WorldWideScience

Sample records for dependence surface activity

  1. Activity-Dependent Regulation of Surface Glucose Transporter-3

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Jainne M.; Burnett, Arthur L.; Rameau, Gerald A.

    2011-01-01

    Glucose transporter 3 (GLUT3) is the main facilitative glucose transporter in neurons. Glucose provides neurons with a critical energy source for neuronal activity. However, the mechanism by which neuronal activity controls glucose influx via GLUT3 is unknown. We investigated the influence of synaptic stimulation on GLUT3 surface expression and glucose import in primary cultured cortical and hippocampal neurons. Synaptic activity increased surface expression of GLUT3 leading to an elevation o...

  2. Shape-dependent guidance of active Janus particles by chemically patterned surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uspal, W. E.; Popescu, M. N.; Tasinkevych, M.; Dietrich, S.

    2018-01-01

    Self-phoretic chemically active Janus particles move by inducing—via non-equilibrium chemical reactions occurring on their surfaces—changes in the chemical composition of the solution in which they are immersed. This process leads to gradients in chemical composition along the surface of the particle, as well as along any nearby boundaries, including solid walls. Chemical gradients along a wall can give rise to chemi-osmosis, i.e., the gradients drive surface flows which, in turn, drive flow in the volume of the solution. This bulk flow couples back to the particle, and thus contributes to its self-motility. Since chemi-osmosis strongly depends on the molecular interactions between the diffusing molecular species and the wall, the response flow induced and experienced by a particle encodes information about any chemical patterning of the wall. Here, we extend previous studies on self-phoresis of a sphere near a chemically patterned wall to the case of particles with rod-like, elongated shape. We focus our analysis on the new phenomenology potentially emerging from the coupling—which is inoperative for a spherical shape—of the elongated particle to the strain rate tensor of the chemi-osmotic flow. Via detailed numerical calculations, we show that the dynamics of a rod-like particle exhibits a novel ‘edge-following’ steady state: the particle translates along the edge of a chemical step at a steady distance from the step and with a steady orientation. Moreover, within a certain range of system parameters, the edge-following state co-exists with a ‘docking’ state (the particle stops at the step, oriented perpendicular to the step edge), i.e., a bistable dynamics occurs. These findings are rationalized as a consequence of the competition between the fluid vorticity and the rate of strain by using analytical theory based on the point-particle approximation which captures quasi-quantitatively the dynamics of the system.

  3. Soluble and immobilized graphene oxide activates complement system differently dependent on surface oxidation state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wibroe, Peter Popp; Petersen, Søren Vermehren; Bovet, Nicolas Emile

    2016-01-01

    on two related elements of innate immunity: the complement system and interleukin-6 (IL-6) release in human blood. In solution, there was a decrease in GO-mediated complement activation with decreasing surface oxygen content (and altered oxygen functionality), whereas with immobilized GO complement...... response were reversed and increased with decreasing oxygen content. GO solutions, at concentrations below complement activating threshold, did not induce IL-6 release from human blood leukocytes, and further dampened lipopolysaccharide-induced IL-6 release in the whole blood. The latter effect became more...... profound with GO's having higher oxygen content. This protective role of GO solutions, however, disappeared at higher concentrations above complement-activating threshold. We discuss these results in relation to GO surface structure and properties, and implications for local administration and development...

  4. Mutagenicity of silver nanoparticles in CHO cells dependent on particle surface functionalization and metabolic activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guigas, Claudia; Walz, Elke; Gräf, Volker; Heller, Knut J.; Greiner, Ralf

    2017-06-01

    The potential of engineered nanomaterials to induce genotoxic effects is an important aspect of hazard identification. In this study, cytotoxicity and mutagenicity as a function of metabolic activation of three silver nanoparticle (AgNP) preparations differing in surface coating were determined in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) subclone K1 cells. Three silver nanoparticle preparations ( x 90,0 culture medium containing 10% fetal calf serum (FCS) than in medium without FCS. The HPRT test without metabolic activation system S9 revealed that compared to the other AgNP formulations, citrate-coated Ag showed a lower genotoxic effect. However, addition of S9 increased the mutation frequency of all AgNPs and especially influenced the genotoxicity of Citrate-Ag. The results showed that exogenous metabolic activation of nanosilver is crucial even if interactions of the metabolic activation system, nanosilver, and cells are not really understood up to now.

  5. Temperature dependent halogen activation by N2O5 reactions on halide-doped ice surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Thornton

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We examined the reaction of N2O5 on frozen halide salt solutions as a function of temperature and composition using a coated wall flow tube technique coupled to a chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS. The molar yield of photo-labile halogen compounds was near unity for almost all conditions studied, with the observed reaction products being nitryl chloride (ClNO2 and/or molecular bromine (Br2. The relative yield of ClNO2 and Br2 depended on the ratio of bromide to chloride ions in the solutions used to form the ice. At a bromide to chloride ion molar ratio greater than 1/30 in the starting solution, Br2 was the dominant product otherwise ClNO2 was primarily produced on these near pH-neutral brines. We demonstrate that the competition between chlorine and bromine activation is a function of the ice/brine temperature presumably due to the preferential precipitation of NaCl hydrates from the brine below 250 K. Our results provide new experimental confirmation that the chemical environment of the brine layer changes with temperature and that these changes can directly affect multiphase chemistry. These findings have implications for modeling air-snow-ice interactions in polar regions and likely in polluted mid-latitude regions during winter as well.

  6. Mapping of permafrost surface and active layer properties using GPR: a comparison of frequency dependencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gacitua, Guisella; Uribe, José Andrés; Tamstorf, Mikkel Peter

    2011-01-01

    of the permafrost and from the internal features in the unfrozen soil. These results will be further used to determine the distribution of dielectric heterogeneities to support water content estimated from the same profiles. Comparing results from 400 and 800 MHz, we found that although both frequencies...... are suitable to measure thickness and to detect features in the active layer, the 400 MHz gives a better impression of the influence of the dielectric contrast effect from top of the permafrost zone which can be used to quantify the soil water content....

  7. Temperature dependence of surface nanobubbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkelaar, R.P.; Seddon, James Richard Thorley; Zandvliet, Henricus J.W.; Lohse, Detlef

    2012-01-01

    The temperature dependence of nanobubbles was investigated experimentally using atomic force microscopy. By scanning the same area of the surface at temperatures from 51 °C to 25 °C it was possible to track geometrical changes of individual nanobubbles as the temperature was decreased.

  8. Cloning and expression of the receptor for human urokinase plasminogen activator, a central molecule in cell surface, plasmin dependent proteolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roldan, A.L.; Cubellis, M.V.; Masucci, M.T.

    1990-01-01

    , and therefore the capacity of cells to migrate and invade neighboring tissues. We have isolated a 1.4 kb cDNA clone coding for the entire human uPAR. An oligonucleotide synthesized on the basis of the N-terminal sequence of the purified protein was used to screen a cDNA library made from SV40 transformed human......, a size very close to that of the cloned cDNA. Expression of the uPAR cDNA in mouse cells confirms that the clone is complete and expresses a functional uPA binding protein, located on the cell surface and with properties similar to the human uPAR. Caseinolytic plaque assay, immunofluorescence analysis......The surface receptor for urokinase plasminogen activator (uPAR) has been recognized in recent years as a key molecule in regulating plasminogen mediated extracellular proteolysis. Surface plasminogen activation controls the connections between cells, basement membrane and extracellular matrix...

  9. Mechanics of active surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salbreux, Guillaume; Jülicher, Frank

    2017-09-01

    We derive a fully covariant theory of the mechanics of active surfaces. This theory provides a framework for the study of active biological or chemical processes at surfaces, such as the cell cortex, the mechanics of epithelial tissues, or reconstituted active systems on surfaces. We introduce forces and torques acting on a surface, and derive the associated force balance conditions. We show that surfaces with in-plane rotational symmetry can have broken up-down, chiral, or planar-chiral symmetry. We discuss the rate of entropy production in the surface and write linear constitutive relations that satisfy the Onsager relations. We show that the bending modulus, the spontaneous curvature, and the surface tension of a passive surface are renormalized by active terms. Finally, we identify active terms which are not found in a passive theory and discuss examples of shape instabilities that are related to active processes in the surface.

  10. Temperature dependence of nuclear surface properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campi, X.; Stringari, S.

    1982-01-01

    Thermal properties of nuclear surface are investigated in a semi-infinite medium. Explicit analytical expression are given for the temperature dependence of surface thickness, surface energy and surface free energy. In this model the temperature effects depend critically on the nuclear incompressibility and on the shape of the effective mass at the surface. To illustrate the relevance of these effects we made an estimate of the temperature dependence of the fission barrier height. (orig.)

  11. Protein-coated pH-responsive gold nanoparticles: Microwave-assisted synthesis and surface charge-dependent anticancer activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dickson Joseph

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The biocompatibility and ease of functionalization of gold nanoparticles underlie significant potential in biotechnology and biomedicine. Eight different proteins were examined in the preparation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs in aqueous medium under microwave irradiation. Six of the proteins resulted in the formation of AuNPs. The intrinsic pH of the proteins played an important role in AuNPs with strong surface plasmon bands. The hydrodynamic size of the nanoparticles was larger than the values observed by TEM and ImageJ. The formation of a protein layer on the AuNPs accounts for this difference. The AuNPs exhibited sensitivity towards varying pH conditions, which was confirmed by determining the difference in the isoelectric points studied by using pH-dependent zeta potential titration. Cytotoxicity studies revealed anticancerous effects of the AuNPs at a certain micromolar concentration by constraining the growth of cancer cells with different efficacies due to the use of different proteins as capping agents. The positively charged AuNPs are internalized by the cells to a greater level than the negatively charged AuNPs. These AuNPs synthesized with protein coating holds promise as anticancer agents and would help in providing a new paradigm in area of nanoparticles.

  12. Oxygen exchange at gas/oxide interfaces: how the apparent activation energy of the surface exchange coefficient depends on the kinetic regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielitz, Peter; Borchardt, Günter

    2016-08-10

    In the dedicated literature the oxygen surface exchange coefficient KO and the equilibrium oxygen exchange rate [Fraktur R] are considered to be directly proportional to each other regardless of the experimental circumstances. Recent experimental observations, however, contradict the consequences of this assumption. Most surprising is the finding that the apparent activation energy of KO depends dramatically on the kinetic regime in which it has been determined, i.e. surface exchange controlled vs. mixed or diffusion controlled. This work demonstrates how the diffusion boundary condition at the gas/solid interface inevitably entails a correlation between the oxygen surface exchange coefficient KO and the oxygen self-diffusion coefficient DO in the bulk ("on top" of the correlation between KO and [Fraktur R] for the pure surface exchange regime). The model can thus quantitatively explain the range of apparent activation energies measured in the different regimes: in the surface exchange regime the apparent activation energy only contains the contribution of the equilibrium exchange rate, whereas in the mixed or in the diffusion controlled regime the contribution of the oxygen self-diffusivity has also to be taken into account, which may yield significantly higher apparent activation energies and simultaneously quantifies the correlation KO ∝ DO(1/2) observed for a large number of oxides in the mixed or diffusion controlled regime, respectively.

  13. Spectrophotometric evaluation of surface morphology dependent catalytic activity of biosynthesized silver and gold nanoparticles using UV–vis spectra: A comparative kinetic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ankamwar, Balaprasad, E-mail: bankamwar@yahoo.com [Bio-inspired Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India); Kamble, Vaishali; Sur, Ujjal Kumar [Bio-inspired Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India); Santra, Chittaranjan [Department of Chemistry, Netaji Nagar Day College, Regent Park, Kolkata 700092 (India)

    2016-03-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles were stable for 6 months and used as effective SERS active substrate. • They are effective catalyst in the chemical reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol. • Comparative catalytic efficiency of both silver and gold nanoparticles was studied spectrophotometrically. • Our results demonstrate surface morphology dependent catalytic activity of both nanoparticles. - Abstract: The development of eco-friendly and cost-effective synthetic protocol for the preparation of nanomaterials, especially metal nanoparticles is an emerging area of research in nanotechnology. These metal nanoparticles, especially silver can play a crucial role in various catalytic reactions. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles described here was very stable up to 6 months and can be further exploited as an effective catalyst in the chemical reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol. The silver nanoparticles were utilized as an efficient surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) active substrate using Rhodamine 6G as Raman probe molecule. We have also carried out systematic comparative studies on the catalytic efficiency of both silver and gold nanoparticles using UV–vis spectra to monitor the above reaction spectrophotometrically. We find that the reaction follows pseudo-first order kinetics and the catalytic activity can be explained by a simple model based on Langmuir–Hinshelwood mechanism for heterogeneous catalysis. We also find that silver nanoparticles are more efficient as a catalyst compare to gold nanoparticles in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol, which can be explained by the morphology of the nanoparticles as determined by transmission electron microscopy.

  14. Spectrophotometric evaluation of surface morphology dependent catalytic activity of biosynthesized silver and gold nanoparticles using UV–vis spectra: A comparative kinetic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ankamwar, Balaprasad; Kamble, Vaishali; Sur, Ujjal Kumar; Santra, Chittaranjan

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles were stable for 6 months and used as effective SERS active substrate. • They are effective catalyst in the chemical reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol. • Comparative catalytic efficiency of both silver and gold nanoparticles was studied spectrophotometrically. • Our results demonstrate surface morphology dependent catalytic activity of both nanoparticles. - Abstract: The development of eco-friendly and cost-effective synthetic protocol for the preparation of nanomaterials, especially metal nanoparticles is an emerging area of research in nanotechnology. These metal nanoparticles, especially silver can play a crucial role in various catalytic reactions. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles described here was very stable up to 6 months and can be further exploited as an effective catalyst in the chemical reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol. The silver nanoparticles were utilized as an efficient surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) active substrate using Rhodamine 6G as Raman probe molecule. We have also carried out systematic comparative studies on the catalytic efficiency of both silver and gold nanoparticles using UV–vis spectra to monitor the above reaction spectrophotometrically. We find that the reaction follows pseudo-first order kinetics and the catalytic activity can be explained by a simple model based on Langmuir–Hinshelwood mechanism for heterogeneous catalysis. We also find that silver nanoparticles are more efficient as a catalyst compare to gold nanoparticles in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol, which can be explained by the morphology of the nanoparticles as determined by transmission electron microscopy.

  15. Amphoteric surface active agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eissa, A.M. F.

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available 2-[trimethyl ammonium, triethyl ammonium, pyridinium and 2-amino pyridinium] alkanoates, four series of surface active agents containing carbon chain C12, C14, C16 and C18carbon atoms, were prepared. Their structures were characterized by microanalysis, infrared (IR and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR. Surface and interfacial tension, Krafft point, wetting time, emulsification power, foaming height and critical micelle concentration (cmc were determined and a comparative study was made between their chemical structure and surface active properties. Antimicrobial activity of these surfactants was also determined.

    Se prepararon cuatro series de agentes tensioactivos del tipo 2-[trimetil amonio, trietil amonio, piridinio y 2-amino piridinio] alcanoatos, que contienen cadenas carbonadas con C12, C14, C16 y C18 átomos de carbono.
    Se determinaron la tensión superficial e interfacial, el punto de Krafft, el tiempo humectante, el poder de emulsionamiento, la altura espumante y la concentración critica de miscela (cmc y se hizo un estudio comparativo entre la estructura química y sus propiedades tensioactivas. Se determinó también la actividad antimicrobiana de estos tensioactivos. Estas estructuras se caracterizaron por microanálisis, infrarrojo (IR y resonancia magnética nuclear (RMN.

  16. Dry deposition to vegetated surfaces: parametric dependencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, B.Y.

    1987-12-01

    The dry deposition velocity of airborne pollutants to vegetated surfaces depends on the physico-chemical form of the pollutant, on meteorological conditions (windspeed, atmospheric stability) and on characteristics of the surface cover. This report examines these dependencies, drawing on experimental data and on information from theoretical analyses. A canopy model is outlined which uses first-order closure of the equations for turbulent transport of momentum (or matter), with losses of momentum (or matter) to individual canopy elements parameterised in terms of the mean windspeed: the model has previously been tested against experimental data on an artificial 'grass' canopy. The model is used to elucidate the features of the dependence of deposition velocity on windspeed and on whether the pollutant is in gaseous or particulate form: in the former case, the dependence on the molecular diffusivity of the gas is shown; in the latter case, dependencies on particle diameter and density are deduced. The predictions are related to available measurements. Additional hypotheses are introduced to treat the influence of atmospheric stability on deposition, and the analysis is used to shed light on the somewhat confusing picture that has emerged from past experimental studies. In considering the dependence of deposition velocity on the structural properties of the vegetation, it is established that more parameters than the single one conventionally used -aerodynamic roughness length - are needed to characterise the surface cover. Some indications of the extent of variation in deposition velocity from one type of vegetation to another are elicited from the model. (author)

  17. Surface dependency in thermodynamics of ideal gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisman, Altug

    2004-01-01

    The Casimir-like size effect rises in ideal gases confined in a finite domain due to the wave character of atoms. By considering this effect, thermodynamic properties of an ideal gas confined in spherical and cylindrical geometries are derived and compared with those in rectangular geometry. It is seen that an ideal gas exhibits an unavoidable quantum surface free energy and surface over volume ratio becomes a control variable on thermodynamic state functions in microscale. Thermodynamics turns into non-extensive thermodynamics and geometry difference becomes a driving force since the surface over volume ratio depends on the geometry

  18. Model tests for the efficacy of disinfectants on surfaces. IV. Communication: dependence of test results on the amount of contamination and the kind of active substance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, J; Spicher, G

    1998-12-01

    In the assessment of efficacy of surface disinfectants, many influencing factors have to be taken into account. One essential item is whether the surface to be disinfected is clean or soiled. Among the feasible soilings, the blood is of particular consequences because it ads impediments to many disinfecting agents. This paper shows to what extent the impairment of the efficacy of typical active agents depends on the blood burden of the surfaces. Therefore, test surfaces (varnished plywood) were contaminated with 0.01 to 0.08 ml of coagulating blood per test area (3 cm2). The blood contained cells of Staphylococcus aureus as test germs. The disinfection was effected by immersing the test objects in the disinfecting solution for 5 seconds and mingling the adhering disinfecting solution (about 0.02 ml) with the coagulated blood on the test surface with a glass spatula for about 20 seconds. Subsequently, the test objects remained in a horizontal position at room conditions for 4 hours and then the numbers of surviving test germs were determined. The graphical representation of the results shows that the efficacy curves of formaldehyde and phenol lie very closely together, i.e. their effect is hardly impaired by the different blood burdens of the test areas. The efficacy curves of glutaraldehyde, peracetic acid, chloramine T, and quaternary ammonium compounds lie very far apart from each other. To achieve the same microbicidal effect (log N/N0 = -5) when the contaminating amount is raised from 10 microliters/3 cm2 to 80 microliters/3 cm2, the concentration of chloramine T has to be raised by a factor of 5.4, peracetic acid by a factor of 9, glutaraldehyde by a factor of 24, quaternary ammonium compound even by a factor of 67. Ethanol and sodium hypochlorite showed a divergent behaviour. For ethanol, the efficacy diminution produced by increasing the contamination amount by a factor of 4 can be compensated by raising the concentration from 50% to about 70%. But again and

  19. Identification of an hexapeptide that binds to a surface pocket in cyclin A and inhibits the catalytic activity of the complex cyclin-dependent kinase 2-cyclin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canela, Núria; Orzáez, Mar; Fucho, Raquel; Mateo, Francesca; Gutierrez, Ricardo; Pineda-Lucena, Antonio; Bachs, Oriol; Pérez-Payá, Enrique

    2006-11-24

    The protein-protein complexes formed between different cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are central to cell cycle regulation. These complexes represent interesting points of chemical intervention for the development of antineoplastic molecules. Here we describe the identification of an all d-amino acid hexapeptide, termed NBI1, that inhibits the kinase activity of the cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (cdk2)-cyclin A complex through selective binding to cyclin A. The mechanism of inhibition is non-competitive for ATP and non-competitive for protein substrates. In contrast to the existing CDKs peptide inhibitors, the hexapeptide NBI1 interferes with the formation of the cdk2-cyclin A complex. Furthermore, a cell-permeable derivative of NBI1 induces apoptosis and inhibits proliferation of tumor cell lines. Thus, the NBI1-binding site on cyclin A may represent a new target site for the selective inhibition of activity cdk2-cyclin A complex.

  20. Size-dependent proinflammatory effects of ultrafine polystyrene particles: a role for surface area and oxidative stress in the enhanced activity of ultrafines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D M; Wilson, M R; MacNee, W; Stone, V; Donaldson, K

    2001-09-15

    Studies into the effects of ultrafine particles in the lung have shown adverse effects considered to be due in part to the particle size. Air pollution particles (PM(10)) are associated with exacerbations of respiratory disease and deaths from cardiovascular causes in epidemiological studies and the ultrafine fraction of PM(10) has been hypothesized to play an important role. The aim of the present study was to investigate proinflammatory responses to various sizes of polystyrene particles as a simple model of particles of varying size including ultrafine. In the animal model, we demonstrated that there was a significantly greater neutrophil influx into the rat lung after instillation of 64-nm polystyrene particles compared with 202- and 535-nm particles and this was mirrored in other parameters of lung inflammation, such as increased protein and lactate dehydrogenase in bronchoalveolar lavage. When surface area instilled was plotted against inflammation, these two variables were directly proportional and the line passed through zero. This suggests that surface area drives inflammation in the short term and that ultrafine particles cause a greater inflammatory response because of the greater surface area they possess. In vitro, we measured the changes in intracellular calcium concentration in mono mac 6 cells in view of the potential role of calcium as a signaling molecule. Calcium changes after particle exposure may be important in leading to proinflammatory gene expression such as chemokines. We demonstrated that only ultrafine polystyrene particles induced a significant increase in cytosolic calcium ion concentration. Experiments using dichlorofluorescin diacetate demonstrated greater oxidant activity of the ultrafine particles, which may explain their activity in these assays. There were significant increases in IL-8 gene expression in A549 epithelial cells after treatment with the ultrafine particles but not particles of other sizes. These findings suggest

  1. Temperature dependence of bromine activation due to reaction of bromide with ozone in a proxy for organic aerosols and its importance for chemistry in surface snow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edebeli, Jacinta; Ammann, Markus; Gilgen, Anina; Trachsel, Jürg; Avak, Sven; Eichler, Anja; Schneebeli, Martin; Bartels-Rausch, Thorsten

    2017-04-01

    Tropospheric ozone depletion events (ODEs) via halogen activation are observed in both cold and warm climates [1-3]. Very recently, it was suggested that this multiphase halogen activation chemistry dominates in the tropical and subtropical upper troposphere [4]. These occurrences beg the question of temperature dependence of halogen activation in sea-salt aerosol, which are often mixtures of sea-salt and organic molecules [3, 5]. With the application of flow-tubes, the aim of this study is to investigate the temperature dependence of bromine activation via ozone interaction in a bromide containing film as a proxy for mixed organic - sea-salt aersol. Citric acid is used in this study as a hygroscopically characterized matrix and a proxy for oxidized organics, which is of relevance to atmospheric chemistry. Here, we present reactive ozone uptake measured between 258 and 289 K. The data show high reproducibility. With available knowledge, we have reproduced the measured uptake with modelled bulk uptake while accounting for temperature dependence of the substrate's properties as diffusivity, viscosity, and gas solubility. This work is part of a cross-disciplinary project with the aim to investigate the impact of metamorphism on impurity location in aging snow and its consequences for chemical reactivity. Metamorphism drastically shapes the structure and physical properties of snow, which has impacts on heat transfer, albedo, and avalanche formation. Such changes can be driven by water vapour fluxes in dry metamorphism with a mass turnover of as much as 60% per day - much greater than previously thought [6]. The consequences for atmospheric science are a current question of research [7]. Here, we show first results of a joint experiment to probe the re-distribution of impurities during snow metamorphism in artificial snow combined with an investigation of the samples structural changes. Future work is planned with the goal to investigate to which extend the observed re

  2. Agreement, dependencies, and Surface Correspondence in Obolo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This approach seems quite generalisable, as this paper demonstrates by applying it to a long-distance voicing dependency in Afrikaans (Coetzee 2014), in which root-medial voiced obstruents may not occur when this would produce disagreement with a voiceless root-initial obstruent. Keywords: harmony, nasality, Obolo, ...

  3. Statistical mechanics of surfaces with curvature dependent action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsson, T.

    1987-01-01

    We review recent results about discretized random surfaces whose action (energy) depends on the extrinsic curvature. The surface tension scales to zero at an appropriate critical point if the coupling constant of the curvature term is taken to infinity. At this critical point one expects to be able to construct a continuum theory of smooth surfaces. (orig.)

  4. Colitis-inducing potency of CD4+ T cells in immunodeficient, adoptive hosts depends on their state of activation, IL-12 responsiveness, and CD45RB surface phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claesson, M H; Bregenholt, S; Bonhagen, K

    1999-01-01

    We studied the induction, severity and rate of progression of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) induced in SCID mice by the adoptive transfer of low numbers of the following purified BALB/c CD4+ T cell subsets: 1) unfractionated, peripheral, small (resting), or large (activated) CD4+ T cells; 2......RBhigh CD4+ T lymphocytes and activated CD4+ T blasts induced early (6-12 wk posttransfer) and severe disease, while small resting and unfractionated CD4+ T cells or CD45RBlow T lymphocytes induced a late-onset disease 12-16 wk posttransfer. SCID mice transplanted with STAT-4-/- CD4+ T cells showed...

  5. Surface active properties of lipid nanocapsules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia R A Mouzouvi

    Full Text Available Lipid nanocapsules (LNCs are biomimetic nanocarriers used for the encapsulation of a broad variety of active ingredients. Similar to surface active compounds, LNCs contain both hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts in their structure. Moreover, the components of LNCs, macrogol 15 hydroxystearate (MHS and lecithin, are known for their surface active properties. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to investigate the capability of the LNCs to decrease surface tension using two techniques: drop tensiometry and the Wilhelmy plate method. LNCs with diameters ranging from 30 to 100 nm were successfully obtained using a phase inversion technique. The LNCs' properties, such as size and zeta potential, depend on the composition. LNCs exhibit a lower limiting surface tension compared to MHS (34.8-35.0 mN/m and 37.7-38.8 mN/m, respectively, as confirmed by both drop tensiometry and the Wilhelmy plate method. LNCs have exhibited a saturated interfacial concentration (SIC that was 10-fold higher than the critical micellar concentration (CMC of MHS or the SIC of binary and ternary mixtures of LNC ingredients. The SIC of the LNC formulations depended on the mass mixing ratio of the MHS/triglycerides but not on the presence of lecithin. The CMC/SIC values measured by the Wilhelmy plate method were higher than those obtained using drop tensiometry because of the longer duration of the tensiometry measurement. In conclusion, the surfactant-like properties of the LNCs offer new possibilities for medical and pharmaceutical applications.

  6. Protein kinase C activation decreases cell surface expression of the GLT-1 subtype of glutamate transporter. Requirement of a carboxyl-terminal domain and partial dependence on serine 486.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalandadze, Avtandil; Wu, Ying; Robinson, Michael B

    2002-11-29

    Na(+)-dependent glutamate transporters are required for the clearance of extracellular glutamate and influence both physiological and pathological effects of this excitatory amino acid. In the present study, the effects of a protein kinase C (PKC) activator on the cell surface expression and activity of the GLT-1 subtype of glutamate transporter were examined in two model systems, primary co-cultures of neurons and astrocytes that endogenously express GLT-1 and C6 glioma cells transfected with GLT-1. In both systems, activation of PKC with phorbol ester caused a decrease in GLT-1 cell surface expression. This effect is opposite to the one observed for the EAAC1 subtype of glutamate transporter (Davis, K. E., Straff, D. J., Weinstein, E. A., Bannerman, P. G., Correale, D. M., Rothstein, J. D., and Robinson, M. B. (1998) J. Neurosci. 18, 2475-2485). Several recombinant chimeric proteins between GLT-1 and EAAC1 transporter subtypes were generated to identify domains required for the subtype-specific redistribution of GLT-1. We identified a carboxyl-terminal domain consisting of 43 amino acids (amino acids 475-517) that is required for PKC-induced GLT-1 redistribution. Mutation of a non-conserved serine residue at position 486 partially attenuated but did not completely abolish the PKC-dependent redistribution of GLT-1. Although we observed a phorbol ester-dependent incorporation of (32)P into immunoprecipitable GLT-1, mutation of serine 486 did not reduce this signal. We also found that chimeras containing the first 446 amino acids of GLT-1 were not functional unless amino acids 475-517 of GLT-1 were also present. These non-functional transporters were not as efficiently expressed on the cell surface and migrated to a smaller molecular weight, suggesting that a subtype-specific interaction is required for the formation of functional transporters. These studies demonstrate a novel effect of PKC on GLT-1 activity and define a unique carboxyl-terminal domain as an

  7. Passion and dependency in online shopping activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chih-Chien; Yang, Hui-Wen

    2007-04-01

    This study examines the influence of harmonious passion (HP) and obsessive passion (OP) to online shopping dependency. The results show that both HP and OP might lead to online shopping dependency and online shoppers with OP are more dependent on online shopping activities. In addition, this study also found out that HP and OP could be denoted as a sequence of different intensities of passion, where HP might be a necessity of OP.

  8. Active colloidal propulsion over a crystalline surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Udit; Straube, Arthur V.; Fischer, Peer; Gibbs, John G.; Höfling, Felix

    2017-12-01

    We study both experimentally and theoretically the dynamics of chemically self-propelled Janus colloids moving atop a two-dimensional crystalline surface. The surface is a hexagonally close-packed monolayer of colloidal particles of the same size as the mobile one. The dynamics of the self-propelled colloid reflects the competition between hindered diffusion due to the periodic surface and enhanced diffusion due to active motion. Which contribution dominates depends on the propulsion strength, which can be systematically tuned by changing the concentration of a chemical fuel. The mean-square displacements (MSDs) obtained from the experiment exhibit enhanced diffusion at long lag times. Our experimental data are consistent with a Langevin model for the effectively two-dimensional translational motion of an active Brownian particle in a periodic potential, combining the confining effects of gravity and the crystalline surface with the free rotational diffusion of the colloid. Approximate analytical predictions are made for the MSD describing the crossover from free Brownian motion at short times to active diffusion at long times. The results are in semi-quantitative agreement with numerical results of a refined Langevin model that treats translational and rotational degrees of freedom on the same footing.

  9. Surface active monomers synthesis, properties, and application

    CERN Document Server

    Borzenkov, Mykola

    2014-01-01

    This brief includes information on the background?of and development of synthesis of various types of surface active monomers. The authors explain the importance of utilization of surface active monomers for creation of surface active polymers? and the various biomedical applications of such compounds . This brief introduces techniques for the synthesis of novel types of surface active monomers, their colloidal and polymerizable properties and application for needs of medicine and biology.

  10. Inelastic surface vibrations versus energy-dependent nucleus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Limitations of the static Woods–Saxon potential and the applicability of the energy dependent Woods–Saxon potential (EDWSP) model within the framework of one-dimensional Wong formula to explore the sub-barrier fusion data are highlighted. The inelastic surface excitations of the fusing nuclei are found to be ...

  11. Inelastic surface vibrations versus energy-dependent nucleus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Limitations of the static Woods–Saxon potential and the applicability of the energy- dependent Woods–Saxon potential (EDWSP) model within the framework of one-dimensional. Wong formula to explore the sub-barrier fusion data are highlighted. The inelastic surface exci- tations of the fusing nuclei are found to ...

  12. Great red spot dependence on solar activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schatten, K.H.

    1979-01-01

    A new inquiry has been made into the question of whether Jupiter's Great Red Spot shows a solar activity dependence. From 1892 to 1947 a clear correlation was present. A dearth of sightings in the seventeenth century, along with the Maunder Minimum, further supports the relation. An anticorrelation, however, from l948 to l967 removed support for such an effect. The old observations have reexamined and recent observations have also been studied. The author reexamines this difficult question and suggests a possible physical mechanism for a Sun-Jovian weather relation. Prinn and Lewis' conversion reaction of Phosphine gas to triclinic red phosphorous crystals is a reaction dependent upon solar radiation. It may explain the dependence found, as well as the striking appearance of the Great Red Spot in the UV

  13. Light-dependent electrogenic activity of cyanobacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Pisciotta

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria account for 20-30% of Earth's primary photosynthetic productivity and convert solar energy into biomass-stored chemical energy at the rate of approximately 450 TW [1]. These single-cell microorganisms are resilient predecessors of all higher oxygenic phototrophs and can be found in self-sustaining, nitrogen-fixing communities the world over, from Antarctic glaciers to the Sahara desert [2].Here we show that diverse genera of cyanobacteria including biofilm-forming and pelagic strains have a conserved light-dependent electrogenic activity, i.e. the ability to transfer electrons to their surroundings in response to illumination. Naturally-growing biofilm-forming photosynthetic consortia also displayed light-dependent electrogenic activity, demonstrating that this phenomenon is not limited to individual cultures. Treatment with site-specific inhibitors revealed the electrons originate at the photosynthetic electron transfer chain (P-ETC. Moreover, electrogenic activity was observed upon illumination only with blue or red but not green light confirming that P-ETC is the source of electrons. The yield of electrons harvested by extracellular electron acceptor to photons available for photosynthesis ranged from 0.05% to 0.3%, although the efficiency of electron harvesting likely varies depending on terminal electron acceptor.The current study illustrates that cyanobacterial electrogenic activity is an important microbiological conduit of solar energy into the biosphere. The mechanism responsible for electrogenic activity in cyanobacteria appears to be fundamentally different from the one exploited in previously discovered electrogenic bacteria, such as Geobacter, where electrons are derived from oxidation of organic compounds and transported via a respiratory electron transfer chain (R-ETC [3], [4]. The electrogenic pathway of cyanobacteria might be exploited to develop light-sensitive devices or future technologies that convert solar

  14. Exotic Paired States with Anisotropic Spin-Dependent Fermi Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feiguin, Adrian E.; Fisher, Matthew P. A.

    2009-01-01

    We propose a model for realizing exotic paired states in cold Fermi gases by using a spin-dependent optical lattice to engineer mismatched Fermi surfaces for each hyperfine species. The BCS phase diagram shows a stable paired superfluid state with coexisting pockets of momentum space with gapless unpaired carriers, similar to the Sarma state in polarized mixtures, but in our case the system is unpolarized. We propose the possible existence of an exotic 'Cooper-pair Bose-metal' phase, which has a gap for single fermion excitations but gapless and uncondensed 'Cooper-pair' excitations residing on a 'Bose surface' in momentum space.

  15. The cell biology of T-dependent B cell activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, T; Zeine, R

    1989-01-01

    The requirement that CD4+ helper T cells recognize antigen in association with class II Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) encoded molecules constrains T cells to activation through intercellular interaction. The cell biology of the interactions between CD4+ T cells and antigen-presenting cells...... includes multipoint intermolecular interactions that probably involve aggregation of both polymorphic and monomorphic T cell surface molecules. Such aggregations have been shown in vitro to markedly enhance and, in some cases, induce T cell activation. The production of T-derived lymphokines that have been...... implicated in B cell activation is dependent on the T cell receptor for antigen and its associated CD3 signalling complex. T-dependent help for B cell activation is therefore similarly MHC-restricted and involves T-B intercellular interaction. Recent reports that describe antigen-independent B cell...

  16. Time-Dependent Liquid Transport on a Biomimetic Topological Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Cunlong; Li, Chuxin; Gao, Can; Dong, Zhichao; Wu, Lei; Jiang, Lei

    2018-05-02

    Liquid drops impacting on a solid surface is a familiar phenomenon. On rainy days, it is quite important for leaves to drain off impacting raindrops. Water can bounce off or flow down a water-repellent leaf easily, but with difficulty on a hydrophilic leaf. Here, we show an interesting phenomenon in which impacting drops on the hydrophilic pitcher rim of Nepenthes alata can spread outward to prohibit water filling the pitcher tank. We mimic the peristome surface through a designed 3D printing and replicating way and report a time-dependently switchable liquid transport based on biomimetic topological structures, where surface curvature can work synergistically with the surface microtextures to manipulate the switchable spreading performance. Motived by this strange behavior, we construct a large-scaled peristome-mimetic surface in a 3D profile, demonstrating the ability to reduce the need to mop or to squeegee drops that form during the drop impacting process on pipes or other curved surfaces in food processing, moisture transfer, heat management, etc.

  17. Surface treatment and history-dependent corrosion in lead alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ning; Zhang Jinsuo; Sencer, Bulent H.; Koury, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    In oxygen-controlled lead and lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE), steel corrosion may be strongly history dependent. This is due to the competition between liquid metal dissolution corrosion and oxidation as a 'self-healing' protection barrier. Such effects can be observed from corrosion testing of a variety of surface-treated materials, such as cold working, shot peening, pre-oxidation, etc. Shot peening of austenitic steels produces surface-layer microstructural damages and grain compression, which could contribute to increased Cr migration to the surface and enhance the protection through an impervious oxide. Pre-oxidation under conditions different from operating ones may form more protective oxides, reduce oxygen and metal ion migration through the oxides, and achieve better protection for longer durations. Corrosion and oxidation modeling and analysis reveal the potential for significantly reducing long-term corrosion rates by initial and early-stage conditioning of steels for Pb/LBE services

  18. Surface treatment and history-dependent corrosion in lead alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Ning [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States)]. E-mail: ningli@lanl.gov; Zhang Jinsuo [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sencer, Bulent H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Koury, Daniel [University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2006-06-23

    In oxygen-controlled lead and lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE), steel corrosion may be strongly history dependent. This is due to the competition between liquid metal dissolution corrosion and oxidation as a 'self-healing' protection barrier. Such effects can be observed from corrosion testing of a variety of surface-treated materials, such as cold working, shot peening, pre-oxidation, etc. Shot peening of austenitic steels produces surface-layer microstructural damages and grain compression, which could contribute to increased Cr migration to the surface and enhance the protection through an impervious oxide. Pre-oxidation under conditions different from operating ones may form more protective oxides, reduce oxygen and metal ion migration through the oxides, and achieve better protection for longer durations. Corrosion and oxidation modeling and analysis reveal the potential for significantly reducing long-term corrosion rates by initial and early-stage conditioning of steels for Pb/LBE services.

  19. Time-dependent image potential at a metal surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alducin, M.; Diez Muino, R.; Juaristi, J.I.

    2003-01-01

    Transient effects in the image potential induced by a point charge suddenly created in front of a metal surface are studied. The time evolution of the image potential is calculated using linear response theory. Two different time scales are defined: (i) the time required for the creation of the image potential and (ii) the time it takes to converge to its stationary value. Their dependence on the distance of the charge to the surface is discussed. The effect of the electron gas damping is also analyzed. For a typical metallic density, the order of magnitude of the creation time is 0.1 fs, whereas for a charge created close to the surface the convergence time is around 1-2 fs

  20. [Superbrown beauty : The surface of tanorexia and tanning dependence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harth, W

    2017-12-01

    Brown skin symbolizes fitness, health, youthfulness and beauty, combined with leisure, activity, and joy of life in the Central European culture. Tanorexia is a tanning dependence that describes the morbid excessive desire for constant skin tanning. Particularly young women are affected. This article shows the underlying psychodermatological disorders.

  1. Surface-Activated Coupling Reactions Confined on a Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lei; Liu, Pei Nian; Lin, Nian

    2015-10-20

    Chemical reactions may take place in a pure phase of gas or liquid or at the interface of two phases (gas-solid or liquid-solid). Recently, the emerging field of "surface-confined coupling reactions" has attracted intensive attention. In this process, reactants, intermediates, and products of a coupling reaction are adsorbed on a solid-vacuum or a solid-liquid interface. The solid surface restricts all reaction steps on the interface, in other words, the reaction takes place within a lower-dimensional, for example, two-dimensional, space. Surface atoms that are fixed in the surface and adatoms that move on the surface often activate the surface-confined coupling reactions. The synergy of surface morphology and activity allow some reactions that are inefficient or prohibited in the gas or liquid phase to proceed efficiently when the reactions are confined on a surface. Over the past decade, dozens of well-known "textbook" coupling reactions have been shown to proceed as surface-confined coupling reactions. In most cases, the surface-confined coupling reactions were discovered by trial and error, and the reaction pathways are largely unknown. It is thus highly desirable to unravel the mechanisms, mechanisms of surface activation in particular, of the surface-confined coupling reactions. Because the reactions take place on surfaces, advanced surface science techniques can be applied to study the surface-confined coupling reactions. Among them, scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) are the two most extensively used experimental tools. The former resolves submolecular structures of individual reactants, intermediates, and products in real space, while the latter monitors the chemical states during the reactions in real time. Combination of the two methods provides unprecedented spatial and temporal information on the reaction pathways. The experimental findings are complemented by theoretical modeling. In particular, density

  2. Layer Dependence of Graphene for Oxidation Resistance of Cu Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-qing Song; Xiao-ping Wang

    2017-01-01

    We studied the oxidation resistance of graphene-coated Cu surface and its layer dependence by directly growing monolayer graphene with different multilayer structures coexisted,diminishing the influence induced by residue and transfer technology.It is found that the Cu surface coated with the monolayer graphene demonstrate tremendous difference in oxidation pattern and oxidation rate,compared to that coated with the bilayer graphene,which is considered to be originated from the strain-induced linear oxidation channel in monolayer graphene and the intersection of easily-oxidized directions in each layer of bilayer graphene,respectively.We reveal that the defects on the graphene basal plane but not the boundaries are the main oxidation channel for Cu surface under graphene protection.Our finding indicates that compared to putting forth efforts to improve the quality of monolayer graphene by reducing defects,depositing multilayer graphene directly on metal is a simple and effective way to enhance the oxidation resistance of graphene-coated metals.

  3. Variability of Surface Reflection Amplitudes of GPR Horn Antenna Depending on Distance between Antenna and Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komačka Jozef

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The study focused on variability of surface reflections amplitudes of GPR horn antenna in relation to distance between an antenna and a surface is presented in the paper. The air-coupled antenna with the central frequency of 1 GHz was used in the investigation. Four types of surfaces (dry pavement, wet pavement, metal plate and composite layer from gypsum and wood were tested. The distance of antenna above the surfaces was changed in the range from 37.5 cm to 53.5 cm. The amplitudes of negative and positive peaks and their variability were analysed in relation to the distance of antenna above the surfaces. Moreover, the influence of changes in the peaks of negative and positive amplitudes on the total amplitudes was assessed. It was found out the amplitudes of negative peaks for all investigated surfaces were relatively consistent in the range from 40.5 cm to 48.5 cm and the moderate decline was identified in the case of amplitudes of positive peaks in the range of distances from 37.5 cm to 51.5 cm. This decline influences the tendency of total amplitudes. Based on the results of analysis it can be stated the distance of air-coupled antenna above the surface can influence the value of total amplitude and the differences depend on the type of surface.

  4. View-Dependent Tessellation and Simulation of Ocean Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Puig-Centelles

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Modeling and rendering realistic ocean scenes have been thoroughly investigated for many years. Its appearance has been studied and it is possible to find very detailed simulations where a high degree of realism is achieved. Nevertheless, among the solutions to ocean rendering, real-time management of the huge heightmaps that are necessary for rendering an ocean scene is still not solved. We propose a new technique for simulating the ocean surface on GPU. This technique is capable of offering view-dependent approximations of the mesh while maintaining coherence among the extracted approximations. This feature is very important as most solutions previously presented must retessellate from the initial mesh. Our solution is able to use the latest extracted approximation when refining or coarsening the mesh.

  5. Active micromixer using surface acoustic wave streaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch,; Darren W. , Meyer; Grant D. , Craighead; Harold, G [Ithaca, NY

    2011-05-17

    An active micromixer uses a surface acoustic wave, preferably a Rayleigh wave, propagating on a piezoelectric substrate to induce acoustic streaming in a fluid in a microfluidic channel. The surface acoustic wave can be generated by applying an RF excitation signal to at least one interdigital transducer on the piezoelectric substrate. The active micromixer can rapidly mix quiescent fluids or laminar streams in low Reynolds number flows. The active micromixer has no moving parts (other than the SAW transducer) and is, therefore, more reliable, less damaging to sensitive fluids, and less susceptible to fouling and channel clogging than other types of active and passive micromixers. The active micromixer is adaptable to a wide range of geometries, can be easily fabricated, and can be integrated in a microfluidic system, reducing dead volume. Finally, the active micromixer has on-demand on/off mixing capability and can be operated at low power.

  6. Lateral dimension-dependent antibacterial activity of graphene oxide sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaobin; Hu, Ming; Zeng, Tingying Helen; Wu, Ran; Jiang, Rongrong; Wei, Jun; Wang, Liang; Kong, Jing; Chen, Yuan

    2012-08-21

    Graphene oxide (GO) is a promising precursor to produce graphene-family nanomaterials for various applications. Their potential health and environmental impacts need a good understanding of their cellular interactions. Many factors may influence their biological interactions with cells, and the lateral dimension of GO sheets is one of the most relevant material properties. In this study, a model bacterium, Escherichia coli ( E. coli ), was used to evaluate the antibacterial activity of well-dispersed GO sheets, whose lateral size differs by more than 100 times. Our results show that the antibacterial activity of GO sheets toward E. coli cells is lateral size dependent. Larger GO sheets show stronger antibacterial activity than do smaller ones, and they have different time- and concentration-dependent antibacterial activities. Large GO sheets lead to most cell loss after 1 h incubation, and their concentration strongly influences antibacterial activity at relative low concentration (oxidation capacity toward glutathione is similar, consistent with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy results. This suggests the lateral size-dependent antibacterial activity of GO sheets is caused by neither their aggregation states, nor oxidation capacity. Atomic force microscope analysis of GO sheets and cells shows that GO sheets interact strongly with cells. Large GO sheets more easily cover cells, and cells cannot proliferate once fully covered, resulting in the cell viability loss observed in the followed colony counting test. In contrast, small GO sheets adhere to the bacterial surfaces, which cannot effectively isolate cells from environment. This study highlights the importance of tailoring the lateral dimension of GO sheets to optimize the application potential with minimal risks for environmental health and safety.

  7. Analysis of surface dark current dependent upon surface passivation in APD based on GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Hong Joo; Roh, Cheong Hyun; Lee, Jun Ho; Choi, Hong Goo; Hahn, Cheol-Koo; Kim, Dong Ho; Park, Jung Ho

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated the dependence of reverse dark current on two types of surface passivation, one of which is polyimide and the other is SiN x , for InAs quantum dots/GaAs separate absorption, charge, multiplication avalanche photodiode (SACM APD). From the experimental results, we found that dark current was dominated by surface current, and not bulk current. It was also noted that SiN x passivation has a surface current that is lower by three to nine times in magnitude than that in polyimide passivation in the whole range of bias. To analyze the difference in dark current due to the passivation types, we propose the theoretical current components. This shows that the dark current of both passivation types is mainly composed of generation–recombination (G–R) and tunneling components, originating from the surface. However, each component has a different magnitude for passivation types, which can be explained by carrier concentration and trap density. The dependence of dark current on temperature shows the different behaviors between passivation types and supports a theoretical description of current components

  8. Surface conductivity dependent dynamic behaviour of an ultrafine atmospheric pressure plasma jet for microscale surface processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abuzairi, Tomy [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan); Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424 (Indonesia); Okada, Mitsuru [Department of Engineering, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan); Bhattacharjee, Sudeep [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208016 (India); Nagatsu, Masaaki, E-mail: nagatsu.masaaki@shizuoka.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan); Department of Engineering, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan); Research Institute of Electronics, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Spatio-temporal behaviors of capillary APPJs are studied for various substrates. • Plasma irradiation area depended on the substrate conductivity and permittivity. • Surface irradiation area was significantly broadened in polymer-like substrate. • Effect of applying a substrate bias on the APPJ irradiation area was investigated. - Abstract: An experimental study on the dynamic behaviour of microcapillary atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJs) with 5 μm tip size for surfaces of different conductivity is reported. Electrical and spatio-temporal characteristics of the APPJs are monitored using high voltage probe, current monitor and high speed intensified charge couple device camera. From these experimental results, we presented a simple model to understand the electrical discharge characteristics of the capillary APPJs with double electrodes, and estimated the velocity of the ionization fronts in the jet and the electron density to be 3.5–4.2 km/s and 2–7 × 10{sup 17} m{sup −3}. By analyzing the dynamics of the microcapillary APPJs for different substrate materials, it was found that the surface irradiation area strongly depended on the substrate conductivity and permittivity, especially in the case of polymer-like substrate, surface irradiation area was significantly broadened probably due to the repelling behaviour of the plasma jets from the accumulated electrical charges on the polymer surface. The effect of applying a substrate bias in the range from −900 V to +900 V on the plasma irradiation onto the substrates was also investigated. From the knowledge of the present results, it is helpful for choosing the substrate materials for microscale surface modification.

  9. Surface conductivity dependent dynamic behaviour of an ultrafine atmospheric pressure plasma jet for microscale surface processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abuzairi, Tomy; Okada, Mitsuru; Bhattacharjee, Sudeep; Nagatsu, Masaaki

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Spatio-temporal behaviors of capillary APPJs are studied for various substrates. • Plasma irradiation area depended on the substrate conductivity and permittivity. • Surface irradiation area was significantly broadened in polymer-like substrate. • Effect of applying a substrate bias on the APPJ irradiation area was investigated. - Abstract: An experimental study on the dynamic behaviour of microcapillary atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJs) with 5 μm tip size for surfaces of different conductivity is reported. Electrical and spatio-temporal characteristics of the APPJs are monitored using high voltage probe, current monitor and high speed intensified charge couple device camera. From these experimental results, we presented a simple model to understand the electrical discharge characteristics of the capillary APPJs with double electrodes, and estimated the velocity of the ionization fronts in the jet and the electron density to be 3.5–4.2 km/s and 2–7 × 10"1"7 m"−"3. By analyzing the dynamics of the microcapillary APPJs for different substrate materials, it was found that the surface irradiation area strongly depended on the substrate conductivity and permittivity, especially in the case of polymer-like substrate, surface irradiation area was significantly broadened probably due to the repelling behaviour of the plasma jets from the accumulated electrical charges on the polymer surface. The effect of applying a substrate bias in the range from −900 V to +900 V on the plasma irradiation onto the substrates was also investigated. From the knowledge of the present results, it is helpful for choosing the substrate materials for microscale surface modification.

  10. Technical activities, 1990: Surface Science Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, C.J.

    1991-05-01

    The report summarizes technical activities and accomplishments of the NIST Surface Science Division during Fiscal Year 1990. Overviews are presented of the Division and of its three constituent groups: Surface Dynamical Processes, Thin Films and Interfaces, and Surface Spectroscopies and Standards. These overviews are followed by reports of selected technical accomplishments during the year. A summary is given of Division outputs and interactions that includes lists of publications, talks, committee assignments, seminars (including both Division seminars and Interface Science seminars arranged through the Division), conferences organized, and a standard reference material certified. Finally, lists are given of Division staff and of guest scientists who have worked in the Division during the past year

  11. Active Surfaces and Interfaces of Soft Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiming

    A variety of intriguing surface patterns have been observed on developing natural systems, ranging from corrugated surface of white blood cells at nanometer scales to wrinkled dog skins at millimeter scales. To mimetically harness functionalities of natural morphologies, artificial transformative skin systems by using soft active materials have been rationally designed to generate versatile patterns for a variety of engineering applications. The study of the mechanics and design of these dynamic surface patterns on soft active materials are both physically interesting and technologically important. This dissertation starts with studying abundant surface patterns in Nature by constructing a unified phase diagram of surface instabilities on soft materials with minimum numbers of physical parameters. Guided by this integrated phase diagram, an electroactive system is designed to investigate a variety of electrically-induced surface instabilities of elastomers, including electro-creasing, electro-cratering, electro-wrinkling and electro-cavitation. Combing experimental, theoretical and computational methods, the initiation, evolution and transition of these instabilities are analyzed. To apply these dynamic surface instabilities to serving engineering and biology, new techniques of Dynamic Electrostatic Lithography and electroactive anti-biofouling are demonstrated.

  12. Polarization Dependence of Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering on a Single Dielectric Nanowire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Qi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Our measurements of surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS on Ga2O3 dielectric nanowires (NWs core/silver composites indicate that the SERS enhancement is highly dependent on the polarization direction of the incident laser light. The polarization dependence of the SERS signal with respect to the direction of a single NW was studied by changing the incident light angle. Further investigations demonstrate that the SERS intensity is not only dependent on the direction and wavelength of the incident light, but also on the species of the SERS active molecule. The largest signals were observed on an NW when the incident 514.5 nm light was polarized perpendicular to the length of the NW, while the opposite phenomenon was observed at the wavelength of 785 nm. Our theoretical simulations of the polarization dependence at 514.5 nm and 785 nm are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  13. Fibroblast adhesion and activation onto micro-machined titanium surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillem-Marti, J; Delgado, L; Godoy-Gallardo, M; Pegueroles, M; Herrero, M; Gil, F J

    2013-07-01

    Surface modifications performed at the neck of dental implants, in the manner of micro-grooved surfaces, can reduce fibrous tissue encapsulation and prevent bacterial colonization, thereby improving fibrointegration and the formation of a biological seal. However, the applied procedures are technically complex and/or time consuming methods. The aim of this study was to analyse the fibroblast behaviour on modified titanium surfaces obtained, applying a simple and low-cost method. An array of titanium surfaces was obtained using a commercial computerized numerical control lathe, modifying the feed rate and the cutting depth. To elucidate the potential ability of the generated surfaces to activate connective tissue cells, a thorough gene (by real time - qPCR) and protein (by western blot or zymography) expression and cellular response characterization (cell morphology, cell adhesion and cell activation by secreting extracellular matrix (ECM) components and their enzyme regulators) was performed. Micro-grooved surfaces have statistically significant differences in the groove's width (approximately 10, 50 and 100 μm) depending on the applied advancing fixed speed. Field emission scanning electron microscopy images showed that fibroblasts oriented along the generated grooves, but they were only entirely accommodated on the wider grooves (≥50 μm). Micro-grooved surfaces exhibited an earlier cell attachment and activation, as seen by collagen Iα1 and fibronectin deposition and activation of ECM remodelling enzymes, compared with the other surfaces. However, fibroblasts could remain in an activated state on narrower surfaces (fibrotic response. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. Halden project activities on software dependability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahll, G.; Sivertsen.

    1994-01-01

    Since 1977, the OECD Halden Reactor Project has been working in the field of software dependability. Special emphasis has been put on the use of software in safety critical systems. All phases in software development, from specification through software development, verification, and validation have been covered and are discussed in this article

  15. Activation of interfacial enzymes at membrane surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, Ole G.; Andresen, Thomas Lars; Halperin, Avi

    2006-01-01

    A host of water-soluble enzymes are active at membrane surfaces and in association with membranes. Some of these enzymes are involved in signalling and in modification and remodelling of the membranes. A special class of enzymes, the phospholipases, and in particular secretory phospholipase A2 (s...

  16. Size- and shape-dependent surface thermodynamic properties of nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qingshan; Xue, Yongqiang; Cui, Zixiang

    2018-05-01

    As the fundamental properties, the surface thermodynamic properties of nanocrystals play a key role in the physical and chemical changes. However, it remains ambiguous about the quantitative influence regularities of size and shape on the surface thermodynamic properties of nanocrystals. Thus by introducing interface variables into the Gibbs energy and combining Young-Laplace equation, relations between the surface thermodynamic properties (surface Gibbs energy, surface enthalpy, surface entropy, surface energy and surface heat capacity), respectively, and size of nanocrystals with different shapes were derived. Theoretical estimations of the orders of the surface thermodynamic properties of nanocrystals agree with available experimental values. Calculated results of the surface thermodynamic properties of Au, Bi and Al nanocrystals suggest that when r > 10 nm, the surface thermodynamic properties linearly vary with the reciprocal of particle size, and when r < 10 nm, the effect of particle size on the surface thermodynamic properties becomes greater and deviates from linear variation. For nanocrystals with identical equivalent diameter, the more the shape deviates from sphere, the larger the surface thermodynamic properties (absolute value) are.

  17. Magnetic field dependence of vortex activation energy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... the resistance as a function of temperature and magnetic field in clean polycrystalline samples of NbSe2, MgB2 and Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10 (BSCCO) superconductors. Thermally activated flux flow behaviour is seen in all the three systems and clearly identified in bulk MgB2. While the activation energy at low fields for MgB2 ...

  18. Precursor Dependent Structural Properties and Antibacterial Activity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    71

    10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30 ... absorption spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Zeta ... The antibacterial activity of the synthesized CuO were studied against human .... Sample d : Copper oxide synthesized with cupric sulphate as precursor ...... Chem.4 86.

  19. Coordinated surface activities in Variovorax paradoxus EPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Glenn A

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variovorax paradoxus is an aerobic soil bacterium frequently associated with important biodegradative processes in nature. Our group has cultivated a mucoid strain of Variovorax paradoxus for study as a model of bacterial development and response to environmental conditions. Colonies of this organism vary widely in appearance depending on agar plate type. Results Surface motility was observed on minimal defined agar plates with 0.5% agarose, similar in nature to swarming motility identified in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. We examined this motility under several culture conditions, including inhibition of flagellar motility using Congo Red. We demonstrated that the presence of a wetting agent, mineral, and nutrient content of the media altered the swarming phenotype. We also demonstrated that the wetting agent reduces the surface tension of the agar. We were able to directly observe the presence of the wetting agent in the presence and absence of Congo Red, and found that incubation in a humidified chamber inhibited the production of wetting agent, and also slowed the progression of the swarming colony. We observed that swarming was related to both carbon and nitrogen sources, as well as mineral salts base. The phosphate concentration of the mineral base was critical for growth and swarming on glucose, but not succinate. Swarming on other carbon sources was generally only observed using M9 salts mineral base. Rapid swarming was observed on malic acid, d-sorbitol, casamino acids, and succinate. Swarming at a lower but still detectable rate was observed on glucose and sucrose, with weak swarming on maltose. Nitrogen source tests using succinate as carbon source demonstrated two distinct forms of swarming, with very different macroscopic swarm characteristics. Rapid swarming was observed when ammonium ion was provided as nitrogen source, as well as when histidine, tryptophan, or glycine was provided. Slower swarming was observed

  20. Effects of Activated Carbon Surface Property on Structure and Activity of Ru/AC Catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, S. K.; Li, L. M.; Guo, N. N.

    2018-05-01

    The activated carbon (AC) was modified by supercritical (SC) methanol, HNO3 oxidation, or HNO3 oxidation plus SC methanol, respectively. Then, the original and the modified AC were used as supports for Ru/AC catalysts prepared via the impregnation method. The results showed that the SC methanol modification decreased the content of surface acidic groups of AC. While HNO3 oxidation displayed the opposite behavior. Furthermore, the dispersion of ruthenium and the activity of catalysts were highly dependent on the content of surface acidic groups, and the SC methanol modified sample exhibited the highest activity for hydrogenation of glucose.

  1. Patched bimetallic surfaces are active catalysts for ammonia decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Vlachos, Dionisios G

    2015-10-07

    Ammonia decomposition is often used as an archetypical reaction for predicting new catalytic materials and understanding the very reason of why some reactions are sensitive on material's structure. Core-shell or surface-segregated bimetallic nanoparticles expose outstanding activity for many heterogeneously catalysed reactions but the reasons remain elusive owing to the difficulties in experimentally characterizing active sites. Here by performing multiscale simulations in ammonia decomposition on various nickel loadings on platinum (111), we show that the very high activity of core-shell structures requires patches of the guest metal to create and sustain dual active sites: nickel terraces catalyse N-H bond breaking and nickel edge sites drive atomic nitrogen association. The structure sensitivity on these active catalysts depends profoundly on reaction conditions due to kinetically competing relevant elementary reaction steps. We expose a remarkable difference in active sites between transient and steady-state studies and provide insights into optimal material design.

  2. Surface effects of electrode-dependent switching behavior of resistive random-access memory

    KAUST Repository

    Ke, Jr Jian

    2016-09-26

    The surface effects of ZnO-based resistive random-access memory (ReRAM) were investigated using various electrodes. Pt electrodes were found to have better performance in terms of the device\\'s switching functionality. A thermodynamic model of the oxygen chemisorption process was proposed to explain this electrode-dependent switching behavior. The temperature-dependent switching voltage demonstrates that the ReRAM devices fabricated with Pt electrodes have a lower activation energy for the chemisorption process, resulting in a better resistive switching performance. These findings provide an in-depth understanding of electrode-dependent switching behaviors and can serve as design guidelines for future ReRAM devices.

  3. Rate-Dependent Slip of Newtonian Liquid at Smooth Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Yingxi; Granick, Steve

    2001-01-01

    Newtonian fluids were placed between molecularly smooth surfaces whose spacing was vibrated at spacings where the fluid responded as a continuum. Hydrodynamic forces agreed with predictions from the no-slip boundary condition only provided that flow rate (peak velocity normalized by spacing) was low, but implied partial slip when it exceeded a critical level, different in different systems, correlated with contact angle (surface wettability). With increasing flow rate and partially wetted surfaces, hydrodynamic forces became up to 2--4 orders of magnitude less than expected by assuming the no-slip boundary condition that is commonly stated in textbooks

  4. Dependence of bubble behavior in subcooled boiling on surface wettability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Takahiro; Nagakura, Hiroshi; Okawa, Tomio

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of visualization experiments that were carried out to investigate the dynamics of vapor bubbles generated in water pool boiling. In the experiments, vapor bubbles were generated on a vertical circular surface of a copper block containing nine cartridge heaters, and the contact angle of the heated surface was used as a main experimental parameter. The experiments were performed under subcooled as well as nearly saturated conditions. To enable clear observation of individual bubbles with a high speed camera, the heat flux was kept low enough to eliminate significant overlapping of bubbles. When the contact angle was small, the bubbles were lifted-off the vertical heated surface within a short period of time after the nucleation. On the other hand, when the contact angle was large, they slid up the vertical surface for a long distance. When bubbles were lifted-off the heated surface in subcooled liquid, bubble life-time was significantly shortened since bubbles collapsed rapidly due to condensation. It was shown that this distinct difference in bubble dynamics could be attributed to the effects of surface tension force.

  5. Response surface optimisation for activation of bentonite with microwave irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rožić Ljiljana S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the statistical design of the experimental method was applied on the acid activation process of bentonite with microwave irradiation. The influence of activation parameters (time, acid normality and microwave heating power on the selected process response of the activated bentonite samples was studied. The specific surface area was chosen for the process response, because the chemical, surface and structural properties of the activated clay determine and limit its potential applications. The relationship of various process parameters with the specific surface area of bentonite was examined. A mathematical model was developed using a second-order response surface model (RSM with a central composite design incorporating the above mentioned process parameters. The mathematical model developed helped in predicting the variation in specific surface area of activated bentonite with time (5-21 min, acid normality (2-7 N and microwave heating power (63-172 W. The calculated regression models were found to be statistically significant at the required range and presented little variability. Furthermore, high values of R2 (0.957 and R2 (adjusted (0.914 indicate a high dependence and correlation between the observed and the predicted values of the response. These high values also indicate that about 96% of the result of the total variation can be explained by this model. In addition, the model shows that increasing the time and acid normality improves the textural properties of bentonites, resulting in increased specific surface area. This model also can be useful for setting an optimum value of the activation parameters for achieving the maximum specific surface area. An optimum specific surface area of 142 m2g-1 was achieved with an acid normality of 5.2 N, activation time of 7.38 min and microwave power of 117 W. Acid activation of bentonite was found to occur faster with microwave irradiation than with conventional heating. Microwave

  6. Layer-dependent surface potential of phosphorene and anisotropic/layer-dependent charge transfer in phosphorene-gold hybrid systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Renjing; Yang, Jiong; Zhu, Yi; Yan, Han; Pei, Jiajie; Myint, Ye Win; Zhang, Shuang; Lu, Yuerui

    2016-01-07

    The surface potential and the efficiency of interfacial charge transfer are extremely important for designing future semiconductor devices based on the emerging two-dimensional (2D) phosphorene. Here, we directly measured the strong layer-dependent surface potential of mono- and few-layered phosphorene on gold, which is consistent with the reported theoretical prediction. At the same time, we used an optical way photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy to probe charge transfer in the phosphorene-gold hybrid system. We firstly observed highly anisotropic and layer-dependent PL quenching in the phosphorene-gold hybrid system, which is attributed to the highly anisotropic/layer-dependent interfacial charge transfer.

  7. Nicotine Dependence, Physical Activity, and Sedentary Behavior among Adult Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Walker, Jerome F

    2015-03-01

    Research has previously demonstrated an inverse association between smoking status and physical activity; however, few studies have examined the association between nicotine dependence and physical activity or sedentary behavior. This study examined the association between nicotine dependence and accelerometer-determined physical activity and sedentary behavior. Data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used. A total of 851 adult (≥20 years) smokers wore an accelerometer for ≥4 days and completed the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence scale. Regression models were used to examine the association between nicotine dependence and physical activity/sedentary behavior. After adjusting for age, gender, race-ethnicity, poverty level, hypertension, emphysema, bronchitis, body mass index (BMI), cotinine, and accelerometer wear time, smokers 50 + years of age with greater nicotine dependence engaged in more sedentary behavior (β = 11.4, P = 0.02) and less light-intensity physical activity (β = -9.6, P = 0.03) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA; β = -0.14, P = 0.003) than their less nicotine dependent counterparts. Older adults who are more nicotine dependent engage in less physical activity (both MVPA and light-intensity) and more sedentary behavior than their less nicotine dependent counterparts.

  8. Voltage Dependence of a Neuromodulator-Activated Ionic Current123

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The neuromodulatory inward current (IMI) generated by crab Cancer borealis stomatogastric ganglion neurons is an inward current whose voltage dependence has been shown to be crucial in the activation of oscillatory activity of the pyloric network of this system. It has been previously shown that IMI loses its voltage dependence in conditions of low extracellular calcium, but that this effect appears to be regulated by intracellular calmodulin. Voltage dependence is only rarely regulated by intracellular signaling mechanisms. Here we address the hypothesis that the voltage dependence of IMI is mediated by intracellular signaling pathways activated by extracellular calcium. We demonstrate that calmodulin inhibitors and a ryanodine antagonist can reduce IMI voltage dependence in normal Ca2+, but that, in conditions of low Ca2+, calmodulin activators do not restore IMI voltage dependence. Further, we show evidence that CaMKII alters IMI voltage dependence. These results suggest that calmodulin is necessary but not sufficient for IMI voltage dependence. We therefore hypothesize that the Ca2+/calmodulin requirement for IMI voltage dependence is due to an active sensing of extracellular calcium by a GPCR family calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) and that the reduction in IMI voltage dependence by a calmodulin inhibitor is due to CaSR endocytosis. Supporting this, preincubation with an endocytosis inhibitor prevented W7 (N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulfonamide hydrochloride)-induced loss of IMI voltage dependence, and a CaSR antagonist reduced IMI voltage dependence. Additionally, myosin light chain kinase, which is known to act downstream of the CaSR, seems to play a role in regulating IMI voltage dependence. Finally, a Gβγ-subunit inhibitor also affects IMI voltage dependence, in support of the hypothesis that this process is regulated by a G-protein-coupled CaSR. PMID:27257619

  9. Porosity-dependent fractal nature of the porous silicon surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahmani, N.; Dariani, R. S., E-mail: dariani@alzahra.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Alzahra University, Tehran, 1993893973 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    Porous silicon films with porosity ranging from 42% to 77% were fabricated by electrochemical anodization under different current density. We used atomic force microscopy and dynamic scaling theory for deriving the surface roughness profile and processing the topography of the porous silicon layers, respectively. We first compared the topography of bare silicon surface with porous silicon and then studied the effect of the porosity of porous silicon films on their scaling behavior by using their self-affinity nature. Our work demonstrated that silicon compared to the porous silicon films has the highest Hurst parameter, indicating that the formation of porous layer due to the anodization etching of silicon surface leads to an increase of its roughness. Fractal analysis revealed that the evolution of the nanocrystallites’ fractal dimension along with porosity. Also, we found that both interface width and Hurst parameter are affected by the increase of porosity.

  10. Nicotine dependence, physical activity, and sedentary behavior among adult smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Paul D Loprinzi; Jerome F Walker

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research has previously demonstrated an inverse association between smoking status and physical activity; however, few studies have examined the association between nicotine dependence and physical activity or sedentary behavior. Aim: This study examined the association between nicotine dependence and accelerometer-determined physical activity and sedentary behavior. Materials and Methods: Data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used....

  11. Geometry- and rate-dependent adhesive failure of micropatterned surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, H.; Lindstrom, S.B.; Sprakel, J.H.B.

    2012-01-01

    The dynamic nature of adhesive interface failure remains poorly understood, especially when the contact between the two surfaces is localized in microscopic points of adhesion. Here, we explore the dynamic failure of adhesive interfaces composed of a large number of micron-sized pillars against

  12. Angle dependent laser nanopatterning of poly(ethylene terephthalate) surfaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slepička, P.; Chaloupka, A.; Sajdl, P.; Heitz, J.; Hnatowicz, Vladimír; Svorcik, V.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 257, č. 14 (2011), s. 6021-6025 ISSN 0169-4332 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/09/0125 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : POLYMER SURFACES * THIN-FILM * RADIATION Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.103, year: 2011

  13. Surface termination dependence of the reactivity of single crystal hematite with CCl 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camillone, Nicholas, III; Adib, Kaveh; Fitts, Jeffrey P.; Rim, Kwang T.; Flynn, George W.; Joyce, S. A.; Osgood, Richard M.

    2002-06-01

    We describe ultrahigh vacuum Auger electron spectrometric measurements of the uptake of chlorine following the room temperature exposure of single crystal hematite, α-Fe2O3, to CCl4. We compare the surface chemistry of two specific surface phases formed on the basal plane of α-Fe2O3: the Fe3O4(1 1 1)-(2×2) ;selvedge; and the α-Fe2O3/Fe1-xO ;biphase.; For Fe3O4(1 1 1)-(2×2) an estimated saturation level of Cl of ∼75% of a monolayer is readily attained. Carbon uptake is well below that expected for simple stoichiometric dissociative chemisorption, consistent with desorption of organic products during the surface reaction. Low energy electron diffraction measurements suggest that, dependent upon preparation procedures, at least two types of α-Fe2O3/Fe1-xO biphase structures can be formed. Surprisingly, upon exposure to CCl4, Cl uptake does not occur on either of these biphase surfaces, despite the fact that these surfaces are thought to have the same surface concentrations of iron and oxygen as Fe3O4(1 1 1). The dramatic difference between the reactivity of the Fe3O4 and biphase surfaces suggests that the active site for the dissociative adsorption of CCl4 on Fe3O4(1 1 1)-(2×2) comprises both an iron cation and an oxygen anion with a surface-normal-oriented dangling bond that is uncapped by iron cations. Electron stimulated and thermal desorption of Cl from the saturated Fe3O4(1 1 1)-(2×2) selvedge is also reported.

  14. On the dependence of sea surface roughness on wind waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, H.K.; Højstrup, J.; Vested, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    that calculations of the wind friction velocities using the wave-spectra-dependent expression of Hansen and Larsen agrees quite well with measured values during RASEX. It also gives a trend in Charnock parameter consistent with that found by combining the field data. Last, calculations using a constant Charnock...

  15. Orientation-dependent chemistry and band-bending of Ti on polar ZnO surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghetti, Patrizia; Mouchaal, Younes; Dai, Zongbei; Cabailh, Gregory; Chenot, Stéphane; Lazzari, Rémi; Jupille, Jacques

    2017-04-19

    Orientation-dependent reactivity and band-bending are evidenced upon Ti deposition (1-10 Å) on polar ZnO(0001)-Zn and ZnO(0001[combining macron])-O surfaces. At the onset of the Ti deposition, a downward band-bending was observed on ZnO(0001[combining macron])-O while no change occurred on ZnO(0001)-Zn. Combining this with the photoemission analysis of the Ti 2p core level and Zn L 3 (L 2 )M 45 M 45 Auger transition, it is established that the Ti/ZnO reaction is of the form Ti + 2ZnO → TiO 2 + 2Zn on ZnO(0001)-Zn and Ti + yZnO → TiZn x O y + (y - x)Zn on ZnO(0001[combining macron])-O. Consistently, upon annealing thicker Ti adlayers, the metallic zinc is removed to leave ZnO(0001)-Zn surfaces covered with a TiO 2 -like phase and ZnO(0001[combining macron])-O surfaces covered with a defined (Ti, Zn, O) compound. Finally, a difference in the activation temperature between the O-terminated (500 K) and Zn-terminated (700 K) surfaces is observed, which is tentatively explained by different electric fields in the space charge layer at ZnO surfaces.

  16. Homogeneous near surface activity distribution by double energy activation for TLA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takacs, S.; Ditroi, F.; Tarkanyi, F.

    2007-01-01

    Thin layer activation (TLA) is a versatile tool for activating thin surface layers in order to study real-time the surface loss by wear, corrosion or erosion processes of the activated parts, without disassembling or stopping running mechanical structures or equipment. The research problem is the determination of the irradiation parameters to produce point-like or large area optimal activity-depth distribution in the sample. Different activity-depth profiles can be produced depending on the type of the investigated material and the nuclear reaction used. To produce activity that is independent of the depth up to a certain depth is desirable when the material removed from the surface by wear, corrosion or erosion can be collected completely. By applying dual energy irradiation the thickness of this quasi-constant activity layer can be increased or the deviation of the activity distribution from a constant value can be minimized. In the main, parts made of metals and alloys are suitable for direct activation, but by using secondary particle implantation the wear of other materials can also be studied in a surface range a few micrometers thick. In most practical cases activation of a point-like spot (several mm 2 ) is enough to monitor the wear, corrosion or erosion, but for special problems relatively large surfaces areas of complicated spatial geometry need to be activated uniformly. Two ways are available for fulfilling this task, (1) production of large area beam spot or scanning the beam over the surface in question from the accelerator side, or (2) a programmed 3D movement of the sample from the target side. Taking into account the large variability of tasks occurring in practice, the latter method was chosen as the routine solution in our cyclotron laboratory

  17. Surface chemistry dependent immunostimulative potential of porous silicon nanoplatforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Fernández, Tahia D; Mäkilä, Ermei M; Le Guével, Xavier; Mayorga, Cristobalina; Kaasalainen, Martti H; Salonen, Jarno J; Hirvonen, Jouni T; Santos, Hélder A

    2014-11-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have been suggested for immunotherapy applications in order to optimize the delivery of immuno-stimulative or -suppressive molecules. However, low attention towards the impact of the NPs' physicochemical properties has presented a major hurdle for developing efficient immunotherapeutic agents. Here, the effects of porous silicon (PSi) NPs with different surface chemistries were evaluated on human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs) and lymphocytes in order to highlight the importance of the NPs selection in immuno-stimulative or -suppressive treatment. Although all the PSi NPs showed high biocompatibility, only thermally oxidized PSi (TOPSi) and thermally hydrocarbonized PSi (THCPSi) NPs were able to induce very high rate of immunoactivation by enhancing the expression of surface co-stimulatory markers of the MDDCs (CD80, CD83, CD86, and HLA-DR), inducing T-cell proliferation, and also the secretion of interleukins (IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IFN-γ, and TNF-α). These results indicated a balanced increase in the secretion of Th1, Th2, and Treg cytokines. Moreover, undecylenic acid functionalized THCPSi, as well as poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic acid) conjugated to (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane functionalized thermally carbonized PSi and polyethyleneimine conjugated undecylenic acid functionalized THCPSi NPs showed moderate immunoactivation due to the mild increase in the above-mentioned markers. By contrast, thermally carbonized PSi (TCPSi) and (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane functionalized TCPSi NPs did not induce any immunological responses, suggesting that their application could be in the delivery of immunosuppressive molecules. Overall, our findings suggest all the NPs containing more nitrogen or oxygen on the outermost backbone layer have lower immunostimulatory effect than NPs with higher C-H structures on the surface. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Microscopic Investigation of Reversible Nanoscale Surface Size Dependent Protein Conjugation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Carpenter

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Aβ1-40 coated 20 nm gold colloidal nanoparticles exhibit a reversible color change as pH is externally altered between pH 4 and 10. This reversible process may contain important information on the initial reversible step reported for the fibrillogenesis of Aβ (a hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease. We examined this reversible color change by microscopic investigations. AFM images on graphite surfaces revealed the morphology of Aβ aggregates with gold colloids. TEM images clearly demonstrate the correspondence between spectroscopic features and conformational changes of the gold colloid.

  19. The dependence of lipid monolayer lipolysis on surface pressure.

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, D G

    1992-01-01

    Brönsted-Bjerrum theory [Brönsted (1922) Z. Phys. Chem. 102, 169-207; (1925) Z. Phys. Chem. 115, 337-364; Bjerrum (1924) Z. Phys. Chem. 108, 82-100] as applied to reactions at interfaces is used to interpret published data on the lipolysis of dinonanoyl phosphatidylcholine monolayers by pancreatic phospholipase A2. Reasonable quantitative agreement between theoretical and experimental results occurs when the reported effects of surface pressure on the amount of adsorbed enzyme are used togeth...

  20. Does Titan have an Active Surface?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, R.

    2009-12-01

    ammonia, a compound expected in Titan’s interior. This, combined with the previous evidence from VIMS and RADAR images, creates a strong case for Titan having a presently active surface, possibly due to cryovolcanism. Cassini encountered Titan at very close range on 2008-11-19-13:58 and again on 2008-12-05-12:38. These epochs are called T47 and T48. Comparison of earlier lower resolution data (T5) with the recent T47 and T48 data reveal changes of the surface reflectance and morphology in the Hotei region. This is the first evidence from VIMS that confirms the RADAR report that Hotei Reggio has morphology consistent with volcanic terrain. It has not escaped our attention that ammonia, in association with methane and nitrogen, the principal species of Titan’s atmosphere, closely replicates the environment at the time that live first emerged on earth. If Titan is currently active then these results raise the following questions: What is the full extent of current geologic activity? What are the ongoing processes? Are Titan’s chemical processes today supporting a prebiotic chemistry similar to that under which life evolved on Earth? This work done at JPL under contract with NASA. Refs: [1]R. M. Nelson et al., Icarus 199 (2009) 429-441. [2]R. M. Nelson et al., GRL, VOL. 36, L04202, doi:10.1029/2008GL036206, 2009. [3]S. D. Wall GRL, VOL. 36, L04203, doi:10.1029/2008GL036415, 2009

  1. Field dependent surface resistance of niobium on copper cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Junginger

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The surface resistance R_{S} of superconducting cavities prepared by sputter coating a niobium film on a copper substrate increases significantly stronger with the applied rf field compared to cavities of bulk material. A possible cause is that the thermal boundary resistance between the copper substrate and the niobium film induces heating of the inner cavity wall, resulting in a higher R_{S}. Introducing helium gas in the cavity, and measuring its pressure as a function of applied field allowed to conclude that the inner surface of the cavity is heated up by less than 120 mK when R_{S} increases with E_{acc} by 100  nΩ. This is more than one order of magnitude less than what one would expect from global heating. Additionally, the effects of cooldown speed and low temperature baking have been investigated in the framework of these experiments. It is shown that for the current state of the art niobium on copper cavities there is only a detrimental effect of low temperature baking. A fast cooldown results in a lowered R_{S}.

  2. Frictional coefficient depending on active friction radius with BPV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Frictional coefficient depending on active friction radius with BPV and BTV in automobile disc braking system. ... International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology. Journal Home · ABOUT ... AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

  3. High-surface-area active carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Grady, T.M.; Wennerberg, A.N.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the preparation and properties of a unique active carbon having exceptionally high surface areas, over 2500 m 2 /gm, and extraordinary adsorptive capacities. The carbon is made by a direct chemical activation route in which petroleum coke or other carbonaceous sources are reacted with excess potassium hydroxide at 400 0 to 500 0 C to an intermediate product that is subsequently pyrolyzed at 800 0 to 900 0 C to active carbon containing potassium salts. These are removed by water washing and the carbon is dried to produce a powdered product. A granular carbon can also be made by further processing the powdered carbon by using specialized granulation techniques. Typical properties of the carbon include Iodine Numbers of 3000 to 3600, methylene blue adsorption of 650 to 750 mg/gm, pore volumes of 2.0 to 2.6 cc/gm and less than 3.0% ash. This carbon's high adsorption capacities make it uniquely suited for numerous demanding applications in the medical area, purifications, removal of toxic substances, as catalyst carriers, etc

  4. Surface active agents from Egyptian petroleum distillates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassem, T.M.

    Kerosene and solar distillates from local crude petroleum 'Morgan' were fractionated. These fractions were refined with oleum and then distilled. The normal paraffins were separated from the refined fractions by the urea adduction technique. These paraffin cuts were subjected to 50% chlorination and the obtained monochlorinated paraffins were used in the synthesis of alkylbenzenes and alkyldiphenyls which were converted to anionic surfactants by sulphonation with 95% sulphuric acid. The sulphonyl chlorides of alkylbenzenes and of alkyldiphenyls were prepared and then converted to the corresponding sulphonamides. The prepared sulphonamides were then processed to nonionic surfactants through condensation with ethylene oxide. The ethoxylates were sulphated with chlorosulphonic acid and phosphated with phosphorus pentoxide to anionic surfactants. The surface active properties and the biodegradability of all the prepared surfactants were determined.

  5. Exotic high activity surface patterns in PtAu nanoclusters

    KAUST Repository

    Mokkath, Junais Habeeb; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2013-01-01

    of the truncated octahedron cluster motif. Exotic surface patterns are obtained particularly for Pt-rich compositions, where Pt atoms are being surrounded by Au atoms. These surface arrangements boost the catalytic activity by creating a large number of active

  6. Surface and interface electronic structure: Three year activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kevan, S.D.

    1992-01-01

    The 3-year activity report covers surface structure and phonon anomalies (surface reconstruction on W(001) and Mo(001), adsorbate lateral ordering, surface Fermi contours and phonon anomalies on Pt(111) and Pd(001)), adsorbate vibrational damping, charge transfer in momentum space: W(011)-K, surface states and resonances (relativistic effects ampersand computations, surface resonances)

  7. Size-dependent surface plasmon resonance in silver silica nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Senoy; Nair, Saritha K; Jamal, E Muhammad Abdul; Anantharaman, M R; Al-Harthi, S H; Varma, Manoj Raama

    2008-01-01

    Silver silica nanocomposites were obtained by the sol-gel technique using tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and silver nitrate (AgNO 3 ) as precursors. The silver nitrate concentration was varied for obtaining composites with different nanoparticle sizes. The structural and microstructural properties were determined by x-ray diffractometry (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) studies were done for determining the chemical states of silver in the silica matrix. For the lowest AgNO 3 concentration, monodispersed and spherical Ag crystallites, with an average diameter of 5 nm, were obtained. Grain growth and an increase in size distribution was observed for higher concentrations. The occurrence of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) bands and their evolution in the size range 5-10 nm is studied. For decreasing nanoparticle size, a redshift and broadening of the plasmon-related absorption peak was observed. The observed redshift and broadening of the SPR band was explained using modified Mie scattering theory

  8. Angular dependent XPS study of surface band bending on Ga-polar n-GaN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rong; Liu, Tong; Zhao, Yanfei; Zhu, Yafeng; Huang, Zengli; Li, Fangsen; Liu, Jianping; Zhang, Liqun; Zhang, Shuming; Dingsun, An; Yang, Hui

    2018-05-01

    Surface band bending and composition of Ga-polar n-GaN with different surface treatments were characterized by using angular dependent X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Upward surface band bending of varying degree was observed distinctly upon to the treatment methods. Besides the nitrogen vacancies, we found that surface states of oxygen-containing absorbates (O-H component) also contribute to the surface band bending, which lead the Fermi level pined at a level further closer to the conduction band edge on n-GaN surface. The n-GaN surface with lower surface band bending exhibits better linear electrical properties for Ti/GaN Ohmic contacts. Moreover, the density of positively charged surface states could be derived from the values of surface band bending.

  9. Architecture-dependent surface chemistry for Pt monolayers on carbon-supported Au.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shuang; Rettew, Robert E; Sauerbrey, Marc; Alamgir, Faisal M

    2011-10-01

    Pt monolayers were grown by surface-limited redox replacement (SLRR) on two types of Au nanostructures. The Au nanostructures were fabricated electrochemically on carbon fiber paper (CFP) by either potentiostatic deposition (PSD) or potential square wave deposition (PSWD). The morphology of the Au/CFP heterostructures, examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), was found to depend on the type of Au growth method employed. The properties of the Pt deposit, as studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), and cyclic voltammetry (CV), were found to depend strongly on the morphology of the support. Specifically, it was found that smaller Au morphologies led to a higher degree of cationicity in the resulting Pt deposit, with Pt(4+) and Pt(2+) species being identified using XPS and XAS. For fuel-cell catalysts, the resistance of ultrathin catalyst deposits to surface area loss through dissolution, poisoning, and agglomeration is critical. This study shows that an equivalent of two monolayers (ML) is the low-loading limit of Pt on Au. At 1 ML or below, the Pt film decreases in activity and durability very rapidly due to presence of cationic Pt. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  10. Sensing surface mechanical deformation using active probes driven by motor proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Daisuke; Nitta, Takahiro; Kabir, Arif Md. Rashedul; Sada, Kazuki; Gong, Jian Ping; Konagaya, Akihiko; Kakugo, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Studying mechanical deformation at the surface of soft materials has been challenging due to the difficulty in separating surface deformation from the bulk elasticity of the materials. Here, we introduce a new approach for studying the surface mechanical deformation of a soft material by utilizing a large number of self-propelled microprobes driven by motor proteins on the surface of the material. Information about the surface mechanical deformation of the soft material is obtained through changes in mobility of the microprobes wandering across the surface of the soft material. The active microprobes respond to mechanical deformation of the surface and readily change their velocity and direction depending on the extent and mode of surface deformation. This highly parallel and reliable method of sensing mechanical deformation at the surface of soft materials is expected to find applications that explore surface mechanics of soft materials and consequently would greatly benefit the surface science. PMID:27694937

  11. Surface effects of electrode-dependent switching behavior of resistive random-access memory

    KAUST Repository

    Ke, Jr Jian; Wei, Tzu Chiao; Tsai, Dung Sheng; Lin, Chun-Ho; He, Jr-Hau

    2016-01-01

    of the oxygen chemisorption process was proposed to explain this electrode-dependent switching behavior. The temperature-dependent switching voltage demonstrates that the ReRAM devices fabricated with Pt electrodes have a lower activation energy

  12. Note: A single-chamber tool for plasma activation and surface functionalization in microfabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, Adam J.; Scherrer, Joseph R.; Reiserer, Ronald S., E-mail: ron.reiserer@vanderbilt.edu [Vanderbilt Institute for Integrative Biosystems Research and Education and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    We present a simple apparatus for improved surface modification of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic devices. A single treatment chamber for plasma activation and chemical/physical vapor deposition steps minimizes the time-dependent degradation of surface activation that is inherent in multi-chamber techniques. Contamination and deposition irregularities are also minimized by conducting plasma activation and treatment phases in the same vacuum environment. An inductively coupled plasma driver allows for interchangeable treatment chambers. Atomic force microscopy confirms that silane deposition on PDMS gives much better surface quality than standard deposition methods, which yield a higher local roughness and pronounced irregularities in the surface.

  13. Study of the processes of adsorption of amine-containing surface-active substance on the surface of Aluminum powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonina Dyuryagina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Equilibrium characteristics of adsorption on a surface of a pigment depending on concentration factors and temperature of the dispersive environment are defined. Kinetic laws of superficial activity of binary, threefold homogeneous and heterogeneous modeling systems are studied. The estimation of mechanisms of process of adsorption is carried out.

  14. Chloride ion-dependent surface-enhanced Raman scattering study of biotin on the silver surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Fangfang; Gu Huaimin; Yuan Xiaojuan; Dong Xiao; Lin Yue

    2011-01-01

    In the present paper, the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) technique was employed to study the SERS spectra of biotin molecules formed on the silver surface. The adsorption geometries of biotin molecules on the silver surface were analyzed based on the SERS data. It can be found that most vibration modes show a Raman shift in silver sol after the addition of sodium chloride solution. In addition, The Raman signals of biotin become weaker and weaker with the increase of the concentration of sodium chloride. This may be due to that the interaction between chloride ions and silver particles is stronger than the interaction between biotin molecules and silver particles. When the concentration of sodium chloride in silver colloid is higher than 0.05mol/L, superfluous chloride ions may form an absorption layer so that biotin can not be adsorbed on silver surface directly. The changes in intensity and profile shape in the SERS spectra suggest different adsorption behavior and surface-coverage of biotin on silver surface. The SERS spectra of biotin suggest that the contribution of the charge transfer mechanism to SERS may be dominant.

  15. Prenatal and adult androgen activities in alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, B; Mühle, C; Braun, B; Weinland, C; Bouna-Pyrrou, P; Behrens, J; Kubis, S; Mikolaiczik, K; Muschler, M-R; Saigali, S; Sibach, M; Tanovska, P; Huber, S E; Hoppe, U; Eichler, A; Heinrich, H; Moll, G H; Engel, A; Goecke, T W; Beckmann, M W; Fasching, P A; Müller, C P; Kornhuber, J

    2017-07-01

    Alcohol dependence is more prevalent in men than in women. The evidence for how prenatal and adult androgens influence alcohol dependence is limited. We investigated the effects of prenatal and adult androgen activity on alcohol dependence. Moreover, we studied how the behaviours of pregnant women affect their children's prenatal androgen load. We quantified prenatal androgen markers (e.g., second-to-fourth finger length ratio [2D : 4D]) and blood androgens in 200 early-abstinent alcohol-dependent in-patients and 240 controls (2013-2015, including a 12-month follow-up). We also surveyed 134 women during pregnancy (2005-2007) and measured the 2D : 4D of their children (2013-2016). The prenatal androgen loads were higher in the male alcohol-dependent patients compared to the controls (lower 2D : 4D, P = 0.004) and correlated positively with the patients' liver transaminase activities (P alcohol withdrawal severity (P = 0.019). Higher prenatal androgen loads and increasing androgen levels during withdrawal predicted earlier and more frequent 12-month hospital readmission in alcohol-dependent patients (P alcohol (P = 0.010) and tobacco consumption (P = 0.017), and lifetime stressors (P = 0.019) of women during pregnancy related positively to their children's prenatal androgen loads (lower 2D : 4D). Androgen activities in alcohol-dependent patients and behaviours of pregnant women represent novel preventive and therapeutic targets of alcohol dependence. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Symptoms of exercise dependence and physical activity in students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLaren, Vance V; Best, Lisa A

    2007-12-01

    Health professionals recognize the benefits of moderate physical activity and encourage clients to engage in some form of activity on a regular basis. In spite of these recognized benefits, there are growing concerns that some may exercise at levels detrimental to health. The term exercise dependence refers to those individuals whose extreme exercise schedules interfere with their social, occupational, and family lives. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between weekly exercise habits and scores on the Exercise Dependence Questionnaire in a sample of undergraduate students (213 women and 79 men). Overall, participants who reported high activity scored higher than those reporting low activity on subscales measuring interference with family and social life, positive reward, withdrawal, exercise for social reasons, exercise for health reasons, and stereotyped behavior.

  17. Activity-dependent modulation of neural circuit synaptic connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles R Tessier

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In many nervous systems, the establishment of neural circuits is known to proceed via a two-stage process; 1 early, activity-independent wiring to produce a rough map characterized by excessive synaptic connections, and 2 subsequent, use-dependent pruning to eliminate inappropriate connections and reinforce maintained synapses. In invertebrates, however, evidence of the activity-dependent phase of synaptic refinement has been elusive, and the dogma has long been that invertebrate circuits are “hard-wired” in a purely activity-independent manner. This conclusion has been challenged recently through the use of new transgenic tools employed in the powerful Drosophila system, which have allowed unprecedented temporal control and single neuron imaging resolution. These recent studies reveal that activity-dependent mechanisms are indeed required to refine circuit maps in Drosophila during precise, restricted windows of late-phase development. Such mechanisms of circuit refinement may be key to understanding a number of human neurological diseases, including developmental disorders such as Fragile X syndrome (FXS and autism, which are hypothesized to result from defects in synaptic connectivity and activity-dependent circuit function. This review focuses on our current understanding of activity-dependent synaptic connectivity in Drosophila, primarily through analyzing the role of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP in the Drosophila FXS disease model. The particular emphasis of this review is on the expanding array of new genetically-encoded tools that are allowing cellular events and molecular players to be dissected with ever greater precision and detail.

  18. Plasma technology of the surface polymer activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutra, Jorge C.N.; Mello, Sandra C.; Massi, Marcos; Otani, Choyu; Maciel, Homero S.; Bittencourt, Edison

    2005-01-01

    A number of polymers, especially rubbers, require surface treatment to achieve a satisfactory level of adhesion. The surface of EPDM rubber vulcanized is high hydrophobicity and is not suited for a number of potential applications, in particular, for adhering to the polyurethane liner of solid rocket propellants. In this case, plasma treatment can be a very attractive process because it can efficiently increase the surface energy attributed to surface oxidation with the introduction of polar groups 1, 2. In order to investigate the influence of the parameters on the modifications of the treated surface samples of EPDM rubber by plasma generated by gas oxygen and argon, the water and methylene iodide contact angles were measured at room temperature with an image analyzing using the sessile drop technique 3 - 6 . (author)

  19. Effects of angular dependence of surface diffuseness in deformed nuclei on Coulomb barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamian, G.G.; Antonenko, N.V.; Malov, L.A.; Scamps, G.; Lacroix, D.

    2014-01-01

    The angular dependence of surface diffuseness is further discussed. The results of self-consistent calculations are compared with those obtained with the phenomenological mean-field potential. The rather simple parametrizations are suggested. The effects of surface polarization and hexadecapole deformation on the height of the Coulomb barrier are revealed. (authors)

  20. Time-dependent inversion of surface subsidence due to dynamic reservoir compaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muntendam-Bos, A.G.; Kroon, I.C.; Fokker, P.A.

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a novel, time-dependent inversion scheme for resolving temporal reservoir pressure drop from surface subsidence observations (from leveling or GPS data, InSAR, tiltmeter monitoring) in a single procedure. The theory is able to accommodate both the absence of surface subsidence estimates

  1. Prediction of Fermi-Surface Pressure Dependence in Rb and Cs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jan, J. P.; MacDonald, A. H.; Skriver, Hans Lomholt

    1980-01-01

    The linear muffin-tin orbitals method of band-structure calculation, combined with a Gaussian integration technique using special directions in the Brillouin zone, has been used to calculate Fermi radii and extremal cross-sectional areas of the Fermi surface in rubidium and cesium. Band shifts we......-surface pressure dependence agree with the limited experimental data available....

  2. Dependence of the microwave surface resistance of superconducting niobium on the magnitude of the rf field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanenko, A.; Grassellino, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States)

    2013-06-24

    Utilizing difference in temperature dependencies we decoupled Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) and residual components of the microwave surface resistance of superconducting niobium at all rf fields up to B{sub rf}{approx}115 mT. We reveal that the residual resistance decreases with field at B{sub rf} Less-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 40 mT and strongly increases in chemically treated niobium at B{sub rf}>80 mT. We find that BCS surface resistance is weakly dependent on field in the clean limit, whereas a strong and peculiar field dependence emerges after 120 Degree-Sign C vacuum baking.

  3. Highly reproducible surface-enhanced Raman scattering-active Au nanostructures prepared by simple electrodeposition: origin of surface-enhanced Raman scattering activity and applications as electrochemical substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Suhee; Ahn, Miri; Kim, Jongwon

    2013-05-24

    The fabrication of effective surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates has been the subject of intensive research because of their useful applications. In this paper, dendritic gold (Au) rod (DAR) structures prepared by simple one-step electrodeposition in a short time were examined as an effective SERS-active substrate. The SERS activity of the DAR surfaces was compared to that of other nanostructured Au surfaces with different morphologies, and its dependence on the structural variation of DAR structures was examined. These comparisonal investigations revealed that highly faceted sharp edge sites present on the DAR surfaces play a critical role in inducing a high SERS activity. The SERS enhancement factor was estimated to be greater than 10(5), and the detection limit of rhodamine 6G at DAR surfaces was 10(-8)M. The DAR surfaces exhibit excellent spot-to-spot and substrate-to-substrate SERS enhancement reproducibility, and their long-term stability is very good. It was also demonstrated that the DAR surfaces can be effectively utilized in electrochemical SERS systems, wherein a reversible SERS behavior was obtained during the cycling to cathodic potential regions. Considering the straightforward preparation of DAR substrates and the clean nature of SERS-active Au surfaces prepared in the absence of additives, we expect that DAR surfaces can be used as cost-effective SERS substrates in analytical and electrochemical applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Motor demand-dependent activation of ipsilateral motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buetefisch, Cathrin M; Revill, Kate Pirog; Shuster, Linda; Hines, Benjamin; Parsons, Michael

    2014-08-15

    The role of ipsilateral primary motor cortex (M1) in hand motor control during complex task performance remains controversial. Bilateral M1 activation is inconsistently observed in functional (f)MRI studies of unilateral hand performance. Two factors limit the interpretation of these data. As the motor tasks differ qualitatively in these studies, it is conceivable that M1 contributions differ with the demand on skillfulness. Second, most studies lack the verification of a strictly unilateral execution of the motor task during the acquisition of imaging data. Here, we use fMRI to determine whether ipsilateral M1 activity depends on the demand for precision in a pointing task where precision varied quantitatively while movement trajectories remained equal. Thirteen healthy participants used an MRI-compatible joystick to point to targets of four different sizes in a block design. A clustered acquisition technique allowed simultaneous fMRI/EMG data collection and confirmed that movements were strictly unilateral. Accuracy of performance increased with target size. Overall, the pointing task revealed activation in contralateral and ipsilateral M1, extending into contralateral somatosensory and parietal areas. Target size-dependent activation differences were found in ipsilateral M1 extending into the temporal/parietal junction, where activation increased with increasing demand on accuracy. The results suggest that ipsilateral M1 is active during the execution of a unilateral motor task and that its activity is modulated by the demand on precision. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Rough surface electrical contact resistance considering scale dependent properties and quantum effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, Robert L.; Crandall, Erika R.; Bozack, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the effect of scale dependent mechanical and electrical properties on electrical contact resistance (ECR) between rough surfaces. This work attempts to build on existing ECR models that neglect potentially important quantum- and size-dependent contact and electrical conduction mechanisms present due to the asperity sizes on typical surfaces. The electrical conductance at small scales can quantize or show a stepping trend as the contact area is varied in the range of the free electron Fermi wavelength squared. This work then evaluates if these effects remain important for the interface between rough surfaces, which may include many small scale contacts of varying sizes. The results suggest that these effects may be significant in some cases, while insignificant for others. It depends on the load and the multiscale structure of the surface roughness

  6. Influence of activated carbon characteristics on toluene and hexane adsorption: Application of surface response methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, Mª Teresa; de Yuso, Alicia Martínez; Valenciano, Raquel; Rubio, Begoña; Pino, Mª Rosa

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the adsorption capacity of toluene and hexane over activated carbons prepared according an experimental design, considering as variables the activation temperature, the impregnation ratio and the activation time. The response surface methodology was applied to optimize the adsorption capacity of the carbons regarding the preparation conditions that determine the physicochemical characteristics of the activated carbons. The methodology of preparation produced activated carbons with surface areas and micropore volumes as high as 1128 m2/g and 0.52 cm3/g, respectively. Moreover, the activated carbons exhibit mesoporosity, ranging from 64.6% to 89.1% the percentage of microporosity. The surface chemistry was characterized by TPD, FTIR and acid-base titration obtaining different values of surface groups from the different techniques because the limitation of each technique, but obtaining similar trends for the activated carbons studied. The exhaustive characterization of the activated carbons allows to state that the measured surface area does not explain the adsorption capacity for either toluene or n-hexane. On the other hand, the surface chemistry does not explain the adsorption results either. A compromise between physical and chemical characteristics can be obtained from the appropriate activation conditions, and the response surface methodology gives the optimal activated carbon to maximize adsorption capacity. Low activation temperature, intermediate impregnation ratio lead to high toluene and n-hexane adsorption capacities depending on the activation time, which a determining factor to maximize toluene adsorption.

  7. Arrhenius temperature dependence of in vitro tissue plasminogen activator thrombolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, George J; Dhamija, Ashima; Bavani, Nazli; Wagner, Kenneth R; Holland, Christy K

    2007-01-01

    Stroke is a devastating disease and a leading cause of death and disability. Currently, the only FDA approved therapy for acute ischemic stroke is the intravenous administration of the thrombolytic medication, recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). However, this treatment has many contraindications and can have dangerous side effects such as intra-cerebral hemorrhage. These treatment limitations have led to much interest in potential adjunctive therapies, such as therapeutic hypothermia (T ≤ 35 deg. C) and ultrasound enhanced thrombolysis. Such interest may lead to combining these therapies with tPA to treat stroke, however little is known about the effects of temperature on the thrombolytic efficacy of tPA. In this work, we measure the temperature dependence of the fractional clot mass loss Δm(T) resulting from tPA exposure in an in vitro human clot model. We find that the temperature dependence is well described by an Arrhenius temperature dependence with an effective activation energy E eff of 42.0 ± 0.9 kJ mole -1 . E eff approximates the activation energy of the plasminogen-to-plasmin reaction of 48.9 kJ mole -1 . A model to explain this temperature dependence is proposed. These results will be useful in predicting the effects of temperature in future lytic therapies

  8. Arrhenius temperature dependence of in vitro tissue plasminogen activator thrombolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, George J [Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267-0769 (United States); Dhamija, Ashima [Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267-0769 (United States); Bavani, Nazli [Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267-0769 (United States); Wagner, Kenneth R [Department of Neurology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267-0769 (United States); Holland, Christy K [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267-0769 (United States)

    2007-06-07

    Stroke is a devastating disease and a leading cause of death and disability. Currently, the only FDA approved therapy for acute ischemic stroke is the intravenous administration of the thrombolytic medication, recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). However, this treatment has many contraindications and can have dangerous side effects such as intra-cerebral hemorrhage. These treatment limitations have led to much interest in potential adjunctive therapies, such as therapeutic hypothermia (T {<=} 35 deg. C) and ultrasound enhanced thrombolysis. Such interest may lead to combining these therapies with tPA to treat stroke, however little is known about the effects of temperature on the thrombolytic efficacy of tPA. In this work, we measure the temperature dependence of the fractional clot mass loss {delta}m(T) resulting from tPA exposure in an in vitro human clot model. We find that the temperature dependence is well described by an Arrhenius temperature dependence with an effective activation energy E{sub eff} of 42.0 {+-} 0.9 kJ mole{sup -1}. E{sub eff} approximates the activation energy of the plasminogen-to-plasmin reaction of 48.9 kJ mole{sup -1}. A model to explain this temperature dependence is proposed. These results will be useful in predicting the effects of temperature in future lytic therapies.

  9. [Flexibility of cognitive activity depends on its context].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostandov, É A

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of this survey is to explain the importance of set-shifting for a flexible cognitive activity. Working memory overload may result in set-shifting slowdown, i.e., in a more rigid set and in a less flexible cognitive activity. This effect displays itself in an increase of erroneous perceptions of external stimuli. Set rigidity level also depends on the cognitive activity context (i.e., on the type of external stimuli the person has to deal with). We analyzed EEG-coherence function and induced synchronization/desynchronization responses in theta (4-7 Hz) and low alpha (8-10 Hz) bands. Basing on these data, we discuss the role of tonic and phasic forms of cortico-hippocampal and fronto-thalamic systems' activation in cognitive activity flexibility.

  10. Surface composition of carburized tungsten trioxide and its catalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazawa, M.; Okamoto, H.

    1985-01-01

    The surface composition and electronic structure of carburized tungsten trioxide are investigated using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The relationship between the surface composition and the catalytic activity for methanol electro-oxidation is clarified. The tungsten carbide concentration in the surface layer increases with the carburization time. The formation of tungsten carbide enhances the catalytic activity. On the other hand, the presence of free carbon or tungsten trioxide in the surface layer reduces the activity remarkably. It is also shown that, the higher the electronic density of states near the Fermi level, the higher the catalytic activity

  11. Surface dependent behaviour of CdS LO-phonon mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina-Contreras, J R; Medina-Gutierrez, C; Frausto-Reyes, C; Trejo-Vazquez, R; Villalobos-Pina, F J; Romo-Luevano, G; Calixto, S

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a sensitive optical method to monitor the surface roughness in the investigation of surfaces. By applying this method to measure the RMS surface roughness of various surfaces, we found RMS values which are comparable to those obtained by atomic force microscopy measurements. In addition, we present a simple empirical model to calculate the RMS surface roughness which shows very good agreement with the surface roughness measurements taken by the method reported in this paper. Finally, the application of our method to the study of the LO-phonon mode of CdS suggests that its intensity is dominated by the surface roughness. This roughness dependent behaviour of the CdS LO-phonon mode is experimentally confirmed by using an excitation wavelength near its E 0 transition

  12. Anisotropic surface strain in single crystalline cobalt nanowires and its impact on the diameter-dependent Young's modulus

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Xiaohu; Li, Guanghai; Kong, Lingbing; Huang, Yizhong; Wu, Tao

    2013-01-01

    Understanding and measuring the size-dependent surface strain of nanowires are essential to their applications in various emerging devices. Here, we report on the diameter-dependent surface strain and Young's modulus of single-crystalline Co

  13. Temperature dependence of immunoreactions using shear horizontal surface acoustic wave immunosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogai, Takashi; Yatsuda, Hiromi; Kondoh, Jun

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, the temperature dependence of immunoreactions, which are antibody-antigen reactions, on a shear horizontal surface acoustic wave (SH-SAW) immunosensor is described. The immunosensor is based on a reflection-type delay line on a 36° Y-cut 90° X-propagation quartz substrate, where the delay line is composed of a floating electrode unidirectional transducer (FEUDT), a grating reflector, and a sensing area between them. In order to evaluate the temperature dependence of immunoreactions, human serum albumin (HSA) antigen-antibody reactions are investigated. The SH-SAW immunosensor chip is placed in a thermostatic chamber and the changes in the SH-SAW velocity resulting from the immunoreactions are measured at different temperatures. As a result, it is observed that the HSA immunoreactions are influenced by the ambient temperature and that higher temperatures provide more active reactions. In order to analyze the immunoreactions, an analytical approach using an exponential fitting method for changes in SH-SAW velocity is employed.

  14. On geometry-dependent vortex stability and topological spin excitations on curved surfaces with cylindrical symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho-Santos, V.L.; Apolonio, F.A.; Oliveira-Neto, N.M.

    2013-01-01

    We study the Heisenberg model on cylindrically symmetric curved surfaces. Two kinds of excitations are considered. The first is given by the isotropic regime, yielding the sine-Gordon equation and π solitons are predicted. The second one is given by the XY model, leading to a vortex turning around the surface. Helical states are also considered, however, topological arguments cannot be used to ensure its stability. The energy and the anisotropy parameter which stabilizes the vortex state are explicitly calculated for two surfaces: catenoid and hyperboloid. The results show that the anisotropy and the vortex energy depends on the underlying geometry. -- Highlights: •Applying the anisotropic Heisenberg model on curved surfaces. •Appearance of topological solitons on curved surfaces with cylindrical symmetry. •Calculus of the vortex energy, which depends on curvature. •Discussion on features of non-topological helical-like states. •Vortex stability ensured by the anisotropy parameter value

  15. Radiotracer studies of the adsorption of surface active substances at aqueous surfaces, 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, Kazuo

    1976-01-01

    The surface tension and adsorption were observed by the Wilhelmy plate and radiotracer methods at the air-solution interface of an aqueous solution of urea and α-dodecyl-ω-hydroxyhexa(oxyethylene) (D(EO) 6 ). The adsorption of D(EO) 6 was dependent on the concentration of urea below the CMC values, but above the values it was independent of the concentration. Urea adsorption occurs positively for low-surface packing of the poly(oxyethylene) group of D(EO) 6 , but negatively for the closest packing of the group and high concentrations of urea. It was confirmed that D(EO) 6 adsorption took place at the solution surface according to the Gibbs adsorption isotherm, which was taken into account as an activity coefficient in an empirical equation for the interactions of D(EO) 6 and urea in solution. Urea adsorption for the adsorbed monolayer of D(EO) 6 above the CMC value was interpreted assuming that urea, as for the nonionic micelle, was nonpenetrating, which was examined by gel permeation. (auth.)

  16. Network-dependent modulation of brain activity during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takamitsu; Kan, Shigeyuki; Koike, Takahiko; Misaki, Masaya; Konishi, Seiki; Miyauchi, Satoru; Miyahsita, Yasushi; Masuda, Naoki

    2014-09-01

    Brain activity dynamically changes even during sleep. A line of neuroimaging studies has reported changes in functional connectivity and regional activity across different sleep stages such as slow-wave sleep (SWS) and rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep. However, it remains unclear whether and how the large-scale network activity of human brains changes within a given sleep stage. Here, we investigated modulation of network activity within sleep stages by applying the pairwise maximum entropy model to brain activity obtained by functional magnetic resonance imaging from sleeping healthy subjects. We found that the brain activity of individual brain regions and functional interactions between pairs of regions significantly increased in the default-mode network during SWS and decreased during REM sleep. In contrast, the network activity of the fronto-parietal and sensory-motor networks showed the opposite pattern. Furthermore, in the three networks, the amount of the activity changes throughout REM sleep was negatively correlated with that throughout SWS. The present findings suggest that the brain activity is dynamically modulated even in a sleep stage and that the pattern of modulation depends on the type of the large-scale brain networks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Online Activity Levels Are Related to Caffeine Dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, James G; Landhuis, C Erik; Shepherd, Daniel; Ogeil, Rowan P

    2016-05-01

    Online activity could serve in the future as behavioral markers of emotional states for computer systems (i.e., affective computing). Hence, this study considered relationships between self-reported stimulant use and online study patterns. Sixty-two undergraduate psychology students estimated their daily caffeine use, and this was related to study patterns as tracked by their use of a Learning Management System (Blackboard). Caffeine dependency was associated with less time spent online, lower rates of file access, and fewer online activities completed. Reduced breadth or depth of processing during work/study could be used as a behavioral marker of stimulant use.

  18. [Detection of surface EMG signal using active electrode].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qinghua; Peng, Chenglin; Wu, Baoming; Wang, He

    2003-09-01

    Research of surface electromyogram(EMG) signal is important in rehabilitation medicine, sport medicine and clinical diagnosis, accurate detection of signal is the base of quantitative analysis of surface EMG signal. In this article were discussed how to reduce possible noise in the detection of surface EMG. Considerations on the design of electrode unit were presented. Instrumentation amplifier AD620 was employed to design a bipolar active electrode for use in surface EMG detection. The experiments showed that active electrode could be used to improve signal/noise ratio, reduce noise and detect surface EMG signal effectively.

  19. Low-frequency active surface plasmon optics on semiconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gómez Rivas, J.; Kuttge, M.; Kurz, H.; Haring Bolivar, P.; Sánchez-Gil, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    A major challenge in the development of surface plasmon optics or plasmonics is the active control of the propagation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs). Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of low-frequency active plasmonics using semiconductors. We show experimentally that the Bragg scattering

  20. Critical reflection activation analysis - a new near-surface probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunn, J.M.F.; Trohidou, K.N.

    1988-09-01

    We propose a new surface analytic technique, Critical Reflection Activation Analysis (CRAA). This technique allows accurate depth profiling of impurities ≤ 100A beneath a surface. The depth profile of the impurity is simply related to the induced activity as a function of the angle of reflection. We argue that the technique is practical and estimate its accuracy. (author)

  1. Temperature-dependent surface density of alkylthiol monolayers on gold nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuepeng; Lu, Pin; Zhai, Hua; Wu, Yucheng

    2018-03-01

    Atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed to study the surface density of passivating monolayers of alkylthiol chains on gold nanocrystals at temperatures ranging from 1 to 800 K. The results show that the surface density of alkylthiol monolayer reaches a maximum value at near room temperature (200-300 K), while significantly decreases with increasing temperature in the higher temperature region (> 300 {{K}}), and slightly decreases with decreasing temperature at low temperature (< 200 {{K}}). We find that the temperature dependence of surface ligand density in the higher temperature region is attributed to the substantial ligand desorption induced by the thermal fluctuation, while that at low temperature results from the reduction in entropy caused by the change in the ordering of passivating monolayer. These results are expected helpful to understand the temperature-dependent surface coverage of gold nanocrystals.

  2. Irreversible particle motion in surfactant-laden interfaces due to pressure-dependent surface viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikantan, Harishankar; Squires, Todd M.

    2017-09-01

    The surface shear viscosity of an insoluble surfactant monolayer often depends strongly on its surface pressure. Here, we show that a particle moving within a bounded monolayer breaks the kinematic reversibility of low-Reynolds-number flows. The Lorentz reciprocal theorem allows such irreversibilities to be computed without solving the full nonlinear equations, giving the leading-order contribution of surface pressure-dependent surface viscosity. In particular, we show that a disc translating or rotating near an interfacial boundary experiences a force in the direction perpendicular to that boundary. In unbounded monolayers, coupled modes of motion can also lead to non-intuitive trajectories, which we illustrate using an interfacial analogue of the Magnus effect. This perturbative approach can be extended to more complex geometries, and to two-dimensional suspensions more generally.

  3. Temperature Dependence of Arn+ Cluster Backscattering from Polymer Surfaces: a New Method to Determine the Surface Glass Transition Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poleunis, Claude; Cristaudo, Vanina; Delcorte, Arnaud

    2018-01-01

    In this work, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) was used to study the intensity variations of the backscattered Ar n + clusters as a function of temperature for several amorphous polymer surfaces (polyolefins, polystyrene, and polymethyl methacrylate). For all these investigated polymers, our results show a transition of the ratio Ar 2 + /(Ar 2 + + Ar 3 + ) when the temperature is scanned from -120 °C to +125 °C (the exact limits depend on the studied polymer). This transition generally spans over a few tens of degrees and the temperature of the inflection point of each curve is always lower than the bulk glass transition temperature (T g ) reported for the considered polymer. Due to the surface sensitivity of the cluster backscattering process (several nanometers), the presented analysis could provide a new method to specifically evaluate a surface transition temperature of polymers, with the same lateral resolution as the gas cluster beam. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  4. Constructing bioactive peptides with pH-dependent activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Zhigang; Volk, Melanie; Shah, Khushali; Clerkin, Kevin; Liang, Jun F

    2009-08-01

    Many bioactive peptides are featured by their arginine and lysine rich contents. In this study, lysine and arginine residues in lytic peptides were selectively replaced by histidines. Although resulting histidine-containing lytic peptides had decreased activity, they did show pH-dependent cytotoxicity. The activity of the constructed histidine-containing lytic peptides increased 2-8 times as the solution pH changed from 7.4 to 5.5. More importantly, these histidine-containing peptides maintain the same cell killing mechanism as their parent peptides by causing cell lysis. Both the activity and pH-sensitivity of histidine-containing peptides are tunable by adjusting histidine substitution numbers and positions. This study has presented a general strategy to create bioactive peptides with desired pH-sensitivity to meet the needs of various applications such as cancer treatments.

  5. Wind direction dependent vertical wind shear and surface roughness parameter in two different coastal environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagavathsingh, A.; Srinivas, C.V.; Baskaran, R.; Venkatraman, B.; Sardar Maran, P.

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric boundary layer parameters and surface layer parameterizations are important prerequisites for air pollution dispersion analysis. The turbulent flow characteristics vary at coastal and inland sites where the nuclear facilities are situated. Many pollution sources and their dispersion occur within the roughness sub layer in the lower atmosphere. In this study analysis of wind direction dependence vertical wind shear, surface roughness lengths and surface layer wind condition has been carried out at a coastal and the urban coastal site for the different wind flow regime. The differential response of the near coastal and inland urban site SBL parameters (wind shear, roughness length, etc) was examined as a function of wind direction

  6. Hot-electron-assisted femtochemistry at surfaces: A time-dependent density functional theory approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavnholt, Jeppe; Rubio, Angel; Olsen, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Using time-evolution time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) within the adiabatic local-density approximation, we study the interactions between single electrons and molecular resonances at surfaces. Our system is a nitrogen molecule adsorbed on a ruthenium surface. The surface is modele...... resonance and the lowering of the resonance energy due to an image charge effect. Finally we apply the TDDFT procedure to only consider the decay of molecular excitations and find that it agrees quite well with the width of the projected density of Kohn-Sham states....

  7. Task-dependent modulation of oscillatory neural activity during movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herz, D. M.; Christensen, M. S.; Reck, C.

    2011-01-01

    connectivity was strongest between central and cerebellar regions. Our results show that neural coupling within motor networks is modulated in distinct frequency bands depending on the motor task. They provide evidence that dynamic causal modeling in combination with EEG source analysis is a valuable tool......Neural oscillations in different frequency bands have been observed in a range of sensorimotor tasks and have been linked to coupling of spatially distinct neurons. The goal of this study was to detect a general motor network that is activated during phasic and tonic movements and to study the task......-dependent modulation of frequency coupling within this network. To this end we recorded 122-multichannel EEG in 13 healthy subjects while they performed three simple motor tasks. EEG data source modeling using individual MR images was carried out with a multiple source beamformer approach. A bilateral motor network...

  8. Power-dependent photocatalytic activity of ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, So Yeon; Han, Noh Soo; Jeong, Seong Hyun; Park, Seung Min; Song, Jae Kyu [Dept. of Chemistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Cheol Joo; Choi, Myong Yong [Dept. of Chemistry (BK21) and Research Institute of Natural Science, Gyeongsang NationalUniversity, Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    the power-dependent photocatalytic activity of ZnO was examined for the photoreduction processes of Rh101 and AN in the presence of hole scavengers, where the fluorescence spectra were measured as a function of irradiation time and excitation intensity. The concentration of the reactants decreased, while the concentration of the products increased accordingly, which indicated the single-electron reduction process by electrons supplied from the conduction band of ZnO. Despite the single-electron process, the efficiency of the photoreaction depended nonlinearly on the excitation intensity, which was explained by the saturation of defect states in ZnO. The enhanced ratio of available electrons in ZnO led to a superlinear increase in the photoreduction efficiency, while the single-electron process linearly reflected the electrons available in ZnO.

  9. Water Contact Angle Dependence with Hydroxyl Functional Groups on Silica Surfaces under CO2 Sequestration Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cong; Zhang, Ning; Li, Weizhong; Song, Yongchen

    2015-12-15

    Functional groups on silica surfaces under CO2 sequestration conditions are complex due to reactions among supercritical CO2, brine and silica. Molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to investigate the effects of hydroxyl functional groups on wettability. It has been found that wettability shows a strong dependence on functional groups on silica surfaces: silanol number density, space distribution, and deprotonation/protonation degree. For neutral silica surfaces with crystalline structure (Q(3), Q(3)/Q(4), Q(4)), as silanol number density decreases, contact angle increases from 33.5° to 146.7° at 10.5 MPa and 318 K. When Q(3) surface changes to an amorphous structure, water contact angle increases 20°. Water contact angle decreases about 12° when 9% of silanol groups on Q(3) surface are deprotonated. When the deprotonation degree increases to 50%, water contact angle decreases to 0. The dependence of wettability on silica surface functional groups was used to analyze contact angle measurement ambiguity in literature. The composition of silica surfaces is complicated under CO2 sequestration conditions, the results found in this study may help to better understand wettability of CO2/brine/silica system.

  10. Surface enhanced Raman optical activity (SEROA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdali, Salim; Blanch, E.W.

    2008-01-01

    Raman optical activity (ROA) directly monitors the stereochemistry of chiral molecules and is now an incisive probe of biomolecular structure. ROA spectra contain a wealth of information on tertiary folding, secondary structure and even the orientation of individual residues in proteins and nucleic...

  11. Molecular-dynamics theory of the temperature-dependent surface phonons of W(001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.Z.; Fasolino, A.; Tosatti, E.

    1987-04-01

    We study the temperature-dependent zone-boundary surface phonons across the c(2x2)→1x1 reconstruction phase transition of the clean W(001) surface. Velocity-velocity correlations and hence the phonon spectral densities are calculated by molecular dynamics for the surface atoms of a finite thickness (001) slab, with interatomic potentials established in a previous study of the surface statics. Our calculated k = (1/2,1/2)(2π/a) surface phonon are dominated by three main low-frequency modes. Of these, the longitudinal and the shear horizontal are reconstruction-related and display critical broadening and softening at the phase transition, while the third, the shear vertical, is basically unaffected. The reconstruction phase mode, shear horizontal, appears to be responsible for the phase fluctuations which destroy long-range order at the transition. (author). 30 refs, 12 figs

  12. Potential dependence of surface crystal structure of iron passive films in borate buffer solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Huihua; Nanjo, Hiroshi; Qian, Pu; Santosa, Arifin; Ishikawa, Ikuo; Kurata, Yoshiaki

    2007-01-01

    The effect of passivation potential on surface crystal structure, apparent thickness and passivity of oxide films formed on pure iron prepared by plasma sputter deposition was investigated. The crystallinity was improved with passivation potential and the width of atomically flat terraces was expanded to 6 nm when passivating at 750 mV for 15 min, as observed by ex situ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) after aging in air (<30% RH). Apparent thickness and passivity are linearly dependent on passivation potential. The former weakly depends on passivation duration, the latter strongly depends on passivation duration. This is well explained by the correlation between crystal structure and passivity

  13. Contribution of inner shell electrons to position-dependent stopping powers of a crystal surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narumi, Kazumasa; Fujii, Yoshikazu; Kishine, Keiji; Kurakake, Hiroshi; Kimura, Kenji; Mannami, Michi-hiko

    1994-01-01

    Position-dependent stopping powers of the (001) surface of SnTe single crystal for specularly reflected 15 - 200 keV H + ions are studied. The position dependence of the experimental stopping powers varies with the energy of ions. From the comparison with the theoretical stopping powers based on both the single ion-electron collision and the collective excitation of the valence electrons, it is concluded that the observed change in the position-dependent stopping powers with energy of H + is due to the variation of contribution of inner shell electrons to stopping. (author)

  14. Active Surface Compensation for Large Radio Telescope Antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congsi Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of radio telescope antennas with large apertures, high gain, and wide frequency bands, compensation methods, such as mechanical or electronic compensation, are obviously essential to ensure the electrical performance of antennas that work in complex environments. Since traditional compensation methods can only adjust antenna pointing but not the surface accuracy, which are limited for obtaining high surface precision and aperture efficiency, active surface adjustment has become an indispensable tool in this field. Therefore, the development process of electrical performance compensation methods for radio telescope antennas is introduced. Further, a series of analyses of the five key technologies of active surface adjustment is presented. Then, four typical large antennas that have been designed with active main reflector technology are presented and compared. Finally, future research directions and suggestions for reflector antenna compensation methods based on active surface adjustment are presented.

  15. Shaping inhibition: activity dependent structural plasticity of GABAergic synapses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen E Flores

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Inhibitory transmission through the neurotransmitter Ɣ-aminobutyric acid (GABA shapes network activity in the mammalian cerebral cortex by filtering synaptic incoming information and dictating the activity of principal cells. The incredibly diverse population of cortical neurons that use GABA as neurotransmitter shows an equally diverse range of mechanisms that regulate changes in the strength of GABAergic synaptic transmission and allow them to dynamically follow and command the activity of neuronal ensembles. Similarly to glutamatergic synaptic transmission, activity-dependent functional changes in inhibitory neurotransmission are accompanied by alterations in GABAergic synapse structure that range from morphological reorganization of postsynaptic density to de novo formation and elimination of inhibitory contacts. Here we review several aspects of structural plasticity of inhibitory synapses, including its induction by different forms of neuronal activity, behavioral and sensory experience and the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways involved. We discuss the functional consequences of GABAergic synapse structural plasticity for information processing and memory formation in view of the heterogenous nature of the structural plasticity phenomena affecting inhibitory synapses impinging on somatic and dendritic compartments of cortical and hippocampal neurons.

  16. Analytical description of concentration dependence of surface tension in multicomponent systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadashev, R; Kutuev, R [Complex Science Research Institute of the Science Academy of the Chechen Republic, 21 Staropromisl. shosse, Grozny 364096 (Russian Federation); Elimkhanov, D [Science Academy of the Chechen Republic (Russian Federation)], E-mail: edzhabrail@mail.ru

    2008-02-15

    From the basic fundamental thermodynamic expressions the equation of isotherms of the surface tension of a ternary system is received. Various assumptions concerning the concentration dependence of molar areas are usually made when the equation is derived. The dependence of the molar areas is calculated as an additive function of the structure of a volumetric phase or the structure of a surface layer. To define the concentration dependence of the molar areas we used a stricter thermodynamic expression offered by Butler. In the received equation the dependence of molar areas on the structure of the solution is taken into account. Therefore, the equation can be applied for the calculation of surface tension over a wide concentration range of the components. Unlike the known expressions, the equation includes the surface tension properties of lateral binary systems, which makes the accuracy of the calculated values considerably higher. Thus, among the advantages of the offered equation we can point out the mathematical simplicity of the received equation and the fact that the equation includes physical parameters the experimental definition of which does not present any special difficulties.

  17. Angular dependence of Auger signals from a GaAs (111) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnard, W.O.

    1984-03-01

    This dissertation is concerned with the angular dependence of the L 3 M 4 M 4 1067 eV Ga and L 3 M 4 M 4 1228 eV As Auger electron signals from a (111) GaAs surface, using a system which is equipped with a cylindrical mirror analyser. Following a detailed discussion of the Auger process, a review is given of angular effects in the emission excitation and detection of Auger signals. Present theories are discussed and an empirical theory is developed to test the experimental results obtained in this study. The experimental procedures and equipment used are presented. It was found that the Auger signals show a strong variation with the angle of rotation about the normal of a GaAs surface. Furthermore, the nature of the angular spectra of the Ga and As signals are interchanged when the electron beam incident surface is changed from (111) to (111). The main features of the angular variation of the quasi-elastic backscattered signal is reflected in the corresponding Ga and As Auger angular spectra. The angular dependence of the quasi-elastic backscattered signal can be explained semi-quantitatively in terms of the empirical theory. Theoretical arguments are presented which suggest that the Auger signals should show an angular dependence similar to the quasi-elastic backscattered signal. Evidence was found that geometric screening-off of underlying atoms by surface and near surface atoms influence the Auger yield

  18. Acid-base characteristics of powdered-activated-carbon surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, B.E. (West Virginia Univ., Morgantown (United States)); Jensen, J.N.; Matsumoto, M.R. (State Univ. of New York, Buffalo (United States))

    Adsorption of heavy metals onto activated carbon has been described using the surface-complex-formation (SCF) model, a chemical equilibrium model. The SCF model requires a knowledge of the amphoteric nature of activated carbon prior to metal adsorption modeling. In the past, a single-diprotic-acid-site model had been employed to describe the amphoteric nature of activated-carbon surfaces. During this study, the amphoteric nature of two powdered activated carbons were investigated, and a three-monoprotic site surface model was found to be a plausible alternative. The single-diprotic-acid-site and two-monoprotic-site models did not describe the acid-base behavior of the two carbons studied adequately. The two-diprotic site was acceptable for only one of the study carbons. The acid-base behavior of activated carbon surfaces seem to be best modeled as a series of weak monoprotic acids.

  19. From retinal waves to activity-dependent retinogeniculate map development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, Jeffrey; Cao, Yongqiang; Grossberg, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A neural model is described of how spontaneous retinal waves are formed in infant mammals, and how these waves organize activity-dependent development of a topographic map in the lateral geniculate nucleus, with connections from each eye segregated into separate anatomical layers. The model simulates the spontaneous behavior of starburst amacrine cells and retinal ganglion cells during the production of retinal waves during the first few weeks of mammalian postnatal development. It proposes how excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms within individual cells, such as Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels, and cAMP currents and signaling cascades, can modulate the spatiotemporal dynamics of waves, notably by controlling the after-hyperpolarization currents of starburst amacrine cells. Given the critical role of the geniculate map in the development of visual cortex, these results provide a foundation for analyzing the temporal dynamics whereby the visual cortex itself develops.

  20. From retinal waves to activity-dependent retinogeniculate map development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Markowitz

    Full Text Available A neural model is described of how spontaneous retinal waves are formed in infant mammals, and how these waves organize activity-dependent development of a topographic map in the lateral geniculate nucleus, with connections from each eye segregated into separate anatomical layers. The model simulates the spontaneous behavior of starburst amacrine cells and retinal ganglion cells during the production of retinal waves during the first few weeks of mammalian postnatal development. It proposes how excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms within individual cells, such as Ca(2+-activated K(+ channels, and cAMP currents and signaling cascades, can modulate the spatiotemporal dynamics of waves, notably by controlling the after-hyperpolarization currents of starburst amacrine cells. Given the critical role of the geniculate map in the development of visual cortex, these results provide a foundation for analyzing the temporal dynamics whereby the visual cortex itself develops.

  1. The Ice Nucleation Activity of Surface Modified Soot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häusler, Thomas; Witek, Lorenz; Felgitsch, Laura; Hitzenberger, Regina; Grothe, Hinrich

    2017-04-01

    The ice nucleation efficiency of many important atmospheric particles remains poorly understood. Since soot is ubiquitous in the Earth's troposphere, they might have the potential to significantly impact the Earth's climate (Finlayson-Pitts and Pitts, 2000; Seinfeld and Pandis, 1998). Here we present the ice nucleation activity (INA) in immersion freezing mode of different types of soot. Therefor a CAST (combustion aerosol standard) generator was used to produce different kinds of soot samples. The CAST generator combusts a propane-air-mixture and deposits thereby produced soot on a polyvinyl fluoride filter. By varying the propane to air ratio, the amount of organic portion of the soot can be varied from black carbon (BC) with no organic content to brown carbon (BrC) with high organic content. To investigate the impact of functional sites of ice nuclei (IN), the soot samples were exposed to NO2 gas for a certain amount of time (30 to 360 minutes) to chemically modify the surface. Immersion freezing experiments were carried out in a unique reaction gadget. In this device a water-in-oil suspension (with the soot suspended in the aqueous phase) was cooled till the freezing point and was observed through a microscope (Pummer et al., 2012; Zolles et al., 2015) It was found that neither modified nor unmodified BC shows INA. On the contrary, unmodified BrC shows an INA at -32˚ C, which can be increased up to -20˚ C. The INA of BrC depends on the duration of NO2- exposure. To clarify the characteristics of the surface modifications, surface sensitive analysis like infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were carried out. Finlayson-Pitts, B. J. and Pitts, J. N. J.: Chemistry of the Upper and Lower Atmosphere, Elsevier, New York, 2000. Pummer, B. G., Bauer, H., Bernardi, J., Bleicher, S., and Grothe, H.: Suspendable macromolecules are responsible for ice nucleation activity of birch and conifer pollen, Atmos Chem Phys, 12, 2541-2550, 2012. Seinfeld, J

  2. Fluorescence quenching studies of potential-dependent DNA reorientation dynamics at glassy carbon electrode surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qin; Cui, Chenchen; Higgins, Daniel A; Li, Jun

    2012-09-05

    The potential-dependent reorientation dynamics of double-stranded DNA (ds-DNA) attached to planar glassy carbon electrode (GCE) surfaces were investigated. The orientation state of surface-bound ds-DNA was followed by monitoring the fluorescence from a 6-carboxyfluorescein (FAM6) fluorophore covalently linked to the distal end of the DNA. Positive potentials (i.e., +0.2 V vs open circuit potential, OCP) caused the ds-DNA to align parallel to the electrode surface, resulting in strong dipole-electrode quenching of FAM6 fluorescence. Switching of the GCE potential to negative values (i.e., -0.2 V vs OCP) caused the ds-DNA to reorient perpendicular to the electrode surface, with a concomitant increase in FAM6 fluorescence. In addition to the very fast (submilliseconds) dynamics of the initial reorientation process, slow (0.1-0.9 s) relaxation of FAM6 fluorescence to intermediate levels was also observed after potential switching. These dynamics have not been previously described in the literature. They are too slow to be explained by double layer charging, and chronoamperometry data showed no evidence of such effects. Both the amplitude and rate of the dynamics were found to depend upon buffer concentration, and ds-DNA length, demonstrating a dependence on the double layer field. The dynamics are concluded to arise from previously undetected complexities in the mechanism of potential-dependent ds-DNA reorientation. The possible origins of these dynamics are discussed. A better understanding of these dynamics will lead to improved models for potential-dependent ds-DNA reorientation at electrode surfaces and will facilitate the development of advanced electrochemical devices for detection of target DNAs.

  3. Shape-dependent Surface Energetics of Nanocrystalline TiO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, T.J.; Wong, S.; Levchenko, A.A.; Zhou, H.; Navrotsky, A.

    2010-10-21

    We report the direct determination of surface enthalpies for nanophase TiO{sub 2} anatase with different morphologies derived from drop solution calorimetry in a molten sodium molybdate (3Na{sub 2}Ol{center_dot}4MoO{sub 3}) solvent at 702 C. The energetics of surface hydration has been measured using a Calvet microcalorimeter coupled with a gas dosing system. The surface enthalpies of hydrated surfaces for anatase TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles, nanowires and sea-urchin-like assemblies are 0.51 {+-} 0.05, 1.07 {+-} 0.28, and 1.29 {+-} 0.16 J m{sup -2}, respectively, whereas those of anhydrous surfaces are 0.74 {+-} 0.04, 1.24 {+-} 0.28, and 1.41 {+-} 0.16 J m{sup -2}, respectively. The trend in TiO{sub 2}, which shows higher surface enthalpies for more complex nanostructures, is consistent with that reported in ZnO. The shape-dependent surface enthalpy at the nanoscale level is discussed in terms of exposed surface structures. The enthalpies of hydration appear to be similar for all morphologies.

  4. Shape-dependent Surface Energetics of Nanocrystalline TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, T.J.; Wong, S.; Levchenko, A.A.; Zhou, H.; Navrotsky, A.

    2010-01-01

    We report the direct determination of surface enthalpies for nanophase TiO 2 anatase with different morphologies derived from drop solution calorimetry in a molten sodium molybdate (3Na 2 Ol·4MoO 3 ) solvent at 702 C. The energetics of surface hydration has been measured using a Calvet microcalorimeter coupled with a gas dosing system. The surface enthalpies of hydrated surfaces for anatase TiO 2 nanoparticles, nanowires and sea-urchin-like assemblies are 0.51 ± 0.05, 1.07 ± 0.28, and 1.29 ± 0.16 J m -2 , respectively, whereas those of anhydrous surfaces are 0.74 ± 0.04, 1.24 ± 0.28, and 1.41 ± 0.16 J m -2 , respectively. The trend in TiO 2 , which shows higher surface enthalpies for more complex nanostructures, is consistent with that reported in ZnO. The shape-dependent surface enthalpy at the nanoscale level is discussed in terms of exposed surface structures. The enthalpies of hydration appear to be similar for all morphologies.

  5. Surface effects on sputtered atoms and their angular and energy dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanein, A.M.

    1985-04-01

    A comprehensive three-dimensional Monte Carlo computer code, Ion Transport in Materials and Compounds (ITMC), has been developed to study in detail the surfaces related phenomena that affect the amount of sputtered atoms and back-scattered ions and their angular and energy dependence. A number of important factors that can significantly affect the sputtering behavior of a surface can be studied in detail, such as having different surface properties and composition than the bulk and synergistic effects due to surface segregation of alloys. These factors can be important in determining and lifetime of fusion reactor first walls and limiters. The ITMC Code is based on Monte Carlo methods to track down the path and the damage produced by charged particles as they slow down in solid metal surfaces or compounds. The major advantages of the ITMC code are its flexibility and ability to use and compare all existing models for energy losses, all known interatomic potentials, and to use different materials and compounds with different surface and bulk composition to allow for dynamic surface composition to allow for dynamic surface composition changes. There is good agreement between the code and available experimental results without using adjusting parameters for the energy losses mechanisms. The ITMC Code is highly optimized, very fast to run and easy to use

  6. Differential surface phenotype and context-dependent reactivity of functionally diverse NKT cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Garth; Godfrey, Dale I

    2018-03-05

    Natural Killer T (NKT) cells are a functionally diverse population that recognizes lipid-based antigens in association with the antigen-presenting molecule CD1d. Here, we define a technique to separate the functionally distinct thymic NKT1, NKT2 and NKT17 cell subsets by their surface expression of CD278 (ICOS) and the activation-associated glycoform of CD43, enabling the investigation of subset-specific effector-functions. We report that all three subsets express the transcription factor GATA-3 and the potential to produce IL-4 and IL-10 following activation. This questions the notion that NKT2 cells are the predominant source of IL-4 within the NKT cell pool, and suggests that IL-10-production may be more indicative of NKT cell plasticity than the existence of a distinct regulatory lineage or subset. We also show that many NKT17 cells are CD4 + and are biased toward Vβ8.3 TCR gene usage. Lastly, we demonstrate that the toll-like receptor (TLR) ligand lipopolysaccharide (LPS) can induce a NKT17 cell-biased response, even in the absence of exogenous antigen, and that combining LPS with α-GalCer resulted in enhanced IL-17A-production, and reduced levels of the immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10. This study provides a novel means to examine the context-dependent reactivity of the functionally heterogeneous NKT cell population and provides important new insight into the functional biology of these subsets. © 2018 Australasian Society for Immunology Inc.

  7. Manipulating surface wettability and oil absorbency of diatomite depending on processing and ambient conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özen, İlhan; Şimşek, Süleyman; Okyay, Gamze

    2015-03-01

    In this study, a diatomite sample, which is a natural inorganic mineral with inherently high water and oil absorption capacity, was subjected to grinding before surface modification. Afterwards, the diatomite surface was modified via facile methods using a fluorocarbon (FC) chemical and stearic acid (SA) in addition to the sol-gel fluorosilanization (FS) process. The water and oil wettability, and oil absorbency properties of the unmodified and modified diatomites were investigated in addition to diatomite characterizations such as chemical content, surface area, particle size distribution, morphology, and modification efficiency. It was revealed that the wettability was changed completely depending on the surface modification agent and the media used, while the oil absorbency property surprisingly did not change. On the other hand, the oil absorbency was worsened by the grinding process, whereas the wettability was not affected.

  8. Surface Chemistry Dependence of Mechanochemical Reaction of Adsorbed Molecules-An Experimental Study on Tribopolymerization of α-Pinene on Metal, Metal Oxide, and Carbon Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xin; Kim, Seong H

    2018-02-20

    Mechanochemical reactions between adsorbate molecules sheared at tribological interfaces can induce association of adsorbed molecules, forming oligomeric and polymeric products often called tribopolymers). This study revealed the role or effect of surface chemistry of the solid substrate in mechanochemical polymerization reactions. As a model reactant, α-pinene was chosen because it was known to readily form tribopolymers at the sliding interface of stainless steel under vapor-phase lubrication conditions. Eight different substrate materials were tested-palladium, nickel, copper, stainless steel, gold, silicon oxide, aluminum oxide, and diamond-like carbon (DLC). All metal substrates and DLC were initially covered with surface oxide species formed naturally in air or during the oxidative sample cleaning. It was found that the tribopolymerization yield of α-pinene is much higher on the substrates that can chemisorb α-pinene, compared to the ones on which only physisorption occurs. From the load dependence of the tribopolymerization yield, it was found that the surfaces capable of chemisorption give a smaller critical activation volume for the mechanochemical reaction, compared to the ones capable of physisorption only. On the basis of these observations and infrared spectroscopy analyses of the adsorbed molecules and the produced polymers, it was concluded that the mechanochemical reaction mechanisms might be different between chemically reactive and inert surfaces and that the chemical reactivity of the substrate surface greatly influences the tribochemical polymerization reactions of adsorbed molecules.

  9. Turbulent flows over superhydrophobic surfaces with shear-dependent slip length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosh Aghdam, Sohrab; Seddighi, Mehdi; Ricco, Pierre

    2015-11-01

    Motivated by recent experimental evidence, shear-dependent slip length superhydrophobic surfaces are studied. Lyapunov stability analysis is applied in a 3D turbulent channel flow and extended to the shear-dependent slip-length case. The feedback law extracted is recognized for the first time to coincide with the constant-slip-length model widely used in simulations of hydrophobic surfaces. The condition for the slip parameters is found to be consistent with the experimental data and with values from DNS. The theoretical approach by Fukagata (PoF 18.5: 051703) is employed to model the drag-reduction effect engendered by the shear-dependent slip-length surfaces. The estimated drag-reduction values are in very good agreement with our DNS data. For slip parameters and flow conditions which are potentially realizable in the lab, the maximum computed drag reduction reaches 50%. The power spent by the turbulent flow on the walls is computed, thereby recognizing the hydrophobic surfaces as a passive-absorbing drag-reduction method, as opposed to geometrically-modifying techniques that do not consume energy, e.g. riblets, hence named passive-neutral. The flow is investigated by visualizations, statistical analysis of vorticity and strain rates, and quadrants of the Reynolds stresses. Part of this work was funded by Airbus Group. Simulations were performed on the ARCHER Supercomputer (UKTC Grant).

  10. Bacteria and viruses modulate FcεRI-dependent mast cell activity 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Słodka

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Undoubtedly, mast cells play a central role in allergic processes. Specific allergen cross-linking of IgE bound to the high affinity receptors (FcεRI on the mast cell surface leads to the release of preformed mediators and newly synthesized mediators, i.e. metabolites of arachidonic acid and cytokines. More and more data indicate that bacteria and viruses can influence FcεRI-dependent mast cell activation. Some bacterial and viral components can reduce the surface expression of FcεRI. There are also findings that ligation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs by bacterial or viral antigens can affect IgE-dependent mast cell degranulation and preformed mediator release as well as eicosanoid production. The synergistic interaction of TLR ligands and allergen can also modify cytokine synthesis by mast cells stimulated via FcεRI. Moreover, data suggest that specific IgE for bacterial or viral antigens can influence mast cell activity. What is more, some bacterial and viral components or some endogenous proteins produced during viral infection can act as superantigens by interacting with the VH3 domain of IgE. All these observations indicate that bacterial and viral infections modify the course of allergic diseases by affecting FcεRI-dependent mast cell activation

  11. Afferent activity to necklace glomeruli is dependent on external stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munger Steven D

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main olfactory epithelium (MOE is a complex organ containing several functionally distinct subpopulations of sensory neurons. One such subpopulation is distinguished by its expression of the guanylyl cyclase GC-D. The axons of GC-D-expressing (GC-D+ neurons innervate 9–15 "necklace" glomeruli encircling the caudal main olfactory bulb (MOB. Chemosensory stimuli for GC-D+ neurons include two natriuretic peptides, uroguanylin and guanylin, and CO2. However, the biologically-relevant source of these chemostimuli is unclear: uroguanylin is both excreted in urine, a rich source of olfactory stimuli for rodents, and expressed in human nasal epithelium; CO2 is present in both inspired and expired air. Findings To determine whether the principal source of chemostimuli for GC-D+ neurons is external or internal to the nose, we assessed the consequences of removing external chemostimuli for afferent activity to the necklace glomeruli. To do so, we performed unilateral naris occlusions in Gucy2d-Mapt-lacZ +/- mice [which express a β-galactosidase (β-gal reporter specifically in GC-D+ neurons] followed by immunohistochemistry for β-gal and a glomerular marker of afferent activity, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH. We observed a dramatic decrease in TH immunostaining, consistent with reduced or absent afferent activity, in both necklace and non-necklace glomeruli ipsilateral to the occluded naris. Conclusion Like other MOB glomeruli, necklace glomeruli exhibit a large decrease in afferent activity upon removal of external stimuli. Thus, we conclude that activity in GC-D+ neurons, which specifically innervate necklace glomeruli, is not dependent on internal stimuli. Instead, GC-D+ neurons, like other OSNs in the MOE, primarily sense the external world.

  12. Dependence of Lunar Surface Charging on Solar Wind Plasma Conditions and Solar Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, T. J.; Farrell, W. M.; Halekas, J. S.; Burchill, J. K.; Collier, M. R.; Zimmerman, M. I.; Vondrak, R. R.; Delory, G. T.; Pfaff, R. F.

    2014-01-01

    The surface of the Moon is electrically charged by exposure to solar radiation on its dayside, as well as by the continuous flux of charged particles from the various plasma environments that surround it. An electric potential develops between the lunar surface and ambient plasma, which manifests itself in a near-surface plasma sheath with a scale height of order the Debye length. This study investigates surface charging on the lunar dayside and near-terminator regions in the solar wind, for which the dominant current sources are usually from the pohotoemission of electrons, J(sub p), and the collection of plasma electrons J(sub e) and ions J(sub i). These currents are dependent on the following six parameters: plasma concentration n(sub 0), electron temperature T(sub e), ion temperature T(sub i), bulk flow velocity V, photoemission current at normal incidence J(sub P0), and photo electron temperature T(sub p). Using a numerical model, derived from a set of eleven basic assumptions, the influence of these six parameters on surface charging - characterized by the equilibrium surface potential, Debye length, and surface electric field - is investigated as a function of solar zenith angle. Overall, T(sub e) is the most important parameter, especially near the terminator, while J(sub P0) and T(sub p) dominate over most of the dayside.

  13. Neutron activation analysis to the profile surface sediments from several sites on the Havana Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Riso, O.; Gelen, A.; Lopez, N.; Gonzalez, H.; Manso, M.V.; Graciano, A.M.; Nogueira, C.A.; Beltran, J.; Soto, J.

    2003-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique was employed to analyze the surface sediments from several sites on the Havana Bay, Cuba. Measurements of heavy and trace elements in the sediments are reported. The results show that the concentration of the elements is site dependent. The data suggest that an anthropogenic input into the bay from domestic sewage and industries occurred

  14. Sex-dependent differences in voluntary physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Cheryl S

    2017-01-02

    Numbers of overweight and obese individuals are increasing in the United States and globally, and, correspondingly, the associated health care costs are rising dramatically. More than one-third of children are currently considered obese with a predisposition to type 2 diabetes, and it is likely that their metabolic conditions will worsen with age. Physical inactivity has also risen to be the leading cause of many chronic, noncommunicable diseases (NCD). Children are more physically inactive now than they were in past decades, which may be due to intrinsic and extrinsic factors. In rodents, the amount of time engaged in spontaneous activity within the home cage is a strong predictor of later adiposity and weight gain. Thus, it is important to understand primary motivators stimulating physical activity (PA). There are normal sex differences in PA levels in rodents and humans. The perinatal environment can induce sex-dependent differences in PA disturbances. This Review considers the current evidence for sex differences in PA in rodents and humans. The rodent studies showing that early exposure to environmental chemicals can shape later adult PA responses are discussed. Next, whether there are different motivators stimulating exercise in male vs. female humans are examined. Finally, the brain regions, genes, and pathways that modulate PA in rodents, and possibly by translation in humans, are described. A better understanding of why each sex remains physically active through the life span could open new avenues for preventing and treating obesity in children and adults. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Concentration dependence of surface properties and molar volume of multicomponent system indium-tin-lead-bismuth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadashev, R; Kutuev, R [Complex Science Research Institute of the Science Academy of the Chechen Republic, 21 Staropromisl. shosse, Grozny 364096 (Russian Federation); Elimkhanov, D [Science Academy of the Chechen Republic (Russian Federation)], E-mail: edzhabrail@mail.ru

    2008-02-15

    The results of an experimental research of surface properties of the four-component system indium-tin-lead-bismuth are presented. The researches under discussion were carried out in a combined device in which the surface tension ({sigma}) is measured by the method of maximum pressure in a drop, and density ({rho}) is measured by advanced aerometry. Measurement errors are 0.7 % for surface tension measurement, and 0.2 % for density measurement. The study of the concentration dependence of {sigma} in this system has revealed the influence of the third and fourth components upon the characteristics of surface tension isotherms of the binary system indium-tin. It was found out that with an increase in the content of the third and fourth components the depth of the minimum on the surface tension isotherms of the indium-tin system {sigma} decreases. On the basis of the concentration dependence of the phenomenon of concentration bufferity is revealed. It is shown that despite the complex character, isotherms of {sigma} on beam sections of a multicomponent system do not contain qualitatively new features in comparison with the isotherms of these properties in lateral binary systems.

  16. Scale-dependency of the global mean surface temperature trend and its implication for the recent hiatus of global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yong; Franzke, Christian L. E.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the global mean surface temperature trend are typically conducted at a single (usually annual or decadal) time scale. The used scale does not necessarily correspond to the intrinsic scales of the natural temperature variability. This scale mismatch complicates the separation of externally forced temperature trends from natural temperature fluctuations. The hiatus of global warming since 1999 has been claimed to show that human activities play only a minor role in global warming. Most likely this claim is wrong due to the inadequate consideration of the scale-dependency in the global surface temperature (GST) evolution. Here we show that the variability and trend of the global mean surface temperature anomalies (GSTA) from January 1850 to December 2013, which incorporate both land and sea surface data, is scale-dependent and that the recent hiatus of global warming is mainly related to natural long-term oscillations. These results provide a possible explanation of the recent hiatus of global warming and suggest that the hiatus is only temporary. PMID:26259555

  17. Scale-dependency of the global mean surface temperature trend and its implication for the recent hiatus of global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yong; Franzke, Christian L E

    2015-08-11

    Studies of the global mean surface temperature trend are typically conducted at a single (usually annual or decadal) time scale. The used scale does not necessarily correspond to the intrinsic scales of the natural temperature variability. This scale mismatch complicates the separation of externally forced temperature trends from natural temperature fluctuations. The hiatus of global warming since 1999 has been claimed to show that human activities play only a minor role in global warming. Most likely this claim is wrong due to the inadequate consideration of the scale-dependency in the global surface temperature (GST) evolution. Here we show that the variability and trend of the global mean surface temperature anomalies (GSTA) from January 1850 to December 2013, which incorporate both land and sea surface data, is scale-dependent and that the recent hiatus of global warming is mainly related to natural long-term oscillations. These results provide a possible explanation of the recent hiatus of global warming and suggest that the hiatus is only temporary.

  18. Estradiol coupling to human monocyte nitric oxide release is dependent on intracellular calcium transients: evidence for an estrogen surface receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefano, G B; Prevot, V; Beauvillain, J C; Fimiani, C; Welters, I; Cadet, P; Breton, C; Pestel, J; Salzet, M; Bilfinger, T V

    1999-10-01

    We tested the hypothesis that estrogen acutely stimulates constitutive NO synthase (cNOS) activity in human peripheral monocytes by acting on an estrogen surface receptor. NO release was measured in real time with an amperometric probe. 17beta-estradiol exposure to monocytes stimulated NO release within seconds in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas 17alpha-estradiol had no effect. 17beta-estradiol conjugated to BSA (E2-BSA) also stimulated NO release, suggesting mediation by a membrane surface receptor. Tamoxifen, an estrogen receptor inhibitor, antagonized the action of both 17beta-estradiol and E2-BSA, whereas ICI 182,780, a selective inhibitor of the nuclear estrogen receptor, had no effect. We further showed, using a dual emission microfluorometry in a calcium-free medium, that the 17beta-estradiol-stimulated release of monocyte NO was dependent on the initial stimulation of intracellular calcium transients in a tamoxifen-sensitive process. Leeching out the intracellular calcium stores abolished the effect of 17beta-estradiol on NO release. RT-PCR analysis of RNA obtained from the cells revealed a strong estrogen receptor-alpha amplification signal and a weak beta signal. Taken together, a physiological dose of estrogen acutely stimulates NO release from human monocytes via the activation of an estrogen surface receptor that is coupled to increases in intracellular calcium.

  19. Dimerization of eosin on nanostructured gold surfaces: Size regime dependence of the small metallic particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sujit Kumar; Pal, Anjali; Nath, Sudip; Kundu, Subrata; Panigrahi, Sudipa; Pal, Tarasankar

    2005-08-01

    Gold nanoparticles of variable sizes have been exploited to study their influence on the absorption and emission spectral characteristics of eosin, a fluorescent dye. It has been found that smaller particles of gold stimulate J-aggregation of eosin on the surface of metal particles whereas larger particles cannot induce any kind of aggregation amongst the dye molecules. The size regime dependence of the gold nanoparticles has been attributed to the intercluster interactions induced by the dye molecules for smaller gold nanoparticles and consequently, close packing of the dye molecules around the gold surface engenders intermolecular interactions amongst the dye molecules leading to dimerization.

  20. Temperature dependence of the surface energy of mercury from 0 to 250 deg. C

    CERN Document Server

    Halas, S

    2002-01-01

    The surface energy (SE) for mercury was calculated on the basis of the free electron model in which the electron density parameter, r sub s , for bulk electrons was calculated from the density of mercury while the electron density parameter for surface electrons, r sub s sub s , was assumed to be higher by a factor that is linearly dependent on temperature. Ideal agreement of calculated SE values with experimental data was attained for the temperatures 0-250 deg. C assuming that r sub s sub s = r sub s x 1.0021 sup T sup / sup 1 sup 0 sup 0 deg. C. (letter to the editor)

  1. Surface-dependent chemical equilibrium constants and capacitances for bare and 3-cyanopropyldimethylchlorosilane coated silica nanochannels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mathias Bækbo; Frey, Jared; Pennathur, Sumita

    2011-01-01

    , and pK+ are constant and independent of surface composition. Our theoretical model consists of three parts: (i) a chemical equilibrium model of the bare or coated wall, (ii) a chemical equilibrium model of the buffered bulk electrolyte, and (iii) a self-consistent Gouy–Chapman–Stern triple-layer model...... of the electrochemical double layer coupling these two equilibrium models. To validate our model, we used both pH-sensitive dye-based capillary filling experiments as well as electro-osmotic current-monitoring measurements. Using our model we predict the dependence of ζ potential, surface charge density, and capillary...

  2. Surface properties of activated carbon treated by cold plasma heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norikazu, Kurano [Shigematsu works Co. Ltd., 267 Yashita, Iwatsuki 3390046 (Japan); Yamada, Hiroshi [Shigematsu works Co. Ltd., 267 Yashita, Iwatsuki 3390046 (Japan); Yajima, Tatsuhiko [Faculty of Engineering, Saitama Institute of Technology, 1690 Fusoiji, Okabe 3690293 (Japan); Sugiyama, Kazuo [Faculty of Engineering, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-okubo, Sakura-Ku, Saitama 3388570 (Japan)]. E-mail: sugi@apc.saitama-u.ac.jp

    2007-03-12

    To modify the surface properties of activated carbon powders, we have applied the cold plasma treatment method. The cold plasma was used to be generated in the evacuated reactor vessel by 2.45 GHz microwave irradiation. In this paper, changes of surface properties such as distribution of acidic functional groups and roughness morphology were examined. By the cold plasma treatment, activated carbons with large specific surface area of ca. 2000 m{sup 2}/g or more could be prepared in a minute. The amount of every gaseous organic compound adsorbed on the unit gram of treated activated carbons was more increased that on the unit gram of untreated carbons. Especially, the adsorbed amount of carbon disulfide was remarkably increased even if it was compared by the amount per unit surface area. These results suggest that the surface property of the sample was modified by the plasma treatment. It became apparent by observing SEM photographs that dust and impure particles in macropores of activated carbons were far more reduced by the plasma treatment than by the conventional heating in an electric furnace under vacuum. In addition, a bubble-like surface morphology of the sample was observed by AEM measurement. The amount of acidic functional groups at the surface was determined by using the Boehm's titration method. Consequently, the increase of lactone groups and the decrease of carboxyl groups were also observed.

  3. Particle surface area and bacterial activity in recirculating aquaculture systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg; von Ahnen, Mathis; Fernandes, Paulo

    2017-01-01

    Suspended particles in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) provide surface area that can be colonized by bacteria. More particles accumulate as the intensity of recirculation increases thus potentially increasing the bacterial carrying capacity of the systems. Applying a recent, rapid, culture...... but may provide significant surface area. Hence, the study substantiates that particles in RAS provide surface area supporting bacterial activity, and that particles play a key role in controlling the bacterial carrying capacity at least in less intensive RAS. Applying fast, culture-independent techniques......-independent fluorometric detection method (Bactiquant®) for measuring bacterial activity, the current study explored the relationship between total particle surface area (TSA, derived from the size distribution of particles >5 μm) and bacterial activity in freshwater RAS operated at increasing intensity of recirculation...

  4. On the dependence of static flat seal efficiency to surface defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledoux, Y.; Lasseux, D.; Favreliere, H.; Samper, S.; Grandjean, J.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the role of the modal content of surface defects on static flat seal efficiency. The configuration under consideration is an annular contact between two surfaces, one holding all the defects, the other being assumed flat and infinitely rigid. The analysis is carried out on synthetic 'turned-like' surfaces generated by combinations of the first 50 vibrational eigen modes determined from modal discrete decomposition. The transmissivity of the contact, that fully characterizes the seal efficiency, is computed on the basis of a Reynolds model for incompressible flow. The dependence of the transmissivity upon the modal content of the surface defects is analyzed on a contact pressure range of common use employing a simplified deformation algorithm. Impact of the defects modal content is investigated statistically through a pair of experimental designs. It is shown that, i) the uncertainty on transmissivity, while considering a series of parts, can be drastically reduced if defect modes are well selected; ii) the transmissivity itself can be very significantly decreased when the defects modal content is conveniently controlled. While clearly indicating that the common surface roughness specification is generally not a relevant one to ensure a required seal performance, this work opens wide perspectives on the seal improvement by surface defects optimization only. - Highlights: → Computation of contact transmissivity qualifying static seal efficiency. → Statistical analysis of surface defects modal content on static flat seal. → Improvement of static flat seal efficiency. → Significant transmissivity reduction by convenient control of surface defects modes. → Drastic reduction of transmissivity uncertainty by surface defects modes selection.

  5. Magnetic-field-dependent morphology of self-organized Fe on stepped Si(111) surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cougo dos Santos, M.; Geshev, J.; Pereira, L. G.; Schmidt, J. E.

    2009-01-01

    The present work reports on Fe thin films grown on vicinal Si(111) substrates via rf magnetron sputtering. The dependencies of the growth mode and magnetic properties of the obtained iron nanostructures on both crystallographic surface orientation and on the direction of the very weak stray magnetic field from the magnetron gun were studied. Scanning tunneling microscopy images showed strong dependence of the Fe grains' orientation on the stray field direction in relation to the substrate's steps demonstrating that, under appropriately directed magnetic field, Si surfaces can be used as templates for well-defined self-assembled iron nanostructures. Magneto-optical Kerr effect hysteresis loops showed an easy-axis coercivity almost one order of magnitude smaller for the film deposited with stray field applied along the steps, accompanied with a change in the magnetization reversal mode. Phenomenological models involving coherent rotation and/or domain-wall unpinning were used for the interpretation of these results.

  6. Planetary gyre, time-dependent eddies, torsional waves, and equatorial jets at the Earth's core surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gillet, N.; Jault, D.; Finlay, Chris

    2015-01-01

    between the magnetic field and subdecadal nonzonal motions within the fluid outer core. Both the zonal and the more energetic nonzonal interannual motions were particularly intense close to the equator (below 10∘ latitude) between 1995 and 2010. We revise down the amplitude of the decade fluctuations......We report a calculation of time-dependent quasi-geostrophic core flows for 1940–2010. Inverting recursively for an ensemble of solutions, we evaluate the main source of uncertainties, namely, the model errors arising from interactions between unresolved core surface motions and magnetic fields....... Temporal correlations of these uncertainties are accounted for. The covariance matrix for the flow coefficients is also obtained recursively from the dispersion of an ensemble of solutions. Maps of the flow at the core surface show, upon a planetary-scale gyre, time-dependent large-scale eddies...

  7. Dependence of Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2-SiO2 Nanopowders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Riazian

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Structural properties and chemical composition change the photocatalytic activity in TiO2-SiO2 nanopowder composite. The SiO2-TiO2 nanostructure is synthesized based on sol–gel method. The nanoparticles are characterized by x-ray fluorescents (XRF, x- ray diffraction (XRD, tunneling electron microscopy (TEM, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, UV-vis. Spectrophotometer and furrier transmission create infrared absorption (FTIR techniques. The rate constant k for the degradation of methylen blue in its aqueous solution under UV irradiation is determined as a measure of photocatalytic activity. Dependence between photocatalytic activity and SiO2 content in the composite is determined. Rate constant k is found dependent on the content of SiO2 in the composite that calcined at 900 oC. The addition of low composition SiO2 to the TiO2 matrix (lower than 45% enhances the photocatalytic activity due to thermal stability and increasing in the surface area. The effects of chemical compositions on the surface topography and the crystallization of phases are studied.

  8. Thickness Dependent on Photocatalytic Activity of Hematite Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Hua Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hematite (Fe2O3 thin films with different thicknesses are fabricated by the rf magnetron sputtering deposition. The effects of film thicknesses on the photocatalytic activity of hematite films have been investigated. Hematite films possess a polycrystalline hexagonal structure, and the band gap decreases with an increase of film thickness. Moreover, all hematite films exhibit good photocatalytic ability under visible-light irradiation; the photocatalytic activity of hematite films increases with the increasing film thickness. This is because the hematite film with a thicker thickness has a rougher surface, providing more reaction sites for photocatalysis. Another reason is a lower band gap of a hematite film would generate more electron-hole pairs under visible-light illumination to enhance photocatalytic efficiency. Experimental data are well fitted with Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic model. The photocatalytic rate constant of hematite films ranges from 0.052 to 0.068 min-1. This suggests that the hematite film is a superior photocatalyst under visible-light irradiation.

  9. Surface area-dependence of gas-particle interactions influences pulmonary and neuroinflammatory outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Tyler, Christina R.; Zychowski, Katherine E.; Sanchez, Bethany N.; Rivero, Valeria; Lucas, Selita; Herbert, Guy; Liu, June; Irshad, Hammad; McDonald, Jacob D.; Bleske, Barry E.; Campen, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Deleterious consequences of exposure to traffic emissions may derive from interactions between carbonaceous particulate matter (PM) and gaseous components in a manner that is dependent on the surface area or complexity of the particles. To determine the validity of this hypothesis, we examined pulmonary and neurological inflammatory outcomes in C57BL/6 and apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE?/?) male mice after acute and chronic exposure to vehicle engine-derived particulate matter, ge...

  10. Concentration Dependences of the Surface Tension and Density of Solutions of Acetone-Ethanol-Water Systems at 293 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadashev, R. Kh.; Dzhambulatov, R. S.; Mezhidov, V. Kh.; Elimkhanov, D. Z.

    2018-05-01

    Concentration dependences of the surface tension and density of solutions of three-component acetone-ethanol-water systems and the bounding binary systems at 273 K are studied. The molar volume, adsorption, and composition of surface layers are calculated. Experimental data and calculations show that three-component solutions are close to ideal ones. The surface tensions of these solutions are calculated using semi-empirical and theoretical equations. Theoretical equations qualitatively convey the concentration dependence of surface tension. A semi-empirical method based on the Köhler equation allows us to predict the concentration dependence of surface tension within the experimental error.

  11. Opioid-Induced Glial Activation: Mechanisms of Activation and Implications for Opioid Analgesia, Dependence, and Reward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R. Hutchinson

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This review will introduce the concept of toll-like receptor (TLR–mediated glial activation as central to all of the following: neuropathic pain, compromised acute opioid analgesia, and unwanted opioid side effects (tolerance, dependence, and reward. Attenuation of glial activation has previously been demonstrated both to alleviate exaggerated pain states induced by experimental pain models and to reduce the development of opioid tolerance. Here we demonstrate that selective acute antagonism of TLR4 results in reversal of neuropathic pain as well as potentiation of opioid analgesia. Attenuating central nervous system glial activation was also found to reduce the development of opioid dependence, and opioid reward at a behavioral (conditioned place preference and neurochemical (nucleus accumbens microdialysis of morphine-induced elevations in dopamine level of analysis. Moreover, a novel antagonism of TLR4 by (+- and (˗-isomer opioid antagonists has now been characterized, and both antiallodynic and morphine analgesia potentiating activity shown. Opioid agonists were found to also possess TLR4 agonistic activity, predictive of glial activation. Targeting glial activation is a novel and as yet clinically unexploited method for treatment of neuropathic pain. Moreover, these data indicate that attenuation of glial activation, by general or selective TLR antagonistic mechanisms, may also be a clinical method for separating the beneficial (analgesia and unwanted (tolerance, dependence, and reward actions of opioids, thereby improving the safety and efficacy of their use.

  12. Effect of interstitial impurities on the field dependent microwave surface resistance of niobium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinello, M.; Grassellino, A.; Checchin, M.; Romanenko, A.; Melnychuk, O.; Sergatskov, D. A.; Posen, S.; Zasadzinski, J. F.

    2016-08-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that the radio frequency surface resistance of niobium resonators is dramatically reduced when nitrogen impurities are dissolved as interstitial in the material. This effect is attributed to the lowering of the Mattis-Bardeen surface resistance with increasing accelerating field; however, the microscopic origin of this phenomenon is poorly understood. Meanwhile, an enhancement of the sensitivity to trapped magnetic field is typically observed for such cavities. In this paper, we conduct a systematic study on these different components contributing to the total surface resistance as a function of different levels of dissolved nitrogen, in comparison with standard surface treatments for niobium resonators. Adding these results together, we are able to show which is the optimum surface treatment that maximizes the Q-factor of superconducting niobium resonators as a function of expected trapped magnetic field in the cavity walls. These results also provide insights on the physics behind the change in the field dependence of the Mattis-Bardeen surface resistance, and of the trapped magnetic vortex induced losses in superconducting niobium resonators.

  13. The formation of insoluble Tc depends on bacterial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Uchida, Shigeo; Koiso, Hiroyuki

    2005-01-01

    The formation of insoluble Tc (>0.2 μm in size) in ponding water of paddy soil was investigated. The ponding water prepared by flooding with deionized water was collected at a one-week intervals during the 120 days of the experimental period. The collected sample was incubated with 3 kBq mL -1 TcO 4 - at 25degC for 14 days. The mean value of relative amounts of insolubilized Tc was less than 0.6% of total Tc. This result suggested that flooding with deionized water was not effective for the formation of insoluble Tc. When the ponding water sample was incubated with TcO 4 - under anaerobic conditions, Tc was scarcely insolubilized. On the other hand, a significant fraction of the Tc was insolubilized in the ponding water sample supplemented with nutrients that promote bacterial activity. Also, the amount of insoluble Tc increased with time. From these results, it was concluded that the formation of insoluble Tc in the ponding water depends on enhanced bacterial activity rather than just anaerobic conditions. (author)

  14. Glutathionylation regulates cytosolic NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seoung Woo; Oh, Chang Joo; Kil, In Sup; Park, Jeen-Woo

    2009-04-01

    Cytosolic NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDPc) is susceptible to inactivation by numerous thiol-modifying reagents. This study now reports that Cys269 of IDPc is a target for S-glutathionylation and that this modification is reversed by dithiothreitol as well as enzymatically by cytosolic glutaredoxin in the presence of GSH. Glutathionylated IDPc was significantly less susceptible than native protein to peptide fragmentation by reactive oxygen species and proteolytic digestion. Glutathionylation may play a protective role in the degradation of protein through the structural alterations of IDPc. HEK293 cells treated with diamide displayed decreased IDPc activity and accumulated glutathionylated enzyme. Using immunoprecipitation with an anti-IDPc IgG and immunoblotting with an anti-GSH IgG, we purified and positively identified glutathionylated IDPc from the kidneys of mice subjected to ischemia/reperfusion injury and from the livers of ethanol-administered rats. These results suggest that IDPc activity is modulated through enzymatic glutathionylation and deglutathionylation during oxidative stress.

  15. The detection of intestinal spike activity on surface electroenterograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye-Lin, Y; Garcia-Casado, J; Martinez-de-Juan, J L; Prats-Boluda, G [Instituto interuniversitario de investigacion en bioingenierIa y tecnologIa orientada al ser humano (I3BH), Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera, s/n, Ed. 8E, Acceso N, 2a, planta 46022 Valencia (Spain); Ponce, J L [Department of Surgery, Hospital Universitario La Fe de Valencia, Avenida Campanar n0. 51, 46009 Valencia (Spain)], E-mail: yiye@eln.upv.es, E-mail: jgarciac@eln.upv.es, E-mail: jlmartinez@eln.upv.es, E-mail: geprabo@eln.upv.es, E-mail: drjlponce@ono.com

    2010-02-07

    Myoelectrical recording could provide an alternative technique for assessing intestinal motility, which is a topic of great interest in gastroenterology since many gastrointestinal disorders are associated with intestinal dysmotility. The pacemaker activity (slow wave, SW) of the electroenterogram (EEnG) has been detected in abdominal surface recordings, although the activity related to bowel contractions (spike bursts, SB) has to date only been detected in experimental models with artificially favored electrical conductivity. The aim of the present work was to assess the possibility of detecting SB activity in abdominal surface recordings under physiological conditions. For this purpose, 11 recording sessions of simultaneous internal and external myolectrical signals were conducted on conscious dogs. Signal analysis was carried out in the spectral domain. The results show that in periods of intestinal contractile activity, high-frequency components of EEnG signals can be detected on the abdominal surface in addition to SW activity. The energy between 2 and 20 Hz of the surface myoelectrical recording presented good correlation with the internal intestinal motility index (0.64 {+-} 0.10 for channel 1 and 0.57 {+-} 0.11 for channel 2). This suggests that SB activity can also be detected in canine surface EEnG recording.

  16. The detection of intestinal spike activity on surface electroenterograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye-Lin, Y; Garcia-Casado, J; Martinez-de-Juan, J L; Prats-Boluda, G; Ponce, J L

    2010-01-01

    Myoelectrical recording could provide an alternative technique for assessing intestinal motility, which is a topic of great interest in gastroenterology since many gastrointestinal disorders are associated with intestinal dysmotility. The pacemaker activity (slow wave, SW) of the electroenterogram (EEnG) has been detected in abdominal surface recordings, although the activity related to bowel contractions (spike bursts, SB) has to date only been detected in experimental models with artificially favored electrical conductivity. The aim of the present work was to assess the possibility of detecting SB activity in abdominal surface recordings under physiological conditions. For this purpose, 11 recording sessions of simultaneous internal and external myolectrical signals were conducted on conscious dogs. Signal analysis was carried out in the spectral domain. The results show that in periods of intestinal contractile activity, high-frequency components of EEnG signals can be detected on the abdominal surface in addition to SW activity. The energy between 2 and 20 Hz of the surface myoelectrical recording presented good correlation with the internal intestinal motility index (0.64 ± 0.10 for channel 1 and 0.57 ± 0.11 for channel 2). This suggests that SB activity can also be detected in canine surface EEnG recording.

  17. Measurements of radon progeny activity on typical indoor surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knutson, E.O.; Gogolak, C.V.; Klemic, G.

    1992-01-01

    A number of studies aimed at defining how well radon progeny on surfaces can be measured, information that is needed in order to test physical/mathematical models governing indoor radon progeny behaviour, are described. One experiment compared the decomposition on to different surfaces. Only relatively small differences were found among metal, filter paper, broadcloth, corduroy fabric, vinyl wallpaper, glass, and latex paint, but polyethylene film collected two to four times as much as the others, due most likely to electrostatic charge on the plastic surface. Another experiment compared the gamma and gross alpha count methods of measuring surface activity for metal, filter paper, broadcloth and corduroy surfaces. No difference for the surfaces tested was found from which it is concluded that, even for rougher surfaces, progeny atoms deposit mainly on the outer layers. A final experiment compared in situ and surrogate-surface methods for measuring surface deposition. For most tests, the two methods agreed within 30%, and the average ratio was not significantly different from unity. 210 Po is a complication in the in situ method. An unexpected location effect was found in the experiments conducted in houses with high radon concentrations: the deposition on the ceiling was higher than on the surfaces. (author)

  18. Time-Dependent Wetting Behavior of PDMS Surfaces with Bio-Inspired, Hierarchical Structures

    KAUST Repository

    Mishra, Himanshu; Schrader, Alex M.; Lee, Dong Woog; Gallo, Adair; Chen, Szu-Ying; Kaufman, Yair; Das, Saurabh; Israelachvili, Jacob N.

    2015-01-01

    Wetting of rough surfaces involves time-dependent effects, such as surface deformations, non-uniform filling of surface pores within or outside the contact area, and surface chemistries, but the detailed impact of these phenomena on wetting is not entirely clear. Understanding these effects is crucial for designing coatings for a wide range of applications, such as membrane-based oil-water separation and desalination, waterproof linings/windows for automobiles, aircrafts, and naval vessels, and antibiofouling. Herein, we report on time-dependent contact angles of water droplets on a rough polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surface that cannot be completely described by the conventional Cassie-Baxter or Wenzel models or the recently proposed Cassie-impregnated model. Shells of sand dollars (Dendraster excentricus) were used as lithography-free, robust templates to produce rough PDMS surfaces with hierarchical, periodic features ranging from 10-7-10-4 m. Under saturated vapor conditions, we found that in the short-term (<1 min), the contact angle of a sessile water droplet on the templated PDMS, θSDT = 140° ± 3°, was accurately described by the Cassie-Baxter model (predicted θSDT = 137°); however, after 90 min, θSDT fell to 110°. Fluorescent confocal microscopy confirmed that the initial reduction in θSDT to 110° (the Wenzel limit) was primarily a Cassie-Baxter to Wenzel transition during which pores within the contact area filled gradually, and more rapidly for ethanol-water mixtures. After 90 min, the contact line of the water droplet became pinned, perhaps caused by viscoelastic deformation of the PDMS around the contact line, and a significant volume of water began to flow from the droplet to pores outside the contact region, causing θSDT to decrease to 65° over 48 h on the rough surface. The system we present here to explore the concept of contact angle time dependence (dynamics) and modeling of natural surfaces provides insights into the design and

  19. Time-Dependent Wetting Behavior of PDMS Surfaces with Bio-Inspired, Hierarchical Structures

    KAUST Repository

    Mishra, Himanshu

    2015-12-28

    Wetting of rough surfaces involves time-dependent effects, such as surface deformations, non-uniform filling of surface pores within or outside the contact area, and surface chemistries, but the detailed impact of these phenomena on wetting is not entirely clear. Understanding these effects is crucial for designing coatings for a wide range of applications, such as membrane-based oil-water separation and desalination, waterproof linings/windows for automobiles, aircrafts, and naval vessels, and antibiofouling. Herein, we report on time-dependent contact angles of water droplets on a rough polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surface that cannot be completely described by the conventional Cassie-Baxter or Wenzel models or the recently proposed Cassie-impregnated model. Shells of sand dollars (Dendraster excentricus) were used as lithography-free, robust templates to produce rough PDMS surfaces with hierarchical, periodic features ranging from 10-7-10-4 m. Under saturated vapor conditions, we found that in the short-term (<1 min), the contact angle of a sessile water droplet on the templated PDMS, θSDT = 140° ± 3°, was accurately described by the Cassie-Baxter model (predicted θSDT = 137°); however, after 90 min, θSDT fell to 110°. Fluorescent confocal microscopy confirmed that the initial reduction in θSDT to 110° (the Wenzel limit) was primarily a Cassie-Baxter to Wenzel transition during which pores within the contact area filled gradually, and more rapidly for ethanol-water mixtures. After 90 min, the contact line of the water droplet became pinned, perhaps caused by viscoelastic deformation of the PDMS around the contact line, and a significant volume of water began to flow from the droplet to pores outside the contact region, causing θSDT to decrease to 65° over 48 h on the rough surface. The system we present here to explore the concept of contact angle time dependence (dynamics) and modeling of natural surfaces provides insights into the design and

  20. Surface shear stress dependence of gas transfer velocity parameterizations using DNS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksson, S. T.; Arneborg, L.; Nilsson, H.; Handler, R. A.

    2016-10-01

    Air-water gas-exchange is studied in direct numerical simulations (DNS) of free-surface flows driven by natural convection and weak winds. The wind is modeled as a constant surface-shear-stress and the gas-transfer is modeled via a passive scalar. The simulations are characterized via a Richardson number Ri=Bν/u*4 where B, ν, and u* are the buoyancy flux, kinematic viscosity, and friction velocity respectively. The simulations comprise 0Ric or kg=AShearu*Sc-n, Ridepends on the water surface-characteristics.

  1. Temperature dependence of rippled corrugations induced on the Rh(1 1 0) surface via ion sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molle, Alessandro; Buatier de Mongeot, F.; Granone, F.; Buzio, R.; Firpo, G.; Boragno, C.; Valbusa, U.

    2005-01-01

    Metal surfaces can be easily nanopatterned via ion sputtering: mounds or ripples can be created depending on the surface symmetry and temperature. However, in many cases these structures are unstable at room temperature and above, due to the adatom fast diffusion. This fact prevents the use of such systems as substrate or nanostamps for a technological implementation. In this paper we present a spot profile analysis low energy electron diffraction (SPA-LEED) study on the nanopatterning of a Rh(1 1 0) single crystal. Like the other (1 1 0) metal surfaces, previously investigated, also Rh(1 1 0) shows for increasing temperatures a transition between different rippled morphologies. The main advantage of this system is its stability at room temperature. From SPA-LEED data we can measure the structural features (average periodicity and local faceting) of the observed rippled structures

  2. Potential Biosignificant Interest and Surface Activity of Efficient Heterocyclic Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Refat; Althagafi, Ismail

    2016-01-01

    Some functionalized pyridine and fused system derivatives were synthesized using enaminonitrile derivative 5 as a starting material for the reaction, with various reagents under different conditions. Propoxylation of these compounds using different moles of propylene oxide (3, 5 and 7 moles) leads to a novel group of surface active agents. The antimicrobial and surface activities of the synthesized compounds were investigated. Most of the evaluated compounds proved to be active as antibacterial and antifungal agents and showed good surface activity, which makes them suitable for diverse applications such as the manufacturing of emulsifiers, cosmetics, drugs, pesticides, etc. Additionally, biodegradation testing exhibits significant breakdown within six to seven days, and hence, lowers the toxicity to human beings and becomes environmentally friendly.

  3. The surface activity of purified ocular mucin at the air-liquid interface and interactions with meibomian lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Thomas J; Tragoulias, Sophia T; Anderton, Philip J; Ball, Malcolm S; Miano, Fausto; Dennis, Gary R; Mudgil, Poonam

    2006-01-01

    Ocular mucins are thought to contribute to the stability of the tear film by reducing surface tension. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of different mucins and hyaluronic acid (HA) alone and mixed with meibomian lipids on the surface pressure at an air-liquid interface. A Langmuir trough and Wilhelmy balance were used to measure and compare the surface activity of bovine submaxillary gland mucin (BSM), purified BSM, purified bovine ocular mucin and HA, and mixtures of these with meibomian lipids, phosphatidylcholine, and phosphatidylglycerol. Their appearance at the surface of an air-buffer interface was examined using epifluorescence microscopy. Purified ocular mucin had no surface activity even at concentrations that were 100 times more than normally occur in tears. By contrast, commercial BSM caused changes to surface pressure that were concentration dependent. The surface pressure-area profiles showed surface activity with maximum surface pressures of 12.3-22.5 mN/m depending on the concentration. Purified BSM showed no surface activity at low concentrations, whereas higher concentrations reached a maximum surface pressure of 25 mN/m. HA showed no surface activity, at low or high concentrations. Epifluorescence showed that the mucins were located at the air-buffer interface and changed the appearance of lipid films. Purified bovine ocular mucin and HA have no surface activity. However, despite having no surface activity in their own right, ocular mucins are likely to be present at the surface of the tear film, where they cause an increase in surface pressure by causing a compression of the lipids (a reorganization of the lipids) and alter the viscoelastic properties at the surface.

  4. Size-Dependent Affinity of Glycine and Its Short Oligomers to Pyrite Surface: A Model for Prebiotic Accumulation of Amino Acid Oligomers on a Mineral Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrin, Rehana; Ganbaatar, Narangerel; Aono, Masashi; Cleaves, H. James; Yano, Taka-aki; Hara, Masahiko

    2018-01-01

    The interaction strength of progressively longer oligomers of glycine, (Gly), di-Gly, tri-Gly, and penta-Gly, with a natural pyrite surface was directly measured using the force mode of an atomic force microscope (AFM). In recent years, selective activation of abiotically formed amino acids on mineral surfaces, especially that of pyrite, has been proposed as an important step in many origins of life scenarios. To investigate such notions, we used AFM-based force measurements to probe possible non-covalent interactions between pyrite and amino acids, starting from the simplest amino acid, Gly. Although Gly itself interacted with the pyrite surface only weakly, progressively larger unbinding forces and binding frequencies were obtained using oligomers from di-Gly to penta-Gly. In addition to an expected increase of the configurational entropy and size-dependent van der Waals force, the increasing number of polar peptide bonds, among others, may be responsible for this observation. The effect of chain length was also investigated by performing similar experiments using l-lysine vs. poly-l-lysine (PLL), and l-glutamic acid vs. poly-l-glutamic acid. The results suggest that longer oligomers/polymers of amino acids can be preferentially adsorbed on pyrite surfaces. PMID:29370126

  5. Loss of FliL alters Proteus mirabilis surface sensing and temperature-dependent swarming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yi-Ying; Belas, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis is a dimorphic motile bacterium well known for its flagellum-dependent swarming motility over surfaces. In liquid, P. mirabilis cells are 1.5- to 2.0-μm swimmer cells with 4 to 6 flagella. When P. mirabilis encounters a solid surface, where flagellar rotation is limited, swimmer cells differentiate into elongated (10- to 80-μm), highly flagellated swarmer cells. In order for P. mirabilis to swarm, it first needs to detect a surface. The ubiquitous but functionally enigmatic flagellar basal body protein FliL is involved in P. mirabilis surface sensing. Previous studies have suggested that FliL is essential for swarming through its involvement in viscosity-dependent monitoring of flagellar rotation. In this study, we constructed and characterized ΔfliL mutants of P. mirabilis and Escherichia coli. Unexpectedly and unlike other fliL mutants, both P. mirabilis and E. coli ΔfliL cells swarm (Swr(+)). Further analysis revealed that P. mirabilis ΔfliL cells also exhibit an alteration in their ability to sense a surface: e.g., ΔfliL P. mirabilis cells swarm precociously over surfaces with low viscosity that normally impede wild-type swarming. Precocious swarming is due to an increase in the number of elongated swarmer cells in the population. Loss of fliL also results in an inhibition of swarming at <30°C. E. coli ΔfliL cells also exhibit temperature-sensitive swarming. These results suggest an involvement of FliL in the energetics and function of the flagellar motor. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Identifying the Active Surfaces of Electrochemically Tuned LiCoO2 for Oxygen Evolution Reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Zhiyi; Chen, Guangxu; Li, Yanbin; Wang, Haotian; Xie, Jin

    2017-01-01

    Identification of active sites for catalytic processes has both fundamental and technological implications for rational design of future catalysts. Herein, we study the active surfaces of layered lithium cobalt oxide (LCO) for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) using the enhancement effect of electrochemical delithiation (De-LCO). Our theoretical results indicate that the most stable (0001) surface has a very large overpotential for OER independent of lithium content. In contrast, edge sites such as the nonpolar (1120) and polar (0112) surfaces are predicted to be highly active and dependent on (de)lithiation. The effect of lithium extraction from LCO on the surfaces and their OER activities can be understood by the increase of Co 4+ sites relative to Co 3+ and by the shift of active oxygen 2p states. Experimentally, it is demonstrated that LCO nanosheets, which dominantly expose the (0001) surface show negligible OER enhancement upon delithiation. However, a noticeable increase in OER activity (~0.1 V in overpotential shift at 10 mA cm –2 ) is observed for the LCO nanoparticles, where the basal plane is greatly diminished to expose the edge sites, consistent with the theoretical simulations. In addition, we find that the OER activity of De-LCO nanosheets can be improved if we adopt an acid etching method on LCO to create more active edge sites, which in turn provides a strong evidence for the theoretical indication.

  7. The mass dependence of chromospheric activity evolution & implications for gyrochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Jason

    2018-01-01

    We know chromospheric emission decays over time, and yet this empirical relation is still fundamentally an interpolation over 3.5 Gyr from the Hyades to the Sun despite 45 years of progress. Furthermore, its very existence was called into question by Pace et al. (2004, 2009, 2013), who argued that activity plummets and flatlines around 1-2 Gyr. I will present new Ca II H & K data for NGC 752 (1.5 Gyr) and Ruprecht 147 (3 Gyr), and ISM-corrected data for M67 (4 Gyr, Curtis 2017), and pair this with the Sun's re-calibrated history (Egeland et al. 2017) and data on field stars from the Keck exoplanet program. I calculated ages for the field star sample using the [Y/Mg] "chemical clock," which was discovered from studies of solar twins and is due to galactic chemical enrichment. I find a mass dependence that matches the prediction from the activity-rotation-age relation of Mamajek & Hillenbrand (2008), where F stars rapidly plummet at 1-2 Gyr in line with the observations of F stars in clusters of similar age by Pace et al., whereas activity continuously declines for G and K dwarfs to approximately 5 and 7 Gyr, respectively. I will show that comparing ages estimated from [Y/Mg] to activity--rotation ages reveals known hot Jupiter hosts and other potentially anomalous stars. Combining the empirical relation between activity and Rossby number with estimates of stellar mass from spectroscopy and age from [Y/Mg] yields a gyrochronology relationship for FG and early K dwarfs that is independent of the cluster age scale and appears consistent with models from Mamajek & Hillenbrand (2008) and Barnes (2010). However, I have separately measured rotation periods for mid to late K dwarfs in 3 Gyr Ruprecht 147 with K2 and I find that they are rotating too rapidly relative to these empirical models and the semi-physical model of Matt et al. (2015). Apparently, K dwarfs spin down more slowly than the Skumanich square-root Law. Determining the K dwarf spin-down law is critical for

  8. Surface activity, lipid profiles and their implications in cervical cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preetha A

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The profiles of lipids in normal and cancerous tissues may differ revealing information about cancer development and progression. Lipids being surface active, changes in lipid profiles can manifest as altered surface activity profiles. Langmuir monolayers offer a convenient model for evaluating surface activity of biological membranes. Aims: The aims of this study were to quantify phospholipids and their effects on surface activity of normal and cancerous human cervical tissues as well as to evaluate the role of phosphatidylcholine (PC and sphingomyelin (SM in cervical cancer using Langmuir monolayers. Methods and Materials: Lipid quantification was done using thin layer chromatography and phosphorus assay. Surface activity was evaluated using Langmuir monolayers. Monolayers were formed on the surface of deionized water by spreading tissue organic phase corresponding to 1 mg of tissue and studying their surface pressure-area isotherms at body temperature. The PC and SM contents of cancerous human cervical tissues were higher than those of the normal human cervical tissues. Role of PC and SM were evaluated by adding varying amounts of these lipids to normal cervical pooled organic phase. Statistical analysis: Student′s t-test (p < 0.05 and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA was used. Results: Our results reveals that the phosphatidylglycerol level in cancerous cervical tissue was nearly five folds higher than that in normal cervical tissue. Also PC and sphingomyelin SM were found to be the major phospholipid components in cancerous and normal cervical tissues respectively. The addition of either 1.5 µg DPPC or 0.5 µg SM /mg of tissue to the normal organic phase changed its surface activity profile to that of the cancerous tissues. Statistically significant surface activity parameters showed that PC and SM have remarkable roles in shifting the normal cervical lipophilic surface activity towards that of cancerous lipophilic

  9. Strong orientation dependence of surface mass density profiles of dark haloes at large scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osato, Ken; Nishimichi, Takahiro; Oguri, Masamune; Takada, Masahiro; Okumura, Teppei

    2018-06-01

    We study the dependence of surface mass density profiles, which can be directly measured by weak gravitational lensing, on the orientation of haloes with respect to the line-of-sight direction, using a suite of N-body simulations. We find that, when major axes of haloes are aligned with the line-of-sight direction, surface mass density profiles have higher amplitudes than those averaged over all halo orientations, over all scales from 0.1 to 100 Mpc h-1 we studied. While the orientation dependence at small scales is ascribed to the halo triaxiality, our results indicate even stronger orientation dependence in the so-called two-halo regime, up to 100 Mpc h-1. The orientation dependence for the two-halo term is well approximated by a multiplicative shift of the amplitude and therefore a shift in the halo bias parameter value. The halo bias from the two-halo term can be overestimated or underestimated by up to {˜ } 30 per cent depending on the viewing angle, which translates into the bias in estimated halo masses by up to a factor of 2 from halo bias measurements. The orientation dependence at large scales originates from the anisotropic halo-matter correlation function, which has an elliptical shape with the axis ratio of ˜0.55 up to 100 Mpc h-1. We discuss potential impacts of halo orientation bias on other observables such as optically selected cluster samples and a clustering analysis of large-scale structure tracers such as quasars.

  10. Cre-dependent DNA recombination activates a STING-dependent innate immune response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pépin, Geneviève; Ferrand, Jonathan; Höning, Klara; Jayasekara, W. Samantha N.; Cain, Jason E.; Behlke, Mark A.; Gough, Daniel J.; G. Williams, Bryan R.; Hornung, Veit

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Gene-recombinase technologies, such as Cre/loxP-mediated DNA recombination, are important tools in the study of gene function, but have potential side effects due to damaging activity on DNA. Here we show that DNA recombination by Cre instigates a robust antiviral response in mammalian cells, independent of legitimate loxP recombination. This is due to the recruitment of the cytosolic DNA sensor STING, concurrent with Cre-dependent DNA damage and the accumulation of cytoplasmic DNA. Importantly, we establish a direct interplay between this antiviral response and cell–cell interactions, indicating that low cell densities in vitro could be useful to help mitigate these effects of Cre. Taking into account the wide range of interferon stimulated genes that may be induced by the STING pathway, these results have broad implications in fields such as immunology, cancer biology, metabolism and stem cell research. Further, this study sets a precedent in the field of gene-engineering, possibly applicable to other enzymatic-based genome editing technologies. PMID:27166376

  11. Mechanochemical activation and gallium and indiaarsenides surface catalycity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirovskaya, I. A.; Mironova, E. V.; Umansky, I. V.; Brueva, O. Yu; Murashova, A. O.; Yureva, A. V.

    2018-01-01

    The present work has been carried out in terms of determining the possibilities for a clearer identification of the active sites nature, intermediate surface compounds nature, functional groups during adsorption and catalysis, activation of the diamond-like semiconductors surface (in particular, the AIIIBV type) based on mechanochemical studies of the “reaction medium (H2O, iso-C3H7OH) - dispersible semiconductor (GaAs, InAs)” systems. As a result, according to the read kinetic curves of dispersion in water, both acidification and alkalinization of the medium have been established and explained; increased activity of the newly formed surface has been noted; intermediate surface compounds, functional groups appearing on the real surface and under H2O adsorption conditions, adsorption and catalytic decomposition of iso-C3H7OH have been found (with explanation of the origin). The unconcealed role of coordinatively unsaturated atoms as active sites of these processes has been shown; the relative catalytic activity of the semiconductors studied has been evaluated. Practical recommendations on the preferred use of gallium arsenide in semiconductor gas analysis and semiconductor catalysis have been given in literature searches, great care should be taken in constructing both.

  12. Abscisic acid-dependent multisite phosphorylation regulates the activity of a transcription activator AREB1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furihata, Takashi; Maruyama, Kyonoshin; Fujita, Yasunari; Umezawa, Taishi; Yoshida, Riichiro; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko

    2006-02-07

    bZIP-type transcription factors AREBs/ABFs bind an abscisic acid (ABA)-responsive cis-acting element named ABRE and transactivate downstream gene expression in Arabidopsis. Because AREB1 overexpression could not induce downstream gene expression, activation of AREB1 requires ABA-dependent posttranscriptional modification. We confirmed that ABA activated 42-kDa kinase activity, which, in turn, phosphorylated Ser/Thr residues of R-X-X-S/T sites in the conserved regions of AREB1. Amino acid substitutions of R-X-X-S/T sites to Ala suppressed transactivation activity, and multiple substitution of these sites resulted in almost complete suppression of transactivation activity in transient assays. In contrast, substitution of the Ser/Thr residues to Asp resulted in high transactivation activity without exogenous ABA application. A phosphorylated, transcriptionally active form was achieved by substitution of Ser/Thr in all conserved R-X-X-S/T sites to Asp. Transgenic plants overexpressing the phosphorylated active form of AREB1 expressed many ABA-inducible genes, such as RD29B, without ABA treatment. These results indicate that the ABA-dependent multisite phosphorylation of AREB1 regulates its own activation in plants.

  13. Activity-dependent neurorehabilitation beyond physical trainings: "mental exercise" through mirror neuron activation

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Ti-Fei; Chen, Wei; Shan, Chunlei; Rocha, Nuno; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Paes, Flávia; de Sa, Alberto Souza; Machado, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    The activity dependent brain repair mechanism has been widely adopted in many types of neurorehabilitation. The activity leads to target specific and non-specific beneficial effects in different brain regions, such as the releasing of neurotrophic factors, modulation of the cytokines and generation of new neurons in adult hood. However physical exercise program clinically are limited to some of the patients with preserved motor functions; while many patients suffered from paralysis cannot mak...

  14. Load-dependent surface diffusion model for analyzing the kinetics of protein adsorption onto mesoporous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marbán, Gregorio; Ramírez-Montoya, Luis A; García, Héctor; Menéndez, J Ángel; Arenillas, Ana; Montes-Morán, Miguel A

    2018-02-01

    The adsorption of cytochrome c in water onto organic and carbon xerogels with narrow pore size distributions has been studied by carrying out transient and equilibrium batch adsorption experiments. It was found that equilibrium adsorption exhibits a quasi-Langmuirian behavior (a g coefficient in the Redlich-Peterson isotherms of over 0.95) involving the formation of a monolayer of cyt c with a depth of ∼4nm on the surface of all xerogels for a packing density of the protein inside the pores of 0.29gcm -3 . A load-dependent surface diffusion model (LDSDM) has been developed and numerically solved to fit the experimental kinetic adsorption curves. The results of the LDSDM show better fittings than the standard homogeneous surface diffusion model. The value of the external mass transfer coefficient obtained by numerical optimization confirms that the process is controlled by the intraparticle surface diffusion of cyt c. The surface diffusion coefficients decrease with increasing protein load down to zero for the maximum possible load. The decrease is steeper in the case of the xerogels with the smallest average pore diameter (∼15nm), the limit at which the zero-load diffusion coefficient of cyt c also begins to be negatively affected by interactions with the opposite wall of the pore. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Using lagged dependence to identify (de)coupled surface and subsurface soil moisture values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Coleen D. U.; van der Ploeg, Martine J.; Torfs, Paul J. J. F.

    2018-04-01

    Recent advances in radar remote sensing popularized the mapping of surface soil moisture at different spatial scales. Surface soil moisture measurements are used in combination with hydrological models to determine subsurface soil moisture values. However, variability of soil moisture across the soil column is important for estimating depth-integrated values, as decoupling between surface and subsurface can occur. In this study, we employ new methods to investigate the occurrence of (de)coupling between surface and subsurface soil moisture. Using time series datasets, lagged dependence was incorporated in assessing (de)coupling with the idea that surface soil moisture conditions will be reflected at the subsurface after a certain delay. The main approach involves the application of a distributed-lag nonlinear model (DLNM) to simultaneously represent both the functional relation and the lag structure in the time series. The results of an exploratory analysis using residuals from a fitted loess function serve as a posteriori information to determine (de)coupled values. Both methods allow for a range of (de)coupled soil moisture values to be quantified. Results provide new insights into the decoupled range as its occurrence among the sites investigated is not limited to dry conditions.

  16. Angle-dependent lubricated tribological properties of stainless steel by femtosecond laser surface texturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuo; Li, Yang-Bo; Bai, Feng; Wang, Cheng-Wei; Zhao, Quan-Zhong

    2016-07-01

    Lubricated tribological properties of stainless steel were investigated by femtosecond laser surface texturing. Regular-arranged micro-grooved textures with different spacing and micro-groove inclination angles (between micro-groove path and sliding direction) were produced on AISI 304L steel surfaces by an 800 nm femtosecond laser. The spacing of micro-groove was varied from 25 to 300 μm, and the inclination angles of micro-groove were measured as 90° and 45°. The tribological properties of the smooth and textured surfaces with micro-grooves were investigated by reciprocating ball-on-flat tests against Al2O3 ceramic balls under starved oil lubricated conditions. Results showed that the spacing of micro-grooves significantly affected the tribological property. With the increase of micro-groove spacing, the average friction coefficients and wear rates of textured surfaces initially decreased then increased. The tribological performance also depended on the inclination angles of micro-grooves. Among the investigated patterns, the micro-grooves perpendicular to the sliding direction exhibited the lowest average friction coefficient and wear rate to a certain extent. Femtosecond laser-induced surface texturing may remarkably improve friction and wear properties if the micro-grooves were properly distributed.

  17. Hepatitis C virus translation preferentially depends on active RNA replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Minyi Liu

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV RNA initiates its replication on a detergent-resistant membrane structure derived from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER in the HCV replicon cells. By performing a pulse-chase study of BrU-labeled HCV RNA, we found that the newly-synthesized HCV RNA traveled along the anterograde-membrane traffic and moved away from the ER. Presumably, the RNA moved to the site of translation or virion assembly in the later steps of viral life cycle. In this study, we further addressed how HCV RNA translation was regulated by HCV RNA trafficking. When the movement of HCV RNA from the site of RNA synthesis to the Golgi complex was blocked by nocodazole, an inhibitor of ER-Golgi transport, HCV protein translation was surprisingly enhanced, suggesting that the translation of viral proteins occurred near the site of RNA synthesis. We also found that the translation of HCV proteins was dependent on active RNA synthesis: inhibition of viral RNA synthesis by an NS5B inhibitor resulted in decreased HCV viral protein synthesis even when the total amount of intracellular HCV RNA remained unchanged. Furthermore, the translation activity of the replication-defective HCV replicons or viral RNA with an NS5B mutation was greatly reduced as compared to that of the corresponding wildtype RNA. By performing live cell labeling of newly synthesized HCV RNA and proteins, we further showed that the newly synthesized HCV proteins colocalized with the newly synthesized viral RNA, suggesting that HCV RNA replication and protein translation take place at or near the same site. Our findings together indicate that the translation of HCV RNA is coupled to RNA replication and that the both processes may occur at the same subcellular membrane compartments, which we term the replicasome.

  18. The hepatitis B virus large surface protein (LHBs) is a transcriptional activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildt, E; Saher, G; Bruss, V; Hofschneider, P H

    1996-11-01

    It has been shown that a C-terminally truncated form of the middle-sized hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface protein (MHBst) functions as a transcriptional activator. This function is dependent on the cytosolic orientation of the N-terminal PreS2 domain of MHBst, but in the case of wild-type MHBs, the PreS2 domain is contranslationally translocated into the ER lumen. Recent reports demonstrated that the PreS2 domain of the large HBV surface protein (LHBs) initially remains on the cytosolic side of the ER membrane after translation. Therefore, the question arose as to whether the LHBs protein exhibits the same transcriptional activator function as MHBst. We show that LHBs, like MHBst, is indeed able to activate a variety of promoter elements. There is evidence for a PKC-dependent activation of AP-1 and NF-kappa B by LHBs. Downstream of the PKC the functionality of c-Raf-1 kinase is a prerequisite for LHBs-dependent activation of AP-1 and NF-kappa B since inhibition of c-Raf-1 kinase abolishes LHBs-dependent transcriptional activation of AP-1 and NF-kappa B.

  19. Effects of Surface Treatment of Activated Carbon on Its Surface and Cr(VI) Adsorption Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soo Jin; Jang, Yu Sin [Advanced Materials Division., Korea Research Institute of Chimical Technology, Taejon (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    In this work, the effect of surface treatments on activated carbons (ACs) has been studied in the context of gas and liquid adsorption behaviors. The chemical solutions used in this experiment were 35% sodium hydroxide, and these were used for the acidic and basic treatments, respectively. The surface properties have been determined by pH, acid-base values, and FT-IR. The adsorption isotherms of Cr(VI) ion on activated carbons have been studied with the 5 mg/l concentration at ambient temperature. N{sub 2} adsorption isotherm characteristics, which include the specific surface area, micro pore volume, and microporosity, were determined by BET and Boer's-plot methods. In case of the acidic treatment of activated carbons, it was observed that the adsorption of Cr(VI) ion was more effective due to the increase acid value (or acidic functional group) of activated carbon surfaces. However, the basic treatment on activated carbons was caused no significant effects, probably due to the decreased specific surface area and total pore volume. 27 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Surface feature congruency effects in the object-reviewing paradigm are dependent on task memory demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimchi, Ruth; Pirkner, Yossef

    2014-08-01

    Perception of object continuity depends on establishing correspondence between objects viewed across disruptions in visual information. The role of spatiotemporal information in guiding object continuity is well documented; the role of surface features, however, is controversial. Some researchers have shown an object-specific preview benefit (OSPB)-a standard index of object continuity-only when correspondence could be based on an object's spatiotemporal information, whereas others have found color-based OSPB, suggesting that surface features can also guide object continuity. This study shows that surface feature-based OSPB is dependent on the task memory demands. When the task involved letters and matching just one target letter to the preview ones, no color congruency effect was found under spatiotemporal discontinuity and spatiotemporal ambiguity (Experiments 1-3), indicating that the absence of feature-based OSPB cannot be accounted for by salient spatiotemporal discontinuity. When the task involved complex shapes and matching two target shapes to the preview ones, color-based OSPB was obtained. Critically, however, when a visual working memory task was performed concurrently with the matching task, the presence of a nonspatial (but not a spatial) working memory load eliminated the color-based OSPB (Experiments 4 and 5). These results suggest that the surface feature congruency effects that are observed in the object-reviewing paradigm (with the matching task) reflect memory-based strategies that participants use to solve a memory-demanding task; therefore, they are not reliable measures of online object continuity and cannot be taken as evidence for the role of surface features in establishing object correspondence.

  1. Linear response theory of activated surface diffusion with interacting adsorbates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marti' nez-Casado, R. [Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London, South Kensington, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Sanz, A.S.; Vega, J.L. [Instituto de Fi' sica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Rojas-Lorenzo, G. [Instituto Superior de Tecnologi' as y Ciencias Aplicadas, Ave. Salvador Allende, esq. Luaces, 10400 La Habana (Cuba); Instituto de Fi' sica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cienti' ficas, Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Miret-Artes, S., E-mail: s.miret@imaff.cfmac.csic.es [Instituto de Fi' sica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cienti' ficas, Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-05-12

    Graphical abstract: Activated surface diffusion with interacting adsorbates is analyzed within the Linear Response Theory framework. The so-called interacting single adsorbate model is justified by means of a two-bath model, where one harmonic bath takes into account the interaction with the surface phonons, while the other one describes the surface coverage, this leading to defining a collisional friction. Here, the corresponding theory is applied to simple systems, such as diffusion on flat surfaces and the frustrated translational motion in a harmonic potential. Classical and quantum closed formulas are obtained. Furthermore, a more realistic problem, such as atomic Na diffusion on the corrugated Cu(0 0 1) surface, is presented and discussed within the classical context as well as within the framework of Kramer's theory. Quantum corrections to the classical results are also analyzed and discussed. - Abstract: Activated surface diffusion with interacting adsorbates is analyzed within the Linear Response Theory framework. The so-called interacting single adsorbate model is justified by means of a two-bath model, where one harmonic bath takes into account the interaction with the surface phonons, while the other one describes the surface coverage, this leading to defining a collisional friction. Here, the corresponding theory is applied to simple systems, such as diffusion on flat surfaces and the frustrated translational motion in a harmonic potential. Classical and quantum closed formulas are obtained. Furthermore, a more realistic problem, such as atomic Na diffusion on the corrugated Cu(0 0 1) surface, is presented and discussed within the classical context as well as within the framework of Kramer's theory. Quantum corrections to the classical results are also analyzed and discussed.

  2. Active surface system for the new Sardinia Radiotelescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfei, Alessandro; Morsiani, Marco; Zacchiroli, Giampaolo; Maccaferri, Giuseppe; Roda, Juri; Fiocchi, Franco

    2004-09-01

    In this paper we'll describe the active surface system that will be provided on the new Italian radiotelescope being in the phase of erection in the Sardinia Island. SRT (Sardinia Radiotelescope) will be a 64m shaped dish working up to 100GHz by exploiting the active surface facility designed by the authors. This facility will overcome the effects of gravity deformations on the antenna gain and will also be used to re-shape in a parabolic form the primary mirror, in order to avoid large phase error contribution on the antenna gain for the highest frequencies placed on the primary focus. Together with the description of the SRT system, a wide overview will be given regarding our previous installation of an active surface system, that can be seen like a prototype for SRT, mounted on the 32m dish of the Noto antenna.

  3. State-dependent errors in a land surface model across biomes inferred from eddy covariance observations on multiple timescales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, T.; Brender, P.; Ciais, P.; Piao, S.; Mahecha, M.D.; Chevallier, F.; Reichstein, M.; Ottle, C.; Maignan, F.; Arain, A.; Bohrer, G.; Cescatti, A.; Kiely, G.; Law, B.E.; Lutz, M.; Montagnani, L.; Moors, E.J.

    2012-01-01

    Characterization of state-dependent model biases in land surface models can highlight model deficiencies, and provide new insights into model development. In this study, artificial neural networks (ANNs) are used to estimate the state-dependent biases of a land surface model (ORCHIDEE: ORganising

  4. Selective functional activity measurement of a PEGylated protein with a modification-dependent activity assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Alfred; Engelmaier, Andrea; Mohr, Gabriele; Haindl, Sonja; Schwarz, Hans Peter; Turecek, Peter L

    2017-01-05

    BAX 855 (ADYNOVATE) is a PEGylated recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII) that showed prolonged circulatory half-life compared to unmodified rFVIII in hemophilic patients. Here, the development and validation of a novel assay is described that selectively measures the activity of BAX 855 as cofactor for the serine protease factor IX, which actives factor X. This method type, termed modification-dependent activity assay, is based on PEG-specific capture of BAX 855 by an anti-PEG IgG preparation, followed by a chromogenic FVIII activity assay. The assay principle enabled sensitive measurement of the FVIII cofactor activity of BAX 855 down to the pM-range without interference by non-PEGylated FVIII. The selectivity of the capture step, shown by competition studies to primarily target the terminal methoxy group of PEG, also allowed assessment of the intactness of the attached PEG chains. Altogether, the modification-dependent activity not only enriches, but complements the group of methods to selectively, accurately, and precisely measure a PEGylated drug in complex biological matrices. In contrast to all other methods described so far, it allows measurement of the biological activity of the PEGylated protein. Data obtained demonstrate that this new method principle can be extended to protein modifications other than PEGylation and to a variety of functional activity assays. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Temperature dependence of coercivity behavior in iron films on silicone oil surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xiaojun; Ye Quanlin; Ye Gaoxiang

    2007-01-01

    A new iron film system, deposited on silicone oil surfaces by vapor phase deposition method, has been fabricated and its microstructure as well as magnetic properties has been studied. It is found that the temperature dependence of the coercive field H c (T) of the films exhibits a peak around a critical temperature T crit =10-15 K: for the temperature T crit ,H c (T) increases with the temperature; if T>T crit , however, it decreases rapidly and then approaches a steady value as T further increases. Our study shows that, for T>T crit , the observed coercivity behavior is mainly dominated by the effect of the non-uniform single-domain particle size distribution, and for T crit , the anomalous coercivity behavior may be resulted from the surface anisotropy, the surface effect and the characteristic internal stress distribution in the films. The influence of the shape and size of the particles on the thermal dependence of the magnetization is also investigated

  6. Dependence of the specific surface area of the nuclear fuel with the matrix oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, F.; Quinones, J.; Iglesias, E.; Rodriguez, N.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is focused on the study of the changes in the specific surface area measured using BET techniques. The objective is to obtain a relation between this parameter and the change in the matrix stoichiometry (i.e., oxidation increase). None of the actual models used for extrapolating the behaviour of the spent fuel matrix under repository conditions have included this dependence yet. In this work the specific surface area of different uranium oxide were measured using N 2 (g) and Kr(g). The starting material was UO 2+x (s) with a size powder distribution lower than 20 μm. The results included in this paper shown a strong dependence on specific surface area with the matrix stoichiometry, i.e., and increase of more than one order of magnitude (SUO 2 = 6 m 2 *g -1 and SU 3 O 8 = 16.07 m 2 *g -1 ). Furthermore, the particle size distribution measured as a function of the thermal treatment done shows changes on the powder size related to the changes observed in the uranium oxide stoichiometry. (authors)

  7. Abscisic acid-dependent multisite phosphorylation regulates the activity of a transcription activator AREB1

    OpenAIRE

    Furihata, Takashi; Maruyama, Kyonoshin; Fujita, Yasunari; Umezawa, Taishi; Yoshida, Riichiro; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko

    2006-01-01

    bZIP-type transcription factors AREBs/ABFs bind an abscisic acid (ABA)-responsive cis-acting element named ABRE and transactivate downstream gene expression in Arabidopsis. Because AREB1 overexpression could not induce downstream gene expression, activation of AREB1 requires ABA-dependent posttranscriptional modification. We confirmed that ABA activated 42-kDa kinase activity, which, in turn, phosphorylated Ser/Thr residues of R-X-X-S/T sites in the conserved regions of AREB1. Amino acid subs...

  8. Effect of surface wettability caused by radiation induced surface activation on leidenfrost condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamasa, T.; Hazuku, T.; Tamura, N.; Okamoto, K.; Mishima, K.; Furuya, M.

    2003-01-01

    Improving the limit of boiling heat transfer or critical heat flux requires that the cooling liquid can contact the heating surface, or a high-wettability, highly hydrophilic heating surface, even if a vapor bubble layer is generated on the surface. From this basis, we investigated surface wettability and Leidenfrost condition using metal oxides irradiated by γ-rays. In our previous study, contact angle, an indicator of macroscopic wettability, of a water droplet on metal oxide at room temperature was measured by image processing of the images obtained by a CCD video camera. The results showed that the surface wettability on metal oxide pieces of titanium, Zircaloy No. 4, SUS-304, and copper was improved significantly by the Radiation Induced Surface Activation (RISA) phenomenon. To delineate the effect of Radiation Induced Surface Activation (RISA) on heat transferring phenomena, the Leidenfrost condition and quenching of metal oxides irradiated by γ-rays were investigated. In the Leidenfrost experiment, when the temperature of the heating surface reached the wetting limit temperature, water-solid contact vanished because a stable vapor film existed between the droplet and the metal surface; i.e., a Leidenfrost condition obtained. The wetting limit temperature increased with integrated irradiation dose. After irradiation, the wet length and the duration of contact increased, and the contact angle decreased. In the quenching test, high surface wettability, or a highly hydrophilic condition, of a simulated fuel rod made of SUS was achieved, and the quenching velocities were increased up to 20-30% after 300 kGy 60Co γ-ray irradiation

  9. Effect of surface wettability caused by radiation induced surface activation on leidenfrost condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takamasa, T.; Hazuku, T.; Tamura, N.; Okamoto, K. [Tokyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan); Mishima, K. [Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan); Furuya, M. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    Improving the limit of boiling heat transfer or critical heat flux requires that the cooling liquid can contact the heating surface, or a high-wettability, highly hydrophilic heating surface, even if a vapor bubble layer is generated on the surface. From this basis, we investigated surface wettability and Leidenfrost condition using metal oxides irradiated by {gamma}-rays. In our previous study, contact angle, an indicator of macroscopic wettability, of a water droplet on metal oxide at room temperature was measured by image processing of the images obtained by a CCD video camera. The results showed that the surface wettability on metal oxide pieces of titanium, Zircaloy No. 4, SUS-304, and copper was improved significantly by the Radiation Induced Surface Activation (RISA) phenomenon. To delineate the effect of Radiation Induced Surface Activation (RISA) on heat transferring phenomena, the Leidenfrost condition and quenching of metal oxides irradiated by {gamma}-rays were investigated. In the Leidenfrost experiment, when the temperature of the heating surface reached the wetting limit temperature, water-solid contact vanished because a stable vapor film existed between the droplet and the metal surface; i.e., a Leidenfrost condition obtained. The wetting limit temperature increased with integrated irradiation dose. After irradiation, the wet length and the duration of contact increased, and the contact angle decreased. In the quenching test, high surface wettability, or a highly hydrophilic condition, of a simulated fuel rod made of SUS was achieved, and the quenching velocities were increased up to 20-30% after 300 kGy 60Co {gamma}-ray irradiation.

  10. The Evaluation of Bioelectrical Activity of Pelvic Floor Muscles Depending on Probe Location: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Halski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The main objective was to determine how the depth of probe placement affects functional and resting bioelectrical activity of the PFM and whether the recorded signal might be dependent on the direction in which the probe is rotated. Participants. The study comprised of healthy, nulliparous women between the ages of 21 and 25. Outcome Measures. Bioelectric activity of the PFM was recorded from four locations of the vagina by surface EMG and vaginal probe. Results. There were no statistically significant differences between the results during functional sEMG activity. During resting sEMG activity, the highest bioelectrical activity of the PFM was observed in the L1 and the lowest in the L4 and a statistically significant difference between the highest and the lowest results of resting sEMG activity was observed (P=0.0043. Conclusion. Different electrodes placement during functional contraction of PFM does not affect the obtained results in sEMG evaluation. In order to diagnose the highest resting activity of PFM the recording plates should be placed toward the anterior vaginal wall and distally from the introitus. However, all of the PFM have similar bioelectrical activity and it seems that these muscles could be treated as a single muscle.

  11. Surface activation of dyed fabric for cellulase treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimper, Christian B; Ibanescu, Constanta; Bechtold, Thomas

    2011-10-01

    Surface activation of fabric made from cellulose fibres, such as viscose, lyocell, modal fibres and cotton, can be achieved by printing of a concentrated NaOH-containing paste. From the concentration of reducing sugars formed in solution, an increase in intensity of the cellulase hydrolysis by a factor of six to eight was observed, which was mainly concentrated at the activated parts of the fabric surface. This method of local activation is of particular interest for modification of materials that have been dyed with special processes to attain an uneven distribution of dyestuff within the yarn cross-section, e.g., indigo ring-dyed denim yarn for jeans production. Fabrics made from regenerated cellulose fibres were used as model substrate to express the effects of surface activation on indigo-dyed material. Wash-down experiments on indigo-dyed denim demonstrated significant colour removal from the activated surface at low overall weight loss of 4-5%. The method is of relevance for a more eco-friendly processing of jeans in the garment industry. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Exploring the entrance of proton pathways in cytochrome c oxidase from Paracoccus denitrificans: surface charge, buffer capacity and redox-dependent polarity changes at the internal surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchberg, Kristina; Michel, Hartmut; Alexiev, Ulrike

    2013-03-01

    Cytochrome c oxidase (CcO), the terminal oxidase of cellular respiration, reduces molecular oxygen to water. The mechanism of proton pumping as well as the coupling of proton and electron transfer is still not understood in this redox-linked proton pump. Eleven residues at the aqueous-exposed surfaces of CcO from Paracoccus denitrificans have been exchanged to cysteines in a two-subunit base variant to yield single reactive cysteine variants. These variants are designed to provide unique labeling sites for probes to be used in spectroscopic experiments investigating the mechanism of proton pumping in CcO. To this end we have shown that all cysteine variants are enzymatically active. Cysteine positions at the negative (N-) side of the membrane are located close to the entrance of the D- and K-proton transfer pathways that connect the N-side with the catalytic oxygen reduction site. Labeling of the pH-indicator dye fluorescein to these sites allowed us to determine the surface potential at the cytoplasmic CcO surface, which corresponds to a surface charge density of -0.5 elementary charge/1000Å(2). In addition, acid-base titrations revealed values of CcO buffer capacity. Polarity measurements of the label environment at the N-side provided (i) site-specific values indicative of a hydrophilic and a more hydrophobic environment dependent on the label position, and (ii) information on a global change to a more apolar environment upon reduction of the enzyme. Thus, the redox state of the copper and heme centers inside the hydrophobic interior of CcO affect the properties at the cytoplasmic surface. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Research surface resistance of copper normal and abnormal skin-effects depending on the frequency of electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutovyi, V.A.; Komir, A.I.

    2013-01-01

    The results of the frequency dependence of surface resistance of copper in diffuse and specular reflection of electrons from the conductive surface of the high-frequency resonance of the system depending on the frequency of the electromagnetic field in the normal and anomalous skin effect. Found, the surface resistance of copper is reduced by more than 10 times at the temperature of liquid helium, as compared with a surface resistivity at room temperature, at frequencies f ≤ 173 MHz, for diffuse reflection of conduction electrons from the surface of the conductive layer, and the specular reflection - at frequencies f ≤ 346 MHz

  14. A study of angle dependent surface plasmon polaritons in nano-hole array structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balakrishnan, Shankar [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); Lawson Health Research Institute, St. Joseph' s Health Care, London, Ontario N6A 4V2 (Canada); Najiminaini, Mohamadreza; Carson, Jeffrey J. L. [Lawson Health Research Institute, St. Joseph' s Health Care, London, Ontario N6A 4V2 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); Singh, Mahi R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2016-07-21

    We report that the light-matter interaction in metallic nano-hole array structures possess a subwavelength hole radius and periodicity. The transmission coefficient for nano-hole array structures was measured for different angles of incidence of light. Each measured transmission spectrum had several peaks due to surface plasmon polaritons. A theory of the transmission coefficient was developed based on the quantum density matrix method. It was found that the location of the surface plasmon polariton and the heights of the spectral peaks were dependent on the angle of incidence of light. Good agreement was observed between the experimental and theoretical results. This property of these structures has opened up new possibilities for sensing applications.

  15. Potential dependent adhesion forces on bare and underpotential deposition modified electrode surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serafin, J.M.; Hsieh, S.J.; Monahan, J.; Gewirth, A.A. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

    1998-12-03

    Adhesion force measurements are used to determine the potential dependence of the force of adhesion between a Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} cantilever and a Au(111) surface modified by the underpotential deposition (upd) of Bi or Cu in acid solution or by oxide formation. The measured work of adhesion is near zero for most of the potential region examined in Bi upd but rises after the formation of a full Bi monolayer. The work of adhesion is high at positive potentials for Cu upd but then decreases as the Cu partial and full monolayers are formed. The work of adhesion is low in the oxide region on Au(111) but rises following the sulfate disordering transition at 1.1 V vs NHE. These results are interpreted in terms of the degree of solvent order on the electrode surface.

  16. Time-dependent liquid metal flows with free convection and free surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClelland, M.A.

    1990-11-01

    A finite element analysis is given for time-dependent liquid metal flows with free convection and free surfaces. Consideration is given to a two-dimensional shallow trough with vertical walls maintained at different temperatures. The spatial formulation incorporates mixed Lagrangian approximations to the velocity, pressure, temperature, and interface position. The time integration method is performed using the Trapezoid Rule with step-size control. The Galerkin method is employed to reduce the problem to a set of nonlinear algebraic equations which are solved with the Newton-Raphson method. Calculations are performed for conditions relevant to the electron beam vaporization of refractory metals. The Prandtl number is 0.015, and Grashof numbers are in the transition region between laminar and turbulent flow. The results reveal the effects of flow intensity, surface-tension gradients, and mesh and time-step refinement

  17. Regime-Dependent Differences in Surface Freshwater Exchange Estimates Over the Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Sun; Behrangi, Ali

    2018-01-01

    Differences in gridded precipitation (P), surface evaporation (E), and the resultant surface freshwater exchange (P - E) among different products over the ocean are diagnosed as functions of moisture advection (Qadvt) and moisture tendency by dynamical convergence (Qcnvg). Compared to the GPCP product, the TRMM3B42 product captures higher frequency of precipitation with larger extreme precipitation rates in regimes of deep convection and more light rain detections in regimes of frequent occurrence of boundary layer clouds. Discrepancies in E depend on moisture flux divergence, with the OAFlux product having the largest E in regimes of divergence. Discrepancies in mean P - E in deep convective regimes are highly influenced by differences in precipitation, with the TRMM3B42 product yielding P - E histograms closer to those inferred from the reanalysis moisture flux convergence. In nonconvergent regimes, observation-based P - E histograms skew toward positive values while the inferred reanalysis histograms are symmetric about the means.

  18. Surface electric resistance of YBa2Cu3O7-δ ceramics and its dependence on magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorochev, O.A.; Graboj, I.Eh.; Kaul', A.R.; Mitrofanov, V.P.

    1989-01-01

    Method of dielectric resonator in the 4.2-300 K temperature range is used to measure surface electric resistance of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ ceramics samples produced by different technologies. The temperature dependence of surface resistance near transition temperature is calculated. At 77.3 K dependence of electric resistance on external magnetic field at H≤200Oe is determined. Calculated dependence is verified in experiment

  19. Dependence of surface smoothing, sputtering and etching phenomena on cluster ion dosage

    CERN Document Server

    Song, J H; Choi, W K

    2002-01-01

    The dependence of surface smoothing and sputtering phenomena of Si (1 0 0) solid surfaces irradiated by CO sub 2 cluster ions on cluster-ion dosage was investigated using an atomic force microscope. The flux and total ion dosage of impinging cluster ions at the acceleration voltage of 50 kV were fixed at 10 sup 9 ions/cm sup 2 s and were scanned from 5x10 sup 1 sup 0 to 5x10 sup 1 sup 3 ions/cm sup 2 , respectively. The density of hillocks induced by cluster ion impact was gradually increased with the dosage up to 5x10 sup 1 sup 1 ions/cm sup 2 , which caused that the irradiated surface became rough from 0.4 to 1.24 nm in root-mean-square roughness (sigma sub r sub m sub s). At the boundary of the ion dosage of 10 sup 1 sup 2 ions/cm sup 2 , the density of the induced hillocks was decreased and sigma sub r sub m sub s was about 1.21 nm, not being deteriorated further. At the dosage of 5x10 sup 1 sup 3 ions/cm sup 2 , the induced hillocks completely disappeared and the surface became very flat as much as sigma...

  20. Advancement in the Understanding of the Field and Frequency Dependent Microwave Surface Resistance of Niobium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinello, M. [Fermilab; Aderhold, S. [Fermilab; Chandrasekaran, S. K. [Fermilab; Checchin, M. [Fermilab; Grassellino, A. [Fermilab; Melnychuk, O. [Fermilab; Posen, S. [Fermilab; Romanenko, A. [Fermilab; Sergatskov, D. A. [Fermilab

    2017-07-24

    The radio-frequency surface resistance of niobium resonators is incredibly reduced when nitrogen impurities are dissolved as interstitial in the material, conferring ultra-high Q-factors at medium values of accelerating field. This effect has been observed in both high and low temperature nitrogen treatments. As a matter of fact, the peculiar anti Q-slope observed in nitrogen doped cavities, i.e. the decreasing of the Q-factor with the increasing of the radio-frequency field, come from the decreasing of the BCS surface resistance component as a function of the field. Such peculiar behavior has been considered consequence of the interstitial nitrogen present in the niobium lattice after the doping treatment. The study here presented show the field dependence of the BCS surface resistance of cavities with different resonant frequencies, such as: 650 MHz, 1.3 GHz, 2.6 GHz and 3.9 GHz, and processed with different state-of-the-art surface treatments. These findings show for the first time that the anti Q-slope might be seen at high frequency even for clean Niobium cavities, revealing useful suggestion on the physics underneath the anti Q-slope effect.

  1. Surface-dependent chemical equilibrium constants and capacitances for bare and 3-cyanopropyldimethylchlorosilane coated silica nanochannels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Mathias Bækbo; Frey, Jared; Pennathur, Sumita; Bruus, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    We present a combined theoretical and experimental analysis of the solid-liquid interface of fused-silica nanofabricated channels with and without a hydrophilic 3-cyanopropyldimethylchlorosilane (cyanosilane) coating. We develop a model that relaxes the assumption that the surface parameters C(1), C(2), and pK(+) are constant and independent of surface composition. Our theoretical model consists of three parts: (i) a chemical equilibrium model of the bare or coated wall, (ii) a chemical equilibrium model of the buffered bulk electrolyte, and (iii) a self-consistent Gouy-Chapman-Stern triple-layer model of the electrochemical double layer coupling these two equilibrium models. To validate our model, we used both pH-sensitive dye-based capillary filling experiments as well as electro-osmotic current-monitoring measurements. Using our model we predict the dependence of ζ potential, surface charge density, and capillary filling length ratio on ionic strength for different surface compositions, which can be difficult to achieve otherwise. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A modified Poisson-Boltzmann surface excess calculation with a field dependent dielectric constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordillo, G.J.; Molina, F.V.; Posadas, D.

    1990-01-01

    The Unequal Radius Modified Gouy-Chapman (URMGC) was applied to mixtures of electrolytes. It was considered that the two anions, (1) and (2), have different radius, r 1 and r 2 , being r 2 smaller than r 1 . The dielectric constant was taken as a function of the electric field, using the theoretical Booth equation, or as a linear dependence varying between 6 and 78 when r 2 1 . The results show that the surface excess of anion 2 is much greater than the one predicted by Gouy-Chapman theory when the proportion of 2 increases in the mixture, while both the other anion and the cation show negative deviation. This effect is more evident in mixtures than in the case of single electrolytes, and has a maximum for a composition that depends on the chosen parameters for the model. (Author) [es

  3. Memory Effects and Coverage Dependence of Surface Diffusion in a Model Adsorption System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vattulainen, Ilpo Tapio; Ying, S. C.; Ala-Nissila, T.

    1999-01-01

    in tracer and collective diffusion. We show that memory effects can be very pronounced deep inside the ordered phases and in regions close to first and second order phase transition boundaries. Particular attention is paid to the details of the time dependence of memory effects. The memory effect in tracer......We study the coverage dependence of surface diffusion coefficients for a strongly interacting adsorption system O/W(110) via Monte Carlo simulations of a lattice-gas model. In particular, we consider the nature and emergence of memory effects as contained in the corresponding correlation factors...... diffusion is found to decay following a power law after an initial transient period. This behavior persists until the hydrodynamic regime is reached, after which the memory effect decays exponentially. The time required to reach the hydrodynamical regime and the related exponential decay is strongly...

  4. Active screen plasma nitriding enhances cell attachment to polymer surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaklamani, Georgia; Bowen, James; Mehrban, Nazia; Dong, Hanshan; Grover, Liam M.; Stamboulis, Artemis

    2013-01-01

    Active screen plasma nitriding (ASPN) is a well-established technique used for the surface modification of materials, the result of which is often a product with enhanced functional performance. Here we report the modification of the chemical and mechanical properties of ultra-high molecular weight poly(ethylene) (UHMWPE) using 80:20 (v/v) N 2 /H 2 ASPN, followed by growth of 3T3 fibroblasts on the treated and untreated polymer surfaces. ASPN-treated UHMWPE showed extensive fibroblast attachment within 3 h of seeding, whereas fibroblasts did not successfully attach to untreated UHMWPE. Fibroblast-coated surfaces were maintained for up to 28 days, monitoring their metabolic activity and morphology throughout. The chemical properties of the ASPN-treated UHMWPE surface were studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, revealing the presence of C-N, C=N, and C≡N chemical bonds. The elastic modulus, surface topography, and adhesion properties of the ASPN-treated UHMWPE surface were studied over 28 days during sample storage under ambient conditions and during immersion in two commonly used cell culture media.

  5. Size-Dependent Specific Surface Area of Nanoporous Film Assembled by Core-Shell Iron Nanoclusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiji Antony

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoporous films of core-shell iron nanoclusters have improved possibilities for remediation, chemical reactivity rate, and environmentally favorable reaction pathways. Conventional methods often have difficulties to yield stable monodispersed core-shell nanoparticles. We produced core-shell nanoclusters by a cluster source that utilizes combination of Fe target sputtering along with gas aggregations in an inert atmosphere at 7∘C. Sizes of core-shell iron-iron oxide nanoclusters are observed with transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The specific surface areas of the porous films obtained from Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET process are size-dependent and compared with the calculated data.

  6. On the mechanism of spin-dependent (e,2e) scattering from a ferromagnetic surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samarin, S N; Sergeant, A D; Pravica, L; Cvejanovic, D; Wilkie, P; Guagliardo, P; Williams, J F; Artamonov, O M; Suvorova, A A

    2009-01-01

    A simple model is suggested for a qualitative analysis of spin-dependent (e,2e) reaction on a ferromagnetic surface. The model is based on the scattering of the primary electron with the average spin projection 1 > by the valence electron with the average spin projection 2 >. To test the model the energy distributions of correlated electron pairs are measured for parallel and anti-parallel orientations of the magnetic moment of the cobalt film and polarization vector of the incident beam. The proposed model explains qualitatively the spin-asymmetry of the measured binding energy spectrum.

  7. Comparison of the surface friction model with the time-dependent Hartree-Fock method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froebrich, P.

    1984-01-01

    A comparison is made between the classical phenomenological surface friction model and a time-dependent Hartree-Fock study by Dhar for the system 208 Pb+ 74 Ge at E/sub lab/(Pb) = 1600 MeV. The general trends for energy loss, mean values for charge and mass, interaction times and energy-angle correlations turn out to be fairly similar in both methods. However, contrary to Dhar, the events close to capture are interpreted as normal deep-inelastic, i.e., not as fast fission processes

  8. Time-dependent dynamical behavior of surface tension on rotating fluids under microgravity environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, R. J.; Tsao, Y. D.; Hong, B. B.; Leslie, F. W.

    1988-01-01

    Time dependent evolutions of the profile of free surface (bubble shapes) for a cylindrical container partially filled with a Newtonian fluid of constant density, rotating about its axis of symmetry, have been studied. Numerical computations of the dynamics of bubble shapes have been carried out with the following situations: (1) linear functions of spin-up and spin-down in low and microgravity environments, (2) step functions of spin-up and spin-down in a low gravity environment, and (3) sinusoidal function oscillation of gravity environment in high and low rotating cylinder speeds.

  9. Dependence of the surface resistance of niobium coated copper cavities on the coating temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darriulat, P.; Durand, C.; Janot, P.; Rensing, N.; Weingarten, W.; Bosland, P.; Gobin, J.; Martignac, J.

    1996-01-01

    Six hydro-formed copper 1.5 GHz cavities have been baked and coated with niobium at different temperatures between 100 deg C and 200 deg C, while keeping the other discharge parameters unchanged. Their surface resistance has been measured as a function RF field and trapped magnetic field. Its dependence on deposition temperature confirms earlier indications obtained using 350 MHz LEP cavities that 150 deg C leads to optimal performances. The critical temperatures of Nb/Cu and bulk niobium cavities have also been measured. (author)

  10. A new temperature and humidity dependent surface site density approach for deposition ice nucleation

    OpenAIRE

    I. Steinke; C. Hoose; O. Möhler; P. Connolly; T. Leisner

    2014-01-01

    Deposition nucleation experiments with Arizona Test Dust (ATD) as a surrogate for mineral dusts were conducted at the AIDA cloud chamber at temperatures between 220 and 250 K. The influence of the aerosol size distribution and the cooling rate on the ice nucleation efficiencies was investigated. Ice nucleation active surface site (INAS) densities were calculated to quantify the ice nucleation efficiency as a function of temperature, humidity and the aerosol ...

  11. Cell-surface metalloprotease ADAM12 is internalized by a clathrin- and Grb2-dependent mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Dorte Stautz; Leyme, Anthony; Grandal, Michael Vibo

    2012-01-01

    ADAM12 (A Disintegrin And Metalloprotease 12), a member of the ADAMs family of transmembrane proteins, is involved in ectodomain shedding, cell-adhesion and signaling, with important implications in cancer. Therefore, mechanisms that regulate the levels and activity of ADAM12 at the cell-surface ......ADAM12 (A Disintegrin And Metalloprotease 12), a member of the ADAMs family of transmembrane proteins, is involved in ectodomain shedding, cell-adhesion and signaling, with important implications in cancer. Therefore, mechanisms that regulate the levels and activity of ADAM12 at the cell...

  12. Xanthene derivatives increase glucose utilization through activation of LKB1-dependent AMP-activated protein kinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghoon Kwon

    Full Text Available 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK is a highly conserved serine-threonine kinase that regulates energy expenditure by activating catabolic metabolism and suppressing anabolic pathways to increase cellular energy levels. Therefore AMPK activators are considered to be drug targets for treatment of metabolic diseases such as diabetes mellitus. To identify novel AMPK activators, we screened xanthene derivatives. We determined that the AMPK activators 9H-xanthene-9-carboxylic acid {2,2,2-trichloro-1-[3-(3-nitro-phenyl-thioureido]-ethyl}-amide (Xn and 9H-xanthene-9-carboxylic acid {2,2,2-trichloro-1-[3-(3-cyano-phenyl-thioureido]-ethyl}-amide (Xc elevated glucose uptake in L6 myotubes by stimulating translocation of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4. Treatment with the chemical AMPK inhibitor compound C and infection with dominant-negative AMPKa2-virus inhibited AMPK phosphorylation and glucose uptake in myotubes induced by either Xn or Xc. Of the two major upstream kinases of AMPK, we found that Xn and Xc showed LKB1 dependency by knockdown of STK11, an ortholog of human LKB1. Single intravenous administration of Xn and Xc to high-fat diet-induced diabetic mice stimulated AMPK phosphorylation of skeletal muscle and improved glucose tolerance. Taken together, these results suggest that Xn and Xc regulate glucose homeostasis through LKB1-dependent AMPK activation and that the compounds are potential candidate drugs for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  13. MICROORGANISMS’ SURFACE ACTIVE SUBSTANCES ROLE IN HYDROCARBONS BIODEGRADATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Оlga Vasylchenko

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available  Existing data and publications regarding oil, hydrocarbon biodegradation, metabolism, and bioremediation were analyzed. Search of hydrocarbon degrading bacteria which are producers of biosurfactants was provided, types of microbial surfactants and their physiological role were analyzed and ordered. The study of factors affecting the surface active properties of producers’ cultures was done.

  14. Chitin-induced T6SS in Vibrio cholerae is dependent on ChiS activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chourashi, Rhishita; Das, Suman; Dhar, Debarpan; Okamoto, Keinosuke; Mukhopadhyay, Asish K; Chatterjee, Nabendu Sekhar

    2018-05-01

    Vibrio cholerae regularly colonizes the chitinous exoskeleton of crustacean shells in the aquatic region. The type 6 secretion system (T6SS) in V. cholerae is an interbacterial killing device. This system is thought to provide a competitive advantage to V. cholerae in a polymicrobial community of the aquatic region under nutrient-poor conditions. V. cholerae chitin sensing is known to be initiated by the activation of a two-component sensor histidine kinase ChiS in the presence of GlcNAc2 (N,N'-diacetylchitobiose) residues generated by the action of chitinases on chitin. It is known that T6SS in V. cholerae is generally induced by chitin. However, the effect of ChiS activation on T6SS is unknown. Here, we found that ChiS inactivation resulted in impaired bacterial killing and reduced expression of T6SS genes. Active ChiS positively affected T6SS-mediated natural transformation in V. cholerae. ChiS depletion or inactivation also resulted in reduced colonization on insoluble chitin surfaces. Therefore, we have shown that V. cholerae colonization on chitinous surfaces activates ChiS, which promotes T6SS-dependent bacterial killing and horizontal gene transfer. We also highlight the importance of chitinases in T6SS upregulation.

  15. Surface plasmon polariton modulator with optimized active layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2012-01-01

    package CST Microwave Studio in the frequency domain. We explore different permittivities of the ITO layer, which can be achieved by utilizing different anneal conditions. To increase transmittance and enhance modulation depth or efficiency, we propose to pattern the continuous active layer. Dependence...... from the pattern size and filling factor of the active material are analyzed for tuned permittivity of the ITO layer. Direct simulation of the device functionality validates optimization design....

  16. Effects of Lignosulfonate Structure on the Surface Activity and Wettability to a Hydrophobic Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Ge

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The wettability of a solid material is very important in many applications, such as food, agrochemical formulations, and cosmetics. Wettability can be improved by adding surface active agents, especially biocompatible surfactants derived from biomass. In this work, the surface activity (ability to lower the surface tension of an aqueous solution and wettability toward a hydrophobic powder by a series of sodium lignosulfonates (NaLS synthesized with different degree of sulfonation (QS and weight-average molecular weights (Mw were investigated by measuring the surface tension and contact angle. The results demonstrated NaLS with a larger Mw or lower QS had higher surface activity. Conversely, the wettability of the NaLS aqueous solution toward difenoconazole powder showed a reverse trend, i.e., NaLS with a smaller Mw or higher Qs improved the wettability to difenoconazole. The surface activity and wettability was controlled by the varying densities of the NaLS molecules at the water to air interface or the solid/liquid interface, which was dependent on the molecular structure of NaLS.

  17. Preparation, Surface and Pore Structure of High Surface Area Activated Carbon Fibers from Bamboo by Steam Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Ma

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available High surface area activated carbon fibers (ACF have been prepared from bamboo by steam activation after liquefaction and curing. The influences of activation temperature on the microstructure, surface area and porosity were investigated. The results showed that ACF from bamboo at 850 °C have the maximum iodine and methylene blue adsorption values. Aside from the graphitic carbon, phenolic and carbonyl groups were the predominant functions on the surface of activated carbon fiber from bamboo. The prepared ACF from bamboo were found to be mainly type I of isotherm, but the mesoporosity presented an increasing trend after 700 °C. The surface area and micropore volume of samples, which were determined by application of the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET and t-plot methods, were as high as 2024 m2/g and 0.569 cm3/g, respectively. It was also found that the higher activation temperature produced the more ordered microcrystalline structure of ACF from bamboo.

  18. Controlling hydrogenation activity and selectivity of bimetallic surfaces and catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, Luis E.

    Studies of bimetallic systems are of great interest in catalysis due to the novel properties that they often show in comparison with the parent metals. The goals of this dissertation are: (1) to expand the studies of self-hydrogenation and hydrogenation reactions on bimetallic surfaces under ultra high vacuum conditions (UHV) using different hydrocarbon as probe molecules; (2) to attempt to correlate the surface science findings with supported catalyst studies under more realistic conditions; and (3) to investigate the competitive hydrogenation of C=C versus C=O bonds on Pt(111) modified by different 3d transition metals. Hydrogenation studies using temperature programmed desorption (TPD) on Ni/Pt(111) bimetallic surfaces have demonstrated an enhancement in the low temperature hydrogenation activity relative to that of clean Pt(111). This novel hydrogenation pathway can be achieved under UHV conditions by controlling the structures of the bimetallic surfaces. A low temperature hydrogenation activity of 1-hexene and 1-butene has been observed on a Pt-Ni-Pt(111) subsurface structure, where Ni atoms are mainly present on the second layer of the Pt(111) single crystal. These results are in agreement with previous studies of self-hydrogenation and hydrogenation of cyclohexene. However, a much higher dehydrogenation activity is observed in the reaction of cyclohexene to produce benzene, demonstrating that the hydrocarbon structure has an effect on the reaction pathways. On the other hand, self-hydrogenation of 1-butene is not observed on the Pt-Ni-Pt(111) surface, indicating that the chain length (or molecular weight) has a significant effect on the selfhydrogenation activity. The gas phase reaction of cyclohexene on Ni/Pt supported on alumina catalysts has also shown a higher self-hydrogenation activity in comparison with the same reaction performed on supported monometallic catalysts. The effects of metal loading and impregnation sequence of the metal precursors are

  19. Influence of surface-imprinted nanoparticles on trypsin activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, António; Poma, Alessandro; Karim, Kal; Moczko, Ewa; Takarada, Jessica; de Vargas-Sansalvador, Isabel Perez; Turner, Nicholas; Piletska, Elena; de Magalhães, Cristiana Schmidt; Glazova, Natalia; Serkova, Anastasia; Omelianova, Aleksandra; Piletsky, Sergey

    2014-09-01

    Here, the modulation of enzyme activity is presented by protein-imprinted nanoparticles produced using a solid-phase approach. Using trypsin as target, binding of the nanoparticles to the enzyme results in its inhibition or in stabilization, depending on the orientation of the immobilized enzyme used during imprinting. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Influence of the plantar cutaneous information in postural regulation depending on the age and the physical activity status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Maitre

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to compare the balance control adaptation to different supporting surfaces depending on the age and the physical activity status. The balance control of two groups of young (n=17 and old (n=17 participants who practised regular physical activity (active groups and two groups of young (n=17 and old (n=17 participants who did not practise physical activity (non-active groups was compared on a firm surface and on a foam surface. The parameters of the centre of foot pressure displacement were compared between the groups. The two older groups were more disturbed than the two younger groups when they stood on a foam surface and there was no difference between active and non-active groups. This result may be linked to the structural and functional involutions of the plantar cutaneous sole and foot that occur with age advancement. The participants’ physical activity practice might be not specific enough to generate a more efficient postural adaption to the foam condition for the active groups than the non-active groups within their respective age groups.

  1. A dual phosphorylation switch controls 14-3-3-dependent cell surface expression of TASK-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilisch, Markus; Lytovchenko, Olga; Arakel, Eric C.; Bertinetti, Daniela; Schwappach, Blanche

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The transport of the K+ channels TASK-1 and TASK-3 (also known as KCNK3 and KCNK9, respectively) to the cell surface is controlled by the binding of 14-3-3 proteins to a trafficking control region at the extreme C-terminus of the channels. The current model proposes that phosphorylation-dependent binding of 14-3-3 sterically masks a COPI-binding motif. However, the direct effects of phosphorylation on COPI binding and on the binding parameters of 14-3-3 isoforms are still unknown. We find that phosphorylation of the trafficking control region prevents COPI binding even in the absence of 14-3-3, and we present a quantitative analysis of the binding of all human 14-3-3 isoforms to the trafficking control regions of TASK-1 and TASK-3. Surprisingly, the affinities of 14-3-3 proteins for TASK-1 are two orders of magnitude lower than for TASK-3. Furthermore, we find that phosphorylation of a second serine residue in the C-terminus of TASK-1 inhibits 14-3-3 binding. Thus, phosphorylation of the trafficking control region can stimulate or inhibit transport of TASK-1 to the cell surface depending on the target serine residue. Our findings indicate that control of TASK-1 trafficking by COPI, kinases, phosphatases and 14-3-3 proteins is highly dynamic. PMID:26743085

  2. Influence of chemical agents on the surface area and porosity of active carbon hollow fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LJILJANA M. KLJAJEVIĆ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Active carbon hollow fibers were prepared from regenerated polysulfone hollow fibers by chemical activation using: disodium hydrogen phosphate 2-hydrate, disodium tetraborate 10-hydrate, hydrogen peroxide, and diammonium hydrogen phosphate. After chemical activation fibers were carbonized in an inert atmosphere. The specific surface area and porosity of obtained carbons were studied by nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms at 77 K, while the structures were examined with scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The activation process increases these adsorption properties of fibers being more pronounced for active carbon fibers obtained with disodium tetraborate 10-hydrate and hydrogen peroxide as activator. The obtained active hollow carbons are microporous with different pore size distribution. Chemical activation with phosphates produces active carbon material with small surface area but with both mesopores and micropores. X-ray diffraction shows that besides turbostratic structure typical for carbon materials, there are some peaks which indicate some intermediate reaction products when sodium salts were used as activating agent. Based on data from the electrochemical measurements the activity and porosity of the active fibers depend strongly on the oxidizing agent applied.

  3. Temperature dependent surface modification of molybdenum due to low energy He+ ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, J.K.; Novakowski, T.J.; Joseph, G.; Linke, J.; Hassanein, A.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the temperature dependent surface modifications in molybdenum (Mo) samples due to 100 eV He + ion irradiation in extreme conditions as a potential candidate to plasma-facing components in fusion devices alternative to tungsten. The Mo samples were irradiated at normal incidence, using an ion fluence of 2.6 × 10 24 ions m −2 (with a flux of 7.2 × 10 20 ions m −2 s −1 ). Surface modifications have been studied using high-resolution field emission scanning electron-(SEM) and atomic force (AFM) microscopy. At 773 K target temperature homogeneous evolution of molybdenum nanograins on the entire Mo surface were observed. However, at 823 K target temperature appearance of nano-pores and pin-holes nearby the grain boundaries, and Mo fuzz in patches were observed. The fuzz density increases significantly with target temperatures and continued until 973 K. However, at target temperatures beyond 973 K, counterintuitively, a sequential reduction in the fuzz density has been seen till 1073 K temperatures. At 1173 K and above temperatures, only molybdenum nano structures were observed. Our temperature dependent studies confirm a clear temperature widow, 823–1073 K, for Mo fuzz formation. Ex-situ high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies on Mo fuzzy samples show the evidence of MoO 3 3d doublets. This elucidates that almost all the Mo fuzz were oxidized during open air exposure and are thick enough as well. Likewise the microscopy studies, the optical reflectivity measurements also show a sequential reduction in the reflectivity values (i.e., enhancement in the fuzz density) up to 973 K and after then a sequential enhancement in the reflectivity values (i.e., reduction in the fuzz density) with target temperatures. This is in well agreement with microscopy studies where we observed clear temperature window for Mo fuzz growth

  4. Direct Measurement of the Surface Energy of Bimetallic Nanoparticles: Evidence of Vegard's Rulelike Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Adrian; Nelayah, Jaysen; Amara, Hakim; Creuze, Jérôme; Alloyeau, Damien; Wang, Guillaume; Ricolleau, Christian

    2018-01-12

    We use in situ transmission electron microscopy to monitor in real time the evaporation of gold, copper, and bimetallic copper-gold nanoparticles at high temperature. Besides, we extend the Kelvin equation to two-component systems to predict the evaporation rates of spherical liquid mono- and bimetallic nanoparticles. By linking this macroscopic model to experimental TEM data, we determine the surface energies of pure gold, pure copper, Cu_{50}Au_{50}, and Cu_{25}Au_{75} nanoparticles in the liquid state. Our model suggests that the surface energy varies linearly with the composition in the liquid Cu-Au nanoalloy; i.e., it follows a Vegard's rulelike dependence. To get atomic-scale insights into the thermodynamic properties of Cu-Au alloys on the whole composition range, we perform Monte Carlo simulations employing N-body interatomic potentials. These simulations at a microscopic level confirm the Vegard's rulelike behavior of the surface energy obtained from experiments combined with macroscopic modeling.

  5. Microstructure and surface properties of lignocellulosic-based activated carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González-García, P.; Centeno, T.A.; Urones-Garrote, E.; Ávila-Brande, D.; Otero-Díaz, L.C.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Activated carbons were produced by KOH activation at 700 °C. ► The observed nanostructure consists of highly disordered graphene–like layers with sp 2 bond content ≈ 95%. ► Textural parameters show high surface area (≈ 1000 m 2 /g) and pore width of 1.3–1.8 nm. ► Specific capacitance reaches values as high as 161 F/g. - Abstract: Low cost activated carbons have been produced via chemical activation, by using KOH at 700 °C, from the bamboo species Guadua Angustifolia and Bambusa Vulgaris Striata and the residues from shells of the fruits of Castanea Sativa and Juglans Regia as carbon precursors. The scanning electron microscopy micrographs show the conservation of the precursor shape in the case of the Guadua Angustifolia and Bambusa Vulgaris Striata activated carbons. Transmission electron microscopy analyses reveal that these materials consist of carbon platelet–like particles with variable length and thickness, formed by highly disordered graphene–like layers with sp 2 content ≈ 95% and average mass density of 1.65 g/cm 3 (25% below standard graphite). Textural parameters indicate a high porosity development with surface areas ranging from 850 to 1100 m 2 /g and average pore width centered in the supermicropores range (1.3–1.8 nm). The electrochemical performance of the activated carbons shows specific capacitance values at low current density (1 mA/cm 2 ) as high as 161 F/g in the Juglans Regia activated carbon, as a result of its textural parameters and the presence of pseudocapacitance derived from surface oxygenated acidic groups (mainly quinones and ethers) identified in this activated carbon.

  6. Muscle activity pattern dependent pain development and alleviation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjøgaard, Gisela; Søgaard, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Muscle activity is for decades considered to provide health benefits irrespectively of the muscle activity pattern performed and whether it is during e.g. sports, transportation, or occupational work tasks. Accordingly, the international recommendations for public health-promoting physical activity...... do not distinguish between occupational and leisure time physical activity. However, in this body of literature, attention has not been paid to the extensive documentation on occupational physical activity imposing a risk of impairment of health - in particular musculoskeletal health in terms...... during physical activities at leisure and sport the motor recruitment patterns are more dynamic including regularly relatively high muscle forces - also activating type 2 muscles fibers - as well as periods of full relaxation even of the type 1 muscle fibers. Such activity is unrelated to muscle pain...

  7. Cation dependency of the hydrolytic activity of activated bovine Protein C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, K.A.W.

    1986-01-01

    The hydrolytic activity of activated bovine plasma Protein C (APC) is dependent upon monovalent or divalent cations. The kinetics of APC activity were examined with a variety of monovalent and divalent cations, and significant differences were observed. Similar studies were performed with des(1-41, light chain)APC (GDAPC), from which all γ-carboxyglutamic acid residues have been removed. These studies provided useful information concerning the cation dependency. Divalent cations apparently stimulate APC and GDAPC kinetic activity through association at a single γ-carboxyglutamic acid-independent high affinity binding site. A Mn(II) binding site of this nature of GDAPC was determined by EPR spectroscopy, to possess a dissociation constant of 53 +/- 8 uM. Monovalent cations stimulate GDAPC activity through association at an apparently single binding site that is distinct from the divalent cation site. The monovalent cation , Tl(I), was determined, by 205 Tl(I) NMR spectroscopy, to bind to APC and GDAPC with dissociation constants of 16 +/- 8 mM and 32+/- 11 mM, respectively. Both NMR and EPR spectroscopy have been utilized to estimate topographical relationships between divalent cation sites, monovalent cation sites, and the active site of GDAPC. By observing the paramagnetic effects of either Mn(II) or an active site directed spin-label on the longitudinal relaxation rates of Tl(I) nuclei bound to this enzyme, the average interatomic distance between Mn(II) and Tl(I) was calculated to be 8.3 +/- 0.3 A, and the average distance between Tl(I) and the spin-label free electron was estimated to be 3.8 +/- 0.2 A

  8. Separation of DNA-dependent polymerate activities in Micrococcus radiodurans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitayama, S.; Matsuyama, A.

    1977-01-01

    DNA polymerase activities in Micrococcus radiodurans were separated into two fractions after purification more than 2000 fold. They differ in pH optimum and residual activities in the absence of a full deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates complement. NAD partly inhibited one of the activities. Both activities were eluted as a single peak on gel filtration and sedimented at the same rate on glycerol gradient centrifugation. Molecular weight 140000 was calculated from Stokes radius and sedimentation constant. Deoxyribonuclease activity was detected on one of the polymerase activities which preferentially degraded double-stranded DNA. Priming activity of nicked DNA was reduced by γ-radiation. These results have been related to the possible roles in repair synthesis in vivo or DNA synthesis in permeable cells of M. radiodurans

  9. Separation of DNA-dependent polymerase activities in Micrococcus radiodurans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitayama, S; Matsuyama, A [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Wako, Saitama (Japan)

    1977-03-02

    DNA polymerase activities in Micrococcus radiodurans were separated into two fractions after purification more than 2000 fold. They differ in pH optimum and residual activities in the absence of a full deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates complement. NAD partly inhibited one of the activities. Both activities were eluted as a single peak on gel filtration and sedimented at the same rate on glycerol gradient centrifugation. Molecular weight 140000 was calculated from Stokes radius and sedimentation constant. Deoxyribonuclease activity was detected on one of the polymerase activities which preferentially degraded double-stranded DNA. Priming activity of nicked DNA was reduced by ..gamma.. radiation. These results have been related to the possible roles in repair synthesis in vivo or DNA synthesis in permeable cells of M. radiodurans.

  10. Material and orientation dependent activity for heterogeneously catalyzed carbon-bromine bond homolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walch, Hermann; Gutzler, Rico; Sirtl, Thomas; Eder, Georg; Lackinger, Markus [LMU Munich, Section Crystallography (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Adsorption of the organic molecule 1,3,5-tris(4-bromophenyl)benzene on different metallic substrates, namely Cu(111), Ag(111) and Ag(110) has been studied by variable temperature Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM). Depending on substrate temperature, material and orientation, we observe a surface-catalyzed dehalogenation reaction. Deposition onto the catalytically active substrates Cu(111) and Ag(110) held at room temperature leads to cleavage of the carbon-bromine bonds and subsequent formation of protopolymers, i.e radical metal coordination complexes. However upon deposition on Ag(111) no such reaction has been observed. Instead, various self-assembled ordered structures based on intact molecules could be identified. Also sublimation onto either substrate held at 80 K did not result in any dehalogenation, thereby exemplifying that the dehalogenation reaction is thermally activated. We explain the differences in catalytic activity by charge transfer into unoccupied molecular orbitals and subsequent destabilization of the C-Br bond, whereby enhanced molecule-substrate interaction leads to an increasing magnitude of charge transfer. The interaction strength follows the general reactivity order Cu>Ag>Au for (111) faces and is generally enhanced on higher corrugated surfaces as the (110) facet in case of fcc substrates.

  11. Direct instrumental identification of catalytically active surface sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfisterer, Jonas H. K.; Liang, Yunchang; Schneider, Oliver; Bandarenka, Aliaksandr S.

    2017-09-01

    The activity of heterogeneous catalysts—which are involved in some 80 per cent of processes in the chemical and energy industries—is determined by the electronic structure of specific surface sites that offer optimal binding of reaction intermediates. Directly identifying and monitoring these sites during a reaction should therefore provide insight that might aid the targeted development of heterogeneous catalysts and electrocatalysts (those that participate in electrochemical reactions) for practical applications. The invention of the scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) and the electrochemical STM promised to deliver such imaging capabilities, and both have indeed contributed greatly to our atomistic understanding of heterogeneous catalysis. But although the STM has been used to probe and initiate surface reactions, and has even enabled local measurements of reactivity in some systems, it is not generally thought to be suited to the direct identification of catalytically active surface sites under reaction conditions. Here we demonstrate, however, that common STMs can readily map the catalytic activity of surfaces with high spatial resolution: we show that by monitoring relative changes in the tunnelling current noise, active sites can be distinguished in an almost quantitative fashion according to their ability to catalyse the hydrogen-evolution reaction or the oxygen-reduction reaction. These data allow us to evaluate directly the importance and relative contribution to overall catalyst activity of different defects and sites at the boundaries between two materials. With its ability to deliver such information and its ready applicability to different systems, we anticipate that our method will aid the rational design of heterogeneous catalysts.

  12. Microstructure and surface properties of lignocellulosic-based activated carbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, P.; Centeno, T. A.; Urones-Garrote, E.; Ávila-Brande, D.; Otero-Díaz, L. C.

    2013-01-01

    Low cost activated carbons have been produced via chemical activation, by using KOH at 700 °C, from the bamboo species Guadua Angustifolia and Bambusa Vulgaris Striata and the residues from shells of the fruits of Castanea Sativa and Juglans Regia as carbon precursors. The scanning electron microscopy micrographs show the conservation of the precursor shape in the case of the Guadua Angustifolia and Bambusa Vulgaris Striata activated carbons. Transmission electron microscopy analyses reveal that these materials consist of carbon platelet-like particles with variable length and thickness, formed by highly disordered graphene-like layers with sp2 content ≈ 95% and average mass density of 1.65 g/cm3 (25% below standard graphite). Textural parameters indicate a high porosity development with surface areas ranging from 850 to 1100 m2/g and average pore width centered in the supermicropores range (1.3-1.8 nm). The electrochemical performance of the activated carbons shows specific capacitance values at low current density (1 mA/cm2) as high as 161 F/g in the Juglans Regia activated carbon, as a result of its textural parameters and the presence of pseudocapacitance derived from surface oxygenated acidic groups (mainly quinones and ethers) identified in this activated carbon.

  13. Influence of TiO{sub 2} Surface Properties on Water Pollution Treatment and Photocatalytic Activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Min [Southwest Univ. of Science and Technology, Mianyang (China)

    2013-03-15

    The titania surface showed different characteristics depending on the charge of the dye molecules. Compared with the MB molecules, the negatively charged MO molecules strongly adsorbed on the titania surface. Furthermore, the decomposition kinetics of the dye molecules by the photocatalytic activity also deepened with the charge of the dye molecules. The relation between the UV irradiation time and the molar ratio of the decomposed dye molecules followed the Avrami equation. According to the results of the analysis by using the Avrami equation, the MO molecules were decomposed on the titania particle surface. In contrast, the MB molecules were decomposed in the aqueous solution. The difference in kinetics was related to the interaction of the dye molecules and the titania surface. These preferential adsorption and decomposition characteristics will improve its applications in water pollution treatment.

  14. Heavy metals uptake by sonicated activated sludge: Relation with floc surface properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, Julien; Casellas, Magali; Dagot, Christophe

    2009-01-01

    The effects of sonication of activated sludge on heavy metal uptake were in a first time investigated in respect with potential modifications of floc surface properties. The treatment led to the simultaneous increase of specific surface area and of the availability of negative and/or hydrophilic sites. In parallel, organic matter was released in the soluble fraction. Sorption isotherms of cadmium and copper showed that uptake characteristics and mechanisms were highly dependent on both heavy metal species and specific energy supplied. The increase of both specific surface area and fixation sites availability led to the increase of Cd(II) uptake. For Cu(II), organic matter released in soluble phase during the treatment seemed to act as a ligand and to limit adsorption on flocs surface. Three different heavy metals uptake mechanisms have been identified: proton exchange, ion exchange and (co)precipitation

  15. Surface and Adsorption Properties of Activated Carbon Fabric Prepared from Cellulosic Polymer: Mixed Activation Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhati, Surendra; Mahur, J. S.; Choubey, O. N. [Barkatullah Univ., Bhopal (India); Dixit, Mahur Savita [Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopla (India)

    2013-02-15

    In this study, activated carbon fabric was prepared from a cellulose-based polymer (viscose rayon) via a combination of physical and chemical activation (mixed activation) processes by means of CO{sub 2} as a gasifying agent and surface and adsorption properties were evaluated. Experiments were performed to investigate the consequence of activation temperature (750, 800, 850 and 925 .deg. C), activation time (15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes) and CO{sub 2} flow rate (100, 200, 300 and 400 mL/min) on the surface and adsorption properties of ACF. The nitrogen adsorption isotherm at 77 K was measured and used for the determination of surface area, total pore volume, micropore volume, mesopore volume and pore size distribution using BET, t-plot, DR, BJH and DFT methods, respectively. It was observed that BET surface area and TPV increase with rising activation temperature and time due to the formation of new pores and the alteration of micropores into mesopores. It was also found that activation temperature dominantly affects the surface properties of ACF. The adsorption of iodine and CCl{sub 4} onto ACF was investigated and both were found to correlate with surface area.

  16. Surface and Adsorption Properties of Activated Carbon Fabric Prepared from Cellulosic Polymer: Mixed Activation Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhati, Surendra; Mahur, J. S.; Choubey, O. N.; Dixit, Mahur Savita

    2013-01-01

    In this study, activated carbon fabric was prepared from a cellulose-based polymer (viscose rayon) via a combination of physical and chemical activation (mixed activation) processes by means of CO 2 as a gasifying agent and surface and adsorption properties were evaluated. Experiments were performed to investigate the consequence of activation temperature (750, 800, 850 and 925 .deg. C), activation time (15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes) and CO 2 flow rate (100, 200, 300 and 400 mL/min) on the surface and adsorption properties of ACF. The nitrogen adsorption isotherm at 77 K was measured and used for the determination of surface area, total pore volume, micropore volume, mesopore volume and pore size distribution using BET, t-plot, DR, BJH and DFT methods, respectively. It was observed that BET surface area and TPV increase with rising activation temperature and time due to the formation of new pores and the alteration of micropores into mesopores. It was also found that activation temperature dominantly affects the surface properties of ACF. The adsorption of iodine and CCl 4 onto ACF was investigated and both were found to correlate with surface area

  17. Frictional coefficient depending on active friction radius with BPV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    www.ajol.info/index.php/ijest ... parameters acquired using the braking system and predetermined values. ... subjected to the variations in the incompressibility of the hydraulic brake fluid, introducing air can have detrimental effects on the ... process. Degestein et al. (2006) concluded that uniform surface pressing occurs due ...

  18. Dependence of surface morphology on molecular structure and its influence on the properties of OLEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, S.H. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Hongik University, 72-1, Sangsu-Dong, Mapo-Gu, Seoul 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, G.Y. [Department of Electric Information and Control Engineering, Hongik University, 72-1, Sangsu-Dong, Mapo-Gu, Seoul 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, J.H.; Park, J.H. [Center for Organic Materials and Information Devices (COMID), Hongik University, 72-1, Sangsu-Dong, Mapo-Gu, Seoul 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Information Display, Hongik University, 72-1, Sangsu-Dong, Mapo-Gu, Seoul 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Youn, S.W. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Hongik University, 72-1, Sangsu-Dong, Mapo-Gu, Seoul 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y.K. [Center for Organic Materials and Information Devices (COMID), Hongik University, 72-1, Sangsu-Dong, Mapo-Gu, Seoul 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Information Display, Hongik University, 72-1, Sangsu-Dong, Mapo-Gu, Seoul 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, D.M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Hongik University, 72-1, Sangsu-Dong, Mapo-Gu, Seoul 121-791 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: shindm@wow.hongik.ac.kr

    2008-09-15

    Most organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have a multilayer structure composed of organic layers such as a hole injection layer (HIL), a hole transport layer (HTL), an emission layer (EML), an electron transport layer (ETL) and an electron injection layer (EIL) sandwiched between two electrodes. The organic layers are thin solid films with a thickness from a few nano meters to a few tenths nano meter, respectively. Surface morphology of an organic thin solid film in OLEDs depends on the molecular structure of the organic material and has an affect on device performance. To analyze the effect of surface morphology of an organic thin solid film on fluorescence and electroluminescence (EL) properties, thin solid films of 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(julolidin-4-yl-vinyl)-4H-pyran (DCM2) and new red fluorophores, (2E,2'E)-3,3'-[4,4''-bis(dimethylamino)-1,1':4',1''-terphenyl-2',5'-diyl] bis[2= -(2-thienyl)acrylonitrile] (ABCV-Th) and (2Z,2'Z)-3,3'-[4,4''-bis(dimethylamino)-1,1':4',1''-terphenyl-2',5'-diyl] bis(2-phenylacrylonitrile) (ABCV-P) were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The samples for EL and AFM measurement were fabricated by the high-vacuum thermal deposition (8x10{sup -7} Torr) of organic materials onto the surface of indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrate, in which the layer structures of samples for AFM measurement and those for EL measurement were ITO/NPB (40 nm)/red emitters (80 nm) and ITO/NPB (40 nm)/red emitters (80 nm)/BCP (30 nm)/Liq (2 nm)/Al (100 nm), respectively. The analysis based on AFM measurements well supported that the photoluminescence properties and the device performance were very much dependent upon surface morphology of an organic thin layer.

  19. Neurotrophin release by neurotrophins: Implications for activity-dependent neuronal plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Canossa, Marco; Griesbeck, Oliver; Berninger, Benedikt; Campana, Gabriele; Kolbeck, Roland; Thoenen, Hans

    1997-01-01

    Neurotrophins, secreted in an activity-dependent manner, are thought to be involved in the activity-dependent refinement of synaptic connections. Here we demonstrate that in hippocampal neurons and the rat pheochromocytoma cell line PC12 application of exogenous neurotrophins induces secretion of neurotrophins, an effect that is mediated by the activation of tyrosine kinase neurotrophin receptors (Trks). Like activity-dependent secretion of neurotrophins, neurotrophin-induced neurotrophin sec...

  20. Magnetic activity at Mars - Mars Surface Magnetic Observatory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vennerstrøm, Susanne; Menvielle, M.; Merayo, José M.G.

    2012-01-01

    , and use this to provide an estimate of the expected magnetic disturbances at the Martian surface. Far from crustal anomaly regions the expected magnetic disturbances originating from currents associated with the induced magnetosphere are very weak at the day-side, but most likely larger on the night...... around medium intensity radial anomalies in the equatorial region appear to derive from local current loops or vortices around cusp-like radial fields, acting to partly cancel the crustal field. The radial perturbation is further found to depend on upstream solar wind dynamic pressure. We define...

  1. Do Training Programs Work? An Assessment of Pharmacists Activities in the Field of Chemical Dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Valerie G.; Brock, Tina Penick; Ahn, Jungeun

    2001-01-01

    Seeks to determine if pharmacists who attended a chemical dependency training program were performing more chemical dependency related activities. Results reveal that participants were more likely to perform the following activities: lecture to community groups about chemical dependency; participate in a pharmacists' recovery program; provide…

  2. Magnetic field dependence of vortex activation energy: A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    follows a parabolic behaviour unlike a power-law dependence seen in Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10. ..... SP thanks Department of Science of Technology, India and SDK thanks. Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, India for financial support.

  3. Temperature effects on surface activity and application in oxidation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. The γcmc values of CTAB–SDS decrease from 63⋅67 mN/m at 10°C to 36⋅38 mN/m at 90°C, slightly lower than those of either CTAB or SDS. Correspondingly, the CMC of CTAB–SDS decreases almost by half. The increase of surface activity of CTAB–SDS can be attributed to the relatively weak electrostatic ...

  4. Modeling of a Curvilinear Planar Crack with a Curvature-Dependent Surface Tension

    KAUST Repository

    Zemlyanova, A. Y.; Walton, J. R.

    2012-01-01

    An approach to modeling fracture incorporating interfacial mechanics is applied to the example of a curvilinear plane strain crack. The classical Neumann boundary condition is augmented with curvature-dependent surface tension. It is shown that the considered model eliminates the integrable crack-tip stress and strain singularities of order 1/2 present in the classical linear fracture mechanics solutions, and also leads to the sharp crack opening that is consistent with empirical observations. Unlike for the case of a straight crack, for a general curvilinear crack some components of the stresses and the derivatives of the displacements may still possess weaker singularities of a logarithmic type. Generalizations of the present study that lead to complete removal of all crack-tip singularities, including logarithmic, are the subject of a future paper. © 2012 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  5. Temperature dependence of luminescence for different surface flaws in high purity silica glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournier, J.; Grua, P.; Neauport, J.; Fargin, E.; Jubera, V.; Talaga, D.; Del Guerzo, A.; Raffy, G.; Jouannigot, S.

    2013-01-01

    In situ temperature dependence of the Photoluminescence under 325 nm irradiation is used to investigate defect populations existing in different surface flaws in high purity fused silica. Five photoluminescence bands peaking at 1.9, 2.1, 2.3, 2.63 and 3.11 eV have been detected in the spectral area ranging from 1.6 up to 3.6 eV. The Gaussian deconvolution of spectra allows dividing the five luminescence bands in two categories. The former corresponds to bands showing a significant intensity enhancement while temperature decreases; the latter corresponds to bands remaining insensitive to the temperature evolution. Such a behavior brings new information on defects involved in laser damage mechanism at 351 nm in nanosecond regime. (authors)

  6. Trajectory-dependent energy loss for swift He atoms axially scattered off a silver surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ríos Rubiano, C.A. [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (CONICET-UBA), Casilla de correo 67, sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bocan, G.A. [Centro Atómico Bariloche, Comisión Nacional de Energía Ató mica, and Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, S.C. de Bariloche, Río Negro (Argentina); Juaristi, J.I. [Departamento de Física de Materiales, Facultad de Químicas, UPV/EHU, 20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC) and Centro de Física de Materiales CFM/MPC (CSIC-UPV/EHU), 20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Gravielle, M.S., E-mail: msilvia@iafe.uba.ar [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (CONICET-UBA), Casilla de correo 67, sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2014-12-01

    Angle- and energy-loss-resolved distributions of helium atoms grazingly scattered from a Ag(110) surface along low indexed crystallographic directions are investigated considering impact energies in the few keV range. Final projectile distributions are evaluated within a semi-classical formalism that includes dissipative effects due to electron–hole excitations through a friction force. For mono-energetic beams impinging along the [11{sup ¯}0],[11{sup ¯}2] and [001] directions, the model predicts the presence of multiple peak structures in energy-loss spectra. Such structures provide detailed information about the trajectory-dependent energy loss. However, when the experimental dispersion of the incident beam is taken into account, these energy-loss peaks are completely washed out, giving rise to a smooth energy-loss distribution, in fairly good agreement with available experimental data.

  7. Temperature dependent optical properties of (002) oriented ZnO thin film using surface plasmon resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Shibu; Mehan, Navina; Sreenivas, K.; Gupta, Vinay

    2009-08-01

    Temperature dependent optical properties of c-axis oriented ZnO thin film were investigated using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique. SPR data for double layer (prism-Au-ZnO-air) and single layer (prism-Au-air) systems were taken over a temperature range (300-525 K). Dielectric constant at optical frequency and real part of refractive index of the ZnO film shows an increase with temperature. The bandgap of the oriented ZnO film was found to decrease with rise in temperature. The work indicates a promising application of the system as a temperature sensor and highlights an efficient scientific tool to study optical properties of thin film under varying ambient conditions.

  8. An active form of calcium and calmodulin dependant protein kinase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The removal of the auto-inhibitory domain that negatively regulates the kinase activity in M. truncatula results in a constitutively-active form, inducing symbiotic responses in the absence of bacterial signals. In this study, we verified the functionality of a DMI3 variant and its ability to induce spontaneous nodules in M.

  9. The Complete Solution of Fick's Second Law of Diffusion with Time-dependent Diffusion Coefficient and Surface Concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejlbro, Leif

    1996-01-01

    Fick's Second Law of Diffusion with time-dependent diffusioncoefficient and surface concentration is solved. Mimicking the classicalsolution, special time-dependent surface concentration functions areconsidered. These models are used in giving estimates of the lifetimeof the structure, when...... the concrete cover is given, as well as estimatesof the thickness of the concrete cover, when the expected lifetime is given.*Note: Book tilte: Durability of Concrete in Saline Environment...

  10. Neural network approach to time-dependent dividing surfaces in classical reaction dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schraft, Philippe; Junginger, Andrej; Feldmaier, Matthias; Bardakcioglu, Robin; Main, Jörg; Wunner, Günter; Hernandez, Rigoberto

    2018-04-01

    In a dynamical system, the transition between reactants and products is typically mediated by an energy barrier whose properties determine the corresponding pathways and rates. The latter is the flux through a dividing surface (DS) between the two corresponding regions, and it is exact only if it is free of recrossings. For time-independent barriers, the DS can be attached to the top of the corresponding saddle point of the potential energy surface, and in time-dependent systems, the DS is a moving object. The precise determination of these direct reaction rates, e.g., using transition state theory, requires the actual construction of a DS for a given saddle geometry, which is in general a demanding methodical and computational task, especially in high-dimensional systems. In this paper, we demonstrate how such time-dependent, global, and recrossing-free DSs can be constructed using neural networks. In our approach, the neural network uses the bath coordinates and time as input, and it is trained in a way that its output provides the position of the DS along the reaction coordinate. An advantage of this procedure is that, once the neural network is trained, the complete information about the dynamical phase space separation is stored in the network's parameters, and a precise distinction between reactants and products can be made for all possible system configurations, all times, and with little computational effort. We demonstrate this general method for two- and three-dimensional systems and explain its straightforward extension to even more degrees of freedom.

  11. Simulation of time-dependent free-surface Navier-Stokes flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muldowney, G.P.

    1989-01-01

    Two numerical methods for simulation of time-dependent free-surface Navier-Stokes flows are developed. Both techniques are based on semi-implicit time advancement of the momentum equations, integral formulation of the spatial problem at each timestep, and spectral-element discretization to solve the resulting integral equation. Central to each algorithm is a boundary-specific solution step which permits the spatial treatment in two dimensions to be performed in O(N 3 ) operations per timestep despite the presence of deforming geometry. The first approach is a domain-integral formulation involving integrals over the entire flow domain of kernel functions which arise in time-differencing the Navier-Stokes equations. The second is a particular-solution formulation which replaces domain integration with an iterative scheme to generate particular velocity and pressure fields on individual elements, followed by a patching step to produce a particular solution continuous over the full domain. Two of the most difficult aspects of viscous free-surface flow simulations, namely time-dependent geometry and nontrivial boundary conditions, are well accommodated by these integral equation techniques. In addition the methods offer spectral accuracy in space and admit arbitrarily high-order discretization in time. For large-scale computations and/or long-term time advancement the domain-integral algorithm must be executed on a supercomputer to deliver results in reasonable processing time. A detailed simulation of gas liquid flow with full resolution of the free phase boundary requires approximately five CPU hours at 80 megaflops

  12. Field dependence-independence and participation in physical activity by college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenhao

    2006-06-01

    Field-independent individuals, compared with field-dependent individuals, have higher sports potential and advantages in sport-related settings. Little research, however, has been conducted on the association of field dependence-independence and participation in physical activity. The study examined this association for college students who participated in physical activities in and beyond physical education classes. The Group Embedded Figures Test distinguished 40 field-dependent from 40 field-independent participants. Activity logs during one semester showed that field-independent participants were significantly more physically active and their physical activity behaviors were more sport-related than those of field-dependent participants.

  13. Muscle activity pattern dependent pain development and alleviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjøgaard, Gisela; Søgaard, Karen

    2014-12-01

    Muscle activity is for decades considered to provide health benefits irrespectively of the muscle activity pattern performed and whether it is during e.g. sports, transportation, or occupational work tasks. Accordingly, the international recommendations for public health-promoting physical activity do not distinguish between occupational and leisure time physical activity. However, in this body of literature, attention has not been paid to the extensive documentation on occupational physical activity imposing a risk of impairment of health - in particular musculoskeletal health in terms of muscle pain. Focusing on muscle activity patterns and musculoskeletal health it is pertinent to elucidate the more specific aspects regarding exposure profiles and body regional pain. Static sustained muscle contraction for prolonged periods often occurs in the neck/shoulder area during occupational tasks and may underlie muscle pain development in spite of rather low relative muscle load. Causal mechanisms include a stereotype recruitment of low threshold motor units (activating type 1 muscle fibers) characterized by a lack of temporal as well as spatial variation in recruitment. In contrast during physical activities at leisure and sport the motor recruitment patterns are more dynamic including regularly relatively high muscle forces - also activating type 2 muscles fibers - as well as periods of full relaxation even of the type 1 muscle fibers. Such activity is unrelated to muscle pain development if adequate recovery is granted. However, delayed muscle soreness may develop following intensive eccentric muscle activity (e.g. down-hill skiing) with peak pain levels in thigh muscles 1-2 days after the exercise bout and a total recovery within 1 week. This acute pain profile is in contrast to the chronic muscle pain profile related to repetitive monotonous work tasks. The painful muscles show adverse functional, morphological, hormonal, as well as metabolic characteristics. Of

  14. Pure and Oxidized Copper Materials as Potential Antimicrobial Surfaces for Spaceflight Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, C.; Hans, M.; Hein, C.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Mücklich, F.; Wirth, R.; Rettberg, P.; Hellweg, C. E.; Moeller, R.

    2017-12-01

    Microbial biofilms can lead to persistent infections and degrade a variety of materials, and they are notorious for their persistence and resistance to eradication. During long-duration space missions, microbial biofilms present a danger to crew health and spacecraft integrity. The use of antimicrobial surfaces provides an alternative strategy for inhibiting microbial growth and biofilm formation to conventional cleaning procedures and the use of disinfectants. Antimicrobial surfaces contain organic or inorganic compounds, such as antimicrobial peptides or copper and silver, that inhibit microbial growth. The efficacy of wetted oxidized copper layers and pure copper surfaces as antimicrobial agents was tested by applying cultures of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus cohnii to these metallic surfaces. Stainless steel surfaces were used as non-inhibitory control surfaces. The production of reactive oxygen species and membrane damage increased rapidly within 1 h of exposure on pure copper surfaces, but the effect on cell survival was negligible even after 2 h of exposure. However, longer exposure times of up to 4 h led to a rapid decrease in cell survival, whereby the survival of cells was additionally dependent on the exposed cell density. Finally, the release of metal ions was determined to identify a possible correlation between copper ions in suspension and cell survival. These measurements indicated a steady increase of free copper ions, which were released indirectly by cells presumably through excreted complexing agents. These data indicate that the application of antimicrobial surfaces in spaceflight facilities could improve crew health and mitigate material damage caused by microbial contamination and biofilm formation. Furthermore, the results of this study indicate that cuprous oxide layers were superior to pure copper surfaces related to the antimicrobial effect and that cell density is a significant factor that influences the time dependence of

  15. Molecular weight-dependent degradation and drug release of surface-eroding poly(ethylene carbonate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohr, Adam; Wang, Yingya; Harmankaya, Necati; Water, Jorrit J; Baldursdottír, Stefania; Almdal, Kristoffer; Beck-Broichsitter, Moritz

    2017-06-01

    Poly(ethylene carbonate) (PEC) is a unique biomaterial showing significant potential for controlled drug delivery applications. The current study investigated the impact of the molecular weight on the biological performance of drug-loaded PEC films. Following the preparation and thorough physicochemical characterization of diverse PEC (molecular weights: 85, 110, 133, 174 and 196kDa), the degradation and drug release behavior of rifampicin- and bovine serum albumin-loaded PEC films was investigated in vitro (in the presence and absence of cholesterol esterase), in cell culture (RAW264.7 macrophages) and in vivo (subcutaneous implantation in rats). All investigated samples degraded by means of surface erosion (mass loss, but constant molecular weight), which was accompanied by a predictable, erosion-controlled drug release pattern. Accordingly, the obtained in vitro degradation half-lives correlated well with the observed in vitro half-times of drug delivery (R 2 =0.96). Here, the PEC of the highest molecular weight resulted in the fastest degradation/drug release. When incubated with macrophages or implanted in animals, the degradation rate of PEC films superimposed the results of in vitro incubations with cholesterol esterase. Interestingly, SEM analysis indicated a distinct surface erosion process for enzyme-, macrophage- and in vivo-treated polymer films in a molecular weight-dependent manner. Overall, the molecular weight of surface-eroding PEC was identified as an essential parameter to control the spatial and temporal on-demand degradation and drug release from the employed delivery system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Dependence of the cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus on hydrogen peroxide scavenging microbes for growth at the ocean's surface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Jeffrey Morris

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The phytoplankton community in the oligotrophic open ocean is numerically dominated by the cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus, accounting for approximately half of all photosynthesis. In the illuminated euphotic zone where Prochlorococcus grows, reactive oxygen species are continuously generated via photochemical reactions with dissolved organic matter. However, Prochlorococcus genomes lack catalase and additional protective mechanisms common in other aerobes, and this genus is highly susceptible to oxidative damage from hydrogen peroxide (HOOH. In this study we showed that the extant microbial community plays a vital, previously unrecognized role in cross-protecting Prochlorococcus from oxidative damage in the surface mixed layer of the oligotrophic ocean. Microbes are the primary HOOH sink in marine systems, and in the absence of the microbial community, surface waters in the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean accumulated HOOH to concentrations that were lethal for Prochlorococcus cultures. In laboratory experiments with the marine heterotroph Alteromonas sp., serving as a proxy for the natural community of HOOH-degrading microbes, bacterial depletion of HOOH from the extracellular milieu prevented oxidative damage to the cell envelope and photosystems of co-cultured Prochlorococcus, and facilitated the growth of Prochlorococcus at ecologically-relevant cell concentrations. Curiously, the more recently evolved lineages of Prochlorococcus that exploit the surface mixed layer niche were also the most sensitive to HOOH. The genomic streamlining of these evolved lineages during adaptation to the high-light exposed upper euphotic zone thus appears to be coincident with an acquired dependency on the extant HOOH-consuming community. These results underscore the importance of (indirect biotic interactions in establishing niche boundaries, and highlight the impacts that community-level responses to stress may have in the ecological and evolutionary outcomes for co

  17. Study of the temperature dependent nitrogen retention in tungsten surfaces by XPS-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plank, Ulrike [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Fakultaet fuer Physik der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Schellingstrasse 4, D-80799 Muenchen (Germany); Meisl, Gerd; Hoeschen, Till [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    To reduce the power load on the divertor of fusion experiments, nitrogen (N) is puffed into the plasma. As a side effect, nitrogen gets implanted into the tungsten (W) walls of the reactor and forms nitride layers. Their formation and, therefore, the N accumulation in W showed an unexpected temperature dependence in previous experiments. To study the nitrogen retention, we implanted N ions with an energy of 300 eV into W and observed the evolution of the surface composition by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). We find that the N content does not change when the sample is annealed up to 800 K after implantation at lower temperatures. In contrast, the N concentration decreases with increasing implantation temperature. At 800 K implantation temperature, the N saturation level is about 5 times lower compared to 300 K implantation. A possible explanation for this difference is an enhanced diffusion during ion bombardment due to changes in the structure or in the chemical state of the tungsten nitride system. Ongoing tungsten nitride erosion experiments shall help to clarify whether the strong temperature dependence is the result of enhanced diffusion or of phase changes.

  18. Orientation dependent size effects in single crystalline anisotropic nanoplates with regard to surface energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assadi, Abbas; Salehi, Manouchehr; Akhlaghi, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    In this work, size dependent behavior of single crystalline normal and auxetic anisotropic nanoplates is discussed with consideration of material surface stresses via a generalized model. Bending of pressurized nanoplates and their fundamental resonant frequency are discussed for different crystallographic directions and anisotropy degrees. It is explained that the orientation effects are considerable when the nanoplates' edges are pinned but for clamped nanoplates, the anisotropy effect may be ignored. The size effects are the highest when the simply supported nanoplates are parallel to [110] direction but as the anisotropy gets higher, the size effects are reduced. The orientation effect is also discussed for possibility of self-instability occurrence in nanoplates. The results in simpler cases are compared with previous experiments for nanowires but with a correction factor. There are still some open questions for future studies. - Highlights: • Size effects in single crystalline anisotropic nanoplates are discussed. • A generalized model is established containing some physical assumptions. • Orientation dependent size effects due to material anisotropy are explained. • Bending, instability and frequencies are studied at normal/auxetic domain

  19. Surface morphology of polyethylene glycol films produced by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE): Dependence on substrate temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigo, K.; Czuba, P.; Toftmann, B.

    2006-01-01

    The dependence of the surface morphology on the substrate temperature during film deposition was investigated for polyethylene glycol (PEG) films by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE). The surface structure was studied with a combined technique of optical imaging and AFM measurements...

  20. Dispersal, density dependence, and population dynamics of a fungal microbe on leaf surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Scott T; Ives, Anthony R; Nordheim, Erik V; Andrews, John H

    2007-06-01

    Despite the ubiquity and importance of microbes in nature, little is known about their natural population dynamics, especially for those that occupy terrestrial habitats. Here we investigate the dynamics of the yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans (Ap) on apple leaves in an orchard. We asked three questions. (1) Is variation in fungal population density among leaves caused by variation in leaf carrying capacities and strong density-dependent population growth that maintains densities near carrying capacity? (2) Do resident populations have competitive advantages over immigrant cells? (3) Do Ap dynamics differ at different times during the growing season? To address these questions, we performed two experiments at different times in the growing season. Both experiments used a 2 x 2 factorial design: treatment 1 removed fungal cells from leaves to reveal density-dependent population growth, and treatment 2 inoculated leaves with an Ap strain engineered to express green fluorescent protein (GFP), which made it possible to track the fate of immigrant cells. The experiments showed that natural populations of Ap vary greatly in density due to sustained differences in carrying capacities among leaves. The maintenance of populations close to carrying capacities indicates strong density-dependent processes. Furthermore, resident populations are strongly competitive against immigrants, while immigrants have little impact on residents. Finally, statistical models showed high population growth rates of resident cells in one experiment but not in the other, suggesting that Ap experiences relatively "good" and "bad" periods for population growth. This picture of Ap dynamics conforms to commonly held, but rarely demonstrated, expectations of microbe dynamics in nature. It also highlights the importance of local processes, as opposed to immigration, in determining the abundance and dynamics of microbes on surfaces in terrestrial systems.

  1. Hormonal regulation of Na+/K+-dependent ATPase activity and pump function in corneal endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatou, Shin

    2011-10-01

    Na- and K-dependent ATPase (Na,K-ATPase) in the basolateral membrane of corneal endothelial cells plays an important role in the pump function of the corneal endothelium. We investigated the role of dexamethasone in the regulation of Na,K-ATPase activity and pump function in these cells. Mouse corneal endothelial cells were exposed to dexamethasone or insulin. ATPase activity was evaluated by spectrophotometric measurement, and pump function was measured using an Ussing chamber. Western blotting and immunocytochemistry were performed to measure the expression of the Na,K-ATPase α1-subunit. Dexamethasone increased Na,K-ATPase activity and the pump function of endothelial cells. Western blot analysis indicated that dexamethasone increased the expression of the Na,K-ATPase α1-subunit but decreased the ratio of active to inactive Na,K-ATPase α1-subunit. Insulin increased Na,K-ATPase activity and pump function of cultured corneal endothelial cells. These effects were transient and blocked by protein kinase C inhibitors and inhibitors of protein phosphatases 1 (PP1) and 2A (PP2A). Western blot analysis indicated that insulin decreased the amount of inactive Na,K-ATPase α1-subunit, but the expression of total Na,K-ATPase α1-subunit was unchanged. Immunocytochemistry showed that insulin increased cell surface expression of the Na,K-ATPase α1-subunit. Our results suggest that dexamethasone and insulin stimulate Na,K-ATPase activity in mouse corneal endothelial cells. The effect of dexamethasone activation in these cells was mediated by Na,K-ATPase synthesis and an increased enzymatic activity because of dephosphorylation of Na,K-ATPase α1-subunits. The effect of insulin is mediated by the protein kinase C, PP1, and/or PP2A pathways.

  2. Structural dependence of the 5d-metal surface energies as deduced from surface core-level shift measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrartensson, N.; Saalfeld, H.B.; Kuhlenbeck, H.; Neumann, M.

    1989-01-01

    Surface core-level shift measurements performed at the BESSY storage ring yield -0.41(2) eV for Os(0001) and 0.00(10) eV for Re(0001). An analysis of the surface shifts in the 5d transition series shows that the surface energy as a function of Z has a maximum at lower Z for the bcc phase than for the fcc-hcp phases, at W and between Re and Os, respectively

  3. Velocity dependence of vestibular information for postural control on tilting surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluzik, JoAnn; Hlavacka, Frantisek

    2016-01-01

    Vestibular information is known to be important for postural stability on tilting surfaces, but the relative importance of vestibular information across a wide range of surface tilt velocities is less clear. We compared how tilt velocity influences postural orientation and stability in nine subjects with bilateral vestibular loss and nine age-matched, control subjects. Subjects stood on a force platform that tilted 6 deg, toes-up at eight velocities (0.25 to 32 deg/s), with and without vision. Results showed that visual information effectively compensated for lack of vestibular information at all tilt velocities. However, with eyes closed, subjects with vestibular loss were most unstable within a critical tilt velocity range of 2 to 8 deg/s. Subjects with vestibular deficiency lost their balance in more than 90% of trials during the 4 deg/s condition, but never fell during slower tilts (0.25–1 deg/s) and fell only very rarely during faster tilts (16–32 deg/s). At the critical velocity range in which falls occurred, the body center of mass stayed aligned with respect to the surface, onset of ankle dorsiflexion was delayed, and there was delayed or absent gastrocnemius inhibition, suggesting that subjects were attempting to actively align their upper bodies with respect to the moving surface instead of to gravity. Vestibular information may be critical for stability at velocities of 2 to 8 deg/s because postural sway above 2 deg/s may be too fast to elicit stabilizing responses through the graviceptive somatosensory system, and postural sway below 8 deg/s may be too slow for somatosensory-triggered responses or passive stabilization from trunk inertia. PMID:27486101

  4. Zinc-ion-dependent acid phosphatase exhibits magnesium-ion-dependent myo-inositol-1-phosphatase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, S; Okano, I; Tanaka, Y; Sumida, Y; Tsuda, J; Kawakami, N; Shimohama, S

    1996-06-01

    We have purified bovine brain Zn(2+)-dependent acid phosphatase (Zn(2+)-APase), which requires Zn2+ ions to hydrolyze the substrate p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP) in an acidic environment. The substrate specificity and metal requirement of Zn(2+)-APase at a physiological pH was also studied. The enzyme exhibited hydrolytic activity on myo-inositol-1- and -2-monophosphates, 2'-adenosine monophosphate, 2'-guanosine monophosphate, and the alpha- and beta-glycerophosphates, glucose-1-phosphate, and fructose-6-phosphate in 50 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.4) in the presence of Mg2+ ions, but not on pNPP and phosphotyrosine. Zn2+, Mn2+ and Co2+ ions were less effective for activation. Among the above substrates, myo-inositol-1-phosphate was the most susceptible to hydrolysis by the enzyme in the presence of 3 mM Mg2+ ions. The enzyme exhibited an optimum pH at around 8 for myo-inositol-1-phosphate in the presence of 3 mM Mg2+ ions. The Mg(2+)-dependent myo-inositol-1-phosphatase activity of the enzyme was significantly inhibited by Li+ ions. The Zn(2+)-dependent p-nitrophenyl phosphatase activity and Mg(2+)-dependent myo-inositol-1-phosphatase activity of the purified enzyme fraction exhibited similar behavior on Sephadex G-100 and Mono Q colomns. These findings suggest that Zn(2+)-APase also exhibits Mg(2+)-dependent myo-inositol-1-phosphatase activity under physiological conditions.

  5. Particle Size-Dependent Antibacterial Activity and Murine Cell Cytotoxicity Induced by Graphene Oxide Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have indicated that graphene and its derivative graphene oxide (GO engage in a wide range of antibacterial activities with limited toxicity to human cells. Here, we systematically evaluate the dependence of GO toxicity on the size of the nanoparticles used in treatments: we compare the cytotoxic effects of graphene quantum dots (GQDs, <15 nm, small GOs (SGOs, 50–200 nm, and large GOs (LGOs, 0.5–3 μm. We synthesize the results of bacterial colony count assays and SEM-based observations of morphological changes to assess the antibacterial properties that these GOs bring into effect against E. coli. We also use Live/Dead assays and morphological analysis to investigate changes to mammalian (Murine macrophage-like Raw 264.7 cells induced by the presence of the various GO particle types. Our results demonstrate that LGOs, SGOs, and GQDs possess antibacterial activities and cause mammalian cell cytotoxicity at descending levels of potency. Placing our observations in the context of previous simulation results, we suggest that both the lateral size and surface area of GO particles contribute to cytotoxic effects. We hope that the size dependence elucidated here provides a useful schematic for tuning GO-cell interactions in biomedical applications.

  6. Prostasin-dependent activation of epithelial Na+ channels by low plasmin concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Per; Uhrenholt, Torben R; Palarasah, Yaseelan

    2009-01-01

    by which plasmin stimulates ENaC activity. Cy3-labeled plasmin was found to bind to the surface of the mouse cortical collecting duct cell line, M-1. Binding depended on a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein. Biotin-label transfer showed that plasmin interacted with the GPI-anchored protein...... plasmin-stimulated ENaC current in monolayers of M-1 cells at low plasmin concentration (1-4 microg/ml). At a high plasmin concentration of 30 microg/ml, there was no difference between cell layers treated with or without PI-PLC. Knockdown of prostasin attenuated binding of plasmin to M1 cells and blocked...... labeling of M-1 cells. Pretreatment with plasmin abolished labeling of M-1 cells in a prostasin-dependent way. We conclude that, at low concentrations, plasmin interacts with GPI-anchored prostasin, which leads to cleavage of the gamma-subunit and activation of ENaC, while at higher concentrations, plasmin...

  7. Time-dependent effects of ultraviolet and nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma on the biological activity of titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung-Hwan; Jeong, Won-Seok; Cha, Jung-Yul; Lee, Jae-Hoon; Yu, Hyung-Seog; Choi, Eun-Ha; Kim, Kwang-Mahn; Hwang, Chung-Ju

    2016-09-01

    Here, we evaluated time-dependent changes in the effects of ultraviolet (UV) and nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma (NTAPPJ) on the biological activity of titanium compared with that of untreated titanium. Grade IV machined surface titanium discs (12-mm diameter) were used immediately and stored up to 28 days after 15-min UV or 10-min NTAPPJ treatment. Changes of surface characteristics over time were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy, surface profiling, contact angle analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and surface zeta-potential. Changes in biological activity over time were as determined by analysing bovine serum albumin adsorption, MC3T3-E1 early adhesion and morphometry, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity between groups. We found no differences in the effects of treatment on titanium between UV or NTAPPJ over time; both treatments resulted in changes from negatively charged hydrophobic (bioinert) to positively charged hydrophilic (bioactive) surfaces, allowing enhancement of albumin adsorption, osteoblastic cell attachment, and cytoskeleton development. Although this effect may not be prolonged for promotion of cell adhesion until 4 weeks, the effects were sufficient to maintain ALP activity after 7 days of incubation. This positive effect of UV and NTAPPJ treatment can enhance the biological activity of titanium over time.

  8. Modification of polymer surfaces to enhance enzyme activity and stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Christian

    Enzyme immobilization is an important concept for the development of improved biocatalytic processes, primarily through facilitated separation procedures. However, enzyme immobilization usually comes at a price of reduced biocatalytic activity. For this reason, different immobilization methods have...... already been developed, combining the same goal to improve enzyme activity, stability and selectivity. Polymer materials have shown, due to their easy processibility and versatile properties, high potential as enzyme support. However, in order to achieve improved enzyme performance, the combination...... on their tailored surface modification in order to obtain improved enzyme-support systems. Firstly, an off-stoichiometric thiol-ene (OSTE) thermosetting material was used for the development of a screening platform allowing the investigation of micro-environmental effects and their impact on the activity...

  9. Curcumin Attenuates Opioid Tolerance and Dependence by Inhibiting Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II α Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoyu; Huang, Fang; Szymusiak, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Chronic use of opioid analgesics has been hindered by the development of opioid addiction and tolerance. We have reported that curcumin, a natural flavonoid from the rhizome of Curcuma longa, attenuated opioid tolerance, although the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that curcumin may inhibit Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II α (CaMKIIα), a protein kinase that has been previously proposed to be critical for opioid tolerance and dependence. In this study, we used state-of-the-art polymeric formulation technology to produce poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-curcumin nanoparticles (nanocurcumin) to overcome the drug’s poor solubility and bioavailability, which has made it extremely difficult for studying in vivo pharmacological actions of curcumin. We found that PLGA-curcumin nanoparticles reduced the dose requirement by 11- to 33-fold. Pretreatment with PLGA-curcumin (by mouth) prevented the development of opioid tolerance and dependence in a dose-dependent manner, with ED50 values of 3.9 and 3.2 mg/kg, respectively. PLGA-curcumin dose-dependently attenuated already-established opioid tolerance (ED50 = 12.6 mg/kg p.o.) and dependence (ED50 = 3.1 mg/kg p.o.). Curcumin or PLGA-curcumin did not produce antinociception by itself or affect morphine (1–10 mg/kg) antinociception. Moreover, we found that the behavioral effects of curcumin on opioid tolerance and dependence correlated with its inhibition of morphine-induced CaMKIIα activation in the brain. These results suggest that curcumin may attenuate opioid tolerance and dependence by suppressing CaMKIIα activity. PMID:25515789

  10. THE SURFACE-MEDIATED UNFOLDING KINETICS OF GLOBULAR PROTEINS IS DEPENDENT ON MOLECULAR WEIGHT AND TEMPERATURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patananan, A.N.; Goheen, S.C.

    2008-01-01

    The adsorption and unfolding pathways of proteins on rigid surfaces are essential in numerous complex processes associated with biomedical engineering, nanotechnology, and chromatography. It is now well accepted that the kinetics of unfolding are characterized by chemical and physical interactions dependent on protein deformability and structure, as well as environmental pH, temperature, and surface chemistry. Although this fundamental process has broad implications in medicine and industry, little is known about the mechanism because of the atomic lengths and rapid time scales involved. Therefore, the unfolding kinetics of myoglobin, β-glucosidase, and ovalbumin were investigated by adsorbing the globular proteins to non-porous cationic polymer beads. The protein fractions were adsorbed at different residence times (0, 9, 10, 20, and 30 min) at near-physiological conditions using a gradient elution system similar to that in high-performance liquid chromatography. The elution profi les and retention times were obtained by ultraviolet/visible spectrophotometry. A decrease in recovery was observed with time for almost all proteins and was attributed to irreversible protein unfolding on the non-porous surfaces. These data, and those of previous studies, fi t a positively increasing linear trend between percent unfolding after a fi xed (9 min) residence time (71.8%, 31.1%, and 32.1% of myoglobin, β-glucosidase, and ovalbumin, respectively) and molecular weight. Of all the proteins examined so far, only myoglobin deviated from this trend with higher than predicted unfolding rates. Myoglobin also exhibited an increase in retention time over a wide temperature range (0°C and 55°C, 4.39 min and 5.74 min, respectively) whereas ovalbumin and β-glucosidase did not. Further studies using a larger set of proteins are required to better understand the physiological and physiochemical implications of protein unfolding kinetics. This study confi rms that surface

  11. Stochastic Description of Activated Surface Diffusion with Interacting Adsorbates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Casado, Ruth; Vega, José Luis; Sanz, Ángel S.; Miret-Artés, Salvador

    Activated surface diffusion on metal surfaces is receiving much attention both experimentally and theoretically. One of the main theoretical problems in this field is to explain the line-shape broadening observed when the surface coverage is increased. Recently, we have proposed a fully stochastic model, the interacting single adsorbate (ISA) model, aimed at explaining and understanding this type of experiments, which essentially consists of considering the classical Langevin formulation with two types of noise forces: (i) a Gaussian white noise accounting for the substrate friction, and (ii) a shot noise simulating the interacting adsorbates at different coverages. No interaction potential between adsorbates is included because any trace of microscopic interaction seems to be wiped out in a Markovian regime. This model describes in a good approximation, and at a very low computational cost, the line-shape broadening observed experimentally. Furthermore, its mathematical simplicity also allows to derive some analytical expressions which are of much help in the interpretation of the physics underlying surface diffusion processes.

  12. A description of the BNL active surface analysis facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, J.W.

    1989-11-01

    Berkeley Nuclear Laboratories has a responsibility for the assessment of radioactive specimens arising both from post irradiation examination of power reactor components and structures and experimental programmes concerned with fission and activation product transport. Existing analytical facilities have been extended with the commissioning of an active surface analysis instrument (XSAM 800pci, Kratos Analytical). Surface analysis involves the characterisation of the outer few atomic layers of a solid surface/interface whose chemical composition and electronic structure will probably be different from the bulk. The new instrument consists three interconnected chambers positioned in series; comprising of a high vacuum sample introduction chamber, an ultra-high vacuum sample treatment/fracture chamber and an ultra-high vacuum sample analysis chamber. The sample analysis chamber contains the electron, X-ray and ion-guns and the electron and ion detectors necessary for performing X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning Auger microscopy and secondary-ion mass spectroscopy. The chamber also contains a high stability manipulator to enable sub-micron imaging of specimens to be achieved and provide sample heating and cooling between - 180 and 600 0 C. (author)

  13. Evolution of surface topography in dependence on the grain orientation during surface thermal fatigue of polycrystalline copper

    CERN Document Server

    Aicheler, M; Taborelli, M; Calatroni, S; Neupert, H; Wuensch, W; Sgobba, S

    2011-01-01

    Surface degradation due to cyclic thermal loading plays a major role in the Accelerating Structures (AS) of the future Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) In this article results on surface degradation of thermally cycled polycrystalline copper as a function of the orientation of surface grains are presented Samples with different grain sizes were subjected to thermal fatigue using two different methods and were then characterized using roughness measurements and Orientation Imaging Scanning-Electron-Microscopy (OIM-SEM) Samples fatigued by a pulsed laser show the same trend in the orientation-fatigue damage accumulation as the sample fatigued by pulsed Radio-Frequency-heating (RF) it is clearly shown that 11 1 1] surface grains develop significantly more damage than the surface grains oriented in {[}100] and three reasons for this behaviour are pointed out Based on observations performed near grain boundaries their role in the crack initiation process is discussed The results are in good agreement with previous f...

  14. Damage to lens fiber cells causes TRPV4-dependent Src family kinase activation in the epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidullah, M; Mandal, A; Delamere, N A

    2015-11-01

    The bulk of the lens consists of tightly packed fiber cells. Because mature lens fibers lack mitochondria and other organelles, lens homeostasis relies on a monolayer of epithelial cells at the anterior surface. The detection of various signaling pathways in lens epithelial cells suggests they respond to stimuli that influence lens function. Focusing on Src Family Kinases (SFKs) and Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 4 (TRPV4), we tested whether the epithelium can sense and respond to an event that occurs in fiber mass. The pig lens was subjected to localized freeze-thaw (FT) damage to fibers at posterior pole then the lens was incubated for 1-10 min in Krebs solution at 37 °C. Transient SFK activation in the epithelium was detectable at 1 min. Using a western blot approach, the ion channel TRPV4 was detected in the epithelium but was sparse or absent in fiber cells. Even though TRPV4 expression appears low at the actual site of FT damage to the fibers, SFK activation in the epithelium was suppressed in lenses subjected to FT damage then incubated with the TRPV4 antagonist HC067047 (10 μM). Na,K-ATPase activity was examined because previous studies report changes of Na,K-ATPase activity associated with SFK activation. Na,K-ATPase activity doubled in the epithelium removed from FT-damaged lenses and the response was prevented by HC067047 or the SFK inhibitor PP2 (10 μM). Similar changes were observed in response to fiber damage caused by injection of 5 μl hyperosmotic NaCl or mannitol solution beneath the surface of the posterior pole. The findings point to a TRPV4-dependent mechanism that enables the epithelial cells to detect remote damage in the fiber mass and respond within minutes by activating SFK and increasing Na,K-ATPase activity. Because TRPV4 channels are mechanosensitive, we speculate they may be stimulated by swelling of the lens structure caused by damage to the fibers. Increased Na,K-ATPase activity gives the lens greater capacity to

  15. Initial heats of H{sub 2}S adsorption on activated carbons: Effect of surface features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagreev, A.; Adib, F.; Bandosz, T.J.

    1999-11-15

    The sorption of hydrogen sulfide was studied on activated carbons of various origins by means of inverse gas chromatography at infinite dilution. The conditions of the experiment were dry and anaerobic. Prior to the experiments the surface of some carbon samples was oxidized using either nitric acid or ammonium persulfate. Then the structural parameters of carbons were evaluated from the sorption of nitrogen. From the IGC experiments at various temperatures, heats of adsorption were calculated. The results showed that the heat of H{sub 2}S adsorption under dry anaerobic conditions does not depend on surface chemistry. The dependence of the heat of adsorption on the characteristic energy of nitrogen adsorption calculated from the Dubinin-Raduskevich equation was found. This correlation can be used to predict the heat of H{sub 2}S adsorption based on the results obtained from nitrogen adsorption.

  16. Sarcomere length-dependence of activity-dependent twitch potentiation in mouse skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacIntosh Brian R

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been reported that potentiation of a skeletal muscle twitch response is proportional to muscle length with a negative slope during staircase, and a positive slope during posttetanic potentiation. This study was done to directly compare staircase and posttetanic responses with measurement of sarcomere length to compare their length-dependence. Methods Mouse extensor digitorum longus (EDL muscles were dissected to small bundles of fibers, which permit measurement of sarcomere length (SL, by laser diffraction. In vitro fixed-end contractions of EDL fiber bundles were elicited at 22°C and 35°C at sarcomere lengths ranging from 2.35 μm to 3.85 μm. Twitch contractions were assessed before and after 1.5 s of 75 Hz stimulation at 22°C or during 10 s of 10 Hz stimulation at 22°C or 35°C. Results Staircase potentiation was greater at 35°C than 22°C, and the relative magnitude of the twitch contraction (Pt*/Pt was proportional to sarcomere length with a negative slope, over the range 2.3 μm – 3.7 μm. Linear regression yielded the following: Pt*/Pt = -0.59·SL+3.27 (r2 = 0.74; Pt*/Pt = -0.39·SL+2.34 (r2 = 0.48; and Pt*/Pt = -0.50·SL+2.45 (r2 = 0.80 for staircase at 35°C, and 22°C and posttetanic response respectively. Posttetanic depression rather than potentiation was present at long SL. This indicates that there may be two processes operating in these muscles to modulate the force: one that enhances and a second that depresses the force. Either or both of these processes may have a length-dependence of its mechanism. Conclusion There is no evidence that posttetanic potentiation is fundamentally different from staircase in these muscles.

  17. Activity-Dependent Neurorehabilitation Beyond Physical Trainings: "Mental Exercise" Through Mirror Neuron Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ti-Fei; Chen, Wei; Shan, Chunlei; Rocha, Nuno; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Paes, Flávia; de Sá, Alberto Souza; Machado, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    The activity dependent brain repair mechanism has been widely adopted in many types of neurorehabilitation. The activity leads to target specific and non-specific beneficial effects in different brain regions, such as the releasing of neurotrophic factors, modulation of the cytokines and generation of new neurons in adult hood. However physical exercise program clinically are limited to some of the patients with preserved motor functions; while many patients suffered from paralysis cannot make such efforts. Here the authors proposed the employment of mirror neurons system in promoting brain rehabilitation by "observation based stimulation". Mirror neuron system has been considered as an important basis for action understanding and learning by mimicking others. During the action observation, mirror neuron system mediated the direct activation of the same group of motor neurons that are responsible for the observed action. The effect is clear, direct, specific and evolutionarily conserved. Moreover, recent evidences hinted for the beneficial effects on stroke patients after mirror neuron system activation therapy. Finally some music-relevant therapies were proposed to be related with mirror neuron system.

  18. Incorporating Nondrug Social & Recreational Activities in Outpatient Chemical Dependency Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siporin, Sheldon; Baron, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    "Contingency Management programs (CMP) and non-drug social and recreational activities (NDSRA) are interventions premised on behavior theory that rely on external sources of reinforcement alternative to drug-based forms to decrease drug use. CMP usually employs vouchers as reinforcement for negative toxicologies. Despite research support, CMP…

  19. Interplay between tip-induced band bending and voltage-dependent surface corrugation on GaAs(110) surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raad, de G.J.; Bruls, D.M.; Koenraad, P.M.; Wolter, J.H.

    2002-01-01

    Atomically resolved, voltage-dependent scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images of GaAs(110) are compared to the results of a one-dimensional model used to calculate the amount of tip-induced band bending for a tunneling junction between a metal and a semiconductor. The voltage-dependent changes

  20. Predesigned surface patterns and topological defects control the active matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turiv, Taras; Peng, Chenhui; Guo, Yubing; Wei, Qi-Huo; Lavrentovich, Oleg

    Active matter exhibits remarkable patterns of never-ending dynamics with giant fluctuations of concentration, varying order, nucleating and annihilating topological defects. These patterns can be seen in active systems of both biological and artificial origin. A fundamental question is whether and how one can control this chaotic out-of-equilibrium behavior. We demonstrate a robust control of local concentration, trajectories of active self-propelled units and the net flows of active bacteria Bacillus Substilis by imposing pre-designed surface patterns of orientational order in a water-based lyotropic chromonic liquid crystal. The patterns force the bacteria to gather into dynamic swarms with spatially modulated concentration and well-defined polarity of motion. Topological defects produce net motion of bacteria with a unidirectional circulation, while pairs of defects induce a pumping action. The qualitative features of the dynamics can be explained by interplay of curvature and activity, in particular, by ability of mixed splay-bend curvatures to generate threshold-less active flows. The demonstrated level of control opens opportunities in engineering materials and devices that mimic rich functionality of living systems. This work was supported by NSF Grants DMR-1507637, DMS-1434185, CMMI-1436565, by the Petroleum Research Grant PRF# 56046-ND7 administered by the American Chemical Society.

  1. Self-activated, self-limiting reactions on Si surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgen, Per; Hvam, Jeanette; Bahari, Ali

    The direct thermally activated reactions of oxygen and ammonia with Si surfaces in furnaces have been used for a very long time in the semiconductor industry for the growth of thick oxides and nitride layers respectively. The oxidation mechanism was described in the Deal-Grove model as a diffusion...... mechanism for the direct growth of ultrathin films (0-3 nm) of oxides and nitrides under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Neutral oxygen and a microwave excited nitrogen plasma interact directly with Si surfaces kept at different temperatures during the reaction. The gas pressures are around 10-6 Torr...... energy of an oxide system, which happened for an ordered structure, at a thickness of 0.7-0.8 nm. Thus this thin oxide structure has definite crystalline features. We have closely monitored the reaction kinetics with normal x-ray induced photoelectron spectroscopies, and also the structure, composition...

  2. Energy dependence on the electric activities of a neuron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Xin-Lin; Ma Jun; Jin Wu-Yin

    2015-01-01

    A nonlinear circuit can be designed by using inductor, resistor, capacitor and other electric devices, and the electromagnetic field energy can be released from the circuit in the oscillating state. The generation of spikes or bursting states in neurons could be energetically a costly process. Based on the Helmholtz’s theorem, a Hamilton energy function is defined to detect the energy shift induced by transition of electric modes in a Hindmarsh–Rose neuron. It is found that the energy storage is dependent on the external forcing, and energy release is associated with the electric mode. As a result, the bursting state and chaotic state could be helpful to release the energy in the neuron quickly. (paper)

  3. Ice formation via deposition nucleation on mineral dust and organics: dependence of onset relative humidity on total particulate surface area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanji, Zamin A; Florea, Octavian; Abbatt, Jonathan P D

    2008-01-01

    We present ice nucleation results for Arizona test dust, kaolinite, montmorillonite, silica, silica coated with a hydrophobic octyl chain, oxalic acid dihydrate, Gascoyne leonardite (a humic material), and Aldrich humic acid (sodium salt). The focus was on deposition mode nucleation below water saturation at 233 K. Particles were deposited onto a hydrophobic cold stage by atomization of a slurry/solution and exposed to a constant partial pressure of water vapor. By lowering the temperature of the stage, the relative humidity with respect to ice (RH i ) was gradually increased until ice nucleation was observed using digital photography. Different numbers of particles were deposited onto the cold stage by varying the atomization solution concentration and deposition time. For the same total particulate surface area, mineral dust particles nucleated ice at lower supersaturations than all other materials. The most hydrophobic materials, i.e. Gascoyne leonardite and octyl silica, were the least active. For our limit of detection of one ice crystal, the ice onset RH i values were dependent on the total surface area of the particulates, indicating that no unique threshold RH i for ice nucleation prevails

  4. Ice formation via deposition nucleation on mineral dust and organics: dependence of onset relative humidity on total particulate surface area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanji, Zamin A; Florea, Octavian; Abbatt, Jonathan P D [Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, 80 St George Street, Toronto, ON, M5S 3H6 (Canada)], E-mail: zkanji@chem.utoronto.ca

    2008-04-15

    We present ice nucleation results for Arizona test dust, kaolinite, montmorillonite, silica, silica coated with a hydrophobic octyl chain, oxalic acid dihydrate, Gascoyne leonardite (a humic material), and Aldrich humic acid (sodium salt). The focus was on deposition mode nucleation below water saturation at 233 K. Particles were deposited onto a hydrophobic cold stage by atomization of a slurry/solution and exposed to a constant partial pressure of water vapor. By lowering the temperature of the stage, the relative humidity with respect to ice (RH{sub i}) was gradually increased until ice nucleation was observed using digital photography. Different numbers of particles were deposited onto the cold stage by varying the atomization solution concentration and deposition time. For the same total particulate surface area, mineral dust particles nucleated ice at lower supersaturations than all other materials. The most hydrophobic materials, i.e. Gascoyne leonardite and octyl silica, were the least active. For our limit of detection of one ice crystal, the ice onset RH{sub i} values were dependent on the total surface area of the particulates, indicating that no unique threshold RH{sub i} for ice nucleation prevails.

  5. Dependence of PERT endpoint on endogenous lipase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wen-Yi; Mulberg, Andrew E

    2014-11-01

    To clarify and to understand the potential for misinterpretation of change in fecal fat quantitation during pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy (PERT) trials for treatment of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Analysis of clinical trials submitted to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for approval of PERT that enrolled 123 cystic fibrosis adult and pediatric patients treated with Creon, Pertzye, Ultresa, and Zenpep. The CFA% defines lipase activity as a percentage of converting substrate of "Total Daily Dietary Fat Intake." PERT trials performed to date have modified the definition to converting the "Shared Daily Fat Intake," generating "Partial CFA" for the exogenous lipase: the higher the activity of coexisting endogenous lipase, the lower the "Partial CFA" of exogenous measured. This review shows that "Partial CFA" is not CFA. Enrollment of patients with low HPLA during treatment may improve the interpretability of "Partial CFA" measured by PERT trials.

  6. Length and activation dependent variations in muscle shear wave speed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernak, L A; DeWall, R J; Lee, K S; Thelen, D G

    2013-01-01

    Muscle stiffness is known to vary as a result of a variety of disease states, yet current clinical methods for quantifying muscle stiffness have limitations including cost and availability. We investigated the capability of shear wave elastography (SWE) to measure variations in gastrocnemius shear wave speed induced via active contraction and passive stretch. Ten healthy young adults were tested. Shear wave speeds were measured using a SWE transducer positioned over the medial gastrocnemius at ankle angles ranging from maximum dorsiflexion to maximum plantarflexion. Shear wave speeds were also measured during voluntary plantarflexor contractions at a fixed ankle angle. Average shear wave speed increased significantly from 2.6 to 5.6 m s –1 with passive dorsiflexion and the knee in an extended posture, but did not vary with dorsiflexion when the gastrocnemius was shortened in a flexed knee posture. During active contractions, shear wave speed monotonically varied with the net ankle moment generated, reaching 8.3 m s –1 in the maximally contracted condition. There was a linear correlation between shear wave speed and net ankle moment in both the active and passive conditions; however, the slope of this linear relationship was significantly steeper for the data collected during passive loading conditions. The results show that SWE is a promising approach for quantitatively assessing changes in mechanical muscle loading. However, the differential effect of active and passive loading on shear wave speed makes it important to carefully consider the relevant loading conditions in which to use SWE to characterize in vivo muscle properties. (paper)

  7. TLR-mediated inflammatory responses to Streptococcus pneumoniae are highly dependent on surface expression of bacterial lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Gillian; Chimalapati, Suneeta; Pollard, Tracey; Lapp, Thabo; Cohen, Jonathan; Camberlein, Emilie; Stafford, Sian; Periselneris, Jimstan; Aldridge, Christine; Vollmer, Waldemar; Picard, Capucine; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Noursadeghi, Mahdad; Brown, Jeremy

    2014-10-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae infections induce inflammatory responses that contribute toward both disease pathogenesis and immunity, but the host-pathogen interactions that mediate these effects are poorly defined. We used the surface lipoprotein-deficient ∆lgt pneumococcal mutant strain to test the hypothesis that lipoproteins are key determinants of TLR-mediated immune responses to S. pneumoniae. We show using reporter assays that TLR2 signaling is dependent on pneumococcal lipoproteins, and that macrophage NF-κB activation and TNF-α release were reduced in response to the ∆lgt strain. Differences in TNF-α responses between Δlgt and wild-type bacteria were abrogated for macrophages from TLR2- but not TLR4-deficient mice. Transcriptional profiling of human macrophages revealed attenuated TLR2-associated responses to ∆lgt S. pneumoniae, comprising many NF-κB-regulated proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine genes. Importantly, non-TLR2-associated responses were preserved. Experiments using leukocytes from IL-1R-associated kinase-4-deficient patients and a mouse pneumonia model confirmed that proinflammatory responses were lipoprotein dependent. Our data suggest that leukocyte responses to bacterial lipoproteins are required for TLR2- and IL-1R-associated kinase-4-mediated inflammatory responses to S. pneumoniae. Copyright © 2014 The Authors.

  8. Surface area-dependence of gas-particle interactions influences pulmonary and neuroinflammatory outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Christina R; Zychowski, Katherine E; Sanchez, Bethany N; Rivero, Valeria; Lucas, Selita; Herbert, Guy; Liu, June; Irshad, Hammad; McDonald, Jacob D; Bleske, Barry E; Campen, Matthew J

    2016-12-01

    Deleterious consequences of exposure to traffic emissions may derive from interactions between carbonaceous particulate matter (PM) and gaseous components in a manner that is dependent on the surface area or complexity of the particles. To determine the validity of this hypothesis, we examined pulmonary and neurological inflammatory outcomes in C57BL/6 and apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE -/- ) male mice after acute and chronic exposure to vehicle engine-derived particulate matter, generated as ultrafine (UFP) and fine (FP) sizes, with additional exposures using UFP or FP combined with gaseous copollutants derived from fresh gasoline and diesel emissions, labeled as UFP + G and FP + G. The UFP and UFP + G exposure groups resulted in the most profound pulmonary and neuroinflammatory effects. Phagocytosis of UFP + G particles via resident alveolar macrophages was substantial in both mouse strains, particularly after chronic exposure, with concurrent increased proinflammatory cytokine expression of CXCL1 and TNFα in the bronchial lavage fluid. In the acute exposure paradigm, only UFP and UFP + G induced significant changes in pulmonary inflammation and only in the ApoE -/- animals. Similarly, acute exposure to UFP and UFP + G increased the expression of several cytokines in the hippocampus of ApoE -/- mice including Il-1β, IL-6, Tgf-β and Tnf-α and in the hippocampus of C57BL/6 mice including Ccl5, Cxcl1, Il-1β, and Tnf-α. Interestingly, Il-6 and Tgf-β expression were decreased in the C57BL/6 hippocampus after acute exposure. Chronic exposure to UFP + G increased expression of Ccl5, Cxcl1, Il-6, and Tgf-β in the ApoE -/- hippocampus, but this effect was minimal in the C57BL/6 mice, suggesting compensatory mechanisms to manage neuroinflammation in this strain. Inflammatory responses the lung and brain were most substantial in ApoE -/- animals exposed to UFP + G, suggesting that the surface area-dependent interaction of gases and

  9. Effect of particle surface area on ice active site densities retrieved from droplet freezing spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Beydoun

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneous ice nucleation remains one of the outstanding problems in cloud physics and atmospheric science. Experimental challenges in properly simulating particle-induced freezing processes under atmospherically relevant conditions have largely contributed to the absence of a well-established parameterization of immersion freezing properties. Here, we formulate an ice active, surface-site-based stochastic model of heterogeneous freezing with the unique feature of invoking a continuum assumption on the ice nucleating activity (contact angle of an aerosol particle's surface that requires no assumptions about the size or number of active sites. The result is a particle-specific property g that defines a distribution of local ice nucleation rates. Upon integration, this yields a full freezing probability function for an ice nucleating particle. Current cold plate droplet freezing measurements provide a valuable and inexpensive resource for studying the freezing properties of many atmospheric aerosol systems. We apply our g framework to explain the observed dependence of the freezing temperature of droplets in a cold plate on the concentration of the particle species investigated. Normalizing to the total particle mass or surface area present to derive the commonly used ice nuclei active surface (INAS density (ns often cannot account for the effects of particle concentration, yet concentration is typically varied to span a wider measurable freezing temperature range. A method based on determining what is denoted an ice nucleating species' specific critical surface area is presented and explains the concentration dependence as a result of increasing the variability in ice nucleating active sites between droplets. By applying this method to experimental droplet freezing data from four different systems, we demonstrate its ability to interpret immersion freezing temperature spectra of droplets containing variable particle concentrations. It is shown

  10. Angular dependence of the MOSFET dosimeter and its impact on in vivo surface dose measurement in breast cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, S; Chen, T; Wang, L; Tu, Y; Yue, N; Zhou, J

    2014-08-01

    The focus of this study is the angular dependence of two types of Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) dosimeters (MOSFET20 and OneDose/OneDosePlus) when used for surface dose measurements. External beam radiationat different gantry angles were delivered to a cubic solid water phantom with a MOSFET placed on the top surface at CAX. The long axis of the MOSFET was oriented along the gantry axis of rotation, with the dosimeter (bubble side) facing the radiation source. MOSFET-measured surface doses were compared against calibrated radiochromic film readings. It was found that both types of MOSFET dosimeters exhibited larger than previously reported angular dependence when measuring surface dose in beams at large oblique angles. For the MOSFET20 dosimeter the measured surface dose deviation against film readings was as high as 17% when the incident angle was 72 degrees to the norm of the phantom surface. It is concluded that some MOSFET dosimeters may have a strong angular dependence when placed on the surface of water-equivalent material, even though they may have an isotropic angular response when surrounded by uniform medium. Extra on-surface calibration maybe necessary before using MOSFET dosimeters for skin dose measurement in tangential fields.

  11. Seismic Velocity Structure and Depth-Dependence of Anisotropy in the Red Sea and Arabian Shield from Surface Wave Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, S; Gaherty, J; Schwartz, S; Rodgers, A; Al-Amri, A

    2007-07-25

    We investigate the lithospheric and upper mantle structure as well as the depth-dependence of anisotropy along the Red Sea and beneath the Arabian Peninsula using receiver function constraints and phase velocities of surface waves traversing two transects of stations from the Saudi Arabian National Digital Seismic Network. Frequency-dependent phase delays of fundamental-mode Love and Rayleigh waves, measured using a cross-correlation procedure, require very slow shear velocities and the presence of anisotropy throughout the upper mantle. Linearized inversion of these data produce path-averaged 1D radially anisotropic models with about 4% anisotropy in the lithosphere, increasing to about 4.8% anisotropy across the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB). Models with reasonable crustal velocities in which the mantle lithosphere is isotropic cannot satisfy the data. The lithospheric lid, which ranges in thickness from about 70 km near the Red Sea coast to about 90 km beneath the Arabian Shield, is underlain by a pronounced low-velocity zone with shear velocities as low as 4.1 km/s. Forward models, which are constructed from previously determined shear-wave splitting estimates, can reconcile surface and body wave observations of anisotropy. The low shear velocity values are similar to many other continental rift and oceanic ridge environments. These low velocities combined with the sharp velocity contrast across the LAB may indicate the presence of partial melt beneath Arabia. The anisotropic signature primarily reflects a combination of plate- and density-driven flow associated with active rifting processes in the Red Sea.

  12. Quaternary Geology and Surface Faulting Hazard: Active and Capable Faults in Central Apennines, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcucci, E.; Gori, S.

    2015-12-01

    The 2009 L'Aquila earthquake (Mw 6.1), in central Italy, raised the issue of surface faulting hazard in Italy, since large urban areas were affected by surface displacement along the causative structure, the Paganica fault. Since then, guidelines for microzonation were drew up that take into consideration the problem of surface faulting in Italy, and laying the bases for future regulations about related hazard, similarly to other countries (e.g. USA). More specific guidelines on the management of areas affected by active and capable faults (i.e. able to produce surface faulting) are going to be released by National Department of Civil Protection; these would define zonation of areas affected by active and capable faults, with prescriptions for land use planning. As such, the guidelines arise the problem of the time interval and general operational criteria to asses fault capability for the Italian territory. As for the chronology, the review of the international literature and regulatory allowed Galadini et al. (2012) to propose different time intervals depending on the ongoing tectonic regime - compressive or extensional - which encompass the Quaternary. As for the operational criteria, the detailed analysis of the large amount of works dealing with active faulting in Italy shows that investigations exclusively based on surface morphological features (e.g. fault planes exposition) or on indirect investigations (geophysical data), are not sufficient or even unreliable to define the presence of an active and capable fault; instead, more accurate geological information on the Quaternary space-time evolution of the areas affected by such tectonic structures is needed. A test area for which active and capable faults can be first mapped based on such a classical but still effective methodological approach can be the central Apennines. Reference Galadini F., Falcucci E., Galli P., Giaccio B., Gori S., Messina P., Moro M., Saroli M., Scardia G., Sposato A. (2012). Time

  13. Macrostructure-dependent photocatalytic property of high-surface-area porous titania films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, T., E-mail: t-kimura@aist.go.jp [Advanced Manufacturing Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Shimoshidami, Moriyama-ku, Nagoya 463-8560 (Japan)

    2014-11-01

    Porous titania films with different macrostructures were prepared with precise control of condensation degree and density of the oxide frameworks in the presence of spherical aggregates of polystyrene-block-poly(oxyethylene) (PS-b-PEO) diblock copolymer. Following detailed explanation of the formation mechanisms of three (reticular, spherical, and large spherical) macrostructures by the colloidal PS-b-PEO templating, structural variation of the titania frameworks during calcination were investigated by X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Then, photocatalytic performance of the macroporous titania films was evaluated through simple degradation experiments of methylene blue under an UV irradiation. Consequently, absolute surface area of the film and crystallinity of the titania frameworks were important for understanding the photocatalytic performance, but the catalytic performance can be improved further by the macrostructural design that controls diffusivity of the targeted molecules inside the film and their accessibility to active sites.

  14. Macrostructure-dependent photocatalytic property of high-surface-area porous titania films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kimura

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Porous titania films with different macrostructures were prepared with precise control of condensation degree and density of the oxide frameworks in the presence of spherical aggregates of polystyrene-block-poly(oxyethylene (PS-b-PEO diblock copolymer. Following detailed explanation of the formation mechanisms of three (reticular, spherical, and large spherical macrostructures by the colloidal PS-b-PEO templating, structural variation of the titania frameworks during calcination were investigated by X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Then, photocatalytic performance of the macroporous titania films was evaluated through simple degradation experiments of methylene blue under an UV irradiation. Consequently, absolute surface area of the film and crystallinity of the titania frameworks were important for understanding the photocatalytic performance, but the catalytic performance can be improved further by the macrostructural design that controls diffusivity of the targeted molecules inside the film and their accessibility to active sites.

  15. The pH dependent surface charging and points of zero charge. VII. Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmulski, Marek

    2018-01-01

    The pristine points of zero charge (PZC) and isoelectric points (IEP) of metal oxides and IEP of other materials from the recent literature, and a few older results (overlooked in previous searches) are summarized. This study is an update of the previous compilations by the same author [Surface Charging and Points of Zero Charge, CRC, Boca Raton, 2009; J. Colloid Interface Sci. 337 (2009) 439; 353 (2011) 1; 426 (2014) 209]. The field has been very active, but most PZC and IEP are reported for materials, which are very well-documented already (silica, alumina, titania, iron oxides). IEP of (nominally) Gd 2 O 3 , NaTaO 3 , and SrTiO 3 have been reported in the recent literature. Their IEP were not reported in older studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Nicotine dependence matters: examining longitudinal association between smoking and physical activity among Canadian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azagba, Sunday; Asbridge, Mark

    2013-11-01

    A number of studies point to the inverse relationship between physical activity and smoking; however, none has examined the role of nicotine dependence in physical activity participation among smokers. This study examined whether levels of nicotine dependence modify the association between leisure time physical activity and smoking status. The study used longitudinal data on 6795 adults from the Canadian National Population Health Survey (2004-2010). Generalized estimating equations were used to examine the association between physical activity, smoking, and nicotine dependence. We found that nicotine dependent smokers were significantly less likely to be physically active compared to non-smokers. Specifically, using the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence, nicotine dependent smokers (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.55-0.76) were less likely to be physically active while no significant difference was found for non-dependent smokers (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.80-1.02) compared to non-smokers. Nicotine dependence matters in shaping engagement in physical activity among daily smokers. Efforts directed at promoting smoking cessation through nicotine dependence treatment intervention may provide additional benefits to health and well-being through an increased participation in physical activity. © 2013.

  17. Aluminum metal surface cleaning and activation by atmospheric-pressure remote plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muñoz, J., E-mail: jmespadero@uco.es; Bravo, J.A.; Calzada, M.D.

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Atmospheric-pressure postdischarges have been applied on aluminium surfaces. • The outer hydrocarbon layer is reduced by the action of the postdischarge. • The treatment promotes the appearance of hydrophilic OH radicals in the surface. • Effectivity for distances up to 5 cm allows for treating irregular surfaces. • Ageing in air due to the disappearance of OH radicals has been reported. - Abstract: The use of the remote plasma (postdischarge) of argon and argon-nitrogen microwave plasmas for cleaning and activating the surface of metallic commercial aluminum samples has been studied. The influence of the nitrogen content and the distance between the treated samples and the end of the discharge on the hydrophilicity and the surface energy has been analyzed by means of the sessile drop technique and the Owens-Wendt method. A significant increase in the hydrophilicity has been noted in the treated samples, together with an increase in the surface energy from values around 37 mJ/m{sup 2} to 77 mJ/m{sup 2}. Such increase weakly depends on the nitrogen content of the discharge, and the effectivity of the treatment extends to distances up to 5 cm from the end of the discharge, much longer than those reported in other plasma-based treatments. The analysis of the treated samples using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that such increase in the surface energy takes place due to a reduction of the carbon content and an increase in the amount of OH radicals in the surface. These radicals tend to disappear within 24–48 h after the treatment when the samples are stored in contact with ambient air, resulting in the ageing of the treated surface and a partial retrieval of the hydrophobicity of the surface.

  18. Antimicrobial activity of nisin adsorbed to surfaces commonly used in the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Nelson P; Araujo, Ana Belén; Barrera, Ana M; Agrasar, Ana Torrado; Macías, Cristina López; Carballo, Julia; Pastrana, Lorenzo

    2005-05-01

    The adsorption isotherms of nisin to three food contact surfaces, stainless steel, polyethyleneterephthalate (PET), and rubber at 8, 25, 40, and 60 degrees C, were calculated. For all surfaces, the increase in temperature led to a decrease in the affinity between nisin and the surface. The rubber adsorbed a higher amount of nisin (0.697 microg/cm2) in comparison with PET (0.665 microg/cm2) and stainless steel (0.396 microg/cm2). Adsorption of nisin to the stainless steel surface described L-2 type curves for all temperatures assayed. However, for PET and rubber surfaces, the isotherms were L-2 type (at 40 and 60 degrees C) and L-4 type curves (at 8 and 25 degrees C). Nisin retained its antibacterial activity once adsorbed to the food contact surfaces and was able to inhibit the growth of Enterococcus hirae CECT 279 on Rothe agar medium. The attachment of three Listeria monocytogenes strains to the three surfaces was found to be dependent on the surface, the strain, and the initial bacterial suspension in contact with the surface. The adsorption of Nisaplin on surfaces reduced the attachment of all L. monocytogenes strains tested. The effect of PET-based bioactive packaging in food was very encouraging. When applied to a food system, nisin-adsorbed PET bottles reduced significantly (P < 0.05) the levels of the total aerobic plate counts in skim milk by approximately 1.4 log units after 24 days of refrigerated storage (4 degrees C), thus extending its shelf life.

  19. Surface and Subsurface Geodesy Combined with Active Borehole Experimentation for the Advanced Characterization of EGS Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsworth, Derek [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Im, Kyungjae [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Guglielmi, Yves [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mattioli, Glen [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States). UNAVCO

    2016-11-14

    We explore the utility of combining active downhole experimentation with borehole and surface geodesy to determine both the characteristics and evolving state of EGS reservoirs during stimulation through production. The study is divided into two parts. We demonstrate the feasibility of determining in situ reservoir characteristics of reservoir size, strain and fracture permeability and their dependence on feedbacks of stress and temperature using surface and borehole geodetic measurements (Part I). We then define the opportunity to apply the unique hydraulic pulse protocol (HPP) borehole tool to evaluate reservoir state. This can be accomplished by monitoring and co-inverting measured reservoir characteristics (from the HPP tool) with surface geodetic measurements of deformation, tilt and strain with continuous measurements of borehole-wall strain (via optical fiber and fiber Bragg gratings) and measured flow rates (Part II).

  20. Perspective of surface active agents in baking industry: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Asif; Arshad, Nazish; Ahmed, Zaheer; Bhatti, Muhammad Shahbaz; Zahoor, Tahir; Anjum, Nomana; Ahmad, Hajra; Afreen, Asma

    2014-01-01

    Different researchers have previously used surfactants for improving bread qualities and revealed that these compounds result in improving the quality of dough and bread by influencing dough strength, tolerance, uniform crumb cell size, and improve slicing characteristics and gas retention. The objective of this review is to highlight the areas where surfactants are most widely used particularly in the bread industries, their role and mechanism of interaction and their contribution to the quality characteristics of the dough and bread. This review reveals some aspects of surface-active agents regarding its role physiochemical properties of dough that in turn affect the bread characteristics by improving its sensory quality and storage stability.

  1. Surface-dependent cytotoxicity on bacteria as a model for environmental stress of halloysite nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hyo-Jick, E-mail: hyojickchoi@gmail.com [National Institute for Nanotechnology, Nanotechnology Accelerator and Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta (Canada); Stazak, Theodore J. [School of Energy, Environmental, Biological and Medical Engineering, University of Cincinnati (United States); Montemagno, Carlo D., E-mail: montemag@ualberta.ca [National Institute for Nanotechnology, Nanotechnology Accelerator and Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta (Canada)

    2013-10-15

    This study examined the cytotoxicity of halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) by investigating physiological responses of Escherichia coli, from cell growth to protein expression. Surfaces of HNTs were modified by amine functionalization (NH{sub 2}-HNTs) or bovine serum albumin (BSA) coating and their cytotoxicity levels were compared with that of non-modified HNTs (Bare-HNTs). Bare- and NH{sub 2}-HNTs exhibited accelerated cell death rates at {>=}0.5 mg/ml of HNTs. It was also found that concentration as low as 0.01 mg/ml of HNTs exerted significant toxic effects on the bacterial cells. Cellular viability, metabolic activity, and DNA replication all decreased with increasing concentrations of Bare- and NH{sub 2}-HNTs. In contrast, 0.01 mg/ml of BSA-coated HNTs (BSA-HNTs) coated showed no evidence of cytotoxicity. Even at concentrations {<=}0.1 mg/ml, the cytocompatibility of BSA-HNTs was significantly better than those of Bare- and NH{sub 2}-HNTs, which was confirmed by the observation of (i) the same or similar levels of cell proliferation and cell viability to the control, and (ii) higher levels of metabolic activity and plasmid DNA replication than those of Bare- and NH{sub 2}-HNTs. In addition, higher ranaspumin-2 protein yield was observed from bacterial culture supplemented with BSA-HNTs (100, 83, and 80 % of yield at 0.01, 0.05, and 0.1 mg/ml, respectively, relative to the control). This work showed that the increase of bacterial cytotoxicity of HNTs correlated well with elevating HNT concentration and that surface modification of HNTs with amine functional group and BSA coating was an effective strategy to reduce cytotoxicity up to 0.1 mg/ml of HNTs.

  2. Vitamin K dependent protein activity and incident ischemic cardiovascular disease: The multi ethnic study of atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    OBJECTIVE: Vitamin K-dependent proteins (VKDPs), which require post-translational modification to achieve biological activity, seem to contribute to thrombus formation, vascular calcification, and vessel stiffness. Whether VKDP activity is prospectively associated with incident cardiovascular diseas...

  3. Expression of MMPs is dependent on the activity of mitogen-activated protein kinase in chondrosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Min; Wang, Xiaomei; Zhao, Yufeng; Wang, Xiaomeng; Gao, Feng

    2017-02-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs) serve an important role in chondrosarcoma. The present study investigated whether the expression of MMPs was dependent on the activity of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in chondrosarcoma. Surgical pathological specimens were collected to detect MMP-1, MMP-13, TIMP-1, type II collagen and phosphorylated MAPK levels in normal cartilage, enchondroma and chondrosarcoma tissues. The expression of MMP‑1, MMP‑13, TIMP‑1 and type II collagen was investigated utilizing MAPK inhibitors in chondrosarcoma cells. It was noted that the expression levels of MMP‑1, MMP‑13 and TIMP‑1 were increased in chondrosarcoma with the activity of MAPK. After chondrosarcoma cells were pretreated with MAPK inhibitors, the levels of MMP‑1, MMP‑13 and TIMP‑1 were inhibited. Furthermore, MMP‑1 and MMP‑13 are essential in regulating the degradation of type II collagen and decomposing cartilage matrix major. The high expression levels of MMP‑1 and MMP‑13 in chondrosarcoma expedite the invasion by chondrosarcoma cells and their expression can be depressed by MAPK inhibitors.

  4. Nuclear cGMP-dependent kinase regulates gene expression via activity-dependent recruitment of a conserved histone deacetylase complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Hao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Elevation of the second messenger cGMP by nitric oxide (NO activates the cGMP-dependent protein kinase PKG, which is key in regulating cardiovascular, intestinal, and neuronal functions in mammals. The NO-cGMP-PKG signaling pathway is also a major therapeutic target for cardiovascular and male reproductive diseases. Despite widespread effects of PKG activation, few molecular targets of PKG are known. We study how EGL-4, the Caenorhabditis elegans PKG ortholog, modulates foraging behavior and egg-laying and seeks the downstream effectors of EGL-4 activity. Using a combination of unbiased forward genetic screen and proteomic analysis, we have identified a conserved SAEG-1/SAEG-2/HDA-2 histone deacetylase complex that is specifically recruited by activated nuclear EGL-4. Gene expression profiling by microarrays revealed >40 genes that are sensitive to EGL-4 activity in a SAEG-1-dependent manner. We present evidence that EGL-4 controls egg laying via one of these genes, Y45F10C.2, which encodes a novel protein that is expressed exclusively in the uterine epithelium. Our results indicate that, in addition to cytoplasmic functions, active EGL-4/PKG acts in the nucleus via a conserved Class I histone deacetylase complex to regulate gene expression pertinent to behavioral and physiological responses to cGMP. We also identify transcriptional targets of EGL-4 that carry out discrete components of the physiological response.

  5. Spontaneous appetence for wheel-running: a model of dependency on physical activity in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Anthony; Lamarque, Stéphanie; Boyer, Patrice; Perez-Diaz, Fernando; Jouvent, Roland; Cohen-Salmon, Charles

    2006-12-01

    According to human observations of a syndrome of physical activity dependence and its consequences, we tried to examine if running activity in a free activity paradigm, where rats had a free access to activity wheel, may present a valuable animal model for physical activity dependence and most generally to behavioral dependence. The pertinence of reactivity to novelty, a well-known pharmacological dependence predictor was also tested. Given the close linkage observed in human between physical activity and drugs use and abuse, the influence of free activity in activity wheels on reactivity to amphetamine injection and reactivity to novelty were also assessed. It appeared that (1) free access to wheel may be used as a valuable model for physical activity addiction, (2) two populations differing in activity amount also differed in dependence to wheel-running. (3) Reactivity to novelty did not appeared as a predictive factor for physical activity dependence (4) activity modified novelty reactivity and (5) subjects who exhibited a high appetence to wheel-running, presented a strong reactivity to amphetamine. These results propose a model of dependency on physical activity without any pharmacological intervention, and demonstrate the existence of individual differences in the development of this addiction. In addition, these data highlight the development of a likely vulnerability to pharmacological addiction after intense and sustained physical activity, as also described in man. This model could therefore prove pertinent for studying behavioral dependencies and the underlying neurobiological mechanisms. These results may influence the way psychiatrists view behavioral dependencies and phenomena such as doping in sport or addiction to sport itself.

  6. [Size dependent SERS activity of gold nanoparticles studied by 3D-FDTD simulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li-mei; Fang, Ping-ping; Yang, Zhi-lin; Huang, Wen-da; Wu, De-yin; Ren, Bin; Tian, Zhong-qun

    2009-05-01

    By synthesizing Au nanoparticles with the controllable size from about 16 to 160 nm and measuring their SERS activity, the authors found that Au nanoparticles film with a size in the range of 120-135 nm showed the highest SERS activity with the 632.8 nm excitation, which is different from previous experimental results and theoretical predictions. The three dimensional finite difference time domain (3D-FDTD)method was employed to simulate the size dependent SERS activity. At the 632.8 nm excitation, the particles with a size of 110 nm shows the highest enhancement under coupling condition and presents an enhancement as high as 10(9) at the hot site. If the enhancement is averaged over the whole surface, the enhancement can still be as high as 10(7), in good agreement with our experimental data. For Au nanoparticles with a larger size such as 220 nm, the multipolar effect leads to the appearance of the second maximum enhancement with the increase in particles size. The averaged enhancement for the excitation line of 325 nm is only 10(2).

  7. Optimisation of amylase and xylanase addition in dependance of white flour amylase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lončar Davor M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the effect of different quantities of added amylase to white wheat flours characterized with different activities of naturally existing amylases is tested. Response surface methodology is chosen to test the effects of main applied technological parameters on bread quality responses. Independent variables are chosen to be: quantity of added amylase and bulk fermentation time, while analysed responses are: specific volume, grain structure, bulk fermentation. Bread quality responses are statistically significant, while predicted and observed responses correspond very well, which allows good prediction of bread quality parameters based on applied technological parameters and flour characteristics. Score analysis shows that optimum quantity of amylase addition regarding bread quality depends on the activity of naturally existing amylases. Optimal quantity of added xylanase in bread samples made from both flour types is 0.004%. Xylanase improved properties of white wheat bread and higher effect is experienced with flour that has more active naturally existing amylases. Addition of amylase has statistically significantly increased a* values of crust. Addition of xylanase has statistically significantly decreased values of b* in comparison to the respective bread sample with only added amylase.

  8. In vitro study of proteins surface activity by tritium probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernysheva, M.G.; Badun, G.A.

    2010-01-01

    A new technique for in vitro studies of biomacromolecules interactions, their adsorption at aqueous/organic liquid interfaces and distribution in the bulk of liquid/liquid systems was developed. The method includes (1) tritium labeling of biomolecules by tritium thermal activation method and (2) scintillation phase step with organic phase, which can be concerned as a model of cellular membrane. Two globular proteins lysozyme and human serum albumin tested. We have determined the conditions of tritium labeling when labeled by-products can be easy separated by means of dialysis and size-exclusion chromatography. Scintillation phase experiments were conducted for three types of organic liquids. Thus, the influences of the nature of organic phase on proteins adsorption and its distribution in the bulk of aqueous/organic liquid system were determined. It was found that proteins possess high surface activity at aqueous/organic liquid interface. Furthermore, values of hydrophobicity of globular proteins were found by the experiment. (author)

  9. Estimation of Sway Velocity-Dependent Hydrodynamic Derivatives in Surface Ship Manoeuvring Using Ranse Based CFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheeja Janardhanan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The hydrodynamic derivatives appearing in the manoeuvring equations of motion are the primary parameters in the prediction of the trajectory of a vessel. Determination of these derivatives poses major challenge in ship manoeuvring related problems. This paper deals with one such problem in which an attempt has been made to numerically simulate the conventional straight line test in a towing tank using computational fluid dynamics (CFD. Free-surface effects have been neglected here. The domain size has been fixed as per ITTC guide lines. The grid size has been fixed after a thorough grid independency analysis and an optimum grid size has been chosen in order to ensure the insensitivity of the flow parameters to grid size and also to have reduced computational effort. The model has been oriented to wider range of drift angles to capture the non-linear effects and subsequently the forces and moments acting on the model in each angle have been estimated. The sway velocity dependent derivatives have been obtained through plots and curve-fits. The effect of finite water depth on the derivatives has also been looked into. The results have been compared with the available experimental and empirical values and the method was found to be promising.

  10. DREAM-Dependent Activation of Astrocytes in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrodé, Pilar; Calvo, Ana Cristina; Moreno-Martínez, Laura; de la Torre, Miriam; Moreno-García, Leticia; Molina, Nora; Castiella, Tomás; Iñiguez, Cristina; Pascual, Luis Fernando; Mena, Francisco Javier Miana; Zaragoza, Pilar; Y Cajal, Santiago Ramón; Osta, Rosario

    2018-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease of unknown origin and characterized by a relentless loss of motor neurons that causes a progressive muscle weakness until death. Among the several pathogenic mechanisms that have been related to ALS, a dysregulation of calcium-buffering proteins in motor neurons of the brain and spinal cord can make these neurons more vulnerable to disease progression. Downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator (DREAM) is a neuronal calcium-binding protein that plays multiple roles in the nucleus and cytosol. The main aim of this study was focused on the characterization of DREAM and glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) in the brain and spinal cord tissues from transgenic SOD1 G93A mice and ALS patients to unravel its potential role under neurodegenerative conditions. The DREAM and GFAP levels in the spinal cord and different brain areas from transgenic SOD1 G93A mice and ALS patients were analyzed by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Our findings suggest that the calcium-dependent excitotoxicity progressively enhanced in the CNS in ALS could modulate the multifunctional nature of DREAM, strengthening its apoptotic way of action in both motor neurons and astrocytes, which could act as an additional factor to increase neuronal damage. The direct crosstalk between astrocytes and motor neurons can become vulnerable under neurodegenerative conditions, and DREAM could act as an additional switch to enhance motor neuron loss. Together, these findings could pave the way to further study the molecular targets of DREAM to find novel therapeutic strategies to fight ALS.

  11. Dose-dependent pharmacokinetics and teratogenic activity of topical retinoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.P.; Willhite, C.C.; Berry, D.L.; Allen, P.V.

    1990-01-01

    Oral retinoid treatment can be teratogenic and topical applications are used to treat acne and smooth wrinkles. A single topical trace (2.5 μg; 191 μCi/kg) or high (1.3 mg; 195 μCi/kg) dose of all-trans-[10, 11- 3 H 2 ] retinoic acid (RA) dissolved in acetone was applied to 4 cm 2 shaved dorsal hamster skin. Peak plasma radioactivity (C max ) occurred at 12 and 36 hr and mean t1/2 values for parent PA absorption were 48 min and 2.8 hr, for trace and high dose, respectively. The dermal RA C max values were only 2% of that after an equivalent oral dose, but plasma AUC after dermal treatment was 63% of the oral value. The mean t1/2 for rapid elimination was shorter for the high (57 min) than for the trace (6.9 hr) dose, but t1/2 values for slow elimination were comparable (t1/2 high = 51.2 hr; t1/2 trace = 36.8 hr). Single topical application of 10-30 mg/kg RA or 5 mg/kg etretinate (Ro 10-9359) to pregnant hamsters (day 8) caused local hyperkeratosis, but failed to induce terata. Similar application of 10-1000 μg/kg arotinoid Ro 13-6298 caused dose-dependent terata, being twice as embryolethal by parenteral as enteric dosing. Skin toxicity and attenuated maternal blood levels limit the amount of retinoids that can reach the embryo

  12. Time-dependent relative activities in the radioactive families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiernik, M.

    1976-01-01

    The relative activities of the members of the principal radioactive families, with respect to the initial activities of chosen parents were calculated for a wide range of time intervals. Tables ard graphs that are useful for radiochemistry, source standardization and chronology are presented.Three series of graphs and tables are included; series A corresponds to the family 4n, series B corresponds to the family 4n+ x, series C corresponds to the family 4n+2. A foustry, source standardization and chronology are presented. rth series 4n+1 ( 241 Pu/ 209 Bi) was not included, because it does not exist in nature and, thus, is of little interest. Each series begins with a table identified by a plain letter (A,B,C) where all the nuclides considered for the calculations and their half-lives are listed. Branching was neglected. All the series begin with isotopes of plutonium in order to show some examples of no-equilibrium, and five of the longest lived members of each family were chosen as the parents of the sub-families. The graphs show that, besides their obvious use in radiochemical separations and standardizations, each family beginning with a naturally occuring nuclide has a particular time span (before secular equilibrium occurs) that can be used for chronology. Thus, if the proper radionuclides are present, we can use the wide range families in geological and archeological research and the short range ones in other kinds of jobs, like checking the authenticity of art masterpieces and other forensic problems. (T.G.)

  13. Novel time-dependent vascular actions of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol mediated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Sullivan, Saoirse E.; Tarling, Elizabeth J.; Bennett, Andrew J.; Kendall, David A.; Randall, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    Cannabinoids have widespread effects on the cardiovascular system, only some of which are mediated via G-protein-coupled cell surface receptors. The active ingredient of cannabis, Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), causes acute vasorelaxation in various arteries. Here we show for the first time that THC also causes slowly developing vasorelaxation through activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors gamma (PPARγ). In vitro, THC (10 μM) caused time-dependent vasorelaxation of rat isolated arteries. Time-dependent vasorelaxation to THC was similar to that produced by the PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone and was inhibited by the PPARγ antagonist GW9662 (1 μM), but not the cannabinoid CB 1 receptor antagonist AM251 (1 μM). Time-dependent vasorelaxation to THC requires an intact endothelium, nitric oxide, production of hydrogen peroxide, and de novo protein synthesis. In transactivation assays in cultured HEK293 cells, THC-activated PPARγ, transiently expressed in combination with retinoid X receptor α and a luciferase reporter gene, in a concentration-dependent manner (100 nM-10 μM). In vitro incubation with THC (1 or 10 μM, 8 days) stimulated adipocyte differentiation in cultured 3T3L1 cells, a well-accepted property of PPARγ ligands. The present results provide strong evidence that THC is a PPARγ ligand, stimulation of which causes time-dependent vasorelaxation, implying some of the pleiotropic effects of cannabis may be mediated by nuclear receptors

  14. FRACTAL ANALYSIS OF PHYSICAL ADSORPTION ON SURFACES OF ACID ACTIVATED BENTONITES FROM SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Rožić

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Solid surfaces are neither ideally regular, that is, morphological and energeticcally homogeneous, nor are they fully irregular or fractal. Instead, real solid surfaces exhibit a limited degree of organization quantified by the fractal dimension, D. Fractal analysis was applied to investigate the effect of concentrations of HCl solutions on the structural and textural properties of chemically activated bentonite from southern Serbia. Acid treatment of bentonites is applied in order to remove impurities and various exchangeable cations from bentonite clay. Important physical changes in acid-activated smectite are the increase of the specific surface area and of the average pore volume, depending on acid strength, time and temperature of a treatment. On the basis of the sorption-structure analysis, the fractal dimension of the bentonite surfaces was determined by Mahnke and Mögel method. The fractal dimension evaluated by this method was 2.11 for the AB3 and 1.94 for the AB4.5 sample. The estimation of the values of the fractal dimension of activated bentonites was performed in the region of small pores, 0.5 nm < rp < 2 nm.

  15. Design parameters for measurements of local catalytic activity on surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Martin; Johannessen, Tue; Jørgensen, Jan Hoffmann

    2006-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics in combination with experiments is used to characterize a gas sampling device for measurements of the local catalytic activity on surfaces. The device basically consists of a quartz capillary mounted concentrically inside an aluminum tube. Reactant gas is blown toward......, the limits of the range in reaction rate, which can be Studied are estimated. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.......Computational fluid dynamics in combination with experiments is used to characterize a gas sampling device for measurements of the local catalytic activity on surfaces. The device basically consists of a quartz capillary mounted concentrically inside an aluminum tube. Reactant gas is blown toward...... limit for the lateral resolution of the measurement, and that a flow rate of the order of 240 (ml/min)(n) is sufficient to achieve this resolution. The sensitivity is reasonable also with high flow rates, due to the presence of a pocket of stagnant gas under the tip of the capillary. Furthermore...

  16. Exotic high activity surface patterns in PtAu nanoclusters

    KAUST Repository

    Mokkath, Junais Habeeb

    2013-05-09

    The structure and chemical ordering of PtAu nanoclusters of 79, 135, and 201 atoms are studied via a combination of a basin hopping atom-exchange technique (to locate the lowest energy homotops at fixed composition), a symmetry orbit technique (to find the high symmetry isomers), and density functional theory local reoptimization (for determining the most stable homotop). The interatomic interactions between Pt and Au are derived from the empirical Gupta potential. The lowest energy structures show a marked tendency toward PtcoreAushell chemical ordering by enrichment of the more cohesive Pt in the core region and of Au in the shell region. We observe a preferential segregation of Pt atoms to (111) facets and Au atoms to (100) facets of the truncated octahedron cluster motif. Exotic surface patterns are obtained particularly for Pt-rich compositions, where Pt atoms are being surrounded by Au atoms. These surface arrangements boost the catalytic activity by creating a large number of active sites. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  17. Angle-dependent XPS study of the mechanisms of 'high-low temperature' activation of GaAs photocathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Xiaoqing; Chang Benkang

    2005-01-01

    The surface chemical compositions, atomic concentration percentage and layer thickness after 'high-temperature' single-step activation and 'high-low temperature' two-step activation were obtained using quantitative analysis of angle-dependent X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It was found that compared to single-step activation, the thickness of GaAs-O interface barrier had a remarkable decrease, the degree of As-O bond became much smaller and the Ga-O bond became dominating, and at the same time the thickness of (Cs, O) layer also had a deduction while the ratio of Cs to O had no change after two-step activation. The measured spectral response curves showed that a increase of 29% of sensitivity had been obtained after two-step activation. To explore the inherent mechanisms of influences of the evolution of GaAs(Cs, O) surface layers on photoemission, surface electric barrier models based on the experimental results were built. By calculation of electron escape probability it was found that the decrease of thickness of GaAs-O interface barrier and (Cs, O) layer is the main reasons, which explained why higher sensitivity is achieved after two-step activation than single-step activation

  18. Size and Site Dependence of the Catalytic Activity of Iridium Clusters toward Ethane Dehydrogenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yingbin; Jiang, Hao; Kato, Russell; Gummagatta, Prasuna

    2016-12-01

    This research focuses on optimizing transition metal nanocatalyst immobilization and activity to enhance ethane dehydrogenation. Ethane dehydrogenation, catalyzed by thermally stable Ir n (n = 8, 12, 18) atomic clusters that exhibit a cuboid structure, was studied using the B3LYP method with triple-ζ basis sets. Relativistic effects and dispersion corrections were included in the calculations. In the dehydrogenation reaction Ir n + C 2 H 6 → H-Ir n -C 2 H 5 → (H) 2 -Ir n -C 2 H 4 , the first H-elimination is the rate-limiting step, primarily because the reaction releases sufficient heat to facilitate the second H-elimination. The catalytic activity of the Ir clusters strongly depends on the Ir cluster size and the specific catalytic site. Cubic Ir 8 is the least reactive toward H-elimination in ethane: Ir 8 + C 2 H 6 → H-Ir 8 -C 2 H 5 has a large (65 kJ/mol) energy barrier, whereas Ir 12 (3 × 2 × 2 cuboid) and Ir 18 (3 × 3 × 2 cuboid) lower this energy barrier to 22 and 3 kJ/mol, respectively. The site dependence is as prominent as the size effect. For example, the energy barrier for the Ir 18 + C 2 H 6 → H-Ir 18 -C 2 H 5 reaction is 3, 48, and 71 kJ/mol at the corner, edge, or face-center sites of the Ir 18 cuboid, respectively. Energy release due to Ir cluster insertion into an ethane C-H bond facilitates hydrogen migration on the Ir cluster surface, and the second H-elimination of ethane. In an oxygen-rich environment, oxygen molecules may be absorbed on the Ir cluster surface. The oxygen atoms bonded to the Ir cluster surface may slightly increase the energy barrier for H-elimination in ethane. However, the adsorption of oxygen and its reaction with H atoms on the Ir cluster releases sufficient heat to yield an overall thermodynamically favored reaction: Ir n + C 2 H 6 + 1 / 2 O 2 → Ir n + C 2 H 4 + H 2 O. These results will be useful toward reducing the energy cost of ethane dehydrogenation in industry.

  19. CXCR3 surface expression in human airway epithelial cells: cell cycle dependence and effect on cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Mark O; Yang, Yi; Ji, Rong; Reddy, P J; Shahabuddin, Syed; Litvin, Judith; Rogers, Thomas J; Kelsen, Steven G

    2006-05-01

    We recently demonstrated that human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC) constitutively express the CXC chemokine receptor CXCR3, which when activated, induces directed cell migration. The present study in HBEC examined the relative expression of the CXCR3 splice variants CXCR3-A and -B, cell cycle dependence of CXCR3 expression, and the effects of the CXCR3 ligand, the interferon-gamma-inducible CXC chemokine I-TAC/CXCL11, on DNA synthesis and cell proliferation. Both CXCR3-A and -B mRNA, assessed by real-time RT-PCR, were expressed in normal HBEC (NHBEC) and the HBEC line 16-HBE. However, CXCR3-B mRNA was 39- and 6-fold greater than CXCR3-A mRNA in NHBEC and 16-HBE, respectively. Although most HBEC (>80%) assessed by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy contained intracellular CXCR3, only a minority (75%) were in the S + G(2)/M phases of the cell cycle. Stimulation of CXCR3 with I-TAC enhanced thymidine incorporation and cell proliferation and increased p38 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. These data indicate that 1) human airway epithelial cells primarily express CXCR3-B mRNA, 2) surface expression of CXCR3 is largely confined to the S + G(2)/M phases of the cell cycle, and 3) activation of CXCR3 induces DNA synthesis, cell proliferation, and activation of MAPK pathways. We speculate that activation of CXCR3 exerts a mitogenic effect in HBEC, which may be important during airway mucosal injury in obstructive airway diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  20. Calculated viscosity-distance dependence for some actively flowing lavas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pieri, D.

    1987-01-01

    The importance of viscosity as a gauge of the various energy and momentum dissipation regimes of lava flows has been realized for a long time. Nevertheless, despite its central role in lava dynamics and kinematics, it remains among the most difficult of flow physical properties to measure in situ during an eruption. Attempts at reconstructing the actual emplacement viscosities of lava flows from their solidified topographic form are difficult. Where data are available on the position of an advancing flow front as a function of time, it is possible to calculate the effective viscosity of the front as a function of distance from the vent, under the assumptions of a steady state regime. As an application and test of an equation given, relevant parameters from five recent flows on Mauna Loa and Kilauea were utilized to infer the dynamic structure of their aggregate flow front viscosity as they advanced, up to cessation. The observed form of the viscosity-distance relation for the five active Hawaiian flows examined appears to be exponential, with a rapid increase just before the flows stopped as one would expect

  1. Dampened STING-Dependent Interferon Activation in Bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jiazheng; Li, Yang; Shen, Xurui; Goh, Geraldine; Zhu, Yan; Cui, Jie; Wang, Lin-Fa; Shi, Zheng-Li; Zhou, Peng

    2018-03-14

    Compared with terrestrial mammals, bats have a longer lifespan and greater capacity to co-exist with a variety of viruses. In addition to cytosolic DNA generated by these viral infections, the metabolic demands of flight cause DNA damage and the release of self-DNA into the cytoplasm. However, whether bats have an altered DNA sensing/defense system to balance high cytosolic DNA levels remains an open question. We demonstrate that bats have a dampened interferon response due to the replacement of the highly conserved serine residue (S358) in STING, an essential adaptor protein in multiple DNA sensing pathways. Reversing this mutation by introducing S358 restored STING functionality, resulting in interferon activation and virus inhibition. Combined with previous reports on bat-specific changes of other DNA sensors such as TLR9, IFI16, and AIM2, our findings shed light on bat adaptation to flight, their long lifespan, and their unique capacity to serve as a virus reservoir. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Lung ventilation injures areas with discrete alveolar flooding, in a surface tension-dependent fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, You; Kharge, Angana Banerjee; Perlman, Carrie E

    2014-10-01

    With proteinaceous-liquid flooding of discrete alveoli, a model of the edema pattern in the acute respiratory distress syndrome, lung inflation over expands aerated alveoli adjacent to flooded alveoli. Theoretical considerations suggest that the overexpansion may be proportional to surface tension, T. Yet recent evidence indicates proteinaceous edema liquid may not elevate T. Thus whether the overexpansion is injurious is not known. Here, working in the isolated, perfused rat lung, we quantify fluorescence movement from the vasculature to the alveolar liquid phase as a measure of overdistension injury to the alveolar-capillary barrier. We label the perfusate with fluorescence; micropuncture a surface alveolus and instill a controlled volume of nonfluorescent liquid to obtain a micropunctured-but-aerated region (control group) or a region with discrete alveolar flooding; image the region at a constant transpulmonary pressure of 5 cmH2O; apply five ventilation cycles with a positive end-expiratory pressure of 0-20 cmH2O and tidal volume of 6 or 12 ml/kg; return the lung to a constant transpulmonary pressure of 5 cmH2O; and image for an additional 10 min. In aerated areas, ventilation is not injurious. With discrete alveolar flooding, all ventilation protocols cause sustained injury. Greater positive end-expiratory pressure or tidal volume increases injury. Furthermore, we determine T and find injury increases with T. Inclusion of either plasma proteins or Survanta in the flooding liquid does not alter T or injury. Inclusion of 2.7-10% albumin and 1% Survanta together, however, lowers T and injury. Contrary to expectation, albumin inclusion in our model facilitates exogenous surfactant activity. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Conventional and acoustic surface plasmons on noble metal surfaces: a time-dependent density functional theory study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Jun; Jacobsen, Karsten W.; Thygesen, Kristian S.

    2012-01-01

    and an orbital-dependent exchange-correlation (xc) potential that improves the position and width of the d bands. The plasmon dispersions calculated with the latter xc potential agree well with electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) experiments. For both the CSP and ASP, the same trend of Cu

  4. A STUDY ON THE PROPERTIES OF SURFACEACTIVE FLUIDS USED IN BURNISHING AND SHOT PEENING PROCESSES

    OpenAIRE

    Kazmierz Zaleski

    2016-01-01

    A method is presented for the study of surface-active properties of a fluids, in burnishing and shot peening processes used, which consists in comparing mean plastic strains of thin metal foil subjected to tensile tests in the examined fluid and in air. As a surface-active additive to the fluid (mineral oil), methyl polymethacrylate solution was used. It was found that the surfactant activity coefficient depended on the type of examined fluid as well as on the thickness of the foil being stre...

  5. On a Hele-Shaw flow with a time-dependent gap in the presence of surface tension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savina, T V; Nepomnyashchy, A A

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of surface tension into a Hele-Shaw problem makes it more realistic from the physical viewpoint, but more difficult from the mathematical viewpoint. In this paper we discuss a Hele-Shaw flow with a time-dependent gap taking into account the surface tension of the free boundary. We use the Schwarz function method to find asymptotic solutions for the interior problem in the case when the initial shape of the droplet is a weakly distorted circle. (paper)

  6. Calculated orientation dependence of surface segregations in Pt50Ni50

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrikosov, I. A.; Ruban, Andrei; Skriver, Hans Lomholt

    1994-01-01

    We present local-density calculations of surface segregation profiles in a random Pt50Ni50 alloy. We find that the concentration profiles of the three low-index surfaces oscillate and that the two most closely packed surfaces, i.e., (111) and (100), are enriched by Pt while Ni is found to segrega...

  7. Gamma radiation fields from activity deposited on road and soil surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedemann Jensen, P.

    1993-12-01

    Radioactive material deposited in the environment after an accidental release would cause exposure of the population living in the affected areas. The radiation field will depend on many factors such as radionuclide composition, surface contamination density, removal of activity by weathering and migration, and protective measures like decontamination, ploughing and covering by asphalt. Methods are described for calculation of air kerma rate from deposited activity on road and soil surfaces, both from the initially deposited activity and from activity distributed in the upper layer of soil as well as from activity covered by asphalt or soil. Air kerma rates are calculated for different source geometries and the results are fitted to a power-exponential function of photon energy, depth distributions in soil and horizontal dimensions. Based on this function calculations of air kerma rate can easily be made on a personal computer or programmable pocket calculator for specific radionuclide compositions and different horizontal and vertical distributions of the deposited activity. The calculations are compared to results from other methods like the Monte Carlo method and good agreement is found between the results. (au) (7 tabs., 12 ills., 8 refs.)

  8. Active ion transport in the renal proximal tubule. II. Ionic dependence of the Na pump

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    The dependence of Na pump activity on intracellular and extracellular Na+ and K+ was investigated using a suspension of rabbit cortical tubules that contained mostly (86%) proximal tubules. The ouabain- sensitive rate of respiration (QO2) was used to measure the Na pump activity of intact tubules, and the Na,K-ATPase hydrolytic activity was measured using lysed proximal tubule membranes. The dependence (K0.5) of the Na pump on intracellular Na+ was affected by the relative intracellular conce...

  9. SU-E-T-44: Angular Dependence of Surface Dose Enhancement Measured On Several Inhomogeneities Using Radiochromic EBT3 Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, A; Schoenfeld, A; Poppinga, D; Chofor, N; Poppe, B

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The quantification of the relative surface dose enhancement in dependence on the angle of incidence and the atomic number Z of the surface material. Methods: Experiments were performed with slabs made of aluminum, titanium, copper, silver, dental gold and lead. The metal slabs with equal sizes of 1.0×8.0×8.8mm 3 were embedded in an Octavius 4D phantom (PTW Freiburg, Germany). Radiochromic EBT3 films were used to measure the surface dose for angles of incidence ranging from 0° to 90°. The setup with the metals slabs at the isocenter was irradiated with acceleration voltages of 6MV and 10MV. Water reference measurements were taken under equal conditions. Results: The surface dose enhancement is highest for angles of incidence below 30° and drops significantly for higher. The surface dose enhancement produced by lead and dental gold at 6MV showed a peak of 65%. At 90°, the surface dose enhancement dropped to 15% for both materials. The surface dose enhancements for silver, copper, titanium and aluminum were 45%, 32%, 22% and 12% at 0°, respectively. At an angle of incidence of 80°, the values dropped to 22%, 18%, 12% und 6%. The values for 10MV were very similar. Lead and dental gold showed peaks of 65% und 60%. Their values dropped to 18% at an angle of 90°. The surface dose enhancements for silver, copper, titanium and aluminum were 45%, 30%, 20% and 8% at 0°. At 80° the values dropped to 30%, 20%, 12% and 5%. A dependence of the magnitude of the surface dose enhancement on the atomic number of the surface material can be seen, which is in consistence with literature. Conclusion: The results show that the surface dose enhancements near implant materials with high Z-values should be taken into consideration in radio therapy, even when the angle of incidence is flat

  10. Active-site titration analysis of surface influence on immobilized Candida antarctica Lipase B activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matrix morphology and surface polarity effects were investigated for Candida antarctica lipase B immobilization. Measurements of the amount of lipase immobilized (bicinchoninic acid method) and the catalyst’s tributyrin hydrolysis activity, coupled with a determination of the lipase’s functional fr...

  11. Temperature and magnetic field dependence of the Yosida-Kondo resonance for a single magnetic atom adsorbed on a surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dino, Wilson Agerico; Kasai, Hideaki; Rodulfo, Emmanuel Tapas; Nishi, Mayuko

    2006-01-01

    Manifestations of the Kondo effect on an atomic length scale on and around a magnetic atom adsorbed on a nonmagnetic surface differ depending on the spectroscopic mode of operation of the scanning tunneling microscope. Two prominent signatures of the Kondo effect that can be observed at surfaces are the development of a sharp resonance (Yosida-Kondo resonance) at the Fermi level, which broadens with increasing temperature, and the splitting of this sharp resonance upon application of an external magnetic field. Until recently, observing the temperature and magnetic field dependence has been a challenge, because the experimental conditions strongly depend on the system's critical temperature, the so-called Kondo temperature T K . In order to clearly observe the temperature dependence, one needs to choose a system with a large T K . One can thus perform the experiments at temperatures T K . However, because the applied external magnetic field necessary to observe the magnetic field dependence scales with T K , one needs to choose a system with a very small T K . This in turn means that one should perform the experiments at very low temperatures, e.g., in the mK range. Here we discuss the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the Yosida-Kondo resonance for a single magnetic atom on a metal surface, in relation to recent experimental developments

  12. CFTR-dependent defect in alternatively-activated macrophages in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarique, Abdullah A; Sly, Peter D; Holt, Patrick G; Bosco, Anthony; Ware, Robert S; Logan, Jayden; Bell, Scott C; Wainwright, Claire E; Fantino, Emmanuelle

    2017-07-01

    The role of the macrophages in cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease has been poorly studied. We hypothesized that alternatively activated M2 macrophages are abnormal in CF lung disease. Blood samples were collected from adults (n=13) children (n=27) with CF on admission for acute pulmonary exacerbation and when clinically stable. Monocytes were differentiated into macrophages and polarized into classical (M1) and alternatively-activated (M2) phenotypes, function determined ex-vivo and compared with healthy controls. In the absence of functional cystic fibrosis trans-membrane conductance regulator (CFTR), either naturally in patients with CF or induced with CFTR inhibitors, monocyte-derived macrophages do not respond to IL-13/IL-4, fail to polarize into M2s associated with a post-transcriptional failure to produce and express IL-13Rα1 on the macrophage surface Polarization to the M1 phenotype was unaffected. CFTR-dependent imbalance of macrophage phenotypes and functions could contribute to the exaggerated inflammatory response seen in CF lung disease. Copyright © 2017 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Observation on Surface Change of Fragile Glass: Temperature - Time Dependence Studied by X-Ray Reflectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikkawa, Hiroyuki; Kitahara, Amane; Takahashi, Isao

    2004-01-01

    The structural change of a fragile glass surface close to the glass transition temperature Tg is studied by using X-ray reflectivity. Measurements were performed on surfaces of maltitol, which is a typical polyalcohol fragile glass with Tg = 320K. Upon both heating and cooling, we find the following features which are also noticed in silicate glass surfaces: (i) On heating, the surface morphology indicates a variation at temperatures below Tg; (ii) A drastic increase in surface roughness occurs at a temperature about 333K on heating, which is 13K higher than Tg; (iii) During the cooling of the sample, formation of a low-density surface layer (3nm at 293K) is observed. Prior to the crystallization, nm - μm sized domains were grown at the surface, which might not be reported for other glasses

  14. Surface-structure dependence of healing radiation-damage mechanism in nanoporous tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Guohua; Li, Xiangyan; Sun, Jingjing; Hao, Congyu; Xu, Yichun; Zhang, Yange; Liu, Wei; Liu, C. S.

    2018-01-01

    Under nuclear fusion environments, displacement damage in tungsten (W) is usually caused by neutrons irradiation through producing large quantities of vacancies (Vs) and self-interstitial atoms (SIAs). These defects not only affect the mechanical properties of W, but also act as the trap sites for implanted hydrogen isotopes and helium. Nano-porous (NP) W with a high fraction of free surfaces has been developed to mitigate the radiation damage. However, the mechanism of the surface reducing defects accumulation is not well understood. By using multi-scale simulation methods, we investigated the interaction of the SIA and V with different surfaces on across length and time scales. We found that, at a typical operation temperature of 1000 K, surface (1 1 0) preferentially heals radiation damage of W compared with surface (1 0 0) and boundary (3 1 0). On surface (1 1 0), the diffusion barrier for the SIA is only 0.68 eV. The annihilation of the SIA-V happens via the coupled motion of the V segregation towards the surface from the bulk and the two-dimensional diffusion of the SIA on the surface. Such mechanism makes the surface (1 1 0) owe better healing capability. On surface (1 0 0), the diffusion energy barrier for the SIA is 2.48 eV, higher than the diffusion energy barrier of the V in bulk. The annihilation of the SIA-V occurs via the V segregation and recombination. The SIA was found to migrate one-dimensionally along a boundary (3 1 0) with a barrier of 0.21 eV, leading to a lower healing efficiency in the boundary. This study suggested that the on-surface process plays an important role in healing radiation damage of NP W in addition to surface-enhanced diffusion and annihilation near the surface. A certain surface structure renders nano-structured W more radiation-tolerant.

  15. Puerarin activates endothelial nitric oxide synthase through estrogen receptor-dependent PI3-kinase and calcium-dependent AMP-activated protein kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Yong Pil; Kim, Hyung Gyun; Hien, Tran Thi; Jeong, Myung Ho; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2011-01-01

    The cardioprotective properties of puerarin, a natural product, have been attributed to the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-mediated production of nitric oxide (NO) in EA.hy926 endothelial cells. However, the mechanism by which puerarin activates eNOS remains unclear. In this study, we sought to identify the intracellular pathways underlying eNOS activation by puerarin. Puerarin induced the activating phosphorylation of eNOS on Ser1177 and the production of NO in EA.hy926 cells. Puerarin-induced eNOS phosphorylation required estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling and was reversed by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) inhibition. Importantly, puerarin inhibited the adhesion of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-stimulated monocytes to endothelial cells and suppressed the TNF-α induced expression of intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1. Puerarin also inhibited the TNF-α-induced nuclear factor-κB activation, which was attenuated by pretreatment with N G -nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, a NOS inhibitor. These results indicate that puerarin stimulates eNOS phosphorylation and NO production via activation of an estrogen receptor-mediated PI3K/Akt- and CaMKII/AMPK-dependent pathway. Puerarin may be useful for the treatment or prevention of endothelial dysfunction associated with diabetes and cardiovascular disease. -- Highlights: ► Puerarin induced the phosphorylation of eNOS and the production of NO. ► Puerarin activated eNOS through ER-dependent PI3-kinase and Ca 2+ -dependent AMPK. ► Puerarin-induced NO was involved in the inhibition of NF-kB activation. ► Puerarin may help for prevention of vascular dysfunction and diabetes.

  16. Puerarin activates endothelial nitric oxide synthase through estrogen receptor-dependent PI3-kinase and calcium-dependent AMP-activated protein kinase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Yong Pil; Kim, Hyung Gyun [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hien, Tran Thi [College of Pharmacy, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Myung Ho [Heart Research Center, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Tae Cheon, E-mail: taecheon@ynu.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Yeungnam University, Gyungsan (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hye Gwang, E-mail: hgjeong@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    The cardioprotective properties of puerarin, a natural product, have been attributed to the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-mediated production of nitric oxide (NO) in EA.hy926 endothelial cells. However, the mechanism by which puerarin activates eNOS remains unclear. In this study, we sought to identify the intracellular pathways underlying eNOS activation by puerarin. Puerarin induced the activating phosphorylation of eNOS on Ser1177 and the production of NO in EA.hy926 cells. Puerarin-induced eNOS phosphorylation required estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling and was reversed by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) inhibition. Importantly, puerarin inhibited the adhesion of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha}-stimulated monocytes to endothelial cells and suppressed the TNF-{alpha} induced expression of intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1. Puerarin also inhibited the TNF-{alpha}-induced nuclear factor-{kappa}B activation, which was attenuated by pretreatment with N{sup G}-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, a NOS inhibitor. These results indicate that puerarin stimulates eNOS phosphorylation and NO production via activation of an estrogen receptor-mediated PI3K/Akt- and CaMKII/AMPK-dependent pathway. Puerarin may be useful for the treatment or prevention of endothelial dysfunction associated with diabetes and cardiovascular disease. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Puerarin induced the phosphorylation of eNOS and the production of NO. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Puerarin activated eNOS through ER-dependent PI3-kinase and Ca{sup 2+}-dependent AMPK. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Puerarin-induced NO was involved in the inhibition of NF-kB activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Puerarin may help for prevention of vascular dysfunction and diabetes.

  17. Mechanical stress-controlled tunable active frequency-selective surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bo-Cin; Hong, Jian-Wei; Lo, Cheng-Yao

    2017-01-01

    This study proposes a tunable active frequency-selective surface (AFSS) realized by mechanically expanding or contracting a split-ring resonator (SRR) array. The proposed AFSS transfers mechanical stress from its elastic substrate to the top of the SRR, thereby achieving electromagnetic (EM) modulation without the need for an additional external power supply, meeting the requirements for the target application: the invisibility cloak. The operating mechanism of the proposed AFSS differs from those of other AFSSs, supporting modulations in arbitrary frequencies in the target range. The proposed stress-controlled or strain-induced EM modulation proves the existence of an identical and linear relationship between the strain gradient and the frequency shift, implying its suitability for other EM modulation ranges and applications.

  18. Active tuning of surface phonon polariton resonances via carrier photoinjection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkelberger, Adam D.; Ellis, Chase T.; Ratchford, Daniel C.; Giles, Alexander J.; Kim, Mijin; Kim, Chul Soo; Spann, Bryan T.; Vurgaftman, Igor; Tischler, Joseph G.; Long, James P.; Glembocki, Orest J.; Owrutsky, Jeffrey C.; Caldwell, Joshua D.

    2018-01-01

    Surface phonon polaritons (SPhPs) are attractive alternatives to infrared plasmonics for subdiffractional confinement of infrared light. Localized SPhP resonances in semiconductor nanoresonators are narrow, but that linewidth and the limited extent of the Reststrahlen band limit spectral coverage. To address this limitation, we report active tuning of SPhP resonances in InP and 4H-SiC by photoinjecting free carriers into nanoresonators, taking advantage of the coupling between the carrier plasma and optic phonons to blueshift SPhP resonances. We demonstrate state-of-the-art tuning figures of merit upon continuous-wave excitation (in InP) or pulsed excitation (in 4H-SiC). Lifetime effects cause the tuning to saturate in InP, and carrier redistribution leads to rapid (electronic and phononic excitations.

  19. Covalent organic polymer functionalization of activated carbon surfaces through acyl chloride for environmental clean-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mines, Paul D.; Thirion, Damien; Uthuppu, Basil

    2017-01-01

    Nanoporous networks of covalent organic polymers (COPs) are successfully grafted on the surfaces of activated carbons, through a series of surface modification techniques, including acyl chloride formation by thionyl chloride. Hybrid composites of activated carbon functionalized with COPs exhibit...

  20. Temperature dependence of photon-enhanced thermionic emission from GaAs surface with nonequilibrium Cs overlayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuravlev, A.G. [Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Pr. Lavrentieva, 13, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Pirogova, 2, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Alperovich, V.L., E-mail: alper@isp.nsc.ru [Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Pr. Lavrentieva, 13, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Pirogova, 2, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Electronic properties of Cs/GaAs surface are studied at elevated temperatures. • Heating to ∼100 °C strongly affects photoemission current and surface band bending. • For θ < 0.4 ML photoemission current relaxation is due to band bending. • A spectral proof of the PETE process is obtained at Cs/GaAs thermal cycling. - Abstract: The temperature influence on the Cs/GaAs surface electronic properties, which determine the photon-enhanced thermionic emission (PETE), is studied. It was found that heating to moderate temperatures of about 100 °C leads to substantial changes in the magnitude and shape of Cs coverage dependences of photoemission current and surface band bending, along with the changes of relaxation kinetics after Cs deposition. A spectral proof of the PETE process is obtained under thermal cycling of the Cs/GaAs surface with 0.45 monolayer (ML) of Cs.

  1. Distillation of tar and tar fractions in the presence of surface-active coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeppelt, A; Klaus, J

    1943-01-01

    The tar obtained by low-temperature carbonization of Upper Silesian gas coke and fractions from this tar were distilled in the presence of different grades of coke dust with varying surface activity; the coke had been activated by steam in the course of its production by low-temperature carbonization. The surface activity of the coke dusts was measured by determining the heat of wetting with C/sub 6/H/sub 6/. Tar and coke dust, both anhydrous, were mixed in a kneading machine in such proportions that the capillaries of the dust were saturated and enough ''externally'' bound tar was present to permit briquetting. The briquets were distilled without cracking and with steam as heating medium. The yield and quality of the distillate depended on the magnitude of the internal surface of the coke dust used; a mixture of a very active coke from brown coal and tar yielded a distillate with Conradson carbon residue of 1.34 percent, asphalt content 6.1 percent and eta/sub 20/ 5.4/sup 0/ E. as compared with C residue of 10.95 percent, asphalt content 33.5 percent and eta/sub 20/ 123.6/sup 0/ E. of the distillate obtained in the absence of surface-active coke. Even higher-boiling fractions can be improved by this treatment, although it is preferable to use oils with an initial boiling point below 300/sup 0/. The ratio of oil to adsorbent is not critical, but better results were obtained with higher percentages of added coke dust. The process in its present form is not suited for the conversion of crude creosote to useful phenols.

  2. Surface harmonics method for two-dimensional time-dependent neutron transport problems of square-lattice nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyarinov, V. F.; Kondrushin, A. E.; Fomichenko, P. A. [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute, Kurchatov Sq. 1, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    Time-dependent equations of the Surface Harmonics Method (SHM) have been derived from the time-dependent neutron transport equation with explicit representation of delayed neutrons for solving the two-dimensional time-dependent problems. These equations have been realized in the SUHAM-TD code. The TWIGL benchmark problem has been used for verification of the SUHAM-TD code. The results of the study showed that computational costs required to achieve necessary accuracy of the solution can be an order of magnitude less than with the use of the conventional finite difference method (FDM). (authors)

  3. Optical manipulation and catalytic activity enhanced by surface plasmon effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Ningmu; Min, Jiang; Jiao, Wenxiang; Wang, Guanghui

    2017-02-01

    For optical manipulation, a nano-optical conveyor belt consisting of an array of gold plasmonic non-concentric nano-rings (PNNRs) is demonstrated for the realization of trapping and unidirectional transportation of nanoparticles by polarization rotation of excitation beam. These hot spots of an asymmetric plasmonic nanostructure are polarization dependent, therefore, one can use the incident polarization state to manipulate the trapped targets. Trapped particles could be transferred between adjacent PNNRs in a given direction just by rotating the polarization of incident beam due to unbalanced potential. The angular dependent distribution of electric field around PNNR has been solved using the three- dimensional finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique. For optical enhanced catalytic activity, the spectral properties of dimers of Au nanorod-Au nanorod nanostructures under the excitation of 532nm photons have been investigated. With a super-resolution catalytic mapping technique, we identified the existence of "hot spot" in terms of catalytic reactivity at the gap region within the twined plasmonic nanostructure. Also, FDTD calculation has revealed an intrinsic correlation between hot electron transfer.

  4. Detection analysis of surface hydroxyl active sites and simulation calculation of the surface dissociation constants of aqueous diatomite suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shu-Cui; Wang, Zhi-Gang; Zhang, Ji-Lin; Sun, De-Hui; Liu, Gui-Xia

    2015-02-01

    The surface properties of the diatomite were investigated using nitrogen adsorption/deadsorption isotherms, TG-DSC, FTIR, and XPS, and surface protonation-deprotonation behavior was determined by continuous acid-base potentiometric titration technique. The diatomite sample with porous honeycomb structure has a BET specific surface area of 10.21 m2/g and large numbers of surface hydroxyl functional groups (i.e. tbnd Si-OH, tbnd Fe-OH, and tbnd Al-OH). These surface hydroxyls can be protonated or deprotonated depending on the pH of the suspension. The experimental potentiometric data in two different ionic strength solutions (0.1 and 0.05 mol/L NaCl) were fitted using ProtoFit GUI V2.1 program by applying diffuse double layer model (DLM) with three amphoteric sites and minimizing the sum of squares between a dataset derivative function and a model derivative function. The optimized surface parameters (i.e. surface dissociation constants (log K1, log K2) and surface site concentrations (log C)) of the sample were obtained. Based on the optimized surface parameters, the surface species distribution was calculated using Program-free PHREEQC 3.1.2. Thus, this work reveals considerable new information about surface protonation-deprotonation processes and surface adsorptive behaviors of the diatomite, which helps us to effectively use the cheap and cheerful diatomite clay adsorbent.

  5. The dependence of sea surface slope on atmospheric stability and swell conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Paul A.; Shemdin, Omar H.

    1988-01-01

    A tower-mounted optical device is used to measure the two-orthogonal components of the sea surface slope. The results indicate that an unstable stratification at the air-sea interface tends to enhance the surface roughness. The presence of a long ocean swell system steers the primary direction of shortwave propagation away from wind direction, and may increase or reduce the mean square slope of the sea surface.

  6. Wear rate quantifying in real-time using the charged particle surface activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandreanu, B.; Popa-Simil, L.; Voiculescu, D.; Racolta, P. M.

    1997-02-01

    Surface activation, commonly known as Thin Layer Activation (TLA), is currently employed in over 30 accelerator laboratories around the world for wear and/or corrosion monitoring in industrial plants [1-6]. TLA was primarily designed and developed to meet requirements of potential industrial partners, in order to transfer this technique from research to industry. The method consists of accelerated ion bombardment of a surface of interest, e.g., a machine part subjected to wear. Loss of material owing to wear, erosive corrosion or abrasion is characterized by monitoring the resultant changes in radioactivity. In principle, depending upon the case at hand, one may choose to measure either the remnant activity of the component of interest or to monitor the activity of the debris. For applications of the second type, especially when a lubricating agent is involved, dedicated installations have been constructed and adapted to an engine or a tribological testing stand in order to assure oil circulation around an externally placed detection gauge. This way, the wear particles suspended in the lubricant can be detected and the material loss rates quantified in real time. Moreover, in specific cases, such as the one presented in this paper, remnant activity measurements prove to be useful tools for complementary results. This paper provides a detailed presentation of such a case: in situ resistance-to-wear testing of two types of piston rings.

  7. On the problem of radiation purification of waste waters containing synthetic surface-active agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buslaeva, S.P.; Kon'kov, N.G.; Makarochkina, L.M.; Panin, Yu.A.; Upadyshev, L.B.; Filippov, M.T.

    1975-01-01

    Radiation decomposition of artificial solutions containing surface-active substances and the real sewage of textile factories is studied. Experiments on treatment of sewage in a foamed state were conducted (since the irradiation of sewage in a liquid form did not result in the desired effect) with a laboratory installation that made it possible to irradiate sewage by an electron beam both under stationary and flowing conditions. The dose rate was about 140 w/kg. The results of determination of the dependence of the decomposition rate for solutions that contain surface-active substances on the absorbed dose and the magnitude of the beam current are presented. It is demonstrated that the decrease of dose rate is accompanied by the increase of the yield of the surface-active substance decomposition in the foam. During irradiation of real sewage the improvement of their coloring as well as the acceleration of coagulation and the sedimentation of dissolved and suspended substances were observed. Recommendations are suggested for design of an experimental-industrial installation for irradiation of sewage. It is established that with the efficiency of 1000 m 3 /day the cost of sewage treatment will be 35-40 kop/m 3

  8. Quorum Sensing Regulation of Adhesion in Serratia Marcescens MG1 is surface dependent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labbate, M.; Zhu, H.; Thung, L.

    2007-01-01

    in a non-QS-controlled fashion. Therefore, the expression of these two genes appears to be cocontrolled by regulators other than the QS system for mediation of attachment to HCE cells. We also found that QS in S. marcescens regulates other potential cell surface adhesins, including exopolysaccharide...... and the outer membrane protein OmpX. We concluded that S. marcescens MG1 utilizes different regulatory systems and adhesins in attachment to biotic and abiotic surfaces and that QS is a main regulatory pathway in adhesion to an abiotic surface but not in adhesion to a biotic surface....

  9. On a relationship between the geometry of cones on sputtered surfaces and the angular dependence of sputtered yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadderton, L.T.

    1977-01-01

    It is widely believed that the phenomenon responsible for the familiar peak in the angular dependence of sputtered yields also gives rise to characteristic semiangles α of conical protruberances on sputtered surfaces. It is shown that α corresponds to the process giving rise to the minimum rather than the maximum. No accurate measurements of the minimum have yet been made. (Auth.)

  10. A trial fabrication of activity standard surface sources and positional standard surface sources for an imaging plate system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yasushi; Hino, Yoshio; Yamada, Takahiro; Matsumoto, Mikio

    2003-01-01

    An imaging plate system can detect low level activity, but quantitative analysis is difficult because there are no adequate standard surface sources. A new fabrication method was developed for standard surface sources by printing on a sheet of paper using an ink-jet printer with inks in which a radioactive material was mixed. The fabricated standard surface sources had high uniformity, high positional resolution arbitrary shapes and a broad intensity range. The standard sources were used for measurement of surface activity as an application. (H. Yokoo)

  11. Occurrence of Surface Active Agents in the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Olkowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the specific structure of surfactants molecules they are applied in different areas of human activity (industry, household. After using and discharging from wastewater treatment plants as effluent stream, surface active agents (SAAs are emitted to various elements of the environment (atmosphere, waters, and solid phases, where they can undergo numerous physic-chemical processes (e.g., sorption, degradation and freely migrate. Additionally, SAAs present in the environment can be accumulated in living organisms (bioaccumulation, what can have a negative effect on biotic elements of ecosystems (e.g., toxicity, disturbance of endocrine equilibrium. They also cause increaseing solubility of organic pollutants in aqueous phase, their migration, and accumulation in different environmental compartments. Moreover, surfactants found in aerosols can affect formation and development of clouds, which is associated with cooling effect in the atmosphere and climate changes. The environmental fate of SAAs is still unknown and recognition of this problem will contribute to protection of living organisms as well as preservation of quality and balance of various ecosystems. This work contains basic information about surfactants and overview of pollution of different ecosystems caused by them (their classification and properties, areas of use, their presence, and behavior in the environment.

  12. Anisotropic surface strain in single crystalline cobalt nanowires and its impact on the diameter-dependent Young's modulus

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Xiaohu

    2013-01-01

    Understanding and measuring the size-dependent surface strain of nanowires are essential to their applications in various emerging devices. Here, we report on the diameter-dependent surface strain and Young\\'s modulus of single-crystalline Co nanowires investigated by in situ X-ray diffraction measurements. Diameter-dependent initial longitudinal elongation of the nanowires is observed and ascribed to the anisotropic surface stress due to the Poisson effect, which serves as the basis for mechanical measurements. As the nanowire diameter decreases, a transition from the "smaller is softer" regime to the "smaller is tougher" regime is observed in the Young\\'s modulus of the nanowires, which is attributed to the competition between the elongation softening and the surface stiffening effects. Our work demonstrates a new nondestructive method capable of measuring the initial surface strain and estimating the Young\\'s modulus of single crystalline nanowires, and provides new insights on the size effect. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  13. The pH-dependant attachment of ceria nanoparticles to silica using surface analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawkins, K.; Rudyk, B.W.; Xu, Z.; Cadien, K.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A model for interaction between ceria nanoparticles and silica surfaces is proposed. • Proposed model investigated using zeta potential measurements and XPS. • Surface contamination is minimized at higher slurry pH levels. • High-resolution Ce 3d XPS and surface composition measured at different pH levels. • Variations in ceria contamination on silica surfaces via SEM and AES are studied. - Abstract: The adhesion and removal of ceria particles to a silica surface was investigated with the use of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and auger electron spectroscopy (AES) measurements. A model is presented based on electrophoretic mobility measurements of ceria slurry and silica particles at different pH's. XPS results show that at acidic pH values, ceria is present on silica surfaces, but at alkaline pH values, far less ceria is present, or no ceria is present in the extreme case. SEM results corroborated the XPS results showing uniform distribution of ceria particles on silica surface at pH 6 while a clean silica surface is observed at pH 12. However, SEM images show agglomeration of ceria particles occurring at the isoelectric point of ceria at ∼pH 9.6. High resolution Ce 3d XPS analysis indicates that ceria present on the surface is composed ∼31% Ce(III) and ∼69% Ce(IV). AES mapping done at specific points on the silica surface validated both XPS and SEM results. Based on XPS, SEM and AES analyses, it is clear that an alkaline pH is necessary to minimize particulate contamination of silica surface by ceria

  14. Recovery of rhythmic activity in a central pattern generator: analysis of the role of neuromodulator and activity-dependent mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yili; Golowasch, Jorge

    2011-11-01

    The pyloric network of decapods crustaceans can undergo dramatic rhythmic activity changes. Under normal conditions the network generates low frequency rhythmic activity that depends obligatorily on the presence of neuromodulatory input from the central nervous system. When this input is removed (decentralization) the rhythmic activity ceases. In the continued absence of this input, periodic activity resumes after a few hours in the form of episodic bursting across the entire network that later turns into stable rhythmic activity that is nearly indistinguishable from control (recovery). It has been proposed that an activity-dependent modification of ionic conductance levels in the pyloric pacemaker neuron drives the process of recovery of activity. Previous modeling attempts have captured some aspects of the temporal changes observed experimentally, but key features could not be reproduced. Here we examined a model in which slow activity-dependent regulation of ionic conductances and slower neuromodulator-dependent regulation of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration reproduce all the temporal features of this recovery. Key aspects of these two regulatory mechanisms are their independence and their different kinetics. We also examined the role of variability (noise) in the activity-dependent regulation pathway and observe that it can help to reduce unrealistic constraints that were otherwise required on the neuromodulator-dependent pathway. We conclude that small variations in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, a Ca(2+) uptake regulation mechanism that is directly targeted by neuromodulator-activated signaling pathways, and variability in the Ca(2+) concentration sensing signaling pathway can account for the observed changes in neuronal activity. Our conclusions are all amenable to experimental analysis.

  15. Activity of processes on the visible surface of planets of Solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidmachenko, A. P.

    2016-05-01

    According to modern concepts bodies of the solar system formed from a single cloud of gas and dust. Calculations show that in the protoplanetary nebula where the temperature is lowered to 1600 K - appeared the first type of metal (aluminum and titanium) and metal oxides in the form of dust particles. With further decreasing temperature of the nebula to 1400 K - appeared also dust of iron and iron-nikel alloy; at 1300 K - appear solid silicates; magnesium minerals formed at T 1200 K. These components are material for the formation of basaltic rocks. At temperatures T 300 K begins to form water molecules. At 100-200 K in a remote part of the nebula - ammonia, methane and their ice are formed. In the outer part of Solar system this ices are now preserved in comet nuclei and in the icy satellites of giant planets. During T 400 million years after the formation of the Sun, at first - from dust component of the protoplanetary cloud was formed many intermediate bodies with the size of hundreds kilometers. Their gravitational interaction was reinforced in process of their grow. The bodies, which were growing fastest, they became the embryos of the future planets. All bodies of the solar system in different degrees show manifestations of different types of activity processes on the surface or at the level of the visible clouds. This activity depends on the distance of a particular body from the Sun, surface chemical composition, physical conditions at the surface and so on. The farther away from the Sun is the object, the temperature of its visible surface is lower, and by that more interesting is the set of processes, of chemical and physical transformations that there is possible to register. The surface of each planets of Solar system is very active in a variety of set temperature and chemical composition

  16. DIVERGENT HORIZONTAL SUB-SURFACE FLOWS WITHIN ACTIVE REGION 11158

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Kiran; Tripathy, S. C.; Hill, F., E-mail: kjain@nso.edu, E-mail: stripathy@nso.edu, E-mail: fhill@nso.edu [National Solar Observatory, 950 N Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

    2015-07-20

    We measure the horizontal subsurface flow in a fast emerging active region (AR; NOAA 11158) using the ring-diagram technique and the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager high spatial resolution Dopplergrams. This AR had a complex magnetic structure and displayed significant changes in morphology during its disk passage. Over a period of six days from 2011 February 11 to 16, the temporal variation in the magnitude of the total velocity is found to follow the trend of magnetic field strength. We further analyze regions of individual magnetic polarity within AR 11158 and find that the horizontal velocity components in these sub-regions have significant variation with time and depth. The leading and trailing polarity regions move faster than the mixed-polarity region. Furthermore, both zonal and meridional components have opposite signs for trailing and leading polarity regions at all depths showing divergent flows within the AR. We also find a sharp decrease in the magnitude of total horizontal velocity in deeper layers around major flares. It is suggested that the re-organization of magnetic fields during flares, combined with the sunspot rotation, decreases the magnitude of horizontal flows or that the flow kinetic energy has been converted into the energy released by flares. After the decline in flare activity and sunspot rotation, the flows tend to follow the pattern of magnetic activity. We also observe less variation in the velocity components near the surface but these tend to increase with depth, further demonstrating that the deeper layers are more affected by the topology of ARs.

  17. Microbial counts of food contact surfaces at schools depending on a feeding scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nthabiseng Nhlapo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The prominence of disease transmission between individuals in confined environments is a concern, particularly in the educational environment. With respect to school feeding schemes, food contact surfaces have been shown to be potential vehicles of foodborne pathogens. The aim of this study was to assess the cleanliness of the surfaces that come into contact with food that is provided to children through the National School Nutrition Programme in central South Africa. In each school under study, microbiological samples were collected from the preparation surface and the dominant hand and apron of the food handler. The samples were analysed for total viable counts, coliforms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and yeasts and moulds. The criteria specified in the British Columbia Guide for Environmental Health Officers were used to evaluate the results. Total viable counts were high for all surfaces, with the majority of colonies being too numerous to count (over 100 colonies per plate. Counts of organisms were relatively low, with 20% of the surfaces producing unsatisfactory enumeration of S. aureus and E. coli and 30% unsatisfactory for coliforms. Yeast and mould produced 50% and 60% unsatisfactory counts from preparation surfaces and aprons, respectively. Statistically significant differences could not be established amongst microbial counts of the surfaces, which suggests cross-contamination may have occurred. Contamination may be attributed to foodstuffs and animals in the vicinity of the preparation area rather than to the food handlers, because hands had the lowest counts of enumerated organisms amongst the analysed surfaces.

  18. Topography and surface energy dependent calcium phosphate formation on Sol-Gel derived TiO2 coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järn, Mikael; Areva, Sami; Pore, Viljami; Peltonen, Jouko; Linden, Mika

    2006-09-12

    Heterogeneous nucleation and growth of calcium phosphate (CaP) on sol-gel derived TiO(2) coatings was investigated in terms of surface topography and surface energy. The topography of the coatings was derived from AFM measurements, while the surface energy was determined with contact angle measurements. The degree of precipitation was examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The precipitation of CaP was found to be dependent on both topography and surface energy. A high roughness value when combining the RMS roughness parameter S(q) with the number of local maxima per unit area parameter S(ds) enhances CaP formation. The hydrophilicity of the coating was also found to be of importance for CaP formation. We suggest that the water contact angle, which is a direct measure of the hydrophilicity of the surface, may be used to evaluate the surface energy dependent precipitation kinetics rather than using the often applied Lewis base parameter.

  19. Facet-dependent photocatalytic mechanisms of anatase TiO2: A new sight on the self-adjusted surface heterojunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Shujun; Wang, Wei; Ni, Yaru; Lu, Chunhua; Xu, Zhongzi

    2015-01-01

    Efficient separation of photo-generated electrons and holes is crucial for improving the photocatalytic activity of semiconductor photocatalysts. In the present study, we show surface heterojunction is existed on anatase TiO 2 with exposed {101}, {010}, {001}, and {110} facets. With the help of selective Pt deposition, it is found the Schottky junction together with proper surface heterojunction is helpful to separate the photo-generated electrons and holes. Moreover, the photo-reduction and photo-oxidation activities of the facets are depended on the reaction systems, resulting in self-adjusted surface heterojunction. The as-prepared photocatalyst will give the highest phenol degradation efficiency when Pt nanoparticles are only deposited on the {101} and {010} facets. In contrast, more Pt deposited on the {001} and {110} facets will decrease the photocatalytic activity. The average phenol degradation rate, which will gradually reduce along with the increased phenol concentration, of TiO 2 (20 mg) is ca. 1.59 mg/min when its concentration is lower than 8 mg/L. However, similar results have not been observed in P25-based reaction systems, evidencing the great influence of self-adjusted surface heterojunction. This study may be helpful to understand the photocatalytic mechanisms of semiconductor photocatalysts with exposed different facets. Thus more efficient practical application of the photocatalysts for environment protection can be reached. - Highlights: • Surface heterojunction is systematically discussed on TiO 2 with various facets. • The surface heterojunction is found to be closely related to the reaction systems. • Proper surface heterojunction and Schottky junction is positive for photocatalysis. • A new sight is given to sufficiently unleash the fascinating properties of TiO 2 . • More efficient practical application can be reached

  20. A STUDY ON THE PROPERTIES OF SURFACEACTIVE FLUIDS USED IN BURNISHING AND SHOT PEENING PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazmierz Zaleski

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A method is presented for the study of surface-active properties of a fluids, in burnishing and shot peening processes used, which consists in comparing mean plastic strains of thin metal foil subjected to tensile tests in the examined fluid and in air. As a surface-active additive to the fluid (mineral oil, methyl polymethacrylate solution was used. It was found that the surfactant activity coefficient depended on the type of examined fluid as well as on the thickness of the foil being stretched. Results of analyses of the surface-active properties of a fluid can be compared only when metal foils of equal thickness made from one specific material are used. It can be supposed that the introduction of methyl polymethacrylate solution as an additive to the metalworking fluid will have a beneficial effect on the course and the results of burnishing and shot peening of metals.

  1. The Role of Ru Redox in pH-Dependent Oxygen Evolution on Rutile Ruthenium Dioxide Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoerzinger, Kelsey A.; Rao, Reshma R.; Wang, Xiao Renshaw; Hong, Wesley T.; Rouleau, Christopher M.; Shao-Horn, Yang

    2017-05-01

    Rutile RuO2 is known to exhibit high catalytic activity for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and large pseudocapacitance associated with redox of surface Ru, however the mechanistic link between these properties and the role of pH is yet to be understood. Here we report that the OER activities of the (101), (001) and (111) RuO2 surfaces were found to increase while the potential of a pseudocapacitive feature just prior to OER shifted to lower potentials (“super-Nernstian” shift) with increasing pH on the reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE) scale. This behavior is in contrast to the (100) and (110) surfaces that have pH-independent Ru redox and OER activity. The link in catalytic and pseudocapacitive behavior illustrates the importance of this redox feature in generating active sites, building new mechanistic understanding of the OER.

  2. A Novel Platform for the Potentiation of Therapeutic Antibodies Based on Antigen-Dependent Formation of IgG Hexamers at the Cell Surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Jong, R. N.; Beurskens, F. J.; Verploegen, S.

    2016-01-01

    IgG antibodies can organize into ordered hexamers on cell surfaces after binding their antigen. These hexamers bind the first component of complement C1 inducing complement-dependent target cell killing. Here, we translated this natural concept into a novel technology platform (HexaBody technology......) for therapeutic antibody potentiation. We identified mutations that enhanced hexamer formation and complement activation by IgG1 antibodies against a range of targets on cells from hematological and solid tumor indications. IgG1 backbones with preferred mutations E345K or E430G conveyed a strong ability to induce...... conditional complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) of cell lines and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patient tumor cells, while retaining regular pharmacokinetics and biopharmaceutical developability. Both mutations potently enhanced CDC- and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) of a type II CD...

  3. MARK/Par1 Kinase Is Activated Downstream of NMDA Receptors through a PKA-Dependent Mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura P Bernard

    Full Text Available The Par1 kinases, also known as microtubule affinity-regulating kinases (MARKs, are important for the establishment of cell polarity from worms to mammals. Dysregulation of these kinases has been implicated in autism, Alzheimer's disease and cancer. Despite their important function in health and disease, it has been unclear how the activity of MARK/Par1 is regulated by signals from cell surface receptors. Here we show that MARK/Par1 is activated downstream of NMDA receptors in primary hippocampal neurons. Further, we show that this activation is dependent on protein kinase A (PKA, through the phosphorylation of Ser431 of Par4/LKB1, the major upstream kinase of MARK/Par1. Together, our data reveal a novel mechanism by which MARK/Par1 is activated at the neuronal synapse.

  4. Definition of regional dependence of activity antioxidative enzymes means of the dispersive analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly T. Bykov

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In article application of the dispersive analysis for an estimation of dependence of activity antioxidative enzymes from region of constant residing, age, sex and the disease diagnosis is considered.

  5. Surface-structure dependence of water-related adsorbates on platinum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badan, C.

    2016-01-01

    Today, the energy sector is highly dependent on heterogeneous catalysis because a future solution to end our dependency on natural sources lies in generating hydrogen by splitting water. Several transition metals, such as Pt, are known to be good catalyst materials for water splitting reactions.

  6. Surface and zeta-potentials of silver halide single crystals: pH-dependence in comparison to particle systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selmani, Atiða; Kallay, Nikola; Preočanin, Tajana; Lützenkirchen, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    We have carried out surface and zeta-potential measurements on AgCl and AgBr single crystals. As for particle systems we find that, surprisingly and previously unnoted, the zeta-potential exhibits pH-dependence, while the surface potential does not. A possible interpretation of these observations is the involvement of water ions in the interfacial equilibria and in particular, stronger affinity of the hydroxide ion compared to the proton. The pH-dependence of the zeta-potential can be suppressed at sufficiently high silver concentrations, which agrees with previous measurements in particle systems where no pH-dependence was found at high halide ion concentrations. The results suggest a subtle interplay between the surface potential determining the halide and silver ion concentrations, and the water ions. Whenever the charge due to the halide and silver ions is sufficiently high, the influence of the proton/hydroxide ion on the zeta-potential vanishes. This might be related to the water structuring at the relevant interfaces which should be strongly affected by the surface potential. Another interesting observation is accentuation of the assumed water ion effect on the zeta-potential at the flat single crystal surfaces compared to the corresponding silver halide colloids. Previous generic MD simulations have indeed predicted that hydroxide ion adsorption is accentuated on flat/rigid surfaces. A thermodynamic model for AgI single crystals was developed to describe the combined effects of iodide, silver and water ions, based on two independently previously published models for AgI (that only consider constituent and background electrolyte ions) and inert surfaces (that only consider water and background electrolyte ions). The combined model correctly predicts all the experimentally observed trends. (paper)

  7. "Exercise Dependence"--A Problem or Natural Result of High Activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Suzanne; Bond, Dale S.; Lang, Wei; Jordan, Dustin; Wing, Rena R.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To compare physical activity (PA) and exercise dependence (ED) in 267 weight-loss maintainers (WLM) and 213 normal-weight (NW) controls. Methods: PA and ED assessed via accelerometery and the Exercise Dependence Questionnaire. Results: WLM had higher PA levels and ED scores than those of NW (P less than 0.0001). WLM status (P = 0.006)…

  8. Detection analysis of surface hydroxyl active sites and simulation calculation of the surface dissociation constants of aqueous diatomite suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Shu-Cui; Wang, Zhi-Gang; Zhang, Ji-Lin; Sun, De-Hui; Liu, Gui-Xia

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • To examine surface hydroxyl functional groups of the calcined diatomite by TGA-DSC, FTIR, and XPS. • To calculate the optimized log K 1 , log K 2 and log C values and the surface species distribution of each surface reactive site using ProtoFit and PHREEQC, respectively. - Abstract: The surface properties of the diatomite were investigated using nitrogen adsorption/deadsorption isotherms, TG-DSC, FTIR, and XPS, and surface protonation–deprotonation behavior was determined by continuous acid–base potentiometric titration technique. The diatomite sample with porous honeycomb structure has a BET specific surface area of 10.21 m 2 /g and large numbers of surface hydroxyl functional groups (i.e. ≡Si-OH, ≡Fe-OH, and ≡Al-OH). These surface hydroxyls can be protonated or deprotonated depending on the pH of the suspension. The experimental potentiometric data in two different ionic strength solutions (0.1 and 0.05 mol/L NaCl) were fitted using ProtoFit GUI V2.1 program by applying diffuse double layer model (DLM) with three amphoteric sites and minimizing the sum of squares between a dataset derivative function and a model derivative function. The optimized surface parameters (i.e. surface dissociation constants (log K 1 , log K 2 ) and surface site concentrations (log C)) of the sample were obtained. Based on the optimized surface parameters, the surface species distribution was calculated using Program-free PHREEQC 3.1.2. Thus, this work reveals considerable new information about surface protonation–deprotonation processes and surface adsorptive behaviors of the diatomite, which helps us to effectively use the cheap and cheerful diatomite clay adsorbent

  9. Detection analysis of surface hydroxyl active sites and simulation calculation of the surface dissociation constants of aqueous diatomite suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Shu-Cui [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Key Laboratory of Applied Chemistry and Nanotechnology at Universities of Jilin Province, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun 130022 (China); Wang, Zhi-Gang [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Zhang, Ji-Lin, E-mail: zjl@ciac.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Sun, De-Hui [Changchun Institute Technology, Changchun 130012 (China); Liu, Gui-Xia, E-mail: liuguixia22@163.com [Key Laboratory of Applied Chemistry and Nanotechnology at Universities of Jilin Province, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2015-02-01

    Highlights: • To examine surface hydroxyl functional groups of the calcined diatomite by TGA-DSC, FTIR, and XPS. • To calculate the optimized log K{sub 1}, log K{sub 2} and log C values and the surface species distribution of each surface reactive site using ProtoFit and PHREEQC, respectively. - Abstract: The surface properties of the diatomite were investigated using nitrogen adsorption/deadsorption isotherms, TG-DSC, FTIR, and XPS, and surface protonation–deprotonation behavior was determined by continuous acid–base potentiometric titration technique. The diatomite sample with porous honeycomb structure has a BET specific surface area of 10.21 m{sup 2}/g and large numbers of surface hydroxyl functional groups (i.e. ≡Si-OH, ≡Fe-OH, and ≡Al-OH). These surface hydroxyls can be protonated or deprotonated depending on the pH of the suspension. The experimental potentiometric data in two different ionic strength solutions (0.1 and 0.05 mol/L NaCl) were fitted using ProtoFit GUI V2.1 program by applying diffuse double layer model (DLM) with three amphoteric sites and minimizing the sum of squares between a dataset derivative function and a model derivative function. The optimized surface parameters (i.e. surface dissociation constants (log K{sub 1}, log K{sub 2}) and surface site concentrations (log C)) of the sample were obtained. Based on the optimized surface parameters, the surface species distribution was calculated using Program-free PHREEQC 3.1.2. Thus, this work reveals considerable new information about surface protonation–deprotonation processes and surface adsorptive behaviors of the diatomite, which helps us to effectively use the cheap and cheerful diatomite clay adsorbent.

  10. Comparison of time-dependent changes in the surface hardness of different composite resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Suat; Yikilgan, Ihsan; Uctasli, Mine Betul; Bala, Oya; Kurklu, Zeliha Gonca Bek

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the change in surface hardness of silorane-based composite resin (Filtek Silorane) in time and compare the results with the surface hardness of two methacrylate-based resins (Filtek Supreme and Majesty Posterior). Materials and Methods: From each composite material, 18 wheel-shaped samples (5-mm diameter and 2-mm depth) were prepared. Top and bottom surface hardness of these samples was measured using a Vicker's hardness tester. The samples were then stored at 37°C and 100% humidity. After 24 h and 7, 30 and 90 days, the top and bottom surface hardness of the samples was measured. In each measurement, the rate between the hardness of the top and bottom surfaces were recorded as the hardness rate. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way analysis of variance, multiple comparisons by Tukey's test and binary comparisons by t-test with a significance level of P = 0.05. Results: The highest hardness values were obtained from each two surfaces of Majesty Posterior and the lowest from Filtek Silorane. Both the top and bottom surface hardness of the methacrylate based composite resins was high and there was a statistically significant difference between the top and bottom hardness values of only the silorane-based composite, Filtek Silorane (P composite resin Filtek Silorane showed adequate hardness ratio, the use of incremental technic during application is more important than methacrylate based composites. PMID:24966724

  11. Chemical surface tuning electrocatalysis of redox-active nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Nan; Ulstrup, Jens; Chi, Qijin

    This work focuses on electron transfer (ET) and electrocatalysis of inorganic hybrid Prussian blue nanoparticles (PBNPs, 6 nm) immobilized on different chemical surfaces. Through surface self-assembly chemistry, we have enabled to tune chemical properties of the electrode surface. Stable immobili...

  12. Dependence of partial molecules surface area on the third component in lyotropic liquid crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badalyan, H.G.; Ghazaryan, Kh.M.; Yayloyan, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    Free surface of one amphiphilic molecule head of a lyotropic liquid crystal has been investigated by X-Ray diffraction method, at small and large angles, in the presence of the third component. The pentadecilsulphonat-water system in the presence of cholesterol as well as the lecithin-water system in the presence of decanol were investigated. It is shown that the above mentioned free surface decreases if the cholesterol concentration increases, while this surface increases in the case of water concentration increase. However, it increases slower than in the case of the two-component system. The same is observed for the lecithin-water-decanol system

  13. Surface ligand controls silver ion release of nanosilver and its antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Y

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Yan-Min Long,1,2 Li-Gang Hu,1,3 Xue-Ting Yan,1,3 Xing-Chen Zhao,1,3 Qun-Fang Zhou,1,3 Yong Cai,2,4 Gui-Bin Jiang1,3 1State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Beijing, China; 2Institute of Environment and Health, Jianghan University, Wuhan, Hubei, China; 3College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; 4Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Southeast Environmental Research Center, Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA Abstract: Understanding the mechanism of nanosilver-dependent antibacterial activity against microorganisms helps optimize the design and usage of the related nanomaterials. In this study, we prepared four kinds of 10 nm-sized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs with dictated surface chemistry by capping different ligands, including citrate, mercaptopropionic acid, mercaptohexanoic acid, and mercaptopropionic sulfonic acid. Their surface-dependent chemistry and antibacterial activities were investigated. Owing to the weak bond to surface Ag, short carbon chain, and low silver ion attraction, citrate-coated AgNPs caused the highest silver ion release and the strongest antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, when compared to the other tested AgNPs. The study on the underlying antibacterial mechanisms indicated that cellular membrane uptake of Ag, NAD+/NADH ratio increase, and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS generation were significantly induced in both AgNP and silver ion exposure groups. The released silver ions from AgNPs inside cells through a Trojan-horse-type mechanism were suggested to interact with respiratory chain proteins on the membrane, interrupt intracellular O2 reduction, and induce ROS production. The further oxidative damages of lipid peroxidation and membrane breakdown caused the lethal effect on E. coli. Altogether, this study demonstrated that AgNPs exerted

  14. Thickness of Lipid Deposition on Oral Surfaces Depending on Oil Content and Its Influence on Mouthfeel Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urška Pivk Kupirovič

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipid content in food strongly influences food perception on the level of textural properties. Lipids in contact with the tongue and palate are substantially responsible for the sensory impact of a product. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of oil content on the thickness of lipid deposition on oral surface as well as on the mouthfeel perception. The fluorescent probe method was used to study the thickness of lipid deposition on oral surface. We observed an increase in the thickness of lipid deposition depending on the increase of oil content in oil/water dispersions. Clear correlation was shown between the thickness of lipid deposition on oral surfaces and the perception of mouthfeel. A direct measure of undisrupted deposition of food components on oral surface contributes to the understanding of the behaviour of food components in the mouth and their influence on mouthfeel perception.

  15. Natural convection with evaporation in a vertical cylindrical cavity under the effect of temperature-dependent surface tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhevnikov, Danil A.; Sheremet, Mikhail A.

    2018-01-01

    The effect of surface tension on laminar natural convection in a vertical cylindrical cavity filled with a weak evaporating liquid has been analyzed numerically. The cylindrical enclosure is insulated at the bottom, heated by a constant heat flux from the side, and cooled by a non-uniform evaporative heat flux from the top free surface having temperature-dependent surface tension. Governing equations with corresponding boundary conditions formulated in dimensionless stream function, vorticity, and temperature have been solved by finite difference method of the second-order accuracy. The influence of Rayleigh number, Marangoni number, and aspect ratio on the liquid flow and heat transfer has been studied. Obtained results have revealed that the heat transfer rate at free surface decreases with Marangoni number and increases with Rayleigh number, while the average temperature inside the cavity has an opposite behavior; namely, it growths with Marangoni number and reduces with Rayleigh number.

  16. Physical activity moderates the association between nicotine dependence and depression among U.S. smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Walker, Jerome F; Kane, Christy; Cardinal, Bradley J

    2014-01-01

    Research demonstrates that nicotine dependence and depression are associated and that physical activity is effective in reducing depression symptoms. However, our understanding of the potential beneficial effects of physical activity on depression in current smokers is more limited. The purpose of this study was to examine whether physical activity moderates the association between nicotine dependence and depression in U.S. smokers. Cross-sectional. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006. Four hundred forty-one current adult smokers. Participants wore an accelerometer for at least 4 days and completed questionnaires to assess nicotine dependence and depression. Effect modification and statistical interaction models were used. Both models were significant. With regard to the statistical interaction model, and after controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, comorbidity index, homocysteine, cotinine, total cholesterol, sedentary behavior, and vitamins C, D, and E, objectively measured physical activity moderated the association between nicotine dependence and depression (interaction variable: odds ratio = 3.43; 95% confidence interval: 1.02-11.51; p = .04). In this national sample of current smokers, physical activity moderated the association between nicotine dependence and depression. These results suggest that those individuals with nicotine dependence and who are less physically active are more likely to be depressed than what would be expected on the basis of the individual effects of nicotine and physical inactivity separately.

  17. Myoelectric activity of the small intestine during morphine dependence and withdrawal in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuperman, D.A.; Sninsky, C.A.; Lynch, D.F.

    1987-01-01

    The authors investigated (1) the effect of morphine dependence on the migrating myoelectric complex (MMC) of the small intestine, (2) whether bacterial overgrowth developed in morphine-dependent rats, and (3) the effect of naloxone and methylbromide naltrexone, a peripheral opioid antagonist, on the MMC in morphine-naive and morphine-dependent rats. They also evaluated intestinal motility during naloxone-induced withdrawal in animals pretreated with clonidine. Intestinal myoelectric activity was monitored by four indwelling electrodes in unanesthetized, fasted rats. D-[ 14 C]xylose breath tests were performed before and after morphine-pellet implantation to evaluate the presence of bacterial overgrowth of the small intestine. Naloxone had no effect on myoelectric activity of the small intestine in morphine-naive rats. Cycling activity fronts were present in morphine-dependent animals, but there was a significant prolongation of activity front periodicity and slowing of the propagation velocity. No significant increase in 14 CO 2 excretion was noted in the morphine-dependent rats. They conclude from their studies that (1) myoelectric activity of the small intestine develops incomplete tolerance to morphine; (2) bacterial overgrowth is not a feature of morphine dependence in the rat; (3) alterations of intestinal myoelectric activity are a component of the opiate withdrawal syndrome, and they appear at least partially mediated by a peripheral mechanism that can be suppressed by an α 2 -adrenergic agonist

  18. Myoelectric activity of the small intestine during morphine dependence and withdrawal in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuperman, D.A.; Sninsky, C.A.; Lynch, D.F.

    1987-04-01

    The authors investigated (1) the effect of morphine dependence on the migrating myoelectric complex (MMC) of the small intestine, (2) whether bacterial overgrowth developed in morphine-dependent rats, and (3) the effect of naloxone and methylbromide naltrexone, a peripheral opioid antagonist, on the MMC in morphine-naive and morphine-dependent rats. They also evaluated intestinal motility during naloxone-induced withdrawal in animals pretreated with clonidine. Intestinal myoelectric activity was monitored by four indwelling electrodes in unanesthetized, fasted rats. D-(/sup 14/C)xylose breath tests were performed before and after morphine-pellet implantation to evaluate the presence of bacterial overgrowth of the small intestine. Naloxone had no effect on myoelectric activity of the small intestine in morphine-naive rats. Cycling activity fronts were present in morphine-dependent animals, but there was a significant prolongation of activity front periodicity and slowing of the propagation velocity. No significant increase in /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ excretion was noted in the morphine-dependent rats. They conclude from their studies that (1) myoelectric activity of the small intestine develops incomplete tolerance to morphine; (2) bacterial overgrowth is not a feature of morphine dependence in the rat; (3) alterations of intestinal myoelectric activity are a component of the opiate withdrawal syndrome, and they appear at least partially mediated by a peripheral mechanism that can be suppressed by an ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic agonist.

  19. Self-assembled Au nanoparticles on heated Corning glass by dc magnetron sputtering: size-dependent surface plasmon resonance tuning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grammatikopoulos, S.; Pappas, S. D. [University of Patras, Laboratory of High-Tech Materials, School of Engineering (Greece); Dracopoulos, V. [Hellas-Institute of Chemical Engineering and High Temperature Chemical Processes, (FORTH/ICE-HT), Foundation for Research and Technology (Greece); Poulopoulos, P., E-mail: poulop@upatras.gr [University of Patras, Laboratory of High-Tech Materials, School of Engineering (Greece); Fumagalli, P. [Freie Universitaet Berlin, Institut fuer Experimentalphysik (Germany); Velgakis, M. J.; Politis, C. [University of Patras, Laboratory of High-Tech Materials, School of Engineering (Greece)

    2013-02-15

    We report on the growth of Au nanoparticles on Corning glass by direct current magnetron sputtering and on the optical absorption of the films. The substrate temperature was kept to relatively high temperatures of 100 or 450 Degree-Sign C. This lead to the growth of Au nanoparticles instead of smooth Au films as the surface energy of Au is much larger than the one of glass. The size of the particles depended on the substrate temperature and deposition time and was shown to follow a logarithmic normal distribution function. Both, the surface plasmon resonance position and bandwidth, were found to depend upon the average particle size. The surface plasmon resonance position showed a 75 nm continuous blue shift from 14 nm down to 2.5 nm average particle size. Thus, we have shown how to tune the nanoparticle size and surface plasmon resonance of Au by varying the substrate temperature and deposition time. The experimental results are reproduced reasonably using a method which is based on the size- and wavelength-dependent complex dielectric function of Au within the framework of the Mie theory for the optical properties of metallic nanospheres.

  20. Does the benefit on survival from leisure time physical activity depend on physical activity at work?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn

    2013-01-01

    To investigate if persons with high physical activity at work have the same benefits from leisure time physical activity as persons with sedentary work.......To investigate if persons with high physical activity at work have the same benefits from leisure time physical activity as persons with sedentary work....

  1. Annealing temperature dependent reversible wettability switching of micro/nano structured ZnO superhydrophobic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velayi, Elmira; Norouzbeigi, Reza

    2018-05-01

    Superhydrophobic ZnO surfaces with reversibly tunable wettability were fabricated on stainless steel meshes via a facile chemical bath deposition method just by regulating the micro/nano structured ZnO needles without using chemical post modifications. The obtained surfaces can be easily and reversibly switched between superhydrophobic and superhydrophilic/underwater superoleophobic characteristics by altering the annealing temperatures. As-prepared sample exhibited long-term superhydrophobic properties with a water contact angle (WCA) of 163.8° ± 1.8° and contact angle hysteresis (CAH) of 1.1° ± 0.8°. The SEM, XRD, XPS and Raman analyses were employed to characterize the morphological features and surface chemistry of the prepared samples. SEM images showed the formation of ZnO micro/nanoneedles with a diameter of ∼90 nm on the substrate. The superhydrophobic ZnO surface was switched to highly hydrophilic and underwater superoleophobic properties with an oil contact angle (OCA) of about 172.5° after being annealed at 400 °C in air for 30 min and restored to superhydrophobic state again by altering the annealing temperature to 150 °C. Mechanical durability of the ZnO superhydrophobic surface was tested by an abrasion test. Results confirmed that the prepared surface exhibited an excellent robustness after 20 abrasion cycles under the pressure of 4.7 kPa.

  2. Assessing the Antimicrobial Activity of Polyisoprene Based Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hope Badawy

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There has been an intense research effort in the last decades in the field of biofouling prevention as it concerns many aspects of everyday life and causes problems to devices, the environment, and human health. Many different antifouling and antimicrobial materials have been developed to struggle against bacteria and other micro- and macro-organism attachment to different surfaces. However the “miracle solution” has still to be found. The research presented here concerns the synthesis of bio-based polymeric materials and the biological tests that showed their antifouling and, at the same time, antibacterial activity. The raw material used for the coating synthesis was natural rubber. The polyisoprene chains were fragmented to obtain oligomers, which had reactive chemical groups at their chain ends, therefore they could be modified to insert polymerizable and biocidal groups. Films were obtained by radical photopolymerization of the natural rubber derived oligomers and their structure was altered, in order to understand the mechanism of attachment inhibition and to increase the efficiency of the anti-biofouling action. The adhesion of three species of pathogenic bacteria and six strains of marine bacteria was studied. The coatings were able to inhibit bacterial attachment by contact, as it was verified that no detectable leaching of toxic molecules occurred.

  3. Surface activation of MnNb{sub 2}O{sub 6} nanosheets by oxalic acid for enhanced photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Junshu; Wang, Jinshu, E-mail: wangjsh@bjut.edu.cn; Li, Hongyi; Li, Yongli; Du, Yucheng; Yang, Yilong; Jia, Xinjian

    2017-05-01

    Graphical abstract: Visible light driven photoreduction of Cr(VI) over MnNb{sub 2}O{sub 6} nanosheets is enhanced via oxalic acid surface complex to generate activation layer. - Highlights: • MnNb{sub 2}O{sub 6} nanosheets are crystallized by a surface capping route of sulfonate groups. • Oxalic acid on MnNb{sub 2}O{sub 6} nanosheets forms an excited surface complex hybrid layer. • Surface activation enhances visible-light induced reduction of Cr(VI) into Cr(III). - Abstract: MnNb{sub 2}O{sub 6} nanosheets (P-MNOs) is selectively crystallized by using surface capping ligand with functional sulfonate group (sodium dodecyl benzene sulphonate), which binds to the (131) surface of MnNb{sub 2}O{sub 6} inducing the morphology-controlled crystallization of MnNb{sub 2}O{sub 6} materials. Surface modification of photoactive P-MNOs with electron-rich oxalic acid ligands establishes an excited surface complex layer on phase-pure P-MNO as evidenced by spectroscopic analyses (FT-IR, UV–vis, Raman, PL, etc.), and thus more efficiently photocatalyzes the reduction of Cr(VI) into Cr(III) than solely P-MNOs or oxalic acid under visible light (λ > 420 nm) via a ligand-to-metal interfacial electron transfer pathway. However, the interaction between oxalic acid and MnNb{sub 2}O{sub 6} is highly dependent upon the morphology of solid MnNb{sub 2}O{sub 6} substrate due to the higher surface-area-to-volume ratio and higher surface activity of (131) planes in the sheet-like morphology. This study could assist the construction of stable niobate material systems to allow a versatile solid surface activation for establishing more energy efficient and robust catalysis process under visible light.

  4. Synthesis and Surface Activity of Cationic Amino Acid-Based Surfactants in Aqueous Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greber, Katarzyna E

    2017-01-01

    I studied the possibility of using amino acid-based surfactants as emulsifiers at the same time as preservatives. Fourteen lipopeptides were synthesized employing a solid phase peptide synthesis procedure. All compounds were designed to be positively charged from +1 to +4 and acylated with fatty acid chain-palmitic and miristic. The surface activity of the obtained lipopeptides was tested using a semi-automatic tensiometer to calculate parameters describing the behavior of lipopeptides in the air/water interface. Such parameters as CMC, surface tension at the CMC point ( σ CMC ), effectiveness ( π CMC ), and efficiency (pC20) were measured. Emulsifying properties of all lipopeptides were also examined. The studies reveal that the surface active properties of synthesized compounds strongly depend on the length of alkyl chains as well as on the composition of amino acid polar heads. The critical micelle concentration decreases with increasing alkyl chain length of lipopeptides with the same polar head. The effectiveness and efficiency decrease when the number of amino acids in the polar head increases. All lipopeptides established a very weak emulsification power and created unstable water/Miglyol 812 and water/paraffin oil emulsions. Results suggest that lipopeptides cannot be used as emulsifiers; nonetheless, it is possible to use them as auxiliary surfactants with disinfectant properties in combination with more potent emulsifiers.

  5. Effect of enzymatic treatment of extracted sunflower proteins on solubility, amino acid composition, and surface activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, José Miñones; Escobar, María del Mar Yust; Pedroche Jiménez, Justo J; Rodríguez, Francisco Millán; Rodríguez Patino, Juan M

    2005-10-05

    Industrial proteins from agriculture of either animal or vegetable origin, including their peptide derivatives, are of great importance, from the qualitative and quantitative point of view, in food formulations (emulsions and foams). A fundamental understanding of the physical, chemical, and functional properties of these proteins is essential if the performance of proteins in foods is to be improved and if underutilized proteins, such as plant proteins (and their hydrolysates and peptides derivatives), are to be increasingly used in traditional and new processed food products (safe, high-quality, health foods with good nutritional value). In this contribution we have determined the main physicochemical characteristics (solubility, composition, and analysis of amino acids) of a sunflower protein isolate (SPI) and its hydrolysates with low (5.62%), medium (23.5%), and high (46.3%) degrees of hydrolysis. The hydrolysates were obtained by enzymatic treatment with Alcalase 2.4 L for DH 5.62 and 23.5% and with Alcalase 2.4 L and Flavorzyme 1000 MG sequentially for DH 46.3%. The protein concentration dependence on surface pressure (surface pressure isotherm), a measure of the surface activity of the products (SPI and its hydrolysates), was obtained by tensiometry. We have observed that the degree of hydrolysis has an effect on solubility, composition, and content of the amino acids of the SPI and its hydrolysates. The superficial activity and the adsorption efficiency were also affected by the degree of hydrolysis.

  6. Role of surface on the size-dependent mechanical properties of copper nanowire under tensile load: A molecular dynamics simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wei-Ting; Hsiao, Chun-I.; Hsu, Wen-Dung

    2014-01-01

    In this study we have used atomistic simulations to investigate the role of surface on the size-dependent mechanical properties of nanowires. In particular, we have performed computational investigation on single crystal face-centered cubic copper nano-wires with diameters ranging from 2 to 20 nm. The wire axis for all the nanowires are considered along the [0 0 1] direction. Characterization of the initial optimized structures revealed clear differences in interatomic spacing, stress, and potential energy in all the nanowires. The mechanical properties with respect to wire diameter are evaluated by applying tension along the [0 0 1] direction until yielding. We have discussed the stress–strain relationships, Young's modulus, and the variation in potential energy from surface to the center of the wire for all the cases. Our results indicate that the mechanical response (including yield strain, Young's modulus, and resilience) is directly related to the proportion of surface to bulk type atoms present in each nanowire. Thus the size-dependent mechanical properties of single crystal copper nanowire within elastic region are attributed to the surface to volume ratio (surface effect). Using the calculated response, we have formulated a mathematical relationship, which predicts the nonlinear correlation between the mechanical properties and the diameter of the wire.

  7. Resonant characteristics and sensitivity dependency on the contact surface in QCM-micropillar-based system of coupled resonator sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashan, M A M; Kalavally, V; Ramakrishnan, N; Lee, H W

    2016-01-01

    We report the characteristics and sensitivity dependence over the contact surface in coupled resonating sensors (CRSs) made of high aspect ratio resonant micropillars attached to a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). Through experiments and simulation, we observed that when the pillars of resonant heights were placed in maximum displacement regions the resonance frequency of the QCM increased following the coupled resonance characteristics, as the pillar offered elastic loading to the QCM surface. However, the same pillars when placed in relatively lower displacement regions, in spite of their resonant dimension, offered inertial loading and resulted in a decrease in QCM resonance frequency, as the displacement amplitude was insufficient to couple the vibrations from the QCM to the pillars. Accordingly, we discovered that the coupled resonance characteristics not only depend on the resonant structure dimensions but also on the contact regions in the acoustic device. Further analysis revealed that acoustic pressure at the contact surface also influences the resonance frequency characteristics and sensitivity of the CRS. To demonstrate the significance of the present finding for sensing applications, humidity sensing is considered as the example measurand. When a sensing medium made of resonant SU-8 pillars was placed in a maximum displacement region on a QCM surface, the sensitivity increased by 14 times in comparison to a resonant sensing medium placed in a lower displacement region of a QCM surface. (paper)

  8. Role of surface on the size-dependent mechanical properties of copper nanowire under tensile load: A molecular dynamics simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wei-Ting [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan City 70101 Taiwan (China); Hsiao, Chun-I. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan City 70101 Taiwan (China); Promotion Center for Global Materials Research, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan City 70101 Taiwan (China); Hsu, Wen-Dung, E-mail: wendung@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan City 70101 Taiwan (China); Research Center for Energy Technology and Strategy, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan City 70101 Taiwan (China); Promotion Center for Global Materials Research, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan City 70101 Taiwan (China)

    2014-01-15

    In this study we have used atomistic simulations to investigate the role of surface on the size-dependent mechanical properties of nanowires. In particular, we have performed computational investigation on single crystal face-centered cubic copper nano-wires with diameters ranging from 2 to 20 nm. The wire axis for all the nanowires are considered along the [0 0 1] direction. Characterization of the initial optimized structures revealed clear differences in interatomic spacing, stress, and potential energy in all the nanowires. The mechanical properties with respect to wire diameter are evaluated by applying tension along the [0 0 1] direction until yielding. We have discussed the stress–strain relationships, Young's modulus, and the variation in potential energy from surface to the center of the wire for all the cases. Our results indicate that the mechanical response (including yield strain, Young's modulus, and resilience) is directly related to the proportion of surface to bulk type atoms present in each nanowire. Thus the size-dependent mechanical properties of single crystal copper nanowire within elastic region are attributed to the surface to volume ratio (surface effect). Using the calculated response, we have formulated a mathematical relationship, which predicts the nonlinear correlation between the mechanical properties and the diameter of the wire.

  9. Surfacers change their dive tactics depending on the aim of the dive: evidence from simultaneous measurements of breaths and energy expenditure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuyama, Junichi; Tabata, Runa; Nakajima, Kana; Arai, Nobuaki; Kobayashi, Masato; Kagawa, Shiro

    2014-01-01

    Air-breathing divers are assumed to have evolved to apportion their time between surface and underwater periods to maximize the benefit gained from diving activities. However, whether they change their time allocation depending on the aim of the dive is still unknown. This may be particularly crucial for ‘surfacers’ because they dive for various purposes in addition to foraging. In this study, we counted breath events at the surface and estimated oxygen consumption during resting, foraging and other dives in 11 green turtles (Chelonia mydas) in the wild. Breath events were counted by a head-mounted acceleration logger or direct observation based on an animal-borne video logger, and oxygen consumption was estimated by measuring overall dynamic body acceleration. Our results indicate that green turtles maximized their submerged time, following this with five to seven breaths to replenish oxygen for resting dives. However, they changed their dive tactic during foraging and other dives; they surfaced without depleting their estimated stores of oxygen, followed by only a few breaths for effective foraging and locomotion. These dichotomous surfacing tactics would be the result of behavioural modifications by turtles depending on the aim of each dive. PMID:25297856

  10. Raft-dependent endocytic movement and intracellular cluster formation during T cell activation triggered by concanavalin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabuuchi, Satomi; Endo, Satoshi; Baek, KeangOk; Hoshino, Kunihide; Tsujino, Yoshio; Vestergaard, Mun'delanji C; Takagi, Masahiro

    2017-12-01

    Certain food ingredients can stimulate the human immune system. A lectin, concanavalin A (ConA), from Canavalia ensiformis (jack bean) is one of the most well-known food-derived immunostimulants and mediates activation of cell-mediated immunity through T cell proliferation. Generally, T cell activation is known to be triggered by the interaction between T cells and antigen-presenting cells (APCs) via a juxtacrine (contact-dependent) signaling pathway. The mechanism has been well characterized and is referred to as formation of the immunological synapse (IS). We were interested in the mechanism behind the T cell activation by food-derived ConA which might be different from that of T cell activation by APCs. The purpose of this study was to characterize T cell activation by ConA with regard to (i) movement of raft domain, (ii) endocytic vesicular transport, (iii) the cytoskeleton (actin and microtubules), and (iv) cholesterol composition. We found that raft-dependent endocytic movement was important for T cell activation by ConA and this movement was dependent on actin, microtubules, and cholesterol. The T cell signaling mechanism triggered by ConA can be defined as endocrine signaling which is distinct from the activation process triggered by interaction between T cells and APCs by juxtacrine signaling. Therefore, we hypothesized that T cell activation by ConA includes both two-dimensional superficial raft movement on the membrane surface along actin filaments and three-dimensional endocytic movement toward the inside of the cell along microtubules. These findings are important for developing new methods for immune stimulation and cancer therapy based on the function of ConA. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Evidence of antibacterial activity on titanium surfaces through nanotextures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seddiki, O.; Harnagea, C. [INRS – Centre Énergie, Matériaux et Télécommunications, Boulevard Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Québec J3X 1S2 (Canada); Levesque, L.; Mantovani, D. [Laboratory for Biomaterials and Bioengineering (CRC-I), Dept Min-Met-Materials Engineering and Research Center CHU-Quebec, Laval University, Quebec City (Canada); Rosei, F., E-mail: rosei@emt.inrs.ca [INRS – Centre Énergie, Matériaux et Télécommunications, Boulevard Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Québec J3X 1S2 (Canada); Center for Self-Assembled Chemical Structures, McGill University, H3A 2K6 Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    Nosocomial infections (Nis) are a major concern for public health. As more and more of the pathogens responsible for these infections are antibiotic resistant, finding new ways to overcome them is a major challenge for biomedical research. We present a method to reduce Nis spreading by hindering bacterial adhesion in its very early stage. This is achieved by reducing the contact interface area between the bacterium and the surface by nanoengineering the surface topography. In particular, we studied the Escheria Coli adhesion on titanium surfaces exhibiting different morphologies, that were obtained by a combination of mechanical polishing and chemical etching. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) characterization revealed that the titanium surface is modified at both micro- and nano-scale. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) revealed that the surfaces have the same composition before and after piranha treatment, consisting mainly of TiO{sub 2}. Adhesion tests showed a significant reduction in bacterial accumulation on nanostructured surfaces that had the lowest roughness over large areas. SEM images acquired after bacterial culture on different titanium substrates confirmed that the polished titanium surface treated one hour in a piranha solution at a temperature of 25 °C has the lowest bacterial accumulation among all the surfaces tested. This suggests that the difference observed in bacterial adhesion between the different surfaces is due primarily to surface topography.

  12. Evidence of antibacterial activity on titanium surfaces through nanotextures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seddiki, O.; Harnagea, C.; Levesque, L.; Mantovani, D.; Rosei, F.

    2014-01-01

    Nosocomial infections (Nis) are a major concern for public health. As more and more of the pathogens responsible for these infections are antibiotic resistant, finding new ways to overcome them is a major challenge for biomedical research. We present a method to reduce Nis spreading by hindering bacterial adhesion in its very early stage. This is achieved by reducing the contact interface area between the bacterium and the surface by nanoengineering the surface topography. In particular, we studied the Escheria Coli adhesion on titanium surfaces exhibiting different morphologies, that were obtained by a combination of mechanical polishing and chemical etching. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) characterization revealed that the titanium surface is modified at both micro- and nano-scale. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) revealed that the surfaces have the same composition before and after piranha treatment, consisting mainly of TiO 2 . Adhesion tests showed a significant reduction in bacterial accumulation on nanostructured surfaces that had the lowest roughness over large areas. SEM images acquired after bacterial culture on different titanium substrates confirmed that the polished titanium surface treated one hour in a piranha solution at a temperature of 25 °C has the lowest bacterial accumulation among all the surfaces tested. This suggests that the difference observed in bacterial adhesion between the different surfaces is due primarily to surface topography.

  13. Antimicrobial activity and cytocompatibility of silver nanoparticles coated catheters via a biomimetic surface functionalization strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu K

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ke Wu,1 Yun Yang,2,3 Yanmei Zhang,2,3 Jiexi Deng,1 Changjian Lin2,31Department of Cardiology, The Affiliated Dongnan Hospital of Xiamen University, Zhangzhou, 2Department of Medical Materials, Beijing Medical Implant Engineering Research Center, Beijing Naton Technology Group, Beijing, 3State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: Catheter-related bloodstream infections are a significant problem in the clinic and may result in a serious infection. Here, we developed a facile and green procedure for buildup of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs on the central venous catheters (CVCs surface. Inspired by mussel adhesive proteins, dopamine was used to form a thin polydopamine layer and induce AgNPs formation without additional reductants or stabilizers. The chemical and physicochemical properties of AgNPs coated CVCs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and water contact angle. The Staphylococcus aureus culture experiment was used to study the antibacterial properties. The cytocompatibility was assessed by water soluble tetrazolium salts (WST-1 assay, fluorescence staining, and scanning electron microscopy analysis. The results indicated that the CVCs surface was successfully coated with compact AgNPs. AgNPs were significantly well separated and spherical with a size of 30–50 nm. The density of AgNPs could be modulated by the concentration of silver nitrate solution. The antibacterial activity was dependent on the AgNPs dose. The high dose of AgNPs showed excellent antibacterial activity while associated with increased cytotoxicity. The appropriate density of AgNPs coated CVCs could exhibit improved biocompatibility and maintained evident sterilization effect. It is promising to design mussel-inspired silver releasing CVCs with both

  14. Methodology for estimation of time-dependent surface heat flux due to cryogen spray cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunnell, James W; Torres, Jorge H; Anvari, Bahman

    2002-01-01

    Cryogen spray cooling (CSC) is an effective technique to protect the epidermis during cutaneous laser therapies. Spraying a cryogen onto the skin surface creates a time-varying heat flux, effectively cooling the skin during and following the cryogen spurt. In previous studies mathematical models were developed to predict the human skin temperature profiles during the cryogen spraying time. However, no studies have accounted for the additional cooling due to residual cryogen left on the skin surface following the spurt termination. We formulate and solve an inverse heat conduction (IHC) problem to predict the time-varying surface heat flux both during and following a cryogen spurt. The IHC formulation uses measured temperature profiles from within a medium to estimate the surface heat flux. We implement a one-dimensional sequential function specification method (SFSM) to estimate the surface heat flux from internal temperatures measured within an in vitro model in response to a cryogen spurt. Solution accuracy and experimental errors are examined using simulated temperature data. Heat flux following spurt termination appears substantial; however, it is less than that during the spraying time. The estimated time-varying heat flux can subsequently be used in forward heat conduction models to estimate temperature profiles in skin during and following a cryogen spurt and predict appropriate timing for onset of the laser pulse.

  15. Fungistatic activity of heat-treated flaxseed determined by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y; Hall, C; Wolf-Hall, C

    2008-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of heat treatment on the fungistatic activity of flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) in potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium and a fresh noodle system. The radial growth of Penicilliumn chrysogenum, Aspergillus flavus, and a Penicillium sp. isolated from moldy noodles, as well as the mold count of fresh noodle enriched with heat treated flaxseed, were used to assess antifungal activity. A central composite design in the response surface methodology was used to predict the effect of heating temperature and time on antifungal activity of flaxseed flour (FF). Statistical analysis determined that the linear terms of both variables (that is, heating temperature and time) and the quadratic terms of the heating temperature had significant (P<0.05) effects on the radial growth of all 3 test fungi and the mold count log-cycle reduction of fresh noodle. The interactions between the temperature and time were significant for all dependent variables (P<0.05). Significant reductions in antifungal activities were found when FF was subjected to high temperatures, regardless of heating time. In contrast, prolonging the heating time did not substantially affect the antifungal activities of FF at low temperature. However, 60% of the antifungal activity was retained after FF was heated at 100 degrees C for 15 min, which suggests a potential use of FF as an antifungal additive in food products subjected to low to mild heat treatments.

  16. The dependence of the nuclear charge form factor on short range correlations and surface fluctuation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massen, S. E.; Garistov, V. P.; Grypeos, M. E.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of nuclear surface fluctuations on harmonic oscillator elastic charge form factor of light nuclei are investigated, simultaneously approximating the short-range correlations through a Jastrow correlation factor. Inclusion of the surface fluctuation effects within this description, by truncating the cluster expansion at the two-body part, is found to improve somewhat the fit to the elastic charge form-factor of 16 O and 40 Ca. However, the convergence of the cluster expansion is expected to deteriorate. An additional finding is that surface-fluctuation correlations produce a drastic change in the asymptotic behaviour of the point-proton form-factor, which now falls off quite slowly (i.e. as const.q -4 ) at large values of the momentum transfer q

  17. Novel time-dependent vascular actions of {delta}{sup 9}-tetrahydrocannabinol mediated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Sullivan, Saoirse E [School of Biomedical Sciences, E Floor, Queen' s Medical Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2UH (United Kingdom); Tarling, Elizabeth J [School of Biomedical Sciences, E Floor, Queen' s Medical Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2UH (United Kingdom); Bennett, Andrew J [School of Biomedical Sciences, E Floor, Queen' s Medical Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2UH (United Kingdom); Kendall, David A [School of Biomedical Sciences, E Floor, Queen' s Medical Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2UH (United Kingdom); Randall, Michael D [School of Biomedical Sciences, E Floor, Queen' s Medical Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2UH (United Kingdom)

    2005-11-25

    Cannabinoids have widespread effects on the cardiovascular system, only some of which are mediated via G-protein-coupled cell surface receptors. The active ingredient of cannabis, {delta}{sup 9}-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), causes acute vasorelaxation in various arteries. Here we show for the first time that THC also causes slowly developing vasorelaxation through activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors gamma (PPAR{gamma}). In vitro, THC (10 {mu}M) caused time-dependent vasorelaxation of rat isolated arteries. Time-dependent vasorelaxation to THC was similar to that produced by the PPAR{gamma} agonist rosiglitazone and was inhibited by the PPAR{gamma} antagonist GW9662 (1 {mu}M), but not the cannabinoid CB{sub 1} receptor antagonist AM251 (1 {mu}M). Time-dependent vasorelaxation to THC requires an intact endothelium, nitric oxide, production of hydrogen peroxide, and de novo protein synthesis. In transactivation assays in cultured HEK293 cells, THC-activated PPAR{gamma}, transiently expressed in combination with retinoid X receptor {alpha} and a luciferase reporter gene, in a concentration-dependent manner (100 nM-10 {mu}M). In vitro incubation with THC (1 or 10 {mu}M, 8 days) stimulated adipocyte differentiation in cultured 3T3L1 cells, a well-accepted property of PPAR{gamma} ligands. The present results provide strong evidence that THC is a PPAR{gamma} ligand, stimulation of which causes time-dependent vasorelaxation, implying some of the pleiotropic effects of cannabis may be mediated by nuclear receptors.

  18. Role of focal adhesion tyrosine kinases in GPVI-dependent platelet activation and reactive oxygen species formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naadiya Carrim

    Full Text Available We have previously shown the presence of a TRAF4/p47phox/Hic5/Pyk2 complex associated with the platelet collagen receptor, GPVI, consistent with a potential role of this complex in GPVI-dependent ROS formation. In other cell systems, NOX-dependent ROS formation is facilitated by Pyk2, which along with its closely related homologue FAK are known to be activated and phosphorylated downstream of ligand binding to GPVI.To evaluate the relative roles of Pyk2 and FAK in GPVI-dependent ROS formation and to determine their location within the GPVI signaling pathway.Human and mouse washed platelets (from WT or Pyk2 KO mice were pre-treated with pharmacological inhibitors targeting FAK or Pyk2 (PF-228 and Tyrphostin A9, respectively and stimulated with the GPVI-specific agonist, CRP. FAK, but not Pyk2, was found to be essential for GPVI-dependent ROS production and aggregation. Subsequent human platelet studies with PF-228 confirmed FAK is essential for GPVI-mediated phosphatidylserine exposure, α-granule secretion (P-selectin (CD62P surface expression and integrin αIIbβ3 activation. To determine the precise location of FAK within the GPVI pathway, we analyzed the effect of PF-228 inhibition in CRP-stimulated platelets in conjunction with immunoprecipitation and pulldown analysis to show that FAK is downstream of Lyn, Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk, PI3-K and Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk and upstream of Rac1, PLCγ2, Ca2+ release, PKC, Hic-5, NOX1 and αIIbβ3 activation.Overall, these data suggest a novel role for FAK in GPVI-dependent ROS formation and platelet activation and elucidate a proximal signaling role for FAK within the GPVI pathway.

  19. DREAM Controls the On/Off Switch of Specific Activity-Dependent Transcription Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellström, Britt; Sahún, Ignasi; Ruiz-Nuño, Ana; Murtra, Patricia; Gomez-Villafuertes, Rosa; Savignac, Magali; Oliveros, Juan C.; Gonzalez, Paz; Kastanauskaite, Asta; Knafo, Shira; Zhuo, Min; Higuera-Matas, Alejandro; Errington, Michael L.; Maldonado, Rafael; DeFelipe, Javier; Jefferys, John G. R.; Bliss, Tim V. P.; Dierssen, Mara

    2014-01-01

    Changes in nuclear Ca2+ homeostasis activate specific gene expression programs and are central to the acquisition and storage of information in the brain. DREAM (downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator), also known as calsenilin/KChIP-3 (K+ channel interacting protein 3), is a Ca2+-binding protein that binds DNA and represses transcription in a Ca2+-dependent manner. To study the function of DREAM in the brain, we used transgenic mice expressing a Ca2+-insensitive/CREB-independent dominant active mutant DREAM (daDREAM). Using genome-wide analysis, we show that DREAM regulates the expression of specific activity-dependent transcription factors in the hippocampus, including Npas4, Nr4a1, Mef2c, JunB, and c-Fos. Furthermore, DREAM regulates its own expression, establishing an autoinhibitory feedback loop to terminate activity-dependent transcription. Ablation of DREAM does not modify activity-dependent transcription because of gene compensation by the other KChIP family members. The expression of daDREAM in the forebrain resulted in a complex phenotype characterized by loss of recurrent inhibition and enhanced long-term potentiation (LTP) in the dentate gyrus and impaired learning and memory. Our results indicate that DREAM is a major master switch transcription factor that regulates the on/off status of specific activity-dependent gene expression programs that control synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory. PMID:24366545

  20. Dependence of laser assisted cleaning of clad surfaces on the laser fluence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilaya, J.P.; Raote, P.; Sai Prasad, M.B.; Biswas, D.J.; Aniruddha Kumar

    2005-01-01

    The decontamination factor is studied as a function of laser fluence for three kinds of clad surfaces viz., plain zircaloy, autoclaved zircaloy and SS with cesium as the test contamination. It has been found that the decontamination factor exhibits a maximal behaviour with the laser fluence and its maximum value occurs at different laser fluences in the three cases. The maximal behaviour is attributed to reduced coupling of energy from the laser beam to the substrate due to the initiation of surface-assisted optical breakdown. The results obtained in the experiment carried out in helium environment qualitatively support this explanation (author)

  1. CONCENTRATION DEPENDENCE OF STERN LAYER CAPACITANCES AND SURFACE EQUILIBRIUM CONSTANTS IN SILICA-BASED NANOFLUIDIC CHANNELS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mathias Bækbo; Frey, J.; Bruus, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Fundamental understanding of the unique physics at the solid-liquid interface in nanofluidic channels is essential for the advancement of basic scientific knowledge and the development of novel applications for pharmaceuticals, environmental health and safety, energy harvesting and biometrics [1......]. The current models used to describe surface phenomena in nanofluidics can differ by orders of magnitude from experimentally measured values [2]. To mitigate the discrepancies, we hypothesize that the Stern-layer capacitance Cs and the surface equilibrium constants pKa, vary with the composition of the solid...

  2. Similar expression patterns of bestrophin-4 and cGMP dependent Ca2+-activated chloride channel activity in the vasculature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouzinova, Elena V.; Larsen, Per; Matchkov, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    (abstract by Matchkov et. al) that siRNA mediated downregulation of bestrophin-4 is associated with the disappearance of a recently demonstrated2 cGMP-dependent Ca2+-activated Cl- current in vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Here we study the distribution of bestrophin-4-and cGMP dependent Cl- channel...... expressed epitope) Western blot detected a ~65 kDa band in cell lysates from rat mesenteric small arteries and aorta, which was not seen in pulmonary arteries and when preincubated with the immunizing peptide. The distribution of bestrophin-4 mRNA and protein has a pattern similar to the cGMP-dependent Cl......- current in SMCs of different origins. Immunohistochemistry identified bestrophin-4 both in endothelial and SMCs of the vascular tree in the brain, heart, kidney and mesentery, but not in the lungs. We suggest that bestrophin-4 is important for the cGMP dependent, Ca2+ activated Cl- conductance in many...

  3. Influence of surface mechanical activation of the X40Cr13 steel on roughness after ion and gas nitriding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasinski, J.; Wojtal, A.; Jeziorski, L.; Radecki, A.; Ucieklak, S.

    2003-01-01

    The article describes the problem of the thermal and mechanical activation of the surface of the X40Cr13 steel on the state of the ion and gas nitriding. in order to determine the nitriding influence and make the analysis of results, the steel was subjected to: soft annealing, hardening with subsequent tempering at T = 550 o C and also mechanical activation of the surface consisting in peripheral grinding with abrasive papers of the grain size 60, 360, 1000 and mechanical polishing. The main aim of this work was to establish the influence of different surface geometrical structure, depending on X40Cr13 steel structure, on the roughness profile after ion and gas nitriding. With regard to the above, the examinations of basic roughness parameters prior to and after thermochemical processes and the analysis of utilitarian usefulness of activations applied were carried out. (author)

  4. The effect of a curvature-dependent surface tension on the singularities at the tips of a straight interface crack

    KAUST Repository

    Zemlyanova, A. Y.

    2013-03-08

    A problem of an interface crack between two semi-planes made out of different materials under an action of an in-plane loading of general tensile-shear type is treated in a semi-analytical manner with the help of Dirichlet-to-Neumann mappings. The boundaries of the crack and the interface between semi-planes are subjected to a curvature-dependent surface tension. The resulting system of six singular integro-differential equations is reduced to the system of three Fredholm equations. It is shown that the introduction of the curvature-dependent surface tension eliminates both classical integrable power singularity of the order 1/2 and an oscillating singularity present in a classical linear elasticity solutions. The numerical results are obtained by solving the original system of singular integro-differential equations by approximating unknown functions with Taylor polynomials. © 2013 The Author.

  5. IEP as a parameter characterizing the pH-dependent surface charging of materials other than metal oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmulski, Marek

    2012-01-01

    The numerical values of points of zero charge (PZC, obtained by potentiometric titration) and of isoelectric points (IEP) of various materials reported in the literature have been analyzed. In sets of results reported for the same chemical compound (corresponding to certain chemical formula and crystallographic structure), the IEP are relatively consistent. In contrast, in materials other than metal oxides, the sets of PZC are inconsistent. In view of the inconsistence in the sets of PZC and of the discrepancies between PZC and IEP reported for the same material, it seems that IEP is more suitable than PZC as the unique number characterizing the pH-dependent surface charging of materials other than metal oxides. The present approach is opposite to the usual approach, in which the PZC and IEP are considered as two equally important parameters characterizing the pH-dependent surface charging of materials other than metal oxides. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of morphology and surface characteristics on the photocatalytic activity of rutile titania nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nag, Manaswita; Guin, Debanjan; Basak, Pratyay; Manorama, Sunkara V.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the synthesis of phase-pure rutile titania with different morphologies via hydrothermal method at significantly low temperatures (40-150 deg. C) without any additives and their application as efficient photocatalyst for environmental remediation. Phase and morphology has been determined with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Ultra violet diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-DRS) shows the optical band-gap in the range of ∼2.8-3.1 eV and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface area is found to be between 70 and 140 m 2 /g depending on the synthesis conditions. Raman spectroscopic analyses of the samples provide valuable insights into the structural and stoichiometric details. Photodegradation of the pollutant azo-dye, methyl orange (MO) in presence and absence of oxygen was performed to study the photocatalytic efficiency of the synthesized materials. Complete photodegradation of the dye is confirmed with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) study. Dependence of dye photodegradation rate on morphology, specific surface area, surface nonstoichiometry and acidity were investigated in detail. Catalyst performance was compared from the rate constants obtained for each reaction using non-linear least square fitting (NLSF) to the experimental data in a concentration ratio (C 0 /C t ) versus time (t) plot which shows extraordinarily high activity for all samples compared to commercial reference. Among them the catalyst synthesized at 40 deg. C for 16 h showed best activity. Kinetic study of the reaction matches well with simulated fit to experimental data and confirms to be pseudo-first order reaction

  7. Substrate integrated ferrite phase shifters and active frequency selective surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahill, B.M.

    2002-01-01

    There are two distinct parts to this thesis; the first investigates the use of ferrite tiles in the construction of printed phase shifting transmission lines, culminating in the design of two compact electromagnetic controlled beam steered patch and slot antenna arrays. The second part investigates the use of active frequency selective surfaces (AFSS), which are later used to cover a uPVC constructed enclosure. Field intensity measurements are taken from within the enclosure to determine the dynamic screening effectiveness. Trans Tech G-350 Ferrite is investigated to determine its application in printed microstrip and stripline phase shifting transmission lines. 50-Ohm transmission lines are constructed using the ferrite tile and interfaced to Rogers RT Duroid 5870 substrate. Scattering parameter measurements are made under the application of variable magnetic fields to the ferrite. Later, two types of planar microwave beam steering antennas are constructed. The first uses the ferrites integrated into the Duroid as microstrip lines with 3 patch antennas as the radiating elements. The second uses stripline transmission lines, with slot antennas as the radiating sources etched into the ground plane of the triplate. Beam steering is achieved by the application of an external electromagnet. An AFSS is constructed by the interposition of PIN diodes into a dipole FSS array. Transmission response measurements are then made for various angles of electromagnetic wave incidence. Two states of operation exist: when a current is passed through the diodes and when the diodes are switched off. These two states form a high pass and band stop space filter respectively. An enclosure covered with the AFSS is constructed and externally illuminated in the range 2.0 - 2.8GHz. A probe antenna inside the enclosure positioned at various locations through out the volume is used to establish the effective screening action of the AFSS in 3 dimensional space. (author)

  8. Activity-Dependent Bidirectional Regulation of GAD Expression in a Homeostatic Fashion Is Mediated by BDNF-Dependent and Independent Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanno-Iijima, Yoko; Tanaka, Masami; Iijima, Takatoshi

    2015-01-01

    Homeostatic synaptic plasticity, or synaptic scaling, is a mechanism that tunes neuronal transmission to compensate for prolonged, excessive changes in neuronal activity. Both excitatory and inhibitory neurons undergo homeostatic changes based on synaptic transmission strength, which could effectively contribute to a fine-tuning of circuit activity. However, gene regulation that underlies homeostatic synaptic plasticity in GABAergic (GABA, gamma aminobutyric) neurons is still poorly understood. The present study demonstrated activity-dependent dynamic scaling in which NMDA-R (N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor) activity regulated the expression of GABA synthetic enzymes: glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 and 67 (GAD65 and GAD67). Results revealed that activity-regulated BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) release is necessary, but not sufficient, for activity-dependent up-scaling of these GAD isoforms. Bidirectional forms of activity-dependent GAD expression require both BDNF-dependent and BDNF-independent pathways, both triggered by NMDA-R activity. Additional results indicated that these two GAD genes differ in their responsiveness to chronic changes in neuronal activity, which could be partially caused by differential dependence on BDNF. In parallel to activity-dependent bidirectional scaling in GAD expression, the present study further observed that a chronic change in neuronal activity leads to an alteration in neurotransmitter release from GABAergic neurons in a homeostatic, bidirectional fashion. Therefore, the differential expression of GAD65 and 67 during prolonged changes in neuronal activity may be implicated in some aspects of bidirectional homeostatic plasticity within mature GABAergic presynapses. PMID:26241953

  9. Quantifying groundwater dependency of riparian surface hydrologic features using the exit gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examines groundwater exit gradients as a way to quantify groundwater interactions with surface water. We calibrated high resolution groundwater models for the basin fill sediments in the lower Calapooia watershed, Oregon, using data collected between 1928--2000. The e...

  10. Temperature dependence of the bulk and surface properties of liquid Zn-Cd alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awe, O.E. [University of Ibadan, Department of Physics, Ibadan (Nigeria); Azeez, A.A. [African University of Science and Technology, Abuja (Nigeria)

    2017-05-15

    The effects of temperature on the bulk and surface properties of liquid Zn-Cd alloys have been theoretically investigated, using a combination of self association model, Darken's thermodynamic equation for diffusion, empirical model for viscosity and a statistical mechanics model. The results from this study show that change in temperature resulted in cross-over effects in bulk and surface properties. We also found that with an increase in temperature, a pronounced asymmetry of viscosity isotherm is significantly reduced, and viscosity isotherm exhibited anomalous behaviour. Our results reveal that the homocoordination tendency in Zn-Cd liquid alloys is not strong and reduces with increasing temperature. The study further suggests a pronounced segregation of Cd-atoms at the surface of Zn-Cd liquid alloys and the extent of segregation reduces with temperature. We as well found that, in addition to the reported understanding that size-factor determines the compositional location of asymmetry of the viscosity isotherm, temperature is an operating parameter that has effect, not only on the composition of asymmetry, but also on the magnitude of asymmetry. In all the properties investigated, the most pronounced effect of temperature (52.9 %) is on the viscosity while the least effect (7.1 %) is on the surface tension. (orig.)

  11. Surface Impedance of Copper MOB Depending on the Annealing Temperature and Deformation Degree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutovoj, V.A.; Nikolaenko, A.A.; Stoev, P.I.; Vinogradov, D.V.

    2006-01-01

    Results of researches of influence of annealing temperature and deformation degree on mechanical features of copper MOB are presented. It is shown that minimal surface resistance is observed in copper samples that were subject to pre-deformation and were annealed in the range of temperatures 873...923 K

  12. Origins of saccharide-dependent hydration at aluminate, silicate, and aluminosilicate surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Benjamin J; Rawal, Aditya; Funkhouser, Gary P; Roberts, Lawrence R; Gupta, Vijay; Israelachvili, Jacob N; Chmelka, Bradley F

    2011-05-31

    Sugar molecules adsorbed at hydrated inorganic oxide surfaces occur ubiquitously in nature and in technologically important materials and processes, including marine biomineralization, cement hydration, corrosion inhibition, bioadhesion, and bone resorption. Among these examples, surprisingly diverse hydration behaviors are observed for oxides in the presence of saccharides with closely related compositions and structures. Glucose, sucrose, and maltodextrin, for example, exhibit significant differences in their adsorption selectivities and alkaline reaction properties on hydrating aluminate, silicate, and aluminosilicate surfaces that are shown to be due to the molecular architectures of the saccharides. Solid-state (1)H, (13)C, (29)Si, and (27)Al nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy measurements, including at very high magnetic fields (19 T), distinguish and quantify the different molecular species, their chemical transformations, and their site-specific adsorption on different aluminate and silicate moieties. Two-dimensional NMR results establish nonselective adsorption of glucose degradation products containing carboxylic acids on both hydrated silicates and aluminates. In contrast, sucrose adsorbs intact at hydrated silicate sites and selectively at anhydrous, but not hydrated, aluminate moieties. Quantitative surface force measurements establish that sucrose adsorbs strongly as multilayers on hydrated aluminosilicate surfaces. The molecular structures and physicochemical properties of the saccharides and their degradation species correlate well with their adsorption behaviors. The results explain the dramatically different effects that small amounts of different types of sugars have on the rates at which aluminate, silicate, and aluminosilicate species hydrate, with important implications for diverse materials and applications.

  13. Nitrogen ion induced nitridation of Si(111) surface: Energy and fluence dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Praveen [Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Bangalore 560064 (India); ISOM, Universidad Politecnia de Madrid, 28040 (Spain); Kumar, Mahesh [Physics and Energy Harvesting Group, National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi 110012 (India); Nötzel, R. [ISOM, Universidad Politecnia de Madrid, 28040 (Spain); Shivaprasad, S.M., E-mail: smsprasad@jncasr.ac.in [Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Bangalore 560064 (India)

    2014-06-01

    We present the surface modification of Si(111) into silicon nitride by exposure to energetic N{sub 2}{sup +} ions. In-situ UHV experiments have been performed to optimize the energy and fluence of the N{sub 2}{sup +} ions to form silicon nitride at room temperature (RT) and characterized in-situ by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We have used N{sub 2}{sup +} ion beams in the energy range of 0.2–5.0 keV of different fluence to induce surface reactions, which lead to the formation of Si{sub x}N{sub y} on the Si(111) surface. The XPS core level spectra of Si(2p) and N(1s) have been deconvoluted into different oxidation states to extract qualitative information, while survey scans have been used for quantifying of the silicon nitride formation, valence band spectra show that as the N{sub 2}{sup +} ion fluence increases, there is an increase in the band gap. The secondary electron emission spectra region of photoemission is used to evaluate the change in the work function during the nitridation process. The results show that surface nitridation initially increases rapidly with ion fluence and then saturates. - Highlights: • A systematic study for the formation of silicon nitride on Si(111). • Investigation of optimal energy and fluence for energetic N{sub 2}{sup +} ions. • Silicon nitride formation at room temperature on Si(111)

  14. Effect of Heat Treatment on the Surface Properties of Activated Carbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meriem Belhachemi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the effect of heat treatment on the porosity and surface chemistry of two series of activated carbons prepared from a local agricultural biomass material, date pits, by physical activation with carbon dioxide and steam. Both series samples were oxidized with nitric acid and subsequently heat treated under N2 at 973 K in order to study the effect of these treatments in porosity and surface functional groups of activated carbons. When the activated carbons were heat treated after oxidation the surface area and the pore volume increase for both activated carbons prepared by CO2 and steam activations. However the amount of surface oxygen complexes decreases, the samples keep the most stable oxygen surface groups evolved as CO by temperature-programmed desorption experiments at high temperature. The results show that date pits can be used as precursors to produce activated carbons with a well developed porosity and tailored oxygen surface groups.

  15. Dependence of the Onset of the Runaway Greenhouse Effect on the Latitudinal Surface Water Distribution of Earth-Like Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, T.; Nitta, A.; Genda, H.; Takao, Y.; O'ishi, R.; Abe-Ouchi, A.; Abe, Y.

    2018-02-01

    Liquid water is one of the most important materials affecting the climate and habitability of a terrestrial planet. Liquid water vaporizes entirely when planets receive insolation above a certain critical value, which is called the runaway greenhouse threshold. This threshold forms the inner most limit of the habitable zone. Here we investigate the effects of the distribution of surface water on the runaway greenhouse threshold for Earth-sized planets using a three-dimensional dynamic atmosphere model. We considered a 1 bar atmosphere whose composition is similar to the current Earth's atmosphere with a zonally uniform distribution of surface water. As previous studies have already showed, we also recognized two climate regimes: the land planet regime, which has dry low-latitude and wet high-latitude regions, and the aqua planet regime, which is globally wet. We showed that each regime is controlled by the width of the Hadley circulation, the amount of surface water, and the planetary topography. We found that the runaway greenhouse threshold varies continuously with the surface water distribution from about 130% (an aqua planet) to 180% (the extreme case of a land planet) of the present insolation at Earth's orbit. Our results indicate that the inner edge of the habitable zone is not a single sharp boundary, but a border whose location varies depending on planetary surface condition, such as the amount of surface water. Since land planets have wider habitable zones and less cloud cover, land planets would be good targets for future observations investigating planetary habitability.

  16. Surface and interface electronic structure: Sixth year activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kevan, S.D.

    1992-01-01

    Several productive runs were made on beamline U4A at NSLS. An upgrade of angle-resolved photoemission spectrometer was largely completed on the beamline. Progress was made on studies of surface states and reconstruction on Mo(001) and W(001), and of surface states and resonances on Pt(111)

  17. Pretreatment-dependent surface chemistry of wood nanocellulose for pH-sensitive hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary; Syverud, Kristin

    2014-09-01

    Nanocellulose from wood is a promising material with potential in various technological areas. Within biomedical applications, nanocellulose has been proposed as a suitable nano-material for wound dressings. This is based on the capability of the material to self-assemble into 3D micro-porous structures, which among others have an excellent capacity of maintaining a moist environment. In addition, the surface chemistry of nanocellulose is suitable for various applications. First, OH-groups are abundant in nanocellulose materials, making the material strongly hydrophilic. Second, the surface chemistry can be modified, introducing aldehyde and carboxyl groups, which have major potential for surface functionalization. In this study, we demonstrate the production of nanocellulose with tailor-made surface chemistry, by pre-treating the raw cellulose fibres with carboxymethylation and periodate oxidation. The pre-treatments yielded a highly nanofibrillated material, with significant amounts of aldehyde and carboxyl groups. Importantly, the poly-anionic surface of the oxidized nanocellulose opens up for novel applications, i.e. micro-porous materials with pH-responsive characteristics. This is due to the swelling capacity of the 3D micro-porous structures, which have ionisable functional groups. In this study, we demonstrated that nanocellulose gels have a significantly higher swelling degree in neutral and alkaline conditions, compared to an acid environment (pH 3). Such a capability can potentially be applied in chronic wounds for controlled and intelligent release of antibacterial components into biofilms. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  18. Nerve growth factor enhances the CRE-dependent transcriptional activity activated by nobiletin in PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takito, Jiro; Kimura, Junko; Kajima, Koji; Uozumi, Nobuyuki; Watanabe, Makoto; Yokosuka, Akihito; Mimaki, Yoshihiro; Nakamura, Masanori; Ohizumi, Yasushi

    2016-07-01

    Prevention and treatment of Alzheimer disease are urgent problems for elderly people in developed countries. We previously reported that nobiletin, a poly-methoxylated flavone from the citrus peel, improved the symptoms in various types of animal models of memory loss and activated the cAMP responsive element (CRE)-dependent transcription in PC12 cells. Nobiletin activated the cAMP/PKA/MEK/Erk/MAPK signaling pathway without using the TrkA signaling activated by nerve growth factor (NGF). Here, we examined the effect of combination of nobiletin and NGF on the CRE-dependent transcription in PC12 cells. Although NGF alone had little effect on the CRE-dependent transcription, NGF markedly enhanced the CRE-dependent transcription induced by nobiletin. The NGF-induced enhancement was neutralized by a TrkA antagonist, K252a. This effect of NGF was effective on the early signaling event elicited by nobiletin. These results suggested that there was crosstalk between NGF and nobiletin signaling in activating the CRE-dependent transcription in PC12 cells.

  19. Resonance Raman Optical Activity and Surface Enhanced Resonance Raman Optical Activity analysis of Cytochrome C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Christian; Abdali, Salim; White, Peter C.

    2007-01-01

    High quality Resonance Raman (RR) and resonance Raman Optical Activity (ROA) spectra of cytochrome c were obtained in order to perform full assignment of spectral features of the resonance ROA spectrum. The resonance ROA spectrum of cytochrome c revealed a distinct spectral signature pattern due...... to resonance enhanced skeletal porphyrin vibrations, more pronounced than any contribution from the protein back-bone. Combining the intrinsic resonance enhancement of cytochrome c with surface plasmon enhancement by colloidal silver particles, the Surface Enhanced Resonance Raman Scattering (SERRS) and Chiral...... Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (ChERS) spectra of the protein were successfully obtained at very low concentration (as low as 1 µM). The assignment of spectral features was based on the information obtained from the RR and resonance ROA spectra. Excellent agreement between RR and SERRS spectra is reported...

  20. The Stress-Dependent Activation Parameters for Dislocation Nucleation in Molybdenum Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chachamovitz, Doron; Mordehai, Dan

    2018-03-02

    Many specimens at the nanoscale are pristine of dislocations, line defects which are the main carriers of plasticity. As a result, they exhibit extremely high strengths which are dislocation-nucleation controlled. Since nucleation is a thermally activated process, it is essential to quantify the stress-dependent activation parameters for dislocation nucleation in order to study the strength of specimens at the nanoscale and its distribution. In this work, we calculate the strength of Mo nanoparticles in molecular dynamics simulations and we propose a method to extract the activation free-energy barrier for dislocation nucleation from the distribution of the results. We show that by deforming the nanoparticles at a constant strain rate, their strength distribution can be approximated by a normal distribution, from which the activation volumes at different stresses and temperatures are calculated directly. We found that the activation energy dependency on the stress near spontaneous nucleation conditions obeys a power-law with a critical exponent of approximately 3/2, which is in accordance with critical exponents found in other thermally activated processes but never for dislocation nucleation. Additionally, significant activation entropies were calculated. Finally, we generalize the approach to calculate the activation parameters for other driving-force dependent thermally activated processes.

  1. Layer Dependence and Light Tuning Surface Potential of 2D MoS2 on Various Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Qi, Junjie; Xu, Minxuan; Xiao, Jiankun; Xu, Yuliang; Zhang, Xiankun; Liu, Shuo; Zhang, Yue

    2017-04-01

    Here surface potential of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown 2D MoS 2 with various layers is reported, and the effect of adherent substrate and light illumination on surface potential of monolayer MoS 2 are investigated. The surface potential of MoS 2 on Si/SiO 2 substrate decreases from 4.93 to 4.84 eV with the increase in the number of layer from 1 to 4 or more. Especially, the surface potentials of monolayer MoS 2 are strongly dependent on its adherent substrate, which are determined to be 4.55, 4.88, 4.93, 5.10, and 5.50 eV on Ag, graphene, Si/SiO 2 , Au, and Pt substrates, respectively. Light irradiation is introduced to tuning the surface potential of monolayer MoS 2 , with the increase in light intensity, the surface potential of MoS 2 on Si/SiO 2 substrate decreases from 4.93 to 4.74 eV, while increases from 5.50 to 5.56 eV on Pt substrate. The I-V curves on vertical of monolayer MoS 2 /Pt heterojunction show the decrease in current with the increase of light intensity, and Schottky barrier height at MoS 2 /Pt junctions increases from 0.302 to 0.342 eV. The changed surface potential can be explained by trapped charges on surface, photoinduced carriers, charge transfer, and local electric field. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Improvement of silicon direct bonding using surfaces activated by hydrogen plasma treatment

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, W B; Lee Jae Sik; Sung, M Y

    2000-01-01

    The plasma surface treatment, using hydrogen gas, of silicon wafers was studied as a pretreatment for silicon direct bonding. Chemical reactions of the hydrogen plasma with the surfaces were used for both surface activation and removal of surface contaminants. Exposure of the silicon wafers to the plasma formed an active oxide layer on the surface. This layer was hydrophilic. The surface roughness and morphology were examined as functions of the plasma exposure time and power. The surface became smoother with shorter plasma exposure time and lower power. In addition, the plasma surface treatment was very efficient in removing the carbon contaminants on the silicon surface. The value of the initial surface energy, as estimated by using the crack propagation method, was 506 mJ/M sup 2 , which was up to about three times higher than the value for the conventional direct bonding method using wet chemical treatments.

  3. Salinity-Dependent Adhesion Response Properties of Aluminosilicate (K-Feldspar) Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenz, Bärbel; Ceccato, Marcel; Andersson, Martin Peter

    2017-01-01

    is composed predominantly of quartz with some clay, but feldspar grains are often also present. While the wettability of quartz and clay surfaces has been thoroughly investigated, little is known about the adhesion properties of feldspar. We explored the interaction of model oil compounds, molecules...... in well sorted sandstone. Adhesion forces, measured with the chemical force mapping (CFM) mode of atomic force microscopy (AFM), showed a low salinity effect on the fresh feldspar surfaces. Adhesion force, measured with -COO(H)-functionalized tips, was 60% lower in artificial low salinity seawater (LS......, ∼1500 ppm total dissolved solids) than in the high salinity solution, artificial seawater (HS, ASW, ∼35 600 ppm). Adhesion with the -CH3 tips was as much as 30% lower in LS than in HS. Density functional theory calculations indicated that the low salinity response resulted from expansion of the electric...

  4. Inverse electrocardiographic transformations: dependence on the number of epicardial regions and body surface data points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, P R; Walker, S J; Hyttinen, J A; Kilpatrick, D

    1994-04-01

    The inverse problem of electrocardiography, the computation of epicardial potentials from body surface potentials, is influenced by the desired resolution on the epicardium, the number of recording points on the body surface, and the method of limiting the inversion process. To examine the role of these variables in the computation of the inverse transform, Tikhonov's zero-order regularization and singular value decomposition (SVD) have been used to invert the forward transfer matrix. The inverses have been compared in a data-independent manner using the resolution and the noise amplification as endpoints. Sets of 32, 50, 192, and 384 leads were chosen as sets of body surface data, and 26, 50, 74, and 98 regions were chosen to represent the epicardium. The resolution and noise were both improved by using a greater number of electrodes on the body surface. When 60% of the singular values are retained, the results show a trade-off between noise and resolution, with typical maximal epicardial noise levels of less than 0.5% of maximum epicardial potentials for 26 epicardial regions, 2.5% for 50 epicardial regions, 7.5% for 74 epicardial regions, and 50% for 98 epicardial regions. As the number of epicardial regions is increased, the regularization technique effectively fixes the noise amplification but markedly decreases the resolution, whereas SVD results in an increase in noise and a moderate decrease in resolution. Overall the regularization technique performs slightly better than SVD in the noise-resolution relationship. There is a region at the posterior of the heart that was poorly resolved regardless of the number of regions chosen. The variance of the resolution was such as to suggest the use of variable-size epicardial regions based on the resolution.

  5. Controlling surface plasmon polaritons by a static and/or time-dependent external magnetic field

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuzmiak, Vladimír; Eyderman, Sergey; Vanwolleghem, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 4 (2012), s. 045403 ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP205/10/0046 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) MP0702 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : one-way electromegnetic waveguide * magneto-optic photonic crystal * surface plasmon polarirton Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 3.767, year: 2012

  6. Controlling surface plasmon polaritons by a static and/or time-dependent external magnetic field

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuzmiak, Vladimír; Eyderman, Sergey; Vanwolleghem, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 4 (2012), s. 045403 ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP205/10/0046 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) MP0702 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : one-way electromegnetic waveguide * magneto- optic photonic crystal * surface plasmon polarirton Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 3.767, year: 2012

  7. Passivation of phosphorus diffused silicon surfaces with Al2O3: Influence of surface doping concentration and thermal activation treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, Armin; Benick, Jan; Kimmerle, Achim; Hermle, Martin; Glunz, Stefan W.

    2014-01-01

    Thin layers of Al 2 O 3 are well known for the excellent passivation of p-type c-Si surfaces including highly doped p + emitters, due to a high density of fixed negative charges. Recent results indicate that Al 2 O 3 can also provide a good passivation of certain phosphorus-diffused n + c-Si surfaces. In this work, we studied the recombination at Al 2 O 3 passivated n + surfaces theoretically with device simulations and experimentally for Al 2 O 3 deposited with atomic layer deposition. The simulation results indicate that there is a certain surface doping concentration, where the recombination is maximal due to depletion or weak inversion of the charge carriers at the c-Si/Al 2 O 3 interface. This pronounced maximum was also observed experimentally for n + surfaces passivated either with Al 2 O 3 single layers or stacks of Al 2 O 3 capped by SiN x , when activated with a low temperature anneal (425 °C). In contrast, for Al 2 O 3 /SiN x stacks activated with a short high-temperature firing process (800 °C) a significant lower surface recombination was observed for most n + diffusion profiles without such a pronounced maximum. Based on experimentally determined interface properties and simulation results, we attribute this superior passivation quality after firing to a better chemical surface passivation, quantified by a lower interface defect density, in combination with a lower density of negative fixed charges. These experimental results reveal that Al 2 O 3 /SiN x stacks can provide not only excellent passivation on p + surfaces but also on n + surfaces for a wide range of surface doping concentrations when activated with short high-temperature treatments

  8. Temperature Dependent Surface Structures and Electronic Properties of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite Single Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jao, M.-H.; Teague, M. L.; Huang, J.-S.; Tseng, W.-S.; Yeh, N.-C.

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites, arising from research of low-cost high performance photovoltaics, have become promising materials not only for solar cells but also for various optoelectronic and spintronic applications. An interesting aspect of the hybrid perovskites is that their material properties, such as the band gap, can be easily tuned by varying the composition, temperature, and the crystalline phases. Additionally, the surface structure is critically important for their optoelectronic applications. It is speculated that different crystalline facets could show different trap densities, thus resulting in microscopically inhomogeneous performance. Here we report direct studies of the surface structures and electronic properties of hybrid perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 single crystals by scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (STM/STS). We found long-range spatially homogeneous tunneling conductance spectra with a well-defined energy gap of (1.55 +/- 0.1) eV at 300 K in the tetragonal phase, suggesting high quality of the single crystals. The energy gap increased to (1.81 +/- 0.1) eV in the orthorhombic phase, below the tetragonal-to-orthorhombic phase transition temperature at 150 K. Detailed studies of the temperature evolution in the spatially resolved surface structures and local density of states will be discussed to elucidate how these properties may influence the optoelectronic performance of the hybrid perovskites. We thank the support from NTU in Taiwan and from NSF in the US.

  9. Strings on a Violin: Location Dependence of Frequency Tuning in Active Dendrites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Anindita; Rathour, Rahul K; Narayanan, Rishikesh

    2017-01-01

    Strings on a violin are tuned to generate distinct sound frequencies in a manner that is firmly dependent on finger location along the fingerboard. Sound frequencies emerging from different violins could be very different based on their architecture, the nature of strings and their tuning. Analogously, active neuronal dendrites, dendrites endowed with active channel conductances, are tuned to distinct input frequencies in a manner that is dependent on the dendritic location of the synaptic inputs. Further, disparate channel expression profiles and differences in morphological characteristics could result in dendrites on different neurons of the same subtype tuned to distinct frequency ranges. Alternately, similar location-dependence along dendritic structures could be achieved through disparate combinations of channel profiles and morphological characteristics, leading to degeneracy in active dendritic spectral tuning. Akin to strings on a violin being tuned to different frequencies than those on a viola or a cello, different neuronal subtypes exhibit distinct channel profiles and disparate morphological characteristics endowing each neuronal subtype with unique location-dependent frequency selectivity. Finally, similar to the tunability of musical instruments to elicit distinct location-dependent sounds, neuronal frequency selectivity and its location-dependence are tunable through activity-dependent plasticity of ion channels and morphology. In this morceau, we explore the origins of neuronal frequency selectivity, and survey the literature on the mechanisms behind the emergence of location-dependence in distinct forms of frequency tuning. As a coda to this composition, we present some future directions for this exciting convergence of biophysical mechanisms that endow a neuron with frequency multiplexing capabilities.

  10. Frequency dependence of the active impedance component of silicon thin-film resistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belogurov, S.V.; Gostilo, V.V.; Yurov, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    A high-resistant resistor on the silicon thin-film substrate considerably superior in noise and frequency performance than commercial resistors is described. The frequency dependence of the active impedance component is tested for determining noise and frequency dependences of silicon thin-film resistors. The obtained results permit to calculate the energy equivalent of resistor noise in nuclear radiation detection units at any temperature according to its frequency characteristic at room temperature

  11. Intense Activity of the Raphe Spinal Pathway Depresses Motor Activity via a Serotonin Dependent Mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrier, Jean-François; Rasmussen, Hanne B; Jørgensen, Lone K

    2018-01-01

    Motor fatigue occurring during prolonged physical activity has both peripheral and central origins. It was previously demonstrated that the excitability of motoneurons was decreased when a spillover of serotonin could activate extrasynaptic 5-HT1A receptors at the axon initial segment (AIS...

  12. Bleb Expansion in Migrating Cells Depends on Supply of Membrane from Cell Surface Invaginations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudarzi, Mohammad; Tarbashevich, Katsiaryna; Mildner, Karina; Begemann, Isabell; Garcia, Jamie; Paksa, Azadeh; Reichman-Fried, Michal; Mahabaleshwar, Harsha; Blaser, Heiko; Hartwig, Johannes; Zeuschner, Dagmar; Galic, Milos; Bagnat, Michel; Betz, Timo; Raz, Erez

    2017-12-04

    Cell migration is essential for morphogenesis, organ formation, and homeostasis, with relevance for clinical conditions. The migration of primordial germ cells (PGCs) is a useful model for studying this process in the context of the developing embryo. Zebrafish PGC migration depends on the formation of cellular protrusions in form of blebs, a type of protrusion found in various cell types. Here we report on the mechanisms allowing the inflation of the membrane during bleb formation. We show that the rapid expansion of the protrusion depends on membrane invaginations that are localized preferentially at the cell front. The formation of these invaginations requires the function of Cdc42, and their unfolding allows bleb inflation and dynamic cell-shape changes performed by migrating cells. Inhibiting the formation and release of the invaginations strongly interfered with bleb formation, cell motility, and the ability of the cells to reach their target. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Spin dependent surface recombination in silicon p-n junctions: the effect of irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, D [Laboratoire Central de Recherches, 91 - Corbeville par Orsay (France); Pepper, M [Cambridge Univ. (UK). Cavendish Lab.

    1980-06-01

    The results are presented of an investigation of spin dependent recombination in (100) oriented, gate controlled Si diodes irradiated by 30 keV electrons. After irradiation, recombination at the Si-SiO/sub 2/ interface is increased, and saturation of the spin resonance increases the diode forward current by 5 parts in 10/sup 4/. The results cannot be described by a conventional Shockley-Read recombination model. An alternative picture is proposed involving recombination between trapped electrons and trapped holes.

  14. Going the distance: Memory and control processes in active dependency construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagers, Matthew W; Phillips, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Filler-gap dependencies make strong demands on working memory in language comprehension because they cannot always be immediately resolved. In a series of three reading-time studies, we test the idea that these demands can be decomposed into active maintenance processes and retrieval events. Results indicate that the fact that a displaced phrase exists and the identity of its basic syntactic category both immediately impact comprehension at potential gap sites. In contrast, specific lexical details of the displaced phrase show an immediate effect only for short dependencies and a much later effect for longer dependencies. We argue that coarse-grained information about the filler is actively maintained and is used to make phrase structure parsing decisions, whereas finer grained information is more quickly released from active maintenance and consequently has to be retrieved at the gap site.

  15. Striatal activation and frontostriatal connectivity during non-drug reward anticipation in alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Alena; Kirsch, Martina; Gerchen, Martin Fungisai; Kiefer, Falk; Kirsch, Peter

    2017-05-01

    According to prevailing neurobiological theories of addiction, altered function in neural reward circuitry is a central mechanism of alcohol dependence. Growing evidence postulates that the ventral striatum (VS), as well as areas of the prefrontal cortex, contribute to the increased incentive salience of alcohol-associated cues, diminished motivation to pursue non-drug rewards and weakened strength of inhibitory cognitive control, which are central to addiction. The present study aims to investigate the neural response and functional connectivity underlying monetary, non-drug reward processing in alcohol dependence. We utilized a reward paradigm to investigate the anticipation of monetary reward in 32 alcohol-dependent inpatients and 35 healthy controls. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure task-related brain activation and connectivity. Alcohol-dependent patients showed increased activation of the VS during anticipation of monetary gain compared with healthy controls. Generalized psychophysiological interaction analyses revealed decreased functional connectivity between the VS and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in alcohol dependent patients relative to controls. Increased activation of the VS and reduced frontostriatal connectivity were associated with increased craving. These findings provide evidence that alcohol dependence is rather associated with disrupted integration of striatal and prefrontal processes than with a global reward anticipation deficit. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  16. Glucocorticoids activate the ATP-ubiquitin-dependent proteolytic system in skeletal muscle during fasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, S. S.; Goldberg, A. L.; Goldberger, A. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are essential for the increase in protein breakdown in skeletal muscle normally seen during fasting. To determine which proteolytic pathway(s) are activated upon fasting, leg muscles from fed and fasted normal rats were incubated under conditions that block or activate different proteolytic systems. After food deprivation (1 day), the nonlysosomal ATP-dependent process increased by 250%, as shown in experiments involving depletion of muscle ATP. Also, the maximal capacity of the lysosomal process increased 60-100%, but no changes occurred in the Ca(2+)-dependent or the residual energy-independent proteolytic processes. In muscles from fasted normal and adrenalectomized (ADX) rats, the protein breakdown sensitive to inhibitors of the lysosomal or Ca(2+)-dependent pathways did not differ. However, the ATP-dependent process was 30% slower in muscles from fasted ADX rats. Administering dexamethasone to these animals or incubating their muscles with dexamethasone reversed this defect. During fasting, when the ATP-dependent process rises, muscles show a two- to threefold increase in levels of ubiquitin (Ub) mRNA. However, muscles of ADX animals failed to show this response. Injecting dexamethasone into the fasted ADX animals increased muscle Ub mRNA within 6 h. Thus glucocorticoids activate the ATP-Ub-dependent proteolytic pathway in fasting apparently by enhancing the expression of components of this system such as Ub.

  17. Depigmenting Effect of Resveratrol Is Dependent on FOXO3a Activation without SIRT1 Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Soon-Hyo; Choi, Hye-Ryung; Kang, Youn-A; Park, Kyoung-Chan

    2017-06-07

    Resveratrol exhibits not only anti-melanogenic property by inhibiting microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), but also anti-aging property by activating sirtuin-1 (SIRT1). In this study, the relationship between depigmenting effect of resveratrol and SIRT1/forkhead box O (FOXO) 3a activation and was investigated. Resveratrol suppressed melanogenesis by the downregulation of MITF and tyrosinase via ERK pathway. Results showed that the expression of both SIRT1 and FOXO3a were increased. It is reported that SIRT1 is critical regulator of FOXO-mediated transcription in response to oxidative stress. However in our study, FOXO3a activation appeared earlier than that of SIRT1. Furthermore, the effect of resveratrol on the levels of MITF and tyrosinase was suppressed when melanocytes were pre-treated with SP600125 (JNK inhibitor). However, pre-treatment with SIRT1 inhibitor (EX527, or sirtinol) did not affect the levels of MITF and tyrosinase. Therefore, resveratrol inhibits melanogenesis through the activation of FOXO3a but not by the activation of SIRT1. Although SIRT1 activation by resveratrol is a well-known mechanism of resveratrol-induced antiaging effects, our study showed that not SIRT1 but FOXO3a activation is involved in depigmenting effects of resveratrol.

  18. Surface structure-dependent pyrite oxidation in relatively dry and moist air: Implications for the reaction mechanism and sulfur evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jianxi; Xian, Haiyang; Lin, Xiaoju; Tang, Hongmei; Du, Runxiang; Yang, Yiping; Zhu, Runliang; Liang, Xiaoliang; Wei, Jingming; Teng, H. Henry; He, Hongping

    2018-05-01

    Pyrite oxidation not only is environmentally significant in the formation of acid mine (or acid rock) drainage and oxidative acidification of lacustrine sediment but also is a critical stage in geochemical sulfur evolution. The oxidation process is always controlled by the reactivity of pyrite, which in turn is controlled by its surface structure. In this study, the oxidation behavior of naturally existing {1 0 0}, {1 1 1}, and {2 1 0} facets of pyrite was investigated using a comprehensive approach combining X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometry with periodic density functional theoretical (DFT) calculations. The experimental results show that (i) the initial oxidation rates of both pyrite {1 1 1} and {2 1 0} are much greater than that of pyrite {1 0 0}; (ii) the initial oxidation rate of pyrite {2 1 0} is greater than that of pyrite {1 1 1} in low relative humidity, which is reversed in high relative humidity; and (iii) inner sphere oxygen-bearing sulfur species are originally generated from surface reactions and then converted to outer sphere species. The facet dependent rate law can be expressed as: r{hkl} =k{hkl}haP0.5(t + 1) - 0.5 , where r{hkl} is the orientation dependent reaction rate, k{hkl} is the orientation dependent rate constant, h is the relative humidity, P is the oxygen partial pressure, and t is the oxidation time in seconds. {1 1 1} is the most sensitive facet for pyrite oxidation. Combined with DFT theoretical investigations, water catalyzed electron transfer is speculated as the rate-limiting step. These findings disclose the structure-reactivity dependence of pyrite, which not only presents new insight into the mechanism of pyrite oxidation but also provides fundamental data to evaluate sulfur speciation evolution, suggesting that the surface structure sensitivity should be considered to estimate the reactivity at the mineral

  19. Activity of Proteus mirabilis FliL is viscosity dependent and requires extragenic DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yi-Ying; Patellis, Julius; Belas, Robert

    2013-02-01

    Proteus mirabilis is a urinary tract pathogen and well known for its ability to move over agar surfaces by flagellum-dependent swarming motility. When P. mirabilis encounters a highly viscous environment, e.g., an agar surface, it differentiates from short rods with few flagella to elongated, highly flagellated cells that lack septa and contain multiple nucleoids. The bacteria detect a surface by monitoring the rotation of their flagellar motors. This process involves an enigmatic flagellar protein called FliL, the first gene in an operon (fliLMNOPQR) that encodes proteins of the flagellar rotor switch complex and flagellar export apparatus. We used a fliL knockout mutant to gain further insight into the function of FliL. Loss of FliL results in cells that cannot swarm (Swr(-)) but do swim (Swm(+)) and produces cells that look like wild-type swarmer cells, termed "pseudoswarmer cells," that are elongated, contain multiple nucleoids, and lack septa. Unlike swarmer cells, pseudoswarmer cells are not hyperflagellated due to reduced expression of flaA (the gene encoding flagellin), despite an increased transcription of both flhD and fliA, two positive regulators of flagellar gene expression. We found that defects in fliL prevent viscosity-dependent sensing of a surface and viscosity-dependent induction of flaA transcription. Studies with fliL cells unexpectedly revealed that the fliL promoter, fliL coding region, and a portion of fliM DNA are needed to complement the Swr(-) phenotype. The data support a dual role for FliL as a critical link in sensing a surface and in the maintenance of flagellar rod integrity.

  20. [Suicidal and personality characteristics of women married to men with alcohol dependence and suicidal activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merinov, A V; Shustov, D I

    2011-01-01

    The effect of the suicidal activity in men with alcohol dependence on suicidal indexes, personal-codependency and psychological specifics of their wives has been studied. It has been found that women married to suicidal men with alcohol dependence significantly more frequently demonstrate suicidal activity (a phenomenon of suicidal matrimonial comorbidity) compared to wives of "non-suicidal" men. They also reveal non-suicidal behavioral patterns more frequently and prosuicidal predictors are quite common in them. This contingent of women has high suicidal potential that needs special attention during the therapeutic work.

  1. Molecular weight-dependent degradation and drug release of surface-eroding poly(ethylene carbonate)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Adam; Wang, Yingya; Harmankaya, Necati

    2017-01-01

    .7 macrophages) and in vivo (subcutaneous implantation in rats). All investigated samples degraded by means of surface erosion (mass loss, but constant molecular weight), which was accompanied by a predictable, erosion-controlled drug release pattern. Accordingly, the obtained in vitro degradation half......Poly(ethylene carbonate) (PEC) is a unique biomaterial showing significant potential for controlled drug delivery applications. The current study investigated the impact of the molecular weight on the biological performance of drug-loaded PEC films. Following the preparation and thorough...... to control the spatial and temporal on-demand degradation and drug release from the employed delivery system....

  2. Exploring the critical dependence of adsorption of various dyes on the degradation rate using Ln3+-TiO2 surface under UV/solar light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devi, L. Gomathi; Kumar, S. Girish

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The surface reactive acidic sites enhances on doping with rare earth ions which facilitates efficient adsorption of the dye molecules on the catalyst surface. In addition, the nature of the dopant, its concentration and electronic configuration additionally contributes to the overall efficiency. Highlights: ► The degradation of structurally different anionic dyes under different pH conditions is reported. ► Pre adsorption of pollutant on catalyst surface is vital for efficient photocatalysis. ► Adsorption of dye on the catalyst surface depends on the substituent's attached to it. ► The dopant with half filled electronic configuration served as shallow traps for charge carriers. - Abstract: The degradation of structurally different anionic dyes like Alizarin Red S (ARS) Amaranth (AR), Brilliant Yellow (BY), Congo Red (CR), Fast Red (FR), Methyl Orange (MO), and Methyl Red (MR) were carried out using Ln 3+ (Ln 3+ = La 3+ , Ce 3+ and Gd 3+ ) doped TiO 2 at different pH conditions under UV/solar light. All the anionic dyes underwent rapid degradation at acidic pH, while resisted at alkaline conditions due to the adsorptive tendency of these dyes on the catalyst surface at different pH conditions. Gd 3+ (0.15 mol%)-TiO 2 exhibited better activity compared to other photocatalyst ascribed to half filled electronic configuration of Gd 3+ ions. It is proposed that Ln 3+ serves only as charge carrier traps under UV light, while it also act as visible light sensitizers under solar light. Irrespective of the catalyst and excitation source, the dye degradation followed the order: AR > FR > MO > MR > ARS > BY > CR. The results suggest that pre-adsorption of the pollutant is vital for efficient photocatalysis which is dependent on the nature of the substituent's group attached to the dye molecule.

  3. Transgenic mice expressing constitutive active MAPKAPK5 display gender-dependent differences in exploration and activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moens Ugo

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mitogen-activated protein kinases, MAPKs for short, constitute cascades of signalling pathways involved in the regulation of several cellular processes that include cell proliferation, differentiation and motility. They also intervene in neurological processes like fear conditioning and memory. Since little remains known about the MAPK-Activated Protein Kinase, MAPKAPK5, we constructed the first MAPKAPK knockin mouse model, using a constitutive active variant of MAPKAPK5 and analyzed the resulting mice for changes in anxiety-related behaviour. Methods We performed primary SHIRPA observations during background breeding into the C57BL/6 background and assessed the behaviour of the background-bred animals on the elevated plus maze and in the light-dark test. Our results were analyzed using Chi-square tests and homo- and heteroscedatic T-tests. Results Female transgenic mice displayed increased amounts of head dips and open arm time on the maze, compared to littermate controls. In addition, they also explored further into the open arm on the elevated plus maze and were less active in the closed arm compared to littermate controls. Male transgenic mice displayed no differences in anxiety, but their locomotor activity increased compared to non-transgenic littermates. Conclusion Our results revealed anxiety-related traits and locomotor differences between transgenic mice expressing constitutive active MAPKAPK5 and control littermates.

  4. Constitutive NADPH-Dependent Electron Transferase Activity of the Nox4 Dehydrogenase Domain?

    OpenAIRE

    Nisimoto, Yukio; Jackson, Heather M.; Ogawa, Hisamitsu; Kawahara, Tsukasa; Lambeth, J. David

    2010-01-01

    NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) is constitutively active, while Nox2 requires the cytosolic regulatory subunits p47 phox and p67 phox and activated Rac with activation by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). This study was undertaken to identify the domain on Nox4 that confers constitutive activity. Lysates from Nox4-expressing cells exhibited constitutive NADPH- but not NADH-dependent hydrogen peroxide production with a K m for NADPH of 55 ? 10 ?M. The concentration of Nox4 in cell lysates was esti...

  5. Field dependence-independence as related to young women's participation in sports activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrecht, Jeanne L; Cuevas, Jacqueline L

    2007-06-01

    To estimate association between field dependence-independence measured by scores on the Group Embedded Figures Test and young women's participation in sports activity. Participants were 37 undergraduate college women between the ages of 18 and 25 years (M=21). Participants were categorized into two groups, one high in participation in sports activity and one low. A one-tailed independent samples t test yielded no significant difference. Correlations of .36 and .18 were significant but account for little common variance. An ad hoc analysis performed without participants who reported softball activity but who were highly involved in sport activities was significant.

  6. Fabrication of SERS Active Surface on Polyimide Sample by Excimer Laser Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Csizmadia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A possible application of excimer laser irradiation for the preparation of surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS substrate is demonstrated. A polyimide foil of 125 μm thickness was irradiated by 240 pulses of focused ArF excimer laser beam (λ = 193 nm, FWHM = 20 ns. The applied fluence was varied between 40 and 80 mJ/cm2. After laser processing, the sample was coated with 40 nm silver by PLD in order to create a conducting layer required for the SERS application. The SERS activity of the samples was tested by Raman microscopy. The Raman spectra of Rhodamine 6G aqueous solution (c=10−3 mol/dm3 were collected from the patterned and metalized areas. For areas prepared at 40–60 mJ/cm2 laser fluences, the measured Raman intensities have shown a linear dependence on the applied laser fluence, while above 60 mJ/cm2 saturation was observed. The morphology of the SERS active surface areas was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. Finite element modeling was performed in order to simulate the laser-absorption induced heating of the polyimide foil. The simulation resulted in the temporal and spatial distribution of the estimated temperature in the irradiated polyimide sample, which are important for understanding the structure formation process.

  7. Utilization of surface active sites on gold in preparation of highly reactive interfaces for alcohols electrooxidation in alkaline media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherevko, Serhiy; Kulyk, Nadiia; Chung, Chan-Hwa

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: Pt/Au and Pd/Au surface interfaces show very high activity in electrocatalytic oxidation of alcohols in alkaline media. In this work, we present a method for preparation of such structures, which is based on galvanic displacement of the more noble gold with the less noble elements, and investigate their electrocatalytic properties. We propose that active states atoms on the surface of gold may be replaced with Pt and Pd. The generation of active sites on gold is achieved by cathodization in acidic solution. We show that depending on the cathodization time (active sites amount) gold surface electrochemistry changes from that resembling Au to the one typical for pure Pt. The Pt/Au structures prepared with a trace amount of platinum show extremely high electrocatalytic activity. The peak current of methanol oxidation on the Pt/Au electrode is more than an order of magnitude higher than that of the platinum film electrode and more than two orders of magnitude higher than that on the gold unactivated electrode. The difference in the peak current of ethanol oxidation between the Pt/Au and Pt electrodes is ca. 25 times. Moreover, similar deposition of Pt and Pd on active sites on high surface area gold prepared by hydrogen evolution assisted deposition and improved electrocatalytic properties of such structures toward alcohols oxidation is shown.

  8. Thickness-dependent surface plasmon resonance of ITO nanoparticles for ITO/In-Sn bilayer structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wenzuo; Hong, Ruijin; Jing, Ming; Shao, Wen; Tao, Chunxian; Zhang, Dawei

    2018-01-05

    Tuning the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in doped semiconductor nanoparticles (NPs), which represents an important characteristic in LSPR sensor applications, still remains a challenge. Here, indium tin oxide/indium tin alloy (ITO/In-Sn) bilayer films were deposited by electron beam evaporation and the properties, such as the LSPR and surface morphology, were investigated by UV-VIS-NIR double beam spectrophotometer and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. By simply engineering the thickness of ITO/In-Sn NPs without any microstructure fabrications, the LSPR wavelength of ITO NPs can be tuned by a large amount from 858 to 1758 nm. AFM images show that the strong LSPR of ITO NPs is closely related to the enhanced coupling between ITO and In-Sn NPs. Blue shifts of ITO LSPR from 1256 to 1104 nm are also observed in the as-annealed samples due to the higher free carrier concentration. Meanwhile, we also demonstrated that the ITO LSPR in ITO/In-Sn NPs structures has good sensitivity to the surrounding media and stability after 30 d exposure in air, enabling its application prospects in many biosensing devices.

  9. Surface ligand dependent toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles in HepG2 cell model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartczak, D; Baradez, M-O; Merson, S; Goenaga-Infante, H; Marshall, D

    2013-01-01

    Physicochemical properties of nanoparticles (NP) strongly affect their influence on cell behaviour, but can be significantly distorted by interactions with the proteins present in biological solutions. In this study we show how different surface functionalities of zinc oxide (ZnO) NP lead to changes in the size distribution and dissolution of the NP in serum containing cell culture media and how this impacts on NP toxicity. NPs capped with weakly bound large proteins undergo substantial transformations due to the exchange of the original surface ligands to the components of the cell culture media. Conversely, NP capped with a tight monolayer of small organic molecules or with covalently conjugated proteins show significantly higher stability. These differences in ligand exchange also affect the toxicity of the NP to the HepG2 liver cell model, with the NP capped with small organic molecules being more toxic than those capped with large proteins. This study highlights the importance of characterising NPs in biological media and the effect the media has during in-vitro analysis.

  10. On the field dependent surface resistance of niobium on copper cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Junginger, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    The surface resistance Rs of superconducting cavities prepared by sputter coating a thin niobium film on a copper substrate increases significantly stronger with the applied RF field compared to cavities of bulk material. A possible cause is that due to the thermal boundary resistance between the copper substrate and the niobium film Rs is enhanced due to global heating of the inner cavity wall. Introducing helium gas in the cavity and measuring its pressure as a function of applied field allowed to conclude that the inner surface of the cavity is heated up by only 60+/-60 mK when Rs increases with Eacc by 100 nOhm. This is more than one order of magnitude less than what one would expect from global heating. Additionally the effect of cooldown speed and low temperature baking have been investigated in the framework of these experiments. It is shown that for current state of the art niobium on copper cavities there is only a detrimental effect of low temperature baking. A fast cooldown results in a lowered Rs.

  11. Plasmonic Heterodimers with Binding Site-Dependent Hot Spot for Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yuanyuan; Shuai, Zhenhua; Shen, Jingjing; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Shufen; Song, Chunyuan; Zhao, Baomin; Fan, Quli; Wang, Lianhui

    2018-05-07

    A novel plasmonic heterodimer nanostructure with a controllable self-assembled hot spot is fabricated by the conjugation of individual Au@Ag core-shell nanocubes (Au@Ag NCs) and varisized gold nanospheres (GNSs) via the biotin-streptavidin interaction from the ensemble to the single-assembly level. Due to their featured configurations, three types of heterogeneous nanostructures referred to as Vertice, Vicinity, and Middle are proposed and a single hot spot forms between the nanocube and nanosphere, which exhibits distinct diversity in surface plasmon resonance effect. Herein, the calculated surface-enhanced Raman scattering enhancement factors of the three types of heterodimers show a narrow distribution and can be tuned in orders of magnitude by controlling the size of GNSs onto individual Au@Ag NCs. Particularly, the Vertice heterodimer with unique configuration can provide extraordinary enhancement of the electric field for the single hot spot region due to the collaborative interaction of lightning rod effect and interparticle plasmon coupling effect. This established relationship between the architecture and the corresponding optical properties of the heterodimers provides the basis for creating controllable platforms which can be exploited in the applications of plasmonic devices, electronics, and biodetection. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Space-Time Dependent Transport, Activation, and Dose Rates for Radioactivated Fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavazza, Sergio

    Two methods are developed to calculate the space - and time-dependent mass transport of radionuclides, their production and decay, and the associated dose rates generated from the radioactivated fluids flowing through pipes. The work couples space- and time-dependent phenomena, treated as only space- or time-dependent in the open literature. The transport and activation methodology (TAM) is used to numerically calculate space- and time-dependent transport and activation of radionuclides in fluids flowing through pipes exposed to radiation fields, and volumetric radioactive sources created by radionuclide motions. The computer program Radionuclide Activation and Transport in Pipe (RNATPA1) performs the numerical calculations required in TAM. The gamma ray dose methodology (GAM) is used to numerically calculate space- and time-dependent gamma ray dose equivalent rates from the volumetric radioactive sources determined by TAM. The computer program Gamma Ray Dose Equivalent Rate (GRDOSER) performs the numerical calculations required in GAM. The scope of conditions considered by TAM and GAM herein include (a) laminar flow in straight pipe, (b)recirculating flow schemes, (c) time-independent fluid velocity distributions, (d) space-dependent monoenergetic neutron flux distribution, (e) space- and time-dependent activation process of a single parent nuclide and transport and decay of a single daughter radionuclide, and (f) assessment of space- and time-dependent gamma ray dose rates, outside the pipe, generated by the space- and time-dependent source term distributions inside of it. The methodologies, however, can be easily extended to include all the situations of interest for solving the phenomena addressed in this dissertation. A comparison is made from results obtained by the described calculational procedures with analytical expressions. The physics of the problems addressed by the new technique and the increased accuracy versus non -space and time-dependent methods

  13. Pulsed-laser-activated impulse response encoder: Sensitive detection of surface elastic waves on biomimetic microsized gel spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasukuni, Ryohei; Fukushima, Ryosuke; Iino, Takanori; Hosokawa, Yoichiroh

    2017-11-01

    A femtosecond-laser-induced impulsive force was applied to microsized calcium alginate (CaAlg) gel spheres as an external force to excite elastic waves. To evaluate elasticity, atomic force microscopy (AFM) was applied to detect vibration propagation. The sphere size dependence of the vibration was well reproduced by finite element method (FEM) simulation for pressure waves and surface acoustic waves. The obtained results indicate that the pulsed-laser-activated impulse response encoder (PLAIRE) enables the sensitive detection of elasticities, not only on inside but also on the surface.

  14. Light wavelength dependency of mating activity in the drosophila melanogaster species subgroup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Takaomi; Tomaru, Masatoshi; Oguma, Yuzuru; Isono, Kunio; Fukatami, Akishi

    2002-01-01

    The action spectra of mating activity among the six species of the Drosophila melanogaster species subgroup were compared to understand how light wavelength affects mating activity. The species fell into three groups with respect to the action spectrum of mating activity. We chose one representative species from each of the three types for detailed study: D. melanogaster, D. sechellia and D. yakuba. The mating activities were investigated under three different light intensities of three monochromatic lights stimulus. Each species showed a unique spectral and intensity response. To know the evolutionary meaning of the light wavelength dependency of mating activity, we superimposed the type of action spectrum of mating activity in these six species on a cladogram. Mating inhibition under UV was conserved in evolution among these species. Furthermore we clarified that D. melanogaster showed low mating activity under UV because males courted less under UV. (author)

  15. pH-Dependent Surface Chemistry from First Principles: Application to the BiVO4(010)-Water Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosio, Francesco; Wiktor, Julia; Pasquarello, Alfredo

    2018-03-28

    We present a theoretical formulation for studying the pH-dependent interfacial coverage of semiconductor-water interfaces through ab initio electronic structure calculations, molecular dynamics simulations, and the thermodynamic integration method. This general methodology allows one to calculate the acidity of the individual adsorption sites on the surface and consequently the pH at the point of zero charge, pH PZC , and the preferential adsorption mode of water molecules, either molecular or dissociative, at the semiconductor-water interface. The proposed method is applied to study the BiVO 4 (010)-water interface, yields a pH PZC in excellent agreement with the experimental characterization. Furthermore, from the calculated p K a values of the individual adsorption sites, we construct an ab initio concentration diagram of all adsorbed species at the interface as a function of the pH of the aqueous solution. The diagram clearly illustrates the pH-dependent coverage of the surface and indicates that protons are found to be significantly adsorbed (∼1% of available sites) only in highly acidic conditions. The surface is found to be mostly covered by molecularly adsorbed water molecules in a wide interval of pH values ranging from 2 to 8. Hydroxyl ions are identified as the dominant adsorbed species at pH larger than 8.2.

  16. Catalytic Activity and Stability of Oxides: The Role of Near-Surface Atomic Structures and Compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhenxing; Hong, Wesley T; Fong, Dillon D; Lee, Yueh-Lin; Yacoby, Yizhak; Morgan, Dane; Shao-Horn, Yang

    2016-05-17

    the physical origin of segregation is discussed in comparison with (La1-ySry)2CoO4±δ/La1-xSrxCo0.2Fe0.8O3-δ. Sr enrichment in many electrocatalysts, such as La1-xSrxMO3-δ (M = Cr, Co, Mn, or Co and Fe) and Sm1-xSrxCoO3, has been probed using alternative techniques, including low energy ion scattering, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and X-ray fluorescence-based methods for depth-dependent, element-specific analysis. We highlight a strong connection between cation segregation and electrocatalytic properties, because cation segregation enhances oxygen transport and surface oxygen exchange kinetics. On the other hand, the formation of cation-enriched secondary phases can lead to the blocking of active sites, inhibiting oxygen exchange. With help from density functional theory, the links between cation migration, catalyst stability, and catalytic activity are provided, and the oxygen p-band center relative to the Fermi level can be identified as an activity descriptor. Based on these findings, we discuss strategies to increase a catalyst's activity while maintaining stability to design efficient, cost-effective electrocatalysts.

  17. Catalytic Activity and Stability of Oxides: The Role of Near-Surface Atomic Structures and Compositions

    KAUST Repository

    Feng, Zhenxing

    2016-05-05

    δ oxide thin films, and the physical origin of segregation is discussed in comparison with (La1–ySry)2CoO4±δ/La1–xSrxCo0.2Fe0.8O3−δ. Sr enrichment in many electrocatalysts, such as La1–xSrxMO3−δ (M = Cr, Co, Mn, or Co and Fe) and Sm1–xSrxCoO3, has been probed using alternative techniques, including low energy ion scattering, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and X-ray fluorescence-based methods for depth-dependent, element-specific analysis. We highlight a strong connection between cation segregation and electrocatalytic properties, because cation segregation enhances oxygen transport and surface oxygen exchange kinetics. On the other hand, the formation of cation-enriched secondary phases can lead to the blocking of active sites, inhibiting oxygen exchange. With help from density functional theory, the links between cation migration, catalyst stability, and catalytic activity are provided, and the oxygen p-band center relative to the Fermi level can be identified as an activity descriptor. Based on these findings, we discuss strategies to increase a catalyst’s activity while maintaining stability to design efficient, cost-effective electrocatalysts.

  18. Surface spectroscopic characterization of a model methane-activation catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.G.; Weisel, M.D.; Hoffmann, F.M.; Hall, R.B.

    1992-01-01

    In an effort to understand the details concerning the alkali-promoted selectivity for the oxidative coupling of methane, the authors have carried out a detailed characterization of a model K/NiO/Ni(100) catalyst under well-controlled, ultrahigh vacuum conditions. The authors' systematic approach involved the following procedures: detailed investigation of the formation and structure of NiO on a clean Ni(100) surface; spectroscopic characterization of K-doped NiO by in situ deposition of potassium onto well-characterized NiO/Ni(100) substrate; and determination of the reactivities of NiO/Ni(100) and K/NiO/Ni(100) towards H 2 and CH 4 . In this paper, the authors will use the model K/NiO/Ni(100) system as an example to demonstrate that a detailed, complementary characterization of the model catalyst could best be achieved by using a combination of a variety of surface techniques: The methods of HREELS, LEED, XPS and AES could be applied to obtain properties on and near the surface regions; the technique of FYNES, being a photon-in/photon-out method could be utilized to investigate the bulk properties up to 2000 Angstrom below the surface; the method of FTIR using CO as a probing molecule is, on the other hand, sensitive only to the properties of the top-most surface layer. The result is to be presented in this paper will be mainly those obtained by using the two vibrational spectroscopies (HREELS and FTIR). Results from other surface techniques will also be discussed or presented when they provide additional information to the vibrational data

  19. Numerical Studies of Friction Between Metallic Surfaces and of its Dependence on Electric Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meintanis, Evangelos; Marder, Michael

    2009-03-01

    We will present molecular dynamics simulations that explore the frictional mechanisms between clean metallic surfaces. We employ the HOLA molecular dynamics code to run slider-on-block experiments. Both objects are allowed to evolve freely. We recover realistic coefficients of friction and verify the importance of cold-welding and plastic deformations in dry sliding friction. We also find that plastic deformations can significantly affect both objects, despite a difference in hardness. Metallic contacts have significant technological applications in the transmission of electric currents. To explore the effects of the latter to sliding, we had to integrate an electrodynamics solver into the molecular dynamics code. The disparate time scales involved posed a challenge, but we have developed an efficient scheme for such an integration. A limited electrodynamic solver has been implemented and we are currently exploring the effects of currents in the friction and wear of metallic contacts.

  20. Comparative study on economic security of enterprises depending on implemented business activities quantity

    OpenAIRE

    Shkarina Tatyana; Chudnova Olga; Mokhova Olga

    2017-01-01

    The results of a comparative study on economic security of enterprises depending on the quantity of business activities are published in the article. The sampling for analysis was conducted based on statistic data of Primorsky Region of the Russian Federation. The control points are the years of the most thorough data collection on the business activities of one-field and diversified enterprises: 2005, 2009, 2013, 2015.

  1. Dual gene activation and knockout screen reveals directional dependencies in genetic networks. | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the direction of information flow is essential for characterizing how genetic networks affect phenotypes. However, methods to find genetic interactions largely fail to reveal directional dependencies. We combine two orthogonal Cas9 proteins from Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus to carry out a dual screen in which one gene is activated while a second gene is deleted in the same cell. We analyze the quantitative effects of activation and knockout to calculate genetic interaction and directionality scores for each gene pair.

  2. Reduction of entrance surface dose depending on shielding methods for panoramagraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jung Hyun; Han, DongKyoon [Dept. of Radiological Science, The Graduate School, Eulji University, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Chul [Dept. of Radiological, Science Gachon, University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Panoramagraphy was the second most used intraoral radiography utilized in Korea, resulting in 17.8% in university dental hospitals, 24.8% in dental hospitals, and 31.4% in dental clinics. Depending on increased demand like orthodontics and implant, panoromagraphy tends to consistently increase. This study were used lead glasses and lead shielding to reduce unnecessary radiation to the eyeballs and thyroid. ESD was 41.4% when radiation was shielded with the lead glasses while reducing 47.3% of ESD by shielding the X-ray tube area with shielding lead. There was no statistically significant difference. The lead glasses is appropriated to reduce unnecessary radiation exposure to the eyeballs.

  3. Reduction of entrance surface dose depending on shielding methods for panoramagraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jung Hyun; Han, DongKyoon; Kim, Sung Chul

    2015-01-01

    Panoramagraphy was the second most used intraoral radiography utilized in Korea, resulting in 17.8% in university dental hospitals, 24.8% in dental hospitals, and 31.4% in dental clinics. Depending on increased demand like orthodontics and implant, panoromagraphy tends to consistently increase. This study were used lead glasses and lead shielding to reduce unnecessary radiation to the eyeballs and thyroid. ESD was 41.4% when radiation was shielded with the lead glasses while reducing 47.3% of ESD by shielding the X-ray tube area with shielding lead. There was no statistically significant difference. The lead glasses is appropriated to reduce unnecessary radiation exposure to the eyeballs

  4. Surface reflectance and conversion efficiency dependence of technologies for mitigating global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmonds, Ian [Solartran Pty Ltd., 12 Lentara St, Kenmore, Brisbane 4069 (Australia); Smith, Geoff [Physics and Advanced Materials, University of Technology, Sydney, PO Box 123, Broadway, New South Wales 2007 (Australia)

    2011-05-15

    A means of assessing the relative impact of different renewable energy technologies on global warming has been developed. All power plants emit thermal energy to the atmosphere. Fossil fuel power plants also emit CO{sub 2} which accumulates in the atmosphere and provides an indirect increase in global warming via the greenhouse effect. A fossil fuel power plant may operate for some time before the global warming due to its CO{sub 2} emission exceeds the warming due to its direct heat emission. When a renewable energy power plant is deployed instead of a fossil fuel power plant there may be a significant time delay before the direct global warming effect is less than the combined direct and indirect global warming effect from an equivalent output coal fired plant - the ''business as usual'' case. Simple expressions are derived to calculate global temperature change as a function of ground reflectance and conversion efficiency for various types of fossil fuelled and renewable energy power plants. These expressions are used to assess the global warming mitigation potential of some proposed Australian renewable energy projects. The application of the expressions is extended to evaluate the deployment in Australia of current and new geo-engineering and carbon sequestration solutions to mitigate global warming. Principal findings are that warming mitigation depends strongly on the solar to electric conversion efficiency of renewable technologies, geo-engineering projects may offer more economic mitigation than renewable energy projects and the mitigation potential of reforestation projects depends strongly on the location of the projects. (author)

  5. Fluence dependent changes of erosion yields and surface morphology of the iron-tungsten model system: SDTrimSP-2D simulation studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. von Toussaint

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different sample structures of an iron-tungsten model system (as a surrogate for reduced activation ferritic martensitic steels like EUROFER on the development of surface morphologies, tungsten surface enrichment and sputter yields under low-energy monoenergetic perpendicular 200 eV deuterium bombardment has been studied with SDTrimSP-2d simulations. Previous modeling studies considering diffusive effects also could reasonably reproduce and explain the experimental results for a large set of experimental parameters like temperature, flux and sample concentration. However, for settings with negligible Fe-W-interdiffusion the fluence needed for steady-state conditions differed between the experiments and the simulations. Thus, the main focus of the present study is directed towards the elucidation of this fluence mismatch. Comparison of one and two-dimensional simulation results reveal a strong dependency of the tungsten enrichment on the sample homogeneity and a significantly delayed reduction of the erosion yield due to a pronounced formation of surface structures from initially flat sample surfaces.

  6. Control of neuropeptide expression by parallel activity-dependent pathways in caenorhabditis elegans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rojo Romanos, Teresa; Petersen, Jakob Gramstrup; Pocock, Roger

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring of neuronal activity within circuits facilitates integrated responses and rapid changes in behavior. We have identified a system in Caenorhabditis elegans where neuropeptide expression is dependent on the ability of the BAG neurons to sense carbon dioxide. In C. Elegans, CO 2 sensing...... is predominantly coordinated by the BAG-expressed receptor-type guanylate cyclase GCY-9. GCY-9 binding to CO 2 causes accumulation of cyclic GMP and opening of the cGMP-gated TAX-2/TAX-4 cation channels; provoking an integrated downstream cascade that enables C. Elegans to avoid high CO 2. Here we show that c...... that expression of flp-19::GFP is controlled in parallel to GCY-9 by the activity-dependent transcription factor CREB (CRH-1) and the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (KIN-2) signaling pathway. We therefore show that two parallel pathways regulate neuropeptide gene expression in the BAG sensory neurons: the ability...

  7. Chemometric evaluation of temperature-dependent surface-enhanced Raman spectra of riboflavin: What is the best multivariate approach to describe the effect of temperature?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaislová, Alžběta; Kalhousová, Milena; Gráfová, Michaela; Matějka, Pavel

    2014-10-01

    Riboflavin is an essential nutrient involved in energetic metabolism. It is used as a pharmacologically active substance in treatment of several diseases. From analytical point of view, riboflavin can be used as an active part of sensors for substances with affinity to riboflavin molecules. In biological environment, metal substrates coated with riboflavin are exposed to temperatures that are different from room temperature. Hence, it is important to describe the influence of temperature on adsorbed molecules of riboflavin, especially on orientation of molecules towards the metal surface and on stability of adsorbed molecular layer. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy is a useful tool for investigation of architecture of molecular layers adsorbed on metal surfaces because the spectral features in SERS spectra change with varying orientation of molecules towards the metal surface, as well as with changes in mutual interactions among adsorbed molecules. In this study, riboflavin was adsorbed on electrochemically prepared massive silver substrates that were exposed to temperature changes according to four different temperature programs. Raman spectra measured at different temperatures were compared considering positions of spectral bands, their intensities, bandwidths and variability of all these parameters. It was found out that increase of substrate temperature up to 50 °C does not lead to any observable decomposition of riboflavin molecules, but the changes of band intensity ratios within individual spectra are apparent. To distinguish sources of variability beside changes in band intensities and widths, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied. Discriminant Analysis (DA) was used to explore if the SERS spectra can be separated according to temperature. The results of Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression demonstrate the possibility to predict the sample temperature using SERS spectral features. Results of all performed experiments and

  8. Using of the surface activation method for enhancement of machine realibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postnikov, V.I.; Garbar, I.N.

    1979-01-01

    A surface activation method is described for controlling the wear of units and details, allowing one to measure the wear at continuous operation of the mechanism by any program. The main advantages of the surface activation method for the wear tests are shown. By means of that method it was possible to develop a simultaneous controlling conjugate detail wear, and a method of different-activity brands, as well as the method for repeated activation of details. Development of theory for the engineering and technology of engine wear control by the surface activation method allowed one to improve the efficiency and reduce the time of research in the field of friction and wear

  9. Macrophages migrate in an activation-dependent manner to chemokines involved in neuroinflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, D.Y.S.; Heijnen, D.A.M.; Breur, M.; de Vries, H.E.; Tool, A.T.; Amor, S.; Dijkstra, C.D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In neuroinflammatory diseases, macrophages can play a dual role in the process of tissue damage, depending on their activation status (M1 / M2). M1 macrophages are considered to exert damaging effects to neurons, whereas M2 macrophages are reported to aid regeneration and repair of

  10. Resistance of pathogenic bacteria on the surface of stainless steel depending on attachment form and efficacy of chemical sanitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Young-Min; Baek, Seung-Youb; Lee, Sun-Young

    2012-02-15

    O157:H7 and S. aureus, respectively. From these results, the survival of pathogens contaminating the surfaces of food processing substrates such as stainless steel varied depending on RH and attachment form. Also, alcohol-based sanitizers can be used as a potential method to remove microbial contamination on the surfaces of utensils, cooking equipment, and other related substrates regardless of the microbial attached form. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Biological Fate of Fe3O4 Core-Shell Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles Depending on Particle Surface Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rascol, Estelle; Daurat, Morgane; Da Silva, Afitz; Maynadier, Marie; Dorandeu, Christophe; Charnay, Clarence; Garcia, Marcel; Lai-Kee-Him, Joséphine; Bron, Patrick; Auffan, Mélanie; Angeletti, Bernard; Devoisselle, Jean-Marie; Guari, Yannick; Gary-Bobo, Magali; Chopineau, Joël

    2017-01-01

    The biological fate of nanoparticles (NPs) for biomedical applications is highly dependent of their size and charge, their aggregation state and their surface chemistry. The chemical composition of the NPs surface influences their stability in biological fluids, their interaction with proteins, and their attraction to the cell membranes. In this work, core-shell magnetic mesoporous silica nanoparticles (Fe3O4@MSN), that are considered as potential theranostic candidates, are coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) or 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) lipid bilayer. Their biological fate is studied in comparison to the native NPs. The physicochemical properties of these three types of NPs and their suspension behavior in different media are investigated. The attraction to a membrane model is also evaluated using a supported lipid bilayer. The surface composition of NPs strongly influences their dispersion in biological fluids mimics, protein binding and their interaction with cell membrane. While none of these types of NPs is found to be toxic on mice four days after intravenous injection of a dose of 40 mg kg−1 of NPs, their surface coating nature influences the in vivo biodistribution. Importantly, NP coated with DMPC exhibit a strong accumulation in liver and a very low accumulation in lung in comparison with nude or PEG ones. PMID:28665317

  12. Remote Determination of Time-Dependent Stiffness of Surface-Degrading-Polymer Scaffolds Via Synchrotron-Based Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawolin, N K; Chen, X B

    2017-04-01

    Surface-degrading polymers have been widely used to fabricate scaffolds with the mechanical properties appropriate for tissue regeneration/repair. During their surface degradation, the material properties of polymers remain approximately unchanged, but the scaffold geometry and thus mechanical properties vary with time. This paper presents a novel method to determine the time-dependent mechanical properties, particularly stiffness, of scaffolds from the geometric changes captured by synchrotron-based imaging, with the help of finite element analysis (FEA). Three-dimensional (3D) tissue scaffolds were fabricated from surface-degrading polymers, and during their degradation, the tissue scaffolds were imaged via the synchrotron-based imaging to characterize their changing geometry. On this basis, the stiffness behavior of scaffolds was estimated from the FEA, and the results obtained were compared to the direct measurements of scaffold stiffness from the load-displacement material testing. The comparison illustrates that the Young's moduli estimated from the FEA and characterized geometry are in agreement with the ones of direct measurements. The developed method of estimating the mechanical behavior was also demonstrated effective with a nondegrading scaffold that displays the nonlinear stress-strain behavior. The in vivo monitoring of Young's modulus by morphology characterization also suggests the feasibility of characterizing experimentally the difference between in vivo and in vitro surface degradation of tissue engineering constructs.

  13. TALE activators regulate gene expression in a position- and strand-dependent manner in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhde-Stone, Claudia; Cheung, Edna; Lu, Biao

    2014-01-24

    Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) are a class of transcription factors that are readily programmable to regulate gene expression. Despite their growing popularity, little is known about binding site parameters that influence TALE-mediated gene activation in mammalian cells. We demonstrate that TALE activators modulate gene expression in mammalian cells in a position- and strand-dependent manner. To study the effects of binding site location, we engineered TALEs customized to recognize specific DNA sequences located in either the promoter or the transcribed region of reporter genes. We found that TALE activators robustly activated reporter genes when their binding sites were located within the promoter region. In contrast, TALE activators inhibited the expression of reporter genes when their binding sites were located on the sense strand of the transcribed region. Notably, this repression was independent of the effector domain utilized, suggesting a simple blockage mechanism. We conclude that TALE activators in mammalian cells regulate genes in a position- and strand-dependent manner that is substantially different from gene activation by native TALEs in plants. These findings have implications for optimizing the design of custom TALEs for genetic manipulation in mammalian cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Time-dependent tegumental surface changes in juvenile Fasciola gigantica in response to triclabendazole treatment in goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shareef, P A Ahammed; Brennan, Gerard P; McVeigh, Paul; Khan, M A Hannan; Morphew, Russell M; Mousley, Angela; Marks, Nikki J; Saifullah, M K; Brophy, Peter M; Maule, Aaron G; Abidi, S M A

    2014-08-01

    Triclabendazole (TCBZ), the anthelmintic drug active against both mature and immature liver flukes, was used to investigate the effect of in vivo treatment on the tegumental surface of juvenile Fasciola gigantica. Five goats were infected with 150 F. gigantica metacercariae each by oral gavage. Four of them were treated with single dose of TCBZ at 10mg/kg at four weeks post-infection. They were euthanized at 0 (untreated), 24, 48, 72 and 96h post treatment. Juvenile flukes were manually retrieved from the goat livers and processed for scanning electron microscopy. In control flukes, the anterior region was adorned with sharply pointed spines projecting away from the surface, while in the posterior region, spines become shorter and narrower, loosing serration and with the appearance of distinct furrows and papillae. The dorsal surface retained the same pattern of surface architecture similar to that of ventral surface. Flukes obtained from 24h post-treatment did not show any apparent change and were still very active. However, there were limited movements and some blebbing, swelling, deposition of tegumental secretions and some flattening displayed by the flukes of 48h post-treatment. All the worms were found dead 72h post-treatment and showed advanced level of tegumental disruptions, consisting of severe distortion of spines, sloughing off the tegument to expose the basal lamina, formation of pores and isolated patches of lesions. By 96h post-treatment, the disruption was extremely severe and the tegument was completely sheared off causing deeper lesions that exposed the underlying musculature. The disruption was more severe at posterior than anterior region and on ventral than dorsal surface. The present study further establishes the time-course of TCBZ action in vivo with 100% efficacy against the juvenile tropical liver fluke. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Surface Pourbaix diagrams and oxygen reduction activity of Pt, Ag and Ni(111) surfaces studied by DFT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Heine Anton; Rossmeisl, Jan; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    2008-01-01

    The electrochemical most stable surface structures is investigated as function of pH and potential for Pt, Ag and Ni based on DFT calculations and constructed surface Pourbaix diagrams. It is also explained why metals such as Ag and Ni may be used successfully in alkaline fuel cells but not in ac......The electrochemical most stable surface structures is investigated as function of pH and potential for Pt, Ag and Ni based on DFT calculations and constructed surface Pourbaix diagrams. It is also explained why metals such as Ag and Ni may be used successfully in alkaline fuel cells...... but not in acidic PEM fuel cells. Based on density functional theory calculations we investigate the electrochemically most stable surface structures as a function of pH and electrostatic potential for Pt(111), Ag(111) and Ni(111), and we construct surface Pourbaix diagrams. We study the oxygen reduction reaction......, on the other hand, is constant vs. the standard hydrogen electrode (SHE). For Ag, this means that where the potential for dissolution and ORR are about the same at pH = 0, Ag becomes more stable relative to RHE as pH is increased. Hence the pH dependent stability offers an explanation for the possible use...

  16. Dependency of {gamma}-secretase complex activity on the structural integrity of the bilayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Hua, E-mail: hzhou2@lbl.gov [Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Zhou, Shuxia; Walian, Peter J.; Jap, Bing K. [Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2010-11-12

    Research highlights: {yields} Partial solubilization of membranes with CHAPSO can increase {gamma}-secretase activity. {yields} Completely solubilized {gamma}-secretase is inactive. {yields} Purified {gamma}-secretase regains activity after reconstitution into lipid bilayers. {yields} A broad range of detergents can be used to successfully reconstitute {gamma}-secretase. -- Abstract: {gamma}-secretase is a membrane protein complex associated with the production of A{beta} peptides that are pathogenic in Alzheimer's disease. We have characterized the activity of {gamma}-secretase complexes under a variety of detergent solubilization and reconstitution conditions, and the structural state of proteoliposomes by electron microscopy. We found that {gamma}-secretase activity is highly dependent on the physical state or integrity of the membrane bilayer - partial solubilization may increase activity while complete solubilization will abolish it. The activity of well-solubilized {gamma}-secretase can be restored to near native levels when properly reconstituted into a lipid bilayer environment.

  17. Modelling Angular Dependencies in Land Surface Temperatures From the SEVIRI Instrument onboard the Geostationary Meteosat Second Generation Satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mads Olander; Pinheiro, AC; Proud, Simon Richard

    2010-01-01

    on vegetation structure and viewing and illumination geometry. Despite this, these effects are not considered in current operational LST products from neither polar-orbiting nor geostationary satellites. In this paper, we simulate the angular dependence that can be expected when estimating LST with the viewing...... geometry of the geostationary Meteosat Second Generation Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager sensor across the African continent and compare it to a normalized view geometry. We use the modified geometric projection model that estimates the scene thermal infrared radiance from a surface covered...

  18. Localized surface plasmon resonance in silver nanoparticles: Atomistic first-principles time-dependent density-functional theory calculations

    OpenAIRE

    Kuisma, Mikael; Sakko, Arto