WorldWideScience

Sample records for dependency progressive incrementalism

  1. On exceedance times for some processes with dependent increments

    CERN Document Server

    Asmussen, Søren

    2012-01-01

    Let ${Z_n}_{n\\ge 0}$ be a random walk with a negative drift and i.i.d. increments with heavy-tailed distribution and let $M=\\sup_{n\\ge 0}Z_n$ be its supremum. Asmussen & Kl{\\"u}ppelberg (1996) considered the behavior of the random walk given that $M>x$, for $x$ large, and obtained a limit theorem, as $x\\to\\infty$, for the distribution of the quadruple that includes the time $\\rtreg=\\rtreg(x)$ to exceed level $x$, position $Z_{\\rtreg}$ at this time, position $Z_{\\rtreg-1}$ at the prior time, and the trajectory up to it (similar results were obtained for the Cram\\'er-Lundberg insurance risk process). We obtain here several extensions of this result to various regenerative-type models and, in particular, to the case of a random walk with dependent increments. Particular attention is given to describing the limiting conditional behavior of $\\tau$. The class of models include Markov-modulated models as particular cases. We also study fluid models, the Bj{\\"o}rk-Grandell risk process, give examples where the or...

  2. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Jjj of... - Generic Compliance Schedules and Increments of Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Generic Compliance Schedules and Increments of Progress 1 Table 1 to Subpart JJJ of Part 62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... or Before August 30, 1999 Pt. 62, Subpt. JJJ, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart JJJ of Part 62—Generic...

  3. 40 CFR 60.2840 - How do I comply with the increment of progress for submittal of a control plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Emissions Guidelines and Compliance Times for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units that... progress for submittal of a control plan? 60.2840 Section 60.2840 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... comply with the increment of progress for submittal of a control plan? For your control plan increment...

  4. When luminance increment thresholds depend on apparent lightness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maertens, Marianne; Wichmann, Felix A

    2013-05-31

    A fundamental question in visual perception research is whether the sensitivity to stimulus differences is limited by the sensory representation of the external stimulus, that is, the proximal stimulus, or by its perceptual representation, i.e., stimulus appearance. In the domain of lightness perception, the question translates into whether discrimination thresholds depend on the local luminance in the retinal image or on the apparent lightness of the corresponding image region. The majority of findings seem to indicate that sensitivity is limited by the sensory stimulus representation, which would imply different mechanisms for stimulus discrimination and appearance. We think this conclusion needs to be qualified. We report data suggesting that the relationship between discrimination and appearance judgments depends on how exactly they are being measured. We propose a theoretical account that provides a common mechanism for appearance and sensitivity. An interesting corollary of this model is that it also accounts for the perceptual phenomenon of assimilation.

  5. 40 CFR Table 9 to Subpart Jjj of... - Site-specific Compliance Schedules and Increments of Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Site-specific Compliance Schedules and Increments of Progress 9 Table 9 to Subpart JJJ of Part 62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... or Before August 30, 1999 Pt. 62, Subpt. JJJ, Table 9 Table 9 to Subpart JJJ of Part 62—Site-specific...

  6. A maximal incremental effort alters tear osmolarity depending on the fitness level in military helicopter pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera Vilchez, Jesús; Jimenez, Raimundo; Madinabeitia, Iker; Masiulis, Nerijus; Cárdenas, David

    2017-08-04

    Fitness level modulates the physiological responses to exercise for a variety of indices. While intense bouts of exercise have been demonstrated to increase tear osmolarity (Tosm), it is not known if fitness level can affect the Tosm response to acute exercise. This study aims to compare the effect of a maximal incremental test on Tosm between trained and untrained military helicopter pilots. Nineteen military helicopter pilots (ten trained and nine untrained) performed a maximal incremental test on a treadmill. A tear sample was collected before and after physical effort to determine the exercise-induced changes on Tosm. The Bayesian statistical analysis demonstrated that Tosm significantly increased from 303.72 ± 6.76 to 310.56 ± 8.80 mmol/L after performance of a maximal incremental test. However, while the untrained group showed an acute Tosm rise (12.33 mmol/L of increment), the trained group experienced a stable Tosm physical effort (1.45 mmol/L). There was a significant positive linear association between fat indices and Tosm changes (correlation coefficients [r] range: 0.77-0.89), whereas the Tosm changes displayed a negative relationship with the cardiorespiratory capacity (VO2 max; r = -0.75) and performance parameters (r = -0.75 for velocity, and r = -0.67 for time to exhaustion). The findings from this study provide evidence that fitness level is a major determinant of Tosm response to maximal incremental physical effort, showing a fairly linear association with several indices related to fitness level. High fitness level seems to be beneficial to avoid Tosm changes as consequence of intense exercise. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Hierarchical incremental path planning and situation-dependent optimized dynamic motion planning considering accelerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Xue-Cheng; Ge, Shuzhi Sam; Al Mamun, Abdullah

    2007-12-01

    This paper studies a hierarchical approach for incrementally driving a nonholonomic mobile robot to its destination in unknown environments. The A* algorithm is modified to handle a map containing unknown information. Based on it, optimal (discrete) paths are incrementally generated with a periodically updated map. Next, accelerations in varying velocities are taken into account in predicting the robot pose and the robot trajectory resulting from a motion command. Obstacle constraints are transformed to suitable velocity limits so that the robot can move as fast as possible while avoiding collisions when needed. Then, to trace the discrete path, the system searches for a waypoint-directed optimized motion in a reduced 1-D translation or rotation velocity space. Various situations of navigation are dealt with by using different strategies rather than a single objective function. Extensive simulations and experiments verified the efficacy of the proposed approach.

  8. Maximal power output during incremental cycling test is dependent on the curvature constant of the power-time relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Kristopher Mendes; de Lucas, Ricardo Dantas; do Nascimento Salvador, Paulo Cesar; Guglielmo, Luiz Guilherme Antonacci; Caritá, Renato Aparecido Corrêa; Greco, Camila Coelho; Denadai, Benedito Sérgio

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the maximal power output (Pmax) during an incremental test was dependent on the curvature constant (W') of the power-time relationship. Thirty healthy male subjects (maximal oxygen uptake = 3.58 ± 0.40 L·min(-1)) performed a ramp incremental cycling test to determine the maximal oxygen uptake and Pmax, and 4 constant work rate tests to exhaustion to estimate 2 parameters from the modeling of the power-time relationship (i.e., critical power (CP) and W'). Afterwards, the participants were ranked according to their magnitude of W'. The median third was excluded to form a high W' group (HIGH, n = 10), and a low W' group (LOW, n = 10). Maximal oxygen uptake (3.84 ± 0.50 vs. 3.49 ± 0.37 L·min(-1)) and CP (213 ± 22 vs. 200 ± 29 W) were not significantly different between HIGH and LOW, respectively. However, Pmax was significantly greater for the HIGH (337 ± 23 W) than for the LOW (299 ± 40 W). Thus, in physically active individuals with similar aerobic parameters, W' influences the Pmax during incremental testing.

  9. Incremental Innovation and Progress in Advanced Squamous Cell Lung Cancer: Current Status and Future Impact of Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Corey J; Obasaju, Coleman; Bunn, Paul; Bonomi, Philip; Gandara, David; Hirsch, Fred R; Kim, Edward S; Natale, Ronald B; Novello, Silvia; Paz-Ares, Luis; Pérol, Maurice; Reck, Martin; Ramalingam, Suresh S; Reynolds, Craig H; Socinski, Mark A; Spigel, David R; Wakelee, Heather; Mayo, Carlos; Thatcher, Nick

    2016-12-01

    Squamous cell lung cancer (sqCLC) is an aggressive form of cancer that poses many therapeutic challenges. Patients tend to be older, present at a later stage, and have a high incidence of comorbidities, which can compromise treatment delivery and exacerbate toxicity. In addition, certain agents routinely available for nonsquamous cell histologic subtypes, such as bevacizumab and pemetrexed, are contraindicated or lack efficacy in sqCLC. Therapeutic progress has been much slower for advanced sqCLC, with median survival times of approximately 9 to 11 months in most studies. Herein, we discuss the current therapeutic landscape for patients with sqCLC versus with nonsquamous NSCLC. Current evidence indicates that new targeted treatments, notably monoclonal antibodies such as ramucirumab and necitumumab, and immunotherapies such as nivolumab and pembrolizumab can provide survival prolongation, although the benefits are still relatively modest. These incremental improvements, all realized since 2012, in aggregate, will very likely have a clinically meaningful impact for patients with sqCLC. We also discuss recent genomic studies of sqCLC that have identified potentially actionable molecular targets, as well as the relevant targeted agents in clinical development. Finally, we discuss the magnitude of survival benefit and the risk-to-benefit ratio that would prove clinically meaningful in this underserved patient population with unmet needs.

  10. Day treatment for cocaine dependence: incremental utility over outpatient counseling and voucher incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Douglas B; Kirby, Kimberly C; Festinger, David S; Merikle, Elizabeth P; Tran, Giao Q; Platt, Jerome J

    2003-03-01

    Urban, poor, crack cocaine-dependent clients were randomly assigned to outpatient addiction counseling (n=39) or day treatment (n=40). Participants in both conditions received equivalent individual cognitive-behavioral counseling and earned equivalent payment vouchers for providing cocaine-negative urine samples. However, day treatment participants attended significantly more psychoeducational and recreational groups and received two meals per day. Prior to random assignment, more participants expressed a preference for day treatment and participants were more likely to return for an initial appointment following assignment to day treatment. However, no significant between-groups differences in tenure or abstinence were detected during the 3-month course of treatment. These null findings were attributable to an absence of a dose-response effect for the group interventions in the day treatment condition. In addition, there may have been a ceiling effect from the vouchers, which masked the influence of the additional day treatment components.

  11. Incremental algorithms on lists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeuring, J.T.

    1991-01-01

    Incremental computations can improve the performance of interactive programs such as spreadsheet programs, program development environments, text editors, etc. Incremental algorithms describe how to compute a required value depending on the input, after the input has been edited. By considering the

  12. Modeling cancer progression via pathway dependencies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena J Edelman

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a heterogeneous disease often requiring a complexity of alterations to drive a normal cell to a malignancy and ultimately to a metastatic state. Certain genetic perturbations have been implicated for initiation and progression. However, to a great extent, underlying mechanisms often remain elusive. These genetic perturbations are most likely reflected by the altered expression of sets of genes or pathways, rather than individual genes, thus creating a need for models of deregulation of pathways to help provide an understanding of the mechanisms of tumorigenesis. We introduce an integrative hierarchical analysis of tumor progression that discovers which a priori defined pathways are relevant either throughout or in particular steps of progression. Pathway interaction networks are inferred for these relevant pathways over the steps in progression. This is followed by the refinement of the relevant pathways to those genes most differentially expressed in particular disease stages. The final analysis infers a gene interaction network for these refined pathways. We apply this approach to model progression in prostate cancer and melanoma, resulting in a deeper understanding of the mechanisms of tumorigenesis. Our analysis supports previous findings for the deregulation of several pathways involved in cell cycle control and proliferation in both cancer types. A novel finding of our analysis is a connection between ErbB4 and primary prostate cancer.

  13. The limit distribution of the maximum increment of a random walk with dependent regularly varying jump sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikosch, Thomas Valentin; Moser, Martin

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the maximum increment of a random walk with heavy-tailed jump size distribution. Here heavy-tailedness is understood as regular variation of the finite-dimensional distributions. The jump sizes constitute a strictly stationary sequence. Using a continuous mapping argument acting on...... on the point processes of the normalized jump sizes, we prove that the maximum increment of the random walk converges in distribution to a Fréchet distributed random variable....

  14. Progress Report on Alloy 617 Time Dependent Allowables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Julie Knibloe [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Time dependent allowable stresses are required in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code for design of components in the temperature range where time dependent deformation (i.e., creep) is expected to become significant. There are time dependent allowable stresses in Section IID of the Code for use in the non-nuclear construction codes, however, there are additional criteria that must be considered in developing time dependent allowables for nuclear components. These criteria are specified in Section III NH. St is defined as the lesser of three quantities: 100% of the average stress required to obtain a total (elastic, plastic, primary and secondary creep) strain of 1%; 67% of the minimum stress to cause rupture; and 80% of the minimum stress to cause the initiation of tertiary creep. The values are reported for a range of temperatures and for time increments up to 100,000 hours. These values are determined from uniaxial creep tests, which involve the elevated temperature application of a constant load which is relatively small, resulting in deformation over a long time period prior to rupture. The stress which is the minimum resulting from these criteria is the time dependent allowable stress St. In this report data from a large number of creep and creep-rupture tests on Alloy 617 are analyzed using the ASME Section III NH criteria. Data which are used in the analysis are from the ongoing DOE sponsored high temperature materials program, form Korea Atomic Energy Institute through the Generation IV VHTR Materials Program and historical data from previous HTR research and vendor data generated in developing the alloy. It is found that the tertiary creep criterion determines St at highest temperatures, while the stress to cause 1% total strain controls at low temperatures. The ASME Section III Working Group on Allowable Stress Criteria has recommended that the uncertainties associated with determining the onset of tertiary creep and the lack of significant

  15. Pullback incremental attraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kloeden Peter E.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A pullback incremental attraction, a nonautonomous version of incremental stability, is introduced for nonautonomous systems that may have unbounded limiting solutions. Its characterisation by a Lyapunov function is indicated

  16. Incremental Distance Transforms (IDT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Theo E.; van den Broek, Egon; Erçil, A.; Çetin, M.; Boyer, K.; Lee, S.-W.

    2010-01-01

    A new generic scheme for incremental implementations of distance transforms (DT) is presented: Incremental Distance Transforms (IDT). This scheme is applied on the cityblock, Chamfer, and three recent exact Euclidean DT (E2DT). A benchmark shows that for all five DT, the incremental implementation r

  17. [Incremental peritoneal dialysis - yes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Loris

    2012-01-01

    The incremental modality at the start of peritoneal dialysis (Incr-DP) is implicit in the definition of adequacy, which is expressed as the sum of dialysis clearance and renal clearance.Theoretically, it is possible to demonstrate that with a glomerular filtration rate at the start of dialysis of 6 mL/min, the minimum Kt/V target of 1.70 indicated by the current guidelines is easily exceeded with both 2-exchange of CAPD (incremental CAPD) and APD of 3 or 4 weekly sessions (Incr-APD), with a daytime icodextrin dwell. The GSDP (Peritoneal Dialysis Study Group) census data suggest that Incr-DP favors the choice of peritoneal dialysis. Although limited to a few studies with a relatively small number of patients, data show that Incr- CAPD is associated with a better quality of life, the achievement of Kt/V targets, and satisfactory ultrafiltration. The clearance of medium molecules is equivalent in Incr-DP and full-dose PD as it depends on the duration of the dwell and not on the number of exchanges. The maintenance of body weight, protein intake and peritoneal permeability may be explained by the lower glucose load with Incr-DP. The preservation of residual renal function is similar to that recorded with full-dose PD, while the peritonitis rate seems to be lower. The favorable results reported in the literature and the indications of the most recent guidelines about the importance of reducing the exposure to glucose to a minimum and safeguarding the patient's quality of life in our opinion further justify the use of Incr-DP.

  18. Consolidation solution for composite foundation considering a time-and depth-dependent stress increment along with three distribution patterns of soil permeability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng-meng LU; Kang-he XIE; Chuan-xun LI; Kun WANG

    2011-01-01

    In actual engineering practice, the stress increment within a composite foundation caused by external loads may varysimultaneously with depth and time. In addition, column installation always leads to a decay of soil permeability towards the column. However, almost none of the consolidation theories for composite foundation comprehensively consider these factors until now. For this reason, a stress increment due to external loads changing simultaneously with time and depth was incorporated into the analysis, and three possible variation patterns of soil's horizontal permeability coefficient were considered to account for the detrimental influence of column installation. These three patterns included a constant distribution pattern (Pattern Ⅰ), a linear distribution pattern (Pattern Ⅱ), and a parabolic distribution pattern (Pattern Ⅲ). Solutions were obtained for the average excess pore water pressures and the average degree of consolidation respectively. Then several special cases were discussed in detail based on the general solution obtained. Finally, comparisons were made, and the results show that the present solution is the most general rigorous solution in the literature, and it can be broken down into a number of previous solutions. The consolidation rate is accelerated with the increase in the value of the top to the bottom stress ratio. The consolidation rate calculated by the solution for Pattern Ⅰ is less than that for Pattern Ⅱ, which in rurn is less than that for Pattern Ⅲ.

  19. Incremental Alignment Manifold Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi Han; De-Yu Meng; Zong-Sen Xu; Nan-Nan Gu

    2011-01-01

    A new manifold learning method, called incremental alignment method (IAM), is proposed for nonlinear dimensionality reduction of high dimensional data with intrinsic low dimensionality. The main idea is to incrementally align low-dimensional coordinates of input data patch-by-patch to iteratively generate the representation of the entire dataset. The method consists of two major steps, the incremental step and the alignment step. The incremental step incrementally searches neighborhood patch to be aligned in the next step, and the alignment step iteratively aligns the low-dimensional coordinates of the neighborhood patch searched to generate the embeddings of the entire dataset. Compared with the existing manifold learning methods, the proposed method dominates in several aspects: high efficiency, easy out-of-sample extension, well metric-preserving, and averting of the local minima issue. All these properties are supported by a series of experiments performed on the synthetic and real-life datasets. In addition, the computational complexity of the proposed method is analyzed, and its efficiency is theoretically argued and experimentally demonstrated.

  20. Incremental Similarity and Turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole E.; Hedevang, Emil; Schmiegel, Jürgen

    This paper discusses the mathematical representation of an empirically observed phenomenon, referred to as Incremental Similarity. We discuss this feature from the viewpoint of stochastic processes and present a variety of non-trivial examples, including those that are of relevance for turbulence...

  1. Incremental Bisimulation Abstraction Refinement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godskesen, Jens Christian; Song, Lei; Zhang, Lijun

    2013-01-01

    an abstraction refinement approach for the probabilistic computation tree logic (PCTL), which is based on incrementally computing a sequence of may- and must-quotient automata. These are induced by depth-bounded bisimulation equivalences of increasing depth. The approach is both sound and complete, since...

  2. Lightweight incremental application upgrade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. van der Storm (Tijs)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractI present a lightweight approach to incremental application upgrade in the context of component-based software development. The approach can be used to efficiently implement an automated update feature in a platform and programming language agnostic way. A formal release model is present

  3. Incremental Gaussian Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quiñonero-Candela, Joaquin; Winther, Ole

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we consider Tipping's relevance vector machine (RVM) and formalize an incremental training strategy as a variant of the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm that we call subspace EM. Working with a subset of active basis functions, the sparsity of the RVM solution will ensure th...

  4. 累进计分和增量增酬在卫生院绩效管理中的应用%The Application of Progressive Scoring and Incremental Increase in Performance Management in Township Hospitals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘敬花; 张传刚

    2014-01-01

    以服务数量和质量为基础、以患者满意度为核心的绩效考核和薪酬分配制度,是目前乡镇卫生院综合配套改革的重要内容之一。为保证乡镇卫生院的公益性,防止逐利行为,调动职工工作积极性,建立一个有效的绩效考核和薪酬分配体系是许多乡镇卫生院重点关注和思考的问题。笔者所在单位引入了“累进计分”和“增量增酬”,取得了积极的效果。%Setting quantity and quality of services as the base, patient satisfaction as the core of the performance appraisal and salary distribution system are important content of the current comprehensive reform of township hospital. To guarantee the profits for public in township health cares, prevent profiteering behavior, mobilize the staff’s work enthusiasm and establish an effective performance appraisal and salary distribution system are the most focused and considered problems for a great number of township health cares. The example hospital introduced the “progressive scoring” and “incremental increase in return”, which had positive effect.

  5. Quantum independent increment processes

    CERN Document Server

    Franz, Uwe

    2005-01-01

    This volume is the first of two volumes containing the revised and completed notes lectures given at the school "Quantum Independent Increment Processes: Structure and Applications to Physics". This school was held at the Alfried-Krupp-Wissenschaftskolleg in Greifswald during the period March 9 – 22, 2003, and supported by the Volkswagen Foundation. The school gave an introduction to current research on quantum independent increment processes aimed at graduate students and non-specialists working in classical and quantum probability, operator algebras, and mathematical physics. The present first volume contains the following lectures: "Lévy Processes in Euclidean Spaces and Groups" by David Applebaum, "Locally Compact Quantum Groups" by Johan Kustermans, "Quantum Stochastic Analysis" by J. Martin Lindsay, and "Dilations, Cocycles and Product Systems" by B.V. Rajarama Bhat.

  6. Precursors of extreme increments

    CERN Document Server

    Hallerberg, S; Holstein, D; Kantz, H; Hallerberg, Sarah; Altmann, Eduardo G.; Holstein, Detlef; Kantz, Holger

    2006-01-01

    We investigate precursors and predictability of extreme events in time series, which consist in large increments within successive time steps. In order to understand the predictability of this class of extreme events, we study analytically the prediction of extreme increments in AR(1)-processes. The resulting strategies are then applied to predict sudden increases in wind speed recordings. In both cases we evaluate the success of predictions via creating receiver operator characteristics (ROC-plots). Surprisingly, we obtain better ROC-plots for completely uncorrelated Gaussian random numbers than for AR(1)-correlated data. Furthermore, we observe an increase of predictability with increasing event size. Both effects can be understood by using the likelihood ratio as a summary index for smooth ROC-curves.

  7. Efficient incremental relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Fareed, Muhammad Mehboob

    2013-07-01

    We propose a novel relaying scheme which improves the spectral efficiency of cooperative diversity systems by utilizing limited feedback from destination. Our scheme capitalizes on the fact that relaying is only required when direct transmission suffers deep fading. We calculate the packet error rate for the proposed efficient incremental relaying scheme with both amplify and forward and decode and forward relaying. Numerical results are also presented to verify their analytical counterparts. © 2013 IEEE.

  8. Shellsort with three increments

    CERN Document Server

    Janson, Svante

    2008-01-01

    A perturbation technique can be used to simplify and sharpen A. C. Yao's theorems about the behavior of shellsort with increments $(h,g,1)$. In particular, when $h=\\Theta(n^{7/15})$ and $g=\\Theta(h^{1/5})$, the average running time is $O(n^{23/15})$. The proof involves interesting properties of the inversions in random permutations that have been $h$-sorted and $g$-sorted.

  9. Predicting Sequences of Progressive Events Times with Time-dependent Covariates

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Song; Newlands, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to modeling progressive event-history data when the overall objective is prediction based on time-dependent covariates. This approach does not model the hazard function directly. Instead, it models the process of the state indicators of the event history so that the time-dependent covariates can be incorporated and predictors of the future events easily formulated. Our model can be applied to a range of real-world problems in medical and agricultural science.

  10. Incremental POP Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ben-yong

    2004-01-01

    In recently proposed partial oblique projection (POP) learning, a function space is decomposed into two complementary subspaces, so that functions belonging to one of which can be optimally estimated. This paper shows that when the decomposition is specially performed so that the above subspace becomes the largest, a special learning called SPOP learning is obtained and correspondingly an incremental learning is implemented, result of which equals exactly to that of batch learning including novel data. The effectiveness of the method is illustrated by experimental results.

  11. Freezing increment in keratophakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinger, C A; Wisnicki, H J

    In homoplastic keratomileusis, keratophakia, and epikeratophakia, the corneal tissue that provides the final refractive lenticule undergoes a conformational change when frozen. Because corneal tissue is composed primarily of water, an assumed value of 9.08% (approximate volumic percentage expansion of water when frozen) is frequently used for the increase in thickness, or freezing increment, rather than measuring it directly. We evaluated 32 cases of clinical keratophakia and found the increase in thickness to average 37 +/- 21%. In this series of 32 cases, the percentage of patients with a greater than 4 D residual refractive error was 16%. If an assumed freezing increment of 9.08% had been used, the percentage would have been 28%, with two-thirds of these 28% manifesting a marked undercorrection. Because of a lack of studies documenting the behavior of corneal tissue following cryoprotection and freezing, it is suggested that measurements be taken during homoplastic surgery to minimize the potential for significant inaccuracy in obtaining the desired optic result.

  12. Modification of a traditional breakfast leads to increased satiety along with attenuated plasma increments of glucose, C-peptide, insulin, and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, Bodil; Höglund, Peter; Roth, Bodil; Darwiche, Gassan

    2016-04-01

    Our hypothesis was that carbohydrate, fat, and protein contents of meals affect satiety, glucose homeostasis, and hormone secretion. The objectives of this crossover trial were to examine satiety, glycemic-insulinemic response, and plasma peptide levels in response to 2 different recommended diabetes diets with equivalent energy content. One traditional reference breakfast and one test breakfast, with lower carbohydrate and higher fat and protein content, were randomly administered to healthy volunteers (8 men, 12 women). Blood samples were collected, and satiety was scored on a visual analog scale before and 3 hours after meals. Plasma glucose was measured, and levels of C-peptide, ghrelin, glucagon, glucagon-like peptide-1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), insulin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and adipokines were analyzed by Luminex. Greater satiety, visual analog scale, and total and delta area under the curve (P satiety and attenuation of C-peptide, glucose, insulin, and GIP responses compared with the reference breakfast but does not affect adipokines, ghrelin, glucagon, glucagon-like peptide-1, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1.

  13. Value-Driven Incremental Development (Poster)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-27

    rework during development. Multi-dimensional Analysis What is the design implication of a release decision? Architecting for Incremental Assurance...measures are needed to make good release decisions? Selected FY14 Results • Improved rework analysis by making architectural dependency information...studies and surveys with organizations revealed architectural rework occurs in such context and can be managed by better quantification of technical

  14. A Multifaceted Role for Myd88-Dependent Signaling in Progression of Murine Mammary Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Mary J.; Serrano, Antonio; Boateng, Kofi Y.; Parsons, Victoria A.; Phuong, Tiffany; Seifert, Alyssa; Ricca, Jacob M.; Tucker, Kyle C.; Eidelman, Alec S.; Carey, Maureen A.; Kurt, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Previous data obtained in our laboratory suggested that there may be constitutive signaling through the myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (Myd88)-dependent signaling cascade in murine mammary carcinoma. Here, we extended these findings by showing that, in the absence of an added Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonist, the myddosome complex was preformed in 4T1 tumor cells, and that Myd88 influenced cytoplasmic extracellular signal–regulated kinase (Erk)1/Erk2 levels, nuclear levels of nuclear factor-kappaB (NFκB) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5), tumor-derived chemokine (C–C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) expression, and in vitro and in vivo tumor growth. In addition, RNA-sequencing revealed that Myd88-dependent signaling enhanced the expression of genes that could contribute to breast cancer progression and genes previously associated with poor outcome for patients with breast cancer, in addition to suppressing the expression of genes capable of inhibiting breast cancer progression. Yet, Myd88-dependent signaling in tumor cells also suppressed expression of genes that could contribute to tumor progression. Collectively, these data revealed a multifaceted role for Myd88-dependent signaling in murine mammary carcinoma. PMID:27812285

  15. CCR5 Expression Influences the Progression of Human Breast Cancer in a p53-dependent Manner

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Chemokines are implicated in tumor pathogenesis, although it is unclear whether they affect human cancer progression positively or negatively. We found that activation of the chemokine receptor CCR5 regulates p53 transcriptional activity in breast cancer cells through pertussis toxin–, JAK2-, and p38 mitogen–activated protein kinase–dependent mechanisms. CCR5 blockade significantly enhanced proliferation of xenografts from tumor cells bearing wild-type p53, but did not affect proliferation...

  16. Incremental Visualizer for Visible Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukauskas, Linas; Bøhlen, Michael Hanspeter

    This paper discusses the integration of database back-end and visualizer front-end into a one tightly coupled system. The main aim which we achieve is to reduce the data pipeline from database to visualization by using incremental data extraction of visible objects in a fly-through scenarios. We...... also argue that passing only relevant data from the database will substantially reduce the overall load of the visualization system. We propose the system Incremental Visualizer for Visible Objects (IVVO) which considers visible objects and enables incremental visualization along the observer movement...... visibility ranges and show that considering visibility ranges is crucial when considering incremental visible object extraction....

  17. Incremental Contingency Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearden, Richard; Meuleau, Nicolas; Ramakrishnan, Sailesh; Smith, David E.; Washington, Rich

    2003-01-01

    There has been considerable work in AI on planning under uncertainty. However, this work generally assumes an extremely simple model of action that does not consider continuous time and resources. These assumptions are not reasonable for a Mars rover, which must cope with uncertainty about the duration of tasks, the energy required, the data storage necessary, and its current position and orientation. In this paper, we outline an approach to generating contingency plans when the sources of uncertainty involve continuous quantities such as time and resources. The approach involves first constructing a "seed" plan, and then incrementally adding contingent branches to this plan in order to improve utility. The challenge is to figure out the best places to insert contingency branches. This requires an estimate of how much utility could be gained by building a contingent branch at any given place in the seed plan. Computing this utility exactly is intractable, but we outline an approximation method that back propagates utility distributions through a graph structure similar to that of a plan graph.

  18. Directed Incremental Symbolic Execution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, Suzette; Yang, Guowei; Rungta, Neha; Khurshid, Sarfraz

    2011-01-01

    The last few years have seen a resurgence of interest in the use of symbolic execution -- a program analysis technique developed more than three decades ago to analyze program execution paths. Scaling symbolic execution and other path-sensitive analysis techniques to large systems remains challenging despite recent algorithmic and technological advances. An alternative to solving the problem of scalability is to reduce the scope of the analysis. One approach that is widely studied in the context of regression analysis is to analyze the differences between two related program versions. While such an approach is intuitive in theory, finding efficient and precise ways to identify program differences, and characterize their effects on how the program executes has proved challenging in practice. In this paper, we present Directed Incremental Symbolic Execution (DiSE), a novel technique for detecting and characterizing the effects of program changes. The novelty of DiSE is to combine the efficiencies of static analysis techniques to compute program difference information with the precision of symbolic execution to explore program execution paths and generate path conditions affected by the differences. DiSE is a complementary technique to other reduction or bounding techniques developed to improve symbolic execution. Furthermore, DiSE does not require analysis results to be carried forward as the software evolves -- only the source code for two related program versions is required. A case-study of our implementation of DiSE illustrates its effectiveness at detecting and characterizing the effects of program changes.

  19. Incremental activity modeling in multiple disjoint cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loy, Chen Change; Xiang, Tao; Gong, Shaogang

    2012-09-01

    Activity modeling and unusual event detection in a network of cameras is challenging, particularly when the camera views are not overlapped. We show that it is possible to detect unusual events in multiple disjoint cameras as context-incoherent patterns through incremental learning of time delayed dependencies between distributed local activities observed within and across camera views. Specifically, we model multicamera activities using a Time Delayed Probabilistic Graphical Model (TD-PGM) with different nodes representing activities in different decomposed regions from different views and the directed links between nodes encoding their time delayed dependencies. To deal with visual context changes, we formulate a novel incremental learning method for modeling time delayed dependencies that change over time. We validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach using a synthetic data set and videos captured from a camera network installed at a busy underground station.

  20. Context-Dependent Effects of Amplified MAPK Signaling during Lung Adenocarcinoma Initiation and Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Cicchini

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Expression of oncogenic KrasG12D initiates lung adenomas in a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signal-dependent manner from only a subset of cell types in the adult mouse lung. Amplification of MAPK signaling is associated with progression to malignant adenocarcinomas, but whether this is a cause or a consequence of disease progression is not known. To better understand the effects of MAPK signaling downstream of KrasG12D expression, we capitalized on the ability of Braf inhibition to selectively amplify MAPK pathway signaling in KrasG12D-expressing epithelial cells. MAPK signal amplification indeed promoted the rapid progression of established adenomas to malignant adenocarcinomas. However, we observed, surprisingly, a greater number of overall tumor-initiating events after MAPK signal amplification, due to induced proliferation of cell types that are normally refractory to KrasG12D-induced transformation. Thus, MAPK signaling in the lung is thresholded not only during malignant progression but also at the moment of tumor initiation.

  1. Long noncoding RNA BCAR4 promotes osteosarcoma progression through activating GLI2-dependent gene transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fenyong; Mo, Jiadong; Zhang, Li

    2016-10-01

    Despite great advances have been made in the understanding of biology of osteosarcoma, the molecular mechanisms involved in osteosarcoma tumorigenesis and progression are still largely unknown. Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) is a new type of RNA molecule, which plays pivotal roles in many tumors. lncRNA BCAR4 has been identified as an oncogenetic lncRNA involved in the progression of breast cancer. However, the functions and clinical significances of BCAR4 in osteosarcoma are unknown now. In this study, we found that BCAR4 was significantly upregulated in osteosarcoma tissues. Increased expression of BCAR4 was significantly correlated with large tumor size, advanced Enneking stage, lung metastasis, and poor prognosis. Functional experiments demonstrated that knockdown of BCAR4 inhibits the proliferation and migration of osteosarcoma cell in vitro. Consistently, knockdown of BCAR4 inhibits osteosarcoma tumorigenesis and lung metastasis in vivo. Chromatin isolation by RNA purification assay showed that BCAR4 physically associates with the promoters of GLI2 target genes. The depletion of BCAR4 inhibits the expression of GLI2 target genes and GLI2 reporter luciferase activity in a dose-dependent manner. The expression of BCAR4 and GLI2 target genes is significantly correlated in osteosarcoma tissues. Depletion of DLI2 abolished the effects of BCAR4 on osteosarcoma. Taken together, these findings demonstrated that BCAR4 promotes osteosarcoma progression via activating GLI2-dependent gene transcription and serves as a potential prognostic biomarker and a therapeutic target of osteosarcoma.

  2. Recent progresses in outcome-dependent sampling with failure time data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jieli; Lu, Tsui-Shan; Cai, Jianwen; Zhou, Haibo

    2017-01-01

    An outcome-dependent sampling (ODS) design is a retrospective sampling scheme where one observes the primary exposure variables with a probability that depends on the observed value of the outcome variable. When the outcome of interest is failure time, the observed data are often censored. By allowing the selection of the supplemental samples depends on whether the event of interest happens or not and oversampling subjects from the most informative regions, ODS design for the time-to-event data can reduce the cost of the study and improve the efficiency. We review recent progresses and advances in research on ODS designs with failure time data. This includes researches on ODS related designs like case-cohort design, generalized case-cohort design, stratified case-cohort design, general failure-time ODS design, length-biased sampling design and interval sampling design.

  3. Effects of Canon chord progression on brain activity and motivation are dependent on subjective feelings, not the chord progression per se.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayashima, Yoshinori; Yamamuro, Kazuhiko; Makinodan, Manabu; Nakanishi, Yoko; Wanaka, Akio; Kishimoto, Toshifumi

    2017-01-01

    A number of studies have indicated that relaxing and pleasant melodies are useful for the treatment of patients with psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, depression, and dementia. However, few studies have investigated what constitutive elements of the music had an effect on brain activity. As Canon chord progression is one of critical elements for pleasant melodies, we sought to examine the effects of Canon chord progression and pitch-shifted Canon chord progression on brain activity using performance on the auditory oddball task during event-related potentials (ERPs) in 30 healthy subjects. Unexpectedly, we found no differences in ERP components between subjects listening to Canon chord progression (n=15) or pitch-shifted Canon chord progression (n=15). Next, we divided participants into two groups: those who found the melody pleasant (n=17) and those who did not (n=13), for both Canon chord progression and pitch-shifted Canon chord progression. The average of P300 amplitude was higher at Fz in subjects found the music pleasant versus those finding it unpleasant. Moreover, subjects who found it pleasant exhibited higher motivation scores than those who felt it was unpleasant, whereas listening to Canon chord progression did not matter. These findings suggest that the effects of Canon chord progression on brain activity and motivation depend on subjective feelings, not the chord progression per se.

  4. Incremental Innovation and Competitive Pressure in the Presence of Discrete Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghosh, Arghya; Kato, Takao; Morita, Hodaka

    2017-01-01

    Technical progress consists of improvements made upon the existing technology (incremental innovation) and innovative activities aiming at entirely new technology (discrete innovation). Incremental innovation is often of limited relevance to the new technology invented by successful discrete...... innovation. Previous theoretical studies have indicated that higher competitive pressure measured by product substitutability increases incremental innovation. In contrast, we find that intensified competition can decrease incremental innovation. A firm's market share upon its failure in discrete innovation...

  5. Rate Dependent Multicontinuum Progressive Failure Analysis of Woven Fabric Composite Structures under Dynamic Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Lua

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine composite materials typically exhibit significant rate dependent response characteristics when subjected to extreme dynamic loading conditions. In this work, a strain-rate dependent continuum damage model is incorporated with multicontinuum technology (MCT to predict damage and failure progression for composite material structures. MCT treats the constituents of a woven fabric composite as separate but linked continua, thereby allowing a designer to extract constituent stress/strain information in a structural analysis. The MCT algorithm and material damage model are numerically implemented with the explicit finite element code LS-DYNA3D via a user-defined material model (umat. The effects of the strain-rate hardening model are demonstrated through both simple single element analyses for woven fabric composites and also structural level impact simulations of a composite panel subjected to various impact conditions. Progressive damage at the constituent level is monitored throughout the loading. The results qualitatively illustrate the value of rate dependent material models for marine composite materials under extreme dynamic loading conditions.

  6. Backstepping design for incremental stability

    CERN Document Server

    Zamani, Majid

    2010-01-01

    Stability is arguably one of the core concepts upon which our understanding of dynamical and control systems has been built. The related notion of incremental stability, however, has received much less attention until recently, when it was successfully used as a tool for the analysis and design of intrinsic observers, output regulation of nonlinear systems, frequency estimators, synchronization of coupled identical dynamical systems, symbolic models for nonlinear control systems, and bio-molecular systems. However, most of the existing controller design techniques provide controllers enforcing stability rather than incremental stability. Hence, there is a growing need to extend existing methods or develop new ones for the purpose of designing incrementally stabilizing controllers. In this paper, we develop a backstepping design approach for incremental stability. The effectiveness of the proposed method is illustrated by synthesizing a controller rendering a synchronous generator incrementally stable.

  7. Bcl-2 promotes malignant progression in a PDGF-B-dependent murine model of oligodendroglioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucette, Tiffany; Yang, Yuhui; Zhang, Wei; Fuller, Gregory N; Suki, Dima; Fults, Daniel W; Rao, Ganesh

    2011-11-01

    A significant subset of gliomas arises after activation of the proproliferative platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) pathway. The progression of low-grade gliomas to more malignant tumors may be due to oncogenic cellular programs combining with those suppressing apoptosis. Antiapoptotic genes are overexpressed in a variety of cancers, and the antiapoptotic gene, BCL2, is associated with treatment resistance and tumor recurrence in gliomas. However, the impact of antiapoptotic gene expression to tumor formation and progression is unclear. We overexpressed Bcl-2 in a PDGFB-dependent mouse model of oligodendroglioma, a common glioma subtype, to assess its effect in vivo. We hypothesized that the antiapoptotic effect would complement the proproliferative effect of PDGFB to promote tumor formation and progression to anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO). Here, we show that coexpression of PDGFB and Bcl-2 results in a higher overall tumor formation rate compared to PDGFB alone. Coexpression of PDGFB and Bcl-2 promotes progression to AO with prominent foci of necrosis, a feature of high-grade gliomas. Median tumor latency was shorter in mice injected with PDGFB and Bcl-2 compared to those injected with PDGFB alone. Although independent expression of Bcl-2 was insufficient to induce tumors, suppression of apoptosis (detected by cleaved caspase-3 expression) was more pronounced in AOs induced by PDGFB and Bcl-2 compared to those induced by PDGFB alone. Tumor cell proliferation (detected by phosphohistone H3 activity) was also more robust in high-grade tumors induced by PDGFB and Bcl-2. Our results indicate that suppressed apoptosis enhances oligodendroglioma formation and engenders a more malignant phenotype.

  8. Effects of Canon chord progression on brain activity and motivation are dependent on subjective feelings, not the chord progression per se

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayashima Y

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Yoshinori Kayashima,1,2,* Kazuhiko Yamamuro,1,* Manabu Makinodan,1 Yoko Nakanishi,1 Akio Wanaka,2 Toshifumi Kishimoto1 1Department of Psychiatry, 2Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, Kashihara, Japan *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: A number of studies have indicated that relaxing and pleasant melodies are useful for the treatment of patients with psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, depression, and dementia. However, few studies have investigated what constitutive elements of the music had an effect on brain activity. As Canon chord progression is one of critical elements for pleasant melodies, we sought to examine the effects of Canon chord progression and pitch-shifted Canon chord progression on brain activity using performance on the auditory oddball task during event-related potentials (ERPs in 30 healthy subjects. Unexpectedly, we found no differences in ERP components between subjects listening to Canon chord progression (n=15 or pitch-shifted Canon chord progression (n=15. Next, we divided participants into two groups: those who found the melody pleasant (n=17 and those who did not (n=13, for both Canon chord progression and pitch-shifted Canon chord progression. The average of P300 amplitude was higher at Fz in subjects found the music pleasant versus those finding it unpleasant. Moreover, subjects who found it pleasant exhibited higher motivation scores than those who felt it was unpleasant, whereas listening to Canon chord progression did not matter. These findings suggest that the effects of Canon chord progression on brain activity and motivation depend on subjective feelings, not the chord progression per se. Keywords: music, Canon chord progression, motivation, event-related potential, subjective feelings 

  9. Secreted CLIC3 drives cancer progression through its glutathione-dependent oxidoreductase activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Fernaud, Juan R.; Ruengeler, Elena; Casazza, Andrea; Neilson, Lisa J.; Pulleine, Ellie; Santi, Alice; Ismail, Shehab; Lilla, Sergio; Dhayade, Sandeep; MacPherson, Iain R.; McNeish, Iain; Ennis, Darren; Ali, Hala; Kugeratski, Fernanda G.; Al Khamici, Heba; van den Biggelaar, Maartje; van den Berghe, Peter V.E.; Cloix, Catherine; McDonald, Laura; Millan, David; Hoyle, Aoisha; Kuchnio, Anna; Carmeliet, Peter; Valenzuela, Stella M.; Blyth, Karen; Yin, Huabing; Mazzone, Massimiliano; Norman, Jim C.; Zanivan, Sara

    2017-01-01

    The secretome of cancer and stromal cells generates a microenvironment that contributes to tumour cell invasion and angiogenesis. Here we compare the secretome of human mammary normal and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). We discover that the chloride intracellular channel protein 3 (CLIC3) is an abundant component of the CAF secretome. Secreted CLIC3 promotes invasive behaviour of endothelial cells to drive angiogenesis and increases invasiveness of cancer cells both in vivo and in 3D cell culture models, and this requires active transglutaminase-2 (TGM2). CLIC3 acts as a glutathione-dependent oxidoreductase that reduces TGM2 and regulates TGM2 binding to its cofactors. Finally, CLIC3 is also secreted by cancer cells, is abundant in the stromal and tumour compartments of aggressive ovarian cancers and its levels correlate with poor clinical outcome. This work reveals a previously undescribed invasive mechanism whereby the secretion of a glutathione-dependent oxidoreductase drives angiogenesis and cancer progression by promoting TGM2-dependent invasion. PMID:28198360

  10. Implementing Kernel Methods Incrementally by Incremental Nonlinear Projection Trick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Nojun

    2016-05-20

    Recently, the nonlinear projection trick (NPT) was introduced enabling direct computation of coordinates of samples in a reproducing kernel Hilbert space. With NPT, any machine learning algorithm can be extended to a kernel version without relying on the so called kernel trick. However, NPT is inherently difficult to be implemented incrementally because an ever increasing kernel matrix should be treated as additional training samples are introduced. In this paper, an incremental version of the NPT (INPT) is proposed based on the observation that the centerization step in NPT is unnecessary. Because the proposed INPT does not change the coordinates of the old data, the coordinates obtained by INPT can directly be used in any incremental methods to implement a kernel version of the incremental methods. The effectiveness of the INPT is shown by applying it to implement incremental versions of kernel methods such as, kernel singular value decomposition, kernel principal component analysis, and kernel discriminant analysis which are utilized for problems of kernel matrix reconstruction, letter classification, and face image retrieval, respectively.

  11. Host Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Promotes Human Skin Carcinoma Progression in a Stage-Dependent Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Maillard

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis and tumor expansion are associated with extracellular matrix remodeling and involve various proteases such as the plasminogen (Pig/plasminogen activator (PA system. Recently, several experimental data have implicated the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 in tumor angiogenesis in murine systems. However, little is known about PAI-1 functions in human skin carcinoma progression. By generating immunodeficient mice (in Rag-1-/- or nude background deleted for PAI-1 gene (PAI-1-/- , we have evaluated the impact of host PAI-1 deficiency on the tumorigenicity of two malignant human skin keratinocyte cell lines HaCaT II-4 and HaCaT A5-RT3 forming low-grade and high-grade carcinomas, respectively. When using the surface transplantation model, angiogenesis and tumor invasion of these two cell lines are strongly reduced in PAI-1-deficient mice as compared to the wild-type control animals. After subcutaneous injection in PAI-1-/- mice, the tumor incidence is reduced for HaCaT II-4 cells, but not for those formed by HaCaT A5-RT3 cells. These data indicate that PAI-1 produced by host cells is an important contributor to earlier stages of human skin carcinoma progression. It exerts its tumor-promoting effect in a tumor stage-dependent manner, but PAI-1 deficiency is not sufficient to prevent neoplastic growth of aggressive tumors of the human skin.

  12. Obesity dependent metabolic signatures associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, J.; Caballería, J.; Martínez-Arranz, I.; Domínguez-Díez, A.; Alonso, C.; Muntané, J.; Pérez-Cormenzana, M.; García-Monzón, C.; Mayo, R.; Martín-Duce, A.; Romero-Gómez, M.; Iacono, O. Lo; Tordjman, J.; Andrade, R.J.; Pérez-Carreras, M.; Le Marchand-Brustel, Y.; Tran, A.; Fernández-Escalante, C.; Arévalo, E.; García–Unzueta, M.; Clement, K.; Crespo, J.; Gual, P.; Gómez-Fleitas, M.; Martínez-Chantar, M.L.; Castro, A.; Lu, S.C.; Vázquez-Chantada, M.; Mato, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of the mechanisms by which nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) progresses from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis (NASH) is still very limited. Despite the growing number of studies linking the disease with altered serum metabolite levels, an obstacle to the development of metabolome-based NAFLD predictors has been the lack of large cohort data from biopsy-proven patients matched for key metabolic features such as obesity. We studied 467 biopsied individuals with normal liver histology (n=90) or diagnosed with NAFLD (steatosis, n=246; NASH, n=131), randomly divided into estimation (80% of all patients) and validation (20% of all patients) groups. Qualitative determinations of 540 serum metabolite variables were performed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS). The metabolic profile was dependent on patient body-mass index (BMI), suggesting that the NAFLD pathogenesis mechanism may be quite different depending on an individual’s level of obesity. A BMI-stratified multivariate model based on the NAFLD serum metabolic profile was used to separate patients with and without NASH. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.87 in the estimation and 0.85 in the validation group. The cutoff (0.54) corresponding to maximum average diagnostic accuracy (0.82) predicted NASH with a sensitivity of 0.71 and a specificity of 0.92 (negative/positive predictive values = 0.82/0.84). The present data, indicating that a BMI-dependent serum metabolic profile may be able to reliably distinguish NASH from steatosis patients, have significant implications for the development of NASH biomarkers and potential novel targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:22364559

  13. 18 CFR 154.309 - Incremental expansions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Incremental expansions... Changes § 154.309 Incremental expansions. (a) For every expansion for which incremental rates are charged... incremental facilities to be rolled-in to the pipeline's rates. For every expansion that has an at-risk...

  14. a model for incremental grounding in spoken dialogue systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Thomas; Traum, David; DeVault, David; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in incremental language processing for dialogue systems promise to enable more natural conversation between humans and computers. By analyzing the user's utterance while it is still in progress, systems can provide more human-like overlapping and backchannel responses to convey their

  15. Incremental Observer Relative Data Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukauskas, Linas; Bøhlen, Michael Hanspeter

    2004-01-01

    -tree, is used to index visibility ranges of objects. We introduce a new operator for incremental Observer Relative data Extraction (iORDE). We propose the Volatile Access STructure (VAST), a lightweight main memory structure that is created on the fly and is maintained during visual data explorations. VAST...

  16. Incremental Trust in Grid Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkløv, Michael Hvalsøe; Sharp, Robin

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a comparative simulation study of some incremental trust and reputation algorithms for handling behavioural trust in large distributed systems. Two types of reputation algorithm (based on discrete and Bayesian evaluation of ratings) and two ways of combining direct trust and ...... of Grid computing systems....

  17. Application of Incremental Sheet Forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karbowski Krzysztof

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes some manufacturing aspects and an example of application of the Incremental Sheet Forming (ISF technology which was used for production of the craniofacial prosthesis. The brief description of prosthesis designing was presented as well. The main topic of the paper is comparison of milling and ISF technologies for preparing the tools for prosthesis thermoforming.

  18. Incremental Visualizer for Visible Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukauskas, Linas; Bøhlen, Michael Hanspeter

    This paper discusses the integration of database back-end and visualizer front-end into a one tightly coupled system. The main aim which we achieve is to reduce the data pipeline from database to visualization by using incremental data extraction of visible objects in a fly-through scenarios. We...

  19. Amphibious Combat Vehicle Acquisition: Marine Corps Adopts an Incremental Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    program progress towards achieving the balance—that is sought in accordance with best practices—between customer needs and resources (e.g., technologies...adoption of an incremental approach has helped the program progress towards achieving the balance between customer needs and resources (e.g., technologies...USMC plans to acquire 204 ACV 1.1s and anticipates achieving initial operational capability in fiscal year 2020 . According to program officials

  20. Analysis of progressive failure of pillar and instability criterion based on gradient-dependent plasticity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王学滨

    2004-01-01

    A mechanical model for strain softening pillar is proposed considering the characteristics of progressive shear failure and strain localization. The pillar undergoes elastic, strain softening and slabbing stages. In the elastic stage, vertical compressive stress and deformation at upper end of pillar are uniform, while in the strain softening stage there appears nonuniform due to occurrence of shear bands, leading to the decrease of load-carrying capacity.In addition, the size of failure zone increases in the strain softening stage and reaches its maximum value when slabbing begins. In the latter two stages, the size of elastic core always decreases. In the slabbing stage, the size of failure zone remains a constant and the pillar becomes thinner. Total deformation of the pillar is derived by linearly elastic Hooke's law and gradient-dependent plasticity where thickness of localization band is determined according to the characteristic length. Post-peak stiffness is proposed according to analytical solution of averaged compressive stressaverage deformation curve. Instability criterion of the pillar and roof strata system is proposed analytically using instability condition given by Salamon. It is found that the constitutive parameters of material of pillar, the geometrical size of pillar and the number of shear bands influence the stability of the system; stress gradient controls the starting time of slabbing, however it has no influence on the post-peak stiffness of the pillar.

  1. Adolescent Deviant Peer Clustering as an Amplifying Mechanism Underlying the Progression from Early Substance Use to Late Adolescent Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ryzin, Mark J.; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Early substance use co-occurs with youths' self-organization into deviant peer groups in which substance use is central to social interaction. We hypothesized that the social dynamics of deviant peer groups amplify the risk of progressing from early use to later dependence, and that this influence occurs over and above escalations…

  2. Incremental multiple objective genetic algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qian; Guan, Sheng-Uei

    2004-06-01

    This paper presents a new genetic algorithm approach to multiobjective optimization problems--incremental multiple objective genetic algorithms (IMOGA). Different from conventional MOGA methods, it takes each objective into consideration incrementally. The whole evolution is divided into as many phases as the number of objectives, and one more objective is considered in each phase. Each phase is composed of two stages. First, an independent population is evolved to optimize one specific objective. Second, the better-performing individuals from the single-objecive population evolved in the above stage and the multiobjective population evolved in the last phase are joined together by the operation of integration. The resulting population then becomes an initial multiobjective population, to which a multiobjective evolution based on the incremented objective set is applied. The experiment results show that, in most problems, the performance of IMOGA is better than that of three other MOGAs, NSGA-II, SPEA, and PAES. IMOGA can find more solutions during the same time span, and the quality of solutions is better.

  3. Onset Of Opportunity To Use Cannabis And Progression From Opportunity To Dependence: Are Influences Consistent Across Transitions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Lindsey A.; Morley, Katherine I.; Strang, John; Agrawal, Arpana; Nelson, Elliot C.; Statham, Dixie; Martin, Nicholas G.; Lynskey, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a developing body of research looking at cannabis use opportunity, but little research examining timing of opportunity to use cannabis. Aims Identify factors associated with 1) earlier opportunity to use cannabis and 2) faster progression from opportunity to cannabis dependence. Method Cross-sectional study of 3824 Australian twins and siblings, measuring age of onset of cannabis use opportunity and DSM-IV cannabis dependence. Survival analysis identified factors associated with faster progression to opportunity or dependence. Results Factors associated with both speed of progression to opportunity and dependence were conduct disorder (opportunity HR 5.57, 95%CI 1.52–20.47; dependence HR 2.49, 95%CI 1.91–3.25), parental drug problems (opportunity HR 7.29, 95%CI 1.74–30.62; dependence HR 3.30, 95%CI 1.63–6.69), weekly tobacco use (opportunity HR 8.57, 95%CI 3.93–18.68; dependence HR 2.76, 95% CI 2.10–3.64), and female gender (opportunity HR 0.69, 95%CI 0.64–0.75; dependence HR 0.44, 95%CI 0.34–0.55). Frequent childhood religious attendance (HR 0.74, 95%CI 0.68–0.80), parental conflict (HR 1.09, 95%CI 1.00–1.18), parental alcohol problems (HR 1.19, 95%CI 1.08–1.30) and childhood sexual abuse (HR 1.17, 95%CI 1.01–1.34) were uniquely associated with transition to opportunity. Depressive episode (HR 1.44, 95%CI 1.12–1.85), tobacco dependence (HR 1.36, 95%CI 1.04 – 1.78), alcohol dependence (HR 2.64, 95%CI 1.53–4.58), other drug use (HR 2.10, 95%CI 1.64–2.69) and other drug dependence (HR 2.75, 95%CI 1.70–4.43) were uniquely associated with progression to dependence. Conclusion The profile of factors associated with opportunity to use cannabis and dependence only partially overlaps, suggesting targeting of interventions may benefit from being tailored to the stages of drug use. PMID:26811121

  4. Onset of opportunity to use cannabis and progression from opportunity to dependence: Are influences consistent across transitions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Lindsey A; Morley, Katherine I; Strang, John; Agrawal, Arpana; Nelson, Elliot C; Statham, Dixie; Martin, Nicholas G; Lynskey, Michael T

    2016-03-01

    There is a developing body of research looking at cannabis use opportunity, but little research examining timing of opportunity to use cannabis. Identify factors associated with (1) earlier opportunity to use cannabis and (2) faster progression from opportunity to cannabis dependence. Cross-sectional study of 3824 Australian twins and siblings, measuring age of onset of cannabis use opportunity and DSM-IV cannabis dependence. Survival analysis identified factors associated with faster progression to opportunity or dependence. Factors associated with both speed of progression to opportunity and dependence were conduct disorder (opportunity HR 5.57, 95%CI 1.52-20.47; dependence HR 2.49, 95%CI 1.91-3.25), parental drug problems (opportunity HR 7.29, 95%CI 1.74-30.62; dependence HR 3.30, 95%CI 1.63-6.69), weekly tobacco use (opportunity HR 8.57, 95%CI 3.93-18.68; dependence HR 2.76, 95% CI 2.10-3.64), and female gender (opportunity HR 0.69, 95%CI 0.64-0.75; dependence HR 0.44, 95%CI 0.34-0.55). Frequent childhood religious attendance (HR 0.74, 95%CI 0.68-0.80), parental conflict (HR 1.09, 95%CI 1.00-1.18), parental alcohol problems (HR 1.19, 95%CI 1.08-1.30) and childhood sexual abuse (HR 1.17, 95%CI 1.01-1.34) were uniquely associated with transition to opportunity. Depressive episode (HR 1.44, 95%CI 1.12-1.85), tobacco dependence (HR 1.36, 95%CI 1.04-1.78), alcohol dependence (HR 2.64, 95%CI 1.53-4.58), other drug use (HR 2.10, 95%CI 1.64-2.69) and other drug dependence (HR 2.75, 95%CI 1.70-4.43) were uniquely associated with progression to dependence. The profile of factors associated with opportunity to use cannabis and dependence only partially overlaps, suggesting targeting of interventions may benefit from being tailored to the stages of drug use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Polygenic risk accelerates the developmental progression to heavy, persistent smoking and nicotine dependence: Evidence from a 4-Decade Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, Terrie E; Baker, Timothy B; Biddle, Andrea K; Evans, James P; Harrington, HonaLee; Houts, Renate; Meier, Madeline; Sugden, Karen; Williams, Benjamin; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To test how genomic loci identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) influence the developmental progression of smoking behavior. DESIGN A 38-year prospective longitudinal study of a representative birth-cohort. SETTING The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, New Zealand. PARTICIPANTS N=1037 male and female study members. MAIN EXPOSURES We assessed genetic risk with a multi-locus genetic risk score (GRS). The GRS was composed of single-nucleotide polymorphisms identified in three meta-analyses of GWAS of smoking quantity phenotypes. OUTCOME MEASURES Smoking initiation, conversion to daily smoking, progression to heavy smoking, nicotine dependence (Fagerstrom Test of Nicotine Dependence), and cessation difficulties were evaluated at eight assessments spanning ages 11-38 years. RESULTS Genetic risk score was unrelated to smoking initiation. However, individuals at higher genetic risk were more likely to convert to daily smoking as teenagers, progressed more rapidly from smoking initiation to heavy smoking, persisted longer in smoking heavily, developed nicotine dependence more frequently, were more reliant on smoking to cope with stress, and were more likely to fail in their cessation attempts. Further analysis revealed that two adolescent developmental phenotypes—early conversion to daily smoking and rapid progression to heavy smoking--mediated associations between the genetic risk score and mature phenotypes of persistent heavy smoking, nicotine dependence, and cessation failure. The genetic risk score predicted smoking risk over and above family history. CONCLUSIONS Initiatives that disrupt the developmental progression of smoking behavior among adolescents may mitigate genetic risks for developing adult smoking problems. Future genetic research may maximize discovery potential by focusing on smoking behavior soon after smoking initiation and by studying young smokers. PMID:23536134

  6. MUNIX and incremental stimulation MUNE in ALS patients and control subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furtula, Jasna; Johnsen, Birger; Christensen, Peter Broegger

    2013-01-01

    This study compares the new Motor Unit Number Estimation (MUNE) technique, MUNIX, with the more common incremental stimulation MUNE (IS-MUNE) with respect to reproducibility in healthy subjects and as potential biomarker of disease progression in patients with ALS....

  7. 14 CFR 1274.918 - Incremental funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Incremental funding. 1274.918 Section 1274... COMMERCIAL FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.918 Incremental funding. Incremental Funding... Agreement, as required, until it is fully funded. Any work beyond the funding limit will be at the...

  8. 14 CFR 1260.53 - Incremental funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Incremental funding. 1260.53 Section 1260.53 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Special Conditions § 1260.53 Incremental funding. Incremental Funding October 2000...

  9. Nuevos enfoques en aprendizaje incremental

    OpenAIRE

    del Campo-Ávila, José

    2007-01-01

    Actualmente el volumen de datos que se genera en diferentes ámbitos es muy elevado, llegando incluso a ser difícil de almacenar. Realizar tareas de aprendizaje automático ante tal cantidad de información está provocando que sean necesarios nuevos algoritmos. En esta tesis se presentan distintas aportaciones en el ámbito del aprendizaje incremental, las cuales, fundamentalmente, están dirigidas a mejorarlo usando algoritmos basados en cotas de concentración y sistemas multiclasificadores.

  10. MUNIX and incremental stimulation MUNE in ALS patients and control subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furtula, Jasna; Johnsen, Birger; Christensen, Peter Broegger;

    2013-01-01

    This study compares the new Motor Unit Number Estimation (MUNE) technique, MUNIX, with the more common incremental stimulation MUNE (IS-MUNE) with respect to reproducibility in healthy subjects and as potential biomarker of disease progression in patients with ALS.......This study compares the new Motor Unit Number Estimation (MUNE) technique, MUNIX, with the more common incremental stimulation MUNE (IS-MUNE) with respect to reproducibility in healthy subjects and as potential biomarker of disease progression in patients with ALS....

  11. Incremental deformation: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasulea Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the customer requirements are in permanent changing and according with them the tendencies in the modern industry is to implement flexible manufacturing processes. In the last decades, metal forming gained attention of the researchers and considerable changes has occurred. Because for a small number of parts, the conventional metal forming processes are expensive and time-consuming in terms of designing and manufacturing preparation, the manufacturers and researchers became interested in flexible processes. One of the most investigated flexible processes in metal forming is incremental sheet forming (ISF. ISF is an advanced flexible manufacturing process which allows to manufacture complex 3D products without expensive dedicated tools. In most of the cases it is needed for an ISF process the following: a simple tool, a fixing device for sheet metal blank and a universal CNC machine. Using this process it can be manufactured axis-symmetric parts, usually using a CNC lathe but also complex asymmetrical parts using CNC milling machines, robots or dedicated equipment. This paper aim to present the current status of incremental sheet forming technologies in terms of process parameters and their influences, wall thickness distribution, springback effect, formability, surface quality and the current main research directions.

  12. A New Incremental Support Vector Machine Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjuan Zhao

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Support vector machine is a popular method in machine learning. Incremental support vector machine algorithm is ideal selection in the face of large learning data set. In this paper a new incremental support vector machine learning algorithm is proposed to improve efficiency of large scale data processing. The model of this incremental learning algorithm is similar to the standard support vector machine. The goal concept is updated by incremental learning. Each training procedure only includes new training data. The time complexity is independent of whole training set. Compared with the other incremental version, the training speed of this approach is improved and the change of hyperplane is reduced.

  13. Incorporating "Unconscious Reanalysis" into an Incremental, Monotonic Parser

    CERN Document Server

    Sturt, P

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes an implementation based on a recent model in the psycholinguistic literature. We define a parsing operation which allows the reanalysis of dependencies within an incremental and monotonic processing architecture, and discuss search strategies for its application in a head-initial language (English) and a head-final language (Japanese).

  14. Generalization of Brownian Motion with Autoregressive Increments

    CERN Document Server

    Fendick, Kerry

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a generalization of Brownian motion with continuous sample paths and stationary, autoregressive increments. This process, which we call a Brownian ray with drift, is characterized by three parameters quantifying distinct effects of drift, volatility, and autoregressiveness. A Brownian ray with drift, conditioned on its state at the beginning of an interval, is another Brownian ray with drift over the interval, and its expected path over the interval is a ray with a slope that depends on the conditioned state. This paper shows how Brownian rays can be applied in finance for the analysis of queues or inventories and the valuation of options. We model a queue's net input process as a superposition of Brownian rays with drift and derive the transient distribution of the queue length conditional on past queue lengths and on past states of the individual Brownian rays comprising the superposition. The transient distributions of Regulated Brownian Motion and of the Regulated Brownian Bridge are...

  15. Clonal progression during the T cell-dependent B cell antibody response depends on the immunoglobulin DH gene segment repertoire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad eTrad

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of the third complementarity determining region of the Ig H chain is constrained by natural selection of immunoglobulin diversity (DH sequence. To test the functional significance of this constraint in the context of thymus-dependent (TD immune responses, we immunized BALB/c mice with WT or altered DH sequence with 2-phenyloxazolone-coupled chicken serum albumin (phOx-CSA. We chose this antigen because studies of the humoral immune response to the hapten phOx were instrumental in the development of the current theoretical framework on which our understanding of the forces driving TD responses is based. To allow direct comparison, we used the classic approach of generating monoclonal Ab (mAb from various stages of the immune response to phOx to assess the effect of changing the sequence of the DH on clonal expansion, class switching and affinity maturation, which are hallmarks of TD responses. Compared to WT, TD-induced humoral IgM as well as IgG antibody production in the D-altered D-DFS and D-iD strains were significantly reduced. An increased prevalence of IgM producing hybridomas from late primary, secondary, and tertiary memory responses suggested either impaired class switch recombination (CSR or impaired clonal expansion of class switched B cells with phOx reactivity. Neither of the D-altered strains demonstrated the restriction in the VH/VL repertoire, the elimination of VH1 family-encoded antibodies, the focusing of the distribution of CDR-H3 lengths, or the selection for the normally dominant Ox1 clonotype which all are hallmarks of the anti-phOx response in WT mice. These changes in clonal selection and expansion as well as class switch recombination indicate that the genetic constitution of the DH locus, which has been selected by evolution, can strongly influence the functional outcome of a TD humoral response.

  16. Rapid Prototyping of wax foundry models in an incremental process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kozik

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis incremental methods of creating wax founding models. There are two methods of Rapid Prototypingof wax models in an incremental process which are more and more often used in industrial practice and in scientific research.Applying Rapid Prototyping methods in the process of making casts allows for acceleration of work on preparing prototypes. It isespecially important in case of element having complicated shapes. The time of making a wax model depending on the size and the appliedRP method may vary from several to a few dozen hours.

  17. Property Differencing for Incremental Checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guowei; Khurshid, Sarfraz; Person, Suzette; Rungta, Neha

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces iProperty, a novel approach that facilitates incremental checking of programs based on a property di erencing technique. Speci cally, iProperty aims to reduce the cost of checking properties as they are initially developed and as they co-evolve with the program. The key novelty of iProperty is to compute the di erences between the new and old versions of expected properties to reduce the number and size of the properties that need to be checked during the initial development of the properties. Furthermore, property di erencing is used in synergy with program behavior di erencing techniques to optimize common regression scenarios, such as detecting regression errors or checking feature additions for conformance to new expected properties. Experimental results in the context of symbolic execution of Java programs annotated with properties written as assertions show the e ectiveness of iProperty in utilizing change information to enable more ecient checking.

  18. Incremental Observer Relative Data Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukauskas, Linas; Bøhlen, Michael Hanspeter

    2004-01-01

    or a Panorama, where an observer is data space this approach is far from optimal. A more scalable approach is to make the observer-aware database system and to restrict the communication between the database and visualization systems to the relevant data. In this paper VR-tree, an extension of the R......The visual exploration of large databases calls for a tight coupling of database and visualization systems. Current visualization systems typically fetch all the data and organize it in a scene tree that is then used to render the visible data. For immersive data explorations in a Cave......-tree, is used to index visibility ranges of objects. We introduce a new operator for incremental Observer Relative data Extraction (iORDE). We propose the Volatile Access STructure (VAST), a lightweight main memory structure that is created on the fly and is maintained during visual data explorations. VAST...

  19. Identification of Substances for Ubiquitin-Dependent Proteolysis During Breast Tumor Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    CENPB CUEDC1 PRKCa* CSNK2A2 PKN2 ANKS4B MATK COPE FLT1* PRKCg* DYRK3 PRKX BTK MCC FES FLT3* PSMD4 EPHA1 ROS1 CCDC69 MINK1 FGFR3 GSK3-beta* RAD23A...TSPAN17 FBXO23, cell adhesion PRRG1 SH3, binds ubiquitin DDR2 RTK, metastasis NEK9 Maintains proper G1 and S progression MYLK2 Cytoskeletal

  20. Policy Decisions for a Price Dependent Demand Rate Inventory Model with Progressive Payments Scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Rajat Kumar; Mukesh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: In this proposed research, we developed an inventory model to formulate an optimal ordering policies for supplier who offers progressive permissible delay periods to the retailer to settle his/her account. We assumed that the annual demand rate as a decreasing function of price with constant rate of deterioration and time-varying holding cost. Shortages in inventory are allowed which is completely backlogged. Approach: The main objective of this study to frame an inventory ...

  1. CHEMILUMINESCENT ACTIVITY OF NEUTROPHILIC GRANULOCYTES IN PROGRESSION OF OBSTRUCTIVE JAUNDICE DEPENDING ON ITS ORIGIN AND BILIRUBIN LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Smirnova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical jaundice (MJ is a severe pathological condition, caused by obstruction of the bile ducts, requiring immediate surgical intervention. Etiologically, MJ can be of benign (60-80% of the cases, or malignant origin. MJ progression depends on the underlying pathology, and, moreover, on bilirubin levels. Focal inflammation in affected area represents a significant mechanism of the MJ progression. Neutrophilic granulocytes, are primarily involved into the immune response, i.e., pathogen elimination. Hence, the MJ progression may depend on their functional activity. In this context, the aim of our study was to investigate chemiluminescent activity of neutrophil granulocytes in progression of MJ, depending on the bilirubin levels and origin of the jaundice. All the MJ patients showed altered chemiluminescent activity of granulocytes. Both spontaneous and induced chemiluminescence (CL intensity was decreased in the patients with gallstoneassociated MJ. Meanwhile, the CL intensity did not change in MJ caused by benign tumors (BTP. An increased activation index reflected higher induced activity of phagocytes. In patients with MJ of malignant origin, the largest number of changes was found, i.e., an increase in the induced luminescence intensity and higher activation indexes were revealed. The MJ progression depends on blood bilirubin levels. All the patients with gallstone-related MJ exhibited a decrease in spontaneous and induced CL activity of the neutrophils. In cases of BTP-caused MJ, the indexes of spontaneous and induced CL decreased at the bilirubin levels of 60 to 200 mmol/L, with increased activation index suggesting elevated induced activity over its spontaneous levels. In patients with MJ and bilirubin levels >200 mmol/L, distinct unidirectional changes in the granulocyte activation were observed, with increased spontaneous and induced CL intensity. In patients with MJ caused by malignancies with bilirubin levels <60

  2. Cell-size dependent progression of the cell cycle creates homeostasis and flexibility of plant cell size

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Jones, Angharad; Forero-Vargas, Manuel; Withers, Simon P.; Smith, Richard S.; Traas, Jan; Dewitte, Walter; Murray, James A. H.

    2017-01-01

    Mean cell size at division is generally constant for specific conditions and cell types, but the mechanisms coupling cell growth and cell cycle control with cell size regulation are poorly understood in intact tissues. Here we show that the continuously dividing fields of cells within the shoot apical meristem of Arabidopsis show dynamic regulation of mean cell size dependent on developmental stage, genotype and environmental signals. We show cell size at division and cell cycle length is effectively predicted using a two-stage cell cycle model linking cell growth and two sequential cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) activities, and experimental results concur in showing that progression through both G1/S and G2/M is size dependent. This work shows that cell-autonomous co-ordination of cell growth and cell division previously observed in unicellular organisms also exists in intact plant tissues, and that cell size may be an emergent rather than directly determined property of cells. PMID:28447614

  3. Evolving Classifiers: Methods for Incremental Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Hulley, Greg

    2007-01-01

    The ability of a classifier to take on new information and classes by evolving the classifier without it having to be fully retrained is known as incremental learning. Incremental learning has been successfully applied to many classification problems, where the data is changing and is not all available at once. In this paper there is a comparison between Learn++, which is one of the most recent incremental learning algorithms, and the new proposed method of Incremental Learning Using Genetic Algorithm (ILUGA). Learn++ has shown good incremental learning capabilities on benchmark datasets on which the new ILUGA method has been tested. ILUGA has also shown good incremental learning ability using only a few classifiers and does not suffer from catastrophic forgetting. The results obtained for ILUGA on the Optical Character Recognition (OCR) and Wine datasets are good, with an overall accuracy of 93% and 94% respectively showing a 4% improvement over Learn++.MT for the difficult multi-class OCR dataset.

  4. Coordinate-invariant incremental Lyapunov functions

    CERN Document Server

    Zamani, Majid

    2011-01-01

    The notion of incremental stability was proposed by several researchers as a strong property of dynamical and control systems. In this type of stability, the focus is on the convergence of trajectories with respect to themselves, rather than with respect to an equilibrium point or a particular trajectory. Similarly to stability, Lyapunov functions play an important role in the study of incremental stability. In this paper, we propose coordinate-invariant notions of incremental Lyapunov function and provide the description of incremental stability in terms of existence of the proposed Lyapunov functions. Moreover, we develop a backstepping design approach providing a recursive way of constructing controllers as well as incremental Lyapunov functions. The effectiveness of our method is illustrated by synthesizing a controller rendering a single-machine infinite-bus electrical power system incrementally stable.

  5. Policy Decisions for a Price Dependent Demand Rate Inventory Model with Progressive Payments Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajat Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In this proposed research, we developed an inventory model to formulate an optimal ordering policies for supplier who offers progressive permissible delay periods to the retailer to settle his/her account. We assumed that the annual demand rate as a decreasing function of price with constant rate of deterioration and time-varying holding cost. Shortages in inventory are allowed which is completely backlogged. Approach: The main objective of this study to frame an inventory model in real life situations. In this study, we introduced a new idea of trade credits, namely, the supplier charges the retailer progressive interest rates if the retailer prolongs its unpaid balance. By offering progressive interest rates to the retailers, a supplier, can secure competitive market advantage over the competitors and possibly improve market share profit. This study has two main purposes, first the mathematical model of an inventory system are establish under the above conditions and second demonstrate that the optimal solution not only exists but also feasible. We developed theoretical results to obtain the optimal replenishment interval by examine the explicit condition. An algorithm is given to find the flow of optimal ordering policy. Results: The results is illustrated with the help of numerical example using Mathematica software and the optimal solution of the problem is Z (p, T1 = 76.8586 at (p, T1 = (0.952656, 0.128844. Conclusion: We proposed an algorithm to find the optimal ordering policy. A numerical study has been performed to observe the sensitivity of the effect of demand parameter changes.

  6. Minimal Change and Bounded Incremental Parsing

    CERN Document Server

    Wiren, M

    1994-01-01

    Ideally, the time that an incremental algorithm uses to process a change should be a function of the size of the change rather than, say, the size of the entire current input. Based on a formalization of ``the set of things changed'' by an incremental modification, this paper investigates how and to what extent it is possible to give such a guarantee for a chart-based parsing framework and discusses the general utility of a minimality notion in incremental processing.

  7. APC/C-Cdh1-dependent anaphase and telophase progression during mitotic slippage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toda Kazuhiro

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC inhibits anaphase progression in the presence of insufficient kinetochore-microtubule attachments, but cells can eventually override mitotic arrest by a process known as mitotic slippage or adaptation. This is a problem for cancer chemotherapy using microtubule poisons. Results Here we describe mitotic slippage in yeast bub2Δ mutant cells that are defective in the repression of precocious telophase onset (mitotic exit. Precocious activation of anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C-Cdh1 caused mitotic slippage in the presence of nocodazole, while the SAC was still active. APC/C-Cdh1, but not APC/C-Cdc20, triggered anaphase progression (securin degradation, separase-mediated cohesin cleavage, sister-chromatid separation and chromosome missegregation, in addition to telophase onset (mitotic exit, during mitotic slippage. This demonstrates that an inhibitory system not only of APC/C-Cdc20 but also of APC/C-Cdh1 is critical for accurate chromosome segregation in the presence of insufficient kinetochore-microtubule attachments. Conclusions The sequential activation of APC/C-Cdc20 to APC/C-Cdh1 during mitosis is central to accurate mitosis. Precocious activation of APC/C-Cdh1 in metaphase (pre-anaphase causes mitotic slippage in SAC-activated cells. For the prevention of mitotic slippage, concomitant inhibition of APC/C-Cdh1 may be effective for tumor therapy with mitotic spindle poisons in humans.

  8. On critical cases in limit theory for stationary increments Lévy driven moving averages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse-O'Connor, Andreas; Podolskij, Mark

    averages. The limit theory heavily depends on the interplay between the given order of the increments, the considered power, the Blumenthal-Getoor index of the driving pure jump Lévy process L and the behavior of the kernel function g at 0. In this work we will study the critical cases, which were......In this paper we present some limit theorems for power variation of stationary increments Lévy driven moving averages in the setting of critical regimes. In [5] the authors derived first and second order asymptotic results for k-th order increments of stationary increments Lévy driven moving...

  9. Incremental Supervised Subspace Learning for Face Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Subspace learning algorithms have been well studied in face recognition. Among them, linear discriminant analysis (LDA) is one of the most widely used supervised subspace learning method. Due to the difficulty of designing an incremental solution of the eigen decomposition on the product of matrices, there is little work for computing LDA incrementally. To avoid this limitation, an incremental supervised subspace learning (ISSL) algorithm was proposed, which incrementally learns an adaptive subspace by optimizing the maximum margin criterion (MMC). With the dynamically added face images, ISSL can effectively constrain the computational cost. Feasibility of the new algorithm has been successfully tested on different face data sets.

  10. Progressive white matter microstructure damage in male chronic heroin dependent individuals: a DTI and TBSS study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingwei Qiu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To investigate the WM microstructure deficits in heroin dependent individuals (HDIs with different length of heroin dependence, and to investigate whether these WM deficits can be related to the duration of heroin use and to decision-making deficits in HDIs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Thirty-six HDIs [including eighteen sHDIs (duration of heroin dependent is less than 10 years and eighteen lHDIs (duration of dependent is between 10:20 years] and sixteen healthy controls participated in this study. Whole brain voxel-wise analysis of fractional anisotropy (FA, mean diffusivity (MD, axial diffusivity (Da and radial diffusivity (Dr were performed by tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS to localize abnormal WM regions among groups. TBSS demonstrated that sHDIs had significantly lower FA than controls in right orbito-frontal WM, bilateral temporal WM and right parietal WM. The lHDIs had significantly lower FA throughout the brain compared with the controls and sHDIs. The lHDIs had significantly lower Da than controls in bilateral inferior frontaloccipital fasciculus, bilateral splenium of corpus callosum, left inferior longitudinal fasciculus, and had significantly higher Dr than controls in bilateral uncinatus fasciculus, bilateral inferior frontaloccipital fasciculus and bilateral cortical spinal fasciculus. Volume-of-interest (VOI analyses detect the changes of diffusivity indices in the regions with FA abnormalities revealed by control vs sHDIs. In most VOIs, FA reductions were caused by the increase in Dr as well as the decrease in Da. Correlation analysis was used to assess the relationship between FA and behavioral measures in HDIs and controls available. Significantly positively correlations were found between the FA values in the right orbital-frontal WM, right parietal WM and IGT performance. CONCLUSIONS: The extent and severity of WM integrity deficits in HDIs was associated with the length of heroin dependent. Furthermore

  11. Progress of Time-dependent Transport Simulations Using GYRO and Neoclassical Models Within FACETS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadlamani, S.; Pankin, A. Y.; Kruger, S.; Carlsson, J.; Cary, J.; Pletzer, A.; Candy, J.; Collier, A.; Fahey, M.

    2009-05-01

    Progress on the integration of the turbulent transport code GYRO and the neoclassical codes such as NCLASS into the FACETS (Framework Application for Core-Edge Transport Simulations) framework through the use of a multi-language Fortran/C/C++ friendly FMCFM (Framework for Modernization and Componentization of Fusion Modules) interface is presented. The FMCFM framework provides a common interface to varying fusion transport modules and libraries such as those in the National Transport Code Collaboration (NTCC) module library [1]. The interlanguage wrapper code is automatically generated. First results of coupled GYRO-NCLASS-FACETS simulations using realistic initial profiles and particle/heat sources are presented. [1] A. H. Kritz et al. Comp. Phys. Communications 164 ,108 (2004) [2] See A. Pankin's et al. presentation on transport models in FACETS (Sherwood 2009)

  12. Inhibition of monoacylglycerol lipase mediates a cannabinoid 1-receptor dependent delay of kindling progression in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Rüden, E L; Bogdanovic, R M; Wotjak, C T; Potschka, H

    2015-05-01

    Endocannabinoids, including 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), activate presynaptic cannabinoid type 1 receptors (CB1R) on inhibitory and excitatory neurons, resulting in a decreased release of neurotransmitters. The event-specific activation of the endocannabinoid system by inhibition of the endocannabinoid degrading enzymes may offer a promising strategy to selectively activate CB1Rs at the site of excessive neuronal activation with the overall goal to prevent the development epilepsy. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) inhibition on the development and progression of epileptic seizures in the kindling model of temporal lobe epilepsy. Therefore, we selectively blocked MAGL by JZL184 (8mg/kg, i.p.) in mice to analyze the effects of increased 2-AG levels on kindling acquisition and to exclude an anticonvulsive potential. Our results showed that JZL184 treatment significantly delayed the development of generalized seizures (p=0.0066) and decreased seizure (pkindling model of temporal lobe epilepsy, but caused only modest effects in fully kindled mice. Moreover, we proved that JZL184 treatment had no effects in conditional CB1R knockout mice lacking expression of the receptor in principle neurons of the forebrain. In conclusion, the data demonstrate that indirect CB1R agonism delays the development of generalized epileptic seizures but has no relevant acute anticonvulsive effects. Furthermore, we confirmed that the effects of JZL184 on kindling progression are CB1R mediated. Thus, the data indicate that the endocannabinoid 2-AG might be a promising target for an anti-epileptogenic approach.

  13. Estimating incremental costs with skew: a cautionary note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polgreen, Linnea A; Brooks, John M

    2012-09-01

    Cost data in healthcare are often skewed across patients. Thus, researchers have used either a log transformation of the dependent variable or generalized linear models with log links. However, frequently these non-linear approaches produce non-linear incremental effects: the incremental effects differ at different levels of the covariates, and this can cause dramatic effects on predicted cost. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that when modelling skewed data, log link functions or log transformations are not necessary and have unintended effects. We simulated cost data using a linear model with a 'treatment', a covariate and a specified number of observations with excessive cost (skewed data). We also used actual data from a pain-relief intervention among hip-replacement patients. We then estimated cost models using various functional approaches suggested to handle skew and calculated the incremental cost of treatment at various levels of the covariate(s). All of these methods provide unbiased estimates of the incremental effect of treatment on costs at the mean level of the covariate. However, in some log-based models the implied incremental treatment cost doubled between extreme low and high values of the covariate in a manner inconsistent with the underlying linear model. Although specification checks are always needed, the potential for misleading incremental estimates resulting from log-based specifications is often ignored. In this era of cost containment and comparisons of treatment effectiveness it is vital that researchers and policymakers understand the limitation of the inferences that can be made using log-based models for patients whose characteristics differ from the sample mean.

  14. Ascorbate as a co-factor for fe- and 2-oxoglutarate dependent dioxygenases: physiological activity in tumor growth and progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, Caroline; Vissers, Margreet C M

    2014-01-01

    Ascorbate is a specific co-factor for a large family of enzymes known as the Fe- and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases. These enzymes are found throughout biology and catalyze the addition of a hydroxyl group to various substrates. The proline hydroxylase that is involved in collagen maturation is well known, but in recent times many new enzymes and functions have been uncovered, including those involved in epigenetic control and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) regulation. These discoveries have provided crucial mechanistic insights into how ascorbate may affect tumor biology. In particular, there is growing evidence that HIF-1-dependent tumor progression may be inhibited by increasing tumor ascorbate levels. However, rigorous clinical intervention studies are lacking. This review will explore the physiological role of ascorbate as an enzyme co-factor and how this mechanism relates to cancer biology and treatment. The use of ascorbate in cancer should be informed by clinical studies based on such mechanistic hypotheses.

  15. A plant-specific cyclin-dependent kinase is involved in the control of G2/M progression in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porceddu, A; Stals, H; Reichheld, J P; Segers, G; De Veylder, L; Barroco, R P; Casteels, P; Van Montagu, M; Inzé, D; Mironov, V

    2001-09-28

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) control the key transitions in the eukaryotic cell cycle. All the CDKs known to control G(2)/M progression in yeast and animals are distinguished by the characteristic PSTAIRE motif in their cyclin-binding domain and are closely related. Higher plants contain in addition a number of more divergent non-PSTAIRE CDKs with still obscure functions. We show that a plant-specific type of non-PSTAIRE CDKs is involved in the control of the G(2)/M progression. In synchronized tobacco BY-2 cells, the corresponding protein, accumulated in a cell cycle-regulated fashion, peaking at the G(2)/M transition. The associated histone H1 kinase activity reached a maximum in mitosis and required a yet unidentified subunit to be fully active. Down-regulation of the associated kinase activity in transgenic tobacco plants using a dominant-negative mutation delayed G(2)/M transition. These results provide the first evidence that non-PSTAIRE CDKs are involved in the control of the G(2)/M progression in plants.

  16. ON THE INCREMENTS DISTRIBUTION OF STOCK PRICES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper,the models of increment distributions of stock price are constructed with two approaches. The first approach is based on limit theorems of random summation. The second approach is based on the statistical analysis of the increment distribution of the logarithms of stock prices.

  17. Webpage Segments Classification with Incremental Knowledge Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Kim, Yang Sok; Kang, Byeong Ho

    This paper suggests an incremental information extraction method for social network analysis of web publications. For this purpose, we employed an incremental knowledge acquisition method, called MCRDR (Multiple Classification Ripple-Down Rules), to classify web page segments. Our experimental results show that our MCRDR-based web page segments classification system successfully supports easy acquisition and maintenance of information extraction rules.

  18. Turns and Increments: A Comparative Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Kang-kwong; Thompson, Sandra A.; Ono, Tsuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Recent years have seen a surge of interest in "increments" among students of conversational interaction. This article first outlines "incrementing" as an analytical problem (i.e., as turn constructional unit [TCU] extensions) by tracing its origins back to Sacks, Schegloff, and Jefferson's (1974) famous turn-taking article. Then, the article…

  19. Unmanned Maritime Systems Incremental Acquisition Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT UNMANNED MARITIME SYSTEMS INCREMENTAL ACQUISITION...REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED MBA professional report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE UNMANNED MARITIME SYSTEMS INCREMENTAL ACQUISITION APPROACH 5. FUNDING...explore and understand the issues involved in the DOD’s acquisition process for Unmanned Maritime Systems (UMS) in order to recommend a new acquisition

  20. Paradoxical dependencies of tumor dormancy and progression on basic cell kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enderling, Heiko; Anderson, Alexander R A; Chaplain, Mark A J; Beheshti, Afshin; Hlatky, Lynn; Hahnfeldt, Philip

    2009-11-15

    Even after a tumor is established, it can early on enter a state of dormancy marked by balanced cell proliferation and cell death. Disturbances to this equilibrium may affect cancer risk, as they may cause the eventual lifetime clinical presentation of a tumor that might otherwise have remained asymptomatic. Previously, we showed that cell death, proliferation, and migration can play a role in shifting this dynamic, making the understanding of their combined influence on tumor development essential. We developed an individual cell-based computer model of the interaction of cancer stem cells and their nonstem progeny to study early tumor dynamics. Simulations of tumor growth show that three basic components of tumor growth--cell proliferation, migration, and death--combine in unexpected ways to control tumor progression and, thus, clinical cancer risk. We show that increased proliferation capacity in nonstem tumor cells and limited cell migration overall lead to space constraints that inhibit proliferation and tumor growth. By contrast, increasing the rate of cell death produces the expected tumor size reduction in the short term, but results ultimately in paradoxical accelerated long-term growth owing to the liberation of cancer stem cells and formation of self-metastases.

  1. Tomato fruit carotenoid biosynthesis is adjusted to actual ripening progression by a light-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorente, Briardo; D'Andrea, Lucio; Ruiz-Sola, M Aguila; Botterweg, Esther; Pulido, Pablo; Andilla, Jordi; Loza-Alvarez, Pablo; Rodriguez-Concepcion, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids are isoprenoid compounds that are essential for plants to protect the photosynthetic apparatus against excess light. They also function as health-promoting natural pigments that provide colors to ripe fruit, promoting seed dispersal by animals. Work in Arabidopsis thaliana unveiled that transcription factors of the phytochrome-interacting factor (PIF) family regulate carotenoid gene expression in response to environmental signals (i.e. light and temperature), including those created when sunlight reflects from or passes though nearby vegetation or canopy (referred to as shade). Here we show that PIFs use a virtually identical mechanism to modulate carotenoid biosynthesis during fruit ripening in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). However, instead of integrating environmental information, PIF-mediated signaling pathways appear to fulfill a completely new function in the fruit. As tomatoes ripen, they turn from green to red due to chlorophyll breakdown and carotenoid accumulation. When sunlight passes through the flesh of green fruit, a self-shading effect within the tissue maintains high levels of PIFs that directly repress the master gene of the fruit carotenoid pathway, preventing undue production of carotenoids. This effect is attenuated as chlorophyll degrades, causing degradation of PIF proteins and boosting carotenoid biosynthesis as ripening progresses. Thus, shade signaling components may have been co-opted in tomato fruit to provide information on the actual stage of ripening (based on the pigment profile of the fruit at each moment) and thus finely coordinate fruit color change. We show how this mechanism may be manipulated to obtain carotenoid-enriched fruits.

  2. A Weibull multi-state model for the dependence of progression-free survival and overall survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yimei; Zhang, Qiang

    2015-07-30

    In oncology clinical trials, overall survival, time to progression, and progression-free survival are three commonly used endpoints. Empirical correlations among them have been published for different cancers, but statistical models describing the dependence structures are limited. Recently, Fleischer et al. proposed a statistical model that is mathematically tractable and shows some flexibility to describe the dependencies in a realistic way, based on the assumption of exponential distributions. This paper aims to extend their model to the more flexible Weibull distribution. We derived theoretical correlations among different survival outcomes, as well as the distribution of overall survival induced by the model. Model parameters were estimated by the maximum likelihood method and the goodness of fit was assessed by plotting estimated versus observed survival curves for overall survival. We applied the method to three cancer clinical trials. In the non-small-cell lung cancer trial, both the exponential and the Weibull models provided an adequate fit to the data, and the estimated correlations were very similar under both models. In the prostate cancer trial and the laryngeal cancer trial, the Weibull model exhibited advantages over the exponential model and yielded larger estimated correlations. Simulations suggested that the proposed Weibull model is robust for data generated from a range of distributions.

  3. Interleukin 8 in progression of hormone-dependent early breast cancer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    JELENA MILOVANOVIĆ; NATAŠA TODOROVIĆ-RAKOVIĆ; TIJANA VUJASINOVIĆ; ZAKI ABU RABI

    2017-06-01

    The only way to perceive the real clinical course of disease and the prognostic significance of potential biomarkers is follow-up of patients who did not receive any kind of adjuvant therapy. Many studies have confirmed high levels ofinterleukin 8 (IL8) in HER2-enriched and basal-like (ER–) primary breast tumours, but less is known about thesignificance of IL8 in hormone-dependent breast cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of IL8 and clinicopathological parameters in hormone-dependent breast cancer, and to examine possible associations between them that might imply possible biological dependence. The study included 91 early-stage breastcancer patients with detectable levels of hormone receptors (ER>0, PR>0). None of the patients received adjuvanttherapy according to valid protocol at that time. HER2 status was determined on paraffin-embedded tumour tissue sections by CISH. IL8 levels were determined by ELISA in cytosol tumour extracts of 65 patients with long-term follow-up (144 months). Nonparametric statistical tests were used for data analyses. Patients with low IL8 levels(M<88.8 pg/mg) had significantly longer relapse-free survival (RFS) compared to patients with high IL8 levels(M≥88.82 pg/mg) (Log rank test, p=0.002). Patients with ERhighIL8low phenotype had significantly longer RFScompared to those with ERhighIL8high and ERlowIL8high phenotypes (p=0.04 and p=0.02, respectively); patientswith PRlowIL8low phenotype had significantly longer RFS compared to those with PRlowIL8high and PRhighIL8-high phenotypes (p=0.003 and p=0.02, respectively); patients with HER2-IL8low phenotype had significantly longerRFS compared to those with HER2-IL8high and HER2+IL8high phenotypes (p=0.01 and p=0.02, respectively). Ourresults indicate significant contribution of IL8 on survival of hormone-dependent early-stage breast cancer patientsand association with established parameters such as ER/PR and HER2.

  4. Optimal ordering and pricing policy for price sensitive stock–dependent demand under progressive payment scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nita H. Shah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The terminal condition of inventory level to be zero at the end of the cycle time adopted by Soni and Shah (2008, 2009 is not viable when demand is stock-dependent. To rectify this assumption, we extend their model for (1 an ending – inventory to be non-zero; (2 limited floor space; (3 a profit maximization model; (4 selling price to be a decision variable, and (5 units in inventory deteriorate at a constant rate. The algorithm is developed to search for the optimal decision policy. The working of the proposed model is supported with a numerical example. Sensitivity analysis is carried out to investigate critical parameters.

  5. Rapid Transfer Alignment of MEMS SINS Based on Adaptive Incremental Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hairong Chu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In airborne MEMS SINS transfer alignment, the error of MEMS IMU is highly environment-dependent and the parameters of the system model are also uncertain, which may lead to large error and bad convergence of the Kalman filter. In order to solve this problem, an improved adaptive incremental Kalman filter (AIKF algorithm is proposed. First, the model of SINS transfer alignment is defined based on the “Velocity and Attitude” matching method. Then the detailed algorithm progress of AIKF and its recurrence formulas are presented. The performance and calculation amount of AKF and AIKF are also compared. Finally, a simulation test is designed to verify the accuracy and the rapidity of the AIKF algorithm by comparing it with KF and AKF. The results show that the AIKF algorithm has better estimation accuracy and shorter convergence time, especially for the bias of the gyroscope and the accelerometer, which can meet the accuracy and rapidity requirement of transfer alignment.

  6. Rapid Transfer Alignment of MEMS SINS Based on Adaptive Incremental Kalman Filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hairong; Sun, Tingting; Zhang, Baiqiang; Zhang, Hongwei; Chen, Yang

    2017-01-14

    In airborne MEMS SINS transfer alignment, the error of MEMS IMU is highly environment-dependent and the parameters of the system model are also uncertain, which may lead to large error and bad convergence of the Kalman filter. In order to solve this problem, an improved adaptive incremental Kalman filter (AIKF) algorithm is proposed. First, the model of SINS transfer alignment is defined based on the "Velocity and Attitude" matching method. Then the detailed algorithm progress of AIKF and its recurrence formulas are presented. The performance and calculation amount of AKF and AIKF are also compared. Finally, a simulation test is designed to verify the accuracy and the rapidity of the AIKF algorithm by comparing it with KF and AKF. The results show that the AIKF algorithm has better estimation accuracy and shorter convergence time, especially for the bias of the gyroscope and the accelerometer, which can meet the accuracy and rapidity requirement of transfer alignment.

  7. Unligated Okazaki Fragments Induce PCNA Ubiquitination and a Requirement for Rad59-Dependent Replication Fork Progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Dang Nguyen

    Full Text Available Deficiency in DNA ligase I, encoded by CDC9 in budding yeast, leads to the accumulation of unligated Okazaki fragments and triggers PCNA ubiquitination at a non-canonical lysine residue. This signal is crucial to activate the S phase checkpoint, which promotes cell cycle delay. We report here that a pol30-K107 mutation alleviated cell cycle delay in cdc9 mutants, consistent with the idea that the modification of PCNA at K107 affects the rate of DNA synthesis at replication forks. To determine whether PCNA ubiquitination occurred in response to nicks or was triggered by the lack of PCNA-DNA ligase interaction, we complemented cdc9 cells with either wild-type DNA ligase I or a mutant form, which fails to interact with PCNA. Both enzymes reversed PCNA ubiquitination, arguing that the modification is likely an integral part of a novel nick-sensory mechanism and not due to non-specific secondary mutations that could have occurred spontaneously in cdc9 mutants. To further understand how cells cope with the accumulation of nicks during DNA replication, we utilized cdc9-1 in a genome-wide synthetic lethality screen, which identified RAD59 as a strong negative interactor. In comparison to cdc9 single mutants, cdc9 rad59Δ double mutants did not alter PCNA ubiquitination but enhanced phosphorylation of the mediator of the replication checkpoint, Mrc1. Since Mrc1 resides at the replication fork and is phosphorylated in response to fork stalling, these results indicate that Rad59 alleviates nick-induced replication fork slowdown. Thus, we propose that Rad59 promotes fork progression when Okazaki fragment processing is compromised and counteracts PCNA-K107 mediated cell cycle arrest.

  8. INTERMITTENT VERSUS CONTINUOUS INCREMENTAL FIELD TESTS: ARE MAXIMAL VARIABLES INTERCHANGEABLE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorival J. Carminatti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare physiological responses derived from an incremental progressive field test with a constant speed test i.e. intermittent versus continuous protocol. Two progressive maximum tests (Carminatti`s test (T-CAR and the Vameval test (T-VAM, characterized by increasing speed were used. T-CAR is an intermittent incremental test, performed as shuttle runs; while T-VAM is a continuous incremental test performed on an athletic track. Eighteen physically active, healthy young subjects (21.9 ± 2.0 years; 76.5 ± 8.6 kg, 1.78 ± 0.08 m, 11.2 ± 5.4% body fat, volunteered for this study. Subjects performed four different maximum test sessions conducted in the field: two incremental tests and two time to exhaustion tests (TTE at peak test velocities (PV. No significant differences were found for PV (T-CAR = 15.6 ± 1.2; T-VAM = 15.5 ± 1.3 km·h-1 and maximal HR (T-CAR = 195 ± 11; T- VAM = 194 ± 14 bpm. During TTE, there were no significant differences for HR (TTET-CAR and TTET-VAM = 192 ± 12 bpm. However, there was a significant difference in TTE (p = 0.04 (TTET-CAR = 379 ± 84, TTET-VAM = 338 ± 58 s with a low correlation (r = 0.41. The blood lactate concentration measured at the end of the TTE tests, showed no significant difference (TTET-CAR = 13.2 ± 2.4 vs. TTET-VAM = 12.9 ± 2.4 mmol·l-1. Based on the present findings, it is suggested that the maximal variables derived from T-CAR and T-VAM can be interchangeable in the design of training programs.

  9. A decade of countering bioterrorism: incremental progress, fundamental failings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danzig, Richard

    2012-03-01

    The fear and disruption caused by the 2001 anthrax attacks understandably led Americans to seek enhanced biodefenses. However, the path followed since those attacks has left the country inadequately prepared to face further risks from biological attacks. Why has security against these threats been only partially achieved? This article suggests that our responses over the past decade can be sorted into 4 levels in order of increasing difficulty. First, we rapidly appropriated funds, augmented personnel, and mandated reorganization of agencies. Though not easy to accomplish, these steps were easily conceptualized and, whatever their imperfections, could rather assuredly be achieved. A second level was more demanding, but also quite achievable. It involved the amplification of ongoing efforts. These efforts sometimes suffered as they scaled up, but, though they were qualified by delays and uncertainties, we can point to real achievements at this level. A third level was more difficult: It required evolving new strategies to deal with this largely unprecedented problem. In this regard, we have so far had only glimmers of possibility. At a fourth level, our performance and our prospects are worse still. At this level, our problems stem from resistances inherent in our country's cultural and political framework. This article identifies some of these problems and suggests, regrettably, that they are not likely to be resolved until change is catalyzed by further, and more dramatically traumatic, attacks or natural disasters. If this situational assessment is correct, what remedial strategies should we pursue? The article distinguishes 3 strategic approaches: an evolutionary one in which the U.S. continues advancing along its present path; a radical approach that attempts to address the fourth-level issues; and a third approach that prepares for punctuated evolution. This third approach accepts the improbability of level 4 change either by gradual evolution or by radical argument, but asserts that it is possible to lay the conceptual groundwork now for the radical changes that will be possible, even demanded, after a catastrophic incident. This approach, neglected at present, would be a valuable addition to our present efforts.

  10. Characterization of age-dependent and progressive cortical neuronal degeneration in presenilin conditional mutant mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Wines-Samuelson

    Full Text Available Presenilins are the major causative genes of familial Alzheimer's disease (AD. Our previous study has demonstrated essential roles of presenilins in memory and neuronal survival. Here, we explore further how loss of presenilins results in age-related, progressive neurodegeneration in the adult cerebral cortex, where the pathogenesis of AD occurs. To circumvent the requirement of presenilins for embryonic development, we used presenilin conditional double knockout (Psen cDKO mice, in which presenilin inactivation is restricted temporally and spatially to excitatory neurons of the postnatal forebrain beginning at 4 weeks of age. Increases in the number of degenerating (Fluoro-Jade B+, 7.6-fold and apoptotic (TUNEL+, 7.4-fold neurons, which represent approximately 0.1% of all cortical neurons, were first detected at 2 months of age when there is still no significant loss of cortical neurons and volume in Psen cDKO mice. By 4 months of age, significant loss of cortical neurons (approximately 9% and gliosis was found in Psen cDKO mice. The apoptotic cell death is associated with caspase activation, as shown by increased numbers of cells immunoreactive for active caspases 9 and 3 in the Psen cDKO cortex. The vulnerability of cortical neurons to loss of presenilins is region-specific with cortical neurons in the lateral cortex most susceptible. Compared to the neocortex, the increase in apoptotic cell death and the extent of neurodegeneration are less dramatic in the Psen cDKO hippocampus, possibly in part due to increased neurogenesis in the aging dentate gyrus. Neurodegeneration is also accompanied with mitochondrial defects, as indicated by reduced mitochondrial density and altered mitochondrial size distribution in aging Psen cortical neurons. Together, our findings show that loss of presenilins in cortical neurons causes apoptotic cell death occurring in a very small percentage of neurons, which accumulates over time and leads to substantial loss

  11. Parameter Estimation for Generalized Brownian Motion with Autoregressive Increments

    CERN Document Server

    Fendick, Kerry

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops methods for estimating parameters for a generalization of Brownian motion with autoregressive increments called a Brownian ray with drift. We show that a superposition of Brownian rays with drift depends on three types of parameters - a drift coefficient, autoregressive coefficients, and volatility matrix elements, and we introduce methods for estimating each of these types of parameters using multidimensional times series data. We also cover parameter estimation in the contexts of two applications of Brownian rays in the financial sphere: queuing analysis and option valuation. For queuing analysis, we show how samples of queue lengths can be used to estimate the conditional expectation functions for the length of the queue and for increments in its net input and lost potential output. For option valuation, we show how the Black-Scholes-Merton formula depends on the price of the security on which the option is written through estimates not only of its volatility, but also of a coefficient ...

  12. [Research progress on microbial properties of nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane-oxidising bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Li-dong

    2015-03-01

    Nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (N-DAMO) is a recently discovered process that constitutes a unique association between the two major global elements essential for life, carbon and nitrogen. This process is one of the most important discoveries in the fields of environmental science and microbiology. The discovery of N-DAMO process supplements biogeochemical cycles of carbon and nitrogen in nature, extends microbial diversity and urges development of novel simultaneous carbon and nitrogen removal process. The N-DAMO process is mediated by the bacterium " Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera" (M. oxyfera), which belongs to the candidate phylum NC10. Currently, a series of breakthroughs have been made in the research of M. oxyfera. The properties of M. oxyfera morphology, chemical composition, enrichment culture, physiology and biochemistry, and ecology have been revealed. Most importantly, the special ultrastructure (star-like) of the cell shape and unique chemical composition (10MeC(16,1Δ7)) of M. oxyfera have been revealed. In addition, a new intra-aerobic metabolism (the fourth biological pathway to produce oxygen) was discovered in M. oxyfera. It was observed that M. oxyfera bypassed the denitrification intermediate nitrous oxide by the conversion of two nitric oxide molecules to dinitrogen gas and oxygen, which was then used to oxidise methane. The present review summarises various aspects of microbiological properties of M. oxyfera.

  13. Repeated Structural Imaging Reveals Nonlinear Progression of Experience-Dependent Volume Changes in Human Motor Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Elisabeth; Kühn, Simone; Verrel, Julius; Mårtensson, Johan; Bodammer, Nils Christian; Lindenberger, Ulman; Lövdén, Martin

    2017-05-01

    Evidence for experience-dependent structural brain change in adult humans is accumulating. However, its time course is not well understood, as intervention studies typically consist of only 2 imaging sessions (before vs. after training). We acquired up to 18 structural magnetic resonance images over a 7-week period while 15 right-handed participants practiced left-hand writing and drawing. After 4 weeks, we observed increases in gray matter of both left and right primary motor cortices relative to a control group; 3 weeks later, these differences were no longer reliable. Time-series analyses revealed that gray matter in the primary motor cortices expanded during the first 4 weeks and then partially renormalized, in particular in the right hemisphere, despite continued practice and increasing task proficiency. Similar patterns of expansion followed by partial renormalization are also found in synaptogenesis, cortical map plasticity, and maturation, and may qualify as a general principle of structural plasticity. Research on human brain plasticity needs to encompass more than 2 measurement occasions to capture expansion and potential renormalization processes over time. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Incremental Discriminant Analysis in Tensor Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Liu; Weidong, Zhao; Tao, Yan; Qiang, Pu; Xiaodan, Du

    2015-01-01

    To study incremental machine learning in tensor space, this paper proposes incremental tensor discriminant analysis. The algorithm employs tensor representation to carry on discriminant analysis and combine incremental learning to alleviate the computational cost. This paper proves that the algorithm can be unified into the graph framework theoretically and analyzes the time and space complexity in detail. The experiments on facial image detection have shown that the algorithm not only achieves sound performance compared with other algorithms, but also reduces the computational issues apparently. PMID:26339229

  15. Critical role of SAP in progression and reactivation but not maintenance of T cell-dependent humoral immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Ming-Chao; Veillette, André

    2013-03-01

    Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM)-associated protein (SAP) is a small adaptor molecule mutated in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease, a human immunodeficiency. SAP plays a critical role in the initiation of T cell-dependent B cell responses leading to germinal center reaction, the production of high-affinity antibodies, and B cell memory. However, whether SAP has a role in these responses beyond their initiation is not known. It is important to address this matter not only for mechanistic reasons but also because blockade of the SAP pathway is being contemplated as a means to treat autoimmune diseases in humans. Using an inducibly SAP deficient mouse, we found that SAP was required not only for the initiation but also for the progression of primary T cell-driven B cell responses to haptens. It was also necessary for the reactivation of T cell-dependent B cell immunity during secondary immune responses. These activities consistently correlated with the requirement of SAP for full expression of the lineage commitment factor Bcl-6 in follicular T helper (T(FH)) cells. However, once memory B cells and long-lived antibody-secreting cells were established, SAP became dispensable for maintaining T cell-dependent B cell responses. Thus, SAP is pivotal for nearly all phases, but not for maintenance, of T cell-driven B cell humoral immunity. These findings may have implications for the treatment of immune disorders by targeting the SAP pathway.

  16. Activated Hepatic Stellate Cells Induce Tumor Progression of Neoplastic Hepatocytes in a TGF-β Dependent Fashion

    Science.gov (United States)

    MIKULA, M.; PROELL, V.; FISCHER, A.N.M.; MIKULITS, W.

    2010-01-01

    The development of hepatocellular carcinomas from malignant hepatocytes is frequently associated with intra- and peritumoral accumulation of connective tissue arising from activated hepatic stellate cells. For both tumorigenesis and hepatic fibrogenesis, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling executes key roles and therefore is considered as a hallmark of these pathological events. By employing cellular transplantation we show that the interaction of neoplastic MIM-R hepatocytes with the tumor microenvironment, containing either activated hepatic stellate cells (M1-4HSCs) or myofibroblasts derived thereof (M-HTs), induces progression in malignancy. Cotransplantation of MIM-R hepatocytes with M-HTs yielded strongest MIM-R generated tumor formation accompanied by nuclear localization of Smad2/3 as well as of β-catenin. Genetic interference with TGF-β signaling by gain of antagonistic Smad7 in MIM-R hepatocytes diminished epithelial dedifferentiation and tumor progression upon interaction with M1-4HSCs or M-HTs. Further analysis showed that tumors harboring disrupted Smad signaling are devoid of nuclear β-catenin accumulation, indicating a crosstalk between TGF-β and β-catenin signaling. Together, these data demonstrate that activated HSCs and myofibroblasts directly govern hepatocarcinogenesis in a TGF-β dependent fashion by inducing autocrine TGF-β signaling and nuclear β-catenin accumulation in neoplastic hepatocytes. These results indicate that intervention with TGF-β signaling is highly promising in liver cancer therapy. PMID:16883581

  17. Cdk2 deficiency decreases ras/CDK4-dependent malignant progression, but not myc-induced tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, Everardo; Kim, Yongbaek; Miliani de Marval, Paula L; Klein-Szanto, Andres; Rodriguez-Puebla, Marcelo L

    2007-10-15

    We have previously shown that forced expression of CDK4 in mouse skin (K5CDK4 mice) results in increased susceptibility to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) development in a chemical carcinogenesis protocol. This protocol induces skin papilloma development, causing a selection of cells bearing activating Ha-ras mutations. We have also shown that myc-induced epidermal proliferation and oral tumorigenesis (K5Myc mice) depends on CDK4 expression. Biochemical analysis of K5CDK4 and K5Myc epidermis as well as skin tumors showed that keratinocyte proliferation is mediated by CDK4 sequestration of p27Kip1 and p21Cip1, and activation of CDK2. Here, we studied the role of CDK2 in epithelial tumorigenesis. In normal skin, loss of CDK2 rescues CDK4-induced, but not myc-induced epidermal hyperproliferation. Ablation of CDK2 in K5CDK4 mice results in decreased incidences and multiplicity of skin tumors as well as malignant progression to SCC. Histopathologic analysis showed that K5CDK4 tumors are drastically more aggressive than K5CDK4/CDK2-/- tumors. On the other hand, we show that CDK2 is dispensable for myc-induced tumorigenesis. In contrast to our previous report of K5Myc/CDK4-/-, K5Myc/CDK2-/- mice developed oral tumors with the same frequency as K5Myc mice. Overall, we have established that ras-induced tumors are more susceptible to CDK2 ablation than myc-induced tumors, suggesting that the efficacy of targeting CDK2 in tumor development and malignant progression is dependent on the oncogenic pathway involved.

  18. Efficient Incremental Checkpointing of Java Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawall, Julia Laetitia; Muller, Gilles

    2000-01-01

    This paper investigates the optimization of language-level checkpointing of Java programs. First, we describe how to systematically associate incremental checkpoints with Java classes. While being safe, the genericness of this solution induces substantial execution overhead. Second, to solve...

  19. VT Tax Increment Financing (TIF) Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Tax Increment Financing (TIF) Districts is established by a municipality around an area that requires public infrastructure to encourage public and private real...

  20. Separate and combined effects of gabapentin and [INCREMENT]9-tetrahydrocannabinol in humans discriminating [INCREMENT]9-tetrahydrocannabinol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lile, Joshua A; Wesley, Michael J; Kelly, Thomas H; Hays, Lon R

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine a potential mechanism of action of gabapentin to manage cannabis-use disorders by determining the interoceptive effects of gabapentin in cannabis users discriminating [INCREMENT]-tetrahydrocannabinol ([INCREMENT]-THC) using a pharmacologically selective drug-discrimination procedure. Eight cannabis users learned to discriminate 30 mg oral [INCREMENT]-THC from placebo and then received gabapentin (600 and 1200 mg), [INCREMENT]-THC (5, 15, and 30 mg), and placebo alone and in combination. Self-report, task performance, and physiological measures were also collected. [INCREMENT]-THC served as a discriminative stimulus, produced positive subjective effects, elevated heart rate, and impaired psychomotor performance. Both doses of gabapentin substituted for the [INCREMENT]-THC discriminative stimulus and engendered subjective and performance-impairing effects that overlapped with those of [INCREMENT]-THC when administered alone. When administered concurrently, gabapentin shifted the discriminative-stimulus effects of [INCREMENT]-THC leftward/upward, and combinations of [INCREMENT]-THC and gabapentin generally produced larger effects on cannabinoid-sensitive outcomes relative to [INCREMENT]-THC alone. These results suggest that one mechanism by which gabapentin might facilitate cannabis abstinence is by producing effects that overlap with those of cannabinoids.

  1. Large Deviations for Processes with Independent Increments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-10-01

    generating function of the increments exists and thus the sample paths of such stochastic processes lie in the space of functions of bounded variation . The...BV[O,1], the space of functions of bounded variation and the topology is that of weak*-convergence. Varadhan (1966) studied the LDP for similar...increments and no Gaussian component which are considered as elements of BV[0,1], the space of functions of bounded variation . The final section

  2. Incremental validity of emotional intelligence ability in predicting academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanciano, Tiziana; Curci, Antonietta

    2014-01-01

    We tested the incremental validity of an ability measure of emotional intelligence (El) in predicting academic achievement in undergraduate students, controlling for cognitive abilities and personality traits. Academic achievement has been conceptualized in terms of the number of exams, grade point average, and study time taken to prepare for each exam. Additionally, gender differences were taken into account in these relationships. Participants filled in the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), the Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices, the reduced version of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, and academic achievement measures. Results showed that El abilities were positively related to academic achievement indices, such as the number of exams and grade point average; total El ability and the Perceiving branch were negatively associated with the study time spent preparing for exams. Furthermore, El ability adds a percentage of incremental variance with respect to cognitive ability and personality variables in explaining scholastic success. The magnitude of the associations between El abilities and academic achievement measures was generally higher for men than for women. Jointly considered, the present findings support the incremental validity of the MSCEIT and provide positive indications of the importance of El in students' academic development. The helpfulness of El training in the context of academic institutions is discussed.

  3. Early ventilation-heart rate breakpoint during incremental cycling exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravier, G; Delliaux, S; Ba, A; Delpierre, S; Guieu, R; Jammes, Y

    2014-03-01

    Previous observations having reported a transient hypoxia at the onset of incremental exercise, we investigated the existence of concomitant ventilatory and heart rate (HR) breakpoints.33 subjects executed a maximal cycling exercise with averaging for successive 5-s periods of HR, ventilation, tidal volume (VT), mean inspiratory flow rate (VT/Ti), and end-tidal partial pressures of O2 (PETO2) and CO2. In 10 subjects, the transcutaneous partial pressure of O2 (PtcO2) was recorded and the venous blood lactic acid (LA) concentration measured.At the beginning of exercise, PETO2 decreased, reaching a nadir, then progressively increased until the exercise ended. PtcO2 varied in parallel. Whether or not a 0-W cycling period preceded the incremental exercise, the rate of changes in VE, VT, VT/Ti and HR significantly increased when the nadir PO2 was reached. The ventilatory/ HR breakpoint was measured at 33±4% of VO2max, whereas the ventilatory threshold (VTh) was detected at 67±4% of VO2max and LA began to increase at 45 to 50% of VO2max.During incremental cycling exercise, we identified the existence of HR and ventilatory breakpoints in advance of both lactate and ventilatory thresholds which coincided with modest hypoxia and hypercapnia. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Influence of Rotation Increments on Imaging Performance for a Rotatory Dual-Head PET System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanzhen Meng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For a rotatory dual-head positron emission tomography (PET system, how to determine the rotation increments is an open problem. In this study, we simulated the characteristics of a rotatory dual-head PET system. The influences of different rotation increments were compared and analyzed. Based on this simulation, the imaging performance of a prototype system was verified. A reconstruction flowchart was proposed based on a precalculated system response matrix (SRM. The SRM made the relationships between the voxels and lines of response (LORs fixed; therefore, we added the interpolation method into the flowchart. Five metrics, including spatial resolution, normalized mean squared error (NMSE, peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR, contrast-to-noise (CNR, and structure similarity (SSIM, were applied to assess the reconstructed image quality. The results indicated that the 60° rotation increments with the bilinear interpolation had advantages in resolution, PSNR, NMSE, and SSIM. In terms of CNR, the 90° rotation increments were better than other increments. In addition, the reconstructed images of 90° rotation increments were also flatter than that of 60° increments. Therefore, both the 60° and 90° rotation increments could be used in the real experiments, and which one to choose may depend on the application requirement.

  5. An ongoing process: A qualitative study of how the alcohol-dependent free themselves of addiction through progressive abstinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che Hui-Lian

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most people being treated for alcoholism are unable to successfully quit drinking within their treatment programs. In few cases do we know the full picture of how abstinence is achieved in Taiwan. We tracked processes of abstinence in alcohol-dependency disorders, based on study evidence and results. This research explores the process of recovery from the viewpoint of the alcohol-dependent. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted in two different settings, using purpose sampling, during 2003-2004. The data were analyzed using content analysis. Participants were 32 adults, purposefully selected from an Alcoholics Anonymous group and a psychiatric hospital in North Taiwan. Results We found that the abstinence process is an ongoing process, in which the alcohol-dependent free themselves of addiction progressively. This process never ends or resolves in complete recovery. We have identified three stages in the struggle against alcoholism: the Indulgence, Ambivalence and Attempt (IAA cycle, in which the sufferer is trapped in a cycle of attempting to give up and failing; the Turning Point, in which a Personal Nadir is reached, and the Ongoing Process of abstinence, in which a constant effort is made to remain sober through willpower and with the help of support groups. We also discuss Influencing Factors that can derail abstinence attempts, pushing the sufferer back into the IAA cycle. Conclusion This study provides important points of reference for alcohol and drug service workers and community healthcare professionals in Taiwan, casting light on the abstinence process and providing a basis for intervention or rehabilitation services.

  6. Increments to life and mortality tempo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griffith Feeney

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces and develops the idea of "increments to life." Increments to life are roughly analogous to forces of mortality: they are quantities specified for each age and time by a mathematical function of two variables that may be used to describe, analyze and model changing length of life in populations. The rationale is three-fold. First, I wanted a general mathematical representation of Bongaart's "life extension" pill (Bongaarts and Feeney 2003 allowing for continuous variation in age and time. This is accomplished in sections 3-5, to which sections 1-2 are preliminaries. It turned out to be a good deal more difficult than I expected, partly on account of the mathematics, but mostly because it requires thinking in very unaccustomed ways. Second, I wanted a means of assessing the robustness of the Bongaarts-Feeney mortality tempo adjustment formula (Bongaarts and Feeney 2003 against variations in increments to life by age. Section 6 shows how the increments to life mathematics accomplishes this with an application to the Swedish data used in Bongaarts and Feeney (2003. In this application, at least, the Bongaarts-Feeney adjustment is robust. Third, I hoped by formulating age-variable increments to life to avoid the slight awkwardness of working with conditional rather than unconditional survival functions. This third aim has not been accomplished, but this appears to be because it was unreasonable to begin with. While it is possible to conceptualize length of life as completely described by an age-varying increments to life function, this is not consistent with the Bongaarts-Feeney mortality tempo adjustment. What seems to be needed, rather, is a model that incorporates two fundamentally different kinds of changes in mortality and length of life, one based on the familiar force of mortality function, the other based on the increments to life function. Section 7 considers heuristically what such models might look like.

  7. Incremental Support Vector Learning for Ordinal Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Bin; Sheng, Victor S; Tay, Keng Yeow; Romano, Walter; Li, Shuo

    2015-07-01

    Support vector ordinal regression (SVOR) is a popular method to tackle ordinal regression problems. However, until now there were no effective algorithms proposed to address incremental SVOR learning due to the complicated formulations of SVOR. Recently, an interesting accurate on-line algorithm was proposed for training ν -support vector classification (ν-SVC), which can handle a quadratic formulation with a pair of equality constraints. In this paper, we first present a modified SVOR formulation based on a sum-of-margins strategy. The formulation has multiple constraints, and each constraint includes a mixture of an equality and an inequality. Then, we extend the accurate on-line ν-SVC algorithm to the modified formulation, and propose an effective incremental SVOR algorithm. The algorithm can handle a quadratic formulation with multiple constraints, where each constraint is constituted of an equality and an inequality. More importantly, it tackles the conflicts between the equality and inequality constraints. We also provide the finite convergence analysis for the algorithm. Numerical experiments on the several benchmark and real-world data sets show that the incremental algorithm can converge to the optimal solution in a finite number of steps, and is faster than the existing batch and incremental SVOR algorithms. Meanwhile, the modified formulation has better accuracy than the existing incremental SVOR algorithm, and is as accurate as the sum-of-margins based formulation of Shashua and Levin.

  8. Approximately bisimilar symbolic models for incrementally stable switched systems

    CERN Document Server

    Girard, Antoine; Tabuada, Paulo

    2008-01-01

    Switched systems constitute an important modeling paradigm faithfully describing many engineering systems in which software interacts with the physical world. Despite considerable progress on stability and stabilization of switched systems, the constant evolution of technology demands that we make similar progress with respect to different, and perhaps more complex, objectives. This paper describes one particular approach to address these different objectives based on the construction of approximately equivalent (bisimilar) symbolic models for switched systems. The main contribution of this paper consists in showing that under standard assumptions ensuring incremental stability of a switched system (i.e. existence of a common Lyapunov function, or multiple Lyapunov functions with dwell time), it is possible to construct a finite symbolic model that is approximately bisimilar to the original switched system with a precision that can be chosen a priori. To support the computational merits of the proposed approa...

  9. The increased level of COX-dependent arachidonic acid metabolism in blood platelets from secondary progressive multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Agnieszka; Miller, Elzbieta; Bijak, Michal; Saluk, Joanna

    2016-09-01

    Platelet activation is increasingly postulated as a possible component of the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), especially due to the increased risk of cardiovascular events in MS. Arachidonic acid cascade metabolized by cyclooxygenase (COX) is a key pathway of platelet activation. The aim of our study was to investigate the COX-dependent arachidonic acid metabolic pathway in blood platelets from secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SP MS) patients. The blood samples were obtained from 50 patients (man n = 22; female n = 28), suffering from SP MS, diagnosed according to the revised McDonald criteria. Platelet aggregation was measured in platelet-rich plasma after arachidonic acid stimulation. The level of COX activity and thromboxane B2 concentration were determined by ELISA method. Lipid peroxidation was assessed by measuring the level of malondialdehyde. The results were compared with a control group of healthy volunteers. We found that blood platelets obtained from SP MS patients were more sensitive to arachidonic acid and their response measured as platelet aggregation was stronger (about 14 %) relative to control. We also observed a significantly increased activity of COX (about 40 %) and synthesis of thromboxane B2 (about 113 %). The generation of malondialdehyde as a marker of lipid peroxidation was about 10 % higher in SP MS than in control. Cyclooxygenase-dependent arachidonic acid metabolism is significantly increased in blood platelets of patients with SP MS. Future clinical studies are required to recommend the use of low-dose aspirin, and possibly other COX inhibitors in the prevention of cardiovascular risk in MS.

  10. Growth increments in teeth of Diictodon (Therapsida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Francis Thackeray

    1991-09-01

    Full Text Available Growth increments circa 0.02 mm in width have been observed in sectioned tusks of Diictodon from the Late Permian lower Beaufort succession of the South African Karoo, dated between about 260 and 245 million years ago. Mean growth increments show a decline from relatively high values in the Tropidostoma/Endothiodon Assemblage Zone, to lower values in the Aulacephalodon/Cistecephaluszone, declining still further in the Dicynodon lacerficeps/Whaitsia zone at the end of the Permian. These changes coincide with gradual changes in carbon isotope ratios measured from Diictodon tooth apatite. It is suggested that the decline in growth increments is related to environmental changes associated with a decline in primary production which contributed to the decline in abundance and ultimate extinction of Diictodon.

  11. Incremental Passivity and Incremental Passivity-Based Output Regulation for Switched Discrete-Time Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao Li; Jun Zhao

    2017-05-01

    This paper investigates incremental passivity and output regulation for switched discrete-time systems. We develop the results in two parts. First of all, a concept of incremental passivity is proposed to describe the overall incremental passivity property of a switched discrete-time system in the absence of the classic incremental passivity property of the subsystems. A condition for incremental passivity is given. A certain negative output feedback is designed to produce asymptotic stability. Incremental passivity is shown to be preserved under feedback interconnection. The second part of this paper is concerned with an application of the incremental passivity theory to the output regulation problem for switched discrete-time systems. The key idea is to construct a switched internal model with incremental passivity, which closely links the solvability of the output regulation problem. A characteristic of the switched internal model is that it does not necessarily switch synchronously with the controlled plant, which greatly increases the freedom of design. Once such a switched internal model is established, the output regulation problem is then solved by construction of the feedback interconnection between the controlled plant and the switched internal model. The main usefulness of the strategy is to get rid of the solvability of the output regulation problem for the subsystems.

  12. Power calculation of linear and angular incremental encoders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokofev, Aleksandr V.; Timofeev, Aleksandr N.; Mednikov, Sergey V.; Sycheva, Elena A.

    2016-04-01

    Automation technology is constantly expanding its role in improving the efficiency of manufacturing and testing processes in all branches of industry. More than ever before, the mechanical movements of linear slides, rotary tables, robot arms, actuators, etc. are numerically controlled. Linear and angular incremental photoelectric encoders measure mechanical motion and transmit the measured values back to the control unit. The capabilities of these systems are undergoing continual development in terms of their resolution, accuracy and reliability, their measuring ranges, and maximum speeds. This article discusses the method of power calculation of linear and angular incremental photoelectric encoders, to find the optimum parameters for its components, such as light emitters, photo-detectors, linear and angular scales, optical components etc. It analyzes methods and devices that permit high resolutions in the order of 0.001 mm or 0.001°, as well as large measuring lengths of over 100 mm. In linear and angular incremental photoelectric encoders optical beam is usually formulated by a condenser lens passes through the measuring unit changes its value depending on the movement of a scanning head or measuring raster. Past light beam is converting into an electrical signal by the photo-detecter's block for processing in the electrical block. Therefore, for calculating the energy source is a value of the desired value of the optical signal at the input of the photo-detecter's block, which reliably recorded and processed in the electronic unit of linear and angular incremental optoelectronic encoders. Automation technology is constantly expanding its role in improving the efficiency of manufacturing and testing processes in all branches of industry. More than ever before, the mechanical movements of linear slides, rotary tables, robot arms, actuators, etc. are numerically controlled. Linear and angular incremental photoelectric encoders measure mechanical motion and

  13. Teraflop-scale Incremental Machine Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Özkural, Eray

    2011-01-01

    We propose a long-term memory design for artificial general intelligence based on Solomonoff's incremental machine learning methods. We use R5RS Scheme and its standard library with a few omissions as the reference machine. We introduce a Levin Search variant based on Stochastic Context Free Grammar together with four synergistic update algorithms that use the same grammar as a guiding probability distribution of programs. The update algorithms include adjusting production probabilities, re-using previous solutions, learning programming idioms and discovery of frequent subprograms. Experiments with two training sequences demonstrate that our approach to incremental learning is effective.

  14. Theory of Single Point Incremental Forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, P.A.F.; Bay, Niels; Skjødt, Martin

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a closed-form theoretical analysis modelling the fundamentals of single point incremental forming and explaining the experimental and numerical results available in the literature for the past couple of years. The model is based on membrane analysis with bi-directional in......-plane contact friction and is focused on the extreme modes of deformation that are likely to be found in single point incremental forming processes. The overall investigation is supported by experimental work performed by the authors and data retrieved from the literature....

  15. Concepts of incremental updating and versioning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available . BACKGROUND TO THE PROBLEM OF INCREMENTAL UPDATING AND VERSIONING As well as a number of Commissions, the International Cartographic Association (ICA) had one Working Group, on Incremental Updating and Versioning, and this presentation describes some... of the work undertaken recently by the Working Group (WG). The WG was voted for a Commission by the General Assembly held at the 21st ICC in Durban, South Africa. The basic problem being addressed by the Commission is that a user compiles their data base...

  16. Novel application of stem cell-derived neurons to evaluate the time- and dose-dependent progression of excitotoxic injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian M Gut

    Full Text Available Glutamate receptor (GluR-mediated neurotoxicity is implicated in a variety of disorders ranging from ischemia to neural degeneration. Under conditions of elevated glutamate, the excessive activation of GluRs causes internalization of pathologic levels of Ca(2+, culminating in bioenergetic failure, organelle degradation, and cell death. Efforts to characterize cellular and molecular aspects of excitotoxicity and conduct therapeutic screening for pharmacologic inhibitors of excitogenic progression have been hindered by limitations associated with primary neuron culture. To address this, we evaluated glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in highly enriched glutamatergic neurons (ESNs derived from murine embryonic stem cells. As of 18 days in vitro (DIV 18, ESNs were synaptically coupled, exhibited spontaneous network activity with neurotypic mEPSCs and expressed NMDARs and AMPARs with physiological current:voltage behaviors. Addition of 0.78-200 μM glutamate evoked reproducible time- and dose-dependent metabolic failure in 6 h, with a calculated EC50 value of 0.44 μM at 24 h. Using a combination of cell viability assays and electrophysiology, we determined that glutamate-induced toxicity was specifically mediated by NMDARs and could be inhibited by addition of NMDAR antagonists, increased extracellular Mg(2+ or substitution of Ba(2+ for Ca(2+. Glutamate treatment evoked neurite fragmentation and focal swelling by both immunocytochemistry and scanning electron microscopy. Presentation of morphological markers of cell death was dose-dependent, with 0.78-200 μM glutamate resulting in apoptosis and 3000 μM glutamate generating a mixture of necrosis and apoptosis. Addition of neuroprotective small molecules reduced glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in a dose-dependent fashion. These data indicate that ESNs replicate many of the excitogenic mechanisms observed in primary neuron culture, offering a moderate-throughput model of excitotoxicity that combines the

  17. Intermittent versus Continuous Incremental Field Tests: Are Maximal Variables Interchangeable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carminatti, Lorival J; Possamai, Carlos A P; de Moraes, Marcelo; da Silva, Juliano F; de Lucas, Ricardo D; Dittrich, Naiandra; Guglielmo, Luiz G A

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare physiological responses derived from an incremental progressive field test with a constant speed test i.e. intermittent versus continuous protocol. Two progressive maximum tests (Carminatti`s test (T-CAR) and the Vameval test (T-VAM)), characterized by increasing speed were used. T-CAR is an intermittent incremental test, performed as shuttle runs; while T-VAM is a continuous incremental test performed on an athletic track. Eighteen physically active, healthy young subjects (21.9 ± 2.0 years; 76.5 ± 8.6 kg, 1.78 ± 0.08 m, 11.2 ± 5.4% body fat), volunteered for this study. Subjects performed four different maximum test sessions conducted in the field: two incremental tests and two time to exhaustion tests (TTE) at peak test velocities (PV). No significant differences were found for PV (T-CAR = 15.6 ± 1.2; T-VAM = 15.5 ± 1.3 km·h(-1)) and maximal HR (T-CAR = 195 ± 11; T- VAM = 194 ± 14 bpm). During TTE, there were no significant differences for HR (TTET-CAR and TTET-VAM = 192 ± 12 bpm). However, there was a significant difference in TTE (p = 0.04) (TTET-CAR = 379 ± 84, TTET-VAM = 338 ± 58 s) with a low correlation (r = 0.41). The blood lactate concentration measured at the end of the TTE tests, showed no significant difference (TTET-CAR = 13.2 ± 2.4 vs. TTET-VAM = 12.9 ± 2.4 mmol·l(-1)). Based on the present findings, it is suggested that the maximal variables derived from T-CAR and T-VAM can be interchangeable in the design of training programs. Key pointsT-CAR is an intermittent shuttle run test that predicts the maximal aerobic speed with accuracy, hence, test results could be interchangeable with continuous straight-line tests.T-CAR provides valid field data for evaluating aerobic fitness.In comparison with T-VAM, T-CAR may be a more favourable way to prescribe intermittent training using a shuttle-running protocol.

  18. Incremental Integrity Checking: Limitations and Possibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Martinenghi, Davide

    2005-01-01

    to query containment, we show that no procedure exists that always returns the best incremental test (aka simplification of integrity constraints), and this according to any reasonable criterion measuring the checking effort. In spite of this theoretical limitation, we develop an effective procedure...

  19. Incremental Pressing Technique in Explosive Charge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A pressing technique has become available that might be useful for compressing granular explosives. If the height-diameter ratio of the charge is unfavorable,the high quality charge can not be obtained with the common single-action pressing. This paper presents incremental pressing technique, which can obtain the charge with higher overall density and more uniform density.

  20. Incremental Evaluation of Higher Order Attributes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bransen, Jeroen; Dijkstra, Atze; Swierstra, Doaitse

    2015-01-01

    Compilers, amongst other programs, often work with data that (slowly) changes over time. When the changes between subsequent runs of the compiler are small, one would hope the compiler to incrementally update its results, resulting in much lower running times. However, the manual construction of an

  1. Robust Background Subtraction with Incremental Eigen Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gritti, T.

    2008-01-01

    In this report we first describe a background subtraction algorithm based on the use of eigen space decomposition. We then present a method to achive incremental modelling, which allows for faster computation and saving in memory requirements. We discuss the performanceof the algorithm and the issu

  2. The Cognitive Underpinnings of Incremental Rehearsal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Sashank; Schleisman, Katrina B.

    2014-01-01

    Incremental rehearsal (IR) is a flashcard technique that has been developed and evaluated by school psychologists. We discuss potential learning and memory effects from cognitive psychology that may explain the observed superiority of IR over other flashcard techniques. First, we propose that IR is a form of "spaced practice" that…

  3. Phylogeny Constructed by Using Dsing Diversity Increment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Feng; Li Na-na; Li Yuan-xiang; Zhou Huai-bei

    2003-01-01

    A new approach based on the concept of the diversity increment is applied to reconstruct a phylogeny. The phylogeny of the Eutherian orders use concatenated H-stranded amino acid sequences, and the result is consistent with the commonly accepted one for the Eutherians.

  4. Incremental pattern matching for regular expressions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jalali, Arash; Ghamarian, Amir Hossein; Rensink, Arend; Fish, Andrew; Lambers, Leen

    2012-01-01

    Graph pattern matching lies at the heart of any graph transformation-based system. Incremental pattern matching is one approach proposed for reducingthe overall cost of pattern matching over successive transformations by preserving the matches that stay relevant after a rule application. An importan

  5. Embedded Incremental Feature Selection for Reinforcement Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Classical reinforcement learning techniques become impractical in domains with large complex state spaces. The size of a domain’s state space is...require all the provided features. In this paper we present a feature selection algorithm for reinforcement learning called Incremental Feature

  6. Automatic incrementalization of Prolog based static analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichberg, Michael; Kahl, Matthias; Saha, Diptikalyan;

    2007-01-01

    Modem development environments integrate various static analyses into the build process. Analyses that analyze the whole project whenever the project changes are impractical in this context. We present an approach to automatic incrementalization of analyses that are specified as tabled logic prog...

  7. Vasoactive intestinal peptide induces cyclooxygenase-2 expression through nuclear factor-κB in human prostate cell lines. Differential time-dependent responses in cancer progression

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-Martínez, Ana B.; Collado, Beatriz; Bajo, Ana M.; Sánchez-Chapado, Manuel; Prieto,Juan C.; Carmena, María J.

    2007-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide induces cyclooxygenase-2 expression through nuclear factor-?B in human prostate cell lines. Differential time-dependent responses in cancer progression SPAIN (Fernandez-Martinez, Ana B.) SPAIN Received: 2006-09-11 Revised: 2007-01-11 Accepted: 2007-01-11

  8. Metastable Pain-Attention Dynamics during Incremental Exhaustive Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slapšinskaitė, Agnė; Hristovski, Robert; Razon, Selen; Balagué, Natàlia; Tenenbaum, Gershon

    2017-01-01

    Background: Pain attracts attention on the bodily regions. Attentional allocation toward pain results from the neural communication across the brain-wide network “connectome” which consists of pain-attention related circuits. Connectome is intrinsically dynamic and spontaneously fluctuating on multiple time-scales. The present study delineates the pain-attention dynamics during incremental cycling performed until volitional exhaustion and investigates the potential presence of nested metastable dynamics. Method: Fifteen young and physically active adults completed a progressive incremental cycling test and reported their discomfort and pain on a body map every 15 s. Results: The analyses revealed that the number of body locations with perceived pain and discomfort increased throughout five temporal windows reaching an average of 4.26 ± 0.59 locations per participant. A total of 37 different locations were reported and marked as painful for all participants throughout the cycling task. Significant differences in entropy were observed between all temporal windows except the fourth and fifth windows. Transient dynamics of bodily locations with perceived discomfort and pain were spanned by three principal components. The metastable dynamics of the body pain locations groupings over time were discerned by three time scales: (1) the time scale of shifts (15 s); (2) the time scale of metastable configurations (100 s), and (3) the observational time scale (1000 s). Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that body locations perceived as painful increase throughout the incremental cycling task following a switching metastable and nested dynamics. These findings support the view that human brain is intrinsically organized into active, mutually interacting complex and nested functional networks, and that subjective experiences inherent in pain perception depict identical dynamical principles to the neural tissue in the brain. PMID:28111563

  9. Metastable Pain-Attention Dynamics during Incremental Exhaustive Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slapšinskaitė, Agnė; Hristovski, Robert; Razon, Selen; Balagué, Natàlia; Tenenbaum, Gershon

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pain attracts attention on the bodily regions. Attentional allocation toward pain results from the neural communication across the brain-wide network "connectome" which consists of pain-attention related circuits. Connectome is intrinsically dynamic and spontaneously fluctuating on multiple time-scales. The present study delineates the pain-attention dynamics during incremental cycling performed until volitional exhaustion and investigates the potential presence of nested metastable dynamics. Method: Fifteen young and physically active adults completed a progressive incremental cycling test and reported their discomfort and pain on a body map every 15 s. Results: The analyses revealed that the number of body locations with perceived pain and discomfort increased throughout five temporal windows reaching an average of 4.26 ± 0.59 locations per participant. A total of 37 different locations were reported and marked as painful for all participants throughout the cycling task. Significant differences in entropy were observed between all temporal windows except the fourth and fifth windows. Transient dynamics of bodily locations with perceived discomfort and pain were spanned by three principal components. The metastable dynamics of the body pain locations groupings over time were discerned by three time scales: (1) the time scale of shifts (15 s); (2) the time scale of metastable configurations (100 s), and (3) the observational time scale (1000 s). Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that body locations perceived as painful increase throughout the incremental cycling task following a switching metastable and nested dynamics. These findings support the view that human brain is intrinsically organized into active, mutually interacting complex and nested functional networks, and that subjective experiences inherent in pain perception depict identical dynamical principles to the neural tissue in the brain.

  10. Influence of muscle metabolic heterogeneity in determining the V̇o2p kinetic response to ramp-incremental exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keir, Daniel A; Benson, Alan P; Love, Lorenzo K; Robertson, Taylor C; Rossiter, Harry B; Kowalchuk, John M

    2016-03-01

    The pulmonary O2 uptake (V̇o2p) response to ramp-incremental (RI) exercise increases linearly with work rate (WR) after an early exponential phase, implying that a single time constant (τ) and gain (G) describe the response. However, variability in τ and G of V̇o2p kinetics to different step increments in WR is documented. We hypothesized that the "linear" V̇o2p-WR relationship during RI exercise results from the conflation between WR-dependent changes in τ and G. Nine men performed three or four repeats of RI exercise (30 W/min) and two step-incremental protocols consisting of four 60-W increments beginning from 20 W or 50 W. During testing, breath-by-breath V̇o2p was measured by mass spectrometry and volume turbine. For each individual, the V̇o2p RI response was characterized with exponential functions containing either constant or variable τ and G values. A relationship between τ and G vs. WR was determined from the step-incremental protocols to derive the variable model parameters. τ and G increased from 21 ± 5 to 98 ± 20 s and from 8.7 ± 0.6 to 12.0 ± 1.9 ml·min(-1)·W(-1) for WRs of 20-230 W, respectively, and were best described by a second-order (τ) and a first-order (G) polynomial function of WR (lowest Akaike information criterion score). The sum of squared residuals was not different (P > 0.05) when the V̇o2p RI response was characterized with either the constant or variable models, indicating that they described the response equally well. Results suggest that τ and G increase progressively with WR during RI exercise. Importantly, these relationships may conflate to produce a linear V̇o2p-WR response, emphasizing the influence of metabolic heterogeneity in determining the apparent V̇o2p-WR relationship during RI exercise.

  11. Oxygen uptake kinetics during incremental- and decremental-ramp cycle ergometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozyener, Fadil; Rossiter, Harry B; Ward, Susan A; Whipp, Brian J

    2011-01-01

    The pulmonary oxygen uptake (VO2) response to incremental-ramp cycle ergometry typically demonstrates lagged-linear first-order kinetics with a slope of ~10-11 ml·min(-1)·W(-1), both above and below the lactate threshold (θL), i.e. there is no discernible VO2 slow component (or "excess" VO2) above θL. We were interested in determining whether a reverse ramp profile would yield the same response dynamics. Ten healthy males performed a maximum incremental -ramp (15-30 W·min(-1), depending on fitness). On another day, the work rate (WR) was increased abruptly to the incremental maximum and then decremented at the same rate of 15-30 W.min(-1) (step-decremental ramp). Five subjects also performed a sub-maximal ramp-decremental test from 90% of θL. VO2 was determined breath-by-breath from continuous monitoring of respired volumes (turbine) and gas concentrations (mass spectrometer). The incremental-ramp VO2-WR slope was 10.3 ± 0.7 ml·min(-1)·W(-1), whereas that of the descending limb of the decremental ramp was 14.2 ± 1.1 ml·min(-1)·W(-1) (p incremental-ramp. This suggests that the VO2 response in the supra-θL domain of incremental-ramp exercise manifest not actual, but pseudo, first-order kinetics. Key pointsThe slope of the decremental-ramp response is appreciably greater than that of the incremental.The response dynamics in supra-θL domain of the incremental-ramp appear not to manifest actual first-order kinetics.The mechanisms underlying the different dynamic response behaviour for incremental and decremental ramps are presently unclear.

  12. Incrementally Exploiting Sentential Association for Email Classification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Qu; He Yu; Feng Jianlin; Feng Yucai

    2006-01-01

    A novel association-based algorithm EmailInClass is proposed for incremental Email classification. In view of the fact that the basic semantic unit in an Email is actually a sentence, and the words within the same sentence are typically more semantically related than the words that just appear in the same Email, EmailInClass views a sentence rather than an Email as a transaction. Extensive experiments conducted on benchmark corpora Enron reveal that the effectiveness of EmailInClass is superior to the non-incremental alternatives such as NaiveBayes and SAT-MOD. In addition, the classification rules generated by EmailInClass are human readable and revisable.

  13. Incremental Centrality Algorithms for Dynamic Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    the incremental betweenness centrality algorithm. The total upper bound for the space these data structures consume is 111 ((3*|AffectedSinks...when p = 0.4. In [153], the author examines the ethnocentrism phenomenon which refers to the tendency to behave differently towards strangers based...amount of memory consumed , but, among these two factors, what makes the real difference in how much memory is needed is the number of nodes in a

  14. Laboratory setup for incremental forming at IPL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, Dave; Andreasen, Jan Lasson

    In late 2003 the department enjoyed a visit from Professor Jack Jeswiet from Queen’s University Kingston, Ontario, Canada. Jack as one of the pioneers in Single_Point_Incremental_Forming convinced us to start activities in this field at IPL, joining knowledge and facilities of the forming...... for generating tool paths using available CAD/CAM facilties 3. Handing over knowledge from Queen’s to the laboratory staff of IPL....

  15. PROFITABILITY OF INCREMENTAL EXPENDITURE ON FIBRE PROMOTION

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Debbie J.; Piggott, Roley R.; Griffith, Garry R.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper the impact of changes in wool promotion expenditure and changes in expenditure on the promotion of competing fibres are examined using an equilibrium displacement model. The emphasis is on examining impacts on producer profits net of promotion expenditure and on benefit-cost ratios measuring changes in producer surplus relative to changes in promotion expenditure. It was found, for example, that incremental expenditure on apparel wool promotion on the domestic market is unprofit...

  16. Molecular energies from an incremental fragmentation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meitei, Oinam Romesh; Heßelmann, Andreas

    2016-02-01

    The systematic molecular fragmentation method by Collins and Deev [J. Chem. Phys. 125, 104104 (2006)] has been used to calculate total energies and relative conformational energies for a number of small and extended molecular systems. In contrast to the original approach by Collins, we have tested the accuracy of the fragmentation method by utilising an incremental scheme in which the energies at the lowest level of the fragmentation are calculated on an accurate quantum chemistry level while lower-cost methods are used to correct the low-level energies through a high-level fragmentation. In this work, the fragment energies at the lowest level of fragmentation were calculated using the random-phase approximation (RPA) and two recently developed extensions to the RPA while the incremental corrections at higher levels of the fragmentation were calculated using standard density functional theory (DFT) methods. The complete incremental fragmentation method has been shown to reproduce the supermolecule results with a very good accuracy, almost independent on the molecular type, size, or type of decomposition. The fragmentation method has also been used in conjunction with the DFT-SAPT (symmetry-adapted perturbation theory) method which enables a breakdown of the total nonbonding energy contributions into individual interaction energy terms. Finally, the potential problems of the method connected with the use of capping hydrogen atoms are analysed and two possible solutions are supplied.

  17. Up-regulation of Bcl-2 is required for the progression of prostate cancer cells from an androgen-dependent to an androgen-independent growth stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuting Lin; Junichi Fukuchi; Richard A Hiipakka; John M Kokontis; Jialing Xiang

    2007-01-01

    Bcl-2 is an anti-apoptotic oncoprotein and its protein levels are inversely correlated with prognosis in many cancers.However, the role of Bcl-2 in the progression of prostate cancer is not clear. Here we report that Bcl-2 is required for the progression of LNCaP prostate cancer cells from an androgen-dependent to an androgen-independent growth stage. The mRNA and protein levels of Bcl-2 are significantly increased in androgen-independent prostate cancer cells, shRNA-mediated gene silencing of Bcl-2 in androgen-independent prostate cancer cells promotes UV-induced apoptosis and suppresses the growth of prostate tumors in vivo. Growing androgen-dependent cells under androgen-deprivation conditions results in formation of androgen-independent colonies; and the transition from androgen-dependent to androgen-independent growth is blocked by ectopic expression of the Bcl-2 antagonist Bax or Bcl-2 shRNA. Thus, our results demonstrate that Bcl-2 is not only critical for the survival of androgen-independent prostate cancer cells, but is also required for the progression of prostate cancer cells from an androgen-dependent to an androgen-independent growth stage.

  18. A Bayesian framework for estimating the incremental value of a diagnostic test in the absence of a gold standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Daphne I; Pai, Madhukar; Schiller, Ian; Dendukuri, Nandini

    2014-05-15

    The absence of a gold standard, i.e., a diagnostic reference standard having perfect sensitivity and specificity, is a common problem in clinical practice and in diagnostic research studies. There is a need for methods to estimate the incremental value of a new, imperfect test in this context. We use a Bayesian approach to estimate the probability of the unknown disease status via a latent class model and extend two commonly-used measures of incremental value based on predictive values [difference in the area under the ROC curve (AUC) and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI)] to the context where no gold standard exists. The methods are illustrated using simulated data and applied to the problem of estimating the incremental value of a novel interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) over the tuberculin skin test (TST) for latent tuberculosis (TB) screening. We also show how to estimate the incremental value of IGRAs when decisions are based on observed test results rather than predictive values. We showed that the incremental value is greatest when both sensitivity and specificity of the new test are better and that conditional dependence between the tests reduces the incremental value. The incremental value of the IGRA depends on the sensitivity and specificity of the TST, as well as the prevalence of latent TB, and may thus vary in different populations. Even in the absence of a gold standard, incremental value statistics may be estimated and can aid decisions about the practical value of a new diagnostic test.

  19. Systematic Luby Transform codes as incremental redundancy scheme

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, TL

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Systematic Luby Transform (fountain) codes are investigated as a possible incremental redundancy scheme for EDGE. The convolutional incremental redundancy scheme currently used by EDGE is replaced by the fountain approach. The results...

  20. Evaluation of Flood Routing Techniques for Incremental Damage Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Jayyousi, Enan Fakhri

    1994-01-01

    Incremental damage assessment is a tool used to assess the justification for expensive modifications of inadequate dams. The input data to incremental damage assessment are the output from the breach analysis and flood routing. For this reason, flood routing should be conducted carefully. Distorted results from the flood routing technique or unstable modeling of the problem will distort the results of an incremental damage assessment, because an error in the estimated incremental stage will c...

  1. 48 CFR 3452.232-71 - Incremental funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incremental funding. 3452... 3452.232-71 Incremental funding. As prescribed in 3452.771, insert the following provision in solicitations: Incremental Funding (AUG 1987) (a) Sufficient funds are not presently available to cover...

  2. Three-year caries increments after fluoride rinses or topical applications with a fluoride varnish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruun, C; Bille, J; Hansen, K T; Kann, J; Qvist, V; Thylstrup, A

    1985-12-01

    251 9-12-yr-old children completed a 3-yr, double-blind, clinical trial of two caries preventive fluoride programs. Caries increments and progression patterns were compared in two groups of children who rinsed every fortnight with a 0.2% NaF solution or received biannual topical applications with a fluoride varnish (Fluor-Protector). Clinically recorded mean DFS increments were 3.3 +/- 0.2 (SE) in the rinse group and 3.5 +/- 0.2 in the varnish group. In both groups nearly half of these increments were recorded in the occlusal surfaces of second molars. The mean incremental DFS recorded radiographically on approximal surfaces of posterior teeth were 1.1 +/- 0.2 and 1.5 +/- 0.2 in the rinse and varnish group, respectively. None of the inter-group differences were statistically significant (P greater than 0.05). Detailed analyses of the radiographic scores revealed a similar and extremely slow caries progression in the two study groups and they strengthened the conclusion of equal clinical efficacy of the two treatments. None of the fluoride programs had been able to change preestablished patterns of caries development among the children.

  3. Stem analysis program (GOAP for evaluating of increment and growth data at individual tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gafura Aylak Özdemir

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Stem analysis is a method evaluating in a detailed way data of increment and growth of individual tree at the past periods and widely used in various forestry disciplines. Untreated data of stem analysis consist of annual ring count and measurement procedures performed on cross sections taken from individual tree by section method. The evaluation of obtained this untreated data takes quite some time. Thus, a computer software was developed in this study to quickly and efficiently perform stem analysis. This computer software developed to evaluate untreated data of stem analysis as numerical and graphical was programmed as macro by utilizing Visual Basic for Application feature of MS Excel 2013 program currently the most widely used. In developed this computer software, growth height model is formed from two different approaches, individual tree volume depending on section method, cross-sectional area, increments of diameter, height and volume, volume increment percent and stem form factor at breast height are calculated depending on desired period lengths. This calculated values are given as table. Development of diameter, height, volume, increments of these variables, volume increment percent and stem form factor at breast height according to periodic age are given as chart. Stem model showing development of diameter, height and shape of individual tree in the past periods also can be taken from computer software as chart.

  4. Time-dependent loss of mitochondrial function precedes progressive histologic cartilage degeneration in a rabbit meniscal destabilization model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Jessica E; Coleman, Mitchell C; Fredericks, Douglas C; Petersen, Emily; Martin, James A; McKinley, Todd O; Tochigi, Yuki

    2017-03-01

    The goals of this work were to characterize progression of osteoarthritic cartilage degeneration in a rabbit medial meniscus destabilization (MMD) model and then to use the model to identify pre-histologic disruptions in chondrocyte metabolism under chronically elevated joint contact stresses in vivo. To characterize PTOA progression, 24 rabbits received either MMD or sham surgery. Limb loading was analyzed preoperatively and at regular postoperative intervals using a Tekscan pressure-sensitive walkway. Animals were euthanized 8 (n = 8 MMD; n = 8 sham) or 26 weeks (n = 8 MMD) postoperatively for histological cartilage evaluation by an objective, semi-automated Mankin scoring routine. To examine pre-histologic pathology, MMD was performed on an additional 20 rabbits, euthanized 1 (n = 9) or 4 weeks (n = 10) postoperatively. Chondrocytes were harvested fresh for measurement of mitochondrial function, an intracellular indicator of pathology after mechanical injury. Both MMD and sham surgery caused slight decreases in limb loading which returned to preoperative levels after 2 weeks. Histologically apparent cartilage damage progressed from 8 to 26 weeks after MMD. Changes in chondrocyte respiration were variable at 1 week, but by 4 weeks postoperatively chondrocyte mitochondrial function was significantly reduced. Many human injuries that lead to PTOA are relatively mild, and the cell-level mechanisms leading to disease remain unclear. We have documented PTOA progression in an animal model of subtle joint injury under continued use, and demonstrated that this model provides a realistic environment for investigation of multi-stage cellular pathology that develops prior to overt tissue degeneration and which could be targeted for disease modifying treatments. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:590-599, 2017.

  5. Compressive tracking with incremental multivariate Gaussian distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongdong; Wen, Gongjian; Zhu, Gao; Zeng, Qiaoling

    2016-09-01

    Various approaches have been proposed for robust visual tracking, among which compressive tracking (CT) yields promising performance. In CT, Haar-like features are efficiently extracted with a very sparse measurement matrix and modeled as an online updated naïve Bayes classifier to account for target appearance change. The naïve Bayes classifier ignores overlap between Haar-like features and assumes that Haar-like features are independently distributed, which leads to drift in complex scenario. To address this problem, we present an extended CT algorithm, which assumes that all Haar-like features are correlated with each other and have multivariate Gaussian distribution. The mean vector and covariance matrix of multivariate normal distribution are incrementally updated with constant computational complexity to adapt to target appearance change. Each frame is associated with a temporal weight to expend less modeling power on old observation. Based on temporal weight, an update scheme with changing but convergent learning rate is derived with strict mathematic proof. Compared with CT, our extended algorithm achieves a richer representation of target appearance. The incremental multivariate Gaussian distribution is integrated into the particle filter framework to achieve better tracking performance. Extensive experiments on the CVPR2013 tracking benchmark demonstrate that our proposed tracker achieves superior performance both qualitatively and quantitatively over several state-of-the-art trackers.

  6. ENERGY SYSTEM CONTRIBUTIONS DURING INCREMENTAL EXERCISE TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rômulo Bertuzzi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to determine the relative contributions of the aerobic and glycolytic systems during an incremental exercise test (IET. Ten male recreational long-distance runners performed an IET consisting of three-minute incremental stages on a treadmill. The fractions of the contributions of the aerobic and glycolytic systems were calculated for each stage based on the oxygen uptake and the oxygen energy equivalents derived by blood lactate accumulation, respectively. Total metabolic demand (WTOTAL was considered as the sum of these two energy systems. The aerobic (WAER and glycolytic (WGLYCOL system contributions were expressed as a percentage of the WTOTAL. The results indicated that WAER (86-95% was significantly higher than WGLYCOL (5-14% throughout the IET (p < 0.05. In addition, there was no evidence of the sudden increase in WGLYCOL that has been previously reported to support to the "anaerobic threshold" concept. These data suggest that the aerobic metabolism is predominant throughout the IET and that energy system contributions undergo a slow transition from low to high intensity

  7. Nonparametric regression with martingale increment errors

    CERN Document Server

    Delattre, Sylvain

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of adaptive estimation of the regression function in a framework where we replace ergodicity assumptions (such as independence or mixing) by another structural assumption on the model. Namely, we propose adaptive upper bounds for kernel estimators with data-driven bandwidth (Lepski's selection rule) in a regression model where the noise is an increment of martingale. It includes, as very particular cases, the usual i.i.d. regression and auto-regressive models. The cornerstone tool for this study is a new result for self-normalized martingales, called ``stability'', which is of independent interest. In a first part, we only use the martingale increment structure of the noise. We give an adaptive upper bound using a random rate, that involves the occupation time near the estimation point. Thanks to this approach, the theoretical study of the statistical procedure is disconnected from usual ergodicity properties like mixing. Then, in a second part, we make a link with the usual minimax th...

  8. Approach for Estimating Exposures and Incremental Health ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Approach for Estimating Exposures and Incremental Health Effects from Lead During Renovation, Repair, and Painting Activities in Public and Commercial Buildings” (Technical Approach Document). Also available for public review and comment are two supplementary documents: the detailed appendices for the Technical Approach Document and a supplementary report entitled “Developing a Concentration-Response Function for Pb Exposure and Cardiovascular Disease-Related Mortality.” Together, these documents describes an analysis for estimating exposures and incremental health effects created by renovations of public and commercial buildings (P&CBs). This analysis could be used to identify and evaluate hazards from renovation, repair, and painting activities in P&CBs. A general overview of how this analysis can be used to inform EPA’s hazard finding is described in the Framework document that was previously made available for public comment (79 FR 31072; FRL9910-44). The analysis can be used in any proposed rulemaking to estimate the reduction in deleterious health effects that would result from any proposed regulatory requirements to mitigate exposure from P&CB renovation activities. The Technical Approach Document describes in detail how the analyses under this approach have been performed and presents the results – expected changes in blood lead levels and health effects due to lead exposure from renovation activities.

  9. Enabling Incremental Query Re-Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mengmeng; Ives, Zachary G.; Loo, Boon Thau

    2017-01-01

    As declarative query processing techniques expand to the Web, data streams, network routers, and cloud platforms, there is an increasing need to re-plan execution in the presence of unanticipated performance changes. New runtime information may affect which query plan we prefer to run. Adaptive techniques require innovation both in terms of the algorithms used to estimate costs, and in terms of the search algorithm that finds the best plan. We investigate how to build a cost-based optimizer that recomputes the optimal plan incrementally given new cost information, much as a stream engine constantly updates its outputs given new data. Our implementation especially shows benefits for stream processing workloads. It lays the foundations upon which a variety of novel adaptive optimization algorithms can be built. We start by leveraging the recently proposed approach of formulating query plan enumeration as a set of recursive datalog queries; we develop a variety of novel optimization approaches to ensure effective pruning in both static and incremental cases. We further show that the lessons learned in the declarative implementation can be equally applied to more traditional optimizer implementations. PMID:28659658

  10. Enabling Incremental Query Re-Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mengmeng; Ives, Zachary G; Loo, Boon Thau

    2016-01-01

    As declarative query processing techniques expand to the Web, data streams, network routers, and cloud platforms, there is an increasing need to re-plan execution in the presence of unanticipated performance changes. New runtime information may affect which query plan we prefer to run. Adaptive techniques require innovation both in terms of the algorithms used to estimate costs, and in terms of the search algorithm that finds the best plan. We investigate how to build a cost-based optimizer that recomputes the optimal plan incrementally given new cost information, much as a stream engine constantly updates its outputs given new data. Our implementation especially shows benefits for stream processing workloads. It lays the foundations upon which a variety of novel adaptive optimization algorithms can be built. We start by leveraging the recently proposed approach of formulating query plan enumeration as a set of recursive datalog queries; we develop a variety of novel optimization approaches to ensure effective pruning in both static and incremental cases. We further show that the lessons learned in the declarative implementation can be equally applied to more traditional optimizer implementations.

  11. Incremental Nonnegative Matrix Factorization for Face Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Sheng Chen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF is a promising approach for local feature extraction in face recognition tasks. However, there are two major drawbacks in almost all existing NMF-based methods. One shortcoming is that the computational cost is expensive for large matrix decomposition. The other is that it must conduct repetitive learning, when the training samples or classes are updated. To overcome these two limitations, this paper proposes a novel incremental nonnegative matrix factorization (INMF for face representation and recognition. The proposed INMF approach is based on a novel constraint criterion and our previous block strategy. It thus has some good properties, such as low computational complexity, sparse coefficient matrix. Also, the coefficient column vectors between different classes are orthogonal. In particular, it can be applied to incremental learning. Two face databases, namely FERET and CMU PIE face databases, are selected for evaluation. Compared with PCA and some state-of-the-art NMF-based methods, our INMF approach gives the best performance.

  12. Incremental learning for automated knowledge capture.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benz, Zachary O.; Basilico, Justin Derrick; Davis, Warren Leon,; Dixon, Kevin R.; Jones, Brian S.; Martin, Nathaniel; Wendt, Jeremy Daniel

    2013-12-01

    People responding to high-consequence national-security situations need tools to help them make the right decision quickly. The dynamic, time-critical, and ever-changing nature of these situations, especially those involving an adversary, require models of decision support that can dynamically react as a situation unfolds and changes. Automated knowledge capture is a key part of creating individualized models of decision making in many situations because it has been demonstrated as a very robust way to populate computational models of cognition. However, existing automated knowledge capture techniques only populate a knowledge model with data prior to its use, after which the knowledge model is static and unchanging. In contrast, humans, including our national-security adversaries, continually learn, adapt, and create new knowledge as they make decisions and witness their effect. This artificial dichotomy between creation and use exists because the majority of automated knowledge capture techniques are based on traditional batch machine-learning and statistical algorithms. These algorithms are primarily designed to optimize the accuracy of their predictions and only secondarily, if at all, concerned with issues such as speed, memory use, or ability to be incrementally updated. Thus, when new data arrives, batch algorithms used for automated knowledge capture currently require significant recomputation, frequently from scratch, which makes them ill suited for use in dynamic, timecritical, high-consequence decision making environments. In this work we seek to explore and expand upon the capabilities of dynamic, incremental models that can adapt to an ever-changing feature space.

  13. Time-incremental creep–fatigue damage rule for single crystal Ni-base superalloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinga, T.; Brekelmans, W.A.M.; Geers, M.G.D.

    2009-01-01

    In the present paper a damage model for single crystal Ni-base superalloys is proposed that integrates time-dependent and cyclic damage into a generally applicable time-incremental damage rule. A criterion based on the Orowan stress is introduced to detect slip reversal on the microscopic level and

  14. Is It that Difficult to Find a Good Preference Order for the Incremental Algorithm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahmer, Emiel; Koolen, Ruud; Theune, Mariet

    2012-01-01

    In a recent article published in this journal (van Deemter, Gatt, van der Sluis, & Power, 2012), the authors criticize the Incremental Algorithm (a well-known algorithm for the generation of referring expressions due to Dale & Reiter, 1995, also in this journal) because of its strong reliance on a pre-determined, domain-dependent Preference Order.…

  15. A New Challenge to Solar Dynamo Models from Helioseismic Observations: The Latitudinal Dependence of the Progression of the Solar Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoniello, R.; Tripathy, S. C.; Jain, K.; Hill, F.

    2016-09-01

    The onset of the solar cycle at mid-latitudes, the slowdown in the drift of sunspots toward the equator, the tail-like attachment, and the overlap of successive cycles at the time of minimum activity are delicate issues in models of the αΩ dynamo wave and the flux transport dynamo. Very different parameter values produce similar results, making it difficult to understand the origin of the properties of these solar cycles. We use helioseismic data from the Global Oscillation Network Group to investigate the progression of the solar cycle as observed in intermediate-degree global p-mode frequency shifts at different latitudes and subsurface layers, from the beginning of solar cycle 23 up to the maximum of the current solar cycle. We also analyze those for high-degree modes in each hemisphere obtained through the ring-diagram technique of local helioseismology. The analysis highlights differences in the progression of the cycle below 15° compared to higher latitudes. While the cycle starts at mid-latitudes and then migrates equatorward/poleward, the sunspot eruptions of the old cycle are still ongoing below 15° latitude. This prolonged activity causes a delay in the onset of the cycle and an overlap of successive cycles, whose extent differs in the two hemispheres. Then the activity level rises faster, reaching a maximum characterized by a single-peak structure as opposed to the double peak at higher latitudes. Afterwards the descending phase shows up with a slower decay rate. The latitudinal properties of the progression of the solar cycle highlighted in this study provide useful constraints for discerning among the multitude of solar dynamo models.

  16. A New Challenge to Solar Dynamo Models from Helioseismic Observations: The Latitudinal Dependence of the Progression of the Solar Cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Simoniello, R; Jain, K; Hill, F

    2016-01-01

    The solar cycle onset at mid-latitudes, the slow down of the sunspot drift toward the equator, the tail-like attachment and the overlap of successive cycles at the time of activity minimum are delicate issues in $\\alpha\\Omega$ dynamo wave and flux transport dynamo models. Very different parameter values produce similar results, making it difficult to understand the origin of these solar cycle properties. We use GONG helioseismic data to investigate the progression of the solar cycle as observed in intermediate-degree global $p$-mode frequency shifts at different latitudes and subsurface layers, from the beginning of solar cycle 23 up to the maximum of the current solar cycle. We also analyze those for high-degree modes in each hemisphere obtained through the ring-diagram technique of local helioseismology. The analysis highlighted differences in the progression of the cycle below 15\\degr\\ compared to higher latitudes. While the cycle starts at mid-latitudes and then migrates equatorward/poleward, the sunspot ...

  17. DNA topoisomerase II-dependent control of the cell cycle progression in root meristems of Allium cepa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabka, Aneta; Polit, Justyna Teresa; Bernasińska, Joanna; Maszewski, Janusz

    2014-03-01

    The catalytic ability of DNA topoisomerases (Topo) to generate short-term DNA breaks allow these enzymes to play crucial functions in managing DNA topology during S-phase replication, transcription, and chromatin-remodelling processes required to achieve commitment for the onset and transition through mitosis. Our experiments on root meristem cells of onion (Allium cepa) were designed to gain insight into the contribution of Topo II to plant-specific progression throughout interphase and mitosis. Irrespective of the position of the cell in interphase, the immunofluorescence of Topo II revealed similar nuclear labelling pattern with well defined signals dispersed in the nucleoplasm and the cortical zone of the nucleolus. Only weak labelling was detected in metaphase and anaphase chromosomes. Experiments with two potent anti-Topo II agents, doxorubicin (DOX, an anthracycline) and a bisdioxopiperazine derivative, ICRF-193, suggest that the inhibition-mediated increase in Topo II immunofluorescence may represent a compensatory mechanism, by which an up-regulated expression of the enzyme tends to counteract the drug-induced loss of indispensable catalytic and relaxation functions. γ-H2AX immunolabelling seems to indicate that both DOX- and ICRF-193-induced alterations in cell cycle progression reflect primarily the activity of the G2/M DNA damage checkpoint. Our findings provide evidence for the plant-specific cell cycle control mechanism induced by Topo II inhibitors under DNA stress conditions.

  18. Incremental Collaborative Filtering Considering Temporal Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yongji; Wu, Hu; Wu, Jingzheng

    2012-01-01

    Recommender systems require their recommendation algorithms to be accurate, scalable and should handle very sparse training data which keep changing over time. Inspired by ant colony optimization, we propose a novel collaborative filtering scheme: Ant Collaborative Filtering that enjoys those favorable characteristics above mentioned. With the mechanism of pheromone transmission between users and items, our method can pinpoint most relative users and items even in face of the sparsity problem. By virtue of the evaporation of existing pheromone, we capture the evolution of user preference over time. Meanwhile, the computation complexity is comparatively small and the incremental update can be done online. We design three experiments on three typical recommender systems, namely movie recommendation, book recommendation and music recommendation, which cover both explicit and implicit rating data. The results show that the proposed algorithm is well suited for real-world recommendation scenarios which have a high...

  19. Disrupting incrementalism in health care innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani, Farzad; Zenios, Stefanos

    2011-08-01

    To build enabling innovation frameworks for health care entrepreneurs to better identify, evaluate, and pursue entrepreneurial opportunities. Powerful frameworks have been developed to enable entrepreneurs and investors identify which opportunity areas are worth pursuing and which start-up ideas have the potential to succeed. These frameworks, however, have not been clearly defined and interpreted for innovations in health care. Having a better understanding of the process of innovation in health care allows physician entrepreneurs to innovate more successfully. A review of academic literature was conducted. Concepts and frameworks related to technology innovation were analyzed. A new set of health care specific frameworks was developed. These frameworks were then applied to innovations in various health care subsectors. Health care entrepreneurs would greatly benefit from distinguishing between incremental and disruptive innovations. The US regulatory and reimbursement systems favor incrementalism with a greater chance of success for established players. Small companies and individual groups, however, are more likely to thrive if they adopt a disruptive strategy. Disruption in health care occurs through various mechanisms as detailed in this article. While the main mechanism of disruption might vary across different health care subsectors, it is shown that disruptive innovations consistently require a component of contrarian interpretation to guarantee considerable payoff. If health care entrepreneurs choose to adopt an incrementalist approach, they need to build the risk of disruption into their models and also ascertain that they have a very strong intellectual property (IP) position to weather competition from established players. On the contrary, if they choose to pursue disruption in the market, albeit the competition will be less severe, they need to recognize that the regulatory and reimbursement hurdles are going to be very high. Thus, they would benefit

  20. Response to diet-induced obesity produces time-dependent induction and progression of metabolic osteoarthritis in rat knees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Kelsey H; Hart, David A; Reimer, Raylene A; Seerattan, Ruth A; Herzog, Walter

    2016-06-01

    Obesity, and corresponding chronic-low grade inflammation, is associated with the onset and progression of knee OA. The origin of this inflammation is poorly understood. Here, the effect of high fat, high sucrose (HFS) diet induced obesity (DIO) on local (synovial fluid), and systemic (serum) inflammation is evaluated after a 12-week obesity induction and a further 16-week adaptation period. For 12-weeks of obesity induction, n = 40 DIO male Sprague-Dawley rats consumed a HFS diet while the control group (n = 14) remained on chow. DIO rats were allocated to prone (DIO-P, top 33% based on weight change) or resistant (DIO-R, bottom 33%) groups at 12-weeks. Animals were euthanized at 12- and after an additional 16-weeks on diet (28-weeks). At sacrifice, body composition and knee joints were collected and assessed. Synovial fluid and sera were profiled using cytokine array analysis. At 12-weeks, DIO-P animals demonstrated increased Modified Mankin scores compared to DIO-R and chow (p = 0.026), and DIO-R had higher Mankin scores compared to chow (p = 0.049). While numerous systemic and limited synovial fluid inflammatory markers were increased at 12-weeks in DIO animals compared to chow, by 28-weeks there were limited systemic differences but marked increases in local synovial fluid inflammatory marker concentrations. Metabolic OA may manifest from an initial systemic inflammatory disturbance. Twelve weeks of obesity induction leads to a unique inflammatory profile and induction of metabolic OA which is altered after a further 16-weeks of obesity and HFS diet intake, suggesting that obesity is a dynamic, progressive process. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:1010-1018, 2016. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Relation between incremental lines and tensile strength of coronal dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Toshiko; Saito, Makoto; Yamamoto, Masato; Nishimura, Fumio; Miyazaki, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    In one aspect, this study examined the tensile strength of coronal dentin, as a function of the location of incremental lines, in two types of teeth: human molar versus bovine incisor. In another aspect, tensile strength in coronal dentin was examined with tensile loading in two different orientations to the incremental lines: parallel versus perpendicular. There were four experimental groups in this study: HPa, human molar dentin with tensile orientation parallel to the incremental lines; HPe, human molar dentin with tensile orientation perpendicular to the incremental lines; BPa, bovine incisor dentin with tensile orientation parallel to the incremental lines; BPe, bovine incisor dentin with tensile orientation perpendicular to the incremental lines. Tensile strengths of the parallel group (HPa and BPa) were significantly higher (pincremental lines, was thus confirmed in coronal dentin. However, there were no differences in anisotropy effect between the two tooth types.

  2. Kif11 dependent cell cycle progression in radial glial cells is required for proper neurogenesis in the zebrafish neural tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kimberly; Moriarty, Chelsea; Tania, Nessy; Ortman, Alissa; DiPietrantonio, Kristina; Edens, Brittany; Eisenman, Jean; Ok, Deborah; Krikorian, Sarah; Barragan, Jessica; Golé, Christophe; Barresi, Michael J F

    2014-03-01

    Radial glia serve as the resident neural stem cells in the embryonic vertebrate nervous system, and their proliferation must be tightly regulated to generate the correct number of neuronal and glial cell progeny in the neural tube. During a forward genetic screen, we recently identified a zebrafish mutant in the kif11 loci that displayed a significant increase in radial glial cell bodies at the ventricular zone of the spinal cord. Kif11, also known as Eg5, is a kinesin-related, plus-end directed motor protein responsible for stabilizing and separating the bipolar mitotic spindle. We show here that Gfap+ radial glial cells express kif11 in the ventricular zone and floor plate. Loss of Kif11 by mutation or pharmacological inhibition with S-trityl-L-cysteine (STLC) results in monoastral spindle formation in radial glial cells, which is characteristic of mitotic arrest. We show that M-phase radial glia accumulate over time at the ventricular zone in kif11 mutants and STLC treated embryos. Mathematical modeling of the radial glial accumulation in kif11 mutants not only confirmed an ~226× delay in mitotic exit (likely a mitotic arrest), but also predicted two modes of increased cell death. These modeling predictions were supported by an increase in the apoptosis marker, anti-activated Caspase-3, which was also found to be inversely proportional to a decrease in cell proliferation. In addition, treatment with STLC at different stages of neural development uncovered two critical periods that most significantly require Kif11 function for stem cell progression through mitosis. We also show that loss of Kif11 function causes specific reductions in oligodendroglia and secondary interneurons and motorneurons, suggesting these later born populations require proper radial glia division. Despite these alterations to cell cycle dynamics, survival, and neurogenesis, we document unchanged cell densities within the neural tube in kif11 mutants, suggesting that a mechanism of

  3. Impact of Incremental Sampling Methodology (ISM) on Metals Bioavailability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    ER D C TR -1 6- 4 Impact of Incremental Sampling Methodology (ISM) on Metals Bioavailability En gi ne er R es ea rc h an d D ev el...Incremental Sampling Methodology (ISM) on Metals Bioavailability Jay Clausen, Laura Levitt, Timothy Cary, Nancy Parker, and Sam Beal U.S. Army Engineer...Bioavailability Assessment” ERDC TR-16-4 ii Abstract This study assessed the impact of the incremental sampling methodology (ISM) on metals bioavailability

  4. p19Arf suppresses growth, progression, and metastasis of Hras-driven carcinomas through p53-dependent and -independent pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen S Kelly-Spratt

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic expression of oncogenes such as Ras induces expression of p19(Arf, which, in turn, activates p53 and growth arrest. Here, we used a multistage model of squamous cell carcinoma development to investigate the functional interactions between Ras, p19(Arf, and p53 during tumor progression in the mouse. Skin tumors were induced in wild-type, p19(Arf-deficient, and p53-deficient mice using the DMBA/TPA two-step protocol. Activating mutations in Hras were detected in all papillomas and carcinomas examined, regardless of genotype. Relative to wild-type mice, the growth rate of papillomas was greater in p19(Arf-deficient mice, and reduced in p53-deficient mice. Malignant conversion of papillomas to squamous cell carcinomas, as well as metastasis to lymph nodes and lungs, was markedly accelerated in both p19 (Arf- and p53-deficient mice. Thus, p19(Arf inhibits the growth rate of tumors in a p53-independent manner. Through its regulation of p53, p19(Arf also suppresses malignant conversion and metastasis. p53 expression was upregulated in papillomas from wild-type but not p19( Arf-null mice, and p53 mutations were more frequently seen in wild-type than in p19( Arf-null carcinomas. This indicates that selection for p53 mutations is a direct result of signaling from the initiating oncogenic lesion, Hras, acting through p19(Arf.

  5. Software designs of image processing tasks with incremental refinement of computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasia, Davide; Andreopoulos, Yiannis

    2010-08-01

    Software realizations of computationally-demanding image processing tasks (e.g., image transforms and convolution) do not currently provide graceful degradation when their clock-cycles budgets are reduced, e.g., when delay deadlines are imposed in a multitasking environment to meet throughput requirements. This is an important obstacle in the quest for full utilization of modern programmable platforms' capabilities since worst-case considerations must be in place for reasonable quality of results. In this paper, we propose (and make available online) platform-independent software designs performing bitplane-based computation combined with an incremental packing framework in order to realize block transforms, 2-D convolution and frame-by-frame block matching. The proposed framework realizes incremental computation: progressive processing of input-source increments improves the output quality monotonically. Comparisons with the equivalent nonincremental software realization of each algorithm reveal that, for the same precision of the result, the proposed approach can lead to comparable or faster execution, while it can be arbitrarily terminated and provide the result up to the computed precision. Application examples with region-of-interest based incremental computation, task scheduling per frame, and energy-distortion scalability verify that our proposal provides significant performance scalability with graceful degradation.

  6. Review of Incremental Forming of Sheet Metal Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimbalkar D.H

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Incremental sheet forming has demonstrated its great potential to form complex three dimensional parts without using a component specific tooling. The die-less nature in incremental forming provides competitive alternative for economically and effectively fabricating low volume functional sheet products. The process locally deforms sheet metal using a moving tool head achieving higher forming limit than those conventional sheet metal stamping process. Incremental sheet metal forming has the potential to revolutionize sheet metal forming, making it accessible to all level of manufacturing. This paper describes the current state of the art of Incremental sheet metal forming.

  7. iBOA: The Incremental Bayesian Optimization Algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Pelikan, Martin; Goldberg, David E

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes the incremental Bayesian optimization algorithm (iBOA), which modifies standard BOA by removing the population of solutions and using incremental updates of the Bayesian network. iBOA is shown to be able to learn and exploit unrestricted Bayesian networks using incremental techniques for updating both the structure as well as the parameters of the probabilistic model. This represents an important step toward the design of competent incremental estimation of distribution algorithms that can solve difficult nearly decomposable problems scalably and reliably.

  8. Incremental Training for SVM-Based Classification with Keyword Adjusting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Jin-wen; YANG Jian-wu; LU Bin; XIAO Jian-guo

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzed the theory of incremental learning of SVM (support vector machine) and pointed out it is a shortage that the support vector optimization is only considered in present research of SVM incremental learning.According to the significance of keyword in training, a new incremental training method considering keyword adjusting was proposed, which eliminates the difference between incremental learning and batch learning through the keyword adjusting.The experimental results show that the improved method outperforms the method without the keyword adjusting and achieve the same precision as the batch method.

  9. Relações cineantropométricas e fisiológicas durante exercício incremental em esteira rolante Kineanthropometric and physiological relations during incremental treadmill exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Souza-Castelo Oliveira

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Testes incrementais em esteira rolante são muito utilizados para prescrição de treinamentos, havendo alterações fisiológicas e cinemáticas devido à natureza de incremento da intensidade do exercício. Contudo, a antropometria é um fator que não apresenta consenso na literatura. Neste sentido, os objetivos do presente estudo foram verificar o efeito de exercício incremental na concentração de lactato sanguíneo ([LAC], e glicose ([GLI], como também na frequência (FP e amplitude de passadas (AP. Além disso, correlacionar valores de dados antropométricos (massa, altura, % de gordura com as alterações existentes das [LAC] e [GLI]. Treze voluntários saudáveis realizaram teste incremental em esteira rolante (início a 8km/h, com incrementos de 1km/h a cada 3min até a exaustão. Antes e 3min após a realização do teste incremental foram registrados os valores de [LAC] e [GLI]. Durante cada intensidade do teste incremental foram realizadas avaliações da AP e FP por meio de filmagens no plano sagital. Como resultados, verificou-se que a [LAC] e [GLI] antes do teste incremental (1,94 ± 0,4mmol/L e 94,3 ± 7mg/dL, respectivamente foram significantemente menores que os valores encontrados após o teste incremental (9,51 ± 2,7mmol/L e 126 ± 16mg/dL, respectivamente. Além disso, verificou-se aumento significante e gradativo da AP e FP ao longo do teste incremental. Correlações inversas e significantes (p Incremental treadmill tests are widely used for prescription of aerobic and anaerobic training. Physiological and kinematics parameters are changed by the progressive nature of this activity. However, there is no consensus on how anthropometric characteristics may affect the incremental test performance. Therefore, the aims of this study were (1 to verify the effects of the incremental treadmill test on the blood lactate concentration ([LAC], glucose concentration ([GLU], step frequency (SF and step length (SL, and (2 to

  10. Extending XNAT Platform with an Incremental Semantic Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Timón

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Informatics increases the yield from neuroscience due to improved data. Data sharing and accessibility enable joint efforts between different research groups, as well as replication studies, pivotal for progress in the field. Research data archiving solutions are evolving rapidly to address these necessities, however, distributed data integration is still difficult because of the need of explicit agreements for disparate data models. To address these problems, ontologies are widely used in biomedical research to obtain common vocabularies and logical descriptions, but its application may suffer from scalability issues, domain bias, and loss of low-level data access. With the aim of improving the application of semantic models in biobanking systems, an incremental semantic framework that takes advantage of the latest advances in biomedical ontologies and the XNAT platform is designed and implemented. We follow a layered architecture that allows the alignment of multi-domain biomedical ontologies to manage data at different levels of abstraction. To illustrate this approach, the development is integrated in the JPND (EU Joint Program for Neurodegenerative Disease APGeM project, focused on finding early biomarkers for Alzheimer's and other dementia related diseases.

  11. Incremental Placement-Based Clock Network Minimization Methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Oiang; CAI Yici; HUANG Liang; HONG Xianlong

    2008-01-01

    Power is the major challenge threatening the progress of very large scale integration (VLSI) tech-nology development. In ultra-deep submicron VLSI designs, clock network size must be minimized to re-duce power consumption, power supply noise, and the number of clock buffers which are vulnerable to process variations. Traditional design methodologies usually let the clock router independently undertake the clock network minimization. Since clock routing is based on register locations, register placement actu-ally strongly influences the clock network size. This paper describes a clock network design methodology that optimizes register placement. For a given cell placement result, incremental modifications are per-formed based on the clock skew specifications by moving registers toward preferred locations that may re-duce the clock network size. At the same time, the side-effects to logic cell placement, such as signal net wirelength and critical path delay, are controlled. Test results on benchmark circuits show that the methodol-ogy can considerably reduce clock network size with limited impact on signal net wirelength and critical path delay.

  12. Evolution of cooperation driven by incremental learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pei; Duan, Haibin

    2015-02-01

    It has been shown that the details of microscopic rules in structured populations can have a crucial impact on the ultimate outcome in evolutionary games. So alternative formulations of strategies and their revision processes exploring how strategies are actually adopted and spread within the interaction network need to be studied. In the present work, we formulate the strategy update rule as an incremental learning process, wherein knowledge is refreshed according to one's own experience learned from the past (self-learning) and that gained from social interaction (social-learning). More precisely, we propose a continuous version of strategy update rules, by introducing the willingness to cooperate W, to better capture the flexibility of decision making behavior. Importantly, the newly gained knowledge including self-learning and social learning is weighted by the parameter ω, establishing a strategy update rule involving innovative element. Moreover, we quantify the macroscopic features of the emerging patterns to inspect the underlying mechanisms of the evolutionary process using six cluster characteristics. In order to further support our results, we examine the time evolution course for these characteristics. Our results might provide insights for understanding cooperative behaviors and have several important implications for understanding how individuals adjust their strategies under real-life conditions.

  13. Functional tolerance theory in incremental growth design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Bo; YANG Tao; ZE Xiangbo

    2007-01-01

    The evolutionary tolerance design strategy and its characteristics are studied on the basis of automation technology in the product structure design.To guarantee a successful transformation from the functional requirement to geometry constraints between parts,and finally to dimension constraints,a functional tolerance design theory in the process of product growth design is put forward.A mathematical model with a correlated sensitivity function between cost and the tolerance is created,in which the design cost,the manufacturing cost,the usage cost,and the depreciation cost of the product are regarded as control constraints of the tolerance allocation.Considering these costs,a multifactor-cost function to express quality loss of the product is applied into the model.In the mathematical model,the minimum cost is used as the objective function; a reasonable process capability index,the assembly function,and assembly quality are taken as the constraints; and depreciation cost in the objective function is expressed as the discount rate-terminology in economics.Thus,allocation of the dimension tolerance as the function and cost over the whole lifetime of the product is realized.Finally,a design example is used to demonstrate the successful application of the proposed functional tolerance theory in the incremental growth design of the product.

  14. Microarray analysis of prostate cancer progression to reduced androgen dependence: studies in unique models contrasts early and late molecular events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirotnak, F M; She, Yuhong; Khokhar, Nushmia Z; Hayes, Paula; Gerald, William; Scher, Howard I

    2004-11-01

    Three unique variants of the CWR22 human prostate cancer xenograft model (CWR22LD1, LD2, and LD3) with a decrease in dependence on androgens were selected under noncastrate conditions, i.e., by outgrowth after transplantation into male NCR (AT) nu mice without testosterone supplementation. These variants were unable to grow in castrated male mice. For comparison, a second set of variants with even less dependence on androgens (castrate-resistant) were derived following outgrowth from CWR22 (CWR22Rv1 and RC) or CWRLD1 (CWR22RS) after transplantion in castrated male mice. The androgen receptor (AR) gene in the CWR22LD variants was transcriptionally active and was neither mutated nor significantly overexpressed compared to CWR22. Oligonucleotide microarray analysis showed distinctly different profiles of dysregulated gene expression among the CWR22LD variants. Groups of only 26-41 genes were dysregulated greater than threefold with a different proportion of up versus downregulated genes in each variant. Only one of the castrate-resistant variants (CWR22Rv1) had a highly overexpressed AR gene but AR in this variant and the two other castrate-resistant variants, CWR22 RS and RC, was not mutated beyond that seen in CWR22. In contrast to the CWR22LD variants, a total of 342, 295, and 222 genes were dysregulated at least threefold in CWR22Rv1, CWR22RS, and CWR22RC, respectively, differing as well in the proportion of up versus downregulated genes. Many of the genes dysregulated in CWR22LD1, LD2, and LD3 were further dysregulated in CWR22Rv1, RC, or RS. The most downregulated gene was microseminoprotein beta (MSPB). Along with cyclin D1, the most upregulated gene by an order of magnitude compared to other upregulated genes was hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) (scatter factor). These results suggest that the onset in the loss of androgen dependence in CWR22 proceeds through multiple pathways and does not require any direct change in the status of AR. However, upregulation of

  15. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor-dependent cdk1 inhibition prevents G2/M progression in differentiating tetraploid neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovejero-Benito, María C; Frade, José M

    2013-01-01

    Neurodegeneration is often associated with DNA synthesis in neurons, the latter usually remaining for a long time as tetraploid cells before dying by apoptosis. The molecular mechanism preventing G2/M transition in these neurons remains unknown, but it may be reminiscent of the mechanism that maintains tetraploid retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in a G2-like state during normal development, thus preventing their death. Here we show that this latter process, known to depend on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), requires the inhibition of cdk1 by TrkB. We demonstrate that a subpopulation of chick RGCs previously shown to become tetraploid co-expresses TrkB and cdk1 in vivo. By using an in vitro system that recapitulates differentiation and cell cycle re-entry of chick retinal neurons we show that BDNF, employed at concentrations specific for the TrkB receptor, reduces the expression of cdk1 in TrkB-positive, differentiating neurons. In this system, BDNF also inhibits the activity of both endogenous cdk1 and exogenously-expressed cdk1/cyclin B1 complex. This inhibition correlates with the phosphorylation of cdk1 at Tyr15, an effect that can be prevented with K252a, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor commonly used to prevent the activity of neurotrophins through their Trk receptors. The effect of BDNF on cdk1 activity is Tyr15-specific since BDNF cannot prevent the activity of a constitutively active form of cdk1 (Tyr15Phe) when expressed in differentiating retinal neurons. We also show that BDNF-dependent phosphorylation of cdk1 at Tyr15 could not be blocked with MK-1775, a Wee1-selective inhibitor, indicating that Tyr15 phosphorylation in cdk1 does not seem to occur through the canonical mechanism observed in proliferating cells. We conclude that the inhibition of both expression and activity of cdk1 through a BDNF-dependent mechanism contributes to the maintenance of tetraploid RGCs in a G2-like state.

  16. State-independent importance sampling for random walks with regularly varying increments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthyek R. A. Murthy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We develop importance sampling based efficient simulation techniques for three commonly encountered rare event probabilities associated with random walks having i.i.d. regularly varying increments; namely, 1 the large deviation probabilities, 2 the level crossing probabilities, and 3 the level crossing probabilities within a regenerative cycle. Exponential twisting based state-independent methods, which are effective in efficiently estimating these probabilities for light-tailed increments are not applicable when the increments are heavy-tailed. To address the latter case, more complex and elegant state-dependent efficient simulation algorithms have been developed in the literature over the last few years. We propose that by suitably decomposing these rare event probabilities into a dominant and further residual components, simpler state-independent importance sampling algorithms can be devised for each component resulting in composite unbiased estimators with desirable efficiency properties. When the increments have infinite variance, there is an added complexity in estimating the level crossing probabilities as even the well known zero-variance measures have an infinite expected termination time. We adapt our algorithms so that this expectation is finite while the estimators remain strongly efficient. Numerically, the proposed estimators perform at least as well, and sometimes substantially better than the existing state-dependent estimators in the literature.

  17. Variability in blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD signal in patients with stroke-induced and primary progressive aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bonakdarpour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although fMRI is increasingly used to assess language-related brain activation in patients with aphasia, few studies have examined the hemodynamic response function (HRF in perilesional, and contralesional areas of the brain. In addition, the relationship between HRF abnormalities and other variables such as lesion size and severity of aphasia has not been explored. The objective of this study was to investigate changes in HRF signal during language-related neural activation in patients with stroke-induced aphasia (SA. We also examined the status of the HRF in patients with aphasia due to nonvascular etiology, namely, primary progressive aphasia (PPA. Five right handed SA patients, three PPA patients, and five healthy individuals participated in the study. Structural damage was quantified with T1-weighted MR images. Functional MR imaging was performed with long trial event-related design and an overt naming task to measure BOLD signal time to peak (TTP and percent signal change (ΔS. In SA patients, the average HRF TTP was significantly delayed in the left hemisphere regions involved in naming compared to healthy participants and PPA patients. However, ΔS was not different in SA patients compared to the other two groups. Delay in HRF TTP in the left hemisphere naming network of SA patients was correlated with lesion size and showed a negative correlation with global language function. There were no significant differences in the HRF TTP and ΔS in the right hemisphere homologues of the naming network or in the left and the right occipital control regions across the three groups. In PPA patients, HRF had a normal pattern. Our results indicate that abnormal task-related HRF is primarily found in the left hemisphere language network of SA patients and raise the possibility that abnormal physiology superimposed on structural damage may contribute to the clinical deficit. Follow-up investigations in a larger sample of age-matched healthy individuals

  18. HDAC8 Inhibition Blocks SMC3 Deacetylation and Delays Cell Cycle Progression without Affecting Cohesin-dependent Transcription in MCF7 Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Tanushree; Antony, Jisha; Braithwaite, Antony W; Horsfield, Julia A

    2016-06-10

    Cohesin, a multi-subunit protein complex involved in chromosome organization, is frequently mutated or aberrantly expressed in cancer. Multiple functions of cohesin, including cell division and gene expression, highlight its potential as a novel therapeutic target. The SMC3 subunit of cohesin is acetylated (ac) during S phase to establish cohesion between replicated chromosomes. Following anaphase, ac-SMC3 is deacetylated by HDAC8. Reversal of SMC3 acetylation is imperative for recycling cohesin so that it can be reloaded in interphase for both non-mitotic and mitotic functions. We blocked deacetylation of ac-SMC3 using an HDAC8-specific inhibitor PCI-34051 in MCF7 breast cancer cells, and examined the effects on transcription of cohesin-dependent genes that respond to estrogen. HDAC8 inhibition led to accumulation of ac-SMC3 as expected, but surprisingly, had no influence on the transcription of estrogen-responsive genes that are altered by siRNA targeting of RAD21 or SMC3. Knockdown of RAD21 altered estrogen receptor α (ER) recruitment at SOX4 and IL20, and affected transcription of these genes, while HDAC8 inhibition did not. Rather, inhibition of HDAC8 delayed cell cycle progression, suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner. We conclude that HDAC8 inhibition does not change the estrogen-specific transcriptional role of cohesin in MCF7 cells, but instead, compromises cell cycle progression and cell survival. Our results argue that candidate inhibitors of cohesin function may differ in their effects depending on the cellular genotype and should be thoroughly tested for predicted effects on cohesin's mechanistic roles.

  19. OXYGEN UPTAKE KINETICS DURING INCREMENTAL- AND DECREMENTAL-RAMP CYCLE ERGOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadıl Özyener

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The pulmonary oxygen uptake (VO2 response to incremental-ramp cycle ergometry typically demonstrates lagged-linear first-order kinetics with a slope of ~10-11 ml·min-1·W-1, both above and below the lactate threshold (ӨL, i.e. there is no discernible VO2 slow component (or "excess" VO2 above ӨL. We were interested in determining whether a reverse ramp profile would yield the same response dynamics. Ten healthy males performed a maximum incremental -ramp (15-30 W·min-1, depending on fitness. On another day, the work rate (WR was increased abruptly to the incremental maximum and then decremented at the same rate of 15-30 W.min-1 (step-decremental ramp. Five subjects also performed a sub-maximal ramp-decremental test from 90% of ӨL. VO2 was determined breath-by-breath from continuous monitoring of respired volumes (turbine and gas concentrations (mass spectrometer. The incremental-ramp VO2-WR slope was 10.3 ± 0.7 ml·min-1·W-1, whereas that of the descending limb of the decremental ramp was 14.2 ± 1.1 ml·min-1·W-1 (p < 0.005. The sub-maximal decremental-ramp slope, however, was only 9. 8 ± 0.9 ml·min-1·W-1: not significantly different from that of the incremental-ramp. This suggests that the VO2 response in the supra-ӨL domain of incremental-ramp exercise manifest not actual, but pseudo, first-order kinetics

  20. Climacostol reduces tumour progression in a mouse model of melanoma via the p53-dependent intrinsic apoptotic programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrotta, Cristiana; Buonanno, Federico; Zecchini, Silvia; Giavazzi, Alessio; Proietti Serafini, Francesca; Catalani, Elisabetta; Guerra, Laura; Belardinelli, Maria Cristina; Picchietti, Simona; Fausto, Anna Maria; Giorgi, Simone; Marcantoni, Enrico; Clementi, Emilio; Ortenzi, Claudio; Cervia, Davide

    2016-01-01

    Climacostol, a compound produced by the ciliated protozoan Climacostomum virens, displayed cytotoxic properties in vitro. This study demonstrates that it has anti-tumour potential. Climacostol caused a reduction of viability/proliferation of B16-F10 mouse melanoma cells, a rapidly occurring DNA damage, and induced the intrinsic apoptotic pathway characterised by the dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential, the translocation of Bax to the mitochondria, the release of Cytochrome c from the mitochondria, and the activation of Caspase 9-dependent cleavage of Caspase 3. The apoptotic mechanism of climacostol was found to rely on the up-regulation of p53 and its targets Noxa and Puma. In vivo analysis of B16-F10 allografts revealed a persistent inhibition of tumour growth rate when melanomas were treated with intra-tumoural injections of climacostol. In addition, it significantly improved the survival of transplanted mice, decreased tumour weight, induced a remarkable reduction of viable cells inside the tumour, activated apoptosis and up-regulated the p53 signalling network. Importantly, climacostol toxicity was more selective against tumour than non-tumour cells. The anti-tumour properties of climacostol and the molecular events associated with its action indicate that it is a powerful agent that may be considered for the design of pro-apoptotic drugs for melanoma therapy. PMID:27271364

  1. Effect of two years of strict metabolic control on progression of incipient nephropathy in insulin-dependent diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Mathiesen, E R; Deckert, T

    1986-01-01

    . The insulin-infusion group showed a significant, sustained improvement in metabolic control, with a median glycosylated haemoglobin of 7.2% (range 5.9-8.8), but there was no change in the conventional-treatment group (median 8.6%, range 7.2-13.4) (p less than 0.001). Clinical diabetic nephropathy (a urinary......36 patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus who had 'Albustix'-negative urine but raised urinary albumin excretion (30 to 300 mg/24 h) were randomly assigned to either remaining on conventional insulin treatment or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion and followed up for 2 years...... albumin excretion rate above 300 mg/24 h in at least two of three 24 h urine collections) developed in 5 patients in the conventional-treatment group, but not in the insulin-infusion group (p less than 0.05, two-tailed). Fractional albumin clearance (mean and range X 10(7] increased in the conventional-treatment...

  2. 26 CFR 1.41-8 - Alternative incremental credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Alternative incremental credit. 1.41-8 Section 1... Credits Against Tax § 1.41-8 Alternative incremental credit. (a) Determination of credit. At the election of the taxpayer, the credit determined under section 41(a)(1) equals the amount determined under...

  3. Efficient simulation and process mechanics of incremental sheet forming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadoush, Ashraf Moh’d Hasan

    2010-01-01

    Single Point Incremental Forming (SPIF) is a displacement controlled process performed on a CNC machine. A clamped blank is incrementally deformed by the movement of a small-sized tool that follows a prescribed lengthy tool path. The strain achieved by the SPIF process is higher than the strain achi

  4. Efficient simulation and process mechanics of incremental sheet forming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadoush, A.

    2010-01-01

    Single Point Incremental Forming (SPIF) is a displacement controlled process performed on a CNC machine. A clamped blank is incrementally deformed by the movement of a small-sized tool that follows a prescribed lengthy tool path. The strain achieved by the SPIF process is higher than the strain

  5. Model Reduction for Nonlinear Systems by Incremental Balanced Truncation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselink, Bart; van de Wouw, Nathan; Scherpen, Jacquelien M. A.; Nijmeijer, Henk

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the method of incremental balanced truncation is introduced as a tool for model reduction of nonlinear systems. Incremental balanced truncation provides an extension of balanced truncation for linear systems towards the nonlinear case and differs from existing nonlinear balancing tech

  6. Lifetime costs of lung transplantation : Estimation of incremental costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanEnckevort, PJ; Koopmanschap, MA; Tenvergert, EM; VanderBij, W; Rutten, FFH

    1997-01-01

    Despite an expanding number of centres which provide lung transplantation, information about the incremental costs of lung transplantation is scarce. From 1991 until 1995, in The Netherlands a technology assessment was performed which provided information about the incremental costs of lung transpla

  7. Model Reduction for Nonlinear Systems by Incremental Balanced Truncation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselink, Bart; van de Wouw, Nathan; Scherpen, Jacquelien M. A.; Nijmeijer, Henk

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the method of incremental balanced truncation is introduced as a tool for model reduction of nonlinear systems. Incremental balanced truncation provides an extension of balanced truncation for linear systems towards the nonlinear case and differs from existing nonlinear balancing tech

  8. Creating Helical Tool Paths for Single Point Incremental Forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjødt, Martin; Hancock, Michael H.; Bay, Niels

    2007-01-01

    Single point incremental forming (SPIF) is a relatively new sheet forming process. A sheet is clamped in a rig and formed incrementally using a rotating single point tool in the form of a rod with a spherical end. The process is often performed on a CNC milling machine and the tool movement...

  9. Lifetime costs of lung transplantation : Estimation of incremental costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanEnckevort, PJ; Koopmanschap, MA; Tenvergert, EM; VanderBij, W; Rutten, FFH

    1997-01-01

    Despite an expanding number of centres which provide lung transplantation, information about the incremental costs of lung transplantation is scarce. From 1991 until 1995, in The Netherlands a technology assessment was performed which provided information about the incremental costs of lung transpla

  10. Incrementality in naming and reading complex numerals : Evidence from eyetracking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korvorst, M.H.W.; Roelofs, A.P.A.; Levelt, W.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Individuals speak incrementally when they interleave planning and articulation. Eyetracking, along with the measurement of speech onset latencies, can be used to gain more insight into the degree of incrementality adopted by speakers. In the current article, two eyetracking experiments are reported

  11. Progression of spinal deformity in wheelchair-dependent patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy who are not treated with steroids: coronal plane (scoliosis) and sagittal plane (kyphosis, lordosis) deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, F; Zurakowski, D; Bui, T; Darras, B T

    2014-01-01

    We determined the frequency, rate and extent of development of scoliosis (coronal plane deformity) in wheelchair-dependent patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) who were not receiving steroid treatment. We also assessed kyphosis and lordosis (sagittal plane deformity). The extent of scoliosis was assessed on sitting anteroposterior (AP) spinal radiographs in 88 consecutive non-ambulatory patients with DMD. Radiographs were studied from the time the patients became wheelchair-dependent until the time of spinal fusion, or the latest assessment if surgery was not undertaken. Progression was estimated using a longitudinal mixed-model regression analysis to handle repeated measurements. Scoliosis ≥ 10° occurred in 85 of 88 patients (97%), ≥ 20° in 78 of 88 (89%) and ≥ 30° in 66 of 88 patients (75%). The fitted longitudinal model revealed that time in a wheelchair was a highly significant predictor of the magnitude of the curve, independent of the age of the patient (p lordosis (16 (27%) abnormal and seven (11%) normal). This study provides a baseline to assess the effects of steroids and other forms of treatment on the natural history of scoliosis in patients with DMD, and an approach to assessing spinal deformity in the coronal and sagittal planes in wheelchair-dependent patients with other neuromuscular disorders.

  12. A joint model for the dependence between clustered times to tumour progression and deaths: A meta-analysis of chemotherapy in head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondeau, Virginie; Pignon, Jean-Pierre; Michiels, Stefan

    2015-12-01

    The observation of time to tumour progression (TTP) or progression-free survival (PFS) may be terminated by a terminal event. In this context, deaths may be due to tumour progression, and the time to the major failure event (death) may be correlated with the TTP. The usual assumption of independence between the TTP process and death, required by many commonly used statistical methods, can be violated. Furthermore, although the relationship between TTP and time to death is most relevant to the anti-cancer drug development or to evaluation of TTP as a surrogate endpoint, statistical models that try to describe the dependence structure between these two characteristics are not frequently used. We propose a joint frailty model for the analysis of two survival endpoints, TTP and time to death, or PFS and time to death, in the context of data clustering (e.g. at the centre or trial level). This approach allows us to simultaneously evaluate the prognostic effects of covariates on the two survival endpoints, while accounting both for the relationship between the outcomes and for data clustering. We show how a maximum penalized likelihood estimation can be applied to a nonparametric estimation of the continuous hazard functions in a general joint frailty model with right censoring and delayed entry. The model was motivated by a large meta-analysis of randomized trials for head and neck cancers (Meta-Analysis of Chemotherapy in Head and Neck Cancers), in which the efficacy of chemotherapy on TTP or PFS and overall survival was investigated, as adjunct to surgery or radiotherapy or both.

  13. Efficiency of Oral Incremental Rehearsal versus Written Incremental Rehearsal on Students' Rate, Retention, and Generalization of Spelling Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Dru; Joseph, Laurice M.; Alber-Morgan, Sheila; Konrad, Moira

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the efficiency of an incremental rehearsal oral versus an incremental rehearsal written procedure on a sample of primary grade children's weekly spelling performance. Participants included five second and one first grader who were in need of help with their spelling according to their teachers. An…

  14. Diseño incremental de e-servicios: estudio teórico, propuesta metodológica y casos prácticos.

    OpenAIRE

    Huerta Vásquez, Eduardo Andrés

    2012-01-01

    This thesis presents the development and results of a research work that proposes a method of designing incremental services that works for knowledge management environments via Internet, called e-services. This method is based on the principles of collaborative design-by which all organizational profiles provide specific design tasks, and the idea of incremental progression of projects, increasing at each stage of production the formal features and functionality artifact. The thesis begin...

  15. Hepatic SirT1-Dependent Gain of Function of Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase-1 Conveys Dysmetabolic and Tumor Progression Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Qiang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with higher incidence of cancer, but the predisposing mechanisms remain poorly understood. The NAD+-dependent deacetylase SirT1 orchestrates metabolism, cellular survival, and growth. However, there is no unifying mechanism to explain the metabolic and tumor-related effects of SirT1. In this work, we demonstrate that genetic ablation of the endogenous inhibitor of SirT1, Deleted-in-Breast-Cancer-1 (Dbc1, unexpectedly results in obesity and insulin resistance. Dbc1 deficiency promoted SirT1-dependent gain of function of stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1 (Scd1, increasing plasma and tissue levels of unsaturated fatty acids. The metabolic abnormalities in Dbc1–/– mice were reversed by ablation of hepatic SirT1 or by inhibition of Scd1 activity. Furthermore, loss of Dbc1 impaired activation of the master tumor suppressor p53 and treatment with an Scd1 inhibitor extended survival of tumor-prone TP53–/– mice by decreasing tumor-related death. Together, our findings illustrate a shared mechanism of obesity and tumor progression mediated by hepatic SirT1 and resulting in the activation of a key lipid synthetic enzyme, with potential therapeutic implications.

  16. Hepatic SirT1-Dependent Gain of Function of Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase-1 Conveys Dysmetabolic and Tumor Progression Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Li; Kon, Ning; Zhao, Wenhui; Jiang, Le; Knight, Colette M; Welch, Carrie; Pajvani, Utpal; Gu, Wei; Accili, Domenico

    2015-06-23

    Obesity is associated with higher incidence of cancer, but the predisposing mechanisms remain poorly understood. The NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase SirT1 orchestrates metabolism, cellular survival, and growth. However, there is no unifying mechanism to explain the metabolic and tumor-related effects of SirT1. In this work, we demonstrate that genetic ablation of the endogenous inhibitor of SirT1, Deleted-in-Breast-Cancer-1 (Dbc1), unexpectedly results in obesity and insulin resistance. Dbc1 deficiency promoted SirT1-dependent gain of function of stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1 (Scd1), increasing plasma and tissue levels of unsaturated fatty acids. The metabolic abnormalities in Dbc1(-/-) mice were reversed by ablation of hepatic SirT1 or by inhibition of Scd1 activity. Furthermore, loss of Dbc1 impaired activation of the master tumor suppressor p53 and treatment with an Scd1 inhibitor extended survival of tumor-prone TP53(-/-) mice by decreasing tumor-related death. Together, our findings illustrate a shared mechanism of obesity and tumor progression mediated by hepatic SirT1 and resulting in the activation of a key lipid synthetic enzyme, with potential therapeutic implications. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Incremental Interpretation Applications, Theory and Relationship to Dynamic Semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Milward, D; Milward, David; Cooper, Robin

    1995-01-01

    Why should computers interpret language incrementally? In recent years psycholinguistic evidence for incremental interpretation has become more and more compelling, suggesting that humans perform semantic interpretation before constituent boundaries, possibly word by word. However, possible computational applications have received less attention. In this paper we consider various potential applications, in particular graphical interaction and dialogue. We then review the theoretical and computational tools available for mapping from fragments of sentences to fully scoped semantic representations. Finally, we tease apart the relationship between dynamic semantics and incremental interpretation.

  18. Incremental Tensor Principal Component Analysis for Handwritten Digit Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To overcome the shortcomings of traditional dimensionality reduction algorithms, incremental tensor principal component analysis (ITPCA based on updated-SVD technique algorithm is proposed in this paper. This paper proves the relationship between PCA, 2DPCA, MPCA, and the graph embedding framework theoretically and derives the incremental learning procedure to add single sample and multiple samples in detail. The experiments on handwritten digit recognition have demonstrated that ITPCA has achieved better recognition performance than that of vector-based principal component analysis (PCA, incremental principal component analysis (IPCA, and multilinear principal component analysis (MPCA algorithms. At the same time, ITPCA also has lower time and space complexity.

  19. Single point incremental forming of shape memory polymer foam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadi Amirahmad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study single point incremental forming of shape memory foam is investigated. The shape memory effect makes the foam an attractive material for the fabrication of recoverable components such as reusable dies for low pressure forming processes. The mechanical properties of the polymer have been investigated by means of tensile testing at elevated temperature. The maximum achievable formability for this material for single point incremental forming has been characterized both at room and elevated temperature. After an explorative study on simple benchmark cases, heat assisted single point incremental forming has been used to study the possibility of manufacturing a recoverable die for custom-made orthopaedic shoe insoles.

  20. Incremental triangulation by way of edge swapping and local optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltberger, N. Lyn

    1994-01-01

    This document is intended to serve as an installation, usage, and basic theory guide for the two dimensional triangulation software 'HARLEY' written for the Silicon Graphics IRIS workstation. This code consists of an incremental triangulation algorithm based on point insertion and local edge swapping. Using this basic strategy, several types of triangulations can be produced depending on user selected options. For example, local edge swapping criteria can be chosen which minimizes the maximum interior angle (a MinMax triangulation) or which maximizes the minimum interior angle (a MaxMin or Delaunay triangulation). It should be noted that the MinMax triangulation is generally only locally optical (not globally optimal) in this measure. The MaxMin triangulation, however, is both locally and globally optical. In addition, Steiner triangulations can be constructed by inserting new sites at triangle circumcenters followed by edge swapping based on the MaxMin criteria. Incremental insertion of sites also provides flexibility in choosing cell refinement criteria. A dynamic heap structure has been implemented in the code so that once a refinement measure is specified (i.e., maximum aspect ratio or some measure of a solution gradient for the solution adaptive grid generation) the cell with the largest value of this measure is continually removed from the top of the heap and refined. The heap refinement strategy allows the user to specify either the number of cells desired or refine the mesh until all cell refinement measures satisfy a user specified tolerance level. Since the dynamic heap structure is constantly updated, the algorithm always refines the particular cell in the mesh with the largest refinement criteria value. The code allows the user to: triangulate a cloud of prespecified points (sites), triangulate a set of prespecified interior points constrained by prespecified boundary curve(s), Steiner triangulate the interior/exterior of prespecified boundary curve

  1. Let's move to spheres! Why a spherical coordinate system is rewarding when analyzing particle increment statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most, Sebastian; Nowak, Wolfgang; Bijeljic, Branko

    2016-04-01

    For understanding non-Fickian transport in porous media, thorough understanding of pore-scale processes is required. When using particle methods as research instruments, we need a detailed understanding of the dependence and memory between subsequent increments in particle motion. We are especially interested in the dependence and memory of the spatial increments (size and direction) at consecutive time steps. Understanding the increment statistics is crucial for the upscaling that always becomes essential for transport simulations at larger scales. Upscaling means averaging over a (representative elementary) volume to save limited computational resources. However, this averaging means a loss of detail and therefore dispersion models should compensate for this loss. Formulating an appropriate dispersion model requires a detailed understanding of the dependencies and memory effects in the transport process. Particle-based simulations for transport in porous media are usually conducted and analyzed in a Cartesian coordinate system. We will show that, for understanding the process physically and representing the process statistically, it is more appropriate to switch to a spherical coordinate system that moves with each particle. Increment statistics in a Cartesian coordinate system usually reveal that a large displacement in longitudinal direction triggers a large displacement in transverse direction as fast flow channels are not perfectly aligned with the Cartesian axis along the main flow direction. We can overcome this inherent link, typical for the Cartesian description by using the absolute displacements together with the direction of the particle movement, where the direction is determined by the angles azimuth and elevation. This can be understood as a Lagrangian spherical process description. The root of the dependence of the transport process is in the complex pore geometry. For some time past, high-resolution micro-CT scans of pore space geometry became the

  2. Incremental Sampling Algorithms for Robust Propulsion Control Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aurora Flight Sciences proposes to develop a system for robust engine control based on incremental sampling, specifically Rapidly-Expanding Random Tree (RRT)...

  3. 48 CFR 3432.771 - Provision for incremental funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... funding. 3432.771 Section 3432.771 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Contract Funding 3432.771 Provision for incremental funding. The contracting officer shall insert the provision in...

  4. Calculation of chemical potentials of chain molecules by the incremental gauge cell method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Christopher J.; Vishnyakov, Aleksey; Neimark, Alexander V.

    2011-12-01

    The gauge cell Monte Carlo method is extended to calculations of the incremental chemical potentials and free energies of linear chain molecules. The method was applied to chains of Lennard-Jones beads with stiff harmonic bonds up to 500 monomers in length. We show that the suggested method quantitatively reproduces the modified Widom particle insertion method of Kumar et al. [S. K. Kumar, I. Szleifer, and A. Z. Panagiotopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66(22), 2935 (1991)], 10.1103/PhysRevLett.66.2935, and is by an order of magnitude more efficient for long chains in terms of the computational time required for the same accuracy of chemical potential calculations. The chain increment ansatz, which suggests that the incremental chemical potential is independent of the chain length, was tested at different temperatures. We confirmed that the ansatz holds only for coils above the θ temperature. Special attention is paid to the effects of the magnitude of adsorption potential and temperature on the behavior of single chains in confinements that are comparable in size with the free chain radius of gyration. At sufficiently low temperatures, the dependence of the incremental chemical potential on the chain length in wetting pores is superficially similar to a capillary condensation isotherm, reflecting monolayer formation following by pore volume filling, as the chain length increases. We find that the incremental gauge cell method is an accurate and efficient technique for calculations of the free energies of chain molecules in bulk systems and nanoconfinements alike. The suggested method may find practical applications, such as modeling polymer partitioning on porous substrates and dynamics of chain translocation into nanopores.

  5. An incremental clustering algorithm based on Mahalanobis distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aik, Lim Eng; Choon, Tan Wee

    2014-12-01

    Classical fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm is insufficient to cluster non-spherical or elliptical distributed datasets. The paper replaces classical fuzzy c-means clustering euclidean distance with Mahalanobis distance. It applies Mahalanobis distance to incremental learning for its merits. A Mahalanobis distance based fuzzy incremental clustering learning algorithm is proposed. Experimental results show the algorithm is an effective remedy for the defect in fuzzy c-means algorithm but also increase training accuracy.

  6. Kinetic Modeling of Incremental Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis Exchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, Steven; Leypoldt, John K; Cassin, Michelle; Schreiber, Martin

    2017-01-01

    ♦ BACKGROUND: Incremental peritoneal dialysis (PD), the gradual introduction of dialysate exchanges at less than full-dose therapy, has been infrequently described in clinical reports. One concern with less than full-dose dialysis is whether urea clearance targets are achievable with an incremental regimen. In this report, we used a large database of PD patients, across all membrane transport types, and performed urea kinetic modeling determinations of possible incremental regimens for an individual membrane type. ♦ METHODS: Using a modified 3-pore model of peritoneal transport, various incremental manual continuous ambulatory PD (CAPD) exchanges employing glucose and/or icodextrin were evaluated. Peritoneal urea clearances from those simulations were added to residual kidney urea clearance for patients with various glomerular filtration rates (GFRs), and the total weekly urea clearance was then compared to the total weekly urea Kt/V target of 1.7. All 4 peritoneal membrane types were modeled. For each simulated prescription, net ultrafiltration and carbohydrate absorption were also calculated. ♦ RESULTS: Incremental CAPD regimens of 2 exchanges a day met adequacy targets if the GFR was 6 mL/min/1.73 m(2) in all membrane types. For regimens employing 3 exchanges a day, Kt/V targets were achieved at GFR levels of 4 to 5 mL/min/1.73 m(2) in high transporters to low transporters but higher tonicity 2.5% glucose solutions or icodextrin were required in some regimens. ♦ CONCLUSIONS: This work demonstrates that with incremental CAPD regimens, urea kinetic targets are achievable in most new starts to PD with residual kidney function. Incremental PD may be a less intrusive, better accepted initial treatment regime and a cost-effective way to initiate chronic dialysis in the incident patient. The key role of intrinsic kidney function in incremental regimens is highlighted in this analysis and would warrant conscientious monitoring. Copyright © 2017 International

  7. Incremental dementia-related expenditures in a medicaid population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharmal, Murtuza F; Dedhiya, Seema; Craig, Bruce A; Weiner, Michael; Rosenman, Marc; Sands, Laura P; Modi, Ankita; Doebbeling, Caroline; Thomas, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    With the growing number of older adults, understanding expenditures associated with treating medical conditions that are more prevalent among older adults is increasingly important. The objectives of this research were to estimate incremental medical encounters and incremental Medicaid expenditures associated with dementia among Indiana Medicaid recipients 40 years or older in 2004. A retrospective cohort design analyzing Indiana Medicaid administrative claims files was used. Individuals at least 40 years of age with Indiana Medicaid eligibility during 2004 were included. Patients with dementia were identified via diagnosis codes in claims files between July 2001 and December 2004. Adjusted annual incremental medical encounters and expenditures associated with dementia in 2004 were estimated using negative binomial regression and zero-inflated negative binomial regression models. A total of 18,950 individuals (13%) with dementia were identified from 145,684 who were 40 years or older. The unadjusted mean total annualized Medicaid expenditures for the cohort with dementia ($28,758) were significantly higher than the mean expenditures for the cohort without dementia ($14,609). After adjusting for covariates, Indiana Medicaid incurred annualized incremental expenditures of $9,829 per recipient with dementia. Much of the annual incremental expenditure associated with dementia was driven by the higher number of days in nursing homes and resulting nursing-home expenditures. Drug expenditures accounted for the second largest component of the incremental expenditures. On the basis of disease prevalence and per recipient annualized incremental expenditures, projected incremental annualized Indiana Medicaid spending associated with dementia for persons 40 or more years of age was $186 million. Dementia is associated with significant expenditures among Medicaid recipients. Disease management initiatives designed to reduce nursing-home use among recipients with dementia may

  8. Logistics Modernization Program Increment 2 (LMP Inc 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Logistics Modernization Program Increment 2 (LMP Inc 2) Defense Acquisition Management...Year U.S.C- United States Code USD(AT&L) - Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, & Logistics LMP Inc 2 2016 MAR UNCLASSIFIED...Phone: DSN Fax: Date Assigned: July 17, 2014 Program Information Program Name Logistics Modernization Program Increment 2 (LMP Inc 2) DoD Component

  9. Incremental Code Clone Detection and Elimination for Erlang Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Huiqing; Thompson, Simon

    2011-01-01

    A well-known bad code smell in refactoring and software maintenance is the existence of code clones, which are code fragments that are identical or similar to one another. This paper describes an approach to incrementally detecting 'similar' code based on the notion of least-general common abstraction, or anti-unification, as well as a framework for user-controlled incremental elimination of code clones within the context of Erlang programs. The clone detection algorithm proposed in this pape...

  10. Towards an incremental maintenance of cyclic association rules

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Eya ben

    2010-01-01

    Recently, the cyclic association rules have been introduced in order to discover rules from items characterized by their regular variation over time. In real life situations, temporal databases are often appended or updated. Rescanning the whole database every time is highly expensive while existing incremental mining techniques can efficiently solve such a problem. In this paper, we propose an incremental algorithm for cyclic association rules maintenance. The carried out experiments of our proposal stress on its efficiency and performance.

  11. Incremental short daily home hemodialysis: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth-Manikowski, Stephanie M; Mullangi, Surekha; Hwang, Seungyoung; Shafi, Tariq

    2017-07-05

    Patients starting dialysis often have substantial residual kidney function. Incremental hemodialysis provides a hemodialysis prescription that supplements patients' residual kidney function while maintaining total (residual + dialysis) urea clearance (standard Kt/Vurea) targets. We describe our experience with incremental hemodialysis in patients using NxStage System One for home hemodialysis. From 2011 to 2015, we initiated 5 incident hemodialysis patients on an incremental home hemodialysis regimen. The biochemical parameters of all patients remained stable on the incremental hemodialysis regimen and they consistently achieved standard Kt/Vurea targets. Of the two patients with follow-up >6 months, residual kidney function was preserved for ≥2 years. Importantly, the patients were able to transition to home hemodialysis without automatically requiring 5 sessions per week at the outset and gradually increased the number of treatments and/or dialysate volume as the residual kidney function declined. An incremental home hemodialysis regimen can be safely prescribed and may improve acceptability of home hemodialysis. Reducing hemodialysis frequency by even one treatment per week can reduce the number of fistula or graft cannulations or catheter connections by >100 per year, an important consideration for patient well-being, access longevity, and access-related infections. The incremental hemodialysis approach, supported by national guidelines, can be considered for all home hemodialysis patients with residual kidney function.

  12. Effects of Predictor Weighting Methods on Incremental Validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sackett, Paul R; Dahlke, Jeffrey A; Shewach, Oren R; Kuncel, Nathan R

    2017-05-22

    It is common to add an additional predictor to a selection system with the goal of increasing criterion-related validity. Research on the incremental validity of a second predictor is generally based on forming a regression-weighted composite of the predictors. However, in practice predictors are commonly used in ways other than regression-weighted composites, and we examine the robustness of incremental validity findings to other ways of using predictors, namely, unit weighting and multiple hurdles. We show that there are settings in which the incremental value of a second predictor disappears, and can even produce lower validity than the first predictor alone, when these alternatives to regression weighting are used. First, we examine conditions under which unit weighting will negate gain in predictive power attainable via regression weights. Second, we revisit Schmidt and Hunter's (1998) summary of incremental validity of predictors over cognitive ability, evaluating whether the reported incremental value of a second predictor is different when predictors are unit weighted rather than regression weighted. Third, we analyze data reported in the published literature to discern the frequency with which unit weighting might affect conclusions about whether there is value in adding a second predictor to a first. Finally, we shift from unit weighting to multiple hurdle selection, examining conditions under which conclusions about incremental validity differ when regression weighting is replaced by multiple-hurdle selection. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Entity versus incremental theories predict older adults' memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaks, Jason E; Chasteen, Alison L

    2013-12-01

    The authors examined whether older adults' implicit theories regarding the modifiability of memory in particular (Studies 1 and 3) and abilities in general (Study 2) would predict memory performance. In Study 1, individual differences in older adults' endorsement of the "entity theory" (a belief that one's ability is fixed) or "incremental theory" (a belief that one's ability is malleable) of memory were measured using a version of the Implicit Theories Measure (Dweck, 1999). Memory performance was assessed with a free-recall task. Results indicated that the higher the endorsement of the incremental theory, the better the free recall. In Study 2, older and younger adults' theories were measured using a more general version of the Implicit Theories Measure that focused on the modifiability of abilities in general. Again, for older adults, the higher the incremental endorsement, the better the free recall. Moreover, as predicted, implicit theories did not predict younger adults' memory performance. In Study 3, participants read mock news articles reporting evidence in favor of either the entity or incremental theory. Those in the incremental condition outperformed those in the entity condition on reading span and free-recall tasks. These effects were mediated by pretask worry such that, for those in the entity condition, higher worry was associated with lower performance. Taken together, these studies suggest that variation in entity versus incremental endorsement represents a key predictor of older adults' memory performance. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Exogenous and Endogenous Hydrogen Sulfide Protects Gastric Mucosa against the Formation and Time-Dependent Development of Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Acute Lesions Progressing into Deeper Ulcerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Magierowski

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S is an endogenous mediator, synthesized from l-cysteine by cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE, cystathionine β-synthase (CBS or 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST. The mechanism(s involved in H2S-gastroprotection against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R lesions and their time-dependent progression into deeper gastric ulcerations have been little studied. We determined the effect of l-cysteine, H2S-releasing NaHS or slow H2S releasing compound GYY4137 on gastric blood flow (GBF and gastric lesions induced by 30 min of I followed by 3, 6, 24 and 48 h of R. Role of endogenous prostaglandins (PGs, afferent sensory nerves releasing calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP, the gastric expression of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF-1α and anti-oxidative enzymes were examined. Rats with or without capsaicin deactivation of sensory nerves were pretreated i.g. with vehicle, NaHS (18–180 μmol/kg GYY4137 (90 μmol/kg or l-cysteine (0.8–80 μmol/kg alone or in combination with (1 indomethacin (14 μmol/kg i.p., SC-560 (14 μmol/kg, celecoxib (26 μmol/kg; (2 capsazepine (13 μmol/kg i.p.; and (3 CGRP (2.5 nmol/kg i.p.. The area of I/R-induced gastric lesions and GBF were measured by planimetry and H2-gas clearance, respectively. Expression of mRNA for CSE, CBS, 3-MST, HIF-1α, glutathione peroxidase (GPx-1, superoxide dismutase (SOD-2 and sulfide production in gastric mucosa compromised by I/R were determined by real-time PCR and methylene blue method, respectively. NaHS and l-cysteine dose-dependently attenuated I/R-induced lesions while increasing the GBF, similarly to GYY4137 (90 μmol/kg. Capsaicin denervation and capsazepine but not COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitors reduced NaHS- and l-cysteine-induced protection and hyperemia. NaHS increased mRNA expression for SOD-2 and GPx-1 but not that for HIF-1α. NaHS which increased gastric mucosal sulfide release, prevented further progression of acute I/R injury into deeper gastric ulcers at 6, 24

  15. Chondroprotective role of the osmotically-sensitive ion channel TRPV4: Age- and sex-dependent progression of osteoarthritis in Trpv4 deficient mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Andrea L.; Votta, Bartholomew J.; Kumar, Sanjay; Liedtke, Wolfgang; Guilak, Farshid

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Mechanical loading significantly influences the physiology and pathology of articular cartilage, although the mechanisms of mechanical signal transduction are not fully understood. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) is a calcium (Ca++) permeable ion channel that is highly expressed by articular chondrocytes and can be gated by osmotic and mechanical stimuli. The goal of this study was to determine the role of Trpv4 on the structure of the mouse knee joint and to determine whether Trpv4−/− mice exhibit altered Ca++ signaling in response to osmotic challenge. Methods Knee joints of Trpv4−/− mice were examined using histology and micro-computed tomography for osteoarthritic changes and bone structure at 4, 6, 9, and 12 months of age. Fluorescence imaging was used to quantify chondrocytic Ca++ signaling within intact femoral cartilage in response to osmotic stimuli. Results Deletion of Trpv4 resulted in severe osteoarthritic changes, including cartilage fibrillation, eburnation, and loss of proteoglycans that were dependent on age and the male sex. Subchondral bone mass and calcified meniscal volume were greatly increased, again in male mice. Chondrocytes from Trpv4+/+ mice demonstrated significant Ca++ responses to hypo-osmotic stress, but not hyper-osmotic stress. The response to hypo-osmotic stress or the TRPV4 agonist 4α-PDD was eliminated in Trpv4−/− mice. Conclusions Deletion of Trpv4 leads to a lack of osmotically-induced Ca++ signaling in articular chondrocytes, accompanied by progressive, sex-dependent increases in bone density and osteoarthritic joint degeneration. These findings suggest a critical role for TRPV4-mediated Ca++ signaling in the maintenance of joint health and normal skeletal structure. PMID:20583100

  16. The impact of weather conditions on dynamics of Hylocomium splendens annual increment and net production in forest communities of forest-steppe zone in Khakassia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Goncharova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dynamics of annual increments of green moss Hylocomium splendens (Hedw. Schimp. in B.S.G. in the Khakassia forest-steppe zone has been studied. The values of the moss linear and phytomass increments were investigated in different habitats for 6 years. The aboveground annual production of the H. splendens in phytocenosis was estimated. Linear increments of the H. splendens growing under the tree canopy and opening between trees were not significantly different. Phytomass increments under the tree canopy are significantly higher than in the openings between trees. The density of moss mats, proportion between leaves and stems were calculated. It was revealed that climatic factors have a different degree and duration influence on the moss increments in different habitats. Linear increments of H. splendens in different habitats synchronously respond to weather factor changes. The air temperature was the most important at the beginning and the end of the vegetation period; the amount of precipitation was more important in the middle of the growth period. Phytomass increments of H. splendens in different habitats respond differently to influence of weather conditions. Phytomass increments under the tree canopy are not sensitive to air temperature, and more sensitive to precipitations in the middle of growth period than one of opening between trees. The specificity of the climatic factors’ influence on the biomass growth depends on habitat conditions.

  17. Warm hands, cold heart: progressive whole-body cooling increases warm thermosensitivity of human hands and feet in a dose-dependent fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filingeri, Davide; Morris, Nathan B; Jay, Ollie

    2017-01-01

    What is the central question of this study? Investigations on inhibitory/facilitatory modulation of vision, touch and pain show that conditioning stimuli outside the receptive field of testing stimuli modulate the central processing of visual, touch and painful stimuli. We asked whether contextual modulation also exists in human temperature integration. What is the main finding and its importance? Progressive decreases in whole-body mean skin temperature (the conditioning stimulus) significantly increased local thermosensitivity to skin warming but not cooling (the testing stimuli) in a dose-dependent fashion. In resembling the central mechanisms underlying endogenous analgesia, our findings point to the existence of an endogenous thermosensory system in humans that could modulate local skin thermal sensitivity to facilitate thermal behaviour. Although inhibitory/facilitatory central modulation of vision and pain has been investigated, contextual modulation of skin temperature integration has not been explored. Hence, we tested whether progressive decreases in whole-body mean skin temperature (Tsk ; a large conditioning stimulus) alter the magnitude estimation of local warming and cooling stimuli applied to hairy and glabrous skin. On four separate occasions, eight men (27 ± 5 years old) underwent a 30 min whole-body cooling protocol (water-perfused suit; temperature, 5°C), during which a quantitative thermosensory test, consisting of reporting the perceived magnitude of warming and cooling stimuli (±8°C from 30°C baseline) applied to the hand (palm/dorsum) and foot (sole/dorsum), was performed before cooling and every 10 min thereafter. The cooling protocol resulted in large progressive reductions in Tsk [10 min, -3.36°C (95% confidence interval -2.62 to -4.10); 20 min, -5.21°C (-4.47 to -5.95); and 30 min, -6.32°C (-5.58 to -7.05); P temperature. While thermosensitivity to local skin cooling remained unchanged (P = 0.831), sensitivity to skin

  18. Bigger is Better, but at What Cost? Estimating the Economic Value of Incremental Data Assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalessandro, Brian; Perlich, Claudia; Raeder, Troy

    2014-06-01

    Many firms depend on third-party vendors to supply data for commercial predictive modeling applications. An issue that has received very little attention in the prior research literature is the estimation of a fair price for purchased data. In this work we present a methodology for estimating the economic value of adding incremental data to predictive modeling applications and present two cases studies. The methodology starts with estimating the effect that incremental data has on model performance in terms of common classification evaluation metrics. This effect is then translated into economic units, which gives an expected economic value that the firm might realize with the acquisition of a particular data asset. With this estimate a firm can then set a data acquisition price that targets a particular return on investment. This article presents the methodology in full detail and illustrates it in the context of two marketing case studies.

  19. Online blind source separation using incremental nonnegative matrix factorization with volume constraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guoxu; Yang, Zuyuan; Xie, Shengli; Yang, Jun-Mei

    2011-04-01

    Online blind source separation (BSS) is proposed to overcome the high computational cost problem, which limits the practical applications of traditional batch BSS algorithms. However, the existing online BSS methods are mainly used to separate independent or uncorrelated sources. Recently, nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) shows great potential to separate the correlative sources, where some constraints are often imposed to overcome the non-uniqueness of the factorization. In this paper, an incremental NMF with volume constraint is derived and utilized for solving online BSS. The volume constraint to the mixing matrix enhances the identifiability of the sources, while the incremental learning mode reduces the computational cost. The proposed method takes advantage of the natural gradient based multiplication updating rule, and it performs especially well in the recovery of dependent sources. Simulations in BSS for dual-energy X-ray images, online encrypted speech signals, and high correlative face images show the validity of the proposed method.

  20. Influence of part orientation on the geometric accuracy in robot-based incremental sheet metal forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Störkle, Denis Daniel; Seim, Patrick; Thyssen, Lars; Kuhlenkötter, Bernd

    2016-10-01

    This article describes new developments in an incremental, robot-based sheet metal forming process (`Roboforming') for the production of sheet metal components for small lot sizes and prototypes. The dieless kinematic-based generation of the shape is implemented by means of two industrial robots, which are interconnected to a cooperating robot system. Compared to other incremental sheet metal forming (ISF) machines, this system offers high geometrical form flexibility without the need of any part-dependent tools. The industrial application of ISF is still limited by certain constraints, e.g. the low geometrical accuracy. Responding to these constraints, the authors present the influence of the part orientation and the forming sequence on the geometric accuracy. Their influence is illustrated with the help of various experimental results shown and interpreted within this article.

  1. A hybrid incremental projection method for thermal-hydraulics applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christon, Mark A.; Bakosi, Jozsef; Nadiga, Balasubramanya T.; Berndt, Markus; Francois, Marianne M.; Stagg, Alan K.; Xia, Yidong; Luo, Hong

    2016-07-01

    A new second-order accurate, hybrid, incremental projection method for time-dependent incompressible viscous flow is introduced in this paper. The hybrid finite-element/finite-volume discretization circumvents the well-known Ladyzhenskaya-Babuška-Brezzi conditions for stability, and does not require special treatment to filter pressure modes by either Rhie-Chow interpolation or by using a Petrov-Galerkin finite element formulation. The use of a co-velocity with a high-resolution advection method and a linearly consistent edge-based treatment of viscous/diffusive terms yields a robust algorithm for a broad spectrum of incompressible flows. The high-resolution advection method is shown to deliver second-order spatial convergence on mixed element topology meshes, and the implicit advective treatment significantly increases the stable time-step size. The algorithm is robust and extensible, permitting the incorporation of features such as porous media flow, RANS and LES turbulence models, and semi-/fully-implicit time stepping. A series of verification and validation problems are used to illustrate the convergence properties of the algorithm. The temporal stability properties are demonstrated on a range of problems with 2 ≤ CFL ≤ 100. The new flow solver is built using the Hydra multiphysics toolkit. The Hydra toolkit is written in C++ and provides a rich suite of extensible and fully-parallel components that permit rapid application development, supports multiple discretization techniques, provides I/O interfaces, dynamic run-time load balancing and data migration, and interfaces to scalable popular linear solvers, e.g., in open-source packages such as HYPRE, PETSc, and Trilinos.

  2. Errors in estimating volume increments of forest trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnani F

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Errors in estimating volume increments of forest trees. Periodic tree and stand increments are often estimated retrospectively from measurements of diameter and height growth of standing trees, through the application of various simplifications of the general formula for volume increment rates. In particular, the Hellrigl method and its various formulations have been often suggested in Italy. Like other retrospective approaches, the Hellrigl method is affected by a systematic error, resulting from the assumption as a reference term of conditions at one of the extremes of the period considered. The magnitude of the error introduced by different formulations has been assessed in the present study through their application to mensurational and increment measurements from the detailed growth analysis of 107 Picea abies trees. Results are compared with those obtained with a new equation, which makes reference to the interval mid-point. The newly proposed method makes it possible to drastically reduce the error in the estimate of periodic tree increments, and especially its systematic component. This appears of particular relevance for stand- and national level applications.

  3. Myocardial response to incremental exercise in endurance-trained athletes: influence of heart rate, contractility and the Frank-Starling effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, Darren E R; Haykowsky, Mark J; Quinney, H Arthur; Blackmore, Derrick; Teo, Koon K; Humen, Dennis P

    2002-09-01

    Recent evidence indicates that endurance-trained athletes are able to increase their stroke volume (SV) throughout incremental upright exercise, probably due to a progressively greater effect of the Frank-Starling mechanism. This is contrary to the widely held belief that SV reaches a plateau at a submaximal heart rate (irrespective of fitness level), owing to a limitation in the time for diastolic filling. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate whether endurance-trained athletes rely on a progressively greater effect of the Frank-Starling mechanism throughout incremental exercise. A secondary purpose was to evaluate the effects of postural position on the cardiovascular responses to incremental exercise. Ten male cyclists participated in this investigation. Left ventricular function was assessed throughout incremental exercise in the supine and upright positions (counterbalanced) using radionuclide ventriculography. Stroke volume increased in a linear fashion during incremental exercise in both the upright and supine positions. The increases in cardiac output (Q) throughout incremental to maximal exercise (in both the supine and upright positions) were significantly related to changes in heart rate, myocardial contractility and the Frank-Starling mechanism. Percentage changes in end-diastolic volume and SV were significantly greater in the upright position versus the supine position, reflecting an increased reliance on the Frank-Starling effect to increase Q. We conclude from this investigation that highly trained endurance athletes are able to make progressively increasing usage of the Frank-Starling effect throughout incremental exercise. Postural position has a significant effect on the relative contribution of heart rate, myocardial contractility and the Frank-Starling mechanism to the increase in Q during exercise conditions.

  4. Criterion and Incremental Validity of the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos A. Ioannidis

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Although research on emotion regulation (ER is developing, little attention has been paid to the predictive power of ER strategies beyond established constructs. The present study examined the incremental validity of the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ; Gross & John, 2003, which measures cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression, over and above the Big Five personality traits. It also extended the evidence for the measure’s criterion validity to yet unexamined criteria. A university student sample (N = 203 completed the ERQ, a measure of the Big Five, and relevant cognitive and emotion-laden criteria. Cognitive reappraisal predicted positive affect beyond personality, as well as experiential flexibility and constructive self-assertion beyond personality and affect. Expressive suppression explained incremental variance in negative affect beyond personality and in experiential flexibility beyond personality and general affect. No incremental effects were found for worry, social anxiety, rumination, reflection, and preventing negative emotions. Implications for the construct validity and utility of the ERQ are discussed.

  5. Event-based incremental updating of spatio-temporal database

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晓光; 陈军; 蒋捷; 朱建军; 李志林

    2004-01-01

    Based on the relationship among the geographic events, spatial changes and the database operations, a new automatic (semi-automatic) incremental updating approach of spatio-temporal database (STDB) named as event-based incremental updating (E-BIU) is proposed in this paper. At first, the relationship among the events, spatial changes and the database operations is analyzed, then a total architecture of E-BIU implementation is designed, which includes an event queue, three managers and two sets of rules, each component is presented in detail. The process of the E-BIU of master STDB is described successively. An example of building's incremental updating is given to illustrate this approach at the end. The result shows that E-BIU is an efficient automatic updating approach for master STDB.

  6. Incremental Web Usage Mining Based on Active Ant Colony Clustering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Jie; LIN Ying; CHEN Zhimin

    2006-01-01

    To alleviate the scalability problem caused by the increasing Web using and changing users' interests, this paper presents a novel Web Usage Mining algorithm-Incremental Web Usage Mining algorithm based on Active Ant Colony Clustering. Firstly, an active movement strategy about direction selection and speed, different with the positive strategy employed by other Ant Colony Clustering algorithms, is proposed to construct an Active Ant Colony Clustering algorithm, which avoid the idle and "flying over the plane" moving phenomenon, effectively improve the quality and speed of clustering on large dataset. Then a mechanism of decomposing clusters based on above methods is introduced to form new clusters when users' interests change. Empirical studies on a real Web dataset show the active ant colony clustering algorithm has better performance than the previous algorithms, and the incremental approach based on the proposed mechanism can efficiently implement incremental Web usage mining.

  7. Martingales, nonstationary increments, and the efficient market hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Joseph L.; Bassler, Kevin E.; Gunaratne, Gemunu H.

    2008-06-01

    We discuss the deep connection between nonstationary increments, martingales, and the efficient market hypothesis for stochastic processes x(t) with arbitrary diffusion coefficients D(x,t). We explain why a test for a martingale is generally a test for uncorrelated increments. We explain why martingales look Markovian at the level of both simple averages and 2-point correlations. But while a Markovian market has no memory to exploit and cannot be beaten systematically, a martingale admits memory that might be exploitable in higher order correlations. We also use the analysis of this paper to correct a misstatement of the ‘fair game’ condition in terms of serial correlations in Fama’s paper on the EMH. We emphasize that the use of the log increment as a variable in data analysis generates spurious fat tails and spurious Hurst exponents.

  8. Making context explicit for explanation and incremental knowledge acquisition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brezillon, P. [Univ. Paris (France)

    1996-12-31

    Intelligent systems may be improved by making context explicit in problem solving. This is a lesson drawn from a study of the reasons why a number of knowledge-based systems (KBSs) failed. We discuss the interest to make context explicit in explanation generation and incremental knowledge acquisition, two important aspects of intelligent systems that aim to cooperate with users. We show how context can be used to better explain and incrementally acquire knowledge. The advantages of using context in explanation and incremental knowledge acquisition are discussed through SEPIT, an expert system for supporting diagnosis and explanation through simulation of power plants. We point out how the limitations of such systems may be overcome by making context explicit.

  9. Transient global amnesia: a complication of incremental exercise testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, R S; Leek, B T; Wagner, P D; Kritchevsky, M

    1998-10-01

    Incremental exercise testing is routinely used for diagnosis, rehabilitation, health screening, and research. We report the case of a 71-yr-old patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who suffered an episode of transient global amnesia (TGA) several minutes after successfully completing an incremental exercise test on a cycle ergometer. TGA, which is known to be precipitated by physical or emotional stress in about one-third of cases, is a transient neurological disorder in which memory impairment is the prominent deficit. TGA has a benign course and requires no treatment although 24-h observation is recommended. Recognition of TGA as a potential complication of incremental graded exercise testing is important to both aid diagnosis of the amnesia and to spare a patient unnecessary evaluation.

  10. Single-point incremental forming and formability-failure diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, M.B.; Skjødt, Martin; Atkins, A.G.

    2008-01-01

    In a recent work [1], the authors constructed a closed-form analytical model that is capable of dealing with the fundamentals of single point incremental forming and explaining the experimental and numerical results published in the literature over the past couple of years. The model is based...... of deformation that are commonly found in general single point incremental forming processes; and (ii) to investigate the formability limits of SPIF in terms of ductile damage mechanics and the question of whether necking does, or does not, precede fracture. Experimentation by the authors together with data...... retrieved from the literature confirms that the proposed theoretical framework is capable of successfully addressing the influence of the major parameters of the single point incremental forming process. It is demonstrated that neck formation is suppressed in SPIF, so that traditional forming limit diagrams...

  11. Criterion and incremental validity of the emotion regulation questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidis, Christos A; Siegling, A B

    2015-01-01

    Although research on emotion regulation (ER) is developing, little attention has been paid to the predictive power of ER strategies beyond established constructs. The present study examined the incremental validity of the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ; Gross and John, 2003), which measures cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression, over and above the Big Five personality factors. It also extended the evidence for the measure's criterion validity to yet unexamined criteria. A university student sample (N = 203) completed the ERQ, a measure of the Big Five, and relevant cognitive and emotion-laden criteria. Cognitive reappraisal predicted positive affect beyond personality, as well as experiential flexibility and constructive self-assertion beyond personality and affect. Expressive suppression explained incremental variance in negative affect beyond personality and in experiential flexibility beyond personality and general affect. No incremental effects were found for worry, social anxiety, rumination, reflection, and preventing negative emotions. Implications for the construct validity and utility of the ERQ are discussed.

  12. INCREMENTAL MICRO-MECHANICAL MODEL OF PLAIN WOVEN FABRIC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangYitong; HaoYongjiang; LiCuiyu

    2004-01-01

    Warp yarns and weft yarns of plain woven fabric are the principal axes of material of fabric. They are orthogonal in their original configuration, but are obliquely crisscross in deformed configuration in general. In this paper the expressions of incremental components of strain tensor are derived, the non-linear model of woven fabric is linearized physically and its geometric non-linearity survives. The convenience of determining the total deformation is shown by the choice of the coordinate system of the principal axes of the material, with the convergence of the incremental methods illustrated by examples. This incremental model furnishes a basis for numerical simulations of fabric draping and wrinkling based oll the micro-mechanical model of fabric.

  13. Increment entropy as a measure of complexity for time series

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xiaofeng; Xu, Ning; Xue, Jianru

    2015-01-01

    Entropy has been a common index to quantify the complexity of time series in a variety of fields. Here, we introduce increment entropy to measure the complexity of time series in which each increment is mapped into a word of two letters, one letter corresponding to direction and the other corresponding to magnitude. The Shannon entropy of the words is termed as increment entropy (IncrEn). Simulations on synthetic data and tests on epileptic EEG signals have demonstrated its ability of detecting the abrupt change, regardless of energetic (e.g. spikes or bursts) or structural changes. The computation of IncrEn does not make any assumption on time series and it can be applicable to arbitrary real-world data.

  14. Increment Entropy as a Measure of Complexity for Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Entropy has been a common index to quantify the complexity of time series in a variety of fields. Here, we introduce an increment entropy to measure the complexity of time series in which each increment is mapped onto a word of two letters, one corresponding to the sign and the other corresponding to the magnitude. Increment entropy (IncrEn is defined as the Shannon entropy of the words. Simulations on synthetic data and tests on epileptic electroencephalogram (EEG signals demonstrate its ability of detecting abrupt changes, regardless of the energetic (e.g., spikes or bursts or structural changes. The computation of IncrEn does not make any assumption on time series, and it can be applicable to arbitrary real-world data.

  15. Expression of a phosphorylated substrate domain of p130Cas promotes PyMT-induced c-Src-dependent murine breast cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yingshe; Kumbrink, Joerg; Lin, Bor-Tyh; Bouton, Amy H; Yang, Shi; Toselli, Paul A; Kirsch, Kathrin H

    2013-12-01

    Elevated expression of p130Cas (Crk-associated substrate)/BCAR1 (breast cancer antiestrogen resistance 1) in human breast tumors is a marker of poor prognosis and poor overall survival. p130Cas is a downstream target of the tyrosine kinase c-Src. Signaling mediated by p130Cas through its phosphorylated substrate domain (SD) and interaction with effector molecules directly promotes tumor progression. We previously developed a constitutively phosphorylated p130Cas SD molecule, Src*/SD (formerly referred to as Src*/CasSD), which acts as decoy molecule and attenuates the transformed phenotype in v-crk-transformed murine fibroblasts and human breast cancer cells. To test the function of this molecule in vivo, we established mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-long terminal repeat-Src*/SD transgenic mice in which mammary gland development and tumor formation were analyzed. Transgenic expression of the Src*/SD molecule under the MMTV-long terminal repeat promoter did not interfere with normal mammary gland development or induce tumors in mice observed for up to 11 months. To evaluate the effects of the Src*/SD molecule on tumor development in vivo, we utilized the MMTV-polyoma middle T-antigen (PyMT) murine breast cancer model that depends on c-Src. PyMT mice crossed with Src*/SD mice displayed accelerated tumor formation. The earlier onset of tumors can be explained by the interaction of the Src* domain with PyMT and targeting the fused phosphorylated SD to the membrane. At membrane compartments, it might integrate membrane-associated active signaling complexes leading to increased proliferation measured by phospho-Histone H3 staining. Although these results were unexpected, they emphasize the importance of preventing the membrane association of Src*/SD when employed as decoy molecule.

  16. Incremental Hemodialysis: The University of California Irvine Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahremani-Ghajar, Mehrdad; Rojas-Bautista, Vanessa; Lau, Wei-Ling; Pahl, Madeleine; Hernandez, Miguel; Jin, Anna; Reddy, Uttam; Chou, Jason; Obi, Yoshitsugu; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Rhee, Connie M

    2017-05-01

    Incremental hemodialysis has been examined as a viable hemodialysis regimen for selected end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. Preservation of residual kidney function (RKF) has been the driving impetus for this approach given its benefits upon the survival and quality of life of dialysis patients. While clinical practice guidelines recommend an incremental start of dialysis in peritoneal dialysis patients with substantial RKF, there remains little guidance with respect to incremental hemodialysis as an initial renal replacement therapy regimen. Indeed, several large population-based studies suggest that incremental twice-weekly vs. conventional thrice-weekly hemodialysis has favorable impact upon RKF trajectory and survival among patients with adequate renal urea clearance and/or urine output. In this report, we describe a case series of 13 ambulatory incident ESRD patients enrolled in a university-based center's Incremental Hemodialysis Program over the period of January 2015 to August 2016 and followed through December 2016. Among five patients who maintained a twice-weekly hemodialysis schedule vs. eight patients who transitioned to thrice-weekly hemodialysis, we describe and compare patients' longitudinal case-mix, laboratory, and dialysis treatment characteristics over time. The University of California Irvine Experience is the first systemically examined twice-weekly hemodialysis practice in North America. While future studies are needed to refine the optimal approaches and the ideal patient population for implementation of incremental hemodialysis, our case-series serves as a first report of this innovative management strategy among incident ESRD patients with substantial RKF, and a template for implementation of this regimen. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Incremental Hospital Costs Associated With Comorbidities of Prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Libby; Hulsey, Thomas; Lee, Kwan; Parks, Daniel C; Ebeling, Myla D

    2015-12-01

    Preterm birth (PTB), defined as birth at a gestational age (GA) of less than 37 weeks, is associated with increased hospital costs. Lower GA at birth is negatively correlated with the presence of neonatal comorbidities, further increasing costs. This study evaluated incremental costs associated with comorbidities of PTB following spontaneous labor at 24-36 weeks. Birth records from January 2001 to December 2010 at the Medical University of South Carolina were screened to identify infants born at GA 23-37 weeks after uncomplicated singleton pregnancies and surviving to discharge. Comorbidities of interest and incremental costs were analyzed with a partial least squares (PLS) regression model adjusted for comorbidities and GA. Incremental comorbidity-associated costs, as well as total costs, were estimated for infants of GA 24-36 weeks. A total of 4,292 delivery visit records were analyzed. Use of the PLS regression model eliminated issues of multicollinearity and allowed derivation of stable cost estimates. Incremental costs of comorbidities at a mean GA of 34 weeks ranged from $4,529 to $23,121, and exceeded $9,000 in 6 cases. Incremental costs rangedfrom a high of $41,161 for a GA 24-week infant with a comorbidity of retinopathy of prematurity requiring surgery (ROP4) to $3,683 for a GA 36-week infant with a comorbidity of convulsions. Incremental comorbidity costs are additive, so the costs for infants with multiple comorbidities could easily exceed the high of $41,161 seen with ROP4. The PLS regression model allowed derivation of stable cost estimates from multivariate and highly collinear data and can be used in future cost analyses. Using this data set, predicted costs of all comorbidities, as well as total costs, negatively correlated with GA at birth.

  18. The Dark Side of Malleability: Incremental Theory Promotes Immoral Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Niwen; Zuo, Shijiang; Wang, Fang; Cai, Pan; Wang, Fengxiang

    2017-01-01

    Implicit theories drastically affect an individual's processing of social information, decision making, and action. The present research focuses on whether individuals who hold the implicit belief that people's moral character is fixed (entity theorists) and individuals who hold the implicit belief that people's moral character is malleable (incremental theorists) make different choices when facing a moral decision. Incremental theorists are less likely to make the fundamental attribution error (FAE), rarely make moral judgment based on traits and show more tolerance to immorality, relative to entity theorists, which might decrease the possibility of undermining the self-image when they engage in immoral behaviors, and thus we posit that incremental beliefs facilitate immorality. Four studies were conducted to explore the effect of these two types of implicit theories on immoral intention or practice. The association between implicit theories and immoral behavior was preliminarily examined from the observer perspective in Study 1, and the results showed that people tended to associate immoral behaviors (including everyday immoral intention and environmental destruction) with an incremental theorist rather than an entity theorist. Then, the relationship was further replicated from the actor perspective in Studies 2-4. In Study 2, implicit theories, which were measured, positively predicted the degree of discrimination against carriers of the hepatitis B virus. In Study 3, implicit theories were primed through reading articles, and the participants in the incremental condition showed more cheating than those in the entity condition. In Study 4, implicit theories were primed through a new manipulation, and the participants in the unstable condition (primed incremental theory) showed more discrimination than those in the other three conditions. Taken together, the results of our four studies were consistent with our hypotheses.

  19. Lubrication study for Single Point Incremental Forming of Copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawale, Kishore; Ferreira Duarte, José; Reis, Ana; Silva, M. B.

    2016-08-01

    In conventional machining and sheet metal forming processes, in general, lubrication assists to increase the quality of the final product. Similarly it is observed that there is a positive effect of the use of lubrication in Single point incremental forming, namely in the surface roughness. This study is focused on the investigation of the most appropriate lubricant for incremental forming of copper sheet. The study involves the selection of the best lubricant from a range of several lubricants that provides the best surface finishing. The influence of the lubrication on other parameters such as the maximum forming angle, the fracture strains and the deformed profile are also studied for Copper.

  20. A Parsimonious and Universal Description of Turbulent Velocity Increments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, O.E.; Blæsild, P.; Schmiegel, J.

    This paper proposes a reformulation and extension of the concept of Extended Self-Similarity. In support of this new hypothesis, we discuss an analysis of the probability density function (pdf) of turbulent velocity increments based on the class of normal inverse Gaussian distributions. It allows...... for a parsimonious description of velocity increments that covers the whole range of amplitudes and all accessible scales from the finest resolution up to the integral scale. The analysis is performed for three different data sets obtained from a wind tunnel experiment, a free-jet experiment and an atmospheric...

  1. Unsupervised incremental online learning and prediction of musical audio signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marxer, Richard; Purwins, Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    Guided by the idea that musical human-computer interaction may become more effective, intuitive, and creative when basing its computer part on cognitively more plausible learning principles, we employ unsupervised incremental online learning (i.e. clustering) to build a system that predicts...... the next event in a musical sequence, given as audio input. The flow of the system is as follows: 1) segmentation by onset detection, 2) timbre representation of each segment by Mel frequency cepstrum coefficients, 3) discretization by incremental clustering, yielding a tree of different sound classes (e...

  2. The Relevance of an Incremental Approach to Ideational Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Martin Bæk

    2012-01-01

    This rejoinder takes issue with two criticisms of my Political Studies article on incremental ideational change presented in a recent reply by Liam Stanley. It argues that by presenting my critique of historical and discursive institutionalism as focused on the lack of ‘realism’ in their standard...... of the financial crisis, I try to show the relevance of an ontology conducive to theories that capture and explain incremental ideational change. I also defend an eclectic approach to theory building that is focused less on policing the boundaries of different approaches and more on building consistent theoretical...

  3. An Incremental Rule Acquisition Algorithm Based on Rough Set

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Hong; YANG Da-chun

    2005-01-01

    Rough Set is a valid mathematical theory developed in recent years,which has the ability to deal with imprecise,uncertain,and vague information.This paper presents a new incremental rule acquisition algorithm based on rough set theory.First,the relation of the new instances with the original rule set is discussed.Then the change law of attribute reduction and value reduction are studied when a new instance is added.Follow,a new incremental learning algorithm for decision tables is presented within the framework of rough set.Finally,the new algorithm and the classical algorithm are analyzed and compared by theory and experiments.

  4. 48 CFR 52.237-6 - Incremental Payment by Contractor to Government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incremental Payment by... Provisions and Clauses 52.237-6 Incremental Payment by Contractor to Government. As prescribed in 37.304(c... to the contractor for increments of property, only upon receipt of those payments: Incremental...

  5. The role of HCG increment in the 48h prior to methotrexate treatment as a predictor for treatment success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Aviad; Almog, Benny; Cohen, Yoni; Bibi, Guy; Rimon, Eli; Levin, Ishai

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the role HCG change in the 48h prior to methotrexate treatment as a predictor for treatment success. Medical records of all women who were diagnosed with ectopic pregnancy between January 2001 and June 2013 were reviewed. Four hundred and nine patients received methotrexate due to ectopic pregnancy. The "single dose" methotrexate protocol with 50mg/m(2) was administered to patients with progressing ectopic pregnancy. HCG levels in days 1, 4 and 7 were used to evaluate methotrexate treatment success. The percentage of HCG change in the 48h prior to methotrexate treatment was compared between patients who were successfully treated and those who failed treatment with methotrexate. Single dose methotrexate was successful in 309 patients (75.4%, success group). The medians of HCG change in the 48h prior to methotrexate administration were significantly higher in the "failure group" (21% vs. 4%, pHCG percent increment prior to methotrexate administration was shown to be an independent predictor for treatment outcome. Receiver operator characteristic curve for HCG percent change was 0.751, at a cutoff value of HCG increment HCG increment in the 48h prior to methotrexate administration is an independent predictor for methotrexate treatment success. HCG increment <12% prior to methotrexate treatment is a good predictor for treatment success. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Predicting Robust Vocabulary Growth from Measures of Incremental Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frishkoff, Gwen A.; Perfetti, Charles A.; Collins-Thompson, Kevyn

    2011-01-01

    We report a study of incremental learning of new word meanings over multiple episodes. A new method called MESA (Markov Estimation of Semantic Association) tracked this learning through the automated assessment of learner-generated definitions. The multiple word learning episodes varied in the strength of contextual constraint provided by…

  7. Failure mechanisms in single-point incremental forming of metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Maria B.; Nielsen, Peter Søe; Bay, Niels

    2011-01-01

    The last years saw the development of two different views on how failure develops in single-point incremental forming (SPIF). Today, researchers are split between those claiming that fracture is always preceded by necking and those considering that fracture occurs with suppression of necking. Each...

  8. Generation of Referring Expressions: Assessing the Incremental Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Deemter, Kees; Gatt, Albert; van der Sluis, Ielka; Power, Richard

    2012-01-01

    A substantial amount of recent work in natural language generation has focused on the generation of "one-shot" referring expressions whose only aim is to identify a target referent. Dale and Reiter's Incremental Algorithm (IA) is often thought to be the best algorithm for maximizing the similarity to referring expressions produced by people. We…

  9. Increment Cores How to Collect, Handle, and Use Them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    and the first is off center, a pith locator has been designed by Applequist (1958) for estimating the number C--V of rings to pith. 3. Grano (1963) has...Sci. Tech. 7(1):34-44. Goodchild, R. 1963. An instrument for sharpening Swedish-type increment bores. Comm. For. Rev. 42(1):16-18. Grano , C. X. 1963

  10. 76 FR 73475 - Immigration Benefits Business Transformation, Increment I; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ..., 207, 208, 211, 212, 213a, 244; 245, 324; 335 RIN 1615-AB83 Immigration Benefits Business Transformation, Increment I; Correction AGENCY: U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services, DHS. ACTION: Final... to enable U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) to transform its business processes....

  11. 78 FR 22770 - Immigration Benefits Business Transformation, Increment I; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    ... SECURITY 8 CFR Parts 103 and 208 RIN 1615-AB83 Immigration Benefits Business Transformation, Increment I; Correction AGENCY: U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services, Department of Homeland Security. ACTION... final rule to amend DHS regulations to enable U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS)...

  12. Average-case analysis of incremental topological ordering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ajwani, Deepak; Friedrich, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    Many applications like pointer analysis and incremental compilation require maintaining a topological ordering of the nodes of a directed acyclic graph (DAG) under dynamic updates. All known algorithms for this problem are either only analyzed for worst-case insertion sequences or only evaluated ...

  13. Incremental principal component pursuit for video background modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriquez-Valderrama, Paul A.; Wohlberg, Brendt

    2017-03-14

    An incremental Principal Component Pursuit (PCP) algorithm for video background modeling that is able to process one frame at a time while adapting to changes in background, with a computational complexity that allows for real-time processing, having a low memory footprint and is robust to translational and rotational jitter.

  14. Respiratory ammonia output and blood ammonia concentration during incremental exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ament, W; Huizenga, [No Value; Kort, E; van der Mark, TW; Grevink, RG; Verkerke, GJ

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the increase of ammonia concentration and lactate concentration in blood was accompanied by an increased expiration of ammonia during graded exercise. Eleven healthy subjects performed an incremental cycle ergometer test. Blood ammonia, blood lactate

  15. Incremental Mining of the Schema of Semistructured Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Aoying; JIN Wen; ZHOU Shuigeng; QIAN Weining; TIAN Zenping

    2000-01-01

    Semistructured data are specified in lack of any fixed and rigid schema, even though typically some implicit structure appears in the data. The huge amounts of on-line applications make it important and imperative to mine the schema of semistructured data, both for the users (e.g., to gather useful information and facilitate querying) and for the systems (e.g., to optimize access). The critical problem is to discover the hidden structure in the semistructured data. Current methods in extracting Web data structure are either in a general way independent of application background, or bound in some concrete environment such as HTML, XML etc. But both face the burden of expensive cost and difficulty in keeping along with the frequent and complicated variances of Web data. In this paper, the problem of incremental mining of schema for semistructured data after the update of the raw data is discussed. An algorithm for incrementally mining the schema of semistructured data is provided, and some experimental results are also given, which show that incremental mining for semistructured data is more efficient than non-incremental mining.

  16. Variations in serum magnesium and hormonal levels during incremental exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, Marisol; González-Haro, Carlos; Ansón, Miguel Angel; Iñigo, Carmen; Calvo, Maria Luisa; Escanero, Jesús Fernando

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examined the relationship between plasma magnesium levels and hormonal variations during an incremental exercise test until exhaustion in 27, well-trained, male endurance athletes. After a warm-up of 10 min at 2 W/kg, the test began at an initial workload of 2.5 W/kg and continued with increments of 0.5 W/kg every 10 min until exhaustion. Plasma magnesium, catecholamine, insulin, glucagon, parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcitonin, aldosterone and cortisol levels were determined at rest, at the end of each stage and three, five and seven minutes post-exercise. With the incremental exercise test, no variations in plasma magnesium levels were found, while plasma adrenaline, noradrenaline, PTH, glucagon and cortisol levels increased significantly. Over the course of the exercise, plasma levels of insulin decreased significantly, but those of calcitonin remained steady. During the recovery period, catecholamines and insulin returned to basal levels. These findings indicate that the magnesium status of euhydrated endurance athletes during incremental exercise testing may be the result of the interrelation between several hormonal variations.

  17. An Approach to Incremental Design of Distributed Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru; Pop, Traian

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we present an approach to incremental design of distributed embedded systems for hard real-time applications. We start from an already existing system running a set of applications and the design problem is to implement new functionality on this system. Thus, we propose mapping...

  18. Assessing the Incremental Algorithm: A Response to Krahmer et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Deemter, Kees; Gatt, Albert; van der Sluis, Ielka; Power, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This response discusses the experiment reported in Krahmer et al.'s Letter to the Editor of "Cognitive Science". We observe that their results do not tell us whether the Incremental Algorithm is better or worse than its competitors, and we speculate about implications for reference in complex domains, and for learning from "normal" (i.e.,…

  19. The Incremental Validity of Positive Emotions in Predicting School Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ashley D.; Huebner, E. Scott; Reschly, Amy L.; Valois, Robert F.

    2009-01-01

    Proponents of positive psychology have argued for more comprehensive assessments incorporating positive measures (e.g., student strengths) as well as negative measures (e.g., psychological symptoms). However, few variable-centered studies have addressed the incremental validity of positive assessment data. The authors investigated the incremental…

  20. Minimizing System Modification in an Incremental Design Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru; Pop, Traian

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we present an approach to mapping and scheduling of distributed embedded systems for hard real-time applications, aiming at minimizing the system modification cost. We consider an incremental design process that starts from an already existing sys-tem running a set of applications. We...

  1. Effectiveness of Incremental Rehearsal When Implemented by a Paraprofessional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen-Brown, Shawna; Panahon, Carlos J.; Schreiber, Cassandra M.

    2017-01-01

    A growing body of research has established incremental rehearsal (IR) as an effective intervention for teaching basic skills in various student populations. However, there have been no published studies to date in which interventionists have been school-based personnel rather than researchers. In this study, a paraprofessional implemented IR with…

  2. Against the Odds: Academic Underdogs Benefit from Incremental Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jody L.; Burnette, Jeni L.; Allison, Scott T.; Stone, Heather

    2011-01-01

    An implicit theory of ability approach to motivation argues that students who believe traits to be malleable (incremental theorists), relative to those who believe traits to be fixed (entity theorists), cope more effectively when academic challenges arise. In the current work, we integrated the implicit theory literature with research on top dog…

  3. Factors for Radical Creativity, Incremental Creativity, and Routine, Noncreative Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madjar, Nora; Greenberg, Ellen; Chen, Zheng

    2011-01-01

    This study extends theory and research by differentiating between routine, noncreative performance and 2 distinct types of creativity: radical and incremental. We also use a sensemaking perspective to examine the interplay of social and personal factors that may influence a person's engagement in a certain level of creative action versus routine,…

  4. Peaks beyond Phonology: Adolescence, Incrementation, and Language Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliamonte, Sali A.; D'Arcy, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    What is the mechanism by which a linguistic change advances across successive generations of speakers? We explore this question by using the model of incrementation provided in Labov 2001 and analyzing six current changes in English. Extending Labov's focus on recent and vigorous phonological changes, we target ongoing morphosyntactic(-semantic)…

  5. Incremental concept learning with few training examples and hierarchical classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, H.; Eendebak, P.T.; Schutte, K.; Azzopardi, G.; Burghouts, G.J.

    2015-01-01

    Object recognition and localization are important to automatically interpret video and allow better querying on its content. We propose a method for object localization that learns incrementally and addresses four key aspects. Firstly, we show that for certain applications, recognition is feasible

  6. Bipower variation for Gaussian processes with stationary increments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Corcuera, José Manuel; Podolskij, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Convergence in probability and central limit laws of bipower variation for Gaussian processes with stationary increments and for integrals with respect to such processes are derived. The main tools of the proofs are some recent powerful techniques of Wiener/Itô/Malliavin calculus for establishing...

  7. Incremental Closed-loop Identification of Linear Parameter Varying Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Trangbæk, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with system identification for control of linear parameter varying systems. In practical applications, it is often important to be able to identify small plant changes in an incremental manner without shutting down the system and/or disconnecting the controller; unfortunately, cl...

  8. Revisiting the fundamentals of single point incremental forming by

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Beatriz; Skjødt, Martin; Martins, Paulo A.F.

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of the physics behind the fracture of material at the transition between the inclined wall and the corner radius of the sheet is of great importance for understanding the fundamentals of single point incremental forming (SPIF). How the material fractures, what is the state of strain...

  9. Domestic Plant Productivity and Incremental Spillovers from Foreign Direct Investment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Altomonte (Carlo); H.P.G. Pennings (Enrico)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWe develop a simple test to assess whether horizontal spillover effects from multinational to domestic firms are endogenous to the market structure generated by the incremental entry of the same multinationals. In particular, we analyze the performance of a panel of 10,650 firms operatin

  10. Incremental concept learning with few training examples and hierarchical classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, H.; Eendebak, P.T.; Schutte, K.; Azzopardi, G.; Burghouts, G.J.

    2015-01-01

    Object recognition and localization are important to automatically interpret video and allow better querying on its content. We propose a method for object localization that learns incrementally and addresses four key aspects. Firstly, we show that for certain applications, recognition is feasible w

  11. Incremental validity of a measure of emotional intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Benjamin P; Hayslip, Bert

    2005-10-01

    After the Schutte Self-Report Inventory of Emotional Intelligence (SSRI; Schutte et al., 1998) was found to predict college grade point average, subsequent emotional intelligence (EI)-college adjustment research has used inconsistent measures and widely varying criteria, resulting in confusion about the construct's predictive validity. In this study, we assessed the SSRI's incremental validity for a wide range of adjustment criteria, pitting it against a competing trait measure, the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI; Costa & McCrae, 1992), and tests of fluid and crystallized intelligence. At a broad bandwidth, the SSRI total score significantly and uniquely predicted variance beyond NEO-FFI domain scores in the UCLA Loneliness Scale, Revised (Russell, Peplau, & Cutrono, 1980) scores. Higher fidelity analyses using previously identified SSRI factors and NEO-FFI item clusters revealed that the SSRI's Optimism/Mood Regulation and Emotion Appraisal factors contributed unique variance to self-reported study habits and social stress, respectively. The potential moderation of incremental validity by gender did not reach significance due to loss of power from splitting the sample, and mediational analyses revealed the SSRI Optimism/Mood Regulation factor was both directly and indirectly related to various criteria. We discuss the small magnitude of incremental validity coefficients and the differential incremental validity of SSRI factor and total scores.

  12. Minimizing System Modification in an Incremental Design Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru; Pop, Traian;

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we present an approach to mapping and scheduling of distributed embedded systems for hard real-time applications, aiming at minimizing the system modification cost. We consider an incremental design process that starts from an already existing sys-tem running a set of applications. ...

  13. Retroactive Operations: On "Increments" in Mandarin Chinese Conversations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Ni Eng

    2014-01-01

    Conversation Analysis (CA) has established repair (Schegloff, Jefferson & Sacks 1977; Schegloff 1979; Kitzinger 2013) as a conversational mechanism for managing contingencies of talk-in-interaction. In this dissertation, I look at a particular sort of "repair" termed TCU-continuations (or otherwise known increments in other…

  14. Efficient Incremental Maintenance of Frequent Patterns with FP-Tree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu-Li Ma; Yun-Hai Tong; Shi-Wei Tang; Dong-Qing Yang

    2004-01-01

    Mining frequent patterns has been studied popularly in data mining area. However, little work has been done on mining patterns when the database has an influx of fresh data constantly. In these dynamic scenarios, efficient maintenance of the discovered patterns is crucial. Most existing methods need to scan the entire database repeatedly, which is an obvious disadvantage. In this paper, an efficient incremental mining algorithm, Incremental-Mining (IM), is proposed for maintenance of the frequent patterns when new incremental data come. Based on the frequent pattern tree (FP-tree) structure, IM gives a way to make the most of the things from the previous mining process, and requires scanning the original data once at most. Furthermore, IM can identify directly the differential set of frequent patterns, which may be more informative to users. Moreover, IM can deal with changing thresholds as well as changing data, thus provide a full maintenance scheme. IM has been implemented and the performance study shows it outperforms three other incremental algorithms: FUP, DB-tree and re-running frequent pattern growth (FP-growth).

  15. Object class hierarchy for an incremental hypertext editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Colesnicov

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available The object class hierarchy design is considered due to a hypertext editor implementation. The following basic classes were selected: the editor's coordinate system, the memory manager, the text buffer executing basic editing operations, the inherited hypertext buffer, the edit window, the multi-window shell. Special hypertext editing features, the incremental hypertext creation support and further generalizations are discussed.

  16. STAGE-DEPENDENCE, SEASONAL CHANGES AND EFFECTS OF CADMIUM ON CELL CYCLE AND APOPTOTIC ACTIVITIES DURING THE SPERMATOGENIC PROGRESSION IN THE DOGFISH SHARK (SQUALUS ACANTHIAS). (R825434)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  17. Longitudinal and Transverse Incremental Permeability in Mu-metal Thin Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The transverse permeability ratio (TPR) and longitudinal permeability ratio (LPR) as a function of an external field of mumetal films have been investigated in conjunction with the magnetic properties, The mumetal films were prepared by the R.F.magnetron sputtering method in Ar atmosphere. The LPR curve shows the single peak pattern, and the TPR curve shows the double peak pattern indicating the existence of the magnetic anisotropy effect. The magnitude of the incremental permeability are strongly depended on the magnetic softness. The large changes of LPR and TPR in Iow external fields can be useful for the evaluation of the magnetic softness.

  18. CYP2E1-dependent and leptin-mediated hepatic CD57 expression on CD8 + T cells aid progression of environment-linked nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seth, Ratanesh Kumar; Das, Suvarthi [Environmental Health and Disease Laboratory, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Kumar, Ashutosh [Free Radical Metabolism Group, Laboratory of Toxicology and Pharmacology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Chanda, Anindya [Environmental Health and Disease Laboratory, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Kadiiska, Maria B. [Free Radical Metabolism Group, Laboratory of Toxicology and Pharmacology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Michelotti, Gregory [Division of Gastroenterology, Duke University, Durham, NC 27707 (United States); Manautou, Jose [Dept. of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269-3092 (United States); Diehl, Anna Mae [Division of Gastroenterology, Duke University, Durham, NC 27707 (United States); Chatterjee, Saurabh, E-mail: schatt@mailbox.sc.edu [Environmental Health and Disease Laboratory, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Environmental toxins induce a novel CYP2E1/leptin signaling axis in liver. This in turn activates a poorly characterized innate immune response that contributes to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) progression. To identify the relevant subsets of T-lymphocytes in CYP2E1-dependent, environment-linked NASH, we utilized a model of diet induced obese (DIO) mice that are chronically exposed to bromodichloromethane. Mice deficient in CYP2E1, leptin (ob/ob mice), or both T and B cells (Pfp/Rag2 double knockout (KO) mice) were used to delineate the role of each of these factors in metabolic oxidative stress-induced T cell activation. Results revealed that elevated levels of lipid peroxidation, tyrosyl radical formation, mitochondrial tyrosine nitration and hepatic leptin as a consequence of metabolic oxidative stress caused increased levels of hepatic CD57, a marker of peripheral blood lymphocytes including NKT cells. CD8 + CD57 + cytotoxic T cells but not CD4 + CD57 + cells were significantly decreased in mice lacking CYP2E1 and leptin. There was a significant increase in the levels of T cell cytokines IL-2, IL-1β, and IFN-γ in bromodichloromethane exposed DIO mice but not in mice that lacked CYP2E1, leptin or T and B cells. Apoptosis as evidenced by TUNEL assay and levels of cleaved caspase-3 was significantly lower in leptin and Pfp/Rag2 KO mice and highly correlated with protection from NASH. The results described above suggest that higher levels of oxidative stress-induced leptin mediated CD8 + CD57 + T cells play an important role in the development of NASH. It also provides a novel insight of immune dysregulation and may be a key biomarker in NASH. - Highlights: • Metabolic oxidative stress caused increased levels of hepatic CD57 expression. • CD8+ CD57+ cytotoxic T cells were decreased in mice lacking CYP2E1 and leptin. • There was a significant increase in T cell cytokines in toxin-treated mice. • Apoptosis was significantly lower in leptin and Pfp

  19. A Lightweight Data Preprocessing Strategy with Fast Contradiction Analysis for Incremental Classifier Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Fong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A prime objective in constructing data streaming mining models is to achieve good accuracy, fast learning, and robustness to noise. Although many techniques have been proposed in the past, efforts to improve the accuracy of classification models have been somewhat disparate. These techniques include, but are not limited to, feature selection, dimensionality reduction, and the removal of noise from training data. One limitation common to all of these techniques is the assumption that the full training dataset must be applied. Although this has been effective for traditional batch training, it may not be practical for incremental classifier learning, also known as data stream mining, where only a single pass of the data stream is seen at a time. Because data streams can amount to infinity and the so-called big data phenomenon, the data preprocessing time must be kept to a minimum. This paper introduces a new data preprocessing strategy suitable for the progressive purging of noisy data from the training dataset without the need to process the whole dataset at one time. This strategy is shown via a computer simulation to provide the significant benefit of allowing for the dynamic removal of bad records from the incremental classifier learning process.

  20. Dose-dependent striatal changes in dopaminergic terminals and alpha-synuclein reactivity in a porcine model of progressive Parkinson’s disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Slot; Glud, Andreas Nørgaard; Møller, Arne

    2011-01-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder, resulting from a progressive dopaminergic neuron loss in the substantia nigra (SN). Alpha-synuclein positive neuronal inclusion bodies and progressive loss of dopaminergic striatal terminals is also well described in PD. Attempts......) or acute MPTP intoxication for 11 days (24 mg MPTP/day, n=2) and 9 weeks of recovery. Four pigs served as normal controls. Animals were euthanized with intracardial pentobarbital injections, transcardially perfused with 5 L 4% paraformaldehyde and the brains removed. The striatae and brain stems including...... the SN were paraffin embedded and immunohistochemically stained for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and alpha-synuclein. Stereological examination of the SN showed progressive nigral neuron loss with increased MPTP dosages. Occasional neuronal staining confined to the cytoplasm and cell membrane was observed...

  1. Dose-dependent striatal changes in dopaminergic terminals and alpha-synuclein reactivity in a porcine model of progressive Parkinson’s disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Slot; Glud, Andreas Nørgaard; Møller, Arne

    2011-01-01

    to discover effective compounds halting PD progression have so far failed in clinical trials, perhaps because current animal models do not imitate the neuropathological progression of PD well enough. We recently established a progressive large animal PD model in Göttingen minipigs based on chronic infusion...... and increased intensity in the neuronal staining. We conclude that chronic infusion of MPTP in this large animal PD model shows neuropathological changes resembling those seen in the clinical state of PD. Animals receiving 18 mg MPTP/day for 11 weeks thus showed a decrease in nigral TH-positive neuron number...... and striatal terminals, intense striatal alpha-synuclein staining and pathology in the locus coeruleus. Use of this model thus holds promise for future neuroprotective studies in PD....

  2. A Decade Revisited and a Step toward the Future: Incremental but Quintessential Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, D.-S.; Kim, M. H.; Park, D.

    2014-01-01

    This study scrutinizes "Asia Pacific Education Review" ("APER") that has been weathered 13 years of journey from its inception. Numerically, 504 peer-reviewed articles have been published so far, and 0.5 of impact factor has been achieved. This article recollects the history of "APER," overhaul the accomplishment and…

  3. Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) for Building 332, Increment III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odell, B. N.; Toy, Jr., A. J.

    1977-08-31

    This Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) supplements the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR), dated January 18, 1974, for Building 332, Increment III of the Plutonium Materials Engineering Facility located at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL). The FSAR, in conjunction with the PSAR, shows that the completed increment provides facilities for safely conducting the operations as described. These documents satisfy the requirements of ERDA Manual Appendix 6101, Annex C, dated April 8, 1971. The format and content of this FSAR complies with the basic requirements of the letter of request from ERDA San to LLL, dated March 10, 1972. Included as appendices in support of th FSAR are the Building 332 Operational Safety Procedure and the LLL Disaster Control Plan.

  4. Ground Fault Line Selection with Improved Residual Flow Incremental Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhong Li

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available According to the shortcoming of single-phase ground fault line selection method in the resonant grounded system such as the uncertainty of its device by fast compensation with the automatic compensation equipment, an arc suppression and residual flow incremental method is proposed to effectively choose the earth fault line. Firstly, when the single-phase ground fault occurs, the arc suppression coil parameters are adjusted to realize compensation and arc suppression. Then the arc suppression coil inductance values are modulated to make the zero-sequence current of fault line changed, at the same time, the zero-sequence current value is detected and its change will be captured to select the fault line. The simulation experiments prove that the arc grounding over voltage damage can be effectively reduced by arc suppression coil full compensation and fault line can be effectively selected by arc suppression and residual flow increment method.

  5. Electrical-assisted double side incremental forming and processes thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, John; Cao, Jian

    2014-06-03

    A process for forming a sheet metal component using an electric current passing through the component is provided. The process can include providing a double side incremental forming machine, the machine operable to perform a plurality of double side incremental deformations on the sheet metal component and also apply an electric direct current to the sheet metal component during at least part of the forming. The direct current can be applied before or after the forming has started and/or be terminated before or after the forming has stopped. The direct current can be applied to any portion of the sheet metal. The electrical assistance can reduce the magnitude of force required to produce a given amount of deformation, increase the amount of deformation exhibited before failure and/or reduce any springback typically exhibited by the sheet metal component.

  6. A new incremental updating algorithm for association rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zuo-cheng; XUE Li-xia

    2007-01-01

    Incremental data mining is an attractive goal for many kinds of mining in large databases or data warehouses. A new incremental updating algorithm rule growing algorithm (RGA) is presented for efficient maintenance discovered association rules when new transaction data is added to a transaction database. The algorithm RGA makes use of previous association rules as seed rules. By RGA, the seed rules whether are strong or not can be confirmed without scanning all the transaction DB in most cases. If the distributing of item of transaction DB is not uniform, the inflexion of robustness curve comes very quickly, and RGA gets great efficiency, saving lots of time for I/O. Experiments validate the algorithm and the test results showed that this algorithm is efficient.

  7. A Comparative Study of Failure with Incremental Forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S. H.; Song, N. N.; Pires, F. M. Andrade

    2016-08-01

    Incremental forming (ISF) is an innovative flexible sheet metal forming process which can be used to manufacture complex shapes from various materials. Due to its flexibility, it has attracted more and more attention over recent decades. Localized deformation and shear through the thickness are essential characteristics of ISF. These lead to specific failure modes and formability of ISF that are different from the conventional stamping process. In this contribution, three continuum damage models (Lemaitre, Gurson, extended GTN models) are formulated and fully coupled with the finite element simulation in a commercial software ABAQUS to predict failure in incremental forming. A comparative investigation of these three damage models has been carried out to analyze both the deformation behavior and failure mechanisms.

  8. Automobile sheet metal part production with incremental sheet forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail DURGUN

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, effect of global warming is increasing drastically so it leads to increased interest on energy efficiency and sustainable production methods. As a result of adverse conditions, national and international project platforms, OEMs (Original Equipment Manufacturers, SMEs (Small and Mid-size Manufacturers perform many studies or improve existing methodologies in scope of advanced manufacturing techniques. In this study, advanced manufacturing and sustainable production method "Incremental Sheet Metal Forming (ISF" was used for sheet metal forming process. A vehicle fender was manufactured with or without die by using different toolpath strategies and die sets. At the end of the study, Results have been investigated under the influence of method and parameters used.Keywords: Template incremental sheet metal, Metal forming

  9. Incremental learning by message passing in hierarchical temporal memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehn, Erik M; Maltoni, Davide

    2014-08-01

    Hierarchical temporal memory (HTM) is a biologically inspired framework that can be used to learn invariant representations of patterns in a wide range of applications. Classical HTM learning is mainly unsupervised, and once training is completed, the network structure is frozen, thus making further training (i.e., incremental learning) quite critical. In this letter, we develop a novel technique for HTM (incremental) supervised learning based on gradient descent error minimization. We prove that error backpropagation can be naturally and elegantly implemented through native HTM message passing based on belief propagation. Our experimental results demonstrate that a two-stage training approach composed of unsupervised pretraining and supervised refinement is very effective (both accurate and efficient). This is in line with recent findings on other deep architectures.

  10. The Analysis of Forming Forces in Single Point Incremental Forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh Kyung Hee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Incremental forming is a process to produce sheet metal parts in quick. Because there is no need for dedicated dies and molds, this process is less cost and time spent. The purpose of this study is to investigate forming forces in single point incremental forming. Producing a cone frustum of aluminum is tested for forming forces. A dynamometer is used to collect forming forces and analyze them. These forces are compared with cutting forces upon producing same geometrical shapes of experimental parts. The forming forces in Z direction are 40 times larger than the machining forces. A spindle and its axis of a forming machine should be designed enough to withstand the forming forces.

  11. Reynolds number scaling of velocity increments in isotropic turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Kartik P.; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.; Yeung, P. K.

    2017-02-01

    Using the largest database of isotropic turbulence available to date, generated by the direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the Navier-Stokes equations on an 81923 periodic box, we show that the longitudinal and transverse velocity increments scale identically in the inertial range. By examining the DNS data at several Reynolds numbers, we infer that the contradictory results of the past on the inertial-range universality are artifacts of low Reynolds number and residual anisotropy. We further show that both longitudinal and transverse velocity increments scale on locally averaged dissipation rate, just as postulated by Kolmogorov's refined similarity hypothesis, and that, in isotropic turbulence, a single independent scaling adequately describes fluid turbulence in the inertial range.

  12. Mission Planning System Increment 5 (MPS Inc 5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Mission Planning System Increment 5 ( MPS Inc 5) Defense Acquisition Management Information...Retrieval (DAMIR) UNCLASSIFIED MPS Inc 5 2016 MAR UNCLASSIFIED 2 Table of Contents Common Acronyms and Abbreviations for MAIS Programs 3...U.S.C- United States Code USD(AT&L) - Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, & Logistics MPS Inc 5 2016 MAR UNCLASSIFIED 3 Col

  13. Observers for Systems with Nonlinearities Satisfying an Incremental Quadratic Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acikmese, Ahmet Behcet; Corless, Martin

    2004-01-01

    We consider the problem of state estimation for nonlinear time-varying systems whose nonlinearities satisfy an incremental quadratic inequality. These observer results unifies earlier results in the literature; and extend it to some additional classes of nonlinearities. Observers are presented which guarantee that the state estimation error exponentially converges to zero. Observer design involves solving linear matrix inequalities for the observer gain matrices. Results are illustrated by application to a simple model of an underwater.

  14. Research on homogeneous deformation of electromagnetic incremental tube bulging

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Xiaohui; Mo, Jianhua; Li, Jianjun

    2014-01-01

    The electromagnetic incremental forming (EMIF) method is used for tube forming process. Suitable 2D FE models are designed to predict the forming process with a moving coil. In comparison with experimental values, simulation method can obtain accurate results. Then, effect factors named overlapping ration of adjacent discharge positions, discharge voltage, forming sequence and die dimension on tube homogeneous deformation are discussed. The result demonstrates that it is feasib...

  15. AN INCREMENTAL UPDATING ALGORITHM FOR MINING ASSOCIATION RULES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Baowen; Yi Tong; Wu Fangjun; Chen Zhenqiang

    2002-01-01

    In this letter, on the basis of Frequent Pattern(FP) tree, the support function to update FP-tree is introduced, then an Incremental FP (IFP) algorithm for mining association rules is proposed. IFP algorithm considers not only adding new data into the database but also reducing old data from the database. Furthermore, it can predigest five cases to three cases.The algorithm proposed in this letter can avoid generating lots of candidate items, and it is high efficient.

  16. An Incremental Algorithm of Text Clustering Based on Semantic Sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Zhonghui; SHEN Junyi; BAO Junpeng

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposed an incremental textclustering algorithm based on semantic sequence.Using similarity relation of semantic sequences and calculating the cover of similarity semantic sequences set, the candidate cluster with minimum entropy overlap value was selected as a result cluster every time in this algorithm.The comparison of experimental results shows that the precision of the algorithm is higher than other algorithms under same conditions and this is obvious especially on long documents set.

  17. Superiorization of incremental optimization algorithms for statistical tomographic image reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helou, E. S.; Zibetti, M. V. W.; Miqueles, E. X.

    2017-04-01

    We propose the superiorization of incremental algorithms for tomographic image reconstruction. The resulting methods follow a better path in its way to finding the optimal solution for the maximum likelihood problem in the sense that they are closer to the Pareto optimal curve than the non-superiorized techniques. A new scaled gradient iteration is proposed and three superiorization schemes are evaluated. Theoretical analysis of the methods as well as computational experiments with both synthetic and real data are provided.

  18. Firms' skills as drivers of radical and incremental innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Doran, Justin; Ryan, Geraldine

    2014-01-01

    Using firm level data from the Irish Community Innovation Survey 2008–2010 we analyse the importance of eight skill sets for the innovation performance of firms. We distinguish between radical and incremental innovation. Our results suggest that there is substantial heterogeneity in the importance of skills for different types of innovation and that some skills are best sourced from outside the firm while others are best developed in-house.

  19. Incremental Learning with SVM for Multimodal Classification of Prostatic Adenocarcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    José Fernando García Molina; Lei Zheng; Metin Sertdemir; Dietmar J Dinter; Stefan Schönberg; Matthias Rädle

    2014-01-01

    Robust detection of prostatic cancer is a challenge due to the multitude of variants and their representation in MR images. We propose a pattern recognition system with an incremental learning ensemble algorithm using support vector machines (SVM) tackling this problem employing multimodal MR images and a texture-based information strategy. The proposed system integrates anatomic, texture, and functional features. The data set was preprocessed using B-Spline interpolation, bias field correcti...

  20. Color Transformations for the 2MASS Second Incremental Data Release

    CERN Document Server

    Carpenter, J M

    2001-01-01

    Transformation equations are presented to convert colors and magnitudes measured in the AAO, ARNICA, CIT, DENIS, ESO, LCO (Persson standards), MSSSO, SAAO, and UKIRT photometric systems to the photometric system inherent to the 2MASS Second Incremental Data Release. The transformations have been derived by comparing 2MASS photometry with published magnitudes and colors for stars observed in these systems. Transformation equations have also been derived indirectly for the Bessell & Brett (1988) and Koornneef (1983) homogenized photometric systems.

  1. Incremental Support Vector Machine Framework for Visual Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Motai

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the emerging requirements of surveillance networks, we present in this paper an incremental multiclassification support vector machine (SVM technique as a new framework for action classification based on real-time multivideo collected by homogeneous sites. The technique is based on an adaptation of least square SVM (LS-SVM formulation but extends beyond the static image-based learning of current SVM methodologies. In applying the technique, an initial supervised offline learning phase is followed by a visual behavior data acquisition and an online learning phase during which the cluster head performs an ensemble of model aggregations based on the sensor nodes inputs. The cluster head then selectively switches on designated sensor nodes for future incremental learning. Combining sensor data offers an improvement over single camera sensing especially when the latter has an occluded view of the target object. The optimization involved alleviates the burdens of power consumption and communication bandwidth requirements. The resulting misclassification error rate, the iterative error reduction rate of the proposed incremental learning, and the decision fusion technique prove its validity when applied to visual sensor networks. Furthermore, the enabled online learning allows an adaptive domain knowledge insertion and offers the advantage of reducing both the model training time and the information storage requirements of the overall system which makes it even more attractive for distributed sensor networks communication.

  2. Incremental Mining for Regular Frequent Patterns in Vertical Format

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar G

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the real world database updates continuously in several online applications like super market, network monitoring, web administration, stock market etc. Frequent pattern mining is afundamental and essential area in data mining research. Not only occurrence frequency of a pattern but also occurrence behaviour of a pattern may be treated as important criteria to measure the interestingness of a pattern. A frequent pattern is said to be regular frequent if the occurrence behaviour is less than or equal to the user given regularity threshold. In incremental transactional databases the occurrence frequency and the occurrence behaviour of a pattern changes whenever a small set of new transactions are added to the database. It is undesirable to mine regular frequent patterns from the scratch. Thus proposes a new algorithm called RFPID (Regular Frequent Pattern Mining in Incremental Databases to mine regular frequent patterns in incremental transactional databases using vertical data format which requires only one database scan. The experimental results show our algorithm is efficient in both memory utilization and execution.

  3. Incremental learning for ν-Support Vector Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Bin; Sheng, Victor S; Wang, Zhijie; Ho, Derek; Osman, Said; Li, Shuo

    2015-07-01

    The ν-Support Vector Regression (ν-SVR) is an effective regression learning algorithm, which has the advantage of using a parameter ν on controlling the number of support vectors and adjusting the width of the tube automatically. However, compared to ν-Support Vector Classification (ν-SVC) (Schölkopf et al., 2000), ν-SVR introduces an additional linear term into its objective function. Thus, directly applying the accurate on-line ν-SVC algorithm (AONSVM) to ν-SVR will not generate an effective initial solution. It is the main challenge to design an incremental ν-SVR learning algorithm. To overcome this challenge, we propose a special procedure called initial adjustments in this paper. This procedure adjusts the weights of ν-SVC based on the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) conditions to prepare an initial solution for the incremental learning. Combining the initial adjustments with the two steps of AONSVM produces an exact and effective incremental ν-SVR learning algorithm (INSVR). Theoretical analysis has proven the existence of the three key inverse matrices, which are the cornerstones of the three steps of INSVR (including the initial adjustments), respectively. The experiments on benchmark datasets demonstrate that INSVR can avoid the infeasible updating paths as far as possible, and successfully converges to the optimal solution. The results also show that INSVR is faster than batch ν-SVR algorithms with both cold and warm starts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. An Enhanced Visualization Process Model for Incremental Visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Hans-Jorg; Angelini, Marco; Santucci, Giuseppe; Schumann, Heidrun

    2016-07-01

    With today's technical possibilities, a stable visualization scenario can no longer be assumed as a matter of course, as underlying data and targeted display setup are much more in flux than in traditional scenarios. Incremental visualization approaches are a means to address this challenge, as they permit the user to interact with, steer, and change the visualization at intermediate time points and not just after it has been completed. In this paper, we put forward a model for incremental visualizations that is based on the established Data State Reference Model, but extends it in ways to also represent partitioned data and visualization operators to facilitate intermediate visualization updates. In combination, partitioned data and operators can be used independently and in combination to strike tailored compromises between output quality, shown data quantity, and responsiveness-i.e., frame rates. We showcase the new expressive power of this model by discussing the opportunities and challenges of incremental visualization in general and its usage in a real world scenario in particular.

  5. Design and Performance Analysis of Incremental Networked Predictive Control Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Zhong-Hua; Liu, Guo-Ping; Zhou, Donghua

    2016-06-01

    This paper is concerned with the design and performance analysis of networked control systems with network-induced delay, packet disorder, and packet dropout. Based on the incremental form of the plant input-output model and an incremental error feedback control strategy, an incremental networked predictive control (INPC) scheme is proposed to actively compensate for the round-trip time delay resulting from the above communication constraints. The output tracking performance and closed-loop stability of the resulting INPC system are considered for two cases: 1) plant-model match case and 2) plant-model mismatch case. For the former case, the INPC system can achieve the same output tracking performance and closed-loop stability as those of the corresponding local control system. For the latter case, a sufficient condition for the stability of the closed-loop INPC system is derived using the switched system theory. Furthermore, for both cases, the INPC system can achieve a zero steady-state output tracking error for step commands. Finally, both numerical simulations and practical experiments on an Internet-based servo motor system illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  6. Exploiting Homogeneity of Density in Incremental Hierarchical Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi H. Widiyantoro

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Hierarchical clustering is an important tool in many applications. As it involves a large data set that proliferates over time, reclustering the data set periodically is not an efficient process. Therefore, the ability to incorporate a new data set incrementally into an existing hierarchy becomes increasingly demanding. This article describes Homogen, a system that employs a new algorithm for generating a hierarchy of concepts and clusters incrementally from a stream of observations. The system aims to construct a hierarchy that satisfies the homogeneity and the monotonicity properties. Working in a bottom-up fashion, a new observation is placed in the hierarchy and a sequence of hierarchy restructuring processes is performed only in regions that have been affected by the presence of the new observation. Additionally, it combines multiple restructuring techniques that address different restructuring objectives to get a synergistic effect. The system has been tested on a variety of domains including structured and unstructured data sets. The experimental results reveal that the system is able to construct a concept hierarchy that is consistent regardless of the input data order and whose quality is comparable to the quality of those produced by non incremental clustering algorithms.

  7. A New Evolutionary-Incremental Framework for Feature Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad-Hoseyn Sigari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Feature selection is an NP-hard problem from the viewpoint of algorithm design and it is one of the main open problems in pattern recognition. In this paper, we propose a new evolutionary-incremental framework for feature selection. The proposed framework can be applied on an ordinary evolutionary algorithm (EA such as genetic algorithm (GA or invasive weed optimization (IWO. This framework proposes some generic modifications on ordinary EAs to be compatible with the variable length of solutions. In this framework, the solutions related to the primary generations have short length. Then, the length of solutions may be increased through generations gradually. In addition, our evolutionary-incremental framework deploys two new operators called addition and deletion operators which change the length of solutions randomly. For evaluation of the proposed framework, we use that for feature selection in the application of face recognition. In this regard, we applied our feature selection method on a robust face recognition algorithm which is based on the extraction of Gabor coefficients. Experimental results show that our proposed evolutionary-incremental framework can select a few number of features from existing thousands features efficiently. Comparison result of the proposed methods with the previous methods shows that our framework is comprehensive, robust, and well-defined to apply on many EAs for feature selection.

  8. MicroRNA-224 is associated with colorectal cancer progression and response to 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy by KRAS-dependent and -independent mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amankwatia, E B; Chakravarty, P; Carey, F A; Weidlich, S; Steele, R J C; Munro, A J; Wolf, C R; Smith, G

    2015-01-01

    Background: Colorectal cancers arise from benign adenomas, although not all adenomas progress to cancer and there are marked interpatient differences in disease progression. We have previously associated KRAS mutations with disease progression and reduced survival in colorectal cancer patients. Methods: We used TaqMan low-density array (TLDA) qRT–PCR analysis to identify miRNAs differentially expressed in normal colorectal mucosa, adenomas and cancers and in isogeneic KRAS WT and mutant HCT116 cells, and used a variety of phenotypic assays to assess the influence of miRNA expression on KRAS activity, chemosensitivity, proliferation and invasion. Results: MicroRNA-224 was differentially expressed in dysplastic colorectal disease and in isogeneic KRAS WT and mutant HCT116 cells. Antagomir-mediated miR-224 silencing in HCT116 KRAS WT cells phenocopied KRAS mutation, increased KRAS activity and ERK and AKT phosphorylation. 5-FU chemosensitivity was significantly increased in miR-224 knockdown cells, and in NIH3T3 cells expressing KRAS and BRAF mutant proteins. Bioinformatics analysis of predicted miR-224 target genes predicted altered cell proliferation, invasion and epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotypes that were experimentally confirmed in miR-224 knockdown cells. Conclusions: We describe a novel mechanism of KRAS regulation, and highlight the clinical utility of colorectal cancer-specific miRNAs as disease progression or clinical response biomarkers. PMID:25919696

  9. RABL6A promotes G1-S phase progression and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor cell proliferation in an Rb1-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Jussara; Muniz, Viviane P; Falls, Kelly C; Reed, Sara M; Taghiyev, Agshin F; Quelle, Frederick W; Gourronc, Francoise A; Klingelhutz, Aloysius J; Major, Heather J; Askeland, Ryan W; Sherman, Scott K; O'Dorisio, Thomas M; Bellizzi, Andrew M; Howe, James R; Darbro, Benjamin W; Quelle, Dawn E

    2014-11-15

    Mechanisms of neuroendocrine tumor (NET) proliferation are poorly understood, and therapies that effectively control NET progression and metastatic disease are limited. We found amplification of a putative oncogene, RABL6A, in primary human pancreatic NETs (PNET) that correlated with high-level RABL6A protein expression. Consistent with those results, stable silencing of RABL6A in cultured BON-1 PNET cells revealed that it is essential for their proliferation and survival. Cells lacking RABL6A predominantly arrested in G1 phase with a moderate mitotic block. Pathway analysis of microarray data suggested activation of the p53 and retinoblastoma (Rb1) tumor-suppressor pathways in the arrested cells. Loss of p53 had no effect on the RABL6A knockdown phenotype, indicating that RABL6A functions independent of p53 in this setting. By comparison, Rb1 inactivation partially restored G1 to S phase progression in RABL6A-knockdown cells, although it was insufficient to override the mitotic arrest and cell death caused by RABL6A loss. Thus, RABL6A promotes G1 progression in PNET cells by inactivating Rb1, an established suppressor of PNET proliferation and development. This work identifies RABL6A as a novel negative regulator of Rb1 that is essential for PNET proliferation and survival. We suggest RABL6A is a new potential biomarker and target for anticancer therapy in PNET patients.

  10. HESI admission assessment (A(2)) examination scores, program progression, and NCLEX-RN success in baccalaureate nursing: an exploratory study of dependable academic indicators of success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinderer, Katherine A; DiBartolo, Mary C; Walsh, Catherine M

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to meet the demand for well-educated, high-quality nurses, schools of nursing seek to admit those candidates most likely to have both timely progression and first-time success on the National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN). Finding the right combination of academic indicators, which are most predictive of success, continues to be an ongoing challenge for entry-level baccalaureate nursing programs across the United States. This pilot study explored the relationship of a standardized admission examination, the Health Education Systems, Inc. (HESI) Admission Assessment (A(2)) Examination to preadmission grade point average (GPA), science GPA, and nursing GPA using a retrospective descriptive design. In addition, the predictive ability of the A(2) Examination, preadmission GPA, and science GPA related to timely progression and NCLEX-RN success were explored. In a sample of 89 students, no relationship was found between the A(2) Examination and preadmission GPA or science GPA. The A(2) Examination was correlated with nursing GPA and NCLEX-RN success but not with timely progression. Further studies are needed to explore the utility and predictive ability of standardized examinations such as the A(2) Examination and the contribution of such examinations to evidence-based admission decision making.

  11. Complex Incremental Product Innovation in Established Service Firms: A Micro Institutional Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A.M. Vermeulen (Patrick); F.A.J. van den Bosch (Frans); H.W. Volberda (Henk)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractMany product innovation studies have described key determinants that should lead to successful incremental product innovation. Despite numerous studies suggesting how incremental product innovation should be successfully undertaken, many firms still struggle with this type of innovation.

  12. Complex Incremental Product Innovation in Established Service Firms: A Micro Institutional Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A.M. Vermeulen (Patrick); F.A.J. van den Bosch (Frans); H.W. Volberda (Henk)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractMany product innovation studies have described key determinants that should lead to successful incremental product innovation. Despite numerous studies suggesting how incremental product innovation should be successfully undertaken, many firms still struggle with this type of innovation.

  13. Thickness control in a new flexible hybrid incremental sheet forming process

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, H.; LU, B; Chen,J.; Feng,S.; Li, Z; Long, H.

    2017-01-01

    Incremental sheet forming is a cost-effective process for rapid manufacturing of sheet metal products. However, incremental sheet forming also has some limitations such as severe sheet thinning and long processing time. These limitations hamper the forming part quality and production efficiency, thus restricting the incremental sheet forming application in industrial practice. To overcome the problem of sheet thinning, a variety of processes, such as multi-step incremental sheet forming, have...

  14. A sequential tree approach for incremental sequential pattern mining

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    RAJESH KUMAR BOGHEY; SHAILENDRA SINGH

    2016-12-01

    ‘‘Sequential pattern mining’’ is a prominent and significant method to explore the knowledge and innovation from the large database. Common sequential pattern mining algorithms handle static databases.Pragmatically, looking into the functional and actual execution, the database grows exponentially thereby leading to the necessity and requirement of such innovation, research, and development culminating into the designing of mining algorithm. Once the database is updated, the previous mining result will be incorrect, and we need to restart and trigger the entire mining process for the new updated sequential database. To overcome and avoid the process of rescanning of the entire database, this unique system of incremental mining of sequential pattern is available. The previous approaches, system, and techniques are a priori-based frameworks but mine patterns is an advanced and sophisticated technique giving the desired solution. We propose and incorporate an algorithm called STISPM for incremental mining of sequential patterns using the sequence treespace structure. STISPM uses the depth-first approach along with backward tracking and the dynamic lookahead pruning strategy that removes infrequent and irregular patterns. The process and approach from the root node to any leaf node depict a sequential pattern in the database. The structural characteristic of the sequence tree makes it convenient and appropriate for incremental sequential pattern mining. The sequence tree also stores all the sequential patterns with its count and statistics, so whenever the support system is withdrawn or changed, our algorithm using frequent sequence tree as the storage structure can find and detect all the sequential patternswithout mining the database once again.

  15. The associated random walk and martingales in random walks with stationary increments

    CERN Document Server

    Grey, D R

    2010-01-01

    We extend the notion of the associated random walk and the Wald martingale in random walks where the increments are independent and identically distributed to the more general case of stationary ergodic increments. Examples are given where the increments are Markovian or Gaussian, and an application in queueing is considered.

  16. Global Combat Support System - Army Increment 2 (GCSS-A Inc 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Product Lifecycle Management Plus. The two components are managed as a single program. GCSS-A is being developed incrementally . Increment 1 provides...2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Global Combat Support System - Army Increment 2 (GCSS-A Inc 2) Defense Acquisition...Base Year CAE - Component Acquisition Executive CDD - Capability Development Document CPD - Capability Production Document DAE - Defense

  17. 77 FR 9653 - Comment Sought on Potential Data for Connect America Fund Phase One Incremental Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ... COMMISSION Comment Sought on Potential Data for Connect America Fund Phase One Incremental Support AGENCY... incremental support. DATES: Comments are due on or before March 19, 2012. ADDRESSES: Interested parties may... incremental support is designed to provide an immediate boost to broadband deployment in areas that are...

  18. 77 FR 25747 - Certain Incremental Dental Positioning Adjustment Appliances and Methods of Producing Same...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... COMMISSION Certain Incremental Dental Positioning Adjustment Appliances and Methods of Producing Same; Notice... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain incremental dental positioning... importing, offering for sale, and selling for importation in the United States incremental dental...

  19. How big are the increments of 1~p-valued Gaussian processes?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林正炎

    1997-01-01

    be a sequence of independent Gaussian processes with σk2 (h)The large increments for Y(·) with boundedσ (p, h ) are investigated. As an example the large increments of infinite-dimensional fractional Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process in 1p are given. The method can also be applied to certain processes with stationary increments.

  20. Nuclear cycler: An incremental approach to the deflection of asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasile, Massimiliano; Thiry, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    This paper introduces a novel deflection approach based on nuclear explosions: the nuclear cycler. The idea is to combine the effectiveness of nuclear explosions with the controllability and redundancy offered by slow push methods within an incremental deflection strategy. The paper will present an extended model for single nuclear stand-off explosions in the proximity of elongated ellipsoidal asteroids, and a family of natural formation orbits that allows the spacecraft to deploy multiple bombs while being shielded by the asteroid during the detonation.

  1. Incremental Entropy Relation as an Alternative to MaxEnt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montse Casas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We show that, to generate the statistical operator appropriate for a given system, and as an alternative to Jaynes’ MaxEnt approach, that refers to the entropy S, one can use instead the increments ±S in S. To such an effect, one uses the macroscopic thermodynamic relation that links ±S to changes in i the internal energy E and ii the remaining M relevant extensive quantities Ai, i = 1; : : : ;M; that characterize the context one is working with.

  2. Numerical prediction of the incremental melting and solidification process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Wang; Chengchang Jia; Sheng Yin

    2003-01-01

    A mathematical formulation is applied to represent the phenomena in the incremental melting and solidification process (IMSP), and the temperature and electromagnetic fields and the depth of steel liquid phase are calculated by a finite difference technique using the control volume method. The result shows that the predicted values are in good agreement with the observations. In accordance with the calculated values for different kinds of materials and different size of molds, the technological parameter of the IMS process such as the power supply and the descending speed rate can be determined.

  3. Fast Discovering Frequent Patterns for Incremental XML Queries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Dun-lu; QIU Yang

    2004-01-01

    It is nontrivial to maintain such discovered frequent query patterns in real XML-DBMS because the transaction database of queries may allow frequent updates and such updates may not only invalidate some existing frequent query patterns but also generate some new frequent query patterns.In this paper, two incremental updating algorithms, FUXQMiner and FUFXQMiner, are proposed for efficient maintenance of discovered frequent query patterns and generation the new frequent query patterns when new XML queries are added into the database.Experimental results from our implementation show that the proposed algorithms have good performance.

  4. AN INCREMENTAL UPDATING ALGORITHM FOR MINING ASSOCIATION RULES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XuBaowen; YiTong; 等

    2002-01-01

    In this letter,on the basis of Frequent Pattern(FP) tree,the support function to update FP-tree is introduced,then an incremental FP(IFP) algorithm for mining association rules is proposed.IFP algorithm considers not only adding new data into the database but also reducing old data from the database.Furthermore,it can predigest five cases to three case .The algorithm proposed in this letter can avoid generating lots of candidate items,and it is high efficient.

  5. Variance-optimal hedging for processes with stationary independent increments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubalek, Friedrich; Kallsen, J.; Krawczyk, L.

    We determine the variance-optimal hedge when the logarithm of the underlying price follows a process with stationary independent increments in discrete or continuous time. Although the general solution to this problem is known as backward recursion or backward stochastic differential equation, we...... show that for this class of processes the optimal endowment and strategy can be expressed more explicitly. The corresponding formulas involve the moment resp. cumulant generating function of the underlying process and a Laplace- or Fourier-type representation of the contingent claim. An example...

  6. Testing single point incremental forming molds for thermoforming operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Daniel; de Sousa, Ricardo Alves; Torcato, Ricardo

    2016-10-01

    Low pressure polymer processing processes as thermoforming or rotational molding use much simpler molds then high pressure processes like injection. However, despite the low forces involved with the process, molds manufacturing for this operations is still a very material, energy and time consuming operation. The goal of the research is to develop and validate a method for manufacturing plastically formed sheets metal molds by single point incremental forming (SPIF) operation for thermoforming operation. Stewart platform based SPIF machines allow the forming of thick metal sheets, granting the required structural stiffness for the mold surface, and keeping the short lead time manufacture and low thermal inertia.

  7. TRANSITIONAL SHELTER FOR DISASTER VICTIMS: BAMBOO CORE AND INCREMENTAL HOUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULISTIONO Eunike Kristi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia has experienced many catastrophic disasters since 2004. Tsunami, earthqukes, floods and volcanic eruptions have caused devastated destruction towards houses, land, belongings, and wellfare. In post-disaster recovery process, it is essential to provide a transitional shelter especially for low-income community while preparing the reconstruction of their permanent housing. This paper presents bamboo incremental house as disaster victims’ transitional shelter in Jember. An empathic approach was taken in developing the house design, taking into consideration the disaster victims’ need, perception, and their economic condition, as well as the local materials, technology and the financial support available.

  8. Incremental stress-strain law for graphite under multiaxial loadings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzung, F.

    1979-11-01

    An incremental stress-strain law for describing the nonlinear, compressible and asymmetric behavior of graphite under tension and compression as well as complex loadings is derived based on a dry friction model in the theory of plasticity. Stress-strain relations are defined by longitudinal-lateral strain measurements for specimens under uniaxial tension-compression. Agreements with experimentally determined curves from biaxial loading experiments are shown. Agreements in finite element computations using the present model with strain measurements for diametral compression and 4-point bend tests of graphite are also obtained.

  9. Incremental View Computation Model for Object-Oriented Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Hai-ying; Zhong Ting-xiu

    2004-01-01

    We introduce a model to implement incremental update of views. The principle is that unless a view is accessed, the modification related to the view is not computed. This modification information is used only when views are updated.Modification information is embodied in the classes (including inheritance classes and nesting classes) that derive the view.We establish a modify list consisted of tuples (one tuple for each view which is related to the class) to implement view update. A method is used to keep views from re-update.

  10. Automating the Incremental Evolution of Controllers for Physical Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faina, Andres; Jacobsen, Lars Toft; Risi, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    of the test environment and shows that it is possible, for the first time, to incrementally evolve a neural robot controller for different obstacle avoidance tasks with no human intervention. Importantly, the system offers a high level of robustness and precision that could potentially open up the range...... constitute one such problem. Another lies in the embodiment of the evolutionary processes, which links to the first, but focuses on how evolution can act on real agents and occur independently from simulation, that is, going from being, as Eiben et al. put it, “the evolution of things, rather than just...

  11. Comparison of the incremental and hierarchical methods for crystalline neon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, S J; Bygrave, P J; Allan, N L; Manby, F R

    2010-02-24

    We present a critical comparison of the incremental and hierarchical methods for the evaluation of the static cohesive energy of crystalline neon. Both of these schemes make it possible to apply the methods of molecular electronic structure theory to crystalline solids, offering a systematically improvable alternative to density functional theory. Results from both methods are compared with previous theoretical and experimental studies of solid neon and potential sources of error are discussed. We explore the similarities of the two methods and demonstrate how they may be used in tandem to study crystalline solids.

  12. An Approach to Incremental Design of Distributed Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru; Pop, Traian;

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we present an approach to incremental design of distributed embedded systems for hard real-time applications. We start from an already existing system running a set of applications and the design problem is to implement new functionality on this system. Thus, we propose mapping...... strategies of functionality so that the already running functionality is not disturbed and there is a good chance that, later, new functionality can easily be mapped on the resulted system. The mapping and scheduling for hard real-time embedded systems are considered the context of a realistic communication...

  13. Transferring the Incremental Capacity Analysis to Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knap, Vaclav; Kalogiannis, Theodoros; Purkayastha, Rajlakshmi

    2017-01-01

    In order to investigate the battery degradation and to estimate their health, various techniques can be applied. One of them, which is widely used for Lithium-ion batteries, is the incremental capacity analysis (ICA). In this work, we apply the ICA to Lithium-Sulfur batteries, which differ in many...... aspects from Lithium-ion batteries and possess unique behavior. One of the challenges of applying the ICA to Lithium-Sulfur batteries is the representation of the IC curves, as their voltage profiles are often non-monotonic, resulting in more complex IC curves. The ICA is at first applied to charge...

  14. Efficacy of zoledronic acid in treatment of teoarthritis is dependent on the disease progression stage in rat medial meniscal tear model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De-gang YU; Shen LIU; Zhen-an ZHU; Bo YU; Yuan-qing MAO; Xin ZHAO; Xiao-qing WANG; Hui-feng DING; Lei CAO; Guang-wang LIU; Shao-bo NIE

    2012-01-01

    Aim:To investigate whether the stage of osteoarthritis (OA) progression influenced the efficacy of the third-generation bisphosphonate zoledronic acid in a rat medial meniscal tear model.Methods:Medial meniscal tear (MMT) was surgically induced in adult male Sprague Dawley rats.Zoledronic acid (ZOL,100 μg/kg,sc,twice a week) was administered starting immediately,early (from 4 weeks) or late (from 8 weeks) after OA induction.The degeneration of articular cartilage was evaluated with toluidine blue O staining.Subchondral bone remodeling was evaluated with X-ray micro-CT scanning.Joint pain was measured with respect to weight-bearing asymmetry.Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) expression in dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) was examined using immunofluorescence analysis.The afferent neurons in DRGs innervating the joint were identified by retrograde labeling with fluorogold.Results:Progressive cartilage loss was observed during 12 weeks after OA induction.Subchondral bone remodeling manifested as increased bone resorption at early stage (4 weeks),but as increased bone accretion at advanced stages (8 weeks).Immediately and early ZOL administration significantly improved subchondral microstructural parameters,attenuated cartilage degeneration,reduced weight-bearing asymmetry and CGRP expression,whereas the late ZOL administration had no significant effects.Conclusion:The stage of OA progression influences the efficacy of ZOL in treating joint degeneration and pain.To obtain the maximum efficacy,bisphosphonate treatment should be initiated in rat with early stages of OA pathogenesis.

  15. Thickness distribution of multi-stage incremental forming with different forming stages and angle intervals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军超; 杨芬芬; 周志强

    2015-01-01

    Although multi-stage incremental sheet forming has always been adopted instead of single-stage forming to form parts with a steep wall angle or to achieve a high forming performance, it is largely dependent on empirical designs. In order to research multi-stage forming further, the effect of forming stages (n) and angle interval between the two adjacent stages (Δα) on thickness distribution was investigated. Firstly, a finite element method (FEM) model of multi-stage incremental forming was established and experimentally verified. Then, based on the proposed simulation model, different strategies were adopted to form a frustum of cone with wall angle of 30° to research the thickness distribution of multi-pass forming. It is proved that the minimum thickness increases largely and the variance of sheet thickness decreases significantly as the value of n grows. Further, with the increase of Δα, the minimum thickness increases initially and then decreases, and the optimal thickness distribution is achieved with Δα of 10°. Additionally, a formula is deduced to estimate the sheet thickness after multi-stage forming and proved to be effective. And the simulation results fit well with the experimental results.

  16. Lamellar bone is an incremental tissue reconciling enamel rhythms, body size, and organismal life history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromage, Timothy G; Lacruz, Rodrigo S; Hogg, Russell; Goldman, Haviva M; McFarlin, Shannon C; Warshaw, Johanna; Dirks, Wendy; Perez-Ochoa, Alejandro; Smolyar, Igor; Enlow, Donald H; Boyde, Alan

    2009-05-01

    Mammalian enamel formation is periodic, including fluctuations attributable to the daily biological clock as well as longer-period oscillations that enigmatically correlate with body mass. Because the scaling of bone mass to body mass is an axiom of vertebrate hard tissue biology, we consider that long-period enamel formation rhythms may reflect corresponding and heretofore unrecognized rhythms in bone growth. The principal aim of this study is to seek a rhythm in bone growth demonstrably related to enamel oscillatory development. Our analytical approach is based in morphology, using a variety of hard tissue microscopy techniques. We first ascertain the relationship among long-period enamel rhythms, the striae of Retzius, and body mass using a large sample of mammalian taxa. In addition, we test whether osteocyte lacuna density (a surrogate for rates of cell proliferation) in bone is correlated with mammalian body mass. Finally, using fluorescently labeled developing bone tissues, we investigate whether the bone lamella, a fundamental microanatomical unit of bone, relates to rhythmic enamel growth increments. Our results confirm a positive correlation between long-period enamel rhythms and body mass and a negative correlation between osteocyte density and body mass. We also confirm that lamellar bone is an incremental tissue, one lamella formed in the species-specific time dependency of striae of Retzius formation. We conclude by contextualizing our morphological research with a current understanding of autonomic regulatory control of the skeleton and body mass, suggesting a central contribution to the coordination of organismal life history and body mass.

  17. Severe hypoxia during incremental exercise to exhaustion provokes negative post-exercise affects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keramidas, Michail E; Stavrou, Nektarios A M; Kounalakis, Stylianos N; Eiken, Ola; Mekjavic, Igor B

    2016-03-15

    The post-exercise emotional response is mainly dependent on the intensity of the exercise performed; moderate exercise causes positive feelings, whereas maximal exercise may prompt negative affects. Acute hypoxia impairs peak O2 uptake (V̇O2peak), resulting in a shift to a lower absolute intensity at the point of exhaustion. Hence, the purpose of the study was to examine whether a severe hypoxic stimulus would influence the post-exercise affective state in healthy lowlanders performing an incremental exercise to exhaustion. Thirty-six male lowlanders performed, in a counter-balanced order and separated by a 48-h interval, two incremental exercise trials to exhaustion to determine their V̇O2peak, while they were breathing either room air (AIR; FiO2: 0.21), or a hypoxic gas mixture (HYPO; FiO2: 0.12). Before and immediately after each trial, subjects were requested to complete two questionnaires, based on how they felt at that particular moment: (i) the Profile of Mood States-Short Form, and (ii) the Activation Deactivation Adjective Check List. During the post-exercise phase, they also completed the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory. V̇O2peak was significantly lower in the HYPO than the AIR trial (~15%; pnegative post-exercise emotions, induces higher levels of perceived fatigue and decreases motivation; the affective responses coincide with the comparatively lower V̇O2peak than that achieved in normoxic conditions.

  18. Numerical simulation of high speed incremental forming of aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuseppina, Ambrogio; Teresa, Citrea; Luigino, Filice; Francesco, Gagliardi

    2013-12-01

    In this study, an innovative process is analyzed with the aim to satisfy the industrial requirements, such as process flexibility, differentiation and customizing of products, cost reduction, minimization of execution time, sustainable production, etc. The attention is focused on incremental forming process, nowadays used in different fields such as: rapid prototyping, medical sector, architectural industry, aerospace and marine, in the production of molds and dies. Incremental forming consists in deforming only a small region of the workspace through a punch driven by a NC machine. SPIF is the considered variant of the process, in which the punch gives local deformation without dies and molds; consequently, the final product geometry can be changed by the control of an actuator without requiring a set of different tools. The drawback of this process is its slowness. The aim of this study is to assess the IF feasibility at high speeds. An experimental campaign will be performed by a CNC lathe with high speed to test process feasibility and the influence on materials formability mainly on aluminum alloys. The first results show how the material presents the same performance than in conventional speed IF and, in some cases, better material behavior due to the temperature field. An accurate numerical simulation has been performed to investigate the material behavior during the high speed process substantially confirming experimental evidence.

  19. A fast flexible docking method using an incremental construction algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rarey, M; Kramer, B; Lengauer, T; Klebe, G

    1996-08-23

    We present an automatic method for docking organic ligands into protein binding sites. The method can be used in the design process of specific protein ligands. It combines an appropriate model of the physico-chemical properties of the docked molecules with efficient methods for sampling the conformational space of the ligand. If the ligand is flexible, it can adopt a large variety of different conformations. Each such minimum in conformational space presents a potential candidate for the conformation of the ligand in the complexed state. Our docking method samples the conformation space of the ligand on the basis of a discrete model and uses a tree-search technique for placing the ligand incrementally into the active site. For placing the first fragment of the ligand into the protein, we use hashing techniques adapted from computer vision. The incremental construction algorithm is based on a greedy strategy combined with efficient methods for overlap detection and for the search of new interactions. We present results on 19 complexes of which the binding geometry has been crystallographically determined. All considered ligands are docked in at most three minutes on a current workstation. The experimentally observed binding mode of the ligand is reproduced with 0.5 to 1.2 A rms deviation. It is almost always found among the highest-ranking conformations computed.

  20. Transformational adaptation when incremental adaptations to climate change are insufficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kates, Robert W; Travis, William R; Wilbanks, Thomas J

    2012-05-08

    All human-environment systems adapt to climate and its natural variation. Adaptation to human-induced change in climate has largely been envisioned as increments of these adaptations intended to avoid disruptions of systems at their current locations. In some places, for some systems, however, vulnerabilities and risks may be so sizeable that they require transformational rather than incremental adaptations. Three classes of transformational adaptations are those that are adopted at a much larger scale, that are truly new to a particular region or resource system, and that transform places and shift locations. We illustrate these with examples drawn from Africa, Europe, and North America. Two conditions set the stage for transformational adaptation to climate change: large vulnerability in certain regions, populations, or resource systems; and severe climate change that overwhelms even robust human use systems. However, anticipatory transformational adaptation may be difficult to implement because of uncertainties about climate change risks and adaptation benefits, the high costs of transformational actions, and institutional and behavioral actions that tend to maintain existing resource systems and policies. Implementing transformational adaptation requires effort to initiate it and then to sustain the effort over time. In initiating transformational adaptation focusing events and multiple stresses are important, combined with local leadership. In sustaining transformational adaptation, it seems likely that supportive social contexts and the availability of acceptable options and resources for actions are key enabling factors. Early steps would include incorporating transformation adaptation into risk management and initiating research to expand the menu of innovative transformational adaptations.

  1. Incremental Learning of Skill Collections based on Intrinsic Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Hendrik Metzen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Life-long learning of reusable, versatile skills is a key prerequisite forembodied agents that act in a complex, dynamic environment and are faced withdifferent tasks over their lifetime. We address the question of how an agentcan learn useful skills efficiently during a developmental period,i.e., when no task is imposed on him and no external reward signal is provided.Learning of skills in a developmental period needs to be incremental andself-motivated. We propose a new incremental, task-independent skill discoveryapproach that is suited for continuous domains. Furthermore, the agent learnsspecific skills based on intrinsic motivation mechanisms thatdetermine on which skills learning is focused at a given point in time. Weevaluate the approach in a reinforcement learning setup in two continuousdomains with complex dynamics. We show that an intrinsically motivated, skilllearning agent outperforms an agent which learns task solutions from scratch.Furthermore, we compare different intrinsic motivation mechanisms and howefficiently they make use of the agent's developmental period.

  2. Optimal Curiosity-Driven Modular Incremental Slow Feature Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kompella, Varun Raj; Luciw, Matthew; Stollenga, Marijn Frederik; Schmidhuber, Juergen

    2016-08-01

    Consider a self-motivated artificial agent who is exploring a complex environment. Part of the complexity is due to the raw high-dimensional sensory input streams, which the agent needs to make sense of. Such inputs can be compactly encoded through a variety of means; one of these is slow feature analysis (SFA). Slow features encode spatiotemporal regularities, which are information-rich explanatory factors (latent variables) underlying the high-dimensional input streams. In our previous work, we have shown how slow features can be learned incrementally, while the agent explores its world, and modularly, such that different sets of features are learned for different parts of the environment (since a single set of regularities does not explain everything). In what order should the agent explore the different parts of the environment? Following Schmidhuber's theory of artificial curiosity, the agent should always concentrate on the area where it can learn the easiest-to-learn set of features that it has not already learned. We formalize this learning problem and theoretically show that, using our model, called curiosity-driven modular incremental slow feature analysis, the agent on average will learn slow feature representations in order of increasing learning difficulty, under certain mild conditions. We provide experimental results to support the theoretical analysis.

  3. Incremental Aerodynamic Coefficient Database for the USA2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Annie Catherine

    2016-01-01

    In March through May of 2016, a wind tunnel test was conducted by the Aerosciences Branch (EV33) to visually study the unsteady aerodynamic behavior over multiple transition geometries for the Universal Stage Adapter 2 (USA2) in the MSFC Aerodynamic Research Facility's Trisonic Wind Tunnel (TWT). The purpose of the test was to make a qualitative comparison of the transonic flow field in order to provide a recommended minimum transition radius for manufacturing. Additionally, 6 Degree of Freedom force and moment data for each configuration tested was acquired in order to determine the geometric effects on the longitudinal aerodynamic coefficients (Normal Force, Axial Force, and Pitching Moment). In order to make a quantitative comparison of the aerodynamic effects of the USA2 transition geometry, the aerodynamic coefficient data collected during the test was parsed and incorporated into a database for each USA2 configuration tested. An incremental aerodynamic coefficient database was then developed using the generated databases for each USA2 geometry as a function of Mach number and angle of attack. The final USA2 coefficient increments will be applied to the aerodynamic coefficients of the baseline geometry to adjust the Space Launch System (SLS) integrated launch vehicle force and moment database based on the transition geometry of the USA2.

  4. Incremental Knowledge Base Construction Using DeepDive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jaeho; Wu, Sen; Wang, Feiran; De Sa, Christopher; Zhang, Ce; Ré, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Populating a database with unstructured information is a long-standing problem in industry and research that encompasses problems of extraction, cleaning, and integration. Recent names used for this problem include dealing with dark data and knowledge base construction (KBC). In this work, we describe DeepDive, a system that combines database and machine learning ideas to help develop KBC systems, and we present techniques to make the KBC process more efficient. We observe that the KBC process is iterative, and we develop techniques to incrementally produce inference results for KBC systems. We propose two methods for incremental inference, based respectively on sampling and variational techniques. We also study the tradeoff space of these methods and develop a simple rule-based optimizer. DeepDive includes all of these contributions, and we evaluate Deep-Dive on five KBC systems, showing that it can speed up KBC inference tasks by up to two orders of magnitude with negligible impact on quality. PMID:27144081

  5. Acute Hematological Responses to a Maximal Incremental Treadmill Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Dinato de Lima

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to study acute hematologic responses in individuals undergoing a  cardiopulmonary maximum incremental treadmill test without inclination. Were analyzed 23 individuals, 12 men and 11 women, with a mean age of 30.2 (± 8.4 years, mean weight of 68.1 (± 18.1 kg, mean height of 170.2 (± 9.8 cm, and mean BMI of 23.2 (±3.7 kg/m², physically active, with a minimum practice of 3.5 hours per week of exercise for at least 6 months. The subjects were submitted to a maximal incremental treadmill test, with venous blood collection for analysis before and immediately after completion of the test. Was used Wilcoxon test for analysis of pre and post test variables. Was adopted p < 0.05 as significance level. There was a significant increase in leukocyte count (69.23%; p = 0.005, lymphocytes (17.56%; p = 0.043, monocytes (85.41%; p = 0.012 and granulocytes (28.21%; p = 0.011. It was also observed a significant increase in erythrocytes (3,42%; p = 0,042, hematocrit (5.39%; p = 0.038 and hemoglobin (5.58%; p = 0.013. With this study, was concluded that performing a maximal test of treadmill running can significantly raise blood levels of leukocytes and respective sub-populations, as well as red blood cells and hemoglobin.

  6. Incremental Beliefs About Ability Ameliorate Self-Doubt Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Zhao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Past research has typically shown negative effects of self-doubt on performance and psychological well-being. We suggest that these self-doubt effects largely may be due to an underlying assumption that ability is innate and fixed. The present research investigated the main hypothesis that incremental beliefs about ability might ameliorate negative effects of self-doubt. We examined our hypotheses using two lab tasks: verbal reasoning and anagram tasks. Participants’ self-doubt was measured and beliefs about ability were measured after participants read articles advocating either for incremental or entity theories of ability. American College Testing (ACT scores were obtained to index actual ability level. Consistent with our hypothesis, for participants who believed ability was relatively fixed, higher self-doubt was associated with increased negative affect and lower task performance and engagement. In contrast, for participants who believed that ability was malleable, negative self-doubt effects were ameliorated; self-doubt was even associated with better task performance. These effects were further moderated by participants’ academic ability. These findings suggest that mind-sets about ability moderate self-doubt effects. Self-doubt may have negative effects only when it is interpreted as signaling that ability is immutably low.

  7. Incremental concept learning with few training examples and hierarchical classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouma, Henri; Eendebak, Pieter T.; Schutte, Klamer; Azzopardi, George; Burghouts, Gertjan J.

    2015-10-01

    Object recognition and localization are important to automatically interpret video and allow better querying on its content. We propose a method for object localization that learns incrementally and addresses four key aspects. Firstly, we show that for certain applications, recognition is feasible with only a few training samples. Secondly, we show that novel objects can be added incrementally without retraining existing objects, which is important for fast interaction. Thirdly, we show that an unbalanced number of positive training samples leads to biased classifier scores that can be corrected by modifying weights. Fourthly, we show that the detector performance can deteriorate due to hard-negative mining for similar or closely related classes (e.g., for Barbie and dress, because the doll is wearing a dress). This can be solved by our hierarchical classification. We introduce a new dataset, which we call TOSO, and use it to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method for the localization and recognition of multiple objects in images.

  8. Incremental learning of concept drift in nonstationary environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwell, Ryan; Polikar, Robi

    2011-10-01

    We introduce an ensemble of classifiers-based approach for incremental learning of concept drift, characterized by nonstationary environments (NSEs), where the underlying data distributions change over time. The proposed algorithm, named Learn(++). NSE, learns from consecutive batches of data without making any assumptions on the nature or rate of drift; it can learn from such environments that experience constant or variable rate of drift, addition or deletion of concept classes, as well as cyclical drift. The algorithm learns incrementally, as other members of the Learn(++) family of algorithms, that is, without requiring access to previously seen data. Learn(++). NSE trains one new classifier for each batch of data it receives, and combines these classifiers using a dynamically weighted majority voting. The novelty of the approach is in determining the voting weights, based on each classifier's time-adjusted accuracy on current and past environments. This approach allows the algorithm to recognize, and act accordingly, to the changes in underlying data distributions, as well as to a possible reoccurrence of an earlier distribution. We evaluate the algorithm on several synthetic datasets designed to simulate a variety of nonstationary environments, as well as a real-world weather prediction dataset. Comparisons with several other approaches are also included. Results indicate that Learn(++). NSE can track the changing environments very closely, regardless of the type of concept drift. To allow future use, comparison and benchmarking by interested researchers, we also release our data used in this paper.

  9. Better Bounds for Incremental Frequency Allocation in Bipartite Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Chrobak, Marek; Sgall, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    We study frequency allocation in wireless networks. A wireless network is modeled by an undirected graph, with vertices corresponding to cells. In each vertex we have a certain number of requests, and each of those requests must be assigned a different frequency. Edges represent conflicts between cells, meaning that frequencies in adjacent vertices must be different as well. The objective is to minimize the total number of used frequencies. The offline version of the problem is known to be NP-hard. In the incremental version, requests for frequencies arrive over time and the algorithm is required to assign a frequency to a request as soon as it arrives. Competitive incremental algorithms have been studied for several classes of graphs. For paths, the optimal (asymptotic) ratio is known to be 4/3, while for hexagonal-cell graphs it is between 1.5 and 1.9126. For k-colorable graphs, the ratio of (k+1)/2 can be achieved. In this paper, we prove nearly tight bounds on the asymptotic competitive ratio for bipartit...

  10. Incremental ECAP of thick continuous plates - machine and initial trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosochowski, A.; Olejnik, L.

    2014-08-01

    Incremental ECAP (I-ECAP) can be used for SPD of continuous bars, plates and sheets. This paper describes design, construction and preliminary trials of a prototype machine capable of processing thick continuous plates. To increase productivity, a two-turn I-ECAP is used, which is equivalent to route C in conventional one-turn ECAP. The machine has a reciprocating punch inclined at 45°, a clamp holding the plate in the die during deformation and a feeder incrementally feeding the plate when it is not deformed; all these devices are driven by hydraulic actuators controlled by a PLC. The machine is capable of deforming materials at room temperature as well as elevated temperatures. The die is heated with electric heaters. The machine has also an integrated cooling system and a lubrication system. The material used for the initial trials was Al 1050 plate (10×50×1000) conversion coated with calcium aluminate and lubricated with dry soap. The process was carried out at room temperature using 1.6 mm feeding stroke and a low cycle frequency of approximately 0.2 Hz. The UFG structure after the first pass of the process revealed by STEM confirms process feasibility.

  11. Incremental support vector machines for fast reliable image recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makili, L., E-mail: makili_le@yahoo.com [Instituto Superior Politécnico da Universidade Katyavala Bwila, Benguela (Angola); Vega, J. [Asociación EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusión, Madrid (Spain); Dormido-Canto, S. [Dpto. Informática y Automática – UNED, Madrid (Spain)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► A conformal predictor using SVM as the underlying algorithm was implemented. ► It was applied to image recognition in the TJ–II's Thomson Scattering Diagnostic. ► To improve time efficiency an approach to incremental SVM training has been used. ► Accuracy is similar to the one reached when standard SVM is used. ► Computational time saving is significant for large training sets. -- Abstract: This paper addresses the reliable classification of images in a 5-class problem. To this end, an automatic recognition system, based on conformal predictors and using Support Vector Machines (SVM) as the underlying algorithm has been developed and applied to the recognition of images in the Thomson Scattering Diagnostic of the TJ–II fusion device. Using such conformal predictor based classifier is a computationally intensive task since it implies to train several SVM models to classify a single example and to perform this training from scratch takes a significant amount of time. In order to improve the classification time efficiency, an approach to the incremental training of SVM has been used as the underlying algorithm. Experimental results show that the overall performance of the new classifier is high, comparable to the one corresponding to the use of standard SVM as the underlying algorithm and there is a significant improvement in time efficiency.

  12. Incremental Scheduling Engines for Human Exploration of the Cosmos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaap, John; Phillips, Shaun

    2005-01-01

    As humankind embarks on longer space missions farther from home, the requirements and environments for scheduling the activities performed on these missions are changing. As we begin to prepare for these missions it is appropriate to evaluate the merits and applicability of the different types of scheduling engines. Scheduling engines temporally arrange tasks onto a timeline so that all constraints and objectives are met and resources are not overbooked. Scheduling engines used to schedule space missions fall into three general categories: batch, mixed-initiative, and incremental. This paper presents an assessment of the engine types, a discussion of the impact of human exploration of the moon and Mars on planning and scheduling, and the applicability of the different types of scheduling engines. This paper will pursue the hypothesis that incremental scheduling engines may have a place in the new environment; they have the potential to reduce cost, to improve the satisfaction of those who execute or benefit from a particular timeline (the customers), and to allow astronauts to plan their own tasks and those of their companion robots.

  13. Efficient incremental relaying for packet transmission over fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Fareed, Muhammad Mehboob

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel relaying scheme for packet transmission over fading channels, which improves the spectral efficiency of cooperative diversity systems by utilizing limited feedback from the destination. Our scheme capitalizes on the fact that relaying is only required when direct transmission suffers deep fading. We calculate the packet error rate for the proposed efficient incremental relaying (EIR) scheme with both amplify and forward and decode and forward relaying. We compare the performance of the EIR scheme with the threshold-based incremental relaying (TIR) scheme. It is shown that the efficiency of the TIR scheme is better for lower values of the threshold. However, the efficiency of the TIR scheme for higher values of threshold is outperformed by the EIR. In addition, three new threshold-based adaptive EIR are devised to further improve the efficiency of the EIR scheme. We calculate the packet error rate and the efficiency of these new schemes to provide the analytical insight. © 2014 IEEE.

  14. Demonstration/Validation of Incremental Sampling at Two Diverse Military Ranges and Development of an Incremental Sampling Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    characterize ten decision units $62,725 $39,500 $18,900 E2S2 - June 20102 2 –40National Defense Center for Energy and Environment Validation of EVC Soil...Stick • EVC Soil Stick used in Fort Lewis to collect eight replicate samples (0-2.5 cm depth) of 100 increments each • Same decision unit as...Energy and Environment Fort Lewis Live-Fire Laboratory Replicates NG Results Using EVC Tool (mg/kg) Sample Type Replicates Mean Std Dev % RSD 1 2 3

  15. 39 CFR 3050.23 - Documentation supporting incremental cost estimates in the Postal Service's section 3652 report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Documentation supporting incremental cost... REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL PERIODIC REPORTING § 3050.23 Documentation supporting incremental cost... incremental cost model shall be reported. ...

  16. Postexercise hypotension after maximal short-term incremental exercise depends on exercise modality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Felipe A; Midgley, Adrian W; Soares, Pedro P; Farinatti, Paulo T V

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated postexercise hypotension (PEH) after maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) performed using different exercise modalities. Twenty healthy men (aged 23 ± 3 years) performed 3 maximal CPETs (cycling, walking, and running), separated by 72 h in a randomized, counter-balanced order. Systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate, cardiac output, systemic vascular resistance (SVR), autonomic function (spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and heart rate variability (HRV)), and energy expenditure (EE) were assessed during a 60-min nonexercise control session and for 60 min immediately after each CPET. Total exercise volume (EE during CPET plus 60 min recovery) was significantly higher in running versus cycling and walking CPETs (P ≤ 0.001). Compared with control, only SBP after running CPET was significantly reduced (Δ = -6 ± 8 mm Hg; P Heart rate and cardiac output were significantly increased (P increased significantly after all exercise conditions, especially after running CPET (P running CPET, the PEH was primarily related to a decrease in SVR and to an increase in sympatho-vagal balance, which might be a reflex response to peripheral vasodilatation after exercise.

  17. Progressive failure site generation in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors under OFF-state stress: Weibull statistics and temperature dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Huarui, E-mail: huarui.sun@bristol.ac.uk; Bajo, Miguel Montes; Uren, Michael J.; Kuball, Martin [Center for Device Thermography and Reliability (CDTR), H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-26

    Gate leakage degradation of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors under OFF-state stress is investigated using a combination of electrical, optical, and surface morphology characterizations. The generation of leakage “hot spots” at the edge of the gate is found to be strongly temperature accelerated. The time for the formation of each failure site follows a Weibull distribution with a shape parameter in the range of 0.7–0.9 from room temperature up to 120 °C. The average leakage per failure site is only weakly temperature dependent. The stress-induced structural degradation at the leakage sites exhibits a temperature dependence in the surface morphology, which is consistent with a surface defect generation process involving temperature-associated changes in the breakdown sites.

  18. Symbolic Computing with Incremental Mindmaps to Manage and Mine Data Streams - Some Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Brucks, Claudine; Schommer, Christoph; Wagner, Cynthia; Weires, Ralph

    2009-01-01

    In our understanding, a mind-map is an adaptive engine that basically works incrementally on the fundament of existing transactional streams. Generally, mind-maps consist of symbolic cells that are connected with each other and that become either stronger or weaker depending on the transactional stream. Based on the underlying biologic principle, these symbolic cells and their connections as well may adaptively survive or die, forming different cell agglomerates of arbitrary size. In this work, we intend to prove mind-maps' eligibility following diverse application scenarios, for example being an underlying management system to represent normal and abnormal traffic behaviour in computer networks, supporting the detection of the user behaviour within search engines, or being a hidden communication layer for natural language interaction.

  19. Energy dissipation and contour integral characterizing fracture behavior of incremental plasticity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi-Lin He; Lin-Zhi Wu; Ming Li; Hong-Bo Chen

    2011-01-01

    Jep-integral is derived for characterizing the fracture behavior of elastic-plastic materials. The Jep-integral differs from Rice's J-integral in that the free energy density rather than the stress working density is employed to define energy-momentum tensor. The Jep-integral is proved to be path-dependent regardless of incremental plasticity and deformation plasticity. The Jep-integral possesses clearly clear physical meaning: (1) the value Jeptjp evaluated on the infinitely small contour surrounding the crack tip represents the crack tip energy dissipation; (2) when the global steadystate crack growth condition is approached, the value of Jepfar-ss calculated along the boundary contour equals to the sum of crack tip dissipation and bulk dissipation of plastic zone. The theoretical results are verified by simulating mode I crack problems.

  20. In vivo targeting of ADAM9 gene expression using lentivirus-delivered shRNA suppresses prostate cancer growth by regulating REG4 dependent cell cycle progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che-Ming Liu

    Full Text Available Cancer cells respond to stress by activating a variety of survival signaling pathways. A disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM 9 is upregulated during cancer progression and hormone therapy, functioning in part through an increase in reactive oxygen species. Here, we present in vitro and in vivo evidence that therapeutic targeting of ADAM9 gene expression by lentivirus-delivered small hairpin RNA (shRNA significantly inhibited proliferation of human prostate cancer cell lines and blocked tumor growth in a murine model of prostate cancer bone metastasis. Cell cycle studies confirmed an increase in the G1-phase and decrease in the S-phase population of cancer cells under starvation stress conditions, which correlated with elevated intracellular superoxide levels. Microarray data showed significantly decreased levels of regenerating islet-derived family member 4 (REG4 expression in prostate cancer cells with knockdown of ADAM9 gene expression. This REG4 downregulation also resulted in induction of expression of p21(Cip1/WAF1, which negatively regulates cyclin D1 and blocks the G1/S transition. Our data reveal a novel molecular mechanism of ADAM9 in the regulation of prostate cancer cell proliferation, and suggests a combined modality of ADAM9 shRNA gene therapy and cytotoxic agents for hormone refractory and bone metastatic prostate cancer.

  1. 酒精依赖综合征治疗药物的研究进展%Research progress on therapeutic agents for alcohol dependence syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏守鹏; 梁建辉

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is widely abused in contemporary social life, which has become a serious medical and social problem because it hurts human health and endangers public safety. Recent re-search has developed several active substances that can effective-ly improve or treat this syndrome via affecting the mesolimbic do-pamine nervous pathway to dampen rewarding effectiveness in-duced by ethanol. This paper reviews the progress in near-term studies of alcoholism-intervening agents, aiming at providing ref-erences for related mechanism exploration and drug development.%当今社会生活中酒精滥用现象普遍存在,已成为危害人类健康与公共安全的医学和社会难题。目前研发的多种活性物质能够影响中脑边缘多巴胺神经通路以降低酒精引起的奖赏效应,从而有效改善或治疗酒精依赖综合征。该文综述了近期酒精依赖干预药物的研究进展,旨在为相关机制研究和药物开发提供参考。

  2. Compiler-Enhanced Incremental Checkpointing for OpenMP Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronevetsky, G; Marques, D; Pingali, K; Rugina, R; McKee, S A

    2008-01-21

    As modern supercomputing systems reach the peta-flop performance range, they grow in both size and complexity. This makes them increasingly vulnerable to failures from a variety of causes. Checkpointing is a popular technique for tolerating such failures, enabling applications to periodically save their state and restart computation after a failure. Although a variety of automated system-level checkpointing solutions are currently available to HPC users, manual application-level checkpointing remains more popular due to its superior performance. This paper improves performance of automated checkpointing via a compiler analysis for incremental checkpointing. This analysis, which works with both sequential and OpenMP applications, reduces checkpoint sizes by as much as 80% and enables asynchronous checkpointing.

  3. Compiler-Enhanced Incremental Checkpointing for OpenMP Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronevetsky, G; Marques, D; Pingali, K; McKee, S; Rugina, R

    2009-02-18

    As modern supercomputing systems reach the peta-flop performance range, they grow in both size and complexity. This makes them increasingly vulnerable to failures from a variety of causes. Checkpointing is a popular technique for tolerating such failures, enabling applications to periodically save their state and restart computation after a failure. Although a variety of automated system-level checkpointing solutions are currently available to HPC users, manual application-level checkpointing remains more popular due to its superior performance. This paper improves performance of automated checkpointing via a compiler analysis for incremental checkpointing. This analysis, which works with both sequential and OpenMP applications, significantly reduces checkpoint sizes and enables asynchronous checkpointing.

  4. Incremental Commute Time Distance and Applications in Anomaly Detection Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Khoa, Nguyen Lu Dang

    2011-01-01

    Commute Time Distance (CTD) is a random walk based metric on graphs. CTD has found widespread applications in many domains including personalized search, collaborative filtering and making search engines robust against manipulation. Our interest is inspired by the use of CTD as a metric for anomaly detection. It has been shown that CTD can be used to simultaneously identify both global and local anomalies. Here we propose an accurate and efficient approximation for computing the CTD in an incremental fashion in order to facilitate real-time applications. An online anomaly detection algorithm is designed where the CTD of each new arriving data point to any point in the current graph can be estimated in constant time ensuring a real-time response. Moreover, the proposed approach can also be applied in many other applications that utilize commute time distance.

  5. Analisis Incremental Kelayakan Penambahan Lini Perakitan Engine Motor Pt Abc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonny Jonny

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturing motorcycle unit in Plant 1 of PT ABC requires engine supply from Plant 2. This has some burden on the operating cost of Plant 1 and the opportunity loss as well due to delay of motor engine delivery. Based on the problem, team proposes additional engine line in Plant 1 to cut engine supply from Plant 2. Therefore, team analyzes this proposal using incremental analysis to determine whether the proposal is feasible or not by comparing before and after condition with result NPV about IDR 967 Billion and Payback Period under 1 year. By this result, team determines that this proposal is recommended to be approved by management. 

  6. Incremental forming of aluminium alloys in cryogenic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhove, Hans; Mohammadi, Amirahmad; Duflou, Joost R.

    2016-10-01

    Incremental Sheet Forming processes suffer from stringent forming limits, restricting the range of producible geometries. Through in-process cooling of the sheet to cryogenic level, this paper explores the potential of altering material properties benefiting the formability and residual hardness of different aluminium alloys. Global cooling of aluminium sheets with liquid nitrogen and dry ice allows to reach temperatures of 78K and 193K respectively. Extended with experiments at room temperature (293K), these tests form a base for comparison of surface quality, formability and residual hardness. As an aluminium alloy commonly used for its high strength to weight ratio, but suffering from limited formability compared to draw-quality steels, AA5083-H111 is of interest for cryogenic treatment. AA1050-H24 is included in the test campaign as a base for commercially pure aluminium.

  7. Energy increment criteria for evaluation of train derailment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Jun; ZENG Qing-yuan

    2005-01-01

    The criteria for evaluation of train derailment were studied. The worldwide commonly used evaluation criteria for wheel derailment were summarized and their main problems were pointed out. The mechanism of train derailment was expounded on the basis of system dynamics stability concept. And the energy increment criteria were proposed to evaluate train derailment. By applying the criteria, the calculated results concerning 6 cases of freight train derailment on tangent railway line and 6 cases of freight train derailment on bridge were obtained, which are all in agreement with the practical situation. The safety, comfort and stability results concerning 3 cases of freight train running on bridge were analyzed. In addition, the running speed limits of freight train on the Yanconggou and Donggou bridge in the Beijing-Tonghua railway line of 50 km/h and 60 km/h, respectively, were proposed. And the running speed of freight train on the Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge can reach 70 km/h.

  8. An incremental design of radial basis function networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hao; Reiner, Philip D; Xie, Tiantian; Bartczak, Tomasz; Wilamowski, Bogdan M

    2014-10-01

    This paper proposes an offline algorithm for incrementally constructing and training radial basis function (RBF) networks. In each iteration of the error correction (ErrCor) algorithm, one RBF unit is added to fit and then eliminate the highest peak (or lowest valley) in the error surface. This process is repeated until a desired error level is reached. Experimental results on real world data sets show that the ErrCor algorithm designs very compact RBF networks compared with the other investigated algorithms. Several benchmark tests such as the duplicate patterns test and the two spiral problem were applied to show the robustness of the ErrCor algorithm. The proposed ErrCor algorithm generates very compact networks. This compactness leads to greatly reduced computation times of trained networks.

  9. A new insertion sequence for incremental Delaunay triangulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Fei Liu; Jin-Hui Yan; S.H.Lo

    2013-01-01

    Incremental algorithm is one of the most popular procedures for constructing Delaunay triangulations (DTs).However,the point insertion sequence has a great impact on the amount of work needed for the construction of DTs.It affects the time for both point location and structure update,and hence the overall computational time of the triangulation algorithm.In this paper,a simple deterministic insertion sequence is proposed based on the breadth-first-search on a Kd-tree with some minor modifications for better performance.Using parent nodes as search-hints,the proposed insertion sequence proves to be faster and more stable than the Hilbert curve order and biased randomized insertion order (BRIO),especially for non-uniform point distributions over a wide range of benchmark examples.

  10. A New Method for Incremental Testing of Finite State Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrosa, Lehilton Lelis Chaves; Moura, Arnaldo Vieira

    2010-01-01

    The automatic generation of test cases is an important issue for conformance testing of several critical systems. We present a new method for the derivation of test suites when the specification is modeled as a combined Finite State Machine (FSM). A combined FSM is obtained conjoining previously tested submachines with newly added states. This new concept is used to describe a fault model suitable for incremental testing of new systems, or for retesting modified implementations. For this fault model, only the newly added or modified states need to be tested, thereby considerably reducing the size of the test suites. The new method is a generalization of the well-known W-method and the G-method, but is scalable, and so it can be used to test FSMs with an arbitrarily large number of states.

  11. Incremental dimension reduction of tensors with random index

    CERN Document Server

    Sandin, Fredrik; Sahlgren, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    We present an incremental, scalable and efficient dimension reduction technique for tensors that is based on sparse random linear coding. Data is stored in a compactified representation with fixed size, which makes memory requirements low and predictable. Component encoding and decoding are performed on-line without computationally expensive re-analysis of the data set. The range of tensor indices can be extended dynamically without modifying the component representation. This idea originates from a mathematical model of semantic memory and a method known as random indexing in natural language processing. We generalize the random-indexing algorithm to tensors and present signal-to-noise-ratio simulations for representations of vectors and matrices. We present also a mathematical analysis of the approximate orthogonality of high-dimensional ternary vectors, which is a property that underpins this and other similar random-coding approaches to dimension reduction. To further demonstrate the properties of random ...

  12. Incremental Maintenance of Quotient Cube Based on Galois Lattice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui-PingLi; Kum-HoeTung; ShanWang

    2004-01-01

    Data cube computation is a well-known expensive operation and has been studied extensively. It is often not feasible to compute a complete data cube due to the huge storage requirement. Recently proposed quotient cube addressed this fundamental issue through a partitioning method that groups cube cells into equivalent partitions. The effectiveness and efficiency of the quotient cube for cube compression and computation have been proved. However, as changes axe made to the data sources, to maintain such a quotient cube is non-trivial since the equivalent classes in it must be split or merged. In this paper, incremental algorithms are designed to update existing quotient cube efficiently based on Galois lattice. Performance study shows that these algorithms are efficient and scalable for large databases.

  13. Incremental Maintenance of Quotient Cube Based on Galois Lattice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui-Ping Li; Kum-Hoe Tung; Shan Wang

    2004-01-01

    Data cube computation is a well-known expensive operation and has been studied extensively. It is often not feasible to compute a complete data cube due to the huge storage requirement. Recently proposed quotient cube addressed this fundamental issue through a partitioning method that groups cube cells into equivalent partitions. The effectiveness and efficiency of the quotient cube for cube compression and computation have been proved. However, as changes are made to the data sources, to maintain such a quotient cube is non-trivial since the equivalent classes in it must be split or merged. In this paper, incremental algorithms are designed to update existing quotient cube efficiently based on Galois lattice. Performance study shows that these algorithms are efficient and scalable for large databases.

  14. Single Point Incremental Forming using a Dummy Sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjødt, Martin; Silva, Beatriz; Bay, Niels

    2007-01-01

    A new version of single point incremental forming (SPIF) is presented. This version includes a dummy sheet on top of the work piece, thus forming two sheets instead of one. The dummy sheet, which is in contact with the rotating tool pin, is discarded after forming. The new set-up influences...... the process and furthermore offers a number of new possibilities for solving some of the problems appearing in SPIF. Investigations of the influence of dummy sheet on: formability, wear, surface quality and bulging of planar sides is done by forming to test shapes: a hyperboloid and a truncated pyramid....... The possible influence of friction between the two sheets is furthermore investigated. The results show that the use of a dummy sheet reduces wear of the work piece to almost zero, but also causes a decrease in formability. Bulging of the planar sides of the pyramid is reduced and surface roughness...

  15. Scalable Prediction of Energy Consumption using Incremental Time Series Clustering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmhan, Yogesh; Noor, Muhammad Usman

    2013-10-09

    Time series datasets are a canonical form of high velocity Big Data, and often generated by pervasive sensors, such as found in smart infrastructure. Performing predictive analytics on time series data can be computationally complex, and requires approximation techniques. In this paper, we motivate this problem using a real application from the smart grid domain. We propose an incremental clustering technique, along with a novel affinity score for determining cluster similarity, which help reduce the prediction error for cumulative time series within a cluster. We evaluate this technique, along with optimizations, using real datasets from smart meters, totaling ~700,000 data points, and show the efficacy of our techniques in improving the prediction error of time series data within polynomial time.

  16. Incremental learning with SVM for multimodal classification of prostatic adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Molina, José Fernando; Zheng, Lei; Sertdemir, Metin; Dinter, Dietmar J; Schönberg, Stefan; Rädle, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Robust detection of prostatic cancer is a challenge due to the multitude of variants and their representation in MR images. We propose a pattern recognition system with an incremental learning ensemble algorithm using support vector machines (SVM) tackling this problem employing multimodal MR images and a texture-based information strategy. The proposed system integrates anatomic, texture, and functional features. The data set was preprocessed using B-Spline interpolation, bias field correction and intensity standardization. First- and second-order angular independent statistical approaches and rotation invariant local phase quantization (RI-LPQ) were utilized to quantify texture information. An incremental learning ensemble SVM was implemented to suit working conditions in medical applications and to improve effectiveness and robustness of the system. The probability estimation of cancer structures was calculated using SVM and the corresponding optimization was carried out with a heuristic method together with a 3-fold cross-validation methodology. We achieved an average sensitivity of 0.844 ± 0.068 and a specificity of 0.780 ± 0.038, which yielded superior or similar performance to current state of the art using a total database of only 41 slices from twelve patients with histological confirmed information, including cancerous, unhealthy non-cancerous and healthy prostate tissue. Our results show the feasibility of an ensemble SVM being able to learn additional information from new data while preserving previously acquired knowledge and preventing unlearning. The use of texture descriptors provides more salient discriminative patterns than the functional information used. Furthermore, the system improves selection of information, efficiency and robustness of the classification. The generated probability map enables radiologists to have a lower variability in diagnosis, decrease false negative rates and reduce the time to recognize and delineate structures in

  17. Multi-DOF Incremental Optical Encoder with Laser Wavelength Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cha'o-Kuang Chen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study used a reflective diffraction grating as the medium to develop a multi-DOF incremental optical encoder for motion stage. The optical encoder can measure three angular displacements, roll, yaw and pitch of the motion stage simultaneously, as well as the horizontal straightness and linear displacement, summed to five DOF errors of motion stage by only using the positive and negative first-order diffracted light. The grating diffraction theory, Doppler effect, and optical interference technique were used. Two quadrant photodetectors were used to measure the changes in three-dimensional space of diffraction direction of diffracted light, in order to construct a multi-DOF incremental optical encoder. Considering the working stability of a laser diode and preventing the influence of the zeroth-order diffracted light returning to the laser diode, an additional optical isolation system was designed and a wavelength variation monitoring module was created. The compensation for the light source wavelength variation could be 0.001 nm. The multi-DOF verification results showed that the roll error is ±0.7/60 arcsec, the standard deviation is 0.025 arcsec; the yaw error is ±0.7/30 arcsec, the standard deviation is 0.05 arcsec; the pitch error is ±0.8/90 arcsec, the standard deviation is 0.18 arcsec, the horizontal straightness error is ±0.5/250 μm, the standard deviation is 0.05 μm and the linear displacement error is ±1/20000 μm, the standard deviation is 12 nm.

  18. PROCESS SIMULATION AND QUALITY EVALUATION IN INCREMENTAL SHEET FORMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meftah Hrairi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Single Point Incremental Forming (SPIF is a promising sheet-metal-forming process that permits the manufacturing of small to medium-sized batches of complex parts at low cost. It allows metal forming to work in the critical ‘necking-to-tearing' zone which results in a strong thinning before failure if the process is well designed. Moreover, the process is complex due to the number of variables involved. Thus, it is not possible to consider that the process has been well assessed; several remaining aspects need to be clarified. The objective of the present paper is to study some of these aspects, namely, the phenomenon of the wall thickness overstretch along depth and the effect of the tool path on the distribution of the wall thickness using finite element simulations.Abstrak: Pembentukan Tokokan Mata Tunggal (Single Point Incremental Forming (SPIF merupakan satu proses pembentukan kepingan logam yang membolehkan pembuatan dalam jumlah yang kecil hingga sederhana, bahagian-bahagian yang kompleks pada kos yang rendah. Jika proses ini direka dengan baik, kaedah ini membolehkan pembentukan logam yang baik terhasil. Jika tidak, semasa peringkat zon kritikal ‘perleheran-ke-pengoyakan' menyebabkan penipisan keterlaluan yang boleh menyebabkan logam tersebut rosak. Tambahan pula, proses ini agak kompleks, kerana ia melibatkan beberapa pemboleh ubah. Maka, walaupun proses ini telah dinilaikan seeloknya; masih terdapat beberapa aspek lain yang perlu diperjelaskan. Objektif kertas ini dibentangkan adalah untuk mengkaji beberapa aspek tertentu, seperti, ketebalan dinding regangan berlebihan di sepanjang kedalaman dan kesan tool path (beberapa siri posisi koordinat untuk menentukan pergerakan alatan memotong ketika operasi memesin terhadap pengagihan ketebalan dinding menggunakan simulasi unsur terhingga.

  19. Incremental learning with SVM for multimodal classification of prostatic adenocarcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernando García Molina

    Full Text Available Robust detection of prostatic cancer is a challenge due to the multitude of variants and their representation in MR images. We propose a pattern recognition system with an incremental learning ensemble algorithm using support vector machines (SVM tackling this problem employing multimodal MR images and a texture-based information strategy. The proposed system integrates anatomic, texture, and functional features. The data set was preprocessed using B-Spline interpolation, bias field correction and intensity standardization. First- and second-order angular independent statistical approaches and rotation invariant local phase quantization (RI-LPQ were utilized to quantify texture information. An incremental learning ensemble SVM was implemented to suit working conditions in medical applications and to improve effectiveness and robustness of the system. The probability estimation of cancer structures was calculated using SVM and the corresponding optimization was carried out with a heuristic method together with a 3-fold cross-validation methodology. We achieved an average sensitivity of 0.844 ± 0.068 and a specificity of 0.780 ± 0.038, which yielded superior or similar performance to current state of the art using a total database of only 41 slices from twelve patients with histological confirmed information, including cancerous, unhealthy non-cancerous and healthy prostate tissue. Our results show the feasibility of an ensemble SVM being able to learn additional information from new data while preserving previously acquired knowledge and preventing unlearning. The use of texture descriptors provides more salient discriminative patterns than the functional information used. Furthermore, the system improves selection of information, efficiency and robustness of the classification. The generated probability map enables radiologists to have a lower variability in diagnosis, decrease false negative rates and reduce the time to recognize and

  20. Progress in the measurement of temperature-dependent N2-N2 collision-induced absorption and H2-broadening of cold and hot CH4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Keeyoon; Wishnow, Ed; Venkataraman, Malathy; Brown, Linda R.; Ozier, Irving; Benner, D. Chris; Crawford, Tomithy J.; Mantz, Arlan; Smith, Mary-Ann H.

    2016-10-01

    We report preliminary measurements from two separate laboratory studies: (A) collision-induced absorption (CIA) of nitrogen in the far-infrared at temperatures between 78 and 130 K; and (B) temperature dependence of H2-broadening of CH4 in the near infrared at temperatures between 100 and 370 K.(A) Nitrogen collision-induced absorption provides the primary opacity of Titan at long wavelengths, thereby playing a critical role in determining the heat balance as well as the atmospheric composition and dynamics. Our new measurements of the nitrogen absorption spectrum at temperatures from 78 to 130 K are consistently ~20% higher than predictions made using theoretical models of Borysow and Frommhold (1986) [ApJ, 311, 1043] and of Karman et al. (2015)[J Chem Phys, 142, 084306]. However, the new data are consistent with the previous measurements at 78 K by the UBC group (Wishnow et al. 1996)[J Chem Phys, 104, 3511]. We present preliminary results for the N2-N2 CIA coefficients and their temperature dependence between 78 and 130 K, and comparisons with the above theoretical calculations.(B) In support of the Jovian and exoplanet atmospheric remote sensing in the near infrared, we have measured the temperature dependence of H2-broadened half width and pressure shift coefficients of CH4, both of which are known to be rotational quantum number dependent. We studied both cold and hot CH4 in the K band (~2.2 μm) with the focus on a) weaker lines in the v2+v3 band at low temperatures for cold giant planets and b) stronger lines in the v3+v4 band at elevated temperatures for extra-solar planets (e.g., hot-Jupiters). Three custom-built gas absorption cells (two cold and one hot) were used to obtain the spectra of CH4 and H2 mixtures at temperatures between 100 and 370 K. We will discuss our on-going spectrum analysis for a few select J manifolds and provide comparisons with published values, which are available only at room temperature.

  1. Hepatic SirT1-Dependent Gain-of-Function of Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase-1 Conveys Dysmetabolic and Tumor Progression Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Li Qiang; Ning Kon; Wenhui Zhao; Le Jiang; Colette M. Knight; Carrie Welch; Utpal Pajvani; Wei Gu; Domenico Accili

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is associated with higher incidence of cancer, but the predisposing mechanisms remain poorly understood. The NAD+-dependent deacetylase SirT1 orchestrates metabolism, cellular survival, and growth. However, there is no unifying mechanism to explain the metabolic and tumor-related effects of SirT1. In this work, we demonstrate that genetic ablation of the endogenous inhibitor of SirT1, Deleted-in-Breast-Cancer-1 (Dbc1), unexpectedly results in obesity and insulin resistance. Dbc1 defic...

  2. Progress in many-body theory with the equation of motion method: Time-dependent density matrix meets self-consistent RPA and applications to solvable models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck, Peter; Tohyama, Mitsuru

    2016-04-01

    The Bogoliubov-Born-Green-Kirkwood-Yvon or time-dependent density matrix (TDDM) hierarchy of equations for higher density matrices is truncated at the three-body level in approximating the three-body correlation function by a quadratic form of two-body ones, closing the equations in this way. The procedure is discussed in detail and it is shown in nontrivial model cases that the approximate inclusion of three-body correlation functions is very important to obtain precise results. A small amplitude approximation of this time-dependent nonlinear equation for the two-body correlation function is performed (STDDM*-b) and it is shown that the one-body sector of this generalized nonlinear second random phase approximation (RPA) equation is equivalent to the self-consistent RPA (SCRPA) approach which had been derived previously by different techniques. It is discussed in which way SCRPA also contains the three-body correlations. TDDM and SCRPA are tested versus exactly solvable model cases.

  3. Inhibiting the cyclin-dependent kinase CDK5 blocks pancreatic cancer formation and progression through the suppression of Ras-Ral signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann, Georg; Mishra, Anjali; Hong, Seung-Mo; Bisht, Savita; Strock, Christopher J; Ball, Douglas W; Goggins, Michael; Maitra, Anirban; Nelkin, Barry D

    2010-06-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5), a neuronal kinase that functions in migration, has been found to be activated in some human cancers in which it has been implicated in promoting metastasis. In this study, we investigated the role of CDK5 in pancreatic cancers in which metastatic disease is most common at diagnosis. CDK5 was widely active in pancreatic cancer cells. Functional ablation significantly inhibited invasion, migration, and anchorage-independent growth in vitro, and orthotopic tumor formation and systemic metastases in vivo. CDK5 blockade resulted in the profound inhibition of Ras signaling through its critical effectors RalA and RalB. Conversely, restoring Ral function rescued the effects of CDK5 inhibition in pancreatic cancer cells. Our findings identify CDK5 as a pharmacologically tractable target to degrade Ras signaling in pancreatic cancer.

  4. Inhibiting the cyclin-dependent kinase CDK5 blocks pancreatic cancer formation and progression via suppression of Ras-Ral signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann, Georg; Mishra, Anjali; Hong, Seung-Mo; Bisht, Savita; Strock, Christopher J.; Ball, Douglas W.; Goggins, Michael; Maitra, Anirban; Nelkin, Barry D.

    2011-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5), a neuronal kinase that functions in migration, has been found to be activated in some human cancers where it has been implicated in promoting metastasis. In this study, we investigated the role of CDK5 in pancreatic cancers where metastatic disease is most common at diagnosis. CDK5 was widely active in pancreatic cancer cells. Functional ablation significantly inhibited invasion, migration and anchorage-independent growth in vitro, and orthotopic tumor formation and systemic metastases in vivo. CDK5 blockade resulted in profound inhibition of Ras signaling through its critical effectors RalA and RalB. Conversely, restoring Ral function rescued the effects of CDK5 inhibition in pancreatic cancer cells. Our findings identify CDK5 as a pharmacologically tractable target to degrade Ras signaling in pancreatic cancer. PMID:20484029

  5. Inhibitory effects of vinpocetine on the progression of atherosclerosis are mediated by Akt/NF-κB dependent mechanisms in apoE-/- mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhui Zhuang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have found additional roles for vinpocetine, a potent phosphodiesterase type I inhibitor, in anti-proliferation and anti-inflammation of vascular smooth muscle cells and cancer cells via different mechanisms. In this study, we attempted to investigate whether vinpocetine protected against atherosclerotic development in apoE(-/- mice and explore the underlying anti-atherogenic mechanisms in macrophages. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Vinpocetine markedly decreased atherosclerotic lesion size in apoE(-/- mice measured by oil red O. Masson's trichrome staining and immunohistochemical analyses revealed that vinpocetine significantly increased the thickness of fibrous cap, reduced the size of lipid-rich necrotic core and attenuated inflammation. In vitro experiments exhibited a significant decrease in monocyte adhesion treated with vinpocetine. Further, active TNF-α, IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression induced by ox-LDL were attenuated by vinpocetine in a dose-dependent manner. Similarly, ox-LDL-induced reactive oxygen species were significantly repressed by vinpocetine. Both western blot and luciferase activity assay showed that vinpocetine inhibited the enhanced Akt, IKKα/β, IκBα phosphorylation and NF-κB activity induced by ox-LDL, and the inhibition of NF-κB activity was partly caused by Akt dephosphorylation. However, knockdown of PDE1B did not affect Akt, IKKα/β and IκBα phosphorylation. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that vinpocetine exerts anti-atherogenic effects through inhibition of monocyte adhesion, oxidative stress and inflammatory response, which are mediated by Akt/NF-κB dependent pathway but independent of PDE1 blockade in macrophages.

  6. Effects of climate variables on intra-annual stem radial increment in Pinus cembra (L.) along the alpine treeline ecotone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Andreas; Zimmermann, Jolanda; Wieser, Gerhard; Oberhuber, Walter

    2009-08-01

    Within the alpine treeline ecotone tree growth is increasingly restricted by extreme climate conditions. Although intra-annual stem growth recorded by dendrometers can be linked to climate, stem diameter increments in slow-growing subalpine trees are masked by changes in tree water status.We tested the hypothesis that intra-annual radial stem growth in Pinus cembra is influenced by different climate variables along the treeline ecotone in the Austrian Alps. Dendrometer traces were compared with dynamics of xylem cell development to date onset of cambial activity and radial stem growth in spring.Daily fluctuations in stem radius reflected changes in tree water status throughout the treeline ecotone. Extracted daily radial increments were significantly correlated with air temperature at the timberline and treeline only, where budburst, cambial activity and enlargement of first tracheids also occurred quite similarly. A close relationship was detected between radial increment and number of enlarging tracheids throughout the treeline ecotone.We conclude that (i) the relationship between climate and radial stem growth within the treeline ecotone is dependent on a close coupling to atmospheric climate conditions and (ii) initiation of cambial activity and radial growth in spring can be distinguished from stem re-hydration by histological analysis.

  7. Significant increment in the prevalence of overweight and obesity documented between 1994 and 2008 in Mexican college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H García-Alcala

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available H García-Alcala1, D Cuevas-Ramos2, Ch Genestier-Tamborero1, O Hirales-Tamez1, P Almeda-Valdés2, R Mehta2, CA Aguilar-Salinas21Universidad Popular Autónoma del Estado de Puebla, Puebla, Mexico; 2Department of Endocrinology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion “Salvador Zubiran” (INC MNSZ, Mexico City, MexicoAbstract: We describe the changes in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in 4606 students that applied to a Mexican University during 1994 to 2008. The mean (± standard deviation [SD] age was 17.7 ± 1.2 years-old. Progressive and significant increments of bodyweight (female [F] = 2.6, P = 0.03, body mass index (BMI (F = 4.4, P = 0.001, and waist circumference (F = 30.08, P < 0.0001 in women, and bodyweight (male [M] = 8.9, P < 0.001, BMI (M = 10.4, P < 0.001, and waist circumference (M = 13.01, P < 0.001 in men were observed. A significant increment (P < 0.05 in the prevalence of overweight since 1994 (n = 87, 12.1% throughout 1997 (n = 102, 14.1%, 1998 (n = 133, 18.4%, 1999 (n = 1993, 26.8%, and 2008 (n = 206, 19.9% was documented. Similarly, the prevalence of obesity had a significant increment in all students evaluated (P < 0.0001 since 1994 (n = 29, 13.2% through 1997 (n = 11, 5.0%, 1998 (n = 45, 20.5%, 1999 (n = 53, 24.1%, and 2008 (n = 82, 37.3%. The increment was significant in both women (P = 0.02 and men (P < 0.001. In summary, we report a significant increment in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Mexican students living in an urban setting over a time period of 14 years.Keywords: body mass index, adolescents, weight problems, obese

  8. The role of hypertension in the development of nephropathy in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Nørgaard, K; Jensen, T

    1990-01-01

    Which comes first when developing clinical diabetic nephropathy, the blood pressure rise or the increasing urinary albumin excretion? This issue is discussed based on recent literature of studies in humans with Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. We conclude that hypertension has...... a central role in the progression of diabetic nephropathy and has deleterious effects on the life expectancy of patients who already have signs of diabetic renal disease in terms of elevated urinary albumin excretion. However, blood pressure is preceded by small increments of urinary albumin excretion rates......, an indicator of universally increased vascular leakiness, and thus does not seem to be the cause of diabetic nephropathy....

  9. Dose-dependent effects of calorie restriction on gene expression, metabolism, and tumor progression are partially mediated by insulin-like growth factor-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Leticia M; Lavigne, Jackie A; Chandramouli, Gadisetti V R; Lui, Huaitian; Barrett, J Carl; Hursting, Stephen D

    2012-10-01

    The prevalence of obesity, an established risk and progression factor for breast and many other cancer types, remains very high in the United States and throughout the world. Calorie restriction (CR), a reduced-calorie dietary regimen typically involving a 20-40% reduction in calorie consumption, prevents or reverses obesity, and inhibits mammary and other types of cancer in multiple tumor model systems. Unfortunately, the mechanisms underlying the tumor inhibitory effects of CR are poorly understood, and a better understanding of these mechanisms may lead to new intervention targets and strategies for preventing or controlling cancer. We have previously shown that the anticancer effects of CR are associated with decreased systemic levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), the primary source of which is liver. We have also reported that CR strongly suppresses tumor development and growth in multiple mammary cancer models. To identify CR-responsive genes and pathways, and to further characterize the role of IGF-1 as a mediator of the anticancer effects of CR, we assessed hepatic and mammary gland gene expression, hormone levels and growth of orthotopically transplanted mammary tumors in control and CR mice with and without exogenous IGF-1. C57BL/6 mice were fed either control AIN-76A diet ad libitum (AL), subjected to 20%, 30%, or 40% CR plus placebo timed-release pellets, or subjected to 30% or 40% CR plus timed-release pellets delivering murine IGF-1 (mIGF-1, 20 μg/day). Compared with AL-fed controls, body weights were decreased 14.3% in the 20% CR group, 18.5% in the 30% CR group, and 38% in the 40% CR group; IGF-1 infusion had no effect on body weight. Hepatic transcriptome analyses indicated that compared with 20% CR, 30% CR significantly modulated more than twice the number of genes and 40% CR more than seven times the number of genes. Many of the genes specific to the 40% CR regimen were hepatic stress-related and/or DNA damage-related genes. Exogenous

  10. The research progress of the ATM-dependent signaling pathways%ATM蛋白激酶依赖性信号转导通路研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘小群; 陈伟; 袁素娟

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated gene (ATM gene) lead to the genetic disorder ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T). The ATM protein kinase, which is the product of the ATM gene, is mainly distributed in the nucleus of proliferating cells. Here we clarify the ATM-dependent signaling pathways according to phosphorylating various targets that include checkpoint kinase 2 (Chk2) , Nijmegen breakage syndrome protein 1 (Nbs1) and p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) at different stages of the cell cycle. Recent studies reveal that the ATM-dependent signaling pathways involve in regulating multiple cell cycle checkpoints and play vital roles in repairing DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in the cell cycle, suggesting that the ATM kinase perhaps is a new target for radiosensitization in the radiotherapy of malignant neoplasms.%毛细血管扩张共济失调突变基因(ataxia-telangiectasia mutated gene,ATM基因)变异导致遗传性毛细血管扩张共济失调症(ataxia-telangiectasia,A-T).ATM基因编码产物——ATM蛋白激酶主要分布于增殖细胞核中.根据ATM蛋白激酶在细胞周期中作用底物如检测点激酶2(checkpoint kinase 2,Chk2)、奈梅亨断裂综合症蛋白1 (Nijmegen breakage syndrome protein 1,Nbs1)和p38丝裂原活化蛋白激酶(p38 mitogen activated protein kinase,p38MAPK)等不同,形成了不同的ATM蛋白激酶依赖性信号转导通路.最近研究发现,ATM蛋白激酶依赖性信号转导通路参与细胞周期多个检测点的调控,在DNA双链断裂(DNA double-strand break,DSB)损伤修复过程中发挥着至关重要的作用,暗示了ATM蛋白激酶或将成为恶性肿瘤放射治疗增敏新靶点.

  11. Estimates for the Tail Probability of the Supremum of a Random Walk with Independent Increments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang YANG; Kaiyong WANG

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigate the tail probability of the supremum of a random walk with independent increments and obtain some equivalent assertions in the case that the increments are independent and identically distributed random variables with Osubexponential integrated distributions.A uniform upper bound is derived for the distribution of the supremum of a random walk with independent but non-identically distributed increments,whose tail distributions are dominated by a common tail distribution with an O-subexponential integrated distribution.

  12. Complex Incremental Product Innovation in Established Service Firms: A Micro Institutional Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Vermeulen, Patrick; Bosch, Frans; Volberda, Henk

    2006-01-01

    textabstractMany product innovation studies have described key determinants that should lead to successful incremental product innovation. Despite numerous studies suggesting how incremental product innovation should be successfully undertaken, many firms still struggle with this type of innovation. In this paper, we use an institutional perspective to investigate why established firms in the financial services industry struggle with their complex incremental product innovation efforts. We ar...

  13. EVALUATION OF DISTRIBUTION HISTOGRAMS FOR INCREMENT OF CHROMATICITY COORDINATES IN DISPLAY TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Zharinov

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We consider evaluation problem of chromaticity coordinates increment for an image displayed by indicating means (liquid crystal panels and etc.. Display device profile set by the weight matrix for components of primary colors serves as basic data for quantitative calculation. Research results have the form of mathematical expressions allowing calculation of increment values of chromaticity coordinates of the image displayed on indicating means and histograms of increment distribution.

  14. Incremental peritoneal dialysis: a 10 year single-centre experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandrini, Massimo; Vizzardi, Valerio; Valerio, Francesca; Ravera, Sara; Manili, Luigi; Zubani, Roberto; Lucca, Bernardo J A; Cancarini, Giovanni

    2016-12-01

    Incremental dialysis consists in prescribing a dialysis dose aimed towards maintaining total solute clearance (renal + dialysis) near the targets set by guidelines. Incremental peritoneal dialysis (incrPD) is defined as one or two dwell-times per day on CAPD, whereas standard peritoneal dialysis (stPD) consists in three-four dwell-times per day. Single-centre cohort study. Enrollement period: January 2002-December 2007; end of follow up (FU): December 2012. incident patients with FU ≥6 months, initial residual renal function (RRF) 3-10 ml/min/1.73 sqm BSA, renal indication for PD. Median incrPD duration was 17 months (I-III Q: 10; 30). There were no statistically significant differences between 29 patients on incrPD and 76 on stPD regarding: clinical, demographic and anthropometric characteristics at the beginning of treatment, adequacy indices, peritonitis-free survival (peritonitis incidence: 1/135 months-patients in incrPD vs. 1/52 months-patients in stPD) and patient survival. During the first 6 months, RRF remained stable in incrPD (6.20 ± 2.02 vs. 6.08 ± 1.47 ml/min/1.73 sqm BSA; p = 0.792) whereas it decreased in stPD (4.48 ± 2.12 vs. 5.61 ± 1.49; p < 0.001). Patient survival was affected negatively by ischemic cardiopathy (HR: 4.269; p < 0.001), peripheral and cerebral vascular disease (H2.842; p = 0.006) and cirrhosis (2.982; p = 0.032) and positively by urine output (0.392; p = 0.034). Hospitalization rates were significantly lower in incrPD (p = 0.021). Eight of 29 incrPD patients were transplanted before reaching full dose treatment. IncrPD is a safe modality to start PD; compared to stPD, it shows similar survival rates, significantly less hospitalization, a trend towards lower peritonitis incidence and slower reduction of renal function.

  15. Phenomenological microstructure simulation of incremental bulk metal forming using a multi mesh method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirt, G.; Schäfer, D.

    2010-06-01

    For the process design of incremental forming processes like ring rolling or stretch forging there is need for fast and accurate simulation techniques. For many applications it would be necessary to predict the microstructural evolution during the process. For this reason the FEM-software Larstran/Shape which is used for the plastomechanical simulation can be coupled with the microstructure simulation module Strucsim. This software uses phenomenological equations for the calculation of recrystallization (dynamic and static) and grain size evolution [7]. To accelerate the simulation a multi mesh method has been developed. This method uses an adapted simulation mesh with fine elements only in the locally limited contact and forming zone to achieve a reduction of the number of elements. Due to the relative movement of the tool and workpiece the adapted FE-mesh has to be remeshed regularly according to the position of the tool. To avoid loss of information caused by the use of coarse elements the multi mesh method uses a second storage mesh which represents the entire workpiece and which is discretized using only fine elements. For the update of the storage mesh the displacement vectors and changes of scalar values like temperature can be interpolated. For the application of the multi mesh method to the microstructure simulation the update algorithm for the microstructure values has to be modified. The microstructure and plastomechanical simulation have to be uncoupled and the static recrystallization and grain growth outside the forming zone have to be calculated separately. Using the multi mesh method the simulation of incremental bulk metal forming processes including a microstructural simulation can be accelerated. The acceleration factor of the simulation compared to a simulation without adaptive meshing is dependent on the reduction of elements and nodes.

  16. The effect of artificially induced drought on radial increment and wood properties of Norway spruce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyske, Tuula; Hölttä, Teemu; Mäkinen, Harri; Nöjd, Pekka; Lumme, Ilari; Spiecker, Heinrich

    2010-01-01

    We studied experimentally the effects of water availability on height and radial increment as well as wood density and tracheid properties of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). The study was carried out in two long-term N-fertilization experiments in Southern Finland (Heinola and Sahalahti). At each site, one fertilized and one control plot was covered with an under-canopy roof preventing rainwater from reaching the soil. Two uncovered plots were monitored at each site. The drought treatment was initiated in the beginning of growing season and lasted for 60-75 days each year. The treatment was repeated for four to five consecutive years depending on the site. Altogether, 40 sample trees were harvested and discs sampled at breast height. From the discs, ring width and wood density were measured by X-ray densitometry. Tracheid properties were analysed by reflected-light microscopy and image analysis. Reduced soil water potential during the growing season decreased annual radial and height increment and had a small influence on tracheid properties and wood density. No statistically significant differences were found in the average tracheid diameter between the drought-treated and control trees. The average cell wall thickness was somewhat higher (7-10%) for the drought treatment than for the control, but the difference was statistically significant only in Sahalahti. An increased cell wall thickness was found in both early- and latewood tracheids, but the increase was much greater in latewood. In drought-treated trees, cell wall proportion within an annual ring increased, consequently increasing wood density. No interaction between the N fertilization and drought treatment was found in wood density. After the termination of the drought treatment, trees rapidly recovered from the drought stress. According to our results, severe drought due to the predicted climate change may reduce Norway spruce growth but is unlikely to result in large changes in wood properties.

  17. The incremental impact of cardiac MRI on clinical decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Michael J; Richardson, James D; Child, Nicholas M; Maredia, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Despite a significant expansion in the use of cardiac MRI (CMR), there is inadequate evaluation of its incremental impact on clinical decision-making over and above other well-established modalities. We sought to determine the incremental utility of CMR in routine practice. Methods: 629 consecutive CMR studies referred by 44 clinicians from 9 institutions were evaluated. Pre-defined algorithms were used to determine the incremental influence on diagnostic thinking, influence on clinical management and thus the overall clinical utility. Studies were also subdivided and evaluated according to the indication for CMR. Results: CMR provided incremental information to the clinician in 85% of cases, with incremental influence on diagnostic thinking in 85% of cases and incremental impact on management in 42% of cases. The overall incremental utility of CMR exceeded 90% in 7 out of the 13 indications, whereas in settings such as the evaluation of unexplained ventricular arrhythmia or mild left ventricular systolic dysfunction, this was <50%. Conclusion: CMR was frequently able to inform and influence decision-making in routine clinical practice, even with analyses that accepted only incremental clinical information and excluded a redundant duplication of imaging. Significant variations in yield were noted according to the indication for CMR. These data support a wider integration of CMR services into cardiac imaging departments. Advances in knowledge: These data are the first to objectively evaluate the incremental value of a UK CMR service in clinical decision-making. Such data are essential when seeking justification for a CMR service. PMID:26493468

  18. The incremental impact of cardiac MRI on clinical decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajwani, Adil; Stewart, Michael J; Richardson, James D; Child, Nicholas M; Maredia, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Despite a significant expansion in the use of cardiac MRI (CMR), there is inadequate evaluation of its incremental impact on clinical decision-making over and above other well-established modalities. We sought to determine the incremental utility of CMR in routine practice. 629 consecutive CMR studies referred by 44 clinicians from 9 institutions were evaluated. Pre-defined algorithms were used to determine the incremental influence on diagnostic thinking, influence on clinical management and thus the overall clinical utility. Studies were also subdivided and evaluated according to the indication for CMR. CMR provided incremental information to the clinician in 85% of cases, with incremental influence on diagnostic thinking in 85% of cases and incremental impact on management in 42% of cases. The overall incremental utility of CMR exceeded 90% in 7 out of the 13 indications, whereas in settings such as the evaluation of unexplained ventricular arrhythmia or mild left ventricular systolic dysfunction, this was incremental clinical information and excluded a redundant duplication of imaging. Significant variations in yield were noted according to the indication for CMR. These data support a wider integration of CMR services into cardiac imaging departments. These data are the first to objectively evaluate the incremental value of a UK CMR service in clinical decision-making. Such data are essential when seeking justification for a CMR service.

  19. Instream flow incremental methodology: microhabitat utilization criteria for Atlantic salmon in Newfoundland waters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DeGraaf, D.A; Chaput, G.J

    1984-01-01

    ... with the PHABSIM computer model of the Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (IFIM). Potential study areas were identified through discussions among LGL, the Scientific Authority and DFO researchers...

  20. A comparative study of velocity increment generation between the rigid body and flexible models of MMET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, Norilmi Amilia, E-mail: aenorilmi@usm.my [School of Aerospace Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2016-02-01

    The motorized momentum exchange tether (MMET) is capable of generating useful velocity increments through spin–orbit coupling. This study presents a comparative study of the velocity increments between the rigid body and flexible models of MMET. The equations of motions of both models in the time domain are transformed into a function of true anomaly. The equations of motion are integrated, and the responses in terms of the velocity increment of the rigid body and flexible models are compared and analysed. Results show that the initial conditions, eccentricity, and flexibility of the tether have significant effects on the velocity increments of the tether.

  1. Tl(I) and Tl(III) alter the expression of EGF-dependent signals and cyclins required for pheochromocytoma (PC12) cell-cycle resumption and progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, María T L; Verstraeten, Sandra V

    2015-08-01

    The effects of thallium [Tl(I) and Tl(III)] on the PC12 cell cycle were evaluated without (EGF(-)) or with (EGF(+)) media supplementation with epidermal growth factor (EGF). The following markers of cell-cycle phases were analyzed: cyclin D1 (G1 ); E2F-1, cyclin E and cytosolic p21 (G1 →S transition); nuclear PCNA and cyclin A (S); and cyclin B1 (G2). The amount of cells in each phase and the activation of the signaling cascade triggered by EGF were also analyzed. Tl(I) and Tl(III) (5-100 μM) caused dissimilar effects on PC12 cell proliferation. In EGF(-) cells, Tl(I) increased the expression of G1 →S transition markers and nuclear PCNA, without affecting cyclin A or cyclin B1. In addition to those, cyclin B1 was also increased in EGF(+) cells. In EGF(-) cells, Tl(III) increased the expression of cyclin D1, all the G1→S and S phase markers and cyclin B1. In EGF(+) cells, Tl(III) increased cyclin D1 expression and decreased all the markers of G1 →S transition and the S phase. Even when these cations did not induce the activation of EGF receptor (EGFR) in EGF(-) cells, they promoted the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Akt. In the presence of EGF, the cations anticipated EGFR phosphorylation without affecting the kinetics of EGF-dependent ERK1/2 and Akt phosphorylation. Altogether, results indicate that Tl(I) promoted cell proliferation in both EGF(-) and EGF(+) cells. In contrast, Tl(III) promoted the proliferation of EGF(-) cells but delayed it in EGF(+) cells, which may be related to the toxic effects of this cation in PC12 cells. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Bcl3-dependent stabilization of CtBP1 is crucial for the inhibition of apoptosis and tumor progression in breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hee June; Lee, Ji Min; Kim, Hyunkyung; Nam, Hye Jin; Shin, Hi-Jai R.; Kim, Dongha [Department of Biological Sciences, Creative Research Initiative Center for Chromatin Dynamics, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Enyoung; Noh, Dong-Young [Department of Surgery and Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Keun Il [Department of Biological Sciences, Sookmyung Women' s University, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung Hwa [Department of Medical Sciences, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Sung Hee, E-mail: sbaek@snu.ac.kr [Department of Biological Sciences, Creative Research Initiative Center for Chromatin Dynamics, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-24

    Research highlights: {yields} CtBP1 as a new binding partner of Bcl3. {yields} Bcl3 stabilizes CtBP1 by inhibiting ubiquitination of CtBP1. {yields} Bcl3 antagonizes CtBP1-mediated apoptotic responses. {yields} Positive correlation between increased Bcl3 and CtBP1 protein levels in breast cancer tissues. -- Abstract: B-cell lymphoma 3 (Bcl3) is a proto-oncogene upregulated in a wide range of cancers, including breast cancer. Although Bcl3 is known to promote cell proliferation and inhibit apoptosis, the molecular mechanisms underlying the proto-oncogenic function of Bcl3 have not been completely elucidated. To gain insight into the oncogenic role of Bcl3, we applied a proteomic approach, which led to the identification of C-terminal binding protein 1 (CtBP1) as a binding partner of Bcl3. A PXDLS/R motif embedded in Bcl3 was found to mediate the interaction between Bcl3 and CtBP1, which caused the stabilization of CtBP1 by blocking proteasome-dependent degradation. Apoptotic stimuli-induced degradation of CtBP1 was significantly abolished by the upregulation of Bcl3, leading to the sustained repression of pro-apoptotic gene expression and subsequent inhibition of apoptosis. Intriguingly, a strong positive correlation between the protein levels of Bcl3 and CtBP1 was detected in breast cancer patient samples. Our study reveals a novel combinatorial role for Bcl3 and CtBP1, providing an explanation for the acquisition of resistance to apoptosis in cancer cells, which is a major requirement for cancer development.

  3. Research Progress on Plant RNA-dependant RNA Polymerase%植物中依赖于RNA的RNA聚合酶研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐涛; 王磊

    2011-01-01

    依赖于RNA的RNA聚合酶(RDR)能够以单链RNA为模版合成互补RNA链,产生双链RNA.双链RNA在细胞内被类似RNaseⅢ的酶DCL加工成20~ 24 nt的小分子干扰RNA(siRNA).siRNA可以在转录水平或转录后水平抑制靶基因的表达.RDR通过基因沉默途径参与植物的生长发育调节、逆境应答以及表观遗传修饰等许多生物学过程.加深对植物RDR表达模式、生化活性及生物学功能等方面的理解将有利于植物基因沉默的发展和运用.%RNA-dependant RNA polymerase (RDR) could synthesize RNA strand complementary using single-stranded RNA as template to produce double-stranded RNA. Then the double-stranded RNAs are processed into 20~24 nt small interfering RNAs (siRNA) by DCL similar to cellular Rnase ID -like, which could transcriptionally or posttranscriptionally repress the expression of target genes. Through gene silencing pathway, RDR participates in multiple biological processes, such as plant developmental regulation, stress response and epigenetic modification. Thorough understanding about the expression profile, biochemical property and biological function of plant RDR will benefit the development and utilization of plant gene silencing.

  4. The Gcn2 Regulator Yih1 Interacts with the Cyclin Dependent Kinase Cdc28 and Promotes Cell Cycle Progression through G2/M in Budding Yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C Silva

    Full Text Available The Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein Yih1, when overexpressed, inhibits the eIF2 alpha kinase Gcn2 by competing for Gcn1 binding. However, deletion of YIH1 has no detectable effect on Gcn2 activity, suggesting that Yih1 is not a general inhibitor of Gcn2, and has no phenotypic defect identified so far. Thus, its physiological role is largely unknown. Here, we show that Yih1 is involved in the cell cycle. Yeast lacking Yih1 displays morphological patterns and DNA content indicative of a delay in the G2/M phases of the cell cycle, and this phenotype is independent of Gcn1 and Gcn2. Accordingly, the levels of phosphorylated eIF2α, which show a cell cycle-dependent fluctuation, are not altered in cells devoid of Yih1. We present several lines of evidence indicating that Yih1 is in a complex with Cdc28. Yih1 pulls down endogenous Cdc28 in vivo and this interaction is enhanced when Cdc28 is active, suggesting that Yih1 modulates the function of Cdc28 in specific stages of the cell cycle. We also demonstrate, by Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation, that endogenous Yih1 and Cdc28 interact with each other, confirming Yih1 as a bona fide Cdc28 binding partner. Amino acid substitutions within helix H2 of the RWD domain of Yih1 enhance Yih1-Cdc28 association. Overexpression of this mutant, but not of wild type Yih1, leads to a phenotype similar to that of YIH1 deletion, supporting the view that Yih1 is involved through Cdc28 in the regulation of the cell cycle. We further show that IMPACT, the mammalian homologue of Yih1, interacts with CDK1, the mammalian counterpart of Cdc28, indicating that the involvement with the cell cycle is conserved. Together, these data provide insights into the cellular function of Yih1/IMPACT, and provide the basis for future studies on the role of this protein in the cell cycle.

  5. Multi-agent planning and scheduling, execution monitoring and incremental rescheduling: Application to motorway traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourou, Pascal; Fade, Bernard

    1992-01-01

    This article describes a planning method applicable to agents with great perception and decision-making capabilities and the ability to communicate with other agents. Each agent has a task to fulfill allowing for the actions of other agents in its vicinity. Certain simultaneous actions may cause conflicts because they require the same resource. The agent plans each of its actions and simultaneously transmits these to its neighbors. In a similar way, it receives plans from the other agents and must take account of these plans. The planning method allows us to build a distributed scheduling system. Here, these agents are robot vehicles on a highway communicating by radio. In this environment, conflicts between agents concern the allocation of space in time and are connected with the inertia of the vehicles. Each vehicle made a temporal, spatial, and situated reasoning in order to drive without collision. The flexibility and reactivity of the method presented here allows the agent to generate its plan based on assumptions concerning the other agents and then check these assumptions progressively as plans are received from the other agents. A multi-agent execution monitoring of these plans can be done, using data generated during planning and the multi-agent decision-making algorithm described here. A selective backtrack allows us to perform incremental rescheduling.

  6. Business Collaboration in Food Networks: Incremental Solution Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Sundmaeker

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper will present an approach for an incremental solution development that is based on the usage of the currently developed Internet based FIspace business collaboration platform. Key element is the clear segmentation of infrastructures that are either internal or external to the collaborating business entity in the food network. On the one hand, the approach enables to differentiate between specific centralised as well as decentralised ways for data storage and hosting of IT based functionalities. The selection of specific dataexchange protocols and data models is facilitated. On the other hand, the supported solution design and subsequent development is focusing on reusable “software Apps” that can be used on their own and are incorporating a clear added value for the business actors. It will be outlined on how to push the development and introduction of Apps that do not require basic changes of the existing infrastructure. The paper will present an example that is based on the development of a set of Apps for the exchange of product quality related information in food networks, specifically addressing fresh fruits and vegetables. It combines workflow support for data exchange from farm to retail as well as to provide quality feedback information to facilitate the business process improvement. Finally, the latest status of theFIspace platform development will be outlined. Key features and potential ways for real users and software developers in using the FIspace platform that is initiated by science and industry will be outlined.

  7. Comparative Study between Programming Systems for Incremental Sheet Forming Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moayedfar Majid

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Incremental Sheet Forming (ISF is a method developed to form a desired surface feature on sheet metals in batch production series. Due to a lack of dedicated programming system to execute, control and monitor the whole ISF, researchers tried to utilize programming systems designed for chip making process to suits for ISF. In this work, experiments were conducted to find suitability and quality of ISF parts produced by using manual CNC part programming. Therefore, ISF was carried out on stainless steel sheets using Computer Numerical Control (CNC milling machines. Prior to running the experiments, a ball-point shaped tool made of bronze alloy was fabricated due to its superior ability to reduce the amount of friction and improve the surface quality of the stainless steel sheet metal. The experiments also employed the method of forming in negative direction with a blank mould and the tool which helped to shape the desired part quickly. The programming was generated using the MasterCAM software for the CNC milling machine and edited before transferring to the machine. However, the programming for the machine was written manually to show the differences of output date between software programming and manual programming. From the results, best method of programming was found and minimum amount of contact area between tool and sheet metal achieved.

  8. Urdu to Punjabi Machine Translation: An Incremental Training Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umrinderpal Singh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The statistical machine translation approach is highly popular in automatic translation research area and promising approach to yield good accuracy. Efforts have been made to develop Urdu to Punjabi statistical machine translation system. The system is based on an incremental training approach to train the statistical model. In place of the parallel sentences corpus has manually mapped phrases which were used to train the model. In preprocessing phase, various rules were used for tokenization and segmentation processes. Along with these rules, text classification system was implemented to classify input text to predefined classes and decoder translates given text according to selected domain by the text classifier. The system used Hidden Markov Model(HMM for the learning process and Viterbi algorithm has been used for decoding. Experiment and evaluation have shown that simple statistical model like HMM yields good accuracy for a closely related language pair like Urdu-Punjabi. The system has achieved 0.86 BLEU score and in manual testing and got more than 85% accuracy.

  9. Online Botnet Detection Based on Incremental Discrete Fourier Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaocong Yu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Botnet detection has attracted lots of attention since botnet attack is becoming one of the most serious threats on the Internet. But little work has considered the online detection. In this paper, we propose a novel approach that can monitor the botnet activities in an online way. We define the concept of “feature streams” to describe raw network traffic. If some feature streams show high similarities, the corresponding hosts will be regarded as suspected bots which will be added into the suspected bot hosts set. After activity analysis, bot hosts will be confirmed as soon as possible. We present a simple method by computing the average Euclidean distance for similarity measurement.  To avoid huge calculation among feature streams, classical Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT technique is adopted. Then an incremental calculation of DFT coefficients is introduced to obtain the optimal execution time. The experimental evaluations show that our approach can detect both centralized and distributed botnet activities successfully with high efficiency and low false positive rate.

  10. A multiaxial incremental fatigue damage formulation using nested damage surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Meggiolaro

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Multiaxial fatigue damage calculations under non-proportional variable amplitude loadings still remains a quite challenging task in practical applications, in part because most fatigue models require cycle identification and counting to single out individual load events before quantifying the damage induced by them. Moreover, to account for the non-proportionality of the load path of each event, semi-empirical methods are required to calculate path-equivalent ranges, e.g. using a convex enclosure or the MOI (Moment Of Inertia method. In this work, a novel Incremental Fatigue Damage methodology is introduced to continuously account for the accumulation of multiaxial fatigue damage under service loads, without requiring rainflow counters or path-equivalent range estimators. The proposed approach is not based on questionable Continuum Damage Mechanics concepts or on the integration of elastoplastic work. Instead, fatigue damage itself is continuously integrated, based on damage parameters adopted by traditional fatigue models well tested in engineering practice. A framework of nested damage surfaces is introduced, allowing the calculation of fatigue damage even for general 6D multiaxial load histories. The proposed approach is validated by non-proportional tensiontorsion experiments on tubular 316L stainless steel specimens.

  11. [Effect of menstrual cycle on cardiorespiratory system during incremental exercise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesaki, N; Sasaki, J; Shoji, M; Iwasaki, H; Asano, K; Eda, M

    1986-01-01

    According to the results of questionnaires to college athletes, they believe the follicular phase is better than luteal phase for competitive sports. However, it is not clear whether there is significant difference in athletic performance between the two phases of the menstrual cycle. The effects of the menstrual cycle on the cardiorespiratory system were investigated in exercising women who are top players of basketball in Japan. They performed incremental exercise on a cycle ergometer. During the exercise, the ECG and heart rate (HR) were monitored. The expired air was sampled continuously and expiratory gas volume/minute (VE), oxygen uptake (VO2), carbon dioxide output (VCO2), gas exchange ratio(R) and respiratory rate (Resp. E.) were measured. Blood samples were collected to measure the blood lactic acid concentration during the exercise. HR in the luteal phase is higher than in the follicular phase at rest and throughout the exercise. VE, R and Resp. R. at rest and during exercise indicated a tendency to a higher level in the follicular phase. The blood lactic acid concentration during exercise in the follicular phase indicated a tendency to increase more rapidly than in luteal phase. However, no statistical differences in the cardiorespiratory system were detected when the follicular and luteal phase were compared. These results did not indicate conclusively in which phase it is better for athletic women to take part in competitive sports.

  12. Incremental planning to control a blackboard-based problem solver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durfee, E. H.; Lesser, V. R.

    1987-01-01

    To control problem solving activity, a planner must resolve uncertainty about which specific long-term goals (solutions) to pursue and about which sequences of actions will best achieve those goals. A planner is described that abstracts the problem solving state to recognize possible competing and compatible solutions and to roughly predict the importance and expense of developing these solutions. With this information, the planner plans sequences of problem solving activities that most efficiently resolve its uncertainty about which of the possible solutions to work toward. The planner only details actions for the near future because the results of these actions will influence how (and whether) a plan should be pursued. As problem solving proceeds, the planner adds new details to the plan incrementally, and monitors and repairs the plan to insure it achieves its goals whenever possible. Through experiments, researchers illustrate how these new mechanisms significantly improve problem solving decisions and reduce overall computation. They briefly discuss current research directions, including how these mechanisms can improve a problem solver's real-time response and can enhance cooperation in a distributed problem solving network.

  13. Numerical simulation and experimental investigation of incremental sheet forming process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Fei; MO Jian-hua

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate the process of incremental sheet forming (ISF) through both experimental and numerical approaches, a three-dimensional elasto-plastic finite element model (FEM) was developed to simulate the process and the simulated results were compared with those of experiment. The results of numerical simulations, such as the strain history and distribution, the stress state and distribution, sheet thickness distribution, etc, were discussed in details, and the influences of process parameters on these results were also analyzed. The simulated results of the radial strain and the thickness distribution are in good agreement with experimental results. The simulations reveal that the deformation is localized around the tool and constantly remains close to a plane strain state. With decreasing depth step, increasing tool diameter and wall inclination angle, the axial stress reduces, leading to less thinning and more homogeneous plastic strain and thickness distribution. During ISF, the plastic strain increases stepwise under the action of the tool. Each increase in plastic strain is accompanied by hydrostatic pressure, which explains why obtainable deformation using ISF exceeds the forming limits of conventional sheet forming.

  14. Process Parameters Optimization in Single Point Incremental Forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Vishal; Aryal, Ashmin; Katyal, Puneet; Goswami, Amitesh

    2016-04-01

    This work aims to optimize the formability and surface roughness of parts formed by the single-point incremental forming process for an Aluminium-6063 alloy. The tests are based on Taguchi's L18 orthogonal array selected on the basis of DOF. The tests have been carried out on vertical machining center (DMC70V); using CAD/CAM software (SolidWorks V5/MasterCAM). Two levels of tool radius, three levels of sheet thickness, step size, tool rotational speed, feed rate and lubrication have been considered as the input process parameters. Wall angle and surface roughness have been considered process responses. The influential process parameters for the formability and surface roughness have been identified with the help of statistical tool (response table, main effect plot and ANOVA). The parameter that has the utmost influence on formability and surface roughness is lubrication. In the case of formability, lubrication followed by the tool rotational speed, feed rate, sheet thickness, step size and tool radius have the influence in descending order. Whereas in surface roughness, lubrication followed by feed rate, step size, tool radius, sheet thickness and tool rotational speed have the influence in descending order. The predicted optimal values for the wall angle and surface roughness are found to be 88.29° and 1.03225 µm. The confirmation experiments were conducted thrice and the value of wall angle and surface roughness were found to be 85.76° and 1.15 µm respectively.

  15. Incremental Frequent Subgraph Mining on Large Evolving Graphs

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelhamid, Ehab

    2017-08-22

    Frequent subgraph mining is a core graph operation used in many domains, such as graph data management and knowledge exploration, bioinformatics and security. Most existing techniques target static graphs. However, modern applications, such as social networks, utilize large evolving graphs. Mining these graphs using existing techniques is infeasible, due to the high computational cost. In this paper, we propose IncGM+, a fast incremental approach for continuous frequent subgraph mining problem on a single large evolving graph. We adapt the notion of “fringe” to the graph context, that is the set of subgraphs on the border between frequent and infrequent subgraphs. IncGM+ maintains fringe subgraphs and exploits them to prune the search space. To boost the efficiency, we propose an efficient index structure to maintain selected embeddings with minimal memory overhead. These embeddings are utilized to avoid redundant expensive subgraph isomorphism operations. Moreover, the proposed system supports batch updates. Using large real-world graphs, we experimentally verify that IncGM+ outperforms existing methods by up to three orders of magnitude, scales to much larger graphs and consumes less memory.

  16. Towards a fully size-consistent method of increments

    CERN Document Server

    Fertitta, E; Paulus, B; Barcza, G; Legeza, Ö

    2016-01-01

    The method of increments (MoI) allows one to successfully calculate cohesive energies of bulk materials with high accuracy, but it encounters difficulties when calculating whole dissociation curves. The reason is that its standard formalism is based on a single Hartree-Fock (HF) configuration whose orbitals are localized and used for the many-body expansion. Therefore, in those situations where HF does not allow a size-consistent description of the dissociation, the MoI cannot yield proper results either. Herein we address the problem by employing a size-consistent multiconfigurational reference for the MoI formalism. This leads to a matrix equation where a coupling derived by the reference itself is employed. In principle, such approach allows one to evaluate approximate values for the ground as well as excited states energies. While the latter are accurate close to the avoided crossing only, the ground state results are very promising for the whole dissociation curve, as shown by the comparison with density...

  17. Incremental refinement of a multi-user-detection algorithm (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vollmer

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-user detection is a technique proposed for mobile radio systems based on the CDMA principle, such as the upcoming UMTS. While offering an elegant solution to problems such as intra-cell interference, it demands very significant computational resources. In this paper, we present a high-level approach for reducing the required resources for performing multi-user detection in a 3GPP TDD multi-user system. This approach is based on a displacement representation of the parameters that describe the transmission system, and a generalized Schur algorithm that works on this representation. The Schur algorithm naturally leads to a highly parallel hardware implementation using CORDIC cells. It is shown that this hardware architecture can also be used to compute the initial displacement representation. It is very beneficial to introduce incremental refinement structures into the solution process, both at the algorithmic level and in the individual cells of the hardware architecture. We detail these approximations and present simulation results that confirm their effectiveness.

  18. An Incremental High-Utility Mining Algorithm with Transaction Insertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry Chun-Wei Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Association-rule mining is commonly used to discover useful and meaningful patterns from a very large database. It only considers the occurrence frequencies of items to reveal the relationships among itemsets. Traditional association-rule mining is, however, not suitable in real-world applications since the purchased items from a customer may have various factors, such as profit or quantity. High-utility mining was designed to solve the limitations of association-rule mining by considering both the quantity and profit measures. Most algorithms of high-utility mining are designed to handle the static database. Fewer researches handle the dynamic high-utility mining with transaction insertion, thus requiring the computations of database rescan and combination explosion of pattern-growth mechanism. In this paper, an efficient incremental algorithm with transaction insertion is designed to reduce computations without candidate generation based on the utility-list structures. The enumeration tree and the relationships between 2-itemsets are also adopted in the proposed algorithm to speed up the computations. Several experiments are conducted to show the performance of the proposed algorithm in terms of runtime, memory consumption, and number of generated patterns.

  19. A novel instrument for generating angular increments of 1 nanoradian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcock, Simon G.; Bugnar, Alex; Nistea, Ioana; Sawhney, Kawal; Scott, Stewart; Hillman, Michael; Grindrod, Jamie; Johnson, Iain

    2015-12-01

    Accurate generation of small angles is of vital importance for calibrating angle-based metrology instruments used in a broad spectrum of industries including mechatronics, nano-positioning, and optic fabrication. We present a novel, piezo-driven, flexure device capable of reliably generating micro- and nanoradian angles. Unlike many such instruments, Diamond Light Source's nano-angle generator (Diamond-NANGO) does not rely on two separate actuators or rotation stages to provide coarse and fine motion. Instead, a single Physik Instrumente NEXLINE "PiezoWalk" actuator provides millimetres of travel with nanometre resolution. A cartwheel flexure efficiently converts displacement from the linear actuator into rotary motion with minimal parasitic errors. Rotation of the flexure is directly measured via a Magnescale "Laserscale" angle encoder. Closed-loop operation of the PiezoWalk actuator, using high-speed feedback from the angle encoder, ensures that the Diamond-NANGO's output drifts by only ˜0.3 nrad rms over ˜30 min. We show that the Diamond-NANGO can reliably move with unprecedented 1 nrad (˜57 ndeg) angular increments over a range of >7000 μrad. An autocollimator, interferometer, and capacitive displacement sensor are used to independently confirm the Diamond-NANGO's performance by simultaneously measuring the rotation of a reflective cube.

  20. Numerical Studies and Equipment Development for Single Point Incremental Forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marabuto, S. R.; Sena, J. I. V.; Afonso, D.; Martins, M. A. B. E.; Coelho, R. M.; Ferreira, J. A. F.; Valente, R. A. F.; de Sousa, R. J. Alves

    2011-05-01

    This paper summarizes the achievements obtained so far in the context of a research project carried out at the University of Aveiro, Portugal on both numerical and experimental viewpoints concerning Single Point Incremental Forming (SPIF). On the experimental side, the general guidelines on the development of a new SPIF machine are detailed. The innovation features are related to the choice of a six-degrees-of-freedom, parallel kinematics machine, with a high payload, to broad the range of materials to be tested, and allowing for a higher flexibility on tool-path generation. On the numerical side, preliminary results on simulation of SPIF processes resorting to an innovative solid-shell finite element are presented. The final target is an accurate and fast simulation of SPIF processes by means of numerical methods. Accuracy is obtained through the use of a finite element accounting for three-dimensional stress and strain fields. The developed formulation allows for an unlimited number of integration points through its thickness direction, which promotes accuracy without loss of CPU efficiency. Preliminary results and designs are shown and discussions over the obtained solutions are provided in order to further improve the research framework.

  1. Automated Dimension Determination for NMF-based Incremental Collaborative Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiwei Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF based collaborative filtering t e chniques h a ve a c hieved great success in product recommendations. It is well known that in NMF, the dimensions of the factor matrices have to be determined in advance. Moreover, data is growing fast; thus in some cases, the dimensions need to be changed to reduce the approximation error. The recommender systems should be capable of updating new data in a timely manner without sacrificing the prediction accuracy. In this paper, we propose an NMF based data update approach with automated dimension determination for collaborative filtering purposes. The approach can determine the dimensions of the factor matrices and update them automatically. It exploits the nearest neighborhood based clustering algorithm to cluster users and items according to their auxiliary information, and uses the clusters as the constraints in NMF. The dimensions of the factor matrices are associated with the cluster quantities. When new data becomes available, the incremental clustering algorithm determines whether to increase the number of clusters or merge the existing clusters. Experiments on three different datasets (MovieLens, Sushi, and LibimSeTi were conducted to examine the proposed approach. The results show that our approach can update the data quickly and provide encouraging prediction accuracy.

  2. Incrementally objective implicit integration of hypoelastic-viscoplastic constitutive equations based on the mechanical threshold strength model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, Hashem M.; Bronkhorst, Curt A.; Addessio, Francis L.; Cady, Carl M.; Brown, Donald W.; Chen, Shuh Rong; Gray, George T.

    2014-05-01

    The present paper focuses on the development of a fully implicit, incrementally objective integration algorithm for a hypoelastic formulation of -viscoplasticity, which employs the mechanical threshold strength model to compute the material's flow stress, taking into account its dependence on strain rate and temperature. Heat generation due to high-rate viscoplastic deformation is accounted for, assuming adiabatic conditions. The implementation of the algorithm is discussed, and its performance is assessed in the contexts of implicit and explicit dynamic finite element analysis, with the aid of example problems involving a wide range of loading rates. Computational results are compared to experimental data, showing very good agreement.

  3. "The Success of Captive Broodstock Programs Depends on High In-Culture Survival, ..." [from the Abstract], 2006-2007 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berejikian, Barry A. [National Marine Fisheries Service

    2009-04-08

    The success of captive broodstock programs depends on high in-culture survival, appropriate development of the reproductive system, and the behavior and survival of cultured salmon after release, either as adults or juveniles. Continuing captive broodstock research designed to improve technology is being conducted to cover all major life history stages of Pacific salmon. Accomplishments detailed in this report are listed below by major objective. Objective 1: This study documented that captively reared Chinook exhibited spawn timing similar to their founder anadromous population. An analysis of spawn timing data of captively reared Chinook salmon that had received different levels of antibiotic treatment did not suggest that antibiotic treatments during the freshwater or seawater phase of the life cycle affects final maturation timing. No effect of rearing density was found with respect to spawn timing or other reproductive behaviors. Objective 2: This study investigated the critical period(s) for imprinting for sockeye salmon by exposing juvenile salmon to known odorants at key developmental stages. Molecular assessments of imprinting-induced changes in odorant receptor gene expression indicated that regulation of odorant expression differs between coho and sockeye salmon. While temporal patterns differ between these species, exposure to arginine elicited increases in odorant receptor mRNA expression in sockeye salmon. Objective 3: This study: (i) identified the critical period when maturation is initiated in male spring Chinook salmon and when body growth affects onset of puberty, (ii) described changes in the reproductive endocrine system during onset of puberty and throughout spermatogenesis in male spring Chinook salmon, (iii) found that the rate of oocyte development prior to vitellogenesis is related to body growth in female spring Chinook, and (iv) demonstrated that growth regimes which reduce early (age 2) male maturation slow the rate of primary and early

  4. HLoader – Automated Incremental Hadoop Data Loader Service and Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Stein, Dániel

    2015-01-01

    For 10 weeks —from 15th of June to 21st of August— I was a Summer Student at the CERN Database Group. This report summarizes my project and my progress. Supervisors: Kacper Surdy, Zbigniew Baranowski. Project ID: 15465.

  5. Progress Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Karsten

    1999-01-01

    Progress report describing the work carried out by the Danish participant in the ALTSET project in the period January 1999 to July 1999.......Progress report describing the work carried out by the Danish participant in the ALTSET project in the period January 1999 to July 1999....

  6. Mathematical analysis of the heart rate performance curve during incremental exercise testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosic, G; Pantovic, S; Niciforovic, J; Colovic, V; Rankovic, V; Obradovic, Z; Rosic, Mirko

    2011-03-01

    In this study we performed laboratory treadmill protocols of increasing load. Heart rate was continuously recorded and blood lactate concentration was measured for determination of lactate threshold by means of LTD-max and LT4.0 methods.Our results indicate that the shape of heart rate performance curve (HRPC) during incremental testing depends on the applied exercise protocol (change of initial speed and the step of running speed increase, with the constant stage duration). Depending on the applied protocol, the HRPC can be described by linear, polynomial (S-shaped), and exponential mathematical expression.We presented mathematical procedure for estimation of heart rate threshold points at the level of LTD-max and LT4.0, by means of exponential curve and its relative deflection from the initial trend line (tangent line to exponential curve at the point of starting heart rate). The relative deflection of exponential curve from the initial trend line at the level of LTD-max and/or LT4.0 can be defined, based on the slope of the initial trend line. Using originally developed software that allows mathematical analysis of heart rate-load relation, LTD-max and/or LT4.0 can be estimated without direct measurement of blood lactate concentration.

  7. Sandbox Modeling of the Fault-increment Pattern in Extensional Basins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Geng Changbo; Tong Hengmao; He Yudan; Wei Chunguang

    2007-01-01

    Three series of sandbox modeling experiments were performed to study the fault-increment pattern in extensional basins.Experimental results showed that the tectonic action mode of boundaries and the shape of major boundary faults control the formation and evolution of faults in extensional basins.In the process of extensional deformation,the increase in the number and length of faults was episodic,and every 'episode' experienced three periods,strain-accumulation period,quick fault-increment period and strain-adjustment period.The more complex the shape of the boundary fault,the higher the strain increment each 'episode' experienced.Different extensional modes resulted in different fault-increment patterns.The horizontal detachment extensional mode has the 'linear' style of fault-increment pattern,while the extensional mode controlled by a listric fault has the 'stepwise' style of fault-increment pattern,and the extensional mode controlled by a ramp-flat boundary fault has the 'stepwise-linear' style of fault-increment pattern.These fault-increment patterns given above could provide a theoretical method of fault interpretation and fracture prediction in extensional basins.

  8. Integrated Strategic Planning and Analysis Network Increment 4 (ISPAN Inc 4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Integrated Strategic Planning and Analysis Network Increment 4 (ISPAN Inc 4) Defense...Baseline BY - Base Year CAE - Component Acquisition Executive CDD - Capability Development Document CPD - Capability Production Document DAE...Assigned: April 29, 2009 Program Information Program Name Integrated Strategic Planning and Analysis Network Increment 4 (ISPAN Inc 4) DoD

  9. Estimating the Optimum Number of Options per Item Using an Incremental Option Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Michael S.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    The reliabilities of 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-choice tests were compared through an incremental-option model on a test taken by 154 high school seniors. Creating the test forms incrementally more closely approximates actual test construction. The nonsignificant differences among the option choices support the three-option item. (SLD)

  10. Incremental soil sampling root water uptake, or be great through others

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray Allmaras pursued several research topics in relation to residue and tillage research. He looked for new tools to help explain soil responses to tillage, including disk permeameters and image analysis. The incremental sampler developed by Pikul and Allmaras allowed small-depth increment, volumetr...

  11. Incremental Beliefs of Ability, Achievement Emotions and Learning of Singapore Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wenshu; Lee, Kerry; Ng, Pak Tee; Ong, Joanne Xiao Wei

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships of students' incremental beliefs of math ability to their achievement emotions, classroom engagement and math achievement. A sample of 273 secondary students in Singapore were administered measures of incremental beliefs of math ability, math enjoyment, pride, boredom and anxiety, as well as math classroom…

  12. Using Incremental Rehearsal for Building Fluency of Sight Words for Children with a Learning Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldawish, Abeer

    2017-01-01

    Incremental Rehearsal (IR) is an effective, evidence-based intervention for teaching words that uses high repetition and a high ratio of unknown and known items. The purpose of the present research study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using Incremental Rehearsal to improve the fluency in reading sight words for three elementary students…

  13. Word Decoding Development in Incremental Phonics Instruction in a Transparent Orthography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaars, Moniek M.; Segers, Eliane; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2017-01-01

    The present longitudinal study aimed to investigate the development of word decoding skills during incremental phonics instruction in Dutch as a transparent orthography. A representative sample of 973 Dutch children in the first grade (M[subscript age] = 6;1, SD = 0;5) was exposed to incremental subsets of Dutch grapheme-phoneme correspondences…

  14. 26 CFR 1.41-8T - Alternative incremental credit (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Alternative incremental credit (temporary). 1.41-8T Section 1.41-8T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Credits Against Tax § 1.41-8T Alternative incremental credit (temporary). (a) For further...

  15. Dimension reduction for p53 protein recognition by using incremental partial least squares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xue-Qiang; Li, Guo-Zheng

    2014-06-01

    As an important tumor suppressor protein, reactivating mutated p53 was found in many kinds of human cancers and that restoring active p53 would lead to tumor regression. In recent years, more and more data extracted from biophysical simulations, which makes the modelling of mutant p53 transcriptional activity suffering from the problems of huge amount of instances and high feature dimension. Incremental feature extraction is effective to facilitate analysis of large-scale data. However, most current incremental feature extraction methods are not suitable for processing big data with high feature dimension. Partial Least Squares (PLS) has been demonstrated to be an effective dimension reduction technique for classification. In this paper, we design a highly efficient and powerful algorithm named Incremental Partial Least Squares (IPLS), which conducts a two-stage extraction process. In the first stage, the PLS target function is adapted to be incremental with updating historical mean to extract the leading projection direction. In the last stage, the other projection directions are calculated through equivalence between the PLS vectors and the Krylov sequence. We compare IPLS with some state-of-the-arts incremental feature extraction methods like Incremental Principal Component Analysis, Incremental Maximum Margin Criterion and Incremental Inter-class Scatter on real p53 proteins data. Empirical results show IPLS performs better than other methods in terms of balanced classification accuracy.

  16. Carry Select Adder Circuit with A Successively Incremented Carry Number Block

    OpenAIRE

    Deepak; Bal Krishan

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a conditional carry select (CCS) adder circuit with a successively-incremented-carry-number block (SICNB) structure for low-voltage VLSI implementation. Owing to the successively-incremented-carry-number block (SICNB) structure, the new 16-bit SICNB CCS adder provides a 37% faster speed as compared to the conventional conditional Carry select adder based on the SPICE results

  17. Incremental Beliefs of Ability, Achievement Emotions and Learning of Singapore Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wenshu; Lee, Kerry; Ng, Pak Tee; Ong, Joanne Xiao Wei

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships of students' incremental beliefs of math ability to their achievement emotions, classroom engagement and math achievement. A sample of 273 secondary students in Singapore were administered measures of incremental beliefs of math ability, math enjoyment, pride, boredom and anxiety, as well as math…

  18. Incremental frequent tree-structured pattern mining from semi-structured data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Enhong; Lin Le; Wu Gongqing; Wang Shu

    2005-01-01

    The paper studies the problem of incremental pattern mining from semi-structrued data. When a new dataset is added into the original dataset, it is difficult for existing pattern mining algorithms to incrementally update the mined results. To solve the problem, an incremental pattern mining algorithm based on the rightmost expansion technique is proposed here to improve the mining performance by utilizing the original mining results and information obtained in the previous mining process. To improve the efficiency, the algorithm adopts a pruning technique by using the frequent pattern expansion forest obtained in mining processes. Comparative experiments with different volume of initial datasets, incremental datasets and different minimum support thresholds demonstrate that the algorithm has a great improvement in the efficiency compared with that of non-incremental pattern mining algorithm.

  19. NEW PRINCIPLES OF POWER AND ENERGY RATE OF INCREMENTAL RATE TYPE FOR GENERALIZED CONTINUUM FIELD THEORIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴天民

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to establish new principles of power and energy rate of incremental type in generalized continuum mechanics. By combining new principles of virtual velocity and virtual angular velocity as well as of virtual stress and virtual couple stress with cross terms of incremental rate type a new principle of power and energy rate of incremental rate type with cross terms for micropolar continuum field theories is presented and from it all corresponding equations of motion and boundary conditions as well as power and energy rate equations of incremental rate type for micropolar and nonlocal micropolar continua with the help of generalized Piola's theorems in all and without any additional requirement are derived. Complete results for micromorphic continua could be similarly derived. The derived results in the present paper are believed to be new. They could be used to establish corresponding finite element methods of incremental rate type for generalized continuum mechanics.

  20. Summary of the Science performed onboard the International Space Station during Increments 12 and 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jules, Kenol

    2007-01-01

    By September of 2007, continuous human presence on the International Space Station will reach a milestone of eighty months. The many astronauts and cosmonauts, who live onboard the station during the last fourteen Increments over that time span, spend their time building the station as well as performing science on a daily basis. Over those eighty months, the U.S astronauts crew members logged over 2954 hours of research time. Far more research time has been accumulated by experiments controlled by investigators on the ground. The U.S astronauts conducted over one hundred and twenty six (126) science investigations. From these hundred and twenty six science investigations, many were operated across multiple Increments. The crew also installed, activated and operated nine (9) science racks that supported six science disciplines ranging from material sciences to life science. By the end of Increment 14, a total of 5083 kg of research rack mass were ferried to the station as well as 5021 kg of research mass. The objectives of this paper are three-fold. (1) To briefly review the science conducted on the International Space Station during the previous eleven Increments; (2) to discuss in detail the science investigations that were conducted on the station during Increments 12 and 13. The discussion will focus mainly on the primary objectives of each investigation and their associated hypotheses that were investigated during these two Increments. Also, some preliminary science results will be discussed for each of the investigation as science results availability permit. (3) The paper will briefly touch on what the science complement planning was and what was actually accomplished due to real time science implementation and challenges during these two Increments in question to illustrate the challenges of daily science activity while the science platform is under construction. Finally, the paper will briefly discuss the science research complements for the other two

  1. .VO2max is not altered by self-pacing during incremental exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidnok, Weerapong; Dimenna, Fred J; Bailey, Stephen J; Burnley, Mark; Wilkerson, Daryl P; Vanhatalo, Anni; Jones, Andrew M

    2013-02-01

    We tested the hypothesis that incremental cycling to exhaustion that is paced using clamps of the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) elicits higher .VO2max values compared to a conventional ramp incremental protocol when test duration is matched. Seven males completed three incremental tests to exhaustion to measure .VO2max. The incremental protocols were of similar duration and included: a ramp test at 30 W min(-1) with constant cadence (RAMP1); a ramp test at 30 W min(-1) with cadence free to fluctuate according to subject preference (RAMP2); and a self-paced incremental test in which the power output was selected by the subject according to prescribed increments in RPE (SPT). The subjects also completed a .VO2max 'verification' test at a fixed high-intensity power output and a 3-min all-out test. No difference was found for .VO2max between the incremental protocols (RAMP1 = 4.33 ± 0.60 L min(-1); RAMP2 = 4.31 ± 0.62 L min(-1); SPT = 4.36 ± 0.59 L min(-1); P > 0.05) nor between the incremental protocols and the peak.VO2max measured during the 3-min all-out test (4.33 ± 0.68 L min(-1)) or the .VO2max measured in the verification test (4.32 ± 0.69 L min(-1)). The integrated electromyogram, blood lactate concentration, heart rate and minute ventilation at exhaustion were not different (P > 0.05) between the incremental protocols. In conclusion, when test duration is matched, SPT does not elicit a higher .VO2max compared to conventional incremental protocols. The striking similarity of .VO2max measured across an array of exercise protocols indicates that there are physiological limits to the attainment of .VO2max that cannot be exceeded by self-pacing.

  2. Extended use of ISO 15739 incremental signal-to-noise ratio as reliability criterion for multiple-slope wide dynamic range image capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, Dirk

    2009-01-01

    In the emerging field of automotive vision, video capture is the critical front-end of driver assistance and active safety systems. Previous photospace measurements have shown that light levels in natural traffic scenes may contain an extremely wide intra-scene intensity range. This requires the camera to have a wide dynamic range (WDR) for it to adapt quickly to changing lighting conditions and to reliably capture all scene detail. Multiple-slope CMOS technology offers a cost-effective way of adaptively extending dynamic range by partially resetting (recharging) the CMOS pixel once or more often within each frame time. This avoids saturation and leads to a response curve with piecewise linear slopes of progressively increasing compression. It was observed that the image quality from multiple-slope image capture is strongly dependent on the control (height and time) of each reset barrier. As compression and thus dynamic range increase there is a trade-off against contrast and detail loss. Incremental signal-to-noise ratio (iSNR) is proposed in ISO 15739 for determining dynamic range. Measurements and computer simulations revealed that the observed trade-off between WDR extension and the loss of local detail could be explained by a drop in iSNR at each reset point. If a reset barrier is not optimally placed then iSNR may drop below the detection limit so that an 'iSNR hole' appears in the dynamic range. Thus ISO 15739 iSNR has gained extended utility: it not only measures the dynamic range limits but also defines dynamic range as the intensity range where detail detection is reliable. It has become a critical criterion when designing adaptive barrier control algorithms that maximize dynamic range while maintaining the minimum necessary level of detection reliability.

  3. Progressive Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Christian O.

    2016-01-01

    Guest Post to the Society for U.S. Intellectual History Blog. Brief introduction to the book Progressive Business: An Intellectual History of the Role of Business in American Society, Oxford U.P., 2015.......Guest Post to the Society for U.S. Intellectual History Blog. Brief introduction to the book Progressive Business: An Intellectual History of the Role of Business in American Society, Oxford U.P., 2015....

  4. Lin-28 homologue A (LIN28A) promotes cell cycle progression via regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), cyclin D1 (CCND1), and cell division cycle 25 homolog A (CDC25A) expression in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Zhong, Xiaomin; Lin, Xiaojuan; Guo, Jinyi; Zou, Lian; Tanyi, Janos L; Shao, Zhongjun; Liang, Shun; Wang, Li-Ping; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Katsaros, Dionyssios; Montone, Kathleen; Zhao, Xia; Zhang, Lin

    2012-05-18

    The RNA-binding protein LIN28A regulates the translation and stability of a large number of mRNAs as well as the biogenesis of certain miRNAs in embryonic stem cells and developing tissues. Increasing evidence indicates that LIN28A functions as an oncogene promoting cancer cell growth. However, little is known about its molecular mechanism of cell cycle regulation in cancer. Using tissue microarrays, we found that strong LIN28A expression was reactivated in about 10% (7.1-17.1%) of epithelial tumors (six tumor types, n = 369). Both in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrate that LIN28A promotes cell cycle progression in cancer cells. Genome-wide RNA-IP-chip experiments indicate that LIN28A binds to thousands of mRNAs, including a large group of cell cycle regulatory mRNAs in cancer and embryonic stem cells. Furthermore, the ability of LIN28A to stimulate translation of LIN28A-binding mRNAs, such as CDK2, was validated in vitro and in vivo. Finally, using a combined gene expression microarray and bioinformatics approach, we found that LIN28A also regulates CCND1 and CDC25A expression and that this is mediated by inhibiting the biogenesis of let-7 miRNA. Taken together, these results demonstrate that LIN28A is reactivated in about 10% of epithelial tumors and promotes cell cycle progression by regulation of both mRNA translation (let-7-independent) and miRNA biogenesis (let-7-dependent).

  5. Lin-28 Homologue A (LIN28A) Promotes Cell Cycle Progression via Regulation of Cyclin-dependent Kinase 2 (CDK2), Cyclin D1 (CCND1), and Cell Division Cycle 25 Homolog A (CDC25A) Expression in Cancer*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Zhong, Xiaomin; Lin, Xiaojuan; Guo, Jinyi; Zou, Lian; Tanyi, Janos L.; Shao, Zhongjun; Liang, Shun; Wang, Li-Ping; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Katsaros, Dionyssios; Montone, Kathleen; Zhao, Xia; Zhang, Lin

    2012-01-01

    The RNA-binding protein LIN28A regulates the translation and stability of a large number of mRNAs as well as the biogenesis of certain miRNAs in embryonic stem cells and developing tissues. Increasing evidence indicates that LIN28A functions as an oncogene promoting cancer cell growth. However, little is known about its molecular mechanism of cell cycle regulation in cancer. Using tissue microarrays, we found that strong LIN28A expression was reactivated in about 10% (7.1–17.1%) of epithelial tumors (six tumor types, n = 369). Both in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrate that LIN28A promotes cell cycle progression in cancer cells. Genome-wide RNA-IP-chip experiments indicate that LIN28A binds to thousands of mRNAs, including a large group of cell cycle regulatory mRNAs in cancer and embryonic stem cells. Furthermore, the ability of LIN28A to stimulate translation of LIN28A-binding mRNAs, such as CDK2, was validated in vitro and in vivo. Finally, using a combined gene expression microarray and bioinformatics approach, we found that LIN28A also regulates CCND1 and CDC25A expression and that this is mediated by inhibiting the biogenesis of let-7 miRNA. Taken together, these results demonstrate that LIN28A is reactivated in about 10% of epithelial tumors and promotes cell cycle progression by regulation of both mRNA translation (let-7-independent) and miRNA biogenesis (let-7-dependent). PMID:22467868

  6. Space-time quantitative source apportionment of soil heavy metal concentration increments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Christakos, George; Guo, Mingwu; Xiao, Lu; Huang, Wei

    2017-04-01

    Assessing the space-time trends and detecting the sources of heavy metal accumulation in soils have important consequences in the prevention and treatment of soil heavy metal pollution. In this study, we collected soil samples in the eastern part of the Qingshan district, Wuhan city, Hubei Province, China, during the period 2010-2014. The Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations in soils exhibited a significant accumulation during 2010-2014. The spatiotemporal Kriging technique, based on a quantitative characterization of soil heavy metal concentration variations in terms of non-separable variogram models, was employed to estimate the spatiotemporal soil heavy metal distribution in the study region. Our findings showed that the Cd, Cu, and Zn concentrations have an obvious incremental tendency from the southwestern to the central part of the study region. However, the Pb concentrations exhibited an obvious tendency from the northern part to the central part of the region. Then, spatial overlay analysis was used to obtain absolute and relative concentration increments of adjacent 1- or 5-year periods during 2010-2014. The spatial distribution of soil heavy metal concentration increments showed that the larger increments occurred in the center of the study region. Lastly, the principal component analysis combined with the multiple linear regression method were employed to quantify the source apportionment of the soil heavy metal concentration increments in the region. Our results led to the conclusion that the sources of soil heavy metal concentration increments should be ascribed to industry, agriculture and traffic. In particular, 82.5% of soil heavy metal concentration increment during 2010-2014 was ascribed to industrial/agricultural activities sources. Using STK and SOA to obtain the spatial distribution of heavy metal concentration increments in soils. Using PCA-MLR to quantify the source apportionment of soil heavy metal concentration increments.

  7. Incrementing data quality of multi-frequency echograms using the Adaptive Wiener Filter (AWF) denoising algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, M.

    2016-10-01

    Achieving acceptable signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) can be difficult when working in sparsely populated waters and/or when species have low scattering such as fluid filled animals. The increasing use of higher frequencies and the study of deeper depths in fisheries acoustics, as well as the use of commercial vessels, is raising the need to employ good denoising algorithms. The use of a lower Sv threshold to remove noise or unwanted targets is not suitable in many cases and increases the relative background noise component in the echogram, demanding more effectiveness from denoising algorithms. The Adaptive Wiener Filter (AWF) denoising algorithm is presented in this study. The technique is based on the AWF commonly used in digital photography and video enhancement. The algorithm firstly increments the quality of the data with a variance-dependent smoothing, before estimating the noise level as the envelope of the Sv minima. The AWF denoising algorithm outperforms existing algorithms in the presence of gaussian, speckle and salt & pepper noise, although impulse noise needs to be previously removed. Cleaned echograms present homogenous echotraces with outlined edges.

  8. A New Energy Optimal Control Scheme for a Separately Excited DC Motor Based Incremental Motion Drive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Milan A.Sheta; Vivek Agarwal; Paluri S.V.Nataraj

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers minimization of resistive and frictional power dissipation in a separately excited DC motor based incremental motion drive (IMD). The drive is required to displace a given, fixed load through a definite angle in specified time, with minimum energy dissipation in the motor windings and minimum frictional losses. Accordingly, an energy optimal (EO) control strategy is proposed in which the motor is first accelerated to track a specific speed profile for a pre-determined optimal time period. Thereafter, both armature and field power supplies are disconnected, and the motor decelerates and comes to a halt at the desired displacement point in the desired total displacement time. The optimal time period for the initial acceleration phase is computed so that the motor stores just enough energy to decelerate to the final position at the specified displacement time. The parameters, such as the moment of inertia and coefficient of friction, which depend on the load and other external conditions, have been obtained using system identification method. Comparison with earlier control techniques is included. The results show that the proposed EO control strategy results in significant reduction of energy loases compared to the existing ones.

  9. Incremental Unknowns Method for Solving Three-Dimensional Convection-Diffusion Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lunji Song; Yujiang Wu

    2007-01-01

    We use the incremental unknowns method in conjunction with the iterative methods to approximate the solution of the nonsymmetric and positive-definite linear systems generated from a multilevel discretization of three-dimensional convection-diffusion equations. The condition numbers of incremental unknowns matrices associated with the convection-diffusion equations and the number of iterations needed to attain an acceptable accuracy are estimated. Numerical results are presented with two-level approximations,which demonstrate that the incremental unknowns method when combined with some iterative methods is very efficient.

  10. Effect of stage duration on maximal heart rate and post-exercise blood lactate concentration during incremental treadmill tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Fabiana A; Kravchychyn, Ana Claudia P; Peserico, Cecilia S; da Silva, Danilo F; Mezzaroba, Paulo V

    2013-05-01

    This study compared the responses during maximal incremental treadmill tests of 1-min, 2-min, and 3-min stage durations mainly in terms of maximal heart rate (HRmax) and peak blood lactate concentration (LApeak). Repeated-measures. Thirty-four male, recreational, endurance-trained runners (40±13 years) performed three tests on a motorized treadmill. The tests started at 8kmh(-1) with increments of 1kmh(-1) every 1min for the short-stage protocol, every 2min for the intermediate-stage protocol, and every 3min for the long-stage protocol. LApeak was defined for each subject as the highest value among the lactate concentrations determined at the end of each test and at the third, fifth and seventh minutes after test, during passive recovery. Analysis of variance revealed a significant effect of the stage duration on the HRmax (p=0.003) and LApeak (p=0.001). The HRmax was higher in the intermediate-stage compared to the short-stage protocol (184.8±12.7 vs. 181.8±12.1beatsmin(-1), p0.05). The LApeak was lower in the long-stage compared to the short-stage and intermediate-stage protocols (7.9±2.2 vs. 9.4±2.2 and 9.2±1.9mmolL(-1), respectively, pblood lactate reached peak concentration at the fifth minute after test for all the protocols. Thus, HRmax and LApeak depend on the stage duration of the incremental test, but the moment at which blood lactate reaches peak concentration is independent of the duration. Further, we suggest 2-min stage duration protocols to determine HRmax. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Contribution to growth and increment analysis on the Italian CONECOFOR Level II Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio AMORINI

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the "Estimation of growth and yield" included in the National Programme on Intensive Monitoring of Forest Ecosystems CONECOFOR Aims of the paper are: i to outline the composition and design of Level II PMPs network, also examining the structural characteristics of forest stands; ii to describe the contents of mensurational surveys carried out in winter 1996/97 and 1999/00; iii to analyse the growth rates in progress at each PMP using selected descriptors. Stand origin (11 high forests and 13 stored coppices and transitory crops and the number of forest types tested are focused as the main discriminants of the PMPs network. This composition, together with irregular forestry practice, results in a number of consequences (prevailing age classes, tree densities and related stand structures, growth patterns which cause a high in-and-between variability of all growth parameters. For the purposes of this analysis, the network of the plots was divided into three main sets: broadleaved high forest (i.e. beech stands, 6 PMPs; coniferous forest (i.e. Norway spruce stands, 5 PMPs; coppice forest (i.e. deciduous and evergreen oaks, beech and hardbeam stands, 13 PMPs. The measurement of basic growth variables (dbh and tree height was used to describe the tree populations in each PMP; the calculation of basal area, mean and top dbh, mean and top height, provided the reference dataset at each inventory. The assessment of social class according to Kraft gave information on vertical stand structure and made it possible to analyse growth according to tree layers. Data comparison provided increments in the interval 1997-2000. The occurrence of natural mortality and ingrowth was also assessed to take into account their combined effect on tree population dynamics. No trend was found, due to limited data availability, but it was possible to have a detailed overview of the stand situation and growth rates in PMPs.

  12. Application of incremental algorithms to CT image reconstruction for sparse-view, noisy data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Sean; Andersen, Martin Skovgaard; Sidky, Emil Y.;

    2014-01-01

    This conference contribution adapts an incremental framework for solving optimization problems of interest for sparse-view CT. From the incremental framework two algorithms are derived: one that combines a damped form of the algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) with a total-variation (TV) pro......) projection, and one that employs a modified damped ART, accounting for a weighted-quadratic data fidelity term, combined with TV projection. The algorithms are demonstrated on simulated, noisy, sparseview CT data.......This conference contribution adapts an incremental framework for solving optimization problems of interest for sparse-view CT. From the incremental framework two algorithms are derived: one that combines a damped form of the algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) with a total-variation (TV...

  13. Observers for a class of systems with nonlinearities satisfying an incremental quadratic inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acikmese, Ahmet Behcet; Martin, Corless

    2004-01-01

    We consider the problem of state estimation from nonlinear time-varying system whose nonlinearities satisfy an incremental quadratic inequality. Observers are presented which guarantee that the state estimation error exponentially converges to zero.

  14. The incremental impact of cardiac MRI on clinical decision-making

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rajwani, Adil; Stewart, Michael J; Richardson, James D; Child, Nicholas M; Maredia, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Despite a significant expansion in the use of cardiac MRI (CMR), there is inadequate evaluation of its incremental impact on clinical decision-making over and above other well-established modalities...

  15. Application of a shear-modified GTN model to incremental sheet forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jacob; Malhotra, Rajiv; Liu, W. K.; Cao, Jian

    2013-12-01

    This paper investigates the effects of using a shear-modified Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman model, which is based on the mechanics of voids, for simulating material behavior in the incremental forming process. The problem chosen for analysis is a simplified version of the NUMISHEET 2014 incremental forming benchmark test. The implications of the shear-modification of the model specifically for incremental sheet forming processes are confirmed using finite element analysis. It is shown that including the shear term has a significant effect on fracture timing in incremental forming, which is not well reflected in the observed tensile test simulations for calibration. The numerical implementation and the need for comprehensive calibration of the model are briefly discussed.

  16. Hypoxia affects tissue oxygenation differently in the thigh and calf muscles during incremental running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osawa, Takuya; Arimitsu, Takuma; Takahashi, Hideyuki

    2017-08-17

    The present study was performed to determine the impact of hypoxia on working muscle oxygenation during incremental running, and to compare tissue oxygenation between the thigh and calf muscles. Nine distance runners and triathletes performed incremental running tests to exhaustion under normoxic and hypoxic conditions (fraction of inspired oxygen = 0.15). Peak pulmonary oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]) and tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) were measured simultaneously in both the vastus lateralis and medial gastrocnemius. Hypoxia significantly decreased peak running speed and [Formula: see text] (p incremental running, StO2 in the vastus lateralis decreased almost linearly, and the rate of decrease from warm-up (180 m min(-1)) to [Formula: see text] was significantly greater than in the medial gastrocnemius under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions (p incremental running.

  17. Incremental generation of answers during the comprehension of questions with quantifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bott, Oliver; Augurzky, Petra; Sternefeld, Wolfgang; Ulrich, Rolf

    2017-09-01

    The paper presents a study on the online interpretation of quantified questions involving complex domain restriction, for instance, are all triangles blue that are in the circle. Two probe reaction time (RT) task experiments were conducted to study the incremental nature of answer generation while manipulating visual contexts and response hand overlap between tasks. We manipulated the contexts in such a way that the incremental answer to the question changed from 'yes' to 'no' or remained the same before and after encountering the extraposed relative clause. The findings of both experiments provide evidence for incremental answer preparation but only if the context did not involve the risk of answer revision. Our results show that preliminary output from incremental semantic interpretation results in response priming that facilitates congruent responses in the probe RT task. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of climate factors on the height increment of poplar protection forest in the riverbank field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIHai-mei; HEXing-yuan; WANGKui-ling

    2004-01-01

    Based on the data of stand investigation and stem analysis, the effects of climate factors on the poplar protection forest increment in the riverbank field of the Dalinghe and Xiaolinghe rivers of Liaoning Province, China were studied by stepwise regression procedure and grey system theories and methods. A regression model reflecting the correlation between the height increment of poplar protection forest and climatic factors was developed. The order of grey relevance for the effect of climatic factors on the height increment of poplar protection forest is" light>water>heat, and it could be interpreted that the poplar increment was mainly influenced by light factor, water factor, and heat factor. This result will provide scientific basis for the intensive cultivation and regeneration of the poplar protection forest in riverbank field in similar regions in China.

  19. Increment-borer methods for determining fire history in coniferous forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen W. Barrett; Stephen F. Arno

    1988-01-01

    Describes use of increment borers for interpreting fire history in coniferous forests. These methods are intended for use in wildernesses, parks, and other natural areas where sawing cross-sections from fire-scarred trees is prohibited.

  20. Incremental Evolution of a 10/250 NLV into a 20/450 NMSLV Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The technical innovation proposed here is the continued functional evolution and concept refinement of an incremental series of test vehicles that will ultimately...

  1. Using Top-down and Bottom-up Costing Approaches in LMICs: The Case for Using Both to Assess the Incremental Costs of New Technologies at Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunnama, Lucy; Sinanovic, Edina; Ramma, Lebogang; Foster, Nicola; Berrie, Leigh; Stevens, Wendy; Molapo, Sebaka; Marokane, Puleng; McCarthy, Kerrigan; Churchyard, Gavin; Vassall, Anna

    2016-02-01

    Estimating the incremental costs of scaling-up novel technologies in low-income and middle-income countries is a methodologically challenging and substantial empirical undertaking, in the absence of routine cost data collection. We demonstrate a best practice pragmatic approach to estimate the incremental costs of new technologies in low-income and middle-income countries, using the example of costing the scale-up of Xpert Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)/resistance to riframpicin (RIF) in South Africa. We estimate costs, by applying two distinct approaches of bottom-up and top-down costing, together with an assessment of processes and capacity. The unit costs measured using the different methods of bottom-up and top-down costing, respectively, are $US16.9 and $US33.5 for Xpert MTB/RIF, and $US6.3 and $US8.5 for microscopy. The incremental cost of Xpert MTB/RIF is estimated to be between $US14.7 and $US17.7. While the average cost of Xpert MTB/RIF was higher than previous studies using standard methods, the incremental cost of Xpert MTB/RIF was found to be lower. Costs estimates are highly dependent on the method used, so an approach, which clearly identifies resource-use data collected from a bottom-up or top-down perspective, together with capacity measurement, is recommended as a pragmatic approach to capture true incremental cost where routine cost data are scarce. © 2016 The Authors. Health Economics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Using Top‐down and Bottom‐up Costing Approaches in LMICs: The Case for Using Both to Assess the Incremental Costs of New Technologies at Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinanovic, Edina; Ramma, Lebogang; Foster, Nicola; Berrie, Leigh; Stevens, Wendy; Molapo, Sebaka; Marokane, Puleng; McCarthy, Kerrigan; Churchyard, Gavin; Vassall, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose Estimating the incremental costs of scaling‐up novel technologies in low‐income and middle‐income countries is a methodologically challenging and substantial empirical undertaking, in the absence of routine cost data collection. We demonstrate a best practice pragmatic approach to estimate the incremental costs of new technologies in low‐income and middle‐income countries, using the example of costing the scale‐up of Xpert Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)/resistance to riframpicin (RIF) in South Africa. Materials and methods We estimate costs, by applying two distinct approaches of bottom‐up and top‐down costing, together with an assessment of processes and capacity. Results The unit costs measured using the different methods of bottom‐up and top‐down costing, respectively, are $US16.9 and $US33.5 for Xpert MTB/RIF, and $US6.3 and $US8.5 for microscopy. The incremental cost of Xpert MTB/RIF is estimated to be between $US14.7 and $US17.7. While the average cost of Xpert MTB/RIF was higher than previous studies using standard methods, the incremental cost of Xpert MTB/RIF was found to be lower. Conclusion Costs estimates are highly dependent on the method used, so an approach, which clearly identifies resource‐use data collected from a bottom‐up or top‐down perspective, together with capacity measurement, is recommended as a pragmatic approach to capture true incremental cost where routine cost data are scarce. PMID:26763594

  3. A System to Derive Optimal Tree Diameter Increment Models from the Eastwide Forest Inventory Data Base (EFIDB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don C. Bragg

    2002-01-01

    This article is an introduction to the computer software used by the Potential Relative Increment (PRI) approach to optimal tree diameter growth modeling. These DOS programs extract qualified tree and plot data from the Eastwide Forest Inventory Data Base (EFIDB), calculate relative tree increment, sort for the highest relative increments by diameter class, and...

  4. Sex-based effects on immune changes induced by a maximal incremental exercise test in well-trained swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado, José P; Monteiro, Cristina P; Matias, Catarina N; Alves, Francisco; Pessoa, Pedro; Reis, Joana; Martins, Fátima; Seixas, Teresa; Laires, Maria J

    2014-09-01

    Studies examining the immune response to acute intensive swimming have shown increased leukocytosis and lymphocyte populations. However, studies concerning mucosal immunity and sex differences remain controversial. The objective of the study was to examine sex differences on the immune response to maximal incremental swimming exercise in well trained swimmers. Participants (11 females, controlled for menstrual cycle phase effects; 10 males) performed a maximal incremental 7x200 m front crawl set. Fingertip capillary blood samples were obtained after each 200 m swim for lactate assessment. Venous blood and saliva samples were collected before and 5 minutes after the swimming test to determine total numbers of leukocytes, lymphocytes and subpopulations, and serum and salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels. IgA secretion rate was calculated. Menstrual cycle phase did not influence the immune response to exercise. As for sex differences, exercise induced an increase in leukocytes, total lymphocytes, CD3(+), CD4(+), CD8(+), and CD16(+)/56(+) in males. In females, only leukocytosis, of a lower magnitude than was observed in males, occurred. CD19(+) increased and CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio decreased in both groups following exercise whilst IgA, SIgA concentrations, and srIgA did not change. Both males and females finished the incremental exercise very close to the targeted race velocity, attaining peak blood lactate concentrations of 14.6±2.25 and 10.4±1.99 mmol.L(-1), respectively. The effect of a maximal incremental swimming task on immunity is sex dependent and more noticeable in men. Males, as a consequence of higher levels of immunosurveillance may therefore be at a lower risk of infection than females. Key PointsMaximal exercise induces an immune response.This study investigated the influence of sex over the leukocytes subpopulations and mucosal immune responses to maximal swimming.Male swimmers showed a stronger increase of T helper, T cytotoxic and NK lymphocytes than

  5. Global Combat Support System - Joint Increment 8 (GCSS-J Inc 8)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Global Combat Support System - Joint Increment 8 (GCSS-J Inc 8) Defense Acquisition... Management Information Retrieval (DAMIR) UNCLASSIFIED GCSS-J Inc 8 2016 MAR UNCLASSIFIED 2 Table of Contents Common Acronyms and Abbreviations for...375-5277 DSN Fax: Date Assigned: July 2, 2010 Program Information Program Name Global Combat Support System - Joint Increment 8 (GCSS-J Inc 8

  6. Application of incremental algorithms to CT image reconstruction for sparse-view, noisy data

    OpenAIRE

    Rose, Sean; Andersen, Martin Skovgaard; Sidky, Emil Y.; Pan, Xiaochuan

    2014-01-01

    This conference contribution adapts an incremental framework for solving optimization problems of interest for sparse-view CT. From the incremental framework two algorithms are derived: one that combines a damped form of the algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) with a total-variation (TV) projection, and one that employs a modified damped ART, accounting for a weighted-quadratic data fidelity term, combined with TV projection. The algorithms are demonstrated on simulated, noisy, sparsevie...

  7. Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) Mission System Increment 3 (JMS Inc 3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) Mission System Increment 3 (JMS Inc 3) Defense...Baseline BY - Base Year CAE - Component Acquisition Executive CDD - Capability Development Document CPD - Capability Production Document DAE... Increment 3 (JMS Inc 3) DoD Component Air Force Responsible Office Program Manager References MAIS Original Estimate This investment does not have an

  8. Deliberate and Crisis Action Planning and Execution Segments Increment 2A (DCAPES Inc 2A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Deliberate and Crisis Action Planning and Execution Segments Increment 2A (DCAPES Inc 2A...Acquisition Program Baseline BY - Base Year CAE - Component Acquisition Executive CDD - Capability Development Document CPD - Capability Production ...Program Name Deliberate and Crisis Action Planning and Execution Segments Increment 2A (DCAPES Inc 2A) DoD Component Air Force Responsible Office Program

  9. Common Aviation Command and Control System Increment 1 (CAC2S Inc 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Common Aviation Command and Control System Increment 1 (CAC2S Inc 1) Defense Acquisition...BY - Base Year CAE - Component Acquisition Executive CDD - Capability Development Document CPD - Capability Production Document DAE - Defense...Command and Control System Increment 1 (CAC2S Inc 1) DoD Component Navy United States Marine Corps Responsible Office Program Manager References MAIS

  10. Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) Mission System Increment 2 (JMS Inc 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) Mission System Increment 2 (JMS Inc 2) Defense...Baseline BY - Base Year CAE - Component Acquisition Executive CDD - Capability Development Document CPD - Capability Production Document DAE...DSN Phone: DSN Fax: Date Assigned: May 16, 2014 Program Information Program Name Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) Mission System Increment 2

  11. Carry Select Adder Circuit with A Successively Incremented Carry Number Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a conditional carry select (CCS adder circuit with a successively-incremented-carry-number block (SICNB structure for low-voltage VLSI implementation. Owing to the successively-incremented-carry-number block (SICNB structure, the new 16-bit SICNB CCS adder provides a 37% faster speed as compared to the conventional conditional Carry select adder based on the SPICE results

  12. RENEWAL OF BASIC LAWS AND PRINCIPLES FOR POLAR CONTINUUM THEORIES(Ⅶ)-INCREMENTAL RATE TYPE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴安民

    2003-01-01

    The purpose is to establish the rather complete equations of motion, boundary conditions and equation of energy rate of incremental rate type for micropolar continua. To this end the rather complete definitions for rates of deformation gradient and its inverse are made. The new relations between various stress and couple stress rate tensors are derived.Finally, the coupled equations of motion, boundary conditions and equation of energy rate of incremental rate type for continuum mechanics are obtained as a special case.

  13. On the increase of geometric accuracy with the help of stiffening elements for robot-based incremental sheet metal forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyssen, Lars; Seim, Patrick; Störkle, Denis D.; Kuhlenkötter, Bernd

    2016-10-01

    This paper describes new developments in an incremental, robot-based sheet metal forming process (`Roboforming') for the production of sheet metal components for small lot sizes and prototypes. The incremental sheet forming (ISF) offers high geometrical form flexibility without the need of any part-dependent tools. To transfer the ISF to industrial applications, it is necessary to respond to the still existing constraints, e.g. the low geometrical accuracy. Especially the subsequent deformation resulting from the interaction of differently shaped elements causes geometrical deviations, which are limiting the scope of formable parts. The impact of the resulting forming forces will vary according to the shape of the individual elements. For this, the paper proposes and examines a new approach to stabilize the geometrical accuracy without losing the universal approach of Roboforming by inserting stiffening elements. Those elements with varying cross-sections at the initial area of various orientations must be examined on their stabilizing or subsequent distorting impact. Especially the different impacts of the subsequent forming of stiffness features in contrast to the direct forming are studied precisely.

  14. Viscous Corrections of the Time Incremental Minimization Scheme and Visco-Energetic Solutions to Rate-Independent Evolution Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minotti, Luca; Savaré, Giuseppe

    2017-09-01

    We propose the new notion of Visco-Energetic solutions to rate-independent systems {(X, E,} d) driven by a time dependent energy E and a dissipation quasi-distance d in a general metric-topological space X. As for the classic Energetic approach, solutions can be obtained by solving a modified time Incremental Minimization Scheme, where at each step the dissipation quasi-distance d is incremented by a viscous correction {δ} (for example proportional to the square of the distance d), which penalizes far distance jumps by inducing a localized version of the stability condition. We prove a general convergence result and a typical characterization by Stability and Energy Balance in a setting comparable to the standard energetic one, thus capable of covering a wide range of applications. The new refined Energy Balance condition compensates for the localized stability and provides a careful description of the jump behavior: at every jump the solution follows an optimal transition, which resembles in a suitable variational sense the discrete scheme that has been implemented for the whole construction.

  15. Broad Learning System: An Effective and Efficient Incremental Learning System Without the Need for Deep Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C L Philip; Liu, Zhulin

    2017-07-21

    Broad Learning System (BLS) that aims to offer an alternative way of learning in deep structure is proposed in this paper. Deep structure and learning suffer from a time-consuming training process because of a large number of connecting parameters in filters and layers. Moreover, it encounters a complete retraining process if the structure is not sufficient to model the system. The BLS is established in the form of a flat network, where the original inputs are transferred and placed as "mapped features" in feature nodes and the structure is expanded in wide sense in the "enhancement nodes." The incremental learning algorithms are developed for fast remodeling in broad expansion without a retraining process if the network deems to be expanded. Two incremental learning algorithms are given for both the increment of the feature nodes (or filters in deep structure) and the increment of the enhancement nodes. The designed model and algorithms are very versatile for selecting a model rapidly. In addition, another incremental learning is developed for a system that has been modeled encounters a new incoming input. Specifically, the system can be remodeled in an incremental way without the entire retraining from the beginning. Satisfactory result for model reduction using singular value decomposition is conducted to simplify the final structure. Compared with existing deep neural networks, experimental results on the Modified National Institute of Standards and Technology database and NYU NORB object recognition dataset benchmark data demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed BLS.

  16. GnRH依赖型性早熟遗传调控系统研究进展%Research Progress of the Genetic Regulation System in GnRH-dependent Precocious Puberty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩威; 李慧芳; 朱云芬; 宋迟; 徐文娟

    2013-01-01

    性早熟在人类上表现为病理状态,而在家禽生产上则是一个具有重要经济价值的性状.人类性早熟调控机理的研究较为透彻,尤其是近年来全基因关联分析方法的应用,使得研究者对于性成熟启动相关新基因发掘及其调控网络的认识更加深入.论文综述了人类GnRH依赖型性早熟(GDPP)的5个基因调控系统,包括kisspeptin系统、γ-GABA系统、NPY和leptin系统、LIN28B系统和NKB系统的研究进展,为禽类早熟性状研究提供依据.%Precocious puberty performs as pathological condition in humans, but it is an important trait in animal production. The research of human precocious puberty regulation mechanism is more thorough, especially in recent years the genome-wide association study method contributes to find more new genes and deeply understand the genetic networks. This paper summarized the progress of genetic systems in human GnRH-dependent precocious puberty, including kisspeptin system, γ-GABA system, NPY and leptin system, LIN28B system and NKB system. These could supply a basis for the relevant study in animals

  17. A Rapidly-Incremented Tethered-Swimming Test for Defining Domain-Specific Training Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pessôa Filho Dalton M.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a tethered-swimming incremental test comprising small increases in resistive force applied every 60 seconds could delineate the isocapnic region during rapidly-incremented exercise. Sixteen competitive swimmers (male, n = 11; female, n = 5 performed: (a a test to determine highest force during 30 seconds of all-out tethered swimming (Favg and the ΔF, which represented the difference between Favg and the force required to maintain body alignment (Fbase, and (b an incremental test beginning with 60 seconds of tethered swimming against a load that exceeded Fbase by 30% of ΔF followed by increments of 5% of ΔF every 60 seconds. This incremental test was continued until the limit of tolerance with pulmonary gas exchange (rates of oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide production and ventilatory (rate of minute ventilation data collected breath by breath. These data were subsequently analyzed to determine whether two breakpoints defining the isocapnic region (i.e., gas exchange threshold and respiratory compensation point were present. We also determined the peak rate of O2 uptake and exercise economy during the incremental test. The gas exchange threshold and respiratory compensation point were observed for each test such that the associated metabolic rates, which bound the heavy-intensity domain during constant-work-rate exercise, could be determined. Significant correlations (Spearman’s were observed for exercise economy along with (a peak rate of oxygen uptake (ρ = .562; p < 0.025, and (b metabolic rate at gas exchange threshold (ρ = −.759; p < 0.005. A rapidly-incremented tethered-swimming test allows for determination of the metabolic rates that define zones for domain-specific constant-work-rate training.

  18. Does Incremental Positioning (Weight Shifts) Reduce Pressure Injuries in Critical Care Patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapfl, Lee Ann; Langin, Julia; Pike, Caitlin A; Pezzella, Patricia

    Incremental positioning or weight shifts are often suggested as an alternative to standard repositioning/turning in critical care patients deemed clinically unstable. This evidence-based report card reviews whether incremental positioning and/or weight shifts reduce hospital-acquired sacral/buttocks pressure injuries in critical care patients deemed too unstable to turn. A scoping review of the literature was conducted for studies related to repositioning and hospital-acquired pressure injuries in high-risk, critical care patients. The databases searched were CINAHL, EMBASE, and PubMed. Key words used in the search were "intensive care," "critical care," "pressure ulcer(s)," "pressure injury(ies)," "pressure sore(s)," "turn(s)," "turning," "shift(s)," "shifting," "position(s)," OR "positioning, cardiopulmonary support." The search yielded 183 articles. The search was then narrowed to those published within the past 10 years, yielding 35 citations. Following title and abstract review, 5 studies were identified that met inclusion criteria; an additional 13 articles were found by ancestry and hand-searching. No evidence was identified that incremental positioning and/or weight shifts reduce hospital-acquired sacral/buttocks pressure injuries in critical care patients deemed too unstable to turn. In addition, no evidence was found that incremental positioning and/or weight shifts affect interface pressure on the sacrum/buttocks. However, there was evidence that incremental positioning and/or weight shifts do impact gravitational equilibrium. Despite the paucity of evidence, incremental positioning and/or weight shifts are recommended as an intervention in critical care patients deemed too unstable to turn. Further research is needed to examine whether incremental positioning and/or weight shifts are effective in reducing pressure injuries in critical care patients.

  19. Incremental and comparative health care expenditures for head and neck cancer in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwojak, Sunshine M; Bhattacharyya, Neil

    2014-10-01

    Determine the incremental costs associated with head and neck cancer (HNCa) and compare the costs with other common cancers. Cross-sectional analysis of a healthcare expenditure database. The Medical Expenditure Panel Survey is a national survey of US households. All cases of HNCa were extracted for 2006, 2008, and 2010. The incremental expenditures associated with HNCa were determined by comparing the healthcare expenditures of individuals with HNCa to the population without cancer, controlling for age, sex, education, insurance status, marital status, geographic region, and comorbidities. Healthcare expenditures for HNCa were then compared to individuals with lung cancer and colon cancer to determine relative healthcare expenditures. An estimated 264,713 patients (annualized) with HNCa were identified. The mean annual healthcare expenditures per individual for HNCa were $23,408 ± $3,397 versus $3,860 ± $52 for those without cancer. The mean adjusted incremental cost associated with HNCa was $15,852 ± $3,297 per individual (P incremental cost, there was an increased incremental outpatient services cost of $3,495 ± $1,044 (P = .001) and an increased incremental hospital inpatient cost of $6,783 ± $2,894 (P = .020) associated with HNCa. The annual healthcare expenditures per individual fell in between those for lung cancer ($25,267 ± $2,375, P = .607) and colon cancer ($16,975 ± $1,291, P = .055). Despite its lower relative incidence, HNCa is associated with a significant incremental increase in annual healthcare expenditures per individual, which is comparable to or higher than other common cancers. In aggregate, the estimated annual costs associated with HNCa are $4.20 billion. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  20. Incremental Reactivity Effects on Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation in Urban Atmospheres with and without Biogenic Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacarab, Mary; Li, Lijie; Carter, William P. L.; Cocker, David R., III

    2016-04-01

    Two different surrogate mixtures of anthropogenic and biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were developed to study secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation at atmospheric reactivities similar to urban regions with varying biogenic influence levels. Environmental chamber simulations were designed to enable the study of the incremental aerosol formation from select anthropogenic (m-Xylene, 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene, and 1-Methylnaphthalene) and biogenic (α-pinene) precursors under the chemical reactivity set by the two different surrogate mixtures. The surrogate reactive organic gas (ROG) mixtures were based on that used to develop the maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) factors for evaluation of O3 forming potential. Multiple incremental aerosol formation experiments were performed in the University of California Riverside (UCR) College of Engineering Center for Environmental Research and Technology (CE-CERT) dual 90m3 environmental chambers. Incremental aerosol yields were determined for each of the VOCs studied and compared to yields found from single precursor studies. Aerosol physical properties of density, volatility, and hygroscopicity were monitored throughout experiments. Bulk elemental chemical composition from high-resolution time of flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) data will also be presented. Incremental yields and SOA chemical and physical characteristics will be compared with data from previous single VOC studies conducted for these aerosol precursors following traditional VOC/NOx chamber experiments. Evaluation of the incremental effects of VOCs on SOA formation and properties are paramount in evaluating how to best extrapolate environmental chamber observations to the ambient atmosphere and provides useful insights into current SOA formation models. Further, the comparison of incremental SOA from VOCs in varying surrogate urban atmospheres (with and without strong biogenic influence) allows for a unique perspective on the impacts