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Sample records for dependent bacterial sulfate

  1. Oxygen isotopic fractionation during bacterial sulfate reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balci, N.; Turchyn, A. V.; Lyons, T.; Bruchert, V.; Schrag, D. P.; Wall, J.

    2006-12-01

    Sulfur isotope fractionation during bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR) is understood to depend on a variety of environmental parameters, such as sulfate concentration, temperature, cell specific sulfate reduction rates, and the carbon substrate. What controls oxygen isotope fractionation during BSR is less well understood. Some studies have suggested that carbon substrate is important, whereas others concluded that there is a stoichiometric relationship between the fractionations of sulfur and oxygen during BSR. Studies of oxygen fractionation are complicated by isotopic equilibration between sulfur intermediates, particularly sulfite, and water. This process can modify the isotopic composition of the extracellular sulfate pool (δ18OSO4 ). Given this, the challenge is to distinguish between this isotopic equilibration and fractionations linked to the kinetic effects of the intercellular enzymes and the incorporation of sulfate into the bacterial cell. The δ18OSO4 , in concert with the sulfur isotope composition of sulfate (δ34SSO4), could be a powerful tool for understanding the pathways and environmental controls of BSR in natural systems. We will present δ18OSO4 data measured from batch culture growth of 14 different species of sulfate reducing bacteria for which sulfur isotope data were previously published. A general observation is that δ18OSO4 shows little isotopic change (kinetic effect during BSR and/or equilibration between sulfur intermediates and the isotopically light water (~-5‰) of the growth medium. Our present batch culture data do not allow us to convincingly isolate the magnitude and the controlling parameters of the kinetic isotope effect for oxygen. However, ongoing growth of mutant bacteria missing enzymes critical in the different steps of BSR may assist in this mission.

  2. Bacterial PerO Permeases Transport Sulfate and Related Oxyanions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Marie-Christine; Pfänder, Yvonne; Tintel, Marc; Masepohl, Bernd

    2017-07-15

    Rhodobacter capsulatus synthesizes the high-affinity ABC transporters CysTWA and ModABC to specifically import the chemically related oxyanions sulfate and molybdate, respectively. In addition, R. capsulatus has the low-affinity permease PerO acting as a general oxyanion transporter, whose elimination increases tolerance to molybdate and tungstate. Although PerO-like permeases are widespread in bacteria, their function has not been examined in any other species to date. Here, we present evidence that PerO permeases from the alphaproteobacteria Agrobacterium tumefaciens , Dinoroseobacter shibae , Rhodobacter sphaeroides , and Sinorhizobium meliloti and the gammaproteobacterium Pseudomonas stutzeri functionally substitute for R. capsulatus PerO in sulfate uptake and sulfate-dependent growth, as shown by assimilation of radioactively labeled sulfate and heterologous complementation. Disruption of perO genes in A. tumefaciens , R. sphaeroides , and S. meliloti increased tolerance to tungstate and, in the case of R. sphaeroides , to molybdate, suggesting that heterometal oxyanions are common substrates of PerO permeases. This study supports the view that bacterial PerO permeases typically transport sulfate and related oxyanions and, hence, form a functionally conserved permease family. IMPORTANCE Despite the widespread distribution of PerO-like permeases in bacteria, our knowledge about PerO function until now was limited to one species, Rhodobacter capsulatus In this study, we showed that PerO proteins from diverse bacteria are functionally similar to the R. capsulatus prototype, suggesting that PerO permeases form a conserved family whose members transport sulfate and related oxyanions. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  3. Bacterial sulfate reduction in hydrothermal sediments of the Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California, Mexico

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, A.; Jørgensen, BB

    2002-01-01

    Depth distribution and temperature dependence of bacterial sulfate reduction were studied in hydrothermal surface sediments of the southern trough of the Guaymas Basin at 2000 m water depth. In situ temperatures ranged from 2.8 degreesC at the sediment surface to > 130degreesC at 30 cm depth in t...

  4. Stable isotope fractionation during bacterial sulfate reduction is controlled by reoxidation of intermediates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangalo, Muna; Meckenstock, Rainer U.; Stichler, Willibald; Einsiedl, Florian

    2007-09-01

    Bacterial sulfate reduction is one of the most important respiration processes in anoxic habitats and is often assessed by analyzing the results of stable isotope fractionation. However, stable isotope fractionation is supposed to be influenced by the reduction rate and other parameters, such as temperature. We studied here the mechanistic basics of observed differences in stable isotope fractionation during bacterial sulfate reduction. Batch experiments with four sulfate-reducing strains ( Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, Desulfobacca acetoxidans, Desulfonatronovibrio hydrogenovorans, and strain TRM1) were performed. These microorganisms metabolize different carbon sources (lactate, acetate, formate, and toluene) and showed broad variations in their sulfur isotope enrichment factors. We performed a series of experiments on isotope exchange of 18O between residual sulfate and ambient water. Batch experiments were conducted with 18O-enriched (δ 18O water = +700‰) and depleted water (δ 18O water = -40‰), respectively, and the stable 18O isotope shift in the residual sulfate was followed. For Desulfovibrio desulfuricans and Desulfonatronovibrio hydrogenovorans, which are both characterized by low sulfur isotope fractionation ( ɛS > -13.2‰), δ 18O values in the remaining sulfate increased by only 50‰ during growth when 18O-enriched water was used for the growth medium. In contrast, with Desulfobacca acetoxidans and strain TRM1 ( ɛS factor ( ɛS exchange with water during sulfate reduction. However, this neither takes place in the sulfate itself nor during formation of APS (adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate), but rather in intermediates of the sulfate reduction pathway. These may in turn be partially reoxidized to form sulfate. This reoxidation leads to an incorporation of oxygen from water into the "recycled" sulfate changing the overall 18O isotopic composition of the remaining sulfate fraction. Our study shows that such incorporation of 18O is correlated with the

  5. Inhibition of synthesis of heparan sulfate by selenate: Possible dependence on sulfation for chain polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, C.P.; Nader, H.B.; Buonassisi, V.; Colburn, P.

    1988-01-01

    Selenate, a sulfation inhibitor, blocks the synthesis of heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate by cultured endothelial cells. In contrast, selenate does not affect the production of hyaluronic acid, a nonsulfated glycosaminoglycan. No differences in molecular weight, [ 3 H]glucosamine/[ 35 S]sulfuric acid ratios, or disaccharide composition were observed when the heparan sulfate synthesized by selenate-treated cells was compared with that of control cells. The absence of undersulfated chains in preparations from cultures exposed to selenate supports the concept that, in the intact cell, the polymerization of heparan sulfate might be dependent on the sulfation of the saccharide units added to the growing glycosaminoglycan chain

  6. DEPENDENCY OF SULFATE SOLUBILITY ON MELT COMPOSITION AND MELT POLYMERIZATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JANTZEN, CAROL M.

    2004-01-01

    Sulfate and sulfate salts are not very soluble in borosilicate waste glass. When sulfate is present in excess it can form water soluble secondary phases and/or a molten salt layer (gall) on the melt pool surface which is purported to cause steam explosions in slurry fed melters. Therefore, sulfate can impact glass durability while formation of a molten salt layer on the melt pool can impact processing. Sulfate solubility has been shown to be compositionally dependent in various studies, (e.g. , B2O3, Li2O, CaO, MgO, Na2O, and Fe2O3 were shown to increase sulfate solubility while Al2O3 and SiO2 decreased sulfate solubility). This compositional dependency is shown to be related to the calculated melt viscosity at various temperatures and hence the melt polymerization

  7. Anaerobic biodegradation of nonylphenol in river sediment under nitrate- or sulfate-reducing conditions and associated bacterial community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhao; Yang, Yuyin; Dai, Yu; Xie, Shuguang, E-mail: xiesg@pku.edu.cn

    2015-04-09

    Highlights: • NP biodegradation can occur under both nitrate- and sulfate-reducing conditions. • Anaerobic condition affects sediment bacterial diversity during NP biodegradation. • NP-degrading bacterial community structure varies under different anaerobic conditions. - Abstract: Nonylphenol (NP) is a commonly detected pollutant in aquatic ecosystem and can be harmful to aquatic organisms. Anaerobic degradation is of great importance for the clean-up of NP in sediment. However, information on anaerobic NP biodegradation in the environment is still very limited. The present study investigated the shift in bacterial community structure associated with NP degradation in river sediment microcosms under nitrate- or sulfate-reducing conditions. Nearly 80% of NP (100 mg kg{sup −1}) could be removed under these two anaerobic conditions after 90 or 110 days’ incubation. Illumina MiSeq sequencing analysis indicated that Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Chloroflexi became the dominant phylum groups with NP biodegradation. The proportion of Gammaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria and Choloroflexi showed a marked increase in nitrate-reducing microcosm, while Gammaproteobacteria and Firmicutes in sulfate-reducing microcosm. Moreover, sediment bacterial diversity changed with NP biodegradation, which was dependent on type of electron acceptor.

  8. Effect of sulfate absence and nitrate addition on bacterial community in a sulfidogenic bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Yangguo [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Wang Aijie, E-mail: waj0578@hit.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Ren Nanqi [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China)

    2009-12-30

    The characteristics and behavior of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), methane-producing bacteria (MPB) and denitrifying bacteria (DB) were investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based methods under the transitory sulfate absence or nitrate addition conditions in a sulfidogenic continuously stirred tank reactor. The bioreactor started-up feeding with 4000 mg l{sup -1} COD (lactate) and 2000 mg l{sup -1} sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}). The sulfate removal efficiency reached 3.84 g l{sup -1} d{sup -1} when the activated sludge formed a stable bacterial community comprising of some members of genera Desulfobulbus, Desulfovibrio, Clostridium and Pseudomonas after 20 days' operation. And about 79% of reduced sulfate captured electrons from the oxidization of propionate. Sulfate absence influenced little on quantity and population structure of SRB and DB, while much on MPB and metabolic typing. And the acetate (up to 86% (w/w) of total end-products) in end-product profiles was replaced by the propionate (75% (w/w)). The addition of nitrate to sulfidogenic system suppressed the sulfidogenesis mainly by capturing the electron flow. These results suggested that sulfate absence or nitrate addition would not inhibit SRB permanently in a stable sulfidogenic community.

  9. O-sulfated bacterial polysaccharides with low anticoagulant activity inhibit metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgenström, Marjut; Wärri, Anni; Hiilesvuo, Katri; Käkönen, Rami; Käkönen, Sanna; Nissinen, Liisa; Pihlavisto, Marjo; Marjamäki, Anne; Vlodavsky, Israel; Naggi, Annamaria; Torri, Giangiacomo; Casu, Benito; Veromaa, Timo; Salmivirta, Markku; Elenius, Klaus

    2007-07-01

    Heparin-like polysaccharides possess the capacity to inhibit cancer cell proliferation, angiogenesis, heparanase-mediated cancer cell invasion, and cancer cell adhesion to vascular endothelia via adhesion receptors, such as selectins. The clinical applicability of the antitumor effect of such polysaccharides, however, is compromised by their anticoagulant activity. We have compared the potential of chemically O-sulfated and N,O-sulfated bacterial polysaccharide (capsular polysaccharide from E. COLI K5 [K5PS]) species to inhibit metastasis of mouse B16-BL6 melanoma cells and human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells in two in vivo models. We demonstrate that in both settings, O-sulfated K5PS was a potent inhibitor of metastasis. Reducing the molecular weight of the polysaccharide, however, resulted in lower antimetastatic capacity. Furthermore, we show that O-sulfated K5PS efficiently inhibited the invasion of B16-BL6 cells through Matrigel and also inhibited the in vitro activity of heparanase. Moreover, treatment with O-sulfated K5PS lowered the ability of B16-BL6 cells to adhere to endothelial cells, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and P-selectin, but not to E-selectin. Importantly, O-sulfated K5PSs were largely devoid of anticoagulant activity. These findings indicate that O-sulfated K5PS polysaccharide should be considered as a potential antimetastatic agent.

  10. Role of sedimentary organic matter in bacterial sulfate reduction: the G model tested

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westrich, J.T.; Berner, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Laboratory study of the bacterial decomposition of Long Island Sound plankton in oxygenated seawater over a period of 2 years shows that the organic material undergoes decomposition via first-order kinetics and can be divided into two decomposable fractions, of considerably different reactivity, and a nonmetabolized fraction. This planktonic material, after undergoing varying degrees of oxic degradation, was added in the laboratory to anoxic sediment taken from a depth of 1 m at the NWC site of Long Island Sound and the rate of bacterial sulfate reduction in the sediment measured by the 35 S radiotracer technique. The stimulated rate of sulfate reduction was in direct proportion to the amount of planktonic carbon added. This provides direct confirmation of the first-order decomposition, or G model, for marine sediments and proves that the in situ rate of sulfate reduction is organic-matter limited. Slower sulfate reduction rates resulted when oxically degraded plankton rather than fresh plankton was added, and the results confirm the presence of the same two fractions of organic matter deduced from the oxic degradation studies. Near-surface Long Island Sound sediment, which already contains abundant readily decomposable organic matter, was also subjected to anoxic decomposition by bacterial sulfate reduction. The decrease in sulfate reduction rate with time parallels decreases in the amount of organic matter, and these results also indicate the presence of two fractions of organic carbon of distinctly different reactivity. From plots of the log of reduction rate vs. time two first-order rate constants were obtained that agree well with those derived from the plankton addition experiment. Together, the two experiments confirm the use of a simple multi-first-order rate law for organic matter decomposition in marine sediments

  11. Magnesium sulfate differentially modulates fetal membrane inflammation in a time-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Sarah N; Nelson, Rachel A; Potter, Julie A; Norwitz, Errol R; Abrahams, Vikki M

    2018-04-30

    Chorioamnionitis and infection-associated inflammation are major causes of preterm birth. Magnesium sulfate (MgSO 4 ) is widely used in obstetrics as a tocolytic; however, its mechanism of action is unclear. This study sought to investigate how MgSO 4 modulates infection-associated inflammation in fetal membranes (FMs), and whether the response was time dependent. Human FM explants were treated with or without bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS); with or without MgSO 4 added either: 1 hour before LPS; at the same time as LPS; 1 hour post-LPS; or 2 hours post-LPS. Explants were also treated with or without viral dsRNA and LPS, alone or in combination; and MgSO 4 added 1 hour post-LPS After 24 hours, supernatants were measured for cytokines/chemokines; and tissue lysates measured for caspase-1 activity. Lipopolysaccharide-induced FM inflammation by upregulating the secretion of a number of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines. Magnesium sulfate administered 1-hour post-LPS inhibited FM secretion of IL-1β, IL-6, G-CSF, RANTES, and TNFα. Magnesium sulfate administered 2 hours post-LPS augmented FM secretion of these factors as well as IL-8, IFNγ, VEGF, GROα and IP-10. Magnesium sulfate delivered 1- hour post-LPS inhibited LPS-induced caspase-1 activity, and inhibited the augmented IL-1β response triggered by combination viral dsRNA and LPS. Magnesium sulfate differentially modulates LPS-induced FM inflammation in a time-dependent manner, in part through its modulation of caspase-1 activity. Thus, the timing of MgSO 4 administration may be critical in optimizing its anti-inflammatory effects in the clinical setting. MgSO 4 might also be useful at preventing FM inflammation triggered by a polymicrobial viral-bacterial infection. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Streptomyces lunalinharesii 235 prevents the formation of a sulfate-reducing bacterial biofilm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Pacheco da Rosa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Streptomyces lunalinharesii strain 235 produces an antimicrobial substance that is active against sulfate reducing bacteria, the major bacterial group responsible for biofilm formation and biocorrosion in petroleum reservoirs. The use of this antimicrobial substance for sulfate reducing bacteria control is therefore a promising alternative to chemical biocides. In this study the antimicrobial substance did not interfere with the biofilm stability, but the sulfate reducing bacteria biofilm formation was six-fold smaller in carbon steel coupons treated with the antimicrobial substance when compared to the untreated control. A reduction in the most probable number counts of planktonic cells of sulfate reducing bacteria was observed after treatments with the sub-minimal inhibitory concentration, minimal inhibitory concentration, and supra-minimal inhibitory concentration of the antimicrobial substance. Additionally, when the treated coupons were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, the biofilm formation was found to be substantially reduced when the supra-minimal inhibitory concentration of the antimicrobial substance was used. The coupons used for the biofilm formation had a small weight loss after antimicrobial substance treatment, but corrosion damage was not observed by scanning electron microscopy. The absence of the dsrA gene fragment in the scraped cell suspension after treatment with the supra-minimal inhibitory concentration of the antimicrobial substance suggests that Desulfovibrio alaskensis was not able to adhere to the coupons. This is the first report on an antimicrobial substance produced by Streptomyces active against sulfate reducing bacteria biofilm formation. The application of antimicrobial substance as a potential biocide for sulfate reducing bacteria growth control could be of great interest to the petroleum industry.

  13. Regulation of bacterial sulfate reduction and hydrogen sulfide fluxes in the central Namibian coastal upwelling zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruchert, V.; Jørgensen, BB; Neumann, K.

    2003-01-01

    The coastal upwelling system off central Namibia is one of the most productive regions of the oceans and is characterized by frequently occurring shelf anoxia with severe effects for the benthic life and fisheries. We present data on water column dissolved oxygen, sulfide, nitrate and nitrite, pore......-depleted bottom waters, the oxygen minimum zone on the continental slope, and the lower continental slope below the oxygen minimum zone. High concentrations of dissolved sulfide, up to 22 mM, in the near-surface sediments of the inner shelf result from extremely high rates of bacterial sulfate reduction...

  14. Terminal processes in the anaerobic degradation of an algal-bacterial mat in a high-sulfate hot spring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, D.M.; Olson, G.J.

    1980-01-01

    The algal-bacterial mat of a high-sulfate hot spring (Bath Lake) provided an environment in which to compare terminal processes involved in anaerobic decomposition. Sulfate reduction was found to dominate methane production, as indicated by comparison of initial electron flow through the two processes, rapid conversion of [2- 14 C]acetate to 14 CO 2 and not to 14 CH 4 , and the lack of rapid reduction of NaH 14 CO 3 to 14 CH 4 . Sulfate reduction was the dominant process at all depth intervals, but a marked decrease of sulfate reduction and sulfate-reducing bacteria was observed with depth. Concurrent methanogenesis was indicated by the presence of viable methanogenic bacteria and very low but detectable rates of methane production. A marked increase in methane production was observed after sulfate depletion despite high concentrations of sulfide (>1.25 mM), indicating that methanogenesis was not inhibited by sulfide in the natural environment. Although a sulfate minimum and sulfide maximum occurred in the region of maximal sulfate reduction, the absence of sulfate depletion in interstitial water suggests that methanogenesis is always severely limited in Bath Lake sediments. Low initial methanogenesis was not due to anaerobic methane oxidation

  15. Inhibition of bacterial oxidation of ferrous iron by lead nitrate in sulfate-rich systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongmei; Gong, Linfeng; Cravotta, Charles A; Yang, Xiaofen; Tuovinen, Olli H; Dong, Hailiang; Fu, Xiang

    2013-01-15

    Inhibition of bacterial oxidation of ferrous iron (Fe(II)) by Pb(NO(3))(2) was investigated with a mixed culture of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. The culture was incubated at 30 °C in ferrous-sulfate medium amended with 0-24.2 mM Pb(II) added as Pb(NO(3))(2). Anglesite (PbSO(4)) precipitated immediately upon Pb addition and was the only solid phase detected in the abiotic controls. Both anglesite and jarosite (KFe(3)(SO(4))(2)(OH)(6)) were detected in inoculated cultures. Precipitation of anglesite maintained dissolved Pb concentrations at 16.9-17.6 μM regardless of the concentrations of Pb(NO(3))(2) added. Fe(II) oxidation was suppressed by 24.2 mM Pb(NO(3))(2) addition even when anglesite was removed before inoculation. Experiments with 0-48 mM KNO(3) demonstrated that bacterial Fe(II) oxidation decreased as nitrate concentration increased. Therefore, inhibition of Fe(II) oxidation at 24.2 mM Pb(NO(3))(2) addition resulted from nitrate toxicity instead of Pb addition. Geochemical modeling that considered the initial precipitation of anglesite to equilibrium followed by progressive oxidation of Fe(II) and the precipitation of jarosite and an amorphous iron hydroxide phase, without allowing plumbojarosite to precipitate were consistent with the experimental time-series data on Fe(II) oxidation under biotic conditions. Anglesite precipitation in mine tailings and other sulfate-rich systems maintains dissolved Pb concentrations below the toxicity threshold of A. ferrooxidans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Biodegradation of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate by local bacterial isolate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, H.M.M.; NoorEl-Din, M.R.

    2011-01-01

    Anionic surfactants, e.g., sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), as a main components in the detergent and cosmetic industries, contribute significantly to the pollution profile of sewage and wastewaters of all kinds. The purpose of this study was to isolate local SDS degrading bacteria. Screening was carried out by the conventional enrichment culture technique. One bacterial isolate was obtained; this isolate was primarily defined as gram-negative rods . It was capable of degrading 100% of 1000 and 2000 mg/l of SDS after 6 days of incubation. The isolate exhibited maximum growth at SDS concentration 4000 mg/I, but it was significantly decreased at higher concentration (16000 mg/I).All the carbon sources being tested repressed the degradation ability. Sodium nitrate at concentration of 2.0 g/I was the best nitrogen source for growth and SDS biodegradation, it enhanced the degradation of 3000 mg/I SDS by 95%,i.e., by 32% upon the control (broth medium containing NH 4 Cl). SDS degradation by the bacterium was optimum at initial ph 8.5, incubation temperature 35 degree C, and inoculum size 2% (v/v). Under the optimized conditions, almost 98% of initial SDS concentration (4000 mg/l) was degraded after 120 h of incubation. Gamma irradiation did not improve the biodegradation ability of this bacterial isolate.

  17. Histopathological and bacterial study of Persian sturgeon fry, Acipenser persicus (Borodin, 1897) exposed to copper sulfate and potassium permanganate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshtaghi, Batol; Khara, Hossein; Pazhan, Zabiyollah; Shenavar, Alireza

    2016-09-01

    Persian sturgeon frys were exposed to different concentrations of copper sulfate and potassium permanganate in order to the evaluation of their impacts on bacterial load of skin, gill and surrounding water and also the histopathological alternations of gill tissue. For this purpose, the sublethal doses were determined after a pre-test and then the experiment was done in 4 (for copper sulfate: 0.07, 0.14, 026 and 0.5 mg/l) and 5 (for potassium permanganate: 0.07, 0.14, 026, 0.5 and 1 mg/l) treatments with three replicates inside the glass aquaria. Also, one group without disinfecting drug was considered as control for each experiment. The microbial and histopathological investigations were done after 96 h exposure. According to our results, a range of histopathological alternations were observed in gills tissue including mucus coagulation and secretion, hyperplasia, lamellar necrosis, hyperplasia, lamellar adhesion, haemorrhage, thickening of secondary lamellae, hypertrophy of supporter cartilage, clubbing of gill lamellae and sliming of primary lamellae. The severity of these alternations increased with increasing of the doses of the copper sulfate and potassium permanganate. The bacterial load (CFU/g) of gill, skin and surrounding water was lower in 0.07 mg/l copper sulfate treatment and 1 mg/l potassium permanganate treatment (P permanganate have disinfecting effects on bacterial load of gill, skin and surrounding water, although this is along with some histopathological alternations. Also, it seems that the copper sulfate has higher disinfecting power than potassium permanganate.

  18. Trace methane oxidation and the methane dependency of sulfate reduction in anaerobic granular sludge

    KAUST Repository

    Meulepas, Roel J.W.

    2010-05-01

    This study investigates the oxidation of labeled methane (CH4) and the CH4 dependence of sulfate reduction in three types of anaerobic granular sludge. In all samples, 13C-labeled CH4 was anaerobically oxidized to 13C-labeled CO2, while net endogenous CH4 production was observed. Labeled-CH4 oxidation rates followed CH4 production rates, and the presence of sulfate hampered both labeled-CH4 oxidation and methanogenesis. Labeled-CH4 oxidation was therefore linked to methanogenesis. This process is referred to as trace CH4 oxidation and has been demonstrated in methanogenic pure cultures. This study shows that the ratio between labeled-CH4 oxidation and methanogenesis is positively affected by the CH4 partial pressure and that this ratio is in methanogenic granular sludge more than 40 times higher than that in pure cultures of methanogens. The CH4 partial pressure also positively affected sulfate reduction and negatively affected methanogenesis: a repression of methanogenesis at elevated CH4 partial pressures confers an advantage to sulfate reducers that compete with methanogens for common substrates, formed from endogenous material. The oxidation of labeled CH 4 and the CH4 dependence of sulfate reduction are thus not necessarily evidence of anaerobic oxidation of CH4 coupled to sulfate reduction. © 2010 Federation of European Microbiological Societies.

  19. Is intravesical instillation of hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate useful in preventing recurrent bacterial cystitis? A multicenter case control analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Giorgio Gugliotta; Gloria Calagna; Giorgio Adile; Salvatore Polito; Salvatore Saitta; Patrizia Speciale; Stefano Palomba; Antonino Perino; Roberta Granese; Biagio Adile

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in the female population and, over a lifetime, about half of women have at least one episode of UTI requiring antibiotic therapy. The aim of the current study was to compare two different strategies for preventing recurrent bacterial cystitis: intravesical instillation of hyaluronic acid (HA) plus chondroitin sulfate (CS), and antibiotic prophylaxis with sulfamethoxazole plus trimethoprim. Materials and methods: This was a retrospective...

  20. Methylmercury decomposition in sediments and bacterial cultures: Involvement of methanogens and sulfate reducers in oxidative demethylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oremland, R.S.; Culbertson, C.W.; Winfrey, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    The biogeochemical cycling of mercury has received considerable attention because of the toxicity of methylmercury, its bioaccumulation in biota, and its biomagnification in aquatic food chains. The formation of methylmercury is mediated primarily by microorganisms. Demethylation of monomethylmercury in freshwater and estuarine sediments and in bacterial cultures was investigated with 14 CH 3 HgI. Under anaerobiosis, results with inhibitors indicated partial involvement of both sulfate reducers and methanogens, the former dominated estuarine sediments, while both were active in freshwaters. Aerobes were the most significant demethylators in estuarine sediments, but were unimportant in freshwater sediments. Products of anaerobic demthylation were mainly 14 CO 2 as well as lesser amounts of 14 CH 4 . Acetogenic activity resulted in fixation of some 14 CO 2 produced from 14 CH 3 HgI into acetate. Aerobic demethylation in estuarine sediments produced only 14 CH 4 , while aerobic demethylation in freshwater sediments produced small amounts of both 14 CH 4 and 14 CO 2 . Two species of Desulfovibrio produced only traces of 14 CH 4 from 14 CH 3 HgI, while a culture of a methylotrophic methanogen formed traces of 14 CO 2 and 14 CH 4 when grown on trimethylamine in the presence of the 14 CH 3 HgI. These results indicate that both aerobes and anaerobes demethylate mercury in sediments, but that either group may dominate in a particular sediment type. Aerobic demethylation in the estuarine sediments appeared to proceed by the previously characterized organomercurial-lyase pathway, because methane was the sole product. This indicates the presence of an oxidative pathway, possibly one in which methylmercury serves as an analog of one-carbon substrates

  1. Trace methane oxidation and the methane dependency of sulfate reduction in anaerobic granular sludge

    KAUST Repository

    Meulepas, Roel J.W.; Jagersma, Christian G.; Zhang, Yu; Petrillo, Michele; Cai, Hengzhe; Buisman, Cees J.N.; Stams, Alfons J.M.; Lens, Piet N.L.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the oxidation of labeled methane (CH4) and the CH4 dependence of sulfate reduction in three types of anaerobic granular sludge. In all samples, 13C-labeled CH4 was anaerobically oxidized to 13C-labeled CO2, while net

  2. Characterization of the sulfate uptake and assimilation pathway from Xanthomonas citri - targets for bacterial growth inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tambascia, C.; Balan, A. [Laboratorio Nacional de Biociencias - LNBIO, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: Microorganisms require sulfur for growth and obtain it either for inorganic sulfate or organosulfur compounds. ATP-Binding Cassete (SulT family) or major facilitator superfamily-type (SulP) transporters are responsible for the sulfate transport into the cell. In Xanthomonas citri, the phytopathogenic bacterium that causes the canker citrus disease, there are no reports related to the importance of these transporters during in vitro or in vivo infection. We identified in X. citri genome all the genes that belong to the well-characterized cys regulon from Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium, which includes three ABC transporters and all the enzymes necessary for sulfate oxide reduction to sulfide and cysteine. Once these genes have been shown to be extremely important for bacteria growth and development in different environments, we chose the sbpcysWUA and cysDNCHIJG operons, which encodes the ABC inorganic sulfate ABC transporter and all the enzymes necessary for conversion of sulfate in cysteine, respectively. As a step for crystallization trials and resolution of their tridimensional structures, the referred genes were amplified and cloned into the cloning vector pGEM T-easy. In addition, using bioinformatics tools and molecular modeling we characterized all the protein functions as well as built tridimensional models of their structure for determination of the active sites. The importance of each protein is discussed aiming the discovery of a good target for development of inhibitors that could block the bacterium growth. (author)

  3. Characterization of the sulfate uptake and assimilation pathway from Xanthomonas citri - targets for bacterial growth inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tambascia, C.; Balan, A.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Microorganisms require sulfur for growth and obtain it either for inorganic sulfate or organosulfur compounds. ATP-Binding Cassete (SulT family) or major facilitator superfamily-type (SulP) transporters are responsible for the sulfate transport into the cell. In Xanthomonas citri, the phytopathogenic bacterium that causes the canker citrus disease, there are no reports related to the importance of these transporters during in vitro or in vivo infection. We identified in X. citri genome all the genes that belong to the well-characterized cys regulon from Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium, which includes three ABC transporters and all the enzymes necessary for sulfate oxide reduction to sulfide and cysteine. Once these genes have been shown to be extremely important for bacteria growth and development in different environments, we chose the sbpcysWUA and cysDNCHIJG operons, which encodes the ABC inorganic sulfate ABC transporter and all the enzymes necessary for conversion of sulfate in cysteine, respectively. As a step for crystallization trials and resolution of their tridimensional structures, the referred genes were amplified and cloned into the cloning vector pGEM T-easy. In addition, using bioinformatics tools and molecular modeling we characterized all the protein functions as well as built tridimensional models of their structure for determination of the active sites. The importance of each protein is discussed aiming the discovery of a good target for development of inhibitors that could block the bacterium growth. (author)

  4. Antibiotic-Loaded Synthetic Calcium Sulfate Beads for Prevention of Bacterial Colonization and Biofilm Formation in Periprosthetic Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlin, R. P.; Brayford, M. J.; Webb, J. S.; Cooper, J. J.; Aiken, S. S.

    2014-01-01

    Periprosthetic infection (PI) causes significant morbidity and mortality after fixation and joint arthroplasty and has been extensively linked to the formation of bacterial biofilms. Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), as a cement or as beads, is commonly used for antibiotic release to the site of infection but displays variable elution kinetics and also represents a potential nidus for infection, therefore requiring surgical removal once antibiotics have eluted. Absorbable cements have shown improved elution of a wider range of antibiotics and, crucially, complete biodegradation, but limited data exist as to their antimicrobial and antibiofilm efficacy. Synthetic calcium sulfate beads loaded with tobramycin, vancomycin, or vancomycin-tobramycin dual treatment (in a 1:0.24 [wt/wt] ratio) were assessed for their abilities to eradicate planktonic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Staphylococcus epidermidis relative to that of PMMA beads. The ability of the calcium sulfate beads to prevent biofilm formation over multiple days and to eradicate preformed biofilms was studied using a combination of viable cell counts, confocal microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy of the bead surface. Biofilm bacteria displayed a greater tolerance to the antibiotics than their planktonic counterparts. Antibiotic-loaded beads were able to kill planktonic cultures of 106 CFU/ml, prevent bacterial colonization, and significantly reduce biofilm formation over multiple days. However, established biofilms were harder to eradicate. These data further demonstrate the difficulty in clearing established biofilms; therefore, early preventive measures are key to reducing the risk of PI. Synthetic calcium sulfate loaded with antibiotics has the potential to reduce or eliminate biofilm formation on adjacent periprosthetic tissue and prosthesis material and, thus, to reduce the rates of periprosthetic infection. PMID:25313221

  5. Identification of the dominant sulfate-reducing bacterial partner of anaerobic methanotrophs of the ANME-2 clade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Lars; Holler, Thomas; Knittel, Katrin; Meyerdierks, Anke; Amann, Rudolf

    2010-08-01

    The anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) with sulfate as terminal electron acceptor is mediated by consortia of methanotrophic archaea (ANME) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Whereas three clades of ANME have been repeatedly studied with respect to phylogeny, key genes and genomic capabilities, little is known about their sulfate-reducing partner. In order to identify the partner of anaerobic methanotrophs of the ANME-2 clade, bacterial 16S rRNA gene libraries were constructed from cultures highly enriched for ANME-2a and ANME-2c in consortia with Deltaproteobacteria of the Desulfosarcina/Desulfococcus group (DSS). Phylogenetic analysis of those and publicly available sequences from AOM sites supported the hypothesis by Knittel and colleagues that the DSS partner belongs to the diverse SEEP-SRB1 cluster. Six subclusters of SEEP-SRB1, SEEP-SRB1a to SEEP-SRB1f, were proposed and specific oligonucleotide probes were designed. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization on samples from six different AOM sites, SEEP-SRB1a was identified as sulfate-reducing partner in up to 95% of total ANME-2 consortia. SEEP-SRB1a cells exhibited a rod-shaped, vibrioid, or coccoid morphology and were found to be associated with subgroups ANME-2a and ANME-2c. Moreover, SEEP-SRB1a was also detected in 8% to 23% of ANME-3 consortia in Haakon Mosby Mud Volcano sediments, previously described to be predominantly associated with SRB of the Desulfobulbus group. SEEP-SRB1a contributed to only 0.3% to 0.7% of all single cells in almost all samples indicating that these bacteria are highly adapted to a symbiotic relationship with ANME-2. © 2010 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Endosymbiont-dependent host reproduction maintains bacterial-fungal mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partida-Martinez, Laila P; Monajembashi, Shamci; Greulich, Karl-Otto; Hertweck, Christian

    2007-05-01

    Bacterial endosymbionts play essential roles for many organisms, and thus specialized mechanisms have evolved during evolution that guarantee the persistence of the symbiosis during or after host reproduction. The rice seedling blight fungus Rhizopus microsporus represents a unique example of a mutualistic life form in which a fungus harbors endobacteria (Burkholderia sp.) for the production of a phytotoxin. Here we report the unexpected observation that in the absence of endosymbionts, the host is not capable of vegetative reproduction. Formation of sporangia and spores is restored only upon reintroduction of endobacteria. To monitor this process, we succeeded in GFP labeling cultured endosymbionts. We also established a laserbeam transformation technique for the first controlled introduction of bacteria into fungi to observe their migration to the tips of the aseptate hyphae. The persistence of this fungal-bacterial mutualism through symbiont-dependent sporulation is intriguing from an evolutionary point of view and implies that the symbiont produces factors that are essential for the fungal life cycle. Reproduction of the host has become totally dependent on endofungal bacteria, which in return provide a highly potent toxin for defending the habitat and accessing nutrients from decaying plants. This scenario clearly highlights the significance for a controlled maintenance of this fungal-bacterial symbiotic relationship.

  7. Bacterial Contamination of Boar Semen and its Relationship to Sperm Quality Preserved in Commercial Extender Containing Gentamicin Sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gączarzewicz, D; Udała, J; Piasecka, M; Błaszczyk, B; Stankiewicz, T

    2016-09-01

    This study was designed to determine the degree and type of bacterial contamination in boar semen (79 ejaculates from Large White and Landrace boars) and its consequences for sperm quality during storage (27 extended semen samples, 16°C for five days) under practical conditions of artificial insemination (AI). The results revealed the presence of aerobic bacteria in 99% of the ejaculates (from 80 to 370 ×106 colony-forming units/mL). Most of the ejaculates contained two or three bacterial contaminants, while the Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Pseudomonas bacterial genera were most frequently isolated. Also detected were Enterobacter spp., Bacillus spp., Proteus spp., Escherichia coli, P. fluorescens, and P. aeruginosa. In general, the growth of certain bacterial types isolated prior to semen processing (Enterobacter spp., E. coli, P. fluorescens, and P. aeruginosa) was not discovered on different days of storage, but fluctuations (with a tendency towards increases) were found in the frequencies of Bacillus spp., Pseudomonas spp., and Staphylococcus spp. isolates up to the end of storage. Semen preserved for five days exhibited decreases in sperm motility and increases in the average number of total aerobic bacteria; this was associated with sperm agglutination, plasma membrane disruption, and acrosome damage. We inferred that, due to the different degrees and types of bacterial contaminants in the boar ejaculates, the inhibitory activity of some antimicrobial agents used in swine extenders (such as gentamicin sulfate) may be limited. Because such agents can contribute to the overgrowth of certain aerobic bacteria and a reduction in the quality of stored semen, procedures with high standards of hygiene and microbiological control should be used when processing boar semen.

  8. Is intravesical instillation of hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate useful in preventing recurrent bacterial cystitis? A multicenter case control analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugliotta, Giorgio; Calagna, Gloria; Adile, Giorgio; Polito, Salvatore; Saitta, Salvatore; Speciale, Patrizia; Palomba, Stefano; Perino, Antonino; Granese, Roberta; Adile, Biagio

    2015-10-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in the female population and, over a lifetime, about half of women have at least one episode of UTI requiring antibiotic therapy. The aim of the current study was to compare two different strategies for preventing recurrent bacterial cystitis: intravesical instillation of hyaluronic acid (HA) plus chondroitin sulfate (CS), and antibiotic prophylaxis with sulfamethoxazole plus trimethoprim. This was a retrospective review of two different cohorts of women affected by recurrent bacterial cystitis. Cases (experimental group) were women who received intravesical instillations of a sterile solution of high concentration of HA + CS in 50 mL water with calcium chloride every week during the 1(st) month and then once monthly for 4 months. The control group included women who received traditional therapy for recurrent cystitis based on daily antibiotic prophylaxis using sulfamethoxazole 200 mg plus trimethoprim 40 mg for 6 weeks. Ninety-eight and 76 patients were treated with experimental and control treatments, respectively. At 12 months after treatment, 69 and 109 UTIs were detected in the experimental and control groups, respectively. The proportion of patients free from UTIs was significantly higher in the experimental than in the control group (36.7% vs. 21.0%; p = 0.03). Experimental treatment was well tolerated and none of the patients stopped it. The intravesical instillation of HA + CS is more effective than long-term antibiotic prophylaxis for preventing recurrent bacterial cystitis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Effects of nitrate and sulfate on the performance and bacterial community structure of membrane-less single-chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yoonjoo; Kang, Hyemin; Chang, Sumin; Lee, Yun-Yeong; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2018-01-02

    Membrane-less, single-chamber, air-cathode, microbial fuel cells (ML-SC MFCs) have attracted attention as being suitable for wastewater treatment. In this study, the effects of nitrate and sulfate on the performance of ML-SC MFCs and their bacterial structures were evaluated. The maximum power density increased after nitrate addition from 8.6 mW·m -2 to 14.0 mW·m -2 , while it decreased after sulfate addition from 11.5 mW·m -2 to 7.7 mW·m -2 . The chemical oxygen demand removal efficiencies remained at more than 90% regardless of the nitrate or sulfate additions. The nitrate was removed completely (93.0%) in the ML-SC MFC, while the sulfate removal efficiency was relatively low (17.6%). Clostridium (23.1%), Petrimonas (20.0%), and unclassified Rhodocyclaceae (6.2%) were dominant on the anode before the addition of nitrate or sulfate. After the addition of nitrate, Clostridium was still the most dominant on the anode (23.6%), but Petrimonas significantly decreased (6.0%) and unclassified Rhodocyclaceae increased (17.1%). After the addition of sulfate, the amount of Clostridium almost doubled in the composition on the anode (43.2%), while Petrimonas decreased (5.5%). The bacterial community on the cathode was similar to that on the anode after the addition of nitrate. However, Desulfovibrio was remarkably dominant on the cathode (32.9%) after the addition of sulfate. These results promote a deeper understanding of the effects of nitrate or sulfate on the ML-SC MFCs' performance and their bacterial community.

  10. Gentamicin Sulfate PEG-PLGA/PLGA-H Nanoparticles: Screening Design and Antimicrobial Effect Evaluation toward Clinic Bacterial Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorati, Rossella; DeTrizio, Antonella; Spalla, Melissa; Migliavacca, Roberta; Pagani, Laura; Pisani, Silvia; Chiesa, Enrica; Modena, Tiziana; Genta, Ida

    2018-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a promising approach both for restoring or enhancing activity of old and conventional antimicrobial agents and for treating intracellular infections by providing intracellular targeting and sustained release of drug inside infected cells. The present paper introduces a formulation study of gentamicin loaded biodegradable nanoparticles (Nps). Solid-oil-in water technique was studied for gentamicin sulfate nanoencapsulation using uncapped Polylactide-co-glycolide (PLGA-H) and Polylactide-co-glycolide-co-Polyethylenglycol (PLGA-PEG) blends. Screening design was applied to optimize: drug payload, Nps size and size distribution, stability and resuspendability after freeze-drying. PLGA-PEG concentration resulted most significant factor influencing particles size and drug content (DC): 8 w/w% DC and 200 nm Nps were obtained. Stirring rate resulted most influencing factor for size distribution (PDI): 700 rpm permitted to obtain homogeneous Nps dispersion (PDI = 1). Further experimental parameters investigated, by 23 screening design, were: polymer blend composition (PLGA-PEG and PLGA-H), Polyvinylalcohol (PVA) and methanol concentrations into aqueous phase. Drug content was increased to 10.5 w/w%. Nanoparticle lyophilization was studied adding cryoprotectants, polyvinypirrolidone K17 and K32, and sodiumcarboxymetylcellulose. Freeze-drying protocol was optimized by a mixture design. A freeze-dried Nps powder free resuspendable with stable Nps size and payload, was developed. The powder was tested on clinic bacterial isolates demonstrating that after encapsulation, gentamicin sulfate kept its activity. PMID:29329209

  11. Bacterial Sulfate Reduction Above 100-Degrees-C in Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent Sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JØRGENSEN, BB; ISAKSEN, MF; JANNASCH, HW

    1992-01-01

    -reducing bacteria was done in hot deep-sea sediments at the hydrothermal vents of the Guaymas Basin tectonic spreading center in the Gulf of California. Radiotracer studies revealed that sulfate reduction can occur at temperatures up to 110-degrees-C, with an optimum rate at 103-degrees to 106-degrees......-C. This observation expands the upper temperature limit of this process in deep-ocean sediments by 20-degrees-C and indicates the existence of an unknown groUp of hyperthermophilic bacteria with a potential importance for the biogeochemistry of sulfur above 100-degrees-C....

  12. Effects of bacterially produced precipitates on the metabolism of sulfate reducing bacteria during the bio-treatment process of copper-containing wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A large volume of bacterially produced precipitates are generated during the bio-treatment of heavy metal wastewater.The composition of the bacterially produced precipitates and its effects on sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) in copper-containing waste stream were evaluated in this study.The elemental composition of the microbial precipitate was studied using electrodispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX),and it was found that the ratio of S:Cu was 1.12.Combining with the results of copper distribution in the SRB metabolism culture,which was analyzed by the sequential extraction procedure,copper in the precipitates was determined as covellite (CuS).The bacterially produced precipitates caused a decrease of the sulfate reduction rate,and the more precipitates were generated,the lower the sulfate reduction rate was.The particle sizes of bacterially generated covellite were ranging from 0.03 to 2 m by particles size distribution (PSD) analysis,which was smaller than that of the SRB cells.Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis showed that the microbial covellite was deposited on the surface of the cell.The effects of the microbial precipitate on SRB metabolism were found to be weakened by increasing the precipitation time and adding microbial polymeric substances in later experiments.These results provided direct evidence that the SRB activity was inhibited by the bacterially produced covellite,which enveloped the bacterium and thus affected the metabolism of SRB on mass transfer.

  13. The formation of insoluble Tc depends on bacterial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Uchida, Shigeo; Koiso, Hiroyuki

    2005-01-01

    The formation of insoluble Tc (>0.2 μm in size) in ponding water of paddy soil was investigated. The ponding water prepared by flooding with deionized water was collected at a one-week intervals during the 120 days of the experimental period. The collected sample was incubated with 3 kBq mL -1 TcO 4 - at 25degC for 14 days. The mean value of relative amounts of insolubilized Tc was less than 0.6% of total Tc. This result suggested that flooding with deionized water was not effective for the formation of insoluble Tc. When the ponding water sample was incubated with TcO 4 - under anaerobic conditions, Tc was scarcely insolubilized. On the other hand, a significant fraction of the Tc was insolubilized in the ponding water sample supplemented with nutrients that promote bacterial activity. Also, the amount of insoluble Tc increased with time. From these results, it was concluded that the formation of insoluble Tc in the ponding water depends on enhanced bacterial activity rather than just anaerobic conditions. (author)

  14. Histopathological and bacterial study of skin and gill of grass carp, Ceteopharyngodon idella, (Valenciennes 1844) exposed to copper sulfate and potassium permanganate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jooyandeh, Fatemeh; Sadeghpour, Ali; Khara, Hossein; Pajand, Zabihollah

    2016-09-01

    The gill histology and bacterial load of skin of the grass carp juveniles were investigated in relation to various concentrations of copper sulfate and potassium permanganate. For this purpose, the sublethal doses were determined after a pre-test and then the experiment was done in five treatments (for copper sulfate: 1, 1.94, 3.71, 7.07 and 15 mg/l and for potassium permanganate: 0.25, 0.52, 1.91, 2.27 and 5 mg/l) with three replicates inside the glass aquaria. Also, one group without disinfecting product was considered as control for each experiment. The microbial and histopathological investigations were done after 96 h exposure. According to results, the lowest bacterial load (CFU/g) of skin was observed in 15 mg/l copper sulfate treatment and 0.25 mg/l potassium permanganate treatment (P permanganate. In this regard, the highest histological damages were observed in 15 mg/l copper sulfate and 5 mg/l potassium permanganate respectively. Our results showed that low dosage of potassium permanganate has best effect on reducing of bacterial load of skin with lowest adverse effects on gill tissue.

  15. Biodegradation of sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES) by two different bacterial consortia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khleifat, Khaled M

    2006-11-01

    Two bacterial consortia capable of degrading SLES were isolated from a wastewater treatment plant. The two consortia consisted of three members, Acinetobacter calcoacetiacus and Klebsiella oxytoca in one co-culture (A-K) and Serratia odorifera in the second co-culture (S-A), which contains Acinetobacter calcoacetiacus as well. In all experiments, cells were grown on SLES (1000-7000 ppm) containing the M9 minimal medium as sole carbon source. The co-culture A-K demonstrated a higher growth rate (0.26 h(-1)) and significant greater viability than that of the co-culture S-A (0.21 h(-1)). Glucose, sucrose, maltose, mannitol, and succinic acid as carbon sources produced the same degradation rate (approximately 100 ppm/h) and enhanced the SLES degradation rate by 3-fold upon the control (without an added carbon source). In the case of the co-culture S-A, the situation was different; all the carbon sources being tested except maltose caused a repression in the degradation ability in a range between 25-100%. Maltose causes an enhancement by almost fivefold, compared with the positive control.

  16. Bacterial Growth Phase Influences Methylmercury Production by the Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Abir [ORNL; Brooks, Scott C [ORNL; Miller, Carrie L [ORNL; Mosher, Jennifer J [ORNL; Yin, Xiangping Lisa [ORNL; Drake, Meghan M [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The effect of bacterial growth phase is an aspect of mercury (Hg) methylation that previous studies have not investigated in detail. Here we consider the effect of growth phase (mid-log, late-log and late stationary phase) on Hg methylation by the known methylator Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132. We tested the addition of Hg alone (chloride-complex), Hg with Suwannee River natural organic matter (SRNOM) (unequilibrated), and Hg equilibrated with SRNOM on monomethylmercury (MMHg) production by ND132 over a growth curve in pyruvate-fumarate media. This NOM did not affect MMHg production even under very low Hg:SRNOM ratios, where Hg binding is predicted to be dominated by high energy sites. Adding Hg or Hg-NOM to growing cultures 24h before sampling (late addition) resulted in {approx}2x greater net fraction of Hg methylated than for comparably aged cultures exposed to Hg from the initial culture inoculation (early addition). Mid- and late-log phase cultures produced similar amounts of MMHg, but late stationary phase cultures (both under early and late Hg addition conditions) produced up to {approx}3x more MMHg, indicating the potential importance of growth phase in studies of MMHg production.

  17. Bacterial Growth Phase Influences Methylmercury Production by the Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Abir [ORNL; Brooks, Scott C [ORNL; Miller, Carrie L [ORNL; Mosher, Jennifer J [ORNL; Yin, Xiangping Lisa [ORNL; Drake, Meghan M [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The effect of bacterial growth phase is an aspect of mercury (Hg) methylation that previous studies have not investigated in detail. Here we consider the effect of growth phase (mid-log, late-log and late stationary phase) on Hg methylation by the known methylator Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132. We tested the addition of Hg alone (chloride-complex), Hg with Suwannee River natural organic matter (SRNOM) (unequilibrated), and Hg equilibrated with SRNOM on monomethylmercury (MMHg) production by ND132 over a growth curve in pyruvate fumarate media. This NOM did not affect MMHg production even under very low Hg: SRNOM ratios, where Hg binding is predicted to be dominated by high energy sites. Adding Hg or Hg NOM to growing cultures 24 h before sampling (late addition) resulted in ~2 greater net fraction of Hg methylated than for comparably aged cultures exposed to Hg from the initial culture inoculation (early addition). Mid-and late-log phase cultures produced similar amounts of MMHg, but late stationary phase cultures (both under early and late Hg addition conditions) produced up to ~3 more MMHg, indicating the potential importance of growth phase in studies of MMHg production.

  18. Species and Scale Dependence of Bacterial Motion Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sund, N. L.; Yang, X.; Parashar, R.; Plymale, A.; Hu, D.; Kelly, R.; Scheibe, T. D.

    2017-12-01

    Many metal reducing bacteria are motile with their motion characteristics described by run-and-tumble behavior exhibiting series of flights (jumps) and waiting (residence) time spanning a wide range of values. Accurate models of motility allow for improved design and evaluation of in-situ bioremediation in the subsurface. While many bioremediation models neglect the motion of the bacteria, others treat motility using an advection dispersion equation, which assumes that the motion of the bacteria is Brownian.The assumption of Brownian motion to describe motility has enormous implications on predictive capabilities of bioremediation models, yet experimental evidence of this assumption is mixed [1][2][3]. We hypothesize that this is due to the species and scale dependence of the motion dynamics. We test our hypothesis by analyzing videos of motile bacteria of five different species in open domains. Trajectories of individual cells ranging from several seconds to few minutes in duration are extracted in neutral conditions (in the absence of any chemical gradient). The density of the bacteria is kept low so that the interaction between the bacteria is minimal. Preliminary results show a transition from Fickian (Brownian) to non-Fickian behavior for one species of bacteria (Pelosinus) and persistent Fickian behavior of another species (Geobacter).Figure: Video frames of motile bacteria with the last 10 seconds of their trajectories drawn in red. (left) Pelosinus and (right) Geobacter.[1] Ariel, Gil, et al. "Swarming bacteria migrate by Lévy Walk." Nature Communications 6 (2015).[2] Saragosti, Jonathan, Pascal Silberzan, and Axel Buguin. "Modeling E. coli tumbles by rotational diffusion. Implications for chemotaxis." PloS one 7.4 (2012): e35412.[3] Wu, Mingming, et al. "Collective bacterial dynamics revealed using a three-dimensional population-scale defocused particle tracking technique." Applied and Environmental Microbiology 72.7 (2006): 4987-4994.

  19. Evidence of sulfate-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation... Wolfe & Wilkin data table vers 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data file (.csv) including data plotted in manuscript figures: methane and sulfate concentrations, and stable isotope data for carbon, hydrogen, sulfur, and oxygen....

  20. Observations of linear dependence between sulfate and nitrate in atmospheric particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lingdong; Yang, Yiwei; Zhang, Shuanqin; Zhao, Xi; Du, Huanhuan; Fu, Hongbo; Zhang, Shicheng; Cheng, Tiantao; Yang, Xin; Chen, Jianmin; Wu, Dui; Shen, Jiandong; Hong, Shengmao; Jiao, Li

    2014-01-01

    Hourly measurements of water-soluble inorganic ionic species in ambient atmospheric particles were conducted at Shanghai, Hangzhou, and Guangzhou sampling sites in China during the period of 2009-2011. The relation between sulfate and nitrate in particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) was examined based on these measurements. Results showed that the mass fraction of sulfate was strongly negatively correlated with that of nitrate in atmospheric particles on most of the sampling days, especially when sulfate and nitrate made up the vast majority of the total soluble anions and cations (Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+) made a small contribution to the total water-soluble ions, revealing that the formation mechanisms of sulfate and nitrate in the atmosphere are highly correlated, and there exists a significant negative correlation trend between sulfate and nitrate mass fractions in the atmospheric particles. We found that local meteorological conditions presented opposite influences on the mass fractions of sulfate and nitrate. Further analysis indicated that the two mass fractions were modulated by the neutralizing level of atmospheric aerosols, and the negative correlation could be found in acidic atmospheric particles. Strong negative correlation was usually observed on clear days, hazy days, foggy days, and respirable particulate air pollution days, whereas poor negative correlation was often observed during cloud, rain, snow, dust storm, and suspended dust events. The results can help to better understand the formation mechanisms of atmospheric sulfate and nitrate during air pollution episodes and to better explain field results of atmospheric chemistry concerning sulfate and nitrate.

  1. Modeling of scale-dependent bacterial growth by chemical kinetics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Haydee; Sánchez, Joaquín; Cruz, José-Manuel; Ayala, Guadalupe; Rivera, Marco; Buhse, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    We applied the so-called chemical kinetics approach to complex bacterial growth patterns that were dependent on the liquid-surface-area-to-volume ratio (SA/V) of the bacterial cultures. The kinetic modeling was based on current experimental knowledge in terms of autocatalytic bacterial growth, its inhibition by the metabolite CO2, and the relief of inhibition through the physical escape of the inhibitor. The model quantitatively reproduces kinetic data of SA/V-dependent bacterial growth and can discriminate between differences in the growth dynamics of enteropathogenic E. coli, E. coli JM83, and Salmonella typhimurium on one hand and Vibrio cholerae on the other hand. Furthermore, the data fitting procedures allowed predictions about the velocities of the involved key processes and the potential behavior in an open-flow bacterial chemostat, revealing an oscillatory approach to the stationary states.

  2. Modeling of Scale-Dependent Bacterial Growth by Chemical Kinetics Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haydee Martínez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We applied the so-called chemical kinetics approach to complex bacterial growth patterns that were dependent on the liquid-surface-area-to-volume ratio (SA/V of the bacterial cultures. The kinetic modeling was based on current experimental knowledge in terms of autocatalytic bacterial growth, its inhibition by the metabolite CO2, and the relief of inhibition through the physical escape of the inhibitor. The model quantitatively reproduces kinetic data of SA/V-dependent bacterial growth and can discriminate between differences in the growth dynamics of enteropathogenic E. coli, E. coli  JM83, and Salmonella typhimurium on one hand and Vibrio cholerae on the other hand. Furthermore, the data fitting procedures allowed predictions about the velocities of the involved key processes and the potential behavior in an open-flow bacterial chemostat, revealing an oscillatory approach to the stationary states.

  3. Sulfated polysaccharide, curdlan sulfate, efficiently prevents entry/fusion and restricts antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue virus infection in vitro: a possible candidate for clinical application.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Ichiyama

    Full Text Available Curdlan sulfate (CRDS, a sulfated 1→3-β-D glucan, previously shown to be a potent HIV entry inhibitor, is characterized in this study as a potent inhibitor of the Dengue virus (DENV. CRDS was identified by in silico blind docking studies to exhibit binding potential to the envelope (E protein of the DENV. CRDS was shown to inhibit the DENV replication very efficiently in different cells in vitro. Minimal effective concentration of CRDS was as low as 0.1 µg/mL in LLC-MK2 cells, and toxicity was observed only at concentrations over 10 mg/mL. CRDS can also inhibit DENV-1, 3, and 4 efficiently. CRDS did not inhibit the replication of DENV subgenomic replicon. Time of addition experiments demonstrated that the compound not only inhibited viral infection at the host cell binding step, but also at an early post-attachment step of entry (membrane fusion. The direct binding of CRDS to DENV was suggested by an evident reduction in the viral titers after interaction of the virus with CRDS following an ultrafiltration device separation, as well as after virus adsorption to an alkyl CRDS-coated membrane filter. The electron microscopic features also showed that CRDS interacted directly with the viral envelope, and caused changes to the viral surface. CRDS also potently inhibited DENV infection in DC-SIGN expressing cells as well as the antibody-dependent enhancement of DENV-2 infection. Based on these data, a probable binding model of CRDS to DENV E protein was constructed by a flexible receptor and ligand docking study. The binding site of CRDS was predicted to be at the interface between domains II and III of E protein dimer, which is unique to this compound, and is apparently different from the β-OG binding site. Since CRDS has already been tested in humans without serious side effects, its clinical application can be considered.

  4. Chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate sulfatases from mammals and bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shumin; Sugahara, Kazuyuki; Li, Fuchuan

    2016-12-01

    Sulfatases that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of the sulfate groups on chondroitin sulfate (CS)/dermatan sulfate (DS) poly- and oligosaccharides belong to the formylglycine-dependent family of sulfatases and have been widely found in various mammalian and bacterial organisms. However, only a few types of CS/DS sulfatase have been identified so far. Recently, several novel CS/DS sulfatases have been cloned and characterized. Advanced studies have provided significant insight into the biological function and mechanism of action of CS/DS sulfatases. Moreover, further studies will provide powerful tools for structural and functional studies of CS/DS as well as related applications. This article reviews the recent progress in CS/DS sulfatase research and is expected to initiate further research in this field.

  5. Bacterial communities in haloalkaliphilic sulfate-reducing bioreactors under different electron donors revealed by 16S rRNA MiSeq sequencing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Jiemin [National Key Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 353, Beijing 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhou, Xuemei; Li, Yuguang [101 Institute, Ministry of Civil Affairs, Beijing 100070 (China); Xing, Jianmin, E-mail: jmxing@ipe.ac.cn [National Key Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 353, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Bacterial communities of haloalkaliphilic bioreactors were investigated. • MiSeq was first used in analysis of communities of haloalkaliphilic bioreactors. • Electron donors had significant effect on bacterial communities. - Abstract: Biological technology used to treat flue gas is useful to replace conventional treatment, but there is sulfide inhibition. However, no sulfide toxicity effect was observed in haloalkaliphilic bioreactors. The performance of the ethanol-fed bioreactor was better than that of lactate-, glucose-, and formate-fed bioreactor, respectively. To support this result strongly, Illumina MiSeq paired-end sequencing of 16S rRNA gene was applied to investigate the bacterial communities. A total of 389,971 effective sequences were obtained and all of them were assigned to 10,220 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at a 97% similarity. Bacterial communities in the glucose-fed bioreactor showed the greatest richness and evenness. The highest relative abundance of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) was found in the ethanol-fed bioreactor, which can explain why the performance of the ethanol-fed bioreactor was the best. Different types of SRB, sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, and sulfur-reducing bacteria were detected, indicating that sulfur may be cycled among these microorganisms. Because high-throughput 16S rRNA gene paired-end sequencing has improved resolution of bacterial community analysis, many rare microorganisms were detected, such as Halanaerobium, Halothiobacillus, Desulfonatronum, Syntrophobacter, and Fusibacter. 16S rRNA gene sequencing of these bacteria would provide more functional and phylogenetic information about the bacterial communities.

  6. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans undergo differential expression alterations in right sided colorectal cancer, depending on their metastatic character

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández-Vega, Iván; García-Suárez, Olivia; García, Beatriz; Crespo, Ainara; Astudillo, Aurora; Quirós, Luis M.

    2015-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are complex molecules involved in the growth, invasion and metastatic properties of cancerous cells. This study analyses the alterations in the expression patterns of these molecules in right sided colorectal cancer (CRC), both metastatic and non-metastatic. Twenty right sided CRCs were studied. A transcriptomic approach was used, employing qPCR to analyze both the expression of the enzymes involved in heparan sulfate (HS) chains biosynthesis, as well as the proteoglycan core proteins. Since some of these proteoglycans can also carry chondroitin sulfate (CS) chains, we include the study of the genes involved in the biosynthesis of these glycosaminoglycans. Immunohistochemical techniques were also used to analyze tissue expression of particular genes showing significant expression differences, of potential interest. Changes in proteoglycan core proteins differ depending on their location; those located intracellularly or in the extracellular matrix show very similar alteration patterns, while those located on the cell surface vary greatly depending on the nature of the tumor: glypicans 1, 3, 6 and betaglycan are affected in the non-metastatic tumors, whereas in the metastatic, only glypican-1 and syndecan-1 are modified, the latter showing opposing alterations in levels of RNA and of protein, suggesting post-transcriptional regulation in these tumors. Furthermore, in non-metastatic tumors, polymerization of glycosaminoglycan chains is modified, particularly affecting the synthesis of the tetrasaccharide linker and the initiation and elongation of CS chains, HS chains being less affected. Regarding the enzymes responsible for the modificaton of the HS chains, alterations were only found in non-metastatic tumors, affecting N-sulfation and the isoforms HS6ST1, HS3ST3B and HS3ST5. In contrast, synthesis of the CS chains suggests changes in epimerization and sulfation of the C4 and C2 in both types of tumor. Right sided CRCs show

  7. Growth-rate-dependent dynamics of a bacterial genetic oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osella, Matteo; Lagomarsino, Marco Cosentino

    2013-01-01

    Gene networks exhibiting oscillatory dynamics are widespread in biology. The minimal regulatory designs giving rise to oscillations have been implemented synthetically and studied by mathematical modeling. However, most of the available analyses generally neglect the coupling of regulatory circuits with the cellular “chassis” in which the circuits are embedded. For example, the intracellular macromolecular composition of fast-growing bacteria changes with growth rate. As a consequence, important parameters of gene expression, such as ribosome concentration or cell volume, are growth-rate dependent, ultimately coupling the dynamics of genetic circuits with cell physiology. This work addresses the effects of growth rate on the dynamics of a paradigmatic example of genetic oscillator, the repressilator. Making use of empirical growth-rate dependencies of parameters in bacteria, we show that the repressilator dynamics can switch between oscillations and convergence to a fixed point depending on the cellular state of growth, and thus on the nutrients it is fed. The physical support of the circuit (type of plasmid or gene positions on the chromosome) also plays an important role in determining the oscillation stability and the growth-rate dependence of period and amplitude. This analysis has potential application in the field of synthetic biology, and suggests that the coupling between endogenous genetic oscillators and cell physiology can have substantial consequences for their functionality.

  8. Effects of altered groundwater chemistry upon the pH-dependency and magnitude of bacterial attachment during transport within an organically contaminated sandy aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Ronald W.; Metge, David W.; Barber, Larry B.; Aiken, George R.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of a dilute (ionic strength = 5 ?? 10-3 M) plume of treated sewage, with elevated levels (3.9 mg/L) of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), upon the pH-dependency and magnitude of bacterial transport through an iron-laden, quartz sand aquifer (Cape Cod, MA) were evaluated using sets of replicate, static minicolumns. Compared with uncontaminated groundwater, the plume chemistry diminished bacterial attachment under mildly acidic (pH 5.0-6.5) in-situ conditions, in spite of the 5-fold increase in ionic strength and substantively enhanced attachment under more alkaline conditions. The effects of the hydrophobic neutral and total fractions of the plume DOC; modest concentrations of fulvic and humic acids (1.5 mg/L); linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS) (25 mg/L); Imbentin (200 ??g/L), a model nonionic surfactant; sulfate (28 mg/L); and calcium (20 mg/L) varied sharply in response to relatively small changes in pH, although the plume constituents collectively decreased the pH-dependency of bacterial attachment. LAS and other hydrophobic neutrals (collectively representing only ???3% of the plume DOC) had a disproportionately large effect upon bacterial attachment, as did the elevated concentrations of sulfate within the plume. The findings further suggest that the roles of organic plume constituents in transport or bacteria through acidic aquifer sediments can be very different than would be predicted from column studies performed at circumneutral pH and that the inorganic constituents within the plume cannot be ignored.

  9. Context-dependent competition in a model gut bacterial community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J de Muinck

    Full Text Available Understanding the ecological processes that generate complex community structures may provide insight into the establishment and maintenance of a normal microbial community in the human gastrointestinal tract, yet very little is known about how biotic interactions influence community dynamics in this system. Here, we use natural strains of Escherichia coli and a simplified model microbiota to demonstrate that the colonization process on the strain level can be context dependent, in the sense that the outcome of intra-specific competition may be determined by the composition of the background community. These results are consistent with previous models for competition between organisms where one competitor has adapted to low resource environments whereas the other is optimized for rapid reproduction when resources are abundant. The genomic profiles of E. coli strains representing these differing ecological strategies provide clues for deciphering the genetic underpinnings of niche adaptation within a single species. Our findings extend the role of ecological theory in understanding microbial systems and the conceptual toolbox for describing microbial community dynamics. There are few, if any, concrete examples of context-dependent competition on a single trophic level. However, this phenomenon can have potentially dramatic effects on which bacteria will successfully establish and persist in the gastrointestinal system, and the principle should be equally applicable to other microbial ecosystems.

  10. Growth activity in human septal cartilage: age-dependent incorporation of labeled sulfate in different anatomic locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetter, U.; Pirsig, W.; Heinze, E.

    1983-01-01

    Growth activity in different areas of human septal cartilage was measured by the in vitro incorporation of 35 S-labeled NaSO 4 into chondroitin sulfate. Septal cartilage without perichondrium was obtained during rhinoplasty from 36 patients aged 6 to 35 years. It could be shown that the anterior free end of the septum displays high growth activity in all age groups. The supra-premaxillary area displayed its highest growth activity during prepuberty, showing thereafter a continuous decline during puberty and adulthood. A similar age-dependent pattern in growth activity was found in the caudal prolongation of the septal cartilage. No age-dependent variations could be detected in the posterior area of the septal cartilage

  11. Oxygen and sulfur isotope systematics of sulfate produced during abiotic and bacterial oxidation of sphalerite and elemental sulfur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balci, N.; Mayer, B.; Shanks, Wayne C.; Mandernack, K.W.

    2012-01-01

    Studies of metal sulfide oxidation in acid mine drainage (AMD) systems have primarily focused on pyrite oxidation, although acid soluble sulfides (e.g., ZnS) are predominantly responsible for the release of toxic metals. We conducted a series of biological and abiotic laboratory oxidation experiments with pure and Fe-bearing sphalerite (ZnS & Zn 0.88Fe 0.12S), respectively, in order to better understand the effects of sulfide mineralogy and associated biogeochemical controls of oxidation on the resultant ?? 34S and ?? 18O values of the sulfate produced. The minerals were incubated in the presence and absence of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans at an initial solution pH of 3 and with water of varying ?? 18O values to determine the relative contributions of H 2O-derived and O 2-derived oxygen in the newly formed sulfate. Experiments were conducted under aerobic and anaerobic conditions using O 2 and Fe(III) aq as the oxidants, respectively. Aerobic incubations with A. ferrooxidans, and S o as the sole energy source were also conducted. The ??34SSO4 values from both the biological and abiotic oxidation of ZnS and ZnS Fe by Fe(III) aq produced sulfur isotope fractionations (??34SSO4-ZnS) of up to -2.6???, suggesting the accumulation of sulfur intermediates during incomplete oxidation of the sulfide. No significant sulfur isotope fractionation was observed from any of the aerobic experiments. Negative sulfur isotope enrichment factors (??34SSO4-ZnS) in AMD systems could reflect anaerobic, rather than aerobic pathways of oxidation. During the biological and abiotic oxidation of ZnS and ZnS Fe by Fe(III) aq all of the sulfate oxygen was derived from water, with measured ?? 18OSO 4-H 2O values of 8.2??0.2??? and 7.5??0.1???, respectively. Also, during the aerobic oxidation of ZnS Fe and S o by A. ferrooxidans, all of the sulfate oxygen was derived from water with similar measured ?? 18OSO 4-H 2O values of 8.1??0.1??? and 8.3??0.3???, respectively. During biological oxidation

  12. Mercury mobilization and speciation linked to bacterial iron oxide and sulfate reduction: A column study to mimic reactive transfer in an anoxic aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellal, Jennifer; Guédron, Stéphane; Huguet, Lucie; Schäfer, Jörg; Laperche, Valérie; Joulian, Catherine; Lanceleur, Laurent; Burnol, André; Ghestem, Jean-Philippe; Garrido, Francis; Battaglia-Brunet, Fabienne

    2015-09-01

    Mercury (Hg) mobility and speciation in subsurface aquifers is directly linked to its surrounding geochemical and microbial environment. The role of bacteria on Hg speciation (i.e., methylation, demethylation and reduction) is well documented, however little data is available on their impact on Hg mobility. The aim of this study was to test if (i) Hg mobility is due to either direct iron oxide reduction by iron reducing bacteria (IRB) or indirect iron reduction by sulfide produced by sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB), and (ii) to investigate its subsequent fate and speciation. Experiments were carried out in an original column setup combining geochemical and microbiological approaches that mimic an aquifer including an interface of iron-rich and iron depleted zones. Two identical glass columns containing iron oxides spiked with Hg(II) were submitted to (i) direct iron reduction by IRB and (ii) to indirect iron reduction by sulfides produced by SRB. Results show that in both columns Hg was leached and methylated during the height of bacterial activity. In the column where IRB are dominant, Hg methylation and leaching from the column was directly correlated to bacterial iron reduction (i.e., Fe(II) release). In opposition, when SRB are dominant, produced sulfide induced indirect iron oxide reduction and rapid adsorption of leached Hg (or produced methylmercury) on neoformed iron sulfides (e.g., Mackinawite) or its precipitation as HgS. At the end of the SRB column experiment, when iron-oxide reduction was complete, filtered Hg and Fe concentrations increased at the outlet suggesting a leaching of Hg bound to FeS colloids that may be a dominant mechanism of Hg transport in aquifer environments. These experimental results highlight different biogeochemical mechanisms that can occur in stratified sub-surface aquifers where bacterial activities play a major role on Hg mobility and changes in speciation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. An unusual dependence of human herpesvirus-8 glycoproteins-induced cell-to-cell fusion on heparan sulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, Vaibhav [Department of Ophthalmology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Department of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Osteopathic Medicine of the Pacific and College of Optometry, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA 91766 (United States); Darmani, Nissar A.; Thrush, Gerald R. [Department of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Osteopathic Medicine of the Pacific and College of Optometry, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA 91766 (United States); Shukla, Deepak, E-mail: dshukla@uic.edu [Department of Ophthalmology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States)

    2009-12-18

    Human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) is known to interact with cell surface heparan sulfate (HS) for entry into a target cell. Here we investigated the role of HS during HHV-8 glycoproteins-induced cell fusion. Interestingly, the observed fusion demonstrated an unusual dependence on HS as evident from following lines of evidence: (1) a significant reduction in cell-to-cell fusion occurred when target cells were treated with heparinase; (2) in a competition assay, when the effector cells expressing HHV-8 glycoproteins were challenged with soluble HS, cell-to-cell fusion was reduced; and, (3) co-expression of HHV-8 glycoproteins gH-gL on target cells resulted in inhibition of cell surface HS expression. Taken together, our results indicate that cell surface HS can play an additional role during HHV-8 pathogenesis.

  14. An unusual dependence of human herpesvirus-8 Glycoproteins-induced cell-to-cell fusion on heparan sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Vaibhav; Darmani, Nissar A.; Thrush, Gerald R.; Shukla, Deepak

    2009-01-01

    Human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8) is known to interact with cell surface heparan sulfate (HS) for entry into a target cell. Here we investigated the role of HS during HHV-8 glycoproteins induced cell fusion. Interestingly, the observed fusion demonstrated an unusual dependence on HS as evident from following lines of evidence: 1) a significant reduction in cell-to-cell fusion occurred when target cells were treated with heparinase; 2) in a competition assay, when the effector cells expressing HHV-8 glycoproteins were challenged with soluble HS, cell-to-cell fusion was reduced; and, 3) coexpression of HHV-8 glycoproteins gH-gL on target cells resulted in inhibition of cell surface HS expression. Taken together, our results indicate that cell surface HS can play an additional role during HHV-8 pathogenesis. PMID:19747451

  15. An unusual dependence of human herpesvirus-8 glycoproteins-induced cell-to-cell fusion on heparan sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, Vaibhav; Darmani, Nissar A.; Thrush, Gerald R.; Shukla, Deepak

    2009-01-01

    Human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) is known to interact with cell surface heparan sulfate (HS) for entry into a target cell. Here we investigated the role of HS during HHV-8 glycoproteins-induced cell fusion. Interestingly, the observed fusion demonstrated an unusual dependence on HS as evident from following lines of evidence: (1) a significant reduction in cell-to-cell fusion occurred when target cells were treated with heparinase; (2) in a competition assay, when the effector cells expressing HHV-8 glycoproteins were challenged with soluble HS, cell-to-cell fusion was reduced; and, (3) co-expression of HHV-8 glycoproteins gH-gL on target cells resulted in inhibition of cell surface HS expression. Taken together, our results indicate that cell surface HS can play an additional role during HHV-8 pathogenesis.

  16. Temperature-Dependent Alkyl Glycerol Ether Lipid Composition of Mesophilic and Thermophilic Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnauld Vinçon-Laugier

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of non-isoprenoid alkyl glycerol ether lipids in Bacteria and natural environments is increasingly being reported and the specificity and diagenetic stability of these lipids make them powerful biomarkers for biogeochemical and environmental studies. Yet the environmental controls on the biosynthesis of these peculiar membrane lipids remain poorly documented. Here, the lipid content of two mesophilic (Desulfatibacillum aliphaticivorans and Desulfatibacillum alkenivorans and one thermophilic (Thermodesulfobacterium commune sulfate-reducing bacteria—whose membranes are mostly composed of ether lipids—was investigated as a function of growth temperature (20–40°C and 54–84°C, respectively. For all strains, the cellular lipid content was lower at sub- or supra-optimal growth temperature, but the relative proportions of dialkyl glycerols, monoalkyl glycerols and fatty acids remained remarkably stable whatever the growth temperature. Rather than changing the proportions of the different lipid classes, the three strains responded to temperature changes by modifying the average structural composition of the alkyl and acyl chains constitutive of their membrane lipids. Major adaptive mechanisms concerned modifications of the level of branching and of the proportions of the different methyl branched lipids. Specifically, an increase in temperature induced mesophilic strains to produce less dimethyl branched dialkyl glycerols and 10-methyl branched lipids relative to linear structures, and the thermophilic strain to decrease the proportion of anteiso relative to iso methyl branched compounds. These modifications were in agreement with a regulation of the membrane fluidity. In one mesophilic and the thermophilic strains, a modification of the growth temperature further induced changes in the relative proportions of sn-2 vs sn-1 monoalkyl glycerols, suggesting an unprecedented mechanism of homeoviscous adaptation in Bacteria. Strong

  17. Effect of contaminant concentration on in situ bacterial sulfate reduction and methanogenesis in phenol-contaminated groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, Kieran M.; Bottrell, Simon H.; Thornton, Steven F.; Peel, Kate E.; Spence, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    The availability of dissolved O 2 can limit biodegradation of organic compounds in aquifers. Where O 2 is depleted, biodegradation proceeds via anaerobic processes, including NO 3 -, Mn(IV)-, Fe(III)- and SO 4 -reduction and fermentation/methanogenesis. The environmental controls on these anaerobic processes must be understood to support implementation of management strategies such as monitored natural attenuation (MNA). In this study stable isotope analysis is used to show that the relative significance of two key anaerobic biodegradation processes (bacterial SO 4 reduction (BSR) and methanogenesis) in a phenol-contaminated sandstone aquifer is sensitive to spatial and temporal changes in total dissolved phenols concentration (TPC) (= phenol + cresols + dimethylphenols) over a 5-a period. In general, 34 SO 4 -enrichment (characteristic of bacterial SO 4 reduction) is restricted spatially to locations where TPC −1 . In contrast, 13 C-depleted CH 4 and 13 C-enriched CO 2 isotope compositions (characteristic of methanogenesis) were measured at TPC up to 8000 mg L −1 . This is consistent with previous studies that demonstrate suppression of BSR at TPC of >500 mg L −1 , and suggests that methanogenic microorganisms may have a higher tolerance for TPC in this contaminant plume. It is concluded that isotopic enrichment trends can be used to identify conditions under which in situ biodegradation may be limited by the properties of the biodegradation substrate (in this case TPC). Such data may be used to deduce the performance of MNA for contaminated groundwater in similar settings.

  18. Influence of the enzyme dissimilatory sulfite reductase on stable isotope fractionation during sulfate reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangalo, Muna; Einsiedl, Florian; Meckenstock, Rainer U.; Stichler, Willibald

    2008-03-01

    The stable isotopes of sulfate are often used as a tool to assess bacterial sulfate reduction on the macro scale. However, the mechanisms of stable isotope fractionation of sulfur and oxygen at the enzymatic level are not yet fully understood. In batch experiments with water enriched in 18O we investigated the effect of different nitrite concentrations on sulfur isotope fractionation by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans. With increasing nitrite concentrations, we found sulfur isotope enrichment factors ranging from -11.2 ± 1.8‰ to -22.5 ± 3.2‰. Furthermore, the δ18O values in the remaining sulfate increased from approximately 50-120‰ when 18O-enriched water was supplied. Since 18O-exchange with ambient water does not take place in sulfate, but rather in intermediates of the sulfate reduction pathway (e.g. SO32-), we suggest that nitrite affects the steady-state concentration and the extent of reoxidation of the metabolic intermediate sulfite to sulfate during sulfate reduction. Given that nitrite is known to inhibit the production of the enzyme dissimilatory sulfite reductase, our results suggest that the activity of the dissimilatory sulfite reductase regulates the kinetic isotope fractionation of sulfur and oxygen during bacterial sulfate reduction. Our novel results also imply that isotope fractionation during bacterial sulfate reduction strongly depends on the cell internal enzymatic regulation rather than on the physico-chemical features of the individual enzymes.

  19. Culture dependent and independent analysis of bacterial communities associated with commercial salad leaf vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Plants harbor a diverse bacterial community, both as epiphytes on the plant surface and as endophytes within plant tissue. While some plant-associated bacteria act as plant pathogens or promote plant growth, others may be human pathogens. The aim of the current study was to determine the bacterial community composition of organic and conventionally grown leafy salad vegetables at the point of consumption using both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Results Total culturable bacteria on salad vegetables ranged from 8.0 × 103 to 5.5 × 108 CFU g-1. The number of culturable endophytic bacteria from surface sterilized plants was significantly lower, ranging from 2.2 × 103 to 5.8 × 105 CFU g-1. Cultured isolates belonged to six major bacterial phyla, and included representatives of Pseudomonas, Pantoea, Chryseobacterium, and Flavobacterium. Eleven different phyla and subphyla were identified by culture-independent pyrosequencing, with Gammaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes being the most dominant lineages. Other bacterial lineages identified (e.g. Firmicutes, Alphaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria) typically represented less than 1% of sequences obtained. At the genus level, sequences classified as Pseudomonas were identified in all samples and this was often the most prevalent genus. Ralstonia sequences made up a greater portion of the community in surface sterilized than non-surface sterilized samples, indicating that it was largely endophytic, while Acinetobacter sequences appeared to be primarily associated with the leaf surface. Analysis of molecular variance indicated there were no significant differences in bacterial community composition between organic versus conventionally grown, or surface-sterilized versus non-sterilized leaf vegetables. While culture-independent pyrosequencing identified significantly more bacterial taxa, the dominant taxa from pyrosequence data were also detected by

  20. Culture dependent and independent analysis of bacterial communities associated with commercial salad leaf vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Colin R; Randolph, Kevin C; Osborn, Shelly L; Tyler, Heather L

    2013-12-01

    Plants harbor a diverse bacterial community, both as epiphytes on the plant surface and as endophytes within plant tissue. While some plant-associated bacteria act as plant pathogens or promote plant growth, others may be human pathogens. The aim of the current study was to determine the bacterial community composition of organic and conventionally grown leafy salad vegetables at the point of consumption using both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Total culturable bacteria on salad vegetables ranged from 8.0 × 10(3) to 5.5 × 10(8) CFU g(-1). The number of culturable endophytic bacteria from surface sterilized plants was significantly lower, ranging from 2.2 × 10(3) to 5.8 × 10(5) CFU g(-1). Cultured isolates belonged to six major bacterial phyla, and included representatives of Pseudomonas, Pantoea, Chryseobacterium, and Flavobacterium. Eleven different phyla and subphyla were identified by culture-independent pyrosequencing, with Gammaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes being the most dominant lineages. Other bacterial lineages identified (e.g. Firmicutes, Alphaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria) typically represented less than 1% of sequences obtained. At the genus level, sequences classified as Pseudomonas were identified in all samples and this was often the most prevalent genus. Ralstonia sequences made up a greater portion of the community in surface sterilized than non-surface sterilized samples, indicating that it was largely endophytic, while Acinetobacter sequences appeared to be primarily associated with the leaf surface. Analysis of molecular variance indicated there were no significant differences in bacterial community composition between organic versus conventionally grown, or surface-sterilized versus non-sterilized leaf vegetables. While culture-independent pyrosequencing identified significantly more bacterial taxa, the dominant taxa from pyrosequence data were also detected by traditional

  1. Bacterial cell numbers and community structures of seawater biofilms depend on the attachment substratum

    KAUST Repository

    Yap, Scott A.

    2018-02-02

    Seawater is increasingly being used as a source for various industrial applications. For such applications, biofilm growth creates various problems including but not limited to pipe biocorrosion. In this study, it is hypothesized that the material type is preferred by certain bacterial populations in the seawater to attach and establish biofilms. By comparing differences in the total cell counts and microbial communities attached to high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polycarbonate, stainless steel (SS316) and titanium, the appropriate material can be used to minimize biofilm growth. All four materials have hydrophilic surfaces, but polycarbonate exhibits higher surface roughness. There were no significant differences in the cell numbers attached to polycarbonate, HDPE and titanium. Instead, there were significantly fewer cells attached to SS316. However, there was a higher relative abundance of genera associated with opportunistic pathogens on SS316. Copy numbers of genes representing Desulfobacteraceae and Desulfobulbaceae, both of which are sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), were approximately 10-fold higher in biofilms sampled from SS316. The enrichment of SRB in the biofilm associated with SS316 indicates that this material may be prone to biocorrosion. This study highlights the need for industries to consider the choice of material used in seawater applications to minimize microbial-associated problems.

  2. Bacterial cell numbers and community structures of seawater biofilms depend on the attachment substratum

    KAUST Repository

    Yap, Scott A.; Scarascia, Giantommaso; Hong, Pei-Ying

    2018-01-01

    Seawater is increasingly being used as a source for various industrial applications. For such applications, biofilm growth creates various problems including but not limited to pipe biocorrosion. In this study, it is hypothesized that the material type is preferred by certain bacterial populations in the seawater to attach and establish biofilms. By comparing differences in the total cell counts and microbial communities attached to high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polycarbonate, stainless steel (SS316) and titanium, the appropriate material can be used to minimize biofilm growth. All four materials have hydrophilic surfaces, but polycarbonate exhibits higher surface roughness. There were no significant differences in the cell numbers attached to polycarbonate, HDPE and titanium. Instead, there were significantly fewer cells attached to SS316. However, there was a higher relative abundance of genera associated with opportunistic pathogens on SS316. Copy numbers of genes representing Desulfobacteraceae and Desulfobulbaceae, both of which are sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), were approximately 10-fold higher in biofilms sampled from SS316. The enrichment of SRB in the biofilm associated with SS316 indicates that this material may be prone to biocorrosion. This study highlights the need for industries to consider the choice of material used in seawater applications to minimize microbial-associated problems.

  3. Stepwise visualization of membrane pore formation by suilysin, a bacterial cholesterol-dependent cytolysin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Carl; Dudkina, Natalya V; Lukoyanova, Natalya; Hodel, Adrian W; Farabella, Irene; Pandurangan, Arun P; Jahan, Nasrin; Pires Damaso, Mafalda; Osmanović, Dino; Reboul, Cyril F; Dunstone, Michelle A; Andrew, Peter W; Lonnen, Rana; Topf, Maya; Saibil, Helen R; Hoogenboom, Bart W

    2014-12-02

    Membrane attack complex/perforin/cholesterol-dependent cytolysin (MACPF/CDC) proteins constitute a major superfamily of pore-forming proteins that act as bacterial virulence factors and effectors in immune defence. Upon binding to the membrane, they convert from the soluble monomeric form to oligomeric, membrane-inserted pores. Using real-time atomic force microscopy (AFM), electron microscopy (EM), and atomic structure fitting, we have mapped the structure and assembly pathways of a bacterial CDC in unprecedented detail and accuracy, focussing on suilysin from Streptococcus suis. We show that suilysin assembly is a noncooperative process that is terminated before the protein inserts into the membrane. The resulting ring-shaped pores and kinetically trapped arc-shaped assemblies are all seen to perforate the membrane, as also visible by the ejection of its lipids. Membrane insertion requires a concerted conformational change of the monomeric subunits, with a marked expansion in pore diameter due to large changes in subunit structure and packing.

  4. Bacterial radiosensitivity to gamma and ultraviolet. Compositional dependence and repair mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saez Angulo, R. M.; Davila, C. A.

    1974-01-01

    The gamma and ultraviolet radiosensitivity of several species of bacteria has been determined its dependence on DNAs composition and repair processes has been studied. Base composition are evaluated by chromatography, DNA melting temperature and isopycnic sedimentation on CsCl gradient. Repair capacity of gamma -and UV- lesions has been studied in two bacterial strains with same DMA base composition. It is concluded that the postulated correlation between radiosensitivity and base composition can not be generalized, the enzymatic repair mechanisms being of determining on radiosensitivity. (Author) 248 refs

  5. Age-Dependent Fecal Bacterial Correlation to Inflammatory Bowel Disease for Newly Diagnosed Untreated Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Chinweije Nwosu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge about correlation patterns between the fecal microbiota and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD—comprising the two subforms Crohn's disease (CD and ulcerative colitis (UC—for newly diagnosed untreated children is limited. To address this knowledge gap, a selection of faecal specimens (CD, n=27 and UC, n=16 and non-IBD controls (n=30 children (age < 18 years was analysed utilising bacterial small subunit (SSU rRNA. We found, surprising age dependence for the fecal microbiota correlating to IBD. The most pronounced patterns were that E. coli was positively (R2=0.16, P=0.05 and Bacteroidetes, negatively (R2=0.15, P=0.05 correlated to age for CD patients. For UC, we found an apparent opposite age-related disease correlation for both Bacteroides and Escherichia. In addition, there was an overrepresentation of Haemophilus for the UC children. From our, results we propose a model where the aetiology of IBD is related to an on-going immunological development in children requiring different age-dependent bacterial stimuli. The impact of our findings could be a better age stratification for understanding and treating IBD in children.

  6. Conductivity-Dependent Strain Response of Carbon Nanotube Treated Bacterial Nanocellulose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Farjana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the strain sensitivity of flexible, electrically conductive, and nanostructured cellulose which was prepared by modification of bacterial cellulose with double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs. The electrical conductivity depends on the modifying agent and its dispersion process. The conductivity of the samples obtained from bacterial cellulose (BNC pellicles modified with DWCNT was in the range from 0.034 S·cm−1 to 0.39 S·cm−1, and for BNC pellicles modified with MWCNTs it was from 0.12 S·cm−1 to 1.6 S·cm−1. The strain-induced electromechanical response, resistance versus strain, was monitored during the application of tensile force in order to study the sensitivity of the modified nanocellulose. A maximum gauge factor of 252 was found from the highest conductive sample treated by MWCNT. It has been observed that the sensitivity of the sample depends on the conductivity of the modified cellulose.

  7. Heparin/heparan sulfates bind to and modulate neuronal L-type (Cav1.2) voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garau, Gianpiero; Magotti, Paola; Heine, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Our previous studies revealed that L-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (Cav1.2 L-VDCCs) are modulated by the neural extracellular matrix backbone, polyanionic glycan hyaluronic acid. Here we used isothermal titration calorimetry and screened a set of peptides derived from the extracellular......M), integrating their enthalpic and entropic binding contributions. Interaction between heparin and recombinant as well as native full-length neuronal Cav1.2α1 channels was confirmed using the heparin–agarose pull down assay. Whole cell patch clamp recordings in HEK293 cells transfected with neuronal Cav1.......2 channels revealed that enzymatic digestion of highly sulfated heparan sulfates with heparinase 1 affects neither voltage-dependence of channel activation nor the level of steady state inactivation, but did speed up channel inactivation. Treatment of hippocampal cultures with heparinase 1 reduced the firing...

  8. Non-thermal Plasma Exposure Rapidly Attenuates Bacterial AHL-Dependent Quorum Sensing and Virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Padrig B.; Busetti, Alessandro; Wielogorska, Ewa; Chevallier, Olivier P.; Elliott, Christopher T.; Laverty, Garry; Gorman, Sean P.; Graham, William G.; Gilmore, Brendan F.

    2016-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma has been exhaustively characterised, however elucidation of the interactions between biomolecules produced and utilised by bacteria and short plasma exposures are required for optimisation and clinical translation of cold plasma technology. This study characterizes the effects of non-thermal plasma exposure on acyl homoserine lactone (AHL)-dependent quorum sensing (QS). Plasma exposure of AHLs reduced the ability of such molecules to elicit a QS response in bacterial reporter strains in a dose-dependent manner. Short exposures (30–60 s) produce of a series of secondary compounds capable of eliciting a QS response, followed by the complete loss of AHL-dependent signalling following longer exposures. UPLC-MS analysis confirmed the time-dependent degradation of AHL molecules and their conversion into a series of by-products. FT-IR analysis of plasma-exposed AHLs highlighted the appearance of an OH group. In vivo assessment of the exposure of AHLs to plasma was examined using a standard in vivo model. Lettuce leaves injected with the rhlI/lasI mutant PAO-MW1 alongside plasma treated N-butyryl-homoserine lactone and n-(3-oxo-dodecanoyl)-homoserine lactone, exhibited marked attenuation of virulence. This study highlights the capacity of atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma to modify and degrade AHL autoinducers thereby attenuating QS-dependent virulence in P. aeruginosa. PMID:27242335

  9. Novel Perspectives on the Characterization of Species-Dependent Optical Signatures of Bacterial Colonies by Digital Holography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Buzalewicz

    Full Text Available The use of light diffraction for the microbiological diagnosis of bacterial colonies was a significant breakthrough with widespread implications for the food industry and clinical practice. We previously confirmed that optical sensors for bacterial colony light diffraction can be used for bacterial identification. This paper is focused on the novel perspectives of this method based on digital in-line holography (DIH, which is able to reconstruct the amplitude and phase properties of examined objects, as well as the amplitude and phase patterns of the optical field scattered/diffracted by the bacterial colony in any chosen observation plane behind the object from single digital hologram. Analysis of the amplitude and phase patterns inside a colony revealed its unique optical properties, which are associated with the internal structure and geometry of the bacterial colony. Moreover, on a computational level, it is possible to select the desired scattered/diffracted pattern within the entire observation volume that exhibits the largest amount of unique, differentiating bacterial features. These properties distinguish this method from the already proposed sensing techniques based on light diffraction/scattering of bacterial colonies. The reconstructed diffraction patterns have a similar spatial distribution as the recorded Fresnel patterns, previously applied for bacterial identification with over 98% accuracy, but they are characterized by both intensity and phase distributions. Our results using digital holography provide new optical discriminators of bacterial species revealed in one single step in form of new optical signatures of bacterial colonies: digital holograms, reconstructed amplitude and phase patterns, as well as diffraction patterns from all observation space, which exhibit species-dependent features. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on bacterial colony analysis via digital holography and our study represents an

  10. Novel Perspectives on the Characterization of Species-Dependent Optical Signatures of Bacterial Colonies by Digital Holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzalewicz, Igor; Kujawińska, Małgorzata; Krauze, Wojciech; Podbielska, Halina

    2016-01-01

    The use of light diffraction for the microbiological diagnosis of bacterial colonies was a significant breakthrough with widespread implications for the food industry and clinical practice. We previously confirmed that optical sensors for bacterial colony light diffraction can be used for bacterial identification. This paper is focused on the novel perspectives of this method based on digital in-line holography (DIH), which is able to reconstruct the amplitude and phase properties of examined objects, as well as the amplitude and phase patterns of the optical field scattered/diffracted by the bacterial colony in any chosen observation plane behind the object from single digital hologram. Analysis of the amplitude and phase patterns inside a colony revealed its unique optical properties, which are associated with the internal structure and geometry of the bacterial colony. Moreover, on a computational level, it is possible to select the desired scattered/diffracted pattern within the entire observation volume that exhibits the largest amount of unique, differentiating bacterial features. These properties distinguish this method from the already proposed sensing techniques based on light diffraction/scattering of bacterial colonies. The reconstructed diffraction patterns have a similar spatial distribution as the recorded Fresnel patterns, previously applied for bacterial identification with over 98% accuracy, but they are characterized by both intensity and phase distributions. Our results using digital holography provide new optical discriminators of bacterial species revealed in one single step in form of new optical signatures of bacterial colonies: digital holograms, reconstructed amplitude and phase patterns, as well as diffraction patterns from all observation space, which exhibit species-dependent features. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on bacterial colony analysis via digital holography and our study represents an innovative approach

  11. Heavy metal speciation in solid-phase materials from a bacterial sulfate reducing bioreactor using sequential extraction procedure combined with acid volatile sulfide analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong, Tony; Parry, David L

    2004-04-01

    Heavy metal mobility, bioavailability and toxicity depends largely on the chemical form of metals and ultimately determines potential for environmental pollution. For this reason, determining the chemical form of heavy metals and metalloids, immobilized in sludges by biological mediated sulfate reduction, is important to evaluate their mobility and bioavailability. A modified Tessier sequential extraction procedure (SEP), complemented with acid volatile sulfide (AVS) and simultaneous extracted metals (SEM) measurements, were applied to determine the partitioning of five heavy metals (defined as Fe, Ni, Zn and Cu, and the metalloid As) in anoxic solid-phase material (ASM) from an anaerobic, sulfate reducing bioreactor into six operationally defined fractions. These fractions were water soluble, exchangeable, bound to carbonates (acid soluble), bound to Fe-Mn oxides (reducible), bound to organic matter and sulfides (oxidizable) and residual. It was found that the distribution of Fe, Ni, Zn, Cu and As in ASM was strongly influenced by its association with the above solid fractions. The fraction corresponding to organic matter and sulfides appeared to be the most important scavenging phases of As, Fe, Ni, Zn and Cu in ASM (59.8-86.7%). This result was supported by AVS and SEM (Sigma Zn, Ni and Cu) measurements, which indicated that the heavy metals existed overwhelmingly as sulfides in the organic matter and sulfide fraction. A substantial amount of Fe and Ni at 16.4 and 20.1%, respectively, were also present in the carbonate fraction, while an appreciable portion of As (18.3%) and Zn (19.4%) was bound to Fe-Mn oxides. A significant amount of heavy metals was also associated with the residual fraction, ranging from 2.1% for Zn to 18.8% for As. Based on the average total extractable heavy metal (TEHM) values, the concentration of heavy metals in the ASM was in the order of Cu > Ni > Zn > Fe > As. If the mobility and bioavailability of heavy metals are assumed to be

  12. The bacterial actin MreB rotates, and rotation depends on cell-wall assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Teeffelen, Sven; Wang, Siyuan; Furchtgott, Leon; Huang, Kerwyn Casey; Wingreen, Ned S; Shaevitz, Joshua W; Gitai, Zemer

    2011-09-20

    Bacterial cells possess multiple cytoskeletal proteins involved in a wide range of cellular processes. These cytoskeletal proteins are dynamic, but the driving forces and cellular functions of these dynamics remain poorly understood. Eukaryotic cytoskeletal dynamics are often driven by motor proteins, but in bacteria no motors that drive cytoskeletal motion have been identified to date. Here, we quantitatively study the dynamics of the Escherichia coli actin homolog MreB, which is essential for the maintenance of rod-like cell shape in bacteria. We find that MreB rotates around the long axis of the cell in a persistent manner. Whereas previous studies have suggested that MreB dynamics are driven by its own polymerization, we show that MreB rotation does not depend on its own polymerization but rather requires the assembly of the peptidoglycan cell wall. The cell-wall synthesis machinery thus either constitutes a novel type of extracellular motor that exerts force on cytoplasmic MreB, or is indirectly required for an as-yet-unidentified motor. Biophysical simulations suggest that one function of MreB rotation is to ensure a uniform distribution of new peptidoglycan insertion sites, a necessary condition to maintain rod shape during growth. These findings both broaden the view of cytoskeletal motors and deepen our understanding of the physical basis of bacterial morphogenesis.

  13. Nodulation-dependent communities of culturable bacterial endophytes from stems of field-grown soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Takashi; Ikeda, Seishi; Kaneko, Takakazu; Eda, Shima; Mitsui, Hisayuki; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

    2009-01-01

    Endophytic bacteria (247 isolates) were randomly isolated from surface-sterilized stems of non-nodulated (Nod(-)), wild-type nodulated (Nod(+)), and hypernodulated (Nod(++)) soybeans (Glycine max [L.] Merr) on three agar media (R2A, nutrient agar, and potato dextrose agar). Their diversity was compared on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences. The phylogenetic composition depended on the soybean nodulation phenotype, although diversity indexes were not correlated with nodulation phenotype. The most abundant phylum throughout soybean lines tested was Proteobacteria (58-79%). Gammaproteobacteria was the dominant class (21-72%) with a group of Pseudomonas sp. significantly abundant in Nod(+) soybeans. A high abundance of Alphaproteobacteria was observed in Nod(-) soybeans, which was explained by the increase in bacterial isolates of the families Rhizobiaceae and Sphingomonadaceae. A far greater abundance of Firmicutes was observed in Nod(-) and Nod(++) mutant soybeans than in Nod(+) soybeans. An impact of culture media on the diversity of isolated endophytic bacteria was also observed: The highest diversity indexes were obtained on the R2A medium, which enabled us to access Alphaproteobacteria and other phyla more frequently. The above results indicated that the extent of nodulation changes the phylogenetic composition of culturable bacterial endophytes in soybean stems.

  14. Protective effect of isoquercitrin against acute dextran sulfate sodium-induced rat colitis depends on the severity of tissue damage

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cibiček, N.; Roubalová, L.; Vrba, J.; Zatloukalová, M.; Ehrmann, J.; Zapletalová, J.; Večeřa, R.; Křen, Vladimír; Ulrichová, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 6 (2016), s. 1197-1204 ISSN 1734-1140 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Isoquercitrin * Quercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside * Dextran sulfate sodium Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.587, year: 2016

  15. Humidity-dependent bacterial cells functional morphometry investigations using atomic force microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikiyan, Hike; Vasilchenko, Alexey; Deryabin, Dmitry

    2010-01-01

    The effect of a relative humidity (RH) in a range of 93-65% on morphological and elastic properties of Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli cells was evaluated using atomic force microscopy. It is shown that gradual dehumidification of bacteria environment has no significant effect on cell dimensional features and considerably decreases them only at 65% RH. The increasing of the bacteria cell wall roughness and elasticity occurs at the same time. Observed changes indicate that morphological properties of B. cereus are rather stable in wide range of relative humidity, whereas E. coli are more sensitive to drying, significantly increasing roughness and stiffness parameters at RH dependence of the response features on differences in cell wall structure of gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial cells.

  16. Humidity-Dependent Bacterial Cells Functional Morphometry Investigations Using Atomic Force Microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hike Nikiyan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of a relative humidity (RH in a range of 93–65% on morphological and elastic properties of Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli cells was evaluated using atomic force microscopy. It is shown that gradual dehumidification of bacteria environment has no significant effect on cell dimensional features and considerably decreases them only at 65% RH. The increasing of the bacteria cell wall roughness and elasticity occurs at the same time. Observed changes indicate that morphological properties of B. cereus are rather stable in wide range of relative humidity, whereas E. coli are more sensitive to drying, significantly increasing roughness and stiffness parameters at RH ≤ 84% RH. It is discussed the dependence of the response features on differences in cell wall structure of gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial cells.

  17. Severe bacterial infections in patients with non-transfusion-dependent thalassemia: prevalence and clinical risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nattiya Teawtrakul

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: The prevalence of bacterial infection in patients with NTDT was found to be moderate. Time after splenectomy >10 years, deferoxamine therapy, and iron overload may be clinical risk factors for severe bacterial infection in patients with NTDT. Bacterial infection should be recognized in splenectomized patients with NTDT, particularly those who have an iron overload.

  18. Bacterial diversity associated with the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis sp. complex determined by culture-dependent and -independent methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishino, Ryota; Iehata, Shunpei; Nakano, Miyo; Tanaka, Reiji; Yoshimatsu, Takao; Maeda, Hiroto

    2012-03-01

    The bacterial communities associated with rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis sp. complex) and their culture water were determined using culture-dependent and -independent methods (16S rRNA gene clone library). The bacterial communities determined by the culture-independent method were more diverse than those determined by the culture-dependent method. Although the culture-dependent method indicated the bacterial community of rotifers was relatively similar to that of the culture water, 16S rRNA gene clone library analyses revealed a great difference between the two microbiotas. Our results suggest that most bacteria associated with rotifers are not easily cultured using conventional methods, and that the microbiota of rotifers do not correspond with that of the culture water completely.

  19. Polysaccharides and their depolymerized fragments from Costaria costata: Molecular weight and sulfation-dependent anticoagulant and FGF/FGFR signal activating activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Ningning; Zhang, Meng; Xu, Yingjie; Sun, Zhongmin; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Lijuan; Zhang, Quanbin

    2017-12-01

    Crude polysaccharides from Costaria costata were extracted by hot water and further fractionated by anion exchange chromatography into three polysaccharide fractions. Three low molecular weight fragments were then prepared by degradation of the polysaccharides with hydrogen peroxide and ascorbic acid. The structural features of the polysaccharides and their low molecular weight fragments were elucidated for the first time based on the HGPC, FT-IR, NMR, MS, monosaccharide composition, and other chemical analyses. Their anticoagulant and FGF-1, -2, -7, -8, -9, -10/FGFR1c signaling activation activities in BaF3 cells were also examined. Our studies showed that the polysaccharides were sulfated at different positions of galactose and fucose residues. The APTT-, PT- and TT-based anticoagulant assay results indicated that a high molecular weight and a higher degree of sulfation were essential for their anticoagulant activities. In contrast, not only the polysaccharides but also the depolymerized fragments showed significant FGF/FGFR signal activating activities in a FGF-, molecular weight-, and sulfation-dependent manner. The results presented in current study demonstrated the potential use of the polysaccharides and their fragments as anticoagulants and FGF signal regulators. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Molecular mechanism of bacterial Hsp90 pH-dependent ATPase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yi; Hoxie, Reyal S; Street, Timothy O

    2017-06-01

    Hsp90 is a dimeric molecular chaperone that undergoes an essential and highly regulated open-to-closed-to-open conformational cycle upon ATP binding and hydrolysis. Although it has been established that a large energy barrier to closure is responsible for Hsp90's low ATP hydrolysis rate, the specific molecular contacts that create this energy barrier are not known. Here we discover that bacterial Hsp90 (HtpG) has a pH-dependent ATPase activity that is unique among other Hsp90 homologs. The underlying mechanism is a conformation-specific electrostatic interaction between a single histidine, H255, and bound ATP. H255 stabilizes ATP only while HtpG adopts a catalytically inactive open configuration, resulting in a striking anti-correlation between nucleotide binding affinity and chaperone activity over a wide range of pH. Linkage analysis reveals that the H255-ATP salt bridge contributes 1.5 kcal/mol to the energy barrier of closure. This energetic contribution is structurally asymmetric, whereby only one H255-ATP salt-bridge per dimer of HtpG controls ATPase activation. We find that a similar electrostatic mechanism regulates the ATPase of the endoplasmic reticulum Hsp90, and that pH-dependent activity can be engineered into eukaryotic cytosolic Hsp90. These results reveal site-specific energetic information about an evolutionarily conserved conformational landscape that controls Hsp90 ATPase activity. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  1. Structural, kinetic and proteomic characterization of acetyl phosphate-dependent bacterial protein acetylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misty L Kuhn

    Full Text Available The emerging view of Nε-lysine acetylation in eukaryotes is of a relatively abundant post-translational modification (PTM that has a major impact on the function, structure, stability and/or location of thousands of proteins involved in diverse cellular processes. This PTM is typically considered to arise by the donation of the acetyl group from acetyl-coenzyme A (acCoA to the ε-amino group of a lysine residue that is reversibly catalyzed by lysine acetyltransferases and deacetylases. Here, we provide genetic, mass spectrometric, biochemical and structural evidence that Nε-lysine acetylation is an equally abundant and important PTM in bacteria. Applying a recently developed, label-free and global mass spectrometric approach to an isogenic set of mutants, we detected acetylation of thousands of lysine residues on hundreds of Escherichia coli proteins that participate in diverse and often essential cellular processes, including translation, transcription and central metabolism. Many of these acetylations were regulated in an acetyl phosphate (acP-dependent manner, providing compelling evidence for a recently reported mechanism of bacterial Nε-lysine acetylation. These mass spectrometric data, coupled with observations made by crystallography, biochemistry, and additional mass spectrometry showed that this acP-dependent acetylation is both non-enzymatic and specific, with specificity determined by the accessibility, reactivity and three-dimensional microenvironment of the target lysine. Crystallographic evidence shows acP can bind to proteins in active sites and cofactor binding sites, but also potentially anywhere molecules with a phosphate moiety could bind. Finally, we provide evidence that acP-dependent acetylation can impact the function of critical enzymes, including glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, triosephosphate isomerase, and RNA polymerase.

  2. Changes of Bacterial Diversity Depend on the Spoilage of Fresh Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hwan Lee

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Almost 10~30% of vegetables were discarded by the spoilage from farms to tables. After harvest, vegetables are often spoiled by a wide variety of microorganisms including many bacterial and fungal species. This investigation was conducted to extent the knowledge of relationship the spoilage of vegetables and the diversity of microbes. The total aerobic bacterial numbers in fresh lettuce, perilla leaf, and chicory were 2.6~2.7×106, 4.6×105, 1.2×106 CFU/g of fresh weight, respectively. The most common bacterial species were Pseudomonas spp., Alysiella spp., and Burkholderia spp., and other 18 more genera were involved in. After one week of incubation of those vegetables at 28℃, the microbial diversity had been changed. The total aerobic bacterial numbers increased to 1.1~4.6×108, 4.9×107, and 7.6×108 CFU/g of fresh weight for lettuce, perilla leaf, and chicory that is about 102 times increased bacterial numbers than that before spoilage. However, the diversity of microbes isolated had been simplified and fewer bacterial species had been isolated. The most bacterial population (~48% was taken up by Pseudomonas spp., and followed by Arthrobacter spp. and Bacillus spp. The spoilage activity of individual bacterial isolates had been tested using axenic lettuce plants. Among tested isolates, Pseudomonas fluorescence and Pantoea agglomerans caused severe spoilage on lettuce.

  3. Hearing impairment after childhood bacterial meningitis dependent on etiology in Luanda, Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karppinen, Mariia; Pelkonen, Tuula; Roine, Irmeli; Cruzeiro, Manuel Leite; Peltola, Heikki; Pitkäranta, Anne

    2015-11-01

    Childhood bacterial meningitis (BM) damages hearing, but the potential of different agents to cause impairment in developing countries is poorly understood. We compared the extent of hearing impairment in BM caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), Streptococcus pneumoniae or Neisseria meningitidis among children aged 2 months to 13 years in Luanda, Angola. Hearing of 685 ears of 351 (78%) survivors among 723 enrolled patients was tested by brainstem-evoked response audiometry on day 7 of hospitalization. The causative agent was sought by cerebrospinal fluid culture, PCR or the latex-agglutination test. Altogether, 45 (12%) of the survivors were deaf (threshold >80 dB), and 20 (6%) had a threshold of 80 dB. The incidence of any kind of hearing loss, with ≥60 dB, was 34% with Hib, 30% with S. pneumoniae, 19% with N. meningitidis and 33% with other bacteria. Examining all ears combined and using the ≥60 dB threshold, the agents showed dissimilar harm (P=0.005), Hib being the most frequent and N. meningitidis the most infrequent cause. Compared to other agents, S. pneumoniae more often caused deafness (P=0.025) and hearing impairment at ≥60 dB (P=0.017) in infants, whereas this level of hearing loss in older survivors was most commonly caused by Hib (P=0.031). BM among children in Angola is often followed by hearing impairment, but the risk depends on the agent. S. pneumoniae is a major problem among infants, whereas Hib is mainly a risk beyond 12 months. N. meningitidis impairs hearing less frequently. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. pH-dependent differential interacting mechanisms of sodium dodecyl sulfate with bovine serum fetuin: a biophysical insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Nida; Nusrat, Saima; Zaidi, Fatima Kamal; Khan, Rizwan H

    2014-11-20

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-glycoprotein interaction serves as a model for a biological membrane. To get mechanistic insight into the interaction of SDS and glycoprotein, the effect of SDS on bovine serum fetuin (BSF) was studied in subcritical micellar concentrations at pH 7.4 and pH 2 using multiple approaches. SDS interacts electrostatically with BSF through its negatively charged head groups at pH 2 and hydrophobically via its alkyl chains at pH 7.4 up to a 1:20 molar ratio of BSF to SDS. However, at higher concentrations of SDS, BSF undergoes amyloid fibril formation at pH 2, as confirmed by enhanced ThT fluorescence, β-sheet formation, and TEM microscopy, whereas BSF undergoes induction of an α-helical structure in the presence of higher SDS concentration at pH 7.4. The increase in α-helical content with increasing SDS concentrations constrains the environment around tryptophan. As a consequence, the interconversion of tryptophan conformers decreases, resulting in a decrement of the fluorescence lifetime for BSF in the presence of SDS at pH 7.4.

  5. Vizantin inhibits bacterial adhesion without affecting bacterial growth and causes Streptococcus mutans biofilm to detach by altering its internal architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Shoji; Oda, Masataka; Domon, Hisanori; Ohsumi, Tatsuya; Suzuki, Yuki; Ohshima, Hayato; Yamamoto, Hirofumi; Terao, Yutaka; Noiri, Yuichiro

    2016-11-11

    An ideal antibiofilm strategy is to control both in the quality and quantity of biofilm while maintaining the benefits derived from resident microflora. Vizantin, a recently developed immunostimulating compound, has also been found to have antibiofilm property. This study evaluated the influence on biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans in the presence of sulfated vizantin and biofilm development following bacterial adhesion on a hydroxyapatite disc coated with sulfated vizantin. Supplementation with sulfated vizantin up to 50 μM did not affect either bacterial growth or biofilm formation, whereas 50 μM sulfated vizantin caused the biofilm to readily detach from the surface. Sulfated vizantin at the concentration of 50 μM upregulated the expression of the gtfB and gtfC genes, but downregulated the expression of the gtfD gene, suggesting altered architecture in the biofilm. Biofilm development on the surface coated with sulfated vizantin was inhibited depending on the concentration, suggesting prevention from bacterial adhesion. Among eight genes related to bacterial adherence in S. mutans, expression of gtfB and gtfC was significantly upregulated, whereas the expression of gtfD, GbpA and GbpC was downregulated according to the concentration of vizantin, especially with 50 μM vizantin by 0.8-, 0.4-, and 0.4-fold, respectively. These findings suggest that sulfated vizantin may cause structural degradation as a result of changing gene regulation related to bacterial adhesion and glucan production of S. mutans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Dependency of cerebral blood flow upon mean arterial pressure in patients with acute bacterial meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kirsten; Larsen, Fin Stolze; Qvist, Jesper

    2000-01-01

    Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital, Denmark. PATIENTS: Sixteen adult patients with acute bacterial meningitis. INTERVENTION: Infusion of norepinephrine to increase MAP. MEASUREMENTS: During a rise in MAP induced by norepinephrine infusion, we measured relative changes in CBF by transcranial Doppler......OBJECTIVE: Patients with acute bacterial meningitis are often treated with sympathomimetics to maintain an adequate mean arterial pressure (MAP). We studied the influence of such therapy on cerebral blood flow (CBF). DESIGN: Prospective physiologic trial. SETTING: The Department of Infectious....... Autoregulation was classified as impaired if Vmean increased by >10% per 30 mm Hg increase in MAP and if no lower limit of autoregulation was identified by the computer program; otherwise, autoregulation was classified as preserved. MAIN RESULTS: Initially, Vmean increased from a median value of 46 cm/sec (range...

  7. Barium Sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... uses a computer to put together x-ray images to create cross-sectional or three dimensional pictures of the inside of the body). Barium sulfate is in a class of medications called radiopaque contrast media. It works by coating the esophagus, stomach, or ...

  8. Bacterial diversity of Taxus rhizosphere: culture-independent and culture-dependent approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Da Cheng; Ge, Guang Bo; Yang, Ling

    2008-07-01

    The regional variability of Taxus rhizosphere bacterial community composition and diversity was studied by comparative analysis of three large 16S rRNA gene clone libraries from the Taxus rhizosphere in different regions of China (subtropical and temperate regions). One hundred and forty-six clones were screened for three libraries. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated that the abundance of sequences affiliated with Gammaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Actinobacteria was higher in the library from the T. xmedia rhizosphere of the temperate region compared with the subtropical Taxus mairei rhizosphere. On the other hand, Acidobacteria was more abundant in libraries from the subtropical Taxus mairei rhizosphere. Richness estimates and diversity indices of three libraries revealed major differences, indicating a higher richness in the Taxus rhizosphere bacterial communities of the subtropical region and considerable variability in the bacterial community composition within this region. By enrichment culture, a novel Actinobacteria strain DICP16 was isolated from the T. xmedia rhizosphere of the temperate region and was identified as Leifsonia shinshuensis sp. via 16S rRNA gene and gyrase B sequence analyses. DICP16 was able to remove the xylosyl group from 7-xylosyl-10-deacetylbaccatin III and 7-xylosyl-10-deacetylpaclitaxel, thereby making the xylosyltaxanes available as sources of 10-deacetylbaccatin III and the anticancer drug paclitaxel. Taken together, the present studies provide, for the first time, the knowledge of the biodiversity of microorganisms populating Taxus rhizospheres.

  9. Temperature dependence of microbial degradation of organic matter in marine sediments: polysaccharide hydrolysis, oxygen consumption, and sulfate reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnosti, C.; Jørgensen, BB; Sagemann, J.

    1998-01-01

    temperatures, optimum temperatures generally decreased with decreasing environmental temperatures. Activity at 5 degrees C as a percentage of highest activity was highest in the Arctic sites and lowest in the warmest temperate site. The highest potential rates of substrate hydrolysis were measured...... suggest that organic carbon turnover in the cold Arctic is not intrinsically slower than carbon turnover in temperate environments; sedimentary metabolism in Arctic sediments may be controlled more by organic matter supply than by temperature.......The temperature dependence of representative initial and terminal steps of organic carbon remineralization was measured at 2 temperate sites with annual temperature ranges of 0 to 30 degrees C and 4 to 15 degrees C and 2 Arctic sites with temperatures of 2.6 and -1.7 degrees C. Slurried sediments...

  10. Temperature dependence of microbial degradation of organic matter in marine sediments: polysaccharide hydrolysis, oxygen consumption, and sulfate reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnosti, C.; Jørgensen, BB; Sagemann, J.

    1998-01-01

    The temperature dependence of representative initial and terminal steps of organic carbon remineralization was measured at 2 temperate sites with annual temperature ranges of 0 to 30 degrees C and 4 to 15 degrees C and 2 Arctic sites with temperatures of 2.6 and -1.7 degrees C. Slurried sediments...... were incubated in a temperature gradient block spanning a temperature range of ca 45 degrees C. The initial step of organic carbon remineralization, macromolecule hydrolysis, was measured via the enzymatic hydrolysis of fluorescently labeled polysaccharides. The terminal steps of organic carbon...... remineralization were monitored through consumption of oxygen and reduction of (SO42-)-S-35. At each of the 4 sites, the temperature response of the initial step of organic carbon remineralization was similar to that of the terminal steps. Although optimum temperatures were always well above ambient environmental...

  11. Targeting the expression of glutathione- and sulfate-dependent detoxification enzymes in HepG2 cells by oxygen in minimal and amino acid enriched medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usarek, Ewa; Graboń, Wojciech; Kaźmierczak, Beata; Barańczyk-Kuźma, Anna

    2016-02-01

    Cancer cells exhibit specific metabolism allowing them to survive and proliferate in various oxygen conditions and nutrients' availability. Hepatocytes are highly active metabolically and thus very sensitive to hypoxia. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of oxygen on the expression of phase II detoxification enzymes in hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2) cultured in minimal and rich media (with nonessential amino acids and GSH). The cells were cultured at 1% hypoxia, 10% tissue normoxia, and 21% atmospheric normoxia. The total cell count was determined by trypan blue exclusion dye and the expression on mRNA level by RT-PCR. The result indicated that the expression of glutathione-dependent enzymes (GSTA, M, P, and GPX2) was sensitive to oxygen and medium type. At 1% hypoxia the enzyme expression (with the exception of GSTA) was higher in minimal compared to rich medium, whereas at 10% normoxia it was higher in the rich medium. The expression was oxygen-dependent in both types of medium. Among phenol sulfotransferase SULT1A1 was not sensitive to studied factors, whereas the expression of SULT1A3 was depended on oxygen only in minimal medium. It can be concluded that in HepG2 cells, the detoxification by conjugation with glutathione and, to a lower extent with sulfate, may be affected by hypoxia and/or limited nutrients' availability. Besides, because the data obtained at 10% oxygen significantly differ from those at 21%, the comparative studies on hypoxia should be performed in relation to 10% but not 21% oxygen. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Mechanism for Type I Interferon Induction by Mycobacterium tuberculosis is Bacterial Strain-Dependent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten E Wiens

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Type I interferons (including IFNαβ are innate cytokines that may contribute to pathogenesis during Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb infection. To induce IFNβ, Mtb must gain access to the host cytosol and trigger stimulator of interferon genes (STING signaling. A recently proposed model suggests that Mtb triggers STING signaling through bacterial DNA binding cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS in the cytosol. The aim of this study was to test the generalizability of this model using phylogenetically distinct strains of the Mtb complex (MTBC. We infected bone marrow derived macrophages with strains from MTBC Lineages 2, 4 and 6. We found that the Lineage 6 strain induced less IFNβ, and that the Lineage 2 strain induced more IFNβ, than the Lineage 4 strain. The strains did not differ in their access to the host cytosol and IFNβ induction by each strain required both STING and cGAS. We also found that the three strains shed similar amounts of bacterial DNA. Interestingly, we found that the Lineage 6 strain was associated with less mitochondrial stress and less mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA in the cytosol compared with the Lineage 4 strain. Treating macrophages with a mitochondria-specific antioxidant reduced cytosolic mtDNA and inhibited IFNβ induction by the Lineage 2 and 4 strains. We also found that the Lineage 2 strain did not induce more mitochondrial stress than the Lineage 4 strain, suggesting that additional pathways contribute to higher IFNβ induction. These results indicate that the mechanism for IFNβ by Mtb is more complex than the established model suggests. We show that mitochondrial dynamics and mtDNA contribute to IFNβ induction by Mtb. Moreover, we show that the contribution of mtDNA to the IFNβ response varies by MTBC strain and that additional mechanisms exist for Mtb to induce IFNβ.

  13. Comparison between cultivated and total bacterial communities associated with Cucurbita pepo using cultivation-dependent techniques and 454 pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eevers, N; Beckers, B; Op de Beeck, M; White, J C; Vangronsveld, J; Weyens, N

    2016-02-01

    Endophytic bacteria often have beneficial effects on their host plants that can be exploited for bioremediation applications but, according to the literature, only 0.001-1% of all endophytic microbes should be cultivable. This study compared the cultivated endophytic communities of the roots and shoots of Cucurbita pepo with the total endophytic communities as determined by cultivation-dependent techniques and 454 pyrosequencing. The ten most abundant taxa of the total communities aligned well with the cultivated taxa; however, the abundance of these taxa in the two communities differed greatly. Enterobacter showed very low presence in the total communities, whereas they were dominantly present in the cultivated communities. Although Rhizobium dominated in total root and shoot communities, it was poorly cultivable and even then only in growth media containing plant extract. Since endophytes likely contribute to plant-growth promotion, cultivated bacterial strains were tested for their plant-growth promoting capabilities, and the results were correlated with their abundance in the total community. Bacillus and Pseudomonas showed promising results when considering cultivability, abundance in the total community and plant-growth promoting capability. This study demonstrated that, although a limited number of bacterial genera were cultivable, current cultivation-dependent techniques may be sufficient for further isolation and inoculation experiments that aim to improve phytoremediation efficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. The sulfated laminarin triggers a stress transcriptome before priming the SA- and ROS-dependent defenses during grapevine's induced resistance against Plasmopara viticola.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Gauthier

    Full Text Available Grapevine (Vitis vinifera is susceptible to many pathogens which cause significant losses to viticulture worldwide. Chemical control is available, but agro-ecological concerns have raised interest in alternative methods, especially in triggering plant immunity by elicitor treatments. The β-glucan laminarin (Lam and its sulfated derivative (PS3 have been previously demonstrated to induce resistance in grapevine against downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola. However, if Lam elicits classical grapevine defenses such as oxidative burst, pathogenesis-related (PR-proteins and phytoalexin production, PS3 triggered grapevine resistance via a poorly understood priming phenomenon. The aim of this study was to identify the molecular mechanisms of the PS3-induced resistance. For this purpose we studied i the signaling events and transcriptome reprogramming triggered by PS3 treatment on uninfected grapevine, ii grapevine immune responses primed by PS3 during P. viticola infection. Our results showed that i PS3 was unable to elicit reactive oxygen species (ROS production, cytosolic Ca(2+ concentration variations, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK activation but triggered a long lasting plasma membrane depolarization in grapevine cells, ii PS3 and Lam shared a common stress-responsive transcriptome profile that partly overlapped the salicylate- (SA and jasmonate-(JA-dependent ones. After P. viticola inoculation, PS3 specifically primed the SA- and ROS-dependent defense pathways leading to grapevine induced resistance against this biotroph. Interestingly pharmacological approaches suggested that the plasma membrane depolarization and the downstream ROS production are key events of the PS3-induced resistance.

  15. Speed of the bacterial flagellar motor near zero load depends on the number of stator units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nord, Ashley L; Sowa, Yoshiyuki; Steel, Bradley C; Lo, Chien-Jung; Berry, Richard M

    2017-10-31

    The bacterial flagellar motor (BFM) rotates hundreds of times per second to propel bacteria driven by an electrochemical ion gradient. The motor consists of a rotor 50 nm in diameter surrounded by up to 11 ion-conducting stator units, which exchange between motors and a membrane-bound pool. Measurements of the torque-speed relationship guide the development of models of the motor mechanism. In contrast to previous reports that speed near zero torque is independent of the number of stator units, we observe multiple speeds that we attribute to different numbers of units near zero torque in both Na + - and H + -driven motors. We measure the full torque-speed relationship of one and two H + units in Escherichia coli by selecting the number of H + units and controlling the number of Na + units in hybrid motors. These experiments confirm that speed near zero torque in H + -driven motors increases with the stator number. We also measured 75 torque-speed curves for Na + -driven chimeric motors at different ion-motive force and stator number. Torque and speed were proportional to ion-motive force and number of stator units at all loads, allowing all 77 measured torque-speed curves to be collapsed onto a single curve by simple rescaling. Published under the PNAS license.

  16. Malaria-induced NLRP12/NLRP3-dependent caspase-1 activation mediates inflammation and hypersensitivity to bacterial superinfection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A Ataide

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic paroxysm and high fever are hallmarks of malaria and are associated with high levels of pyrogenic cytokines, including IL-1β. In this report, we describe a signature for the expression of inflammasome-related genes and caspase-1 activation in malaria. Indeed, when we infected mice, Plasmodium infection was sufficient to promote MyD88-mediated caspase-1 activation, dependent on IFN-γ-priming and the expression of inflammasome components ASC, P2X7R, NLRP3 and/or NLRP12. Pro-IL-1β expression required a second stimulation with LPS and was also dependent on IFN-γ-priming and functional TNFR1. As a consequence of Plasmodium-induced caspase-1 activation, mice produced extremely high levels of IL-1β upon a second microbial stimulus, and became hypersensitive to septic shock. Therapeutic intervention with IL-1 receptor antagonist prevented bacterial-induced lethality in rodents. Similar to mice, we observed a significantly increased frequency of circulating CD14(+CD16(-Caspase-1(+ and CD14(dimCD16(+Caspase-1(+ monocytes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from febrile malaria patients. These cells readily produced large amounts of IL-1β after stimulation with LPS. Furthermore, we observed the presence of inflammasome complexes in monocytes from malaria patients containing either NLRP3 or NLRP12 pyroptosomes. We conclude that NLRP12/NLRP3-dependent activation of caspase-1 is likely to be a key event in mediating systemic production of IL-1β and hypersensitivity to secondary bacterial infection during malaria.

  17. Response of single bacterial cells to stress gives rise to complex history dependence at the population level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, Roland; Ackermann, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Most bacteria live in ever-changing environments where periods of stress are common. One fundamental question is whether individual bacterial cells have an increased tolerance to stress if they recently have been exposed to lower levels of the same stressor. To address this question, we worked with the bacterium Caulobacter crescentus and asked whether exposure to a moderate concentration of sodium chloride would affect survival during later exposure to a higher concentration. We found that the effects measured at the population level depended in a surprising and complex way on the time interval between the two exposure events: The effect of the first exposure on survival of the second exposure was positive for some time intervals but negative for others. We hypothesized that the complex pattern of history dependence at the population level was a consequence of the responses of individual cells to sodium chloride that we observed: (i) exposure to moderate concentrations of sodium chloride caused delays in cell division and led to cell-cycle synchronization, and (ii) whether a bacterium would survive subsequent exposure to higher concentrations was dependent on the cell-cycle state. Using computational modeling, we demonstrated that indeed the combination of these two effects could explain the complex patterns of history dependence observed at the population level. Our insight into how the behavior of single cells scales up to processes at the population level provides a perspective on how organisms operate in dynamic environments with fluctuating stress exposure. PMID:26960998

  18. Bacterial diversity determination using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghiasian

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mud volcanoes are taken into consideration by geologists and oil industry experts have given their association with oil and gas reserves and methane greenhouse gas production in hydrosphere and atmosphere. Gomishan mud volcano phenomenon in the southeastern edge of the Caspian Sea, given its oil and gas resources, has been studied by some geologists in terms of geology and tectonics but not in terms of microbiology. Accordingly, it seems necessary to study this phenomenon from the perspective of microbiology in order to identify prokaryotes living in this area. Prokaryotes diversity in Mud volcano has been studied by cultivation techniques, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of PCR-amplified fragments of 16S rRNA genes. Total cell abundance in the mud volcano from 1×101-6×101per milliliter was determined by 4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole direct count. The detectable proportion of Archaea to Bacteria in the community by FISH was one to five. High viable counts (1 – 3 × 106 were obtained in culture media. A total of 122 isolates were obtained, 46 colonies were selected based on primarily morphological and physiological traits, and their 16S rRNA sequences were determined. The isolated genera included Halomonas (20%, Arthrobacter (5%, Kocuria (5%, Thalassobacillus (5%, Marinobacter (20%, Paracoccus (5%, Roseovarius (5%, Jeotgalicoccus (5%, Bacillus (15%, and Staphylococcus (15%. Regarding DGGE analysis, selected bands were obtained from the gels, reamplified and sequenced. Overall, 75% of the bacterial sequences were related to Rahnella and 25% related to Serratia.

  19. Subclinical atherosclerosis is linked to small intestinal bacterial overgrowth via vitamin K2-dependent mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponziani, Francesca Romana; Pompili, Maurizio; Di Stasio, Enrico; Zocco, Maria Assunta; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Flore, Roberto

    2017-02-21

    To assess the rate of matrix Gla-protein carboxylation in patients with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and to decipher its association with subclinical atherosclerosis. Patients with suspected SIBO who presented with a low risk for cardiovascular disease and showed no evidence of atherosclerotic plaques were included in the study. A glucose breath test was performed in order to confirm the diagnosis of SIBO and vascular assessment was carried out by ultrasound examination. Plasma levels of the inactive form of MGP (dephosphorylated-uncarboxylated matrix Gla-protein) were quantified by ELISA and vitamin K2 intake was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. Thirty-nine patients were included in the study. SIBO was confirmed in 12/39 (30.8%) patients who also presented with a higher concentration of dephosphorylated-uncarboxylated matrix Gla-protein (9.5 μg/L vs 4.2 μg/L; P = 0.004). Arterial stiffness was elevated in the SIBO group (pulse-wave velocity 10.25 m/s vs 7.68 m/s; P = 0.002) and this phenomenon was observed to correlate linearly with the levels of dephosphorylated-uncarboxylated matrix Gla-protein (β = 0.220, R 2 = 0.366, P = 0.03). Carotid intima-media thickness and arterial calcifications were not observed to be significantly elevated as compared to controls. SIBO is associated with reduced matrix Gla-protein activation as well as arterial stiffening. Both these observations are regarded as important indicators of subclinical atherosclerosis. Hence, screening for SIBO, intestinal decontamination and supplementation with vitamin K2 has the potential to be incorporated into clinical practice as additional preventive measures.

  20. The malleable gut microbiome of juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): Diet-dependent shifts of bacterial community structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michl, Stéphanie Céline; Ratten, Jenni-Marie; Beyer, Matt; Hasler, Mario; LaRoche, Julie; Schulz, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Plant-derived protein sources are the most relevant substitutes for fishmeal in aquafeeds. Nevertheless, the effects of plant based diets on the intestinal microbiome especially of juvenile Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) are yet to be fully investigated. The present study demonstrates, based on 16S rDNA bacterial community profiling, that the intestinal microbiome of juvenile Rainbow trout is strongly affected by dietary plant protein inclusion levels. After first feeding of juveniles with either 0%, 50% or 97% of total dietary protein content derived from plants, statistically significant differences of the bacterial gut community for the three diet-types were detected, both at phylum and order level. The microbiome of juvenile fish consisted mainly of the phyla Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria and Actinobacteria, and thus fits the salmonid core microbiome suggested in previous studies. Dietary plant proteins significantly enhanced the relative abundance of the orders Lactobacillales, Bacillales and Pseudomonadales. Animal proteins in contrast significantly promoted Bacteroidales, Clostridiales, Vibrionales, Fusobacteriales and Alteromonadales. The overall alpha diversity significantly decreased with increasing plant protein inclusion levels and with age of experimental animals. In order to investigate permanent effects of the first feeding diet-type on the early development of the microbiome, a diet change was included in the study after 54 days, but no such effects could be detected. Instead, the microbiome of juvenile trout fry was highly dependent on the actual diet fed at the time of sampling.

  1. Bacterial detection using bacteriophages and gold nanorods by following time-dependent changes in Raman spectral signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghtader, Farzaneh; Tomak, Aysel; Zareie, Hadi M; Piskin, Erhan

    2018-03-27

    This study attemps to develop bacterial detection strategies using bacteriophages and gold nanorods (GNRs) by Raman spectral analysis. Escherichia coli was selected as the target and its specific phage was used as the bioprobe. Target bacteria and phages were propagated/purified by traditional techniques. GNRs were synthesized by using hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as stabilizer. A two-step detection strategy was applied: Firstly, the target bacteria were interacted with GNRs in suspensions, and then they were dropped onto silica substrates for detection. It was possible to obtain clear surface-enchanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) peaks of the target bacteria, even without using phages. In the second step, the phage nanoemulsions were droped onto the bacterial-GNRs complexes on those surfaces and time-dependent changes in the Raman spectra were monitored at different time intervals upto 40 min. These results demonstrated that how one can apply phages with plasmonic nanoparticles for detection of pathogenic bacteria very effectively in a quite simple test.

  2. Microbial fuel cell based on electroactive sulfate-reducing biofilm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelov, Anatoliy; Bratkova, Svetlana; Loukanov, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Regulation and management of electricity generation by variation of residence time. ► Design of microbial fuel cell based on electroactive biofilm on zeolite. ► Engineering solution for removing of the obtained elemental sulfur. - abstract: A two chambered laboratory scale microbial fuel cell (MFC) has been developed, based on natural sulfate-reducing bacterium consortium in electroactive biofilm on zeolite. The MFC utilizes potassium ferricyanide in the cathode chamber as an electron acceptor that derives electrons from the obtained in anode chamber H 2 S. The molecular oxygen is finally used as a terminal electron acceptor at cathode compartment. The generated power density was 0.68 W m −2 with current density of 3.2 A m −2 at 150 Ω electrode resistivity. The hydrogen sulfide itself is produced by microbial dissimilative sulfate reduction process by utilizing various organic substrates. Finally, elemental sulfur was identified as the predominant final oxidation product in the anode chamber. It was removed from MFC through medium circulation and gathering in an external tank. This report reveals dependence relationship between the progress of general electrochemical parameters and bacterial sulfate-reduction rate. The presented MFC design can be used for simultaneous sulfate purification of mining drainage wastewater and generation of renewable electricity

  3. pH-dependent Pu interaction of one bacterial isolate from Mont Terri Opalinus Clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moll, Henry; Cherkouk, Andrea [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Div. Biogeochemistry

    2016-07-01

    Sporomusa sp. MT-2.99 cells displayed a strong pH dependent affinity for Pu. Relatively high maximal Pu loadings as for instance 230 mgPu/g{sub dry} {sub biomass} for Sporomusa sp. at pH 6.1 were achieved. A much slower abiotic reduction of Pu(VI) was observed at pH 4 compared to pH 6.1. Independent on pH an enrichment of Pu(V) in the supernatant and of Pu(IV)- polymers on the biomass was discovered.

  4. Contribution to the study of the role of sulfate-reducing bacteria in bio-corrosion phenomenon; Contribution a l'etude du role des bacteries sulfato-reductrices dans les phenomenes de biocorrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatelus, C

    1987-11-15

    By their metabolic activities of hydrogen consumption and of sulfides production, the sulfate-reducing bacteria are the main bacteria responsible of the metallic corrosion phenomena in the absence of oxygen. A physiological and enzymatic study of some Desulfovibrio has contributed to the understanding of the role of these bacteria in the anaerobic bio-corrosion phenomena. Desulfovibrio (D.) vulgaris in organic medium, after having oxidized the lactate, consumes the hydrogen formed by the electrochemical reaction of iron dissolution. The Desulfovibrio can be responsible either of a corrosion by a direct contact with the metal in using the H{sub 2} layer formed at its surface, (bacteria are then adsorbed at the surface because of an iron sulfide crystalline lattice), or of a distant corrosion in consuming the dissolved or gaseous hydrogen. As their hydrogenases can be stable in time independently of the cellular structure (D. vulparis) and active at high temperatures (to 70 C - 75 C) (D. baculatus), these bacteria can act in conditions incompatible with the viability of cells but compatible with the enzymatic expression. A study in terms of temperature has shown that inside the mesophilic group of the Desulfovibrio, the behaviour towards this parameter is specific to each bacteria, that accounts for the permanent presence of the representatives of this population in sites where the temperature variations are important. A change of some degrees Celsius can induce modifications in the yields of bacteria growth and by a consequence in variations in the corrosion intensity. Moreover, sulfate D. multispirans can reduce with specific velocities of different growth, the nitrate, the nitrite and the fumarate. Some sulfato-reducing could then adapt themselves to the variations of concentrations in electron acceptors and metabolize the oxidized substances used as biocides too. The choice of an electron acceptor rather than another do not depend uniquely of the specificity of

  5. Contribution to the study of the role of sulfate-reducing bacteria in bio-corrosion phenomenon; Contribution a l'etude du role des bacteries sulfato-reductrices dans les phenomenes de biocorrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatelus, C

    1987-11-15

    By their metabolic activities of hydrogen consumption and of sulfides production, the sulfate-reducing bacteria are the main bacteria responsible of the metallic corrosion phenomena in the absence of oxygen. A physiological and enzymatic study of some Desulfovibrio has contributed to the understanding of the role of these bacteria in the anaerobic bio-corrosion phenomena. Desulfovibrio (D.) vulgaris in organic medium, after having oxidized the lactate, consumes the hydrogen formed by the electrochemical reaction of iron dissolution. The Desulfovibrio can be responsible either of a corrosion by a direct contact with the metal in using the H{sub 2} layer formed at its surface, (bacteria are then adsorbed at the surface because of an iron sulfide crystalline lattice), or of a distant corrosion in consuming the dissolved or gaseous hydrogen. As their hydrogenases can be stable in time independently of the cellular structure (D. vulparis) and active at high temperatures (to 70 C - 75 C) (D. baculatus), these bacteria can act in conditions incompatible with the viability of cells but compatible with the enzymatic expression. A study in terms of temperature has shown that inside the mesophilic group of the Desulfovibrio, the behaviour towards this parameter is specific to each bacteria, that accounts for the permanent presence of the representatives of this population in sites where the temperature variations are important. A change of some degrees Celsius can induce modifications in the yields of bacteria growth and by a consequence in variations in the corrosion intensity. Moreover, sulfate D. multispirans can reduce with specific velocities of different growth, the nitrate, the nitrite and the fumarate. Some sulfato-reducing could then adapt themselves to the variations of concentrations in electron acceptors and metabolize the oxidized substances used as biocides too. The choice of an electron acceptor rather than another do not depend uniquely of the specificity of

  6. Temperature Dependences of Torque Generation and Membrane Voltage in the Bacterial Flagellar Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yuichi; Baker, Matthew A.B.; Fukuoka, Hajime; Takahashi, Hiroto; Berry, Richard M.; Ishijima, Akihiko

    2013-01-01

    In their natural habitats bacteria are frequently exposed to sudden changes in temperature that have been shown to affect their swimming. With our believed to be new methods of rapid temperature control for single-molecule microscopy, we measured here the thermal response of the Na+-driven chimeric motor expressed in Escherichia coli cells. Motor torque at low load (0.35 μm bead) increased linearly with temperature, twofold between 15°C and 40°C, and torque at high load (1.0 μm bead) was independent of temperature, as reported for the H+-driven motor. Single cell membrane voltages were measured by fluorescence imaging and these were almost constant (∼120 mV) over the same temperature range. When the motor was heated above 40°C for 1–2 min the torque at high load dropped reversibly, recovering upon cooling below 40°C. This response was repeatable over as many as 10 heating cycles. Both increases and decreases in torque showed stepwise torque changes with unitary size ∼150 pN nm, close to the torque of a single stator at room temperature (∼180 pN nm), indicating that dynamic stator dissociation occurs at high temperature, with rebinding upon cooling. Our results suggest that the temperature-dependent assembly of stators is a general feature of flagellar motors. PMID:24359752

  7. CpxR-Dependent Thermoregulation of Serratia marcescens PrtA Metalloprotease Expression and Its Contribution to Bacterial Biofilm Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruna, Roberto E; Molino, María Victoria; Lazzaro, Martina; Mariscotti, Javier F; García Véscovi, Eleonora

    2018-04-15

    PrtA is the major secreted metalloprotease of Serratia marcescens Previous reports implicate PrtA in the pathogenic capacity of this bacterium. PrtA is also clinically used as a potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug, and its catalytic properties attract industrial interest. Comparatively, there is scarce knowledge about the mechanisms that physiologically govern PrtA expression in Serratia In this work, we demonstrate that PrtA production is derepressed when the bacterial growth temperature decreases from 37°C to 30°C. We show that this thermoregulation occurs at the transcriptional level. We determined that upstream of prtA , there is a conserved motif that is directly recognized by the CpxR transcriptional regulator. This feature is found along Serratia strains irrespective of their isolation source, suggesting an evolutionary conservation of CpxR-dependent regulation of PrtA expression. We found that in S. marcescen s, the CpxAR system is more active at 37°C than at 30°C. In good agreement with these results, in a cpxR mutant background, prtA is derepressed at 37°C, while overexpression of the NlpE lipoprotein, a well-known CpxAR-inducing condition, inhibits PrtA expression, suggesting that the levels of the activated form of CpxR are increased at 37°C over those at 30°C. In addition, we establish that PrtA is involved in the ability of S. marcescens to develop biofilm. In accordance, CpxR influences the biofilm phenotype only when bacteria are grown at 37°C. In sum, our findings shed light on regulatory mechanisms that fine-tune PrtA expression and reveal a novel role for PrtA in the lifestyle of S. marcescens IMPORTANCE We demonstrate that S. marcescens metalloprotease PrtA expression is transcriptionally thermoregulated. While strongly activated below 30°C, its expression is downregulated at 37°C. We found that in S. marcescens , the CpxAR signal transduction system, which responds to envelope stress and bacterial surface adhesion, is

  8. Novel and unexpected bacterial diversity in an arsenic-rich ecosystem revealed by culture-dependent approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delavat François

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acid Mine Drainages (AMDs are extreme environments characterized by very acid conditions and heavy metal contaminations. In these ecosystems, the bacterial diversity is considered to be low. Previous culture-independent approaches performed in the AMD of Carnoulès (France confirmed this low species richness. However, very little is known about the cultured bacteria in this ecosystem. The aims of the study were firstly to apply novel culture methods in order to access to the largest cultured bacterial diversity, and secondly to better define the robustness of the community for 3 important functions: As(III oxidation, cellulose degradation and cobalamine biosynthesis. Results Despite the oligotrophic and acidic conditions found in AMDs, the newly designed media covered a large range of nutrient concentrations and a pH range from 3.5 to 9.8, in order to target also non-acidophilic bacteria. These approaches generated 49 isolates representing 19 genera belonging to 4 different phyla. Importantly, overall diversity gained 16 extra genera never detected in Carnoulès. Among the 19 genera, 3 were previously uncultured, one of them being novel in databases. This strategy increased the overall diversity in the Carnoulès sediment by 70% when compared with previous culture-independent approaches, as specific phylogenetic groups (e.g. the subclass Actinobacteridae or the order Rhizobiales were only detected by culture. Cobalamin auxotrophy, cellulose degradation and As(III-oxidation are 3 crucial functions in this ecosystem, and a previous meta- and proteo-genomic work attributed each function to only one taxon. Here, we demonstrate that other members of this community can also assume these functions, thus increasing the overall community robustness. Conclusions This work highlights that bacterial diversity in AMDs is much higher than previously envisaged, thus pointing out that the AMD system is functionally more robust than expected

  9. TLR-mediated inflammatory responses to Streptococcus pneumoniae are highly dependent on surface expression of bacterial lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Gillian; Chimalapati, Suneeta; Pollard, Tracey; Lapp, Thabo; Cohen, Jonathan; Camberlein, Emilie; Stafford, Sian; Periselneris, Jimstan; Aldridge, Christine; Vollmer, Waldemar; Picard, Capucine; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Noursadeghi, Mahdad; Brown, Jeremy

    2014-10-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae infections induce inflammatory responses that contribute toward both disease pathogenesis and immunity, but the host-pathogen interactions that mediate these effects are poorly defined. We used the surface lipoprotein-deficient ∆lgt pneumococcal mutant strain to test the hypothesis that lipoproteins are key determinants of TLR-mediated immune responses to S. pneumoniae. We show using reporter assays that TLR2 signaling is dependent on pneumococcal lipoproteins, and that macrophage NF-κB activation and TNF-α release were reduced in response to the ∆lgt strain. Differences in TNF-α responses between Δlgt and wild-type bacteria were abrogated for macrophages from TLR2- but not TLR4-deficient mice. Transcriptional profiling of human macrophages revealed attenuated TLR2-associated responses to ∆lgt S. pneumoniae, comprising many NF-κB-regulated proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine genes. Importantly, non-TLR2-associated responses were preserved. Experiments using leukocytes from IL-1R-associated kinase-4-deficient patients and a mouse pneumonia model confirmed that proinflammatory responses were lipoprotein dependent. Our data suggest that leukocyte responses to bacterial lipoproteins are required for TLR2- and IL-1R-associated kinase-4-mediated inflammatory responses to S. pneumoniae. Copyright © 2014 The Authors.

  10. Bacterial superantigens promote acute nasopharyngeal infection by Streptococcus pyogenes in a human MHC Class II-dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine J Kasper

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Establishing the genetic determinants of niche adaptation by microbial pathogens to specific hosts is important for the management and control of infectious disease. Streptococcus pyogenes is a globally prominent human-specific bacterial pathogen that secretes superantigens (SAgs as 'trademark' virulence factors. SAgs function to force the activation of T lymphocytes through direct binding to lateral surfaces of T cell receptors and class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC-II molecules. S. pyogenes invariably encodes multiple SAgs, often within putative mobile genetic elements, and although SAgs are documented virulence factors for diseases such as scarlet fever and the streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS, how these exotoxins contribute to the fitness and evolution of S. pyogenes is unknown. Here we show that acute infection in the nasopharynx is dependent upon both bacterial SAgs and host MHC-II molecules. S. pyogenes was rapidly cleared from the nasal cavity of wild-type C57BL/6 (B6 mice, whereas infection was enhanced up to ∼10,000-fold in B6 mice that express human MHC-II. This phenotype required the SpeA superantigen, and vaccination with an MHC -II binding mutant toxoid of SpeA dramatically inhibited infection. Our findings indicate that streptococcal SAgs are critical for the establishment of nasopharyngeal infection, thus providing an explanation as to why S. pyogenes produces these potent toxins. This work also highlights that SAg redundancy exists to avoid host anti-SAg humoral immune responses and to potentially overcome host MHC-II polymorphisms.

  11. The pH and pCO2 dependence of sulfate reduction in shallow-sea hydrothermal CO2 – venting sediments (Milos Island, Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayraktarov, Elisa; Price, Roy E.; Ferdelman, Timothy G.; Finster, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Microbial sulfate reduction (SR) is a dominant process of organic matter mineralization in sulfate-rich anoxic environments at neutral pH. Recent studies have demonstrated SR in low pH environments, but investigations on the microbial activity at variable pH and CO2 partial pressure are still lacking. In this study, the effect of pH and pCO2 on microbial activity was investigated by incubation experiments with radioactive 35S targeting SR in sediments from the shallow-sea hydrothermal vent system of Milos, Greece, where pH is naturally decreased by CO2 release. Sediments differed in their physicochemical characteristics with distance from the main site of fluid discharge. Adjacent to the vent site (T ~40–75°C, pH ~5), maximal sulfate reduction rates (SRR) were observed between pH 5 and 6. SR in hydrothermally influenced sediments decreased at neutral pH. Sediments unaffected by hydrothermal venting (T ~26°C, pH ~8) expressed the highest SRR between pH 6 and 7. Further experiments investigating the effect of pCO2 on SR revealed a steep decrease in activity when the partial pressure increased from 2 to 3 bar. Findings suggest that sulfate reducing microbial communities associated with hydrothermal vent system are adapted to low pH and high CO2, while communities at control sites required a higher pH for optimal activity. PMID:23658555

  12. The pH and pCO2 dependence of sulfate reduction in shallow-sea hydrothermal CO2 - venting sediments (Milos Island, Greece).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayraktarov, Elisa; Price, Roy E; Ferdelman, Timothy G; Finster, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Microbial sulfate reduction (SR) is a dominant process of organic matter mineralization in sulfate-rich anoxic environments at neutral pH. Recent studies have demonstrated SR in low pH environments, but investigations on the microbial activity at variable pH and CO2 partial pressure are still lacking. In this study, the effect of pH and pCO2 on microbial activity was investigated by incubation experiments with radioactive (35)S targeting SR in sediments from the shallow-sea hydrothermal vent system of Milos, Greece, where pH is naturally decreased by CO2 release. Sediments differed in their physicochemical characteristics with distance from the main site of fluid discharge. Adjacent to the vent site (T ~40-75°C, pH ~5), maximal sulfate reduction rates (SRR) were observed between pH 5 and 6. SR in hydrothermally influenced sediments decreased at neutral pH. Sediments unaffected by hydrothermal venting (T ~26°C, pH ~8) expressed the highest SRR between pH 6 and 7. Further experiments investigating the effect of pCO2 on SR revealed a steep decrease in activity when the partial pressure increased from 2 to 3 bar. Findings suggest that sulfate reducing microbial communities associated with hydrothermal vent system are adapted to low pH and high CO2, while communities at control sites required a higher pH for optimal activity.

  13. Sulfate adsorption on goethite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rietra, R P.J.J.; Hiemstra, T; Riemsdijk, W.H. van

    1999-10-15

    Recent spectroscopic work has suggested that only one surface species of sulfate is dominant on hematite. Sulfate is therefore a very suitable anion to test and develop adsorption models for variable charge minerals. The authors have studied sulfate adsorption on goethite covering a large range of sulfate concentrations, surface coverages, pH values, and electrolyte concentrations. Four different techniques were used to cover the entire range of conditions. For characterization at low sulfate concentrations, below the detection limit of sulfate with ICP-AES, the authors used proton-sulfate titrations at constant pH. Adsorption isotherms were studied for the intermediate sulfate concentration range. Acid-base titrations in sodium sulfate and electromobility were used for high sulfate concentrations. All the data can be modeled with one adsorbed species if it is assumed that the charge of adsorbed sulfate is spatially distributed in the interface. The charge distribution of sulfate follows directly from modeling the proton-sulfate adsorption stoichoimemtry sine this stoichiometry is independent of the intrinsic affinity constant of sulfate. The charge distribution can be related to the structure of the surface complex by use of the Pauling bond valence concept and is in accordance with the microscopic structure found by spectroscopy. The intrinsic affinity constant follows from the other measurements. Modeling of the proton-ion stoichoimetry with the commonly used 2-pK models, where adsorbed ions are treated as point charges, is possible only if at least two surface species for sulfate are used.

  14. The pH dependence of polymerization and bundling by the essential bacterial cytoskeletal protein FtsZ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Pacheco-Gómez

    Full Text Available There is a growing body of evidence that bacterial cell division is an intricate coordinated process of comparable complexity to that seen in eukaryotic cells. The dynamic assembly of Escherichia coli FtsZ in the presence of GTP is fundamental to its activity. FtsZ polymerization is a very attractive target for novel antibiotics given its fundamental and universal function. In this study our aim was to understand further the GTP-dependent FtsZ polymerization mechanism and our main focus is on the pH dependence of its behaviour. A key feature of this work is the use of linear dichroism (LD to follow the polymerization of FtsZ monomers into polymeric structures. LD is the differential absorption of light polarized parallel and perpendicular to an orientation direction (in this case that provided by shear flow. It thus readily distinguishes between FtsZ polymers and monomers. It also distinguishes FtsZ polymers and less well-defined aggregates, which light scattering methodologies do not. The polymerization of FtsZ over a range of pHs was studied by right-angled light scattering to probe mass of FtsZ structures, LD to probe real-time formation of linear polymeric fibres, a specially developed phosphate release assay to relate guanosine triphosphate (GTP hydrolysis to polymer formation, and electron microscopy (EM imaging of reaction products as a function of time and pH. We have found that lowering the pH from neutral to 6.5 does not change the nature of the FtsZ polymers in solution--it simply facilitates the polymerization so the fibres present are longer and more abundant. Conversely, lowering the pH to 6.0 has much the same effect as introducing divalent cations or the FtsZ-associated protein YgfE (a putative ZapA orthologue in E. coli--it stabilizes associations of protofilaments.

  15. Sulfate reducing potential in an estuarine beach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LokaBharathi, P.A.; Chandramohan, D.

    Sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) and their activity (SRA) together with total anaerobic and aerobic bacterial flora were estimated during July 1982-April 1983 and July-August 1984 from 1, 3 and 5 cm depths using core samples. The average number (no...

  16. Carbon isotope fractionation by sulfate-reducing bacteria using different pathways for the oxidation of acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goevert, Dennis; Conrad, Ralf

    2008-11-01

    Acetate is a key intermediate in the anaerobic degradation of organic matter. In anoxic environments, available acetate is a competitive substrate for sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and methane-producing archaea. Little is known about the fractionation of carbon isotopes by sulfate reducers. Therefore, we determined carbon isotope compositions in cultures of three acetate-utilizing SRB, Desulfobacter postgatei, Desulfobacter hydrogenophilus, and Desulfobacca acetoxidans. We found that these species showed strong differences in their isotope enrichment factors (epsilon) of acetate. During the consumption of acetate and sulfate, acetate was enriched in 13C by 19.3% per hundred in Desulfobacca acetoxidans. By contrast, both D. postgatei and D. hydrogenophilus showed a slight depletion of 13C resulting in epsilon(ac)-values of 1.8 and 1.5% per hundred, respectively. We suggest that the different isotope fractionation is due to the different metabolic pathways for acetate oxidation. The strongly fractionating Desulfobacca acetoxidans uses the acetyl-CoA/carbon monoxide dehydrogenase pathway, which is also used by acetoclastic methanogens that show a similar fractionation of acetate (epsilon(ac) = -21 to -27% per hundred). In contrast, Desulfobacter spp. oxidize acetate to CO2 via the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and apparently did not discriminate against 13C. Our results suggestthat carbon isotope fractionation in environments with sulfate reduction will strongly depend on the composition of the sulfate-reducing bacterial community oxidizing acetate.

  17. Proteomic analysis of growth phase-dependent expression of Legionella pneumophila proteins which involves regulation of bacterial virulence traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Hayashi

    Full Text Available Legionella pneumophila, which is a causative pathogen of Legionnaires' disease, expresses its virulent traits in response to growth conditions. In particular, it is known to become virulent at a post-exponential phase in vitro culture. In this study, we performed a proteomic analysis of differences in expression between the exponential phase and post-exponential phase to identify candidates associated with L. pneumophila virulence using 2-Dimentional Fluorescence Difference Gel Electrophoresis (2D-DIGE combined with Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS. Of 68 identified proteins that significantly differed in expression between the two growth phases, 64 were up-regulated at a post-exponential phase. The up-regulated proteins included enzymes related to glycolysis, ketone body biogenesis and poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB biogenesis, suggesting that L. pneumophila may utilize sugars and lipids as energy sources, when amino acids become scarce. Proteins related to motility (flagella components and twitching motility-associated proteins were also up-regulated, predicting that they enhance infectivity of the bacteria in host cells under certain conditions. Furthermore, 9 up-regulated proteins of unknown function were found. Two of them were identified as novel bacterial factors associated with hemolysis of sheep red blood cells (SRBCs. Another 2 were found to be translocated into macrophages via the Icm/Dot type IV secretion apparatus as effector candidates in a reporter assay with Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase. The study will be helpful for virulent analysis of L. pneumophila from the viewpoint of physiological or metabolic modulation dependent on growth phase.

  18. Localized corrosion of carbon steels due to sulfate-reducing bacteria. Development of a specific sensor; Corrosion localisee des aciers au carbone induite par des bacteries sulfato-reductrices. Developpement d'un capteur specifique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monfort Moros, N.

    2001-11-01

    This work concerns the microbiologically influenced corrosion of carbon steels in saline anaerobic media (3% of NaCl) containing sulfato-reducing bacteria (Desulfovibrio gabonensis, DSM 10636). In these media, extreme localised corrosion occurs by pitting under the bio-film covering the metallic substrate. A sensor with concentric electrodes was designed to initiate the phenomenon of bio-corrosion, recreating the favourable conditions for growth of a corrosion pit, and then measuring the corrosion current maintained by bacterial activity. The pit initiation was achieved through either of two methods. The electrochemical conditioning involved driving the potential difference between inner and outer electrodes to values corresponding to a galvanic corrosion that can be maintained by the bacterial metabolism. The mechanical process involved removal of a portion of the bio-film by scratching, yielding galvanic potential differences equivalent to that found by the conditioning technique. This protocol was found to be applicable to a bio-corrosion study on industrial site for the monitoring of the metallic structures deterioration (patent EN 00/06114, May 2000). Thereafter, a fundamental application uses the bio-corrosion sensor for Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS), Electrochemical Noise Analysis (ENA) and current density cartography by the means of micro-electrodes. Thus, the EIS technique reveals the importance of the FeS corrosion products for initiation of bio-corrosion start on carbon steel. In addition, depending on the method used to create a pit, the ENA gives rise to supplementary processes (gaseous release) disturbing the bio-corrosion detection. The beginning of a bio-corrosion process on a clean surface surrounded with bio-film was confirmed by the current density cartography. These different results establish the sensor with concentric electrodes as an indispensable tool for bio-corrosion studies, both in the laboratory and on industrial sites

  19. Dose- and time-dependent changes in tissue levels of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA and its sulfate and glucuronide conjugates following repeated administration to female Wistar Han Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.J. Borghoff

    Full Text Available Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA, a nongenotoxic flame retardant, causes uterine tumors in female rats. A proposed mode of action (MoA for these tumors involves an increase in the bioavailability of estradiol as a result of TBBPA inhibiting estrogen sulfotransferases (ES, the enzymes responsible for inactivating and enhancing the elimination of estradiol. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dose and repeated administration of TBBPA on the level of TBBPA, TBBPA-glucuronide (GA and TBBPA-sulfate (S conjugates in plasma, liver and uterus of female Wistar Han rats administered TBBPA (50, 100, 250, 500 or 1000 mg/kg for 28 consecutive days. In accordance with this objective, TBBPA sulfation was used as a surrogate for evaluating the potential for estradiol sulfation to be limited at high dose levels of TBBPA. Blood samples were collected at 4 and 8 h post-dosing on study day 7, 14, and 28, while liver and uterus were collected at the same time points following 28 days of dosing. Tissue samples were analyzed for TBBPA, TBBPA-GA and TBBPA-S by LC–MS/MS. A dose-related increase in the concentration of all three analytes occurred in plasma (day 7, 14, and 28 as well as liver and uterus tissue (day 28 at both 4 and 8 h post dose. The plasma concentration of TBBPA-GA and TBBPA-S was higher in animals dosed for 28 days compared to those dosed for 7 or 14 days showing an increase in systemic circulation of these conjugates with repeated administration. The balance of these conjugates was also different in tissues with TBBPA-S > TBBPA-GA at high doses in the liver and TBBPA-GA > TBBPA-S in both plasma and uterus. In all three tissues the ratio of TBBPA-S/TBBPA-GA showed a decreasing trend with dose, suggesting that at high TBBPA dose levels sulfation of TBBPA becomes limited. This effect was most apparent in the liver and plasma at 28 days of administration. Together these data show that administration of high doses of TBBPA

  20. Time-dependent effect of graphene on the structure, abundance, and function of the soil bacterial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wenjie; Ren, Gaidi; Teng, Ying; Li, Zhengao; Li, Lina

    2015-10-30

    The increased application of graphene raises concerns about its environmental impact, but little information is available on the effect of graphene on the soil microbial community. This study evaluated the impact of graphene on the structure, abundance and function of the soil bacterial community based on quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), pyrosequencing and soil enzyme activities. The results show that the enzyme activities of dehydrogenase and fluorescein diacetate (FDA) esterase and the biomass of the bacterial populations were transiently promoted by the presence of graphene after 4 days of exposure, but these parameters recovered completely after 21 days. Pyrosequencing analysis suggested a significant shift in some bacterial populations after 4 days, and the shift became weaker or disappeared as the exposure time increased to 60 days. During the entire exposure process, the majority of bacterial phylotypes remained unaffected. Some bacterial populations involved in nitrogen biogeochemical cycles and the degradation of organic compounds can be affected by the presence of graphene. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of sulfate deprivation on the production of chondroitin/dermatan sulfate by cultures of skin fibroblasts from normal and diabetic individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silbert, C.K.; Humphries, D.E.; Palmer, M.E.; Silbert, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    Human skin fibroblast monolayer cultures from two normal men, three Type I diabetic men, and one Type I diabetic woman were incubated with [3H]glucosamine in the presence of diminished concentrations of sulfate. Although total synthesis of [3H]chondroitin/dermatan glycosaminoglycans varied somewhat between cell lines, glycosaminoglycan production was not affected within any line when sulfate levels were decreased from 0.3 mM to 0.06 mM to 0.01 mM to 0 added sulfate. Lowering of sulfate concentrations resulted in diminished sulfation of chondroitin/dermatan in a progressive manner, so that overall sulfation dropped to as low as 19% for one of the lines. Sulfation of chondroitin to form chondroitin 4-sulfate and chondroitin 6-sulfate was progressively and equally affected by decreasing the sulfate concentration in the culture medium. However, sulfation to form dermatan sulfate was preserved to a greater degree, so that the relative proportion of dermatan sulfate to chondroitin sulfate increased. Essentially all the nonsulfated residues were susceptible to chondroitin AC lyase, indicating that little epimerization of glucuronic acid residues to iduronic acid had occurred in the absence of sulfation. These results confirm the previously described dependency of glucuronic/iduronic epimerization on sulfation, and indicate that sulfation of the iduronic acid-containing disaccharide residues of dermatan can take place with sulfate concentrations lower than those needed for 6-sulfation and 4-sulfation of the glucuronic acid-containing disaccharide residues of chondroitin. There were considerable differences among the six fibroblast lines in susceptibility to low sulfate medium and in the proportion of chondroitin 6-sulfate, chondroitin 4-sulfate, and dermatan sulfate. However, there was no pattern of differences between normals and diabetics

  2. Bacterial attachment on titanium surfaces is dependent on topography and chemical changes induced by nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Won-Seok; Kwon, Jae-Sung; Lee, Jung-Hwan; Uhm, Soo-Hyuk; Ha Choi, Eun; Kim, Kwang-Mahn

    2017-07-26

    Here, we investigated the antibacterial effects of chemical changes induced by nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma (NTAPP) on smooth and rough Ti. The morphologies of smooth and rough surfaces of Ti were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Both Ti specimens were then treated for 10 min by NTAPP with nitrogen gas. The surface roughness, chemistry, and wettability were examined by optical profilometry, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and water contact angle analysis, respectively. Bacterial attachment was measured by determining the number of colony forming units and by SEM analysis. The rough Ti showed irregular micropits, whereas smooth Ti had a relatively regular pattern on the surface. There were no differences in morphology between samples before and after NTAPP treatment. NTAPP treatment resulted in changes from hydrophobic to hydrophilic properties on rough and smooth Ti; rough Ti showed relatively higher hydrophilicity. Before NTAPP treatment, Streptococcus sanguinis (S. sanguinis) showed greater attachment on rough Ti, and after NTAPP treatment, there was a significant reduction in bacterial attachment. Moreover, the bacterial attachment rate was significantly lower on rough Ti, and the structure of S. sanguinis colonies were significantly changed on NTAPP-treated Ti. NTAPP treatment inhibited bacterial attachment surrounding titanium implants, regardless of surface topography. Therefore, NTAPP treatment on Ti is a next-generation tool for antibacterial applications in the orthopaedic and dental fields.

  3. Hypoxia determines survival outcomes of bacterial infection through HIF-1α-dependent reprogramming of leukocyte metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, A.A.R.; Dickinson, R.S.; Murphy, F.; Thomson, J.P.; Marriott, H.M.; Tavares, A.; Willson, J.; Williams, L.; Lewis, A.; Mirchandani, A.; Coelho, P.D.S.; Doherty, C.; Ryan, E.; Watts, E.; Morton, N.M.

    2017-01-01

    Hypoxia and bacterial infection frequently coexist, in both acute and chronic clinical settings, and typically result in adverse clinical outcomes. To ameliorate this morbidity, we investigated the interaction between hypoxia and the host response. In the context of acute hypoxia, both Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae infections rapidly induced progressive neutrophil-mediated morbidity and mortality, with associated hypothermia and cardiovascular compromise. Preconditioning ...

  4. Cyclic AMP Regulates Bacterial Persistence through Repression of the Oxidative Stress Response and SOS-Dependent DNA Repair in Uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Quiroz, Roberto C; Silva-Valenzuela, Cecilia; Brewster, Jennifer; Castro-Nallar, Eduardo; Levy, Stuart B; Camilli, Andrew

    2018-01-09

    Bacterial persistence is a transient, nonheritable physiological state that provides tolerance to bactericidal antibiotics. The stringent response, toxin-antitoxin modules, and stochastic processes, among other mechanisms, play roles in this phenomenon. How persistence is regulated is relatively ill defined. Here we show that cyclic AMP, a global regulator of carbon catabolism and other core processes, is a negative regulator of bacterial persistence in uropathogenic Escherichia coli , as measured by survival after exposure to a β-lactam antibiotic. This phenotype is regulated by a set of genes leading to an oxidative stress response and SOS-dependent DNA repair. Thus, persister cells tolerant to cell wall-acting antibiotics must cope with oxidative stress and DNA damage and these processes are regulated by cyclic AMP in uropathogenic E. coli IMPORTANCE Bacterial persister cells are important in relapsing infections in patients treated with antibiotics and also in the emergence of antibiotic resistance. Our results show that in uropathogenic E. coli , the second messenger cyclic AMP negatively regulates persister cell formation, since in its absence much more persister cells form that are tolerant to β-lactams antibiotics. We reveal the mechanism to be decreased levels of reactive oxygen species, specifically hydroxyl radicals, and SOS-dependent DNA repair. Our findings suggest that the oxidative stress response and DNA repair are relevant pathways to target in the design of persister-specific antibiotic compounds. Copyright © 2018 Molina-Quiroz et al.

  5. Stimulation and inhibition of bacterial growth by caffeine dependent on chloramphenicol and a phenolic uncoupler--a ternary toxicity study using microfluid segment technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jialan; Kürsten, Dana; Schneider, Steffen; Köhler, J Michael

    2012-10-01

    A droplet-based microfluidic technique for the fast generation of three dimensional concentration spaces within nanoliter segments was introduced. The technique was applied for the evaluation of the effect of two selected antibiotic substances on the toxicity and activation of bacterial growth by caffeine. Therefore a three-dimensional concentration space was completely addressed by generating large sequences with about 1150 well separated microdroplets containing 216 different combinations of concentrations. To evaluate the toxicity of the ternary mixtures a time-resolved miniaturized optical double endpoint detection unit using a microflow-through fluorimeter and a two channel microflow-through photometer was used for the simultaneous analysis of changes on the endogenous cellular fluorescence signal and on the cell density of E. coli cultivated inside 500 nL microfluid segments. Both endpoints supplied similar results for the dose related cellular response. Strong non-linear combination effects, concentration dependent stimulation and the formation of activity summits on bolographic maps were determined. The results reflect a complex response of growing bacterial cultures in dependence on the combined effectors. A strong caffeine induced enhancement of bacterial growth was found at sublethal chloramphenicol and sublethal 2,4-dinitrophenol concentrations. The reliability of the method was proved by a high redundancy of fluidic experiments. The results indicate the importance of multi-parameter investigations for toxicological studies and prove the potential of the microsegmented flow technique for such requirements.

  6. Solution pH and oligoamine molecular weight dependence of the transition from monolayer to multilayer adsorption at the air-water interface from sodium dodecyl sulfate/oligoamine mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halacheva, S S; Penfold, J; Thomas, R K; Webster, J R P

    2013-05-14

    Neutron reflectivity and surface tension have been used to investigate the solution pH and oligoamine molecular weight dependence of the adsorption of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)/oligoamine mixtures at the air-water interface. For diethylenetriamine, triamine, or triethylenetetramine, tetramine mixed with SDS, there is monolayer adsorption at pH 7 and 10, and multilayer adsorption at pH 3. For the slightly higher molecular weight tetraethylenepentamine, pentamine, and pentaethylenehexamine, hexamine, the adsorption is in the form of a monolayer at pH 3 and multilayers at pH 7 and 10. Hence, there is a pH driven transition from monolayer to multilayer adsorption, which shifts from low pH to higher pH as the oligoamine molecular weight increases from tetramine to pentamine. This results from the relative balance between the electrostatic attraction between the SDS and amine nitrogen group which decreases as the charge density decreases with increasing pH, the ion-dipole interaction between the amine nitrogen and SDS sulfate group which is dominant at higher pH, and the hydrophobic interalkyl chain interaction between bound SDS molecules which changes with oligoamine molecular weight.

  7. Hypoxia determines survival outcomes of bacterial infection through HIF-1alpha dependent re-programming of leukocyte metabolism *

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, A.A.R.; Dickinson, R.S.; Murphy, F.; Thomson, J. P.; Marriott, H.M.; Tavares, A.; Willson, J.; Williams, L.; Lewis, A.; Mirchandani, A.; Dos Santos Coelho, P.; Doherty, C.; Ryan, E.; Watts, E.; Morton, N. M.

    2017-01-01

    Hypoxia and bacterial infection frequently co-exist, in both acute and chronic clinical settings, and typically result in adverse clinical outcomes. To ameliorate this morbidity, we investigated the interaction between hypoxia and the host response. In the context of acute hypoxia, both S. aureus and S. pneumoniae infections rapidly induced progressive neutrophil mediated morbidity and mortality, with associated hypothermia and cardiovascular compromise. Preconditioning animals through longer...

  8. Rare earth sulfates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komissarova, L.N.; Shatskij, V.M.; Pokrovskij, A.N.; Chizhov, S.M.; Bal'kina, T.I.; Suponitskij, Yu.L.

    1986-01-01

    Results of experimental works on the study of synthesis conditions, structure and physico-chemical properties of rare earth, scandium and yttrium sulfates, have been generalized. Phase diagrams of solubility and fusibility, thermodynamic and crystallochemical characteristics, thermal stability of hydrates and anhydrous sulfates of rare earths, including normal, double (with cations of alkali and alkaline-earth metals), ternary and anion-mixed sulfates of rare earths, as well as their adducts, are considered. The state of ions of rare earths, scandium and yttrium in aqueous sulfuric acid solutions is discussed. Data on the use of rare earth sulfates are given

  9. Dissecting Bacterial Cell Wall Entry and Signaling in Eukaryotic Cells: an Actin-Dependent Pathway Parallels Platelet-Activating Factor Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Lip Nam; Gao, Geli; Tuomanen, Elaine I

    2017-01-03

    The Gram-positive bacterial cell wall (CW) peptidoglycan-teichoic acid complex is released into the host environment during bacterial metabolism or death. It is a highly inflammatory Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) ligand, and previous in vivo studies have demonstrated its ability to recapitulate pathological features of pneumonia and meningitis. We report that an actin-dependent pathway is involved in the internalization of the CW by epithelial and endothelial cells, in addition to the previously described platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFr)-dependent uptake pathway. Unlike the PAFr-dependent pathway, which is mediated by clathrin and dynamin and does not lead to signaling, the alternative pathway is sensitive to 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl) amiloride (EIPA) and engenders Rac1, Cdc42, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling. Upon internalization by this macropinocytosis-like pathway, CW is trafficked to lysosomes. Intracellular CW trafficking is more complex than previously recognized and suggests multiple points of interaction with and without innate immune signaling. Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major human pathogen infecting the respiratory tract and brain. It is an established model organism for understanding how infection injures the host. During infection or bacterial growth, bacteria shed their cell wall (CW) into the host environment and trigger inflammation. A previous study has shown that CW enters and crosses cell barriers by interacting with a receptor on the surfaces of host cells, termed platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFr). In the present study, by using cells that are depleted of PAFr, we identified a second pathway with features of macropinocytosis, which is a receptor-independent fluid uptake mechanism by cells. Each pathway contributes approximately the same amount of cell wall trafficking, but the PAFr pathway is silent, while the new pathway appears to contribute to the host inflammatory response to CW insult. Copyright © 2017

  10. Bacterial radiosensitivity to gamma and ultraviolet. Compositional dependence and repair mechanisms; Radiosensibilidad bacteriana frente a gamma y ultravioleta. Dependencia composicional y mecanismos de reparacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saez Angulo, R M; Davila, C A

    1974-07-01

    The gamma and ultraviolet radiosensitivity of several species of bacteria has been determined its dependence on DNAs composition and repair processes has been studied. Base composition are evaluated by chromatography, DNA melting temperature and isopycnic sedimentation on CsCl gradient. Repair capacity of gamma -and UV- lesions has been studied in two bacterial strains with same DMA base composition. It is concluded that the postulated correlation between radiosensitivity and base composition can not be generalized, the enzymatic repair mechanisms being of determining on radiosensitivity. (Author) 248 refs.

  11. p-Cresyl sulfate and indoxyl sulfate in pediatric patients on chronic dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Sun Hyun

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available &lt;b&gt;Purpose:&lt;/b&gt; Indoxyl sulfate and p- cresyl sulfate are important protein-bound uremic retention solutes whose levels can be partially reduced by renal replacement therapy. These solutes originate from intestinal bacterial protein fermentation and are associated with cardiovascular outcomes and chronic kidney disease progression. The aims of this study were to investigate the levels of indoxyl sulfate and p- cresyl sulfate as well as the effect of probiotics on reducing the levels of uremic toxins in pediatric patients on dialysis. &lt;b&gt;Methods:&lt;/b&gt; We enrolled 20 pediatric patients undergoing chronic dialysis; 16 patients completed the study. The patients underwent a 12-week regimen of VSL#3, a high-concentration probiotic preparation, and the serum levels of indoxyl sulfate and p- cresyl sulfate were measured before treatment and at 4, 8, and 12 weeks after the regimen by using fluorescence liquid chromatography. To assess the normal range of indoxyl sulfate and p- cresyl sulfate we enrolled the 16 children with normal glomerular filtration rate who had visited an outpatient clinic for asymptomatic microscopic hematuria that had been detected by a school screening in August 2011. &lt;b&gt;Results:&lt;/b&gt; The baseline serum levels of indoxyl sulfate and p- cresyl sulfate in the patients on chronic dialysis were significantly higher than those in the children with microscopic hematuria. The baseline serum levels of p- cresyl sulfate in the peritoneal dialysis group were significantly higher than those in the hemodialysis group. There were no significant changes in the levels of these uremic solutes after 12-week VSL#3 treatment in the patients on chronic dialysis. &lt;b&gt;Conclusion:&lt;/b&gt; The levels of the uremic toxins p- cresyl sulfate and indoxyl sulfate are highly elevated in pediatric patients on dialysis, but there was no significant effect by

  12. The ceric sulfate dosimeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergbakke, Erling

    1970-01-01

    The process employed for the determination of absorbed dose is the reduction of ceric ions to cerous ions in a solution of ceric sulfate and cerous sulfate in 0.8N sulfuric acid: Ce4+→Ce 3+ The absorbed dose is derived from the difference in ceric ion concentration before and after irradiation...

  13. Soil texture-depending effects of doxycycline and streptomycin applied with manure on the bacterial community composition and resistome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blau, Khald; Casadevall, Laia; Wolters, Birgit; Van den Meersche, Tina; Kreuzig, Robert; Smalla, Kornelia; Jechalke, Sven

    2018-02-01

    Veterinary antibiotics, bacteria carrying antibiotic resistance determinants located on mobile genetic elements and nutrients are spread on agricultural soil using manure as fertilizer. However, systematic quantitative studies linking antibiotic concentrations and antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) in manure and the environment are scarce but needed to assess environmental risks. In this microcosm study, a sandy and a loamy soil were mixed with manure spiked with streptomycin or doxycycline at five concentrations. Total-community DNA was extracted on days 28 and 92, and the abundances of ARGs (aadA, strA, tet(A), tet(M), tet(W), tet(Q), sul1, qacE/qacEΔ1) and class 1 and 2 integron integrase genes (intI1 and intI2) were determined by qPCR relative to 16S rRNA genes. Effects on the bacterial community composition were evaluated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Manure application to the soils strongly increased the relative abundance of most tested genes. Antibiotics caused further enrichments which decreased over time and were mostly seen at high concentrations. Strikingly, the effects on relative gene abundances and soil bacterial community composition were more pronounced in sandy soil. The concept of defining antibiotic threshold concentrations for environmental risk assessments remains challenging due to the various influencing factors. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Micro-Raman spectroscopic identification of bacterial cells of the genus Staphylococcus and dependence on their cultivation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harz, M; Rösch, P; Peschke, K-D; Ronneberger, O; Burkhardt, H; Popp, J

    2005-11-01

    Microbial contamination is not only a medical problem, but also plays a large role in pharmaceutical clean room production and food processing technology. Therefore many techniques were developed to achieve differentiation and identification of microorganisms. Among these methods vibrational spectroscopic techniques (IR, Raman and SERS) are useful tools because of their rapidity and sensitivity. Recently we have shown that micro-Raman spectroscopy in combination with a support vector machine is an extremely capable approach for a fast and reliable, non-destructive online identification of single bacteria belonging to different genera. In order to simulate different environmental conditions we analyzed in this contribution different Staphylococcus strains with varying cultivation conditions in order to evaluate our method with a reliable dataset. First, micro-Raman spectra of the bulk material and single bacterial cells that were grown under the same conditions were recorded and used separately for a distinct chemotaxonomic classification of the strains. Furthermore Raman spectra were recorded from single bacterial cells that were cultured under various conditions to study the influence of cultivation on the discrimination ability. This dataset was analyzed both with a hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and a support vector machine (SVM).

  15. Heparan sulfate biosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Multhaupt, Hinke A B; Couchman, John R

    2012-01-01

    Heparan sulfate is perhaps the most complex polysaccharide known from animals. The basic repeating disaccharide is extensively modified by sulfation and uronic acid epimerization. Despite this, the fine structure of heparan sulfate is remarkably consistent with a particular cell type. This suggests...... that the synthesis of heparan sulfate is tightly controlled. Although genomics has identified the enzymes involved in glycosaminoglycan synthesis in a number of vertebrates and invertebrates, the regulation of the process is not understood. Moreover, the localization of the various enzymes in the Golgi apparatus has......-quality resolution of the distribution of enzymes. The EXT2 protein, which when combined as heterodimers with EXT1 comprises the major polymerase in heparan sulfate synthesis, has been studied in depth. All the data are consistent with a cis-Golgi distribution and provide a starting point to establish whether all...

  16. Benthic bacterial diversity in submerged sinkhole ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nold, Stephen C; Pangborn, Joseph B; Zajack, Heidi A; Kendall, Scott T; Rediske, Richard R; Biddanda, Bopaiah A

    2010-01-01

    Physicochemical characterization, automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) community profiling, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing approaches were used to study bacterial communities inhabiting submerged Lake Huron sinkholes inundated with hypoxic, sulfate-rich groundwater. Photosynthetic cyanobacterial mats on the sediment surface were dominated by Phormidium autumnale, while deeper, organically rich sediments contained diverse and active bacterial communities.

  17. Host-dependent zonulin secretion causes the impairment of the small intestine barrier function after bacterial exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Asmar, Ramzi; Panigrahi, Pinaki; Bamford, Penelope; Berti, Irene; Not, Tarcisio; Coppa, Giovanni V; Catassi, Carlo; Fasano, Alessio; El Asmar, Rahzi

    2002-11-01

    Enteric infections have been implicated in the pathogenesis of both food intolerance and autoimmune diseases secondary to the impairment of the intestinal barrier. On the basis of our recent discovery of zonulin, a modulator of small-intestinal tight junctions, we asked whether microorganisms might induce zonulin secretion and increased small-intestinal permeability. Both ex vivo mammalian small intestines and intestinal cell monolayers were exposed to either pathogenic or nonpathogenic enterobacteria. Zonulin production and changes in paracellular permeability were monitored in Ussing chambers and micro-snapwells. Zonula occludens 1 protein redistribution after bacteria colonization was evaluated on cell monolayers. Small intestines exposed to enteric bacteria secreted zonulin. This secretion was independent of either the species of the small intestines or the virulence of the microorganisms tested, occurred only on the luminal aspect of the bacteria-exposed small-intestinal mucosa, and was followed by a decrease in small-intestinal tissue resistance (transepithelial electrical resistance). The transepithelial electrical resistance decrement was secondary to the zonulin-induced tight junction disassembly, as also shown by the disengagement of the protein zonula occludens 1 protein from the tight junctional complex. This zonulin-driven opening of the paracellular pathway may represent a defensive mechanism, which flushes out microorganisms and contributes to the host response against bacterial colonization of the small intestine.

  18. Ferrous Sulfate (Iron)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are allergic to ferrous sulfate, any other medications tartrazine (a yellow dye in some processed foods and ... in, tightly closed, and out of reach of children. Store it at room temperature and away from ...

  19. Holothurian Fucosylated Chondroitin Sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor H. Pomin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FucCS is a structurally distinct glycosaminoglycan found in sea cucumber species. It has the same backbone composition of alternating 4-linked glucuronic acid and 3-linked N-acetyl galactosamine residues within disaccharide repeating units as regularly found in mammalian chondroitin sulfates. However, FucCS has also sulfated fucosyl branching units 3-O-linked to the acid residues. The sulfation patterns of these branches vary accordingly with holothurian species and account for different biological actions and responses. FucCSs may exhibit anticoagulant, antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antiviral, and pro-angiogenic activities, besides its beneficial effects in hemodialysis, cellular growth modulation, fibrosis and hyperglycemia. Through an historical overview, this document covers most of the science regarding the holothurian FucCS. Both structural and medical properties of this unique GAG, investigated during the last 25 years, are systematically discussed herein.

  20. DHEA-sulfate test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... DHEA sulfate may be due to: Adrenal gland disorders that produce lower than normal amounts of adrenal hormones, including adrenal insufficiency and Addison disease The pituitary gland not producing normal amounts of its hormones ( hypopituitarism ) ...

  1. Effect of metakaolin on external sulfate attack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramlochan, T.; Thomas, M. [Toronto Univ., Dept. of Civil Engineering, ON (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    The effect of high reactivity metakaolin (HRM) on the sulfate resistance of mortars was studied. Mortar bars with three cements of varying C{sub 3}A content were used for the experiment. After a six month exposure to a 5 per cent solution of sodium sulfate, mortar bars incorporating any level of HRM as a partial replacement for a high-C{sub 3}A was considered 'moderately sulfate resistant'; mortar bars with HRM and a moderate or low C{sub 3}A content as 'high sulfate resistant'. It was also determined that for long term sulfate resistance 15 per cent HRM or more may be required, depending on the C{sub 3}A content. The performance of HRM was found to be significantly influenced by the water-cementitious material ratio, and in turn, by permeability, suggesting that HRM might increase sulfate resistance more by lowering the permeability of the concrete than by any chemical action. 7 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs.

  2. Direct Sulfation of Limestone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Guilin; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Wedel, Stig

    2007-01-01

    The direct sulfation of limestone was studied in a laboratory fixed-bed reactor. It is found that the direct sulfation of limestone involves nucleation and crystal grain growth of the solid product (anhydrite). At 823 K and at low-conversions (less than about 0.5 %), the influences of SO2, O-2...... and CO2 on the direct sulfation of limestone corresponds to apparent reaction orders of about 0.2, 0.2 and -0.5, respectively. Water is observed to promote the sulfation reaction and increase the apparent reaction orders of SO2 and O-2. The influence of O-2 at high O-2 concentrations (> about 15...... %) becomes negligible. In the temperature interval from 723 K to 973 K, an apparent activation energy of about 104 kJ/mol is observed for the direct sulfation of limestone. At low temperatures and low conversions, the sulfation process is most likely under mixed control by chemical reaction and solid...

  3. Sex-dependent alterations in motor and anxiety-like behavior of aged bacterial peptidoglycan sensing molecule 2 knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arentsen, Tim; Khalid, Roksana; Qian, Yu; Diaz Heijtz, Rochellys

    2018-01-01

    Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) are key sensing-molecules of the innate immune system that specifically detect bacterial peptidoglycan (PGN) and its derivates. PGRPs have recently emerged as potential key regulators of normal brain development and behavior. To test the hypothesis that PGRPs play a role in motor control and anxiety-like behavior in later life, we used 15-month old male and female peptidoglycan recognition protein 2 (Pglyrp2) knockout (KO) mice. Pglyrp2 is an N-acetylmuramyl-l-alanine amidase that hydrolyzes PGN between the sugar backbone and the peptide chain (which is unique among the mammalian PGRPs). Using a battery of behavioral tests, we demonstrate that Pglyrp2 KO male mice display decreased levels of anxiety-like behavior compared with wild type (WT) males. In contrast, Pglyrp2 KO female mice show reduced rearing activity and increased anxiety-like behavior compared to WT females. In the accelerated rotarod test, however, Pglyrp2 KO female mice performed better compared to WT females (i.e., they had longer latency to fall off the rotarod). Further, Pglyrp2 KO male mice exhibited decreased expression levels of synaptophysin, gephyrin, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the frontal cortex, but not in the amygdala. Pglyrp2 KO female mice exhibited increased expression levels of spinophilin and alpha-synuclein in the frontal cortex, while exhibiting decreased expression levels of synaptophysin, gephyrin and spinophilin in the amygdala. Our findings suggest a novel role for Pglyrp2asa key regulator of motor and anxiety-like behavior in late life. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Strain Dependent Genetic Networks for Antibiotic-Sensitivity in a Bacterial Pathogen with a Large Pan-Genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim van Opijnen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between an antibiotic and bacterium is not merely restricted to the drug and its direct target, rather antibiotic induced stress seems to resonate through the bacterium, creating selective pressures that drive the emergence of adaptive mutations not only in the direct target, but in genes involved in many different fundamental processes as well. Surprisingly, it has been shown that adaptive mutations do not necessarily have the same effect in all species, indicating that the genetic background influences how phenotypes are manifested. However, to what extent the genetic background affects the manner in which a bacterium experiences antibiotic stress, and how this stress is processed is unclear. Here we employ the genome-wide tool Tn-Seq to construct daptomycin-sensitivity profiles for two strains of the bacterial pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae. Remarkably, over half of the genes that are important for dealing with antibiotic-induced stress in one strain are dispensable in another. By confirming over 100 genotype-phenotype relationships, probing potassium-loss, employing genetic interaction mapping as well as temporal gene-expression experiments we reveal genome-wide conditionally important/essential genes, we discover roles for genes with unknown function, and uncover parts of the antibiotic's mode-of-action. Moreover, by mapping the underlying genomic network for two query genes we encounter little conservation in network connectivity between strains as well as profound differences in regulatory relationships. Our approach uniquely enables genome-wide fitness comparisons across strains, facilitating the discovery that antibiotic responses are complex events that can vary widely between strains, which suggests that in some cases the emergence of resistance could be strain specific and at least for species with a large pan-genome less predictable.

  5. Culture-dependent and culture-independent characterization of potentially functional biphenyl-degrading bacterial community in response to extracellular organic matter from Micrococcus luteus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiao-Mei; Liu, Yin-Dong; Hashmi, Muhammad Zaffar; Ding, Lin-Xian; Shen, Chao-Feng

    2015-05-01

    Biphenyl (BP)-degrading bacteria were identified to degrade various polychlorinated BP (PCB) congers in long-term PCB-contaminated sites. Exploring BP-degrading capability of potentially useful bacteria was performed for enhancing PCB bioremediation. In the present study, the bacterial composition of the PCB-contaminated sediment sample was first investigated. Then extracellular organic matter (EOM) from Micrococcus luteus was used to enhance BP biodegradation. The effect of the EOM on the composition of bacterial community was investigated by combining with culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. The obtained results indicate that Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were predominant community in the PCB-contaminated sediment. EOM from M. luteus could stimulate the activity of some potentially difficult-to-culture BP degraders, which contribute to significant enhancement of BP biodegradation. The potentially difficult-to-culture bacteria in response to EOM addition were mainly Rhodococcus and Pseudomonas belonging to Gammaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria respectively. This study provides new insights into exploration of functional difficult-to-culture bacteria with EOM addition and points out broader BP/PCB degrading, which could be employed for enhancing PCB-bioremediation processes. © 2015 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Bacterial mitosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Borch, Jonas; Dam, Mette

    2003-01-01

    Bacterial DNA segregation takes place in an active and ordered fashion. In the case of Escherichia coli plasmid R1, the partitioning system (par) separates paired plasmid copies and moves them to opposite cell poles. Here we address the mechanism by which the three components of the R1 par system...... act together to generate the force required for plasmid movement during segregation. ParR protein binds cooperatively to the centromeric parC DNA region, thereby forming a complex that interacts with the filament-forming actin-like ParM protein in an ATP-dependent manner, suggesting that plasmid...

  7. Exposure to bacterial DNA before hemorrhagic shock strongly aggravates systemic inflammation and gut barrier loss via an IFN-gamma-dependent route

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luyer, Misha D.; Buurman, Wim A.; Hadfoune, M.'hamed; Wolfs, T.; van't Veer, Cornelis; Jacobs, Jan A.; Dejong, Cornelis H.; Greve, Jan Willem M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of bacterial DNA in development of an excessive inflammatory response and loss of gut barrier loss following systemic hypotension. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Bacterial infection may contribute to development of inflammatory complications following major surgery;

  8. Detection of Ca2+-dependent acid phosphatase activity identifies neuronal integrity in damaged rat central nervous system after application of bacterial melanin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tigran R Petrosyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to confirm the neuroregenerative effects of bacterial melanin (BM on central nervous system injury using a special staining method based on the detection of Ca2+-dependent acid phosphatase activity. Twenty-four rats were randomly assigned to undergo either unilateral destruction of sensorimotor cortex (group I; n = 12 or unilateral rubrospinal tract transection at the cervical level (C3–4 (group II; n = 12. In each group, six rats were randomly selected after surgery to undergo intramuscular injection of BM solution (BM subgroup and the remaining six rats were intramuscularly injected with saline (saline subgroup. Neurological testing confirmed that BM accelerated the recovery of motor function in rats from both BM and saline subgroups. Two months after surgery, Ca2+-dependent acid phosphatase activity detection in combination with Chilingarian's calcium adenoside triphosphate method revealed that BM stimulated the sprouting of fibers and dilated the capillaries in the brain and spinal cord. These results suggest that BM can promote the recovery of motor function of rats with central nervous system injury; and detection of Ca2+-dependent acid phosphatase activity is a fast and easy method used to study the regeneration-promoting effects of BM on the injured central nervous system.

  9. Using Sulfate-Amended Sediment Slurry Batch Reactors to Evaluate Mercury Methylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmon, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    In the methylated form, mercury represents a concern to public health primarily through the consumption of contaminated fish tissue. Research conducted on the methylation of mercury strongly suggests the process is microbial in nature and facilitated principally by sulfate-reducing bacteria. This study addressed the potential for mercury methylation by varying sulfate treatments and wetland-based soil in microbial slurry reactors with available inorganic mercury. Under anoxic laboratory conditions conducive to growth of naturally occurring sulfate-reducing bacteria in the soil, it was possible to evaluate how various sulfate additions influenced the methylation of inorganic mercury added to overlying water. Treatments included sulfate amendments ranging FR-om 25 to 500 mg/L (0.26 to 5.2 mM) above the soil's natural sulfate level. This study also provided an assessment of mercury methylation relative to sulfate-reducing bacterial population growth and subsequent sulfide production. Mercury methylation in sulfate treatments did not exceed that of the non-amended control during a 35-day incubation. However, increases in methylmercury concentration were linked to bacterial growth and sulfate reduction. A time lag in methylation in the highest treatment correlated with an equivalent lag in bacterial growth

  10. Regulatory Phosphorylation of Bacterial-Type PEP Carboxylase by the Ca2+-Dependent Protein Kinase RcCDPK1 in Developing Castor Oil Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Sheng; Hill, Allyson T; Pyc, Michal; Anderson, Erin M; Snedden, Wayne A; Mullen, Robert T; She, Yi-Min; Plaxton, William C

    2017-06-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) is a tightly controlled cytosolic enzyme situated at a crucial branch point of central plant metabolism. In developing castor oil seeds ( Ricinus communis ) a novel, allosterically desensitized 910-kD Class-2 PEPC hetero-octameric complex, arises from a tight interaction between 107-kD plant-type PEPC and 118-kD bacterial-type (BTPC) subunits. The native Ca 2+ -dependent protein kinase (CDPK) responsible for in vivo inhibitory phosphorylation of Class-2 PEPC's BTPC subunit's at Ser-451 was highly purified from COS and identified as RcCDPK1 (XP_002526815) by mass spectrometry. Heterologously expressed RcCDPK1 catalyzed Ca 2+ -dependent, inhibitory phosphorylation of BTPC at Ser-451 while exhibiting: ( i ) a pair of Ca 2+ binding sites with identical dissociation constants of 5.03 μM, ( ii ) a Ca 2+ -dependent electrophoretic mobility shift, and ( iii ) a marked Ca 2+ -independent hydrophobicity. Pull-down experiments established the Ca 2+ -dependent interaction of N-terminal GST-tagged RcCDPK1 with BTPC. RcCDPK1-Cherry localized to the cytosol and nucleus of tobacco bright yellow-2 cells, but colocalized with mitochondrial-surface associated BTPC-enhanced yellow fluorescent protein when both fusion proteins were coexpressed. Deletion analyses demonstrated that although its N-terminal variable domain plays an essential role in optimizing Ca 2+ -dependent RcCDPK1 autophosphorylation and BTPC transphosphorylation activity, it is not critical for in vitro or in vivo target recognition. Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) CPK4 and soybean ( Glycine max ) CDPKβ are RcCDPK1 orthologs that effectively phosphorylated castor BTPC at Ser-451. Overall, the results highlight a potential link between cytosolic Ca 2+ signaling and the posttranslational control of respiratory CO 2 refixation and anaplerotic photosynthate partitioning in support of storage oil and protein biosynthesis in developing COS. © 2017 American Society of Plant

  11. Regulatory Phosphorylation of Bacterial-Type PEP Carboxylase by the Ca2+-Dependent Protein Kinase RcCDPK1 in Developing Castor Oil Seeds1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Allyson T.; Anderson, Erin M.; She, Yi-Min

    2017-01-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) is a tightly controlled cytosolic enzyme situated at a crucial branch point of central plant metabolism. In developing castor oil seeds (Ricinus communis) a novel, allosterically desensitized 910-kD Class-2 PEPC hetero-octameric complex, arises from a tight interaction between 107-kD plant-type PEPC and 118-kD bacterial-type (BTPC) subunits. The native Ca2+-dependent protein kinase (CDPK) responsible for in vivo inhibitory phosphorylation of Class-2 PEPC’s BTPC subunit’s at Ser-451 was highly purified from COS and identified as RcCDPK1 (XP_002526815) by mass spectrometry. Heterologously expressed RcCDPK1 catalyzed Ca2+-dependent, inhibitory phosphorylation of BTPC at Ser-451 while exhibiting: (i) a pair of Ca2+ binding sites with identical dissociation constants of 5.03 μM, (ii) a Ca2+-dependent electrophoretic mobility shift, and (iii) a marked Ca2+-independent hydrophobicity. Pull-down experiments established the Ca2+-dependent interaction of N-terminal GST-tagged RcCDPK1 with BTPC. RcCDPK1-Cherry localized to the cytosol and nucleus of tobacco bright yellow-2 cells, but colocalized with mitochondrial-surface associated BTPC-enhanced yellow fluorescent protein when both fusion proteins were coexpressed. Deletion analyses demonstrated that although its N-terminal variable domain plays an essential role in optimizing Ca2+-dependent RcCDPK1 autophosphorylation and BTPC transphosphorylation activity, it is not critical for in vitro or in vivo target recognition. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) CPK4 and soybean (Glycine max) CDPKβ are RcCDPK1 orthologs that effectively phosphorylated castor BTPC at Ser-451. Overall, the results highlight a potential link between cytosolic Ca2+ signaling and the posttranslational control of respiratory CO2 refixation and anaplerotic photosynthate partitioning in support of storage oil and protein biosynthesis in developing COS. PMID:28363991

  12. Novel processes for anaerobic sulfate production from elemental sulfur by sulfate-reducing bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovley, D.R.; Phillips, E.J.P.

    1994-01-01

    Sulfate reducers and related organisms which had previously been found to reduce Fe(III) with H2 or organic electron donors oxidized S0 to sulfate when Mn(IV) was provided as an electron acceptor. Organisms catalyzing this reaction in washed cell suspensions included Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, Desulfomicrobium baculatum. Desulfobacterium autotrophicum, Desulfuromonas acetoxidans, and Geobacter metallireducens. These organisms produced little or no sulfate from S0 with Fe(III) as a potential electron acceptor or in the absence of an electron acceptor. In detailed studies with Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, the stoichiometry of sulfate and Mn(II) production was consistent with the reaction S0 + 3 MnO2 + 4H+ ???SO42- + 3Mn(II) + 2H2O. None of the organisms evaluated could be grown with S0 as the sole electron donor and Mn(IV) as the electron acceptor. In contrast to the other sulfate reducers evaluated, Desulfobulbus propionicus produced sulfate from S0 in the absence of an electron acceptor and Fe(III) oxide stimulated sulfate production. Sulfide also accumulated in the absence of Mn(IV) or Fe(III). The stoichiometry of sulfate and sulfide production indicated that Desulfobulbus propionicus disproportionates S0 as follows: 4S0 + 4H2O???SO42- + 3HS- + 5 H+. Growth of Desulfobulbus propionicus with S0 as the electron donor and Fe(III) as a sulfide sink and/or electron acceptor was very slow. The S0 oxidation coupled to Mn(IV) reduction described here provides a potential explanation for the Mn(IV)-dependent sulfate production that previous studies have observed in anoxic marine sediments. Desulfobulbus propionicus is the first example of a pure culture known to disproportionate S0.

  13. Quantifying heavy metals sequestration by sulfate-reducing bacteria in an acid mine drainage-contaminated wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W Moreau

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation strategies that depend on bacterial sulfate reduction for heavy metals remediation harness the reactivity of these metals with biogenic aqueous sulfide. Quantitative knowledge of the degree to which specific toxic metals are partitioned into various sulfide, oxide, or other phases is important for predicting the long-term mobility of these metals under environmental conditions. Here we report the quantitative partitioning into sedimentary biogenic sulfides of a suite of metals and metalloids associated with acid mine drainage contamination of a natural estuarine wetland for over a century.

  14. Biodegradability of bacterial surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Tânia M S; Procópio, Lorena C; Brandão, Felipe D; Carvalho, André M X; Tótola, Marcos R; Borges, Arnaldo C

    2011-06-01

    This work aimed at evaluating the biodegradability of different bacterial surfactants in liquid medium and in soil microcosms. The biodegradability of biosurfactants by pure and mixed bacterial cultures was evaluated through CO(2) evolution. Three bacterial strains, Acinetobacter baumanni LBBMA ES11, Acinetobacter haemolyticus LBBMA 53 and Pseudomonas sp. LBBMA 101B, used the biosurfactants produced by Bacillus sp. LBBMA 111A (mixed lipopeptide), Bacillus subtilis LBBMA 155 (lipopeptide), Flavobacterium sp. LBBMA 168 (mixture of flavolipids), Dietzia Maris LBBMA 191(glycolipid) and Arthrobacter oxydans LBBMA 201(lipopeptide) as carbon sources in minimal medium. The synthetic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was also mineralized by these microorganisms, but at a lower rate. CO(2) emitted by a mixed bacterial culture in soil microcosms with biosurfactants was higher than in the microcosm containing SDS. Biosurfactant mineralization in soil was confirmed by the increase in surface tension of the soil aqueous extracts after incubation with the mixed bacterial culture. It can be concluded that, in terms of biodegradability and environmental security, these compounds are more suitable for applications in remediation technologies in comparison to synthetic surfactants. However, more information is needed on structure of biosurfactants, their interaction with soil and contaminants and scale up and cost for biosurfactant production.

  15. Efficacy of Bifidobacterium breve NCC2950 against DSS-induced colitis is dependent on bacterial preparation and timing of administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, C L; Natividad, J M M; Jury, J; Martin, R; Langella, P; Verdu, E F

    2014-03-01

    Probiotics have been proposed as a therapy for inflammatory bowel disease, but variations in strains, formulations, and protocols used in clinical trials have hindered the creation of guidelines for their use. Thus, preclinical insight into the mechanisms of specific probiotic strains and mode of administration would be useful to guide future clinical trial design. In this study, live, heat inactivated (HI), and spent culture medium preparations of the probiotic Bifidobacterium breve NCC2950 were administered to specific pathogen free C57BL/6 mice before or during colitis, as well as before colitis reactivation. Five days of 3.5% dextran sulphate sodium in drinking water was used to induce colitis. Pretreatment with live B. breve reduced disease severity, myeloperoxidase activity, microscopic damage, cytokine production, interleukin (IL)-12/IL-10 ratio, and lymphocyte infiltration in the colon. B. breve did not attenuate on-going colitis. After acute colitis, disease symptoms were normalised sooner with live and HI B. breve treatment; however, reactivation of colitis was not prevented. These findings indicate that the efficacy of a probiotic to modulate intestinal inflammation is dependent on the formulation as well as state of inflammation when administered. Overall, live B. breve was most efficacious in preventing acute colitis. Live and HI B. breve also promoted recovery from diarrhoea and colon bleeding after a bout of acute colitis.

  16. TaCPK2-A, a calcium-dependent protein kinase gene that is required for wheat powdery mildew resistance enhances bacterial blight resistance in transgenic rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Shuaifeng; Li, Aili; Tang, Lichuan; Yin, Lingjie; Wu, Liang; Lei, Cailin; Guo, Xiuping; Zhang, Xin; Jiang, Guanghuai; Zhai, Wenxue; Wei, Yuming; Zheng, Youliang; Lan, Xiujin; Mao, Long

    2013-08-01

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CPKs) are important Ca2+ signalling components involved in complex immune and stress signalling networks; but the knowledge of CPK gene functions in the hexaploid wheat is limited. Previously, TaCPK2 was shown to be inducible by powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis tritici, Bgt) infection in wheat. Here, its functions in disease resistance are characterized further. This study shows the presence of defence-response and cold-response cis-elements on the promoters of the A subgenome homoeologue (TaCPK2-A) and D subgenome homoeologue (TaCPK2-D), respectively. Their expression patterns were then confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) using genome-specific primers, where TaCPK2-A was induced by Bgt treatment while TaCPK2-D mainly responded to cold treatment. Downregulation of TaCPK2-A by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) causes loss of resistance to Bgt in resistant wheat lines, indicating that TaCPK2-A is required for powdery mildew resistance. Furthermore, overexpression of TaCPK2-A in rice enhanced bacterial blight (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, Xoo) resistance. qRT-PCR analysis showed that overexpression of TaCPK2-A in rice promoted the expression of OsWRKY45-1, a transcription factor involved in both fungal and bacterial resistance by regulating jasmonic acid and salicylic acid signalling genes. The opposite effect was found in wheat TaCPK2-A VIGS plants, where the homologue of OsWRKY45-1 was significantly repressed. These data suggest that modulation of WRKY45-1 and associated defence-response genes by CPK2 genes may be the common mechanism for multiple disease resistance in grass species, which may have undergone subfunctionalization in promoters before the formation of hexaploid wheat.

  17. Sulfate metabolism. I. Sulfate uptake and redistribution of acid rain sulfate by edible plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dallam, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    Sulfur is the major component of polluted air in industrialized societies. Atmospheric sulfur is converted to sulfuric acid through a series of chemical reactions which can eventually reenter many ecosystems. When edible plants are grown in soils containing varying amounts of sulfate, the roots take up and transport inorganic sulfate to the stems and leaves. The sulfate taken up by the roots and the amount transported to the stem and leaves was found to be a function of the concentration of sulfate in the soil. Inorganic sulfate taken up by a corn plant seedling can be rapidly converted to organic sulfate by the root system. Nine days after one of a pair of pea plants was inoculated with artificial acid rain sulfate (dilute H 2 35 SO 4 ) it was found that the sulfate was translocated not only in the inoculated plant, but also to the uninoculated pea plant in the same container. Also, when the leaves of a mature potato plant were inoculated with artificial acid rain sulfate it was found that the sulfate was translocated into the edible potatoes. Fractionation of the potatoes showed that most of the sulfate was water soluble of which 30% was inorganic sulfate and 70% was in the form of organic sulfur. One third of the non-water soluble translocated acid rain sulfate was equally divided between lipid and non-lipid organic sulfur of the potato. 9 references, 2 figures, 5 tables

  18. Antifouling potential of Nature-inspired sulfated compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Joana R.; Correia-da-Silva, Marta; Sousa, Emília; Antunes, Jorge; Pinto, Madalena; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Cunha, Isabel

    2017-02-01

    Natural products with a sulfated scaffold have emerged as antifouling agents with low or nontoxic effects to the environment. In this study 13 sulfated polyphenols were synthesized and tested for antifouling potential using the anti-settlement activity of mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) plantigrade post-larvae and bacterial growth inhibition towards four biofilm-forming bacterial strains. Results show that some of these Nature-inspired compounds were bioactive, particularly rutin persulfate (2), 3,6-bis(β-D-glucopyranosyl) xanthone persulfate (6), and gallic acid persulfate (12) against the settlement of plantigrades. The chemical precursors of sulfated compounds 2 and 12 were also tested for anti-settlement activity and it was possible to conclude that bioactivity is associated with sulfation. While compound 12 showed the most promising anti-settlement activity (EC50 = 8.95 μg.mL-1), compound 2 also caused the higher level of growth inhibition in bacteria Vibrio harveyi (EC20 = 12.5 μg.mL-1). All the three bioactive compounds 2, 6, and 12 were also found to be nontoxic to the non target species Artemia salina ( 1000 μg.mL-1). This study put forward the relevance of synthesizing non-natural sulfated small molecules to generate new nontoxic antifouling agents.

  19. Bacterial meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, Karen L.; van de Beek, Diederik

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a neurological emergency. Empiric antimicrobial and adjunctive therapy should be initiated as soon as a single set of blood cultures has been obtained. Clinical signs suggestive of bacterial meningitis include fever, headache, meningismus, vomiting, photophobia, and an

  20. Dissolution of sulfate scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hen, J.

    1991-11-26

    This patent describes a composition for the removal of sulfate scale from surfaces. It comprises: an aqueous solution of about 0.1 to 1.0 molar concentration of an aminopolycarboxylic acid (APCA) containing 1 to 4 amino groups or a salt thereof, and about 0.1 to 1.0 molar concentration of a second component which is diethylenetriaminepenta (methylenephosphonic acid) (DTPMP) or a salt thereof, or aminotri (methylenephosphonic acid) (ATMP) or a salt thereof as an internal phase enveloped by a hydrocarbon membrane phase which is itself emulsified in an external aqueous phase, the hydrocarbon membrane phase continuing a complexing agent weaker for the cations of the sulfate scale than the APCA and DTPMP or ATMP, any complexing agent for the cations in the external aqueous phase being weaker than that in the hydrocarbon membrane phase.

  1. Extraction of beryllium sulfate by a long chain amine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etaix, E.S.

    1968-01-01

    The extraction of sulfuric acid in aqueous solution by a primary amine in benzene solution, 3-9 (diethyl) - 6-amino tri-decane (D.E.T. ) - i.e., with American nomenclature 1-3 (ethyl-pentyl) - 4-ethyl-octyl amine (E.P.O.) - has made it possible to calculate the formation constants of alkyl-ammonium sulfate and acid sulfate. The formula of the beryllium and alkyl-ammonium sulfate complex formed in benzene has next been determined, for various initial acidity of the aqueous solution. Lastly, evidence has been given of negatively charged complexes of beryllium and sulfate in aqueous solution, through the dependence of the aqueous sulfate ions concentration upon beryllium extraction. The formation constant of these anionic complexes has been evaluated. (author) [fr

  2. Formation of the natural sulfate aerosol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerminen, V.M.; Hillamo, R.; Maekinen, M.; Virkkula, A.; Maekelae, T.; Pakkanen, T. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics

    1996-12-31

    Anthropogenic sulfate aerosol, together with particles from biomass burning, may significantly reduce the climatic warming due to man-made greenhouse gases. The radiative forcing of aerosol particles is based on their ability to scatter and absorb solar radiation (direct effect), and on their influences on cloud albedos and lifetimes (indirect effect). The direct aerosol effect depends strongly on the size, number and chemical composition of particles, being greatest for particles of 0.1-1 {mu}m in diameter. The indirect aerosol effect is dictated by the number of particles being able to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). For sulfate particles, the minimum CCN size in tropospheric clouds is of the order of 0.05-0.2 {mu}m. To improve aerosol parameterizations in future climate models, it is required that (1) both primary and secondary sources of various particle types will be characterized at a greater accuracy, and (2) the influences of various atmospheric processes on the spatial and temporal distribution of these particles and their physico-chemical properties are known much better than at the present. In estimating the climatic forcing due to the sulfate particles, one of the major problems is to distinguish between sulfur from anthropogenic sources and that of natural origin. Global emissions of biogenic and anthropogenic sulfate pre-cursors are comparable in magnitude, but over regional scales either of these two source types may dominate. The current presentation is devoted to discussing the natural sulfate aerosol, including the formation of sulfur-derived particles in the marine environment, and the use of particulate methanesulfonic acid (MSA) as a tracer for the natural sulfate

  3. Formation of the natural sulfate aerosol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerminen, V M; Hillamo, R; Maekinen, M; Virkkula, A; Maekelae, T; Pakkanen, T [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics

    1997-12-31

    Anthropogenic sulfate aerosol, together with particles from biomass burning, may significantly reduce the climatic warming due to man-made greenhouse gases. The radiative forcing of aerosol particles is based on their ability to scatter and absorb solar radiation (direct effect), and on their influences on cloud albedos and lifetimes (indirect effect). The direct aerosol effect depends strongly on the size, number and chemical composition of particles, being greatest for particles of 0.1-1 {mu}m in diameter. The indirect aerosol effect is dictated by the number of particles being able to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). For sulfate particles, the minimum CCN size in tropospheric clouds is of the order of 0.05-0.2 {mu}m. To improve aerosol parameterizations in future climate models, it is required that (1) both primary and secondary sources of various particle types will be characterized at a greater accuracy, and (2) the influences of various atmospheric processes on the spatial and temporal distribution of these particles and their physico-chemical properties are known much better than at the present. In estimating the climatic forcing due to the sulfate particles, one of the major problems is to distinguish between sulfur from anthropogenic sources and that of natural origin. Global emissions of biogenic and anthropogenic sulfate pre-cursors are comparable in magnitude, but over regional scales either of these two source types may dominate. The current presentation is devoted to discussing the natural sulfate aerosol, including the formation of sulfur-derived particles in the marine environment, and the use of particulate methanesulfonic acid (MSA) as a tracer for the natural sulfate

  4. Radioimmunoassay of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, J.G.H.; Furlanetto, R.P.; Russo, E.M.K.; Noguti, K.O.; Chacra, A.R.

    1980-01-01

    The development of a radioimmunological method for the measurement of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in serum is described. For the immunization of rabbits, a DHA-3-hemissuccinate-bovine serum albumin conjugate was synthetized and a highly specific anti-serum was produced. The method developed requires only simple dilution prior to assay and the normal values for the different age groups were determined in 146 normal individuals. (Author) [pt

  5. Sulfation of chondroitin. Specificity, degree of sulfation, and detergent effects with 4-sulfating and 6-sulfating microsomal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugumaran, G.; Silbert, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    Microsomal preparations from chondroitin 6-sulfate-producing chick embryo epiphyseal cartilage, and from chondroitin 4-sulfate-producing mouse mastocytoma cells, were incubated with UDP-[14C]glucuronic acid and UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine to form non-sulfated proteo[14C]chondroitin. Aliquots of the incubations were then incubated with 3'-phosphoadenylylphosphosulfate (PAPS) in the presence or absence of various detergents. In the absence of detergents, there was good sulfation of this endogenous proteo[14C]chondroitin by the original microsomes from both sources. Detergents, with the exception of Triton X-100, markedly inhibited sulfation in the mast cell system but not in the chick cartilage system. These results indicate that sulfation and polymerization are closely linked on cell membranes and that in some cases this organization can be disrupted by detergents. When aliquots of the original incubation were heat inactivated, and then reincubated with new microsomes from chick cartilage and/or mouse mastocytoma cells plus PAPS, there was no significant sulfation of this exogenous proteo[14C] chondroitin with either system unless Triton X-100 was added. Sulfation of exogenous chondroitin and chondroitin hexasaccharide was compared with sulfation of endogenous and exogenous proteo[14C]chondroitin. Sulfate incorporation into hexasaccharide and chondroitin decreased as their concentrations (based on uronic acid) approached that of the proteo[14C]chondroitin. At the same time, the degree of sulfation in percent of substituted hexosamine increased. However, the degree of sulfation did not reach that of the endogenous proteo[14C]chondroitin. Hexasaccharide and chondroitin sulfation were stimulated by the presence of Triton X-100. However, in contrast to the exogenous proteo[14C]chondroitin, there was some sulfation of hexasaccharide and chondroitin in the absence of this detergent

  6. Parameterization and evaluation of sulfate adsorption in a dynamic soil chemistry model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinson, Liisa; Alveteg, Mattias; Warfvinge, Per

    2003-01-01

    Including sulfate adsorption improves the dynamic behavior of the SAFE model. - Sulfate adsorption was implemented in the dynamic, multi-layer soil chemistry model SAFE. The process is modeled by an isotherm in which sulfate adsorption is considered to be fully reversible and dependent on sulfate concentration as well as pH in soil solution. The isotherm was parameterized by a site-specific series of simple batch experiments at different pH (3.8-5.0) and sulfate concentration (10-260 μmol l -1 ) levels. Application of the model to the Lake Gaardsjoen roof covered site shows that including sulfate adsorption improves the dynamic behavior of the model and sulfate adsorption and desorption delay acidification and recovery of the soil. The modeled adsorbed pool of sulfate at the site reached a maximum level of 700 mmol/m 2 in the late 1980s, well in line with experimental data

  7. Bacterial formation of phosphatic laminites off Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arning, E T; Birgel, D; Brunner, B; Peckmann, J

    2009-06-01

    Authigenic phosphatic laminites enclosed in phosphorite crusts from the shelf off Peru (10 degrees 01' S and 10 degrees 24' S) consist of carbonate fluorapatite layers, which contain abundant sulfide minerals including pyrite (FeS(2)) and sphalerite (ZnS). Low delta(34)S(pyrite) values (average -28.8 per thousand) agree with bacterial sulfate reduction and subsequent pyrite formation. Stable sulfur isotopic compositions of sulfate bound in carbonate fluorapatite are lower than that of sulfate from ambient sea water, suggesting bacterial reoxidation of sulfide by sulfide-oxidizing bacteria. The release of phosphorus and subsequent formation of the autochthonous phosphatic laminites are apparently caused by the activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria and associated sulfide-oxidizing bacteria. Following an extraction-phosphorite dissolution-extraction procedure, molecular fossils of sulfate-reducing bacteria (mono-O-alkyl glycerol ethers, di-O-alkyl glycerol ethers, as well as the short-chain branched fatty acids i/ai-C(15:0), i/ai-C(17:0) and 10MeC(16:0)) are found to be among the most abundant compounds. The fact that these molecular fossils of sulfate-reducing bacteria are distinctly more abundant after dissolution of the phosphatic laminite reveals that the lipids are tightly bound to the mineral lattice of carbonate fluorapatite. Moreover, compared with the autochthonous laminite, molecular fossils of sulfate-reducing bacteria are: (1) significantly less abundant and (2) not as tightly bound to the mineral lattice in the other, allochthonous facies of the Peruvian crusts consisting of phosphatic coated grains. These observations confirm the importance of sulfate-reducing bacteria in the formation of the phosphatic laminite. Model calculations highlight that organic matter degradation by sulfate-reducing bacteria has the potential to liberate sufficient phosphorus for phosphogenesis.

  8. Plasma antibodies from malaria-exposed pregnant women recognize variant surface antigens on Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes in a parity-dependent manner and block parasite adhesion to chondroitin sulfate A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricke, C H; Staalsoe, T; Koram, K

    2000-01-01

    -associated malaria (PAM) in endemic areas is concentrated in the first few pregnancies, indicating that protective immunity to PAM is a function of parity. The placenta is often heavily infected in PAM, and placental parasites show a striking preference for chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) as an adhesion receptor. Plasma...

  9. Early diagenesis in the sediments of the Congo deep-sea fan dominated by massive terrigenous deposits: Part III - Sulfate- and methane- based microbial processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, L.; Toffin, L.; Decker, C.; Olu, K.; Cathalot, C.; Lesongeur, F.; Caprais, J.-C.; Bessette, S.; Brandily, C.; Taillefert, M.; Rabouille, C.

    2017-08-01

    Geochemical profiles (SO42-, H2S, CH4, δ13CH4) and phylogenetic diversity of Archaea and Bacteria from two oceanographic cruises dedicated to the lobes sediments of the Congo deep-sea fan are presented in this paper. In this area, organic-rich turbidites reach 5000 m and allow the establishment of patchy cold-seep-like habitats including microbial mats, reduced sediments, and vesicomyid bivalves assemblages. These bivalves live in endosymbiosis with sulfur-oxidizing bacteria and use sulfides to perform chemosynthesis. In these habitats, unlike classical abyssal sediments, anoxic processes are dominant. Total oxygen uptake fluxes and methane fluxes measured with benthic chambers are in the same range as those of active cold-seep environments, and oxygen is mainly used for reoxidation of reduced compounds, especially in bacterial mats and reduced sediments. High concentrations of methane and sulfate co-exist in the upper 20 cm of sediments, and evidence indicates that sulfate-reducing microorganisms and methanogens co-occur in the shallow layers of these sediments. Simultaneously, anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) with sulfate as the electron acceptor is evidenced by the presence of ANMEs (ANaerobic MEthanotroph). Dissolved sulfide produced through the reduction of sulfate is reoxidized through several pathways depending on the habitat. These pathways include vesicomyid bivalves uptake (adults or juveniles in the bacterial mats habitats), reoxidation by oxygen or iron phases within the reduced sediment, or reoxidation by microbial mats. Sulfide uptake rates by vesicomyids measured in sulfide-rich sea water (90±18 mmol S m-2 d-1) were similar to sulfide production rates obtained by modelling the sulfate profile with different bioirrigation constants, highlighting the major control of vesicomyids on sulfur cycle in their habitats.

  10. Enhanced sulfate reduction with acidogenic sulfate-reducing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Aijie; Ren Nanqi; Wang Xu; Lee Duujong

    2008-01-01

    Sulfate reduction in a continuous flow, acidogenic reactor using molasses wastewater as the carbon source was studied at varying chemical oxygen demand/sulfate (COD/SO 4 2- ) ratios. At a critical COD/SO 4 2- ratio of 2.7, neither COD nor sulfate were in excess for extra production of ethanol or acetate in the reactor. An acetic-type microbial metabolism was established with sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) significantly consuming hydrogen and volatile fatty acids produced by acidogenic bacteria and hydrogen producing acetogens in degrading COD, thereby yielding sulfate removal rate >94.6%. A low critical COD/SO 4 2- ratio of 1.6 was also observed with the enriched ASRB population in reactor which overcomes the barrier to the treatment capability of sulfate-laden wastewater treatment with limited COD supply

  11. Constraining Δ33S signatures of Archean seawater sulfate with carbonate-associated sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Y.; Bao, H.; Bekker, A.; Hofmann, A.

    2017-12-01

    Non-mass dependent sulfur isotope deviation of S-bearing phases in Archean sedimentary strata, and expressed as Δ33S, has a consistent pattern, i.e., sulfide (pyrite) predominantly bear positive Δ33S values, while Paleoarchean sulfate (barite) has negative Δ33S values. This pattern was later corroborated by observations of negative Δ33S values in Archean volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits and negative Δ33S values in early diagenetic nodular pyrite with a wide range of δ34S values, which is thought to be due to microbial sulfate reduction. These signatures have provided a set of initial conditions for a mechanistic interpretation at physical chemistry level. Unlike the younger geological times when large bodies of seawater evaporite deposits are common, to expand seawater sulfate records, carbonate-associated sulfate (CAS) was utilized as a proxy for ancient seawater sulfate. CAS extracted from the Archean carbonates carries positive Δ33S values. However, CAS could be derived from pyrite oxidation following exposure to modern oxidizing conditions and/or during laboratory extraction procedures. It is, therefore, important for us understanding context of the overall early earth atmospheric condition to empirically confirm whether Archean seawater sulfate was generally characterized by negative Δ33S signatures. Combined δ18O, Δ17O, δ34S, and Δ33S analyses of sequentially extracted water-leachable sulfate (WLS) and acid-leachable sulfate (ALS = CAS) and δ34S and Δ33S analyses of pyrite can help to identify the source of extracted sulfate. We studied drill-core samples of Archean carbonates from the 2.55 Ga Malmani and Campell Rand supgroups, South Africa. Our preliminary results show that 1) neither WLS nor ALS were extracted from samples with extremely low pyrite contents (less than 0.05 wt.%); 2) extractable WLS and ALS is present in samples with relatively high pyrite contents (more than 1 wt.%), and that δ34S and Δ33S values of WLS, ALS, and

  12. Growth and sedimentation of fine particles produced in aqueous solutions of palladium sulfate and palladium sulfate-silver sulfate induced by gamma-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatada, Motoyoshi; Jonah, C.D.

    1994-10-01

    It is known that palladium and palladium-silver fine particles were formed from deaerated aqueous solutions of palladium sulfate and palladium sulfate-silver sulfate induced by gamma-ray irradiation. Changes in particle size and with amount of particles in the solution with time during and after irradiation were studied using dynamic light scattering technique and UV spectrophotometer. The particles formed from palladium sulfate solution are found to be water-filled bulky particles of diameter of 200 nm, which grow by mutual coagulation even after irradiation was terminated. Average density depends on concentration of palladium ion in the solution and dose, and the lowest density was about 2 g/cm 3 for particles of 200 nm obtained from 0.06 mM solution by 2.4 kGy irradiation. The average density of the particles obtained from palladium sulfate-silver sulfate solutions was smaller than those obtained for the corresponding palladium sulfate solutions. Supersonic agitation destroyed coagulated precipitates to form fine particles, but did not form clusters of a few atoms. (author)

  13. In-situ metal precipitation in a zinc-aerobic, sandy aquifer by means of biological sulfate reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, G.M.C.M.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    The applicability of in situ metal precipitation (ISMP) based on bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR) with molasses as carbon source was tested for the immobilization of a zinc plume in an aquifer with highly unsuitable initial conditions (high Eh, low pH, low organic matter content, and low sulfate

  14. Mechanisms and Effectivity of Sulfate Reducing Bioreactors ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mining-influenced water (MIW) is the main environmental challenges associated with the mining industry. Passive MIW remediation can be achieved through microbial activity in sulfate-reducing bioreactors (SRBRs), but their actual removal rates depend on different factors, one of which is the substrate composition. Chitinous materials have demonstrated high metal removal rates, particularly for the two recalcitrant MIW contaminants Zn and Mn, but their removal mechanisms need further study. We studied Cd, Fe, Zn, and Mn removal in bioactive and abiotic SRBRs to elucidate the metal removal mechanisms and the differences in metal and sulfate removal rates using a chitinous material as substrate. We found that sulfate-reducing bacteria are effective in increasing metal and sulfate removal rates and duration of operation in SRBRs, and that the main mechanism involved was metal precipitation as sulfides. The solid residues provided evidence of the presence of sulfides in the bioactive column, more specifically ZnS, according to XPS analysis. The feasibility of passive treatments with a chitinous substrate could be an important option for MIW remediation. Mining influenced water (MIW) remediation is still one of the top priorities for the agency because it addresses the most important environmental problem associated with the mining industry and that affects thousands of communities in the U.S. and worldwide. In this paper, the MIW bioremediation mechanisms are studied

  15. THE IMPACT OF BIOSTIMULATION ON THE FATE OF SULFATE AND ASSOCIATED SULFUR DYNAMICS IN GROUNDWATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Ziheng; Carreón-Diazconti, Concepcion; Carroll, Kenneth C.; Brusseau, Mark L.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of electron-donor addition on sulfur dynamics for a groundwater system with low levels of metal contaminants was evaluated with a pilot-scale biostimulation test conducted at a former uranium mining site. Geochemical and stable-isotope data collected before, during, and after the test were analyzed to evaluate the sustainability of sulfate reducing conditions induced by the test, the fate of hydrogen sulfide, and the impact on aqueous geochemical conditions. The results of site characterization activities conducted prior to the test indicated the absence of measurable bacterial sulfate reduction. The injection of an electron donor (ethanol) induced bacterial sulfate reduction, as confirmed by an exponential decrease of sulfate concentration in concert with changes in oxidation-reduction potential, redox species, alkalinity, production of hydrogen sulfide, and fractionation of δ34S-sulfate. High, stoichiometrically-equivalent hydrogen sulfide concentrations were not observed until several months after the start of the test. It is hypothesized that hydrogen sulfide produced from sulfate reduction was initially sequestered in the form of iron sulfides until the exhaustion of readily reducible iron oxides associated with the sediment. The fractionation of δ34S for sulfate was atypical, wherein the enrichment declined in the latter half of the experiment. It was conjectured that mixing effects associated with the release of sulfate from sulfate minerals associated with the sediments, along with possible sulfide re-oxidation contributed to this behavior. The results of this study illustrate the biogeochemical complexity that is associated with in-situ biostimulation processes involving bacterial sulfate reduction. PMID:25016586

  16. The impact of biostimulation on the fate of sulfate and associated sulfur dynamics in groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Ziheng; Carreón-Diazconti, Concepcion; Carroll, Kenneth C.; Brusseau, Mark L.

    2014-08-01

    The impact of electron-donor addition on sulfur dynamics for a groundwater system with low levels of metal contaminants was evaluated with a pilot-scale biostimulation test conducted at a former uranium mining site. Geochemical and stable-isotope data collected before, during, and after the test were analyzed to evaluate the sustainability of sulfate reducing conditions induced by the test, the fate of hydrogen sulfide, and the impact on aqueous geochemical conditions. The results of site characterization activities conducted prior to the test indicated the absence of measurable bacterial sulfate reduction. The injection of an electron donor (ethanol) induced bacterial sulfate reduction, as confirmed by an exponential decrease of sulfate concentration in concert with changes in oxidation-reduction potential, redox species, alkalinity, production of hydrogen sulfide, and fractionation of δ34S-sulfate. High, stoichiometrically-equivalent hydrogen sulfide concentrations were not observed until several months after the start of the test. It is hypothesized that hydrogen sulfide produced from sulfate reduction was initially sequestered in the form of iron sulfides until the exhaustion of readily reducible iron oxides within the sediment. The fractionation of δ34S for sulfate was atypical, wherein the enrichment declined in the latter half of the experiment. It was conjectured that mixing effects associated with the release of sulfate from sulfate minerals associated with the sediments, along with possible sulfide re-oxidation contributed to this behavior. The results of this study illustrate the biogeochemical complexity that is associated with in-situ biostimulation processes involving bacterial sulfate reduction.

  17. Benthic Bacterial Diversity in Submerged Sinkhole Ecosystems▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nold, Stephen C.; Pangborn, Joseph B.; Zajack, Heidi A.; Kendall, Scott T.; Rediske, Richard R.; Biddanda, Bopaiah A.

    2010-01-01

    Physicochemical characterization, automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) community profiling, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing approaches were used to study bacterial communities inhabiting submerged Lake Huron sinkholes inundated with hypoxic, sulfate-rich groundwater. Photosynthetic cyanobacterial mats on the sediment surface were dominated by Phormidium autumnale, while deeper, organically rich sediments contained diverse and active bacterial communities. PMID:19880643

  18. The confused world of sulfate attack on concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neville, Adam

    2004-01-01

    External sulfate attack is not completely understood. Part I identifies the issues involved, pointing out disagreements, and distinguishes between the mere occurrence of chemical reactions of sulfates with hydrated cement paste and the damage or deterioration of concrete; only the latter are taken to represent sulfate attack. Furthermore, sulfate attack is defined as deleterious action involving sulfate ions; if the reaction is physical, then, it is physical sulfate attack that takes place. The discussion of the two forms of sulfate attack leads to a recommendation for distinct nomenclature. Sulfate attack on concrete structures in service is not widespread, and the amount of laboratory-based research seems to be disproportionately large. The mechanisms of attack by different sulfates--sodium, calcium, and magnesium--are discussed, including the issue of topochemical and through-solution reactions. The specific aspects of the action of magnesium sulfate are discussed, and the differences between laboratory conditions and field exposure are pointed out. Part II discusses the progress of sulfate attack and its manifestations. This is followed by a discussion of making sulfate-resisting concrete. One of the measures is to use Type V cement, and this topic is extensively discussed. Likewise, the influence of w/c on sulfate resistance is considered. The two parameters are not independent of one another. Moreover, the cation in the sulfate salt has a strong bearing on the efficiency of the Type V cement. Recent interpretations of the Bureau of Reclamation tests, both long term and accelerated, are evaluated, and it appears that they need reworking. Part III reviews the standards and guides for the classification of the severity of exposure of structures to sulfates and points out the lack of calibration of the various classes of exposure. A particular problem is the classification of soils because much depends on the extraction ratio of sulfate in the soil: there is a

  19. Syndecan heparan sulfate proteoglycans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomes, Angélica Maciel; Sinkeviciute, Dovile; Multhaupt, Hinke A.B.

    2016-01-01

    discuss how, in partial catabolic processes, new roles for HSPGs emerge that affect cell behavior. Examples from tumor studies are emphasized, since HSPGs may be altered in composition and distribution and may also represent targets for the development of new therapeutics....... signaling can therefore be complex, but it is now known that syndecans are capable of independent signaling. This review is divided in two sections, and will first discuss how the assembly of heparan sulfate, the anabolic process, encodes information related to ligand binding and signaling. Second, we...

  20. Purification and sequence characterization of chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate from fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Na; Mo, Xiaoli; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Hong

    2017-04-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) and dermatan sulfate (DS) were extracted and purified from skins or bones of salmon (Salmo salar), snakehead (Channa argus), monkfish (Lophius litulon) and skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis). Size, structural sequences and sulfate groups of oligosaccharides in the purified CS and DS could be characterized and identified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) combined with Orbitrap mass spectrometry. CS and DS chain structure varies depending on origin, but motif structure appears consistent. Structures of CS and DS oligosaccharides with different size and sulfate groups were compared between fishes and other animals, and results showed that some minor differences of special structures could be identified by hydrophilic interaction chromatography-liquid chromatography-fourier transform-mass/mass spectrometry (HILIC-LC-FT-MS/MS). For example, data showed that salmon and skipjack CS had a higher percentage content of high-level sulfated oligosaccharides than that porcine CS. In addition, structural information of different origins of CS and DS was analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) and results showed that CS and DS samples could be differentiated according to their molecular conformation and oligosaccharide fragments information. Understanding CS and DS structure derived from different origins may lead to the production of CS or DS with unique disaccharides or oligosaccharides sequence composition and biological functions.

  1. Molecular dissection of placental malaria protein VAR2CSA interaction with a chemo-enzymatically synthesized chondroitin sulfate library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sugiura, Nobuo; Clausen, Thomas Mandel; Shioiri, Tatsuasa

    2016-01-01

    with chondroitin sulfate (CS) proteoglycans present in the placental tissue. CS is a linear acidic polysaccharide composed of repeating disaccharide units of d-glucuronic acid and N-acetyl-d-galactosamine that are modified by sulfate groups at different positions. Previous reports have shown that placental......-adhering IEs were associated with an unusually low sulfated form of chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) and that a partially sulfated dodecasaccharide is the minimal motif for the interaction. However, the fine molecular structure of this CS chain remains unclear. In this study, we have characterized the CS chain...... that interacts with a recombinant minimal CS-binding region of VAR2CSA (rVAR2) using a CS library of various defined lengths and sulfate compositions. The CS library was chemo-enzymatically synthesized with bacterial chondroitin polymerase and recombinant CS sulfotransferases. We found that C-4 sulfation...

  2. 2-Amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jakob T; Andersen, Klaus E

    2016-01-01

    positive patch test reactions to the coupler 2-amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate 2% pet. from 2005 to 2014. METHODS: Patch test results from the Allergen Bank database for eczema patients patch tested with 2-amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate 2% pet. from 2005 to 2014 were reviewed. RESULTS......: A total of 902 dermatitis patients (154 from the dermatology department and 748 from 65 practices) were patch tested with amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate 2% pet. from 2005 to 2014. Thirteen (1.4%) patients had a positive patch test reaction. Our results do not indicate irritant reactions....... CONCLUSIONS: 2-Amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate is a new but rare contact allergen....

  3. Morpholine-4-carboxamidinium sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Tiritiris

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title salt, 2C5H12N3O+·SO42−, comprises two cations and one sulfate ion. In both cations, the C, N and O atoms of the morpholine rings are disordered over two sets of sites, with refined occupancies of 0.849 (3:0.151 (3 for cation I and 0.684 (4:0.316 (4 for cation II. The C—N bond lengths in both central C3N units of the carboxamidinium ions range between 1.253 (12 and 1.362 (5 Å, indicating a degree of double-bond character. The central C atoms are bonded to the three N atoms in a nearly ideal trigonal–planar geometry and the positive charges are delocalized in both CN3 planes. The crystal structure is stabilized by a three-dimensional network of N—H...O hydrogen bonds between the cations and the sulfate ion. Scheme tiny font, charges and delocalized bonds almost invisible

  4. Anaerobic oxidation of methane by sulfate in hypersaline groundwater of the Dead Sea aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avrahamov, N; Antler, G; Yechieli, Y; Gavrieli, I; Joye, S B; Saxton, M; Turchyn, A V; Sivan, O

    2014-01-01

    Geochemical and microbial evidence points to anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) likely coupled with bacterial sulfate reduction in the hypersaline groundwater of the Dead Sea (DS) alluvial aquifer. Groundwater was sampled from nine boreholes drilled along the Arugot alluvial fan next to the DS. The groundwater samples were highly saline (up to 6300 mm chlorine), anoxic, and contained methane. A mass balance calculation demonstrates that the very low δ13CDIC in this groundwater is due to anaerobic methane oxidation. Sulfate depletion coincident with isotope enrichment of sulfur and oxygen isotopes in the sulfate suggests that sulfate reduction is associated with this AOM. DNA extraction and 16S amplicon sequencing were used to explore the microbial community present and were found to be microbial composition indicative of bacterial sulfate reducers associated with anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME) driving AOM. The net sulfate reduction seems to be primarily controlled by the salinity and the available methane and is substantially lower as salinity increases (2.5 mm sulfate removal at 3000 mm chlorine but only 0.5 mm sulfate removal at 6300 mm chlorine). Low overall sulfur isotope fractionation observed (34ε = 17 ± 3.5‰) hints at high rates of sulfate reduction, as has been previously suggested for sulfate reduction coupled with methane oxidation. The new results demonstrate the presence of sulfate-driven AOM in terrestrial hypersaline systems and expand our understanding of how microbial life is sustained under the challenging conditions of an extremely hypersaline environment. PMID:25039851

  5. Gastrointestinal and microbial responses to sulfate-supplemented drinking water in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deplancke, Bart; Finster, Kai; Graham, W Vallen; Collier, Chad T; Thurmond, Joel E; Gaskins, H Rex

    2003-04-01

    There is increasing evidence that hydrogen sulfide (H2S), produced by intestinal sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), may be involved in the etiopathogenesis of chronic diseases such as ulcerative colitis and colorectal cancer. The activity of SRB, and thus H2S production, is likely determined by the availability of sulfur-containing compounds in the intestine. However, little is known about the impact of dietary or inorganic sulfate on intestinal sulfate and SRB-derived H2S concentrations. In this study, the effects of short-term (7 day) and long-term (1 year) inorganic sulfate supplementation of the drinking water on gastrointestinal (GI) sulfate and H2S concentrations (and thus activity of resident SRBs), and the density of large intestinal sulfomucin-containing goblet cells, were examined in C3H/HeJBir mice. Additionally, a PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE)-based molecular ecology technique was used to examine the impact of sulfate-amended drinking water on microbial community structure throughout the GI tract. Average H2S concentrations ranged from 0.1 mM (stomach) to 1 mM (cecum). A sulfate reduction assay demonstrated in situ production of H2S throughout the GI tract, confirming the presence of SRB. However, H2S generation and concentrations were greatest in the cecum and colon. Sulfate supplementation of drinking water did not significantly increase intestinal sulfate or H2S concentrations, suggesting that inorganic sulfate is not an important modulator of intestinal H2S concentrations, although it altered the bacterial profiles of the stomach and distal colon of 1-year-old mice. This change in colonic bacterial profiles may reflect a corresponding increase in the density of sulfomucin-containing goblet cells in sulfate-supplemented compared with control mice.

  6. Quantification and isotopic analysis of intracellular sulfur metabolites in the dissimilatory sulfate reduction pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Min Sub; Paris, Guillaume; Adkins, Jess F.; Orphan, Victoria J.; Sessions, Alex L.

    2017-06-01

    Microbial sulfate reduction exhibits a normal isotope effect, leaving unreacted sulfate enriched in 34S and producing sulfide that is depleted in 34S. However, the magnitude of sulfur isotope fractionation is quite variable. The resulting changes in sulfur isotope abundance have been used to trace microbial sulfate reduction in modern and ancient ecosystems, but the intracellular mechanism(s) underlying the wide range of fractionations remains unclear. Here we report the concentrations and isotopic ratios of sulfur metabolites in the dissimilatory sulfate reduction pathway of Desulfovibrio alaskensis. Intracellular sulfate and APS levels change depending on the growth phase, peaking at the end of exponential phase, while sulfite accumulates in the cell during stationary phase. During exponential growth, intracellular sulfate and APS are strongly enriched in 34S. The fractionation between internal and external sulfate is up to 49‰, while at the same time that between external sulfate and sulfide is just a few permil. We interpret this pattern to indicate that enzymatic fractionations remain large but the net fractionation between sulfate and sulfide is muted by the closed-system limitation of intracellular sulfate. This 'reservoir effect' diminishes upon cessation of exponential phase growth, allowing the expression of larger net sulfur isotope fractionations. Thus, the relative rates of sulfate exchange across the membrane versus intracellular sulfate reduction should govern the overall (net) fractionation that is expressed. A strong reservoir effect due to vigorous sulfate reduction might be responsible for the well-established inverse correlation between sulfur isotope fractionation and the cell-specific rate of sulfate reduction, while at the same time intraspecies differences in sulfate uptake and/or exchange rates could account for the significant scatter in this relationship. Our approach, together with ongoing investigations of the kinetic isotope

  7. INTRACELLULAR SYNTHESIS OF CHONDROITIN SULFATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziewiatkowski, Dominic D.

    1962-01-01

    In autoradiograms of slices of costal cartilage, incubated for 4 hours in a salt solution containing S35-sulfate and then washed extensively and dehydrated, about 85 per cent of the radioactivity was assignable to the chondrocytes. From alkaline extracts of similarly prepared slices of cartilage, 64 to 83 per cent of the total sulfur-35 in the slices was isolated as chondroitin sulfate by chromatography on an anion-exchange resin. In view of the estimate that only about 15 per cent of the radioactivity was in the matrix, the isolation of 64 to 83 per cent of the total sulfur-35 as chondroitin sulfate is a strong argument that the chondrocytes are the loci in which chondroitin sulfate(s) is synthesized. PMID:13888910

  8. Characterization by culture-dependent and culture-1 independent methods of the 2 bacterial population of suckling-lamb packaged in different atmospheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oses, S.M.; Diez, A.M.; Melero, B.; Luning, P.A.; Jaime, I.; Rovira, J.

    2013-01-01

    This study offers insight into the dynamics of bacterial populations in fresh cuts of suckling lamb under four different atmospheric conditions: air (A), and three Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP) environments, 15%O2/30%CO2/55%N2 (C, commercial), 70%O2/30%CO2 (O), and 15%O2/85%CO2 (H) for 18

  9. Bacterial wall products induce downregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors on endothelial cells via a CD14-dependent mechanism: implications for surgical wound healing.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Power, C

    2012-02-03

    INTRODUCTION: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent mitogenic cytokine which has been identified as the principal polypeptide growth factor influencing endothelial cell (EC) migration and proliferation. Ordered progression of these two processes is an absolute prerequisite for initiating and maintaining the proliferative phase of wound healing. The response of ECs to circulating VEGF is determined by, and directly proportional to, the functional expression of VEGF receptors (KDR\\/Flt-1) on the EC surface membrane. Systemic sepsis and wound contamination due to bacterial infection are associated with significant retardation of the proliferative phase of wound repair. The effects of the Gram-negative bacterial wall components lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and bacterial lipoprotein (BLP) on VEGF receptor function and expression are unknown and may represent an important biological mechanism predisposing to delayed wound healing in the presence of localized or systemic sepsis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We designed a series of in vitro experiments investigating this phenomenon and its potential implications for infective wound repair. VEGF receptor density on ECs in the presence of LPS and BLP was assessed using flow cytometry. These parameters were assessed in hypoxic conditions as well as in normoxia. The contribution of CD14 was evaluated using recombinant human (rh) CD14. EC proliferation in response to VEGF was quantified in the presence and absence of LPS and BLP. RESULTS: Flow cytometric analysis revealed that LPS and BLP have profoundly repressive effects on VEGF receptor density in normoxic and, more pertinently, hypoxic conditions. The observed downregulation of constitutive and inducible VEGF receptor expression on ECs was not due to any directly cytotoxic effect of LPS and BLP on ECs, as measured by cell viability and apoptosis assays. We identified a pivotal role for soluble\\/serum CD14, a highly specific bacterial wall product receptor, in

  10. Sequence determination of synthesized chondroitin sulfate dodecasaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shioiri, Tatsumasa; Tsuchimoto, Jun; Watanabe, Hideto; Sugiura, Nobuo

    2016-06-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is a linear acidic polysaccharide composed of repeating disaccharide units of glucuronic acid and N-acetyl-d-galactosamine. The polysaccharide is modified with sulfate groups at different positions by a variety of sulfotransferases. CS chains exhibit various biological and pathological functions by interacting with cytokines and growth factors and regulating their signal transduction. The fine structure of the CS chain defines its specific biological roles. However, structural analysis of CS has been restricted to disaccharide analysis, hampering the understanding of the structure-function relationship of CS chains. Here, we chemo-enzymatically synthesized CS dodecasaccharides having various sulfate modifications using a bioreactor system of bacterial chondroitin polymerase mutants and various CS sulfotransferases. We developed a sequencing method for CS chains using the CS dodecasaccharides. The method consists of (i) labeling a reducing end with 2-aminopyridine (PA), (ii) partial digestion of CS with testicular hyaluronidase, followed by separation of PA-conjugated oligosaccharides with different chain lengths, (iii) limited digestion of these oligosaccharides with chondroitin lyase AC II into disaccharides, followed by labeling with 2-aminobenzamide, (iv) CS disaccharide analysis using a dual-fluorescence HPLC system (reversed-phase ion-pair and ion-exchange chromatography), and (v) estimation of the composition by calculating individual disaccharide ratios. This CS chain sequencing allows characterization of CS-modifying enzymes and provides a useful tool toward understanding the structure-function relationship of CS chains. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Bacterial prostatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Bradley C; Shoskes, Daniel A

    2016-02-01

    The review provides the infectious disease community with a urologic perspective on bacterial prostatitis. Specifically, the article briefly reviews the categorization of prostatitis by type and provides a distillation of new findings published on bacterial prostatitis over the past year. It also highlights key points from the established literature. Cross-sectional prostate imaging is becoming more common and may lead to more incidental diagnoses of acute bacterial prostatitis. As drug resistance remains problematic in this condition, the reemergence of older antibiotics such as fosfomycin, has proven beneficial. With regard to chronic bacterial prostatitis, no clear clinical risk factors emerged in a large epidemiological study. However, bacterial biofilm formation has been associated with more severe cases. Surgery has a limited role in bacterial prostatitis and should be reserved for draining of a prostatic abscess or the removal of infected prostatic stones. Prostatitis remains a common and bothersome clinical condition. Antibiotic therapy remains the basis of treatment for both acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis. Further research into improving prostatitis treatment is indicated.

  12. Evolutionary relationships and functional diversity of plant sulfate transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki eTakahashi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfate is an essential nutrient cycled in nature. Ion transporters that specifically facilitate the transport of sulfate across the membranes are found ubiquitously in living organisms. The phylogenetic analysis of known sulfate transporters and their homologous proteins from eukaryotic organisms indicate two evolutionarily distinct groups of sulfate transport systems. One major group named Tribe 1 represents yeast and fungal SUL, plant SULTR and animal SLC26 families. The evolutionary origin of SULTR family members in land plants and green algae is suggested to be common with yeast and fungal sulfate transporters (SUL and animal anion exchangers (SLC26. The lineage of plant SULTR family is expanded into four subfamilies (SULTR1 to SULTR4 in land plant species. By contrast, the putative SULTR homologues from Chlorophyte green algae are in two separate lineages; one with the subfamily of plant tonoplast-localized sulfate transporters (SULTR4, and the other diverged before the appearance of lineages for SUL, SULTR and SLC26. There also was a group of yet undefined members of putative sulfate transporters in yeast and fungi divergent from these major lineages in Tribe 1. The other distinct group is Tribe 2, primarily composed of animal sodium-dependent sulfate/carboxylate transporters (SLC13 and plant tonoplast-localized dicarboxylate transporters (TDT. The putative sulfur-sensing protein (SAC1 and SAC1-like transporters (SLT of Chlorophyte green algae, bryophyte and lycophyte show low degrees of sequence similarities with SLC13 and TDT. However, the phylogenetic relationship between SAC1/SLT and the other two families, SLC13 and TDT in Tribe 2, is not clearly supported. In addition, the SAC1/SLT family is completely absent in the angiosperm species analyzed. The present study suggests distinct evolutionary trajectories of sulfate transport systems for land plants and green algae.

  13. Predictive mapping of the acidifying potential for acid sulfate soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boman, A; Beucher, Amélie; Mattbäck, S

    Developing methods for the predictive mapping of the potential environmental impact from acid sulfate soils is important because recent studies (e.g. Mattbäck et al., under revision) have shown that the environmental hazards (e.g. leaching of acidity) related to acid sulfate soils vary depending...... on their texture (clay, silt, sand etc.). Moreover, acidity correlates, not only with the sulfur content, but also with the electrical conductivity (EC) measured after incubation. Electromagnetic induction (EMI) data collected from an EM38 proximal sensor also enabled the detailed mapping of acid sulfate soils...... over a field (Huang et al., 2014).This study aims at assessing the use of EMI data for the predictive mapping of the acidifying potential in an acid sulfate soil area in western Finland. Different supervised classification modelling techniques, such as Artificial Neural Networks (Beucher et al., 2015...

  14. Inhibitory effect of chondroitin sulfate oligosaccharides on bovine testicular hyaluronidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakizaki, Ikuko; Koizumi, Hideyo; Chen, Fengchao; Endo, Masahiko

    2015-05-05

    Hyaluronan and chondroitin sulfates are prominent components of the extracellular matrices of animal tissues; however, their functions in relation to their oligosaccharide structures have not yet been fully elucidated. The oligosaccharides of hyaluronan and chondroitin sulfate were prepared and used to investigate their effects on the hydrolysis and transglycosylation reactions of bovine testicular hyaluronidase when hyaluronan was used as a substrate. Hydrolysis and transglycosylation activities were assessed in independent reaction systems by analyzing the products by HPLC. The hydrolysis and transglycosylation reactions of bovine testicular hyaluronidase were dose-dependently inhibited by chondroitin sulfate oligosaccharides, but not by hyaluronan or chondroitin oligosaccharides. A kinetic analysis of the hydrolysis reaction using hyaluronan octasaccharide revealed that the inhibition mode by chondroitin sulfate oligosaccharides was competitive. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Control of sulfate concentration by miR395-targeted APS genes in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Ai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur nutrition is crucial for plant growth and development, as well as crop yield and quality. Inorganic sulfate in the soil is the major sulfur source for plants. After uptake, sulfate is activated by ATP sulfurylase, and then gets assimilated into sulfur-containing metabolites. However, the mechanism of regulation of sulfate levels by ATP sulfurylase is unclear. Here, we investigated the control of sulfate levels by miR395-mediated regulation of APS1/3/4. Sulfate was over-accumulated in the shoots of miR395 over-expression plants in which the expression of the APS1, APS3, and APS4 genes was suppressed. Accordingly, reduced expression of miR395 caused a decline of sulfate concentration. In agreement with these results, over-expression of the APS1, APS3, and APS4 genes led to the reduction of sulfate levels. Differential expression of these three APS genes in response to sulfate starvation implied that they have different functions. Further investigation revealed that the regulation of sulfate levels mediated by miR395 depends on the repression of its APS targets. Unlike the APS1, APS3, and APS4 genes, which encode plastid-localized ATP sulfurylases, the APS2 gene encodes a cytosolic version of ATP sulfurylase. Genetic analysis indicated that APS2 has no significant effect on sulfate levels. Our data suggest that miR395-targeted APS genes are key regulators of sulfate concentration in leaves.

  16. Influence of Internal Sulfate Attack on Some Properties of High Strength Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Mahdi Fawzi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important problems that faces the concrete industry in Iraq is the deterioration due to internal sulfate attack , since it reduces the compressive strength and increases the expansion of concrete. Consequently, the concrete structure may be damage .The effects of total and total effective sulfate contents on high strength concrete (HSC have been studied in the present study. The research studied the effect of sulfate content in cement , sand and gravel , as well as comparing the total sulfate content with the total effective SO3 content. Materials used were divided into two groups of SO3 in cement ,three groups of SO3 in sand ,and two groups of SO3 in gravel. The results show that considering the total effective sulfate content is better than the total content of sulfates since the effect of sulfate in each constituent of concrete, depends on it's granular size .The smaller the particle size of the material the more effective is the sulfate in it. Therefore, it is recommended to follow the Iraqi specification for total effective sulfate content, because it gives more flexibility to the use of sand and gravel with higher sulfate content. The results of compressive strength at 90-days show that the effect of total effective SO3 content of ( 2.647% , 2.992% , 3.424% that correspond to total sulfate of ( 3.778%, 3.294%, 4.528% decrease the compressive strength by (7.53%, 11.44%, 14.59% respectively.

  17. Extraction of beryllium sulfate by a long chain amine; Extraction du sulfate de beryllium par une amine a longue chaine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etaix, E S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-06-01

    The extraction of sulfuric acid in aqueous solution by a primary amine in benzene solution, 3-9 (diethyl) - 6-amino tri-decane (D.E.T. ) - i.e., with American nomenclature 1-3 (ethyl-pentyl) - 4-ethyl-octyl amine (E.P.O.) - has made it possible to calculate the formation constants of alkyl-ammonium sulfate and acid sulfate. The formula of the beryllium and alkyl-ammonium sulfate complex formed in benzene has next been determined, for various initial acidity of the aqueous solution. Lastly, evidence has been given of negatively charged complexes of beryllium and sulfate in aqueous solution, through the dependence of the aqueous sulfate ions concentration upon beryllium extraction. The formation constant of these anionic complexes has been evaluated. (author) [French] L'etude de l'extraction de l'acide sulfurique en solution aqueuse par une amine primaire en solution dans le benzene, le diethyl-3,9 amino-6 tridecane (D.E.T.) - autre nom americain 1-3 (ethylpentyl) - 4-ethyloctylamine (E.P.O.) a permis de calculer les constantes de formation du sulfate et de l'hydrogenosulfate d'alkyl-ammonium. La formule du complexe de sulfate de beryllium et d'alkyl-ammonium forme en solution benzenique a ete ensuite determinee pour diverses acidites initiales de la solution aqueuse. Enfin, l'influence de la concentration des ions sulfate de la phase aqueuse sur l'extraction du beryllium a mis en evidence la formation en solution aqueuse de complexes anioniques de sulfate et de beryllium dont la constante de formation a ete evaluee. (auteur)

  18. Extraction of beryllium sulfate by a long chain amine; Extraction du sulfate de beryllium par une amine a longue chaine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etaix, E.S. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-06-01

    The extraction of sulfuric acid in aqueous solution by a primary amine in benzene solution, 3-9 (diethyl) - 6-amino tri-decane (D.E.T. ) - i.e., with American nomenclature 1-3 (ethyl-pentyl) - 4-ethyl-octyl amine (E.P.O.) - has made it possible to calculate the formation constants of alkyl-ammonium sulfate and acid sulfate. The formula of the beryllium and alkyl-ammonium sulfate complex formed in benzene has next been determined, for various initial acidity of the aqueous solution. Lastly, evidence has been given of negatively charged complexes of beryllium and sulfate in aqueous solution, through the dependence of the aqueous sulfate ions concentration upon beryllium extraction. The formation constant of these anionic complexes has been evaluated. (author) [French] L'etude de l'extraction de l'acide sulfurique en solution aqueuse par une amine primaire en solution dans le benzene, le diethyl-3,9 amino-6 tridecane (D.E.T.) - autre nom americain 1-3 (ethylpentyl) - 4-ethyloctylamine (E.P.O.) a permis de calculer les constantes de formation du sulfate et de l'hydrogenosulfate d'alkyl-ammonium. La formule du complexe de sulfate de beryllium et d'alkyl-ammonium forme en solution benzenique a ete ensuite determinee pour diverses acidites initiales de la solution aqueuse. Enfin, l'influence de la concentration des ions sulfate de la phase aqueuse sur l'extraction du beryllium a mis en evidence la formation en solution aqueuse de complexes anioniques de sulfate et de beryllium dont la constante de formation a ete evaluee. (auteur)

  19. Bacterial Vaginosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Archive STDs Home Page Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) Chlamydia Gonorrhea Genital Herpes Hepatitis HIV/AIDS & STDs Human Papillomavirus ( ... of getting other STDs, such as chlamydia and gonorrhea . These bacteria can sometimes cause pelvic inflammatory disease ( ...

  20. Heparan sulfate and cell division

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porcionatto M.A.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Heparan sulfate is a component of vertebrate and invertebrate tissues which appears during the cytodifferentiation stage of embryonic development. Its structure varies according to the tissue and species of origin and is modified during neoplastic transformation. Several lines of experimental evidence suggest that heparan sulfate plays a role in cellular recognition, cellular adhesion and growth control. Heparan sulfate can participate in the process of cell division in two distinct ways, either as a positive or negative modulator of cellular proliferation, or as a response to a mitogenic stimulus.

  1. Soil Type Dependent Rhizosphere Competence and Biocontrol of Two Bacterial Inoculant Strains and Their Effects on the Rhizosphere Microbial Community of Field-Grown Lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiter, Susanne; Sandmann, Martin; Smalla, Kornelia; Grosch, Rita

    2014-01-01

    Rhizosphere competence of bacterial inoculants is assumed to be important for successful biocontrol. Knowledge of factors influencing rhizosphere competence under field conditions is largely lacking. The present study is aimed to unravel the effects of soil types on the rhizosphere competence and biocontrol activity of the two inoculant strains Pseudomonas jessenii RU47 and Serratia plymuthica 3Re4-18 in field-grown lettuce in soils inoculated with Rhizoctonia solani AG1-IB or not. Two independent experiments were carried out in 2011 on an experimental plot system with three soil types sharing the same cropping history and weather conditions for more than 10 years. Rifampicin resistant mutants of the inoculants were used to evaluate their colonization in the rhizosphere of lettuce. The rhizosphere bacterial community structure was analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rRNA gene fragments amplified from total community DNA to get insights into the effects of the inoculants and R. solani on the indigenous rhizosphere bacterial communities. Both inoculants showed a good colonization ability of the rhizosphere of lettuce with more than 106 colony forming units per g root dry mass two weeks after planting. An effect of the soil type on rhizosphere competence was observed for 3Re4-18 but not for RU47. In both experiments a comparable rhizosphere competence was observed and in the presence of the inoculants disease symptoms were either significantly reduced, or at least a non-significant trend was shown. Disease severity was highest in diluvial sand followed by alluvial loam and loess loam suggesting that the soil types differed in their conduciveness for bottom rot disease. Compared to effect of the soil type of the rhizosphere bacterial communities, the effects of the pathogen and the inoculants were less pronounced. The soil types had a surprisingly low influence on rhizosphere competence and biocontrol activity while they significantly affected

  2. Soil type dependent rhizosphere competence and biocontrol of two bacterial inoculant strains and their effects on the rhizosphere microbial community of field-grown lettuce.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Schreiter

    Full Text Available Rhizosphere competence of bacterial inoculants is assumed to be important for successful biocontrol. Knowledge of factors influencing rhizosphere competence under field conditions is largely lacking. The present study is aimed to unravel the effects of soil types on the rhizosphere competence and biocontrol activity of the two inoculant strains Pseudomonas jessenii RU47 and Serratia plymuthica 3Re4-18 in field-grown lettuce in soils inoculated with Rhizoctonia solani AG1-IB or not. Two independent experiments were carried out in 2011 on an experimental plot system with three soil types sharing the same cropping history and weather conditions for more than 10 years. Rifampicin resistant mutants of the inoculants were used to evaluate their colonization in the rhizosphere of lettuce. The rhizosphere bacterial community structure was analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rRNA gene fragments amplified from total community DNA to get insights into the effects of the inoculants and R. solani on the indigenous rhizosphere bacterial communities. Both inoculants showed a good colonization ability of the rhizosphere of lettuce with more than 10(6 colony forming units per g root dry mass two weeks after planting. An effect of the soil type on rhizosphere competence was observed for 3Re4-18 but not for RU47. In both experiments a comparable rhizosphere competence was observed and in the presence of the inoculants disease symptoms were either significantly reduced, or at least a non-significant trend was shown. Disease severity was highest in diluvial sand followed by alluvial loam and loess loam suggesting that the soil types differed in their conduciveness for bottom rot disease. Compared to effect of the soil type of the rhizosphere bacterial communities, the effects of the pathogen and the inoculants were less pronounced. The soil types had a surprisingly low influence on rhizosphere competence and biocontrol activity while they

  3. Soil type dependent rhizosphere competence and biocontrol of two bacterial inoculant strains and their effects on the rhizosphere microbial community of field-grown lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiter, Susanne; Sandmann, Martin; Smalla, Kornelia; Grosch, Rita

    2014-01-01

    Rhizosphere competence of bacterial inoculants is assumed to be important for successful biocontrol. Knowledge of factors influencing rhizosphere competence under field conditions is largely lacking. The present study is aimed to unravel the effects of soil types on the rhizosphere competence and biocontrol activity of the two inoculant strains Pseudomonas jessenii RU47 and Serratia plymuthica 3Re4-18 in field-grown lettuce in soils inoculated with Rhizoctonia solani AG1-IB or not. Two independent experiments were carried out in 2011 on an experimental plot system with three soil types sharing the same cropping history and weather conditions for more than 10 years. Rifampicin resistant mutants of the inoculants were used to evaluate their colonization in the rhizosphere of lettuce. The rhizosphere bacterial community structure was analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rRNA gene fragments amplified from total community DNA to get insights into the effects of the inoculants and R. solani on the indigenous rhizosphere bacterial communities. Both inoculants showed a good colonization ability of the rhizosphere of lettuce with more than 10(6) colony forming units per g root dry mass two weeks after planting. An effect of the soil type on rhizosphere competence was observed for 3Re4-18 but not for RU47. In both experiments a comparable rhizosphere competence was observed and in the presence of the inoculants disease symptoms were either significantly reduced, or at least a non-significant trend was shown. Disease severity was highest in diluvial sand followed by alluvial loam and loess loam suggesting that the soil types differed in their conduciveness for bottom rot disease. Compared to effect of the soil type of the rhizosphere bacterial communities, the effects of the pathogen and the inoculants were less pronounced. The soil types had a surprisingly low influence on rhizosphere competence and biocontrol activity while they significantly affected

  4. The Apparent Involvement of ANMEs in Mineral Dependent Methane Oxidation, as an Analog for Possible Martian Methanotrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria J. Orphan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available On Earth, marine anaerobic methane oxidation (AOM can be driven by the microbial reduction of sulfate, iron, and manganese. Here, we have further characterized marine sediment incubations to determine if the mineral dependent methane oxidation involves similar microorganisms to those found for sulfate-dependent methane oxidation. Through FISH and FISH-SIMS analyses using 13C and 15N labeled substrates, we find that the most active cells during manganese dependent AOM are primarily mixed and mixed-cluster aggregates of archaea and bacteria. Overall, our control experiment using sulfate showed two active bacterial clusters, two active shell aggregates, one active mixed aggregate, and an active archaeal sarcina, the last of which appeared to take up methane in the absence of a closely-associated bacterial partner. A single example of a shell aggregate appeared to be active in the manganese incubation, along with three mixed aggregates and an archaeal sarcina. These results suggest that the microorganisms (e.g., ANME-2 found active in the manganese-dependent incubations are likely capable of sulfate-dependent AOM. Similar metabolic flexibility for Martian methanotrophs would mean that the same microbial groups could inhabit a diverse set of Martian mineralogical crustal environments. The recently discovered seasonal Martian plumes of methane outgassing could be coupled to the reduction of abundant surface sulfates and extensive metal oxides, providing a feasible metabolism for present and past Mars. In an optimistic scenario Martian methanotrophy consumes much of the periodic methane released supporting on the order of 10,000 microbial cells per cm2 of Martian surface. Alternatively, most of the methane released each year could be oxidized through an abiotic process requiring biological methane oxidation to be more limited. If under this scenario, 1% of this methane flux were oxidized by biology in surface soils or in subsurface aquifers (prior to

  5. Final report on the safety assessment of sodium cetearyl sulfate and related alkyl sulfates as used in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiume, Monice; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Klaassen, Curtis D; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Alan Andersen, F

    2010-05-01

    Sodium cetearyl sulfate is the sodium salt of a mixture of cetyl and stearyl sulfate. The other ingredients in this safety assessment are also alkyl salts, including ammonium coco-sulfate, ammonium myristyl sulfate, magnesium coco-sulfate, sodium cetyl sulfate, sodium coco/hydrogenated tallow sulfate, sodium coco-sulfate, sodium decyl sulfate, sodium ethylhexyl sulfate, sodium myristyl sulfate, sodium oleyl sulfate, sodium stearyl sulfate, sodium tallow sulfate, sodium tridecyl sulfate, and zinc coco-sulfate. These ingredients are surfactants used at concentrations from 0.1% to 29%, primarily in soaps and shampoos. Many of these ingredients are not in current use. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel previously completed a safety assessment of sodium and ammonium lauryl sulfate. The data available for sodium lauryl sulfate and ammonium lauryl sulfate provide sufficient basis for concluding that sodium cetearyl sulfate and related alkyl sulfates are safe in the practices of use and concentration described in the safety assessment.

  6. Hormone-dependent bacterial growth, persistence and biofilm formation--a pilot study investigating human follicular fluid collected during IVF cycles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise S Pelzer

    Full Text Available Human follicular fluid, considered sterile, is aspirated as part of an in vitro fertilization (IVF cycle. However, it is easily contaminated by the trans-vaginal collection route and little information exists in its potential to support the growth of microorganisms. The objectives of this study were to determine whether human follicular fluid can support bacterial growth over time, whether the steroid hormones estradiol and progesterone (present at high levels within follicular fluid contribute to the in vitro growth of bacterial species, and whether species isolated from follicular fluid form biofilms. We found that bacteria in follicular fluid could persist for at least 28 weeks in vitro and that the steroid hormones stimulated the growth of some bacterial species, specifically Lactobacillus spp., Bifidobacterium spp. Streptococcus spp. and E. coli. Several species, Lactobacillus spp., Propionibacterium spp., and Streptococcus spp., formed biofilms when incubated in native follicular fluids in vitro (18/24, 75%. We conclude that bacteria aspirated along with follicular fluid during IVF cycles demonstrate a persistent pattern of growth. This discovery is important since it can offer a new avenue for investigation in infertile couples.

  7. Combination of culture-independent and culture-dependent molecular methods for the determination of bacterial community of iru, a fermented Parkia biglobosa seeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gbenga Adedeji Adewumi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, bacterial composition of iru produced by natural, uncontrolled fermentation of Parkia biglobosa seeds was assessed using culture-independent method in combination with culture-based genotypic typing techniques. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE revealed similarity in DNA fragments with the two DNA extraction methods used and confirmed bacterial diversity in the sixteen iru samples from different production regions. DNA sequencing of the highly variable V3 region of the 16S rRNA genes obtained from PCR-DGGE identified species related to Bacillus subtilis as consistent bacterial species in the fermented samples, while other major bands were identified as close relatives of Staphylococcus vitulinus, Morganella morganii, B. thuringiensis, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Tetragenococcus halophilus, Ureibacillus thermosphaericus, Brevibacillus parabrevis, Salinicoccus jeotgali, Brevibacterium sp. and Uncultured bacteria clones. Bacillus species were cultured as potential starter cultures and clonal relationship of different isolates determined using amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA combined with 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS PCR amplification, restriction analysis (ITS-PCR-RFLP and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR. This further discriminated Bacillus subtilis and its variants from food-borne pathogens such as Bacillus cereus and suggested the need for development of controlled fermentation processes and good manufacturing practices (GMP for iru production to achieve product consistency, safety quality and improved shelf life.

  8. Context-dependent protein folding of a virulence peptide in the bacterial and host environments: structure of an SycH–YopH chaperone–effector complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vujanac, Milos; Stebbins, C. Erec

    2013-01-01

    The structure of a SycH–YopH chaperone–effector complex from Yersinia reveals the bacterial state of a protein that adopts different folds in the host and pathogen environments. Yersinia pestis injects numerous bacterial proteins into host cells through an organic nanomachine called the type 3 secretion system. One such substrate is the tyrosine phosphatase YopH, which requires an interaction with a cognate chaperone in order to be effectively injected. Here, the first crystal structure of a SycH–YopH complex is reported, determined to 1.9 Å resolution. The structure reveals the presence of (i) a nonglobular polypeptide in YopH, (ii) a so-called β-motif in YopH and (iii) a conserved hydrophobic patch in SycH that recognizes the β-motif. Biochemical studies establish that the β-motif is critical to the stability of this complex. Finally, since previous work has shown that the N-terminal portion of YopH adopts a globular fold that is functional in the host cell, aspects of how this polypeptide adopts radically different folds in the host and in the bacterial environments are analysed

  9. Evolutionary relationships and functional diversity of plant sulfate transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hideki; Buchner, Peter; Yoshimoto, Naoko; Hawkesford, Malcolm J; Shiu, Shin-Han

    2011-01-01

    Sulfate is an essential nutrient cycled in nature. Ion transporters that specifically facilitate the transport of sulfate across the membranes are found ubiquitously in living organisms. The phylogenetic analysis of known sulfate transporters and their homologous proteins from eukaryotic organisms indicate two evolutionarily distinct groups of sulfate transport systems. One major group named Tribe 1 represents yeast and fungal SUL, plant SULTR, and animal SLC26 families. The evolutionary origin of SULTR family members in land plants and green algae is suggested to be common with yeast and fungal SUL and animal anion exchangers (SLC26). The lineage of plant SULTR family is expanded into four subfamilies (SULTR1-SULTR4) in land plant species. By contrast, the putative SULTR homologs from Chlorophyte green algae are in two separate lineages; one with the subfamily of plant tonoplast-localized sulfate transporters (SULTR4), and the other diverged before the appearance of lineages for SUL, SULTR, and SLC26. There also was a group of yet undefined members of putative sulfate transporters in yeast and fungi divergent from these major lineages in Tribe 1. The other distinct group is Tribe 2, primarily composed of animal sodium-dependent sulfate/carboxylate transporters (SLC13) and plant tonoplast-localized dicarboxylate transporters (TDT). The putative sulfur-sensing protein (SAC1) and SAC1-like transporters (SLT) of Chlorophyte green algae, bryophyte, and lycophyte show low degrees of sequence similarities with SLC13 and TDT. However, the phylogenetic relationship between SAC1/SLT and the other two families, SLC13 and TDT in Tribe 2, is not clearly supported. In addition, the SAC1/SLT family is absent in the angiosperm species analyzed. The present study suggests distinct evolutionary trajectories of sulfate transport systems for land plants and green algae.

  10. BACTERIAL CONSORTIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payel Sarkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons like benzen e, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylene, together known as BTEX, has almost the same chemical structure. These aromatic hydrocarbons are released as pollutants in th e environment. This work was taken up to develop a solvent tolerant bacterial cons ortium that could degrade BTEX compounds as they all share a common chemical structure. We have isolated almost 60 different types of bacterial strains from different petroleum contaminated sites. Of these 60 bacterial strains almost 20 microorganisms were screene d on the basis of capability to tolerate high concentration of BTEX. Ten differe nt consortia were prepared and the compatibility of the bacterial strains within the consortia was checked by gram staining and BTEX tolerance level. Four successful mi crobial consortia were selected in which all the bacterial strains concomitantly grew in presence of high concentration of BTEX (10% of toluene, 10% of benzene 5% ethyl benzene and 1% xylene. Consortium #2 showed the highest growth rate in pr esence of BTEX. Degradation of BTEX by consortium #2 was monitored for 5 days by gradual decrease in the volume of the solvents. The maximum reduction observed wa s 85% in 5 days. Gas chromatography results also reveal that could completely degrade benzene and ethyl benzene within 48 hours. Almost 90% degradation of toluene and xylene in 48 hours was exhibited by consortium #2. It could also tolerate and degrade many industrial solvents such as chloroform, DMSO, acetonitrile having a wide range of log P values (0.03–3.1. Degradation of aromatic hydrocarbon like BTEX by a solvent tolerant bacterial consortium is greatly significant as it could degrade high concentration of pollutants compared to a bacterium and also reduces the time span of degradation.

  11. The bacterial preparation OK432 induces IL-12p70 secretion in human dendritic cells in a TLR3 dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovden, Arnt-Ove; Karlsen, Marie; Jonsson, Roland; Appel, Silke

    2012-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) used in therapeutic cancer immunotherapy have to be able to stimulate T cells resulting in an immune response that can efficiently target the cancer cells. One of the critical hurdles has been the lack of IL-12p70 production when maturating the DC, which is rectified by using the bacterial preparation OK432 (trade name Picibanil) to mature the cells. In order to identify the mechanism behind OK432 stimulation of DC, we investigated the contribution of different TLR to examine their involvement in IL-12p70 production. By combining different inhibitors of TLR signaling, we demonstrate here that TLR3 is responsible for the IL-12p70 production of DC induced by OK432. Moreover, our data suggest that the ligand triggering IL-12p70 secretion upon TLR3 stimulation is sensitive to proteinase and partly also RNAse treatment. The fact that a bacterial compound like OK432 can activate the TLR3 pathway in human DC is a novel finding. OK432 demonstrates a critical ability to induce IL-12p70 production, which is of great relevance in DC based cancer immunotherapy.

  12. The bacterial preparation OK432 induces IL-12p70 secretion in human dendritic cells in a TLR3 dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnt-Ove Hovden

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DC used in therapeutic cancer immunotherapy have to be able to stimulate T cells resulting in an immune response that can efficiently target the cancer cells. One of the critical hurdles has been the lack of IL-12p70 production when maturating the DC, which is rectified by using the bacterial preparation OK432 (trade name Picibanil to mature the cells. In order to identify the mechanism behind OK432 stimulation of DC, we investigated the contribution of different TLR to examine their involvement in IL-12p70 production. By combining different inhibitors of TLR signaling, we demonstrate here that TLR3 is responsible for the IL-12p70 production of DC induced by OK432. Moreover, our data suggest that the ligand triggering IL-12p70 secretion upon TLR3 stimulation is sensitive to proteinase and partly also RNAse treatment. The fact that a bacterial compound like OK432 can activate the TLR3 pathway in human DC is a novel finding. OK432 demonstrates a critical ability to induce IL-12p70 production, which is of great relevance in DC based cancer immunotherapy.

  13. Anaerobic BTEX biodegradation linked to nitrate and sulfate reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dou Junfeng; Liu Xiang; Hu Zhifeng; Deng Dong

    2008-01-01

    Effective anaerobic BTEX biodegradation was obtained under nitrate and sulfate reducing conditions by the mixed bacterial consortium that were enriched from gasoline contaminated soil. Under the conditions of using nitrate or sulfate as reducing acceptor, the degradation rates of the six tested substrates decreased with toluene > ethylbenzene > m-xylene > o-xylene > benzene > p-xylene. The higher concentrations of BTEX were toxic to the mixed cultures and led to reduce the degradation rates of BTEX. Benzene and p-xylene were more toxic than toluene and ethylbenzene. Nitrate was a more favorable electron acceptor compared to sulfate. The measured ratios between the amount of nitrate consumed and the amount of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene, m-xylene, p-xylene degraded were 9.47, 9.26, 11.14, 12.46, 13.36 and 13.02, respectively. The measured ratios between sulfate reduction and BTEX degradation were 3.51, 4.33, 4.89, 4.81, 4.86 and 4.76, respectively, which were nearly the same to theoretical ones, and the relative error between the measured and calculated ratios was less than 10%

  14. Effects of oversulfated and fucosylated chondroitin sulfates on coagulation. Challenges for the study of anticoagulant polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Roberto J C; Oliveira, Stephan-Nicollas M C G; Pomin, Vitor H; Mecawi, André S; Araujo, Iracema G; Mourão, Paulo A S

    2010-05-01

    We report the effects of a chemically oversulfated chondroitin sulfate and a naturally fucosylated chondroitin sulfate on the coagulation system. The former has been recently identified as a contaminant of heparin preparations and the latter has been proposed as an alternative anticoagulant. The mechanism of action of these polymers on coagulation is complex and target different components of the coagulation system. They have serpin-independent anticoagulant activity, which preponderates in plasma. They also have serpin-dependent anticoagulant activity but differ significantly in the target coagulation protease and preferential serpin. Their anticoagulant effects differ even more markedly when tested as inhibitors of coagulation proteases using plasma as a source of serpins. It is possible that the difference is due to the high availability of fucosylated chondroitin sulfate whereas oversulfated chondroitin sulfate has strong unspecific binding to plasma protein and low availability for the binding to serpins. When tested using a venous thrombosis experimental model, oversulfated chondroitin sulfate is less potent as an antithrombotic agent than fucosylated chondroitin sulfate. These highly sulfated chondroitin sulfates activate factor XII in in vitro assays, based on kallikrein release. However, only fucosylated chondroitin sulfate induces hypotension when intravenously injected into rats. In conclusion, the complexity of the regulatory mechanisms involved in the action of highly sulfated polysaccharides in coagulation requires their analysis by a combination of in vitro and in vivo assays. Our results are relevant due to the urgent need for new anticoagulant drugs or alternative sources of heparin.

  15. Sulfate Reduction and Thiosulfate Transformations in a Cyanobacterial Mat during a Diel Oxygen Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JØRGENSEN, BB

    1994-01-01

    Bacterial sulfate reduction and transformations of thiosulfate were studied with radiotracers in a Microcoleus chthono-plastes-dominated microbial mat growing in a hypersaline pond at the Red Sea. The study showed how a diel cycle of oxygen evolution affected respiration by sulfate-reducing bacte......Bacterial sulfate reduction and transformations of thiosulfate were studied with radiotracers in a Microcoleus chthono-plastes-dominated microbial mat growing in a hypersaline pond at the Red Sea. The study showed how a diel cycle of oxygen evolution affected respiration by sulfate......-reducing bacteria and the metabolism of thiosulfate through oxidative and reductive pathways. Sulfate reduction occurred in both oxic and anoxic layers of the mat and varied diurnally, apparently according to temperature rather than to oxygen. Time course experiments showed that the radiotracer method...... underestimated sulfate reduction in the oxic zone due to rapid reoxidation of the produced sulfide. Extremely high reduction rates of up to 10 mu mol cm(-3) d(-1) were measured just below the euphotic zone. Although thiosulfate was simultaneously oxidized, reduced and disproportionated by bacteria in all layers...

  16. Bacterial Adhesion & Blocking Bacterial Adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Rebecca Munk

    2008-01-01

    , which influence the transition from a planktonic lifestyle to a sessile lifestyle, have been studied. Protein conditioning film formation was found to influence bacterial adhesion and subsequent biofilm formation considerable, and an aqueous extract of fish muscle tissue was shown to significantly...... tract to the microbial flocs in waste water treatment facilities. Microbial biofilms may however also cause a wide range of industrial and medical problems, and have been implicated in a wide range of persistent infectious diseases, including implantassociated microbial infections. Bacterial adhesion...... is the first committing step in biofilm formation, and has therefore been intensely scrutinized. Much however, still remains elusive. Bacterial adhesion is a highly complex process, which is influenced by a variety of factors. In this thesis, a range of physico-chemical, molecular and environmental parameters...

  17. Bacterial meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heckenberg, Sebastiaan G. B.; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; van de Beek, Diederik

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a neurologic emergency. Vaccination against common pathogens has decreased the burden of disease. Early diagnosis and rapid initiation of empiric antimicrobial and adjunctive therapy are vital. Therapy should be initiated as soon as blood cultures have been obtained,

  18. Bacterial lipases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaeger, Karl-Erich; Ransac, Stéphane; Dijkstra, Bauke W.; Colson, Charles; Heuvel, Margreet van; Misset, Onno

    Many different bacterial species produce lipases which hydrolyze esters of glycerol with preferably long-chain fatty acids. They act at the interface generated by a hydrophobic lipid substrate in a hydrophilic aqueous medium. A characteristic property of lipases is called interfacial activation,

  19. Bacterial stress

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Bacterial stress. Physicochemical and chemical parameters: temperature, pressure, pH, salt concentration, oxygen, irradiation. Nutritional depravation: nutrient starvation, water shortage. Toxic compounds: Antibiotics, heavy metals, toxins, mutagens. Interactions with other cells: ...

  20. Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS)-Loaded Nanoporous Polymer as Anti-Biofilm Surface Coating Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Li; Molin, Søren; Yang, Liang

    2013-01-01

    -b-polydimethylsiloxane (1,2-PB-b-PDMS) block copolymer via chemical cross-linking of the 1,2-PB block followed by quantitative removal of the PDMS block. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was loaded into the nanoporous 1,2-PB from aqueous solution. The SDS-loaded nanoporous polymer films were shown to block bacterial attachment...

  1. Effectiveness of copper sulfate and potassium permanganate on channel catfish infected with Flavobacterium columnare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copper sulfate (CuSO4) and potassium permanganate (KMnO4) were evaluated for their effectiveness to curtail mortality and decrease bacterial load in fish tissues and water in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus naturally infected with Flavobacterium columnare, the causative agent of columnaris. Fis...

  2. Commensal Bacteria-Induced Inflammasome Activation in Mouse and Human Macrophages Is Dependent on Potassium Efflux but Does Not Require Phagocytosis or Bacterial Viability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kejie Chen

    Full Text Available Gut commensal bacteria contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease, in part by activating the inflammasome and inducing secretion of interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß. Although much has been learned about inflammasome activation by bacterial pathogens, little is known about how commensals carry out this process. Accordingly, we investigated the mechanism of inflammasome activation by representative commensal bacteria, the Gram-positive Bifidobacterium longum subspecies infantis and the Gram-negative Bacteroides fragilis. B. infantis and B. fragilis induced IL-1ß secretion by primary mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages after overnight incubation. IL-1ß secretion also occurred in response to heat-killed bacteria and was only partly reduced when phagocytosis was inhibited with cytochalasin D. Similar results were obtained with a wild-type immortalized mouse macrophage cell line but neither B. infantis nor B. fragilis induced IL-1ß secretion in a mouse macrophage line lacking the nucleotide-binding/leucine-rich repeat pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3 inflammasome. IL-1ß secretion in response to B. infantis and B. fragilis was significantly reduced when the wild-type macrophage line was treated with inhibitors of potassium efflux, either increased extracellular potassium concentrations or the channel blocker ruthenium red. Both live and heat-killed B. infantis and B. fragilis also induced IL-1ß secretion by human macrophages (differentiated THP-1 cells or primary monocyte-derived macrophages after 4 hours of infection, and the secretion was inhibited by raised extracellular potassium and ruthenium red but not by cytochalasin D. Taken together, our findings indicate that the commensal bacteria B. infantis and B. fragilis activate the NLRP3 inflammasome in both mouse and human macrophages by a mechanism that involves potassium efflux and that does not require bacterial viability or phagocytosis.

  3. Semi-synthesis of chondroitin sulfate-E from chondroitin sulfate-A

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Chao; Solakyildirim, Kemal; Yang, Bo; Beaudet, Julie M.; Weyer, Amanda; Linhardt, Robert J.; Zhang, Fuming

    2012-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate-E (chondroitin-4, 6-disulfate) was prepared from chondroitin sulfate-A (chondroitin-4 - sulfate) by regioselective sulfonation, performed using trimethylamine sulfur trioxide in formamide under argon. The structure of semi-synthetic chondroitin sulfate-E was analyzed by PAGE, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, 2D NMR and disaccharide analysis and compared with natural chondroitin sulfate-E. Both semi-synthetic and natural chondroitin sulfate-E were each biotinylated and immobilized on BIAco...

  4. Chondroitin Sulfate Perlecan Enhances Collagen Fibril Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, A. J.; Johnson, A. E.; Mörgelin, M.

    2006-01-01

    in collagen type II fibril assembly by perlecan-null chondrocytes. Cartilage perlecan is a heparin sulfate or a mixed heparan sulfate/chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. The latter form binds collagen and accelerates fibril formation in vitro, with more defined fibril morphology and increased fibril diameters...... produced in the presence of perlecan. Interestingly, the enhancement of collagen fibril formation is independent on the core protein and is mimicked by chondroitin sulfate E but neither by chondroitin sulfate D nor dextran sulfate. Furthermore, perlecan chondroitin sulfate contains the 4,6-disulfated...... disaccharides typical for chondroitin sulfate E. Indeed, purified glycosaminoglycans from perlecan-enriched fractions of cartilage extracts contain elevated levels of 4,6-disulfated chondroitin sulfate disaccharides and enhance collagen fibril formation. The effect on collagen assembly is proportional...

  5. Adaptation of psychrophilic and psychrotrophic sulfate-reducing bacteria to permanently cold marine environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaksen, MF; Jørgensen, BB

    1996-01-01

    environments, In sediment slurries from Antarctica, the metabolic activity of psychrotrophic bacteria was observed with a respiration optimum at 18 to 19 degrees C during short-term incubations, However, over a 1-week incubation, the highest respiration rate was observed at 12.5 degrees C. Growth...... of the bacterial population at the optimal growth temperature could be an explanation for the low temperature optimum of the measured sulfate reduction, The potential for sulfate reduction was highest at temperatures well above the in situ temperature in all experiments, The results frorn sediment incubations were...... compared with those obtained from pure cultures of sulfate-reducing bacteria by using the psychrotrophic strain Itk10 and the mesophilic strain ak30. The psychrotrophic strain reduced sulfate optimally at 28 degrees C in short-term incubations, even though it could not grow at temperatures above 24 degrees...

  6. Sulfate reduction in freshwater peatlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oequist, M.

    1996-12-31

    This text consist of two parts: Part A is a literature review on microbial sulfate reduction with emphasis on freshwater peatlands, and part B presents the results from a study of the relative importance of sulfate reduction and methane formation for the anaerobic decomposition in a boreal peatland. The relative importance of sulfate reduction and methane production for the anaerobic decomposition was studied in a small raised bog situated in the boreal zone of southern Sweden. Depth distribution of sulfate reduction- and methane production rates were measured in peat sampled from three sites (A, B, and C) forming an minerotrophic-ombrotrophic gradient. SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} concentrations in the three profiles were of equal magnitude and ranged from 50 to 150 {mu}M. In contrast, rates of sulfate reduction were vastly different: Maximum rates in the three profiles were obtained at a depth of ca. 20 cm below the water table. In A it was 8 {mu}M h{sup -1} while in B and C they were 1 and 0.05 {mu}M h{sup -1}, respectively. Methane production rates, however, were more uniform across the three nutrient regimes. Maximum rates in A (ca. 1.5 {mu}g d{sup -1} g{sup -1}) were found 10 cm below the water table, in B (ca. 1.0 {mu}g d{sup -1} g{sup -1}) in the vicinity of the water table, and in C (0.75 {mu}g d{sup -1} g{sup -1}) 20 cm below the water table. In all profiles both sulfate reduction and methane production rates were negligible above the water table. The areal estimates of methane production for the profiles were 22.4, 9.0 and 6.4 mmol m{sup -2} d{sup -1}, while the estimates for sulfate reduction were 26.4, 2.5, and 0.1 mmol m{sup -2} d{sup -1}, respectively. The calculated turnover times at the sites were 1.2, 14.2, and 198.7 days, respectively. The study shows that sulfate reducing bacteria are important for the anaerobic degradation in the studied peatland, especially in the minerotrophic sites, while methanogenic bacteria dominate in ombrotrophic sites Examination

  7. Sulfate reduction in freshwater peatlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oequist, M.

    1996-01-01

    This text consist of two parts: Part A is a literature review on microbial sulfate reduction with emphasis on freshwater peatlands, and part B presents the results from a study of the relative importance of sulfate reduction and methane formation for the anaerobic decomposition in a boreal peatland. The relative importance of sulfate reduction and methane production for the anaerobic decomposition was studied in a small raised bog situated in the boreal zone of southern Sweden. Depth distribution of sulfate reduction- and methane production rates were measured in peat sampled from three sites (A, B, and C) forming an minerotrophic-ombrotrophic gradient. SO 4 2- concentrations in the three profiles were of equal magnitude and ranged from 50 to 150 μM. In contrast, rates of sulfate reduction were vastly different: Maximum rates in the three profiles were obtained at a depth of ca. 20 cm below the water table. In A it was 8 μM h -1 while in B and C they were 1 and 0.05 μM h -1 , respectively. Methane production rates, however, were more uniform across the three nutrient regimes. Maximum rates in A (ca. 1.5 μg d -1 g -1 ) were found 10 cm below the water table, in B (ca. 1.0 μg d -1 g -1 ) in the vicinity of the water table, and in C (0.75 μg d -1 g -1 ) 20 cm below the water table. In all profiles both sulfate reduction and methane production rates were negligible above the water table. The areal estimates of methane production for the profiles were 22.4, 9.0 and 6.4 mmol m -2 d -1 , while the estimates for sulfate reduction were 26.4, 2.5, and 0.1 mmol m -2 d -1 , respectively. The calculated turnover times at the sites were 1.2, 14.2, and 198.7 days, respectively. The study shows that sulfate reducing bacteria are important for the anaerobic degradation in the studied peatland, especially in the minerotrophic sites, while methanogenic bacteria dominate in ombrotrophic sites Examination paper. 67 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs

  8. Acid Sulfate Alteration on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.

    2016-01-01

    A variety of mineralogical and geochemical indicators for aqueous alteration on Mars have been identified by a combination of surface and orbital robotic missions, telescopic observations, characterization of Martian meteorites, and laboratory and terrestrial analog studies. Acid sulfate alteration has been identified at all three landing sites visited by NASA rover missions (Spirit, Opportunity, and Curiosity). Spirit landed in Gusev crater in 2004 and discovered Fe-sulfates and materials that have been extensively leached by acid sulfate solutions. Opportunity landing on the plains of Meridiani Planum also in 2004 where the rover encountered large abundances of jarosite and hematite in sedimentary rocks. Curiosity landed in Gale crater in 2012 and has characterized fluvial, deltaic, and lacustrine sediments. Jarosite and hematite were discovered in some of the lacustrine sediments. The high elemental abundance of sulfur in surface materials is obvious evidence that sulfate has played a major role in aqueous processes at all landing sites on Mars. The sulfate-rich outcrop at Meridiani Planum has an SO3 content of up to 25 wt.%. The interiors of rocks and outcrops on the Columbia Hills within Gusev crater have up to 8 wt.% SO3. Soils at both sites generally have between 5 to 14 wt.% SO3, and several soils in Gusev crater contain around 30 wt.% SO3. After normalization of major element compositions to a SO3-free basis, the bulk compositions of these materials are basaltic, with a few exceptions in Gusev crater and in lacustrine mudstones in Gale crater. These observations suggest that materials encountered by the rovers were derived from basaltic precursors by acid sulfate alteration under nearly isochemical conditions (i.e., minimal leaching). There are several cases, however, where acid sulfate alteration minerals (jarosite and hematite) formed in open hydrologic systems, e.g., in Gale crater lacustrine mudstones. Several hypotheses have been suggested for the

  9. [Bacterial vaginosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero Herrero, Daniel; Andreu Domingo, Antonia

    2016-07-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the main cause of vaginal dysbacteriosis in the women during the reproductive age. It is an entity in which many studies have focused for years and which is still open for discussion topics. This is due to the diversity of microorganisms that cause it and therefore, its difficult treatment. Bacterial vaginosis is probably the result of vaginal colonization by complex bacterial communities, many of them non-cultivable and with interdependent metabolism where anaerobic populations most likely play an important role in its pathogenesis. The main symptoms are an increase of vaginal discharge and the unpleasant smell of it. It can lead to serious consequences for women, such as an increased risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections including human immunodeficiency virus and upper genital tract and pregnancy complications. Gram stain is the gold standard for microbiological diagnosis of BV, but can also be diagnosed using the Amsel clinical criteria. It should not be considered a sexually transmitted disease but it is highly related to sex. Recurrence is the main problem of medical treatment. Apart from BV, there are other dysbacteriosis less characterized like aerobic vaginitis of which further studies are coming slowly but are achieving more attention and consensus among specialists. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Sulfate Transporters in Dissimilatory Sulfate Reducing Microorganisms: A Comparative Genomics Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeliki Marietou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The first step in the sulfate reduction pathway is the transport of sulfate across the cell membrane. This uptake has a major effect on sulfate reduction rates. Much of the information available on sulfate transport was obtained by studies on assimilatory sulfate reduction, where sulfate transporters were identified among several types of protein families. Despite our growing knowledge on the physiology of dissimilatory sulfate-reducing microorganisms (SRM there are no studies identifying the proteins involved in sulfate uptake in members of this ecologically important group of anaerobes. We surveyed the complete genomes of 44 sulfate-reducing bacteria and archaea across six phyla and identified putative sulfate transporter encoding genes from four out of the five surveyed protein families based on homology. We did not find evidence that ABC-type transporters (SulT are involved in the uptake of sulfate in SRM. We speculate that members of the CysP sulfate transporters could play a key role in the uptake of sulfate in thermophilic SRM. Putative CysZ-type sulfate transporters were present in all genomes examined suggesting that this overlooked group of sulfate transporters might play a role in sulfate transport in dissimilatory sulfate reducers alongside SulP. Our in silico analysis highlights several targets for further molecular studies in order to understand this key step in the metabolism of SRMs.

  11. Gaseous 3-pentanol primes plant immunity against a bacterial speck pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato via salicylic acid and jasmonic acid-dependent signaling pathways in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Geun C; Choi, Hye K; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2015-01-01

    3-Pentanol is an active organic compound produced by plants and is a component of emitted insect sex pheromones. A previous study reported that drench application of 3-pentanol elicited plant immunity against microbial pathogens and an insect pest in crop plants. Here, we evaluated whether 3-pentanol and the derivatives 1-pentanol and 2-pentanol induced plant systemic resistance using the in vitro I-plate system. Exposure of Arabidopsis seedlings to 10 μM and 100 nM 3-pentanol evaporate elicited an immune response to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. We performed quantitative real-time PCR to investigate the 3-pentanol-mediated Arabidopsis immune responses by determining Pathogenesis-Related (PR) gene expression levels associated with defense signaling through salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), and ethylene signaling pathways. The results show that exposure to 3-pentanol and subsequent pathogen challenge upregulated PDF1.2 and PR1 expression. Selected Arabidopsis mutants confirmed that the 3-pentanol-mediated immune response involved SA and JA signaling pathways and the NPR1 gene. Taken together, this study indicates that gaseous 3-pentanol triggers induced resistance in Arabidopsis by priming SA and JA signaling pathways. To our knowledge, this is the first report that a volatile compound of an insect sex pheromone triggers plant systemic resistance against a bacterial pathogen.

  12. Gaseous 3-pentanol primes plant immunity against a bacterial speck pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato via salicylic acid and jasmonic acid-dependent signaling pathways in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geun Cheol eSong

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available 3-Pentanol is an active organic compound produced by plants and is a component of emitted insect sex pheromones. A previous study reported that drench application of 3-pentanol elicited plant immunity against microbial pathogens and an insect pest in crop plants. Here, we evaluated whether 3-pentanol and the derivatives 1-pentanol and 2-pentanol induced plant systemic resistance using the in vitro I-plate system. Exposure of Arabidopsis seedlings to 10 M and 100 nM 3-pentanol evaporate elicited an immune response to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. We performed quantitative real-time PCR to investigate the 3-pentanol-mediated Arabidopsis immune responses by determining Pathogenesis-Related (PR gene expression levels associated with defense signaling through SA, JA, and ethylene signaling pathways. The results show that exposure to 3-pentanol and subsequent pathogen challenge upregulated PDF1.2 and PR1 expression. Selected Arabidopsis mutants confirmed that the 3-pentanol-mediated immune response involved salicylic acid (SA and jasmonic acid (JA signaling pathways and the NPR1 gene. Taken together, this study indicates that gaseous 3-pentanol triggers induced resistance in Arabidopsis by priming SA and JA signaling pathways. To our knowledge, this is the first report that a volatile compound of an insect sex pheromone triggers plant systemic resistance against a bacterial pathogen.

  13. Direct sulfation of limestone based on oxy-fuel combustion technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C.M.; Zhao, C.S.; Liu, S.T.; Wang, C.B. [North China Electric Power University, Baoding (China)

    2009-10-15

    With limestone as the sorbent, the sulfation reaction can proceed via two different routes depending on whether calcination of the limestone takes place under the given reaction conditions. The direct sulfation reaction is defined as the sulfation reaction between sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and limestone in an uncalcined state. This reaction, based on oxyfuel combustion technology, was studied by thermogravimetric analysis. Surface morphologies of the limestone particles after sulfation were examined by a scanning electron microscope. Results show that there are more pores or gaps in the product layer formed by direct sulfation of limestone than by indirect sulfation, which can be attributed to the generation of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) at a reaction interface. Compared with indirect sulfation, direct sulfation of limestone can yield much higher conversion and has a much higher reaction rate. For direct sulfation, the greater porosity in the product layer greatly reduces the solid-state ion diffusion distance, resulting in a higher reaction rate and higher conversion.

  14. Time-scales of hydrological forcing on the geochemistry and bacterial community structure of temperate peat soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Flavia L. D.; Aquilina, Luc; De Ridder, Jo; Francez, André-Jean; Quaiser, Achim; Caudal, Jean-Pierre; Vandenkoornhuyse, Philippe; Dufresne, Alexis

    2015-10-01

    Peatlands are an important global carbon reservoir. The continued accumulation of carbon in peatlands depends on the persistence of anoxic conditions, in part induced by water saturation, which prevents oxidation of organic matter, and slows down decomposition. Here we investigate how and over what time scales the hydrological regime impacts the geochemistry and the bacterial community structure of temperate peat soils. Peat cores from two sites having contrasting groundwater budgets were subjected to four controlled drought-rewetting cycles. Pore water geochemistry and metagenomic profiling of bacterial communities showed that frequent water table drawdown induced lower concentrations of dissolved carbon, higher concentrations of sulfate and iron and reduced bacterial richness and diversity in the peat soil and water. Short-term drought cycles (3-9 day frequency) resulted in different communities from continuously saturated environments. Furthermore, the site that has more frequently experienced water table drawdown during the last two decades presented the most striking shifts in bacterial community structure, altering biogeochemical functioning of peat soils. Our results suggest that the increase in frequency and duration of drought conditions under changing climatic conditions or water resource use can induce profound changes in bacterial communities, with potentially severe consequences for carbon storage in temperate peatlands.

  15. Sulfate transport in toad skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Simonsen, K

    1988-01-01

    1. In short-circuited toad skin preparations exposed bilaterally to NaCl-Ringer's containing 1 mM SO2(-4), influx of sulfate was larger than efflux showing that the skin is capable of transporting sulfate actively in an inward direction. 2. This active transport was not abolished by substituting...... apical Na+ for K+. 3. Following voltage activation of the passive Cl- permeability of the mitochondria-rich (m.r.) cells sulfate flux-ratio increased to a value predicted from the Ussing flux-ratio equation for a monovalent anion. 4. In such skins, which were shown to exhibit vanishingly small leakage...... conductances, the variation of the rate coefficient for sulfate influx (y) was positively correlated with the rate coefficient for Cl- influx (x), y = 0.035 x - 0.0077 cm/sec (r = 0.9935, n = 15). 5. Addition of the phosphodiesterase inhibitor, 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-xanthine to the serosal bath of short...

  16. Heparan Sulfate and Chondroitin Sulfate Glycosaminoglycans Are Targeted by Bleomycin in Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiulian; Lan, Ying; He, Yanli; Liu, Yong; Luo, Heng; Yu, Haibo; Song, Ni; Ren, Sumei; Liu, Tianwei; Hao, Cui; Guo, Yunliang; Zhang, Lijuan

    2017-01-01

    Bleomycin is a clinically used anti-cancer drug that produces DNA breaks once inside of cells. However, bleomycin is a positively charged molecule and cannot get inside of cells by free diffusion. We previously reported that the cell surface negatively charged glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) may be involved in the cellular uptake of bleomycin. We also observed that a class of positively charged small molecules has Golgi localization once inside of the cells. We therefore hypothesized that bleomycin might perturb Golgi-operated GAG biosynthesis. We used stable isotope labeling coupled with LC/MS analysis of GAG disaccharides simultaneously from bleomycin-treated and non-treated cancer cells. To further understand the cytotoxicity of bleomycin and its relationship to GAGs, we used sodium chlorate to inhibit GAG sulfation and commercially available GAGs to compete for cell surface GAG/bleomycin interactions in seven cell lines including CHO745 defective in both heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate biosynthesis. we discovered that heparan sulfate GAG was significantly undersulfated and the quantity and disaccharide compositions of GAGs were changed in bleomycin-treated cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. We revealed that bleomycin-induced cytotoxicity was directly related to cell surface GAGs. GAGs were targeted by bleomycin both at cell surface and at Golgi. Thus, GAGs might be the biological relevant molecules that might be related to the bleomycin-induced fibrosis in certain cancer patients, a severe side effect with largely unknown molecular mechanism. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Bacterial cellulose/boehmite composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvi, Denise T.B. de; Barud, Hernane S.; Messaddeq, Younes; Ribeiro, Sidney J.L.; Caiut, Jose Mauricio A.

    2011-01-01

    Composites based on bacterial cellulose membranes and boehmite were obtained. SEM results indicate that the bacterial cellulose (BC) membranes are totally covered by boehmite and obtained XRD patterns suggest structural changes due to this boehmite addition. Thermal stability is accessed through TG curves and is dependent on boehmite content. Transparency is high comparing to pure BC as can be seen through UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. (author)

  18. On the sulfation of O-desmethyltramadol by human cytosolic sulfotransferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasool, Mohammed I; Bairam, Ahsan F; Kurogi, Katsuhisa; Liu, Ming-Cheh

    2017-10-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that sulfate conjugation is involved in the metabolism of the active metabolite of tramadol, O-desmethyltramadol (O-DMT). The current study aimed to systematically identify the human cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs) that are capable of mediating the sulfation of O-DMT. The sulfation of O-DMT under metabolic conditions was demonstrated using HepG2 hepatoma cells and Caco-2 human colon carcinoma cells. O-DMT-sulfating activity of thirteen known human SULTs and four human organ specimens was examined using an established sulfotransferase assay. pH-Dependency and kinetic parameters were also analyzed using, respectively, buffers at different pHs and varying O-DMT concentrations in the assays. Of the thirteen human SULTs tested, only SULT1A3 and SULT1C4 were found to display O-DMT-sulfating activity, with different pH-dependency profiles. Kinetic analysis revealed that SULT1C4 was 60 times more catalytically efficient in mediating the sulfation of O-DMT than SULT1A3 at respective optimal pH. Of the four human organ specimens tested, the cytosol prepared from the small intestine showed much higher O-DMT-sulfating activity than cytosols prepared from liver, lung, and kidney. Both cultured HepG2 and Caco-2 cells were shown to be capable of sulfating O-DMT and releasing sulfated O-DMT into cultured media. SULT1A3 and SULT1C4 were the major SULTs responsible for the sulfation of O-DMT. Collectively, the results obtained provided a molecular basis underlying the sulfation of O-DMT and contributed to a better understanding about the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of tramadol in humans. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  19. Release of dissolved carbohydrates by Emiliania huxleyi and formation of transparent exopolymer particles depend on algal life cycle and bacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oostende, Nicolas; Moerdijk-Poortvliet, Tanja C W; Boschker, Henricus T S; Vyverman, Wim; Sabbe, Koen

    2013-05-01

    The coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi plays a pivotal role in the marine carbon cycle. However, we have only limited understanding of how its life cycle and bacterial interactions affect the production and composition of dissolved extracellular organic carbon and its transfer to the particulate pool. We traced the fate of photosynthetically fixed carbon during phosphate-limited stationary growth of non-axenic, calcifying E. huxleyi batch cultures, and more specifically the transfer of this carbon to bacteria and to dissolved high molecular weight neutral aldoses (HMW NAld) and extracellular particulate carbon. We then compared the dynamics of dissolved carbohydrates and transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) between cultures of non-axenic and axenic diploid E. huxleyi. In addition, we present the first data on extracellular organic carbon in (non-axenic) haploid E. huxleyi cultures. Bacteria enhanced the accumulation of dissolved polysaccharides and altered the composition of dissolved HMW NAld, while they also stimulated the formation of TEP containing high densities of charged polysaccharides in diploid E. huxleyi cultures. In haploid E. huxleyi cultures we found a more pronounced accumulation of dissolved carbohydrates, which had a different NAld composition than the diploid cultures. TEP formation was significantly lower than in the diploid cultures, despite the presence of bacteria. In diploid E. huxleyi cultures, we measured a high level of extracellular release of organic carbon (34-76%), retrieved mainly in the particulate pool instead of the dissolved pool. Enhanced formation of sticky TEP due to bacteria-alga interactions, in concert with the production of coccoliths, suggests that especially diploid E. huxleyi blooms increase the efficiency of export production in the ocean during dissolved phosphate-limited conditions. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. 21 CFR 184.1261 - Copper sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Copper sulfate. 184.1261 Section 184.1261 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1261 Copper sulfate. (a) Copper sulfate (cupric sulfate, CuSO4·5H2O, CAS... the reaction of sulfuric acid with cupric oxide or with copper metal. (b) The ingredient must be of a...

  1. Periodate Oxidation for Sulfated Glycosaminoglycans, with Special Reference to the Position of Extra Sulfate Groups in Chondroitin Polysulfates, Chondroitin Sulfate D and Chondroitin Sulfate K

    OpenAIRE

    Seno, Nobuko; Murakami, Keiko; Shibusawa, Haru

    1981-01-01

    The optimum conditions for periodate oxidation of sulfated disaccharides were investigated to determine the position of extra sulfate groups on the saturated disulfated disaccharides obtained from chondroitin polysulfates, chondroitin sulfates D and K. Under the conditions: 2mM saturated disulfated disaccharide with 20mM sodium periodate at 37°in the dark, the uronic acid residue in the disulfated disaccharide from chondroitin sulfate D was rapidly and completely destroyed, whereas that in th...

  2. Hyperfine interactions and structures of ferrous hydroxide and green rust II in sulfated aqueous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olowe, A.A.; Genin, J.M.R.; Bauer, P.

    1988-01-01

    A sulfated ferrous hydroxide is obtained by mixing NaOH with melanterite depending on the R = [SO 4 -- ]/[OH - ] ratio and leading by oxidation to the green rust II transient compound. Hyperfine parameters are presented. (orig.)

  3. Crystallization of aqueous ammonium sulfate particles internally mixed with soot and kaolinite: crystallization relative humidities and nucleation rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Atul; Parsons, Matthew T; Bertram, Allan K

    2006-07-20

    Using optical microscopy, we investigated the crystallization of aqueous ammonium sulfate droplets containing soot and kaolinite, as well as the crystallization of aqueous ammonium sulfate droplets free of solid material. Our results show that soot did not influence the crystallization RH of aqueous ammonium sulfate particles under our experimental conditions. In contrast, kaolinite increased the crystallization RH of the aqueous ammonium sulfate droplets by approximately 10%. In addition, our results show that the crystallization RH of aqueous ammonium sulfate droplets free of solid material does not depend strongly on particle size. This is consistent with conclusions made previously in the literature, based on comparisons of results from different laboratories. From the crystallization results we determined the homogeneous nucleation rates of crystalline ammonium sulfate in aqueous ammonium sulfate droplets and the heterogeneous nucleation rates of crystalline ammonium sulfate in aqueous ammonium sulfate particles containing kaolinite. Using classical nucleation theory and our experimental data, we determined that the interfacial tension between an ammonium sulfate critical nucleus and an aqueous ammonium sulfate solution is 0.064 +/- 0.003 J m(-2) (in agreement with our previous measurements), and the contact angle between an ammonium sulfate critical nucleus and a kaolinite surface is 59 +/- 2 degrees. On the basis of our results, we argue that soot will not influence the crystallization RH of aqueous ammonium sulfate droplets in the atmosphere, but kaolinite can significantly modify the crystallization RH of atmospheric ammonium sulfate droplets. As an example, the CRH50 (the relative humidity at which 50% of the droplets crystallize) ranges from about 41 to 51% RH when the diameter of the kaolinite inclusion ranges from 0.1 to 5 microm. For comparison, the CRH50 of aqueous ammonium sulfate droplets (0.5 microm diameter) free of solid material is

  4. 21 CFR 582.5230 - Calcium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium sulfate. 582.5230 Section 582.5230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5230 Calcium sulfate. (a) Product. Calcium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... hydroxide or potassium carbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the “Food Chemicals Codex... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium sulfate. 184.1443 Section 184.1443 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4·7H2O, CAS... magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate with sulfuric acid and evaporating the solution to crystallization...

  7. EFFECT OF MAGNESIUM SULFATE (A LAXATIVE) ON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use with little success . Magnesium sulfate also known as Epsom salt or bitter salt is a hydrate salt with a chemical name of magnesium sulfate heptahydrate . Chemical formula is MgSO. 7HO and trade name is. Andrews liver salt. Dried magnesium sulfate is an osmotic laxative or a saline laxative that acts by increasing the.

  8. 21 CFR 582.5443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 582.5443 Section 582.5443 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Product. Magnesium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  9. Modeling and minimization of barium sulfate scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan W. Rudie; Peter W. Hart

    2006-01-01

    The majority of the barium present in the pulping process exits the digester as barium carbonate. Barium carbonate dissolves in the bleach plant when the pH drops below 7 and, if barium and sulfate concentrations are too high, begins to precipitate as barium sulfate. Barium is difficult to control because a mill cannot avoid this carbonate-to-sulfate transition using...

  10. 21 CFR 582.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 582.1125 Section 582.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  11. 21 CFR 182.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum sulfate. 182.1125 Section 182.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  12. Behaviour of cementitious materials: sulfates and temperature actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbarulo, Remi

    2002-09-01

    The research work presented in this Ph.D. thesis is related to the nuclear waste underground repository concept. Concrete could be used in such a repository, and would be subjected to variations of temperature in presence of sulfate, a situation that could induce expansion of concrete. The research was lead in three parts: an experimental study of the possibility of an internal sulfate attack on mortars; an experimental study and modeling of the chemical equilibriums of the CaO-SiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 -SO 3 -H 2 O system; and a modeling of the mechanisms of internal and external sulfate attacks, and the effect of temperature. The results show that mortars can develop expansions after a steam-cure during hydration, but also when a long steam-cure is applied to one-year-old mortars, which is a new point. Ettringite precipitation can be considered as responsible for these expansions. The experimental study of the CaO-SiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 -SO 3 -H 2 O system clarified the role of Calcium Silicate Hydrates (C-S-H) on chemical equilibriums of cementitious materials. Sulfate sorption on C-S-H has been studied in detail. The quantity of sulfate bound to the C-S-H mainly depends on the sulfate concentration in solution, on the Ca/Si ratio of the C-S-H and is not significantly influenced by temperature. Aluminium inclusion in the C-S-H seems to be a significant phenomenon. Temperature increases the calcium sulfo-aluminate solubilities and thus increases sulfates concentration in solution. A modeling of the chemical system is proposed. Simulations of external sulfate attack (15 mmol/L of Na 2 SO 4 ) predict ettringite precipitation at 20 and 85±C. Simulation of internal sulfate attack was performed at a local scale (a hydrated cement grain). An initial inhomogeneity can lead, after a thermal curing at 85±C, to ettringite precipitation in zones originally free from ettringite. This new-formed ettringite could be the origin of the expansions. (author) [fr

  13. Monitoring sulfide and sulfate-reducing bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanner, R.S.

    1995-12-31

    Simple yet precise and accurate methods for monitoring sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and sulfide remain useful for the study of bacterial souring and corrosion. Test kits are available to measure sulfide in field samples. A more precise methylene blue sulfide assay for both field and laboratory studies is described here. Improved media, compared to that in API RP-38, for enumeration of SRB have been formulated. One of these, API-RST, contained cysteine (1.1 mM) as a reducing agent, which may be a confounding source of sulfide. While cysteine was required for rapid enumeration of SRB from environmental samples, the concentration of cysteine in medium could be reduced to 0.4 mM. It was also determined that elevated levels of yeast extract (>1 g/liter) could interfere with enumeration of SRB from environmental samples. The API-RST medium was modified to a RST-11 medium. Other changes in medium composition, in addition to reduction of cysteine, included reduction of the concentration of phosphate from 3.4 mM to 2.2 mM, reduction of the concentration of ferrous iron from 0.8 mM to 0.5 mM and preparation of a stock mineral solution to ease medium preparation. SRB from environmental samples could be enumerated in a week in this medium.

  14. Longevity in mice is promoted by probiotic-induced suppression of colonic senescence dependent on upregulation of gut bacterial polyamine production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuharu Matsumoto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic low-grade inflammation is recognized as an important factor contributing to senescence and age-related diseases. In mammals, levels of polyamines (PAs decrease during the ageing process; PAs are known to decrease systemic inflammation by inhibiting inflammatory cytokine synthesis in macrophages. Reductions in intestinal luminal PAs levels have been associated with intestinal barrier dysfunction. The probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis LKM512 is known to increase intestinal luminal PA concentrations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We supplemented the diet of 10-month-old Crj:CD-1 female mice with LKM512 for 11 months, while the controls received no supplementation. Survival rates were compared using Kaplan-Meier survival curves. LKM512-treated mice survived significantly longer than controls (P<0.001; moreover, skin ulcers and tumors were more common in the control mice. We then analyzed inflammatory and intestinal conditions by measuring several markers using HPLC, ELISA, reverse transcription-quantitative PCR, and histological slices. LKM512 mice showed altered 16S rRNA gene expression of several predominant intestinal bacterial groups. The fecal concentrations of PAs, but not of short-chain fatty acids, were significantly higher in LKM512-treated mice (P<0.05. Colonic mucosal function was also better in LKM512 mice, with increased mucus secretion and better maintenance of tight junctions. Changes in gene expression levels were evaluated using the NimbleGen mouse DNA microarray. LKM512 administration also downregulated the expression of ageing-associated and inflammation-associated genes and gene expression levels in 21-month-old LKM512-treated mice resembled those in 10-month-old untreated (younger mice. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study demonstrated increased longevity in mice following probiotic treatment with LKM512, possibly due to the suppression of chronic low-grade inflammation in the colon

  15. DMBT1 functions as pattern-recognition molecule for poly-sulfated and poly-phosphorylated ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    End, Caroline; Bikker, Floris; Renner, Marcus

    2009-01-01

    at unraveling the molecular basis of its function in mucosal protection and of its broad pathogen-binding specificity. We report that DMBT1 directly interacts with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) and carrageenan, a structurally similar sulfated polysaccharide, which is used as a texturizer and thickener in human...... dietary products. However, binding of DMBT1 does not reduce the cytotoxic effects of these agents to intestinal epithelial cells in vitro. DSS and carrageenan compete for DMBT1-mediated bacterial aggregation via interaction with its bacterial-recognition motif. Competition and ELISA studies identify poly...

  16. Time-dependent bacterial community and electrochemical characterizations of cathodic biofilms in the surfactant-amended sediment-based bioelectrochemical reactor with enhanced 2,3,4,5-tetrachlorobiphenyl dechlorination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Hui; Yi, Xiaoyun; Liu, Xiaoping; Feng, Chunhua; Dang, Zhi; Wei, Chaohai

    2018-05-01

    Applying an electric field to stimulate the microbial reductive dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) represents a promising approach for bioremediation of PCB-contaminated sites. This study aimed to demonstrate the biocathodic film-facilitated reduction of PCB 61 in a sediment-based bioelectrochemical reactor (BER) and, more importantly, the characterizations of electrode-microbe interaction from microbial and electrochemical perspectives particularly in a time-dependent manner. The application of a cathodic potential (-0.45 V vs. SHE) significantly improved the rate and extent of PCB 61 dechlorination compared to the open-circuit scenario (without electrical stimulation), and the addition of an external surfactant further increased the dechlorination, with Tween 80 exerting more pronounced effects than rhamnolipid. The bacterial composition of the biofilms and the bioelectrochemical kinetics of the BERs were found to be time-dependent and to vary considerably with the incubation time and slightly with the coexistence of an external surfactant. Excellent correlations were observed between the dechlorination rate and the relative abundance of Dehalogenimonas, Dechloromonas, and Geobacter, the dechlorination rate and the cathodic current density recorded from the chronoamperometry tests, and the dechlorination rate and the charge transfer resistance derived from the electrochemical impedance tests, with respect to the 120 day-operation. After day 120, PCB 61 was resistant to further appreciable reduction, but substantial hydrogen production was detected, and the bacterial community and electrochemical parameters observed on day 180 were not distinctly different from those on day 120. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Anaerobic halo- alkaliphilic bacterial community of athalassic, hypersaline Mono lake and Owens Lake in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Detkova, Ekaterina N.; Bej, Asim K.; Marsic, Damien; Hoover, Richard B.

    2003-02-01

    The bacterial diversity of microbial extremophiles from the meromictic, hypersaline Mono Lake and a small evaporite pool in Owens Lake of California was studied. In spite of these regions had differing mineral background and different concentrations of NaCl in water they contain the same halo- alkaliphiles anaerobic bacterial community. Three new species of bacteria were detected in this community: primary anaerobe, dissipotrophic saccharolytic spirochete Spirochaeta americana strain AspG1T, primary anaerobe which is proteolytic Tindallia californiensis strain APOT, and secondary anaerobe, hydrogen using Desulfonatronum thiodismutans strain MLF1T, which is sulfate- reducer with chemo-litho-autotrophic metabolism. All of these bacteria are obligate alkaliphiles and dependent upon Na+ ions and CO32- ions in growth mediums. It is interesting that closest relationships for two of these species were isolates from samples of equatorial African soda Magadi lake: Spirochaeta americana AspG1T has 99.4% similarity on 16S rDNA- analyses with Spirochaeta alkalica Z- 7491T, and Tindallia californiensis APOT has 99.1% similarity with Tindallia magadiensis Z-7934T. But result of DNA-DNA- hybridization demonstrated less then 50% similarity between Spirochaeta americana AspG1T and Spirochaeta alkalica Z-7491T. Percent of homology between Tindallia californiensis APOT and Tindallia magadiensis Z-7934T is only 55%. The sulfate-reducer from the alkalic anaerobic community of Magadi lake Desulfonatronovibrio hydrogenovorans Z-7935T was phylogenetically distant from this sulfate-reducer in Mono lake, but genetically closer (99.7% similarity) to the sulfate-reducer, isolated from Central Asian alkalic lake Khadyn in Siberia Desulfonatronum lacustre Z-7951T. The study of key enzymes (hydrogenase and CO- hydrogenase) in Tindallia californiensis APOT and Desulfonatronum thiodismutans MLF1T showed the presence of high activity of both the enzymes in first and only hydrogenase in second

  18. Sulfation of ceria-zirconia model automotive emissions control catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Alan Edwin

    Cerium-zirconium mixed metal oxides are used in automotive emissions control catalysts to regulate the partial pressure of oxygen near the catalyst surface. The near surface oxygen partial pressure is regulated through transfer of atomic oxygen from the ceria-zirconia solid matrix to the platinum group metals to form metal oxides capable of oxidizing carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons. Although the addition of zirconium in the cubic lattice of ceria increases the oxygen storage capacity and thermal stability of the ceria matrix, the cerium-zirconium oxide system remains particularly susceptible to deactivation from sulfur compounds. While the overall effect of sulfur on these systems is understood (partially irreversible deactivation), the fundamental and molecular interaction of sulfur with ceria-zirconia remains a challenging problem. Ceria-zirconia metal oxide solid solutions have been prepared through co-precipitation with nitrate precursors. The prepared powders were calcined and subsequently formed into planer wafers and characterized for chemical and physical attributes. The prepared samples were subsequently exposed to a sulfur dioxide based environment and characterized with spectroscopic techniques to characterize the extent of sulfation and the nature of surface sulfur species. The extent of sulfation of the model ceria-zirconia systems was characterized with Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) prior to and after treatment in a microreactor. Strong dependencies were observed between the atomic ratio of ceria to zirconia and the extent of sulfation. In addition, the partial pressure of sulfur dioxide during treatments also correlated to the extent of sulfation, while temperature only slightly effected the extent of sulfation. The AES data suggests the gas phase sulfur dioxide preferentially chemisorbs on surface ceria atoms and the extent of sulfation is heavily dependent on sulfur dioxide concentrations and only slightly dependent on catalyst

  19. Immunological detection of enzymes for sulfate reduction in anaerobic methane-oxidizing consortia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milucka, Jana; Widdel, Friedrich; Shima, Seigo

    2013-05-01

    Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) coupled to sulfate reduction (SR) at marine gas seeps is performed by archaeal-bacterial consortia that have so far not been cultivated in axenic binary or pure cultures. Knowledge about possible biochemical reactions in AOM consortia is based on metagenomic retrieval of genes related to those in archaeal methanogenesis and bacterial sulfate reduction, and identification of a few catabolic enzymes in protein extracts. Whereas the possible enzyme for methane activation (a variant of methyl-coenzyme M reductase, Mcr) was shown to be harboured by the archaea, enzymes for sulfate activation and reduction have not been localized so far. We adopted a novel approach of fluorescent immunolabelling on semi-thin (0.3-0.5 μm) cryosections to localize two enzymes of the SR pathway, adenylyl : sulfate transferase (Sat; ATP sulfurylase) and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (Dsr) in microbial consortia from Black Sea methane seeps. Both Sat and Dsr were exclusively found in an abundant microbial morphotype (c. 50% of all cells), which was tentatively identified as Desulfosarcina/Desulfococcus-related bacteria. These results show that ANME-2 archaea in the Black Sea AOM consortia did not express bacterial enzymes of the canonical sulfate reduction pathway and thus, in contrast to previous suggestions, most likely cannot perform canonical sulfate reduction. Moreover, our results show that fluorescent immunolabelling on semi-thin cryosections which to our knowledge has been so far only applied on cell tissues, is a powerful tool for intracellular protein detection in natural microbial associations. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Regeneration of sulfated metal oxides and carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubble, Bill R.; Siegel, Stanley; Cunningham, Paul T.

    1978-03-28

    Alkali metal or alkaline earth metal carbonates such as calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate found in dolomite or limestone are employed for removal of sulfur dioxide from combustion exhaust gases. The sulfated carbonates are regenerated to oxides through use of a solid-solid reaction, particularly calcium sulfide with calcium sulfate to form calcium oxide and sulfur dioxide gas. The regeneration is performed by contacting the sulfated material with a reductant gas such as hydrogen within an inert diluent to produce calcium sulfide in mixture with the sulfate under process conditions selected to permit the sulfide-sulfate, solid-state reaction to occur.

  1. Bacterial growth on macrophyte leachate and fate of bacterial production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Findlay, S.; Carlough, L.; Crocker, M.T.; Gill, H.K.; Meyer, J.L.; Smith, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    The role bacteria play in transferring organic carbon to other trophic levels in aquatic ecosystems depends on the efficiency with which they convert dissolved organic [ 14 C]-labelled carbon into bacterial biomass and on the ability of consumers to graze bacteria. The authors have measured the conversion efficiency for bacteria growing on macrophyte-derived dissolved organic carbon and estimated the amount of bacterial production removed by grazing. Bacteria converted this DOC into new tissue with an efficiency of 53%, substantially higher than the apparent conversion efficiency of macrophyte-derived particulate organic carbon or other types of DOC. Two estimates of grazing indicate that the decline in bacterial numbers after the bloom was probably due to grazing by flagellates. These results show the significance of the bacterial link between DOC and other trophic levels

  2. Fractionation of sulfur isotopes in the chemical and biochemical oxidation of sulfide to sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maass, I.; Wetzel, K.; Weise, G.; Heyer, J.

    1983-01-01

    The behaviour of sulfur isotopes in the chemical and biochemical oxidation of marcasite (FeS 2 ) to sulfate has been investigated in rest and shaker cultures at 30 0 C. The microbiological oxidation was carried out using a mixed culture of Thiobacillus. The results show a considerably faster formation of sulfate in the biochemical oxidation in comparison with the chemical oxidation. Isotope analyses of the formed sulfates indicate no or only very small isotope fractionations depending on experimental conditions. The highest enrichment of 32 S in the sulfate is 1.7 per mille. In accordance with the results of other authors it is concluded that in both chemical and biochemical weathering of sedimentary sulfides resulting in the formation of sulfates isotope effects are not of importance. (author)

  3. Bacterial Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenchel, Tom

    2011-01-01

    compounds these must first be undergo extracellular hydrolysis. Bacteria have a great diversity with respect to types of metabolism that far exceeds the metabolic repertoire of eukaryotic organisms. Bacteria play a fundamental role in the biosphere and certain key processes such as, for example......, the production and oxidation of methane, nitrate reduction and fixation of atmospheric nitrogen are exclusively carried out by different groups of bacteria. Some bacterial species – ‘extremophiles’ – thrive in extreme environments in which no eukaryotic organisms can survive with respect to temperature, salinity...... biogeochemical processes are carried exclusively by bacteria. * Bacteria play an important role in all types of habitats including some that cannot support eukaryotic life....

  4. Bacterial endotoxin enhances colorectal cancer cell adhesion and invasion through TLR-4 and NF-kappaB-dependent activation of the urokinase plasminogen activator system.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Killeen, S D

    2009-05-19

    Perioperative exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is associated with accelerated metastatic colorectal tumour growth. LPS directly affects cells through Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) and the transcription factor NF-kappaB. The urokinase plasminogen activator (u-PA) system is intimately implicated in tumour cell extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions fundamental to tumour progression. Thus we sought to determine if LPS directly induces accelerated tumour cell ECM adhesion and invasion through activation of the u-PA system and to elucidate the cellular pathways involved. Human colorectal tumour cell lines were stimulated with LPS. u-PA concentration, u-PA activity, active u-PA, surface urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (u-PAR) and TLR-4 expression were assessed by ELISA, colorimetric assay, western blot analysis and flow cytometry respectively. In vitro tumour cell vitronectin adhesion and ECM invasion were analysed by vitronectin adhesion assay and ECM invasion chambers. u-PA and u-PAR function was inhibited with anti u-PA antibodies or the selective u-PA inhibitors amiloride or WXC-340, TLR-4 by TLR-4-blocking antibodies and NF-kappaB by the selective NF-kappaB inhibitor SN-50. LPS upregulates u-PA and u-PAR in a dose-dependent manner, enhancing in vitro tumour cell vitronectin adhesion and ECM invasion by >40% (P<0.01). These effects were ameliorated by u-PA and u-PAR inhibition. LPS activates NF-kappaB through TLR-4. TLR-4 and NF-kappaB inhibition ameliorated LPS-enhanced u-PA and u-PAR expression, tumour cell vitronectin adhesion and ECM invasion. LPS promotes tumour cell ECM adhesion and invasion through activation of the u-PA system in a TLR-4- and NF-kappaB-dependent manner.

  5. Bacterial Actins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izoré, Thierry; van den Ent, Fusinita

    2017-01-01

    A diverse set of protein polymers, structurally related to actin filaments contributes to the organization of bacterial cells as cytomotive or cytoskeletal filaments. This chapter describes actin homologs encoded by bacterial chromosomes. MamK filaments, unique to magnetotactic bacteria, help establishing magnetic biological compasses by interacting with magnetosomes. Magnetosomes are intracellular membrane invaginations containing biomineralized crystals of iron oxide that are positioned by MamK along the long-axis of the cell. FtsA is widespread across bacteria and it is one of the earliest components of the divisome to arrive at midcell, where it anchors the cell division machinery to the membrane. FtsA binds directly to FtsZ filaments and to the membrane through its C-terminus. FtsA shows altered domain architecture when compared to the canonical actin fold. FtsA's subdomain 1C replaces subdomain 1B of other members of the actin family and is located on the opposite side of the molecule. Nevertheless, when FtsA assembles into protofilaments, the protofilament structure is preserved, as subdomain 1C replaces subdomain IB of the following subunit in a canonical actin filament. MreB has an essential role in shape-maintenance of most rod-shaped bacteria. Unusually, MreB filaments assemble from two protofilaments in a flat and antiparallel arrangement. This non-polar architecture implies that both MreB filament ends are structurally identical. MreB filaments bind directly to membranes where they interact with both cytosolic and membrane proteins, thereby forming a key component of the elongasome. MreB filaments in cells are short and dynamic, moving around the long axis of rod-shaped cells, sensing curvature of the membrane and being implicated in peptidoglycan synthesis.

  6. Reduced sulfation of chondroitin sulfate but not heparan sulfate in kidneys of diabetic db/db mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reine, Trine M; Grøndahl, Frøy; Jenssen, Trond G; Hadler-Olsen, Elin; Prydz, Kristian; Kolset, Svein O

    2013-08-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans are hypothesized to contribute to the filtration barrier in kidney glomeruli and the glycocalyx of endothelial cells. To investigate potential changes in proteoglycans in diabetic kidney, we isolated glycosaminoglycans from kidney cortex from healthy db/+ and diabetic db/db mice. Disaccharide analysis of chondroitin sulfate revealed a significant decrease in the 4-O-sulfated disaccharides (D0a4) from 65% to 40%, whereas 6-O-sulfated disaccharides (D0a6) were reduced from 11% to 6%, with a corresponding increase in unsulfated disaccharides. In contrast, no structural differences were observed in heparan sulfate. Furthermore, no difference was found in the molar amount of glycosaminoglycans, or in the ratio of hyaluronan/heparan sulfate/chondroitin sulfate. Immunohistochemical staining for the heparan sulfate proteoglycan perlecan was similar in both types of material but reduced staining of 4-O-sulfated chondroitin and dermatan was observed in kidney sections from diabetic mice. In support of this, using qRT-PCR, a 53.5% decrease in the expression level of Chst-11 (chondroitin 4-O sulfotransferase) was demonstrated in diabetic kidney. These results suggest that changes in the sulfation of chondroitin need to be addressed in future studies on proteoglycans and kidney function in diabetes.

  7. Antimicrobial effect of a crude sulfated polysaccharide from the red seaweed Gracilaria ornata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo das Neves dos Santos Amorim

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the yield, chemical composition, specific rotation (SR, infrared (IR spectroscopy and the effect on bacterial growth of a crude sulfated polysaccharide (SP from the red marine alga G. ornata (Go. Go-1 (25°C, Go-2 (80°C, and Go-3 (80°C were sequentially extracted and yielded 9.2%. The contents of sulfate (5.88-10.3% and proteins (0.1-3.7% were small. The values of SR were [µ]D20°f -19.0, -51.0, and -56.5, respectively. IR spectrums showed the presence of galactose-4 sulfate and absence of 3,6-anydrogalactose-2 sulfate, galactose-6 sulfate and galactose-2 sulfate. SR and IR techniques confirmed SPs. Go-3 was tested on the growth of bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter aerogens, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonela choleraesuis and Salmonela typhi, but only E. coli was inhibited.

  8. Bacterial Communities: Interactions to Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reed M. Stubbendieck

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the environment, bacteria live in complex multispecies communities. These communities span in scale from small, multicellular aggregates to billions or trillions of cells within the gastrointestinal tract of animals. The dynamics of bacterial communities are determined by pairwise interactions that occur between different species in the community. Though interactions occur between a few cells at a time, the outcomes of these interchanges have ramifications that ripple through many orders of magnitude, and ultimately affect the macroscopic world including the health of host organisms. In this review we cover how bacterial competition influences the structures of bacterial communities. We also emphasize methods and insights garnered from culture-dependent pairwise interaction studies, metagenomic analyses, and modeling experiments. Finally, we argue that the integration of multiple approaches will be instrumental to future understanding of the underlying dynamics of bacterial communities.

  9. Modeling of ferric sulfate decomposition and sulfation of potassium chloride during grate‐firing of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Jespersen, Jacob Boll; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming

    2013-01-01

    Ferric sulfate is used as an additive in biomass combustion to convert the released potassium chloride to the less harmful potassium sulfate. The decomposition of ferric sulfate is studied in a fast heating rate thermogravimetric analyzer and a volumetric reaction model is proposed to describe...... the process. The yields of sulfur oxides from ferric sulfate decomposition under boiler conditions are investigated experimentally, revealing a distribution of approximately 40% SO3 and 60% SO2. The ferric sulfate decomposition model is combined with a detailed kinetic model of gas‐phase KCl sulfation...... and a model of K2SO4 condensation to simulate the sulfation of KCl by ferric sulfate addition. The simulation results show good agreements with experiments conducted in a biomass grate‐firing reactor. The results indicate that the SO3 released from ferric sulfate decomposition is the main contributor to KCl...

  10. Modulation of the expression of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan in stimulated human monocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlin-Hansen, L.; Eskeland, T.; Kolset, S.O.

    1989-01-01

    Proteoglycan biosynthesis was studied in human monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) after exposure to typical activators of the monocyte/macrophage system: interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). By morphological examination, both monocytes and MDM were stimulated by these activators. Treatment with IFN-gamma resulted in a slight decrease in the expression of [35S]chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) in both monocytes and MDM, whereas LPS treatment increased the [35S]CSPG expression 1.8 and 2.2 times, respectively. PMA, in contrast, decreased the CSPG expression 0.4 times in monocytes, whereas MDM were stimulated to increase the biosynthesis 1.9 times. An increase in the sulfate density of the chondroitin sulfate chains was evident following differentiation of monocytes into MDM due to the expression of disulfated disaccharide units of the chondroitin sulfate E type (CS-E). However, monocytes exposed to PMA did also express disaccharides of the chondroitin sulfate E type. Furthermore, the expression of CS-E in MDM was increased 2 times following PMA treatment. An inactive phorbol ester, phorbol 12,13-diacetate, did not affect the expression of CS-E in either monocytes or MDM when compared with control cultures, suggesting that protein kinase C-dependent signal pathways may be involved in the regulation of sulfation of CSPG. Exposure to LPS or IFN-gamma did not lead to any changes in the sulfation of the chondroitin sulfate chains

  11. Hexagonal-shaped chondroitin sulfate self-assemblies have exalted anti-HSV-2 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galus, Aurélia; Mallet, Jean-Maurice; Lembo, David; Cagno, Valeria; Djabourov, Madeleine; Lortat-Jacob, Hugues; Bouchemal, Kawthar

    2016-01-20

    The initial step in mucosal infection by the herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) requires its binding to certain glycosaminoglycans naturally present on host cell membranes. We took advantage of this interaction to design biomimetic supramolecular hexagonal-shaped nanoassemblies composed of chondroitin sulfate having exalted anti-HSV-2 activity in comparison with native chondroitin sulfate. Nanoassemblies were formed by mixing hydrophobically-modified chondroitin sulfate with α-cyclodextrin in water. Optimization of alkyl chain length grafted on chondroitin sulfate and the ratio between hydrophobically-modified chondroitin sulfate and α-cyclodextrin showed that more cohesive and well-structured nanoassemblies were obtained using higher α-cyclodextrin concentration and longer alkyl chain lengths. A structure-activity relationship was found between anti-HSV-2 activity and the amphiphilic nature of hydrophobically-modified chondroitin sulfate. Also, antiviral activity of hexagonal nanoassemblies against HSV-2 was further improved in comparison with hydrophobically-modified chondroitin sulfate. This work suggests a new biomimetic formulation approach that can be extended to other heparan-sulfate-dependent viruses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Molecular dissection of placental malaria protein VAR2CSA interaction with a chemo-enzymatically synthesized chondroitin sulfate library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Nobuo; Clausen, Thomas Mandel; Shioiri, Tatsumasa; Gustavsson, Tobias; Watanabe, Hideto; Salanti, Ali

    2016-12-01

    Placental malaria, a serious infection caused by the parasite Plasmodium falciparum, is characterized by the selective accumulation of infected erythrocytes (IEs) in the placentas of the pregnant women. Placental adherence is mediated by the malarial VAR2CSA protein, which interacts with chondroitin sulfate (CS) proteoglycans present in the placental tissue. CS is a linear acidic polysaccharide composed of repeating disaccharide units of D-glucuronic acid and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine that are modified by sulfate groups at different positions. Previous reports have shown that placental-adhering IEs were associated with an unusually low sulfated form of chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) and that a partially sulfated dodecasaccharide is the minimal motif for the interaction. However, the fine molecular structure of this CS chain remains unclear. In this study, we have characterized the CS chain that interacts with a recombinant minimal CS-binding region of VAR2CSA (rVAR2) using a CS library of various defined lengths and sulfate compositions. The CS library was chemo-enzymatically synthesized with bacterial chondroitin polymerase and recombinant CS sulfotransferases. We found that C-4 sulfation of the N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residue is critical for supporting rVAR2 binding, whereas no other sulfate modifications showed effects. Interaction of rVAR2 with CS is highly correlated with the degree of C-4 sulfation and CS chain length. We confirmed that the minimum structure binding to rVAR2 is a tri-sulfated CSA dodecasaccharide, and found that a highly sulfated CSA eicosasaccharide is a more potent inhibitor of rVAR2 binding than the dodecasaccharides. These results suggest that CSA derivatives may potentially serve as targets in therapeutic strategies against placental malaria.

  13. Structure of thrombospondin type 3 repeats in bacterial outer membrane protein A reveals its intra-repeat disulfide bond-dependent calcium-binding capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Shuyan; Sun, Cancan; Tan, Kemin; Ye, Sheng; Zhang, Rongguang

    2017-09-01

    Eukaryotic thrombospondin type 3 repeat (TT3R) is an efficient calcium ion (Ca2+) binding motif only found in mammalian thrombospondin family. TT3R has also been found in prokaryotic cellulase Cel5G, which was thought to forfeit the Ca2+-binding capability due to the formation of intra-repeat disulfide bonds, instead of the inter-repeat ones possessed by eukaryotic TT3Rs. In this study, we have identified an enormous number of prokaryotic TT3R-containing proteins belonging to several different protein families, including outer membrane protein A (OmpA), an important structural protein connecting the outer membrane and the periplasmic peptidoglycan layer in gram-negative bacteria. Here, we report the crystal structure of the periplasmic region of OmpA from Capnocytophaga gingivalis, which contains a linker region comprising five consecutive TT3Rs. The structure of OmpA-TT3R exhibits a well-ordered architecture organized around two tightly-coordinated Ca2+ and confirms the presence of abnormal intra-repeat disulfide bonds. Further mutagenesis studies showed that the Ca2+-binding capability of OmpA-TT3R is indeed dependent on the proper formation of intra-repeat disulfide bonds, which help to fix a conserved glycine residue at its proper position for Ca2+ coordination. Additionally, despite lacking inter repeat disulfide bonds, the interfaces between adjacent OmpA-TT3Rs are enhanced by both hydrophobic and conserved aromatic-proline interactions.

  14. Mycobacterium smegmatis RqlH defines a novel clade of bacterial RecQ-like DNA helicases with ATP-dependent 3'-5' translocase and duplex unwinding activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordonez, Heather; Unciuleac, Mihaela; Shuman, Stewart

    2012-05-01

    The Escherichia coli RecQ DNA helicase participates in a pathway of DNA repair that operates in parallel to the recombination pathway driven by the multisubunit helicase-nuclease machine RecBCD. The model mycobacterium Mycobacterium smegmatis executes homologous recombination in the absence of its helicase-nuclease machine AdnAB, though it lacks a homolog of E. coli RecQ. Here, we identify and characterize M. smegmatis RqlH, a RecQ-like helicase with a distinctive domain structure. The 691-amino acid RqlH polypeptide consists of a RecQ-like ATPase domain (amino acids 1-346) and tetracysteine zinc-binding domain (amino acids 435-499), separated by an RqlH-specific linker. RqlH lacks the C-terminal HRDC domain found in E. coli RecQ. Rather, the RqlH C-domain resembles bacterial ComF proteins and includes a phosphoribosyltransferase-like module. We show that RqlH is a DNA-dependent ATPase/dATPase that translocates 3'-5' on single-stranded DNA and has 3'-5' helicase activity. These functions inhere to RqlH-(1-505), a monomeric motor unit comprising the ATPase, linker and zinc-binding domains. RqlH homologs are distributed widely among bacterial taxa. The mycobacteria that encode RqlH lack a classical RecQ, though many other Actinobacteria have both RqlH and RecQ. Whereas E. coli K12 encodes RecQ but lacks a homolog of RqlH, other strains of E. coli have both RqlH and RecQ.

  15. Identifying the bacterial community on the surface of Intralox belting in a meat boning room by culture-dependent and culture-independent 16S rDNA sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brightwell, Gale; Boerema, Jackie; Mills, John; Mowat, Eilidh; Pulford, David

    2006-05-25

    We examined the bacterial community present on an Intralox conveyor belt system in an operating lamb boning room by sequencing the 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of bacteria extracted in the presence or absence of cultivation. RFLP patterns for 16S rDNA clone library and cultures were generated using HaeIII and MspI restriction endonucleases. 16S rDNA amplicons produced 8 distinct RFLP pattern groups. RFLP groups I-IV were represented in the clone library and RFLP groups I and V-VIII were represented amongst the cultured isolates. Partial DNA sequences from each RFLP group revealed that all group I, II and VIII representatives were Pseudomonas spp., group III were Sphingomonas spp., group IV clones were most similar to an uncultured alpha proteobacterium, group V was similar to a Serratia spp., group VI with an Alcaligenes spp., and group VII with Microbacterium spp. Sphingomonads were numerically dominant in the culture-independent clone library and along with the group IV alpha proteobacterium were not represented amongst the cultured isolates. Serratia, Alcaligenes and Microbacterium spp. were only represented with cultured isolates. Pseudomonads were detected by both culture-dependent (84% of isolates) and culture-independent (12.5% of clones) methods and their presence at high frequency does pose the risk of product spoilage if transferred onto meat stored under aerobic conditions. The detection of sphingomonads in large numbers by the culture-independent method demands further analysis because sphingomonads may represent a new source of meat spoilage that has not been previously recognised in the meat processing environment. The 16S rDNA collections generated by both methods were important at representing the diversity of the bacterial population associated with an Intralox conveyor belt system.

  16. Cultivation-Independent and Cultivation-Dependent Analysis of Microbes in the Shallow-Sea Hydrothermal System Off Kueishantao Island, Taiwan: Unmasking Heterotrophic Bacterial Diversity and Functional Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kai; Zhang, Yao; Lin, Dan; Han, Yu; Chen, Chen-Tung A; Wang, Deli; Lin, Yu-Shih; Sun, Jia; Zheng, Qiang; Jiao, Nianzhi

    2018-01-01

    Shallow-sea hydrothermal systems experience continuous fluctuations of physicochemical conditions due to seawater influx which generates variable habitats, affecting the phylogenetic composition and metabolic potential of microbial communities. Until recently, studies of submarine hydrothermal communities have focused primarily on chemolithoautotrophic organisms, however, there have been limited studies on heterotrophic bacteria. Here, fluorescence in situ hybridization, high throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, and functional metagenomes were used to assess microbial communities from the shallow-sea hydrothermal system off Kueishantao Island, Taiwan. The results showed that the shallow-sea hydrothermal system harbored not only autotrophic bacteria but abundant heterotrophic bacteria. The potential for marker genes sulfur oxidation and carbon fixation were detected in the metagenome datasets, suggesting a role for sulfur and carbon cycling in the shallow-sea hydrothermal system. Furthermore, the presence of diverse genes that encode transporters, glycoside hydrolases, and peptidase indicates the genetic potential for heterotrophic utilization of organic substrates. A total of 408 cultivable heterotrophic bacteria were isolated, in which the taxonomic families typically associated with oligotrophy, copiotrophy, and phototrophy were frequently found. The cultivation-independent and -dependent analyses performed herein show that Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria represent the dominant heterotrophs in the investigated shallow-sea hydrothermal system. Genomic and physiological characterization of a novel strain P5 obtained in this study, belonging to the genus Rhodovulum within Alphaproteobacteria, provides an example of heterotrophic bacteria with major functional capacity presented in the metagenome datasets. Collectively, in addition to autotrophic bacteria, the shallow-sea hydrothermal system also harbors many heterotrophic bacteria with versatile

  17. Endosulfan induced alteration in bacterial protein profile and RNA yield of Klebsiella sp. M3, Achromobacter sp. M6, and Rhodococcus sp. M2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Madhu; Singh, Dileep Kumar

    2014-01-30

    Three bacterial strains identified as Klebsiella sp. M3, Achromobacter sp. M6 and Rhodococcus sp. M2 were isolated by soil enrichment with endosulfan followed by shake flask enrichment technique. They were efficiently degrading endosulfan in the NSM (non sulfur medium) broth. Degradation of endosulfan was faster with the cell free extract of bacterial cells grown in the sulfur deficient medium (NSM) supplemented with endosulfan than that of nutrient rich medium (Luria Bertani). In the cell free extract of NSM supplemented with endosulfan as sole sulfur source, a unique band was visualized on SDS-PAGE but not with magnesium sulfate as the sole sulfur source in NSM and LB with endosulfan. Expression of a unique polypeptide band was speculated to be induced by endosulfan under sulfur starved condition. These unique polypeptide bands were identified as OmpK35 protein, sulfate binding protein and outer membrane porin protein, respectively, in Klebsiella sp. M3, Achromobacter sp. M6 and Rhodococcus sp. M2. Endosulfan showed dose dependent negative effect on total RNA yield of bacterial strains in nutrient rich medium. Absence of plasmid DNA indicated the presence of endosulfan metabolizing gene on genomic DNA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Ionic and secretory response of pancreatic islet cells to minoxidil sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoine, M.H.; Hermann, M.; Herchuelz, A.; Lebrun, P.

    1991-01-01

    Minoxidil sulfate is an antihypertensive agent belonging to the new class of vasodilators, the K+ channel openers. The present study was undertaken to characterize the effects of minoxidil sulfate on ionic and secretory events in rat pancreatic islets. The drug unexpectedly provoked a concentration-dependent decrease in 86Rb outflow. This inhibitory effect was reduced in a concentration-dependent manner by glucose and tolbutamide. Minoxidil sulfate did not affect 45Ca outflow from islets perfused in the presence of extracellular Ca++ and absence or presence of glucose. However, in islets exposed to a medium deprived of extracellular Ca++, the drug provoked a rise in 45Ca outflow. Whether in the absence or presence of extracellular Ca++, minoxidil sulfate increased the cytosolic free Ca++ concentration of islet cells. Lastly, minoxidil sulfate increased the release of insulin from glucose-stimulated pancreatic islets. These results suggest that minoxidil sulfate reduces the activity of the ATP-sensitive K+ channels and promotes an intracellular translocation of Ca++. The latter change might account for the effect of the drug on the insulin-releasing process. However, the secretory response to minoxidil sulfate could also be mediated, at least in part, by a modest Ca++ entry

  19. Brain ageing changes proteoglycan sulfation, rendering perineuronal nets more inhibitory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foscarin, Simona; Raha-Chowdhury, Ruma; Fawcett, James W; Kwok, Jessica C F

    2017-06-28

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) proteoglycans in perineuronal nets (PNNs) from the central nervous system (CNS) are involved in the control of plasticity and memory. Removing PNNs reactivates plasticity and restores memory in models of Alzheimer's disease and ageing. Their actions depend on the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains of CS proteoglycans, which are mainly sulfated in the 4 (C4S) or 6 (C6S) positions. While C4S is inhibitory, C6S is more permissive to axon growth, regeneration and plasticity. C6S decreases during critical period closure. We asked whether there is a late change in CS-GAG sulfation associated with memory loss in aged rats. Immunohistochemistry revealed a progressive increase in C4S and decrease in C6S from 3 to 18 months. GAGs extracted from brain PNNs showed a large reduction in C6S at 12 and 18 months, increasing the C4S/C6S ratio. There was no significant change in mRNA levels of the chondroitin sulfotransferases. PNN GAGs were more inhibitory to axon growth than those from the diffuse extracellular matrix. The 18-month PNN GAGs were more inhibitory than 3-month PNN GAGs. We suggest that the change in PNN GAG sulfation in aged brains renders the PNNs more inhibitory, which lead to a decrease in plasticity and adversely affect memory.

  20. The effect of divalent salt in chondroitin sulfate solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aranghel, D., E-mail: daranghe@nipne.ro [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Reactorului 30, RO-077125, POB-MG6, Magurele-Bucharest, Romania, daranghe@nipne.ro (Romania); Extreme Light Intrastructure Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP), Reactorului 30,RO-077125, POB-MG6, Magurele-Bucharest (Romania); Badita, C. R. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Reactorului 30, RO-077125, POB-MG6, Magurele-Bucharest, Romania, daranghe@nipne.ro (Romania); University of Bucharest, Faculty of Physics, Atomiştilor 405, CP MG - 11, RO – 077125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Radulescu, A. [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Jülich Centre for Neutron Science, 85747 Garching (Germany); Moldovan, L.; Craciunescu, O. [National Institute R& D for Biological Sciences, Splaiul Independenţei 296, sector 6, cod 060031, C.P. 17-16, Bucharest (Romania); Balasoiu, M. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Reactorului 30, RO-077125, POB-MG6, Magurele-Bucharest, Romania, daranghe@nipne.ro (Romania); Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-25

    Chondroitin-4 sulfate (CS4) is the main glycosaminoglycan extracted from bovine trachea. CS4 play an important role in osteoarthritis treatment, anticoagulant activity, reduces the degradation of cartilage matrix components, reduces necrosis and apoptosis of chondrocytes and reduces the activity of collagenase. Chondroitin sulfate is also responsible for proteoglycans degradation. Chondroitin sulfate can bind calcium ions with different affinities, depending on their sulfation position. The purpose of this study was to determine the structural properties and the influence of Ca{sup 2+} cations. We carried out measurements on CS4 solutions and mixtures of liquid CS4 with Ca{sup 2+} by Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS). CS4 have a mass fractal behavior and the addition of a salt (CaCl{sub 2}) in CS4 solutions generates the appearance of a correlation peak due to local ordering between adjacent chains with inter-chain distances between 483 Å and 233 Å for a calcium concentration of 0.01% w/w.

  1. Alginate Sulfate-Nanocellulose Bioinks for Cartilage Bioprinting Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Michael; Öztürk, Ece; Arlov, Øystein; Gatenholm, Paul; Zenobi-Wong, Marcy

    2017-01-01

    One of the challenges of bioprinting is to identify bioinks which support cell growth, tissue maturation, and ultimately the formation of functional grafts for use in regenerative medicine. The influence of this new biofabrication technology on biology of living cells, however, is still being evaluated. Recently we have identified a mitogenic hydrogel system based on alginate sulfate which potently supports chondrocyte phenotype, but is not printable due to its rheological properties (no yield point). To convert alginate sulfate to a printable bioink, it was combined with nanocellulose, which has been shown to possess very good printability. The alginate sulfate/nanocellulose ink showed good printing properties and the non-printed bioink material promoted cell spreading, proliferation, and collagen II synthesis by the encapsulated cells. When the bioink was printed, the biological performance of the cells was highly dependent on the nozzle geometry. Cell spreading properties were maintained with the lowest extrusion pressure and shear stress. However, extruding the alginate sulfate/nanocellulose bioink and chondrocytes significantly compromised cell proliferation, particularly when using small diameter nozzles and valves.

  2. The effect of divalent salt in chondroitin sulfate solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranghel, D.; Badita, C. R.; Radulescu, A.; Moldovan, L.; Craciunescu, O.; Balasoiu, M.

    2016-03-01

    Chondroitin-4 sulfate (CS4) is the main glycosaminoglycan extracted from bovine trachea. CS4 play an important role in osteoarthritis treatment, anticoagulant activity, reduces the degradation of cartilage matrix components, reduces necrosis and apoptosis of chondrocytes and reduces the activity of collagenase. Chondroitin sulfate is also responsible for proteoglycans degradation. Chondroitin sulfate can bind calcium ions with different affinities, depending on their sulfation position. The purpose of this study was to determine the structural properties and the influence of Ca2+ cations. We carried out measurements on CS4 solutions and mixtures of liquid CS4 with Ca2+ by Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS). CS4 have a mass fractal behavior and the addition of a salt (CaCl2) in CS4 solutions generates the appearance of a correlation peak due to local ordering between adjacent chains with inter-chain distances between 483 Å and 233 Å for a calcium concentration of 0.01% w/w.

  3. The effect of divalent salt in chondroitin sulfate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aranghel, D.; Badita, C. R.; Radulescu, A.; Moldovan, L.; Craciunescu, O.; Balasoiu, M.

    2016-01-01

    Chondroitin-4 sulfate (CS4) is the main glycosaminoglycan extracted from bovine trachea. CS4 play an important role in osteoarthritis treatment, anticoagulant activity, reduces the degradation of cartilage matrix components, reduces necrosis and apoptosis of chondrocytes and reduces the activity of collagenase. Chondroitin sulfate is also responsible for proteoglycans degradation. Chondroitin sulfate can bind calcium ions with different affinities, depending on their sulfation position. The purpose of this study was to determine the structural properties and the influence of Ca"2"+ cations. We carried out measurements on CS4 solutions and mixtures of liquid CS4 with Ca"2"+ by Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS). CS4 have a mass fractal behavior and the addition of a salt (CaCl_2) in CS4 solutions generates the appearance of a correlation peak due to local ordering between adjacent chains with inter-chain distances between 483 Å and 233 Å for a calcium concentration of 0.01% w/w.

  4. Analysis of tyrosine-O-sulfation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, J.R.; Sen, J.W.; Johnsen, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    Tyrosine O-sulfation was first described about 50 years ago as a post-translational modification of fibrinogen. In the following 30 years it was considered to be a rare modification affecting only a few proteins and peptides. However, in the beginning of the 1980s tyrosine (Tyr) sulfation was shown...... to be a common modification and since then an increasing number of proteins have been identified as sulfated. The target proteins belong to the classes of secretory, plasma membrane, and lysosomal proteins, which reflects the intracellular localization of the enzymes catalyzing Tyr sulfation, the tyrosylprotein...... sulfotransferases (TPSTs).Traditionally, Tyr sulfation has been analyzed by incorporation of radiolabeled sulfate into target cells followed by purification of the target protein. Subsequently, the protein is degraded enzymatically or by alkaline hydrolysis followed by thin-layer electrophoresis to demonstrate...

  5. Effect of Sulfation and Molecular Weight on Anticoagulant Activity of Dextran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozd, N N; Logvinova, Yu S; Torlopov, M A; Udoratina, E V

    2017-02-01

    Sulfation (to 2.8) of dextrans with molecular weight of 150 and 20 kDa was followed by the appearance of anticoagulant activity that increased with decreasing their molecular weight and did not depend on antithrombin, plasma inhibitor of serine proteases of the blood coagulation system. Antithrombin activity of dextran sulfate with a molecular weight of 20 kDa reached 12.6-15.3 U/mg. Dextran sulfates with molecular weights of 20 and 150 kDa did not potentiate ADP-induced human platelet aggregation.

  6. Electrochemical Deposition and Dissolution of Thallium from Sulfate Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. Zh. Ussipbekova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical behavior of thallium was studied on glassy carbon electrodes in sulfate solutions. Cyclic voltammetry was used to study the kinetics of the electrode processes and to determine the nature of the limiting step of the cathodic reduction of thallium ions. According to the dependence of current on stirring rate and scan rate, this process is diffusion limited. Chronocoulometry showed that the electrodeposition can be performed with a current efficiency of up to 96% in the absence of oxygen.

  7. Bactericide for sulfate-reducing bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shklyar, T F; Anoshina, G M; Blokhin, V Ye; Kisarrev, Ye L; Novikovsa, G M

    1981-01-01

    The aim of the invention is to find a bactericide for sulfate-reducing bacteria of oil fields in Western Siberia in order to suppress the biocorrosive activity on oil industry equipment. This goal is achieved by using M-nitroacetanylide as the bactericide of sulfate-reducing bacteria. This agent suppresses the activity of a stored culture of sulfate-reducing bacteria that comes from industrial waste waters injection wells of the Smotlor oil field.

  8. Xyloside-primed Chondroitin Sulfate/Dermatan Sulfate from Breast Carcinoma Cells with a Defined Disaccharide Composition Has Cytotoxic Effects in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Andrea; Tykesson, Emil; Westergren-Thorsson, Gunilla; Malmström, Anders; Ellervik, Ulf; Mani, Katrin

    2016-07-08

    We previously reported that the xyloside 2-(6-hydroxynaphthyl) β-d-xylopyranoside (XylNapOH), in contrast to 2-naphthyl β-d-xylopyranoside (XylNap), specifically reduces tumor growth both in vitro and in vivo Although there are indications that this could be mediated by the xyloside-primed glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and that these differ in composition depending on xyloside and cell type, detailed knowledge regarding a structure-function relationship is lacking. In this study we isolated XylNapOH- and XylNap-primed GAGs from a breast carcinoma cell line, HCC70, and a breast fibroblast cell line, CCD-1095Sk, and demonstrated that both XylNapOH- and XylNap-primed chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate GAGs derived from HCC70 cells had a cytotoxic effect on HCC70 cells and CCD-1095Sk cells. The cytotoxic effect appeared to be mediated by induction of apoptosis and was inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner by the XylNap-primed heparan sulfate GAGs. In contrast, neither the chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate nor the heparan sulfate derived from CCD-1095Sk cells primed on XylNapOH or XylNap had any effect on the growth of HCC70 cells or CCD-105Sk cells. These observations were related to the disaccharide composition of the XylNapOH- and XylNap-primed GAGs, which differed between the two cell lines but was similar when the GAGs were derived from the same cell line. To our knowledge this is the first report on cytotoxic effects mediated by chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Mercury methylation and bacterial activity associated to tropical phytoplankton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho-Souza, Sergio A.; Guimaraes, Jean R.D.; Mauro, Jane B.N.; Miranda, Marcio R.; Azevedo, Sandra M.F.O.

    2006-01-01

    The methylated form of mercury (Hg), methylmercury (MeHg), is one of the most toxic pollutants. Biotic and/or abiotic methylation, often associated to sulfate-reducing bacteria metabolism, occurs in aquatic environments and in many tropical areas, mostly in the periphyton associated to floating macrophyte roots. Data about mercury methylation by phytoplankton are scarce and the aim of this study was to verify the biotic influence in the methylation process in Microcystis aeruginosa and Sineccocystis sp. laboratory strains and in natural populations of phytoplankton from two different aquatic systems, the mesotrophic Ribeirao das Lajes reservoir and hypereutrophic oligohaline Jacarepagua lagoon, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. Adapted radiochemical techniques were used to measure sulfate-reduction, mercury methylation and bacterial activity in phytoplankton samples. Methyl- 203 Hg formation from added inorganic 203 Hg and 3 H-Leucine uptake were measured by liquid scintillation as well as sulfate-reduction, estimated as H 2 35 S produced from added Na 2 35 SO 4 . There was no significant difference in low methylation potentials (0.37%) among the two cyanobacterium species studied in laboratory conditions. At Ribeirao das Lajes reservoir, there was no significant difference in methylation, bacterial activity and sulfate-reduction of surface sediment between the sampling points. Methylation in sediments (3-4%) was higher than in phytoplankton (1.5%), the opposite being true for bacterial activity (sediment mean 6.6 against 150.3 nmol gdw -1 h -1 for phytoplankton samples). At Jacarepagua lagoon, an expressive bacterial activity (477.1 x 10 3 nmol gdw -1 h -1 at a concentration of 1000 nM leucine) and sulfate-reduction (∼21% H 2 35 S trapped) associated to phytoplankton (mostly cyanobacteria M. aeruginosa) was observed, but mercury methylation was not detected

  10. Mercury methylation and bacterial activity associated to tropical phytoplankton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho-Souza, Sergio A. [Laboratorio de Tracadores Wolfgang Pfeiffer, SL 62, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Bloco G, Ilha do Fundao, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IBCCF/UFRJ), RJ, CEP 21949-900 (Brazil); Guimaraes, Jean R.D. [Laboratorio de Tracadores Wolfgang Pfeiffer, SL 62, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Bloco G, Ilha do Fundao, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IBCCF/UFRJ), RJ, CEP 21949-900 (Brazil)]. E-mail: jeanrdg@biof.ufrj.br; Mauro, Jane B.N. [Laboratorio de Tracadores Wolfgang Pfeiffer, SL 62, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Bloco G, Ilha do Fundao, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IBCCF/UFRJ), RJ, CEP 21949-900 (Brazil); Miranda, Marcio R. [Laboratorio de Tracadores Wolfgang Pfeiffer, SL 62, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Bloco G, Ilha do Fundao, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IBCCF/UFRJ), RJ, CEP 21949-900 (Brazil); Azevedo, Sandra M.F.O. [Laboratorio de Ecofisiologia e Toxicologia de Cianobacterias, IBCCF/UFRJ, RJ (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The methylated form of mercury (Hg), methylmercury (MeHg), is one of the most toxic pollutants. Biotic and/or abiotic methylation, often associated to sulfate-reducing bacteria metabolism, occurs in aquatic environments and in many tropical areas, mostly in the periphyton associated to floating macrophyte roots. Data about mercury methylation by phytoplankton are scarce and the aim of this study was to verify the biotic influence in the methylation process in Microcystis aeruginosa and Sineccocystis sp. laboratory strains and in natural populations of phytoplankton from two different aquatic systems, the mesotrophic Ribeirao das Lajes reservoir and hypereutrophic oligohaline Jacarepagua lagoon, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. Adapted radiochemical techniques were used to measure sulfate-reduction, mercury methylation and bacterial activity in phytoplankton samples. Methyl-{sup 203}Hg formation from added inorganic {sup 203}Hg and {sup 3}H-Leucine uptake were measured by liquid scintillation as well as sulfate-reduction, estimated as H{sub 2} {sup 35}S produced from added Na{sub 2} {sup 35}SO{sub 4}. There was no significant difference in low methylation potentials (0.37%) among the two cyanobacterium species studied in laboratory conditions. At Ribeirao das Lajes reservoir, there was no significant difference in methylation, bacterial activity and sulfate-reduction of surface sediment between the sampling points. Methylation in sediments (3-4%) was higher than in phytoplankton (1.5%), the opposite being true for bacterial activity (sediment mean 6.6 against 150.3 nmol gdw{sup -1} h{sup -1} for phytoplankton samples). At Jacarepagua lagoon, an expressive bacterial activity (477.1 x 10{sup 3} nmol gdw{sup -1} h{sup -1} at a concentration of 1000 nM leucine) and sulfate-reduction ({approx}21% H{sub 2} {sup 35}S trapped) associated to phytoplankton (mostly cyanobacteria M. aeruginosa) was observed, but mercury methylation was not detected.

  11. Significant role of organic sulfur in supporting sedimentary sulfate reduction in low-sulfate environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhraee, Mojtaba; Li, Jiying; Katsev, Sergei

    2017-09-01

    Dissimilatory sulfate reduction (DSR) is a major carbon mineralization pathway in aquatic sediments, soils, and groundwater, which regulates the production of hydrogen sulfide and the mobilization rates of biologically important elements such as phosphorus and mercury. It has been widely assumed that water-column sulfate is the main sulfur source to fuel this reaction in sediments. While this assumption may be justified in high-sulfate environments such as modern seawater, we argue that in low-sulfate environments mineralization of organic sulfur compounds can be an important source of sulfate. Using a reaction-transport model, we investigate the production of sulfate from sulfur-containing organic matter for a range of environments. The results show that in low sulfate environments (50%) of sulfate reduction. In well-oxygenated systems, porewater sulfate profiles often exhibit sub-interface peaks so that sulfate fluxes are directed out of the sediment. Our measurements in Lake Superior, the world's largest lake, corroborate this conclusion: offshore sediments act as sources rather than sinks of sulfate for the water column, and sediment DSR is supported entirely by the in-sediment production of sulfate. Sulfate reduction rates are correlated to the depth of oxygen penetration and strongly regulated by the supply of reactive organic matter; rate co-regulation by sulfate availability becomes appreciable below 500 μM level. The results indicate the need to consider the mineralization of organic sulfur in the biogeochemical cycling in low-sulfate environments, including several of the world's largest freshwater bodies, deep subsurface, and possibly the sulfate-poor oceans of the Early Earth.

  12. A Repeating Sulfated Galactan Motif Resuscitates Dormant Micrococcus luteus Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, Thomas; Szamosvári, Dávid; Clardy, Jon

    2018-07-01

    Only a small fraction of bacteria can autonomously initiate growth on agar plates. Nongrowing bacteria typically enter a metabolically inactive dormant state and require specific chemical trigger factors or signals to exit this state and to resume growth. Micrococcus luteus has become a model organism for this important yet poorly understood phenomenon. Only a few resuscitation signals have been described to date, and all of them are produced endogenously by bacterial species. We report the discovery of a novel type of resuscitation signal that allows M. luteus to grow on agar but not agarose plates. Fractionation of the agar polysaccharide complex and sulfation of agarose allowed us to identify the signal as highly sulfated saccharides found in agar or carrageenans. Purification of hydrolyzed κ-carrageenan ultimately led to the identification of the signal as a small fragment of a large linear polysaccharide, i.e., an oligosaccharide of five or more sugars with a repeating disaccharide motif containing d-galactose-4-sulfate (G4S) 1,4-linked to 3,6-anhydro-α-d-galactose (DA), G4S-(DA-G4S) n ≥2 IMPORTANCE Most environmental bacteria cannot initiate growth on agar plates, but they can flourish on the same plates once growth is initiated. While there are a number of names for and manifestations of this phenomenon, the underlying cause appears to be the requirement for a molecular signal indicating safe growing conditions. Micrococcus luteus has become a model organism for studying this growth initiation process, often called resuscitation, because of its apparent connection with the persistent or dormant form of Mycobacterium tuberculosis , an important human pathogen. In this report, we identify a highly sulfated saccharide from agar or carrageenans that robustly resuscitates dormant M. luteus on agarose plates. We identified and characterized the signal as a small repeating disaccharide motif. Our results indicate that signals inherent in or absent from the

  13. Sulfur cycling in contaminated aquifers: What can we learn from oxygen isotopes in sulfate? (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoeller, K.; Vogt, C.; Hoth, N.

    2009-12-01

    Bacterial reduction of dissolved sulfate (BSR) is a key process determining the natural attenuation in many contaminated aquifers. For example, in groundwater bodies affected by acid mine drainage (AMD) BSR reduces the contaminant load by producing alkalinity and facilitating a sustainable fixation of sulfur in the sediment. In aquifers contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons sulfate may act as a terminal electron acceptor for the anaerobic oxidation of the organic contaminants to carbon dioxide and water. Due to the isotope selectivity of sulfate reducing bacteria, BSR shows the most pronounced isotope fractionation within the sulfur cycle. While sulfur displays a straightforward kinetic enrichment in the residual sulfate described by the enrichment factor epsilon (ɛ), the mechanism of oxygen isotope fractionation is still being discussed controversially. Nevertheless, it is agreed on that oxygen isotope exchange between ambient water and residual sulfate occurs during BSR in natural environments. With respect to this potential isotope exchange, the fractionation parameter theta (θ) is introduced instead of the kinetic enrichment factor epsilon (ɛ). The dual isotope system considering both sulfate-sulfur and sulfate-oxygen isotope fractionation and the respective fractionation parameters ɛ and θ provides an excellent tool for the recognition and quantification of BSR. Beyond that, the dual isotope approach may help identify and estimate interfering sulfur transformations such as re-oxidation and disproportionation processes which is especially vital for the understanding of the overall natural attenuation potential of the investigated aquifers. We present two examples from different field studies showing the benefits of applying the combination of sulfur and oxygen isotopes in dissolved sulfate to reveal the details of the sulfur cycle. The first case study is concerned with the evaluation of the potential for BSR in an AMD-affected aquifer close to an

  14. Discovery of a Heparan sulfate 3- o -sulfation specific peeling reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Yu; Mao, Yang; Zong, Chengli; Lin, Cheng; Boons, Geert Jan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/088245489; Zaia, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) 3-O-sulfation determines the binding specificity of HS/heparin for antithrombin III and plays a key role in herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. However, the low natural abundance of HS 3-O-sulfation poses a serious challenge for functional studies other than the two cases

  15. Sulfate-reducing bacteria mediate thionation of diphenylarsinic acid under anaerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Ling; Shiiya, Ayaka; Hisatomi, Shihoko; Fujii, Kunihiko; Nonaka, Masanori; Harada, Naoki

    2015-02-01

    Diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA) is often found as a toxic intermediate metabolite of diphenylchloroarsine or diphenylcyanoarsine that were produced as chemical warfare agents and were buried in soil after the World Wars. In our previous study Guan et al. (J Hazard Mater 241-242:355-362, 2012), after application of sulfate and carbon sources, anaerobic transformation of DPAA in soil was enhanced with the production of diphenylthioarsinic acid (DPTAA) as a main metabolite. This study aimed to isolate and characterize anaerobic soil microorganisms responsible for the metabolism of DPAA. First, we obtained four microbial consortia capable of transforming DPAA to DPTAA at a high transformation rate of more than 80% after 4 weeks of incubation. Sequencing for the bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone libraries constructed from the consortia revealed that all the positive consortia contained Desulfotomaculum acetoxidans species. In contrast, the absence of dissimilatory sulfite reductase gene (dsrAB) which is unique to sulfate-reducing bacteria was confirmed in the negative consortia showing no DPAA reduction. Finally, strain DEA14 showing transformation of DPAA to DPTAA was isolated from one of the positive consortia. The isolate was assigned to D. acetoxidans based on the partial 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Thionation of DPAA was also carried out in a pure culture of a known sulfate-reducing bacterial strain, Desulfovibrio aerotolerans JCM 12613(T). These facts indicate that sulfate-reducing bacteria are microorganisms responsible for the transformation of DPAA to DPTAA under anaerobic conditions.

  16. 21 CFR 172.822 - Sodium lauryl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium lauryl sulfate. 172.822 Section 172.822 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.822 Sodium lauryl sulfate. The food additive sodium lauryl sulfate may be safely... specifications: (1) It is a mixture of sodium alkyl sulfates consisting chiefly of sodium lauryl sulfate [CH2(CH2...

  17. Glycan Sulfation Modulates Dendritic Cell Biology and Tumor Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland El Ghazal

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In cancer, proteoglycans have been found to play roles in facilitating the actions of growth factors, and effecting matrix invasion and remodeling. However, little is known regarding the genetic and functional importance of glycan chains displayed by proteoglycans on dendritic cells (DCs in cancer immunity. In lung carcinoma, among other solid tumors, tumor-associated DCs play largely subversive/suppressive roles, promoting tumor growth and progression. Herein, we show that targeting of DC glycan sulfation through mutation in the heparan sulfate biosynthetic enzyme N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase-1 (Ndst1 in mice increased DC maturation and inhibited trafficking of DCs to draining lymph nodes. Lymphatic-driven DC migration and chemokine (CCL21-dependent activation of a major signaling pathway required for DC migration (as measured by phospho-Akt were sensitive to Ndst1 mutation in DCs. Lewis lung carcinoma tumors in mice deficient in Ndst1 were reduced in size. Purified CD11c+ cells from the tumors, which contain the tumor-infiltrating DC population, showed a similar phenotype in mutant cells. These features were replicated in mice deficient in syndecan-4, the major heparan sulfate proteoglycan expressed on the DC surface: Tumors were growth-impaired in syndecan-4–deficient mice and were characterized by increased infiltration by mature DCs. Tumors on the mutant background also showed greater infiltration by NK cells and NKT cells. These findings indicate the genetic importance of DC heparan sulfate proteoglycans in tumor growth and may guide therapeutic development of novel strategies to target syndecan-4 and heparan sulfate in cancer.

  18. Metabolic niche of a prominent sulfate-reducing human gut bacterium

    OpenAIRE

    Rey, Federico E.; Gonzalez, Mark D.; Cheng, Jiye; Wu, Meng; Ahern, Philip P.; Gordon, Jeffrey I.

    2013-01-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) colonize the guts of ∼50% of humans. We used genome-wide transposon mutagenesis and insertion-site sequencing, RNA-Seq, plus mass spectrometry to characterize genetic and environmental factors that impact the niche of Desulfovibrio piger, the most common SRB in a surveyed cohort of healthy US adults. Gnotobiotic mice were colonized with an assemblage of sequenced human gut bacterial species with or without D. piger and fed diets with different levels and types ...

  19. Ferrous Iron Oxidation by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans: Inhibition with Benzoic Acid, Sorbic Acid, and Sodium Lauryl Sulfate

    OpenAIRE

    Onysko, Steven J.; Kleinmann, Robert L. P.; Erickson, Patricia M.

    1984-01-01

    Benzoic acid, sorbic acid, and sodium lauryl sulfate at low concentrations (5 to 10 mg/liter) each effectively inhibited bacterial oxidation of ferrous iron in batch cultures of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. The rate of chemical oxidation of ferrous iron in low-pH, sterile batch reactors was not substantially affected at the tested concentrations (5 to 50 mg/liter) of any of the compounds.

  20. Ferrous Iron Oxidation by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans: Inhibition with Benzoic Acid, Sorbic Acid, and Sodium Lauryl Sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onysko, Steven J.; Kleinmann, Robert L. P.; Erickson, Patricia M.

    1984-01-01

    Benzoic acid, sorbic acid, and sodium lauryl sulfate at low concentrations (5 to 10 mg/liter) each effectively inhibited bacterial oxidation of ferrous iron in batch cultures of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. The rate of chemical oxidation of ferrous iron in low-pH, sterile batch reactors was not substantially affected at the tested concentrations (5 to 50 mg/liter) of any of the compounds. PMID:16346592

  1. Brittlestars contain highly sulfated chondroitin sulfates/dermatan sulfates that promote fibroblast growth factor 2-induced cell signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandra, Rashmi; Namburi, Ramesh B; Ortega-Martinez, Olga; Shi, Xiaofeng; Zaia, Joseph; Dupont, Sam T; Thorndyke, Michael C; Lindahl, Ulf; Spillmann, Dorothe

    2014-02-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) isolated from brittlestars, Echinodermata class Ophiuroidea, were characterized, as part of attempts to understand the evolutionary development of these polysaccharides. A population of chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS) chains with a high overall degree of sulfation and hexuronate epimerization was the major GAG found, whereas heparan sulfate (HS) was below detection level. Enzymatic digestion with different chondroitin lyases revealed exceptionally high proportions of di- and trisulfated CS/DS disaccharides. The latter unit appears much more abundant in one of four individual species of brittlestars, Amphiura filiformis, than reported earlier in other marine invertebrates. The brittlestar CS/DS was further shown to bind to growth factors such as fibroblast growth factor 2 and to promote FGF-stimulated cell signaling in GAG-deficient cell lines in a manner similar to that of heparin. These findings point to a potential biological role for the highly sulfated invertebrate GAGs, similar to those ascribed to HS in vertebrates.

  2. Interactions between bicarbonate, potassium, and magnesium, and sulfur-dependent induction of luminescence in Vibrio fischeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabei, Yosuke; Era, Mariko; Ogawa, Akane; Morita, Hiroshi

    2012-06-01

    In spite of its central importance in research efforts, the relationship between seawater compounds and bacterial luminescence has not previously been investigated in detail. Thus, in this study, we investigated the effect of cations (Na(+) , K(+) , NH(4) (+) , Mg(2+) , and Ca(2+) ) and anions (Cl(-) , HCO(3) (-) , CO(3) (2-) , and NO(3) (-) ) on the induction of both inorganic (sulfate, sulfite, and thiosulfate) and organic (L-cysteine and L-cystine) sulfur-dependent luminescence in Vibrio fischeri. We found that HCO(3) (-) (bicarbonate) and CO(3) (2-) (carbonate), in the form of various compounds, had a stimulatory effect on sulfur-dependent luminescence. The luminescence induced by bicarbonate was further promoted by the addition of magnesium. Potassium also increased sulfur-dependent luminescence when sulfate or thiosulfate was supplied as the sole sulfur source, but not when sulfite, L-cysteine, or L-cystine was supplied. The positive effect of potassium was accelerated by the addition of magnesium and/or calcium. Furthermore, the additional supply of magnesium improved the induction of sulfite- or L-cysteine-dependent luminescence, but not the l-cystine-dependent type. These results suggest that sulfur-dependent luminescence of V. fischeri under nutrient-starved conditions is mainly controlled by bicarbonate, carbonate, and potassium. In addition, our results indicate that an additional supply of magnesium is effective for increasing V. fischeri luminescence. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Microbial Community Structure and Functions in Ethanol-Fed Sulfate Removal Bioreactors for Treatment of Mine Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malin Bomberg

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sulfate-rich mine water must be treated before it is released into natural water bodies. We tested ethanol as substrate in bioreactors designed for biological sulfate removal from mine water containing up to 9 g L−1 sulfate, using granular sludge from an industrial waste water treatment plant as inoculum. The pH, redox potential, and sulfate and sulfide concentrations were measured twice a week over a maximum of 171 days. The microbial communities in the bioreactors were characterized by qPCR and high throughput amplicon sequencing. The pH in the bioreactors fluctuated between 5.0 and 7.7 with the highest amount of up to 50% sulfate removed measured around pH 6. Dissimilatory sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB constituted only between 1% and 15% of the bacterial communities. Predicted bacterial metagenomes indicated a high prevalence of assimilatory sulfate reduction proceeding to formation of l-cystein and acetate, assimilatory and dissimilatory nitrate reduction, denitrification, and oxidation of ethanol to acetaldehyde with further conversion to ethanolamine, but not to acetate. Despite efforts to maintain optimal conditions for biological sulfate reduction in the bioreactors, only a small part of the microorganisms were SRB. The microbial communities were highly diverse, containing bacteria, archaea, and fungi, all of which affected the overall microbial processes in the bioreactors. While it is important to monitor specific physicochemical parameters in bioreactors, molecular assessment of the microbial communities may serve as a tool to identify biological factors affecting bioreactor functions and to optimize physicochemical attributes for ideal bioreactor performance.

  4. Bacterial self-defense antibiotics release from organic-inorganic hybrid multilayer films for long-term anti-adhesion and biofilm inhibition properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qingwen; Li, Xi; Jin, Yingying; Sun, Lin; Ding, Xiaoxu; Liang, Lin; Wang, Lei; Nan, Kaihui; Ji, Jian; Chen, Hao; Wang, Bailiang

    2017-12-14

    Implant-associated bacterial infections pose serious medical and financial issues due to the colonization and proliferation of pathogens on the surface of the implant. The as-prepared traditional antibacterial surfaces can neither resist bacterial adhesion nor inhibit the development of biofilm over the long term. Herein, novel (montmorillonite/poly-l-lysine-gentamicin sulfate) 8 ((MMT/PLL-GS) 8 ) organic-inorganic hybrid multilayer films were developed to combine enzymatic degradation PLL for on-demand self-defense antibiotics release. Small molecule GS was loaded into the multilayer films during self-assembly and the multilayer films showed pH-dependent and linear growth behavior. The chymotrypsin- (CMS) and bacterial infections-responsive film degradation led to the peeling of the films and GS release. Enzyme-responsive GS release exhibited CMS concentration dependence as measured by the size of the inhibition zone and SEM images. Notably, the obtained antibacterial films showed highly efficient bactericidal activity which killed more than 99.9% of S. aureus in 12 h. Even after 3 d of incubation in S. aureus, E. coli or S. epidermidis solutions, the multilayer films exhibited inhibition zones of more than 1.5 mm in size. Both in vitro and in vivo antibacterial tests indicated good cell compatibility, and anti-inflammatory, and long-term bacterial anti-adhesion and biofilm inhibition properties.

  5. Thermoreversible gel formulation containing sodium lauryl sulfate as a potential contraceptive device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haineault, Caroline; Gourde, Pierrette; Perron, Sylvie; Désormeaux, André; Piret, Jocelyne; Omar, Rabeea F; Tremblay, Roland R; Bergeron, Michel G

    2003-08-01

    The contraceptive properties of a gel formulation containing sodium lauryl sulfate were investigated in both in vitro and in vivo models. Results showed that sodium lauryl sulfate inhibited, in a concentration-dependent manner, the activity of sheep testicular hyaluronidase. Sodium lauryl sulfate also completely inhibited human sperm motility as evaluated by the 30-sec Sander-Cramer test. The acid-buffering capacity of gel formulations containing sodium lauryl sulfate increased with the molarity of the citrate buffers used for their preparations. Furthermore, experiments in which semen was mixed with undiluted gel formulations in different proportions confirmed their physiologically relevant buffering capacity. Intravaginal application of the gel formulation containing sodium lauryl sulfate to rabbits before their artificial insemination with freshly ejaculated semen completely prevented egg fertilization. The gel formulation containing sodium lauryl sulfate was fully compatible with nonlubricated latex condoms. Taken together, these results suggest that the gel formulation containing sodium lauryl sulfate could represent a potential candidate for use as a topical vaginal spermicidal formulation to provide fertility control in women.

  6. Discrepancies in composition and biological effects of different formulations of chondroitin sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel-Pelletier, Johanne; Farran, Aina; Montell, Eulàlia; Vergés, Josep; Pelletier, Jean-Pierre

    2015-03-06

    Osteoarthritis is a common, progressive joint disease, and treatments generally aim for symptomatic improvement. However, SYmptomatic Slow-Acting Drugs in Osteoarthritis (SYSADOAs) not only reduce joint pain, but slow structural disease progression. One such agent is chondroitin sulfate-a complex, heterogeneous polysaccharide. It is extracted from various animal cartilages, thus has a wide range of molecular weights and different amounts and patterns of sulfation. Chondroitin sulfate has an excellent safety profile, and although various meta-analyses have concluded that it has a beneficial effect on symptoms and structure, others have concluded little or no benefit. This may be due, at least partly, to variations in the quality of the chondroitin sulfate used for a particular study. Chondroitin sulfate is available as pharmaceutical- and nutraceutical-grade products, and the latter have great variations in preparation, composition, purity and effects. Moreover, some products contain a negligible amount of chondroitin sulfate and among samples with reasonable amounts, in vitro testing showed widely varying effects. Of importance, although some showed anti-inflammatory effects, others demonstrated weak effects, and some instances were even pro-inflammatory. This could be related to contaminants, which depend on the origin, production and purification process. It is therefore vitally important that only pharmaceutical-grade chondroitin sulfate be used for treating osteoarthritis patients.

  7. The anaerobic treatment of sulfate containing wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.

    1995-01-01


    In the anaerobic treatment of sulfate containing wastewater sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) will compete with methanogenic- (MB) and acetogenic bacteria (AB) for the available substrates such as hydrogen, acetate, propionate and butyrate. The outcome of this competition will

  8. Integrated approach for investigating the durability of self-consolidating concrete to sulfate attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassuoni, Mohamed Tamer F.

    tests, the combined sulfate attack tests captured performance risks and complex damage mechanisms associated with the SCC pore structure and constituent materials. Sodium sulfate attack with wetting-drying cycles and/or partial immersion under temperate-hot conditions synergistically caused significant damage to specimens, especially to quaternary cementitious systems having very fine pore structure, due to the build-up of salt crystals and sulfate reaction products. The deleterious effects of sulfate reaction products and salt crystallization on all cementitious systems were more severe under the combined sodium sulfate and freezing-thawing exposure, with a potential of sudden brittle failure. Laboratory experiments in the current work documented evidence for the occurrence of thaumasite sulfate attack (TSA) in cementitious systems containing limestone filler, not only under cold but also under temperate-hot conditions, which made specimens more vulnerable to damage in the combined sulfate attack tests. The field-like combined exposure of sodium sulfate, cyclic environments and flexural loading had synergistic effects on SCC specimens and caused the coexistence of multiple-complex degradation mechanisms (sulfate attack, TSA, stress-corrosion, salt crystallization, surface scaling and corrosion of surface steel fibres) depending on the mixture design variables. The current thesis demonstrates that relying only on sulfate immersion tests to evaluate the performance of cement-based materials can be risky. It also shows that linear and deterministic modeling of the performance of concrete structures under external sulfate attack is unrealistic. Fuzzy and adaptive-neuro fuzzy inference systems developed in the current thesis accurately and rationally predicted the serviceability, deterioration in engineering properties and time to failure of the SCC mixtures under the various sulfate attack exposure regimes adopted in the integrated testing approach. A durability evaluation

  9. Growth of sulfate reducers in deep-subseafloor sediments stimulated by crustal fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja eFichtel

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available On a global scale, crustal fluids fuel a substantial part of the deep subseafloor biosphere by providing electron acceptors for microbial respiration. In this study, we examined bacterial cultures from a sediment column of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, Northeast Pacific (IODP Site U1301 which is divided into three distinctive compartments: an upper sulfate-containing zone, formed by bottom-seawater diffusion, a sulfate-depleted zone and a second (~140 m thick sulfate-containing zone influenced by fluid diffusion from the basaltic aquifer. Sulfate reducers were isolated from near-surface and near-basement sediments. All initial enrichments harboured specific communities of heterotrophic microorganisms. Among those, the number of isolated spore-forming Firmicutes decreased from 60% to 21% with sediment depth. Strains affiliated to Desulfosporosinus lacus, Desulfotomaculum sp. and Desulfovibrio aespoeensis were recovered from the upper sediment layers (1.3-9.1 meters below seafloor, mbsf. Several strains of Desulfovibrio indonesiensis and one relative of Desulfotignum balticum were isolated from near-basement sediments (240-262 mbsf. The physiological investigation of strains affiliated to D. aespoeensis, D. indonesiensis and D. balticum indicated that they were all able to use sulfate, thiosulfate and sulfite as electron acceptors. In the presence of sulfate, they grew strain-specifically on a few short-chain n-alcohols and fatty acids, only. The strains fermented either ethanol, pyruvate or betaine. Interestingly, all strains utilized hydrogen and the isolate affiliated to D. indonesiensis even exhibited an autotrophic life-mode. Thus, in the deep subseafloor where organic substrates are limited or hardly degradable, hydrogen might become an essential electron donor. The isolation of non-sporeforming sulfate reducers from fluid-influenced layers indicates that they have survived the long-term burial as active populations even after the separation from

  10. Hydrophobic interactions between polymethacrylic acid and sodium laureth sulfate in aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaremko, Z. M.; Fedushinskaya, L. B.; Burka, O. A.; Soltys, M. N.

    2014-09-01

    The role of hydrophobic interaction in the development of associative processes is demonstrated, based on the concentration dependences of the viscosity and pH of binary solutions of polymethacrylic acid as an anionic polyelectrolyte and sodium laureth sulfate as an anionic surfactant. It is found that the inflection point on the dependence of the difference between the pH values of binary solutions of polymethacrylic acid and sodium laureth sulfate on the polyelectrolyte concentration is a criterion for determining the predominant contribution from hydrophobic interaction, as is the inflection point on the dependence of pH of individual solutions of polymethacrylic acid on the polyelectrolyte concentration.

  11. Bacterial Prostatitis: Bacterial Virulence, Clinical Outcomes, and New Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, John N; Thumbikat, Praveen

    2016-02-01

    Four prostatitis syndromes are recognized clinically: acute bacterial prostatitis, chronic bacterial prostatitis, chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome, and asymptomatic prostatitis. Because Escherichia coli represents the most common cause of bacterial prostatitis, we investigated the importance of bacterial virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance in E. coli strains causing prostatitis and the potential association of these characteristics with clinical outcomes. A structured literature review revealed that we have limited understanding of the virulence-associated characteristics of E. coli causing acute prostatitis. Therefore, we completed a comprehensive microbiological and molecular investigation of a unique strain collection isolated from healthy young men. We also considered new data from an animal model system suggesting certain E. coli might prove important in the etiology of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Our human data suggest that E. coli needs multiple pathogenicity-associated traits to overcome anatomic and immune responses in healthy young men without urological risk factors. The phylogenetic background and accumulation of an exceptional repertoire of extraintestinal pathogenic virulence-associated genes indicate that these E. coli strains belong to a highly virulent subset of uropathogenic variants. In contrast, antibiotic resistance confers little added advantage to E. coli strains in these healthy outpatients. Our animal model data also suggest that certain pathogenic E. coli may be important in the etiology of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome through mechanisms that are dependent on the host genetic background and the virulence of the bacterial strain.

  12. Microbial Diversity in Sulfate-Reducing Marine Sediment Enrichment Cultures Associated with Anaerobic Biotransformation of Coastal Stockpiled Phosphogypsum (Sfax, Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Zouch

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic biotechnology using sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB is a promising alternative for reducing long-term stockpiling of phosphogypsum (PG, an acidic (pH ~3 by-product of the phosphate fertilizer industries containing high amounts of sulfate. The main objective of this study was to evaluate, for the first time, the diversity and ability of anaerobic marine microorganisms to convert sulfate from PG into sulfide, in order to look for marine SRB of biotechnological interest. A series of sulfate-reducing enrichment cultures were performed using different electron donors (i.e., acetate, formate, or lactate and sulfate sources (i.e., sodium sulfate or PG as electron acceptors. Significant sulfide production was observed from enrichment cultures inoculated with marine sediments, collected near the effluent discharge point of a Tunisian fertilizer industry (Sfax, Tunisia. Sulfate sources impacted sulfide production rates from marine sediments as well as the diversity of SRB species belonging to Deltaproteobacteria. When PG was used as sulfate source, Desulfovibrio species dominated microbial communities of marine sediments, while Desulfobacter species were mainly detected using sodium sulfate. Sulfide production was also affected depending on the electron donor used, with the highest production obtained using formate. In contrast, low sulfide production (acetate-containing cultures was associated with an increase in the population of Firmicutes. These results suggested that marine Desulfovibrio species, to be further isolated, are potential candidates for bioremediation of PG by immobilizing metals and metalloids thanks to sulfide production by these SRB.

  13. Identification of chondroitin sulfate E proteoglycans and heparin proteoglycans in the secretory granules of human lung mast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, R.L.; Austen, K.F.; Fox, C.C.; Lichtenstein, L.M.

    1988-01-01

    The predominant subclasses of mast cells in both the rat and the mouse can be distinguished from one another by their preferential synthesis of 35 S-labeled proteoglycans that contain either heparin or oversulfated chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycans. Although [ 35 S]heparin proteoglycans have been isolated from human lung mast cells of 40-70% purity and from a skin biopsy specimen of a patient with urticaria pigmentosa, no highly sulfated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan has been isolated from any enriched or highly purified population of human mast cells. The authors demonstrate that human lung mast cells of 96% purity incorporate [ 35 S]sulfate into separate heparin and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in an ∼2:1 ratio. As assessed by HPLC of the chondroitinase ABC digests, the chondroitin [ 35 S]sulfate proteoglycans isolated from these human lung mast cells contain the same unusual chondroitin sulfate E disaccharide that is present in proteoglycans produced by interleukin 3-dependent mucosal-like mouse mast cells. Both the chondroitin [ 35 S]sulfate E proteoglycans and the [ 35 S]heparin proteoglycans were exocytosed from the [ 35 S]sulfate-labeled cells via perturbation of the IgE receptor, indicating that both types of 35 S-labeled proteoglycans reside in the secretory granules of these human lung mast cells

  14. Electrogenic sulfate uptake by crustacean hepatopancreatic basolateral membrane vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattey, M.A.; Gerencser, G.A.; Aheam, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    Basolateral membrane vesicles (BLMV) were isolated from Atlantic lobster (Homarus americanus) hepatopancreas and purified by discontinuous sucrose gradient centrifugation. BLMV prepared in this fashion were osmotically reactive exhibiting linear dependence of vesicular 35 SO 4 -2 uptake to increasing external osmotic pressure with negligible non-specific isotope binding. Under short circuited conditions (valinomycin/K + ) BLMV responded to either a HCO 3 - gradient directed out or equilibrated HCO 3 - (10 mM) by displaying short term accumulation of sulfate above that of equilibrium. Uptake of divalent anion was unaffected by an inwardly directed transmembrane Na + or tetramethylammonium + gradient. 35 SO 4 -2 /HCO 3 - exchange in the presence of valinomycin was stimulated by transient inside positive K + diffusion potentials and inhibited by transient inside negative K + diffusion potentials. The role of electrogenic anion exchange by hepatopancreas BLMV in transcellular sulfate transport is discussed

  15. Thermoluminescence of sulfated zircon exposed to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio, E.; Castano, V.M.; Mendoza A, E.; Gonzalez, P.R.

    2003-01-01

    In this work, the thermoluminescent (Tl) signal induced by gamma radiation in zirconia and sulfated zirconia samples embedded in Ptfe pellets is reported and discussed. In this case, samples were obtained through sol-gel method using zirconium n-propoxide and H 2 SO 4 as precursors, and later were subjected to thermal treatment at 600 C to obtain, the tetragonal phase accordingly to X-ray diffraction analysis. Experimental results show that the thermoluminescent glow peak depends on both, the crystalline structure and sulfate concentration. Two maximum peaks were observed located at 147 C and 274 C arising from the electronic transitions. Tl response as a function of the absorbed dose shows a linear increase for a wide of range exposure as well as good stability in time. The high sensitivity, dose linearity and signal stability of this material open the potential possibility to be used for the dosimetry applications. (Author)

  16. Metabolic Flexibility of Sulfate Reducing Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline M. Plugge

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Dissimilatory sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRB are a very diverse group of anaerobic bacteria that are omnipresent in nature and play an imperative role in the global cycling of carbon and sulfur. In anoxic marine sediments sulfate reduction accounts for up to 50% of the entire organic mineralization in coastal and shelf ecosystems where sulfate diffuses several meters deep into the sediment. As a consequence, SRB would be expected in the sulfate-containing upper sediment layers, whereas methanogenic Archaea would be expected to succeed in the deeper sulfate-depleted layers of the sediment. Where sediments are high in organic matter, sulfate is depleted at shallow sediment depths, and biogenic methane production will occur. In the absence of sulfate, many SRB ferment organic acids and alcohols, producing hydrogen, acetate, and carbon dioxide, and may even rely on hydrogen- and acetate-scavenging methanogens to convert organic compounds to methane. SRB can establish two different life styles, and these can be termed as sulfidogenic and acetogenic, hydrogenogenic metabolism. The advantage of having different metabolic capabilities is that it raises the chance of survival in environments when electron acceptors become depleted. In marine sediments, SRB and methanogens do not compete but rather complement each other in the degradation of organic matter.Also in freshwater ecosystems with sulfate concentrations of only 10-200 μM, sulfate is consumed efficiently within the top several cm of the sediments. Here, many of the δ-Proteobacteria present have the genetic machinery to perform dissimilatory sulfate reduction, yet they have an acetogenic, hydrogenogenic way of life.In this review we evaluate the physiology and metabolic mode of SRB in relation with their environment.

  17. Abdominal radiation causes bacterial translocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman-Stein, G.; Bonsack, M.; Liberty, J.; Delaney, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a single dose of radiation to the rat abdomen leads to bacterial translocation into the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). A second issue addressed was whether translocation correlates with anatomic damage to the mucosa. The radiated group (1100 cGy) which received anesthesia also was compared with a control group and a third group which received anesthesia alone but no abdominal radiation. Abdominal radiation lead to 100% positive cultures of MLN between 12 hr and 4 days postradiation. Bacterial translocation was almost nonexistent in the control and anesthesia group. Signs of inflammation and ulceration of the intestinal mucosa were not seen until Day 3 postradiation. Mucosal damage was maximal by Day 4. Bacterial translocation onto the MLN after a single dose of abdominal radiation was not apparently dependent on anatomical, histologic damage of the mucosa

  18. Bacterial diversity and composition of an alkaline uranium mine tailings-water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nurul H; Bondici, Viorica F; Medihala, Prabhakara G; Lawrence, John R; Wolfaardt, Gideon M; Warner, Jeff; Korber, Darren R

    2013-10-01

    The microbial diversity and biogeochemical potential associated with a northern Saskatchewan uranium mine water-tailings interface was examined using culture-dependent and -independent techniques. Morphologically-distinct colonies from uranium mine water-tailings and a reference lake (MC) obtained using selective and non-selective media were selected for 16S rRNA gene sequencing and identification, revealing that culturable organisms from the uranium tailings interface were dominated by Firmicutes and Betaproteobacteria; whereas, MC organisms mainly consisted of Bacteroidetes and Gammaproteobacteria. Ion Torrent (IT) 16S rRNA metagenomic analysis carried out on extracted DNA from tailings and MC interfaces demonstrated the dominance of Firmicutes in both of the systems. Overall, the tailings-water interface environment harbored a distinct bacterial community relative to the MC, reflective of the ambient conditions (i.e., total dissolved solids, pH, salinity, conductivity, heavy metals) dominating the uranium tailings system. Significant correlations among the physicochemical data and the major bacterial groups present in the tailings and MC were also observed. Presence of sulfate reducing bacteria demonstrated by culture-dependent analyses and the dominance of Desulfosporosinus spp. indicated by Ion Torrent analyses within the tailings-water interface suggests the existence of anaerobic microenvironments along with the potential for reductive metabolic processes.

  19. Optical investigation of gas-phase KCl/KOH sulfation in post flame conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weng, Wubin; chen, Shuang; Wu, Hao

    2018-01-01

    A counter-flow reactor setup was designed to investigate the gas-phase sulfation and homogeneous nucleation of potassium salts. Gaseous KOH and KCl were introduced into the post-flame zone of a laminar flat flame. The hot flame products mixed in the counter-flow with cold N2, with or without....... Depending on the potassium speciation in the inlet and the presence of SO2, they consisted of K2SO4, KCl, or K2CO3, respectively. The experiments showed that KOH was sulphated more readily than KCl, resulting in larger quantities of aerosols. The sulfation process in the counter-flow setup was simulated...... using a chemical kinetic model including a detailed subset for the Cl/S/K chemistry. Similar to the experimental results, much more potassium sulfate was predicted when seeding KOH compared to seeding KCl. For both KOH and KCl, sulfation was predicted to occur primarily through the reactions among...

  20. Exploring bacterial lignin degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Margaret E; Chang, Michelle C Y

    2014-04-01

    Plant biomass represents a renewable carbon feedstock that could potentially be used to replace a significant level of petroleum-derived chemicals. One major challenge in its utilization is that the majority of this carbon is trapped in the recalcitrant structural polymers of the plant cell wall. Deconstruction of lignin is a key step in the processing of biomass to useful monomers but remains challenging. Microbial systems can provide molecular information on lignin depolymerization as they have evolved to break lignin down using metalloenzyme-dependent radical pathways. Both fungi and bacteria have been observed to metabolize lignin; however, their differential reactivity with this substrate indicates that they may utilize different chemical strategies for its breakdown. This review will discuss recent advances in studying bacterial lignin degradation as an approach to exploring greater diversity in the environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Extraction of uranyl sulfate with primary amine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrnka, M.; Bizek, V.; Nekovar, P.; Cizevska, S.; Schroetterova, D.

    1984-01-01

    PRIMENE JM-T was used for extraction. Its composition was found to approach the general formula C 21 H 43 NH 2 . It was found that the extraction of uranyl sulfate is lower in case of a higher steady-state concentration of sulfuric acid in the aqueous phase. Extraction is accompanied with coextraction of water. The results obtained showed that uranyl sulfate passes into the organic phase by two mechanisms: extraction with amine sulfate and extraction with free amine. A mathematical description of the process was made based on the obtained results. (E.S.)

  2. Chlorate: a reversible inhibitor of proteoglycan sulfation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphries, D.E.; Silbert, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    Bovine aorta endothelial cells were cultured in medium containing [ 3 H]glucosamine, [ 35 S]sulfate, and various concentrations of chlorate. Cell growth was not affected by 10 mM chlorate, while 30 mM chlorate had a slight inhibitory effect. Chlorate concentrations greater than 10 mM resulted in significant undersulfation of chondroitin. With 30 mM chlorate, sulfation of chondroitin was reduced to 10% and heparan to 35% of controls, but [ 3 H]glucosamine incorporation on a per cell basis did not appear to be inhibited. Removal of chlorate from the culture medium of cells resulted in the rapid resumption of sulfation

  3. Differential pulse voltammetric determination of salbutamol sulfate in syrup pharmaceutical formulation using poly(4-amino-3-hydroxynaphthalene sulfonic acid modified glassy carbon electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meareg Amare

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A new method for determination of salbutamol sulfate has been developed using poly(4-amino-3-hydroxynaphthalene sulfonic acid/GCE. Cyclic voltammetric investigation of the electrochemical behavior of salbutamol sulfate at the polymer modified glassy carbon unveiled electrocatalytic activity of the modifier towards irreversible oxidation of salbutamol sulfate. Dependence of peak current predominantly on scan rate than on square root of scan rate, and peak potential shift with pH demonstrated that oxidation of salbutamol sulfate at the polymer modified electrode follows adsorption reaction kinetics with proton participation.Under optimized solution and differential pulse voltammetric parameters, the oxidative peak current showed linear dependence on salbutamol sulfate concentration in the range 0.2 to 8 μM with method detection limit (3s/m and determination coefficient (R2 of 6.8 × 10−8 M and 0.99786, respectively. Low method detection limit, relatively wide linear range, and recovery results of spiked standard salbutamol sulfate in syrup samples in the range 96.7–98.9% validated the method for determination of salbutamol sulfate in pharmaceutical formulations.Differential pulse voltammetric analysis of salbutamol sulfate syrup formulation for its salbutamol sulfate content revealed 98.8 to 99.3% of the labeled value confirming the applicability of the developed method for determination of salbutamol sulfate in real samples. Keywords: Electrochemistry, Analytical chemistry

  4. Molecular Characterization of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in the Guaymas Basin†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, Ashita; Teske, Andreas; Dillon, Jesse; Stahl, David A.; Sogin, Mitchell L.

    2003-01-01

    The Guaymas Basin (Gulf of California) is a hydrothermal vent site where thermal alteration of deposited planktonic and terrestrial organic matter forms petroliferous material which supports diverse sulfate-reducing bacteria. We explored the phylogenetic and functional diversity of the sulfate-reducing bacteria by characterizing PCR-amplified dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrAB) and 16S rRNA genes from the upper 4 cm of the Guaymas sediment. The dsrAB sequences revealed that there was a major clade closely related to the acetate-oxidizing delta-proteobacterial genus Desulfobacter and a clade of novel, deeply branching dsr sequences related to environmental dsr sequences from marine sediments in Aarhus Bay and Kysing Fjord (Denmark). Other dsr clones were affiliated with gram-positive thermophilic sulfate reducers (genus Desulfotomaculum) and the delta-proteobacterial species Desulforhabdus amnigena and Thermodesulforhabdus norvegica. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNAs from the same environmental samples resulted in identification of four clones affiliated with Desulfobacterium niacini, a member of the acetate-oxidizing, nutritionally versatile genus Desulfobacterium, and one clone related to Desulfobacula toluolica and Desulfotignum balticum. Other bacterial 16S rRNA bacterial phylotypes were represented by non-sulfate reducers and uncultured lineages with unknown physiology, like OP9, OP8, as well as a group with no clear affiliation. In summary, analyses of both 16S rRNA and dsrAB clone libraries resulted in identification of members of the Desulfobacteriales in the Guaymas sediments. In addition, the dsrAB sequencing approach revealed a novel group of sulfate-reducing prokaryotes that could not be identified by 16S rRNA sequencing. PMID:12732547

  5. Molecular characterization of sulfate-reducing bacteria in the Guaymas Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, Ashita; Teske, Andreas; Dillon, Jesse; Stahl, David A.; Sogin, Mitchell L.

    2003-01-01

    The Guaymas Basin (Gulf of California) is a hydrothermal vent site where thermal alteration of deposited planktonic and terrestrial organic matter forms petroliferous material which supports diverse sulfate-reducing bacteria. We explored the phylogenetic and functional diversity of the sulfate-reducing bacteria by characterizing PCR-amplified dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrAB) and 16S rRNA genes from the upper 4 cm of the Guaymas sediment. The dsrAB sequences revealed that there was a major clade closely related to the acetate-oxidizing delta-proteobacterial genus Desulfobacter and a clade of novel, deeply branching dsr sequences related to environmental dsr sequences from marine sediments in Aarhus Bay and Kysing Fjord (Denmark). Other dsr clones were affiliated with gram-positive thermophilic sulfate reducers (genus Desulfotomaculum) and the delta-proteobacterial species Desulforhabdus amnigena and Thermodesulforhabdus norvegica. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNAs from the same environmental samples resulted in identification of four clones affiliated with Desulfobacterium niacini, a member of the acetate-oxidizing, nutritionally versatile genus Desulfobacterium, and one clone related to Desulfobacula toluolica and Desulfotignum balticum. Other bacterial 16S rRNA bacterial phylotypes were represented by non-sulfate reducers and uncultured lineages with unknown physiology, like OP9, OP8, as well as a group with no clear affiliation. In summary, analyses of both 16S rRNA and dsrAB clone libraries resulted in identification of members of the Desulfobacteriales in the Guaymas sediments. In addition, the dsrAB sequencing approach revealed a novel group of sulfate-reducing prokaryotes that could not be identified by 16S rRNA sequencing.

  6. Sulfate-reducing bacteria colonize pouches formed for ulcerative colitis but not for familial adenomatous polyposis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duffy, M

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE: Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis remains the "gold standard" in surgical treatment of ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatous polyposis. Pouchitis occurs mainly in patients with a background of ulcerative colitis, although the reasons for this are unknown. The aim of this study was to characterize differences in pouch bacterial populations between ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatous pouches. METHODS: After ethical approval was obtained, fresh stool samples were collected from patients with ulcerative colitis pouches (n = 10), familial adenomatous polyposis (n = 7) pouches, and ulcerative colitis ileostomies (n = 8). Quantitative measurements of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria were performed. RESULTS: Sulfate-reducing bacteria were isolated from 80 percent (n = 8) of ulcerative colitis pouches. Sulfate-reducing bacteria were absent from familial adenomatous polyposis pouches and also from ulcerative colitis ileostomy effluent. Pouch Lactobacilli, Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides sp, and Clostridium perfringens counts were increased relative to ileostomy counts in patients with ulcerative colitis. Total pouch enterococci and coliform counts were also increased relative to ileostomy levels. There were no significant quantitative or qualitative differences between pouch types when these bacteria were evaluated. CONCLUSIONS: Sulfate-reducing bacteria are exclusive to patients with a background of ulcerative colitis. Not all ulcerative colitis pouches harbor sulfate-reducing bacteria because two ulcerative colitis pouches in this study were free of the latter. They are not present in familial adenomatous polyposis pouches or in ileostomy effluent collected from patients with ulcerative colitis. Total bacterial counts increase in ulcerative colitis pouches after stoma closure. Levels of Lactobacilli, Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides sp, Clostridium perfringens, enterococci, and coliforms were similar in both pouch groups. Because sulfate-reducing bacteria are

  7. Anaerobic bacterial quantitation of Yucca Mountain, Nevada DOE site samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarkson, W.W.; Krumholz, L.R.; Suflita, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Anaerobic bacteria were studied from samples of excavated rock material as one phase of the overall Yucca Mountain site characterization effort. An indication of the abundance of important groups of anaerobic bacteria would enable inferences to be made regarding the natural history of the site and allow for more complete risk evaluation of the site as a nuclear repository. Six bacterial groups were investigated including anaerobic heterotrophs, acetogens, methanogens, sulfate-, nitrate-, and iron-reducing bacteria. The purpose of this portion of the study was to detect and quantify the aforementioned bacterial groups

  8. Bacterial leaching of pyritic gold ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagliardi, F.M.; Cashion, J.D.; Brown, J.; Jay, W.H.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Pyritic ores (pyrite and arsenopyrite) containing gold concentrations in excess of 50g Au/t can be processed to recover the gold by the removal of the sulphur from the ore. This may be achieved by roasting (producing sulphur dioxide emissions), pressure oxidation (expensive and suitable for large high grade deposits), pressure leaching (still currently being developed) or bacterial oxidation. The bacterial oxidation process is a well known process in nature but has only recently come under investigation as a economically viable and relatively clean method of gold recovery from deep low grade sulphidic ores. Samples were obtained from the Wiluna Gold Mine in Western Australia consisting of the original ore, six successive bacterial reactors and the final products. Moessbauer experiments have been performed at room temperature, liquid nitrogen and liquid helium temperatures, and in applied magnetic fields. The main components of the iron phases which were present during the bacterial treatment were pyrite and arsenopyrite which were readily oxidised by the bacteria. Ferric sulfates and ferric arsenates were identified as by-products of the process with a small amount of the oxyhydroxide goethite. These results are in contrast to the similar study of the Fairview Mine in South Africa where principally Fe(II) species were observed

  9. Effect of sulfate fertilization on soil biota in grassland columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikoyi, Israel; Donohue, John; Fowler, Andrew; Schmalenberger, Achim

    2017-04-01

    Sulfur (S) is an important macronutrient element in plant nutrition as a component of protein, enzymes, enzyme cofactors as well as being the major constituent of the amino acids cysteine and methionine. Organically bound S is the predominant form of S in the soil constituting up to 95% of S in agricultural soils. The most important form of S in terms of plant nutrition is inorganic sulfate which forms only about 5% of the total soil S content. Air pollution was the major source of S (as SO2) for plants, with up to 80% of the S obtained from this source. However, common effects of S limitation on crops such as chlorosis, yield reduction, and decrease in crop quality are becoming increasingly evident as atmospheric S supply has decreased in recent years. Recent research has shown that organically-bound S in soils is also plant-bioavailable, likely due to interconversion of organic S forms to inorganic sulfate by soil microbes. In this study, soil columns were setup in a greenhouse using moderate S (equivalent to Wisconsin S soil availability index of below 30) soils. The columns were planted with Lolium perenne and fertilized with 0 (control), 5 (low), 10 (medium) and 20 (high) kg/ha sulfate S alongside a full complement of other nutrients. Results after 14 weeks of management show a significant decrease (Pbacterial abundance of heterotrophs and aromatic sulfonate-utilizing bacteria upon S fertilization. In addition, soil from the top 20 cm of the column had significantly higher sulfatase activity compared to the bottom 20 cm. The medium and high S treatments had significantly higher grass dry matter yield compared to the control and low S treatments. All S treatments significantly shifted the bacterial community structure compared to the control. Overall, our preliminary results suggest that applying 5 kg/ ha S had similar effects on the soil biota as the control while the application of medium and high S had similar effects on most parameters. Moreover, this study

  10. Polymorphism of nickel sulfate hexahydrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angel, R.J.; Finger, L.W.

    1988-01-01

    NiSO 4 .6H 2 O, M r =262.85; data collections with Mo Kα radiation, λ=0.7093 A, room temperature. Monoclinic polymorph: C2/c, a=9.880(3), b=7.228(2), c=24.130(3) A, β=98.38(2) 0 , V=1704.7(6) A 3 , Z=8, D x =2.05 g cm -3 , μ=25.54 cm -1 , F(000)=1088, R=0.031 (wR=0.038) for 2176 observed reflections. Tetragonal polymorph: P4 1 2 1 2, a=6.780 (1), c=18.285 (2) A, V=840.5 (3) A 3 , Z=4, D x =2.07 g cm -3 , μ=25.81 cm -1 , F(000)=544, R=0.045 (wR=0.050) for 2102 observed reflections. The structure of the tetragonal polymorph originally determined (without H positions) by Beevers and Lipson and refined by O'Connor and Dale and Stadnicka, Glazer and Koralewski, is confirmed by refinement of X-ray diffraction data. The structure of the monoclinic polymorph is confirmed as being isostructural with NiSO 4 .6D 2 O, and a number of other hexahydrate sulfates, e.g. MgSO 4 .6H 2 O. Both structures contain isolated [Ni(H 2 O 6 ] octahedra and [SO 4 ] tetrahedra linked by hydrogen bonding. (orig.)

  11. Role of dissimilatory sulfate reduction in wetlands constructed for acid coal mine drainage (AMD) treatment. Master's thesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taddeo, F.J.

    1991-01-01

    Five constructed wetlands with different organic substrates were exposed to the same quantity/quality of acid mine drainage (AMD). During the 16-month exposure to AMD, all wetlands accumulated S in the forms of organic and reduced inorganic S and Fe in the form of iron sulfides. Iron sulfide and probably most of the organic S(C-bonded S) accumulation were end products of bacterial dissimilatory sulfate reduction. Results of study support the notion that sulfate reduction and accumulation of Fe sulfides contribute to Fe retention in wetlands exposed to AMD. Detailed information is provided

  12. Biochemistry, physiology and biotechnology of sulfate-reducing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Larry L; Fauque, Guy D

    2009-01-01

    Chemolithotrophic bacteria that use sulfate as terminal electron acceptor (sulfate-reducing bacteria) constitute a unique physiological group of microorganisms that couple anaerobic electron transport to ATP synthesis. These bacteria (220 species of 60 genera) can use a large variety of compounds as electron donors and to mediate electron flow they have a vast array of proteins with redox active metal groups. This chapter deals with the distribution in the environment and the major physiological and metabolic characteristics of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). This chapter presents our current knowledge of soluble electron transfer proteins and transmembrane redox complexes that are playing an essential role in the dissimilatory sulfate reduction pathway of SRB of the genus Desulfovibrio. Environmentally important activities displayed by SRB are a consequence of the unique electron transport components or the production of high levels of H(2)S. The capability of SRB to utilize hydrocarbons in pure cultures and consortia has resulted in using these bacteria for bioremediation of BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene) compounds in contaminated soils. Specific strains of SRB are capable of reducing 3-chlorobenzoate, chloroethenes, or nitroaromatic compounds and this has resulted in proposals to use SRB for bioremediation of environments containing trinitrotoluene and polychloroethenes. Since SRB have displayed dissimilatory reduction of U(VI) and Cr(VI), several biotechnology procedures have been proposed for using SRB in bioremediation of toxic metals. Additional non-specific metal reductase activity has resulted in using SRB for recovery of precious metals (e.g. platinum, palladium and gold) from waste streams. Since bacterially produced sulfide contributes to the souring of oil fields, corrosion of concrete, and discoloration of stonework is a serious problem, there is considerable interest in controlling the sulfidogenic activity of the SRB. The

  13. An intertwined evolutionary history of methanogenic archaea and sulfate reduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Susanti

    Full Text Available Hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis and dissimilatory sulfate reduction, two of the oldest energy conserving respiratory systems on Earth, apparently could not have evolved in the same host, as sulfite, an intermediate of sulfate reduction, inhibits methanogenesis. However, certain methanogenic archaea metabolize sulfite employing a deazaflavin cofactor (F(420-dependent sulfite reductase (Fsr where N- and C-terminal halves (Fsr-N and Fsr-C are homologs of F(420H(2 dehydrogenase and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (Dsr, respectively. From genome analysis we found that Fsr was likely assembled from freestanding Fsr-N homologs and Dsr-like proteins (Dsr-LP, both being abundant in methanogens. Dsr-LPs fell into two groups defined by following sequence features: Group I (simplest, carrying a coupled siroheme-[Fe(4-S(4] cluster and sulfite-binding Arg/Lys residues; Group III (most complex, with group I features, a Dsr-type peripheral [Fe(4-S(4] cluster and an additional [Fe(4-S(4] cluster. Group II Dsr-LPs with group I features and a Dsr-type peripheral [Fe(4-S(4] cluster were proposed as evolutionary intermediates. Group III is the precursor of Fsr-C. The freestanding Fsr-N homologs serve as F(420H(2 dehydrogenase unit of a putative novel glutamate synthase, previously described membrane-bound electron transport system in methanogens and of assimilatory type sulfite reductases in certain haloarchaea. Among archaea, only methanogens carried Dsr-LPs. They also possessed homologs of sulfate activation and reduction enzymes. This suggested a shared evolutionary history for methanogenesis and sulfate reduction, and Dsr-LPs could have been the source of the oldest (3.47-Gyr ago biologically produced sulfide deposit.

  14. Sulfate reduction and methanogenesis at a freshwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Vibeke Margrethe Nyvang; Andersen, Martin Søgaard; Jakobsen, Rasmus

    The freshwater-seawater interface was studied in a ~9-m thick anaerobic aquifer located in marine sand and gravel with thin peat lenses. Very limited amounts of iron-oxides are present. Consequently, the dominating redox processes are sulfate reduction and methanogenesis, and the groundwater...... is enriched in dissolved sulfide, methane and bicarbonate. Under normal conditions the seawater-freshwater interface is found at a depth of 4 m at the coastline and reaches the bottom of the aquifer 40 m inland. However, occasional flooding of the area occurs, introducing sulfate to the aquifer. Groundwater...... chemistry was studied in a 120 m transect perpendicular to the coast. Cores were taken for radiotracer rate measurements of sulfate reduction and methanogenesis. In the saline part of the aquifer 35 m inland, sulfate reduction was the dominant process with rates of 0.1-10 mM/year. In the freshwater part 100...

  15. Lymphocyte mobilization by dextran sulfate in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragan, H.A.; Debban, K.H.

    1978-01-01

    Dogs manifesting 239 Pu-induced lymphopenia responded to the lymphocyte-mobilizing agent, dextran sulfate, to a degree similar to that observed in control dogs. No life-threatening increase in prothrombin times or hemorrhagic tendencies were observed

  16. Sulfated cellulose thin films with antithrombin affinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose thin films were chemically modified by in situ sulfation to produce surfaces with anticoagulant characteristics. Two celluloses differing in their degree of polymerization (DP: CEL I (DP 215–240 and CEL II (DP 1300–1400 were tethered to maleic anhydride copolymer (MA layers and subsequently exposed to SO3•NMe3 solutions at elevated temperature. The impact of the resulting sulfation on the physicochemical properties of the cellulose films was investigated with respect to film thickness, atomic composition, wettability and roughness. The sulfation was optimized to gain a maximal surface concentration of sulfate groups. The scavenging of antithrombin (AT by the surfaces was determined to conclude on their potential anticoagulant properties.

  17. COMBINED ALUMINIUM SULFATE/HYDROXIDE PROCESS FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulfate, and used for fluoride removal from water by combining with Nalgonda Technique. ... effects on human health and could result in fluorosis. ... [23], nanoscale aluminium oxide hydroxide (AlOOH) [24] and natural zeolite [25], were among.

  18. ROE Wet Sulfate Deposition 2009-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The raster data represent the amount of wet sulfate deposition in kilograms per hectare from 2009 to 2011. Summary data in this indicator were provided by EPA’s...

  19. Volatile fatty acids as substrates for iron and sulfate reduction in Arctic marine sediments, Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finke, N.; Vandieken, V.; Jorgensen, B. B.

    2006-12-01

    the sulfate reduction in the 0-2 cm and 5-9 cm layer, respectively. Together acetate, lactate, propionate and isobutyrate accounted for 21 and 52% of the sulfate reduction, in the 0-2 cm and 5-9 cm layer, respectively. Assigning all acetate and lactate turnover in the selenate inhibited samples, these two VFA account for less than 10 and 2%, respectively, of the iron reduction in the 0-2 cm layer. Thus, 67 and 48% of the terminal oxidation in the 0-2cm and 5-9 cm layer must be driven by electron donors other than the investigated VFA. The sulfate reduction rates as well as the VFA turnover rates were at the lower end of reported rates from similar studies, mostly measured in temperate sites (e.g. [2-4, 6, 7]). Comparing a series of studies with different in situ temperatures shows, parameters other than in situ temperature seem to be more important in determining the sulfate reduction and VFA turnover rates. [1] Thamdrup, B. (2000) Bacterial manganese and iron reduction in aquatic sediments, 41-84 pp. Kluwer Academic / Plenum Publ., New York. [2] Parkes, R.J., Gibson, G.R., Mueller-Harvey, I., Buckingham, W.J. and Herbert, R.A. (1989) J. Gen. Microbiol. 135, 175-187. [3] Christensen, D. (1984) Limnol. Oceanogr. 29, 189-192. [4] Shaw, D.G. and McIntosh, D.J. (1990) Estuarine Coastal & Shelf Science 31, 775-788. [5] Levitus, S. and Boyer, T. (1994) World Ocean Atlas, pp. US Department of Commerce, Washington, DC. [6] Kristensen, E., King, G.M., Holmer, M., Banta, G.T., Jensen, M.H., Hansen, K. and Bussarawit, N. (1994) Mar. Ecol.-Prog. Ser. 109, 245-255. [7] Wellsbury, P. and Parkes, R.J. (1995) FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 17, 85-94.

  20. Oxygen isotope exchange rate between dissolved sulfate and water at hydrothermal temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, H.; Sakai, H.

    1985-01-01

    Oxygen isotope exchange rate between dissolved sulfate and water was experimentally determined at 100, 200 and 300 deg C. The isotope exchange rate is strongly dependent on temperature and pH of the solution. Combining the temperature and pH dependence of the reaction rate, the exchange reaction was estimated to be first-order with respect to sulfate. The logarithm of apparent rate constant of exchange reaction at a given temperature is a function of the pH calculated at the experimental temperatures. From the pH dependence of the apparent rate constant, it was deduced that the isotope exchange reaction between dissolved sulfate and water proceeds through collision between H 2 SO 4 0 and H 2 O at low pH, and between HSO 4 - and H 2 O at intermediate pH. The isotope exchange rate obtained indicates that oxygen isotope geothermometry utilizing the studied isotope exchange is suitable for temperature estimation of geothermal reservoirs. The extrapolated half-life of this reaction to oceanic temperature is about 10 9 years, implying that exchange between oceanic sulfate and water cannot control the oxygen isotope ratio of oceanic sulfates. (author)

  1. Participation of 3-O-sulfated heparan sulfates in the protection of macrophages by herpes simplex virus-1 glycoprotein D and cyclophilin B against apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delos, Maxime; Hellec, Charles; Foulquier, François; Carpentier, Mathieu; Allain, Fabrice; Denys, Agnès

    2017-02-01

    Heparan sulfates (HS) are involved in numerous biological processes, which rely on their ability to interact with a large panel of proteins. Although the reaction of 3-O-sulfation can be catalysed by the largest family of HS sulfotransferases, very few mechanisms have been associated with this modification and to date, only glycoprotein D (gD) of herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1 gD) and cyclophilin B (CyPB) have been well-described as ligands for 3- O -sulfated HS. Here, we hypothesized that both ligands could induce the same responses via a mechanism dependent on 3- O -sulfated HS. First, we checked that HSV-1 gD was as efficient as CyPB to induce the activation of the same signalling events in primary macrophages. We then demonstrated that both ligands efficiently reduced staurosporin-induced apoptosis and modulated the expression of apoptotic genes. In addition to 3- O -sulfated HS, HSV-1 gD was reported to interact with other receptors, including herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM), nectin-1 and -2. Thus, we decided to identify the contribution of each binding site in the responses triggered by HSV-1 gD and CyPB. We found that knock-down of 3- O -sulfotransferase 2, which is the main 3- O -sulfated HS-generating enzyme in macrophages, strongly reduced the responses induced by both ligands. Moreover, silencing the expression of HVEM rendered macrophages unresponsive to either HSV-1 gD and CyPB, thus indicating that both proteins induced the same responses by interacting with a complex formed by 3- O -sulfated HS and HVEM. Collectively, our results suggest that HSV-1 might hijack the binding sites for CyPB in order to protect macrophages against apoptosis for efficient infection.

  2. Preparation of chondroitin sulfate libraries containing disulfated disaccharide units and inhibition of thrombin by these chondroitin sulfates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numakura, Mario; Kusakabe, Noriko; Ishige, Kazuya; Ohtake-Niimi, Shiori; Habuchi, Hiroko; Habuchi, Osami

    2010-07-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) containing GlcA-GalNAc(4,6-SO(4)) (E unit) and CS containing GlcA(2SO(4))-GalNAc(6SO(4)) (D unit) have been implicated in various physiological functions. However, it has been poorly understood how the structure and contents of disulfated disaccharide units in CS contribute to these functions. We prepared CS libraries containing E unit or D unit in various proportions by in vitro enzymatic reactions using recombinant GalNAc 4-sulfate 6-O-sulfotransferase and uronosyl 2-O-sulfotransferase, and examined their inhibitory activity toward thrombin. The in vitro sulfated CSs containing disulfated disaccharide units showed concentration-dependent direct inhibition of thrombin when the proportion of E unit or D unit in the CSs was above 15-17%. The CSs containing both E unit and D unit exhibited higher inhibitory activity toward thrombin than the CSs containing either E unit or D unit alone, if the proportion of the total disulfated disaccharide units of these CSs was comparable. The thrombin-catalyzed degradation of fibrinogen, a physiological substrate for thrombin, was also inhibited by the CS containing both E unit and D unit. These observations indicate that the enzymatically prepared CS libraries containing various amounts of disulfated disaccharide units appear to be useful for elucidating the physiological function of disulfated disaccharide units in CS.

  3. Growth of desulfovibrio in lactate or ethanol media low in sulfate in association with H2-utilizing methanogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, M P; Campbell, L L; Reddy, C A; Crabill, M R

    1977-05-01

    In the analysis of an ethanol-CO(2) enrichment of bacteria from an anaerobic sewage digestor, a strain tentatively identified as Desulfovibrio vulgaris and an H(2)-utilizing methanogen resembling Methanobacterium formicicum were isolated, and they were shown to represent a synergistic association of two bacterial species similar to that previously found between S organism and Methanobacterium strain MOH isolated from Methanobacillus omelianskii. In lowsulfate media, the desulfovibrio produced acetate and H(2) from ethanol and acetate, H(2), and, presumably, CO(2) from lactate; but growth was slight and little of the energy source was catabolized unless the organism was combined with an H(2)-utilizing methanogenic bacterium. The type strains of D. vulgaris and Desulfovibrio desulfuricans carried out the same type of synergistic growth with methanogens. In mixtures of desulfovibrio and strain MOH growing on ethanol, lactate, or pyruvate, diminution of methane produced was stoichiometric with the moles of sulfate added, and the desulfovibrios grew better with sulfate addition. The energetics of the synergistic associations and of the competition between the methanogenic system and sulfate-reducing system as sinks for electrons generated in the oxidation of organic materials such as ethanol, lactate, and acetate are discussed. It is suggested that lack of availability of H(2) for growth of methanogens is a major factor in suppression of methanogenesis by sulfate in natural ecosystems. The results with these known mixtures of bacteria suggest that hydrogenase-forming, sulfate-reducing bacteria could be active in some methanogenic ecosystems that are low in sulfate.

  4. Isolation of sulfate-reducing bacteria from sediments above the deep-subseafloor aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichtel, Katja; Mathes, Falko; Könneke, Martin; Cypionka, Heribert; Engelen, Bert

    2012-01-01

    On a global scale, crustal fluids fuel a large part of the deep-subseafloor biosphere by providing electron acceptors for microbial respiration. In this study, we examined bacterial cultures from sediments of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, Northeast Pacific (IODP Site U1301). The sediments comprise three distinctive compartments: an upper sulfate-containing zone, formed by bottom-seawater diffusion, a sulfate-depleted zone, and a second (∼140 m thick) sulfate-containing zone influenced by fluid diffusion from the basaltic aquifer. In order to identify and characterize sulfate-reducing bacteria, enrichment cultures from different sediment layers were set up, analyzed by molecular screening, and used for isolating pure cultures. The initial enrichments harbored specific communities of heterotrophic microorganisms. Strains affiliated to Desulfosporosinus lacus, Desulfotomaculum sp., and Desulfovibrio aespoeensis were isolated only from the top layers (1.3-9.1 meters below seafloor, mbsf), while several strains of Desulfovibrio indonesiensis and a relative of Desulfotignum balticum were obtained from near-basement sediments (240-262 mbsf). Physiological tests on three selected strains affiliated to Dv. aespoeensis, Dv. indonesiensis, and Desulfotignum balticum indicated that all reduce sulfate with a limited number of short-chain n-alcohols or fatty acids and were able to ferment either ethanol, pyruvate, or betaine. All three isolates shared the capacity of growing chemolithotrophically with H(2) as sole electron donor. Strain P23, affiliating with Dv. indonesiensis, even grew autotrophically in the absence of any organic compounds. Thus, H(2) might be an essential electron donor in the deep-subseafloor where the availability of organic substrates is limited. The isolation of non-sporeforming sulfate reducers from fluid-influenced layers indicates that they have survived the long-term burial as active populations even after the separation from the seafloor hundreds

  5. Metabolic niche of a prominent sulfate-reducing human gut bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Federico E; Gonzalez, Mark D; Cheng, Jiye; Wu, Meng; Ahern, Philip P; Gordon, Jeffrey I

    2013-08-13

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) colonize the guts of ∼50% of humans. We used genome-wide transposon mutagenesis and insertion-site sequencing, RNA-Seq, plus mass spectrometry to characterize genetic and environmental factors that impact the niche of Desulfovibrio piger, the most common SRB in a surveyed cohort of healthy US adults. Gnotobiotic mice were colonized with an assemblage of sequenced human gut bacterial species with or without D. piger and fed diets with different levels and types of carbohydrates and sulfur sources. Diet was a major determinant of functions expressed by this artificial nine-member community and of the genes that impact D. piger fitness; the latter includes high- and low-affinity systems for using ammonia, a limiting resource for D. piger in mice consuming a polysaccharide-rich diet. Although genes involved in hydrogen consumption and sulfate reduction are necessary for its colonization, varying dietary-free sulfate levels did not significantly alter levels of D. piger, which can obtain sulfate from the host in part via cross-feeding mediated by Bacteroides-encoded sulfatases. Chondroitin sulfate, a common dietary supplement, increased D. piger and H2S levels without compromising gut barrier integrity. A chondroitin sulfate-supplemented diet together with D. piger impacted the assemblage's substrate utilization preferences, allowing consumption of more reduced carbon sources and increasing the abundance of the H2-producing Actinobacterium, Collinsella aerofaciens. Our findings provide genetic and metabolic details of how this H2-consuming SRB shapes the responses of a microbiota to diet ingredients and a framework for examining how individuals lacking D. piger differ from those who harbor it.

  6. Influence of incorporation method of sulfated zirconia in MCM-41 molecular sieve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, C.E.; Santos, J.S.B.; Cavalcante, J.N.A.; Andrade, M.R.A.; Sousa, B.V.

    2016-01-01

    Sulfated metal oxides and sulfated zirconia have attracted great attention in recent years due to its high catalytic activity. The sulfated zirconia has the function of assigning the acidic material, through the formation of Bronsted acids and Lewis sites. The incorporation of sulfated zirconia in MCM-41 molecular sieve was carried out through the techniques: dry and wet. The wet process involves the use of an excess of solution on the volume of the support pores. Therefore, the concentration of the metal precursor on the support depends on the solution concentration and the pore volume of the support. In the process of incorporating by dry, the volume of the solution containing the precursor does not exceed the pore volume of the support. After either procedure, the impregnated support must be dried in order to allow the precursor compound can be converted into a catalytically active phase. This study aims to evaluate two methods of incorporation of sulfated zirconia in the mesoporous molecular sieve MCM-41. The process of merger took for wet and dry impregnation. Through the XRD patterns it was possible to identify the presence of the hexagonal structure of the molecular sieve, as well as the tetragonal and monoclinic phases of zirconia. From the spectroscopic analysis in the infrared region to the method the wet, it was possible to identify the vibrational frequencies related to the merger of sulfated zirconia in the MCM-41 structure of the molecular sieve. (author)

  7. Intestinal mucosal mast cells from rats infected with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis contain protease-resistant chondroitin sulfate di-B proteoglycans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, R.L.; Lee, T.D.G.; Seldin, D.C.; Austen, K.F.; Befus, A.D.; Bienenstock, J.

    1986-01-01

    Rats infected with the helminth Nippostrongylus brasiliensis were injected i.p. with 2 mCi of [ 35 S] sulfate on days 13, 15, 17, and 19 after infection. The intestines were removed from animals on day 20 or 21 after infection, the intestinal cells were obtained by collagenase treatment and mechanical dispersion of the tissue, and the 35 S-labeled mucosal mast cells (MMC) were enriched to 60 to 65% purity by Percoll centrifugation. The isolated proteoglycans were of approx. 150,000 m.w., were resistant to pronase degradation, and contained highly sulfated chondroitin sulfate side chains. The presence in normal mammalian cells of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans that contain a high percentage of the unusual disulfated di-B disaccharide has not been previously reported. The rat intestinal MMC proteoglycans are the first chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans that have been isolated from an enriched populations of normal mast cells. They are homologous to the chondroitin sulfate-rich proteoglycans of the transformed rat basophilic leumekia-1 cell and the cultured interleukin 3-dependent mouse bone marrow-derived mast cell, in that these chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans are all highly sulfated, protease-resistant proteoglycans

  8. Cloud albedo changes in response to anthropogenic sulfate and non-sulfate aerosol forcings in CMIP5 models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Frey

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different aerosol types on cloud albedo are analysed using the linear relation between total albedo and cloud fraction found on a monthly mean scale in regions of subtropical marine stratocumulus clouds and the influence of simulated aerosol variations on this relation. Model experiments from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5 are used to separately study the responses to increases in sulfate, non-sulfate and all anthropogenic aerosols. A cloud brightening on the month-to-month scale due to variability in the background aerosol is found to dominate even in the cases where anthropogenic aerosols are added. The aerosol composition is of importance for this cloud brightening, that is thereby region dependent. There is indication that absorbing aerosols to some extent counteract the cloud brightening but scene darkening with increasing aerosol burden is generally not supported, even in regions where absorbing aerosols dominate. Month-to-month cloud albedo variability also confirms the importance of liquid water content for cloud albedo. Regional, monthly mean cloud albedo is found to increase with the addition of anthropogenic aerosols and more so with sulfate than non-sulfate. Changes in cloud albedo between experiments are related to changes in cloud water content as well as droplet size distribution changes, so that models with large increases in liquid water path and/or cloud droplet number show large cloud albedo increases with increasing aerosol. However, no clear relation between model sensitivities to aerosol variations on the month-to-month scale and changes in cloud albedo due to changed aerosol burden is found.

  9. Polymorphism of nickel sulfate hexahydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angel, R.J.; Finger, L.W.

    1988-11-15

    NiSO/sub 4/.6H/sub 2/O, M/sub r/=262.85; data collections with Mo K..cap alpha.. radiation, lambda=0.7093 A, room temperature. Monoclinic polymorph: C2/c, a=9.880(3), b=7.228(2), c=24.130(3) A, ..beta..=98.38(2)/sup 0/, V=1704.7(6) A/sup 3/, Z=8, D/sub x/=2.05 g cm/sup -3/, ..mu..=25.54 cm/sup -1/, F(000)=1088, R=0.031 (wR=0.038) for 2176 observed reflections. Tetragonal polymorph: P4/sub 1/2/sub 1/2, a=6.780 (1), c=18.285 (2) A, V=840.5 (3) A/sup 3/, Z=4, D/sub x/=2.07 g cm/sup -3/, ..mu..=25.81 cm/sup -1/, F(000)=544, R=0.045 (wR=0.050) for 2102 observed reflections. The structure of the tetragonal polymorph originally determined (without H positions) by Beevers and Lipson and refined by O'Connor and Dale and Stadnicka, Glazer and Koralewski, is confirmed by refinement of X-ray diffraction data. The structure of the monoclinic polymorph is confirmed as being isostructural with NiSO/sub 4/.6D/sub 2/O, and a number of other hexahydrate sulfates, e.g. MgSO/sub 4/.6H/sub 2/O. Both structures contain isolated (Ni(H/sub 2/O/sub 6/) octahedra and (SO/sub 4/) tetrahedra linked by hydrogen bonding.

  10. Synthesis of highly anti-HIV active sulfated poly- and oligo-saccharides and analysis of their action mechanisms by NMR [nuclear magnetic resonance] spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uryu, Toshiyuki

    1998-01-01

    We have been synthesizing sulfated polysaccharides and oligosaccharides with highly anti-HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) activities. It has been known that sulfated polysaccharides such as dextran sulfate and pentosan polysulfate have biological activities such as anticoagulant activity and recently anti-HIV activity. Curdlan sulfate having 1,3-β-linked glucan backbone had high anti-HIV activity but low anticoagulant activity. Phase I/II test for the curdlan sulfate as an AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) drug was carried out in the United States. In this study, regioselectivity sulfatec curdlan sulfates were prepared in order to study effects of sulfate groups and conformation of curdlan sulfates. In addition, action mechanisms of curdlan sulfate as anti-AIDS drug and of heparin as an anticoagulant were examined by means of NMR spectroscopy. 1. Structure dependence of anti-HIV and anticoagulant activities of sulfated polysaccharides. Curdlan with M n 9000 was regioselectively sulfated on its hydroxyl groups at 6, 4, and 2 positions. Those were a curdlan sulfate 62S in which 100% of 6-OH, and about 50% of 2-OH was sulfated, a curdlan sulfate 42S in which 4- and 2-OH's were sulfated, and a curdlan sulfate in which 6, 4, and 2-OH's were partially sulfated. All curdlan sulfates had very high anti-HIV activities exhibited by the drug concentration of 50% inhibition of infection, i.e., EC 50 of 0.04 - 0.25 μg/mL. However, there was almost no difference in the activity among the samples. Therefore, it was revealed that the degree of sulfation and putative conformation of the curdlan sulfates but not the position of sulfate groups have large effects on the anti-HIV activity. On the other hand, the anticoagulant activity increased with increasing molecular weight of the curdlan sulfates. As a result, it is assumed that the size of reaction sites of the virus protein reacting with curdlan sulfate is different from that of the proteins related to anticoagulant

  11. The kinetics of the cerium(IV)-uranium(IV) reaction at low sulfate concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaille, P.; Kikindai, T.

    1977-01-01

    The rate of oxidation of uranium(IV) by cerium(IV) was measured with a stopped-flow spectrophotometer at sulfuric acid concentrations of 2 x 10 -6 to 0.5 M. At a constant hydrogen ion concentration of 0.5 M, the maximum rate constant was observed for 2 x 10 -3 M sulfuric acid; at that concentration, two sulfate ions were involved in the activated complex. The dependence of the rate constant on the hydrogen ion concentration showed that the reaction paths involving one or two sulfate ions also involved one hydroxyl ion, whereas one hydrogen ion was involved in the five sulfate dependent path. Spectrophotometric measurements supported the existence of a hydrolyzed monosulfatocomplex of cerium(IV). (author)

  12. A Direct Sulfation Process of a Marine Polysaccharide in Ionic Liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Chopin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available GY785 is an exopolysaccharide produced by a mesophilic bacterial strain Alteromonas infernus discovered in the deep-sea hydrothermal vents. GY785 highly sulfated derivative (GY785 DRS was previously demonstrated to be a promising molecule driving the efficient mesenchymal stem cell chondrogenesis for cartilage repair. This glycosaminoglycan- (GAG- like compound was modified in a classical solvent (N,N′-dimethylformamide. However, the use of classical solvents limits the polysaccharide solubility and causes the backbone degradation. In the present study, a one-step efficient sulfation process devoid of side effects (e.g., polysaccharide depolymerization and/or degradation was developed to produce GAG-like derivatives. The sulfation of GY785 derivative (GY785 DR was carried out using ionic liquid as a reaction medium. The successful sulfation of this anionic and highly branched heteropolysaccharide performed in ionic liquid would facilitate the production of new molecules of high specificity for biological targets such as tissue engineering or regenerative medicine.

  13. Synthesis of the oligosaccharides related to branching sites of fucosylated chondroitin sulfates from sea cucumbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustyuzhanina, Nadezhda E; Fomitskaya, Polina A; Gerbst, Alexey G; Dmitrenok, Andrey S; Nifantiev, Nikolay E

    2015-02-02

    Natural anionic polysaccharides fucosylated chondroitin sulfates (FCS) from sea cucumbers attract great attention nowadays due to their ability to influence various biological processes, such as blood coagulation, thrombosis, angiogenesis, inflammation, bacterial and viral adhesion. To determine pharmacophore fragments in FCS we have started systematic synthesis of oligosaccharides with well-defined structure related to various fragments of these polysaccharides. In this communication, the synthesis of non-sulfated and selectively O-sulfated di- and trisaccharides structurally related to branching sites of FCS is described. The target compounds are built up of propyl β-d-glucuronic acid residue bearing at O-3 α-l-fucosyl or α-l-fucosyl-(1→3)-α-l-fucosyl substituents. O-Sulfation pattern in the fucose units of the synthetic targets was selected according to the known to date holothurian FCS structures. Stereospecific α-glycoside bond formation was achieved using 2-O-benzyl-3,4-di-O-chloroacetyl-α-l-fucosyl trichloroacetimidate as a donor. Stereochemical outcome of the glycosylation was explained by the remote participation of the chloroacetyl groups with the formation of the stabilized glycosyl cations, which could be attacked by the glycosyl acceptor only from the α-side. The experimental results were in good agreement with the SCF/MP2 calculated energies of such participation. The synthesized oligosaccharides are regarded as model compounds for the determination of a structure-activity relationship in FCS.

  14. Bacterial Community Succession During in situ Uranium Bioremediation: Spatial Similarities Along Controlled Flow Paths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Chiachi; Wu, Weimin; Gentry, Terry J.; Carley, Jack; Corbin, Gail A.; Carroll, Sue L.; Watson, David B.; Jardine, Phil M.; Zhou, Jizhong; Criddle, Craig S.; Fields, Matthew W.

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial community succession was investigated in a field-scale subsurface reactor formed by a series of wells that received weekly ethanol additions to re-circulating groundwater. Ethanol additions stimulated denitrification, metal reduction, sulfate reduction, and U(VI) reduction to sparingly soluble U(IV). Clone libraries of SSU rRNA gene sequences from groundwater samples enabled tracking of spatial and temporal changes over a 1.5 y period. Analyses showed that the communities changed in a manner consistent with geochemical variations that occurred along temporal and spatial scales. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that the levels of nitrate, uranium, sulfide, sulfate, and ethanol strongly correlated with particular bacterial populations. As sulfate and U(VI) levels declined, sequences representative of sulfate-reducers and metal-reducers were detected at high levels. Ultimately, sequences associated with sulfate-reducing populations predominated, and sulfate levels declined as U(VI) remained at low levels. When engineering controls were compared to the population variation via canonical ordination, changes could be related to dissolved oxygen control and ethanol addition. The data also indicated that the indigenous populations responded differently to stimulation for bio-reduction; however, the two bio-stimulated communities became more similar after different transitions in an idiosyncratic manner. The strong associations between particular environmental variables and certain populations provide insight into the establishment of practical and successful remediation strategies in radionuclide-contaminated environments with respect to engineering controls and microbial ecology.

  15. Bacterial Community Succession During in situ Uranium Bioremediation: Spatial Similarities Along Controlled Flow Paths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Chiachi; Wu, Weimin; Gentry, Terry J.; Carley, Jack; Corbin, Gail A.; Carroll, Sue L.; Watson, David B.; Jardine, Phil M.; Zhou, Jizhong; Criddle, Craig S.; Fields, Matthew W.

    2009-05-22

    Bacterial community succession was investigated in a field-scale subsurface reactor formed by a series of wells that received weekly ethanol additions to re-circulating groundwater. Ethanol additions stimulated denitrification, metal reduction, sulfate reduction, and U(VI) reduction to sparingly soluble U(IV). Clone libraries of SSU rRNA gene sequences from groundwater samples enabled tracking of spatial and temporal changes over a 1.5 y period. Analyses showed that the communities changed in a manner consistent with geochemical variations that occurred along temporal and spatial scales. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that the levels of nitrate, uranium, sulfide, sulfate, and ethanol strongly correlated with particular bacterial populations. As sulfate and U(VI) levels declined, sequences representative of sulfate-reducers and metal-reducers were detected at high levels. Ultimately, sequences associated with sulfate-reducing populations predominated, and sulfate levels declined as U(VI) remained at low levels. When engineering controls were compared to the population variation via canonical ordination, changes could be related to dissolved oxygen control and ethanol addition. The data also indicated that the indigenous populations responded differently to stimulation for bio-reduction; however, the two bio-stimulated communities became more similar after different transitions in an idiosyncratic manner. The strong associations between particular environmental variables and certain populations provide insight into the establishment of practical and successful remediation strategies in radionuclide-contaminated environments with respect to engineering controls and microbial ecology.

  16. Sulfation of corrosive alkali chlorides by ammonium sulfate in a biomass fired CFB boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brostroem, Markus; Backman, Rainer; Nordin, Anders [Energy Technology and Thermal Process Chemistry, Umeaa University, SE-901 87 Umeaa (Sweden); Kassman, Haakan [Vattenfall Power Consultant AB, Box 1046, SE-611 29 Nykoeping (Sweden); Helgesson, Anna; Berg, Magnus; Andersson, Christer [Vattenfall Research and Development AB, SE-814 26 Aelvkarleby (Sweden)

    2007-12-15

    Biomass and waste derived fuels contain relatively high amounts of alkali and chlorine, but contain very little sulfur. Combustion of such fuels can result in increased deposit formation and superheater corrosion. These problems can be reduced by using a sulfur containing additive, such as ammonium sulfate, which reacts with the alkali chlorides and forms less corrosive sulfates. Ammonium sulfate injection together with a so-called in situ alkali chloride monitor (IACM) is patented and known as ''ChlorOut''. IACM measures the concentrations of alkali chlorides (mainly KCl in biomass combustion) at superheater temperatures. Tests with and without spraying ammonium sulfate into the flue gases have been performed in a 96MW{sub th}/25MW{sub e} circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler. The boiler was fired mainly with bark and a chlorine containing waste. KCl concentration was reduced from more than 15 ppm to approximately 2 ppm during injection of ammonium sulfate. Corrosion probe measurements indicated that both deposit formation and material loss due to corrosion were decreased using the additive. Analysis of the deposits showed significantly higher concentration of sulfur and almost no chlorine in the case with ammonium sulfate. Results from impactor measurements supported that KCl was sulfated to potassium sulfate by the additive. (author)

  17. 21 CFR 524.1484e - Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ophthalmic solution. 524.1484e Section 524.1484e Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1484e Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution. (a...

  18. Stratospheric sulfate geoengineering impacts on global agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, L.; Robock, A.; Lawrence, P.; Lombardozzi, D.

    2015-12-01

    Stratospheric sulfate geoengineering has been proposed to reduce the impacts of anthropogenic climate change. If it is ever used, it would change agricultural production, and so is one of the future climate scenarios for the third phase of the Global Gridded Crop Model Intercomparison. As an example of those impacts, we use the Community Land Model (CLM-crop 4.5) to simulate how climate changes from the G4 geoengineering scenario from the Geoengineering Modeling Intercomparison Project. The G4 geoengineering scenario specifies, in combination with RCP4.5 forcing, starting in 2020 daily injections of a constant amount of SO2 at a rate of 5 Tg SO2 per year at one point on the Equator into the lower stratosphere. Eight climate modeling groups have completed G4 simulations. We use the crop model to simulate the impacts of climate change (temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation) on the global agriculture system for five crops - rice, maize, soybeans, cotton, and sugarcane. In general, without irrigation, compared with the reference run (RCP4.5), global production of cotton, rice and sugarcane would increase significantly due to the cooling effect. Maize and soybeans show different regional responses. In tropical regions, maize and soybean have a higher yield in G4 compared with RCP4.5, while in the temperate regions they have a lower yield under a geoengineered climate. Impacts on specific countries in terms of different crop production depend on their locations. For example, the United States and Argentina show soybean production reduction of about 15% under G4 compared to RCP4.5, while Brazil increases soybean production by about 10%.

  19. Modeling of sulfation of potassium chloride by ferric sulfate addition during grate-firing of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Jespersen, Jacob Boll; Aho, Martti

    2013-01-01

    Potassium chloride, KCl, formed from critical ash-forming elements released during combustion may lead to severe ash deposition and corrosion problems in biomass-fired boilers. Ferric sulfate, Fe2(SO4)3 is an effective additive, which produces sulfur oxides (SO2 and SO3) to convert KCl to the less...... harmful K2SO4. In the present study the decomposition of ferric sulfate is studied in a fast-heating rate thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), and a kinetic model is proposed to describe the decomposition process. The yields of SO2 and SO3 from ferric sulfate decomposition are investigated in a laboratory......-scale tube reactor. It is revealed that approximately 40% of the sulfur is released as SO3, the remaining fraction being released as SO2. The proposed decomposition model of ferric sulfate is combined with a detailed gas phase kinetic model of KCl sulfation, and a simplified model of K2SO4 condensation...

  20. Bacterial disproportionation of elemental sulfur coupled to chemical reduction of iron or manganese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thamdrup, Bo; Finster, Kai; Hansen, Jens Würgler

    1993-01-01

    A new chemolithotrophic bacterial metabolism was discovered in anaerobic marine enrichment cultures. Cultures in defined medium with elemental sulfur (S) and amorphous ferric hydroxide (FeOOH) as sole substrates showed intense formation of sulfate. Furthermore, precipitation of ferrous sulfide an...

  1. The electrical and thermal properties of sodium sulfate mixed with lithium sulfate, yttrium sulfate, and silicon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imanaka, N.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Adachi, G.; Shiokawa, J.

    1986-01-01

    Sodium sulfate mixed with lithium sulfate, yttrium sulfate, and silicon dioxide was prepared. The thermal and electrical properties of its phases were investigated. The Na 2 SO 4 -Li 2 SO 4 -Y 2 (SO 4 ) 3 SiO 2 samples are similar to the Na 2 SO 4 -I phase (a high temperature phase), which is appreciably effective for Na + ionic conduction. Phase transformation was considerably suppressed by mixing. Electromotive force (EMF) was measured, using Na 2 SO 4 -Li 2 SO 4 -Y 2 (SO 4 ) 3 -SiO 2 as a solid electrolyte, by constructing an SO 2 gas concentration cell. The measured EMF's at 823 and 773 K were in fairly good accordance with the calculated EMF's for inlet SO 2 gas concentration between 30 ppm and 1%, and 500 ppm and 0.5% respectively

  2. Heparan sulfate-chondroitin sulfate hybrid proteoglycan of the cell surface and basement membrane of mouse mammary epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, G.; Van den Berghe, H.

    1985-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate represents approximately 15% of the 35 SO 4 -labeled glycosaminoglycans carried by the proteoglycans of the cell surface and of the basolateral secretions of normal mouse mammary epithelial cells in culture. Evidence is provided that these chondroitin sulfate-carrying proteoglycans are hybrid proteoglycans, carrying both chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate chains. Complete N-desulfation but limited O-desulfation, by treatment with dimethyl sulfoxide, of the proteoglycans decreased the anionic charge of the chondroitin sulfate-carrying proteoglycans to a greater extent than it decreased the charge of their constituent chondroitin sulfate chains. Partial depolymerization of the heparan sulfate residues of the proteoglycans with nitrous acid or with heparin lyase also reduced the effective molecular radius of the chondroitin sulfate-carrying proteoglycans. The effect of heparin lyase on the chondroitin sulfate-carrying proteoglycans was prevented by treating the proteoglycan fractions with dimethyl sulfoxide, while the effect of nitrous acid on the dimethyl sulfoxide-treated proteoglycans was prevented by acetylation. This occurrence of heparan sulfate-chondroitin sulfate hybrid proteoglycans suggests that the substitution of core proteins by heparan sulfate or chondroitin sulfate chains may not solely be determined by the specific routing of these proteins through distinct chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate synthesizing mechanisms. Moreover, regional and temporal changes in pericellular glycosaminoglycan compositions might be due to variable postsynthetic modification of a single gene product

  3. Co-existence of Methanogenesis and Sulfate Reduction with Common Substrates in Sulfate-Rich Estuarine Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Sela-Adler

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The competition between sulfate reducing bacteria and methanogens over common substrates has been proposed as a critical control for methane production. In this study, we examined the co-existence of methanogenesis and sulfate reduction with shared substrates over a large range of sulfate concentrations and rates of sulfate reduction in estuarine systems, where these processes are the key terminal sink for organic carbon. Incubation experiments were carried out with sediment samples from the sulfate-methane transition zone of the Yarqon (Israel estuary with different substrates and inhibitors along a sulfate concentrations gradient from 1 to 10 mM. The results show that methanogenesis and sulfate reduction can co-exist while the microbes share substrates over the tested range of sulfate concentrations and at sulfate reduction rates up to 680 μmol L-1 day-1. Rates of methanogenesis were two orders of magnitude lower than rates of sulfate reduction in incubations with acetate and lactate, suggesting a higher affinity of sulfate reducing bacteria for the available substrates. The co-existence of both processes was also confirmed by the isotopic signatures of δ34S in the residual sulfate and that of δ13C of methane and dissolved inorganic carbon. Copy numbers of dsrA and mcrA genes supported the dominance of sulfate reduction over methanogenesis, while showing also the ability of methanogens to grow under high sulfate concentration and in the presence of active sulfate reduction.

  4. Sources et marché du sulfate d'ammonium Sources of and Market for Ammonium Sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loussouarn C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Engrais azoté le plus utilisé dans le monde jusqu'en 1970, le sulfate d'ammonium ne représente plus aujourd'hui que 4 % de la fertilisation azotée. Avec une teneur en azote de 21 % seulement, il a été peu à peu remplacé comme engrais universel par des produits plus concentrés, notamment l'urée et le nitrate d'ammonium. Obtenu pour plus de 40 % comme sous-produit dans la synthèse de monomères comme le caprolactame, l'acrylonitrile ou le méthacrylate de méthyle, et pour près de 10 % dans le traitement des gaz de cokerie, sa production dépend largement des développements du marché des fibres synthétiques, et, dans une moindre mesure, de la sidérurgie et de la métallurgie. Dans les pays développés, où la production est essentiellement fatale, le volume du marché est et sera plus fonction de la disponibilité du sulfate d'ammonium que de la demande ou de facteurs de marché; sa consommation ne résidera plus que dans des applications spécifiques pour lesquelles il sera bien adapté. Par contre, l'intérêt croissant pour compenser le déficit en soufre de certains sols, et les qualités agronomiques propres du sulfate d'ammonium laissent entrevoir la possibilité d'un essor de son utilisation dans certaines régions en voie de développernent. Ammonium sulfate was the most worldwide nitrogenous fertilizer used up to 1970. Today, it makes up only 4% of nitrogenous fertilization. With a nitrogen content of only 21%, it has gradually been replaced as a universal fertilizer by more concentrated products, particularly urea and ammonium nitrate. More than 40% of the ammonium sulfate is obtained as a by-product from the synthesis of monomers such as caprolactam, acrylonitrile or methyl methacrylate, and nearly 10% from coking gas processing. Its production depends extensively on the development of the market for synthetic fibers and, to a lesser extent, on the steel and metallurgical industries. In the industrialized countries

  5. An affinity adsorption media that mimics heparan sulfate proteoglycans for the treatment of drug-resistant bacteremia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrea, Keith R.; Ward, Robert S.

    2016-06-01

    Removal of several drug-resistant bacteria from blood by affinity adsorption onto a heparin-functional media is reported. Heparin is a chemical analogue of heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans, found on transmembrane proteins of endothelial cells. Many blood-borne human pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi have been reported to target HS as an initial step in their pathogenesis. Here, we demonstrate the binding and removal of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Extended-Spectrum Betalactamase Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL), and two Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (both CRE Escherichia coli and CRE K. pneumoniae) using 300 μm polyethylene beads surface modified with end-point-attached heparin. Depending on the specific bacteria, the amount removed ranged between 39% (ESBL) and 99.9% (CRE). The total amount of bacteria adsorbed ranged between 2.8 × 105 and 8.6 × 105 colony forming units (CFU) per gram of adsorption media. Based on a polymicrobial challenge which showed no competitive binding, MRSA and CRE apparently utilize different binding sequences on the immobilized heparin ligand. Since the total circulating bacterial load during bacteremia seldom exceeds 5 × 105 CFUs, it appears possible to significantly reduce bacterial concentration in infected patients by multi-pass recirculation of their blood through a small extracorporeal affinity filter containing the heparin-functional adsorption media. This 'dialysis-like therapy' is expected to improve patient outcomes and reduce the cost of care, particularly when there are no anti-infective drugs available to treat the infection.

  6. Pathways of sulfate and hydrogen sulfide transformations in a BTEX- contaminated groundwater system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Einsiedl, Florian; Anneser, B.; Griebler, C.

    2010-01-01

    in complex environmental systems. As a result, compound specific stable isotope signatures in various sulfur species were determined in a tar-oil contaminated site and were linked to the microbial community distribution in the aquifer. The goal of the study was to reach an integrated understanding of sulfur...... intermediate during abiotic oxidation of hydrogen sulphide, with the latter formed during bacterial sulfate reduction. The formed elemental sulfur may be used by the specific microbial community found in this aquifer for the oxidation of organic contaminants such as toluene. In contrast, reoxidation...... of hydrogen sulfide to sulfate by molecular oxygen may affect sulfur cycling within the transition between the unsaturated and the saturated zones and therefore attenuate concentrations of contaminants in groundwater as well....

  7. Sulfation in lead-acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catherino, Henry A.; Feres, Fred F.; Trinidad, Francisco

    Virtually, all military land vehicle systems use a lead-acid battery to initiate an engine start. The maintainability of these batteries and as a consequence, system readiness, has suffered from a lack of understanding of the reasons for battery failure. Often, the term most commonly heard for explaining the performance degradation of lead-acid batteries is the word, sulfation. Sulfation is a residual term that came into existence during the early days of lead-acid battery development. The usage is part of the legend that persists as a means for interpreting and justifying the eventual performance deterioration and failure of lead-acid batteries. The usage of this term is confined to the greater user community and, over time, has encouraged a myriad of remedies for solving sulfation problems. One can avoid the connotations associated with the all-inclusive word, sulfation by visualizing the general "sulfation" effect in terms of specific mechanistic models. Also, the mechanistic models are essential for properly understanding the operation and making proper use this battery system. It is evident that the better the model, the better the level of understanding.

  8. Sulfate reducing bacteria and their activities in oil sands process-affected water biofilm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hong; Yu, Tong, E-mail: tong.yu@ualberta.ca; Liu, Yang, E-mail: yang.liu@ualberta.ca

    2015-12-01

    Biofilm reactors were constructed to grow stratified multispecies biofilm in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) supplemented with growth medium. The development of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) within the biofilm and the biofilm treatment of OSPW were evaluated. The community structure and potential activity of SRB in the biofilm were investigated with H{sub 2}S microsensor measurements, dsrB gene-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and the real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Multispecies biofilm with a thickness of 1000 μm was successfully developed on engineered biocarriers. H{sub 2}S production was observed in the deeper anoxic zone of the biofilm from around 750 μm to 1000 μm below the bulk water-biofilm interface, revealing sulfate reduction in the deeper zone of the stratified biofilm. The biofilm removed chemical oxygen demand (COD), sulfate, and nitrogen. The study expands current knowledge of biofilm treatment of OSPW and the function of anaerobic SRB in OSPW biofilm, and thus provides information for future bioreactor development in the reclamation of OSPW. - Graphical abstract: The development of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) within Oil Sands Process-affected Water (OSPW) biofilm and the biofilm treatment of OSPW were evaluated by Liu and coworkers. Combined microsensor and molecular biology techniques were utilized in this study. Their results demonstrated that multispecies biofilm with a thickness of 1000 μm was successfully developed on engineered biocarriers. H{sub 2}S production was observed in the deeper anoxic zone of the biofilm from around 750 μm to 1000 μm below the bulk water-biofilm interface, revealing sulfate reduction in the deeper zone of the biofilm. The biofilm removed chemical oxygen demand (COD), sulfate, and nitrogen. - Highlights: • Biofilm in oil sands wastewater was developed on engineered biocarriers. • Bacterial community and in situ activity of SRB were studied in the

  9. Sulfate reducing bacteria and their activities in oil sands process-affected water biofilm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hong; Yu, Tong; Liu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Biofilm reactors were constructed to grow stratified multispecies biofilm in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) supplemented with growth medium. The development of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) within the biofilm and the biofilm treatment of OSPW were evaluated. The community structure and potential activity of SRB in the biofilm were investigated with H 2 S microsensor measurements, dsrB gene-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and the real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Multispecies biofilm with a thickness of 1000 μm was successfully developed on engineered biocarriers. H 2 S production was observed in the deeper anoxic zone of the biofilm from around 750 μm to 1000 μm below the bulk water-biofilm interface, revealing sulfate reduction in the deeper zone of the stratified biofilm. The biofilm removed chemical oxygen demand (COD), sulfate, and nitrogen. The study expands current knowledge of biofilm treatment of OSPW and the function of anaerobic SRB in OSPW biofilm, and thus provides information for future bioreactor development in the reclamation of OSPW. - Graphical abstract: The development of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) within Oil Sands Process-affected Water (OSPW) biofilm and the biofilm treatment of OSPW were evaluated by Liu and coworkers. Combined microsensor and molecular biology techniques were utilized in this study. Their results demonstrated that multispecies biofilm with a thickness of 1000 μm was successfully developed on engineered biocarriers. H 2 S production was observed in the deeper anoxic zone of the biofilm from around 750 μm to 1000 μm below the bulk water-biofilm interface, revealing sulfate reduction in the deeper zone of the biofilm. The biofilm removed chemical oxygen demand (COD), sulfate, and nitrogen. - Highlights: • Biofilm in oil sands wastewater was developed on engineered biocarriers. • Bacterial community and in situ activity of SRB were studied in the biofilm.

  10. Production of Extra-Cellular Proteases from Marine Bacillus Sp. Cultured in Media Containing Ammonium Sulfate as the Sole Nitrogen Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seri Intan, M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Useful bacterial strains can be used to increase mineralize activity of an aquatic system. These bacteria can specifically degrade targeted compound by producing extra-cellular enzymes. Three species of Bacillus i.e. B. subtilis, B. pumilus and B. licheniformis acquired from shrimp ponds were tested for their ability to utilize ammonia and produce extracellular enzymes. These bacteria were grown in artificial seawater (30 ppt salinity and pH 7.6 supplemented with decreasing yeast extract concentration but increasing ammonium sulfate concentration. All three bacteria grew in artificial seawater containing only 0.01% yeast extract and 1% ammonium sulfate. However, only B. pumilus and B. licheniformis were able to grow in the medium containing only 1% ammonium sulfate as a sole energy source. Bacterialgrowth reduced when alkaline proteases activities was maximum from culture filtrates of all three bacterial cultures during 24 hour culturing in artificial seawater containing 0.01% yeast extract and 1% ammonium sulfate at 30 C when assayed at pH 9. Bacterial growth increased when acid proteases activities was maximum from culture filtrates of all three bacterial cultures during 48 hour culturing in artificial seawater containing 0.01% yeast extract and 1% ammoniumsulfate at 30 C when assayed at pH 5.

  11. Immunohistochemical localization of chondroitin sulfate, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, heparan sulfate proteoglycan, entactin, and laminin in basement membranes of postnatal developing and adult rat lungs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannes, P L; Burch, K K; Khosla, J

    1993-01-01

    Histologic preparations of lungs from 1-, 5-, 10-, 18-, and 25-day-old postnatal and adult rats were examined immunohistochemically with antibodies specific against chondroitin sulfate (CS), basement membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (BM-CSPG), heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG), entactin...

  12. Bacterial lung abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groskin, S.A.; Panicek, D.M.; Ewing, D.K.; Rivera, F.; Math, K.; Teixeira, J.; Heitzman, E.R.

    1987-01-01

    A retrospective review of patients with bacterial lung abscess was carried out. Demographic, clinical, and radiographical features of this patient group are compared with similar data from patients with empyema and/or cavitated lung carcinoma; differential diagnostic points are stressed. The entity of radiographically occult lung abscess is discussed. Complications associated with bacterial lung abscess are discussed. Current therapeutic options and treatment philosophy for patients with bacterial lung abscess are noted

  13. Peritonitis - spontaneous bacterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP); Ascites - peritonitis; Cirrhosis - peritonitis ... who are on peritoneal dialysis for kidney failure. Peritonitis may have other causes . These include infection from ...

  14. Mechanisms and Effectivity of Sulfate Reducing Bioreactors Using a Chitinous Substrate in Treating Mining Influenced Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mining-influenced water (MIW) is the main environmental challenge associated with the mining industry. Passive MIW remediation can be achieved through microbial activity in sulfate-reducing bioreactors (SRBRs), but their actual removal rates depend on different factors, one of wh...

  15. Chitosan-dextran sulfate hydrogels as a potential carrier for probiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yucel Falco, Cigdem; Falkman, Peter; Risbo, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Physical and chemical (crosslinked with genipin) hydrogels based on chitosan and dextran sulfate were developed and characterized as novel bio-materials suitable for probiotic encapsulation. The swelling of the hydrogels was dependent on the composition and weakly influenced by the pH of the media...

  16. Sulfated glycopeptide nanostructures for multipotent protein activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sungsoo S.; Fyrner, Timmy; Chen, Feng; Álvarez, Zaida; Sleep, Eduard; Chun, Danielle S.; Weiner, Joseph A.; Cook, Ralph W.; Freshman, Ryan D.; Schallmo, Michael S.; Katchko, Karina M.; Schneider, Andrew D.; Smith, Justin T.; Yun, Chawon; Singh, Gurmit; Hashmi, Sohaib Z.; McClendon, Mark T.; Yu, Zhilin; Stock, Stuart R.; Hsu, Wellington K.; Hsu, Erin L.; Stupp , Samuel I. (NWU)

    2017-06-19

    Biological systems have evolved to utilize numerous proteins with capacity to bind polysaccharides for the purpose of optimizing their function. A well-known subset of these proteins with binding domains for the highly diverse sulfated polysaccharides are important growth factors involved in biological development and tissue repair. We report here on supramolecular sulfated glycopeptide nanostructures, which display a trisulfated monosaccharide on their surfaces and bind five critical proteins with different polysaccharide-binding domains. Binding does not disrupt the filamentous shape of the nanostructures or their internal β-sheet backbone, but must involve accessible adaptive configurations to interact with such different proteins. The glycopeptide nanostructures amplified signalling of bone morphogenetic protein 2 significantly more than the natural sulfated polysaccharide heparin, and promoted regeneration of bone in the spine with a protein dose that is 100-fold lower than that required in the animal model. These highly bioactive nanostructures may enable many therapies in the future involving proteins.

  17. Inhibition of sulfate reduction in paddy soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vamos, R

    1958-12-13

    The hydrogen sulfide formed in waterlogged soils is a serious problem in rice cultivation. It inhibits the uptake of water and nutrients and may even cause root-rot. Results can best be obtained by preventing the formation of hydrogen sulfide. It is formed mainly by reduction of sulfate for which the cellulose-butyric acid fermentation provides the hydrogen source. Addition of ammonium or potassium nitrate prevents the formation of H/sub 2/S. The hydrogen produced by butyric acid fermentation is used to reduce nitrate and consequently cannot be utilized by the sulfate-reducing bacteria as a source of energy. 6 references.

  18. Measurement of chemical leaching potential of sulfate from landfill disposed sulfate containing wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenjie; Barlaz, Morton A

    2015-02-01

    A number of sulfate-containing wastes are disposed in municipal solid wastes (MSW) landfills including residues from coal, wood, and MSW combustion, and construction and demolition (C&D) waste. Under anaerobic conditions that dominate landfills, the sulfate can be reduced to hydrogen sulfide which is problematic for several reasons including its low odor threshold, toxicity, and corrosive nature. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate existing protocols for the quantification of total leachable sulfate from solid samples and to compare their effectiveness and efficiency with a new protocol described in this study. Methods compared include two existing acid extraction protocols commonly used in the U.S., a pH neutral protocol that requires multiple changes of the leaching solution, and a new acid extraction method. The new acid extraction method was shown to be simple and effective to measure the leaching potential of sulfate from a range of landfill disposed sulfate-containing wastes. However, the acid extraction methods do not distinguish between sulfate and other forms of sulfur and are thus most useful when sulfate is the only form of sulfur present. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Immobilization of cobalt by sulfate-reducing bacteria in subsurface sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumholz, Lee R.; Elias, Dwayne A.; Suflita, Joseph M.

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the impact of sulfate-reduction on immobilization of metals in subsurface aquifers. Co 2+ was used as a model for heavy metals. Factors limiting sulfate-reduction dependent Co 2+ immobilization were tested on pure cultures of sulfate-reducing bacteria, and in sediment columns from a landfill leachate contaminated aquifer. In the presence of 1 mM Co 2+ , the growth of pure cultures of sulfate-reducing bacteria was not impacted. Cultures of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, Desulfotomaculum gibsoniae , and Desulfomicrobium hypogeia removed greater than 99.99% of the soluble Co 2+ when CoCl 2 was used with no chelators. The above cultures and Desulfoarcula baarsi removed 98-99.94% of the soluble Co(II) when the metal was complexed with the model ligand nitrilotriacetate (Co-NTA). Factors controlling the rate of sulfate-reduction based Co 2+ precipitation were investigated in sediment-cobalt mixtures. Several electron donors were tested and all but toluene accelerated soluble Co 2+ loss. Ethanol and formate showed the greatest stimulation. All complex nitrogen sources tested slowed and decreased the extent of Co 2+ removal from solution relative to formate-amended sediment incubations. A range of pH values were tested (6.35-7.81), with the more alkaline incubations exhibiting the largest precipitation of Co 2+ . The immobilization of Co 2+ in sediments was also investigated with cores to monitor the flow of Co 2+ through undisturbed sediments. An increase in the amount of Co 2+ immobilized as CoS was observed as sulfate reduction activity was stimulated in flow through columns. Both pure culture and sediment incubation data indicate that stimulation of sulfate reduction is a viable strategy in the immobilization of contaminating metals in subsurface systems.

  20. Sulfates on Mars: A systematic Raman spectroscopic study of hydration states of magnesium sulfates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, A.; Freeman, J.J.; Jolliff, B.L.; Chou, I.-Ming

    2006-01-01

    The martian orbital and landed surface missions, OMEGA on Mar Express and the two Mars Explorations Rovers, respectively, have yielded evidence pointing to the presence of magnesium sulfates on the martian surface. In situ identification of the hydration states of magnesium sulfates, as well as the hydration states of other Ca- and Fe- sulfates, will be crucial in future landed missions on Mars in order to advance our knowledge of the hydrologic history of Mars as well as the potential for hosting life on Mars. Raman spectroscopy is a technique well-suited for landed missions on the martian surface. In this paper, we report a systematic study of the Raman spectra of the hydrates of magnesium sulfate. Characteristic and distinct Raman spectral patterns were observed for each of the 11 distinct hydrates of magnesium sulfates, crystalline and non-crystalline. The unique Raman spectral features along with the general tendency of the shift of the position of the sulfate ??1 band towards higher wavenumbers with a decrease in the degree of hydration allow in situ identification of these hydrated magnesium sulfates from the raw Raman spectra of mixtures. Using these Raman spectral features, we have started the study of the stability field of hydrated magnesium sulfates and the pathways of their transformations at various temperature and relative humidity conditions. In particular we report on the Raman spectrum of an amorphous hydrate of magnesium sulfate (MgSO4??2H2O) that may have specific relevance for the martian surface. ?? 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevention of bacterial adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemm, Per; Vejborg, Rebecca Munk; Hancock, Viktoria

    2010-01-01

    . As such, adhesion represents the Achilles heel of crucial pathogenic functions. It follows that interference with adhesion can reduce bacterial virulence. Here, we illustrate this important topic with examples of techniques being developed that can inhibit bacterial adhesion. Some of these will become...

  2. Hydrolysis and Sulfation Pattern Effects on Release of Bioactive Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 from Heparin-Based Microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellier, Liane E; Miller, Tobias; McDevitt, Todd C; Temenoff, Johnna S

    2015-10-28

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) such as heparin are promising materials for growth factor delivery due to their ability to efficiently bind positively charged growth factors including bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) through their negatively charged sulfate groups. Therefore, the goal of this study was to examine BMP-2 release from heparin-based microparticles (MPs) after first, incorporating a hydrolytically degradable crosslinker and varying heparin content within MPs to alter MP degradation and second, altering the sulfation pattern of heparin within MPs to vary BMP-2 binding and release. Using varied MP formulations, it was found that the time course of MP degradation for 1 wt% heparin MPs was ~4 days slower than 10 wt% heparin MPs, indicating that MP degradation was dependent on heparin content. After incubating 100 ng BMP-2 with 0.1 mg MPs, most MP formulations loaded BMP-2 with ~50% efficiency and significantly more BMP-2 release (60% of loaded BMP-2) was observed from more sulfated heparin MPs (MPs with ~100% and 80% of native sulfation). Similarly, BMP-2 bioactivity in more sulfated heparin MP groups was at least four-fold higher than soluble BMP-2 and less sulfated heparin MP groups, as determined by an established C2C12 cell alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay. Ultimately, the two most sulfated 10 wt% heparin MP formulations were able to efficiently load and release BMP-2 while enhancing BMP-2 bioactivity, making them promising candidates for future growth factor delivery applications.

  3. Activation and transfer of sulfate in biological systems (1960); Activation biologique du sulfate et son transfert (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapeville, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    It examines in this review the successive stages of active sulfate formation and its role in biological synthesis of sulfuric esters. The possible role of active sulfate as intermediary in sulfate reduction is also discussed. (author) [French] On examine dans cette etude les stades successifs de la mise en evidence du sulfate actif, son role dans la formation des esters sulfuriques de natures diverses, ainsi que sa participation eventuelle comme intermediaire au cours de la reduction du sulfate. On decrit aussi un procede de preparation du systeme biologique, generateur du sulfate actif et une methode de synthese chimique. (auteur)

  4. Barium sulfate aspiration: Severe chemical pneumonia induced by a massive reflux of contrast medium during small bowel barium enema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Yang, Yi; Zhang, Ji; Zhou, Xiaowei; Dong, Hongmei; Zhou, Yiwu

    2015-08-01

    Barium contrast radiography is a conventional procedure aimed at revealing lesions of the alimentary tract using barium sulfate on X-ray irradiation. Although it is widely used in clinics, adverse effects and complications are observed, such as anaphylaxis, granuloma, fecalithes, abdomen-leaking, embolism, bacterial contamination, and aspiration. We report a case of death due to a massive barium sulfate aspiration resulted from an air-barium double contrast enema radiography. A 25-year-old female patient was hospitalized with symptoms of abdominal distention, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea for three days. A progressive respiratory distress presented only 1h after a small bowel air-barium double contrast enema. The patient died 11h later. The result of autopsy revealed the cause of death to be severe chemical pneumonitis induced by gastric fluid which was aspirated into her lungs. Barium sulfate is generally recognized to be chemically inert for the respiratory system, but a mixture of barium sulfate with gastric contents is fatal. Here we intend to suggest that, when determining the potential cause of death, medical examiners should consider a patient's status quo as well as the possible adverse effects and complications caused by the barium sulfate preparation during gastrointestinal radiography. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Performance and microbial community dynamics of a sulfate-reducing bioreactor treating coal generated acid mine drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Andrew S; Pugh, Charles W; Segid, Yosief T; Behum, Paul T; Lefticariu, Liliana; Bender, Kelly S

    2012-06-01

    The effectiveness of a passive flow sulfate-reducing bioreactor processing acid mine drainage (AMD) generated from an abandoned coal mine in Southern Illinois was evaluated using geochemical and microbial community analysis 10 months post bioreactor construction. The results indicated that the treatment system was successful in both raising the pH of the AMD from 3.09 to 6.56 and in lowering the total iron level by 95.9%. While sulfate levels did decrease by 67.4%, the level post treatment (1153 mg/l) remained above recommended drinking water levels. Stimulation of biological sulfate reduction was indicated by a +2.60‰ increase in δ(34)S content of the remaining sulfate in the water post-treatment. Bacterial community analysis targeting 16S rRNA and dsrAB genes indicated that the pre-treated samples were dominated by bacteria related to iron-oxidizing Betaproteobacteria, while the post-treated water directly from the reactor outflow was dominated by sequences related to sulfur-oxidizing Epsilonproteobacteria and complex carbon degrading Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes phylums. Analysis of the post-treated water, prior to environmental release, revealed that the community shifted back to predominantly iron-oxidizing Betaproteobacteria. DsrA analysis implied limited diversity in the sulfate-reducing population present in both the bioreactor outflow and oxidation pond samples. These results support the use of passive flow bioreactors to lower the acidity, metal, and sulfate levels present in the AMD at the Tab-Simco mine, but suggest modifications of the system are necessary to both stimulate sulfate-reducing bacteria and inhibit sulfur-oxidizing bacteria.

  6. Temporal evolution of bacterial communities associated with the in situ wetland-based remediation of a marine shore porphyry copper tailings deposit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaby, N; Dold, B; Rohrbach, E; Holliger, C; Rossi, P

    2015-11-15

    Mine tailings are a serious threat to the environment and public health. Remediation of these residues can be carried out effectively by the activation of specific microbial processes. This article presents detailed information about temporal changes in bacterial community composition during the remediation of a section of porphyry copper tailings deposited on the Bahía de Ite shoreline (Peru). An experimental remediation cell was flooded and transformed into a wetland in order to prevent oxidation processes, immobilizing metals. Initially, the top oxidation zone of the tailings deposit displayed a low pH (3.1) and high concentrations of metals, sulfate, and chloride, in a sandy grain size geological matrix. This habitat was dominated by sulfur- and iron-oxidizing bacteria, such as Leptospirillum spp., Acidithiobacillus spp., and Sulfobacillus spp., in a microbial community which structure resembled acid mine drainage environments. After wetland implementation, the cell was water-saturated, the acidity was consumed and metals dropped to a fraction of their initial respective concentrations. Bacterial communities analyzed by massive sequencing showed time-dependent changes both in composition and cell numbers. The final remediation stage was characterized by the highest bacterial diversity and evenness. Aside from classical sulfate reducers from the phyla δ-Proteobacteria and Firmicutes, community structure comprised taxa derived from very diverse habitats. The community was also characterized by an elevated proportion of rare phyla and unaffiliated sequences. Numerical ecology analysis confirmed that the temporal population evolution was driven by pH, redox, and K. Results of this study demonstrated the usefulness of a detailed follow-up of the remediation process, not only for the elucidation of the communities gradually switching from autotrophic, oxidizing to heterotrophic and reducing living conditions, but also for the long term management of the remediation

  7. Global Distribution of Solid Ammonium Sulfate Aerosols and their Climate Impact Acting as Ice Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, C.; Penner, J.

    2017-12-01

    Laboratory experiments show that liquid ammonium sulfate particles effloresce when RHw is below 34% to become solid and dissolve when RHw is above 79%. Solid ammonium sulfate aerosols can act as heterogeneous ice nuclei particles (INPs) to form ice particles in deposition mode when the relative humidity over ice is above 120%. In this study we used the coupled IMPACT/CAM5 model to track the efflorescence and deliquescence processes of ammonium sulfate. Results show that about 20% of the total simulated pure sulfate aerosol mass is in the solid state and is mainly distributed in the northern hemisphere (NH) from 50 hPa to 200 hPa. When these solid ammonium sulfate aerosols are allowed to act as ice nuclei particles, they act to increase the ice water path in the NH and reduce ice water path in the tropics. The addition of these particles leads to a positive net radiative effect at the TOA ranging from 0.5-0.9 W/m2 depending on the amounts of other ice nuclei particles (e.g., dust, soot) used in the ice nucleation process. The short-term climate feedback shows that the ITCZ shifts northwards and precipitation increases in the NH. There is also an average warming of 0.05-0.1 K near the surface (at 2 meter) in the NH which is most obvious in the Arctic region.

  8. Effect of bioaugmentation and biostimulation on sulfate-reducing column startup captured by functional gene profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereyra, Luciana P; Hiibel, Sage R; Perrault, Elizabeth M; Reardon, Kenneth F; Pruden, Amy

    2012-10-01

    Sulfate-reducing permeable reactive zones (SR-PRZs) depend upon a complex microbial community to utilize a lignocellulosic substrate and produce sulfides, which remediate mine drainage by binding heavy metals. To gain insight into the impact of the microbial community composition on the startup time and pseudo-steady-state performance, functional genes corresponding to cellulose-degrading (CD), fermentative, sulfate-reducing, and methanogenic microorganisms were characterized in columns simulating SR-PRZs using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Duplicate columns were bioaugmented with sulfate-reducing or CD bacteria or biostimulated with ethanol or carboxymethyl cellulose and compared with baseline dairy manure inoculum and uninoculated controls. Sulfate removal began after ~ 15 days for all columns and pseudo-steady state was achieved by Day 30. Despite similar performance, DGGE profiles of 16S rRNA gene and functional genes at pseudo-steady state were distinct among the column treatments, suggesting the potential to control ultimate microbial community composition via bioaugmentation and biostimulation. qPCR revealed enrichment of functional genes in all columns between the initial and pseudo-steady-state time points. This is the first functional gene-based study of CD, fermentative and sulfate-reducing bacteria and methanogenic archaea in a lignocellulose-based environment and provides new qualitative and quantitative insight into startup of a complex microbial system. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four strains of eri, Samia cynthia ricini Lepidoptera: Saturniidae that can be identified morphologically and maintained at North East Institute of Science and Technology, Jorhat were characterized based on their protein profile by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and DNA by random ...

  10. Determination of boron spectrophotometry in thorium sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federgrun, L.; Abrao, A.

    1976-01-01

    A procedure for the determination of microquantities of boron in nuclear grade thorium sulfate is described. The method is based on the extraction of BF - 4 ion associated to monomethylthionine (MMT) in 1,2 - dichloroethane. The extraction of the colored BF - 4 -MMT complex does not allow the presence of sulfuric and phosphoric acids; other anions interfere seriously. This fact makes the dissolution of the thorium sulfate impracticable, since it is insoluble in both acids. On the other hand, the quantitative separation of thorium is mandatory, to avoid the precipitation of ThF 4 . To overcome this difficulty, the thorium sulfate is dissolved using a strong cationic ion exchanger, Th 4+ being totally retained into the resin. Boron is then analysed in the effluent. The procedure allows the determination of 0.2 to 10.0 microgramas of B, with a maximum error of 10%. Thorium sulfate samples with contents of 0.2 to 2.0μg B/gTh have being analysed [pt

  11. Sulfate-reducing bacteria in anaerobic bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Elferink, S.J.W.H.

    1998-01-01

    The treatment of industrial wastewaters containing high amounts of easily degradable organic compounds in anaerobic bioreactors is a well-established process. Similarly, wastewaters which in addition to organic compounds also contain sulfate can be treated in this way. For a long time, the

  12. Controlling sulfate attack in Mississippi Department of Transportation structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    At some construction sites in Mississippi, deterioration of concrete in contact with the surrounding soil could be related to the high sulfate content of the adjacent soils. Studies dating to 1966 have documented sulfate attack associated with specif...

  13. Transmission spectra study of sulfate substituted potassium dihydrogen phosphate

    KAUST Repository

    LI, LIANG; Zhang, Jianqin; Sun, Xun; Zhang, Qiang; Zhao, Xian; Zhang, Xixiang

    2013-01-01

    Potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals with different amounts of sulfate concentration were grown and the transmittance spectrum was studied. A crystal with high sulfate replacement density exhibits heavy absorption property

  14. Controlling sulfate attack in Mississippi Department of Transportation structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    At some construction sites in Mississippi, deterioration of concrete in contact with the surrounding soil could be related to the high sulfate content of the adjacent soils. Studies dating to 1966 have documented sulfate attack associated with sp...

  15. Bone sialoprotein II synthesized by cultured osteoblasts contains tyrosine sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecarot-Charrier, B.; Bouchard, F.; Delloye, C.

    1989-01-01

    Isolated mouse osteoblasts that retain their osteogenic activity in culture were incubated with [35S] sulfate. Two radiolabeled proteins, in addition to proteoglycans, were extracted from the calcified matrix of osteoblast cultures. All the sulfate label in both proteins was in the form of tyrosine sulfate as assessed by amino acid analysis and thin layer chromatography following alkaline hydrolysis. The elution behavior on DEAE-Sephacel of the major sulfated protein and the apparent Mr on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels were characteristic of bone sialoprotein II extracted from rat. This protein was shown to cross-react with an antiserum raised against bovine bone sialoprotein II, indicating that bone sialoprotein II synthesized by cultured mouse osteoblasts is a tyrosine-sulfated protein. The minor sulfated protein was tentatively identified as bone sialoprotein I or osteopontin based on its elution properties on DEAE-Sephacel and anomalous behavior on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels similar to those reported for rat bone sialoprotein I

  16. Galactose 6-sulfate sulfatase activity in Morquio syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yutaka, T.; Okada, S.; Kato, T.; Inui, K.; Yabuuhi, H.

    1982-01-01

    The authors have prepared a new substrate, o-β-D-sulfo-galactosyl-(1-4)-β-D-6-sulfo-2-acetamido-2-deoxyglucosyl-(1-4)-D-[1- 3 H]galactitol, from shark cartilage keratan sulfate, for the assay of galactose 6-sulfate sulfatase activity. Using this substrate, they found there was a striking deficiency of galactose 6-sulfate sulfatase activity, in addition to the known deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine 6-sulfate sulfatase, in the cultured skin fibroblasts of patients with Morquio syndrome. Their results could be explained by the hypothesis that accumulation of keratan sulfate and chondroitin 6-sulfate in Morquio syndrome is due to a deficiency of galactose 6-sulfate sulfatase and N-acetylgalactosamine 6-sulfate sulfatase activity, which are necessary for the degradation of these two mucopolysaccharides. (Auth.)

  17. Galactose 6-sulfate sulfatase activity in Morquio syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yutaka, T.; Okada, S.; Kato, T.; Inui, K.; Yabuuhi, H. (Osaka Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1982-07-01

    The authors have prepared a new substrate, o-..beta..-D-sulfo-galactosyl-(1-4)-..beta..-D-6-sulfo-2-acetamido-2-deoxyglucosyl-(1-4)-D-(1-/sup 3/H)galactitol, from shark cartilage keratan sulfate, for the assay of galactose 6-sulfate sulfatase activity. Using this substrate, they found there was a striking deficiency of galactose 6-sulfate sulfatase activity, in addition to the known deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine 6-sulfate sulfatase, in the cultured skin fibroblasts of patients with Morquio syndrome. Their results could be explained by the hypothesis that accumulation of keratan sulfate and chondroitin 6-sulfate in Morquio syndrome is due to a deficiency of galactose 6-sulfate sulfatase and N-acetylgalactosamine 6-sulfate sulfatase activity, which are necessary for the degradation of these two mucopolysaccharides.

  18. The heparin/heparan sulfate sequence that interacts with cyclophilin B contains a 3-O-sulfated N-unsubstituted glucosamine residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanpouille, Christophe; Deligny, Audrey; Delehedde, Maryse; Denys, Agnès; Melchior, Aurélie; Liénard, Xavier; Lyon, Malcolm; Mazurier, Joël; Fernig, David G; Allain, Fabrice

    2007-08-17

    Many of the biological functions of heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans can be attributed to specialized structures within HS moieties, which are thought to modulate binding and function of various effector proteins. Cyclophilin B (CyPB), which was initially identified as a cyclosporin A-binding protein, triggers migration and integrin-mediated adhesion of peripheral blood T lymphocytes by a mechanism dependent on interaction with cell surface HS. Here we determined the structural features of HS that are responsible for the specific binding of CyPB. In addition to the involvement of 2-O,6-O, and N-sulfate groups, we also demonstrated that binding of CyPB was dependent on the presence of N-unsubstituted glucosamine residues (GlcNH2), which have been reported to be precursors for sulfation by 3-O-sulfotransferases-3 (3-OST-3). Interestingly, 3-OST-3B isoform was found to be the main 3-OST isoenzyme expressed in peripheral blood T lymphocytes and Jurkat T cells. Moreover, down-regulation of the expression of 3-OST-3 by RNA interference potently reduced CyPB binding and consequent activation of p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinases. Altogether, our results strongly support the hypothesis that 3-O-sulfation of GlcNH2 residues could be a key modification that provides specialized HS structures for CyPB binding to responsive cells. Given that 3-O-sulfation of GlcNH2-containing HS by 3-OST-3 also provides binding sites for glycoprotein gD of herpes simplex virus type I, these findings suggest an intriguing structural linkage between the HS sequences involved in CyPB binding and viral infection.

  19. Tetrathionate and Elemental Sulfur Shape the Isotope Composition of Sulfate in Acid Mine Drainage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurgul Balci

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur compounds in intermediate valence states, for example elemental sulfur, thiosulfate, and tetrathionate, are important players in the biogeochemical sulfur cycle. However, key understanding about the pathways of oxidation involving mixed-valance state sulfur species is still missing. Here we report the sulfur and oxygen isotope fractionation effects during the oxidation of tetrathionate (S4O62− and elemental sulfur (S° to sulfate in bacterial cultures in acidic conditions. Oxidation of tetrathionate by Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans produced thiosulfate, elemental sulfur and sulfate. Up to 34% of the tetrathionate consumed by the bacteria could not be accounted for in sulfate or other intermediate-valence state sulfur species over the experiments. The oxidation of tetrathionate yielded sulfate that was initially enriched in 34S (ε34SSO4−S4O6 by +7.9‰, followed by a decrease to +1.4‰ over the experiment duration, with an average ε34SSO4−S4O6 of +3.5 ± 0.2‰ after a month of incubation. We attribute this significant sulfur isotope fractionation to enzymatic disproportionation reactions occurring during tetrathionate decomposition, and to the incomplete transformation of tetrathionate into sulfate. The oxygen isotope composition of sulfate (δ18OSO4 from the tetrathionate oxidation experiments indicate that 62% of the oxygen in the formed sulfate was derived from water. The remaining 38% of the oxygen was either inherited from the supplied tetrathionate, or supplied from dissolved atmospheric oxygen (O2. During the oxidation of elemental sulfur, the product sulfate became depleted in 34S between −1.8 and 0‰ relative to the elemental sulfur with an average for ε34SSO4−S0 of −0.9 ± 0.2‰ and all the oxygen atoms in the sulfate derived from water with an average normal oxygen isotope fractionation (ε18OSO4−H2O of −4.4‰. The differences observed in δ18OSO4 and the sulfur isotope composition of sulfate (δ34SSO4

  20. Isolation of a sulfate reducing bacterium and its application in sulfate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results show that the effect of C. freundii in removing sulfate was best when the temperature was 32°C, pH was 7.0, COD/SO42- was 5.0 and the initial SO42- concentration was 1500 mg/L. Also, the SRB was inoculated onto an up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) to remove sulfate in actual tannery wastewater.

  1. Visible Light-Photocatalytic Activity of Sulfate-Doped Titanium Dioxide Prepared by the Sol−Gel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuneo Fujii

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Sulfate-doped TiO2 was prepared from sol−gel systems containing titaniumalkoxide and sulfuric acid. The time needed for gelation of the systems was significantlyreduced by ultrasonic irradiation. The doped sulfate was observed by FTIR and XPSmeasurements. Some sulfate ions remained in the TiO2 even after heating at 300−600 °C.The UV and visible photocatalytic activities of the samples were confirmed by thedegradation of trichloroethylene (TCE. The activity of the photocatalyst samples duringthe UV irradiation strongly depended on their crystallinities rather than their specificsurface areas, i.e., adsorption ability. The degradation rate during the visible irradiationdepended on both the adsorption ability and visible absorption of the photocatalystsamples. The visible absorption induced by the sulfate-doping was effective for theTCE degradation.

  2. Testing Silica Fume-Based Concrete Composites under Chemical and Microbiological Sulfate Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Estokova

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Current design practices based on descriptive approaches to concrete specification may not be appropriate for the management of aggressive environments. In this study, the durability of cement-based materials with and without the addition of silica fume, subjected to conditions that leach calcium and silicon, were investigated. Chemical corrosion was simulated by employing various H2SO4 and MgSO4 solutions, and biological corrosion was simulated using Acidithiobacillus sp. bacterial inoculation, leading to disrupted and damaged surfaces; the samples’ mass changes were studied following both chemical and biological attacks. Different leaching trends were observed via X-ray fluorescence when comparing chemical with biological leaching. Lower leaching rates were found for concrete samples fortified with silica fume than those without silica fume. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy confirmed a massive sulfate precipitate formation on the concrete surface due to bacterial exposure.

  3. Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS-Loaded Nanoporous Polymer as Anti-Biofilm Surface Coating Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokol Ndoni

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Biofilms cause extensive damage to industrial settings. Thus, it is important to improve the existing techniques and develop new strategies to prevent bacterial biofilm formation. In the present study, we have prepared nanoporous polymer films from a self-assembled 1,2-polybutadiene-b-polydimethylsiloxane (1,2-PB-b-PDMS block copolymer via chemical cross-linking of the 1,2-PB block followed by quantitative removal of the PDMS block. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS was loaded into the nanoporous 1,2-PB from aqueous solution. The SDS-loaded nanoporous polymer films were shown to block bacterial attachment in short-term (3 h and significantly reduce biofilm formation in long-term (1 week by gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli. Tuning the thickness or surface morphology of the nanoporous polymer films allowed to extent the anti-biofilm capability.

  4. Impacts of stratospheric sulfate geoengineering on tropospheric ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Lili; Nowack, Peer J.; Tilmes, Simone; Robock, Alan

    2017-10-01

    A range of solar radiation management (SRM) techniques has been proposed to counter anthropogenic climate change. Here, we examine the potential effects of stratospheric sulfate aerosols and solar insolation reduction on tropospheric ozone and ozone at Earth's surface. Ozone is a key air pollutant, which can produce respiratory diseases and crop damage. Using a version of the Community Earth System Model from the National Center for Atmospheric Research that includes comprehensive tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry, we model both stratospheric sulfur injection and solar irradiance reduction schemes, with the aim of achieving equal levels of surface cooling relative to the Representative Concentration Pathway 6.0 scenario. This allows us to compare the impacts of sulfate aerosols and solar dimming on atmospheric ozone concentrations. Despite nearly identical global mean surface temperatures for the two SRM approaches, solar insolation reduction increases global average surface ozone concentrations, while sulfate injection decreases it. A fundamental difference between the two geoengineering schemes is the importance of heterogeneous reactions in the photochemical ozone balance with larger stratospheric sulfate abundance, resulting in increased ozone depletion in mid- and high latitudes. This reduces the net transport of stratospheric ozone into the troposphere and thus is a key driver of the overall decrease in surface ozone. At the same time, the change in stratospheric ozone alters the tropospheric photochemical environment due to enhanced ultraviolet radiation. A shared factor among both SRM scenarios is decreased chemical ozone loss due to reduced tropospheric humidity. Under insolation reduction, this is the dominant factor giving rise to the global surface ozone increase. Regionally, both surface ozone increases and decreases are found for both scenarios; that is, SRM would affect regions of the world differently in terms of air pollution. In conclusion

  5. Impacts of stratospheric sulfate geoengineering on tropospheric ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Xia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A range of solar radiation management (SRM techniques has been proposed to counter anthropogenic climate change. Here, we examine the potential effects of stratospheric sulfate aerosols and solar insolation reduction on tropospheric ozone and ozone at Earth's surface. Ozone is a key air pollutant, which can produce respiratory diseases and crop damage. Using a version of the Community Earth System Model from the National Center for Atmospheric Research that includes comprehensive tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry, we model both stratospheric sulfur injection and solar irradiance reduction schemes, with the aim of achieving equal levels of surface cooling relative to the Representative Concentration Pathway 6.0 scenario. This allows us to compare the impacts of sulfate aerosols and solar dimming on atmospheric ozone concentrations. Despite nearly identical global mean surface temperatures for the two SRM approaches, solar insolation reduction increases global average surface ozone concentrations, while sulfate injection decreases it. A fundamental difference between the two geoengineering schemes is the importance of heterogeneous reactions in the photochemical ozone balance with larger stratospheric sulfate abundance, resulting in increased ozone depletion in mid- and high latitudes. This reduces the net transport of stratospheric ozone into the troposphere and thus is a key driver of the overall decrease in surface ozone. At the same time, the change in stratospheric ozone alters the tropospheric photochemical environment due to enhanced ultraviolet radiation. A shared factor among both SRM scenarios is decreased chemical ozone loss due to reduced tropospheric humidity. Under insolation reduction, this is the dominant factor giving rise to the global surface ozone increase. Regionally, both surface ozone increases and decreases are found for both scenarios; that is, SRM would affect regions of the world differently in terms of air

  6. Comparison of magnesium sulfate and sodium sulfate for removal of water from pesticide extracts of foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenck, Frank J; Callery, Patrick; Gannett, Peter M; Daft, Jonathan R; Lehotay, Steven J

    2002-01-01

    Water-miscible solvents, such as acetone and acetonitrile, effectively extract both polar and nonpolar pesticide residues from nonfatty foods. The addition of sodium chloride to the resulting acetonitrile-water or acetone-water extract (salting out) results in the separation of the water from the organic solvent. However, the organic solvent layer (pesticide extract) still contains some residual water, which can adversely affect separation procedures that follow, such as solid-phase extraction and/or gas chromatography. Drying agents, such as sodium sulfate or magnesium sulfate, are used to remove the water from the organic extracts. In the present study, we used nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to study the composition of the phases resulting from salting out and to compare the effectiveness of sodium sulfate and magnesium sulfate as drying agents. The study showed that considerable amounts of water remained in the organic phase after phase separation. Sodium sulfate was a relatively ineffective drying agent, removing little or no residual water from the organic solvent. Magnesium sulfate proved to be a much more effective drying agent.

  7. Physico-chemical studies for strontium sulfate radiation dosimeter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.H. Rushdi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Anhydrous strontium sulfate (SrSO4 has shown a promise candidate as a dosimeter for low dose applications producing unique EPR signals with γ-rays which it has a linear response relationship (r2 = 0.999 in the range of 1–100 Gy. The present study extended to evaluate the properties of strontium sulfate dosimeter in intermediate dose range of technology applications. It was observed that the intensity of the EPR signal at g = 2.01081 increases with a 3rd polynomial function in the range of 0.10–15 kGy. In addition, the radical (SO4− provides a stable signal with a good reproducibility (0.107%. Other physics characteristic including the collision of mass stopping power dependence of the system and the effect of atomic number in different energy regions were investigated. The uncertainty budget for high doses has obtained from the measurement with value of 3.57% at 2σ confidence level.

  8. Postviral Complications: Bacterial Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasso, Jason E; Deng, Jane C

    2017-03-01

    Secondary bacterial pneumonia after viral respiratory infection remains a significant source of morbidity and mortality. Susceptibility is mediated by a variety of viral and bacterial factors, and complex interactions with the host immune system. Prevention and treatment strategies are limited to influenza vaccination and antibiotics/antivirals respectively. Novel approaches to identifying the individuals with influenza who are at increased risk for secondary bacterial pneumonias are urgently needed. Given the threat of further pandemics and the heightened prevalence of these viruses, more research into the immunologic mechanisms of this disease is warranted with the hope of discovering new potential therapies. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. CysB-dependent upregulation of the Salmonella Typhimurium cysJIH operon in response to antimicrobial compounds that induce oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Ricardo; Neumann, German; Frávega, Jorge; Díaz, Fernando; Tejías, Cristóbal; Collao, Bernardo; Fuentes, Juan A; Paredes-Sabja, Daniel; Calderón, Iván L; Gil, Fernando

    2015-02-27

    It has been proposed that some antibiotics exert additional damage through reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Since H₂S protects neurons and cardiac muscle from oxidative stress, it has been hypothesized that bacterial H₂S might, similarly, be a cellular protector against antibiotics. In Enterobacteriaceae, H₂S can be produced by the cysJIH pathway, which uses sulfate as the sulfur source. CysB, in turn, is a positive regulator of cysJIH. At present, the role of S. Typhimurium cysJIH operon in the protection to reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by antimicrobial compounds remains to be elucidated. In this work, we evaluated the role of cysJIH and cysB in ROS accumulation, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, reduced thiol accumulation, and H₂S accumulation in S. Typhimurium, cultured in either sulfate or cysteine as the sole sulfur source. Furthermore, we assessed the effects of the addition of ceftriaxone (CEF) and menadione (MEN) in these same parameters. In sulfate as the sole sulfur source, we found that the cysJIH operon and the cysB gene were required to full growth in minimal media, independently on the addition of CEF or MEN. Most importantly, both cysJIH and cysB contributed to diminish ROS levels, increase the SOD activity, increase the reduced thiols, and increase the H₂S levels in presence of CEF or MEN. Moreover, the cysJIH operon exhibited a CysB-dependent upregulation in presence of these two antimicrobials compounds. On the other hand, when cysteine was used as the sole sulfur source, we found that cysJIH operon was completely negligible, were only cysB exhibited similar phenotypes than the described for sulfate as sulfur source. Unexpectedly, CysB downregulated cysJIH operon when cysteine was used instead of sulfate, suggesting a complex regulation of this system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A Synchrotron Mössbauer Spectroscopy Study of a Hydrated Iron-Sulfate at High Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, T. M.; Finkelstein, G. J.; Solomatova, N. V.; Jackson, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    Szomolnokite is a monohydrated ferrous iron sulfate mineral, FeSO4*H2O, where the ferrous iron atoms are in octahedral coordination with four corners shared with SO4 and two with H2O. While somewhat rare on Earth, szomolnokite has been detected on the surface of Mars along with several other hydrated sulfates and suggested to occur near the surface of Venus [1,2]. It is not clear if these sulfates are a result of reactions occurring at depth driven by changes in the behavior of iron in the sulfate. To date, only a few high-pressure studies have been conducted on hydrated iron sulfates using Mössbauer spectroscopy. Our study represents a first step towards understanding of the electronic environment of iron in a monohydrated sulfate at pressure. Using a hydrostatic helium pressure-transmitting medium, the pressure dependence of iron's site-specific behavior in a synthetic szomolnokite powdered sample was explored up to about 100 GPa with time-resolved synchrotron Mössbauer spectroscopy at the Advanced Photon Source of Argonne National Laboratory. At 1 bar, the Mössbauer spectrum is well described by three Fe2+-like sites, consistent with conventional Mössbauer spectra reported in Dyar et al. [3]. At pressures up to 20 GPa, changes in the hyperfine parameters are most likely due to a structural phase transition. Above this pressure, a fourth site is required to explain the time-spectra. Changes in the electronic configuration of iron, such as those due to a phase transition and/or a spin crossover, will affect the material's compressibility and transport properties. We will compare our high-pressure trends with those of other iron-bearing phases and discuss the relative influence on the dynamics of terrestrial planetary interiors. 1. Bishop et al. (2014) What Lurks in the Martian Rocks and Soil? Investigations of Sulfates, Phosphates, and Perchlorates. Spectral and thermal properties of perchlorate salts and implications for Mars. Am. Min. 99(8-9), 1580

  11. Identification and elimination of bacterial contamination during in vitro propagation of Guadua angustifolia Kunth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadha, Harleen Kaur; Salwan, Richa; Kasana, Ramesh Chand; Anand, Manju; Sood, Anil

    2012-04-01

    Guadua angustifolia Kunth is a very important bamboo species with significant utility in pharmaceutical, paper, charcoal, and construction industries. Microbial contamination is a major problem encountered during establishment of in vitro cultures of Guadua. This study has been designed to analyze the identity of contaminating bacteria and to develop the strategy to eliminate them during micropropagation of Guadua. We isolated and consequently analyzed partial sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene to identify two contaminating bacteria as (1) Pantoea agglomerans and (2) Pantoea ananatis. In addition, we also- performed antibiotic sensitivity testing on these bacterial isolates. We identified kanamycin and streptomycin sulfate as potentially useful antibiotics in eliminating the contaminating bacteria. We grew shoots on multiplication medium containing BAP (2 mg/l) and adenine sulfate (10 mg/l) supplemented with kanamycin (10 μg/ml) for 10 days and transferred them to fresh medium without antibiotics and found that bacterial growth was inhibited. Moreover, we observed intensive formation of high-quality shoots. Streptomycin sulfate also inhibited bacterial growth but at higher concentration. We also demonstrated that shoots grown in streptomycin sulfate tended to be shorter and had yellow leaves. Thus, we have developed a novel strategy to identify and inhibit intriguing microbial contaminations of (1) Pantoea agglomerans and (2) Pantoea ananatis during establishment of in vitro cultures of Guadua. This would improve in vitro establishment of an important bamboo, Guadua angustifolia Kunth for large scale propagation.

  12. Acid Sulfate Alteration in Gusev Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, R. V.; Ming, D. W.; Catalano, J. G.

    2016-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Spirit landed on the Gusev Crater plains west of the Columbia Hills in January, 2004, during the Martian summer (sol 0; sol = 1 Martian day = 24 hr 40 min). Spirit explored the Columbia Hills of Gusev Crater in the vicinity of Home Plate at the onset on its second winter (sol approximately 900) until the onset of its fourth winter (sol approximately 2170). At that time, Spirit became mired in a deposit of fined-grained and sulfate-rich soil with dust-covered solar panels and unfavorable pointing of the solar arrays toward the sun. Spirit has not communicated with the Earth since sol 2210 (January, 2011). Like its twin rover Opportunity, which landed on the opposite side of Mars at Meridiani Planum, Spirit has an Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) instrument for chemical analyses and a Moessbauer spectrometer (MB) for measurement of iron redox state, mineralogical speciation, and quantitative distribution among oxidation (Fe(3+)/sigma Fe) and coordination (octahedral versus tetrahedral) states and mineralogical speciation (e.g., olivine, pyroxene, ilmenite, carbonate, and sulfate). The concentration of SO3 in Gusev rocks and soils varies from approximately 1 to approximately 34 wt%. Because the APXS instrument does not detect low atomic number elements (e.g., H and C), major-element oxide concentrations are normalized to sum to 100 wt%, i.e., contributions of H2O, CO2, NO2, etc. to the bulk composition care not considered. The majority of Gusev samples have approximately 6 plus or minus 5 wt% SO3, but there is a group of samples with high SO3 concentrations (approximately 30 wt%) and high total iron concentrations (approximately 20 wt%). There is also a group with low total Fe and SO3 concentrations that is also characterized by high SiO2 concentrations (greater than 70 wt%). The trend labeled "Basaltic Soil" is interpreted as mixtures in variable proportions between unaltered igneous material and oxidized and SO3-rich basaltic

  13. The intrinsic resistome of bacterial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Jorge; Bernardini, Alejandra; Garcia-Leon, Guillermo; Corona, Fernando; B Sanchez, Maria; Martinez, Jose L

    2013-01-01

    Intrinsically resistant bacteria have emerged as a relevant health problem in the last years. Those bacterial species, several of them with an environmental origin, present naturally low-level susceptibility to several drugs. It has been proposed that intrinsic resistance is mainly the consequence of the impermeability of cellular envelopes, the activity of multidrug efflux pumps or the lack of appropriate targets for a given family of drugs. However, recently published articles indicate that the characteristic phenotype of susceptibility to antibiotics of a given bacterial species depends on the concerted activity of several elements, what has been named as intrinsic resistome. These determinants comprise not just classical resistance genes. Other elements, several of them involved in basic bacterial metabolic processes, are of relevance for the intrinsic resistance of bacterial pathogens. In the present review we analyze recent publications on the intrinsic resistomes of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We present as well information on the role that global regulators of bacterial metabolism, as Crc from P. aeruginosa, may have on modulating bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics. Finally, we discuss the possibility of searching inhibitors of the intrinsic resistome in the aim of improving the activity of drugs currently in use for clinical practice.

  14. The intrinsic resistome of bacterial pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Andrés Olivares Pacheco

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Intrinsically resistant bacteria have emerged as a relevant health problem in the last years. Those bacterial species, several of them with an environmental origin, present naturally a low-level susceptibility to several drugs. It has been proposed that intrinsic resistance is mainly the consequence of the impermeability of cellular envelopes, the activity of multidrug efflux pumps or the lack of appropriate targets for a given family of drugs. However, recently published articles indicate that the characteristic phenotype of susceptibility to antibiotics of a given bacterial species depends on the concerted activity of several elements, what has been named as intrinsic resistome. These determinants comprise not just classical resistance genes. Other elements, several of them involved in basic bacterial metabolic processes, are of relevance for the intrinsic resistance of bacterial pathogens. In the present review we analyse recent publications on the intrinsic resistomes of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We present as well information on the role that global regulators of bacterial metabolism, as Crc from P. aeruginosa, may have on modulating bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics. Finally, we discuss the possibility of searching inhibitors of the intrinsic resistome in the aim of improving the activity of drugs currently in use for clinical practice.

  15. Bacterial vaginosis - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a type of vaginal infection. The vagina normally contains both healthy bacteria and unhealthy bacteria. BV occurs when more unhealthy bacteria grow than healthy bacteria. No one knows ...

  16. Bacterial surface adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utada, Andrew

    2014-03-01

    Biofilms are structured multi-cellular communities that are fundamental to the biology and ecology of bacteria. Parasitic bacterial biofilms can cause lethal infections and biofouling, but commensal bacterial biofilms, such as those found in the gut, can break down otherwise indigestible plant polysaccharides and allow us to enjoy vegetables. The first step in biofilm formation, adaptation to life on a surface, requires a working knowledge of low Reynolds number fluid physics, and the coordination of biochemical signaling, polysaccharide production, and molecular motility motors. These crucial early stages of biofilm formation are at present poorly understood. By adapting methods from soft matter physics, we dissect bacterial social behavior at the single cell level for several prototypical bacterial species, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Vibrio cholerae.

  17. Bacterial intermediate filaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charbon, Godefroid; Cabeen, M.; Jacobs-Wagner, C.

    2009-01-01

    Crescentin, which is the founding member of a rapidly growing family of bacterial cytoskeletal proteins, was previously proposed to resemble eukaryotic intermediate filament (IF) proteins based on structural prediction and in vitro polymerization properties. Here, we demonstrate that crescentin...

  18. Diagnosis of bacterial infection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    direct or indirect evidence of a compatible bacterial pathogen. Inflammation may be .... cardinal features (fever, confusion, headache and neck stiffness). .... specificity, inappropriate indications or poor sampling technique may diminish this ...

  19. 156 ORIGINAL ARTICLE PREVALENCE OF BACTERIAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Oboro VO

    reproductive age with a prevalence of 9-37%, depending on the .... 82 (100). 161 (100). BV, bacterial vaginosis: score of 7-10; I, intermediate: score of 4-6; N, normal: score of 0-3 .... based study of reproductive tract infections among ever ...

  20. High rates of sulfate reduction in a low-sulfate hot spring microbial mat are driven by a low level of diversity of sulfate-respiring microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dillon, Jesse G; Fishbain, Susan; Miller, Scott R

    2007-01-01

    The importance of sulfate respiration in the microbial mat found in the low-sulfate thermal outflow of Mushroom Spring in Yellowstone National Park was evaluated using a combination of molecular, microelectrode, and radiotracer studies. Despite very low sulfate concentrations, this mat community...... was shown to sustain a highly active sulfur cycle. The highest rates of sulfate respiration were measured close to the surface of the mat late in the day when photosynthetic oxygen production ceased and were associated with a Thermodesulfovibrio-like population. Reduced activity at greater depths...... was correlated with novel populations of sulfate-reducing microorganisms, unrelated to characterized species, and most likely due to both sulfate and carbon limitation....

  1. The bacterial corrosion of concretes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tache, G.

    1998-01-01

    Concrete is a material very sensitive to aging effects and to permanent aggressions. It is an evolutive material in which internal hydration reactions and exchange reactions with the external medium are produced. Moreover, its characteristics tightly depends on factors which are bound to its formulation, to the appropriate choice of materials in which it is constituted, to their qualities and to the conditions of its use. Its aging depends then in a large extent of these different factors and of the adequation between its final characteristics and the solicitations in which it is submitted: physical, mechanical, thermal.. or environmental. This chapter deals particularly with the influence of the bacterial phenomena on concrete. Some recalls are at first given on the principles which govern the concrete durability. Then are approached the phenomena mechanisms. (O.M.)

  2. Effects of sulfate chitosan derivatives on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mingming; Wang, Yuanhong; Jiang, Tingfu; Lv, Zhihua

    2014-06-01

    Sulfate chitosan derivatives have good solubility and therapeutic effect on the cell model of NAFLD. The aim of this study was to examine the therapeutic effect of sulfate chitosan derivatives on NAFLD. The male Wistar rats were orally fed high fat emulsion and received sulfate chitosan derivatives for 5 weeks to determine the pre-treatment effect of sulfate chitosan derivatives on NAFLD. To evaluate the therapeutic effect of sulfate chitosan derivatives on NAFLD, the rats were orally fed with high concentration emulsion for 5 weeks, followed by sulfate chitosan derivatives for 3 weeks. Histological analysis and biomedical assays showed that sulfate chitosan derivatives can dramatically prevent the development of hepatic steatosis in hepatocyte cells. In animal studies, pre-treatment and treatment with sulfate chitosan derivatives significantly protected against hepatic steatohepatitis induced by high fat diet according to histological analysis. Furthermore, increased TC, ALT, MDA, and LEP in NAFLD were significantly ameliorated by pre-treatment and treatment with sulfate chitosan derivatives. Furthermore, increased TG, AST, and TNF-α in NAFLD were significantly ameliorated by treatment with sulfate chitosan derivatives. Sulfate chitosan derivatives have good pre-treatment and therapeutic effect on NAFLD.

  3. Chinese hamster ovary cell mutants defective in heparan sulfate biosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bame, K.J.; Kiser, C.S.; Esko, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have isolated Chinese hamster ovary cell mutants defective in proteoglycan synthesis by radiographic screening for cells unable to incorporate 35 SO 4 into acid-precipitable material. Some mutants did not incorporate 35 SO 4 into acid-precipitable material, whereas others incorporated about 3-fold less radioactivity. HPLC anion exchange chromatographic analysis of radiolabelled glycosaminoglycans isolated from these mutants revealed many are defective in heparan sulfate biosynthesis. Mutants 803 and 677 do not synthesize heparan sulfate, although they produce chondroitin sulfate: strain 803 makes chondroitin sulfate normally, whereas 677 overaccumulates chondroitin sulfate by a factor of three. These mutants fall into the same complementation group, suggesting that the mutations are allelic. A second group of heparan sulfate biosynthetic mutants, consisting of cell lines 625, 668 and 679, produce undersulfated heparan sulfate and normal chondroitin sulfate. Treatment of the chains with nitrous acid should determine the position of the sulfate groups along the chain. These mutants may define a complementation group that is defective in the enzymes which modify the heparan sulfate chain. To increase the authors repertoire of heparan sulfate mutants, they are presently developing an in situ enzyme assay to screen colonies replica plated on filter discs for sulfotransferase defects

  4. Thermophilic Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Cold Marine Sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ISAKSEN, MF; BAK, F.; JØRGENSEN, BB

    1994-01-01

    sulfate-reducing bacteria was detected. Time course experiments showed constant sulfate reduction rates at 4 degrees C and 30 degrees C, whereas the activity at 60 degrees C increased exponentially after a lag period of one day. Thermophilic, endospore-forming sulfate-reducing bacteria, designated strain...... C to search for presence of psychrophilic, mesophilic and thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria. Detectable activity was initially only in the mesophilic range, but after a lag phase sulfate reduction by thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria were observed. No distinct activity of psychrophilic...... P60, were isolated and characterized as Desulfotomaculum kuznetsovii. The temperature response of growth and respiration of strain P60 agreed well with the measured sulfate reduction at 50 degrees-70 degrees C. Bacteria similar to strain P60 could thus be responsible for the measured thermophilic...

  5. Chondroitin-4-sulfation negatively regulates axonal guidance and growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hang; Katagiri, Yasuhiro; McCann, Thomas E.; Unsworth, Edward; Goldsmith, Paul; Yu, Zu-Xi; Tan, Fei; Santiago, Lizzie; Mills, Edward M.; Wang, Yu; Symes, Aviva J.; Geller, Herbert M.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) side chains endow extracellular matrix proteoglycans with diversity and complexity based upon the length, composition, and charge distribution of the polysaccharide chain. Using cultured primary neurons, we show that specific sulfation in the GAG chains of chondroitin sulfate (CS) mediates neuronal guidance cues and axonal growth inhibition. Chondroitin-4-sulfate (CS-A), but not chondroitin-6-sulfate (CS-C), exhibits a strong negative guidance cue to mouse cerebellar granule neurons. Enzymatic and gene-based manipulations of 4-sulfation in the GAG side chains alter their ability to direct growing axons. Furthermore, 4-sulfated CS GAG chains are rapidly and significantly increased in regions that do not support axonal regeneration proximal to spinal cord lesions in mice. Thus, our findings provide the evidence showing that specific sulfation along the carbohydrate backbone carries instructions to regulate neuronal function. PMID:18768934

  6. Thermophilic Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Cold Marine Sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ISAKSEN, MF; BAK, F.; JØRGENSEN, BB

    1994-01-01

    C to search for presence of psychrophilic, mesophilic and thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria. Detectable activity was initially only in the mesophilic range, but after a lag phase sulfate reduction by thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria were observed. No distinct activity of psychrophilic...... sulfate-reducing bacteria was detected. Time course experiments showed constant sulfate reduction rates at 4 degrees C and 30 degrees C, whereas the activity at 60 degrees C increased exponentially after a lag period of one day. Thermophilic, endospore-forming sulfate-reducing bacteria, designated strain...... P60, were isolated and characterized as Desulfotomaculum kuznetsovii. The temperature response of growth and respiration of strain P60 agreed well with the measured sulfate reduction at 50 degrees-70 degrees C. Bacteria similar to strain P60 could thus be responsible for the measured thermophilic...

  7. Sulfate and acid resistant concrete and mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liskowitz, John W.; Wecharatana, Methi; Jaturapitakkul, Chai; Cerkanowicz, deceased, Anthony E.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction and other applications, which hardenable mixtures demonstrate significant levels of acid and sulfate resistance while maintaining acceptable compressive strength properties. The acid and sulfate hardenable mixtures of the invention containing fly ash comprise cementitious materials and a fine aggregate. The cementitous materials may comprise fly ash as well as cement. The fine aggregate may comprise fly ash as well as sand. The total amount of fly ash in the hardenable mixture ranges from about 60% to about 120% of the total amount of cement, by weight, whether the fly ash is included as a cementious material, fine aggregate, or an additive, or any combination of the foregoing. In specific examples, mortar containing 50% fly ash and 50% cement in cementitious materials demonstrated superior properties of corrosion resistance.

  8. Biosynthesis and function of chondroitin sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, Tadahisa; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2013-10-01

    Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are principal pericellular and extracellular components that form regulatory milieu involving numerous biological and pathophysiological phenomena. Diverse functions of CSPGs can be mainly attributed to structural variability of their polysaccharide moieties, chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycans (CS-GAG). Comprehensive understanding of the regulatory mechanisms for CS biosynthesis and its catabolic processes is required in order to understand those functions. Here, we focus on recent advances in the study of enzymatic regulatory pathways for CS biosynthesis including successive modification/degradation, distinct CS functions, and disease phenotypes that have been revealed by perturbation of the respective enzymes in vitro and in vivo. Fine-tuned machineries for CS production/degradation are crucial for the functional expression of CS chains in developmental and pathophysiological processes. Control of enzymes responsible for CS biosynthesis/catabolism is a potential target for therapeutic intervention for the CS-associated disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Low temperature anaerobic bacterial diagenesis of ferrous monosulfide to pyrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald, Ravin; Southam, Gordon

    1999-07-01

    In vitro enrichment cultures of dissimilatory sulfate-reducing bacteria precipitated FeS and catalyzed its transformation into FeS 2 at ambient temperature and pressure under anaerobic conditions. When compared to purely abiotic processes, the bacterially mediated transformation was shown to be more efficient in transforming FeS into FeS 2. This occurred due to the large, reactive surface area available for bacterially catalyzed diagenesis, where the biogenic FeS precursor was immobilized as a thin film (˜25 nm thick) on the μm-scale bacteria. The bacteria also contained the source(s) of sulfur for diagenesis to occur. Using a radiolabeled organic-sulfur tracer study, sulfur was released during cell autolysis and was immobilized at the bacterial cell surface forming FeS 2. The formation of FeS 2 occurred on both the inner and outer surfaces of the cell envelope and represented the first step of bacterial mineral diagenesis. Pyrite crystals, having linear dimensions of ˜1 μm, grew outward from the bacterial cell surfaces. These minerals were several orders of magnitude larger in volume than those originating abiotically.

  10. Sulfur isotopic and proteomic profiles of sulfate reducers grown under differential steady-states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, W.; Venceslau, S.; Waldbauer, J.; Smith, D. A.; Boidi, F. J.; Bradley, A. S.

    2016-12-01

    Microbial sulfate reducers (MSR) drive the Earth's biogeochemical sulfur cycle. At the heart of this energy metabolism is a cascade of redox transformations coupling organic carbon and/or hydrogen oxidation to the dissimilatory reduction of sulfate to sulfide. The product sulfide is depleted in the heavier isotopes of sulfur, relative to the reactant sulfate, consistent with a normal kinetic isotope effect. However, the magnitude of the net fractionation during MSR can range over a range of 70 permil, consistent with a multi-step set of reactions. This range in MSR fractionation has been shown to mainly depend on: i) the cell-specific sulfate reduction rate (csSRR), and ii) the ambient sulfate concentration. However, the fractionation under identical conditions differs among strains (Bradley et al. 2016. Geobio), and so must also be mediated by strain-specific processes, such as the nature and quantity of individual proteins involved in sulfate reduction, electron transport, and growth. In recent work we have examined the influence of electron donor, electron acceptor, and co-limitation under controlled steady-state culture conditions in order better inform models of MSR isotope fractionation, and the physiological and isotopic response to differential environmental forcings (e.g. Leavitt et al. (2013) PNAS). Recent models of the fractionation response to MSR rate (c.f. Bradley 2016; Wing & Halevy, 2016) make specific predictions for the responses of the cellular metabolome and proteome. Here we compare the steady-state S-isotopic fractionation and proteome of `fast' versus `slow' grown D. vulgaris, using replicate chemostats under electron donor limitation. We observe clear and statistically robust changes in some key central MSR and C-metabolism enzymes, though a host of the critical energy-transfer enzymes show no statistically discernable change. We discuss these results in light of recent theoretical advances and their relevance to modern and ancient

  11. Regional transport model of atmospheric sulfates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, K.S.; Thomson, I.; Egan, B.A.

    1977-01-01

    As part of the Sulfate Regional Experiment (SURE) Design Project, a regional transport model of atmospheric sulfates has been developed. This quasi-Lagrangian three-dimensional grid numerical model uses a detailed SO 2 emission inventory of major anthropogenic sources in the Eastern U.S. region, and observed meteorological data during an episode as inputs. The model accounts for advective transport and turbulent diffusion of the pollutants. The chemical transformation of SO 2 and SO 4 /sup =/ and the deposition of the species at the earth's surface are assumed to be linear processes at specified constant rates. The numerical model can predict the daily average concentrations of SO 2 and SO 4 /sup =/ at all receptor locations in the grid region during the episode. Because of the spatial resolution of the grid, this model is particularly suited to investigate the effect of tall stacks in reducing the ambient concentration levels of sulfur pollutants. This paper presents the formulations and assumptions of the regional sulfate transport model. The model inputs and results are discussed. Isopleths of predicted SO 2 and SO 4 /sup =/ concentrations are compared with the observed ground level values. The bulk of the information in this paper is directed to air pollution meteorologists and environmental engineers interested in the atmospheric transport modeling studies of sulfur oxide pollutants

  12. Surface physical chemistry properties in coated bacterial cellulose membranes with calcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Olyveira, Gabriel Molina; Basmaji, Pierre; Costa, Ligia Maria Manzine; Dos Santos, Márcio Luiz; Dos Santos Riccardi, Carla; Guastaldi, Fernando Pozzi Semeghini; Scarel-Caminaga, Raquel Mantuaneli; de Oliveira Capote, Ticiana Sidorenko; Pizoni, Elisabeth; Guastaldi, Antônio Carlos

    2017-06-01

    Bacterial cellulose has become established as a new biomaterial, and it can be used for medical applications. In addition, it has called attention due to the increasing interest in tissue engineering materials for wound care. In this work, the bacterial cellulose fermentation process was modified by the addition of chondroitin sulfate to the culture medium before the inoculation of the bacteria. The biomimetic process with heterogeneous calcium phosphate precipitation of biological interest was studied for the guided regeneration purposes on bacterial cellulose. FTIR results showed the incorporation of the chondroitin sulfate in the bacterial cellulose, SEM images confirmed the deposition of the calcium phosphate on the bacterial cellulose surface, XPS analysis showed a selective chemical group influences which change calcium phosphate deposition, besides, the calcium phosphate phase with different Ca/P ratios on bacterial cellulose surface influences wettability. XTT results concluded that these materials did not affect significantly in the cell viability, being non-cytotoxic. Thus, it was produced one biomaterial with the surface charge changes for calcium phosphate deposition, besides different wettability which builds new membranes for Guided Tissue Regeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Sulfation and cation effects on the conformational properties of the glycan backbone of chondroitin sulfate disaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, Christina E; Guvench, Olgun

    2015-05-21

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is one of several glycosaminoglycans that are major components of proteoglycans. A linear polymer consisting of repeats of the disaccharide -4GlcAβ1-3GalNAcβ1-, CS undergoes differential sulfation resulting in five unique sulfation patterns. Because of the dimer repeat, the CS glycosidic "backbone" has two distinct sets of conformational degrees of freedom defined by pairs of dihedral angles: (ϕ1, ψ1) about the β1-3 glycosidic linkage and (ϕ2, ψ2) about the β1-4 glycosidic linkage. Differential sulfation and the possibility of cation binding, combined with the conformational flexibility and biological diversity of CS, complicate experimental efforts to understand CS three-dimensional structures at atomic resolution. Therefore, all-atom explicit-solvent molecular dynamics simulations with Adaptive Biasing Force sampling of the CS backbone were applied to obtain high-resolution, high-precision free energies of CS disaccharides as a function of all possible backbone geometries. All 10 disaccharides (β1-3 vs β1-4 linkage × five different sulfation patterns) were studied; additionally, ion effects were investigated by considering each disaccharide in the presence of either neutralizing sodium or calcium cations. GlcAβ1-3GalNAc disaccharides have a single, broad, thermodynamically important free-energy minimum, whereas GalNAcβ1-4GlcA disaccharides have two such minima. Calcium cations but not sodium cations bind to the disaccharides, and binding is primarily to the GlcA -COO(-) moiety as opposed to sulfate groups. This binding alters the glycan backbone thermodynamics in instances where a calcium cation bound to -COO(-) can act to bridge and stabilize an interaction with an adjacent sulfate group, whereas, in the absence of this cation, the proximity of a sulfate group to -COO(-) results in two like charges being both desolvated and placed adjacent to each other and is found to be destabilizing. In addition to providing information

  14. Radioprotection conferred by dextran sulfate given before irradiation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, W.M.; Peeke, J.

    1986-01-01

    Dextran sulfate (DS) has been observed to cause mobilization (fivefold) of hemopoietic stem cells (HSC) and leukocytes, primarily lymphocytes, into the peripheral blood of mice within 2-3 h after intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. This effect was dose dependent and was prolonged for several hours when the high-molecular-weight version DS500 (500,000 daltons) was used. When DS500 was given 1-3 days before irradiation, hemopoietic recovery was markedly enhanced. Postirradiation injection was ineffective. By ten days after irradiation (7.0 Gy), the number of endogenous spleen colonies (CFUs) and the splenic mass were much larger if DS pretreatment had been given. This effect was dependent on the dose of DS500 and on the time administered, 60 mg/kg producing a maximal effect when given three days before irradiation. DS500 caused a transient anaphylactoid shock, however, in most mice--mild at low doses but potentially lethal at doses above 40 mg/kg (10% mortality within 1-3 days after 60 mg/kg). The following results were obtained with 50 mg/kg, a compromise dose causing minimal mortality (3%) given three days before irradiation. Reticulocyte reappearance was earlier in irradiated mice given DS500, indicating earlier erythropoietic recovery. Some of these reticulocytes were resistant to lysing agents, so their appearance could be detected using the Coulter electronic cell counter, as well as in stained blood smears. The 30-day mortality due to bone marrow failure after irradiation was significantly decreased in DS-treated mice below 9.5 Gy, and the LD50/30 was increased by 0.5 Gy. This study shows that dextran sulfate exerts a radioprotective influence on the hemopoietic system and hence survival when administered prophylactically

  15. δ34S and δ18O of dissolved sulfate as biotic tracer of biogeochemical influences on arsenic mobilization in groundwater in the Hetao Plain, Inner Mongolia, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M D; Wang, Y X; Li, P; Deng, Y M; Xie, X J

    2014-12-01

    Environmental isotopology of sulfur and oxygen of dissolved sulfate in groundwater was conducted in the Hetao Plain, northwestern China, aiming to better understand the processes controlling arsenic mobilization in arsenic-rich aqueous systems. A total of 22 groundwater samples were collected from domestic wells in the Hetao Plain. Arsenic concentrations ranged from 11.0 to 388 μg/L. The δ(34)S-SO4 and δ(18)O-SO4 values of dissolved sulfate covered a range from +1.48 to +22.4‰ and +8.17‰ to +14.8‰ in groundwater, respectively. The wide range of δ(34)S-SO4 values reflected either an input of different sources of sulfate, such as gypsum dissolution and fertilizer application, or a modification from biogeochemical process of bacterial sulfate reduction. The positive correlation between δ(34)S-SO4 and arsenic concentrations suggested that bacteria mediated processes played an important role in the mobilization of arsenic. The δ(18)O-SO4 values correlated non-linearly with δ(34)S-SO4, but within a relatively narrow range (+8.17 to +14.8‰), implying that complexities inherent in the sulfate-oxygen (O-SO4(2-)) origins, for instance, water-derived oxygen (O-H2O), molecular oxygen (O-O2) and isotope exchanging with dissolved oxides, are accounted for oxygen isotope composition of dissolved sulfate in groundwater in the Hetao Plain.

  16. An Exploratory Study on the Pathways of Cr (VI) Reduction in Sulfate-reducing Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Bed (UASB) Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jin; Wei, Li; Liu, Rulong; Jiang, Feng; Hao, Xiaodi; Chen, Guang-Hao

    2016-03-29

    Electroplating wastewater contains both Cr (VI) and sulfate. So Cr (VI) removal under sulfate-rich condition is quite complicated. This study mainly investigates the pathways for Cr (VI) removal under biological sulfate-reducing condition in the up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor. Two potential pathways are found for the removal of Cr (VI). The first one is the sulfidogenesis-induced Cr (VI) reduction pathway (for 90% Cr (VI) removal), in which Cr (VI) is reduced by sulfide generated from biological reduction of sulfate. The second one leads to direct reduction of Cr (VI) which is utilized by bacteria as the electron acceptor (for 10% Cr (VI) removal). Batch test results confirmed that sulfide was oxidized to elemental sulfur instead of sulfate during Cr (VI) reduction. The produced extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) provided protection to the microbes, resulting in effective removal of Cr (VI). Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) genera accounted for 11.1% of the total bacterial community; thus they could be the major organisms mediating the sulfidogenesis-induced reduction of Cr (VI). In addition, chromate-utilizing genera (e.g. Microbacterium) were also detected, which were possibly responsible for the direct reduction of Cr (VI) using organics as the electron donor and Cr (VI) as the electron acceptor.

  17. An Exploratory Study on the Pathways of Cr (VI) Reduction in Sulfate-reducing Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Bed (UASB) Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jin; Wei, Li; Liu, Rulong; Jiang, Feng; Hao, Xiaodi; Chen, Guang-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Electroplating wastewater contains both Cr (VI) and sulfate. So Cr (VI) removal under sulfate-rich condition is quite complicated. This study mainly investigates the pathways for Cr (VI) removal under biological sulfate-reducing condition in the up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor. Two potential pathways are found for the removal of Cr (VI). The first one is the sulfidogenesis-induced Cr (VI) reduction pathway (for 90% Cr (VI) removal), in which Cr (VI) is reduced by sulfide generated from biological reduction of sulfate. The second one leads to direct reduction of Cr (VI) which is utilized by bacteria as the electron acceptor (for 10% Cr (VI) removal). Batch test results confirmed that sulfide was oxidized to elemental sulfur instead of sulfate during Cr (VI) reduction. The produced extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) provided protection to the microbes, resulting in effective removal of Cr (VI). Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) genera accounted for 11.1% of the total bacterial community; thus they could be the major organisms mediating the sulfidogenesis-induced reduction of Cr (VI). In addition, chromate-utilizing genera (e.g. Microbacterium) were also detected, which were possibly responsible for the direct reduction of Cr (VI) using organics as the electron donor and Cr (VI) as the electron acceptor. PMID:27021522

  18. An Exploratory Study on the Pathways of Cr (VI) Reduction in Sulfate-reducing Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Bed (UASB) Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jin; Wei, Li; Liu, Rulong; Jiang, Feng; Hao, Xiaodi; Chen, Guang-Hao

    2016-03-01

    Electroplating wastewater contains both Cr (VI) and sulfate. So Cr (VI) removal under sulfate-rich condition is quite complicated. This study mainly investigates the pathways for Cr (VI) removal under biological sulfate-reducing condition in the up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor. Two potential pathways are found for the removal of Cr (VI). The first one is the sulfidogenesis-induced Cr (VI) reduction pathway (for 90% Cr (VI) removal), in which Cr (VI) is reduced by sulfide generated from biological reduction of sulfate. The second one leads to direct reduction of Cr (VI) which is utilized by bacteria as the electron acceptor (for 10% Cr (VI) removal). Batch test results confirmed that sulfide was oxidized to elemental sulfur instead of sulfate during Cr (VI) reduction. The produced extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) provided protection to the microbes, resulting in effective removal of Cr (VI). Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) genera accounted for 11.1% of the total bacterial community; thus they could be the major organisms mediating the sulfidogenesis-induced reduction of Cr (VI). In addition, chromate-utilizing genera (e.g. Microbacterium) were also detected, which were possibly responsible for the direct reduction of Cr (VI) using organics as the electron donor and Cr (VI) as the electron acceptor.

  19. EFFECT OF POLYMYXIN-B ON INTESTINAL BACTERIAL TRANSLOCATION IN PSEUDOMONAS-AERUGINOSA WOUND-COLONIZED BURNED MICE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DIJKSTRA, HM; MANSON, WL; KLASEN, HJ; VANDERWAAIJ, D

    1992-01-01

    Bacterial translocation (BT) from the gastrointestinal tract has been proposed to play a role in the pathogenesis of septic complications in severely burned patients. In a burn model the effect of a subtherapeutic dose of polymyxin B-sulfate (PB) at BT was examined in Escherichia coli-monoassociated

  20. Determination of alkylation of bacterial DNA as a rapid test for toxicological evaluation of alkylating xenobiotic agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botzenhart, K.; Waldner-Sander, S.; Schweinsberg, F.

    1986-05-01

    Alkylated purine bases from hydrolized DNA can be separated by HPLC and quantified with a fluorescence detector. We applied this method to bacterial DNA. 7-methylguanine was detected after treatment of Serratia marcescens with iodoacetamide, dimethyl sulfate and with polluted air.

  1. Heritability and clinical determinants of serum indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate, candidate biomarkers of the human microbiome enterotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesbeth Viaene

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate are unique microbial co-metabolites. Both co-metabolites have been involved in the pathogenesis of accelerated cardiovascular disease and renal disease progression. Available evidence suggests that indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate may be considered candidate biomarkers of the human enterotype and may help to explain the link between diet and cardiovascular disease burden. OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: Information on clinical determinants and heritability of indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate serum is non-existing. To clarify this issue, the authors determined serum levels of indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate in 773 individuals, recruited in the frame of the Flemish Study on Environment, Genes and Health Outcomes (FLEMENGHO study. RESULTS: Serum levels of indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate amounted to 3.1 (2.4-4.3 and 13.0 (7.4-21.5 μM, respectively. Regression analysis identified renal function, age and sex as independent determinants of both co-metabolites. Both serum indoxyl sulfate (h2 = 0.17 and p-cresyl sulfate (h2 = 0.18 concentrations showed moderate but significant heritability after adjustment for covariables, with significant genetic and environmental correlations for both co-metabolites. LIMITATIONS: Family studies cannot provide conclusive evidence for a genetic contribution, as confounding by shared environmental effects can never be excluded. CONCLUSIONS: The heritability of indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate is moderate. Besides genetic host factors and environmental factors, also renal function, sex and age influence the serum levels of these co-metabolites.

  2. Bacterial Cell Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, George K; Weibel, Douglas B

    2017-07-25

    Cellular mechanical properties play an integral role in bacterial survival and adaptation. Historically, the bacterial cell wall and, in particular, the layer of polymeric material called the peptidoglycan were the elements to which cell mechanics could be primarily attributed. Disrupting the biochemical machinery that assembles the peptidoglycan (e.g., using the β-lactam family of antibiotics) alters the structure of this material, leads to mechanical defects, and results in cell lysis. Decades after the discovery of peptidoglycan-synthesizing enzymes, the mechanisms that underlie their positioning and regulation are still not entirely understood. In addition, recent evidence suggests a diverse group of other biochemical elements influence bacterial cell mechanics, may be regulated by new cellular mechanisms, and may be triggered in different environmental contexts to enable cell adaptation and survival. This review summarizes the contributions that different biomolecular components of the cell wall (e.g., lipopolysaccharides, wall and lipoteichoic acids, lipid bilayers, peptidoglycan, and proteins) make to Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial cell mechanics. We discuss the contribution of individual proteins and macromolecular complexes in cell mechanics and the tools that make it possible to quantitatively decipher the biochemical machinery that contributes to bacterial cell mechanics. Advances in this area may provide insight into new biology and influence the development of antibacterial chemotherapies.

  3. Attribution of modeled atmospheric sulfate and SO2 in the Northern Hemisphere for June–July 1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Benkovitz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic sulfate aerosol is a major contributor to shortwave radiative forcing of climate change by direct light scattering and by perturbing cloud properties and to local concentrations of atmospheric particulate matter. Here we analyze results from previously published calculations with an Eulerian transport model for atmospheric sulfur species in the Northern Hemisphere in June–July, 1997 to quantify the absolute and relative contributions of specific source regions (North America, Europe, and Asia and SO2-to-sulfate conversion mechanisms (gas-phase, aqueous-phase and primary sulfate to sulfate and SO2 column burdens as a function of location and time. Although material emitted within a given region dominates the sulfate and SO2 column burden in that region, examination of time series at specific locations shows that material imported from outside can make a substantial and occasionally dominant contribution. Frequently the major fraction of these exogenous contributions to the sulfate column burden was present aloft, thus minimally impacting air quality at the surface, but contributing substantially to the burden and, by implication, to radiative forcing and diminution of surface irradiance. Although the dominant sulfate formation pathway in the domain as a whole is aqueous-phase reaction in clouds (62%, in regions with minimum opportunity for aqueous-phase reaction gas-phase oxidation is dominant, albeit with considerable temporal variability depending on meteorological conditions. These calculations highlight the importance of transoceanic transport of sulfate, especially at the western margins of continents under the influence of predominantly westerly transport winds.

  4. Isotopic Zonation Within Sulfate Evaporite Mineral Crystals Reveal Quantitative Paleoenvironment Details

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, M.; Rhorssen, M.; Mielke, R. E.

    2008-12-01

    Isotopic variations measured within a single crystal of hydrated magnesium sulfate are greater than 30 permil for delta 2-H, almost 10 permil for δ18O in water of hydration; and greater than 3 permil in sulfate oxygen. These results are interpreted to indicate the relative humidity of the system during evaporation (15 to 20 percent in this test case) and constrain the volume of water involved. The theoretical basis of this system is the isotopic fractionation between the species in solution and those precipitated as evaporite salts. Precipitation preferentially accumulates more of the heavy isotopes of sulfur and oxygen in mineral sulfate, relative to sulfate in solution. During the course of mineral growth this leads to successive depletion of the respective heavier isotopes in the residual brine reflected in a parallel trend in successive precipitates or even in successive zones within a single crystal. The change in isotopic composition at any one time during the process, relative to the initial value, can be described by an isotopic version of the Rayleigh Fractionation equation, depending only on the extent of the completion of the process and the relevant fractionation factor. Evaporation preferentially removes isotopically lighter hydrogen and oxygen leading to successive extents of enrichment in the respective heavier isotopes in the residual water. However, the relative effects on hydrogen and oxygen isotopes differs as function of relative humidity [1]. ALL OF THESE CHANGES ARE PRESERVED IN THE MINERAL ISOTOPE COMPOSITIONS. We precipitated barium sulfate from epsomite or gypsum samples, which was reduced at 1450°C in the presence of graphite and glassy carbon in a Finnigan TC/EA to produce CO for O isotopic analysis in a Finnigan 253 mass spectrometer, while a separate subsample was oxidized to SO2 in a Costech Elemental Analyzer. However, to make progress with this approach we needed to make a large number of measurements of hydration water and so we

  5. Properties of aqueous dispersion of chitosan and chondroitin sulfate complex derived from aquatic organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novikov V. Yu.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of production of chondroitin sulfate, chitosan and polyelectrolyte complexes based on them received from the local marine raw materials is relevant from the point of view of developing a comprehensive waste-free technology for natural raw materials processing. The objects of study are chitosan derived from the shell of the Kamchatka crab Paralithodes camtschaticus and chondroitin sulfate derived from cartilage of salmon Salmon salar. To determine the surface tension of polyelectrolyte complex solutions and dispersions the Wilhelmy method has been used, the effective radius of particle dispersion has been calculated by light scattering, measurements of effective viscosity have been carried out under shear deformation. The conditions of formation, surface and rheological properties of the chitosan and chondroitin sulfate complex extracted from aquatic organisms in the Barents Sea have been studied. Obtaining conditions and molar ratios of these polyelectrolytes in which the aqueous dispersion of the complex remains stable for a long time have been established. It has been found that by addition of chondroitin sulfate solution to chitosan solution in molar ratios of 1 : 3; 1 : 6 the dispersion of the polyelectrolyte complex stable for 2 to 3 days has been formed. The polyelectrolyte complex dispersions behave as non-Newtonian pseudoplastic liquid. When the molar ratio of the mixed solution is 1 : 1 (regardless of the sequence of mixing suspension of the polyelectrolyte complex has been formed, then there is precipitation. Equilibrium surface tension of the aqueous dispersion of the polyelectrolyte complex is higher than that of solutions of chondroitin sulfate and chitosan. The effective radius of particles in the complex dispersion has been determined. The effective radius of the particles in the complex dispersion depends on the molar ratio of chondroitin sulfate : chitosan. A qualitative scheme of formation of polyelectrolyte

  6. Sulfation pattern of fucose branches affects the anti-hyperlipidemic activities of fucosylated chondroitin sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Nian; Zhang, Yu; Ye, Xingqian; Hu, Yaqin; Ding, Tian; Chen, Shiguo

    2016-08-20

    Fucosylated chondroitin sulfates (fCSs) are glycosaminoglycans extracted from sea cucumbers, consisting of chondroitin sulfate E (CSE) backbones and sulfated fucose branches. The biological properties of fCSs could be affected by the sulfation pattern of their fucose branches. In the present study, two fCSs were isolated from sea cucumbers Isostichopus badionotus (fCS-Ib) and Pearsonothuria graeffei (fCS-Pg). Their monosaccharide compositions of glucuronic acid (GlcA), N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc), fucose (Fuc) and sulfate were at similar molar ratio with 1.0/0.7/0.9/3.1 for fCS-Ib and 1.0/0.8/1.5/2.6 for fCS-Pg. The two fCSs have different sulfation patterns on their fucose branches, fCS-Pg with 3,4-O-disulfation while fCS-Ib with 2,4-O-disulfation. Their antihyperlipidemic effects were compared using a high-fat high-fructose diet (HFFD)-fed C57BL/6J mice model. Both fCS-Ib and fCS-Pg had significant effects on lipid profile improvement, liver protection, blood glucose diminution and hepatic glycogen synthesis. Specifically, fCS-Pg with 3,4-O-disulfation fucose branches was more effective in reduction of blood cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and atherogenic index (AI). Our results indicate that both fCSs, especially fCS-Pg, could be used as a potential anti-hyperlipidemic drug. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. A potential role for chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate in arm regeneration in Amphiura filiformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandra, Rashmi; Namburi, Ramesh B; Dupont, Sam T; Ortega-Martinez, Olga; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Lindahl, Ulf; Spillmann, Dorothe

    2017-05-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), such as chondroitin sulfate (CS) and dermatan sulfate (DS) from various vertebrate and invertebrate sources are known to be involved in diverse cellular mechanisms during repair and regenerative processes. Recently, we have identified CS/DS as the major GAG in the brittlestar Amphiura filiformis, with high proportions of di- and tri-O-sulfated disaccharide units. As this echinoderm is known for its exceptional regeneration capacity, we aimed to explore the role of these GAG chains during A. filiformis arm regeneration. Analysis of CS/DS chains during the regeneration process revealed an increase in the proportion of the tri-O-sulfated disaccharides. Conversely, treatment of A. filiformis with sodium chlorate, a potent inhibitor of sulfation reactions in GAG biosynthesis, resulted in a significant reduction in arm growth rates with total inhibition at concentrations higher than 5 mM. Differentiation was less impacted by sodium chlorate exposure or even slightly increased at 1-2 mM. Based on the structural changes observed during arm regeneration we identified chondroitin synthase, chondroitin-4-O-sulfotransferase 2 and dermatan-4-O-sulfotransferase as candidate genes and sought to correlate their expression with the expression of the A. filiformis orthologue of bone morphogenetic factors, AfBMP2/4. Quantitative amplification by real-time PCR indicated increased expression of chondroitin synthase and chondroitin-4-O-sulfotransferase 2, with a corresponding increase in AfBMP2/4 during regeneration relative to nonregenerating controls. Our findings suggest that proper sulfation of GAGs is important for A. filiformis arm regeneration and that these molecules may participate in mechanisms controlling cell proliferation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Bacterial meningitis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marji, S.

    2007-01-01

    To demonstrate the epidemiology, clinical manifestations and bacteriological profile of bacterial meningitis in children beyond the neonatal period in our hospital. This was a retrospective descriptive study conducted at Prince Rashid Hospital in Irbid, Jordan. The medical records of 50 children with the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis during 4 years period, were reviewed. The main cause of infection was streptococcus pneumoniae, followed by Haemophilus influenza and Niesseria meningitides. Mortality was higher in infants and meningococcal infection, while complications were more encountered in cases of streptococcus pneumoniae. Cerebrospinal fluid culture was positive in 11 cases and Latex agglutination test in 39. There is a significant reduction of the numbers of bacterial meningitis caused by Haemophilus influenza type B species. (author)

  9. On the roles and regulation of chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate in zebrafish pharyngeal cartilage morphogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmborn, Katarina; Habicher, Judith; Kasza, Zsolt

    2012-01-01

    The present study addresses the roles of heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans and chondroitin sulfate (CS) proteoglycans in the development of zebrafish pharyngeal cartilage structures. uxs1 and b3gat3 mutants, predicted to have impaired biosynthesis of both HS and CS because of defective formation...... levels of CS than control larvae, whereas morpholino-mediated suppression of csgalnact1/csgalnact2 resulted in increased HS biosynthesis. Thus, the balance of the Extl3 and Csgalnact1/Csgalnact2 proteins influences the HS/CS ratio. A characterization of the pharyngeal cartilage element morphologies...

  10. Photoinactivation of major bacterial pathogens in aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heyong Jin Roh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Significant increases in the bacterial resistance to various antibiotics have been found in fish farms. Non-antibiotic therapies for infectious diseases in aquaculture are needed. In recent years, light-emitting diode technology has been applied to the inactivation of pathogens, especially those affecting humans. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of blue light (wavelengths 405 and 465 nm on seven major bacterial pathogens that affect fish and shellfish important in aquaculture. Results We successfully demonstrate inactivation activity of a 405/465-nm LED on selected bacterial pathogens. Although some bacteria were not fully inactivated by the 465-nm light, the 405-nm light had a bactericidal effect against all seven pathogens, indicating that blue light can be effective without the addition of a photosensitizer. Photobacterium damselae, Vibrio anguillarum, and Edwardsiella tarda were the most susceptible to the 405-nm light (36.1, 41.2, and 68.4 J cm−2, respectively, produced one log reduction in the bacterial populations, whereas Streptococcus parauberis was the least susceptible (153.8 J cm−2 per one log reduction. In general, optical density (OD values indicated that higher bacterial densities were associated with lower inactivating efficacy, with the exception of P. damselae and Vibrio harveyi. In conclusion, growth of the bacterial fish and shellfish pathogens evaluated in this study was inactivated by exposure to either the 405- or 465-nm light. In addition, inactivation was dependent on exposure time. Conclusions This study presents that blue LED has potentially alternative therapy for treating fish and shellfish bacterial pathogens. It has great advantages in aspect of eco-friendly treating methods differed from antimicrobial methods.

  11. Anaerobic degradation of landfill leachate using an upflow anaerobic fixed-bed reactor with microbial sulfate reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Dhia Thabet, Olfa; Bouallagui, Hassib; Cayol, Jean-luc; Ollivier, Bernard; Fardeau, Marie-Laure; Hamdi, Moktar

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the anaerobic degradation of landfill leachate and sulfate reduction as a function of COD/(SO 4 2- ) ratio in an upflow anaerobic fixed-bed reactor. The reactor, which was inoculated with a mixed consortium, was operated under a constant hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 5 days. We investigated the effect of COD/(SO 4 2- ) ratio variation on the sulfate reduction efficiency, hydrogen sulfide production, chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal, conductivity, and pH variation. The best reactor performance, with significant sulfate reduction efficiency and COD removal efficiency of 91% and 87%, respectively, was reached under a COD/(SO 4 2- ) ratio of 1.17. Under these conditions, microscopic analysis showed the abundance of vibrios and rod-shaped bacterial cells. Two anaerobic bacteria were isolated from the reactor sludge. Phylogenetic studies performed on these strains identified strain A1 as affiliated to Clostridium genus and strain H1 as a new species of sulfate-reducing bacteria affiliated to the Desulfovibrio genus. The closest phylogenetic relative of strain H1 was Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, at 96% similarity for partial 16S RNA gene sequence data. Physiological and metabolic characterization was performed for this strain.

  12. Over-expression of bacterial gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (GSH1) in plastids affects photosynthesis, growth and sulphur metabolism in poplar (Populus tremula x Populus alba) dependent on the resulting gamma-glutamylcysteine and glutathione levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herschbach, Cornelia; Rizzini, Luca; Mult, Susanne; Hartmann, Tanja; Busch, Florian; Peuke, Andreas D; Kopriva, Stanislav; Ensminger, Ingo

    2010-07-01

    We compared three transgenic poplar lines over-expressing the bacterial gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (GSH1) targeted to plastids. Lines Lggs6 and Lggs12 have two copies, while line Lggs20 has three copies of the transgene. The three lines differ in their expression levels of the transgene and in the accumulation of gamma-glutamylcysteine (gamma-EC) and glutathione (GSH) in leaves, roots and phloem exudates. The lowest transgene expression level was observed in line Lggs6 which showed an increased growth, an enhanced rate of photosynthesis and a decreased excitation pressure (1-qP). The latter typically represents a lower reduction state of the plastoquinone pool, and thereby facilitates electron flow along the electron transport chain. Line Lggs12 showed the highest transgene expression level, highest gamma-EC accumulation in leaves and highest GSH enrichment in phloem exudates and roots. This line also exhibited a reduced growth, and after a prolonged growth of 4.5 months, symptoms of leaf injury. Decreased maximum quantum yield (F(v)/F(m)) indicated down-regulation of photosystem II reaction centre (PSII RC), which correlates with decreased PSII RC protein D1 (PsbA) and diminished light-harvesting complex (Lhcb1). Potential effects of changes in chloroplastic and cytosolic GSH contents on photosynthesis, growth and the whole-plant sulphur nutrition are discussed for each line.

  13. Adult bacterial meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, C N; Samuelsson, I S; Galle, M

    2004-01-01

    Episodes of adult bacterial meningitis (ABM) at a Danish hospital in 1991-2000 were identified from the databases of the Department of Clinical Microbiology, and compared with data from the Danish National Patient Register and the Danish National Notification System. Reduced penicillin susceptibi......Episodes of adult bacterial meningitis (ABM) at a Danish hospital in 1991-2000 were identified from the databases of the Department of Clinical Microbiology, and compared with data from the Danish National Patient Register and the Danish National Notification System. Reduced penicillin...

  14. Global source attribution of sulfate aerosol and its radiative forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Wang, H.; Smith, S.; Easter, R. C.; Ma, P. L.; Qian, Y.; Li, C.; Yu, H.; Rasch, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    Sulfate is an important aerosol that poses health risks and influences climate. Due to long-range atmospheric transport, local sulfate pollution could result from intercontinental influences, making domestic efforts of improving air quality inefficient. Accurate understanding of source attribution of sulfate and its radiative forcing is important for both regional air quality improvement and global climate mitigation. In this study, for the first time, a sulfur source-tagging capability is implemented in the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) to quantify the global source-receptor relationships of sulfate and its direct and indirect radiative forcing (DRF and IRF). Near-surface sulfate concentrations are mostly contributed by local emissions in regions with high emissions, while over regions with relatively low SO2 emissions, the near-surface sulfate is primarily attributed to non-local sources from long-range transport. The export of SO2 and sulfate from Europe contributes 20% of sulfate concentrations over North Africa, Russia and Central Asia. Sources from the Middle East account for 20% of sulfate over North Africa, Southern Africa and Central Asia in winter and autumn, and 20% over South Asia in spring. East Asia accounts for about 50% of sulfate over Southeast Asia in winter and autumn, 15% over Russia in summer, and 10% over North America in spring. South Asia contributes to 25% of sulfate over Southeast Asia in spring. Lifetime of aerosols, together with regional export, is found to determine regional air quality. The simulated global total sulfate DRF is -0.42 W m-2, with 75% contributed by anthropogenic sulfate and 25% contributed by natural sulfate. In the Southern Hemisphere tropics, dimethyl sulfide (DMS) contributes the most to the total DRF. East Asia has the largest contribution of 20-30% over the Northern Hemisphere mid- and high-latitudes. A 20% perturbation of sulfate and its precursor emissions gives a sulfate IRF of -0.44 W m-2. DMS has the

  15. Accelerated methanogenesis from aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons under iron- and sulfate-reducing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegert, Michael; Cichocka, Danuta; Herrmann, Steffi; Gründger, Friederike; Feisthauer, Stefan; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; Springael, Dirk; Krüger, Martin

    2011-02-01

    The impact of four electron acceptors on hydrocarbon-induced methanogenesis was studied. Methanogenesis from residual hydrocarbons may enhance the exploitation of oil reservoirs and may improve bioremediation. The conditions to drive the rate-limiting first hydrocarbon-oxidizing steps for the conversion of hydrocarbons into methanogenic substrates are crucial. Thus, the electron acceptors ferrihydrite, manganese dioxide, nitrate or sulfate were added to sediment microcosms acquired from two brackish water locations. Hexadecane, ethylbenzene or 1-(13)C-naphthalene were used as model hydrocarbons. Methane was released most rapidly from incubations amended with ferrihydrite and hexadecane. Ferrihydrite enhanced only hexadecane-dependent methanogenesis. The rates of methanogenesis were negatively affected by sulfate and nitrate at concentrations of more than 5 and 1 mM, respectively. Metal-reducing Geobacteraceae and potential sulfate reducers as well as Methanosarcina were present in situ and in vitro. Ferrihydrite addition triggered the growth of Methanosarcina-related methanogens. Additionally, methane was removed concomitantly by anaerobic methanotrophy. ANME-1 and -2 methyl coenzyme M reductase genes were detected, indicating anaerobic methanotrophy as an accompanying process [Correction added 16 December after online publication: 'methyl coenzyme A' changed to 'methyl coenzyme M' in this sentence]. The experiments presented here demonstrate the feasibility of enhancing methanogenic alkane degradation by ferrihydrite or sulfate addition in different geological settings. © 2010 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Minimal sulfated carbohydrates for recognition by L-selectin and the MECA-79 antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruehl, R E; Bertozzi, C R; Rosen, S D

    2000-10-20

    Sulfated forms of sialyl-Le(X) containing Gal-6-SO(4) or GlcNAc-6-SO(4) have been implicated as potential recognition determinants on high endothelial venule ligands for L-selectin. The optimal configuration of sulfate esters on the N-acetyllactosamine (Galbeta1-->4GlcNAc) core of sulfosialyl-Le(X), however, remains unsettled. Using a panel of sulfated lactose (Galbeta1-->4Glc) neoglycolipids as substrates in direct binding assays, we found that 6',6-disulfolactose was the preferred structure for L-selectin, although significant binding to 6'- and 6-sulfolactose was observed as well. Binding was EDTA-sensitive and blocked by L-selectin-specific monoclonal antibodies. Surprisingly, 6', 6-disulfolactose was poorly recognized by MECA-79, a carbohydrate- and sulfate-dependent monoclonal antibody that binds competitively to L-selectin ligands. Instead, MECA-79 bound preferentially to 6-sulfolactose. The difference in preferred substrates between L-selectin and MECA-79 may explain the variable activity of MECA-79 as an inhibitor of lymphocyte adhesion to high endothelial venules in lymphoid organs. Our results suggest that both Gal-6-SO(4) and GlcNAc-6-SO(4) may contribute to L-selectin recognition, either as components of sulfosialyl-Le(X) capping groups or in internal structures. By contrast, only GlcNAc-6-SO(4) appears to contribute to MECA-79 binding.

  17. Effect of barium sulfate contrast medium on rheology and sensory texture attributes in a model food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekberg, O; Bulow, M; Ekman, S; Hall, G; Stading, M; Wendin, K

    2009-03-01

    The swallowing process can be visualized using videoradiography, by mixing food with contrast medium, e.g., barium sulfate (BaSO(4)), making it radiopaque. The sensory properties of foods may be affected by adding this medium. To evaluate if and to what extent sensory and rheological characteristics of mango purée were altered by adding barium sulfate to the food. This study evaluated four food samples based on mango purée, with no or added barium sulfate contrast medium (0%, 12.5%, 25.0%, and 37.5%), by a radiographic method, and measured sensory texture properties and rheological characteristics. The sensory evaluation was performed by an external trained panel using quantitative descriptive analysis. The ease of swallowing the foods was also evaluated. The sensory texture properties of mango purée were significantly affected by the added barium in all evaluated attributes, as was the perception of particles. Moreover, ease of swallowing was significantly higher in the sample without added contrast medium. All samples decreased in extensional viscosity with increasing extension rate, i.e., all samples were tension thinning. Shear viscosity was not as dependent on the concentration of BaSO(4) as extensional viscosity. Addition of barium sulfate to a model food of mango purée has a major impact on perceived sensory texture attributes as well as on rheological parameters.

  18. Magnesium sulfate reduces formalin-induced orofacial pain in rats with normal magnesium serum levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srebro, Dragana P; Vučković, Sonja M; Dožić, Ivan S; Dožić, Branko S; Savić Vujović, Katarina R; Milovanović, Aleksandar P; Karadžić, Branislav V; Prostran, Milica Š

    2018-02-01

    In humans, orofacial pain has a high prevalence and is often difficult to treat. Magnesium is an essential element in biological a system which controls the activity of many ion channels, neurotransmitters and enzymes. Magnesium produces an antinociceptive effect in neuropathic pain, while in inflammatory pain results are not consistent. We examined the effects of magnesium sulfate using the rat orofacial formalin test, a model of trigeminal pain. Male Wistar rats were injected with 1.5% formalin into the perinasal area, and the total time spent in pain-related behavior (face rubbing) was quantified. We also spectrophotometrically determined the concentration of magnesium and creatine kinase activity in blood serum. Magnesium sulfate administered subcutaneously (0.005-45mg/kg) produced significant antinociception in the second phase of the orofacial formalin test in rats at physiological serum concentration of magnesium. The effect was not dose-dependent. The maximum antinociceptive effect of magnesium sulfate was about 50% and was achieved at doses of 15 and 45mg/kg. Magnesium did not affect increase the levels of serum creatine kinase activity. Preemptive systemic administration of magnesium sulfate as the only drug can be used to prevent inflammatory pain in the orofacial region. Its analgesic effect is not associated with magnesium deficiency. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Dietary protein-fiber ratio associates with circulating levels of indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate in chronic kidney disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, M; Johnson, D W; Xu, H; Carrero, J J; Pascoe, E; French, C; Campbell, K L

    2015-09-01

    Indoxyl sulfate (IS) and p-cresyl sulfate (PCS) are uremic toxins derived solely from colonic bacterial fermentation of protein. Dietary fiber may counteract this by limiting proteolytic bacterial fermentation. However, the influence of dietary intake on the generation of IS and PCS has not been adequately explored in chronic kidney disease (CKD). This cross-sectional study included 40 CKD participants (60% male; age 69 ± 10 years; 45% diabetic) with a mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 24 ± 8 mL/min/1.73 m(2), who enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of synbiotic therapy. Total and free serum IS and PCS were measured at baseline by ultra-performance liquid chromatography. Dietary intake was measured using in-depth diet histories collected by a dietitian. Associations between each toxin, dietary fiber (total, soluble and insoluble), dietary protein (total, and amino acids: tryptophan, tyrosine and phenylalanine), and the protein-fiber index (ratio of protein to fiber) were assessed using linear regression. Dietary fiber was associated with free and total serum PCS (r = -0.42 and r = -0.44, both p protein and either toxin. The protein-fiber index was associated with total serum IS (r = 0.40, p = 0.012) and PCS (r = 0.43, p = 0.005), independent of eGFR, sex and diabetes. Dietary protein-fiber index is associated with serum IS and PCS levels. Such association, beyond fiber and protein alone, highlights the importance of the interplay between these nutrients. We speculate that dietary modification towards a lower protein-fiber index may contribute to lowering IS and PCS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Removal of Sulfate Ion From AN-107 by Evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GJ Lumetta; GS Klinger; DE Kurath; RL Sell; LP Darnell; LR Greenwood; CZ Soderquist; MJ Steele; MW Urie; JJ Wagner

    2000-01-01

    Hanford low-activity waste solutions contain sulfate, which can cause accelerated corrosion of the vitrification melter and unacceptable operating conditions. A method is needed to selectively separate sulfate from the waste. An experiment was conducted to evaluate evaporation for removing sulfate ion from Tank AN-107 low-activity waste. Two evaporation steps were performed. In the first step, the volume was reduced by 55% while in the second step, the liquid volume was reduced another 22%. Analysis of the solids precipitated during these evaporations revealed that large amounts of sodium nitrate and nitrite co-precipitated with sodium sulfate. Many other waste components precipitated as well. It can be concluded that sulfate removal by precipitation is not selective, and thus, evaporation is not a viable option for removing sulfate from the AN-107 liquid

  1. Metabolic interactions in methanogenic and sulfate-reducing bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stams, A J M; Plugge, C M; de Bok, F A M; van Houten, B H G W; Lens, P; Dijkman, H; Weijma, J

    2005-01-01

    In environments where the amount of electron acceptors is insufficient for complete breakdown of organic matter, methane is formed as the major reduced end product. In such methanogenic environments organic acids are degraded by syntrophic consortia of acetogenic bacteria and methanogenic archaea. Hydrogen consumption by methanogens is essential for acetogenic bacteria to convert organic acids to acetate and hydrogen. Several syntrophic cocultures growing on propionate and butyrate have been described. These syntrophic fatty acid-degrading consortia are affected by the presence of sulfate. When sulfate is present sulfate-reducing bacteria compete with methanogenic archaea for hydrogen and acetate, and with acetogenic bacteria for propionate and butyrate. Sulfate-reducing bacteria easily outcompete methanogens for hydrogen, but the presence of acetate as carbon source may influence the outcome of the competition. By contrast, acetoclastic methanogens can compete reasonably well with acetate-degrading sulfate reducers. Sulfate-reducing bacteria grow much faster on propionate and butyrate than syntrophic consortia.

  2. Process for removing sulfate anions from waste water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, David N.; Galvan, Gloria J.; Hundley, Gary L.; Wright, John B.

    1997-01-01

    A liquid emulsion membrane process for removing sulfate anions from waste water is disclosed. The liquid emulsion membrane process includes the steps of: (a) providing a liquid emulsion formed from an aqueous strip solution and an organic phase that contains an extractant capable of removing sulfate anions from waste water; (b) dispersing the liquid emulsion in globule form into a quantity of waste water containing sulfate anions to allow the organic phase in each globule of the emulsion to extract and absorb sulfate anions from the waste water and (c) separating the emulsion including its organic phase and absorbed sulfate anions from the waste water to provide waste water containing substantially no sulfate anions.

  3. Immobilization of calcium sulfate contained in demolition waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambroise, J.; Pera, J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a laboratory study undertaken to examine the treatment of demolition waste containing calcium sulfate by means of calcium sulfoaluminate clinker (CSA). The quantity of CSA necessary to entirely consume calcium sulfate was determined. Using infrared spectrometry analysis and X-ray diffraction, it was shown that calcium sulfate was entirely consumed when the ratio between CSA and calcium sulfate was 4. Standard sand was polluted by 4% calcium sulfate. Two solutions were investigated: ·either global treatment of sand by CSA, ·or immobilization of calcium sulfate by CSA, followed by the introduction of this milled mixture in standard sand. Regardless of the type of treatment, swelling was almost stabilized after 28 days of immersion in water

  4. Sulfate Anion Delays the Self-Assembly of Human Insulin by Modifying the Aggregation Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Owczarz, Marta; Arosio, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying protein self-assembly and of their dependence on solvent composition has implications in a large number of biological and biotechnological systems. In this work, we characterize the aggregation process of human insulin at acidic pH in the presence of sulfate ions using a combination of Thioflavin T fluorescence, dynamic light scattering, size exclusion chromatography, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron mi...

  5. Effect of low X-ray dose irradiation on properties triglycine sulfate doped by chromium

    CERN Document Server

    Kamysheva, L N; Golitsyna, O M

    2002-01-01

    One studied effect of X-ray low dose on pulse re-polarization in triglycine sulfate crystals (TGS) with various concentration of chromium ions. It is shown that within 20.0 deg C-T sub c temperature range alpha activation field values depend unambiguously on radiation dose for various polarity switching current pulses. One detected decrease of unipolarity of TGS crystal caused by chromium ions due to interaction of radiation defects with impurity ones

  6. A radioimmunoassay for measurement of thyroxine sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, I.J.; Santini, F.; Hurd, R.E.; Chua Teco, G.N.

    1993-01-01

    A highly sensitive, specific, and reproducible RIA has been developed to measure T 4 sulfate (T 4 S) in ethanol extracts of serum. rT 3 sulfate (rT 3 S) cross-reacted 7.1%, and T 3 S cross-reacted 0.59% in the RIA; T 4 , T 3 , rT 3 and 3,3'-diiodothyronine cross-reacted 0.004% or less. The recovery of nonradioactive T 4 S added to serum averaged 95%. The detection threshold of the RIA was 18 pmol/L. The coefficient of variation averaged 6.9% within an assay and 12% between assays. T 4 S was bound by T 4 -binding globulin and albumin in serum. The free fraction of T 4 S in four normal sera averaged 0.06% compared to a value of 0.03% for T 4 (P 4 S was (mean ± SE) 19 ± 1.2 pmol/L in normal subjects, 33 ± 10 in hyperthyroid patients with Graves disease, 42 ± 15 in hypothyroid patients, 34 ± 6.9 in patients with systematic nonthyroidal illnesses, 21 ± 4.3 in pregnant women at 15-40 weeks gestation, and 245 ± 26 in cord blood sera of newborns; the value in the newborn was significantly different from normal (P 4 S. The T 4 S content of the thyroid gland was less than 1/4000th that of T 4 . We conclude that (1) T 4 S is a normal component of human serum, and its levels are markedly increased in newborn serum and amniotic fluid; and (2) the sulfation pathway plays an important role in the metabolism of T 4 in man. 28 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Sulfated oligosaccharide structures, as determined by NMR techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noseda, M.D.; Duarte, M.E.R.; Tischer, C.A.; Gorin, P.A.J.; Cerezo, A.S.

    1997-01-01

    Carrageenans are sulfated polysaccharides, produced by red seaweeds (Rhodophyta), that have important biological and physico-chemical properties. Using partial autohydrolysis, we obtained sulfated oligosaccharides from a λ-carrageenan (Noseda and Cerezo, 1993). These oligosaccharides are valuable not only for the study of the structures of the parent carrageenans but also for their possible biological activities. In this work we determined the chemical structure of one of the sulfated oligosaccharides using 1D and 2D NMR techniques. (author)

  8. An intrinsically disordered linker controlling the formation and the stability of the bacterial flagellar hook

    OpenAIRE

    Barker, Clive S.; Meshcheryakova, Irina V.; Kostyukova, Alla S.; Freddolino, Peter L.; Samatey, Fadel A.

    2017-01-01

    Background In a macro-molecular complex, any minor change may prove detrimental. For a supra-molecular nano-machine like the bacterial flagellum, which consists of several distinct parts with specific characteristics, stability is important. During the rotation of the bacterial flagellar motor, which is located in the membrane, the flagella rotate at speeds between 200 and 2000 rpm, depending on the bacterial species. The hook substructure of the bacterial flagellum acts as a universal joint ...

  9. [Bacterial biofilms and infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasa, I; Del Pozo, J L; Penadés, J R; Leiva, J

    2005-01-01

    In developed countries we tend to think of heart disease and the numerous forms of cancer as the main causes of mortality, but on a global scale infectious diseases come close, or may even be ahead: 14.9 million deaths in 2002 compared to cardiovascular diseases (16.9 million deaths) and cancer (7.1 million deaths) (WHO report 2004). The infectious agents responsible for human mortality have evolved as medical techniques and hygienic measures have changed. Modern-day acute infectious diseases caused by specialized bacterial pathogens such as diphtheria, tetanus, cholera, plague, which represented the main causes of death at the beginning of XX century, have been effectively controlled with antibiotics and vaccines. In their place, more than half of the infectious diseases that affect mildly immunocompromised patients involve bacterial species that are commensal with the human body; these can produce chronic infections, are resistant to antimicrobial agents and there is no effective vaccine against them. Examples of these infections are the otitis media, native valve endocarditis, chronic urinary infections, bacterial prostatitis, osteomyelitis and all the infections related to medical devices. Direct analysis of the surface of medical devices or of tissues that have been foci of chronic infections shows the presence of large numbers of bacteria surrounded by an exopolysaccharide matrix, which has been named the "biofilm". Inside the biofilm, bacteria grow protected from the action of the antibodies, phagocytic cells and antimicrobial treatments. In this article, we describe the role of bacterial biofilms in human persistent infections.

  10. Interfering with bacterial gossip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Givskov, Michael

    2011-01-01

    that appropriately target bacteria in their relevant habitat with the aim of mitigating their destructive impact on patients. In this review we describe molecular mechanisms involved in “bacterial gossip” (more scientifically referred to as quorum sensing (QS) and c-di-GMP signaling), virulence, biofilm formation...

  11. Bacterial fingerprints across Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glasner, Corinna

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens, such as Staphylococcus aureus and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE), impose major threats to human health worldwide. Both have a ‘Jekyll & Hyde’ character, since they can be present as human commensals, but can also become harmful invasive pathogens especially

  12. Bacterial membrane proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poetsch, Ansgar; Wolters, Dirk

    2008-10-01

    About one quarter to one third of all bacterial genes encode proteins of the inner or outer bacterial membrane. These proteins perform essential physiological functions, such as the import or export of metabolites, the homeostasis of metal ions, the extrusion of toxic substances or antibiotics, and the generation or conversion of energy. The last years have witnessed completion of a plethora of whole-genome sequences of bacteria important for biotechnology or medicine, which is the foundation for proteome and other functional genome analyses. In this review, we discuss the challenges in membrane proteome analysis, starting from sample preparation and leading to MS-data analysis and quantification. The current state of available proteomics technologies as well as their advantages and disadvantages will be described with a focus on shotgun proteomics. Then, we will briefly introduce the most abundant proteins and protein families present in bacterial membranes before bacterial membrane proteomics studies of the last years will be presented. It will be shown how these works enlarged our knowledge about the physiological adaptations that take place in bacteria during fine chemical production, bioremediation, protein overexpression, and during infections. Furthermore, several examples from literature demonstrate the suitability of membrane proteomics for the identification of antigens and different pathogenic strains, as well as the elucidation of membrane protein structure and function.

  13. [Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velkey, Bálint; Vitális, Eszter; Vitális, Zsuzsanna

    2017-01-01

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis occurs most commonly in cirrhotic patients with ascites. Pathogens get into the circulation by intestinal translocation and colonize in peritoneal fluid. Diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is based on elevated polymorphonuclear leukocyte count in the ascites (>0,25 G/L). Ascites culture is often negative but aids to get information about antibiotic sensitivity in positive cases. Treatment in stable patient can be intravenous then orally administrated ciprofloxacin or amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, while in severe cases intravenous III. generation cephalosporin. Nosocomial spontaneous bacterial peritonitis often caused by Gram-positive bacteria and multi-resistant pathogens can also be expected thus carbapenem should be the choice of the empiric treatment. Antibiotic prophylaxis should be considered. Norfloxacin is used most commonly, but changes are expected due to increase in quinolone resistance. As a primary prophylaxis, a short-term antibiotic treatment is recommended after gastrointestinal bleeding for 5 days, while long-term prophylaxis is for patients with low ascites protein, and advanced disease (400 mg/day). Secondary prophylaxis is recommended for all patients recovered from spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Due to increasing antibiotic use of antibiotics prophylaxis is debated to some degree. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(2), 50-57.

  14. Bacterial mobilization of polonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaRock, P.; Hyun, J.H.; Burnett, W.C.

    1996-01-01

    Polonium has been observed as the sole α-emitting nuclide in groundwaters of central Florida, in the absence of its radiogenic parents, at levels of 1,000 dpm/1 or more. Because of the chemical similarity of Po to S (both occupy the same column in the periodic table), studies were begun to determine whether bacteria, particularly those species active in sulfur cycling, could account for the selective solubilization and mobilization of Po. Possible sources of Po are the U-rich phosphate rock and phosphogypsum (gypsum), a byproduct in the manufacture of phosphoric acid. This paper reports on a series of experiments involving the interaction of bacteria with this waste gypsum that resulted in the solubilization of Po. Bacteria were isolated from gypsum that were capable of mediating Po release in column experiments of Po. Bacteria were isolated from gypsum that were capable of mediating Po release in column experiments when fed a growth medium. Sulfate-reducing bacteria were particularly effective at mediating Po release provided the sulfide levels did not rise above 10 μM, in which case Po was apparently coprecipitated as a metal sulfide. Conversely, the ability of sulfate-reducing bacteria to effectively remove dissolved Po when sulfide levels are high suggests that these bacteria may be used as an effective bioremediation tool at reducing groundwater Po levels. 22 refs., 10 figs

  15. Hydrometallurgical process for recovering iron sulfate and zinc sulfate from baghouse dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaromb, Solomon; Lawson, Daniel B.

    1994-01-01

    A process for recovering zinc/rich and iron-rich fractions from the baghouse dust that is generated in various metallurgical operations, especially in steel-making and other iron-making plants, comprises the steps of leaching the dust by hot concentrated sulfuric acid so as to generate dissolved zinc sulfate and a precipitate of iron sulfate, separating the precipitate from the acid by filtration and washing with a volatile liquid, such as methanol or acetone, and collecting the filtered acid and the washings into a filtrate fraction. The volatile liquid may be recovered distillation, and the zinc may be removed from the filtrate by alternative methods, one of which involves addition of a sufficient amount of water to precipitate hydrated zinc sulfate at 10.degree. C., separation of the precipitate from sulfuric acid by filtration, and evaporation of water to regenerate concentrated sulfuric acid. The recovery of iron may also be effected in alternative ways, one of which involves roasting the ferric sulfate to yield ferric oxide and sulfur trioxide, which can be reconverted to concentrated sulfuric acid by hydration. The overall process should not generate any significant waste stream.

  16. Purification, structural characterization and antiproliferative properties of chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate from tunisian fish skins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krichen, Fatma; Volpi, Nicola; Sila, Assaâd; Maccari, Francesca; Mantovani, Veronica; Galeotti, Fabio; Ellouz-Chaabouni, Semia; Bougatef, Ali

    2017-02-01

    Chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate GAGs were extracted and purified from the skins of grey triggerfish (GTSG) and smooth hound (SHSG). The disaccharide composition produced by chondroitinase ABC treatment showed the presence of nonsulfated disaccharide, monosulfated disaccharides ΔDi6S and ΔDi4S, and disulfated disaccharides in different percentages. In particular, the nonsulfated disaccharide ΔDi0S of GTSG and SHSG were 3.5% and 5.5%, respectively, while monosulfated disaccharides ΔDi6S and ΔDi4S were evaluated to be 18.2%, 59% and 14.6%, 47.0%, respectively. Capillary elecrophoresis analysis of GTSG and SHSG contained 99.2% and 95.4% of chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate, respectively. PAGE analysis showed a GTSG and SHSG having molecular masses with average values of 41.72KDa and 23.8KDa, respectively. HCT116 cell proliferation was inhibited (p<0.05) by 70.6% and 72.65% at 200μg/mL of GTSG and SHSG respectively. Both GTSG and SHSG demonstrated promising antiproliferative potential, which may be used as a novel, effective agent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Inter vs. intraglycosidic acetal linkages control sulfation pattern in semi-synthetic chondroitin sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laezza, Antonio; De Castro, Cristina; Parrilli, Michelangelo; Bedini, Emiliano

    2014-11-04

    Microbial-sourced unsulfated chondroitin could be converted into chondroitin sulfate (CS) polysaccharide by a multi-step strategy relying upon benzylidenation and acetylation reactions as key-steps for its regioselective protection. By conducting the two reactions one- or two-pots, CSs with different sulfation patterns could be obtained at the end of the semi-synthesis. In particular, a CS polysaccharide possessing sulfate groups randomly distributed between positions 4 and 6 of N-acetyl-galactosamine (GalNAc) units could be obtained through the two-pots route, whereas the one-pot pathway allowed an additional sulfation at position 3 of some glucuronic acid (GlcA) units. This difference was ascribed to the stabilization of a labile interglycosidic benzylidene acetal involving positions O-3 and O-6 of some GlcA and GalNAc, respectively, when the benzylidene-acetylation reactions were conducted in a one-pot fashion. Isolation and characterization of a polysaccharide intermediate showing interglycosidic acetal moieties was accomplished. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sulfate Formation on Mars by Volcanic Aerosols: A New Look

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaney, D. L.

    1996-03-01

    Sulfur was measured at both Viking Lander sites in abundances of 5-9 wt % SO3. Because the sulfur was more concentrated in clumps which disintegrated and the general oxidized nature of the Martian soil, these measurements led to the assumption that a sulfate duricrust existed. Two types of models for sulfate formation have been proposed. One is a formation by upwardly migrating ground water. The other is the formation of sulfates by the precipitation of volcanic aerosols. Most investigators have tended to favor the ground water origin of sulfates on Mars. However, evidence assemble since Viking may point to a volcanic aerosol origin.

  19. Bicarbonate sulfate exchange in canalicular rat liver plasma membrane vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, P.J.; Valantinas, J.; Hugentobler, G.; Rahm, I.

    1987-01-01

    The mechanism(s) and driving forces for biliary excretion of sulfate were investigated in canalicular rat liver plasma membrane vesicles (cLPM). Incubation of cLPM vesicles in the presence of an inside-to-outside (in, out) bicarbonate gradient but not pH or out-to-in sodium gradients, stimulated sulfate uptake 10-fold compared with the absence of bicarbonate and approximately 2-fold above sulfate equilibrium (overshoot). Initial rates of this bicarbonate gradient-driven [ 35 S]-sulfate uptake were saturable with increasing concentrations of sulfate and could be inhibited by probenecid, N-(4-azido-2-nitrophenyl)-2-aminoethylsulfonate, acetazolamide, furosemide, 4-acetamideo-4'-isothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid, and 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (IC 50 , ∼40 μM). Cisinhibition of initial bicarbonate gradient-stimulated sulfate uptake and transstimulation of sulfate uptake in the absence of bicarbonate were observed with sulfate, thiosulfate, and oxalate but not with chloride, nitrate, phosphate, acetate, lactate, glutamate, aspartate, cholate, taurocholate, dehydrocholate, taurodehydrocholate, and reduced or oxidized glutathione. These findings indicate the presence of a sulfate (oxalate)-bicarbonate anion exchange system in canalicular rat liver plasma membranes. These findings support the concept that bicarbonate-sensitive transport system might play an important role in bile acid-independent canalicular bile formation

  20. Mencegah Pembentukan Kalsium Sulfat pada Desalinasi Air Laut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Rahmah Lubis

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Resin penukar-anion, Relite MG 1/P, dapat digunakan untuk memisahkan sulfat dalam air laut guna mencegah pembentukan kerak kalsium sulfat pada heat exchanger. Resin tersebut menunjukkan selektivitas sulfat yang tinggi dalam air laut sintetis. Resin yang telah dipakai dapat diregenerasi menggunakan air asin yang dipekatkan dengan asam hingga mencapai pH 4. Untuk waktu pemakaian dan regenerasi yang sama, faktor konsentrasi desalinasi (misalnya 2 hingga 4 menaikkan konsentrasi klorida dalam air asin yang diblowdown. Dengan faktor konsentrasi yang tetap, kenaikan laju alir (pengurangan waktu pemakaian dan regenerasi memperendah efisiensi regenerasi dan menaikkan pemisahan sulfat. Akibat kelarutan kalsium sulfat yang bersifat terbalik tersebut, temperatur air asin yang tinggi memerlukan pemisahan sulfat yang lebih banyak, yang dapat dicapai dengan mengurangi laju alir air laut. Pengurangan laju alir tersebut membutuhkan peralatan yang lebih besar dan resin yang lebih banyak, sehingga biaya modal bertambah. Untuk pabrik desalinasi dengan kapasitas produksi 1 juta gallon per hari dan faktor konsentrasi sebesar 2, biaya pemisahan sulfat meliputi biaya resin dan biaya peralatan. Biaya tersebut bervariasi dari $0.246 hingga $0.356/kgalon (per ribu galon air yang diproduksi karena temperatur maksimum air asin berubah dari 140°C menjadi 180°C. Keywords: desalinasi air laut, ion exchange, kalsium sulfat, kerak; mechanical vapor compression (MVC, pemisahan sulfat, resin penukar-anion basa lemah

  1. Corticosteroids for Bacterial Keratitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Muthiah; Mascarenhas, Jeena; Rajaraman, Revathi; Ravindran, Meenakshi; Lalitha, Prajna; Glidden, David V.; Ray, Kathryn J.; Hong, Kevin C.; Oldenburg, Catherine E.; Lee, Salena M.; Zegans, Michael E.; McLeod, Stephen D.; Lietman, Thomas M.; Acharya, Nisha R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether there is a benefit in clinical outcomes with the use of topical corticosteroids as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of bacterial corneal ulcers. Methods Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-masked, multicenter clinical trial comparing prednisolone sodium phosphate, 1.0%, to placebo as adjunctive therapy for the treatment of bacterial corneal ulcers. Eligible patients had a cul