxyfera has an unusual intra-aerobic pathway for the production of oxygen via the dismutation of nitric oxide into dinitrogen gas and oxygen. In addition, the bacterial species has a unique ultrastructure that is distinct from that of other previously described microorganisms. M. oxyfera-like sequences have been recovered from different natural habitats, suggesting that the n-damo process potentially contributes to global carbon and nitrogen cycles. The n-damo process is a process that can reduce the greenhouse effect, as methane is more effective in heat-trapping than carbon dioxide. The n-damo process, which uses methane instead of organic matter to drive denitrification, is also an economical nitrogen removal process because methane is a relatively inexpensive electron donor. This mini-review summarizes the peculiar microbiology of M. oxyfera and discusses the potential ecological importance and engineering application of the n-damo process.

  8. Activity-dependent transmission and integration control the timescales of auditory processing at an inhibitory synapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammer, Julian J; Siveke, Ida; Felmy, Felix

    2015-06-15

    To capture the context of sensory information, neural networks must process input signals across multiple timescales. In the auditory system, a prominent change in temporal processing takes place at an inhibitory GABAergic synapse in the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL). At this synapse, inhibition outlasts the stimulus by tens of milliseconds, such that it suppresses responses to lagging sounds, and is therefore implicated in echo suppression. Here, we untangle the cellular basis of this inhibition. We demonstrate with in vivo whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in Mongolian gerbils that the duration of inhibition increases with sound intensity. Activity-dependent spillover and asynchronous release translate the high presynaptic firing rates found in vivo into a prolonged synaptic output in acute slice recordings. A key mechanism controlling the inhibitory time course is the passive integration of the hyperpolarizing inhibitory conductance. This prolongation depends on the synaptic conductance amplitude. Computational modeling shows that this prolongation is a general mechanism and relies on a non-linear effect caused by synaptic conductance saturation when approaching the GABA reversal potential. The resulting hyperpolarization generates an efficient activity-dependent suppression of action potentials without affecting the threshold or gain of the input-output function. Taken together, the GABAergic inhibition in the DNLL is adjusted to the physiologically relevant duration by passive integration of inhibition with activity-dependent synaptic kinetics. This change in processing timescale combined with the reciprocal connectivity between the DNLLs implements a mechanism to suppress the distracting localization cues of echoes and helps to localize the initial sound source reliably.

  9. EigenGP: Gaussian processes with sparse data-dependent eigenfunctions

    CERN Document Server

    Qi, Yuan; Zhu, Yao

    2012-01-01

    Gaussian processes (GPs) provide a nonparametric representation of functions. Given N training points, the exact GP inference incurs high computational cost. A variety of sparse GP methods have been proposed to speed up GP inference. These methods essentially trade prediction accuracy with computational effciency. In this paper, we address this problem from a new perspective: we define an exact Gaussian process model, EigenGP, whose covariance function has a sparse spectrum adaptive to data. Specifically, we estimate eigenfunctions of covariance function based on training data and use an empirical Bayesian approach to select these eigenfunctions. Thus, unlike the previous Nystrom-based methods, EigenGP defines an exact Gaussian process model with an data-dependent covariance function. To handle nonlinear likelihoods, we develop an efficient expectation propagation inference algorithm, and couple it with an active-set algorithm for evidence maximization. Because the selected eigenfunctions (based on Gaussian ...

  10. Scale-dependence of processes structuring dung beetle metacommunities using functional diversity and community deconstruction approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Pedro Giovâni da; Hernández, Malva Isabel Medina

    2015-01-01

    Community structure is driven by mechanisms linked to environmental, spatial and temporal processes, which have been successfully addressed using metacommunity framework. The relative importance of processes shaping community structure can be identified using several different approaches. Two approaches that are increasingly being used are functional diversity and community deconstruction. Functional diversity is measured using various indices that incorporate distinct community attributes. Community deconstruction is a way to disentangle species responses to ecological processes by grouping species with similar traits. We used these two approaches to determine whether they are improvements over traditional measures (e.g., species composition, abundance, biomass) for identification of the main processes driving dung beetle (Scarabaeinae) community structure in a fragmented mainland-island landscape in southern Brazilian Atlantic Forest. We sampled five sites in each of four large forest areas, two on the mainland and two on the island. Sampling was performed in 2012 and 2013. We collected abundance and biomass data from 100 sampling points distributed over 20 sampling sites. We studied environmental, spatial and temporal effects on dung beetle community across three spatial scales, i.e., between sites, between areas and mainland-island. The γ-diversity based on species abundance was mainly attributed to β-diversity as a consequence of the increase in mean α- and β-diversity between areas. Variation partitioning on abundance, biomass and functional diversity showed scale-dependence of processes structuring dung beetle metacommunities. We identified two major groups of responses among 17 functional groups. In general, environmental filters were important at both local and regional scales. Spatial factors were important at the intermediate scale. Our study supports the notion of scale-dependence of environmental, spatial and temporal processes in the distribution

  11. Photoregulated or Energy Dependent Process of Hormogonia Differentiation in Nostoc sphaeroides Kützing (Cyanobacterium)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dun-Hai LI; Lan-Zhou CHEN; Gen-Bao LI; Gao-Hong WANG; Li-Rong SONG; Yong-Ding LIU

    2005-01-01

    Hormogonium, which was thought to play an important role in the dispersal and survival of these microorganisms in their natural habitats, is a distinguishable developmental stage of heterocystous cyanobacteria. The present study examined the effects of different light conditions and sugars on the of hormogonia was light dependent in the absence of sugar, but that close to 100% of cyanobacteria differentiated to hormogonia in the presence of glucose or sucrose, irrespective of the light conditions. This differentiation was inhibited, even in the presence of sugars, upon application of an inhibitor of respiration.Following the testing of different sugars, the effects of different lights were examined. It was found that 5-10 μmol.m-2.s-1 photon flux density was optimal for hormogonia differentiation. One hundred percent differentiation was obtained with white light irradiation, in contrast with irradiation with green light (80%differentiation) and red light (0-10% differentiation). Although they showed different efficiencies in induc ing hormogonia differentiation in N. sphaeroides, the green and red radiation did not display antagonistic effects. When the additional aspect of time dependence was investigated through the application of different light radiations and an inhibitor of protein synthesis, it was found that the initial 6 h of the differentiation process was crucial for hormogonia differentiation. Taken together, these results show that hormogonia differentiation in N. sphaeroides is either a photoregulated or an energy dependent process.

  12. Rheology modulated non-equilibrium fluctuations in time-dependent diffusion processes

    CERN Document Server

    Maity, Debonil; Chakraborty, Suman

    2015-01-01

    The effect of non-Newtonian rheology, manifested through a viscoelastic linearized Maxwell model, on the time-dependent non-equilibrium concentration fluctuations due to free diffusion as well as thermal diffusion of a species is analyzed theoretically. The non-equilibrium process is quantified through the concentration fluctuation auto-correlation function, also known as the dynamic structure factor. The analysis reveals that the effect of rheology is prominent for both the cases of free diffusion and thermal diffusion at long times where the rheology dictates not only the location of the peaks in concentration auto-correlations, but also the magnitudes; such peaks in the auto-correlation function are absent in the case of a Newtonian fluid. At smaller times, for the case of free diffusion presence of time-dependent peak(s) are observed, which are weakly dependent on the influence of rheology, a phenomenon which is absent in the case of thermal diffusion. Lastly, different regimes of the frequency dependent ...

  13. Role of glutathione, glutathione transferase, and glutaredoxin in regulation of redox-dependent processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinina, E V; Chernov, N N; Novichkova, M D

    2014-12-01

    Over the last decade fundamentally new features have been revealed for the participation of glutathione and glutathione-dependent enzymes (glutathione transferase and glutaredoxin) in cell proliferation, apoptosis, protein folding, and cell signaling. Reduced glutathione (GSH) plays an important role in maintaining cellular redox status by participating in thiol-disulfide exchange, which regulates a number of cell functions including gene expression and the activity of individual enzymes and enzyme systems. Maintaining optimum GSH/GSSG ratio is essential to cell viability. Decrease in the ratio can serve as an indicator of damage to the cell redox status and of changes in redox-dependent gene regulation. Disturbance of intracellular GSH balance is observed in a number of pathologies including cancer. Consequences of inappropriate GSH/GSSG ratio include significant changes in the mechanism of cellular redox-dependent signaling controlled both nonenzymatically and enzymatically with the participation of isoforms of glutathione transferase and glutaredoxin. This review summarizes recent data on the role of glutathione, glutathione transferase, and glutaredoxin in the regulation of cellular redox-dependent processes.

  14. Delayed evolutionary branching in small populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessen, D.; Andersson, J.; Persson, L.; de Roos, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: Question: How is the process of evolutionary branching influenced by demographic stochasticity? Mathematical methods: Adaptive dynamics of (i) a simple consumer-resource model and (ii) an analogous but individual-based model with finite population size. Key assumptions: Consumers have acce

  15. Cyclic AMP (cAMP)-mediated stimulation of adipocyte differentiation requires the synergistic action of Epac- and cAMP-dependent protein kinase-dependent processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Koefoed; Madsen, Lise; Pedersen, Lone Møller

    2008-01-01

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent processes are pivotal during the early stages of adipocyte differentiation. We show that exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac), which functions as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the Ras-like GTPases Rap1 and Rap2, was required for cAMP-dependent ......Cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent processes are pivotal during the early stages of adipocyte differentiation. We show that exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac), which functions as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the Ras-like GTPases Rap1 and Rap2, was required for c......AMP-dependent stimulation of adipocyte differentiation. Epac, working via Rap, acted synergistically with cAMP-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase A [PKA]) to promote adipogenesis. The major role of PKA was to down-regulate Rho and Rho-kinase activity, rather than to enhance CREB phosphorylation. Suppression of Rho...

  16. Real processing II: Extremal principles of irreversible thermodynamics, relations, generalizations and time dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiser, Bernhard

    We start presenting the extremal principles we will consider: The Statement of Helmholtz 1868 and Rayleigh (SHR) 1913, generalized by Reiser 1996, the Statement of Kelvin (SK) 1849, the Principle of Minimal Entropy Production (PME) of Prigogine 1947 for linear processes, that of Prigogine and Glansdorff 1954 for non-linear processes and finally, the Principle of Maximal Entropy (MEF) of Jaynes, 1957. First we show the relation between SHR and SK. This is a particular example for the property of Irreversible Thermodynamics (TIP) to treat all kinds of movements of fluids, compounds or any type of energy under the engineering term loss, or accurately spoken, entropy production. This possibility to treat different physical effects in the same manner causes by its simplification, considerable economical advantages of treating processes in the frame of TIP. For example, whereas a balance like the momentum balance (Navier-Stokes equation) has to distinguish between inertial, viscous or pressure effects, the PME treats the movements these effects cause with one term, and no pressure coupling or non-linearity is enclosed. Then we generalize the SK from potential velocity fields to general ones and show that it fits into the MEF. We continue with the generalization of the SHR from 1996 to compressible and non-Newtonian fluids. Further, we notice that these principles hold for time-dependent (non-stationary) processes. Therefore, the general fluid dynamical part of the PME 1947 can be generalized from stationary to time-dependent processes. We show that this is possible not only for velocity fields but also for scalar fields using as an example, the temperature in the case of heat conduction. We see that scalar fields need a transformation well known in mathematics. Comparing the PME 1954 with the completely generalized SHR we see that it holds also for non-linear processes. The same holds for the generalized SK. We close the consideration of extremal principles with the

  17. Frequency dependent plasma characteristics in a capacitively coupled 300 mm wafer plasma processing chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hebner, Gregory A [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque NM 87185-1423 (United States); Barnat, Edward V [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque NM 87185-1423 (United States); Miller, Paul A [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque NM 87185-1423 (United States); Paterson, Alex M [Applied Materials, 974 Arques Avenue, Sunnyvale CA, 94086 (United States); Holland, John P [Applied Materials, 974 Arques Avenue, Sunnyvale CA, 94086 (United States)

    2006-11-01

    Argon plasma characteristics in a dual-frequency, capacitively coupled, 300 mm-wafer plasma processing system were investigated for rf drive frequencies between 10 and 190 MHz. We report spatial and frequency dependent changes in plasma parameters such as line-integrated electron density, ion saturation current, optical emission and argon metastable density. For the conditions investigated, the line-integrated electron density was a nonlinear function of drive frequency at constant rf power. In addition, the spatial distribution of the positive ions changed from uniform to peaked in the centre as the frequency was increased. Spatially resolved optical emission increased with frequency and the relative optical emission at several spectral lines depended on frequency. Argon metastable density and spatial distribution were not a strong function of drive frequency. Metastable temperature was approximately 400 K.

  18. Sequential Learning Models for the Wisconsin Card Sort Task: Assessing Processes in Substance Dependent Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishara, Anthony J.; Kruschke, John K.; Stout, Julie C.; Bechara, Antoine; McCabe, David P.; Busemeyer, Jerome R.

    2010-01-01

    The Wisconsin Card Sort Task (WCST) is a commonly used neuropsychological test of executive or frontal lobe functioning. Traditional behavioral measures from the task (e.g., perseverative errors) distinguish healthy controls from clinical populations, but such measures can be difficult to interpret. In an attempt to supplement traditional measures, we developed and tested a family of sequential learning models that allowed for estimation of processes at the individual subject level in the WCST. Testing the model with substance dependent individuals and healthy controls, the model parameters significantly predicted group membership even when controlling for traditional behavioral measures from the task. Substance dependence was associated with a) slower attention shifting following punished trials and b) reduced decision consistency. Results suggest that model parameters may offer both incremental content validity and incremental predictive validity. PMID:20495607

  19. Time-Dependent Reliability Modeling and Analysis Method for Mechanics Based on Convex Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study is to evaluate the time-dependent reliability for dynamic mechanics with insufficient time-varying uncertainty information. In this paper, the nonprobabilistic convex process model, which contains autocorrelation and cross-correlation, is firstly employed for the quantitative assessment of the time-variant uncertainty in structural performance characteristics. By combination of the set-theory method and the regularization treatment, the time-varying properties of structural limit state are determined and a standard convex process with autocorrelation for describing the limit state is formulated. By virtue of the classical first-passage method in random process theory, a new nonprobabilistic measure index of time-dependent reliability is proposed and its solution strategy is mathematically conducted. Furthermore, the Monte-Carlo simulation method is also discussed to illustrate the feasibility and accuracy of the developed approach. Three engineering cases clearly demonstrate that the proposed method may provide a reasonable and more efficient way to estimate structural safety than Monte-Carlo simulations throughout a product life-cycle.

  20. Prior Design for Dependent Dirichlet Processes: An Application to Marathon Modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie F Pradier

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel application of Bayesian nonparametrics (BNP for marathon data modeling. We make use of two well-known BNP priors, the single-p dependent Dirichlet process and the hierarchical Dirichlet process, in order to address two different problems. First, we study the impact of age, gender and environment on the runners' performance. We derive a fair grading method that allows direct comparison of runners regardless of their age and gender. Unlike current grading systems, our approach is based not only on top world records, but on the performances of all runners. The presented methodology for comparison of densities can be adopted in many other applications straightforwardly, providing an interesting perspective to build dependent Dirichlet processes. Second, we analyze the running patterns of the marathoners in time, obtaining information that can be valuable for training purposes. We also show that these running patterns can be used to predict finishing time given intermediate interval measurements. We apply our models to New York City, Boston and London marathons.

  1. Simulation of energy-dependent electron diffusion processes in the Earth's outer radiation belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Q.; Li, W.; Thorne, R. M.; Nishimura, Y.; Zhang, X.-J.; Reeves, G. D.; Kletzing, C. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Henderson, M. G.; Spence, H. E.; Baker, D. N.; Blake, J. B.; Fennell, J. F.; Angelopoulos, V.

    2016-05-01

    The radial and local diffusion processes induced by various plasma waves govern the highly energetic electron dynamics in the Earth's radiation belts, causing distinct characteristics in electron distributions at various energies. In this study, we present our simulation results of the energetic electron evolution during a geomagnetic storm using the University of California, Los Angeles 3-D diffusion code. Following the plasma sheet electron injections, the electrons at different energy bands detected by the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) and Relativistic Electron Proton Telescope (REPT) instruments on board the Van Allen Probes exhibit a rapid enhancement followed by a slow diffusive movement in differential energy fluxes, and the radial extent to which electrons can penetrate into depends on energy with closer penetration toward the Earth at lower energies than higher energies. We incorporate radial diffusion, local acceleration, and loss processes due to whistler mode wave observations to perform a 3-D diffusion simulation. Our simulation results demonstrate that chorus waves cause electron flux increase by more than 1 order of magnitude during the first 18 h, and the subsequent radial extents of the energetic electrons during the storm recovery phase are determined by the coupled radial diffusion and the pitch angle scattering by EMIC waves and plasmaspheric hiss. The radial diffusion caused by ULF waves and local plasma wave scattering are energy dependent, which lead to the observed electron flux variations with energy dependences. This study suggests that plasma wave distributions in the inner magnetosphere are crucial for the energy-dependent intrusions of several hundred keV to several MeV electrons.

  2. Scale dependence of Hortonian rainfall-runoff processes in a semiarid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L.; Sela, S.; Svoray, T.; Assouline, S.

    2016-07-01

    Scale dependence of Hortonian rainfall-runoff processes has received much attention in the literature but has not been fully resolved. To further explore this issue, a recently developed model was applied to simulate rainfall-infiltration-runoff processes at multiple spatial scales. The model consists of the coupling between a two-dimensional runoff routing module and a two-layer infiltration module, thus accounting for spatial variability in soil properties, soil surface sealing, topography, and partial vegetation cover. A 76 m2 semiarid experimental plot with sparse cover of vegetation patches and a sealed soil surface in inter-patch bare areas was used as a representative elementary area (REA). A series of four larger artificial plots of different areas was created based on this REA to examine the scale dependence of rainfall-runoff relationships in the case of stationary heterogeneity. Results show that runoff depth (or runoff coefficient) decreases with increasing scale. This trend is more prominent at scales less than 10 times the REA length. Power law relationships can quantitatively describe the scaling law. The major mechanism of the scale effect is run-on infiltration. However, rainfall intensity and soil properties can both affect the scaling trend through their interaction with run-on. Higher intensity and less temporal variability of rainfall can both reduce the scale effect. Temporally intermittent rainfall may produce spatially oscillating infiltration rates at large scales. Vegetation patterns are another factor that may affect the scaling. Random-vegetation patterns, compared with regular patterns with similar statistical properties, change the spatial distributions, but do not significantly change either the total amount and statistical properties of infiltration and runoff or the scale dependence of the rainfall-runoff process.

  3. [Treatment processes of pre-alcoholism and alcohol dependence targeted towards drinking reduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Atsushi; Maesato, Hitoshi; Hisatomi, Nobuko; Higuchi, Susumu

    2013-02-01

    Since the 1990s, we have suggested the concept of pre-alcoholism which encompasses patients who have drunk a great deal of alcohol leading to alcohol related problems such as health issues, domestic violence, drunken driving and black-outs. Pre-alcoholism excludes alcohol-dependent patients who have experienced continuous drinking or withdrawal symptoms. We have treated many outpatients with pre-alcoholism for several years. Our regimen demands that the patients must be abstinent for half a year at the beginning of their treatment. After half a year they can choose whether they will continue to be abstinent or they will resume drinking with the aim of reducing their total alcohol consumption. The study clarified the character of pre-alcoholism by investigation of the patients' background and re-diagnosis of the patients based on the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10). A remarkable ratio of pre-alcoholic patients was diagnosed with alcohol dependence under ICD-10. We classified pre-alcoholic patients into two groups, one diagnosed as having ICD-10-classed alcohol dependence and the other which did not fulfill the ICD-10 diagnostic criteria of alcohol dependence, and examined the therapeutic processes of the two groups. It was shown that most pre-alcoholic patients could finally take required courses of treatment by themselves without regard to diagnosis under ICD-10, even if they chose any treatment and made alcohol related mistakes on the way. Our findings suggested that pre-alcoholic patients, a portion of whom may have exhibited mild alcohol dependence, could select drinking reduction as a primary goal of treatment after a certain period of abstinence.

  4. Circadian Oscillations within the Hippocampus Support Hippocampus-dependent Memory Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Lynn Eckel-Mahan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The ability to sustain memories over long periods of time, sometimes even a lifetime, is one of the most remarkable properties of the brain. Much knowledge has been gained over the past few decades regarding the molecular correlates of memory formation. Once a memory is forged, however, the molecular events that provide permanence are as of yet unclear. Studies in multiple organisms have revealed that circadian rhythmicity is important for the formation, stability, and recall of memories [1]. The neuronal events that provide this link need to be explored further. This article will discuss the findings related to the circadian regulation of memory-dependent processes in the hippocampus. Specifically, the circadian-controlled MAP kinase and cAMP signal transduction pathway plays critical roles in the consolidation of hippocampus-dependent memory. A series of studies have revealed the circadian oscillation of this pathway within the hippocampus, an activity that is absent in memory-deficient, transgenic mice lacking Ca2+-stimulated adenylyl cyclases. Interference with these oscillations proceeding the cellular memory consolidation period impairs the persistence of hippocampus-dependent memory. These data suggest that the persistence of long-term memories may depend upon reactivation of this signal transduction pathway in the hippocampus during the circadian cycle. New data reveals the dependence of hippocampal oscillation in MAPK activity on the SCN, again underscoring the importance of this region in maintaining the circadian physiology of memory. Finally, the downstream ramification of these oscillations in terms of gene expression and epigenetics should be considered, as emerging evidence is pointing strongly to a circadian link between epigenetics and long term synaptic plasticity.

  5. Quiver Varieties and Branching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiraku Nakajima

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Braverman and Finkelberg recently proposed the geometric Satake correspondence for the affine Kac-Moody group Gaff [Braverman A., Finkelberg M., arXiv:0711.2083]. They conjecture that intersection cohomology sheaves on the Uhlenbeck compactification of the framed moduli space of Gcpt-instantons on $R^4/Z_r$ correspond to weight spaces of representations of the Langlands dual group $G_{aff}^{vee}$ at level $r$. When $G = SL(l$, the Uhlenbeck compactification is the quiver variety of type $sl(r_{aff}$, and their conjecture follows from the author's earlier result and I. Frenkel's level-rank duality. They further introduce a convolution diagram which conjecturally gives the tensor product multiplicity [Braverman A., Finkelberg M., Private communication, 2008]. In this paper, we develop the theory for the branching in quiver varieties and check this conjecture for $G = SL(l$.

  6. Integrating over Higgs branches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, G. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). Dept. of Physics; Nekrasov, N. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, 117259, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shatashvili, S. [Lyman Laboratory of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2000-01-01

    We develop some useful techniques for integrating over Higgs branches in supersymmetric theories with 4 and 8 supercharges. In particular, we define a regularized volume for hyperkaehler quotients. We evaluate this volume for certain ALE and ALF spaces in terms of the hyperkaehler periods. We also reduce these volumes for a large class of hyperkaehler quotients to simpler integrals. These quotients include complex coadjoint orbits, instanton moduli spaces on R{sup 4} and ALE manifolds, Hitchin spaces, and moduli spaces of (parabolic) Higgs bundles on Riemann surfaces. In the case of Hitchin spaces the evaluation of the volume reduces to a summation over solutions of Bethe ansatz equations for the non-linear Schroedinger system. We discuss some applications of our results. (orig.)

  7. Processing Incomplete Query Specifications in a Context-Dependent Reasoning Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neli P. Zlatareva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Search is the most prominent web service, which is about to change dramatically with the transition to the Semantic Web. Semantic Web applications are expected to deal with complex conjunctive queries, and not always such queries can be completely and precisely defined. Current Semantic Web reasoners built upon Description Logics have limited processing power in such environments. We discuss some of their limitations, and show how an alternative logical framework utilizing context-dependent rules can be extended to handle incomplete or imprecise query specifications.

  8. Transient analysis of the subordinated chain of a state dependent pure birth process

    CERN Document Server

    Monsellato, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Consider a pure birth process with intensities $\\lambda_{k}=\\frac{1}{1+k}$, with $k=0,1,2,...$, we show that the subordinated chain is assimilable to a Bernoullian scheme with dependent successes probabilities, also we show a direct link with a degenerate Polya urn replacement scheme \\cite{Janson}. We compute explicitly transition probabilities, by generating function method, of the subordinated chain and give some interesting bounds using the \\emph{centering sequence} approach proposed by MacDiarmid \\cite{McDiarmidcentering}.

  9. Process Dependent Sivers Function and Implication for Single Spin Asymmetry in Inclusive Hadron Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard Gamberg, Zhong-Bo Kang

    2011-01-01

    We study the single transverse spin asymmetries in the single inclusive particle production within the framework of the generalized parton model (GPM). By carefully analyzing the initial- and final-state interactions, we include the process-dependence of the Sivers functions into the GPM formalism. The modified GPM formalism has a close connection with the collinear twist-3 approach. Within the new formalism, we make predictions for inclusive {pi}{sup 0} and direct photon productions at RHIC energies. We find the predictions are opposite to those in the conventional GPM approach.

  10. Uridine branch acceptor is a cis-acting element involved in regulation of the alternative processing of calcitonin/CGRP-l pre-mRNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Adema, G. J.; van Hulst, K L; Baas, P.D.

    1990-01-01

    The human calcitonin/CGRP-I (CALC-I) gene contains 6 exons and encodes two polypeptide precursors. In thyroid C-cells, calcitonin (CT) mRNA is produced by splicing of exons 1-2-3 to exon 4 (CT-encoding) and polyadenylation at exon 4. CGRP-I mRNA is produced in particular neural cells by splicing of exons 1-2-3 to exon 5 (CGRP-I-encoding) and the polyadenylated exon 6. We previously reported that model precursor RNAs containing the exon 3 to exon 5 region of the CALC-I gene are processed predo...

  11. Bending behavior of thermoplastic composite sheets viscoelasticity and temperature dependency in the draping process

    CERN Document Server

    Ropers, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    Within the scope of this work, Steffen Ropers evaluates the viscoelastic and temperature-dependent nature of the bending behavior of thermoplastic composite sheets in order to further enhance the predictability of the draping simulation. This simulation is a useful tool for the development of robust large scale processes for continuously fiber-reinforced polymers (CFRP). The bending behavior thereby largely influences the size and position of wrinkles, which are one of the most common processing defects for continuously fiber-reinforced parts. Thus, a better understanding of the bending behavior of thermoplastic composite sheets as well as an appropriate testing method along with corresponding material models contribute to a wide-spread application of CFRPs in large scale production. Contents Thermoplastic Prepregs Draping Simulation of Thermoplastic Prepregs Bending Characterization of Textile Composites Modeling of Bending Behavior Target Groups Researchers and students in the field of polymer, lightweight,...

  12. A cyclic time-dependent Markov process to model daily patterns in wind turbine power production

    CERN Document Server

    Scholz, Teresa; Estanqueiro, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Wind energy is becoming a top contributor to the renewable energy mix, which raises potential reliability issues for the grid due to the fluctuating nature of its source. To achieve adequate reserve commitment and to promote market participation, it is necessary to provide models that can capture daily patterns in wind power production. This paper presents a cyclic inhomogeneous Markov process, which is based on a three-dimensional state-space (wind power, speed and direction). Each time-dependent transition probability is expressed as a Bernstein polynomial. The model parameters are estimated by solving a constrained optimization problem: The objective function combines two maximum likelihood estimators, one to ensure that the Markov process long-term behavior reproduces the data accurately and another to capture daily fluctuations. A convex formulation for the overall optimization problem is presented and its applicability demonstrated through the analysis of a case-study. The proposed model is capable of r...

  13. Manipulating surface wettability and oil absorbency of diatomite depending on processing and ambient conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özen, İlhan; Şimşek, Süleyman; Okyay, Gamze

    2015-03-01

    In this study, a diatomite sample, which is a natural inorganic mineral with inherently high water and oil absorption capacity, was subjected to grinding before surface modification. Afterwards, the diatomite surface was modified via facile methods using a fluorocarbon (FC) chemical and stearic acid (SA) in addition to the sol-gel fluorosilanization (FS) process. The water and oil wettability, and oil absorbency properties of the unmodified and modified diatomites were investigated in addition to diatomite characterizations such as chemical content, surface area, particle size distribution, morphology, and modification efficiency. It was revealed that the wettability was changed completely depending on the surface modification agent and the media used, while the oil absorbency property surprisingly did not change. On the other hand, the oil absorbency was worsened by the grinding process, whereas the wettability was not affected.

  14. Generalized Fractional Processes with Long Memory and Time Dependent Volatility Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shelton Peiris

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, fractionally-differenced processes have received a great deal of attention due to their flexibility in financial applications with long-memory. This paper revisits the class of generalized fractionally-differenced processes generated by Gegenbauer polynomials and the ARMA structure (GARMA with both the long-memory and time-dependent innovation variance. We establish the existence and uniqueness of second-order solutions. We also extend this family with innovations to follow GARCH and stochastic volatility (SV. Under certain regularity conditions, we give asymptotic results for the approximate maximum likelihood estimator for the GARMA-GARCH model. We discuss a Monte Carlo likelihood method for the GARMA-SV model and investigate finite sample properties via Monte Carlo experiments. Finally, we illustrate the usefulness of this approach using monthly inflation rates for France, Japan and the United States.

  15. Airway branching morphogenesis in three dimensional culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudjonsson Thorarinn

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lungs develop from the fetal digestive tract where epithelium invades the vascular rich stroma in a process called branching morphogenesis. In organogenesis, endothelial cells have been shown to be important for morphogenesis and the maintenance of organ structure. The aim of this study was to recapitulate human lung morphogenesis in vitro by establishing a three dimensional (3D co-culture model where lung epithelial cells were cultured in endothelial-rich stroma. Methods We used a human bronchial epithelial cell line (VA10 recently developed in our laboratory. This cell line cell line maintains a predominant basal cell phenotype, expressing p63 and other basal markers such as cytokeratin-5 and -14. Here, we cultured VA10 with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs, to mimic the close interaction between these cell types during lung development. Morphogenesis and differentiation was monitored by phase contrast microscopy, immunostainings and confocal imaging. Results We found that in co-culture with endothelial cells, the VA10 cells generated bronchioalveolar like structures, suggesting that lung epithelial branching is facilitated by the presence of endothelial cells. The VA10 derived epithelial structures display various complex patterns of branching and show partial alveolar type-II differentiation with pro-Surfactant-C expression. The epithelial origin of the branching VA10 colonies was confirmed by immunostaining. These bronchioalveolar-like structures were polarized with respect to integrin expression at the cell-matrix interface. The endothelial-induced branching was mediated by soluble factors. Furthermore, fibroblast growth factor receptor-2 (FGFR-2 and sprouty-2 were expressed at the growing tips of the branching structures and the branching was inhibited by the FGFR-small molecule inhibitor SU5402. Discussion In this study we show that a human lung epithelial cell line can be induced by endothelial cells to

  16. Human vagus nerve branching in the cervical region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Hammer

    Full Text Available Vagus nerve stimulation is increasingly applied to treat epilepsy, psychiatric conditions and potentially chronic heart failure. After implanting vagus nerve electrodes to the cervical vagus nerve, side effects such as voice alterations and dyspnea or missing therapeutic effects are observed at different frequencies. Cervical vagus nerve branching might partly be responsible for these effects. However, vagus nerve branching has not yet been described in the context of vagus nerve stimulation.Branching of the cervical vagus nerve was investigated macroscopically in 35 body donors (66 cervical sides in the carotid sheath. After X-ray imaging for determining the vertebral levels of cervical vagus nerve branching, samples were removed to confirm histologically the nerve and to calculate cervical vagus nerve diameters and cross-sections.Cervical vagus nerve branching was observed in 29% of all cases (26% unilaterally, 3% bilaterally and proven histologically in all cases. Right-sided branching (22% was more common than left-sided branching (12% and occurred on the level of the fourth and fifth vertebra on the left and on the level of the second to fifth vertebra on the right side. Vagus nerves without branching were significantly larger than vagus nerves with branches, concerning their diameters (4.79 mm vs. 3.78 mm and cross-sections (7.24 mm2 vs. 5.28 mm2.Cervical vagus nerve branching is considerably more frequent than described previously. The side-dependent differences of vagus nerve branching may be linked to the asymmetric effects of the vagus nerve. Cervical vagus nerve branching should be taken into account when identifying main trunk of the vagus nerve for implanting electrodes to minimize potential side effects or lacking therapeutic benefits of vagus nerve stimulation.

  17. Why a Particle Physicist is Interested in DNA Branch Migration

    CERN Document Server

    Myers, E; Myers, Eric; Bruist, Michael F.

    1996-01-01

    We describe an explicitly discrete model of the process of DNA branch migration. The model matches the existing data well, but we find that branch migration along long strands of DNA ($N \\simge 40$~bp) is also well modeled by continuum diffusion. The discrete model is still useful for guiding future experiments.

  18. A random walk with a branching system in random environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-qiu LI; Xu LI; Quan-sheng LIU

    2007-01-01

    We consider a branching random walk in random environments, where the particles are reproduced as a branching process with a random environment (in time), and move independently as a random walk on Z with a random environment (in locations). We obtain the asymptotic properties on the position of the rightmost particle at time n, revealing a phase transition phenomenon of the system.

  19. Nicotine dependence is characterized by disordered reward processing in a network driving motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bühler, Mira; Vollstädt-Klein, Sabine; Kobiella, Andrea; Budde, Henning; Reed, Laurence J; Braus, Dieter F; Büchel, Christian; Smolka, Michael N

    2010-04-15

    Drug addiction is characterized by an unhealthy priority for drug consumption with a compulsive, uncontrolled drug-intake pattern due to a disordered motivational system. However, only some individuals become addicted, whereas others maintain regular but controlled drug use. Whether the transition occurs might depend on how individuals process drug relative to nondrug reward. We applied functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure mesocorticolimbic activity to stimuli predicting monetary or cigarette reward, together with behavioral assessment of subsequent motivation to obtain the respective reward on a trial-by-trial basis, in 21 nicotine-dependent and 21 nondependent, occasional smokers. Occasional smokers showed increased reactivity of the mesocorticolimbic system to stimuli predicting monetary reward relative to cigarette reward and subsequently spent more effort to obtain money. In the group of dependent smokers, we found equivalent anticipatory activity and subsequent instrumental response rates for both reward types. Additionally, anticipatory mesocorticolimbic activation predicted subsequent motivation to obtain reward. This imbalance in the incentive salience of drug relative to nondrug reward-predicting cues, in a network that drives motivation to obtain reward, could represent a central mechanism of drug addiction. Copyright 2010 Society of Biological Psychiatry. All rights reserved.

  20. Methods and Technologies Branch (MTB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Methods and Technologies Branch focuses on methods to address epidemiologic data collection, study design and analysis, and to modify technological approaches to better understand cancer susceptibility.

  1. Effects of indomethacin on the divisional morphogenesis and cytoskeleton-dependent processes of Tetrahymena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Péter; Pállinger, Eva

    2003-06-01

    Indomethacin (0.1 mM) causes significantly altered phospholipid synthesis in Tetrahymena and is able to influence the inositol phospholipid signalling system (9). In the present study the effects of indomethacin on the course of cell division, cyclin expression, the cortical microtubular system and on cytoskeleton-dependent processes (motility, phagocytosis) were investigated. As expected from its interference with the synthesis of phospholipids, indomethacin affected Tetrahymena in a number of ways: the structure of the cortical microtubular system became irregular; in many cells the stomatogenesis (development of new oral apparatus) and the development of the fission furrow was not accompanied by elongation of the macronucleus, which is a typical phenomenon of the normal course of mitosis: apparently indomethacin uncouples these phenomena. After indomethacin treatment, the expression of both cyclin A and cyclin B(1) were reduced significantly. The cell growth rate, motility and phagocytotic activity were all considerably reduced. There are probably additional mechanisms responsible for the effect of indomethacin on the systems that control divisional morphogenesis, for microtubule-dependent processes and for the connection between nuclear and cortical alterations during the cell cycle. Effects on protein phosphorylation/dephosphorylation, on cyclin expression and on microtubular functions are probably involved. These possibilities are discussed.

  2. Mesoscale Phenomena Associated with Mineral Surfaces and Pathway-Dependent Chemical Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, G. E.; Johnson, N. C.; Garcia Del Real, P.; Maher, K.; Bird, D. K.; Rosenbauer, R. J.; Thomas, B.; Levard, C.

    2012-12-01

    Multiphase physicochemical transport and interfacial processes in natural and synthetic permeable media are pervasive in energy and Earth systems, where interfacial chemical reactions play an enormous role. These coupled reactions control the composition of our environment, including the atmosphere, oceans, and groundwaters, and the soils derived from interactions of atmospheric gases and natural waters with solid phases. Aqueous fluids, liquid hydrocarbons, and gases flow through permeable geological media along pathways that can be exceedingly complex at the nano- to microscales. Adding to this complexity are the chemical reactions occurring along these pathways that can irreversibly alter permeability and porosity as well as the compositions of fluid, gas, and solid phases, depending on physicochemical conditions. This talk will discuss the role of chemical reactions on mineral surfaces in several areas, including the structure of the electrical double layer at mineral/water interfaces and how it changes as a function of solution conditions, sequestration and transformation of environmental contaminants on mineral surfaces, mineral carbonation reactions and CO2 sequestration, and nanoparticle stability and transformations in natural systems. It will also include examples of pathway-dependent mesoscale chemical processes in the synthetic world involving energy materials. Examples in this area will include a synchrotron-based high-resolution 3D tomography study of Li-NiO battery electrodes under in operando conditions and metal-organic framework structures that can be used for hydrogen storage, separation, catalysis, and sequestration.

  3. RNA-processing protein TDP-43 regulates FOXO-dependent protein quality control in stress response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Protein homeostasis is critical for cell survival and functions during stress and is regulated at both RNA and protein levels. However, how the cell integrates RNA-processing programs with post-translational protein quality control systems is unknown. Transactive response DNA-binding protein (TARDBP/TDP-43 is an RNA-processing protein that is involved in the pathogenesis of major neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and frontotemporal dementia (FTD. Here, we report a conserved role for TDP-43, from C. elegans to mammals, in the regulation of protein clearance via activation of FOXO transcription factors. In response to proteotoxic insults, TDP-43 redistributes from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, promoting nuclear translocation of FOXOs and relieving an inhibition of FOXO activity in the nucleus. The interaction between TDP-43 and the FOXO pathway in mammalian cells is mediated by their competitive binding to 14-3-3 proteins. Consistent with FOXO-dependent protein quality control, TDP-43 regulates the levels of misfolded proteins. Therefore, TDP-43 mediates stress responses and couples the regulation of RNA metabolism and protein quality control in a FOXO-dependent manner. The results suggest that compromising the function of TDP-43 in regulating protein homeostasis may contribute to the pathogenesis of related neurodegenerative diseases.

  4. RNA-Processing Protein TDP-43 Regulates FOXO-Dependent Protein Quality Control in Stress Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Baldie, Gerard; Periz, Goran; Wang, Jiou

    2014-01-01

    Protein homeostasis is critical for cell survival and functions during stress and is regulated at both RNA and protein levels. However, how the cell integrates RNA-processing programs with post-translational protein quality control systems is unknown. Transactive response DNA-binding protein (TARDBP/TDP-43) is an RNA-processing protein that is involved in the pathogenesis of major neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Here, we report a conserved role for TDP-43, from C. elegans to mammals, in the regulation of protein clearance via activation of FOXO transcription factors. In response to proteotoxic insults, TDP-43 redistributes from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, promoting nuclear translocation of FOXOs and relieving an inhibition of FOXO activity in the nucleus. The interaction between TDP-43 and the FOXO pathway in mammalian cells is mediated by their competitive binding to 14-3-3 proteins. Consistent with FOXO-dependent protein quality control, TDP-43 regulates the levels of misfolded proteins. Therefore, TDP-43 mediates stress responses and couples the regulation of RNA metabolism and protein quality control in a FOXO-dependent manner. The results suggest that compromising the function of TDP-43 in regulating protein homeostasis may contribute to the pathogenesis of related neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25329970

  5. The time dependence of rock healing as a universal relaxation process, a tutorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snieder, Roel; Sens-Schönfelder, Christoph; Wu, Renjie

    2017-01-01

    The material properties of earth materials often change after the material has been perturbed (slow dynamics). For example, the seismic velocity of subsurface materials changes after earthquakes, and granular materials compact after being shaken. Such relaxation processes are associated by observables that change logarithmically with time. Since the logarithm diverges for short and long times, the relaxation can, strictly speaking, not have a log-time dependence. We present a self-contained description of a relaxation function that consists of a superposition of decaying exponentials that has log-time behaviour for intermediate times, but converges to zero for long times, and is finite for t = 0. The relaxation function depends on two parameters, the minimum and maximum relaxation time. These parameters can, in principle, be extracted from the observed relaxation. As an example, we present a crude model of a fracture that is closing under an external stress. Although the fracture model violates some of the assumptions on which the relaxation function is based, it follows the relaxation function well. We provide qualitative arguments that the relaxation process, just like the Gutenberg-Richter law, is applicable to a wide range of systems and has universal properties.

  6. Dependence of the triple-alpha process on the fundamental constants of nature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epelbaum, Evgeny; Krebs, Hermann [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik II, Bochum (Germany); Laehde, Timo A. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Institute for Advanced Simulation, Juelich (Germany); Lee, Dean [North Carolina State University, Department of Physics, Raleigh, NC (United States); Meissner, Ulf G. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Institute for Advanced Simulation, Juelich (Germany); Forschungszentrum Juelich, JARA - High Performance Computing, Juelich (Germany); Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Bonn (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    We present an ab initio calculation of the quark mass dependence of the ground state energies of {sup 4}He, {sup 8}Be and {sup 12}C, and of the energy of the Hoyle state in {sup 12}C. These investigations are performed within the framework of lattice chiral Effective Field Theory. We address the sensitivity of the production rate of carbon and oxygen in red giant stars to the fundamental constants of nature by considering the impact of variations in the light quark masses and the electromagnetic fine-structure constant on the reaction rate of the triple-alpha process. As carbon and oxygen are essential to life as we know it, we also discuss the implications of our findings for an anthropic view of the Universe. We find strong evidence that the physics of the triple-alpha process is driven by alpha clustering, and that shifts in the fundamental parameters at the {approx_equal} 2-3% level are unlikely to be detrimental to the development of life. Tolerance against much larger changes cannot be ruled out at present, given the relatively limited knowledge of the quark mass dependence of the two-nucleon S -wave scattering parameters. Lattice QCD is expected to provide refined estimates of the scattering parameters in the future. (orig.)

  7. Cross-serial dependencies in Dutch: testing the influence of NP type on processing load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaan, Edith; Vasić, Nada

    2004-03-01

    We tested the cross-linguistic generalizability of three models of sentence processing complexity--Lewis (1996), Gibson (1998, 2000), and Gordon (Gordon, Hendrick, & Johnson, 2001; Gordon, Hendrick, & Levine, 2002)--by investigating the on-line processing of cross-serial dependencies in Dutch. The number of subject-verb relations in a clause was manipulated, as well as type of noun phrase (indexical pronouns vs. proper names or full definite NPs). Several of our findings diverged from Gibson's model: Processing difficulty at the verbs was not affected by the use of proper names versus first- and second-person pronouns; an increase at the first verb was seen for full NPs versus pronouns in 3-verb constructions, which was predicted by the Gibson model, but is in contrast to Lewis's model. These findings are best explained within the framework of similarity-based inference models (Gordon et al., 2001; Gordon et al., 2002), according to which the number of similar NPs affects processing difficulty at the point of retrieval, and not specifically their discourse status or syntactic function.

  8. Modeling of batch processes using explicitly time-dependent artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, Botla; Kumar, Vadlagattu Varun; Rani, Kalipatnapu Yamuna

    2014-05-01

    A neural network architecture incorporating time dependency explicitly, proposed recently, for modeling nonlinear nonstationary dynamic systems is further developed in this paper, and three alternate configurations are proposed to represent the dynamics of batch chemical processes. The first configuration consists of L subnets, each having M inputs representing the past samples of process inputs and output; each subnet has a hidden layer with polynomial activation function; the outputs of the hidden layer are combined and acted upon by an explicitly time-dependent modulation function. The outputs of all the subnets are summed to obtain the output prediction. In the second configuration, additional weights are incorporated to obtain a more generalized model. In the third configuration, the subnets are eliminated by incorporating an additional hidden layer consisting of L nodes. Backpropagation learning algorithm is formulated for each of the proposed neural network configuration to determine the weights, the polynomial coefficients, and the modulation function parameters. The modeling capability of the proposed neural network configuration is evaluated by employing it to represent the dynamics of a batch reactor in which a consecutive reaction takes place. The results show that all the three time-varying neural networks configurations are able to represent the batch reactor dynamics accurately, and it is found that the third configuration is exhibiting comparable or better performance over the other two configurations while requiring much smaller number of parameters. The modeling ability of the third configuration is further validated by applying to modeling a semibatch polymerization reactor challenge problem. This paper illustrates that the proposed approach can be applied to represent dynamics of any batch/semibatch process.

  9. A random energy model for size dependence : recurrence vs. transience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Külske, Christof

    1998-01-01

    We investigate the size dependence of disordered spin models having an infinite number of Gibbs measures in the framework of a simplified 'random energy model for size dependence'. We introduce two versions (involving either independent random walks or branching processes), that can be seen as gener

  10. The kinetics of process dependent ammonia inhibition of methanogenesis from acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Christopher Allen; Novak, John; Takacs, Imre; Wett, Bernhard; Murthy, Sudhir

    2012-12-01

    Advanced anaerobic digestion processes aimed at improving the methanization of sewage sludge may be potentially impaired by the production of inhibitory compounds (e.g. free ammonia). The result of methanogenic inhibition is relatively high effluent concentrations of acetic acid and other soluble organics, as well as reduced methane yields. An extreme example of such an advanced process is the thermal hydrolytic pretreatment of sludge prior to high solids digestion (THD). Compared to a conventional mesophilic anaerobic digestion process (MAD), THD operates in a state of constant inhibition driven by high free ammonia concentrations, and elevated pH values. As such, previous investigations of the kinetics of methanogenesis from acetic acid under uninhibited conditions do not necessarily apply well to the modeling of extreme processes such as THD. By conducting batch ammonia toxicity assays using biomass from THD and MAD reactors, we compared the response of these communities over a broad range of ammonia inhibition. For both processes, increased inhibitor concentrations resulted in a reduction of biomass growth rate (r(max) = μ(max)∙X) and a resulting decrease in the substrate half saturation coefficient (K(S)). These two parameters exhibited a high degree of correlation, suggesting that for a constant transport limited system, the K(S) was mostly a linear function of the growth rate. After correcting for reactor pH and temperature, we found that the THD and MAD biomass were both able to perform methanogenesis from acetate at high free ammonia concentrations (equivalent to 3-5 g/L total ammonia nitrogen), albeit at less than 30% of their respective maximum rates. The reduction in methane production was slightly less pronounced for the THD biomass than for MAD, suggesting that the long term exposure to ammonia had selected for a methanogenic pathway less dependent on those organisms most sensitive to ammonia inhibition (i.e. aceticlastic methanogens).

  11. Tau hadronic branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    From 64492 selected \\tau-pair events, produced at the Z^0 resonance, the measurement of the tau decays into hadrons from a global analysis using 1991, 1992 and 1993 ALEPH data is presented. Special emphasis is given to the reconstruction of photons and \\pi^0's, and the removal of fake photons. A detailed study of the systematics entering the \\pi^0 reconstruction is also given. A complete and consistent set of tau hadronic branching ratios is presented for 18 exclusive modes. Most measurements are more precise than the present world average. The new level of precision reached allows a stringent test of \\tau-\\mu universality in hadronic decays, g_\\tau/g_\\mu \\ = \\ 1.0013 \\ \\pm \\ 0.0095, and the first measurement of the vector and axial-vector contributions to the non-strange hadronic \\tau decay width: R_{\\tau ,V} \\ = \\ 1.788 \\ \\pm \\ 0.025 and R_{\\tau ,A} \\ = \\ 1.694 \\ \\pm \\ 0.027. The ratio (R_{\\tau ,V} - R_{\\tau ,A}) / (R_{\\tau ,V} + R_{\\tau ,A}), equal to (2.7 \\pm 1.3) \\ \\%, is a measure of the importance of Q...

  12. Embodied simulation as part of affective evaluation processes: task dependence of valence concordant EMG activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinreich, André; Funcke, Jakob Maria

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on recent findings, this study examines whether valence concordant electromyography (EMG) responses can be explained as an unconditional effect of mere stimulus processing or as somatosensory simulation driven by task-dependent processing strategies. While facial EMG over the Corrugator supercilii and the Zygomaticus major was measured, each participant performed two tasks with pictures of album covers. One task was an affective evaluation task and the other was to attribute the album covers to one of five decades. The Embodied Emotion Account predicts that valence concordant EMG is more likely to occur if the task necessitates a somatosensory simulation of the evaluative meaning of stimuli. Results support this prediction with regard to Corrugator supercilii in that valence concordant EMG activity was only present in the affective evaluation task but not in the non-evaluative task. Results for the Zygomaticus major were ambiguous. Our findings are in line with the view that EMG activity is an embodied part of the evaluation process and not a mere physical outcome.

  13. Low temperature-dependent salmonid alphavirus glycoprotein processing and recombinant virus-like particle formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan W Metz

    Full Text Available Pancreas disease (PD and sleeping disease (SD are important viral scourges in aquaculture of Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout. The etiological agent of PD and SD is salmonid alphavirus (SAV, an unusual member of the Togaviridae (genus Alphavirus. SAV replicates at lower temperatures in fish. Outbreaks of SAV are associated with large economic losses of ~17 to 50 million $/year. Current control strategies rely on vaccination with inactivated virus formulations that are cumbersome to obtain and have intrinsic safety risks. In this research we were able to obtain non-infectious virus-like particles (VLPs of SAV via expression of recombinant baculoviruses encoding SAV capsid protein and two major immunodominant viral glycoproteins, E1 and E2 in Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 insect cells. However, this was only achieved when a temperature shift from 27°C to lower temperatures was applied. At 27°C, precursor E2 (PE2 was misfolded and not processed by host furin into mature E2. Hence, E2 was detected neither on the surface of infected cells nor as VLPs in the culture fluid. However, when temperatures during protein expression were lowered, PE2 was processed into mature E2 in a temperature-dependent manner and VLPs were abundantly produced. So, temperature shift-down during synthesis is a prerequisite for correct SAV glycoprotein processing and recombinant VLP production.

  14. The natural silk spinning process. A nucleation-dependent aggregation mechanism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, G; Zhou, P; Shao, Z; Xie, X; Chen, X; Wang, H; Chunyu, L; Yu, T

    2001-12-01

    The spinning mechanism of natural silk has been an open issue. In this study, both the conformation transition from random coil to beta sheet and the beta sheet aggregation growth of silk fibroin are identified in the B. mori regenerated silk fibroin aqueous solution by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. A nucleation-dependent aggregation mechanism, similar to that found in prion protein, amyloid beta (Abeta) protein, and alpha-synuclein protein with the conformation transition from a soluble protein to a neurotoxic, insoluble beta sheet containing aggregate, is a novel suggestion for the silk spinning process. We present evidence that two steps are involved in this mechanism: (a) nucleation, a rate-limiting step involving the conversion of the soluble random coil to insoluble beta sheet and subsequently a series of thermodynamically unfavorable association of beta sheet unit, i.e. the formation of a nucleus or seed; (b) once the nucleus forms, further growth of the beta sheet unit becomes thermodynamically favorable, resulting a rapid extension of beta sheet aggregation. The aggregation growth follows a first order kinetic process with respect to the random coil fibroin concentration. The increase of temperature accelerates the beta sheet aggregation growth if the beta sheet seed is introduced into the random coil fibroin solution. This work enhances our understanding of the natural silk spinning process in vivo.

  15. On the state dependency of fast feedback processes in (palaeo) climate sensitivity

    CERN Document Server

    von der Heydt, Anna S; van de Wal, Roderik S W; Dijkstra, Henk A

    2014-01-01

    The equilibrium (Charney) climate sensitivity is the equilibrium change in Earth's global mean surface temperature due to a radiative forcing associated with a doubling of the atmospheric CO$_2$ concentration. Palaeo data have been frequently used to determine this value, and - if slow feedback processes (e.g. land-ice albedo) are adequately taken into account - they indicate a similar range as estimates based on climate model results. In most studies it is implicitly assumed that the (fast) feedback processes are independent of the background climate state, e.g., are equally strong during warm and cold periods. Here we assess the dependency of the fast feedback processes on the background climate state using data of the last 800 kyr and a conceptual climate model for interpretation. By applying a new method which explicitly considers the background climate state we calculate a specific climate sensitivity of 0.59-1.15 K(Wm$^{-2}$)$^{-1}$ corresponding to a warming of 2.2 to 4.3 K for a CO$_2$ doubling at a 6...

  16. Characteristic Changes in the Aroma Profile of Patchouli Depending on Manufacturing Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Toshio; Yoshitome, Kazuma; Fujihara, Takashi; Santoso, Mardi; Aziz, Muhammad Abdul

    2017-08-01

    Patchouli is used as an incense material and essential oil. The characteristic odor of patchouli leaves results from the drying process used in their production; however, there have to date been no reports on the changes in the odor of patchouli leaves during the drying process. We investigated the aroma profile of dried patchouli leaves using the hexane extracts of fresh and dried patchouli leaves. We focused on the presence or absence of the constituents of the fresh and dried extracts, and the differences in the content of the common constituents. Fourteen constituents were identified as characteristic of dried patchouli extract odor by gas chromatography-olfactometry analysis. The structures of seven of the 14 constituents were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (α-patchoulene, seychellene, humulene, α-bulnesene, isoaromadendrene epoxide, caryophyllene oxide, and patchouli alcohol). The aroma profile of the essential oil obtained from the dried patchouli leaves was clearly different from that of dried patchouli. The aroma profile of the essential oil was investigated by a similar method. We identified 12 compounds as important odor constituents. The structures of nine of the 12 constituents were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (cis-thujopsene, caryophyllene, α-guaiene, α-patchoulene, seychellene, α-bulnesene, isoaromadendrene epoxide, patchouli alcohol, and corymbolone). Comparing the odors and constituents demonstrated that the aroma profile of patchouli depends on the manufacturing process.

  17. Impaired pre-attentive auditory processing in opioid dependence with and without benzodiazepine co-dependence revealed by combined magnetoencephalography and electroencephalography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivisaari, Reetta; Lehtinen, Reia; Autti, Taina; Puuskari, Varpu; Jokela, Olga; Ahveninen, Jyrki; Rapeli, Pekka; Kähkönen, Seppo

    2007-10-01

    Cognitive dysfunctions may be a significant factor in drug-seeking behavior, reducing the efficiency of rehabilitation in opioid dependence. Neurophysiological basis of these dysfunctions is poorly understood. 21 opioid-dependent patients and 15 healthy controls with no experience of illicit drugs were studied with simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG). Among opioid dependents 15 were benzodiazepine co-dependent. In a passive oddball paradigm, a train of 700-Hz standard tones (80%), presented to the left ear, was occasionally interrupted by infrequent deviants, which were either 600-Hz or 400-Hz pure tones or complex novel sounds. The auditory evoked potentials (AEP) and fields (AEF) were analyzed. The strength of the N1m dipoles was enhanced in patients with benzodiazepine co-dependence, but the latency of the response or the source location was not changed. A delay of mismatch negativity (MMN) response of novel tones in EEG, and delay of P3am response on the contralateral hemisphere to stimulated ear in MEG in opioid-dependent patients were observed. There were no differences in source locations or strengths of the dipoles for P1m, MMNm, and P3am determined using equivalent current dipoles. There were no group differences in EEG amplitude measures. In conclusion, our results suggest delayed pre-attentive auditory processing of novel information in opioid dependence. Benzodiazepine co-dependence modulated N1m response.

  18. Indexes system of technological condition assessment of economic branches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuvashova, M. N.; Avramchikova, N. T.; Antamoshkin, A. N.

    2015-10-01

    The increased level of innovative production process, connected with the current trends, points out the necessity of economic diversification of the whole national economy as well as regional economies in order to increase competitiveness and stable development. Russian regional economies are characterized with local directive of development and innovative processes have evident local vector. Intensive development of Siberian regional economies, which depends on oil and mining industries, considerably falls behind the world indicators according to the GRP output per head. To improve the quality of economic space the authors have suggested a new scientific approach, which allows qualitative assessment inside the economic space of resource-based regions, based on principles of high technological modes development inside economic branches taking into account density, regular enterprise distribution and connectivity of commercial organizations as well as secures innovative development of regional economy and its competitiveness. In this context it is necessary to develop a modern system of indexes, characterizing the structure of economic branches in accordance with present technological modes and at the same time the dynamics of appropriate structural shifts in regional economies of this type.

  19. Indoor/outdoor connections exemplified by processes that depend on an organic compound's saturation vapor pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weschler, Charles J.

    2003-01-01

    Outdoor and indoor environments are profitably viewed as parts of a whole connected through various physical and chemical interactions. This paper examines four phenomena that share a dependence on vapor pressure-the extent to which an organic compound in the gas phase sorbs on airborne particles......'s saturation vapor pressure correlates in a linear fashion with the logarithms of equilibrium coefficients characteristic of each of these four phenomena. Since, to a rough approximation, the log of an organic compound's vapor pressure scales with its molecular weight, molecular weight can be used to make...... first estimates of the above processes. For typical indoor conditions, only larger compounds with lower-saturation vapor pressures (e.g., tetracosane, pentacosane, or di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate) have airborne particle concentrations comparable to or larger than gas phase concentrations. Regardless...

  20. Particle size dependence of the Pr2Fe17 nitrogenation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persiano, A. I. C.; Ardisson, J. D.; Mansur, R. A.; Colucci, C. C.; Gama, S.

    1994-12-01

    The particle size dependence of the Pr2Fe17 nitrogenation process at 400°C is determined by the Mössbauer method. The experimental data are described in terms of a particle model consisting of spherical concentrical shells containing: (i) an expanded central core saturated with 2+ɛ atoms N per formula unit; (ii) an intermediate unnitrided shell with a volume larger than the core by a factor of about 2.4 and accommodating a stress/strain field produced by the expanded core, and (iii) an unnitrogenated undeformed external shell. We observed that small particles ( d ≤ 10 ώm and most probably lower) tend to absorb higher nitrogen contents than the large ones. Our results also indicate that some small particles, most probably single crystals, do not nitrogenate.

  1. Time-resolved spin-dependent processes in magnetic field effects in organic semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Qiming; Li, Xianjie; Li, Feng

    2012-12-01

    We investigated the time-resolved magnetic field effects (MFEs) in tri-(8-hydroxyquinoline)-aluminum (Alq3) based organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) through the transient electroluminescence (EL) method. The values of magneto-electroluminescence (MEL) decrease with the time, and the decreasing slope is proportional to the driving voltage. Specifically, negative MELs are seen when the driving voltage is high enough (V > 11 V). We propose a model to elucidate the spin-dependent processes and theoretically simulate the time-resolved MELs. In particular, this dynamic analysis of time-resolved MELs reveals that the intersystem crossing between singlet and triplet electron-hole pairs and the triplet-triplet annihilation are responsible for the time-resolved MELs at the beginning and enduring periods of the pulse, respectively.

  2. General Existence Results for Third-Order Nonconvex State-Dependent Sweeping Process with Unbounded Perturbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bounkhel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We prove the existence of solutions for third-order nonconvex state-dependent sweeping process with unbounded perturbations of the form: -A(x(3(t∈N(K(t,ẋ(t;  A(ẍ(t+F(t,x(t,ẋ(t,ẍ(t+G(x(t,ẋ(t,ẍ(t      a.e.  [0,T], A(ẍ(t∈K(t,ẋ(t, a.e.    t∈[0,T], x(0=x0,ẋ(0=u0, ẍ(0=υ0, where T>0, K is a nonconvex Lipschitz set-valued mapping, F is an unbounded scalarly upper semicontinuous convex set-valued mapping, and G is an unbounded uniformly continuous nonconvex set-valued mapping in a separable Hilbert space H.

  3. A class-based link prediction using Distance Dependent Chinese Restaurant Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andalib, Azam; Babamir, Seyed Morteza

    2016-08-01

    One of the important tasks in relational data analysis is link prediction which has been successfully applied on many applications such as bioinformatics, information retrieval, etc. The link prediction is defined as predicting the existence or absence of edges between nodes of a network. In this paper, we propose a novel method for link prediction based on Distance Dependent Chinese Restaurant Process (DDCRP) model which enables us to utilize the information of the topological structure of the network such as shortest path and connectivity of the nodes. We also propose a new Gibbs sampling algorithm for computing the posterior distribution of the hidden variables based on the training data. Experimental results on three real-world datasets show the superiority of the proposed method over other probabilistic models for link prediction problem.

  4. First measurement of transverse-spin-dependent azimuthal asymmetries in the Drell-Yan process

    CERN Document Server

    Aghasyan, M.; The COMPASS collaboration; Alexeev, M.G.; Alexeev, G.D.; Amoroso, A.; Andrieux, V.; Anfimov, N.V.; Anosov, V.; Antoshkin, A.; Augsten, K.; Augustyniak, W.; Austregesilo, A.; Azevedo, C.D.R.; Badełek, B.; Balestra, F.; Ball, M.; Barth, J.; Beck, R.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernhard, J.; Bicker, K.; Bielert, E.R.; Birsa, R.; Bodlak, M.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Bressan, A.; Büchele, M.; Chang, W.-C.; Chatterjee, C.; Chiosso, M.; Choi, I.; Chung, S.-U.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M.L.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dasgupta, S.S.; Dasgupta, S.; Denisov, O.Yu.; Dhara, L.; Donskov, S.V.; Doshita, N.; Dreisbach, Ch.; Dünnweber, W.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.; Eversheim, P.D.; Faessler, M.; Ferrero, A.; Finger, M.; jr.,M.Finger; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; du Fresne von Hohenesche, N.; Friedrich, J.M.; Frolov, V.; Fuchey, E.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O.P.; Gerassimov, S.; Giarra, J.; Giordano, F.; Gnesi, I.; Gorzellik, M.; Grasso, A.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Grube, B.; Grussenmeyer, T.; Guskov, A.; Hahne, D.; Hamar, G.; von Harrach, D.; Heinsius, F.H.; Heitz, R.; Herrmann, F.; Horikawa, N.; d'Hose, N.; Hsieh, C.-Y.; Huber, S.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, A.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jary, V.; Joosten, R.; Jörg, P.; Kabuß, E.; Kerbizi, A.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G.V.; Khokhlov, Yu.A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Koivuniemi, J.H.; Kolosov, V.N.; Kondo, K.; Königsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V.F.; Kotzinian, A.M.; Kouznetsov, O.M.; Kral, Z.; Krämer, M.; Kremser, P.; Krinner, F.; Kroumchtein, Z.V.; Kulinich, Y.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Kurjata, R.P.; Kveton, A.; Lednev, A.A.; Levillain, M.; Levorato, S.; Lian, Y.-S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Longo, R.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makins, N.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G.K.; Marianski, B.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matoušek, J.; Matsuda, H.; Matsuda, T.; Meshcheryakov, G.V.; Meyer, M.; Meyer, W.; Mikhailov, Yu.V.; Mikhasenko, M.; Mitrofanov, E.; Mitrofanov, N.; Miyachi, Y.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nerling, F.; Neyret, D.; Nový, J.; Nowak, W.-D.; Nukazuka, G.; Nunes, A.S.; Olshevsky, A.G.; Orlov, I.; Ostrick, M.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Peng, J.-C.; Pereira, F.; Pešek, M.; Peshekhonov, D.V.; Pierre, N.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polyakov, V.A.; Pretz, J.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Ramos, S.; Regali, C.; Reicherz, G.; Riedl, C.; Rogacheva, N.S.; Roskot, M.; Ryabchikov, D.I.; Rybnikov, A.; Rychter, A.; Salac, R.; Samoylenko, V.D.; Sandacz, A.; Santos, C.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I.A.; Sawada, T.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schmidt, K.; Schmieden, H.; Schönning, K.; Seder, E.; Selyunin, A.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sirtl, S.; Slunecka, M.; Smolik, J.; Srnka, A.; Steffen, D.; Stolarski, M.; Subrt, O.; Sulc, M.; Suzuki, H.; Szabelski, A.; Szameitat, T.; Sznajder, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Thiel, A.; Tomsa, J.; Tosello, F.; Tskhay, V.; Uhl, S.; Vauth, A.; Veloso, J.; Virius, M.; Vondra, J.; Wallner, S.; Weisrock, T.; Wilfert, M.; ter Wolbeek, J.; Zaremba, K.; Zavada, P.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Zhuravlev, N.; Ziembicki, M.

    2017-09-12

    The first measurement of transverse-spin-dependent azimuthal asymmetries in the pion-induced Drell-Yan (DY) process is reported. We use the CERN SPS 190 GeV/$c$, $\\pi^{-}$ beam and a transversely polarized ammonia target. Three azimuthal asymmetries giving access to different transverse-momentum-dependent (TMD) parton distribution functions (PDFs) are extracted using dimuon events with invariant mass between 4.3 GeV/$c^2$ and 8.5 GeV/$c^2$. The observed sign of the Sivers asymmetry is found to be consistent with the fundamental prediction of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) that the Sivers TMD PDFs extracted from DY have a sign opposite to the one extracted from semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering (SIDIS) data. We present two other asymmetries originating from the pion Boer-Mulders TMD PDFs convoluted with either the nucleon transversity or pretzelosity TMD PDFs. These DY results are obtained at a hard scale comparable to that of a recent COMPASS SIDIS measurement and hence allow unique tests of fundamental ...

  5. Temperature dependency of the triple isotope fractionation relationship for equilibrium processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayles, J. A.; Cao, X.; Bao, H.

    2015-12-01

    The use of an approximation to the Bigeleisen-Mayer-Urey model for isotope fractionation has led to the concept of a constant, and later constrained, mass fractionation law for multiple isotopes of the same element. This concept has brought new insights to investigation in photochemistry, radical chemistry, or the contribution of quantum tunneling to chemical and biological processes. Despite previous work indicating that these mass fractionation laws can be highly variable, the concept of a constant relationship remains common in these fields. Using the diatomic case as a first-order approximation, we demonstrate generically that the mass fractionation exponent, θ, can take any value for small fractionations but is less variable for large fractionations. The predicted variability is larger than both theoretical and analytical precision. These deviations from the traditional range of mass-dependence exponents are the largest under cross-over scenarios, but can occur for any scenario with small fractionations. We advocate the use of ∆∆‡M or "change in cap-delta", defined strictly with a slope of at the high-temperature limit, as a necessary, more reliable and more useful descriptor of mass-dependent fractionation. This work can bring new insights and a conventional explanation to low temperature experiments yielding traditionally unusual mass fractionation laws.

  6. Fluctuations and pseudo long range dependence in network flows: A non-stationary Poisson process model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Yu-Dong; Li Li; Zhang Yi; Hu Jian-Ming

    2009-01-01

    In the study of complex networks(systems),the scaling phenomenon of flow fluctuations rears to a certain power law between the mean flux(activity)(Fi)of the i-th node and its variance σi as σi ∝((Fi)α.Such scaling laws are found to be prevalent both in natural and man-made network systems,but the understanding of their origins still remains limited.This paper proposes a non-stationary Poisson process model to give an analytical explanation of the non-universal scaling phenomenon:the exponent α varies between 1/2 and 1 depending on the size of sampling time window and the relative strength of the external/internal driven forces of the systems.The crossover behaviour and the relation of fluctuation scaling with pseudo long range dependence are also accounted for by the model.Numerical experiments show that the proposed model can recover the multi-scaling phenomenon.

  7. Quantum mechanical calculation of energy dependence of OCl/OH product branching ratio and product quantum state distributions for the O(1D) + HCl reaction on all three contributing electronic state potential energy surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Han, Ke-Li; Nanbu, Shinkoh; Nakamura, Hiroki; Balint-Kurti, Gabriel G; Zhang, Hong; Smith, Sean C; Hankel, Marlies

    2008-08-28

    OCl/OH product branching ratios are calculated as a function of total energy for the O( (1) D) + HCl reaction using quantum wavepacket methods. The calculations take account of reaction on all the three electronic state potential energy surfaces which correlate with both reactants and products. Our results show that reaction on the excited electronic state surfaces has a large effect on the branching ratio at higher energies and that these surfaces must therefore be fully taken into account. The calculations use the potential energy surfaces of Nanbu and co-workers. Product vibrational and rotational quantum state distributions are also calculated as a function of energy for both product channels. Inclusion of the excited electronic state potential energy surfaces improves the agreement of the predicted product vibrational quantum state distributions with experiment for the OH product channel. For OCl agreement between theory and experiment is retained for the vibrational quantum state distributions when the excited electronic state potential energy surfaces are included in the analysis. For the rotational state distributions good agreement between theory and experiment is maintained for energies at which experimental results are available. At higher energies, above 0.7 eV of total energy, the OCl rotational state distributions predicted using all three electronic state potential energy surfaces shift to markedly smaller rotational quantum numbers.

  8. Neighbor-dependent Ramachandran probability distributions of amino acids developed from a hierarchical Dirichlet process model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ting

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Distributions of the backbone dihedral angles of proteins have been studied for over 40 years. While many statistical analyses have been presented, only a handful of probability densities are publicly available for use in structure validation and structure prediction methods. The available distributions differ in a number of important ways, which determine their usefulness for various purposes. These include: 1 input data size and criteria for structure inclusion (resolution, R-factor, etc.; 2 filtering of suspect conformations and outliers using B-factors or other features; 3 secondary structure of input data (e.g., whether helix and sheet are included; whether beta turns are included; 4 the method used for determining probability densities ranging from simple histograms to modern nonparametric density estimation; and 5 whether they include nearest neighbor effects on the distribution of conformations in different regions of the Ramachandran map. In this work, Ramachandran probability distributions are presented for residues in protein loops from a high-resolution data set with filtering based on calculated electron densities. Distributions for all 20 amino acids (with cis and trans proline treated separately have been determined, as well as 420 left-neighbor and 420 right-neighbor dependent distributions. The neighbor-independent and neighbor-dependent probability densities have been accurately estimated using Bayesian nonparametric statistical analysis based on the Dirichlet process. In particular, we used hierarchical Dirichlet process priors, which allow sharing of information between densities for a particular residue type and different neighbor residue types. The resulting distributions are tested in a loop modeling benchmark with the program Rosetta, and are shown to improve protein loop conformation prediction significantly. The distributions are available at http://dunbrack.fccc.edu/hdp.

  9. ECONOMIC ISSUES OF BRANCH PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamrov K. N.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with topical questions of economy industry production of rice grain. The need for improving the business efficiency of rice today is dictated by political and economic sanctions, the needs of our society in full substitution of this important product. State stimulation of rice development today is carried out through a complex of economic and administrative activities. The economic measures of the state include: price control on rice price and processing products, support of agricultural producers’ incomes, leasing involving the state, marketing of products, and infrastructure development of the grain market. The system of public administrative measures also includes standardization and certification of grain products, control quality of grain and products of its processing, the quarantine protection, licensing activities organizations, and mandatory statistical account of the rice market. These measures are intended to ensure equal conditions of competition between local and imported rice, to spur investment and expansion of domestic production, increase profitability of rice, allowing the rice enterprises to carry out expensive irrigation systems repairs and capital inputs in lot lend. The article suggests that rice branch industry remains competitive and with abolition of import customs barriers within frameworks WTO. It is necessary to invest more heavily in infrastructure with the aim of improving business efficiency of rice

  10. A single-rate context-dependent learning process underlies rapid adaptation to familiar object dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James N Ingram

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Motor learning has been extensively studied using dynamic (force-field perturbations. These induce movement errors that result in adaptive changes to the motor commands. Several state-space models have been developed to explain how trial-by-trial errors drive the progressive adaptation observed in such studies. These models have been applied to adaptation involving novel dynamics, which typically occurs over tens to hundreds of trials, and which appears to be mediated by a dual-rate adaptation process. In contrast, when manipulating objects with familiar dynamics, subjects adapt rapidly within a few trials. Here, we apply state-space models to familiar dynamics, asking whether adaptation is mediated by a single-rate or dual-rate process. Previously, we reported a task in which subjects rotate an object with known dynamics. By presenting the object at different visual orientations, adaptation was shown to be context-specific, with limited generalization to novel orientations. Here we show that a multiple-context state-space model, with a generalization function tuned to visual object orientation, can reproduce the time-course of adaptation and de-adaptation as well as the observed context-dependent behavior. In contrast to the dual-rate process associated with novel dynamics, we show that a single-rate process mediates adaptation to familiar object dynamics. The model predicts that during exposure to the object across multiple orientations, there will be a degree of independence for adaptation and de-adaptation within each context, and that the states associated with all contexts will slowly de-adapt during exposure in one particular context. We confirm these predictions in two new experiments. Results of the current study thus highlight similarities and differences in the processes engaged during exposure to novel versus familiar dynamics. In both cases, adaptation is mediated by multiple context-specific representations. In the case of familiar

  11. Aplikasi Galton Watson Branching Process dalam Parasitologi

    OpenAIRE

    Sunusi, Nurtiti

    2005-01-01

    Penyakit malaria merupakan masalah kesehatan masyarakat yang masih perlu diperhitungkan dalam pengelolaan kesehatan di Negara-negara tropik termasuk Indonesia. Di Indonesia, ditemukan 4 spesies parasit pada manusia, Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae, dan Plasmodium ovale. Di antara ke empat plasmodium tersebut, Plasmodium falciparum mempunyai siklus hidup terpendek di dalam sel hati dan menyerang semua bentuk eritrosit, sehingga perkembangbiakan di dalam darah cepat...

  12. Dependence of the triple-alpha process on the fundamental constants of nature

    CERN Document Server

    Epelbaum, Evgeny; Lähde, Timo A; Lee, Dean; Meißner, Ulf-G

    2013-01-01

    We present an ab initio calculation of the quark mass dependence of the ground state energies of ^4He, ^8Be and ^{12}C, and of the energy of the Hoyle state in ^{12}C. These investigations are performed within the framework of lattice chiral Effective Field Theory. We address the sensitivity of the production rate of carbon and oxygen in red giant stars to the fundamental constants of nature by considering the impact of variations in the light quark masses and the electromagnetic fine-structure constant on the reaction rate of the triple-alpha process. As carbon and oxygen are essential to life as we know it, we also discuss the implications of our findings for an anthropic view of the Universe. We find strong evidence that the physics of the triple-alpha process is driven by alpha clustering, and that shifts in the fundamental parameters at the \\simeq 2 - 3 % level are unlikely to be detrimental to the development of life. Tolerance against much larger changes cannot be ruled out at present, given the relati...

  13. Emotional bias of sleep-dependent processing shifts from negative to positive with aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Bethany J; Schultz, Kurt S; Adams, Sydney; Baran, Bengi; Spencer, Rebecca M C

    2016-09-01

    Age-related memory decline has been proposed to result partially from impairments in memory consolidation over sleep. However, such decline may reflect a shift toward selective processing of positive information with age rather than impaired sleep-related mechanisms. In the present study, young and older adults viewed negative and neutral pictures or positive and neutral pictures and underwent a recognition test after sleep or wake. Subjective emotional reactivity and affect were also measured. Compared with waking, sleep preserved valence ratings and memory for positive but not negative pictures in older adults and negative but not positive pictures in young adults. In older adults, memory for positive pictures was associated with slow wave sleep. Furthermore, slow wave sleep predicted positive affect in older adults but was inversely related to positive affect in young adults. These relationships were strongest for older adults with high memory for positive pictures and young adults with high memory for negative pictures. Collectively, these results indicate preserved but selective sleep-dependent memory processing with healthy aging that may be biased to enhance emotional well-being.

  14. Pathological gambling and alcohol dependence: neural disturbances in reward and loss avoidance processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Koehler, Saskia; Dreesen, Caspar; Wüstenberg, Torsten; Heinz, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) shares clinical characteristics such as craving and loss of control with substance use disorders and is thus considered a behavioral addiction. While functional alterations in the mesolimbic reward system have been correlated with craving and relapse in substance use disorders, only a few studies have examined this brain circuit in PG, and no direct comparison has been conducted so far. Thus, we investigated the neuronal correlates of reward processing in PG in contrast to alcohol-dependent (AD) patients and healthy subjects. Eighteen PG patients, 15 AD patients and 17 controls were investigated with a monetary incentive delay task, in which visual cues predict the consequence (monetary gain, avoidance of loss, none) of a fast response to a subsequent target stimulus. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data were analyzed to account for possible confounding factors such as local gray matter volume. Activity in the right ventral striatum during loss anticipation was increased in PG patients compared with controls and AD patients. Moreover, PG patients showed decreased activation in the right ventral striatum and right medial prefrontal cortex during successful loss avoidance compared with controls, which was inversely associated with severity of gambling behavior. Thus, despite neurobiological similarities to substance use disorders in reward processing, as reported by previous studies, we found relevant differences with respect to the anticipation of loss as well as its avoidance (negative reinforcement), which further contributes to the understanding of PG.

  15. Nature of branching in disordered materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Amit S.

    reflect different features of the global structure, and it is categorically shown that this dimensional analysis results in effective structure characterization of these materials. Small-angle scattering of x-rays and neutrons can be used to quantify branch content and characterize the structure, through application of concepts native to fractal geometry. The application of the scaling model to nano-particulate aggregates yields quantitative information regarding the structure of these materials. In-situ small and ultra small angle x-ray scattering data collected on fumed silica and soot particles is presented in Chapter II. These measurements were performed at Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, UNICAT beam-line and the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble, France, ID2 beam-line. The dimensional analysis is successful in not only giving an average snap-shot of the nano-particulate aggregates, but also yields information regarding the growth processes involved in the complex pyrolysis technique of synthesizing these materials. In case of macromolecular systems, the minimum path dimension, dmin, is shown to reflect the thermodynamics of the system. This is categorically established in Chapter III on hyperbranched polymers, where the scaling model accurately predicts the good-solvent to theta-condition transition in these highly branched polymers with increasing molar mass. The scaling model is applied to the long standing problem of quantifying long chain branching in polyethylene in Chapter IV. Small angle neutron scattering data on dilute solutions of polyethylene were obtained at the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (SAND beam-line); NIST center for Neutron Scattering (NG3 beam-line); and Los Alamos Neutron Scattering Center (LQD beam-line). This work, for the first time in literature, reports the length of a long chain branch in polyethylene in terms of the average molar mass of the branches, and the average number of carbon atoms in the long

  16. Attenuated Neural Processing of Risk in Young Adults at Risk for Stimulant Dependence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Reske

    Full Text Available Approximately 10% of young adults report non-medical use of stimulants (cocaine, amphetamine, methylphenidate, which puts them at risk for the development of dependence. This fMRI study investigates whether subjects at early stages of stimulant use show altered decision making processing.158 occasional stimulants users (OSU and 50 comparison subjects (CS performed a "risky gains" decision making task during which they could select safe options (cash in 20 cents or gamble them for double or nothing in two consecutive gambles (win or lose 40 or 80 cents, "risky decisions". The primary analysis focused on risky versus safe decisions. Three secondary analyses were conducted: First, a robust regression examined the effect of lifetime exposure to stimulants and marijuana; second, subgroups of OSU with >1000 (n = 42, or <50 lifetime marijuana uses (n = 32, were compared to CS with <50 lifetime uses (n = 46 to examine potential marijuana effects; third, brain activation associated with behavioral adjustment following monetary losses was probed.There were no behavioral differences between groups. OSU showed attenuated activation across risky and safe decisions in prefrontal cortex, insula, and dorsal striatum, exhibited lower anterior cingulate cortex (ACC and dorsal striatum activation for risky decisions and greater inferior frontal gyrus activation for safe decisions. Those OSU with relatively more stimulant use showed greater dorsal ACC and posterior insula attenuation. In comparison, greater lifetime marijuana use was associated with less neural differentiation between risky and safe decisions. OSU who chose more safe responses after losses exhibited similarities with CS relative to those preferring risky options.Individuals at risk for the development of stimulant use disorders presented less differentiated neural processing of risky and safe options. Specifically, OSU show attenuated brain response in regions critical for performance monitoring

  17. Distance dependence of nonadiabaticity in the branching between C-Br and C-Cl bond fission following 1[n(O),π*(C=O)] excitation in bromopropionyl chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kash, P. W.; Waschewsky, G. C. G.; Butler, L. J.; Francl, M. M.

    1993-09-01

    These experiments on bromopropionyl chloride investigate a system in which the barrier to C-Br fission on the lowest 1A` potential energy surface is formed from a weakly avoided electronic configuration crossing, so that nonadiabatic recrossing of the barrier to C-Br fission dramatically reduces the branching to C-Br fission. The results, when compared with earlier branching ratio measurements on bromoacetyl chloride, show that the additional intervening CH2 spacer in bromopropionyl chloride reduces the splitting between the adiabatic potential energy surfaces at the barrier to C-Br fission, further suppressing C-Br fission by over an order of magnitude. The experiment measures the photofragment velocity and angular distributions from the 248 nm photodissociation of Br(CH2)2COCl, determining the branching ratio between the competing primary C-Br and C-Cl fission pathways and detecting a minor C-C bond fission pathway. While the primary C-Cl:C-Br fission branching ratio is 1:2, the distribution of relative kinetic energies imparted to the C-Br fission fragments show that essentially no C-Br fission results from promoting the molecule to the lowest 1A` potential energy surface via the 1[n(O),π*(C=O)] transition; C-Br fission only results from an overlapping electronic transition. The results differ markedly from the predictions of statistical transition state theories which rely on the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. While such models predict that, given comparable preexponential factors, the reaction pathway with the lowest energetic barrier on the 1A` surface, C-Br fission, should dominate, the experimental measurements show C-Cl bond fission dominates by a ratio of C-Cl:C-Br=1.0:<0.05 upon excitation of the 1[n(O),π*(C=O)] transition. We compare this result to earlier work on bromoacetyl chloride, which evidences a less dramatic reduction in the C-Br fission pathway (C-Cl:C-Br=1.0:0.4) upon excitation of the same transition. We discuss a model in which

  18. Scaling Behaviors of Branched Polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Aoki, H; Kawai, H; Kitazawa, Y; Aoki, Hajime; Iso, Satoshi; Kawai, Hikaru; Kitazawa, Yoshihisa

    2000-01-01

    We study the thermodynamic behavior of branched polymers. We first study random walks in order to clarify the thermodynamic relation between the canonical ensemble and the grand canonical ensemble. We then show that correlation functions for branched polymers are given by those for $\\phi^3$ theory with a single mass insertion, not those for the $\\phi^3$ theory themselves. In particular, the two-point function behaves as $1/p^4$, not as $1/p^2$, in the scaling region. This behavior is consistent with the fact that the Hausdorff dimension of the branched polymer is four.

  19. Effects of branch height on leaf gas exchange, branch hydraulic conductance and branch sap flux in open-grown ponderosa pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Robert M; Bond, Barbara J; Senock, Randy S; Ryan, Michael G

    2002-06-01

    Recent studies have shown that stomata respond to changes in hydraulic conductance of the flow path from soil to leaf. In open-grown tall trees, branches of different heights may have different hydraulic conductances because of differences in path length and growth. We determined if leaf gas exchange, branch sap flux, leaf specific hydraulic conductance, foliar carbon isotope composition (delta13C) and ratios of leaf area to sapwood area within branches were dependent on branch height (10 and 25 m) within the crowns of four open-grown ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) trees. We found no difference in leaf gas exchange or leaf specific hydraulic conductance from soil to leaf between the upper and lower canopy of our study trees. Branch sap flux per unit leaf area and per unit sapwood area did not differ between the 10- and 25-m canopy positions; however, branch sap flux per unit sapwood area at the 25-m position had consistently lower values. Branches at the 25-m canopy position had lower leaf to sapwood area ratios (0.17 m2 cm-2) compared with branches at the 10-m position (0.27 m2 cm-2) (P = 0.03). Leaf specific conductance of branches in the upper crown did not differ from that in the lower crown. Other studies at our site indicate lower hydraulic conductance, sap flux, whole-tree canopy conductance and photosynthesis in old trees compared with young trees. This study suggests that height alone may not explain these differences.

  20. Rac1 modulates mammalian lung branching morphogenesis in part through canonical Wnt signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danopoulos, Soula; Krainock, Michael; Toubat, Omar; Thornton, Matthew; Grubbs, Brendan; Al Alam, Denise

    2016-12-01

    Lung branching morphogenesis relies on a number of factors, including proper epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation, cell polarity, and migration. Rac1, a small Rho GTPase, orchestrates a number of these cellular processes, including cell proliferation and differentiation, cellular alignment, and polarization. Furthermore, Rac1 modulates both noncanonical and canonical Wnt signaling, important pathways in lung branching morphogenesis. Culture of embryonic mouse lung explants in the presence of the Rac1 inhibitor (NSC23766) resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in branching. Increased cell death and BrdU uptake were notably seen in the mesenchyme, while no direct effect on the epithelium was observed. Moreover, vasculogenesis was impaired following Rac1 inhibition as shown by decreased Vegfa expression and impaired LacZ staining in Flk1-Lacz reporter mice. Rac1 inhibition decreased Fgf10 expression in conjunction with many of its associated factors. Moreover, using the reporter lines TOPGAL and Axin2-LacZ, there was an evident decrease in canonical Wnt signaling in the explants treated with the Rac1 inhibitor. Activation of canonical Wnt pathway using WNT3a or WNT7b only partially rescued the branching inhibition. Moreover, these results were validated on human explants, where Rac1 inhibition resulted in impaired branching and decreased AXIN2 and FGFR2b expression. We therefore conclude that Rac1 regulates lung branching morphogenesis, in part through canonical Wnt signaling. However, the exact mechanisms by which Rac1 interacts with canonical Wnt in human and mouse lung requires further investigation. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Asymptotics of Simple Branching Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huillet, Thierry; Kłopotowski, Andrzej; Porzio, Anna

    1995-09-01

    In this paper we study a simple deterministic tree structure: an initial individual generates a finite number of offspring, each of which has given integer valued lifetime, iterating the same procedure when dying. Three asymptotic distributions of this asynchronous deterministic branching procedure are considered: the generation distribution, the ability of individuals to generate offspring and the age distribution. Thermodynamic formalism is then developped to reveal the multifractal nature of the mass splitting associated to our process. On considère l'itération d'une structure déterministe arborescente selon laquelle un ancêtre engendre un nombre fini de descendants dont la durée de vie (à valeurs entières) est donnée. Dans un premier temps on s'intéresse aux trois distributions asymptotiques suivantes : répartition des générations, aptitude à engendrer des descendants et répartition selon l'âge. Ensuite nous développons le formalisme thermodynamique pour mettre en évidence le caractère multifractal de la scission d'une masse unitaire associée à cette arborescence.

  2. Modeling and simulating causal dependencies on process-aware information systems from a cost perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutschler, B.B.

    2008-01-01

    Providing effective IT support for business processes has become crucial for enterprises to stay competitive in their market. Business processes must be defined, implemented, enacted, monitored, and continuously adapted to changing situations. Process life cycle support and continuous process

  3. Left bundle-branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Niels; Strauss, David; Sogaard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between myocardial electrical activation by electrocardiogram (ECG) and mechanical contraction by echocardiography in left bundle-branch block (LBBB) has never been clearly demonstrated. New strict criteria for LBBB based on a fundamental understanding of physiology have recently...

  4. Left bundle-branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Niels; Strauss, David; Sogaard, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between myocardial electrical activation by electrocardiogram (ECG) and mechanical contraction by echocardiography in left bundle-branch block (LBBB) has never been clearly demonstrated. New strict criteria for LBBB based on a fundamental understanding of physiology have recently...

  5. Subcellular localization of cytoplasmic lattice-associated proteins is dependent upon fixation and processing procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morency, Eric; Anguish, Lynne; Coonrod, Scott

    2011-02-16

    We and others have recently demonstrated by immuno-EM and mutation analysis that two oocyte-restricted maternal effect genes, PADI6 and MATER, localize, in part, to the oocyte cytoplasmic lattices (CPLs). During these ongoing studies, however, we found that the localization of these factors by confocal immunofluorescence (IF) analysis can vary dramatically depending upon how the oocytes and embryos are processed, with the localization pattern sometimes appearing more uniformly cytoplasmic while at other times appearing to be primarily cortical. We set out to better understand this differential staining pattern by testing a range of IF protocol parameters, changing mainly time and temperature conditions of the primary antibody solution incubation, as well as fixation methods. We found by confocal IF whole mount analysis that PADI6 and MATER localization in germinal vesicle stage oocytes is mainly cytoplasmic when the oocytes are fixed and then incubated with primary antibodies at room temperature for 1 hour, while the localization of these factors is largely limited to the cortex when the oocytes are fixed and incubated in primary antibody at 4 °C overnight. We then probed sections of fixed/embedded ovaries and isolated two-cell embryos with specific antibodies and found that, under these conditions, PADI6 and MATER were again primarily cytoplasmically localized, although the staining for these factors is slightly more cortical at the two-cell stage. Taken together, our results suggest that the localization of CPL-associated proteins by confocal IF is particularly affected by processing conditions. Further, based on our current observations, it appears that PADI6 and MATER are primarily distributed throughout the cytoplasm as opposed to the oocyte subcortex.

  6. Paradox effects of binge drinking on response inhibition processes depending on mental workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Riegler, Lea; Chmielewski, Witold X; Beste, Christian

    2016-06-01

    Binge drinking is an increasing problem in Western societies, but we are still only beginning to unravel the effects of binge drinking on a cognitive level. While common sense suggests that all cognitive functions are compromised during high-dose ethanol intoxication, several studies suggest that the effects might instead be rather specific. Moreover, some results suggest that the degrees of automaticity and complexity of cognitive operations during response control modulate effects of binge drinking. However, this has not been tested in detail. In the current study, we therefore parametrically modulate cognitive/"mental" workload during response inhibition and examine the effects of high-dose ethanol intoxication (~1.1 ‰) in n = 18 male participants. The results suggest that detrimental effects of high-dose ethanol intoxication strongly depend on the complexity of processes involved in response inhibition. The results revealed strong effects (η (2) = .495) and are in line with findings showing that even high doses of ethanol have very specific effects on a cognitive level. Opposed to common sense, more complex cognitive operations seem to be less affected by a high-dose ethanol intoxication. Complementing this, high-dose ethanol intoxication is increasingly detrimental for action control, as stronger automated response tendencies are in charge and need to be controlled. Binge-like ethanol intoxication may take a heavier toll on cognitive control processes than on automated responses/response tendencies. Therefore, ethanol effects are more pronounced in supposedly "easier" control conditions because those facilitate the formation of automated response tendencies.

  7. Novel side branch ostial stent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Liang; Lv, Shu-Zheng; Kwan, Tak W

    2009-04-01

    Bifurcation lesions are technically challenging and plagued by a high incidence of restenosis, especially at the side branch orifice, which results in a more frequent need for revascularization during the follow-up period. This report discusses two clinical experiences with a novel side branch ostial stent, the BIGUARD stent, designed for the treatment of bifurcation lesions; procedural success with no in-hospital complications was observed in types IVb and Ia lesions.

  8. Gene structures and processing of Arabidopsis thaliana HYL1-dependent pri-miRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szarzynska, Bogna; Sobkowiak, Lukasz; Pant, Bikram Datt; Balazadeh, Salma; Scheible, Wolf-Rüdiger; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Jarmolowski, Artur; Szweykowska-Kulinska, Zofia

    2009-05-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana HYL1 is a nuclear double-stranded RNA-binding protein involved in the maturation of pri-miRNAs. A quantitative real-time PCR platform for parallel quantification of 176 pri-miRNAs was used to reveal strong accumulation of 57 miRNA precursors in the hyl1 mutant that completely lacks HYL1 protein. This approach enabled us for the first time to pinpoint particular members of MIRNA family genes that require HYL1 activity for efficient maturation of their precursors. Moreover, the accumulation of miRNA precursors in the hyl1 mutant gave us the opportunity to carry out 3' and 5' RACE experiments which revealed that some of these precursors are of unexpected length. The alignment of HYL1-dependent miRNA precursors to A. thaliana genomic sequences indicated the presence of introns in 12 out of 20 genes studied. Some of the characterized intron-containing pri-miRNAs undergo alternative splicing such as exon skipping or usage of alternative 5' splice sites suggesting that this process plays a role in the regulation of miRNA biogenesis. In the hyl1 mutant intron-containing pri-miRNAs accumulate alongside spliced pri-miRNAs suggesting the recruitment of HYL1 into the miRNA precursor maturation pathway before their splicing occurs.

  9. LRH-1-dependent programming of mitochondrial glutamine processing drives liver cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Pan; Oosterveer, Maaike H.; Stein, Sokrates; Demagny, Hadrien; Ryu, Dongryeol; Moullan, Norman; Wang, Xu; Can, Emine; Zamboni, Nicola; Comment, Arnaud; Auwerx, Johan; Schoonjans, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Various tumors develop addiction to glutamine to support uncontrolled cell proliferation. Here we identify the nuclear receptor liver receptor homolog 1 (LRH-1) as a key regulator in the process of hepatic tumorigenesis through the coordination of a noncanonical glutamine pathway that is reliant on the mitochondrial and cytosolic transaminases glutamate pyruvate transaminase 2 (GPT2) and glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase 1 (GOT1), which fuel anabolic metabolism. In particular, we show that gain and loss of function of hepatic LRH-1 modulate the expression and activity of mitochondrial glutaminase 2 (GLS2), the first and rate-limiting step of this pathway. Acute and chronic deletion of hepatic LRH-1 blunts the deamination of glutamine and reduces glutamine-dependent anaplerosis. The robust reduction in glutaminolysis and the limiting availability of α-ketoglutarate in turn inhibit mTORC1 signaling to eventually block cell growth and proliferation. Collectively, these studies highlight the importance of LRH-1 in coordinating glutamine-induced metabolism and signaling to promote hepatocellular carcinogenesis. PMID:27298334

  10. Dopamine Depletion Impairs Bilateral Sensory Processing in the Striatum in a Pathway-Dependent Manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketzef, Maya; Spigolon, Giada; Johansson, Yvonne; Bonito-Oliva, Alessandra; Fisone, Gilberto; Silberberg, Gilad

    2017-05-17

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a movement disorder caused by the loss of dopaminergic innervation, particularly to the striatum. PD patients often exhibit sensory impairments, yet the underlying network mechanisms are unknown. Here we examined how dopamine (DA) depletion affects sensory processing in the mouse striatum. We used the optopatcher for online identification of direct and indirect pathway projection neurons (MSNs) during in vivo whole-cell recordings. In control mice, MSNs encoded the laterality of sensory inputs with larger and earlier responses to contralateral than ipsilateral whisker deflection. This laterality coding was lost in DA-depleted mice due to adaptive changes in the intrinsic and synaptic properties, mainly, of direct pathway MSNs. L-DOPA treatment restored laterality coding by increasing the separation between ipsilateral and contralateral responses. Our results show that DA depletion impairs bilateral tactile acuity in a pathway-dependent manner, thus providing unexpected insights into the network mechanisms underlying sensory deficits in PD. VIDEO ABSTRACT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Substrate-dependent thermal conductivity of aluminum nitride thin-films processed at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belkerk, B. E., E-mail: boubakeur.belkerk@gmail.com [Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel (IMN), University of Nantes, 2 rue de la Houssinière BP 32229, 44322 Nantes cedex 3 (France); Universités de Constantine, Laboratoire Microsystèmes et Instrumentation (LMI), Université Constantine 1, Faculté des Sciences de la Technologie, Route de Ain El Bey, Constantine 25017 (Algeria); Bensalem, S.; Soussou, A.; Carette, M.; Djouadi, M. A.; Scudeller, Y. [Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel (IMN), University of Nantes, 2 rue de la Houssinière BP 32229, 44322 Nantes cedex 3 (France); Al Brithen, H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy at College of Science, King Saud University at Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we report on investigation concerning the substrate-dependent thermal conductivity (k) of Aluminum Nitride (AlN) thin-films processed at low temperature by reactive magnetron sputtering. The thermal conductivity of AlN films grown at low temperature (<200 °C) on single-crystal silicon (Si) and amorphous silicon nitride (SiN) with thicknesses ranging from 100 nm to 4000 nm was measured with the transient hot-strip technique. The k values for AlN films on SiN were found significantly lower than those on Silicon consistently with their microstructures revealed by X-ray diffraction, high resolution scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The change in k was due to the thermal boundary resistance found to be equal to 10 × 10{sup −9} Km{sup 2}W{sup −1} on SiN against 3.5 × 10{sup −9} Km{sup 2}W{sup −1} on Si. However, the intrinsic thermal conductivity was determined with a value as high as 200 Wm{sup −1}K{sup −1} whatever the substrate.

  12. The process-dependent impacts of dimethoate on the feeding behavior of rotifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianqiu; Guo, Ruixin

    2015-01-01

    Traditional toxicological studies usually depict the dose-effect relationship at the given exposure time while ignore how toxic effects vary during and after the exposure. In the present study, feeding depression of the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus under the impact of dimethoate was evaluated not only in the exposure time but also in the post-exposure time. Both the filtration rates (F) and the ingestion rates (I) of the rotifers varied during the exposure period under any concentration of dimethoate. A three-stepwise stress was observed when the rotifers were exposed to 0.2 and 1.0 mg L(-1) of the pesticide respectively, whereas 1.8 mg L(-1) dimethoate caused only one-step stress on the rotifers during the whole period. In addition, although the feeding behaviors of the rotifers recovered after the exposure, two feeding rates both got even more depressed at 8h in the post-exposure time. The latent inhibition after exposure was related to the exposure concentrations and the exposure time. Our works indicated that the impact of dimethoate on the feeding behavior of the rotifers was highly process-dependent that caused the stepwise stress during the exposure period and the latent stress after the exposure.

  13. Modeling and analysis of time-dependent processes in a chemically reactive mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, M. P.; Ribeiro, C.; Soares, A. J.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we study the propagation of sound waves and the dynamics of local wave disturbances induced by spontaneous internal fluctuations in a reactive mixture. We consider a non-diffusive, non-heat conducting and non-viscous mixture described by an Eulerian set of evolution equations. The model is derived from the kinetic theory in a hydrodynamic regime of a fast chemical reaction. The reactive source terms are explicitly computed from the kinetic theory and are built in the model in a proper way. For both time-dependent problems, we first derive the appropriate dispersion relation, which retains the main effects of the chemical process, and then investigate the influence of the chemical reaction on the properties of interest in the problems studied here. We complete our study by developing a rather detailed analysis using the Hydrogen-Chlorine system as reference. Several numerical computations are included illustrating the behavior of the phase velocity and attenuation coefficient in a low-frequency regime and describing the spectrum of the eigenmodes in the small wavenumber limit.

  14. Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefko, George

    2003-01-01

    The 2002 annual report of the Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch reflects the majority of the work performed by the branch staff during the 2002 calendar year. Its purpose is to give a brief review of the branch s technical accomplishments. The Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch develops innovative computational tools, benchmark experimental data, and solutions to long-term barrier problems in the areas of propulsion aeroelasticity, active and passive damping, engine vibration control, rotor dynamics, magnetic suspension, structural mechanics, probabilistics, smart structures, engine system dynamics, and engine containment. Furthermore, the branch is developing a compact, nonpolluting, bearingless electric machine with electric power supplied by fuel cells for future "more electric" aircraft. An ultra-high-power-density machine that can generate projected power densities of 50 hp/lb or more, in comparison to conventional electric machines, which generate usually 0.2 hp/lb, is under development for application to electric drives for propulsive fans or propellers. In the future, propulsion and power systems will need to be lighter, to operate at higher temperatures, and to be more reliable in order to achieve higher performance and economic viability. The Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch is working to achieve these complex, challenging goals.

  15. Radiation effects on branched polysilanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, K.; Seki, S.; Tagawa, S. [Osaka Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Scientific and Industrial Research; Shibata, H.; Iwai, T. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Research Center for Nuclear Science and Technology

    2000-03-01

    We observed crosslinking and scission caused by gamma radiation in linear and branched polysilanes which have from 5% to 33% of the branching points. The crosslinking reactions become predominant for the irradiation with branching density increasing. The cleavage did not take place exclusively at the branching points and branching polysilanes are sensitive to radiation extraordinary as compared with linear polysilane from a careful study of the radiolysis products of a series of polysilanes. This is due to the increasing Si {center_dot} contributing to the crosslinking reaction and that they are not resonance-stabilized by double bonds as the reaction mechanism in the irradiated polysilanes. However, the gelation curve in linear PMPS irradiated by 2 MeV He{sup +} is almost consistent with that in branching PMPS, indicating that the size of chemical track is responsible for the gel fraction. The crosslinking G value for high molecular weight PMPS irradiated by 2 MeV He{sup +} was drastically decreased as compared with that for low molecular weight. It suggests that there are a large number of intramolecular crosslinking points for high molecular weight PMPS. (author)

  16. Effects of Pre-Stress State and Propagation Velocity on Dynamic Fault Branching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kame, N.; Rice, J. R.; Dmowska, R.

    2001-12-01

    Major earthquakes seldom rupture along single planar faults. Instead there exist geometric complexities, including fault bends, branches and stepovers, which affect the rupture process, including nucleation and arrest. Here we consider a mode II rupture which propagates along a planar fault and encounters an intersection with a branching fault that makes an angle with the main fault. Analyses based on elastic stress fields near propagating ruptures suggest that whether a branch path will be followed or not, and whether branching to the extensional or compressional side is favored, depend on both the rupture propagation velocity as the branch is approached and on the pre-stress state before rupture arrives. See Kame and Yamashita (GJI, 139, 345-358, 1999) and Poliakov, Dmowska and Rice (JGR subm. 2001, http://esag.harvard.edu/dmowska/PDR.pdf). The latter predicted that branching to the extensional side would be favored in all pre-stress states except for those in which the direction of maximum pre-compression Smax makes a shallow angle ψ with the fault plane. Angles ψ 45 ° result when the ratio is less than unity. Thus it is anticipated that the most favored side for rupture branching should switch from the extensional to the compressive side as we consider progressively larger σ oxx/σ oyy (which means progressively smaller ψ ). In order to test that and other predictions, we have adapted the elastodynamic boundary integral equation methodology of Kame and Yamashita to 2-dimensional Mode II ruptures along branched fault systems, to allow simulations of rupture in which the failure path is dynamically self-chosen. Failure in the modeling is described by a slip-weakening law for which the peak and residual strength, and strength at any particular amount of slip, is proportional to normal stress (-σ nn). Our current results are preliminary. Nevertheless, by comparing results for σ oxx/σ oyy = 0.8 with those for 1.4, we have established, e.g., that a 15

  17. Analysis of linseed (Linum usitatissiumum L. plant branching as related to variability and interdependence of traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Zając

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Branching process of two linseed cultivars ('Hungarian Gold' and 'Opal' was analysed each year of vegetation between 1999 and 2002 characterised by different weather course. The estimation included also the extent and variability of selected morphological traits and structural traits. as well as correlation between them. On the basis of biometric measurements the hierarchy of plant shoots has been established within a plant, and four plant groups were distinguished: 1-. 2-, 3- and 4-shoot plants. It was demonstrated that the intensity of linseed branching depended mainly on young plant planting density and, to a certain extent also the weather conditions in April and May. In the years when the weather course favoured vegetation. between 23 and 40% plants per stand were branched. Beside increasing its productivity linseed branching may also inhibit a development of secondary weed infestation of the canopy. Similar plant groups with analogous shoot hierarchy formed in both linseed cultivars. Bio social position of shoot on a plant determined the extent of its traits. A dominance of the maiii shoot over lateral shoots was marked, especially concerning the number of seed vessels. Particularly big prevalence of the main shoot over lateral ones was visible in 3- and 4-9hoot plants. Lateral shoots had greater variability of morphological traits, especially concerning the number of seed vessels per shoot. Linear, exponential and power interdependencies between traits of linseed cultivars were also revealed.

  18. Nonstationary, Nonparametric, Nonseparable Bayesian Spatio-Temporal Modeling using Kernel Convolution of Order Based Dependent Dirichlet Process

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Moumita; Bhattacharya, Sourabh

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, using kernel convolution of order based dependent Dirichlet process (Griffin & Steel (2006)) we construct a nonstationary, nonseparable, nonparametric space-time process, which, as we show, satisfies desirable properties, and includes the stationary, separable, parametric processes as special cases. We also investigate the smoothness properties of our proposed model. Since our model entails an infinite random series, for Bayesian model fitting purpose we must either truncate th...

  19. Gas sensing properties of branched carbon nanotube-based structures using a novel low voltage emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbari, S; Azimi, S; Abdi, Y; Mohajerzadeh, S

    2012-11-01

    Branched carbon nanostructures have been successfully grown on interdigital comb-like structures for a gas sensing application. Field emission scanning electron microscopy has been utilized to investigate the morphology and structure of the grown nanostructures at different stages of growth process. Tunneling current of the fabricated sensor has been measured when a monotonically increasing voltage is applied between the electrodes. The effect of exposure to three different gases on the measured current has been studied. A data processing on the measured current voltage characteristics results in the evolution of various peaks at distinct voltages which depends on the type of the gas.

  20. Ocular allergy modulation to hi-dose antigen sensitization is a Treg-dependent process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Soo; Schlereth, Simona; Khandelwal, Payal; Saban, Daniel R

    2013-01-01

    A reproducible method to inhibit allergic immune responses is accomplished with hi-dose Ag sensitization, via intraperitoneal (IP) injection. However, the role of CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3+ T regulatory cells (Treg) in this process is unknown, as is whether such modulation extends to ocular allergy. We therefore determined herein whether hi-dose sensitization modulates ocular allergy, and whether CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3+ Treg are involved. C57BL/6 mice were IP sensitized via low-dose (100 µg) versus hi-dose (1000 µg) ovalbumin (OVA), in aluminum hydroxide (1 mg) and pertussis-toxin (300 ng). Other mice received anti-CD25 Ab (PC61) to ablate Treg during sensitization. In another experiment, Treg from hi-dose sensitized mice were adoptively transferred into low-dose sensitized mice. Once daily OVA challenges were administered. Clinical signs, IgE, T cell cytokines, and eosinophils were assessed. Data revealed that hi-dose, but not low-dose, sensitization led to allergy modulation, indicated by decreased clinical signs, serum IgE levels, Th2 recall responses, and eosinophil recruitment. T cells from hi-dose sensitized mice showed a robust increase in TGF-b production, and Treg from these mice were able to efficiently suppress effector T cell proliferation in vitro. In addition, in vivo Treg ablation in hi-dose sensitized mice revoked allergy modulation. Lastly, Treg from hi-dose sensitized mice were able to adoptively transfer allergy modulation to their low-dose sensitized counterparts. Collectively, these findings indicate that modulation to hi-dose sensitization, which is extended to ocular allergy, occurs in a Treg-dependent manner. In addition, our data suggest that hi-dose sensitization may henceforth facilitate the further examination of CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3+ Treg in allergic disease.

  1. The Quantification of Consistent Subjective Logic Tree Branch Weights for PSHA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, A. K.; Scherbaum, F.

    2012-04-01

    The development of quantitative models for the rate of exceedance of seismically generated ground motion parameters is the target of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA). In regions of low to moderate seismicity, the selection and evaluation of source- and/or ground-motion models is often a major challenge to hazard analysts and affected by large epistemic uncertainties. In PSHA this type of uncertainties is commonly treated within a logic tree framework in which the branch weights express the degree-of-belief values of an expert in the corresponding set of models. For the calculation of the distribution of hazard curves, these branch weights are subsequently used as subjective probabilities. However the quality of the results depends strongly on the "quality" of the expert knowledge. A major challenge for experts in this context is to provide weight estimates which are logically consistent (in the sense of Kolmogorov's axioms) and to be aware of and to deal with the multitude of heuristics and biases which affect human judgment under uncertainty. For example, people tend to give smaller weights to each branch of a logic tree the more branches it has, starting with equal weights for all branches and then adjusting this uniform distribution based on his/her beliefs about how the branches differ. This effect is known as pruning bias.¹ A similar unwanted effect, which may even wrongly suggest robustness of the corresponding hazard estimates, will appear in cases where all models are first judged according to some numerical quality measure approach and the resulting weights are subsequently normalized to sum up to one.2 To address these problems, we have developed interactive graphical tools for the determination of logic tree branch weights in form of logically consistent subjective probabilities, based on the concepts suggested in Curtis and Wood (2004).3 Instead of determining the set of weights for all the models in a single step, the computer driven

  2. A Data Flow Behavior Constraints Model for Branch Decisionmaking Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Yan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to detect the attacks to decision-making variable, this paper presents a data flow behavior constraint model for branch decision-making variables. Our model is expanded from the common control flow model, itemphasizes on the analysis and verification about the data flow for decision-making variables, so that to ensure the branch statement can execute correctly and can also detect the attack to branch decision-making variableeasily. The constraints of our model include the collection of variables, the statements that the decision-making variables are dependent on and the data flow constraint with the use-def relation of these variables. Our experimental results indicate that it is effective in detecting the attacks to branch decision-making variables as well as the attacks to control-data.

  3. Photovoltaic measurements and performance branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, S. E.; Dippo, P.

    1990-05-01

    The Photovoltaic (PV) Measurements and Performance Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) provides comprehensive PV materials, device and component characterization, measurement, fabrication, and modeling research and support for the international PV research community in the context of the U.S. Department of Energy's PV m goals. The progress of the Branch is summarized. The seven technical sections present a succinct overview of the capabilities and accomplishments of each group in the Branch. The Branch is comprised of the following groups; Surface and Interface Analysis, Materials Characterization, Device Development, Electro-Optical Characterization, Cell Performance, Advanced Module Testing and Performance, and Surface and Interface Modification and Stability. The main research projects completed in FY 1989 are highlighted including measurements and tests of PV materials, cells, submodules and modules. The report contains a comprehensive bibliography of the more than 80 branch-originated journal and conference publications which were authored in collaboration with, or in support of, approximately 130 university, industrial, government, and in-house research groups.

  4. Multiple pathways regulate shoot branching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine eRameau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shoot branching patterns result from the spatio-temporal regulation of axillary bud outgrowth. Numerous endogenous, developmental and environmental factors are integrated at the bud and plant levels to determine numbers of growing shoots. Multiple pathways that converge to common integrators are most probably involved. We propose several pathways involving not only the classical hormones auxin, cytokinins and strigolactones, but also other signals with a strong influence on shoot branching such as gibberellins, sugars or molecular actors of plant phase transition. We also deal with recent findings about the molecular mechanisms and the pathway involved in the response to shade as an example of an environmental signal controlling branching. We propose the TCP transcription factor TB1/BRC1 and the polar auxin transport stream in the stem as possible integrators of these pathways. We finally discuss how modeling can help to represent this highly dynamic system by articulating knowledges and hypothesis and calculating the phenotype properties they imply.

  5. Warped branches of flux compactifications

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Yen-Kheng

    2012-01-01

    We consider Freund-Rubin-type compactifications which are described by (p+q)-dimensional Einstein gravity with a positive cosmological constant and a q-form flux. Using perturbative expansions of Kinoshita's ansatz for warped dS_pxS^q and AdS_pxS^q spacetimes, we obtain analytical solutions describing the warped branches and their respective phase spaces. These equations are given by inhomogeneous Gegenbauer differential equations which can be solved by the Green's function method. The requirement that the Green's functions are regular provides constraints which determine the structure of the phase space of the warped branches. We apply the perturbation results to calculate the thermodynamic variables for the warped dS_pxS^q branch. In particular, the first law of thermodynamics can be reproduced using this method.

  6. Measurement of the B -> Xs l+ l- branching fraction with a sum over exclusive modes

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, Bernard; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Gaillard, J M; Hicheur, A; Karyotakis, Yu; Lees, J P; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Palano, A; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Le Clerc, C; Lynch, G; Merchant, A M; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, Michael T; Shelkov, V G; Wenzel, W A; Ford, K; Harrison, T J; Hawkes, C M; Morgan, S E; Watson, A T; Fritsch, M; Goetzen, K; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Chevalier, N; Cottingham, W N; Kelly, M P; Latham, T E; Wilson, F F; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Thiessen, D; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Ivanchenko, V N; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M A; Mommsen, R K; Röthel, W; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; Hartfiel, B L; Gary, J W; Shen, B C; Wang, K; Del Re, D; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; MacFarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Dahmes, B; Levy, S L; Long, O; Lu, A; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Heusch, C A; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schmitz, R E; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Yang, S; Jayatilleke, S M; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Abe, T; Blanc, F; Bloom, P; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Rankin, P; Smith, J G; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Chen, A; Harton, J L; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zeng, Q L; Altenburg, D; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Colberg, T; Dickopp, M; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Lacker, H M; Maly, E; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Petzold, A; Schubert, J; Schubert, Klaus R; Schwierz, R; Spaan, B; Sundermann, J E; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Brochard, F; Grenier, P; Schrenk, S; Thiebaux, C; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Bard, D J; Clark, P J; Lavin, D; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Azzolini, V; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Piemontese, L; Sarti, A; Treadwell, E; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; De Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Piccolo, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Crosetti, G; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Bailey, S; Brandenburg, G; Morii, M; Won, E; Dubitzky, R S; Langenegger, U; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Gaillard, J R; Morton, G W; Nash, J A; Taylor, G P; Grenier, G J; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Lamsa, J; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Yi, J; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Laplace, S; Le Diberder, F R; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Petersen, T C; Plaszczynski, S; Schune, M H; Tantot, L; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Simani, M C; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Coleman, J P; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gamet, R; Parry, R J; Payne, D J; Sloane, R J; Touramanis, C; Back, J J; Cormack, C M; Harrison, P F; Mohanty, G B; Brown, C L; Cowan, G; Flack, R L; Flächer, H U; Green, M G; Marker, C E; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Vaitsas, G; Winter, M A; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Hart, P A; Hodgkinson, M C; Lafferty, G D; Lyon, A J; Williams, J C; Farbin, A; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Lillard, V; Roberts, D A; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Flood, K T; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Koptchev, V B; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Stängle, H; Willocq, S; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Mangeol, D J J; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L M; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Taras, P; Nicholson, H; Cavallo, N; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M; Bulten, H; Raven, G; Wilden, L; Jessop, C P; LoSecco, J M; Gabriel, T A; Allmendinger, T; Brau, B; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pulliam, T; Rahimi, A M; Ter-Antonian, R; Wong, Q K; Brau, J E; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Potter, C T; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Colecchia, F; Dorigo, A; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Tiozzo, G; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; La Vaissière, C de; Del Buono, L; Hamon, O; John, M J J; Leruste, P; Ocariz, J; Pivk, M; Roos, L; T'Jampens, S; Therin, G; Manfredi, P F; Re, V; Behera, P K; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J; Anulli, F; Biasini, M; Peruzzi, I M; Pioppi, M; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bondioli, M; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Del Gamba, V; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Martínez-Vidal, F; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Sandrelli, F; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Paick, K; Wagoner, D E; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lü, C; Miftakov, V; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Pierini, M; Piredda, G; Safai-Tehrani, F; Voena, C; Christ, S; Wagner, G; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B J; Geddes, N I; Gopal, G P; Olaiya, E O; Aleksan, Roy; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Giraud, P F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, Witold; Langer, M; Legendre, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Schott, G; Vasseur, G; Yéche, C; Zito, M; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Yumiceva, F X; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Buchmüller, O L; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; De Nardo, Gallieno; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W M; Elsen, E E; Fan, S; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Hadig, T; Halyo, V; Hast, C; Hrynóva, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Libby, J; Luitz, S; Lüth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Müller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Petrak, S; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Simi, G; Snyder, A; Soha, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Vavra, J; Wagner, S R; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Young, C C; Burchat, Patricia R; Edwards, A J; Meyer, T I; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Saeed, M A; Saleem, M; Wappler, F R; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Kim, H; Ritchie, J L; Satpathy, A; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Bóna, M; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Borean, C; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Poropat, P; Vitale, L; Vuagnin, G; Panvini, R S; Banerjee, Sw; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Jackson, P D; Kowalewski, R V; Roney, J M; Band, H R; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Graham, M; Hollar, J J; Johnson, J R; Kutter, P E; Li, H; Liu, R; Di Lodovico, F; Mihályi, A; Mohapatra, A K; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Rubin, A E; Sekula, S J; Tan, P; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2004-01-01

    We present a preliminary measurement of time-dependent We measure the branching fraction for the flavor-changing neutral-current process B -> Xs l+ l- with a sample of 89 x 10^6 Upsilon(4S) -> BBbar events recorded with the BaBar detector at the PEP-II e+e- storage ring. The final state is reconstructed from e+e- or mu+mu- pairs and a hadronic system consisting of one K or K0s and up to two pions, with at most one pi0. We observe a signal of 40 +/- 10(stat) +/- 2(syst) events and extract the inclusive branching fraction B(B -> Xs l+ l-) = (5.6 +/- 1.5(stat) +/- 0.6(exp syst) +/- 1.1(model syst)) x 10^-6 for mll > 0.2 GeV/c^2.

  7. Temperature-dependent gelation process in colloidal dispersions by diffusing wave spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiaxue; Boyko, Volodymyr; Yi, Zhiyong; Men, Yongfeng

    2013-11-19

    Temperature-dependent microrheology of a concentrated charge-stabilized poly(methyl methacrylate) colloidal dispersion with different salt concentrations was investigated by diffusing wave spectroscopy in backscattering mode. The critical temperature where the system undergoes aggregation and gelation depends upon the particle volume fraction or salt concentration. The viscoelastic properties of the systems have been discussed using Maxwell and Kelvin-Voigt models. Temperature-dependent crossover (G' = G″) frequency has been used to calculate activation energies representing a critical energy of interaction of gel formation.

  8. 30 CFR 56.6403 - Branch circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Branch circuits. 56.6403 Section 56.6403... Blasting § 56.6403 Branch circuits. (a) If electric blasting includes the use of branch circuits, each branch shall be equipped with a safety switch or equivalent method to isolate the circuits to be used....

  9. 30 CFR 57.6403 - Branch circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Branch circuits. 57.6403 Section 57.6403... Blasting-Surface and Underground § 57.6403 Branch circuits. (a) If electric blasting includes the use of branch circuits, each branch shall be equipped with a safety switch or equivalent method to isolate...

  10. An Empirical Study on Customer Satisfaction in Indus Motors Pvt. Limited with Special Reference to Kerala Branch

    OpenAIRE

    Chandramouli, S.; Krishnan, S. Arul

    2013-01-01

    The research aims at exploring the An Empirical Study on Customer Satisfaction In Indus Motors Pvt. Limited With Special Reference To Kerala Branch. A study had been conducted in order to know about the customers satisfaction towards the Indus Motors. In the modern scenario, customers have become incredibly demanding because they have more choices than ever. Therefore, meeting customers expectation depends on by integrating customers wants and needs into the development process. The study had...

  11. Endogenous patterns of mechanical stress are required for branching morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjorevski, Nikolce; Nelson, Celeste M.

    2011-01-01

    Spatial patterning of cell behaviors establishes the regional differences within tissues that collectively develop branched organs into their characteristic treelike shapes. Here we show that the pattern of branching morphogenesis of three-dimensional (3D) engineered epithelial tissues is controlled in part by gradients of endogenous mechanical stress. We used microfabrication to build model mammary epithelial tissues of defined geometry that branched in a stereotyped pattern when induced with growth factors. Branches initiated from sites of high mechanical stress within the tissues, as predicted numerically and measured directly using 3D traction force microscopy. Branch sites were defined by activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), inhibition of which disrupted morphogenesis. Stress, FAK activation, and branching were all altered by manipulating cellular contractility, matrix stiffness, intercellular cohesion and tissue geometry. These data suggest that the pattern and magnitude of mechanical stress across epithelial tissues cooperate with biochemical signals to specify branching pattern. Insight, innovation, integration Morphogenesis is ultimately a physical process wherein tissues are sculpted into their final three-dimensional (3D) patterns. Mechanical stresses from the microenvironment can also play regulatory roles, but their influence on pattern is difficult to ascertain in 3D systems in vivo. Here we integrate 3D microscale engineered tissues with insight from biological mechanics to understand the role of endogenous mechanical stresses in patterning tissue development. The innovation lies in the use of numerical modeling to design experiments that can predict the stress distribution and resulting morphogenesis of model tissues. PMID:20717570

  12. Hd3a promotes lateral branching in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Hiroyuki; Tachibana, Chika; Tamaki, Shojiro; Taoka, Ken-Ichiro; Kyozuka, Junko; Shimamoto, Ko

    2015-04-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) protein is the mobile floral signal known as florigen. A rice FT homolog, Heading date 3a (Hd3a), is transported from the phloem to shoot apical cells, where it interacts with 14-3-3 proteins and transcription factor OsFD1 to form a florigen activation complex (FAC) that activates a rice homolog of the floral identity gene APETALA1. Recent studies showed that florigen has roles in plant development beyond flowering; however, the exact nature of these roles is not well understood. It is not clear whether FT is transported to organs outside the shoot apex, and whether FAC formation is required for processes other than flowering. We show here that the Hd3a protein accumulates in axillary meristems to promote branching, and that FAC formation is required. Analysis of transgenic plants revealed that Hd3a promotes branching through lateral bud outgrowth. Hd3a protein produced in the phloem reached the axillary meristem in the lateral bud, and its transport was required for promotion of branching. Moreover, mutant Hd3a proteins defective in FAC formation but competent with respect to transport did not promote branching. Finally, we show that Hd3a promotes branching independently from strigolactone and FC1, a transcription factor that inhibits branching in rice. Together, these results suggest that Hd3a functions as a mobile signal for branching in rice.

  13. Integrated Modeling System for Analysis of Watershed Water Balance: A Case Study in the Tims Branch Watershed, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setegn, S. G.; Mahmoudi, M.; Lawrence, A.; Duque, N.

    2015-12-01

    The Applied Research Center at Florida International University (ARC-FIU) is supporting the soil and groundwater remediation efforts of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) by developing a surface water model to simulate the hydrology and the fate and transport of contaminants and sediment in the Tims Branch watershed. Hydrological models are useful tool in water and land resource development and decision-making for watershed management. Moreover, simulation of hydrological processes improves understanding of the environmental dynamics and helps to manage and protect water resources and the environment. MIKE SHE, an advanced integrated modeling system is used to simulate the hydrological processes of the Tim Branch watershed with the objective of developing an integrated modeling system to improve understanding of the physical, chemical and biological processes within the Tims Branch watershed. MIKE SHE simulates water flow in the entire land based phase of the hydrological cycle from rainfall to river flow, via various flow processes such as, overland flow, infiltration, evapotranspiration, and groundwater flow. In this study a MIKE SHE model is developed and applied to the Tim branch watershed to study the watershed response to storm events and understand the water balance of the watershed under different climatic and catchment characteristics. The preliminary result of the integrated model indicated that variation in the depth of overland flow highly depend on the amount and distribution of rainfall in the watershed. The ultimate goal of this project is to couple the MIKE SHE and MIKE 11 models to integrate the hydrological component in the land phase of hydrological cycle and stream flow process. The coupled MIKE SHE/MIKE 11 model will further be integrated with an Ecolab module to represent a range of water quality, contaminant transport, and ecological processes with respect to the stream, surface water and groundwater in the Tims

  14. Time-dependent Hartree-Fock calculations for multinucleon transfer and quasifission processes in $^{64}$Ni+$^{238}$U reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Sekizawa, Kazuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Background: Multinucleon transfer (MNT) and quasifission (QF) processes are dominant processes in low-energy collisions of two heavy nuclei. They are expected to be useful to produce neutron-rich unstable nuclei. Nuclear dynamics leading to these processes depends sensitively on nuclear properties such as deformation and shell structure. Purpose: We elucidate reaction mechanisms of MNT and QF processes involving heavy deformed nuclei, making detailed comparisons between microscopic TDHF calculations and measurements for $^{64}$Ni+$^{238}$U reaction. Methods: Three-dimensional Skyrme-TDHF calculations are performed. Particle-number projection method is used to evaluate MNT cross sections from the TDHF wave function after collision. Results: Fragment masses, total kinetic energy (TKE), scattering angle, contact time, and MNT cross sections are investigated for $^{64}$Ni+$^{238}$U reaction. They show reasonable agreements with measurements. At small impact parameters, collision dynamics depends sensitively on th...

  15. Calcium-dependent control of temporal processing in an auditory interneuron: a computational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnath, Abhilash; Farris, Hamilton E

    2010-09-01

    Sensitivity to acoustic amplitude modulation in crickets differs between species and depends on carrier frequency (e.g., calling song vs. bat-ultrasound bands). Using computational tools, we explore how Ca(2+)-dependent mechanisms underlying selective attention can contribute to such differences in amplitude modulation sensitivity. For omega neuron 1 (ON1), selective attention is mediated by Ca(2+)-dependent feedback: [Ca(2+)](internal) increases with excitation, activating a Ca(2+)-dependent after-hyperpolarizing current. We propose that Ca(2+) removal rate and the size of the after-hyperpolarizing current can determine ON1's temporal modulation transfer function (TMTF). This is tested using a conductance-based simulation calibrated to responses in vivo. The model shows that parameter values that simulate responses to single pulses are sufficient in simulating responses to modulated stimuli: no special modulation-sensitive mechanisms are necessary, as high and low-pass portions of the TMTF are due to Ca(2+)-dependent spike frequency adaptation and post-synaptic potential depression, respectively. Furthermore, variance in the two biophysical parameters is sufficient to produce TMTFs of varying bandwidth, shifting amplitude modulation sensitivity like that in different species and in response to different carrier frequencies. Thus, the hypothesis that the size of after-hyperpolarizing current and the rate of Ca(2+) removal can affect amplitude modulation sensitivity is computationally validated.

  16. Experience-dependent hemispheric specialization of letters and numbers is revealed in early visual processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joonkoo; Chiang, Crystal; Brannon, Elizabeth M; Woldorff, Marty G

    2014-10-01

    Recent fMRI research has demonstrated that letters and numbers are preferentially processed in distinct regions and hemispheres in the visual cortex. In particular, the left visual cortex preferentially processes letters compared with numbers, whereas the right visual cortex preferentially processes numbers compared with letters. Because letters and numbers are cultural inventions and are otherwise physically arbitrary, such a double dissociation is strong evidence for experiential effects on neural architecture. Here, we use the high temporal resolution of ERPs to investigate the temporal dynamics of the neural dissociation between letters and numbers. We show that the divergence between ERP traces to letters and numbers emerges very early in processing. Letters evoked greater N1 waves (latencies 140-170 msec) than did numbers over left occipital channels, whereas numbers evoked greater N1s than letters over the right, suggesting letters and numbers are preferentially processed in opposite hemispheres early in visual encoding. Moreover, strings of letters, but not single letters, elicited greater P2 ERP waves (starting around 250 msec) than numbers did over the left hemisphere, suggesting that the visual cortex is tuned to selectively process combinations of letters, but not numbers, further along in the visual processing stream. Additionally, the processing of both of these culturally defined stimulus types differentiated from similar but unfamiliar visual stimulus forms (false fonts) even earlier in the processing stream (the P1 at 100 msec). These findings imply major cortical specialization processes within the visual system driven by experience with reading and mathematics.

  17. Time dependency of the laser-induced nanostructuring process of chromium layers with different thicknesses on fused silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, P., E-mail: pierre.lorenz@iom-leipzig.de [Leibniz-Institut für Oberflächenmodifizierung e. V., Permoserstr. 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Klöppel, M. [Institute of Scientific Computation, Department of Mathematics, TU Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Smausz, T. [Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged, Dóm tér 9 (Hungary); MTA-SZTE Research Group on Photoacoustic Spectroscopy, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged, Dóm tér 9 (Hungary); Csizmadia, T. [Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged, Dóm tér 9 (Hungary); Ehrhardt, M.; Zimmer, K. [Leibniz-Institut für Oberflächenmodifizierung e. V., Permoserstr. 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Hopp, B. [Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged, Dóm tér 9 (Hungary)

    2015-05-01

    Highlights: • The ns laser-induced melting effect of thin Cr layers on fused silica was studied. • The molten layer was analyzed by study of the time-dependent optical properties. • The liquid phase lifetime Δt{sub LF} depends on the metal thickness and the fluence. • The Δt{sub LF} dependency can be well described by an analytic function. • The comparison of the results with FEM simulation yields to a moderate agreement. - Abstract: Nanostructures exhibit a raised importance in manifold application fields like electronics and optics. The laser irradiation of thin metal layers allows the fabrication of metal nanostructures induced by a melting and deformation process where the resultant structures are dependent on the laser and metal layer parameters. However, for an optimization of this process a detailed physical understanding is necessary. Therefore, the dynamics of the metal layer deformation process was measured by time-dependent reflection and transmission as well as shadow graph measurements at different KrF excimer laser parameters (laser fluence and number of laser pulses) and metal layer thicknesses were used. Magnetron-sputtered thin chromium films with a thickness from 10 to 100 nm on fused silica substrates were studied. Based on the optical measurements the liquid phase lifetime of the metal was estimated and compared with the calculated lifetime using a simple thermodynamic model.

  18. Strigolactone inhibition of shoot branching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomez-Roldan, M.V.; Fermas, S.; Brewer, P.B.; Puech-Pages, V.; Dun, E.A.; Pillot, J.P.; Letisse, F.; Matusova, R.; Danoun, S.; Portais, J.C.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Becard, G.; Beveridge, C.A.; Rameau, C.; Rochange, S.F.

    2008-01-01

    A carotenoid-derived hormonal signal that inhibits shoot branching in plants has long escaped identification. Strigolactones are compounds thought to be derived from carotenoids and are known to trigger the germination of parasitic plant seeds and stimulate symbiotic fungi. Here we present evidence

  19. Strigolactone inhibition of shoot branching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomez-Roldan, M.V.; Fermas, S.; Brewer, P.B.; Puech-Pages, V.; Dun, E.A.; Pillot, J.P.; Letisse, F.; Matusova, R.; Danoun, S.; Portais, J.C.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Becard, G.; Beveridge, C.A.; Rameau, C.; Rochange, S.F.

    2008-01-01

    A carotenoid-derived hormonal signal that inhibits shoot branching in plants has long escaped identification. Strigolactones are compounds thought to be derived from carotenoids and are known to trigger the germination of parasitic plant seeds and stimulate symbiotic fungi. Here we present evidence

  20. Branching of keratin intermediate filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafeey, Soufi; Martin, Ines; Felder, Tatiana; Walther, Paul; Felder, Edward

    2016-06-01

    Keratin intermediate filaments (IFs) are crucial to maintain mechanical stability in epithelial cells. Since little is known about the network architecture that provides this stiffness and especially about branching properties of filaments, we addressed this question with different electron microscopic (EM) methods. Using EM tomography of high pressure frozen keratinocytes, we investigated the course of several filaments in a branching of a filament bundle. Moreover we found several putative bifurcations in individual filaments. To verify our observation we also visualized the keratin network in detergent extracted keratinocytes with scanning EM. Here bifurcations of individual filaments could unambiguously be identified additionally to bundle branchings. Interestingly, identical filament bifurcations were also found in purified keratin 8/18 filaments expressed in Escherichia coli which were reassembled in vitro. This excludes that an accessory protein contributes to the branch formation. Measurements of the filament cross sectional areas showed various ratios between the three bifurcation arms. This demonstrates that intermediate filament furcation is very different from actin furcation where an entire new filament is attached to an existing filament. Instead, the architecture of intermediate filament bifurcations is less predetermined and hence consistent with the general concept of IF formation.

  1. NCI: DCTD: Biometric Research Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Biometric Research Branch (BRB) is the statistical and biomathematical component of the Division of Cancer Treatment, Diagnosis and Centers (DCTDC). Its members provide statistical leadership for the national and international research programs of the division in developmental therapeutics, developmental diagnostics, diagnostic imaging and clinical trials.

  2. Sustained Exocytosis after Action Potential-Like Stimulation at Low Frequencies in Mouse Chromaffin Cells Depends on a Dynamin-Dependent Fast Endocytotic Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya-Díaz, José; Álvarez, Yanina D.; Montenegro, Mauricio; Bayonés, Lucas; Belingheri, Ana V.; González-Jamett, Arlek M.; Cárdenas, Ana M.; Marengo, Fernando D.

    2016-01-01

    Under basal conditions the action potential firing rate of adrenal chromaffin cells is lower than 0.5 Hz. The maintenance of the secretory response at such frequencies requires a continuous replenishment of releasable vesicles. However, the mechanism that allows such vesicle replenishment remains unclear. Here, using membrane capacitance measurements on mouse chromaffin cells, we studied the mechanism of replenishment of a group of vesicles released by a single action potential-like stimulus (APls). The exocytosis triggered by APls (ETAP) represents a fraction (40%) of the immediately releasable pool, a group of vesicles highly coupled to voltage dependent calcium channels. ETAP was replenished with a time constant of 0.73 ± 0.11 s, fast enough to maintain synchronous exocytosis at 0.2–0.5 Hz stimulation. Regarding the mechanism involved in rapid ETAP replenishment, we found that it depends on the ready releasable pool; indeed depletion of this vesicle pool significantly delays ETAP replenishment. On the other hand, ETAP replenishment also correlates with a dynamin-dependent fast endocytosis process (τ = 0.53 ± 0.01 s). In this regard, disruption of dynamin function markedly inhibits the fast endocytosis and delays ETAP replenishment, but also significantly decreases the synchronous exocytosis during repetitive APls stimulation at low frequencies (0.2 and 0.5 Hz). Considering these findings, we propose a model in where both the transfer of vesicles from ready releasable pool and fast endocytosis allow rapid ETAP replenishment during low stimulation frequencies. PMID:27507935

  3. SUSTAINED EXOCYTOSIS AFTER ACTION POTENTIAL-LIKE STIMULATION AT LOW FREQUENCIES IN MOUSE CHROMAFFIN CELLS DEPENDS ON A DYNAMIN-DEPENDENT FAST ENDOCYTOTIC PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Moya-Díaz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Under basal conditions the action potential firing rate of adrenal chromaffin cells is lower than 0.5 Hz. The maintenance of the secretory response at such frequencies requires a continuous replenishment of releasable vesicles. However, the mechanism that allows such vesicle replenishment remains unclear. Here, using membrane capacitance measurements on mouse chromaffin cells, we studied the mechanism of replenishment of a group of vesicles released by a single action potential-like stimulus (APls. The exocytosis triggered by APls (ETAP represents a fraction (40% of the immediately releasable pool, a group of vesicles highly coupled to voltage dependent calcium channels. ETAP was replenished with a time constant of 0.73 +/- 0.11 s, fast enough to maintain synchronous exocytosis at 0.2-0.5 Hz stimulation. Regarding the mechanism involved in rapid ETAP replenishment, we found that it depends on the ready releasable pool; indeed depletion of this vesicle pool significantly delays ETAP replenishment. On the other hand, ETAP replenishment also correlates with a dynamin-dependent fast endocytosis process (τ=0.53±0.01 s. In this regard, disruption of dynamin function markedly inhibits the fast endocytosis and delays ETAP replenishment, but also significantly decreases the synchronous exocytosis during repetitive APls stimulation at low frequencies (0.2 and 0.5 Hz. Considering these findings, we propose a model in where both the transfer of vesicles from ready releasable pool and fast endocytosis allow rapid ETAP replenishment during low stimulation frequencies.

  4. Family-supportive supervisor behaviors, work engagement, and subjective well-being: a contextually dependent mediated process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Russell A; Mills, Maura J; Trout, Rachel C; English, Lucy

    2014-04-01

    Grounded in a multistudy framework, we examined the relationship between family-supportive supervisor behaviors, work engagement, and subjective well-being as a contextually dependent mediated process. In Study 1 (N = 310), based on broaden-and-build and conservation of resources theories, we tested the proposed mediated process while controlling for perceived organizational support and perceived managerial effectiveness. We also demonstrated that family-supportive supervisor behaviors are distinguishable from general supervisor behaviors. In Study 2 (N = 1,640), using multigroup structural equation modeling, we validated and extended Study 1 results by examining how the mediated model varied based on 2 contextualizing constructs: (a) dependent care responsibilities and (b) availability of family-friendly benefits. Although the mediational results were contextually dependent, they were not necessarily consistent with hypothesizing based on conservation of resources theory. Practical implications are emphasized in addition to future research directions.

  5. 长江河口南支河道近期演变与自动调整过程研究%Recent evolution and self-adjustment processes of south branch of Yangtze River estuary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓鹤; 李九发; 姚弘毅; 朱文武

    2015-01-01

    基于长江河口1997年以来大量的数字地形图和水文泥沙实测资料,分析研究了工程影响下南支河段河床自动调整过程. 结果表明:三峡水库蓄水以来,在来水量未变、来沙锐减背景下,南支河道水流流态较平稳,而河床持续冲刷,但2006年以后河床冲刷强度减小,现逐渐向冲淤平衡发展;河槽断面趋于窄深,白茆沙和新浏河沙沙体的变化对南支河段的稳定性影响较大,南北港分流口冲淤变化频繁,新浏河沙护滩工程起到了一定的"固滩、限流"作用,但并不能阻止新浏河沙和南沙头护堤前沿河床冲刷的势态. 建议对扁担沙沙尾采取适当的工程整治措施.%Based on the digital topographic map and hydrological sediment data since 1997 and the recent hydrologic field ob-servations, the self-adjustment process of south branch in Yangtze estuary under the influence of Xinliuhe shoal protection works and Three Gorges Project are analyzed. The results indicate that the water fluvial regime is stable and the riverbed is in continu-ous erosion state under the condition of sharp sediment decrease and unchanged discharge since the completion of Three Gorge Project;the river bed is continuously scoured but the intensity has become smaller and has a new balance tendency since 2006;in the same period, the cross sections are narrower and deeper, the changes of Baimao and Xinliuhe shoals exert significant influ-ence on the stability of the channel; the erosion and deposition of south and north passage bifurcations changes frequently; the constructed Xinliuhe shoal protection works and Nanshatou channel submerged dike projects play a great role in shoal fixing and flow limiting, but can not prevent the trend of intense erosion at the front areas of Xinliuhe shoal and Nanshatou channel. Some effective measures should be taken to the tail of Biandan shoal.

  6. Parallel versus Serial Processing Dependencies in the Perisylvian Speech Network: A Granger Analysis of Intracranial EEG Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, David W., Jr.; Keller, Corey J.; Eskandar, Emad; Meng, Nate; Cash, Sydney S.

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we apply Granger causality analysis to high spatiotemporal resolution intracranial EEG (iEEG) data to examine how different components of the left perisylvian language network interact during spoken language perception. The specific focus is on the characterization of serial versus parallel processing dependencies in the dominant…

  7. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinical Trial of a Dual-Processing Treatment Protocol for Substance-Dependent Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matto, Holly C.; Hadjiyane, Maria C.; Kost, Michelle; Marshall, Jennifer; Wiley, Joseph; Strolin-Goltzman, Jessica; Khatiwada, Manish; VanMeter, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Empirical evidence suggests substance dependence creates stress system dysregulation which, in turn, may limit the efficacy of verbal-based treatment interventions, as the recovering brain may not be functionally capable of executive level processing. Treatment models that target implicit functioning are necessary. Methods: An RCT was…

  8. Developmental morphology of branching flowers in Nymphaea prolifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grob, Valentin; Moline, Philip; Pfeifer, Evelin; Novelo, Alejandro R; Rutishauser, Rolf

    2006-11-01

    Nymphaea and Nuphar (Nymphaeaceae) share an extra-axillary mode of floral inception in the shoot apical meristem (SAM). Some leaf sites along the ontogenetic spiral are occupied by floral primordia lacking a subtending bract. This pattern of flower initiation in leaf sites is repeated inside branching flowers of Nymphaea prolifera (Central and South America). Instead of fertile flowers this species usually produces sterile tuberiferous flowers that act as vegetative propagules. N. prolifera changes the meristem identity from reproductive to vegetative or vice versa repeatedly. Each branching flower first produces some perianth-like leaves, then it switches back to the vegetative meristem identity of the SAM with the formation of foliage leaves and another set of branching flowers. This process is repeated up to three times giving rise to more than 100 vegetative propagules. The developmental morphology of the branching flowers of N. prolifera is described using both microtome sections and scanning electron microscopy.

  9. Filling predictable and unpredictable gaps, with and without similarity-based interference: Evidence for LIFG effects of dependency processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly eLeiken

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the most replicated findings in neurolinguistic literature on syntax is the increase of hemodynamic activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG in response to object relative clauses (ORs compared to subject relative clauses (SRs. However, behavioral studies have shown that ORs are primarily only costly when similarity-based interference is involved and recently, Leiken & Pylkkänen (2014 showed with magnetoencephalography (MEG that an LIFG increase at an OR gap is also dependent on such interference. However, since ORs always involve a cue indicating an upcoming dependency formation, OR dependencies could be processed already prior to the gap-site and thus show no sheer dependency effects at the gap itself. To investigate the role of gap predictability in LIFG dependency effects, this MEG study compared ORs to Verb Phrase Ellipsis (VPE, which was used as an example of a non-predictable dependency. Additionally, we explored LIFG sensitivity to filler-gap order by including Right Node Raising (RNR structures, in which the order of filler and gap is reverse to that of ORs and VPE. Half of the stimuli invoked similarity-based interference and half did not. Our results demonstrate that LIFG effects of dependency can be elicited regardless of whether the dependency is predictable, the stimulus materials evoke similarity-based interference, or the filler precedes the gap. Thus, contrary to our own prior data, the current findings suggest a highly general role for the LIFG in dependency interpretation that is not limited to environments involving similarity-based interference. Additionally, the millisecond time-resolution of MEG allowed for a detailed characterization of the temporal profiles of LIFG dependency effects across our three constructions, revealing that the timing of these effects is somewhat construction-specific.

  10. BIRCH XYLAN GRAFTED WITH PLA BRANCHES OF PREDICTABLE LENGTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Persson,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Birch xylan (4-O-methylglucuronoxylan isolated from a kraft cooking liquor was delignified and grafted with polylactide of predictable branch length. This graft copolymerization resulted in very high total yields, greater than 90%, and with less than 10% polylactide homopolymer byproducts. Mild reaction conditions (40°C, 5 to 120 minutes were used, which was believed to limit transesterification reactions and thus make it possible to reach good predictability of the polylactide branch length. The thermal properties of the polylactide-grafted xylan depended on the branch length. Short branches resulted in fully amorphous materials with a glass transition temperature of about 48 to 55°C, whereas long polylactide branches resulted in semi-crystalline materials with melting points of about 130°C. Using mixtures of L-lactide and D/L-lactide in the monomer feed further altered the thermal properties. The degradation temperatures of the polylactide-grafted xylans were higher than that of the unmodified xylan, with degradation temperatures of about 300°C and 250°C, respectively. Tensile testing showed increased elongation at break with increasing branch length. The proposed method thus enables tailor-making of copolymers with specific thermal and mechanical properties.

  11. Dependability and Survivability Evaluation of a Water Distribution Process with Arcade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roolvink, S.; Remke, Anne Katharina Ingrid; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette

    2009-01-01

    Among others, drinking water belongs to the socalled critical infrastructures. To ensure that the water production meets current and future societal needs, a systematic and rigorous analysis is needed. In this paper, we report our ��?rst experience with dependability analysis of the last phase of a

  12. Context-dependent idiom processing in elderly adults : an ERP study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    la Roi, Amélie; Sprenger, Simone; Hendriks, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Neurolinguistic research has demonstrated that, compared to literal language processing, the processing of idioms requires additional cognitive effort (e.g., Lauro, Tettamanti, Cappa, & Papagno, 2008). For example, in the case of the Dutch expression in de soep lopen (fig. to fail), the idiom’s lite

  13. Information transfer model of natural processes: from the ideal gas law to the distance dependent redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Fielitz, P

    2009-01-01

    We consider a general information transfer model which comprises any natural process which is able to transfer information and which can be characterised by only two independent process variables. We further postulate that these independent process variables serve as source and destination of information during a natural process. To define information which is directly related to the process variables, we apply the definition of information originally formulated by Hartley. We demonstrate that the proposed information transfer model yields well known laws, which, as yet, have not been directly related to information theory, such as the ideal gas law, the radioactive decay law, the formation law of vacancies in single crystals, and Fick's first law. Further, for the propagation of photons from a point source the information transfer model shows that any detector device, if at rest relative to the point source, will measure a redshift relative to the photon wavelength which is emitted from the point source. Tha...

  14. The Asymptotic Behaviour of the Extinction Probabibity in Bisexual Galton-Watson Branching Processes with Independent and Identically Distributed Random Environments%独立同分布随机环境中两性Galton-Watson分支过程灭绝概率的渐近行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽华; 雷思林; 卢准炜; 刘桂芬

    2011-01-01

    本文研究了独立同分布随机环境中的两性Galton-Watson分支过程,在上临界情形下,当k充分大时,qk≤ck.%In bisexual Galton-Watson branching process with independent and identically distributed random environments, it is shown that under certain conditions there exists 0 for sufficiently large k.

  15. Limit theorems for Markov processes indexed by continuous time Galton-Watson trees

    CERN Document Server

    Bansaye, Vincent; Marsalle, Laurence; Tran, Viet Chi

    2009-01-01

    We study the evolution of a particle system whose genealogy is given by a supercritical continuous time Galton-Watson tree. The particles move independently according to a Markov process and when a branching event occurs, the offspring locations depend on the position of the mother and the number of offspring. We prove a law of large numbers for the empirical measure of individuals alive at time $t$. This relies on a probabilistic interpretation of its intensity by mean of an auxiliary process. This latter has the same generator as the Markov process along the branches plus additional branching events, associated with jumps of accelerated rate and biased distribution. This comes from the fact that choosing an individual uniformly at time $t$ favors lineages with more branching events and larger offspring number. The central limit theorem is considered on a special case. Several examples are developed, including applications to splitting diffusions, cellular aging, branching L\\'evy processes and ancestral line...

  16. Angular dependence of demagnetization processes in Fe-FePt perpendicular exchange-spring bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solzi, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Parma and CNISM, V.le G.P. Usberti 7/A, 43100 Parma (Italy)]. E-mail: solzi@fis.unipr.it; Pernechele, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Parma and CNISM, V.le G.P. Usberti 7/A, 43100 Parma (Italy); Pellicelli, R. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Parma and CNISM, V.le G.P. Usberti 7/A, 43100 Parma (Italy); Ghidini, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Parma and CNISM, V.le G.P. Usberti 7/A, 43100 Parma (Italy); Albertini, F. [IMEM-CNR, Parco Area delle Scienze 37/A, 43010 Parma (Italy); Casoli, F. [IMEM-CNR, Parco Area delle Scienze 37/A, 43010 Parma (Italy)

    2007-09-15

    The angular dependence of hysteresis loops of exchange-spring (ES) bilayers constituted by a Fe layer as the soft phase and a hard layer of L1{sub 0} Fe{sub 53}Pt{sub 47} is presented. FePt thin films of nominal thickness 10 nm have been prepared by RF sputtering on MgO (1 0 0) substrates in order to achieve the epitaxial growth with the c-axis perpendicular to the film plane. The Fe soft layers have been deposited at RT with various thicknesses (from 2 to 10 nm). The angular dependence of the bilayers' magnetic properties is studied by SQUID magnetometry varying the angle between the easy axis of the hard phase and the direction of the applied field from 0 to {pi}/2. The magnetic behavior at different angles is analyzed by a one-dimensional micromagnetic model specifically extended to the case of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA)

  17. Scale dependency of processes structuring metacommunities of cladocerans in temporary pools of High-Andes wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Declerck, S.A.J.; Coronel, J.S.; Legendre, P.; Brendonck, L.

    2011-01-01

    Metacommunity structure can be shaped by a variety of processes operating at different spatial scales. With increasing scale, the compositional variation among local communities (beta diversity) may reflect stronger environmental heterogeneity, but may also reflect reduced exchange of organisms

  18. Scale dependency of processes structuring metacommunities of cladocerans in temporary pools of High-Andes wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Declerck, S.A.J.; Coronel, J.S.; Legendre, P.; Brendonck, L.

    2011-01-01

    Metacommunity structure can be shaped by a variety of processes operating at different spatial scales. With increasing scale, the compositional variation among local communities (beta diversity) may reflect stronger environmental heterogeneity, but may also reflect reduced exchange of organisms betw

  19. The dependence of the sporicidal effects on the power and pressure of RF-generated plasma processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassen, Klaus S; Nordby, Bolette; Grün, Reinar

    2005-07-01

    The sporicidal effect of 20 different radio-frequency plasma processes produced by combining five different gas mixtures [O(2), Ar/H(2) (50/50%), Ar/H(2) (5/95%), O(2)/H(2) (50/50%), O(2)/H(2) (95/5%)] with four power/pressure settings were tested. Sporicidal effects of oxygen-containing plasmas were dependent on power at low pressure settings but not at high pressure settings. In the absence of oxygen no power dependency was observed at either high or low pressure settings. Survivor curves obtained with the use of nonoxygen plasmas typically had a tailing tendency. Only a mixture-optimized Ar/H(2) (15/85%) plasma process was not encumbered by tailing, and produced a decimal reduction time (D value) below 2 min for Bacillus stearothermophilus spores. Scanning electron microscopy showed that a CF(4)/O(2) plasma did more damage to the substrate than the 15/85% Ar/H(2) plasma. The present results indicate that UV irradiation inactivation is swift and power and pressure independent. Additionally, it is produced at low energy. However, it is not complete. Inactivation through etching is highly power and pressure dependent; finally, inactivation by photodesorption is moderately power and pressure dependent. A sterilization process relying on this mechanism is very advantageous because it combines a highly sporicidal effect with low substrate damage.

  20. Confining strings in supersymmetric theories with Higgs branches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shifman, M.; Tallarita, Gianni; Yung, Alexei

    2015-03-01

    We study flux tubes (strings) on the Higgs branches in supersymmetric gauge theories. In generic vacua on the Higgs branches, strings were shown to develop long-range "tails" associated with massless fields, a characteristic feature of the Higgs branch (the only exception is the vacuum at the base of the Higgs branch). A natural infrared regularization for the above tails is provided by a finite string length L . We perform a numerical study of these strings in generic vacua. We focus on the simplest example of strings in N =1 supersymmetric QED with the Fayet-Iliopoulos term. In particular, we examine the accuracy of a logarithmic approximation (proposed earlier by Evlampiev and Yung) for the tension of such string solutions. In the Evlampiev-Yung formula, the dependence of tension on the string length is logarithmic, and the dependence on the geodesic length from the base of the Higgs branch is quadratic. We observe a remarkable agreement of our numerical results for the string tension with the Evlampiev-Yung analytic expression.