WorldWideScience

Sample records for dependence graph size

  1. Cut Size Statistics of Graph Bisection Heuristics

    OpenAIRE

    Schreiber, G. R.; Martin, O. C.

    1998-01-01

    We investigate the statistical properties of cut sizes generated by heuristic algorithms which solve approximately the graph bisection problem. On an ensemble of sparse random graphs, we find empirically that the distribution of the cut sizes found by ``local'' algorithms becomes peaked as the number of vertices in the graphs becomes large. Evidence is given that this distribution tends towards a Gaussian whose mean and variance scales linearly with the number of vertices of the graphs. Given...

  2. Measuring extremal dependencies in web graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volkovich, Y.; Litvak, Nelli; Zwart, B.

    We analyze dependencies in power law graph data (Web sample, Wikipedia sample and a preferential attachment graph) using statistical inference for multivariate regular variation. The well developed theory of regular variation is widely applied in extreme value theory, telecommunications and

  3. Measuring extremal dependencies in web graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volkovich, Y.; Litvak, Nelli; Zwart, B.

    2008-01-01

    We analyze dependencies in power law graph data (Web sample, Wikipedia sample and a preferential attachment graph) using statistical inference for multivariate regular variation. The well developed theory of regular variation is widely applied in extreme value theory, telecommunications and mathemat

  4. Fault Localization for Java Programs using Probabilistic Program Dependence Graph

    CERN Document Server

    Askarunisa, A; Babu, B Giri

    2012-01-01

    Fault localization is a process to find the location of faults. It determines the root cause of the failure. It identifies the causes of abnormal behaviour of a faulty program. It identifies exactly where the bugs are. Existing fault localization techniques are Slice based technique, Program- Spectrum based Technique, Statistics Based Technique, Program State Based Technique, Machine learning based Technique and Similarity Based Technique. In the proposed method Model Based Fault Localization Technique is used, which is called Probabilistic Program Dependence Graph . Probabilistic Program Dependence Graph (PPDG) is an innovative model that scans the internal behaviour of the project. PPDG construction is enhanced by Program Dependence Graph (PDG). PDG is achieved by the Control Flow Graph (CFG). The PPDG construction augments the structural dependences represented by a program dependence graph with estimates of statistical dependences between node states, which are computed from the test set. The PPDG is base...

  5. Flux-dependent graphs for metabolic networks

    OpenAIRE

    Beguerisse-Díaz, Mariano; Bosque, Gabriel; Oyarzún, Diego; Picó, Jesús; Barahona, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    Cells adapt their metabolic fluxes in response to changes in the environment. We present a systematic flux-based framework for the construction of graphs to represent organism-wide metabolic networks. Our graphs encode the directionality of metabolic fluxes via links that represent the flow of metabolites from source to target reactions. The methodology can be applied in the absence of a specific biological context by modelling fluxes as probabilities, or tailored to different environmental c...

  6. System Dependence Graph Construction for Aspect Oriented C++

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Liang; XU Baowen

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes an extended system dependence graph called AspectSDG to represent control and data dependences for AspectC++ programs, and presents an approach for the construction of AspectSDG. This approach decomposes aspect-oriented programs into three parts: component codes, aspect codes, and weaving codes. It constructs program dependence graphs (PDGs) for each part, and then connects the PDGs at call sites to form the complete AspectSDG. The AspectSDG can deal with advice precedence correctly, and represent the additional dependences caused by aspect codes. Based on this model, we introduce how to compute a static slice of an AspectC++ program.

  7. Dependency graph for code analysis on emerging architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shashkov, Mikhail Jurievich [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lipnikov, Konstantin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-08

    Direct acyclic dependency (DAG) graph is becoming the standard for modern multi-physics codes.The ideal DAG is the true block-scheme of a multi-physics code. Therefore, it is the convenient object for insitu analysis of the cost of computations and algorithmic bottlenecks related to statistical frequent data motion and dymanical machine state.

  8. Coloring triangle-free graphs with fixed size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten; Gimbel, John

    2000-01-01

    Combining recent results on colorings and Ramsey theory, we show that if G is a triangle-free graph with e edges then the chromatic number of G is at most cel(1/3)(log e)(-2/3) for some constant c. In a previous paper, we found an upper bound on the chromatic number of a triangle-free graph...

  9. Social networks: Evolving graphs with memory dependent edges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindrod, Peter; Parsons, Mark

    2011-10-01

    The plethora of digital communication technologies, and their mass take up, has resulted in a wealth of interest in social network data collection and analysis in recent years. Within many such networks the interactions are transient: thus those networks evolve over time. In this paper we introduce a class of models for such networks using evolving graphs with memory dependent edges, which may appear and disappear according to their recent history. We consider time discrete and time continuous variants of the model. We consider the long term asymptotic behaviour as a function of parameters controlling the memory dependence. In particular we show that such networks may continue evolving forever, or else may quench and become static (containing immortal and/or extinct edges). This depends on the existence or otherwise of certain infinite products and series involving age dependent model parameters. We show how to differentiate between the alternatives based on a finite set of observations. To test these ideas we show how model parameters may be calibrated based on limited samples of time dependent data, and we apply these concepts to three real networks: summary data on mobile phone use from a developing region; online social-business network data from China; and disaggregated mobile phone communications data from a reality mining experiment in the US. In each case we show that there is evidence for memory dependent dynamics, such as that embodied within the class of models proposed here.

  10. Linear Kernels for Separating a Graph into Components of Bounded Size

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Mingyu

    2016-01-01

    Graph separation and partitioning are fundamental problems that have been extensively studied both in theory and practice. The \\textsc{$p$-Size Separator} problem, closely related to the \\textsc{Balanced Separator} problem, is to check whether we can delete at most $k$ vertices in a given graph $G$ such that each connected component of the remaining graph has at most $p$ vertices. This problem is NP-hard for each fixed integer $p\\geq 1$ and it becomes the famous \\textsc{Vertex Cover} problem ...

  11. Local dependence in random graph models: characterization, properties and statistical inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweinberger, Michael; Handcock, Mark S

    2015-06-01

    Dependent phenomena, such as relational, spatial and temporal phenomena, tend to be characterized by local dependence in the sense that units which are close in a well-defined sense are dependent. In contrast with spatial and temporal phenomena, though, relational phenomena tend to lack a natural neighbourhood structure in the sense that it is unknown which units are close and thus dependent. Owing to the challenge of characterizing local dependence and constructing random graph models with local dependence, many conventional exponential family random graph models induce strong dependence and are not amenable to statistical inference. We take first steps to characterize local dependence in random graph models, inspired by the notion of finite neighbourhoods in spatial statistics and M-dependence in time series, and we show that local dependence endows random graph models with desirable properties which make them amenable to statistical inference. We show that random graph models with local dependence satisfy a natural domain consistency condition which every model should satisfy, but conventional exponential family random graph models do not satisfy. In addition, we establish a central limit theorem for random graph models with local dependence, which suggests that random graph models with local dependence are amenable to statistical inference. We discuss how random graph models with local dependence can be constructed by exploiting either observed or unobserved neighbourhood structure. In the absence of observed neighbourhood structure, we take a Bayesian view and express the uncertainty about the neighbourhood structure by specifying a prior on a set of suitable neighbourhood structures. We present simulation results and applications to two real world networks with 'ground truth'.

  12. Counting independent sets of a fixed size in graphs with a given minimum degree

    CERN Document Server

    Engbers, John

    2012-01-01

    Galvin showed that for all fixed $\\delta$ and sufficiently large $n$, the $n$-vertex graph with minimum degree $\\delta$ that admits the most independent sets is the complete bipartite graph $K_{\\delta,n-\\delta}$. He conjectured that except perhaps for some small values of $t$, the same graph yields the maximum count of independent sets of size $t$ for each possible $t$. Evidence for this conjecture was recently provided by Alexander, Cutler, and Mink, who showed that for all triples $(n,\\delta, t)$ with $t\\geq 3$, no $n$-vertex {\\em bipartite} graph with minimum degree $\\delta$ admits more independent sets of size $t$ than $K_{\\delta,n-\\delta}$. Here we make further progress. We show that for all triples $(n,\\delta,t)$ with $\\delta \\leq 3$ and $t\\geq 3$, no $n$-vertex graph with minimum degree $\\delta$ admits more independent sets of size $t$ than $K_{\\delta,n-\\delta}$, and we obtain the same conclusion for $\\delta > 3$ and $t \\geq 2\\delta +1$. Our proofs lead us naturally to the study of an interesting famil...

  13. Benchmarking natural-language parsers for biological applications using dependency graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, Andrew B; Shepherd, Adrian J

    2007-01-25

    Interest is growing in the application of syntactic parsers to natural language processing problems in biology, but assessing their performance is difficult because differences in linguistic convention can falsely appear to be errors. We present a method for evaluating their accuracy using an intermediate representation based on dependency graphs, in which the semantic relationships important in most information extraction tasks are closer to the surface. We also demonstrate how this method can be easily tailored to various application-driven criteria. Using the GENIA corpus as a gold standard, we tested four open-source parsers which have been used in bioinformatics projects. We first present overall performance measures, and test the two leading tools, the Charniak-Lease and Bikel parsers, on subtasks tailored to reflect the requirements of a system for extracting gene expression relationships. These two tools clearly outperform the other parsers in the evaluation, and achieve accuracy levels comparable to or exceeding native dependency parsers on similar tasks in previous biological evaluations. Evaluating using dependency graphs allows parsers to be tested easily on criteria chosen according to the semantics of particular biological applications, drawing attention to important mistakes and soaking up many insignificant differences that would otherwise be reported as errors. Generating high-accuracy dependency graphs from the output of phrase-structure parsers also provides access to the more detailed syntax trees that are used in several natural-language processing techniques.

  14. Benchmarking natural-language parsers for biological applications using dependency graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shepherd Adrian J

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interest is growing in the application of syntactic parsers to natural language processing problems in biology, but assessing their performance is difficult because differences in linguistic convention can falsely appear to be errors. We present a method for evaluating their accuracy using an intermediate representation based on dependency graphs, in which the semantic relationships important in most information extraction tasks are closer to the surface. We also demonstrate how this method can be easily tailored to various application-driven criteria. Results Using the GENIA corpus as a gold standard, we tested four open-source parsers which have been used in bioinformatics projects. We first present overall performance measures, and test the two leading tools, the Charniak-Lease and Bikel parsers, on subtasks tailored to reflect the requirements of a system for extracting gene expression relationships. These two tools clearly outperform the other parsers in the evaluation, and achieve accuracy levels comparable to or exceeding native dependency parsers on similar tasks in previous biological evaluations. Conclusion Evaluating using dependency graphs allows parsers to be tested easily on criteria chosen according to the semantics of particular biological applications, drawing attention to important mistakes and soaking up many insignificant differences that would otherwise be reported as errors. Generating high-accuracy dependency graphs from the output of phrase-structure parsers also provides access to the more detailed syntax trees that are used in several natural-language processing techniques.

  15. Size-dependent melting of Bi nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, E. A.; Efremov, M. Yu.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Z.; Allen, L. H.

    2005-02-01

    Nanocalorimetry was used to investigate the melting of Bi nanoparticles. The particles were formed by evaporating Bi onto a silicon nitride substrate, which was then heated. The particles self-assemble into truncated spherical particles. Below 5-nm average film thickness, mean particle sizes increased linearly with deposition thickness but increased rapidly for 10-nm-thick films. As expected, small particles were found to exhibit size-dependent melting temperatures less than the bulk melting temperature (e.g., ΔT =67K for a 3-nm radius particle). The measured melting temperatures for particles below ˜7nm in radius, however, were ˜50K above the value predicted by the homogeneous melting model. We discuss this discrepancy in terms of a possible size-dependent crystal structure change and the superheating of the solid phase.

  16. Size-Dependent Raman Shifts for nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yukun; Zhao, Xinmei; Yin, Penggang; Gao, Faming

    2016-04-22

    Raman spectroscopy is a very sensitive tool for probing semiconductor nanocrystals. The underlying mechanism behind the size-dependent Raman shifts is still quite controversial. Here we offer a new theoretical method for the quantum confinement effects on the Raman spectra of semiconductor nanocrystals. We propose that the shift of Raman spectra in nanocrystals can result from two overlapping effects: the quantum effect shift and surface effect shift. The quantum effect shift is extracted from an extended Kubo formula, the surface effect shift is determined via the first principles calculations. Fairly good prediction of Raman shifts can be obtained without the use of any adjustable parameter. Closer analysis shows that the size-dependent Raman shifts in Si nanocrystals mainly result from the quantum effect shifts. For nanodiamond, the proportion of surface effect shift in Raman shift is up to about 40%. Such model can also provide a good baseline for using Raman spectroscopy as a tool to measure size.

  17. The role of reliability graph models in assuring dependable operation of complex hardware/software systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson-Hine, F. A.; Davis, Gloria J.; Pedar, A.

    1991-01-01

    The complexity of computer systems currently being designed for critical applications in the scientific, commercial, and military arenas requires the development of new techniques for utilizing models of system behavior in order to assure 'ultra-dependability'. The complexity of these systems, such as Space Station Freedom and the Air Traffic Control System, stems from their highly integrated designs containing both hardware and software as critical components. Reliability graph models, such as fault trees and digraphs, are used frequently to model hardware systems. Their applicability for software systems has also been demonstrated for software safety analysis and the analysis of software fault tolerance. This paper discusses further uses of graph models in the design and implementation of fault management systems for safety critical applications.

  18. STABILITY OF LINEAR MULTIAGENT SCALAR SYSTEMS AND ITS DEPENDENCE ON CONNECTIVITY GRAPH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Tomashevich

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Multiagent systems are now finding increasingly wide applications in various engineering fields such as energy, transportation, robotics, aviation and others. There are two main aspects to be focused on when organizing multiagent systems: the dynamics of the agents themselves and the ways of their interaction. This interaction is determined by the structure of information connections between agents. Thus, there are several key points of multiagent systems study: the dynamics of individual agents and shape of the information graph. Formation dynamics, in general, is determined by a set of properties of agents and connectivity graph. The paper deals with the relationship between dynamics of agents and Laplace matrix, which is used to set the graph connections. The present research is based on the results given in the known paper by A. Fax and R. Murray (IEEE Trans. AC, 2004. An illustrative example is given, and the application problem of studying the formation dynamics consisting of the group of quadrocopters is presented. Information exchange between agents is determined in the paper by means of the conventional set of graphs. The paper presents an interpretation of the stability conditions and the method of system performance improvement based on these conditions. Motion of quadrocopters group along the flight height is used as an example for methodology application. The simulation results demonstrate the basic dependencies between the information graph shape (and, consequently, the eigenvalues of the Laplacian, which describes this graph and formation stability. Simulation and consideration of Nyquist diagram connection with the key points give an indication of the system stability and take steps to change the control laws. Necessary conditions for the formation stability are obtained on the basis of this research method. Research result makes it possible to create local control laws for agents to ensure the stability of motion in the selected

  19. Graph Transformation and Designing Parallel Sparse Matrix Algorithms beyond Data Dependence Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.X. Lin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Algorithms are often parallelized based on data dependence analysis manually or by means of parallel compilers. Some vector/matrix computations such as the matrix-vector products with simple data dependence structures (data parallelism can be easily parallelized. For problems with more complicated data dependence structures, parallelization is less straightforward. The data dependence graph is a powerful means for designing and analyzing parallel algorithms. However, for sparse matrix computations, parallelization based on solely exploiting the existing parallelism in an algorithm does not always give satisfactory results. For example, the conventional Gaussian elimination algorithm for the solution of a tri-diagonal system is inherently sequential, so algorithms specially for parallel computation has to be designed. After briefly reviewing different parallelization approaches, a powerful graph formalism for designing parallel algorithms is introduced. This formalism will be discussed using a tri-diagonal system as an example. Its application to general matrix computations is also discussed. Its power in designing parallel algorithms beyond the ability of data dependence analysis is shown by means of a new algorithm called ACER (Alternating Cyclic Elimination and Reduction algorithm.

  20. Schedule-extended synchronous dataflow graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damavandpeyma, M.; Stuijk, S.; Basten, T.; Geilen, M.; Corporaal, H.

    2013-01-01

    Synchronous dataflow graphs (SDFGs) are used extensively to model streaming applications. An SDFG can be extended with scheduling decisions, allowing SDFG analysis to obtain properties, such as throughput or buffer sizes for the scheduled graphs. Analysis times depend strongly on the size of the

  1. Is the Morin Transition Size Dependent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, O.

    2007-12-01

    Morin transition temperatures Tm were measured for submicron (SD) synthetic hematites with grain sizes between 120 and 520 nm and on 0.5 and 6 mm (MD) natural single crystals. The Morin transition temperature is quite variable in both SD and MD hematites. Tm ranged from 250 to 260 K for natural crystals and even more widely, from 241 to 254 K, for the more heterogeneous synthetic hematites. The scatter must be due to different methods of preparation, crystal morphology, strain and crystal imperfections that are common for both synthetic and natural crystals. The present Tm data for SD and MD hematites are compatible with published data by other workers in the 100 nm - 10 mm range. In this interval, Tm decreases slightly with decreasing particle size but is almost size independent. However, in nanoparticles with grain sizes between 30 and 90 nm, the spin-flop transition is strongly dependent on particle size: Tm decreases sharply with decreasing size and the transition disappears below 20 nm. This phenomenon is due to surface effects that lead to spin directions deviating from the easy axis. The present SD and MD hematites exhibit a thermal hysteresis in the Morin transition: the values of Tm in cooling and in heating are different. For the same cooling/warming rate, the width of the Morin transition in the submicron crystals is broader than for the natural single crystals. This broadening in SD hematites is directly attributable to the wide distribution of particle sizes. In natural single crystals the entire width of the transition could be due to crystal imperfections and the internal stresses that result from these defects.

  2. Particle size dependent response of aerosol counters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankilov, A.; Baklanov, A.; Colhoun, M.; Enderle, K.-H.; Gras, J.; Julanov, Yu.; Kaller, D.; Lindner, A.; Lushnikov, A. A.; Mavliev, R.; McGovern, F.; O'Connor, T. C.; Podzimek, J.; Preining, O.; Reischl, G. P.; Rudolf, R.; Sem, G. J.; Szymanski, W. W.; Vrtala, A. E.; Wagner, P. E.; Winklmayr, W.; Zagaynov, V.

    During an international workshop at the Institute for Experimental Physics of the University of Vienna, Austria, which was coordinated within the Committee on Nucleation and Atmospheric Aerosols (IAMAS-IUGG), 10 instruments for aerosol number concentration measurement were studied, covering a wide range of methods based on various different measuring principles. In order to investigate the detection limits of the instruments considered with respect to particle size, simultaneous number concentration measurements were performed for monodispersed aerosols with particle sizes ranging from 1.5 to 50 nm diameter and various compositions. The instruments considered show quite different response characteristics, apparently related to the different vapors used in the various counters to enlarge the particles to an optically detectable size. A strong dependence of the 50% cutoff diameter on the particle composition in correlation with the type of vapor used in the specific instrument was found. An enhanced detection efficiency for ultrafine hygroscopic sodium chloride aerosols was observed with water operated systems, an analogous trend was found for n-butanol operated systems with nonhygroscopic silver and tungsten oxide particles.

  3. Simultaneous Budget and Buffer Size Computation for Throughput-Constrained Task Graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiggers, Maarten H.; Bekooij, Marco J.G.; Geilen, Marc C.W.; Basten, Twan

    2010-01-01

    Modern embedded multimedia systems process multiple concurrent streams of data processing jobs. Streams often have throughput requirements. These jobs are implemented on a multiprocessor system as a task graph. Tasks communicate data over buffers, where tasks wait on sufficient space in output buffe

  4. On maximum cycle packings in polyhedral graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Recht

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses upper and lower bounds for the cardinality of a maximum vertex-/edge-disjoint cycle packing in a polyhedral graph G. Bounds on the cardinality of such packings are provided, that depend on the size, the order or the number of faces of G, respectively. Polyhedral graphs are constructed, that attain these bounds.

  5. Size dependent pore size distribution of shales by gas physisorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshan, Hamid; Andersen, Martin S.; Yu, Lu; Masoumi, Hossein; Arandian, Hamid

    2017-04-01

    Gas physisorption, in particular nitrogen adsorption-desorption, is a traditional technique for characterization of geomaterials including the organic rich shales. The low pressure nitrogen is used together with adsorption-desorption physical models to study the pore size distribution (PSD) and porosity of the porous samples. The samples are usually crushed to a certain fragment size to measure these properties however there is not yet a consistent standard size proposed for sample crushing. Crushing significantly increases the surface area of the fragments e.g. the created surface area is differentiated from that of pores using BET technique. In this study, we show that the smaller fragment sizes lead to higher cumulative pore volume and smaller pore diameters. It is also shown that some of the micro-pores are left unaccounted because of the correction of the external surface area. In order to illustrate this, the nitrogen physisorption is first conducted on the identical organic rich shale samples with different sizes: 20-25, 45-50 and 63-71 µm. We then show that such effects are not only a function of pore structure changes induced by crushing, but is linked to the inability of the physical models in differentiating between the external surface area (BET) and micro-pores for different crushing sizes at relatively low nitrogen pressure. We also discuss models currently used in nano-technology such as t-method to address this issue and their advantages and shortcoming for shale rock characterization.

  6. Departure of some parameter-dependent spectral statistics of irregular quantum graphs from random matrix theory predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hul, Oleh; Seba, Petr; Sirko, Leszek

    2009-06-01

    Parameter-dependent statistical properties of spectra of totally connected irregular quantum graphs with Neumann boundary conditions are studied. The autocorrelation functions of level velocities c(x) and c[over ](omega,x) as well as the distributions of level curvatures and avoided crossing gaps are calculated. The numerical results are compared with the predictions of random matrix theory for Gaussian orthogonal ensemble (GOE) and for coupled GOE matrices. The application of coupled GOE matrices was justified by studying localization phenomena in graphs' wave functions Psi(x) using the inverse participation ratio and the amplitude distribution P(Psi(x)) .

  7. Size-dependent reinforcement of composite rubbers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mermet-Guyennet, M.R.B.; de Castro, J.G.; Varol, H.S.; Habibi, M.; Hosseinkhani, B.; Martzel, N.; Sprik, R.; Denn, M.M.; Zaccone, A.; Parekh, S.H.; Bonn, D.

    2015-01-01

    Particulate fillers are often used to enhance the properties of soft materials; polymer composites often contain nanometer-sized particles to improve reinforcement, for example. The rationale for using nanometer-sized particles remains unclear, however, and classical micromechanical models cannot ac

  8. Adaptive density dependence of avian clutch size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Both, C; Tinbergen, JM; Visser, ME

    2000-01-01

    In birds, the annual mean clutch size is often negatively correlated with population density. This relationship is at least in part due to adjustment by individuals. We investigated whether this response is adaptive in two ways. First we used an optimality model to predict how optimal clutch size

  9. Size-dependent density of nanoparticles and nanostructured materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanda, Karuna Kar, E-mail: nanda@mrc.iisc.ernet.in [Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 12 (India)

    2012-10-01

    We discuss the size-dependent density of nanoparticles and nanostructured materials keeping the recent experimental results in mind. The density is predicted to increase with decreasing size for nanoparticles but it can decrease with size for nanostructured materials that corroborates the experimental results reported in the literature. -- Highlights: ► Density of nanoparticles depends mainly on the size-dependent lattice parameter. ► Density is predicted to increase with decreasing size for nanoparticles. ► Density decreases with size for nanostructured materials.

  10. Time-dependence of graph theory metrics in functional connectivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Sharon; Cassese, Alberto; Guindani, Michele; Vannucci, Marina; Yeh, Hsiang J; Haneef, Zulfi; Stern, John M

    2016-01-15

    Brain graphs provide a useful way to computationally model the network structure of the connectome, and this has led to increasing interest in the use of graph theory to quantitate and investigate the topological characteristics of the healthy brain and brain disorders on the network level. The majority of graph theory investigations of functional connectivity have relied on the assumption of temporal stationarity. However, recent evidence increasingly suggests that functional connectivity fluctuates over the length of the scan. In this study, we investigate the stationarity of brain network topology using a Bayesian hidden Markov model (HMM) approach that estimates the dynamic structure of graph theoretical measures of whole-brain functional connectivity. In addition to extracting the stationary distribution and transition probabilities of commonly employed graph theory measures, we propose two estimators of temporal stationarity: the S-index and N-index. These indexes can be used to quantify different aspects of the temporal stationarity of graph theory measures. We apply the method and proposed estimators to resting-state functional MRI data from healthy controls and patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Our analysis shows that several graph theory measures, including small-world index, global integration measures, and betweenness centrality, may exhibit greater stationarity over time and therefore be more robust. Additionally, we demonstrate that accounting for subject-level differences in the level of temporal stationarity of network topology may increase discriminatory power in discriminating between disease states. Our results confirm and extend findings from other studies regarding the dynamic nature of functional connectivity, and suggest that using statistical models which explicitly account for the dynamic nature of functional connectivity in graph theory analyses may improve the sensitivity of investigations and consistency across investigations.

  11. Memory-Optimized Software Synthesis from Dataflow Program Graphs with Large Size Data Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunok Oh

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available In multimedia and graphics applications, data samples of nonprimitive type require significant amount of buffer memory. This paper addresses the problem of minimizing the buffer memory requirement for such applications in embedded software synthesis from graphical dataflow programs based on the synchronous dataflow (SDF model with the given execution order of nodes. We propose a memory minimization technique that separates global memory buffers from local pointer buffers: the global buffers store live data samples and the local buffers store the pointers to the global buffer entries. The proposed algorithm reduces 67% memory for a JPEG encoder, 40% for an H.263 encoder compared with unshared versions, and 22% compared with the previous sharing algorithm for the H.263 encoder. Through extensive buffer sharing optimization, we believe that automatic software synthesis from dataflow program graphs achieves the comparable code quality with the manually optimized code in terms of memory requirement.

  12. Elimination of Parallel Copies using Code Motion on Data Dependence Graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandner, Florian; Colombet, Quentin

    2013-01-01

    Register allocation regained much interest in recent years due to the development of decoupled strategies that split the problem into separate phases: spilling, register assignment, and copy elimination. Traditional approaches to copy elimination during register allocation are based on interference...... graphs and register coalescing. Variables are represented as nodes in a graph, which are coalesced, if they can be assigned the same register. However, decoupled approaches strive to avoid interference graphs and thus often resort to local recoloring. A common assumption of existing coalescing......, while at the same time a valid register assignment is preserved. Our results show that even after traditional register allocation with coalescing our technique is able to eliminate an additional 3% (up to 9%) of the remaining copies and reduce the weighted costs of register copies by up to 25...

  13. A random energy model for size dependence : recurrence vs. transience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Külske, Christof

    1998-01-01

    We investigate the size dependence of disordered spin models having an infinite number of Gibbs measures in the framework of a simplified 'random energy model for size dependence'. We introduce two versions (involving either independent random walks or branching processes), that can be seen as gener

  14. Grain size dependent mechanical properties in nanophase materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegel, R.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Fougere, G.E. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1995-02-01

    It has become possible in recent years to synthesize metals and ceramics under well controlled conditions with constituent grain structures on a manometer size scale (below 100 nm). These new materials have mechanical properties that are strongly grain-size dependent and often significantly different than those of their coarser grained counterparts. Nanophase metals tend to become stronger and ceramics are more easily deformed as grain size is reduced. The observed mechanical property changes appear to be related primarily to grain size limitations and the large percentage of atoms in grain boundary environments. A brief overview of our present knowledge about the grain-size dependent mechanical properties of nanophase materials is presented.

  15. Temperature and size-dependent Hamaker constants for metal nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, K.; Pinchuk, P.

    2016-08-01

    Theoretical values of the Hamaker constant have been calculated for metal nanoparticles using Lifshitz theory. The theory describes the Hamaker constant in terms of the permittivity of the interacting bodies. Metal nanoparticles exhibit an internal size effect that alters the dielectric permittivity of the particle when its size falls below the mean free path of the conducting electrons. This size dependence of the permittivity leads to size-dependence of the Hamaker constant for metal nanoparticles. Additionally, the electron damping and the plasma frequency used to model the permittivity of the particle exhibit temperature-dependence, which lead to temperature dependence of the Hamaker constant. In this work, both the size and temperature dependence for gold, silver, copper, and aluminum nanoparticles is demonstrated. The results of this study might be of interest for studying the colloidal stability of nanoparticles in solution.

  16. B-graph sampling to estimate the size of a hidden population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spreen, M.; Bogaerts, S.

    2015-01-01

    Link-tracing designs are often used to estimate the size of hidden populations by utilizing the relational links between their members. A major problem in studies of hidden populations is the lack of a convenient sampling frame. The most frequently applied design in studies of hidden populations is

  17. Pattern Based Graph Generator

    CERN Document Server

    Shuai, Hong-Han; Yu, Philip S; Shen, Chih-Ya; Chen, Ming-Syan

    2013-01-01

    The importance of graph mining has been widely recognized thanks to a large variety of applications in many areas, while real datasets always play important roles to examine the solution quality and efficiency of a graph mining algorithm. Nevertheless, the size of a real dataset is usually fixed and constrained according to the available resources, such as the efforts to crawl an on-line social network. In this case, employing a synthetic graph generator is a possible way to generate a massive graph (e.g., billions nodes) for evaluating the scalability of an algorithm, and current popular statistical graph generators are properly designed to maintain statistical metrics such as total node degree, degree distribution, diameter, and clustering coefficient of the original social graphs. Nevertheless, in addition to the above metrics, recent studies on graph mining point out that graph frequent patterns are also important to provide useful implications for the corresponding social networking applications, but thi...

  18. Pancyclic and bipancyclic graphs

    CERN Document Server

    George, John C; Wallis, W D

    2016-01-01

    This book is focused on pancyclic and bipancyclic graphs and is geared toward researchers and graduate students in graph theory. Readers should be familiar with the basic concepts of graph theory, the definitions of a graph and of a cycle. Pancyclic graphs contain cycles of all possible lengths from three up to the number of vertices in the graph. Bipartite graphs contain only cycles of even lengths, a bipancyclic graph is defined to be a bipartite graph with cycles of every even size from 4 vertices up to the number of vertices in the graph. Cutting edge research and fundamental results on pancyclic and bipartite graphs from a wide range of journal articles and conference proceedings are composed in this book to create a standalone presentation. The following questions are highlighted through the book: - What is the smallest possible number of edges in a pancyclic graph with v vertices? - When do pancyclic graphs exist with exactly one cycle of every possible length? - What is the smallest possible number of...

  19. Size- and temperature-dependent Young's modulus and size-dependent thermal expansion coefficient of thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao-Ye; Huang, Bao-Ling; Zhang, Tong-Yi

    2016-08-21

    Nanomaterials possess a high surface/volume ratio and surfaces play an essential role in size-dependent material properties. In the present study, nanometer-thick thin films were taken as an ideal system to investigate the surface-induced size- and temperature-dependent Young's modulus and size-dependent thermal expansion coefficient. The surface eigenstress model was further developed with the consideration of thermal expansion, leading to analytic formulas of size- and temperature-dependent Young's modulus, and size-dependent thermal expansion coefficient of thin films. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on face-centered cubic (fcc) Ag, Cu, and Ni(001) thin films were conducted at temperatures ranging from 300 K to 600 K. The MD simulation results are perfectly consistent with the theoretical predictions, thereby verifying the theoretical approach. The newly developed surface eigenstress model will be able to attack similar problems in other types of nanomaterials.

  20. Population dynamic theory of size-dependent cannibalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessen, D.; de Roos, A.M.; Persson, L.

    2004-01-01

    Cannibalism is characterized by four aspects: killing victims, gaining energy from victims, size-dependent interactions and intraspecific competition. In this review of mathematical models of cannibalistic populations, we relate the predicted population dynamic consequences of cannibalism to its fou

  1. Population dynamic theory of size-dependent cannibalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessen, D.; de Roos, A.M.; Persson, L.

    2004-01-01

    Cannibalism is characterized by four aspects: killing victims, gaining energy from victims, size-dependent interactions and intraspecific competition. In this review of mathematical models of cannibalistic populations, we relate the predicted population dynamic consequences of cannibalism to its fou

  2. Thermophoresis of microemulsion droplets: size dependence of the Soret effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigolo, Daniele; Brambilla, Giovanni; Piazza, Roberto

    2007-04-01

    Thermophoresis, akin to thermal diffusion in simple fluid mixtures, consists of particle drift induced by a temperature gradient. Notwithstanding its practical interest, the dependence of thermophoretic effects on particle size R is still theoretically and experimentally debated. By performing measurements of water-in-oil microemulsion droplets with tunable size, we show that the thermal diffusion coefficient, at least for a suspension of small particles in a nonpolar solvent, does not appreciably depend on R .

  3. Modeling of size dependent failure in cardiovascular stent struts under tension and bending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harewood, F J; McHugh, P E

    2007-09-01

    Cardiovascular stents are cylindrical mesh-like metallic structures that are used to treat atherosclerosis. The thickness of stent struts are typically in the range of 50-150 microm. At this microscopic size scale, the tensile failure strain has been shown to be size dependent. Micromechanically representative computational models have captured this size effect in tension. In this paper polycrystalline models incorporating material fracture are used to investigate size effects for realistic stent strut geometries and loading modes. The specific loading a stent undergoes during deployment is uniquely captured and the implications for stent design are considered. Fracture analysis is also performed, identifying trends in terms of strut thickness and loading type. The results show, in addition to the size effect in tension, further size effects in different loading conditions. The results of the loading analyses are combined to produce a tension and bending failure graph. This design safety diagram is presented as a tool to predict failure of stent struts. This study is particularly significant given the current interest in producing smaller stents.

  4. Density-dependence as a size-independent regulatory mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vladar, H.P.

    2006-01-01

    The growth function of populations is central in biomathematics. The main dogma is the existence of density-dependence mechanisms, which can be modelled with distinct functional forms that depend on the size of the Population. One important class of regulatory functions is the theta-logistic, which

  5. Density-dependence as a size-independent regulatory mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vladar, H.P.

    2006-01-01

    The growth function of populations is central in biomathematics. The main dogma is the existence of density-dependence mechanisms, which can be modelled with distinct functional forms that depend on the size of the Population. One important class of regulatory functions is the theta-logistic, which

  6. Universal relation for size dependent thermodynamic properties of metallic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Shiyun; Qi, Weihong; Cheng, Yajuan; Huang, Baiyun; Wang, Mingpu; Li, Yejun

    2011-06-14

    The previous model on surface free energy has been extended to calculate size dependent thermodynamic properties (i.e., melting temperature, melting enthalpy, melting entropy, evaporation temperature, Curie temperature, Debye temperature and specific heat capacity) of nanoparticles. According to the quantitative calculation of size effects on the calculated thermodynamic properties, it is found that most thermodynamic properties of nanoparticles vary linearly with 1/D as a first approximation. In other words, the size dependent thermodynamic properties P(n) have the form of P(n) = P(b)(1 -K/D), in which P(b) is the corresponding bulk value and K is the material constant. This may be regarded as a scaling law for most of the size dependent thermodynamic properties for different materials. The present predictions are consistent literature values.

  7. Dependency of Lipid Raft Diffusion on System Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Ryan

    2009-11-01

    An inherit limitation in molecular dynamics is a finite system size. Although periodic boundary conditions can be used to mimic an infinite space, minimizing the artificial effects created by the physical dimensions of the system still remains an issue. Here I will discuss the undesirable relationship between system properties and system size observed via a dissipative particle dynamics approach. In particular, results illustrate a strong dependence between the diffusion of a lipid raft along a membrane and the length of the axis perpendicular to it, even at relatively large system sizes. Methods for obtaining system properties independently of simulation size are crucial for accurate results.

  8. GraphState - a tool for graph identification and labelling

    CERN Document Server

    Batkovich, D; Kompaniets, M; Novikov, S

    2014-01-01

    We present python libraries for Feynman graphs manipulation. The key feature of these libraries is usage of generalization of graph representation offered by B. G. Nickel et al. In this approach graph is represented in some unique 'canonical' form that depends only on its combinatorial type. The uniqueness of graph representation gives an efficient way for isomorphism finding, searching for subgraphs and other graph manipulation tasks. Though offered libraries were originally designed for Feynman graphs, they might be useful for more general graph problems.

  9. A Modal-Logic Based Graph Abstraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauer, J.; Boneva, I.B.; Kurban, M.E.; Rensink, A.; Ehrig, H.; Heckel, R.; Rozenberg, G.; Taentzer, G.

    2008-01-01

    Infinite or very large state spaces often prohibit the successful verification of graph transformation systems. Abstract graph transformation is an approach that tackles this problem by abstracting graphs to abstract graphs of bounded size and by lifting application of productions to abstract graphs

  10. Size-dependent diffusion promotes the emergence of spatiotemporal patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lai; Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro; Banerjee, Malay

    2014-01-01

    promotes the formation of spatiotemporal patterns, by creating regular spatiotemporal patterns out of temporal chaos. We also found that size-dependent diffusion can substitute large-amplitude base harmonics with spatiotemporal patterns with lower amplitude oscillations but with enriched harmonics. Finally...... intraspecific physiological variations at the individual level. Here we explore the impacts of size variation within species resulting from individual ontogeny, on the emergence of spatiotemporal patterns in a fully size-structured population model. We found that size dependency of animal's diffusivity greatly...... populations. Due to the ubiquity of individual ontogeny in natural ecosystems we conclude that diffusion variability within populations is a significant driving force for the emergence of spatiotemporal patterns. Our results offer a perspective on self-organized phenomena, and pave a way to understand...

  11. Universal size dependence of the physical properties of nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremin, E. N.; Yurov, V. M.; Guchenko, S. A.; Laurynas, V. Ch

    2017-06-01

    Dimensional analysis of the experimentally observed dependence of the physical properties of nanoparticles, nanofilms and nanomaterials showed that there is a universal equation that accurately describes the observed size effects. It is shown that the size factor is also a universal value and is determined only by the atomic structure of the nanomaterial. Discovered universal relationships enable us to calculate the physical properties (mechanical, electrical, magnetic, thermal, etc.) of small particles and thin films based on knowledge of the properties of bulk materials.

  12. Size-dependent spontaneous alloying of Au-Ag nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Tomohiro; Bunker, Bruce A; Zhang, Zhenyuan; Meisel, Dan; Vardeman, Charles F; Gezelter, J Daniel

    2002-10-09

    We report on systematic studies of size-dependent alloy formation of silver-coated gold nanoparticles (NPs) in aqueous solution at ambient temperature using X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (XAFS). Various Au-core sizes (2.5-20 nm diameter) and Ag shell thicknesses were synthesized using radiolytic wet techniques. The equilibrium structures (alloy versus core-shell) of these NPs were determined in the suspensions. We observed remarkable size dependence in the room temperature interdiffusion of the two metals. The interdiffusion is limited to the subinterface layers of the bimetallic NPs and depends on both the core size and the total particle size. For the very small particles (bimetallic interface enhance the radial migration (as well as displacement around the interface) of one metal into the other. Molecular dynamics calculations correctly predict the activation energy for diffusion of the metals in the absence of vacancies and show an enormous dependence of the rate of mixing on defect levels. They also suggest that a few percent of the interfacial lattice sites need to be vacant to explain the observed mixing.

  13. Size-dependent rheology of type-I collagen networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arevalo, Richard C; Urbach, Jeffrey S; Blair, Daniel L

    2010-10-20

    We investigate the system size-dependent rheological response of branched type I collagen gels. When subjected to a shear strain, the highly interconnected mesh dynamically reorients, resulting in overall stiffening of the network. When a continuous shear strain is applied to a collagen network, we observe that the local apparent modulus, in the strain-stiffening regime, is strongly dependent on the gel thickness. In addition, we demonstrate that the overall network failure is determined by the ratio of the gel thickness to the mesh size. These findings have broad implications for cell-matrix interactions, the interpretation of rheological tissue data, and the engineering of biomimetic scaffolds.

  14. Microfluidic-enabled liposomes elucidate size-dependent transdermal transport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee R Hood

    Full Text Available Microfluidic synthesis of small and nearly-monodisperse liposomes is used to investigate the size-dependent passive transdermal transport of nanoscale lipid vesicles. While large liposomes with diameters above 105 nm are found to be excluded from deeper skin layers past the stratum corneum, the primary barrier to nanoparticle transport, liposomes with mean diameters between 31-41 nm exhibit significantly enhanced penetration. Furthermore, multicolor fluorescence imaging reveals that the smaller liposomes pass rapidly through the stratum corneum without vesicle rupture. These findings reveal that nanoscale liposomes with well-controlled size and minimal size variance are excellent vehicles for transdermal delivery of functional nanoparticle drugs.

  15. Size-Dependent Dynamic Behavior of a Microcantilever Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Material length scale considerably affects the mechanical properties of microcantilever components. Recently, cantilever-plate-like structures have been commonly used, whereas the lack of studies on their size effects constrains the design, testing, and application of these structures. We have studied the size-dependent dynamic behavior of a cantilever plate based on a modified couple stress theory and the differential quadrature method in this note. The numerical solutions of microcantilever plate equation involving the size effect have been presented. We have also analyzed the bending and vibration of the microcantilever plates considering the size effect and discussed the dependence of the size effect on their geometric dimensions. The results have shown that (1 the mechanical characteristics of the cantilever plate show obvious size effects; as a result, the bending deflection of a microcantilever plate reduces whereas the natural frequency increases effectively and (2 for the plates with the same material, the size effect becomes more obvious when the plates are thinner.

  16. Size-Dependent Melting Behaviour of Nanometre-Sized Pb Particles Studied by Dynamic Mechanical Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiao-Min; FEI Guang-Tao; CUI Ping

    2006-01-01

    Nanometre-sized (hereafter nano-)Pb particles embedded in an Al matrix are prepared by ball milling.It is found that the size of nano-Pb particles was decreased with increasing milling time.The melting behaviour of nano-Pb particles embedded in the Al matrix is studied by means of dynamic mechanical analysis,and a single internal friction peak in the vicinity of Pb melting temperature is observed.The onset temperature of the peak moves to lower temperature with the decrease of particles size and the internal friction peak height is increased,which indicates a size-dependent melting behaviour of nano-Pb particles.It is suggested that the size-dependent melting behaviour is associated with surface melting.

  17. Size-Dependent Rheology of Type-I Collagen Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Arevalo, Richard C.; Urbach, Jeffrey S.; Blair, Daniel L.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the system size dependent rheological response of branched type I collagen gels. When subjected to a shear strain, the highly interconnected mesh dynamically reorients, resulting in overall stiffening of the network. When a continuous shear strain is applied to a collagen network, we observe that the local apparent modulus, in the strain-stiffening regime, is strongly dependent on the gel thickness. In addition, we demonstrate that the overall network failure is determined by t...

  18. Cluster-size dependent randomization traffic flow model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Kun; Wang Bing-Hong; Fu Chuan-Ji; Lu Yu-Feng

    2007-01-01

    In order to exhibit the meta-stable states, several slow-to-start rules have been investigated as modification to Nagel-Schreckenberg (NS) model. These models can reproduce some realistic phenomena which are absent in the original NS model. But in these models, the size of cluster is still not considered as a useful parameter. In real traffic,the slow-to-start motion of a standing vehicle often depends on the degree of congestion which can be measured by the clusters'size. According to this idea, we propose a cluster-size dependent slow-to-start model based on the speeddependent slow-to-start rule (VDR) model. It gives expected results through simulations. Comparing with the VDR model, our new model has a better traffic efficiency and shows richer complex characters.

  19. Reaction Graph

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅育熙

    1998-01-01

    The paper proposes reaction graphs as graphical representations of computational objects.A reaction graph is a directed graph with all its arrows and some of its nodes labeled.Computations are modled by graph rewriting of a simple nature.The basic rewriting rules embody the essence of both the communications among processes and cut-eliminations in proofs.Calculi of graphs are ideentified to give a formal and algebraic account of reaction graphs in the spirit of process algebra.With the help of the calculi,it is demonstrated that reaction graphs capture many interesting aspects of computations.

  20. Parallel Graph Transformation based on Merged Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmaa Aouat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Graph transformation is one of the key concepts in graph grammar. In order to accelerate the graph transformation, the concept of parallel graph transformation has been proposed by different tools such as AGG tool. The theory of parallel graph transformation used by AGG just allows clarifying the concepts of conflict and dependency between the transformation rules. This work proposes an approach of parallel graph transformations which enables dependent transformation rules to be executed in parallel.

  1. Size dependence of efficiency at maximum power of heat engine

    KAUST Repository

    Izumida, Y.

    2013-10-01

    We perform a molecular dynamics computer simulation of a heat engine model to study how the engine size difference affects its performance. Upon tactically increasing the size of the model anisotropically, we determine that there exists an optimum size at which the model attains the maximum power for the shortest working period. This optimum size locates between the ballistic heat transport region and the diffusive heat transport one. We also study the size dependence of the efficiency at the maximum power. Interestingly, we find that the efficiency at the maximum power around the optimum size attains a value that has been proposed as a universal upper bound, and it even begins to exceed the bound as the size further increases. We explain this behavior of the efficiency at maximum power by using a linear response theory for the heat engine operating under a finite working period, which naturally extends the low-dissipation Carnot cycle model [M. Esposito, R. Kawai, K. Lindenberg, C. Van den Broeck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 150603 (2010)]. The theory also shows that the efficiency at the maximum power under an extreme condition may reach the Carnot efficiency in principle.© EDP Sciences Società Italiana di Fisica Springer-Verlag 2013.

  2. Size Dependency of Income Distribution and Its Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jiang; WANG You-Gui

    2011-01-01

    We systematically study the size dependency of income distributions, i.e. income distribution versus the population of a country. Using the generalized Lotka--Uolterra model to fit the empirical income data for 1996-2007 in the U.S.A,we find an important parameter A that can scale with a βpower of the size(population) of the U.S.A.in that year. We point out that the size dependency of income distributions, which is a very important property but seldom addressed in previous studies, has two non-trivial implications:(1) the allometric growth pattern,i.e. the power-law relationship between population and GDP in different years, can be mathematically derived from the size-dependent income distributions and also supported by the empirical data;(2)the connection with the anomalous scaling for the probability density function in critical phenomena, since the re-scaled form of the income distributions has asymptotically exactly the same mathematical expression for the limit distribution of the sum of many correlated random variables.

  3. Effects of size-dependent elasticity on stability of nanotweezers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A FARROKHABADI; A KOOCHI; A KAZEMI; M ABADYAN

    2014-01-01

    It is well-recognized that the electromechanical response of a nanostructure is affected by its element size. In the present article, the size dependent stability behavior and nanotweezers fabricated from nanowires are investigated by modified couple stress elasticity (MCSE). The governing equation of the nanotweezers is obtained by taking into account the presence of Coulomb and intermolecular attractions. To solve the equation, four techniques, i.e., the modified variational iteration method (MVIM), the monotonic iteration method (MIM), the MAPLE numerical solver, and a lumped model, are used. The variations of the arm displacement of the tweezers versus direct current (DC) voltage are obtained. The instability parameters, i.e., pull-in voltage and deflection of the system, are computed. The results show that size-dependency will affect the stability of the nanotweezers significantly if the diameter of the nanowire is of the order of the length scale. The impact of intermolecular attraction on the size-dependent stability of the system is discussed.

  4. Drop Size Dependence of the Contact Angle of Nanodroplets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Hong-Kai; FANG Hai-Ping

    2005-01-01

    @@ The contact angle of nanosized non-polarized argon sessile droplets on a solid substrate is studied by using molecular dynamics simulations.It is found that the drop size dependence of the contact angle is sensitive to the interaction between the liquid molecules and solid molecules.The contact angle decreases with the decreasing drop size for larger interaction between the liquid molecules and the solid substrate, and vice versa.This observation is consistent with most of the previous theoretical and experimental results.

  5. The STAPL Parallel Graph Library

    KAUST Repository

    Harshvardhan,

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the stapl Parallel Graph Library, a high-level framework that abstracts the user from data-distribution and parallelism details and allows them to concentrate on parallel graph algorithm development. It includes a customizable distributed graph container and a collection of commonly used parallel graph algorithms. The library introduces pGraph pViews that separate algorithm design from the container implementation. It supports three graph processing algorithmic paradigms, level-synchronous, asynchronous and coarse-grained, and provides common graph algorithms based on them. Experimental results demonstrate improved scalability in performance and data size over existing graph libraries on more than 16,000 cores and on internet-scale graphs containing over 16 billion vertices and 250 billion edges. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013.

  6. Degree-degree dependencies in random graphs with heavy-tailed degrees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstad, van der Remco; Litvak, Nelly

    2014-01-01

    Mixing patterns in large self-organizing networks, such as the Internet, the World Wide Web, social, and biological networks are often characterized by degree-degree dependencies between neighboring nodes. In assortative networks, the degree-degree dependencies are positive (nodes with similar degre

  7. Degree-Degree Dependencies in Random Graphs with Heavy-Tailed Degrees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hofstad, Remco; Litvak, Nelli

    2014-01-01

    Mixing patterns in large self-organizing networks, such as the Internet, the World Wide Web, social, and biological networks are often characterized by degree-degree dependencies between neighboring nodes. In assortative networks, the degree-degree dependencies are positive (nodes with similar

  8. Size-dependent magnetic properties of branchlike nickel oxide nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dan; Li, Dongsheng; Yang, Deren

    2017-01-01

    Branchlike nickel oxide nanocrystals with narrow size distribution are obtained by a solution growth method. The size-dependent of magnetic properties of the nickel oxides were investigated. The results of magnetic characterization indicate that the NiO nanocrystals with size below 12.8 nm show very weak ferromagnetic state at room temperature due to the uncompensated spins. Both of the average blocking temperature (Tb) and the irreversible temperature (Tirr) increase with the increase of nanoparticle sizes, while both the remnant magnetization and the coercivity at 300 K increase with the decrease of the particle sizes. Moreover, the disappearance of two-magnon (2M) band and redshift of one-phonon longitudinal (1LO) and two-phonon LO in vibrational properties due to size reduction are observed. Compared to the one with the spherical morphological, it is also found that nano-structured nickel oxides with the branchlike morphology have larger remnant magnetization and the coercivity at 5 K due to their larger surface-to-volume ratio and greater degree of broken symmetry at the surface or the higher proportion of broken bonds.

  9. Size-dependent deformation behavior of nanocrystalline graphene sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhi [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049, Shaanxi (China); Huang, Yuhong [College of Physics and Information Technology, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710062, Shaanxi (China); Ma, Fei, E-mail: mafei@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049, Shaanxi (China); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Sun, Yunjin [Faculty of Food Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Agriculture, Beijing Key Laboratory of Agricultural Product Detection and Control of Spoilage Organisms and Pesticide Residue, Beijing Laboratory of Food Quality and Safety, Beijing 102206 (China); Xu, Kewei, E-mail: kwxu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049, Shaanxi (China); Department of Physics and Opt-electronic Engineering, Xi’an University of Arts and Science, Xi’an 710065, Shaanxi (China); Chu, Paul K., E-mail: paul.chu@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • MD simulation is conducted to study the deformation of nanocrystalline graphene. • Unexpectedly, the elastic modulus decreases with the grain size considerably. • But the fracture stress and strain are nearly insensitive to the grain size. • A composite model with grain domains and GBs as two components is suggested. - Abstract: Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation is conducted to study the deformation behavior of nanocrystalline graphene sheets. It is found that the graphene sheets have almost constant fracture stress and strain, but decreased elastic modulus with grain size. The results are different from the size-dependent strength observed in nanocrystalline metals. Structurally, the grain boundaries (GBs) become a principal component in two-dimensional materials with nano-grains and the bond length in GBs tends to be homogeneously distributed. This is almost the same for all the samples. Hence, the fracture stress and strain are almost size independent. As a low-elastic-modulus component, the GBs increase with reducing grain size and the elastic modulus decreases accordingly. A composite model is proposed to elucidate the deformation behavior.

  10. Universal size-dependent conductance fluctuations in disordered organic semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massé, A; Coehoorn, R; Bobbert, P A

    2014-09-12

    Numerically exact results of hopping charge transport in disordered organic semiconductors show for uncorrelated and dipole-correlated Gaussian energy disorder a universal, power-law, and non-power-law dependence, respectively, of the relative conductance fluctuations on the size of the considered region. Data collapse occurs upon scaling with a characteristic length having a power-law temperature dependence. Below this length, which can be as high as 100 nm for correlated disorder in a realistic case, fluctuations dominate and a continuum description of charge transport breaks down.

  11. Wound pH depends on actual wound size

    CERN Document Server

    Sirkka, T; Apell, S P

    2016-01-01

    Wound healing is an intricate process that involves many types of cells, reaction pathways as well as chemical, physical and electrical cues. Since biochemical reactions and physiological events are pH-dependent we study here pH as an important major characteristic of the wound healing process in the presence of endogenous and exogenous electric fields. Our model gives the spatial pH distribution in a wound. In particular we isolate a number of dimensionless quantities which sets the length, energy and time scales governing the wound healing process and which can be experimentally tested. Most interesting finding is that wound pH depends on actual wound size.

  12. Universal Size-Dependent Conductance Fluctuations in Disordered Organic Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massé, A.; Coehoorn, R.; Bobbert, P. A.

    2014-09-01

    Numerically exact results of hopping charge transport in disordered organic semiconductors show for uncorrelated and dipole-correlated Gaussian energy disorder a universal, power-law, and non-power-law dependence, respectively, of the relative conductance fluctuations on the size of the considered region. Data collapse occurs upon scaling with a characteristic length having a power-law temperature dependence. Below this length, which can be as high as 100 nm for correlated disorder in a realistic case, fluctuations dominate and a continuum description of charge transport breaks down.

  13. Free flexural vibration of functionally graded size-dependent nanoplates

    CERN Document Server

    Natarajan, S; Thangavel, M

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the linear free flexural vibration behaviour of functionally graded (FG) size-dependent nanoplates are investigated using the finite element method. The field variables are approximated by non-uniform rational B-splines. The size-dependent FG nanoplate is investigated by using Eringen's differential form of nonlocal elasticity theory. The material properties are assumed to vary only in the thickness direction and the effective properties for FG nanoplate are computed using Mori-Tanaka homogenization scheme. The accuracy of the present formulation is tested considering the problems for which solutions are available. A detailed numerical study is carried out to examine the effect of material gradient index, the characteristic internal length, the plate thickness, the plate aspect ratio and the boundary conditions on the global response of FG nanoplate.

  14. Biophysical and size-dependent perspectives on plant evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklas, Karl J

    2013-11-01

    Physical laws and processes have profoundly influenced plant evolution. Their effects are invariably size dependent and thus subject to scaling as well as biophysical analyses even though these effects differ depending upon the fluid (water or air) in which plants evolve. Although organisms cannot obviate the effects of physical laws and processes, the consequences of these effects can be altered by ontogenetic or phylogenetic alterations in geometry, shape, or orientation as well as in body size. These assertions are examined using theoretical insights and empirical data drawn from extant and fossil plants pertinent to four evolutionary transitions: (1) the evolution of multicellularity, (2) the transition from an aquatic to an aerial habitat, (3) the evolution of vascular tissues, and (4) the evolution of secondary growth by the independent acquisition of cambia. This examination shows how physical laws limit phenotypic expression, but how they also simultaneously provide alternative, potentially adaptive possibilities.

  15. Localization in random bipartite graphs: Numerical and empirical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slanina, František

    2017-05-01

    We investigate adjacency matrices of bipartite graphs with a power-law degree distribution. Motivation for this study is twofold: first, vibrational states in granular matter and jammed sphere packings; second, graphs encoding social interaction, especially electronic commerce. We establish the position of the mobility edge and show that it strongly depends on the power in the degree distribution and on the ratio of the sizes of the two parts of the bipartite graph. At the jamming threshold, where the two parts have the same size, localization vanishes. We found that the multifractal spectrum is nontrivial in the delocalized phase, but still near the mobility edge. We also study an empirical bipartite graph, namely, the Amazon reviewer-item network. We found that in this specific graph the mobility edge disappears, and we draw a conclusion from this fact regarding earlier empirical studies of the Amazon network.

  16. Nanomaterial cytotoxicity is composition, size, and cell type dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohaebuddin, Syed K; Thevenot, Paul T; Baker, David; Eaton, John W; Tang, Liping

    2010-08-21

    Despite intensive research efforts, reports of cellular responses to nanomaterials are often inconsistent and even contradictory. Additionally, relationships between the responding cell type and nanomaterial properties are not well understood. Using three model cell lines representing different physiological compartments and nanomaterials of different compositions and sizes, we have systematically investigated the influence of nanomaterial properties on the degrees and pathways of cytotoxicity. In this study, we selected nanomaterials of different compositions (TiO2 and SiO2 nanoparticles, and multi-wall carbon nanotubes [MWCNTs]) with differing size (MWCNTs of different diameters 50 nm; but same length 0.5-2 microm) to analyze the effects of composition and size on toxicity to 3T3 fibroblasts, RAW 264.7 macrophages, and telomerase-immortalized (hT) bronchiolar epithelial cells. Following characterization of nanomaterial properties in PBS and serum containing solutions, cells were exposed to nanomaterials of differing compositions and sizes, with cytotoxicity monitored through reduction in mitochondrial activity. In addition to cytotoxicity, the cellular response to nanomaterials was characterized by quantifying generation of reactive oxygen species, lysosomal membrane destabilization and mitochondrial permeability. The effect of these responses on cellular fate - apoptosis or necrosis - was then analyzed. Nanomaterial toxicity was variable based on exposed cell type and dependent on nanomaterial composition and size. In addition, nanomaterial exposure led to cell type dependent intracellular responses resulting in unique breakdown of cellular functions for each nanomaterial: cell combination. Nanomaterials induce cell specific responses resulting in variable toxicity and subsequent cell fate based on the type of exposed cell. Our results indicate that the composition and size of nanomaterials as well as the target cell type are critical determinants of

  17. Nanomaterial cytotoxicity is composition, size, and cell type dependent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohaebuddin Syed K

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite intensive research efforts, reports of cellular responses to nanomaterials are often inconsistent and even contradictory. Additionally, relationships between the responding cell type and nanomaterial properties are not well understood. Using three model cell lines representing different physiological compartments and nanomaterials of different compositions and sizes, we have systematically investigated the influence of nanomaterial properties on the degrees and pathways of cytotoxicity. In this study, we selected nanomaterials of different compositions (TiO2 and SiO2 nanoparticles, and multi-wall carbon nanotubes [MWCNTs] with differing size (MWCNTs of different diameters 50 nm; but same length 0.5-2 μm to analyze the effects of composition and size on toxicity to 3T3 fibroblasts, RAW 264.7 macrophages, and telomerase-immortalized (hT bronchiolar epithelial cells. Results Following characterization of nanomaterial properties in PBS and serum containing solutions, cells were exposed to nanomaterials of differing compositions and sizes, with cytotoxicity monitored through reduction in mitochondrial activity. In addition to cytotoxicity, the cellular response to nanomaterials was characterized by quantifying generation of reactive oxygen species, lysosomal membrane destabilization and mitochondrial permeability. The effect of these responses on cellular fate - apoptosis or necrosis - was then analyzed. Nanomaterial toxicity was variable based on exposed cell type and dependent on nanomaterial composition and size. In addition, nanomaterial exposure led to cell type dependent intracellular responses resulting in unique breakdown of cellular functions for each nanomaterial: cell combination. Conclusions Nanomaterials induce cell specific responses resulting in variable toxicity and subsequent cell fate based on the type of exposed cell. Our results indicate that the composition and size of nanomaterials as well as the

  18. Nanocatalysis: size- and shape-dependent chemisorption and catalytic reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldan Cuenya, Beatriz; Behafarid, Farzad

    2015-06-01

    In recent years, the field of catalysis has experienced an astonishing transformation, driven in part by more demanding environmental standards and critical societal and industrial needs such as the search for alternative energy sources. Thanks to the advent of nanotechnology, major steps have been made towards the rational design of novel catalysts. Striking new catalytic properties, including greatly enhanced reactivities and selectivities, have been reported for nanoparticle (NP) catalysts as compared to their bulk counterparts. However, in order to harness the power of these nanocatalysts, a detailed understanding of the origin of their enhanced performance is needed. The present review focuses on the role of the NP size and shape on chemisorption and catalytic performance. Since homogeneity in NP size and shape is a prerequisite for the understanding of structure-reactivity correlations, we first review different synthesis methods that result in narrow NP size distributions and shape controlled NPs. Next, size-dependent phenomena which influence the chemical reactivity of NPs, including quantum size-effects and the presence of under-coordinated surface atoms are examined. The effect of the NP shape on catalytic performance is discussed and explained based on the existence of different atomic structures on the NP surface with distinct chemisorption properties. The influence of additional factors, such as the oxidation state of the NPs and NP-support interactions, is also considered in the frame of the size- and shape-dependency that these phenomena present. Ultimately, our review highlights the importance of achieving a systematic understanding of the factors that control the activity and selectivity of a catalyst in order to avoid trial and error methods in the rational design of the new generation of nanocatalysts with properties tunable at the atomic level.

  19. Population dynamic theory of size-dependent cannibalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessen, David; de Roos, André M.; Persson, Lennart

    2004-01-01

    Cannibalism is characterized by four aspects: killing victims, gaining energy from victims, size-dependent interactions and intraspecific competition. In this review of mathematical models of cannibalistic populations, we relate the predicted population dynamic consequences of cannibalism to its four defining aspects. We distinguish five classes of effects of cannibalism: (i) regulation of population size; (ii) destabilization resulting in population cycles or chaos; (iii) stabilization by damping population cycles caused by other interactions; (iv) bistability such that, depending on the initial conditions, the population converges to one of two possible stable states; and (v) modification of the population size structure. The same effects of cannibalism may be caused by different combinations of aspects of cannibalism. By contrast, the same combination of aspects may lead to different effects. For particular cannibalistic species, the consequences of cannibalism will depend on the presence and details of the four defining aspects. Empirical evidence for the emerged theory of cannibalism is discussed briefly. The implications of the described dynamic effects of cannibalism are discussed in the context of community structure, making a comparison with the community effects of intraguild predation. PMID:15101690

  20. Integrated microfluidic system capable of size-specific droplet generation with size-dependent droplet separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangmin; Hong, Seok Jun; Yoo, Hyung Jung; Ahn, Jae Hyun; Cho, Dong-il Dan

    2013-06-01

    Droplet-based microfluidics is receiving much attention in biomedical research area due to its advantage in uniform size droplet generation. Our previous results have reported that droplet size plays an important role in drug delivery actuated by flagellated bacteria. Recently, many research groups have been reported the size-dependent separation of emulsion droplets by a microfluidic system. In this paper, an integrated microfluidic system is proposed to produce and sort specificsized droplets sequentially. Operation of the system relies on two microfluidic transport processes: initial generation of droplets by hydrodynamic focusing and subsequent separation of droplets by a T-junction channel. The microfluidic system is fabricated by the SU-8 rapid prototyping method and poly-di-methyl-siloxane (PDMS) replica molding. A biodegradable polymer, poly-capro-lactone (PCL), is used for the droplet material. Using the proposed integrated microfluidic system, specific-sized droplets which can be delivered by flagellated bacteria are successfully generated and obtained.

  1. Size-dependent reactions of ammonium bisulfate clusters with dimethylamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bzdek, Bryan R; Ridge, Douglas P; Johnston, Murray V

    2010-11-04

    The reaction kinetics of ammonium bisulfate clusters with dimethylamine (DMA) gas were investigated using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS). Clusters ranged in size from 1 to 10 bisulfate ions. Although displacement of the first several ammonium ions by DMA occurred with near unit efficiency, displacement of the final ammonium ion was cluster size dependent. For small clusters, all ammonium ions are exposed to incoming DMA molecules, allowing for facile exchange ("surface" exchange). However, with increasing cluster size, an ammonium ion can be trapped in an inaccessible region of the cluster ("core" exchange), thereby rendering exchange difficult. DMA was also observed to add onto existing dimethylaminium bisulfate clusters above a critical size, whereas ammonia did not add onto ammonium bisulfate clusters. The results suggest that as the cluster size increases, di-dimethylaminium sulfate formation becomes more favorable. The results of this study give further evidence to suggest that ambient sub-3 nm diameter particles are likely to contain aminium salts rather than ammonium salts.

  2. Higher-order graph wavelets and sparsity on circulant graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotzagiannidis, Madeleine S.; Dragotti, Pier Luigi

    2015-08-01

    The notion of a graph wavelet gives rise to more advanced processing of data on graphs due to its ability to operate in a localized manner, across newly arising data-dependency structures, with respect to the graph signal and underlying graph structure, thereby taking into consideration the inherent geometry of the data. In this work, we tackle the problem of creating graph wavelet filterbanks on circulant graphs for a sparse representation of certain classes of graph signals. The underlying graph can hereby be data-driven as well as fixed, for applications including image processing and social network theory, whereby clusters can be modelled as circulant graphs, respectively. We present a set of novel graph wavelet filter-bank constructions, which annihilate higher-order polynomial graph signals (up to a border effect) defined on the vertices of undirected, circulant graphs, and are localised in the vertex domain. We give preliminary results on their performance for non-linear graph signal approximation and denoising. Furthermore, we provide extensions to our previously developed segmentation-inspired graph wavelet framework for non-linear image approximation, by incorporating notions of smoothness and vanishing moments, which further improve performance compared to traditional methods.

  3. Minimizing cell size dependence in micromagnetics simulations with thermal noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MartInez, E [Departamento de Ingenieria Electromecanica, Universidad de Burgos, Plaza Misael Banuelos, s/n, E-09001, Burgos (Spain); Lopez-DIaz, L [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada. Universidad Salamanca. Plaza de la Merced s/n. Salamanca E-37008 (Spain); Torres, L [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada. Universidad Salamanca. Plaza de la Merced s/n. Salamanca E-37008 (Spain); GarcIa-Cervera, C J [Department of Mathematics. University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

    2007-02-21

    Langevin dynamics treats finite temperature effects in a micromagnetics framework by adding a thermal fluctuation field to the effective field. Several works have addressed the dependence of numerical results on the cell size used to split the ferromagnetic samples on the nanoscale regime. In this paper, some former problems dealing with the dependence on the spatial discretization at finite temperature have been revised. We have focused our attention on the stability of the numerical schemes used to integrate the Langevin equation. In particular, a detailed analysis of results was carried out as a function of the time step. It was confirmed that the mentioned dependence can be minimized if an unconditional stable integration method is used to numerically solve the Langevin equation.

  4. Auxin regulates SNARE-dependent vacuolar morphology restricting cell size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfke, Christian; Dünser, Kai; Scheuring, David; Kleine-Vehn, Jürgen

    2015-03-05

    The control of cellular growth is central to multicellular patterning. In plants, the encapsulating cell wall literally binds neighbouring cells to each other and limits cellular sliding/migration. In contrast to its developmental importance, growth regulation is poorly understood in plants. Here, we reveal that the phytohormone auxin impacts on the shape of the biggest plant organelle, the vacuole. TIR1/AFBs-dependent auxin signalling posttranslationally controls the protein abundance of vacuolar SNARE components. Genetic and pharmacological interference with the auxin effect on vacuolar SNAREs interrelates with auxin-resistant vacuolar morphogenesis and cell size regulation. Vacuolar SNARE VTI11 is strictly required for auxin-reliant vacuolar morphogenesis and loss of function renders cells largely insensitive to auxin-dependent growth inhibition. Our data suggests that the adaptation of SNARE-dependent vacuolar morphogenesis allows auxin to limit cellular expansion, contributing to root organ growth rates.

  5. Size-dependent collection of micrometer-sized particles using nylon mesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Naomichi; Kumagai, Kazukiyo; Fujii, Minoru; Shendell, Derek G.; Endo, Osamu; Yanagisawa, Yukio

    Our study explored the size-dependent collection characteristics for micron-sized particles using several kinds of commercially available woven nylon net filters. The particle concentrations with and without the filter were compared to determine the filtration characteristics. The theoretical efficiencies based on a single-fiber theory and a hole model were also computed. Although the theoretical efficiencies were generally consistent with the experimental results, the non-uniformity of air velocity profile within a mesh hole, and a particle's detachment from or bounce off the filters, should be further investigated in future research. Overall, the present study revealed the size-fractionation capability of the nylon wire mesh filters for micron-sized particles from experimental and theoretical points of view. Unlike impactors, the size-fractionation characteristics of the nylon wire mesh filter were determined by particle size, mesh fiber diameter, and a combination of different particle collection mechanisms including impaction, interception, and gravitational settling. Each mechanical process appears interdependently governed in part by the filter dimensions such as filter mesh size (diameter of opening) as well as related variables such as packing density and fiber diameter.

  6. The Smallest Valid Extension-Based Efficient, Rare Graph Pattern Mining, Considering Length-Decreasing Support Constraints and Symmetry Characteristics of Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unil Yun

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Frequent graph mining has been proposed to find interesting patterns (i.e., frequent sub-graphs from databases composed of graph transaction data, which can effectively express complex and large data in the real world. In addition, various applications for graph mining have been suggested. Traditional graph pattern mining methods use a single minimum support threshold factor in order to check whether or not mined patterns are interesting. However, it is not a sufficient factor that can consider valuable characteristics of graphs such as graph sizes and features of graph elements. That is, previous methods cannot consider such important characteristics in their mining operations since they only use a fixed minimum support threshold in the mining process. For this reason, in this paper, we propose a novel graph mining algorithm that can consider various multiple, minimum support constraints according to the types of graph elements and changeable minimum support conditions, depending on lengths of graph patterns. In addition, the proposed algorithm performs in mining operations more efficiently because it can minimize duplicated operations and computational overheads by considering symmetry features of graphs. Experimental results provided in this paper demonstrate that the proposed algorithm outperforms previous mining approaches in terms of pattern generation, runtime and memory usage.

  7. Mining and Indexing Graph Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Dayu

    2013-01-01

    Graphs are widely used to model structures and relationships of objects in various scientific and commercial fields. Chemical molecules, proteins, malware system-call dependencies and three-dimensional mechanical parts are all modeled as graphs. In this dissertation, we propose to mine and index those graph data to enable fast and scalable search.…

  8. Mining and Indexing Graph Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Dayu

    2013-01-01

    Graphs are widely used to model structures and relationships of objects in various scientific and commercial fields. Chemical molecules, proteins, malware system-call dependencies and three-dimensional mechanical parts are all modeled as graphs. In this dissertation, we propose to mine and index those graph data to enable fast and scalable search.…

  9. System Size Dependence of Transverse Momentum Correlations at RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Adamczyk, L; Agakishiev, G; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Alekseev, I; Alford, J; Anson, C D; Aparin, A; Arkhipkin, D; Aschenauer, E; Averichev, G S; Balewski, J; Banerjee, A; Barnovska, Z; Beavis, D R; Bellwied, R; Betancourt, M J; Betts, R R; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhattarai,; Bichsel, H; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Bland, L C; Bordyuzhin, I G; Borowski, W; Bouchet, J; Brandin, A V; Brovko, S G; Bruna, E; Bültmann, S; Bunzarov, I; Burton, T P; Butterworth, J; Caines, H; Sánchez, M Calderón de la Barca; Cebra, D; Cendejas, R; Cervantes, M C; Chaloupka, P; Chang, Z; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, J H; Chen, J Y; Chen, L; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Christie, W; Chung, P; Chwastowski, J; Codrington, M J M; Corliss, R; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Cui, X; Das, S; Leyva, A Davila; De Silva, L C; Debbe, R R; Dedovich, T G; Deng, J; de Souza, R Derradi; Dhamija, S; di Ruzza, B; Didenko, L; Dilks,; Ding, F; Dion, A; Djawotho, P; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Du, C M; Dunkelberger, L E; Dunlop, J C; Efimov, L G; Elnimr, M; Engelage, J; Engle, K S; Eppley, G; Eun, L; Evdokimov, O; Fatemi, R; Fazio, S; Fedorisin, J; Fersch, R G; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fisyak, Y; Flores, C E; Gagliardi, C A; Gangadharan, D R; Garand, D; Geurts, F; Gibson, A; Gliske, S; Grebenyuk, O G; Grosnick, D; Guo, Y; Gupta, A; Gupta, S; Guryn, W; Haag, B; Hajkova, O; Hamed, A; Han, L-X; Haque, R; Harris, J W; Hays-Wehle, J P; Heppelmann, S; Hirsch, A; Hoffmann, G W; Hofman, D J; Horvat, S; Huang, B; Huang, H Z; Huck, P; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Jacobs, W W; Jena, C; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kang, K; Kauder, K; Ke, H W; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Kesich, A; Kikola, D P; Kiryluk, J; Kisel, I; Kisiel, A; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Konzer, J; Koralt, I; Korsch, W; Kotchenda, L; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Kulakov, I; Kumar, L; Kycia, R A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Landry, K D; LaPointe, S; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, J H; Leight, W; LeVine, M J; Li, C; Li, W; Li, X; Li, Y; Li, Z M; Lima, L M; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Longacre, R S; Luo, X; Ma, G L; Ma, Y G; Don, D M M D Madagodagettige; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Masui, H; Matis, H S; McDonald, D; McShane, T S; Mioduszewski, S; Mitrovski, M K; Mohammed, Y; Mohanty, B; Mondal, M M; Munhoz, M G; Mustafa, M K; Naglis, M; Nandi, B K; Nasim, Md; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Nogach, L V; Novak, J; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Oh, K; Ohlson, A; Okorokov, V; Oldag, E W; Oliveira, R A N; Olson, D; Pachr, M; Page, B S; Pal, S K; Pan, Y X; Pandit, Y; Panebratsev, Y; Pawlak, T; Pawlik, B; Pei, H; Perkins, C; Peryt, W; Pile, P; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Plyku, D; Poljak, N; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Powell, C B; Pruneau, C; Pruthi, N K; Przybycien, M; Pujahari, P R; Putschke, J; Qiu, H; Ramachandran, S; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ray, R L; Riley, C K; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevskiy, O V; Romero, J L; Ross, J F; Roy, A; Ruan, L; Rusnak, J; Sahoo, N R; Sahu, P K; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandacz, A; Sandweiss, J; Sangaline, E; Sarkar, A; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmah, A M; Schmidke, B; Schmitz, N; Schuster, T R; Seger, J; Seyboth, P; Shah, N; Shahaliev, E; Shao, M; Sharma, B; Sharma, M; Shen, W Q; Shi, S S; Shou, Q Y; Sichtermann, E P; Singaraju, R N; Skoby, M J; Smirnov, D; Smirnov, N; Solanki, D; Sorensen, P; deSouza, U G; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, T D S; Stevens, J R; Stock, R; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Suaide, A A P; Suarez, M C; Sumbera, M; Sun, X M; Sun, Y; Sun, Z; Surrow, B; Svirida, D N; Symons, T J M; de Toledo, A Szanto; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tang, Z; Tarini, L H; Tarnowsky, T; Thomas, J H; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Tokarev, M; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tribedy, P; Trzeciak, B A; Tsai, O D; Turnau, J; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; van Nieuwenhuizen, G; Vanfossen,, J A; Varma, R; Vasconcelos, G M S; Vertesi, R; Videbæk, F; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Voloshin, S A; Vossen, A; Wada, M; Walker, M; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, J S; Wang, Q; Wang, X L; Wang, Y; Webb, G; Webb, J C; Westfall, G D; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wu, Y F; Xiao, Z; Xie, W; Xin, K; Xu, H; Xu, N; Xu, Q H; Xu, W; Xu, Y; Xu, Z; Yan,; Yang, C; Yang, Y; Yepes, P; Yi, L; Yip, K; Yoo, I-K; Zawisza, Y; Zbroszczyk, H; Zha, W; Zhang, J B; Zhang, S; Zhang, X P; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, F; Zhao, J; Zhong, C; Zhu, X; Zhu, Y H; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zyzak, M

    2013-01-01

    We present a study of the average transverse momentum ($p_t$) fluctuations and $p_t$ correlations for charged particles produced in Cu+Cu collisions at midrapidity for $\\sqrt{s_{NN}} =$ 62.4 and 200 GeV. These results are compared with those published for Au+Au collisions at same energies, to explore the system size dependence. In addition to the collision energy and system size dependence, the $p_t$ correlations results have been studied as functions of the collision centralities, the ranges in $p_t$, the pseudo-rapidity $\\eta$, and the azimuthal angle $\\phi$, for which the correlations are measured. The square root of the measured $p_t$ correlations when scaled by mean-$p_t$ are found to be independent of both colliding beam energy and system size studied. The transport based model calculations are found to have a better quantitative agreement with the measurements compared to models which incorporate only jet-like correlations.

  10. Size-dependent antimicrobial effects of novel palladium nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara P Adams

    Full Text Available Investigating the interactions between nanoscale materials and microorganisms is crucial to provide a comprehensive, proactive understanding of nanomaterial toxicity and explore the potential for novel applications. It is well known that nanomaterial behavior is governed by the size and composition of the particles, though the effects of small differences in size toward biological cells have not been well investigated. Palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs have gained significant interest as catalysts for important carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom reactions and are increasingly used in the chemical industry, however, few other applications of Pd NPs have been investigated. In the present study, we examined the antimicrobial capacity of Pd NPs, which provides both an indication of their usefulness as target antimicrobial compounds, as well as their potency as potential environmental pollutants. We synthesized Pd NPs of three different well-constrained sizes, 2.0 ± 0.1 nm, 2.5 ± 0.2 nm and 3.1 ± 0.2 nm. We examined the inhibitory effects of the Pd NPs and Pd(2+ ions toward gram negative Escherichia coli (E. coli and gram positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus bacterial cultures throughout a 24 hour period. Inhibitory growth effects of six concentrations of Pd NPs and Pd(2+ ions (2.5 × 10(-4, 10(-5, 10(-6, 10(-7, 10(-8, and 10(-9 M were examined. Our results indicate that Pd NPs are generally much more inhibitory toward S. aureus than toward E. coli, though all sizes are toxic at ≥ 10(-5 M to both organisms. We observed a significant difference in size-dependence of antimicrobial activity, which differed based on the microorganism tested. Our work shows that Pd NPs are highly antimicrobial, and that fine-scale (<1 nm differences in size can alter antimicrobial activity.

  11. Size-dependent structure of silver nanoparticles under high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koski, Kristie Jo [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2008-12-31

    Silver noble metal nanoparticles that are<10 nm often possess multiply twinned grains allowing them to adopt shapes and atomic structures not observed in bulk materials. The properties exhibited by particles with multiply twinned polycrystalline structures are often far different from those of single-crystalline particles and from the bulk. I will present experimental evidence that silver nanoparticles<10 nm undergo a reversible structural transformation under hydrostatic pressures up to 10 GPa. Results for nanoparticles in the intermediate size range of 5 to 10 nm suggest a reversible linear pressure-dependent rhombohedral distortion which has not been previously observed in bulk silver. I propose a mechanism for this transitiion that considers the bond-length distribution in idealized multiply twinned icosahedral particles. Results for nanoparticles of 3.9 nm suggest a reversible linear pressure-dependent orthorhombic distortion. This distortion is interpreted in the context of idealized decahedral particles. In addition, given these size-dependent measurements of silver nanoparticle compression with pressure, we have constructed a pressure calibration curve. Encapsulating these silver nanoparticles in hollow metal oxide nanospheres then allows us to measure the pressure inside a nanoshell using x-ray diffraction. We demonstrate the measurement of pressure gradients across nanoshells and show that these nanoshells have maximum resolved shear strengths on the order of 500 MPa to IGPa.

  12. Optimized Graph Search Using Multi-Level Graph Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kala, Rahul; Shukla, Anupam; Tiwari, Ritu

    Graphs find a variety of use in numerous domains especially because of their capability to model common problems. The social networking graphs that are used for social networking analysis, a feature given by various social networking sites are an example of this. Graphs can also be visualized in the search engines to carry search operations and provide results. Various searching algorithms have been developed for searching in graphs. In this paper we propose that the entire network graph be clustered. The larger graphs are clustered to make smaller graphs. These smaller graphs can again be clustered to further reduce the size of graph. The search is performed on the smallest graph to identify the general path, which may be further build up to actual nodes by working on the individual clusters involved. Since many searches are carried out on the same graph, clustering may be done once and the data may be used for multiple searches over the time. If the graph changes considerably, only then we may re-cluster the graph.

  13. Size-Dependent Elastic Modulus and Vibration Frequency of Nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihong Liang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The elastic properties and the vibration characterization are important for the stability of materials and devices, especially for nanomaterials with potential and broad application. Nanomaterials show different properties from the corresponding bulk materials; the valid theoretical model about the size effect of the elastic modulus and the vibration frequency is significant to guide the application of nanomaterials. In this paper, a unified analytical model about the size-dependent elastic modulus and vibration frequency of nanocrystalline metals, ceramics and semiconductors is established based on the inherent lattice strain and the binding energy change of nanocrystals compared with the bulk crystals, and the intrinsic correlation between the elasticity and the vibration properties is discussed. The theoretical predictions for Cu, Ag, Si thin films, nanoparticles, and TiO2 nanoparticles agree with the experimental results, the computational simulations, and the other theoretical models.

  14. Size dependence of tracer diffusion in a laponite colloidal gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Laure; Barentin, Catherine; Colombani, Jean; Ybert, Christophe; Bocquet, Lydéric

    2009-10-20

    Using a fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) technique, we present measurements of probe diffusion in a colloidal glass-a Laponite suspension. By varying the probe size over 2 orders of magnitude, as well as the concentration of the colloidal glass, we evidence and quantify the deviations of the probe diffusivity from the bulk Stokes-Einstein expectations. These experiments suggest that the probe diffusion in the dynamically arrested Laponite structure is mainly controlled by the ratio between the probe size and the typical clay platelets interdistance. Comparing with a simple hindered diffusion mechanism, the reduction of tracer diffusion is discussed in terms of the hydrodynamic interaction of the probe with the Laponite structure. Finally, these results can be interpreted in terms of a scale dependent viscosity of the colloidal glass.

  15. Size-dependent antimicrobial response of zinc oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanikumar, Loganathan; Ramasamy, Sinna Nadar; Balachandran, Chandrasekaran

    2014-06-01

    Antibacterial and antifungal activities of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) were investigated against infectious microorganisms. ZnO NPs were prepared by wet chemical precipitation method varying the pH values. Particle size and morphology of the as-prepared ZnO powders were characterised by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and transmission electron microscope. The zone of inhibition by NPs ranged from 0 to 17 mm. The lowest minimum inhibitory concentration value of NPs is 25 µg.ml(-1) against Staphylococcus epidermidis. These studies demonstrate that ZnO NPs have wide range of antimicrobial activities towards various microorganisms. The results obtained in the authors' study indicate that the inhibitory efficacy of ZnO NPs is significantly dependent on its chosen concentration and size. Significant inhibition in antibacterial response was observed for S. epidermidis when compared with control antibiotic.

  16. Size and dimensionality dependent phonon conductivity in nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Otaibi, Jawaher; Srivastava, G. P.

    2016-04-01

    We have studied size and dimensionality dependent phonon conductivity of PbTe-PbSe nanocomposites by considering three configurations: superlattice, embedded nanowire and embedded nanodot. Calculations have been performed in the framework of an effective medium theory. The required bulk thermal conductivities of PbTe and PbSe are evaluated by using Callaway’s effective relaxation-time theory, and by accounting for relevant scattering mechanism including three-phonon Normal and Umklapp interactions involving acoustic as well as optical branches. The thermal interface resistance is computed using the diffuse mismatch theory. It is found that the size (thickness) and volume fraction of PbSe are the two main factors that control the effective thermal conductivity in these nanocomposites. In particular, for PbSe size d  =  10 nm and volume fraction {{V}\\text{f}}=0.1 , our results predict significant reductions over the weighted average of room-temperature bulk results of 9%, 17% and 15% in the conductivity across the interfaces for the superlattice, embedded nanowire, and nanosphere structures, respectively. For a given {{V}\\text{f}} , an increase in d reduces the interface density Φ and the effective conductivity varies approximately as 1/\\sqrtΦ . It is shown that nanocompositing in any of the three configurations can beat the alloy limit for lattice thermal conductivity.

  17. Cluster size dependence of high-order harmonic generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Y.; Hagmeijer, R.; Bastiaens, H. M. J.; Goh, S. J.; van der Slot, P. J. M.; Biedron, S. G.; Milton, S. V.; Boller, K.-J.

    2017-08-01

    We investigate high-order harmonic generation (HHG) from noble gas clusters in a supersonic gas jet. To identify the contribution of harmonic generation from clusters versus that from gas monomers, we measure the high-order harmonic output over a broad range of the total atomic number density in the jet (from 3×1016 to 3 × 1018 {{cm}}-3) at two different reservoir temperatures (303 and 363 K). For the first time in the evaluation of the harmonic yield in such measurements, the variation of the liquid mass fraction, g, versus pressure and temperature is taken into consideration, which we determine, reliably and consistently, to be below 20% within our range of experimental parameters. By comparing the measured harmonic yield from a thin jet with the calculated corresponding yield from monomers alone, we find an increased emission of the harmonics when the average cluster size is less than 3000. Using g, under the assumption that the emission from monomers and clusters add up coherently, we calculate the ratio of the average single-atom response of an atom within a cluster to that of a monomer and find an enhancement of around 100 for very small average cluster size (∼200). We do not find any dependence of the cut-off frequency on the composition of the cluster jet. This implies that HHG in clusters is based on electrons that return to their parent ions and not to neighboring ions in the cluster. To fully employ the enhanced average single-atom response found for small average cluster sizes (∼200), the nozzle producing the cluster jet must provide a large liquid mass fraction at these small cluster sizes for increasing the harmonic yield. Moreover, cluster jets may allow for quasi-phase matching, as the higher mass of clusters allows for a higher density contrast in spatially structuring the nonlinear medium.

  18. Spectral fluctuations of quantum graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pluhař, Z. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, 180 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Weidenmüller, H. A. [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, 69029 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    We prove the Bohigas-Giannoni-Schmit conjecture in its most general form for completely connected simple graphs with incommensurate bond lengths. We show that for graphs that are classically mixing (i.e., graphs for which the spectrum of the classical Perron-Frobenius operator possesses a finite gap), the generating functions for all (P,Q) correlation functions for both closed and open graphs coincide (in the limit of infinite graph size) with the corresponding expressions of random-matrix theory, both for orthogonal and for unitary symmetry.

  19. Weak Finite—Size Dependence of Velocity and Strong Phase Dependence of Central Charge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LINZhi-Bin; ZHANGJun; 等

    2002-01-01

    We study the finite-size scaling behavior of velocity and central charge for different coupling constants and different phases in (1+1)-dimensional lattice model in very short chains.Using XXZ spin 1/2 chains with 15 or fewer sites,we demonstrate the weak finite-size dependence of spinon velocity for any magnitude of coupling strength Jz and the strong phase dependence of central charge.This behavior of velocity and central charge in different coupling constants and different phases gives a method to determine phase transitions of (1+1)-dimensional models.This method is simple and efficient by utilizing only the ground state energy of very short finite-size chains.It is also general and powerfur for various one-dimensional lattice models and it uncovers eventhe weakest berezinski-Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transitions.

  20. Counting colorings of a regular graph

    CERN Document Server

    Galvin, David

    2012-01-01

    At most how many (proper) q-colorings does a regular graph admit? Galvin and Tetali conjectured that among all n-vertex, d-regular graphs with 2d|n, none admits more q-colorings than the disjoint union of n/2d copies of the complete bipartite graph K_{d,d}. In this note we give asymptotic evidence for this conjecture, giving an upper bound on the number of proper q-colorings admitted by an n-vertex, d-regular graph of the form a^n b^{n(1+o(1))/d} (where a and b depend on q and where o(1) goes to 0 as d goes to infinity) that agrees up to the o(1) term with the count of q-colorings of n/2d copies of K_{d,d}. An auxiliary result is an upper bound on the number of colorings of a regular graph in terms of its independence number. For example, we show that for all even q and fixed \\epsilon > 0 there is \\delta=\\delta(\\epsilon,q) such that the number of proper q-colorings admitted by an n-vertex, d-regular graph with no independent set of size n(1-\\epsilon)/2 is at most (a-\\delta)^n.

  1. 扩展有限状态机的依赖图构造及切片算法%Constructing Dependence Graph for EFSM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩喆; 陈世鸿

    2011-01-01

    The slicing technology of Extended Finite State Machine model can reduce the number of states and transition. It is very important for analysis and test on EFSM model. The existent algorithm for constructing dependence graph or slicing can not be used in constructing dependence graph for EFSM model because of its special dependence relationship. In this paper, we do the research on the transmissibility of the special dependence relationship of the EFSM. Base on the research we propose the two-tier structure dependence graph called EPDG (EFSM Program Dependence Graph). We use the child nodes of the transition to represent data dependence relationship and the transition nodes to represent control dependence relationship. Through it we turn the slicing on EFSM up to a graphic accessibility issues and we give the construction algorithm for EPDG, also the slicing algorithm. At last we use a example to do the compare experiment.%将切片技术引入扩展有限状态机模型,可根据兴趣点约减状态及变迁数,对模型的分析与测试有重要意义.由于EFSM模型基于变迁的依赖关系,传统的依赖图构造算法及基于标记已访问节点的切片算法并不适用.通过研究EFSM模型依赖关系的可传递性,提出EFSM模型的两级结构依赖图EPDG(EFSM Program Dependence Graph),使用变迁及其子节点分别表示控制依赖及数据依赖,将EFSM模型的切片转化为图形可达性问题,并给出EPDG的构造算法及切片算法,运用实例与已有成果做对比实验.

  2. Size dependent elastic modulus and mechanical resilience of dental enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Simona; Shaw, Jeremy; Zhao, Xiaoli; Abbott, Paul V; Munroe, Paul; Xu, Jiang; Habibi, Daryoush; Xie, Zonghan

    2014-03-21

    Human tooth enamel exhibits a unique microstructure able to sustain repeated mechanical loading during dental function. Although notable advances have been made towards understanding the mechanical characteristics of enamel, challenges remain in the testing and interpretation of its mechanical properties. For example, enamel was often tested under dry conditions, significantly different from its native environment. In addition, constant load, rather than indentation depth, has been used when mapping the mechanical properties of enamel. In this work, tooth specimens are prepared under hydrated conditions and their stiffnesses are measured by depth control across the thickness of enamel. Crystal arrangement is postulated, among other factors, to be responsible for the size dependent indentation modulus of enamel. Supported by a simple structure model, effective crystal orientation angle is calculated and found to facilitate shear sliding in enamel under mechanical contact. In doing so, the stress build-up is eased and structural integrity is maintained.

  3. The flexoelectric effect associated size dependent pyroelectricity in solid dielectrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Bai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A phenomenological thermodynamic theory is used to investigate the effect of strain gradient on the pyroelectric effect in centrosymmetric dielectric solids. Direct pyroelectricity can exist as external mechanical stress is applied to non-pyroelectric dielectrics with shapes such as truncated pyramids, due to elastic strain gradient induced flexoelectric polarization. Effective pyroelectric coefficient was analyzed in truncated pyramids. It is found to be controlled by size, ambient temperature, stress, and aspect ratio and depends mainly on temperature sensitivity of flexoelectric coefficient (TSFC and strain gradient of the truncated pyramids dielectric solids. These results show that the pyroelectric property of Ba0.67Sr0.33TiO3 above Tc similar to PZT and other lead-based ferroelectrics can be obtained. This feature might widely broaden the selection of materials for infrared detectors with preferable properties.

  4. The flexoelectric effect associated size dependent pyroelectricity in solid dielectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Gang, E-mail: baigang@njupt.edu.cn [Jiangsu Provincial Engineering Laboratory for RF Integration and Micropackaging and College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210023 (China); Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Liu, Zhiguo [Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Xie, Qiyun; Guo, Yanyan; Li, Wei [Jiangsu Provincial Engineering Laboratory for RF Integration and Micropackaging and College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210023 (China); Yan, Xiaobing [College of Electronic and information Engineering, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China)

    2015-09-15

    A phenomenological thermodynamic theory is used to investigate the effect of strain gradient on the pyroelectric effect in centrosymmetric dielectric solids. Direct pyroelectricity can exist as external mechanical stress is applied to non-pyroelectric dielectrics with shapes such as truncated pyramids, due to elastic strain gradient induced flexoelectric polarization. Effective pyroelectric coefficient was analyzed in truncated pyramids. It is found to be controlled by size, ambient temperature, stress, and aspect ratio and depends mainly on temperature sensitivity of flexoelectric coefficient (TSFC) and strain gradient of the truncated pyramids dielectric solids. These results show that the pyroelectric property of Ba{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.33}TiO{sub 3} above T{sub c} similar to PZT and other lead-based ferroelectrics can be obtained. This feature might widely broaden the selection of materials for infrared detectors with preferable properties.

  5. Size-dependent cytotoxicity and inflammatory responses of PEGylated silica-iron oxide nanocomposite size series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Injumpa, Wishulada; Ritprajak, Patcharee; Insin, Numpon

    2017-04-01

    incubation with the highest concentration of 1000 μg/mL. Although 1000 μg/mL of all sizes of the nanocomposites decreased macrophage viability, the cytotoxicity of the nanocomposites was notably less than silica. The inflammatory response of macrophage was also observed by ELISA, and we found that the size of 20 and 40 nm, but not 100 and 200 nm, obviously stimulated IL-6 production. From this study, the preparations of multifunctional superparamagnetic nanocomposites of different sizes along with the size-dependent effects on cellular toxicity and inflammatory response were demonstrated and could be applied for designing of new drug carriers.

  6. Depth and size dependence of Mn-53 activity in chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, S. K.; Imamura, M.; Sinha, N.; Bhandari, N.

    1980-11-01

    The dependence of Mn-53 activity in core samples from four chondrites on sample shielding depth and the pre-atmospheric size of the meteorite is investigated. Cosmogenic Mn-53 activity and cosmic ray track densities were measured at various depths in cores from the Madhipura, Udaipur, Bansur and St. Severin chondrites. Track density analyses indicate effective radii of 6.5, 9, 15 and 25 cm for the meteorites in space, respectively. The depth profiles of Mn-53 activity reveal that the nuclide production rate at any given depth increases with meteorite size, while the activity profile for meteorites with effective radii less than or equal to 15 cm is nearly flat for shielding depths greater than 3 cm and that for meteorites about 25 cm in radius increases by about 40% from near the surface to the center, indicating the importance of the secondary cascade at radii greater than 15 cm. The profiles are then used to determine the spectral hardness parameter as a function of depth which is in turn used in the calculation of production profiles for Al-26 which are found to be in agreement with observations.

  7. Spatiotopic buildup of saccade target representation depends on target size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Eckart

    2016-12-01

    How we maintain spatial stability across saccade eye movements is an open question in visual neuroscience. A phenomenon that has received much attention in the field is our seemingly poor ability to discriminate the direction of transsaccadic target displacements. We have recently shown that discrimination performance increases the longer the saccade target has been previewed before saccade execution (Zimmermann, Morrone, & Burr, 2013). We have argued that the spatial representation of briefly presented stimuli is weak but that a strong representation is needed for transsaccadic, i.e., spatiotopic localization. Another factor that modulates the representation of saccade targets is stimulus size. The representation of spatially extended targets is more noisy than that of point-like targets. Here, I show that the increase in transsaccadic displacement discrimination as a function of saccade target preview duration depends on target size. This effect was found for spatially extended targets-thus replicating the results of Zimmermann et al. (2013)-but not for point-like targets. An analysis of saccade parameters revealed that the constant error for reaching the saccade target was bigger for spatially extended than for point-like targets, consistent with weaker representation of bigger targets. These results show that transsaccadic displacement discrimination becomes accurate when saccade targets are spatially extended and presented longer, thus resembling closer stimuli in real-world environments.

  8. Size Bounds for Conjunctive Queries with General Functional Dependencies

    CERN Document Server

    Valiant, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    This paper resolves the main open question left by Gottlob, Lee, and Valiant (PODS 2009)[GLV09], establishing tight worst-case bounds for the size of the result Q(D) of a conjunctive query Q to a database D given an arbitrary set of functional dependencies. We show that the lower bound presented in [GLV09] in which the variables of the query are "colored" so as to yield a coloring number C(Q) for each query Q is, in fact, also an upper bound. To show this, we formalize the original intuition that each color used represents some possible entropy of that variable, and express the maximum possible size increase as a linear program that seeks to maximize how much more entropy is in the result of the query than the input. Although this linear program has exponentially many variables, we also show that we can decide in polynomial time whether the result can be any larger than the input database.

  9. Sharing Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Sahasranand, K R

    2010-01-01

    Almost all known secret sharing schemes work on numbers. Such methods will have difficulty in sharing graphs since the number of graphs increases exponentially with the number of nodes. We propose a secret sharing scheme for graphs where we use graph intersection for reconstructing the secret which is hidden as a sub graph in the shares. Our method does not rely on heavy computational operations such as modular arithmetic or polynomial interpolation but makes use of very basic operations like assignment and checking for equality, and graph intersection can also be performed visually. In certain cases, the secret could be reconstructed using just pencil and paper by authorised parties but cannot be broken by an adversary even with unbounded computational power. The method achieves perfect secrecy for (2, n) scheme and requires far fewer operations compared to Shamir's algorithm. The proposed method could be used to share objects such as matrices, sets, plain text and even a heterogeneous collection of these. S...

  10. BioC-compatible full-text passage detection for protein-protein interactions using extended dependency graph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yifan; Arighi, Cecilia; Wu, Cathy H; Vijay-Shanker, K

    2016-01-01

    There has been a large growth in the number of biomedical publications that report experimental results. Many of these results concern detection of protein-protein interactions (PPI). In BioCreative V, we participated in the BioC task and developed a PPI system to detect text passages with PPIs in the full-text articles. By adopting the BioC format, the output of the system can be seamlessly added to the biocuration pipeline with little effort required for the system integration. A distinctive feature of our PPI system is that it utilizes extended dependency graph, an intermediate level of representation that attempts to abstract away syntactic variations in text. As a result, we are able to use only a limited set of rules to extract PPI pairs in the sentences, and additional rules to detect additional passages for PPI pairs. For evaluation, we used the 95 articles that were provided for the BioC annotation task. We retrieved the unique PPIs from the BioGRID database for these articles and show that our system achieves a recall of 83.5%. In order to evaluate the detection of passages with PPIs, we further annotated Abstract and Results sections of 20 documents from the dataset and show that an f-value of 80.5% was obtained. To evaluate the generalizability of the system, we also conducted experiments on AIMed, a well-known PPI corpus. We achieved an f-value of 76.1% for sentence detection and an f-value of 64.7% for unique PPI detection.Database URL: http://proteininformationresource.org/iprolink/corpora.

  11. Graph Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xueliang; Gutman, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    This book is about graph energy. The authors have included many of the important results on graph energy, such as the complete solution to the conjecture on maximal energy of unicyclic graphs, the Wagner-Heuberger's result on the energy of trees, the energy of random graphs or the approach to energy using singular values. It contains an extensive coverage of recent results and a gradual development of topics and the inclusion of complete proofs from most of the important recent results in the area. The latter fact makes it a valuable reference for researchers looking to get into the field of g

  12. More on set-magic graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ullas Thomas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains certain properties of set-magic graphs and obtained the set-magic number of certain classes of graphs. All spanning super graphs of a set-magic graph always set-magic and all cycles and Hamiltonian graphs are set-magic. Also set-magic number of any cycle of size 2n is always greater than n.

  13. Design Pattern Mining Using Graph Matching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qing-hua; ZHANG Zhi-xiang; BEN Ke-rong

    2004-01-01

    The identification of design pattern instances is important for program understanding and software maintenance. Aiming at the mining of design patterns in existing systems, this paper proposes a sub-graph isomorphism approach to discover several design patterns in a legacy system at a time. The attributed relational graph is used to describe design patterns and legacy systems. The sub-graph isomorphism approach consists of decomposition and composition process. During the decomposition process, graphs corresponding to the design patterns are decomposed into sub-graphs, some of which are graphs corresponding to the elemental design patterns. The composition process tries to get sub-graph isomorphism of the matched graph if sub-graph isomorphism of each sub-graph is obtained. Due to the common structures between design patterns, the proposed approach can reduce the matching times of entities and relations. Compared with the existing methods, the proposed algorithm is not linearly dependent on the number of design pattern graphs.

  14. Partitions of generalized split graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Shklarsky, Oren

    2012-01-01

    We discuss matrix partition problems for graphs that admit a partition into k independent sets and ` cliques. We show that when k + ` 6 2, any matrix M has finitely many (k; `) minimal obstructions and hence all of these problems are polynomial time solvable. We provide upper bounds for the size of any (k; `) minimal obstruction when k = ` = 1 (split graphs), when k = 2; ` = 0 (bipartite graphs), and when k = 0; ` = 2 (co-bipartite graphs). When k = ` = 1, we construct an exponential size spl...

  15. Solsolitons associated with graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Lafuente, Ramiro A

    2010-01-01

    We show how to associate with each graph with a certain property (positivity) a family of simply connected solvable Lie groups endowed with left-invariant Riemannian metrics that are Ricci solitons (called solsolitons). We classify them up to isometry, obtaining families depending on many parameters of explicit examples of Ricci solitons. A classification of graphs with up to 3 coherent components according to positivity is also given.

  16. Equipackable graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Preben Dahl; Hartnell, Bert L.

    2006-01-01

    There are many results dealing with the problem of decomposing a fixed graph into isomorphic subgraphs. There has also been work on characterizing graphs with the property that one can delete the edges of a number of edge disjoint copies of the subgraph and, regardless of how that is done, the gr...

  17. Size-dependent resistivity and thermopower of nanocrystalline copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okram, Gunadhor S.; Kaurav, Netram

    2011-07-01

    Nanocrystalline copper (NC-Cu) of average particle size (D) ranging from 29 to 55 nm was prepared using the polyol method. The compacted pellets of these nanoparticles were investigated using electrical resistivity (ρn) and thermopower (Sn) measurements in the temperature range from 5 to 300 K. The observed electrical resistivity and thermopower data for all the samples are typical of a good metal and the ρn(T) data are analyzed in the framework of the Bloch-Grüneisen theory. Our analysis indicates systematic departure from the bulk property for NC-Cu samples, decreasing effective Debye temperature, exponential decay of both the residual resistivity ratio (RRR) and the temperature coefficient of resistivity [α = (1/ρ)dρ/dT] as D decreases, yet the Boltzmann theory of electron transport still holds true (kFl ≫ 1). Further, the validity of the Nordheim-Gorter rule is also discussed. The temperature dependence of Sn is found to be quite sensitive as compared to bulk thermopower SBulk behavior, revealing the evolution of Sn and exhibiting a significant enhancement of the phonon drag peak as D decreases. The present findings overall suggest the significant influence of the grain boundaries, surface atoms, and phonon confinement.

  18. Cycle-maximal triangle-free graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durocher, Stephane; Gunderson, David S.; Li, Pak Ching

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We conjecture that the balanced complete bipartite graph K ⌊ n / 2 ⌋ , ⌈ n / 2 ⌉ contains more cycles than any other n -vertex triangle-free graph, and we make some progress toward proving this. We give equivalent conditions for cycle-maximal triangle-free graphs; show bounds...... on the numbers of cycles in graphs depending on numbers of vertices and edges, girth, and homomorphisms to small fixed graphs; and use the bounds to show that among regular graphs, the conjecture holds. We also consider graphs that are close to being regular, with the minimum and maximum degrees differing...

  19. Functional-dependent and size-dependent uptake of nanoparticles in PC12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, N; Matsui, Y; Nakayama, A; Yoneda, M [Department of Environment Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, 4 Kyotodaigaku Katsura, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 6158540 (Japan); Tsuda, A, E-mail: sakai@risk.env.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2011-07-06

    It is suggested that the uptake of nanoparticles is changed by the particle size or the surface modification. In this study, we quantified the uptake of nanoparticles in PC12 cells exposed Quantum Dots with different surface modification or fluorescent polystyrene particles with different particle size. The PC12 cells were exposed three types of the Quantum Dots (carboxyl base-functionalized, amino base-functionalized or non-base-functionalized) or three types of the fluorescent particles (22 nm, 100 nm or 1000 nm) for 3 hours. The uptake of the nanoparticles was quantified with a spectrofluorophotometer. The carboxyl base-functionalized Quantum Dots were considerably taken up by the cells than the non-base-functionalized Quantum Dots. Conversely, the amino base-functionalized Quantum Dots were taken up by the cells less frequently than the non-base-functionalized Quantum Dots. The particle number of the 22 nm-nanoparticles taken up by the cells was about 53 times higher than the 100 nm-particles. However, the particle weight of the 100 nm-particles taken up by the cells was higher than that of the 22 nm-nanoparticles. The 1000 nm-particles were adhered to the cell membrane, but they were little taken up by the cells. We concluded that nanoparticles can be taken up nerve cells in functional-dependent and size-dependent manners.

  20. The impact of size-dependent predation on population dynamcis and individual life history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessen, D.; van Oss, C.; de Roos, A.M.; Persson, L.

    2002-01-01

    In size-structured predator-prey systems, capture success depends on the sizes of both predator and prey. We study the population-dynamic consequences of size-dependent predation using a model of a size-structured, cannibalistic fish population with one shared, alternative resource. We assume that a

  1. Density dependence of clutch size: habitat heterogeneity or individual adjustment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Both, C.

    1998-01-01

    1. Two hypotheses have been proposed to explain density- dependent patterns in reproduction. The habitat heterogeneity hypothesis (HHH) explains density-dependent reproduction at the population level from poorer quality territories in heterogeneous environments only being occupied at high densities.

  2. The explicit dependence of quadrat variance on the ratio of clump size to quadrat size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrandino, Francis J

    2005-05-01

    ABSTRACT In the past decade, it has become common practice to pool mapped binary epidemic data into quadrats. The resultant "quadrat counts" can then be analyzed by fitting them to a probability distribution (i.e., betabinomial). Often a binary form of Taylor's power law is used to relate the quadrat variance to the quadrat mean. The fact that there is an intrinsic dependence of such analyses on quadrat size and shape is well known. However, a clear-cut exposition of the direct connection between the spatial properties of the two-dimensional pattern of infected plants in terms of the geometry of the quadrat and the results of quadrat-based analyses is lacking. This problem was examined both empirically and analytically. The empirical approach is based on a set of stochastically generated "mock epidemics" using a Neyman-Scott cluster process. The resultant spatial point-patterns of infected plants have a fixed number of disease foci characterized by a known length scale (monodisperse) and saturated to a known disease level. When quadrat samples of these epidemics are fit to a beta-binomial distribution, the resulting measures of aggregation are totally independent of disease incidence and most strongly dependent on the ratio of the length scale of the quadrat to the length scale of spatial aggregation and to a lesser degree on disease saturation within individual foci. For the analytical approach, the mathematical form for the variation in the sum of random variates is coupled to the geometry of a quadrat through an assumed exponential autocorrelation function. The net result is an explicit equation expressing the intraquadrat correlation, quadrat variance, and the index of dispersion in terms of the ratio of the quadrat length scale to the correlative length scale.

  3. Cell-size dependent progression of the cell cycle creates homeostasis and flexibility of plant cell size

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Jones, Angharad; Forero-Vargas, Manuel; Withers, Simon P.; Smith, Richard S.; Traas, Jan; Dewitte, Walter; Murray, James A. H.

    2017-01-01

    Mean cell size at division is generally constant for specific conditions and cell types, but the mechanisms coupling cell growth and cell cycle control with cell size regulation are poorly understood in intact tissues. Here we show that the continuously dividing fields of cells within the shoot apical meristem of Arabidopsis show dynamic regulation of mean cell size dependent on developmental stage, genotype and environmental signals. We show cell size at division and cell cycle length is effectively predicted using a two-stage cell cycle model linking cell growth and two sequential cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) activities, and experimental results concur in showing that progression through both G1/S and G2/M is size dependent. This work shows that cell-autonomous co-ordination of cell growth and cell division previously observed in unicellular organisms also exists in intact plant tissues, and that cell size may be an emergent rather than directly determined property of cells. PMID:28447614

  4. Size-dependent magnetic properties of iron oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patsula, Vitalii; Moskvin, Maksym; Dutz, Silvio; Horák, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Uniform iron oxide nanoparticles in the size range from 10 to 24 nm and polydisperse 14 nm iron oxide particles were prepared by thermal decomposition of Fe(III) carboxylates in the presence of oleic acid and co-precipitation of Fe(II) and Fe(III) chlorides by ammonium hydroxide followed by oxidation, respectively. While the first method produced hydrophobic oleic acid coated particles, the second one formed hydrophilic, but uncoated, nanoparticles. To make the iron oxide particles water dispersible and colloidally stable, their surface was modified with poly(ethylene glycol) and sucrose, respectively. Size and size distribution of the nanoparticles was determined by transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering and X-ray diffraction. Surface of the PEG-functionalized and sucrose-modified iron oxide particles was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and Raman spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Magnetic properties were measured by means of vibration sample magnetometry and specific absorption rate in alternating magnetic fields was determined calorimetrically. It was found, that larger ferrimagnetic particles showed higher heating performance than smaller superparamagnetic ones. In the transition range between superparamagnetism and ferrimagnetism, samples with a broader size distribution provided higher heating power than narrow size distributed particles of comparable mean size. Here presented particles showed promising properties for a possible application in magnetic hyperthermia.

  5. Density dependence of clutch size : habitat heterogeneity or individual adjustment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Both, Christiaan

    1998-01-01

    1.   Two hypotheses have been proposed to explain density-dependent patterns in reproduction. The habitat heterogeneity hypothesis (HHH) explains density-dependent reproduction at the population level from poorer quality territories in hetero geneous environments only being occupied at high

  6. Size dependent differences in litter consumption of isopods: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilisics, Ferenc; Szekeres, Sándor; Hornung, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    A series of experiments were applied to test how leaf orientation within microcosms affect consumption rates (Experiment 1), and to discover intra-specific differences in leaf litter consumption (Experiment 2) of the common isopod species Porcellio scaber and Porcellionides pruinosus. A standardised microcosm setup was developed for feeding experiments to maintain standard conditions. A constant amount of freshly fallen black poplar litter was provided to three distinct size class (small, medium, large) of woodlice. We measured litter consumption after a fortnight. We maintained appr. constant isopod biomass for all treatments, and equal densities within each size class. We hypothesized that different size classes differ in their litter consumption, therefore such differences should occur even within populations of the species. We also hypothesized a marked difference in consumption rates for different leaf orientation within microcosms. Our results showed size-specific consumption patterns for Porcellio scaber: small adults showed the highest consumption rates (i.e. litter mass loss / isopod biomass) in high density microcosms, while medium-sized adults of lower densities ate the most litter in containers. Leaf orientation posed no significant effect on litter consumption.

  7. Size dependent differences in litter consumption of isopods: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferenc Vilisics

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A series of experiments were applied to test how leaf orientation within microcosms affect consumption rates (Experiment 1, and to discover intra-specific differences in leaf litter consumption (Experiment 2 of the common isopod species Porcellio scaber and Porcellionides pruinosus. A standardised microcosm setup was developed for feeding experiments to maintain standard conditions. A constant amount of freshly fallen black poplar litter was provided to three distinct size class (small, medium, large of woodlice. We measured litter consumption after a fortnight. We maintained appr. constant isopod biomass for all treatments, and equal densities within each size class. We hypothesized that different size classes differ in their litter consumption, therefore such differences should occur even within populations of the species. We also hypothesized a marked difference in consumption rates for different leaf orientation within microcosms. Our results showed size-specific consumption patterns for P. scaber: small adults showed the highest consumption rates (i.e. litter mass loss / isopod biomass in high density microcosms, while medium-sized adults of lower densities ate the most litter in containers. Leaf orientation posed no significant effect on litter consumption.

  8. Particle size- and concentration-dependent separation of magnetic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, Kerstin; Müller, Knut; Grüttner, Cordula; Westphal, Fritz; Johansson, Christer

    2017-04-01

    Small magnetic nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution are of great interest for several biomedical applications. When the size of the particles decreases, the magnetic moment of the particles decreases. This leads to a significant increase in the separation time by several orders of magnitude. Therefore, in the present study the separation processes of bionized nanoferrites (BNF) with different sizes and concentrations were investigated with the commercial Sepmag Q system. It was found that an increasing initial particle concentration leads to a reduction of the separation time for large nanoparticles due to the higher probability of building chains. Small nanoparticles showed exactly the opposite behavior with rising particle concentration up to 0.1 mg(Fe)/ml. For higher iron concentrations the separation time remains constant and the measured Z-average decreases in the supernatant at same time intervals. At half separation time a high yield with decreasing hydrodynamic diameter of particles can be obtained using higher initial particle concentrations.

  9. Size-dependent antimicrobial properties of the cobalt ferrite nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žalnėravičius, Rokas; Paškevičius, Algimantas; Kurtinaitiene, Marija; Jagminas, Arūnas

    2016-10-01

    The growing resistance of bacteria to conventional antibiotics elicited considerable interest to non-typical drugs. In this study, antimicrobial investigations were performed on low-size dispersion cobalt ferrite nanoparticles (Nps) fabricated by co-precipitation approach in several average sizes, in particular, 15.0, 5.0, and 1.65 nm. A variety of experimental tests demonstrated that the size of these Nps is determinant for antimicrobial efficiency against S. cerevisiae and several Candida species, in particular, C. parapsilosis, C. krusei, and C. albicans. The small and ultra-small fractions of CoFe2O4 Nps possess especially strong antimicrobial activity against all tested microorganisms. The possible reasons are discussed. Nps were characterized by means of transmission and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy, chemical analysis and magnetic measurements.

  10. The rigidity transition in random graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Kasiviswanathan, Shiva Prasad; Theran, Louis

    2010-01-01

    As we add rigid bars between points in the plane, at what point is there a giant (linear-sized) rigid component, which can be rotated and translated, but which has no internal flexibility? If the points are generic, this depends only on the combinatorics of the graph formed by the bars. We show that if this graph is an Erdos-Renyi random graph G(n,c/n), then there exists a sharp threshold for a giant rigid component to emerge. For c c_2, w.h.p. there is a giant rigid component. The constant c_2 \\approx 3.588 is the threshold for 2-orientability, discovered independently by Fernholz and Ramachandran and Cain, Sanders, and Wormald in SODA'07. We also give quantitative bounds on the size of the giant rigid component when it emerges, proving that it spans a (1-o(1))-fraction of the vertices in the (3+2)-core. Informally, the (3+2)-core is maximal induced subgraph obtained by starting from the 3-core and then inductively adding vertices with 2 neighbors in the graph obtained so far.

  11. Size-dependent neurotoxicity of β-amyloid oligomers

    OpenAIRE

    Cizas, Paulius; Budvytyte, Rima; Morkuniene, Ramune; Moldovan, Radu; Broccio, Matteo; Lösche, Mathias; Niaura, Gediminas; Valincius, Gintaras; Borutaite, Vilmante

    2010-01-01

    The link between the size of soluble amyloid β (Aβ) oligomers and their toxicity to rat cerebellar granule cells (CGC) was investigated. Variation in conditions during in vitro oligomerization of Aβ1-42 resulted in peptide assemblies with different particle size as measured by atomic force microscopy and confirmed by the dynamic light scattering and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. Small oligomers of Aβ1-42 with a mean particle z-height of 1-2 nm exhibited propensity to bind to the phos...

  12. Size dependent phase stability of nano-diamond

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Qing; LU Hai-ming; ZHENG Wei-Tao

    2005-01-01

    The transition between nano-diamond(n-D) and nano-graphite(n-G) were modeled based on the extrapolation of the bulk diamond-graphite equilibrium phase boundary in the temperature-pressure diagram to the nano-size region. It is found that in comparison with n-G, the stability of n-D increases as size and temperature decrease.However, n-D is not the most stable phase in comparison with fullerenes(C60) at the nanoscale by considering the heat of formation.

  13. Size-Dependence of Infrared Spectra in Niobium Carbide Nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubert, V. Alvin; Lewis, Steven P.

    2012-08-01

    Niobium carbide nanocrystals of 1:1 stoichiometry have recently been observed for particle sizes ranging from Nb4C4 to Nb50C50. Infrared (IR) spectroscopic measurements show that a new band of IR vibrational modes appears with increasing particle size at Nb9C9. Using density-functional theory, we show that the vibrational modes in the new band involve structural features present only in nanocrystals with three or more atomic layers in every direction. The Nb9C9 nanocrystal is right at this structural threshold.

  14. Introduction to graph theory

    CERN Document Server

    Trudeau, Richard J

    1994-01-01

    Preface1. Pure Mathematics Introduction; Euclidean Geometry as Pure Mathematics; Games; Why Study Pure Mathematics?; What's Coming; Suggested Reading2. Graphs Introduction; Sets; Paradox; Graphs; Graph diagrams; Cautions; Common Graphs; Discovery; Complements and Subgraphs; Isomorphism; Recognizing Isomorphic Graphs; Semantics The Number of Graphs Having a Given nu; Exercises; Suggested Reading3. Planar Graphs Introduction; UG, K subscript 5, and the Jordan Curve Theorem; Are there More Nonplanar Graphs?; Expansions; Kuratowski's Theorem; Determining Whether a Graph is Planar or

  15. Particle size dependent rheological property in magnetic fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jie; Pei, Lei; Xuan, Shouhu, E-mail: xuansh@ustc.edu.cn; Yan, Qifan; Gong, Xinglong, E-mail: gongxl@ustc.edu.cn

    2016-06-15

    The influence of the particle size on the rheological property of magnetic fluid was studied both by the experimental and computer simulation methods. Firstly, the magnetic fluids were prepared by dispersing Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanospheres with size varied from 40 nm to 100 nm and 200 nm in the solution. Then, the rheological properties were investigated and it was found that the relative magnetorheological effects increased with increasing the particle size. Finally, the molecular dynamic simulation was used to analyze the mechanical characteristics of the magnetic fluid and the chain-like model agreed well with the experimental result. The authentic chain-like structure observed by a microscope agreed with the simulation results. The three particles composed of the similar cluster nanostructure, thus they exhibited similar magnetic property. To this end, the unique assembling microstructures was the origination of the mechanical difference. And it was found that the higher MR (magnetorheological) effects of the large particle based magnetic fluid was originated from the stronger assembling microstructure under the applying magnetic field. - Highlights: • 40 nm, 100 nm and 200 nm Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanospheres were dispersed in water. • The magnetorheological effect increased with increasing the particle sizes. • Molecular dynamic simulation was used in this article.

  16. Endothelial nanoparticle binding kinetics are matrix and size dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doiron, Amber L; Clark, Brendan; Rinker, Kristina D

    2011-12-01

    Nanoparticles are increasingly important in medical research for application to areas such as drug delivery and imaging. Understanding the interactions of nanoparticles with cells in physiologically relevant environments is vital for their acceptance, and cell-particle interactions likely vary based on the design of the particle including its size, shape, and surface chemistry. For this reason, the kinetic interactions of fluorescent nanoparticles of sizes 20, 100, 200, and 500 nm with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were determined by (1) measuring nanoparticles per cell at 37 and 4°C (to inhibit endocytosis) and (2) modeling experimental particle uptake data with equations describing particle attachment, detachment, and internalization. Additionally, the influence of cell substrate compliance on nanoparticle attachment and uptake was investigated. Results show that the number of binding sites per cell decreased with increasing nanoparticle size, while the attachment coefficient increased. By comparing HUVEC grown on either a thin coating of collagen or on top of three-dimensional collagen hydrogel, nanoparticle attachment and internalization were shown to be influenced significantly by the substrate on which the cells are cultured. This study concludes that both particle size and cell culture substrate compliance appreciably influence the binding of nanoparticles; important factors in translating in vitro studies of nanoparticle interactions to in vivo studies focused on therapeutic or diagnostic applications.

  17. Interaction graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seiller, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Interaction graphs were introduced as a general, uniform, construction of dynamic models of linear logic, encompassing all Geometry of Interaction (GoI) constructions introduced so far. This series of work was inspired from Girard's hyperfinite GoI, and develops a quantitative approach that should...... be understood as a dynamic version of weighted relational models. Until now, the interaction graphs framework has been shown to deal with exponentials for the constrained system ELL (Elementary Linear Logic) while keeping its quantitative aspect. Adapting older constructions by Girard, one can clearly define...... "full" exponentials, but at the cost of these quantitative features. We show here that allowing interpretations of proofs to use continuous (yet finite in a measure-theoretic sense) sets of states, as opposed to earlier Interaction Graphs constructions were these sets of states were discrete (and finite...

  18. Graph theory

    CERN Document Server

    Diestel, Reinhard

    2000-01-01

    This book is a concise, yet carefully written, introduction to modern graph theory, covering all its major recent developments. It can be used both as a reliable textbook for an introductory course and as a graduate text: on each topic it covers all the basic material in full detail, and adds one or two deeper results (again with detailed proofs) to illustrate the more advanced methods of that field. This second edition extends the first in two ways. It offers a thoroughly revised and updated chapter on graph minors, which now includes full new proofs of two of the central Robertson-Seymour theorems (as well as a detailed sketch of the entire proof of their celebrated Graph Minor Theorem). Second, there is now a section of hints for all the exercises, to enhance their value for both individual study and classroom use.

  19. Size Dependent Phase Diagrams of Nickel-Carbon Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnin, Y; Zappelli, A; Amara, H; Ducastelle, F; Bichara, C

    2015-11-13

    The carbon rich phase diagrams of nickel-carbon nanoparticles, relevant to catalysis and catalytic chemical vapor deposition synthesis of carbon nanotubes, are calculated for system sizes up to about 3 nm (807 Ni atoms). A tight binding model for interatomic interactions drives the grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations used to locate solid, core shell and liquid stability domains, as a function of size, temperature, and carbon chemical potential or concentration. Melting is favored by carbon incorporation from the nanoparticle surface, resulting in a strong relative lowering of the eutectic temperature and a phase diagram topology different from the bulk one. This should lead to a better understanding of the nanotube growth mechanisms.

  20. Size-dependent protein segregation at membrane interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Eva M.; Bakalar, Matthew H.; Choudhuri, Kaushik; Weichsel, Julian; Ann, Hyoung Sook; Geissler, Phillip L.; Dustin, Michael L.; Fletcher, Daniel A.

    2016-07-01

    Membrane interfaces formed at cell-cell junctions are associated with characteristic patterns of membrane proteins whose organization is critical for intracellular signalling. To isolate the role of membrane protein size in pattern formation, we reconstituted model membrane interfaces in vitro using giant unilamellar vesicles decorated with synthetic binding and non-binding proteins. We show that size differences between membrane proteins can drastically alter their organization at membrane interfaces, with as little as a ~5 nm increase in non-binding protein size driving its exclusion from the interface. Combining in vitro measurements with Monte Carlo simulations, we find that non-binding protein exclusion is also influenced by lateral crowding, binding protein affinity, and thermally driven membrane height fluctuations that transiently limit access to the interface. This sensitive and highly effective means of physically segregating proteins has implications for cell-cell contacts such as T-cell immunological synapses (for example, CD45 exclusion) and epithelial cell junctions (for example, E-cadherin enrichment), as well as for protein sorting at intracellular contact points between membrane-bound organelles.

  1. Policing effectiveness depends on relatedness and group size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Bartosz; Brunner, Elisabeth; Heinze, Jürgen

    2011-03-01

    Cohesion of social groups requires the suppression of individual selfishness. Indeed, worker egg laying in insect societies is usually suppressed or punished through aggression and egg removal. The effectiveness of such "policing" is expected to increase with decreasing relatedness, as inclusive fitness of group members is more strongly affected by selfish worker reproduction when group members are less closely related to each other. As inclusive fitness is also influenced by the costs and benefits of helping, the effectiveness of policing should decrease with increasing colony size, because the costs for the whole colony from selfish worker reproduction are proportionally reduced in large groups. Here, we show that policing effectiveness in colonies of the ant Temnothorax unifasciatus is low in large groups and high in small groups when relatedness is high. When we experimentally decreased the relatedness in groups, the policing effectiveness reached the same high level as in small, highly related groups, irrespective of group size. Therefore, our results indicate that policing effectiveness is simultaneously shaped by relatedness and group size, that is, an ecological factor. This may have major implications for testing policing across species of animals.

  2. Chordal Graphs are Fully Orientable

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, Hsin-Hao

    2012-01-01

    Suppose that D is an acyclic orientation of a graph G. An arc of D is called dependent if its reversal creates a directed cycle. Let m and M denote the minimum and the maximum of the number of dependent arcs over all acyclic orientations of G. We call G fully orientable if G has an acyclic orientation with exactly d dependent arcs for every d satisfying m <= d <= M. A graph G is called chordal if every cycle in G of length at least four has a chord. We show that all chordal graphs are fully orientable.

  3. Graphing Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeken, Paul

    2014-11-01

    Graphing is an essential skill that forms the foundation of any physical science.1 Understanding the relationships between measurements ultimately determines which modeling equations are successful in predicting observations.2 Over the years, science and math teachers have approached teaching this skill with a variety of techniques. For secondary school instruction, the job of graphing skills falls heavily on physics teachers. By virtue of the nature of the topics we cover, it is our mission to develop this skill to the fine art that it is.

  4. Particle size-dependent radical generation from wildland fire smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Stephen S; Castranova, Vince; Chen, Bean T; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Hoover, Mark; Piacitelli, Chris; Gaughan, Denise M

    2007-07-01

    Firefighting, along with construction, mining and agriculture, ranks among the most dangerous occupations. In addition, the work environment of firefighters is unlike that of any other occupation, not only because of the obvious physical hazards but also due to the respiratory and systemic health hazards of smoke inhalation resulting from combustion. A significant amount of research has been devoted to studying municipal firefighters; however, these studies may not be useful in wildland firefighter exposures, because the two work environments are so different. Not only are wildland firefighters exposed to different combustion products, but their exposure profiles are different. The combustion products wildland firefighters are exposed to can vary greatly in characteristics due to the type and amount of material being burned, soil conditions, temperature and exposure time. Smoke inhalation is one of the greatest concerns for firefighter health and it has been shown that the smoke consists of a large number of particles. These smoke particles contain intermediates of hydrogen, carbon and oxygen free radicals, which may pose a potential health risk. Our investigation looked into the involvement of free radicals in smoke toxicity and the relationship between particle size and radical generation. Samples were collected in discrete aerodynamic particle sizes from a wildfire in Alaska, preserved and then shipped to our laboratory for analysis. Electron spin resonance was used to measure carbon-centered as well as hydroxyl radicals produced by a Fenton-like reaction with wildfire smoke. Further study of reactive oxygen species was conducted using analysis of cellular H(2)O(2) generation, lipid peroxidation of cellular membranes and DNA damage. Results demonstrate that coarse size-range particles contained more carbon radicals per unit mass than the ultrafine particles; however, the ultrafine particles generated more *OH radicals in the acellular Fenton-like reaction. The

  5. Size-Dependent Materials Properties Toward a Universal Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guisbiers G

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Due to the lack of experimental values concerning some material properties at the nanoscale, it is interesting to evaluate this theoretically. Through a “top–down” approach, a universal equation is developed here which is particularly helpful when experiments are difficult to lead on a specific material property. It only requires the knowledge of the surface area to volume ratio of the nanomaterial, its size as well as the statistic (Fermi–Dirac or Bose–Einstein followed by the particles involved in the considered material property. Comparison between different existing theoretical models and the proposed equation is done.

  6. Size dependence of magnetorheological properties of cobalt ferrite ferrofluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhika, B.; Sahoo, Rasmita; Srinath, S., E-mail: srinath@uohyd.ac.in [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad-500040 (India)

    2015-06-24

    Cobalt Ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized using co-precipitation method at reaction temperatures of 40°C and 80°C. X-Ray diffraction studies confirm cubic phase formation. The average crystallite sizes were found to be ∼30nm and ∼48nm for 40°C sample and 80°C sample respectively. Magnetic properties measured using vibrating sample magnetometer show higher coercivety and magnetization for sample prepared at 80°C. Magnetorheological properties of CoFe2O4 ferrofluids were measured and studied.

  7. Size dependence of the largest distance between random points

    CERN Document Server

    Krawczyk, Malgorzata J; Kulakowski, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    A set of $N$ points is chosen randomly in a $D$-dimensional volume $V=a^D$, with periodic boundary conditions. For each point $i$, its distance $d_i$ is found to its nearest neighbour. Then, the maximal value is found, $d_{max}=max(d_i, i=1,...,N)$. Our numerical calculations indicate, that when the density $N/V$=const, $d_{max}$ scales with the linear system size as $d^2_{max}\\propto a^\\phi$, with $\\phi=0.24\\pm0.04$ for $D=1,2,3,4$.

  8. Fitness landscapes, memetic algorithms, and greedy operators for graph bipartitioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, P; Freisleben, B

    2000-01-01

    The fitness landscape of the graph bipartitioning problem is investigated by performing a search space analysis for several types of graphs. The analysis shows that the structure of the search space is significantly different for the types of instances studied. Moreover, with increasing epistasis, the amount of gene interactions in the representation of a solution in an evolutionary algorithm, the number of local minima for one type of instance decreases and, thus, the search becomes easier. We suggest that other characteristics besides high epistasis might have greater influence on the hardness of a problem. To understand these characteristics, the notion of a dependency graph describing gene interactions is introduced. In particular, the local structure and the regularity of the dependency graph seems to be important for the performance of an algorithm, and in fact, algorithms that exploit these properties perform significantly better than others which do not. It will be shown that a simple hybrid multi-start local search exploiting locality in the structure of the graphs is able to find optimum or near optimum solutions very quickly. However, if the problem size increases or the graphs become unstructured, a memetic algorithm (a genetic algorithm incorporating local search) is shown to be much more effective.

  9. Size-dependent water structures in carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohba, Tomonori

    2014-07-28

    Water surrounded by hydrophobic interfaces affects a variety of chemical reactions and biological activities. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can be used to investigate the behavior of water at hydrophobic interfaces. Here, we determined the fundamental unit of water by evaluating the ice-like cluster formation of water in the limited hydrophobic nanospaces of CNTs, using X-ray diffraction and molecular simulation analysis. The water in CNTs with a diameter of 1 nm had fewer hydrogen bonds than bulk water under ambient conditions. In CNTs with diameters of 2 and 3 nm, water formed nanoclusters even under ambient conditions, because of prolific hydrogen bonding; predominant ice-like cluster formation was induced in the 2-3 nm nanospaces. The results confirming the cluster formation in the CNTs also demonstrated that the critical cluster size was 0.8-3.4 nm. The fundamental cluster size was 0.8 nm; these results indicated that 0.8 nm clusters are the fundamental units of water assemblies.

  10. Size-dependent neurotoxicity of β-amyloid oligomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizas, Paulius; Budvytyte, Rima; Morkuniene, Ramune; Moldovan, Radu; Broccio, Matteo; Lösche, Mathias; Niaura, Gediminas; Valincius, Gintaras; Borutaite, Vilmante

    2010-01-01

    The link between the size of soluble amyloid β (Aβ) oligomers and their toxicity to rat cerebellar granule cells (CGC) was investigated. Variation in conditions during in vitro oligomerization of Aβ1-42 resulted in peptide assemblies with different particle size as measured by atomic force microscopy and confirmed by the dynamic light scattering and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. Small oligomers of Aβ1-42 with a mean particle z-height of 1-2 nm exhibited propensity to bind to the phospholipid vesicles and they were the most toxic species that induced rapid neuronal necrosis at submicromolar concentrations whereas the bigger aggregates (z-height above 4-5 nm) did not bind vesicles and did not cause detectable neuronal death. Similar neurotoxic pattern was also observed in primary cultures of cortex neurons whereas Aβ1–42 oligomers, monomers and fibrils were non-toxic to glial cells in CGC cultures or macrophage J774 cells. However, both oligomeric forms of Aβ1-42 induced reduction of neuronal cell densities in the CGC cultures. PMID:20153288

  11. Size-dependent neurotoxicity of beta-amyloid oligomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizas, Paulius; Budvytyte, Rima; Morkuniene, Ramune; Moldovan, Radu; Broccio, Matteo; Lösche, Mathias; Niaura, Gediminas; Valincius, Gintaras; Borutaite, Vilmante

    2010-04-15

    The link between the size of soluble amyloid beta (Abeta) oligomers and their toxicity to rat cerebellar granule cells (CGC) was investigated. Variation in conditions during in vitro oligomerization of Abeta(1-42) resulted in peptide assemblies with different particle size as measured by atomic force microscopy and confirmed by dynamic light scattering and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. Small oligomers of Abeta(1-42) with a mean particle z-height of 1-2 nm exhibited propensity to bind to phospholipid vesicles and they were the most toxic species that induced rapid neuronal necrosis at submicromolar concentrations whereas the bigger aggregates (z-height above 4-5 nm) did not bind vesicles and did not cause detectable neuronal death. A similar neurotoxic pattern was also observed in primary cultures of cortex neurons whereas Abeta(1-42) oligomers, monomers and fibrils were non-toxic to glial cells in CGC cultures or macrophage J774 cells. However, both oligomeric forms of Abeta(1-42) induced reduction of neuronal cell densities in the CGC cultures.

  12. Baryon-Size Dependent Location of QCD Critical Point

    CERN Document Server

    Srivastava, P K; Singh, C P

    2011-01-01

    The physics regarding the existence of the critical end point (CEP) on the QCD phase boundary still remains unclear and its precise location is quite uncertain. In this paper we propose that the hard-core size of the baryons used in the description of the hot and dense hadron gas (HG) plays a decisive role in the existence of CEP. Here we construct a deconfining phase transition using Gibbs' equilibrium conditions after using a quasiparticle equation of state (EOS) for QCD plasma and excluded-volume EOS for the HG. We find that the first order transition results only when we assign a hard-core size to each baryon in the description of HG and the phase boundary thus obtained terminates at CEP beyond which a cross-over region occurs. The mean field approach for the HG lends support to this finding where unless we include an excluded-volume effect in the approach, CEP does not materialize on the QCD boundary. This investigation provides an intuitive reasoning regarding the origin of CEP and the cross-over transi...

  13. Dependence of thermal stability of lithiated Si on particle size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Shi, Tongfei; Li, Decheng; Yoshitake, Hideya; Wang, Hongyu

    2016-12-01

    Thermal properties of the component materials are key issues in lithium ion batteries (LIBs). Si-based anodes are one of the most promising materials, but its thermal evolution have received much less attention than its electrochemical performance. In this article, the thermal behavior of various of Si material has been studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Three kinds of Si-particles, ranging from nano-to micro-sizes was subject to thermal analysis. It has been found that the thermal stability increases with the rise in particle-size. For the nanoparticles of 20 nm, both characteristic peaks of A and B regions in the heating process are stronger than the large-diameter particles. For three kinds of Si particles, the starting temperature of thermal reaction demonstrates a similar trend, gradually becoming lower with the increasing of the lithiation extent. At last, the ex situ XPS has also been conducted to explore the causes of surface state after temperature elevation. In A region, the heating decomposition of SEI with electrolyte, mainly consisting of a variety of esterification compounds, produces high content of lithium carbonate below 180 °C. When lithium in the inner phase of Si particles loses the protection of SEI film, the severe exothermic reaction occurred between lithium and the solvent species.

  14. Graph Partitioning Models for Parallel Computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, B.; Kolda, T.G.

    1999-03-02

    Calculations can naturally be described as graphs in which vertices represent computation and edges reflect data dependencies. By partitioning the vertices of a graph, the calculation can be divided among processors of a parallel computer. However, the standard methodology for graph partitioning minimizes the wrong metric and lacks expressibility. We survey several recently proposed alternatives and discuss their relative merits.

  15. Matchings on infinite graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Bordenave, Charles; Salez, Justin

    2011-01-01

    We prove that the local weak convergence of a sequence of graphs is enough to guarantee the convergence of their normalized matching numbers. The limiting quantity is described by a local recursion defined on the weak limit of the graph sequence. However, this recursion may admit several solutions, implying non-trivial long-range dependencies between the edges of a largest matching. We overcome this lack of correlation decay by introducing a perturbative parameter called the temperature, which we let progressively go to zero. When the local weak limit is a unimodular Galton-Watson tree, the recursion simplifies into a distributional equation, resulting into an explicit formula that considerably extends the well-known one by Karp and Sipser for Erd\\"os-R\\'enyi random graphs.

  16. Graph theory

    CERN Document Server

    Diestel, Reinhard

    2017-01-01

    This standard textbook of modern graph theory, now in its fifth edition, combines the authority of a classic with the engaging freshness of style that is the hallmark of active mathematics. It covers the core material of the subject with concise yet reliably complete proofs, while offering glimpses of more advanced methods in each field by one or two deeper results, again with proofs given in full detail. The book can be used as a reliable text for an introductory course, as a graduate text, and for self-study. From the reviews: “This outstanding book cannot be substituted with any other book on the present textbook market. It has every chance of becoming the standard textbook for graph theory.”Acta Scientiarum Mathematiciarum “Deep, clear, wonderful. This is a serious book about the heart of graph theory. It has depth and integrity. ”Persi Diaconis & Ron Graham, SIAM Review “The book has received a very enthusiastic reception, which it amply deserves. A masterly elucidation of modern graph theo...

  17. Graphs in Practical Situations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓玫; 任心玥

    2008-01-01

    <正>Linear graphs are often used to depict conversion graphs and travel graphs. Example: The following graph shows the conversion between the Singapore dollar (S $) and the Malay- sian ringgit (RM) in 2000.

  18. GraphBench

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-06-01

    GraphBench is a benchmark suite for graph pattern mining and graph analysis systems. The benchmark suite is a significant addition to conducting apples-apples comparison of graph analysis software (databases, in-memory tools, triple stores, etc.)

  19. Stimulus size dependence of information transfer from retina to thalamus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Uglesich

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Relay cells in the mammalian lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN are driven primarily by single retinal ganglion cells (RGCs. However, an LGN cell responds typically to less than half of the spikes it receives from the RGC that drives it, and without retinal drive the LGN is silent (Kaplan and Shapley, 1984. Recent studies, which used stimuli restricted to the receptive field (RF center, show that despite the great loss of spikes, more than half of the information carried by the RGC discharge is typically preserved in the LGN discharge (Sincich et al., 2009, suggesting that the retinal spikes that are deleted by the LGN carry less information than those that are transmitted to the cortex. To determine how LGN relay neurons decide which retinal spikes to respond to, we recorded extracellularly from the cat LGN the LGN spikes together with the slow synaptic (‘S’ potentials that signal the firing of retinal spikes. We investigated the influence of the inhibitory surround of the LGN RF by stimulating the eyes with spots of various sizes, the largest of which covered the center and surround of the LGN relay cell’s RF. We found that for stimuli that activated mostly the RF center, each LGN spike delivered more information than the retinal spike, but this difference was reduced as stimulus size increased to cover the RF surround. To evaluate the optimality of the LGN editing of retinal spikes, we created artificial spike trains from the retinal ones by various deletion schemes. We found that single LGN cells transmitted less information than an optimal detector could.

  20. Multiparton Interactions with an x-dependent Proton Size

    CERN Document Server

    Corke, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical arguments, supported by other indirect evidence, suggest that the wave function of high-x partons should be narrower than that of low-x ones. In this article, we present a modification to the variable impact parameter framework of Pythia 8 to model this effect. In particular, a Gaussian hadronic matter profile is introduced, with a width dependent on the x value of the constituent being probed. Results are compared against the default single- and double-Gaussian profiles, as well as an intermediate overlap function.

  1. Pattern polynomial graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, A Satyanarayana

    2011-01-01

    A graph $X$ is said to be a pattern polynomial graph if its adjacency algebra is a coherent algebra. In this study we will find a necessary and sufficient condition for a graph to be a pattern polynomial graph. Some of the properties of the graphs which are polynomials in the pattern polynomial graph have been studied. We also identify known graph classes which are pattern polynomial graphs.

  2. Size dependent rupture growth at the scale of real earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombelli, Simona; Festa, Gaetano; Zollo, Aldo

    2017-04-01

    When an earthquake starts, the rupture process may evolve in a variety of ways, resulting in the occurrence of different magnitude earthquakes, with variable areal extent and slip, and this may produce an unpredictable damage distribution around the fault zone. The cause of the observed diversity of the rupture process evolution is unknown. There are studies supporting the idea that all earthquakes arise in the same way, while the mechanical conditions of the fault zone may determine the propagation and generation of small or large earthquakes. Other studies show that small and large earthquakes are different from the initial stage of the rupture beginning. Among them, Colombelli et al. (2014) observed that the initial slope of the P-wave peak displacement could be a discriminant for the final earthquake size, so that small and large ruptures show a different behavior in their initial stage. In this work we perform a detailed analysis of the time evolution of the P-wave peak amplitude for a set of few, co-located events, during the 2008, Iwate-Miyagi (Japan) earthquake sequence. The events have magnitude between 3.2 and 7.2 and their epicentral coordinates vary in a narrow range, with a maximum distance among the epicenters of about 15 km. After applying a refined technique for data processing, we measured the initial Peak Displacement (Pd) as the absolute value of the vertical component of displacement records, starting from the P-wave arrival time and progressively expanding the time window. For each event, we corrected the observed Pd values at different stations for the distance effect and computed the average logarithm of Pd as a function of time. The overall shape of the Pd curves (in log-lin scale) is consistent with what has been previously observed for a larger dataset by Colombelli et al. (2014). The initial amplitude begins with small values and then increases with time, until a plateau level is reached. However, we observed essential differences in the

  3. Size-dependent MR relaxivities of magnetic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joos, Alexander; Löwa, Norbert; Wiekhorst, Frank; Gleich, Bernhard; Haase, Axel

    2017-04-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) can be used as carriers for magnetic drug targeting and for stem cell tracking by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). For these applications, it is crucial to quantitatively determine the spatial distribution of the MNP concentration, which can be approached by MRI relaxometry. Theoretical considerations and experiments have shown that R2 relaxation rates are sensitive to the aggregation state of the particles, whereas R2* is independent of aggregation state and therefore suited for MNP quantification if the condition of static dephasing is met. We present a new experimental approach to characterize an MNP system with respect to quantitative MRI based on hydrodynamic fractionation. The first results qualitatively confirm the outer sphere relaxation theory for small MNPs and show that the two commercial MRI contrast agents Resovist® and Endorem® should not be used for quantitative MRI because they do not fulfill the condition for static dephasing. Our approach could facilitate the choice of MNPs for quantitative MRI and help clarifying the relationship between size, magnetism and relaxivity of MNPs in the future.

  4. Cluster size dependence of high-order harmonic generation

    CERN Document Server

    Tao, Y; Bastiaens, H M J; van der Slot, P J M; Biedron, S G; Milton, S V; Boller, K -J

    2016-01-01

    We investigate high-order harmonic generation (HHG) from noble gas clusters in a supersonic gas jet. To identify the contribution of harmonic generation from clusters versus that from gas monomers, we measure the high-order harmonic output over a broad range of the total atomic number density in the jet (from 3x10^{16} cm^{-3} to 3x10^{18} cm^{-3}) at two different reservoir temperatures (303 K and 363 K). For the first time in the evaluation of the harmonic yield in such measurements, the variation of the liquid mass fraction, g, versus pressure and temperature is taken into consideration, which we determine, reliably and consistently, to be below 20% within our range of experimental parameters. Based on measurements with a thin jet where significant variations in reabsorption and the phase matching conditions can be neglected, we conclude that atoms in the form of small clusters (average cluster size < 1000 atoms) provide the same higher-order nonlinear response as single-atoms. This implies that HHG in ...

  5. Size dependence of complex refractive index function of growing nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremin, A.; Gurentsov, E.; Popova, E.; Priemchenko, K.

    2011-08-01

    The evidence of the change of the complex refractive index function E( m) of carbon and iron nanoparticles as a function of their size was found from two-color time-resolved laser-induced incandescence (TiRe-LII) measurements. Growing carbon particles were observed from acetylene pyrolysis behind a shock wave and iron particles were synthesized by pulse Kr-F excimer laser photo-dissociation of Fe(CO)5. The magnitudes of refractive index function were found through the fitting of two independently measured values of particle heat up temperature, determined by two-color pyrometry and from the known energy of the laser pulse and the E( m) variation. Small carbon particles of about 1-14 nm in diameter had a low value of E( m)˜0.05-0.07, which tends to increase up to a value of 0.2-0.25 during particle growth up to 20 nm. Similar behavior for iron particles resulted in E( m) rise from ˜0.1 for particles 1-3 nm in diameter up to ˜0.2 for particles >12 nm in diameter.

  6. Line graphs for fractals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warchalowski, Wiktor; Krawczyk, Malgorzata J.

    2017-03-01

    We found the Lindenmayer systems for line graphs built on selected fractals. We show that the fractal dimension of such obtained graphs in all analysed cases is the same as for their original graphs. Both for the original graphs and for their line graphs we identified classes of nodes which reflect symmetry of the graph.

  7. Betweenness Centrality in Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The first book devoted exclusively to quantitative graph theory, Quantitative Graph Theory: Mathematical Foundations and Applications presents and demonstrates existing and novel methods for analyzing graphs quantitatively. Incorporating interdisciplinary knowledge from graph theory, information theory, measurement theory, and statistical techniques, this book covers a wide range of quantitative-graph theoretical concepts and methods, including those pertaining to real and random graphs such ...

  8. Approximate Graph Edit Distance in Quadratic Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesen, Kaspar; Ferrer, Miquel; Bunke, Horst

    2015-09-14

    Graph edit distance is one of the most flexible and general graph matching models available. The major drawback of graph edit distance, however, is its computational complexity that restricts its applicability to graphs of rather small size. Recently the authors of the present paper introduced a general approximation framework for the graph edit distance problem. The basic idea of this specific algorithm is to first compute an optimal assignment of independent local graph structures (including substitutions, deletions, and insertions of nodes and edges). This optimal assignment is complete and consistent with respect to the involved nodes of both graphs and can thus be used to instantly derive an admissible (yet suboptimal) solution for the original graph edit distance problem in O(n3) time. For large scale graphs or graph sets, however, the cubic time complexity may still be too high. Therefore, we propose to use suboptimal algorithms with quadratic rather than cubic time for solving the basic assignment problem. In particular, the present paper introduces five different greedy assignment algorithms in the context of graph edit distance approximation. In an experimental evaluation we show that these methods have great potential for further speeding up the computation of graph edit distance while the approximated distances remain sufficiently accurate for graph based pattern classification.

  9. Size Dependence of Nanoscale Wear of Silicon Carbide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangpatjaroen, Chaiyapat; Grierson, David; Shannon, Steve; Jakes, Joseph E; Szlufarska, Izabela

    2017-01-18

    Nanoscale, single-asperity wear of single-crystal silicon carbide (sc-SiC) and nanocrystalline silicon carbide (nc-SiC) is investigated using single-crystal diamond nanoindenter tips and nanocrystalline diamond atomic force microscopy (AFM) tips under dry conditions, and the wear behavior is compared to that of single-crystal silicon with both thin and thick native oxide layers. We discovered a transition in the relative wear resistance of the SiC samples compared to that of Si as a function of contact size. With larger nanoindenter tips (tip radius ≈ 370 nm), the wear resistances of both sc-SiC and nc-SiC are higher than that of Si. This result is expected from the Archard's equation because SiC is harder than Si. However, with the smaller AFM tips (tip radius ≈ 20 nm), the wear resistances of sc-SiC and nc-SiC are lower than that of Si, despite the fact that the contact pressures are comparable to those applied with the nanoindenter tips, and the plastic zones are well-developed in both sets of wear experiments. We attribute the decrease in the relative wear resistance of SiC compared to that of Si to a transition from a wear regime dominated by the materials' resistance to plastic deformation (i.e., hardness) to a regime dominated by the materials' resistance to interfacial shear. This conclusion is supported by our AFM studies of wearless friction, which reveal that the interfacial shear strength of SiC is higher than that of Si. The contributions of surface roughness and surface chemistry to differences in interfacial shear strength are also discussed.

  10. Measurement on Spot Size Dependence of Dense WDM Dielectric Multilayer Filters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masanobu; Ito; Satoshi; Suda; Fumio; Koyama

    2003-01-01

    We present the spot size dependence of dielectric multilayer filters for use in dense WDM systems. We found large dependences of filter performances on the spot size and the incident angle of input light, which should be important for miniaturizing multi-channel add/drop filters.

  11. Graph theory

    CERN Document Server

    Gould, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    This introduction to graph theory focuses on well-established topics, covering primary techniques and including both algorithmic and theoretical problems. The algorithms are presented with a minimum of advanced data structures and programming details. This thoroughly corrected 1988 edition provides insights to computer scientists as well as advanced undergraduates and graduate students of topology, algebra, and matrix theory. Fundamental concepts and notation and elementary properties and operations are the first subjects, followed by examinations of paths and searching, trees, and networks. S

  12. Feynman Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Weinzierl, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    In these lectures I discuss Feynman graphs and the associated Feynman integrals. Of particular interest are the classes functions, which appear in the evaluation of Feynman integrals. The most prominent class of functions is given by multiple polylogarithms. The algebraic properties of multiple polylogarithms are reviewed in the second part of these lectures. The final part of these lectures is devoted to Feynman integrals, which cannot be expressed in terms of multiple polylogarithms. Methods from algebraic geometry provide tools to tackle these integrals.

  13. Size Matters: FTIR Spectral Analysis of Apollo Regolith Samples Exhibits Grain Size Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Dayl; Joy, Katherine; Pernet-Fisher, John; Wogelius, Roy; Morlok, Andreas; Hiesinger, Harald

    2017-04-01

    The Mercury Thermal Infrared Spectrometer (MERTIS) on the upcoming BepiColombo mission is designed to analyse the surface of Mercury in thermal infrared wavelengths (7-14 μm) to investigate the physical properties of the surface materials [1]. Laboratory analyses of analogue materials are useful for investigating how various sample properties alter the resulting infrared spectrum. Laboratory FTIR analysis of Apollo fine (60%) causes a 'flattening' of the spectrum, with reduced reflectance in the Reststrahlen Band region (RB) as much as 30% in comparison to samples that are dominated by a high proportion of crystalline material. Apollo 15401,147 is an immature regolith with a high proportion of volcanic glass pyroclastic beads [2]. The high mafic mineral content results in a systematic shift in the Christiansen Feature (CF - the point of lowest reflectance) to longer wavelength: 8.6 μm. The glass beads dominate the spectrum, displaying a broad peak around the main Si-O stretch band (at 10.8 μm). As such, individual mineral components of this sample cannot be resolved from the average spectrum alone. Apollo 67481,96 is a sub-mature regolith composed dominantly of anorthite plagioclase [2]. The CF position of the average spectrum is shifted to shorter wavelengths (8.2 μm) due to the higher proportion of felsic minerals. Its average spectrum is dominated by anorthite reflectance bands at 8.7, 9.1, 9.8, and 10.8 μm. The average reflectance is greater than the other samples due to a lower proportion of glassy material. In each soil, the smallest fractions (0-25 and 25-63 μm) have CF positions 0.1-0.4 μm higher than the larger grain sizes. Also, the bulk-sample spectra mostly closely resemble the 0-25 μm sieved size fraction spectrum, indicating that this size fraction of each sample dominates the bulk spectrum regardless of other physical properties. This has implications for surface analyses of other Solar System bodies where some mineral phases or components

  14. A transition in mechanisms of size dependent electrical transport at nanoscale metal-oxide interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Jiechang; Nonnenmann, Stephen S.; Qin, Wei; Bonnell, Dawn A., E-mail: bonnell@lrsm.seas.upenn.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

    2013-12-16

    As device miniaturization approaches nanoscale dimensions, interfaces begin to dominate electrical properties. Here the system archetype Au/SrTiO{sub 3} is used to examine the origin of size dependent transport properties along metal-oxide interfaces. We demonstrate that a transition between two classes of size dependent electronic transport mechanisms exists, defined by a critical size ε. At sizes larger than ε an edge-related tunneling effect proportional to 1/D (the height of the supported Au nanoparticle) is observed; interfaces with sizes smaller than ε exhibit random fluctuations in current. The ability to distinguish between these mechanisms is important to future developments in nanoscale device design.

  15. Size-dependent study of pulmonary responses to nano-sized iron and copper oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajiv; Nagesha, Dattatri K

    2013-01-01

    The application of nanotechnology in various fields has resulted in a tremendous increase in the synthesis of variety of engineered nanoparticles (NPs). These applications are possible only due to the small size and large surface area of the NPs which imparts them unique properties. Inorganic oxide NPs as iron and copper oxide NPs are widely used in several biomedical and synthetic applications. The beneficial aspects of these NPs are concurrently associated with several drastic and deleterious effects as well. Size of the NPs plays a critical role in systemic clearance from the body. Initial studies have confirmed inflammatory responses in mice associated with non-biodegradable oxide NPs. The associated oxidative stress varied from mild effects to reactive oxygen species generation which can potentiate DNA damage or even induced carcinogenesis. Copper oxide NPs, in particular, induced acute toxicity and inflict neutrophil infiltration. This chapter focuses on the applicability of various in vivo techniques for studying the effect of these NPs, especially on the pulmonary system. These in vivo techniques would certainly provide a better understanding and insight into the mechanistic pathways by which these NPs interact with various organ systems in human body.

  16. Size-Dependent Expression of the Mitotic Activator Cdc25 Suggests a Mechanism of Size Control in Fission Yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keifenheim, Daniel; Sun, Xi-Ming; D'Souza, Edridge; Ohira, Makoto J; Magner, Mira; Mayhew, Michael B; Marguerat, Samuel; Rhind, Nicholas

    2017-05-22

    Proper cell size is essential for cellular function. Nonetheless, despite more than 100 years of work on the subject, the mechanisms that maintain cell-size homeostasis are largely mysterious [1]. Cells in growing populations maintain cell size within a narrow range by coordinating growth and division. Bacterial and eukaryotic cells both demonstrate homeostatic size control, which maintains population-level variation in cell size within a certain range and returns the population average to that range if it is perturbed [1, 2]. Recent work has proposed two different strategies for size control: budding yeast has been proposed to use an inhibitor-dilution strategy to regulate size at the G1/S transition [3], whereas bacteria appear to use an adder strategy, in which a fixed amount of growth each generation causes cell size to converge on a stable average [4-6]. Here we present evidence that cell size in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe is regulated by a third strategy: the size-dependent expression of the mitotic activator Cdc25. cdc25 transcript levels are regulated such that smaller cells express less Cdc25 and larger cells express more Cdc25, creating an increasing concentration of Cdc25 as cells grow and providing a mechanism for cells to trigger cell division when they reach a threshold concentration of Cdc25. Because regulation of mitotic entry by Cdc25 is well conserved, this mechanism may provide a widespread solution to the problem of size control in eukaryotes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. On the origin of size-dependent and size-independent crystal growth: Influence of advection and diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kile, D.E.; Eberl, D.D.

    2003-01-01

    Crystal growth experiments were conducted using potassium alum and calcite crystals in aqueous solution under both non-stirred and stirred conditions to elucidate the mechanism for size-dependent (proportionate) and size-independent (constant) crystal growth. Growth by these two laws can be distinguished from each other because the relative size difference among crystals is maintained during proportionate growth, leading to a constant crystal size variance (??2) for a crystal size distribution (CSD) as the mean size increases. The absolute size difference among crystals is maintained during constant growth, resulting in a decrease in size variance. Results of these experiments show that for centimeter-sized alum crystals, proportionate growth occurs in stirred systems, whereas constant growth occurs in non-stirred systems. Accordingly, the mechanism for proportionate growth is hypothesized to be related to the supply of reactants to the crystal surface by advection, whereas constant growth is related to supply by diffusion. Paradoxically, micrometer-sized calcite crystals showed proportionate growth both in stirred and in non-stirred systems. Such growth presumably results from the effects of convection and Brownian motion, which promote an advective environment and hence proportionate growth for minute crystals in non-stirred systems, thereby indicating the importance of solution velocity relative to crystal size. Calcite crystals grown in gels, where fluid motion was minimized, showed evidence for constant, diffusion-controlled growth. Additional investigations of CSDs of naturally occurring crystals indicate that proportionate growth is by far the most common growth law, thereby suggesting that advection, rather than diffusion, is the dominant process for supplying reactants to crystal surfaces.

  18. Modified Classical Graph Algorithms for the DNA Fragment Assembly Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo M. Mallén-Fullerton

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available DNA fragment assembly represents an important challenge to the development of efficient and practical algorithms due to the large number of elements to be assembled. In this study, we present some graph theoretical linear time algorithms to solve the problem. To achieve linear time complexity, a heap with constant time operations was developed, for the special case where the edge weights are integers and do not depend on the problem size. The experiments presented show that modified classical graph theoretical algorithms can solve the DNA fragment assembly problem efficiently.

  19. Size-dependent hysteresis and phase formation kinetics during temperature cycling of metal nanopowders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirinyan, A S [Department of Physics, Kiev Taras Shevchenko National University, Academic Glushkova Avenue, 2, Building 1, Kiev 03680 (Ukraine); Bilogorodskyy, Y S [Department of Physics, Cherkasy B Khmelnytskiy National University, 81, Shevchenko Street, Cherkasy 18031 (Ukraine); Wilde, G [Institut fuer Materialphysik, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster, Wilhelm-Klemm-Strasse 10, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Schmelzer, J W P [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Rostock, Wismarsche Strasse 43-45, Rostock 18051 (Germany)

    2011-06-22

    We present a description of the evolution of a polymorphically transforming metal nanoparticle ensemble subjected to a temperature cycling with constant rates of temperature change. The calculations of the time dependence of the volume fraction of the new phase show the existence of size-dependent hysteresis and its main features. The statistical analysis makes it possible to introduce and determine the size-dependent superheating limit and supercooling limit.

  20. Inverse size scaling of the nucleolus by a concentration-dependent phase transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Stephanie C; Brangwynne, Clifford P

    2015-03-01

    Just as organ size typically increases with body size, the size of intracellular structures changes as cells grow and divide. Indeed, many organelles, such as the nucleus [1, 2], mitochondria [3], mitotic spindle [4, 5], and centrosome [6], exhibit size scaling, a phenomenon in which organelle size depends linearly on cell size. However, the mechanisms of organelle size scaling remain unclear. Here, we show that the size of the nucleolus, a membraneless organelle important for cell-size homeostasis [7], is coupled to cell size by an intracellular phase transition. We find that nucleolar size directly scales with cell size in early C. elegans embryos. Surprisingly, however, when embryo size is altered, we observe inverse scaling: nucleolar size increases in small cells and decreases in large cells. We demonstrate that this seemingly contradictory result arises from maternal loading of a fixed number rather than a fixed concentration of nucleolar components, which condense into nucleoli only above a threshold concentration. Our results suggest that the physics of phase transitions can dictate whether an organelle assembles, and, if so, its size, providing a mechanistic link between organelle assembly and cell size. Since the nucleolus is known to play a key role in cell growth, this biophysical readout of cell size could provide a novel feedback mechanism for growth control.

  1. Specimen- and grain-size dependence of compression deformation behavior in nanocrystalline copper

    OpenAIRE

    Okamoto, Norihiko L.; Kashioka, Daisuke; Hirato, Tetsuji; Inui, Haruyuki

    2014-01-01

    The compression deformation behavior of electrodeposited nanocrystalline copper pillars with average grain sizes (d) of 360, 100, and 34 nm has been investigated as a function of specimen size (D). The yield stress for nanocrystalline pillars with d = 360 and 100 nm does not depend on specimen size, exhibiting essentially the bulk yield stress until the specimen size is reduced down to the critical values ((D/d)∗ = 35 and 85), below which the yield stress decreases with the decrease in specim...

  2. Genus distribution of ladder type and cross type graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a method is given to calculate the explicit expressions of embedding genus distribution for ladder type graphs and cross type graphs. As an example, we refind the genus distri- bution of the graph Jn which is the first class of graphs studied for genus distribution where its genus depends on n.

  3. Genus distribution of ladder type and cross type graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN LiangXia; FENG KeQin; LIU YanPei; WANG DianJun

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a method is given to calculate the explicit expressions of embedding genus distribution for ladder type graphs and cross type graphs.As an example,we refind the genus distribution of the graph Jn which is the first class of graphs studied for genus distribution where its genus depends on n.

  4. On the Size Dependences of the Metallic Nanoparticle Evaporation and Sublimation Heats: Thermodynamics and Atomistic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bembel, A. G.

    2017-02-01

    Size dependences of the nanocrystal sublimation and the evaporation heats of the corresponding nanodrops are investigated using the isothermal molecular dynamics and the tight-binding potential (on examples of Ni and Au nanoparticles). Results of computer simulation demonstrating linear dependences of the evaporation and sublimation heats on the particle reciprocal radius are compared with results of thermodynamic calculations as well as with experimental data for bulk phases of the same metals. It has been found that the size dependences of the evaporation and sublimation heats are directly related with the behavior of the size dependence of the melting heat that in its turn correlates with structural transformations in nanoparticles induced by the change of their size. The conclusion is drawn that there is some characteristic nanoparticle size (of the order of 1 nm) at which its crystal and liquid states become indistinguishable.

  5. Graph theory

    CERN Document Server

    Diestel, Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    HauptbeschreibungThis standard textbook of modern graph theory, now in its fourth edition, combinesthe authority of a classic with the engaging freshness of style that is the hallmarkof active mathematics. It covers the core material of the subject with concise yetreliably complete proofs, while offering glimpses of more advanced methodsin each field by one or two deeper results, again with proofs given in full detail.The book can be used as a reliable text for an introductory course, as a graduatetext, and for self-study. Rezension"Deep, clear, wonderful. This is a serious book about the

  6. Graph theory

    CERN Document Server

    Merris, Russell

    2001-01-01

    A lively invitation to the flavor, elegance, and power of graph theoryThis mathematically rigorous introduction is tempered and enlivened by numerous illustrations, revealing examples, seductive applications, and historical references. An award-winning teacher, Russ Merris has crafted a book designed to attract and engage through its spirited exposition, a rich assortment of well-chosen exercises, and a selection of topics that emphasizes the kinds of things that can be manipulated, counted, and pictured. Intended neither to be a comprehensive overview nor an encyclopedic reference, th

  7. Surface structures of cerium oxide nanocrystalline particles from the size dependence of the lattice parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunekawa, S.; Ito, S.; Kawazoe, Y.

    2004-10-01

    Cerium oxide nanocrystalline particles are synthesized and monodispersed in the size range from 2 to 8nm in diameter. The dependence of the lattice parameters on particle size is obtained by x-ray and electron diffraction analyses. The size dependence well coincides with the estimation based on the assumption that the surface is composed of one layer of Ce2O3 and the inside consists of CeO2. The effect of particle size on lattice parameters is discussed from the differences in the fabrication method and the surface structure.

  8. The stress-strain behavior of coronary stent struts is size dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, B P; Savage, P; McHugh, P E; Quinn, D F

    2003-06-01

    Coronary stents are used to re-establish the vascular lumen and flow conditions within the coronary arteries; the typical thickness of a stent strut is 100 microm, and average grain sizes of approximately 25 microm exist in stainless steel stents. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of strut size on the stress strain behavior of 316 L stainless steel. Other materials have shown a size dependence at the micron size scale; however, at present there are no studies that show a material property size dependence in coronary stents. Electropolished stainless steel stent struts within the size range of 60-500 microm were tensile tested. The results showed that within the size range of coronary stent struts a size dependent stress-strain relationship is required to describe the material. Finite element models of the final phase of fracture, i.e., void growth models, explained partially the reason for this size effect. This study demonstrated that a size based stress-strain relationship must be used to describe the tensile behavior material of 316 L stainless steel at the size scale of coronary stent struts.

  9. Understanding Graphs & Charts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, John J.; Gravely, Mary Liles

    Developed by educators from the Emily Griffith Opportunity School, this teacher's guide was developed for a 4-hour workshop to teach employees how to read the charts and graphs they need in the workplace. The unit covers four types of graphs: pictographs, bar graphs, line graphs, and circle graphs. The guide is divided into four sections: reading…

  10. Minimal regular 2-graphs and applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN; Hongbing; LIU; Guizhen; LIU; Jiping

    2006-01-01

    A 2-graph is a hypergraph with edge sizes of at most two. A regular 2-graph is said to be minimal if it does not contain a proper regular factor. Let f2(n) be the maximum value of degrees over all minimal regular 2-graphs of n vertices. In this paper, we provide a structure property of minimal regular 2-graphs, and consequently, prove that f2(n) = n+3-i/3where 1 ≤i≤6, i=n (mod 6) andn≥ 7, which solves a conjecture posed by Fan, Liu, Wu and Wong. As applications in graph theory, we are able to characterize unfactorable regular graphs and provide the best possible factor existence theorem on degree conditions. Moreover, f2(n) and the minimal 2-graphs can be used in the universal switch box designs, which originally motivated this study.

  11. Sublinear distance labeling for sparse graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Stephen; Dahlgaard, Søren; Knudsen, Mathias Bæk Tejs;

    2015-01-01

    between pairs of nodes that are at distance at least $D$ from each other. In this paper we consider distance labeling schemes for the classical case of unweighted and undirected graphs. We present the first distance labeling scheme of size $o(n)$ for sparse graphs (and hence bounded degree graphs......). This addresses an open problem by Gavoille et. al. [J. Algo. 2004], hereby separating the complexity from general graphs which require $\\Omega(n)$ size Moon [Proc. of Glasgow Math. Association 1965]. As an intermediate result we give a $O(\\frac{n}{D}\\log^2 D)$ $D$-preserving distance labeling scheme, improving...

  12. Tree decompositions and social graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Adcock, Aaron B; Mahoney, Michael W

    2014-01-01

    Recent work has established that large informatics graphs such as social and information networks have non-trivial tree-like structure when viewed at moderate size scales. Here, we present results from the first detailed empirical evaluation of the use of tree decomposition (TD) heuristics for structure identification and extraction in social graphs. Although TDs have historically been used in structural graph theory and scientific computing, we show that---even with existing TD heuristics developed for those very different areas---TD methods can identify interesting structure in a wide range of realistic informatics graphs. Among other things, we show that TD methods can identify structures that correlate strongly with the core-periphery structure of realistic networks, even when using simple greedy heuristics; we show that the peripheral bags of these TDs correlate well with low-conductance communities (when they exist) found using local spectral computations; and we show that several types of large-scale "...

  13. Planarity of 3,4-jump Graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏二玲; 刘颜佩

    2004-01-01

    For a graph G of size ε≥1 and its edge-induced subgraphs H1 and H2 of size γ(1 < γ < ε), H1 is said to be obtained from H2 by an edge jump if there exist four distinct vertices u, v, ω and x in G such that (u,v)∈E(H2), (ω,x)∈E(G) - E(H2) and H1=H2 - (u, v) + (ω, x). In this article, the γ-jump graphs(r≥3) are discussed. A graph H is said to be an γ-jump graph of G if its vertices correspond to the edge induced graph of size γ in G and two vertices are adjacent if and only if one of the two corresponding subgraphs can be obtained from the other by an edge jump. For k≥2, the k-th iterated γ-jump graph Jrk(G) is defined as Jγ(Jγk-1 (G)), where Jγ1 (G) = Jγ(G). An infinite sequence {Gi} of graphs is planar if every graph Gi is planar. It is shown that there does not exist a graph G for which the sequence {J3k(G)} is planar, where k is any positive integer. Meanwhile, lim gen(J3k(G)) =∞, where gen(G) denotes the genus of a graph G, if the sequence k→∞J3k(G) is defined for every positive integer k. As for the 4-jump graph of a graph G,{J4k(G)} is planar if and only if G = C5. For γ≥5, whether the fix graph of the sequence {Jγk(G))exists is determined.

  14. Calculated Grain Size-Dependent Vacancy Supersaturation and its Effect on Void Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Bachu Narain; Foreman, A. J. E.

    1974-01-01

    In order to study the effect of grain size on void formation during high-energy electron irradiations, the steady-state point defect concentration and vacancy supersaturation profiles have been calculated for three-dimensional spherical grains up to three microns in size. In the calculations...... of vacancy supersaturation as a function of grain size, the effects of internal sink density and the dislocation preference for interstitial attraction have been included. The computations show that the level of vacancy supersaturation achieved in a grain decreases with decreasing grain size. The grain size...... dependence of the maximum vacancy supersaturation in the centre of the grains is found to be very similar to the grain size dependence of the maximum void number density and void volume swelling measured in the central regions of austenitic stainless steel grains. This agreement reinforces the interpretation...

  15. Modified Continuum Mechanics Modeling on Size-Dependent Properties of Piezoelectric Nanomaterials: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Zhi Yan; Liying Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Piezoelectric nanomaterials (PNs) are attractive for applications including sensing, actuating, energy harvesting, among others in nano-electro-mechanical-systems (NEMS) because of their excellent electromechanical coupling, mechanical and physical properties. However, the properties of PNs do not coincide with their bulk counterparts and depend on the particular size. A large amount of efforts have been devoted to studying the size-dependent properties of PNs by using experimental characteri...

  16. Parallel Graph Partitioning for Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Meyerhenke, Henning; Schulz, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Processing large complex networks like social networks or web graphs has recently attracted considerable interest. In order to do this in parallel, we need to partition them into pieces of about equal size. Unfortunately, previous parallel graph partitioners originally developed for more regular mesh-like networks do not work well for these networks. This paper addresses this problem by parallelizing and adapting the label propagation technique originally developed for graph clustering. By introducing size constraints, label propagation becomes applicable for both the coarsening and the refinement phase of multilevel graph partitioning. We obtain very high quality by applying a highly parallel evolutionary algorithm to the coarsened graph. The resulting system is both more scalable and achieves higher quality than state-of-the-art systems like ParMetis or PT-Scotch. For large complex networks the performance differences are very big. For example, our algorithm can partition a web graph with 3.3 billion edges ...

  17. Functional traits shape size-dependent growth and mortality rates of dry forest tree species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prado-Junior, Jamir A.; Schiavini, Ivan; Vale, Vagner S.; Raymundo, Diego; Lopes, Sergio F.; Poorter, Lourens

    2016-01-01

    Aims

    Functional traits have emerged as an important tool to evaluate plant performance. However, the environmental conditions and ecological pressures that plants face change with their size, and the relationship between traits and plant performance should therefore be size-dependent, which

  18. Size- and dose-dependent toxicity of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) on human fibroblasts and colon adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanif, Zahid; Ahmed, Farrukh R; Shin, Seung Won; Kim, Young-Kee; Um, Soong Ho

    2014-07-01

    A controlled preparation of cellulose nanocrystals of different sizes and shapes has been carried out by acid hydrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose. The size- and concentration-dependent toxicity effects of the resulting cellulose nanocrystals were evaluated against two different cell lines, NIH3T3 murine embryo fibroblasts and HCT116 colon adenocarcinoma. It could serve as a therapeutic platform for cancer treatment.

  19. Unravelling the size and temperature dependence of exciton lifetimes in colloidal ZnSe quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eilers, Joren; Van Hest, Jacobine|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/371572622; Meijerink, A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075044986; Donega, Celso De Mello|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/125593899

    2014-01-01

    We report on the temperature dependence of the band-edge photoluminescence decay of organically capped colloidal ZnSe quantum dots (QDs) in the size range from 4.0 to 7.5 nm. A similar trend is observed for all investigated sizes: the decay time is short (∼5 ns) above 20 K and increases sharply

  20. Anomalous Particle Size Dependence of Magnetic Relaxation Phenomena in Goethite Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Cathrine; Madsen, Daniel Esmarch; Boothroyd, Chris B.

    2015-01-01

    By use of Mossbauer spectroscopy we have studied the magnetic properties of samples of goethite nanoparticles with different particle size. The spectra are influenced by fluctuations of the magnetization directions, but the size dependence is not in accordance with the Neel-Brown expression for s...

  1. Size- and food-dependent growth drives patterns of competitive dominance along productivity gradients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Huss; A. Gårdmark; A. van Leeuwen; A.M. de Roos

    2012-01-01

    Patterns of coexistence among competing species exhibiting size- and food-dependent growth remain largely unexplored. Here we studied mechanisms behind coexistence and shifts in competitive dominance in a size-structured fish guild, representing sprat and herring stocks in the Baltic Sea, using a ph

  2. Triangle Counting in Dynamic Graph Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulteau, Laurent; Froese, Vincent; Pagh, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    , with a few exceptions, the algorithms have considered insert-only streams. We present a new algorithm estimating the number of triangles in dynamic graph streams where edges can be both inserted and deleted. We show that our algorithm achieves better time and space complexity than previous solutions......Estimating the number of triangles in graph streams using a limited amount of memory has become a popular topic in the last decade. Different variations of the problem have been studied, depending on whether the graph edges are provided in an arbitrary order or as incidence lists. However...... for various graph classes, for example sparse graphs with a relatively small number of triangles. Also, for graphs with constant transitivity coefficient, a common situation in real graphs, this is the first algorithm achieving constant processing time per edge. The result is achieved by a novel approach...

  3. Construct Graph Logic

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Yong

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, author uses set theory to construct a logic model of abstract figure from binary relation. Based on the uniform quantified structure, author gives two logic system for graph traversal and graph coloring respectively, moreover shows a new method of cutting graph. Around this model, there are six algorithms in this paper including exact graph traversal, Algebra calculation of natural number, graph partition and graph coloring.

  4. The Number of Spanning Trees in the Composition Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the composition of some existing smaller graphs to construct some large graphs, the number of spanning trees and the Laplacian eigenvalues of such large graphs are also closely related to those of the corresponding smaller ones. By using tools from linear algebra and matrix theory, we establish closed formulae for the number of spanning trees of the composition of two graphs with one of them being an arbitrary complete 3-partite graph and the other being an arbitrary graph. Our results extend some of the previous work, which depend on the structural parameters such as the number of vertices and eigenvalues of the small graphs only.

  5. Theoretical and experimental study: the size dependence of decomposition thermodynamics of nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Zixiang; Duan, Huijuan; Li, Wenjiao; Xue, Yongqiang, E-mail: xyqlw@126.com [Taiyuan University of Technology, Department of Applied Chemistry (China)

    2015-07-15

    In the processes of preparation and application of nanomaterials, the decomposition reactions of nanomaterials are often involved. However, there is a dramatic difference in decomposition thermodynamics between nanomaterials and the bulk counterparts, and the difference depends on the size of the particles that compose the nanomaterials. In this paper, the decomposition model of a nanoparticle was built, the theory of decomposition thermodynamics of nanomaterials was proposed, and the relations of the size dependence of thermodynamic quantities for the decomposition reactions were deduced. In experiment, taking the thermal decomposition of nano-Cu{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}CO{sub 3} with different particle sizes (the range of radius is at 8.95–27.4 nm) as a system, the reaction thermodynamic quantities were determined, and the regularities of size dependence of the quantities were summarized. These experimental regularities consist with the above thermodynamic relations. The results show that there is a significant effect of the size of particles composing a nanomaterial on the decomposition thermodynamics. When all the decomposition products are gases, the differences in thermodynamic quantities of reaction between the nanomaterials and the bulk counterparts depend on the particle size; while when one of the decomposition products is a solid, the differences depend on both the initial particle size of the nanoparticle and the decomposition ratio. When the decomposition ratio is very small, these differences are only related to the initial particle size; and when the radius of the nanoparticles approaches or exceeds 10 nm, the reaction thermodynamic functions and the logarithm of the equilibrium constant are linearly associated with the reciprocal of radius, respectively. The thermodynamic theory can quantificationally describe the regularities of the size dependence of thermodynamic quantities for decomposition reactions of nanomaterials, and contribute to the

  6. Size dependent photoresponse characteristics of crystalline Ge quantum dots based photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar, Rajshekhar; Manna, Santanu; Ray, Samit K.

    2016-10-01

    We report on the size dependent photoresponse behaviour of crystalline Ge quantum dots (QDs) dispersed within the silica matrix. Our findings demonstrate an increasing nature of EQE with increase in QDs size, which could be attributed to the combined effect of Coulomb interaction of photogenerated carriers, QD/silica interface defects and electric field driven carrier separation and tunneling through the oxide barriers. In this regard, the bias dependent nonlinear response of the photocurrent has been explained on the basis of cold field emission (CFE) model. Besides, the EQE is extended (>100%) for larger sized QDs, suggesting the trapping of slower holes in Ge QDs creating a charge neutrality issue.

  7. Size-Dependent Shifts of Plasmon Resonance in Silver Nanoparticle Films Using Controlled Dissolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Kneipp, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    A study of the size dependent blue- and red-shift of the plasmon band of silver nanoparticle films in aqueous solution is reported. A detection scheme, where the particle size is continuously decreased by means of controlled dissolution, while measuring the plasmon band position by UV–vis...... absorption spectroscopy is used. Both blue- and red-shifts of the peak position are observed, depending on the presence of electron donors and/or acceptors in the solution, respectively. A great increase in plasmon shifts for smaller particle sizes (R 10 nm) is demonstrated, which we ascribe...

  8. Modeling on the size dependent properties of InP quantum dots: a hybrid functional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Eunseog; Jang, Hyosook; Lee, Junho; Jang, Eunjoo

    2013-05-01

    Theoretical calculations based on density functional theory were performed to provide better understanding of the size dependent electronic properties of InP quantum dots (QDs). Using a hybrid functional approach, we suggest a reliable analytical equation to describe the change of energy band gap as a function of size. Synthesizing colloidal InP QDs with 2-4 nm diameter and measuring their optical properties was also carried out. It was found that the theoretical band gaps showed a linear dependence on the inverse size of QDs and gave energy band gaps almost identical to the experimental values.

  9. Size-dependent effects of nanoparticles on enzymes in the blood coagulation cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfins, Elodie; Augustsson, Cecilia; Dahlbäck, Björn; Linse, Sara; Cedervall, Tommy

    2014-08-13

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are increasingly used in diagnostic and drug delivery. After entering the bloodstream, a protein corona will form around NPs. The size and curvature of NPs is one of the major characteristics affecting the composition of bound protein in the corona. Key initiators of the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation, the contact activation complex, (Kallikrein, Factor XII, and high molecular weight Kininogen) have previously been identified on NPs surfaces. We show that the functional impact of carboxyl-modified polystyrene NPs on these initiators of the intrinsic pathway is size dependent. NPs with high curvature affect the enzymatic activity differently from NPs with low curvature. The size dependency is evident in full blood plasma as well as in solutions of single coagulation factors. NPs induce significant alteration of the enzymatic activity in a size-dependent manner, and enzyme kinetics studies show a critical role for NPs surface area and curvature.

  10. Size Dependence of the Melting Temperature of Metallic Films: Two Possible Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Samsonov

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The size dependence was investigated of the melting temperature Tm of metallic films (tin and copper on different substrate (amorphous carbon, another infusible metal, i.e. the dependence of Tm on the film thickness h. It was found that the effect of interfacial boundary can result in the growth of Tm for thin metallic films on the carbon substrate in comparison with the corresponding bulk value. For the metal 1 / metal 2 system the size dependence of Tm seems to be less pronounced and Tm decreases with decreasing thickness h.

  11. Crystal-Size-Dependent Structural Transitions in Nanoporous Crystals: Adsorption-Induced Transitions in ZIF-8

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Chen

    2014-09-04

    © 2014 American Chemical Society. Understanding the crystal-size dependence of both guest adsorption and structural transitions of nanoporous solids is crucial to the development of these materials. We find that nano-sized metal-organic framework (MOF) crystals have significantly different guest adsorption properties compared to the bulk material. A new methodology is developed to simulate the adsorption and transition behavior of entire MOF nanoparticles. Our simulations predict that the transition pressure significantly increases with decreasing particle size, in agreement with crystal-size-dependent experimental measurements of the N2-ZIF-8 system. We also propose a simple core-shell model to examine this effect on length scales that are inaccessible to simulations and again find good agreement with experiments. This study is the first to examine particle size effects on structural transitions in ZIFs and provides a thermodynamic framework for understanding the underlying mechanism.

  12. Unraveling the size-dependent optical properties of dissolved organic matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wünsch, Urban; Stedmon, Colin; Tranvik, Lars

    2017-01-01

    The size-dependent optical properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from four Swedish lakes were investigated using High Performance Size Exclusion Chromatography (HPSEC) in conjunction with online characterization of absorbance (240–600 nm) and fluorescence (excitation: 275 nm, emission: 300...... the characteristics of the low size range. Furthermore, the combination of HPSEC and parallel factor analysis (HPSEC-PARAFAC2) allowed the decomposition of DOM fluorescence chromatograms. Three humic-like components and one protein-like component with broadly overlapping molecular size distributions were identified...

  13. Size dependence of multipolar plasmon resonance frequencies and damping rates in simple metal spherical nanoparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Derkachova, A

    2008-01-01

    Multipolar plasmon oscillation frequencies and corresponding damping rates for nanospheres formed of the simplest free-electron metals are studied. The possibility of controlling plasmon features by choosing the size and dielectric properties of the sphere surroundings is discussed. Optical properties of the studied metals are described within the Drude-Sommerfeld model of the dielectric function with effective parameters acounting for the contribution of conduction electrons and of interband transitions. No approximation is made in respect of the size of a particle; plasmon size characteristics are described rigorously. The results of our experiment on sodium nanodroplets [1] are compared with the oscillation frequency size dependence of dipole and quadrupole plasmon.

  14. Size-dependent ligand layer dynamics in semiconductor nanocrystals probed by anisotropy measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadar, Ido; Abir, Tsafrir; Halivni, Shira; Faust, Adam; Banin, Uri

    2015-10-12

    Colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals (NC) have reached a high level of synthetic control allowing the tuning of their properties, and their use in various applications. However, the surface of NCs and in particular their size-dependent capping organic ligand behavior, which play an important role in the NC synthesis, dispersibility, and optoelectronic properties, is still not well understood. We study the size-dependent properties of the ligand shell on the surface of NCs, by embedding surface bound dyes as a probe within the ligand shell. The reorientation times for these dyes show a linear dependence on the NC surface curvature indicating size-dependent change in viscosity, which is related to a change in the density of the ligand layer because of the geometry of the surface, a unique feature of NCs. Understanding the properties of the ligand shell will allow rational design of the surface to achieve the desired properties, providing an additional important knob for tuning their functionality.

  15. Grain Size Dependence of Uniform Elongation in Single-Phase FCC/BCC Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haiting; Shen, Yao; Ma, Jiawei; Zheng, Pengfei; Zhang, Lei

    2016-09-01

    We studied the dependence of uniform elongation on grain size in the range of submicron to millimeter for single-phase FCC/BCC metals by reviewing recent experimental results and applying crystal plasticity finite element method simulation. In the order of increasing grain size, uniform elongation can be divided into three stages, namely low elongation stage, nearly constant elongation stage, and decreased elongation with large scatters stage. Low elongation stage features a dramatic increase near the critical grain size at the end of the stage, which is primarily attributed to the emergence of dislocation cell size transition from ultrafine to mid-size grain. Other factors can be neglected due to their negligible influence on overall variation trend. In nearly constant elongation stage, uniform elongation remains unchanged at a high level in general. As grain size keeps growing, uniform elongation starts decreasing and becomes scattered upon a certain grain size, indicating the initiation of decreased elongation with large scatters stage. It is shown that the increase is not linear or smooth but rather sharp at the end of low elongation stage, leading to a wider range in nearly constant elongation stage. The grain size dependence of uniform elongation can serve as a guiding principle for designing small uniaxial tensile specimens for mechanical testing, where size effect matters in most cases.

  16. Chromatic polynomials of random graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bussel, Frank; Ehrlich, Christoph; Fliegner, Denny; Stolzenberg, Sebastian; Timme, Marc

    2010-04-01

    Chromatic polynomials and related graph invariants are central objects in both graph theory and statistical physics. Computational difficulties, however, have so far restricted studies of such polynomials to graphs that were either very small, very sparse or highly structured. Recent algorithmic advances (Timme et al 2009 New J. Phys. 11 023001) now make it possible to compute chromatic polynomials for moderately sized graphs of arbitrary structure and number of edges. Here we present chromatic polynomials of ensembles of random graphs with up to 30 vertices, over the entire range of edge density. We specifically focus on the locations of the zeros of the polynomial in the complex plane. The results indicate that the chromatic zeros of random graphs have a very consistent layout. In particular, the crossing point, the point at which the chromatic zeros with non-zero imaginary part approach the real axis, scales linearly with the average degree over most of the density range. While the scaling laws obtained are purely empirical, if they continue to hold in general there are significant implications: the crossing points of chromatic zeros in the thermodynamic limit separate systems with zero ground state entropy from systems with positive ground state entropy, the latter an exception to the third law of thermodynamics.

  17. A limit law of almost $l$-partite graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Koponen, Vera

    2012-01-01

    For integers $l \\geq 2$, $d \\geq 1$ we study (undirected) graphs with vertices $1, ..., n$ such that the vertices can be partitioned into $l$ parts such that every vertex has at most $d$ neighbours in its own part. The set of all such graphs is denoted $\\mbP_n(l,d)$. We prove a labelled first-order limit law, i.e., for every first-order sentence $\\varphi$, the proportion of graphs in $\\mbP_n(l,d)$ that satisfy $\\varphi$ converges as $n \\to \\infty$. By combining this result with a result of Hundack, Pr\\"omel and Steger \\cite{HPS} we also prove that if $1 \\leq s_1 \\leq ... \\leq s_l$ are integers, then $\\mb{Forb}(\\mcK_{1, s_1, ..., s_l})$ has a labelled first-order limit law, where $\\mb{Forb}(\\mcK_{1, s_1, ..., s_l})$ denotes the set of all graphs with vertices $1, ..., n$, for some $n$, in which there is no subgraph isomorphic to the complete $(l+1)$-partite graph with parts of sizes $1, s_1, ..., s_l$. In the course of doing this we also prove that there exists a first-order formula $\\xi(x,y)$ (depending only ...

  18. Size-dependent nonlinear optical properties of atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenide nanosheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kai-Ge; Zhao, Min; Chang, Meng-Jie; Wang, Qiang; Wu, Xin-Zhi; Song, Yinglin; Zhang, Hao-Li

    2015-02-11

    Size-dependent nonlinear optical properties of modification-free transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) nanosheets are reported, including MoS2 , WS2 , and NbSe2 . Firstly, a gradient centrifugation method is demonstrated to separate the TMD nanosheets into different sizes. The successful size separation allows the study of size-dependent nonlinear optical properties of nanoscale TMD materials for the first time. Z-scan measurements indicate that the dispersion of MoS2 and WS2 nanosheets that are 50-60 nm thick leads to reverse saturable absorption (RSA), which is in contrast to the saturable absorption (SA) seen in the thicker samples. Moreover, the NbSe2 nanosheets show no size-dependent effects because of their metallic nature. The mechanism behind the size-dependent nonlinear optical properties of the semiconductive TMD nanosheets is revealed by transient transmission spectra measurements. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. CUDA Enabled Graph Subset Examiner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-12-22

    Finding Godsil-McKay switching sets in graphs is one way to demonstrate that a specific graph is not determined by its spectrum--the eigenvalues of its adjacency matrix. An important area of active research in pure mathematics is determining which graphs are determined by their spectra, i.e. when the spectrum of the adjacency matrix uniquely determines the underlying graph. We are interested in exploring the spectra of graphs in the Johnson scheme and specifically seek to determine which of these graphs are determined by their spectra. Given a graph G, a Godsil-McKay switching set is an induced subgraph H on 2k vertices with the following properties: I) H is regular, ii) every vertex in G/H is adjacent to either 0, k, or 2k vertices of H, and iii) at least one vertex in G/H is adjacent to k vertices in H. The software package examines each subset of a user specified size to determine whether or not it satisfies those 3 conditions. The software makes use of the massive parallel processing power of CUDA enabled GPUs. It also exploits the vertex transitivity of graphs in the Johnson scheme by reasoning that if G has a Godsil-McKay switching set, then it has a switching set which includes vertex 1. While the code (in its current state) is tuned to this specific problem, the method of examining each induced subgraph of G can be easily re-written to check for any user specified conditions on the subgraphs and can therefore be used much more broadly.

  20. Modeling size-dependent photosynthesis: light absorption and the allometric rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Z V; Irwin, A J

    2000-06-07

    Microalgal photosynthesis can be predicted using empirical allometric or mechanistic bio-optic models. These two descriptions are usually considered independently. We compare the size scaling of photosynthesis predicted by these two models. Size scaling exponents for phytoplankton often deviate from the allometric 3/4 rule. This may be because the allometric model does not account for the size dependence of light absorption and its effect on the size scaling of photosynthesis. In contrast to the allometric model and experimental data, the bio-optic model predicts photosynthesis should be independent of cell size when intracellular pigment concentrations are low or inversely related to cell diameter. A composite of the allometric and bio-optic models is described and compared to laboratory data of light-limited nutrient-saturated diatom photosynthesis. The allo-bio-optic model provides a mechanistic explanation for the anomalous size scaling found in laboratory and field studies of microalgal photosynthesis and growth.

  1. Effective size of density-dependent two-sex populations: the effect of mating systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhre, A M; Engen, S; SAEther, B-E

    2017-08-01

    Density dependence in vital rates is a key feature affecting temporal fluctuations of natural populations. This has important implications for the rate of random genetic drift. Mating systems also greatly affect effective population sizes, but knowledge of how mating system and density regulation interact to affect random genetic drift is poor. Using theoretical models and simulations, we compare Ne in short-lived, density-dependent animal populations with different mating systems. We study the impact of a fluctuating, density-dependent sex ratio and consider both a stable and a fluctuating environment. We find a negative relationship between annual Ne /N and adult population size N due to density dependence, suggesting that loss of genetic variation is reduced at small densities. The magnitude of this decrease was affected by mating system and life history. A male-biased, density-dependent sex ratio reduces the rate of genetic drift compared to an equal, density-independent sex ratio, but a stochastic change towards male bias reduces the Ne /N ratio. Environmental stochasticity amplifies temporal fluctuations in population size and is thus vital to consider in estimation of effective population sizes over longer time periods. Our results on the reduced loss of genetic variation at small densities, particularly in polygamous populations, indicate that density regulation may facilitate adaptive evolution at small population sizes. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  2. Graphs of Hecke operators

    CERN Document Server

    Lorscheid, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    Let $X$ be a curve over $\\F_q$ with function field $F$. In this paper, we define a graph for each Hecke operator with fixed ramification. A priori, these graphs can be seen as a convenient language to organize formulas for the action of Hecke operators on automorphic forms. However, they will prove to be a powerful tool for explicit calculations and proofs of finite dimensionality results. We develop a structure theory for certain graphs $G_x$ of unramified Hecke operators, which is of a similar vein to Serre's theory of quotients of Bruhat Tits trees. To be precise, $G_x$ is locally a quotient of a Bruhat Tits tree and has finitely many components. An interpretation of $G_x$ in terms of rank 2 bundles on $X$ and methods from reduction theory show that $G_x$ is the union of finitely many cusps, which are infinite subgraphs of a simple nature, and a nucleus, which is a finite subgraph that depends heavily on the arithmetics of $F$. We describe how one recovers unramified automorphic forms as functions on the g...

  3. Size of pancreas in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: a study based on CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ju Won; Yoon, Soon Min; Yoon, Mi Jin; Song, Moon Gab; Kim, Yoon Suk; Yoon, Young Kyu [Eulji General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jun, Se June [Incheon-Christian Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-02-01

    To evaluate changes of pancreatic size with aging in control subjects and in non-insulin- dependent diabetic patients. Two groups of non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients were examined; one had been treated with an oral hypoglycemic agent(n=59), and the other with insulin(n=56). The CT findings of 175 patients without clinical evidence of pancreatic disease were included as a normal control. In control subjects, pancreatic size and age correlated. The pancreas was smaller in non-insulin-dependent diabetics than in control subjects and smaller in insulin- treated non-insulin-dependent diabetics than in non-insulin treated patients. The pancreas was smaller in non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients than in control subjects within the same age range.

  4. Graphing Polar Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawes, Jonathan F.

    2013-01-01

    Graphing polar curves typically involves a combination of three traditional techniques, all of which can be time-consuming and tedious. However, an alternative method--graphing the polar function on a rectangular plane--simplifies graphing, increases student understanding of the polar coordinate system, and reinforces graphing techniques learned…

  5. Linearized Wenger graphs

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Motivated by recent extensive studies on Wenger graphs, we introduce a new infinite class of bipartite graphs of a similar type, called linearized Wenger graphs. The spectrum, diameter and girth of these linearized Wenger graphs are determined.

  6. Complexity Results on Graphs with Few Cliques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Rosgen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A graph class has few cliques if there is a polynomial bound on the number of maximal cliques contained in any member of the class. This restriction is equivalent to the requirement that any graph in the class has a polynomial sized intersection representation that satisfies the Helly property. On any such class of graphs, some problems that are NP-complete on general graphs, such as the maximum clique problem and the maximum weighted clique problem, admit polynomial time algorithms. Other problems, such as the vertex clique cover and edge clique cover problems remain NP-complete on these classes. Several classes of graphs which have few cliques are discussed, and the complexity of some partitioning and covering problems are determined for the class of all graphs which have fewer cliques than a given polynomial bound.

  7. Information Spreading in Dynamic Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Clementi, Andrea; Trevisan, Luca

    2011-01-01

    We present a general approach to study the flooding time (a measure of how fast information spreads) in dynamic graphs (graphs whose topology changes with time according to a random process). We consider arbitrary converging Markovian dynamic graph process, that is, processes in which the topology of the graph at time $t$ depends only on its topology at time $t-1$ and which have a unique stationary distribution. The most well studied models of dynamic graphs are all Markovian and converging. Under general conditions, we bound the flooding time in terms of the mixing time of the dynamic graph process. We recover, as special cases of our result, bounds on the flooding time for the \\emph{random trip} model and the \\emph{random path} models; previous analysis techniques provided bounds only in restricted settings for such models. Our result also provides the first bound for the \\emph{random waypoint} model (which is tight for certain ranges of parameters) whose analysis had been an important open question.

  8. Particle size dependent heat of adsorption for CO on supported Pd nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer-Wolfarth, Jan-Henrik; Flores-Camacho, Jose Manuel; Hartmann, Jens; Schauermann, Swetlana; Freund, Hans-Joachim [Fritz-Haber-Institute, Max-Planck-Society, Faradayweg 4-6, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Farmer, Jason; Campbell, Charles [Department of Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle (United States)

    2010-07-01

    The particle size dependence of the heat of adsorption for carbon monoxide on supported Pd nanoparticles has been investigated at 300 K with a new single crystal microcalorimeter and compared to the heat of adsorption on Pd(111). The average Pd particle size was varied systematically in the range of 100 to 4900 Pd atoms, i.e. 2 to 8 nm diameter. All nanoparticles were supported on Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}(111)/Pt(111). The initial heat of adsorption was found to decrease monotonically with decreasing particle size below 4 nm. The correlation of the heat of adsorption with a particle size dependent reduction of the particle lattice constant is discussed. Further, the microcalorimetry technique used to determine the adsorption energies and its performance is presented.

  9. Size and voltage dependence of effective anisotropy in sub-100-nm perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Stephan K.; Bapna, Mukund; Oberdick, Samuel D.; Majetich, Sara A.; Li, Mingen; Chien, C. L.; Ahmed, Rizvi; Victora, R. H.

    2016-07-01

    Magnetic tunnel junctions with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy are investigated using a conductive atomic force microscope. The 1.23 -nm Co40Fe40B20 recording layer coercivity exhibits a size dependence which suggests single-domain behavior for diameters ≤100 nm. Focusing on devices with diameters smaller than 100 nm, we determine the effect of voltage and size on the effective device anisotropy Keff using two different techniques. Keff is extracted both from distributions of the switching fields of the recording and reference layers and from measurement of thermal fluctuations of the recording layer magnetization when a field close to the switching field is applied. The results from both sets of measurements reveal that Keff increases monotonically with decreasing junction diameter, consistent with the size dependence of the demagnetization energy density. We demonstrate that Keff can be controlled with a voltage down to the smallest size measured, 64 nm.

  10. Chaotic dynamics of the size-dependent non-linear micro-beam model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysko, A. V.; Awrejcewicz, J.; Pavlov, S. P.; Zhigalov, M. V.; Krysko, V. A.

    2017-09-01

    In this work, a size-dependent model of a Sheremetev-Pelekh-Reddy-Levinson micro-beam is proposed and validated using the couple stress theory, taking into account large deformations. The applied Hamilton's principle yields the governing PDEs and boundary conditions. A comparison of statics and dynamics of beams with and without size-dependent components is carried out. It is shown that the proposed model results in significant, both qualitative and quantitative, changes in the nature of beam deformations, in comparison to the so far employed standard models. A novel scenario of transition from regular to chaotic vibrations of the size-dependent Sheremetev-Pelekh model, following the Pomeau-Manneville route to chaos, is also detected and illustrated, among others.

  11. Size dependence of the surface tension of a free surface of an isotropic fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burian, Sergii; Isaiev, Mykola; Termentzidis, Konstantinos; Sysoev, Vladimir; Bulavin, Leonid

    2017-06-01

    We report on the size dependence of the surface tension of a free surface of an isotropic fluid. The size dependence of the surface tension is evaluated based on the Gibbs-Tolman-Koenig-Buff equation for positive and negative values of curvatures and the Tolman lengths. For all combinations of positive and negative signs of curvature and the Tolman length, we succeed to have a continuous function, avoiding the existing discontinuity at zero curvature (flat interfaces). As an example, a water droplet in the thermodynamical equilibrium with the vapor is analyzed in detail. The size dependence of the surface tension and the Tolman length are evaluated with the use of experimental data of the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam. The evaluated Tolman length of our approach is in good agreement with molecular dynamics and experimental data.

  12. Fundamental cycles and graph embeddings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate fundamental cycles in a graph G and their relations with graph embeddings. We show that a graph G may be embedded in an orientable surface with genus at least g if and only if for any spanning tree T , there exists a sequence of fundamental cycles C1, C2, . . . , C2g with C2i-1 ∩ C2i≠ф for 1≤ i ≤g. In particular, among β(G) fundamental cycles of any spanning tree T of a graph G, there are exactly 2γM (G) cycles C1, C2, . . . , C2γM (G) such that C2i-1 ∩ C2i≠ф for 1 ≤i≤γM (G), where β(G) and γM (G) are the Betti number and the maximum genus of G, respectively. This implies that it is possible to construct an orientable embedding with large genus of a graph G from an arbitrary spanning tree T (which may have very large number of odd components in G\\E(T )). This is different from the earlier work of Xuong and Liu, where spanning trees with small odd components are needed. In fact, this makes a common generalization of Xuong, Liu and Fu et al. Furthermore, we show that (1) this result is useful for locating the maximum genus of a graph having a specific edge-cut. Some known results for embedded graphs are also concluded; (2) the maximum genus problem may be reduced to the maximum matching problem. Based on this result and the algorithm of Micali-Vazirani, we present a new efficient algorithm to determine the maximum genus of a graph in O((β(G)) 25 ) steps. Our method is straight and quite different from the algorithm of Furst, Gross and McGeoch which depends on a result of Giles where matroid parity method is needed.

  13. Size dependent nonlinear optical properties of YCrO{sub 3} nanosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, Shiji, E-mail: shijikrish@gmail.com [School of Pure and Applied Physics, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam-686 560, Kerala (India); Shafakath, K.; Philip, Reji [Light and Matter Physics Group, Raman Research Institute, Bangalore- 560 080, Karnataka (India); Kalarikkal, Nandakumar, E-mail: nkkalarikkal@mgu.ac.in [School of Pure and Applied Physics, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam-686 560, Kerala and Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam-686 560, Kerala (India)

    2014-01-28

    We report size-dependent optical limiting response of YCrO{sub 3} nanosystems upon illumination by nanosecond laser pulses at 532 nm. The limiting properties were investigated using the open aperture z-scan technique. Three-photon absorption coefficient is found to increase with particle size within the range of our investigations. We propose that the obtained nonlinearity is caused by two photon absorption, followed by excited state absorption.

  14. Size-dependent axisymmetric vibration of functionally graded circular plates in bifurcation/limit point instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashoori, A. R.; Vanini, S. A. Sadough; Salari, E.

    2017-04-01

    In the present paper, vibration behavior of size-dependent functionally graded (FG) circular microplates subjected to thermal loading are carried out in pre/post-buckling of bifurcation/limit-load instability for the first time. Two kinds of frequently used thermal loading, i.e., uniform temperature rise and heat conduction across the thickness direction are considered. Thermo-mechanical material properties of FG plate are supposed to vary smoothly and continuously throughout the thickness based on power law model. Modified couple stress theory is exploited to describe the size dependency of microplate. The nonlinear governing equations of motion and associated boundary conditions are extracted through generalized form of Hamilton's principle and von-Karman geometric nonlinearity for the vibration analysis of circular FG plates including size effects. Ritz finite element method is then employed to construct the matrix representation of governing equations which are solved by two different strategies including Newton-Raphson scheme and cylindrical arc-length method. Moreover, in the following a parametric study is accompanied to examine the effects of the several parameters such as material length scale parameter, temperature distributions, type of buckling, thickness to radius ratio, boundary conditions and power law index on the dimensionless frequency of post-buckled/snapped size-dependent FG plates in detail. It is found that the material length scale parameter and thermal loading have a significant effect on vibration characteristics of size-dependent circular FG plates.

  15. Size dependent magnetic and electrical properties of Ba-doped nanocrystalline BiFeO3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehedi Hasan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Improvement in magnetic and electrical properties of multiferroic BiFeO3 in conjunction with their dependence on particle size is crucial due to its potential applications in multifunctional miniaturized devices. In this investigation, we report a study on particle size dependent structural, magnetic and electrical properties of sol-gel derived Bi0.9Ba0.1FeO3 nanoparticles of different sizes ranging from ∼ 12 to 49 nm. The substitution of Bi by Ba significantly suppresses oxygen vacancies, reduces leakage current density and Fe2+ state. An improvement in both magnetic and electrical properties is observed for 10 % Ba-doped BiFeO3 nanoparticles compared to its undoped counterpart. The saturation magnetization of Bi0.9Ba0.1FeO3 nanoparticles increase with reducing particle size in contrast with a decreasing trend of ferroelectric polarization. Moreover, a first order metamagnetic transition is noticed for ∼ 49 nm Bi0.9Ba0.1FeO3 nanoparticles which disappeared with decreasing particle size. The observed strong size dependent multiferroic properties are attributed to the complex interaction between vacancy induced crystallographic defects, multiple valence states of Fe, uncompensated surface spins, crystallographic distortion and suppression of spiral spin cycloid of BiFeO3.

  16. Size-dependent photoacclimation of the phytoplankton community in temperate shelf waters (southern Bay of Biscay)

    KAUST Repository

    Álvarez, E

    2015-12-09

    © Inter-Research 2016. Shelf waters of the Cantabrian Sea (southern Bay of Biscay) are productive ecosystems with a marked seasonality. We present the results from 1 yr of monthly monitoring of the phytoplankton community together with an intensive sampling carried out in 2 contrasting scenarios during the summer and autumn in a mid-shelf area. Stratification was apparent on the shelf in summer, while the water column was comparatively well mixed in autumn. The size structure of the photoautotrophic community, from pico-to micro-phytoplankton, was tightly coupled with the meteo-climatic and hydrographical conditions. Over the short term, variations in the size structure and chlorophyll content of phytoplankton cells were related to changes in the physico-chemical environment, through changes in the availability of nutrients and light. Uncoupling between the dynamics of carbon biomass and chlorophyll resulted in chlorophyll to carbon ratios dependent on body size. The slope of the size dependence of chlorophyll content increased with increasing irradiance, reflecting different photoacclimation plasticity from pico-to micro-phytoplankton. The results have important implications for the productivity and the fate of biogenic carbon in this region, since the size dependence of photosynthetic rates is directly related to the size scaling of chlorophyll content.

  17. Scale-dependent feedbacks between patch size and plant reproduction in desert grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svejcar, Lauren N.; Bestelmeyer, Brandon T.; Duniway, Michael C.; James, Darren K.

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical models suggest that scale-dependent feedbacks between plant reproductive success and plant patch size govern transitions from highly to sparsely vegetated states in drylands, yet there is scant empirical evidence for these mechanisms. Scale-dependent feedback models suggest that an optimal patch size exists for growth and reproduction of plants and that a threshold patch organization exists below which positive feedbacks between vegetation and resources can break down, leading to critical transitions. We examined the relationship between patch size and plant reproduction using an experiment in a Chihuahuan Desert grassland. We tested the hypothesis that reproductive effort and success of a dominant grass (Bouteloua eriopoda) would vary predictably with patch size. We found that focal plants in medium-sized patches featured higher rates of grass reproductive success than when plants occupied either large patch interiors or small patches. These patterns support the existence of scale-dependent feedbacks in Chihuahuan Desert grasslands and indicate an optimal patch size for reproductive effort and success in B. eriopoda. We discuss the implications of these results for detecting ecological thresholds in desert grasslands.

  18. Size-dependent melting of nanoparticles: Hundred years of thermodynamic model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K K Nanda

    2009-04-01

    Thermodynamic model first published in 1909, is being used extensively to understand the size-dependent melting of nanoparticles. Pawlow deduced an expression for the size-dependent melting temperature of small particles based on the thermodynamic model which was then modified and applied to different nanostructures such as nanowires, prism-shaped nanoparticles, etc. The model has also been modified to understand the melting of supported nanoparticles and superheating of embedded nanoparticles. In this article, we have reviewed the melting behaviour of nanostructures reported in the literature since 1909.

  19. Finding Light Spanners in Bounded Pathwidth Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Grigni, Michelangelo

    2011-01-01

    Given an edge-weighted graph $G$ and $\\epsilon>0$, a $(1+\\epsilon)$-spanner is a spanning subgraph $G'$ whose shortest path distances approximate those of $G$ within a $(1+\\epsilon)$ factor. If $G$ is from certain minor-closed graph families (at least bounded genus graphs and apex graphs), then we know that light spanners exist. That is, we can compute a $(1+\\epsilon)$-spanner $G'$ with total edge weight at most a constant times the weight of a minimum spanning tree. This constant may depend on $\\epsilon$ and the graph family, but not on the particular graph $G$ nor on its edge weighting. For weighted graphs from several minor-closed graph families, the existence of light spanners has been essential in the design of approximation schemes for the metric TSP (the traveling salesman problem) and some similar problems. In this paper we make some progress towards the conjecture that light spanners exist for every minor-closed graph family. In particular, we show that they exist for graphs with bounded pathwidth. W...

  20. Determining the size-dependent structure of ligand-free gold-cluster ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schooss, Detlef; Weis, Patrick; Hampe, Oliver; Kappes, Manfred M

    2010-03-28

    Ligand-free metal clusters can be prepared over a wide size range, but only in comparatively small amounts. Determining their size-dependent properties has therefore required the development of experimental methods that allow characterization of sample sizes comprising only a few thousand mass-selected particles under well-defined collision-free conditions. In this review, we describe the application of these methods to the geometric structural determination of Au(n)(+) and Au(n)(-) with n = 3-20. Geometries were assigned by comparing experimental data, primarily from ion-mobility spectrometry and trapped ion electron diffraction, to structural models from quantum chemical calculations.

  1. Dependence of Nanofluid Viscosity on Particle Size and pH Value

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jia-Fei; LUO Zhong-Yang; NI Ming-Jiang; CEN Ke-Fa

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the viscosity of silicon dioxide nanofluid at different particle sizes and pH values considering nanoparticle aggregation.The experimental and simulation results indicate that nanoparticle size is of crucial importance to the viscosity of the nanofluid due to aggregation.As the nanoparticle size decreases,the viscosity becomes much more dependent on the volume fraction.Moreover,when the nanoparticle diameter is smaller than 20 rim,the viscosity is closely related to the pH of the nanofluid,and fluctuates with pH values from 5 and 7.

  2. Van der Waals coefficients for alkali metal clusters and their size dependence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arup Banerjee; Manoj K Harbola

    2006-02-01

    In this paper we employ the hydrodynamic formulation of time-dependent density functional theory to obtain the van der Waals coefficients 6 and 8 of alkali metal clusters of various sizes including very large clusters. Such calculations become computationally very demanding in the orbital-based Kohn-Sham formalism, but are quite simple in the hydrodynamic approach. We show that for interactions between the clusters of the same sizes, 6 and 8 scale as the sixth and the eighth power of the cluster radius, respectively, and approach their classically predicted values for the large size clusters.

  3. Perceived relative distance depends on the size ratio of targets in photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takezawa, Tomomi

    2013-01-01

    Focussing on the relationship between distance perception in photographs and the image sizes of the targets on the photographic surface, it is shown that the perceived relative distances between near and far targets depends on their image size ratios. Two targets of the same physical size were placed at fixed distances from each other and their photographs were taken. The image size of the near target was kept constant and the size ratio of the far target image was controlled by manipulating the camera-to-target distances appropriate to the focal lengths of the lenses. Forty undergraduates viewed the photographs and placed an actual target at the same relative distance to the near target as seen in the photographs. The results showed that the smaller the size ratios, the larger the perceived relative distances even when the actual relative distances remained the same. In addition, the perceived relative distance was smaller than the actual relative distance even in the condition where the retinal sizes of the two target images matched the retinal sizes of the actual targets seen from the camera position. However, it was found that the perceived relative distance could approximate the actual relative distance if the size ratio were further reduced.

  4. Does the size distribution of mineral dust aerosols depend on the wind speed at emission?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Kok

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The size distribution of mineral dust aerosols greatly affects their interactions with clouds, radiation, ecosystems, and other components of the Earth system. Several theoretical dust emission models predict that the dust size distribution depends on the wind speed at emission, with larger wind speeds predicted to produce smaller aerosols. The present study investigates this prediction using a compilation of published measurements of the size-resolved vertical dust flux emitted by eroding soils. Surprisingly, these measurements indicate that the size distribution of naturally emitted dust aerosols is independent of the wind speed. This finding is consistent with the recently formulated brittle fragmentation theory of dust emission, but inconsistent with other theoretical dust emission models. The independence of the emitted dust size distribution with wind speed simplifies both the parameterization of dust emission in atmospheric circulation models as well as the interpretation of geological records of dust deposition.

  5. Does the size distribution of mineral dust aerosols depend on the wind speed at emission?

    CERN Document Server

    Kok, Jasper F

    2011-01-01

    The size distribution of mineral dust aerosols partially determines their interactions with clouds, radiation, ecosystems, and other components of the Earth system. Several theoretical models predict that the dust size distribution depends on the wind speed at emission, with larger wind speeds predicted to produce smaller aerosols. The present study investigates this prediction using a compilation of published measurements of the size-resolved vertical dust flux emitted by eroding soils. Surprisingly, these measurements indicate that the size distribution of naturally emitted dust aerosols is independent of the wind speed. The recently formulated brittle fragmentation theory of dust emission is consistent with this finding, whereas other theoretical dust emission models are not. The independence of the emitted dust size distribution with wind speed simplifies both the interpretation of geological records of dust deposition and the parameterization of dust emission in atmospheric circulation models.

  6. Size dependence of 13C nuclear spin-lattice relaxation in micro- and nanodiamonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panich, A. M.; Sergeev, N. A.; Shames, A. I.; Osipov, V. Yu; Boudou, J.-P.; Goren, S. D.

    2015-02-01

    Size dependence of physical properties of nanodiamond particles is of crucial importance for various applications in which defect density and location as well as relaxation processes play a significant role. In this work, the impact of defects induced by milling of micron-sized synthetic diamonds was studied by magnetic resonance techniques as a function of the particle size. EPR and 13C NMR studies of highly purified commercial synthetic micro- and nanodiamonds were done for various fractions separated by sizes. Noticeable acceleration of 13C nuclear spin-lattice relaxation with decreasing particle size was found. We showed that this effect is caused by the contribution to relaxation coming from the surface paramagnetic centers induced by sample milling. The developed theory of the spin-lattice relaxation for such a case shows good compliance with the experiment.

  7. Size dependence of 13C nuclear spin-lattice relaxation in micro- and nanodiamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panich, A M; Sergeev, N A; Shames, A I; Osipov, V Yu; Boudou, J-P; Goren, S D

    2015-02-25

    Size dependence of physical properties of nanodiamond particles is of crucial importance for various applications in which defect density and location as well as relaxation processes play a significant role. In this work, the impact of defects induced by milling of micron-sized synthetic diamonds was studied by magnetic resonance techniques as a function of the particle size. EPR and (13)C NMR studies of highly purified commercial synthetic micro- and nanodiamonds were done for various fractions separated by sizes. Noticeable acceleration of (13)C nuclear spin-lattice relaxation with decreasing particle size was found. We showed that this effect is caused by the contribution to relaxation coming from the surface paramagnetic centers induced by sample milling. The developed theory of the spin-lattice relaxation for such a case shows good compliance with the experiment.

  8. Noise-Induced Transitions in a Population Growth Model Based on Size-Dependent Carrying Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeme Lumi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The stochastic dynamics of a population growth model with size-dependent carrying capacity is considered. The effect of a fluctuating environment on population growth is modeled as a multiplicative dichotomous noise. At intermediate values of population size the deterministic counterpart of the model behaves similarly to the Von Foerster model for human population, but at small and very large values of population size substantial differences occur. In the stochastic case, an exact analytical solution for the stationary probability distribution is found. It is established that variation of noise correlation time can cause noise-induced transitions between three different states of the system characterized by qualitatively different behaviors of the probability distributions of the population size. Also, it is shown that, in some regions of the system parameters, variation of the amplitude of environmental fluctuations can induce single unidirectional abrupt transitions of the mean population size.

  9. Analytical Investigation of Prior Austenite Grain Size Dependence of Low Temperature Toughness in Steel Weld Metal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X.F. Zhang; P. Hall; H. Terasak; M. Sato; Y. Komizo

    2012-01-01

    Prior austenite grain size dependence of the low temperature impact toughness has been addressed in the bainitic weld metals by in situ observations.Usually,decreasing the grain size is the only approach by which both the strength and the toughness of a steel are increased.However,low carbon bainitic steel with small grain size shows a weakening of the low temperature impact toughness in this study.By direct tracking of the morphological evolution during phase transformation,it is found that large austenite grain size dominates the nucleation of intragranular acicular ferrite,whereas small austenite grain size leads to grain boundary nucleation of bainite.This kinetics information will contribute to meet the increasing low temperature toughness requirement of weld metals for the storage tanks and offshore structures.

  10. Continuous Size-Dependent Sorting of Ferromagnetic Nanoparticles in Laser-Ablated Microchannel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiqiang Fan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a low-cost method of continuous size-dependent sorting of magnetic nanoparticles in polymer-based microfluidic devices by magnetic force. A neodymium permanent magnet was used to generate a magnetic field perpendicular to the fluid flow direction. Firstly, FeNi3 magnetic nanoparticles were chemically synthesized with diameter ranges from 80 nm to 200 nm; then, the solution of magnetic nanoparticles and a buffer were passed through the microchannel in laminar flow; the magnetic nanoparticles were deflected from the flow direction under the applied magnetic field. Nanoparticles in the microchannel will move towards the direction of high-gradient magnetic fields, and the degree of deflection depends on their sizes; therefore, magnetic nanoparticles of different sizes can be separated and finally collected from different output ports. The proposed method offers a rapid and continuous approach of preparing magnetic nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution from an arbitrary particle size distribution. The proposed new method has many potential applications in bioanalysis field since magnetic nanoparticles are commonly used as solid support for biological entities such as DNA, RNA, virus, and protein. Other than the size sorting application of magnetic nanoparticles, this approach could also be used for the size sorting and separation of naturally magnetic cells, including blood cells and magnetotactic bacteria.

  11. Triangle Counting in Dynamic Graph Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulteau, Laurent; Froese, Vincent; Pagh, Rasmus;

    2015-01-01

    Estimating the number of triangles in graph streams using a limited amount of memory has become a popular topic in the last decade. Different variations of the problem have been studied, depending on whether the graph edges are provided in an arbitrary order or as incidence lists. However...... combining sampling of vertex triples and sparsification of the input graph. In the course of the analysis of the algorithm we present a lower bound on the number of pairwise independent 2-paths in general graphs which might be of independent interest. At the end of the paper we discuss lower bounds...

  12. Parameter specification for the degree distribution of simulated Barabási-Albert graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd-Zaid, Fairul; Kabban, Christine M. Schubert; Deckro, Richard F.; White, Edward D.

    2017-01-01

    The degree distribution of a simulated Barabási-Albert graph under linear preferential attachment is investigated. Specifically, the parameters of the power law distribution are estimated and compared against the theoretical values derived using mean field theory. Least squares method and MLE-nonparametric method were utilized to estimate the distribution parameters on 1000 simulated Barabási-Albert graphs for edge parameter m ∈ { 2 , 4 , 6 } and size n ∈ {2k : k = 5 , 6 , … , 14 , 15 } . Goodness of fit metrics were computed on a second set of simulated graphs for the median of the estimated parameters and other hypothetical values for the distribution parameters. The results suggest that the distribution of the parameters from simulated graphs are significantly different from the theoretical distribution and is also dependent on m. Further results confirm the finding that the parameter of the power law distribution, β, increases as m increases.

  13. Modelling size-dependent cannibalism in barramundi Lates calcarifer: cannibalistic polyphenism and its implication to aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Flavio F; Qin, Jian G

    2013-01-01

    This study quantified size-dependent cannibalism in barramundi Lates calcarifer through coupling a range of prey-predator pairs in a different range of fish sizes. Predictive models were developed using morphological traits with the alterative assumption of cannibalistic polyphenism. Predictive models were validated with the data from trials where cannibals were challenged with progressing increments of prey sizes. The experimental observations showed that cannibals of 25-131 mm total length could ingest the conspecific prey of 78-72% cannibal length. In the validation test, all predictive models underestimate the maximum ingestible prey size for cannibals of a similar size range. However, the model based on the maximal mouth width at opening closely matched the empirical observations, suggesting a certain degree of phenotypic plasticity of mouth size among cannibalistic individuals. Mouth size showed allometric growth comparing with body depth, resulting in a decreasing trend on the maximum size of ingestible prey as cannibals grow larger, which in parts explains why cannibalism in barramundi is frequently observed in the early developmental stage. Any barramundi has the potential to become a cannibal when the initial prey size was cannibal body length, but fish could never become a cannibal when prey were >58% of their size, suggesting that 50% of size difference can be the threshold to initiate intracohort cannibalism in a barramundi population. Cannibalistic polyphenism was likely to occur in barramundi that had a cannibalistic history. An experienced cannibal would have a greater ability to stretch its mouth size to capture a much larger prey than the models predict. The awareness of cannibalistic polyphenism has important application in fish farming management to reduce cannibalism.

  14. Modelling size-dependent cannibalism in barramundi Lates calcarifer: cannibalistic polyphenism and its implication to aquaculture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio F Ribeiro

    Full Text Available This study quantified size-dependent cannibalism in barramundi Lates calcarifer through coupling a range of prey-predator pairs in a different range of fish sizes. Predictive models were developed using morphological traits with the alterative assumption of cannibalistic polyphenism. Predictive models were validated with the data from trials where cannibals were challenged with progressing increments of prey sizes. The experimental observations showed that cannibals of 25-131 mm total length could ingest the conspecific prey of 78-72% cannibal length. In the validation test, all predictive models underestimate the maximum ingestible prey size for cannibals of a similar size range. However, the model based on the maximal mouth width at opening closely matched the empirical observations, suggesting a certain degree of phenotypic plasticity of mouth size among cannibalistic individuals. Mouth size showed allometric growth comparing with body depth, resulting in a decreasing trend on the maximum size of ingestible prey as cannibals grow larger, which in parts explains why cannibalism in barramundi is frequently observed in the early developmental stage. Any barramundi has the potential to become a cannibal when the initial prey size was 58% of their size, suggesting that 50% of size difference can be the threshold to initiate intracohort cannibalism in a barramundi population. Cannibalistic polyphenism was likely to occur in barramundi that had a cannibalistic history. An experienced cannibal would have a greater ability to stretch its mouth size to capture a much larger prey than the models predict. The awareness of cannibalistic polyphenism has important application in fish farming management to reduce cannibalism.

  15. Frictional behaviour of sandstone: A sample-size dependent triaxial investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshan, Hamid; Masoumi, Hossein; Regenauer-Lieb, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Frictional behaviour of rocks from the initial stage of loading to final shear displacement along the formed shear plane has been widely investigated in the past. However the effect of sample size on such frictional behaviour has not attracted much attention. This is mainly related to the limitations in rock testing facilities as well as the complex mechanisms involved in sample-size dependent frictional behaviour of rocks. In this study, a suite of advanced triaxial experiments was performed on Gosford sandstone samples at different sizes and confining pressures. The post-peak response of the rock along the formed shear plane has been captured for the analysis with particular interest in sample-size dependency. Several important phenomena have been observed from the results of this study: a) the rate of transition from brittleness to ductility in rock is sample-size dependent where the relatively smaller samples showed faster transition toward ductility at any confining pressure; b) the sample size influences the angle of formed shear band and c) the friction coefficient of the formed shear plane is sample-size dependent where the relatively smaller sample exhibits lower friction coefficient compared to larger samples. We interpret our results in terms of a thermodynamics approach in which the frictional properties for finite deformation are viewed as encompassing a multitude of ephemeral slipping surfaces prior to the formation of the through going fracture. The final fracture itself is seen as a result of the self-organisation of a sufficiently large ensemble of micro-slip surfaces and therefore consistent in terms of the theory of thermodynamics. This assumption vindicates the use of classical rock mechanics experiments to constrain failure of pressure sensitive rocks and the future imaging of these micro-slips opens an exciting path for research in rock failure mechanisms.

  16. Quantum graphs and random-matrix theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluhař, Z.; Weidenmüller, H. A.

    2015-07-01

    For simple connected graphs with incommensurate bond lengths and with unitary symmetry we prove the Bohigas-Giannoni-Schmit (BGS) conjecture in its most general form. Using supersymmetry and taking the limit of infinite graph size, we show that the generating function for every (P,Q) correlation function for both closed and open graphs coincides with the corresponding expression of random-matrix theory. We show that the classical Perron-Frobenius operator is bistochastic and possesses a single eigenvalue +1. In the quantum case that implies the existence of a zero (or massless) mode of the effective action. That mode causes universal fluctuation properties. Avoiding the saddle-point approximation we show that for graphs that are classically mixing (i.e. for which the spectrum of the classical Perron-Frobenius operator possesses a finite gap) and that do not carry a special class of bound states, the zero mode dominates in the limit of infinite graph size.

  17. Size-dependent optical properties of 9,10-bis(phenylethynyl)anthracene crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagita, Yoshimi; Matsui, Kazunori, E-mail: matsui@kanto-gakuin.ac.jp

    2015-05-15

    The optical properties of 9,10-bis(phenylethynyl)anthracene (BPEA) were studied for various states: nanoparticles (~100 nm), microcrystals (~1 μm), bulk crystals (~1 mm), and vacuum-deposited film. The absorption spectra showed a red shift from ethanol solution to bulk crystals with an increase in crystal size. The vacuum-deposited film seemed to have mixed spectral characteristics of nanoparticles and bulk crystals. The fluorescence of BPEA showed two peaks for the various crystals. The fluorescence of the shorter wavelength peak was shifted toward the blue from 556 to 527 nm from the bulk to nanoparticles. On the other hand, the position of the longest wavelength peak changed little, staying around 596 nm. The relative intensity of the former and latter increased with a decrease in the crystal size. The time-resolved fluorescence spectra clearly confirmed the existence of two emissive sites in the bulk crystals. These sites are probably located at the peripheral and inner positions of the crystals. Change in the relative proportions of the two sites could be the main reason for the size-dependent fluorescence. - Highlights: ●The optical properties of 9,10-bis(phenylethynyl)anthracene crystals were studied. ●The absorption spectra showed a red-shift with an increase in crystal size. ●The fluorescence spectra showed size-dependent and size-independent peaks. ●A size-dependent peak with a shorter decay is attributed to the surface molecules. ●A size-independent peak with a longer decay is attributed to the bulk crystals.

  18. Turing Automata and Graph Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklós Bartha

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Indexed monoidal algebras are introduced as an equivalent structure for self-dual compact closed categories, and a coherence theorem is proved for the category of such algebras. Turing automata and Turing graph machines are defined by generalizing the classical Turing machine concept, so that the collection of such machines becomes an indexed monoidal algebra. On the analogy of the von Neumann data-flow computer architecture, Turing graph machines are proposed as potentially reversible low-level universal computational devices, and a truly reversible molecular size hardware model is presented as an example.

  19. Graphs and matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Bapat, Ravindra B

    2014-01-01

    This new edition illustrates the power of linear algebra in the study of graphs. The emphasis on matrix techniques is greater than in other texts on algebraic graph theory. Important matrices associated with graphs (for example, incidence, adjacency and Laplacian matrices) are treated in detail. Presenting a useful overview of selected topics in algebraic graph theory, early chapters of the text focus on regular graphs, algebraic connectivity, the distance matrix of a tree, and its generalized version for arbitrary graphs, known as the resistance matrix. Coverage of later topics include Laplacian eigenvalues of threshold graphs, the positive definite completion problem and matrix games based on a graph. Such an extensive coverage of the subject area provides a welcome prompt for further exploration. The inclusion of exercises enables practical learning throughout the book. In the new edition, a new chapter is added on the line graph of a tree, while some results in Chapter 6 on Perron-Frobenius theory are reo...

  20. Size dependence of phase transition temperatures of ferromagnetic ,ferroelectric and superconductive nanocrystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LANG Xing-you; JIANG Qing

    2007-01-01

    With the miniaturization of devices,size and interface effects become increasingly important for the properties and performances of nanomaterials.Here,we present a thermodynamic approach to the mechanism behind size-induced unusual behavior in the phase stabilities of ferromagnetic(FM),antiferromagnetic(AFM),ferroelectric (FE),and superconductive(SC)nanocrystals,which are different dramatically from their bulk counterparts.This method is based on the Lindemann criterion for melting,Mott's expression for the vibrational melting entropy,and the Shi model for the size-dependent melting temperature.Simple and unified functions,without any adjustable parameter,are established for the size and interface dependences of thermal and phase stabilities of FM,AFM,FE and SC nanocrystals.According to these analytic functions,as the size of nanocrystals is reduced,the thermal and phasestabilities may strengthen or weaken,depending on the confluence of the.surface/volume ratio of nanocrystals and the FM(AFM,FE or SC)/substrate interface situations.The validity of this model is confirmed by a large number of experimental results.This theory will be significant for the choice of materials and the design of devices for practicalapplication.

  1. Size-dependent hygroscopicity parameter (κ) and chemical composition of secondary organic cloud condensation nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, D. F.; Buchholz, A.; Kortner, B.; Schlag, P.; Rubach, F.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Tillmann, R.; Wahner, A.; Flores, J. M.; Rudich, Y.; Watne, À. K.; Hallquist, M.; Wildt, J.; Mentel, Th. F.

    2015-12-01

    Secondary organic aerosol components (SOA) contribute significantly to the activation of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in the atmosphere. The CCN activity of internally mixed submicron SOA particles is often parameterized assuming a size-independent single-hygroscopicity parameter κ. In the experiments done in a large atmospheric reactor (SAPHIR, Simulation of Atmospheric PHotochemistry In a large Reaction chamber, Jülich), we consistently observed size-dependent κ and particle composition for SOA from different precursors in the size range of 50 nm-200 nm. Smaller particles had higher κ and a higher degree of oxidation, although all particles were formed from the same reaction mixture. Since decreasing volatility and increasing hygroscopicity often covary with the degree of oxidation, the size dependence of composition and hence of CCN activity can be understood by enrichment of higher oxygenated, low-volatility hygroscopic compounds in smaller particles. Neglecting the size dependence of κ can lead to significant bias in the prediction of the activated fraction of particles during cloud formation.

  2. Modified Continuum Mechanics Modeling on Size-Dependent Properties of Piezoelectric Nanomaterials: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhi; Jiang, Liying

    2017-01-01

    Piezoelectric nanomaterials (PNs) are attractive for applications including sensing, actuating, energy harvesting, among others in nano-electro-mechanical-systems (NEMS) because of their excellent electromechanical coupling, mechanical and physical properties. However, the properties of PNs do not coincide with their bulk counterparts and depend on the particular size. A large amount of efforts have been devoted to studying the size-dependent properties of PNs by using experimental characterization, atomistic simulation and continuum mechanics modeling with the consideration of the scale features of the nanomaterials. This paper reviews the recent progresses and achievements in the research on the continuum mechanics modeling of the size-dependent mechanical and physical properties of PNs. We start from the fundamentals of the modified continuum mechanics models for PNs, including the theories of surface piezoelectricity, flexoelectricity and non-local piezoelectricity, with the introduction of the modified piezoelectric beam and plate models particularly for nanostructured piezoelectric materials with certain configurations. Then, we give a review on the investigation of the size-dependent properties of PNs by using the modified continuum mechanics models, such as the electromechanical coupling, bending, vibration, buckling, wave propagation and dynamic characteristics. Finally, analytical modeling and analysis of nanoscale actuators and energy harvesters based on piezoelectric nanostructures are presented. PMID:28336861

  3. Characterizing size-dependent effective elastic modulus of silicon nanocantilevers using electrostatic pull-in instability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadeghian, H.; Yang, C.K.; Goosen, J.F.L.; Van der Drift, E.; Bossche, A.; French, P.J.; Van Keulen, F.

    2009-01-01

    This letter presents the application of electrostatic pull-in instability to study the size-dependent effective Young’s Modulus Ẽ ( ~170–70 GPa) of [110] silicon nanocantilevers (thickness ~1019–40 nm). The presented approach shows substantial advantages over the previous methods used for

  4. ON THE EXTINCTION OF POPULATION-SIZE-DEPENDENT BISEXUAL GALTON-WATSON PROCESSES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the population-size-dependent bisexual Galton-Watson processes are considered. Under some suitable conditions on the mating functions and the offspring distribution, existence of the limit of mean growth rate per mating unit is proved. And based on the limit, a criterion to identify whether the process admits ultimate extinct with probability one is obtained.

  5. Modified Continuum Mechanics Modeling on Size-Dependent Properties of Piezoelectric Nanomaterials: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Yan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric nanomaterials (PNs are attractive for applications including sensing, actuating, energy harvesting, among others in nano-electro-mechanical-systems (NEMS because of their excellent electromechanical coupling, mechanical and physical properties. However, the properties of PNs do not coincide with their bulk counterparts and depend on the particular size. A large amount of efforts have been devoted to studying the size-dependent properties of PNs by using experimental characterization, atomistic simulation and continuum mechanics modeling with the consideration of the scale features of the nanomaterials. This paper reviews the recent progresses and achievements in the research on the continuum mechanics modeling of the size-dependent mechanical and physical properties of PNs. We start from the fundamentals of the modified continuum mechanics models for PNs, including the theories of surface piezoelectricity, flexoelectricity and non-local piezoelectricity, with the introduction of the modified piezoelectric beam and plate models particularly for nanostructured piezoelectric materials with certain configurations. Then, we give a review on the investigation of the size-dependent properties of PNs by using the modified continuum mechanics models, such as the electromechanical coupling, bending, vibration, buckling, wave propagation and dynamic characteristics. Finally, analytical modeling and analysis of nanoscale actuators and energy harvesters based on piezoelectric nanostructures are presented.

  6. Non-monotonic size dependence of diffusion and levitation effect: a mode-coupling theory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Manoj Kumar; Banerjee, Atreyee; Bhattacharyya, Sarika Maitra

    2013-03-28

    We present a study of diffusion of small tagged particles in a solvent, using mode coupling theory (MCT) analysis and computer simulations. The study is carried out for various interaction potentials. For the first time, using MCT, it is shown that only for strongly attractive interaction potential with allowing interpenetration between the solute-solvent pair the diffusion exhibits a non-monotonic solute size dependence which has earlier been reported in simulation studies [P. K. Ghorai and S. Yashonath, J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 5824-5835 (2005)]. For weak attractive and repulsive potential the solute size dependence of diffusion shows monotonic behaviour. It is also found that for systems where the interaction potential does not allow solute-solvent interpenetration, the solute cannot explore the neck of the solvent cage. Thus these systems even with strong attractive interaction will never show any non-monotonic size dependence of diffusion. This non-monotonic size dependence of diffusion has earlier been connected to levitation effect [S. Yashonath and P. Santikary, J. Phys. Chem. 98, 6368 (1994)]. We also show that although levitation is a dynamic phenomena, the effect of levitation can be obtained in the static radial distribution function.

  7. Dependence of dielectric properties on BT particle size in EP/BT composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiaojun; YANG Zhimin; MAO Changhui; DU Jun

    2006-01-01

    The polymer-ceramic composites of epoxy resin (EP) and barium titanate (BT) were prepared.BT powders of different BT particle sizes from 100 nm to 1 μm were used in the preparation.The dielectric properties, such as dielectric constant, dielectric loss and electrical breakdown strength, of the EP/BT composites were studied.The morphology of the composites was characterized by the means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM).The results show that the dielectric constant of the composites is much higher than the epoxy matrix at frequency range from 1 kHz to 10 MHz, and it is also obviously dependent on the size of BT particles.The electrical breakdown strength of the composites decreases with the increase of the BT content.The dependence of electrical breakdown strength on BT particle sizes was also discussed.

  8. Concentration and crystallite size dependence of the photoluminescence in YAG:Ce3+ nanophosphor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovalle, Raquel; Arredondo, Alejandro; Diaz-Torres, Luis A.; Salas, Pedro; Angeles, Carlos; Rodriguez, Ruben A.; Meneses, Marco A.; De la Rosa, Elder

    2004-10-01

    Nanocrystalline yttrium aluminum garnet doped with Cerium (YAG:Ce3+), was synthesized by means of a modified sol-gel method that consists of a mixture of salts in an aqueous media. Structure and morphology were characterized by X-ray diffraction and Transmission Electron Microscopy. Single crystalline phase were obtained and the crystallite size range from 26 nm to 96 nm depending on the annealing temperature (from 800 to 1150 °C, respectively). The photoluminescence dependence on the crystallite size and ion concentration was performed. The experimental results show that the best ion concentration where the highest luminescence was obtained correspond to 0.1 mol% and that increases as the crystallite size increases. The feasibility of the modified sol-gel method for the preparation of nanocrystalline YAG is discussed.

  9. A Bounding Surface Plasticity Model for Intact Rock Exhibiting Size-Dependent Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoumi, Hossein; Douglas, Kurt J.; Russell, Adrian R.

    2016-01-01

    A new constitutive model for intact rock is presented recognising that rock strength, stiffness and stress-strain behaviour are affected by the size of the rock being subjected to loading. The model is formulated using bounding surface plasticity theory. It is validated against a new and extensive set of unconfined compression and triaxial compression test results for Gosford sandstone. The samples tested had diameters ranging from 19 to 145 mm and length-to-diameter ratios of 2. The model captures the continuous nonlinear stress-strain behaviour from initial loading, through peak strength to large shear strains, including transition from brittle to ductile behaviour. The size dependency was accounted for through a unified size effect law applied to the unconfined compressive strength—a key model input parameter. The unconfined compressive strength increases with sample size before peaking and then decreasing with further increasing sample size. Inside the constitutive model two hardening laws act simultaneously, each driven by plastic shear strains. The elasticity is stress level dependent. Simple linear loading and bounding surfaces are adopted, defined using the Mohr-Coulomb criterion, along with a non-associated flow rule. The model simulates well the stress-strain behaviour of Gosford sandstone at confining pressures ranging from 0 to 30 MPa for the variety of sample sizes considered.

  10. Control of body size in C. elegans dependent on food and insulin/IGF-1 signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Shuhei; Miyahara, Kohji; Ohshima, Yasumi

    2011-06-01

    The body size of an organism is governed by genetic and environmental factors. As an environmental factor, food appears to be the most important for body size control in animals. C. elegans worms are usually grown on an E. coli strain OP50. We show that the wild-type worms fed on another E. coli strain HB101 grow 1.6 times as large as those fed on OP50. The regression line representing the relationship between the sizes of worms grown on each food for over 30 mutants was drawn, indicating that small mutants tend to be more affected by the change in food. Mutants for the DAF-2 insulin/IGF-1 receptor and downstream SGK-1, a homolog of the serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase, grow less or little larger on HB101, indicating control of body size by these factors. Results on the suppression of mutations in these factors by a mutation in the DAF-16/FOXO transcription factor indicate both DAF-16-dependent and DAF-16-independent control. Furthermore, we show that the food-dependent body size change is because of a change in cell size that is closely related to the protein content per cell.

  11. Size-dependent changes in leaf and wood chemical traits in two Caribbean rainforest trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Adam R; Thomas, Sean C

    2013-12-01

    Tree functional traits and their link to patterns of growth and demography are central to informing trait-based analyses of forest communities, and mechanistic models of forest dynamics. However, few data are available on how functional traits in trees vary through ontogeny, particularly in tropical species; and less is known about how patterns of size-dependent changes in traits may differ across species of contrasting life-history strategies. Here we describe size-dependent variation in seven leaf functional traits and four wood chemical traits, in two Dominican rainforest tree species (Dacryodes excelsa Vahl. and Miconia mirabilis (Aubl.) L.O. Williams), ranging from small saplings to the largest canopy trees. With one exception, all traits showed pronounced variation with tree size (diameter at breast height, DBH). Leaf mass per area (LMA), thickness and tissue density increased monotonically with DBH in both species. Leaf area, leaf nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) : nitrogen (N) ratios also varied significantly with DBH; however, these patterns were unimodal, with peak trait values preceding the DBH at reproductive onset in both species. Size-dependent changes in leaf structural traits (LMA and leaf thickness) were generally similar in both species, while traits associated with leaf-level investment in C gain (leaf area, leaf C : N ratio) showed contrasting ontogenetic trends between species. Wood starch concentration varied with DBH in both species, also showing unimodal patterns with peaks preceding size at reproductive onset. Wood C concentration increased linearly with DBH in both species, though significantly only in M. mirabilis. Size-dependent patterns in wood chemical traits were similar between both species. Our data demonstrate pronounced variation in functional traits through tree ontogeny, probably due to a combination of environmental factors and shifts in resource allocation. Such ontogenetic variation is comparable in magnitude with interspecific

  12. On middle cube graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Dalfo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We study a family of graphs related to the $n$-cube. The middle cube graph of parameter k is the subgraph of $Q_{2k-1}$ induced by the set of vertices whose binary representation has either $k-1$ or $k$ number of ones. The middle cube graphs can be obtained from the well-known odd graphs by doubling their vertex set. Here we study some of the properties of the middle cube graphs in the light of the theory of distance-regular graphs. In particular, we completely determine their spectra (eigenvalues and their multiplicities, and associated eigenvectors.

  13. Spectral recognition of graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Dragoš

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available At some time, in the childhood of spectral graph theory, it was conjectured that non-isomorphic graphs have different spectra, i.e. that graphs are characterized by their spectra. Very quickly this conjecture was refuted and numerous examples and families of non-isomorphic graphs with the same spectrum (cospectral graphs were found. Still some graphs are characterized by their spectra and several mathematical papers are devoted to this topic. In applications to computer sciences, spectral graph theory is considered as very strong. The benefit of using graph spectra in treating graphs is that eigenvalues and eigenvectors of several graph matrices can be quickly computed. Spectral graph parameters contain a lot of information on the graph structure (both global and local including some information on graph parameters that, in general, are computed by exponential algorithms. Moreover, in some applications in data mining, graph spectra are used to encode graphs themselves. The Euclidean distance between the eigenvalue sequences of two graphs on the same number of vertices is called the spectral distance of graphs. Some other spectral distances (also based on various graph matrices have been considered as well. Two graphs are considered as similar if their spectral distance is small. If two graphs are at zero distance, they are cospectral. In this sense, cospectral graphs are similar. Other spectrally based measures of similarity between networks (not necessarily having the same number of vertices have been used in Internet topology analysis, and in other areas. The notion of spectral distance enables the design of various meta-heuristic (e.g., tabu search, variable neighbourhood search algorithms for constructing graphs with a given spectrum (spectral graph reconstruction. Several spectrally based pattern recognition problems appear in many areas (e.g., image segmentation in computer vision, alignment of protein-protein interaction networks in bio

  14. Queen-worker caste ratio depends on colony size in the pharaoh ant (Monomorium pharaonis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Anna Mosegaard; Linksvayer, Timothy Arnold; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2011-01-01

    The success of an ant colony depends on the simultaneous presence of reproducing queens and nonreproducing workers in a ratio that will maximize colony growth and reproduction. Despite its presumably crucial role, queen–worker caste ratios (the ratio of adult queens to workers) and the factors...... affecting this variable remain scarcely studied. Maintaining polygynous pharaoh ant (Monomorium pharaonis) colonies in the laboratory has provided us with the opportunity to experimentally manipulate colony size, one of the key factors that can be expected to affect colony level queen–worker caste ratios...... and body size of eclosing workers, gynes and males. We found that smaller colonies produced more new queens relative to workers, and that these queens and workers both tended to be larger. However, colony size had no effect on the size of males or on the sex ratio of the individuals reared. Furthermore...

  15. Size dependence of surface thermodynamic properties of nanoparticles and its determination method by reaction rate constant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wenjiao; Xue, Yongqiang, E-mail: xyqlw@126.com; Cui, Zixiang

    2016-08-15

    Surface thermodynamic properties are the fundamental properties of nanomaterials, and these properties depend on the size of nanoparticles. In this paper, relations of molar surface thermodynamic properties and surface heat capacity at constant pressure of nanoparticles with particle size were derived theoretically, and the method of obtaining the surface thermodynamic properties by reaction rate constant was put forward. The reaction of nano-MgO with sodium bisulfate solution was taken as a research system. The influence regularities of the particle size on the surface thermodynamic properties were discussed theoretically and experimentally, which show that the experimental regularities are in accordance with the corresponding theoretical relations. With the decreasing of nanoparticle size, the molar surface thermodynamic properties increase, while the surface heat capacity decreases (the absolute value increases). In addition, the surface thermodynamic properties are linearly related to the reciprocal of nanoparticle diameter, respectively.

  16. Modeling the dependence of strength on grain sizes in nanocrystalline materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei; Bhole, Sanjeev D; Chen, DaoLun

    2008-01-01

    A model was developed to describe the grain size dependence of hardness (or strength) in nanocrystalline materials by combining the Hall-Petch relationship for larger grains with a coherent polycrystal model for nanoscale grains and introducing a log-normal distribution of grain sizes. The transition from the Hall-Petch relationship to the coherent polycrystal mechanism was shown to be a gradual process. The hardness in the nanoscale regime was observed to increase with decreasing grain boundary affected zone (or effective grain boundary thickness, Δ) in the form of Δ(-1/2). The critical grain size increased linearly with increasing Δ. The variation of the calculated hardness value with the grain size was observed to be in agreement with the experimental data reported in the literature.

  17. Evaluation of size dependent design shear strength of reinforced concrete beams without web reinforcement

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Appa Rao; S S Injaganeri

    2011-06-01

    Analytical studies on the effect of depth of beam and several parameters on the shear strength of reinforced concrete beams are reported. A large data base available has been segregated and a nonlinear regression analysis (NLRA) has been performed for developing the refined design models for both, the cracking and the ultimate shear strengths of reinforced concrete (RC) beams without web reinforcement. The shear strength of RC beams is size dependent, which needs to be evaluated and incorporated in the appropriate size effect models. The proposed models are functions of compressive strength of concrete, percentage of flexural reinforcement and depth of beam. The structural brittleness of large size beams seems to be severe compared with highly ductile small size beams at a given quantity of flexural reinforcement. The proposed models have been validated with the existing popular models as well as with the design code provisions.

  18. Intrinsic dependencies of CT radiomic features on voxel size and number of gray levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiq-Ul-Hassan, Muhammad; Zhang, Geoffrey G; Latifi, Kujtim; Ullah, Ghanim; Hunt, Dylan C; Balagurunathan, Yoganand; Abdalah, Mahmoud Abrahem; Schabath, Matthew B; Goldgof, Dmitry G; Mackin, Dennis; Court, Laurence Edward; Gillies, Robert James; Moros, Eduardo Gerardo

    2017-03-01

    Many radiomics features were originally developed for non-medical imaging applications and therefore original assumptions may need to be reexamined. In this study, we investigated the impact of slice thickness and pixel spacing (or pixel size) on radiomics features extracted from Computed Tomography (CT) phantom images acquired with different scanners as well as different acquisition and reconstruction parameters. The dependence of CT texture features on gray-level discretization was also evaluated. A texture phantom composed of 10 different cartridges of different materials was scanned on eight different CT scanners from three different manufacturers. The images were reconstructed for various slice thicknesses. For each slice thickness, the reconstruction Field Of View (FOV) was varied to render pixel sizes ranging from 0.39 to 0.98 mm. A fixed spherical region of interest (ROI) was contoured on the images of the shredded rubber cartridge and the 3D printed, 20% fill, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene plastic cartridge (ABS20) for all phantom imaging sets. Radiomic features were extracted from the ROIs using an in-house program. Features categories were: shape (10), intensity (16), GLCM (24), GLZSM (11), GLRLM (11), and NGTDM (5), fractal dimensions (8) and first-order wavelets (128), for a total of 213 features. Voxel-size resampling was performed to investigate the usefulness of extracting features using a suitably chosen voxel size. Acquired phantom image sets were resampled to a voxel size of 1 × 1 × 2 mm(3) using linear interpolation. Image features were therefore extracted from resampled and original datasets and the absolute value of the percent coefficient of variation (%COV) for each feature was calculated. Based on the %COV values, features were classified in 3 groups: (1) features with large variations before and after resampling (%COV >50); (2) features with diminished variation (%COV variation (%COV definitions to include voxel size. Original and

  19. The Dynamics of the Forest Graph Operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara Suresh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In 1966, Cummins introduced the “tree graph”: the tree graph T(G of a graph G (possibly infinite has all its spanning trees as vertices, and distinct such trees correspond to adjacent vertices if they differ in just one edge, i.e., two spanning trees T1 and T2 are adjacent if T2 = T1 − e + f for some edges e ∈ T1 and f ∉ T1. The tree graph of a connected graph need not be connected. To obviate this difficulty we define the “forest graph”: let G be a labeled graph of order α, finite or infinite, and let N(G be the set of all labeled maximal forests of G. The forest graph of G, denoted by F(G, is the graph with vertex set N(G in which two maximal forests F1, F2 of G form an edge if and only if they differ exactly by one edge, i.e., F2 = F1 − e + f for some edges e ∈ F1 and f ∉ F1. Using the theory of cardinal numbers, Zorn’s lemma, transfinite induction, the axiom of choice and the well-ordering principle, we determine the F-convergence, F-divergence, F-depth and F-stability of any graph G. In particular it is shown that a graph G (finite or infinite is F-convergent if and only if G has at most one cycle of length 3. The F-stable graphs are precisely K3 and K1. The F-depth of any graph G different from K3 and K1 is finite. We also determine various parameters of F(G for an infinite graph G, including the number, order, size, and degree of its components.

  20. Capacitated max -Batching with Interval Graph Compatibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonner, Tim

    We consider the problem of partitioning interval graphs into cliques of bounded size. Each interval has a weight, and the weight of a clique is the maximum weight of any interval in the clique. This natural graph problem can be interpreted as a batch scheduling problem. Solving a long-standing open problem, we show NP-hardness, even if the bound on the clique sizes is constant. Moreover, we give a PTAS based on a novel dynamic programming technique for this case.

  1. Complexity of Cocktail Party Graph and Crown Graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Daoud

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The number of spanning trees τ(G in graphs (networks was an important invariant. Approach: Using the properties of the Chebyshev polynomials of the second kind and the linear algebra techniques to evaluate the associated determinants. Results: The complexity, number of spanning trees, of the cocktail party graph on 2n vertices, given in detail in the text was proved. Also the complexity of the crown graph on 2n vertices was shown to had the value nn-2 (n-1 (n-2n-1. Conclusion: The number of spanning trees τ(G in graphs (networks is an important invariant. The evaluation of this number and analyzing its behavior is not only interesting from a mathematical (computational perspective, but also, it is an important measure of reliability of a network and designing electrical circuits. Some computationally hard problems such as the travelling salesman problem can be solved approximately by using spanning trees. Due to the high dependence of the network design and reliability on the graph theory we introduced the above important theorems and lemmas and their proofs.

  2. Dependency of U.S. Hurricane Economic Loss on Maximum Wind Speed and Storm Size

    CERN Document Server

    Zhai, Alice R

    2014-01-01

    Many empirical hurricane economic loss models consider only wind speed and neglect storm size. These models may be inadequate in accurately predicting the losses of super-sized storms, such as Hurricane Sandy in 2012. In this study, we examined the dependencies of normalized U.S. hurricane loss on both wind speed and storm size for 73 tropical cyclones that made landfall in the U.S. from 1988 to 2012. A multi-variate least squares regression is used to construct a hurricane loss model using both wind speed and size as predictors. Using maximum wind speed and size together captures more variance of losses than using wind speed or size alone. It is found that normalized hurricane loss (L) approximately follows a power law relation with maximum wind speed (Vmax) and size (R). Assuming L=10^c Vmax^a R^b, c being a scaling factor, the coefficients, a and b, generally range between 4-12 and 2-4, respectively. Both a and b tend to increase with stronger wind speed. For large losses, a weighted regression model, with...

  3. Size Depending Separation of HAP:Eu Nanoparticles in Dispersed Sol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The particle size has a strong impact on the interactions between nanoparticles and cells. However, the synthesis process of nanoparticles limits the range of achievable average particle sizes. When biocompatible hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HAP) are doped with the luminescent rare earth element Europium (Eu), the particle size becomes larger compared to pure HAP. Hence, a particle size reduction is necessary to achieve similar experimental conditions when substituting pure HAP with luminescent HAP: Eu nanoparticles to investigate particlecell-interactions in cell culture experiments. While the sedimentation process of particles in liquids and gels has been well described in literature, the separation of particles in dispersed colloids has not been studied, yet. In this study, the size depending separation and particle size reduction of a homogeneous dispersed nanoparticle sol by gravity and centrifugation were investigated. As the results showed, shorter time of centrifugation at higher speed can reduce the average particle size compared to the decline of the particle concentration in the upper sol layer most efficiently. This centrifugation method has some similarity to the overspeeding technique which is commonly used to lower the transient time to reach the equilibrium of sedimentation.

  4. Size-Dependent Flowering in relation to Grazing in a Short-Lived Monocarpic Perennial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana E. Marco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In short-lived monocarpic perennials flowering probability depends on size and relative growth. Reproducing at a smaller size results in a higher prereproductive survival and shorter generation time but also may lead to lower fecundity. Conversely, reproducing at a larger size allows greater fecundity but leads to higher mortality during the prolonged vegetative period. Herbivory may influence the above described relationships via alterations in size at reproduction and survival. Here we use field data to explore in detail the reproduction of the short-lived monocarpic perennial C. vulgare under seasonal grazing. Vegetative plants were marked in paddocks with and without winter grazing, and their size, growth, and flowering status were recorded during a growing season in a field grazing experiment. Grazing increased both survival of vegetative plants and flowering probability, but it did not affect flowering size. The increase in flowering probability is a result of differential plant growth and size and may be related to greater resource availability, including light (necessary for flowering induction in C. vulgare in grazed paddocks.

  5. Size dependence of adsorption kinetics of nano-MgO: a theoretical and experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shuting; Wen, Yanzhen; Cui, Zixiang; Xue, Yongqiang, E-mail: xyqlw@126.com [Taiyuan University of Technology (China)

    2016-01-15

    Nanoparticles present tremendous differences in adsorption kinetics compared with corresponding bulk particles which have great influences on the applications of nanoparticles. A size-dependent adsorption kinetic theory was proposed, the relations between adsorption kinetic parameters, respectively, and particle size of nano-adsorbent were derived theoretically, and the influence mechanism of particle size on the adsorption kinetic parameters was discussed. In experiment, nanoscale magnesium oxide (nano-MgO) with different diameters between 11.5 and 41.4 nm with narrow size distribution and low agglomeration were prepared, and the kinetic parameters of adsorption of benzene on nano-MgO in aqueous solution were obtained. Then the influence regularities of the particle size on the adsorption kinetic parameters were obtained. The experimental results are consistent with the nano-adsorption kinetic theory. With particle size decreasing, the adsorption rate constant increases; the adsorption activation energy and the adsorption pre-exponential factor decrease. Furthermore, the logarithm of adsorption rate constant, the adsorption activation energy, and the logarithm of adsorption pre-exponential factor are linearly related to the reciprocal of particle diameter, respectively. The mechanism of particle size influence on the kinetic parameters is that the activation energy is influenced by the molar surface enthalpy of nano-adsorbent, the pre-exponential factor by the molar surface entropy, and the rate constant by both the molar surface enthalpy and the molar surface entropy.

  6. Material length scales in gradient-dependent plasticity/damage and size effects: Theory and computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Al-Rub, Rashid Kamel

    Structural materials display a strong size-dependence when deformed non-uniformly into the inelastic range: smaller is stronger. This effect has important implications for an increasing number of applications in structural failure, electronics, functional coatings, composites, micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), nanostructured materials, micro/nanometer fabrication technologies, etc. The mechanical behavior of these applications cannot be characterized by classical (local) continuum theories because they incorporate no, 'material length scales' and consequently predict no size effects. On the other hand, it is still not possible to perform quantum and atomistic simulations on realistic time and structures. It is therefore necessary to develop a scale-dependent continuum theory bridging the gap between the classical continuum theories and the atomistic simulations in order to be able to design the size-dependent structures of modern technology. Nonlocal rate-dependent and gradient-dependent theories of plasticity and damage are developed in this work for this purpose. We adopt a multi-scale, hierarchical thermodynamic consistent framework to construct the material constitutive relations for the scale-dependent plasticity/damage behavior. Material length scales are implicitly and explicitly introduced into the governing equations through material rate-dependency (viscosity) and coefficients of spatial higher-order gradients of one or more material state variables, respectively. The proposed framework is implemented into the commercially well-known finite element software ABAQUS. The finite element simulations of material instability problems converge to meaningful results upon further refinement of the finite element mesh, since the width of the fracture process zone (shear band) is determined by the intrinsic material length scale; while the classical continuum theories fail to address this problem. It is also shown that the proposed theory is successful for

  7. Statistical model of rough surface contact accounting for size-dependent plasticity and asperity interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, H.; Vakis, A. I.; Liu, X.; Van der Giessen, E.

    2017-09-01

    The work by Greenwood and Williamson (GW) has initiated a simple but effective method of contact mechanics: statistical modeling based on the mechanical response of a single asperity. Two main assumptions of the original GW model are that the asperity response is purely elastic and that there is no interaction between asperities. However, as asperities lie on a continuous substrate, the deformation of one asperity will change the height of all other asperities through deformation of the substrate and will thus influence subsequent contact evolution. Moreover, a high asperity contact pressure will result in plasticity, which below tens of microns is size dependent, with smaller being harder. In this paper, the asperity interaction effect is taken into account through substrate deformation, while a size-dependent plasticity model is adopted for individual asperities. The intrinsic length in the strain gradient plasticity (SGP) theory is obtained by fitting to two-dimensional discrete dislocation plasticity simulations of the flattening of a single asperity. By utilizing the single asperity response in three dimensions and taking asperity interaction into account, a statistical calculation of rough surface contact is performed. The effectiveness of the statistical model is addressed by comparison with full-detail finite element simulations of rough surface contact using SGP. Throughout the paper, our focus is on the difference of contact predictions based on size-dependent plasticity as compared to conventional size-independent plasticity.

  8. Size-dependent optical properties and carriers dynamics in CdSe/ZnS quantum dots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Guo-Hong; Wang Wen-Jun; Gao Xue-Xi; Ma Hong-Liang

    2008-01-01

    Size-dependence of optical properties and energy relaxation in CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) were investigated by two-colour femtosecond (fs) pump-probe (400/800 nm) and picosecond time-resolved photoluminescence (ps TRPL)experiments. Pump-probe measurement results show that there are two components for the excited carriers relaxation,the fast one with a time constant of several ps arises from the Auger-type recombination, which shows almost particle sizeindependence. The slow relaxation component with a time constant of several decades of ns can be clearly determined with ps TRPL spectroscopy in which the slow relaxation process shows strong particle size-dependence. The decay time constants increase from 21 to 34ns with the decrease of particle size from 3.2 to 2.1 nm. The room-temperature decay lifetime is due to the thermal mixing of bright and dark excitons, and the size-dependence of slow relaxation process can be explained very well in terms of simple three-level model.

  9. Molecular Dynamics Study for Channel Size Dependence of Shear Stress Between Droplet and Wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Akinori; Mima, Toshiki; Kinefuchi, Ikuya; Tokumasu, Takashi

    2015-04-01

    In this study, the channel size dependence of the shear stress between water droplets and solid walls in nm-order channel was analyzed. We considered a several different-sized and highly hydrophobic channel whose macroscopic contact angle was about 150 degrees. We have evaluated the shear stress and the normal pressure by molecular dynamics simulation. Analyzing shear stress and normal pressure based on the macroscopic model, we have discussed the difference between the macroscopic model based on hydrodynamics and the microscopic model. As a result, in the high hydrophobic case, it became clear that the shear stress depends on the channel size due to the large Laplace pressure. Furthermore, in the case that the channel size was less than 50 A, the normal pressure by the molecular simulation didn't agree with the expected value from the Young-Laplace equation. From this study it was clear that molecular simulation is needed when the channel size is less than 40 A.

  10. Size-Dependent Photodynamic Anticancer Activity of Biocompatible Multifunctional Magnetic Submicron Particles in Prostate Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyong-Hoon; Nam, Ki Chang; Malkinski, Leszek; Choi, Eun Ha; Jung, Jin-Seung; Park, Bong Joo

    2016-09-06

    In this study, newly designed biocompatible multifunctional magnetic submicron particles (CoFe₂O₄-HPs-FAs) of well-defined sizes (60, 133, 245, and 335 nm) were fabricated for application as a photosensitizer delivery agent for photodynamic therapy in cancer cells. To provide selective targeting of cancer cells and destruction of cancer cell functionality, basic cobalt ferrite (CoFe₂O₄) particles were covalently bonded with a photosensitizer (PS), which comprises hematoporphyrin (HP), and folic acid (FA) molecules. The magnetic properties of the CoFe₂O₄ particles were finely adjusted by controlling the size of the primary CoFe₂O₄ nanograins, and secondary superstructured composite particles were formed by aggregation of the nanograins. The prepared CoFe₂O₄-HP-FA exhibited high water solubility, good MR-imaging capacity, and biocompatibility without any in vitro cytotoxicity. In particular, our CoFe₂O₄-HP-FA exhibited remarkable photodynamic anticancer efficiency via induction of apoptotic death in PC-3 prostate cancer cells in a particle size- and concentration-dependent manner. This size-dependent effect was determined by the specific surface area of the particles because the number of HP molecules increased with decreasing size and increasing surface area. These results indicate that our CoFe₂O₄-HP-FA may be applicable for photodynamic therapy (PDT) as a PS delivery material and a therapeutic agent for MR-imaging based PDT owing to their high saturation value for magnetization and superparamagnetism.

  11. Excited-state dynamics of size-dependent colloidal TiO2-Au nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Tony E.; Khoury, Rami A.; Haber, Louis H.

    2016-03-01

    The ultrafast excited-state dynamics of size-dependent TiO2-Au nanocomposites synthesized by reducing gold nanoclusters to the surface of colloidal TiO2 nanoparticles are studied using pump-probe transient absorption spectroscopy with 400 nm excitation pulses. The results show that the relaxation processes of the plasmon depletion band, which are described by electron-phonon and phonon-phonon scattering lifetimes, are independent of the gold nanocluster shell size surrounding the TiO2 nanoparticle core. The dynamics corresponding to interfacial electron transfer between the gold nanoclusters and the TiO2 bandgap are observed to spectrally overlap with the gold interband transition signal, and the electron transfer lifetimes are shown to significantly decrease as the nanocluster shell size increases. Additionally, size-dependent periodic oscillations are observed and are attributed to acoustic phonons of a porous shell composed of aggregated gold nanoclusters around the TiO2 core, with frequencies that decrease and damping times that remain constant as the nanocluster shell size increases. These results are important for the development of improved catalytic nanomaterial applications.

  12. Orientation dependent size effects in single crystalline anisotropic nanoplates with regard to surface energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assadi, Abbas, E-mail: assadi@aut.ac.ir; Salehi, Manouchehr, E-mail: msalehi@aut.ac.ir; Akhlaghi, Mehdi, E-mail: makhlagi@aut.ac.ir

    2015-07-17

    In this work, size dependent behavior of single crystalline normal and auxetic anisotropic nanoplates is discussed with consideration of material surface stresses via a generalized model. Bending of pressurized nanoplates and their fundamental resonant frequency are discussed for different crystallographic directions and anisotropy degrees. It is explained that the orientation effects are considerable when the nanoplates' edges are pinned but for clamped nanoplates, the anisotropy effect may be ignored. The size effects are the highest when the simply supported nanoplates are parallel to [110] direction but as the anisotropy gets higher, the size effects are reduced. The orientation effect is also discussed for possibility of self-instability occurrence in nanoplates. The results in simpler cases are compared with previous experiments for nanowires but with a correction factor. There are still some open questions for future studies. - Highlights: • Size effects in single crystalline anisotropic nanoplates are discussed. • A generalized model is established containing some physical assumptions. • Orientation dependent size effects due to material anisotropy are explained. • Bending, instability and frequencies are studied at normal/auxetic domain.

  13. Tunable preparation of ruthenium nanoparticles with superior size-dependent catalytic hydrogenation properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yuan; Luo, Yaodong; Yang, Xuan; Yang, Yaxin; Song, Qijun, E-mail: qsong@jiangnan.edu.cn

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • A facile and efficient strategy is firstly developed for the synthesis of Ru NPs. • Ru NPs are stable and uniform with the controllable sizes from 2.6 to 51.5 nm. • Ru NPs exhibit size-dependent and superior catalytic hydrogenation activity. - Abstract: Ruthenium (Ru) featured with an unusual catalytic behavior is of great significance in several heterogeneous and electro-catalytic reactions. The preparation of tractable Ru nanocatalysts and the building of highly active catalytic system at ambient temperature remains a grand challenge. Herein, a facile strategy is developed for the controllable preparation of Ru nanoparticles (NPs) with the sizes ranging from 2.6 to 51.5 nm. Ru NPs show superior size-dependent catalytic performance with the best kinetic rate constant as high as −1.52 min{sup −1}, which could far surpass the other traditional noble metals. Ru NPs exert exceedingly efficient low-temperature catalytic activity and good recyclability in the catalytic reduction of nitroaromatic compounds (NACs) and azo dyes. The developed catalytic system provides a distinguishing insight for the artificial preparation of Ru NPs with desired sizes, and allows for the development of rational design rules for exploring catalysts with superior catalytic performances, potentially broadening the applications of metallic NP-enabled catalytic analysis.

  14. Particle size- and number-dependent delivery to cells by layered double hydroxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Haiyan; Parekh, Harendra S; Xu, Zhi Ping

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that delivery efficiency to cells is highly dependent on particle size and the administered dose. However, there is a marked discrepancy in many reports, mainly due to the inconsistency in assessment of various parameters. In this particular research, we designed experiments using layered double hydroxide nanoparticles (LDH NPs) to specifically elucidate the effect of particle size, dose and dye loading manner on cellular uptake. Using the number of LDH NPs taken up by HCT-116 cells as the indicator of delivery efficiency, we found that (1) the size of sheet-like LDH in the range of 40-100 nm did not significantly affect their cellular uptake; (2) cellular uptake of 40 and 100 nm LDH NPs was increased proportionally to the number concentration below a critical value, but remained relatively constant beyond the critical value; and (3) the effect of the dye loading manner is mainly dependent on the loading capacity or yield. In particular, the loading capacity is determined by the NP specific surface area. This research may be extended to a larger size range to examine the size effect, but suggests that it is necessary to set up a protocol to evaluate the effects of NP's physicochemical properties on the cellular delivery efficiency.

  15. Investigations of grain size dependent sediment transport phenomena on multiple scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaxton, Christopher S.

    Sediment transport processes in coastal and fluvial environments resulting from disturbances such as urbanization, mining, agriculture, military operations, and climatic change have significant impact on local, regional, and global environments. Primarily, these impacts include the erosion and deposition of sediment, channel network modification, reduction in downstream water quality, and the delivery of chemical contaminants. The scale and spatial distribution of these effects are largely attributable to the size distribution of the sediment grains that become eligible for transport. An improved understanding of advective and diffusive grain-size dependent sediment transport phenomena will lead to the development of more accurate predictive models and more effective control measures. To this end, three studies were performed that investigated grain-size dependent sediment transport on three different scales. Discrete particle computer simulations of sheet flow bedload transport on the scale of 0.1--100 millimeters were performed on a heterogeneous population of grains of various grain sizes. The relative transport rates and diffusivities of grains under both oscillatory and uniform, steady flow conditions were quantified. These findings suggest that boundary layer formalisms should describe surface roughness through a representative grain size that is functionally dependent on the applied flow parameters. On the scale of 1--10m, experiments were performed to quantify the hydrodynamics and sediment capture efficiency of various baffles installed in a sediment retention pond, a commonly used sedimentation control measure in watershed applications. Analysis indicates that an optimum sediment capture effectiveness may be achieved based on baffle permeability, pond geometry and flow rate. Finally, on the scale of 10--1,000m, a distributed, bivariate watershed terain evolution module was developed within GRASS GIS. Simulation results for variable grain sizes and for

  16. Voxel size dependency, reproducibility and sensitivity of an in vivo bone loading estimation algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, Patrik; Schulte, Friederike A; Zwahlen, Alexander; van Rietbergen, Bert; Boutroy, Stephanie; Melton, L Joseph; Amin, Shreyasee; Khosla, Sundeep; Goldhahn, Jörg; Müller, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    A bone loading estimation algorithm was previously developed that provides in vivo loading conditions required for in vivo bone remodelling simulations. The algorithm derives a bone's loading history from its microstructure as assessed by high-resolution (HR) computed tomography (CT). This reverse engineering approach showed accurate and realistic results based on micro-CT and HR-peripheral quantitative CT images. However, its voxel size dependency, reproducibility and sensitivity still need to be investigated, which is the purpose of this study. Voxel size dependency was tested on cadaveric distal radii with micro-CT images scanned at 25 µm and downscaled to 50, 61, 75, 82, 100, 125 and 150 µm. Reproducibility was calculated with repeated in vitro as well as in vivo HR-pQCT measurements at 82 µm. Sensitivity was defined using HR-pQCT images from women with fracture versus non-fracture, and low versus high bone volume fraction, expecting similar and different loading histories, respectively. Our results indicate that the algorithm is voxel size independent within an average (maximum) error of 8.2% (32.9%) at 61 µm, but that the dependency increases considerably at voxel sizes bigger than 82 µm. In vitro and in vivo reproducibility are up to 4.5% and 10.2%, respectively, which is comparable to other in vitro studies and slightly higher than in other in vivo studies. Subjects with different bone volume fraction were clearly distinguished but not subjects with and without fracture. This is in agreement with bone adapting to customary loading but not to fall loads. We conclude that the in vivo bone loading estimation algorithm provides reproducible, sensitive and fairly voxel size independent results at up to 82 µm, but that smaller voxel sizes would be advantageous.

  17. Size-dependent foraging gene expression and behavioral caste differentiation in Bombus ignitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yokoyama Jun

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In eusocial hymenopteran insects, foraging genes, members of the cGMP-dependent protein kinase family, are considered to contribute to division of labor through behavioral caste differentiation. However, the relationship between foraging gene expression and behavioral caste in honeybees is opposite to that observed in ants and wasps. In the previously examined eusocial Hymenoptera, workers behave as foragers or nurses depending on age. We reasoned that examination of a different system of behavioral caste determination might provide new insights into the relationship between foraging genes and division of labor, and accordingly focused on bumblebees, which exhibit size-dependent behavioral caste differentiation. We characterized a foraging gene (Bifor in bumblebees (Bombus ignitus and examined the relationship between Bifor expression and size-dependent behavioral caste differentiation. Findings A putative open reading frame of the Bifor gene was 2004 bp in length. It encoded 668 aa residues and showed high identity to orthologous genes in other hymenopterans (85.3-99.0%. As in ants and wasps, Bifor expression levels were higher in nurses than in foragers. Bifor expression was negatively correlated with individual body size even within the same behavioral castes (regression coefficient = -0.376, P P = 0.018, within foragers. Conclusion These findings indicate that Bifor expression is size dependent and support the idea that Bifor expression levels are related to behavioral caste differentiation in B. ignitus. Thus, the relationship between foraging gene expression and behavioral caste differentiation found in ants and wasps was identified in a different system of labor determination.

  18. Size dependence of cubic to trigonal structural distortion in silver micro- and nanocrystals under high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Qixum [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zhao, Yusheng [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zin, Zhijun [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wang, Zhongwu [CORNELL UNIV; Skrabalak, Sara E [INDIANA UNIV; Xia, Younan [WASHINGTON UNIV

    2008-01-01

    Silver micro- and nanocrystals with sizes of {approx}2--3.5 {mu}m and {approx}50--100 nm were uniaxially compressed under nonhydrostatic pressures (strong deviatoric stress) up to {approx}30 GPa at room temperature in a symmetric diamond-anvil cell and studied in situ using angle-dispersive synchrotron X-ray diffraction. A cubic to trigonal structural distortion along a 3-fold rotational axis was discovered by careful and comprehensive analysis of the apparent lattice parameter and full width at half-maximum, which are strongly dependent upon the Miller index and crystal size.

  19. Size-dependent mobility of gold nano-clusters during growth on chemically modified graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, Gavin R., E-mail: gavin.bell@warwick.ac.uk; Dawson, Peter M.; Pandey, Priyanka A.; Wilson, Neil R. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Mulheran, Paul A. [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Strathclyde, James Weir Building, 75 Montrose St., Glasgow G1 1XJ (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-01

    Gold nano-clusters were grown on chemically modified graphene by direct sputter deposition. Transmission electron microscopy of the nano-clusters on these electron-transparent substrates reveals an unusual bimodal island size distribution (ISD). A kinetic Monte Carlo model of growth incorporating a size-dependent cluster mobility rule uniquely reproduces the bimodal ISD, providing strong evidence for the mobility of large clusters during surface growth. The cluster mobility exponent of −5/3 is consistent with cluster motion via one-dimensional diffusion of gold atoms around the edges of the nano-clusters.

  20. Size-dependent mobility of gold nano-clusters during growth on chemically modified graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin R. Bell

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gold nano-clusters were grown on chemically modified graphene by direct sputter deposition. Transmission electron microscopy of the nano-clusters on these electron-transparent substrates reveals an unusual bimodal island size distribution (ISD. A kinetic Monte Carlo model of growth incorporating a size-dependent cluster mobility rule uniquely reproduces the bimodal ISD, providing strong evidence for the mobility of large clusters during surface growth. The cluster mobility exponent of −5/3 is consistent with cluster motion via one-dimensional diffusion of gold atoms around the edges of the nano-clusters.

  1. Nanocontact size dependence of the properties of vortex-based spin torque oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otxoa, R.M.; Devolder, T.; Kim, J.V.; Chappert, C. [Institut Electronique Fondamentale, UMR CNRS 8622, 91405 Orsay cedex (France); Universite Paris-Sud, UMR 8622, 91405 Orsay (France); Manfrini, M.; Lagae, L. [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Laboratorium voor Vaste-Stoffysica en Magnetisme, K. U. Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Van Roy, W. [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2011-07-15

    We study the frequency, linewidth, and power of spin torque driven vortex oscillators, based on a nanocontacted spin-valve (SV). The oscillation frequency strongly decreases with the contact size, and increases with the current. The power delivered by the oscillator is not quadratic with the current, in contrast with the behavior expected from the rigid vortex model (RVM). The linewidth is almost independent of the current at low current and does not strongly depend on the nanocontact size. We compare our findings with the outcomes of the RVM. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Girth of pancake graphs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Compeau, Phillip E.C

    2011-01-01

    We consider four families of pancake graphs, which are Cayley graphs, whose vertex sets are either the symmetric group on n objects or the hyperoctahedral group on n objects and whose generating sets...

  3. Improved graph clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    on Facebook , one would like to detect tightly connected communities, which is useful for subsequent tasks like customized recommendation and... advertisement . Graphs in modern applications have several characteristics that complicate graph clustering: • Small density gap: the edge density across

  4. Time-dependent rotatable magnetic anisotropy in polycrystalline exchange-bias systems: Dependence on grain-size distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müglich, Nicolas David; Gaul, Alexander; Meyl, Markus; Ehresmann, Arno; Götz, Gerhard; Reiss, Günter; Kuschel, Timo

    2016-11-01

    Angular-resolved measurements of the exchange-bias field and the coercive field are a powerful tool to distinguish between different competing magnetic anisotropies in polycrystalline exchange-bias layer systems. No simple analytical model is as yet available which considers time-dependent effects such as enhanced coercivity in magnetic easy and hard axis configurations arising from the grain-size distribution of the antiferromagnet. In this work, we expand an existing model class describing polycrystalline exchange-bias systems by a rotatable magnetic anisotropy taking into account the relaxation time of thermally unstable grains. Our calculations show that coercivity mediated by the rotatable magnetic anisotropy can be distinguished from coercivity arising from ferromagnetic anisotropy by the shape of the angular dependence. Additionally, we performed angular-resolved magnetization curve measurements using vectorial magneto-optic Kerr magnetometry. Fitting the proposed model to the experimental data shows excellent agreement and reveals the ferromagnetic anisotropy and properties connected to the grain-size distribution of the antiferromagnet. Therefore, a distinction between the different influences on coercivity and magnetic anisotropy becomes available.

  5. Evolutionary Graph Drawing Algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Jing-wei; Wei Wen-fang

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, graph drawing algorithms based on genetic algorithms are designed for general undirected graphs and directed graphs. As being shown, graph drawing algorithms designed by genetic algorithms have the following advantages: the frames of the algorithms are unified, the method is simple, different algorithms may be attained by designing different objective functions, therefore enhance the reuse of the algorithms. Also, aesthetics or constrains may be added to satisfy different requirements.

  6. On molecular graph comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Jenny A; Daza, Edgar

    2011-06-01

    Since the last half of the nineteenth century, molecular graphs have been present in several branches of chemistry. When used for molecular structure representation, they have been compared after mapping the corresponding graphs into mathematical objects. However, direct molecular comparison of molecular graphs is a research field less explored. The goal of this mini-review is to show some distance and similarity coefficients which were proposed to directly compare molecular graphs or which could be useful to do so.

  7. Integral trees and integral graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Ligong

    2005-01-01

    This monograph deals with integral graphs, Laplacian integral regular graphs, cospectral graphs and cospectral integral graphs. The organization of this work, which consists of eight chapters, is as follows.

  8. Size dependence of the radio-luminosity-mechanical-power correlation in radio galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabala, S. S. [School of Mathematics and Physics, Private Bag 37, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS 7001 (Australia); Godfrey, L. E. H., E-mail: Stanislav.Shabala@utas.edu.au [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, Western Australia 6845 (Australia)

    2013-06-01

    We examine the relationship between source radio luminosity and kinetic power in active galactic nucleus jets. We show that neglecting various loss processes can introduce a systematic bias in the jet powers inferred from radio luminosities for a sample of radio galaxies. This bias can be corrected for by considering source size as well as radio luminosity; effectively the source size acts as a proxy for source age. Based on a sample of Fanaroff-Riley Type II radio sources with jet powers derived from the measured hotspot parameters, we empirically determine a new expression for jet power that accounts for the source size, (Q{sub jet}/10{sup 36} W)=1.5{sub −0.8}{sup +1.8}(L{sub 151}/10{sup 27} W Hz{sup −1}){sup 0.8}(1+z){sup 1.0}(D/kpc){sup 0.58±0.17}, where D is source size and L {sub 151} the 151 MHz radio luminosity. By comparing a flux-limited and volume-limited sample, we show that any derived radio-luminosity-jet-power relation depends sensitively on sample properties, in particular the source size distribution and the size-luminosity correlation inherent in the sample. Such bias will affect the accuracy of the kinetic luminosity function derived from lobe radio luminosities and should be treated with caution.

  9. Size-Dependent Electrocatalytic Activity of Free Gold Nanoparticles for the Glucose Oxidation Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebié, Seydou; Napporn, Teko W; Morais, Cláudia; Kokoh, K Boniface

    2016-05-18

    Understanding the fundamental relationship between the size and the structure of electrode materials is essential to design catalysts and enhance their activity. Therefore, spherical gold nanoparticles (GNSs) with a mean diameter from 4 to 15 nm were synthesized. UV/Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and under-potential deposition of lead (UPDPb ) were used to determine the morphology, size, and surface crystallographic structure of the GNSs. The UPDPb revealed that their crystallographic facets are affected by their size and the growth process. The catalytic properties of these GNSs toward glucose electrooxidation were studied by cyclic voltammetry, taking into account the scan rate and temperature effects. The results clearly show the size-dependent electrocatalytic activity for glucose oxidation reactions that are controlled by diffusion. Small GNSs with an average size of 4.2 nm exhibited high catalytic activity. This drastic increase in activity results from the high specific area and reactivity of the surface electrons induced by their small size. The reaction mechanism was investigated by in situ Fourier transform infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Gluconolactone and gluconate were identified as the intermediate and the final reaction product, respectively, of the glucose electrooxidation.

  10. Size dependence of the radio luminosity - mechanical power correlation in radio galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Shabala, Stanislav

    2013-01-01

    We examine the relationship between source radio luminosity and kinetic power in Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) jets. We show that neglecting various loss processes can introduce a systematic bias in the jet powers inferred from radio luminosities for a sample of radio galaxies. This bias can be corrected for by considering source size as well as radio luminosity; effectively the source size acts as a proxy for source age. Based on a sample of FR-II radio sources with jet powers derived from the measured hotspot parameters, we empirically determine a new expression for jet power that accounts for the source size, Q_jet / 10^{36} W = 1.5 (L_151 / 10^{27} W/Hz)^{0.8} (1+z)^{1.0} (D / kpc)^{0.58 \\pm 0.17}, where D is source size and L_151 the 151 MHz radio luminosity. By comparing a flux-limited and volume-limited sample, we show that any derived radio luminosity - jet power relation depends sensitively on sample properties, in particular the source size distribution and the size-luminosity correlation inherent i...

  11. Effective graph resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellens, W.; Spieksma, F.M.; Mieghem, P. van; Jamakovic, A.; Kooij, R.E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies an interesting graph measure that we call the effective graph resistance. The notion of effective graph resistance is derived from the field of electric circuit analysis where it is defined as the accumulated effective resistance between all pairs of vertices. The objective of the

  12. Graphing Inequalities, Connecting Meaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzer, J. Matt

    2014-01-01

    Students often have difficulty with graphing inequalities (see Filloy, Rojano, and Rubio 2002; Drijvers 2002), and J. Matt Switzer's students were no exception. Although students can produce graphs for simple inequalities, they often struggle when the format of the inequality is unfamiliar. Even when producing a correct graph of an…

  13. Subsemi-Eulerian graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Suffel

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available A graph is subeulerian if it is spanned by an eulerian supergraph. Boesch, Suffel and Tindell have characterized the class of subeulerian graphs and determined the minimum number of additional lines required to make a subeulerian graph eulerian.

  14. Distributed Graph Filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loukas, A.

    2015-01-01

    We have recently seen a surge of research focusing on the processing of graph data. The emerging field of signal processing on graphs focuses on the extension of classical discrete signal processing techniques to the graph setting. Arguably, the greatest breakthrough of the field has been the extens

  15. Cubic Single Crystal Representations in Classical and Size-dependent Couple Stress Elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Bansal, Dipanshu; Aref, Amjad J; Hadjesfandiari, Ali R

    2015-01-01

    Beginning with Cosserat theory in the early 20th century, there have been several different formulations for size-dependent elastic response. In this paper, we concentrate on the application of classical Cauchy theory and the recent parsimonious consistent couple stress theory to model a homogeneous linear elastic solid, exemplified by a pure single crystal with cubic structure. The focus is on an examination of elastodynamic response based upon wave velocities from ultrasonic excitation and phonon dispersion curves, along with adiabatic bulk moduli measurements. In particular, we consider in detail elastic parameter estimation within classical elasticity and consistent couple stress theory for four different cubic single crystals (NaCl, KCl, Cu, CuZn). The classical theory requires the estimation of three independent material parameters, while only one additional parameter relating skew-symmetric mean curvature to skew-symmetric couple-stress is needed for the size-dependent consistent couple stress theory. ...

  16. Size-dependent theories of piezoelectricity: Comparisons and further developments for centrosymmetric dielectrics

    CERN Document Server

    Hadjesfandiari, Ali R

    2014-01-01

    Here the recently developed size-dependent piezoelectricity and the strain gradient theory of flexoelectricity are compared. In the course of this investigation, the strain gradient theory of flexoelectricity is shown to violate fundamental rules of mathematics, continuum mechanics and electromagnetism. The major difficulties are associated with ill-posed boundary conditions, the missing angular (moment) equilibrium equation and the appearance of a non-physical extraneous vectorial electrostatic law. Therefore, the strain gradient flexoelectricity must be classified as an inconsistent theory. The present investigation further reveals that the new size-dependent piezoelectricity is the more consistent theory to describe linear electromechanical coupling in dielectrics. Some new aspects of this theory are presented for isotropic and centrosymmetric cubic dielectric materials, whose coupling effect is described by only one parameter.

  17. Chaotic dynamics of size dependent Timoshenko beams with functionally graded properties along their thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awrejcewicz, J.; Krysko, A. V.; Pavlov, S. P.; Zhigalov, M. V.; Krysko, V. A.

    2017-09-01

    Chaotic dynamics of microbeams made of functionally graded materials (FGMs) is investigated in this paper based on the modified couple stress theory and von Kármán geometric nonlinearity. We assume that the beam properties are graded along the thickness direction. The influence of size-dependent and functionally graded coefficients on the vibration characteristics, scenarios of transition from regular to chaotic vibrations as well as a series of static problems with an emphasis put on the load-deflection behavior are studied. Our theoretical/numerical analysis is supported by methods of nonlinear dynamics and the qualitative theory of differential equations supplemented by Fourier and wavelet spectra, phase portraits, and Lyapunov exponents spectra estimated by different algorithms, including Wolf's, Rosenstein's, Kantz's, and neural networks. We have also detected and numerically validated a general scenario governing transition into chaotic vibrations, which follows the classical Ruelle-Takens-Newhouse scenario for the considered values of the size-dependent and grading parameters.

  18. Analysis of wave propagation in micro/nanobeam-like structures: A size-dependent model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing-Lei Wang; Jun-Feng Zhao; Shen-Jie Zhou; Xi Chen

    2012-01-01

    By incorporating the strain gradient elasticity into the classical Bernoulli-Euler beam and Timoshenko beam models,the size-dependent characteristics of wave propagation in micro/nanobeams is studied.The formulations of dispersion relation are explicitly derived for both strain gradient beam models,and presented for different material length scale parameters (MLSPs).For both phenomenological size-dependent beam models,the angular frequency,phase velocity and group velocity increase with increasing wave number.However,the velocity ratios approach different values for different beam models,indicating an interesting behavior of the asymptotic velocity ratio.The present theory is also compared with the nonlocal continuum beam models.

  19. Size-dependent structures and properties of metallic particles and thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenyuan

    Fundamental aspects of metallic nanoparticles, especially size-dependent properties and their interaction with their surrounding have been investigated. Several conclusions were reached as follows, (1) Au and Pt particles form dense SAMs on glass. Interparticle resonance is absent for 15 nm Au particles, but present for 30 nm ones. A new strategy was developed to deposit silica insulation layers in between Au particle monolayers. (2) Au particles, 1.5--20 nm in size, were encapsulated in silica shells. Their melting point was determined and we show that it decreases significantly as particle size decreases, leading to increased self-diffusion coefficient of the Au atoms. (3) Au core particles of different sizes were synthesized and Ag shells of different thickness were deposited on them. XAFS measurements show that Au/Ag alloy is spontaneously formed for the particles with small core size (2.5 nm). The alloy formation is size-dependent and molecular dynamics calculations demonstrate that vacancies at the bimetallic boundary dramatically enhance the rate of mixing. (4) EPR spectroscopy was used to study the interactions between stable free radicals and gold nanoparticles. The EPR signal is reduced upon adsorption of the radicals onto Au particle surface. We propose that the reduction in signal intensity arises from exchange interactions between the unpaired electrons of the adsorbed radicals and conduction-band electrons of the metallic particles. Catalytic autoxidation of TEMPAMINE to TEMPO was also observed and a mechanism for this unexpected reaction is proposed. (5) Redox/galvanic exchange reactions between Au and Pt nanoparticles and Ag(CN)2- were investigated. For Au particles, the exchange reaction is size dependent. 2.5 nm Au particles form an alloy with Ag and the extinction coefficient of the alloy particle linearly depends on the Au/Ag mole fraction. The full exchange for both 2 and 8 nm Pt particles indicates that the atom diffusion rate within particles

  20. Balancing the dilution and oddity effects: decisions depend on body size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwendolen M Rodgers

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Grouping behaviour, common across the animal kingdom, is known to reduce an individual's risk of predation; particularly through dilution of individual risk and predator confusion (predator inability to single out an individual for attack. Theory predicts greater risk of predation to individuals more conspicuous to predators by difference in appearance from the group (the 'oddity' effect. Thus, animals should choose group mates close in appearance to themselves (eg. similar size, whilst also choosing a large group. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata, a well known model species of group-living freshwater fish, in a series of binary choice trials investigating the outcome of conflict between preferences for large and phenotypically matched groups along a predation risk gradient. We found body-size dependent differences in the resultant social decisions. Large fish preferred shoaling with size-matched individuals, while small fish demonstrated no preference. There was a trend towards reduced preferences for the matched shoal under increased predation risk. Small fish were more active than large fish, moving between shoals more frequently. Activity levels increased as predation risk decreased. We found no effect of unmatched shoal size on preferences or activity. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that predation risk and individual body size act together to influence shoaling decisions. Oddity was more important for large than small fish, reducing in importance at higher predation risks. Dilution was potentially of limited importance at these shoal sizes. Activity levels may relate to how much sampling of each shoal was needed by the test fish during decision making. Predation pressure may select for better decision makers to survive to larger size, or that older, larger fish have learned to make shoaling decisions more efficiently, and this, combined with their size

  1. Size-Dependent Accumulation of PEGylated Silane-Coated Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles in Murine Tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Esben Kjær Unmack; Nielsen, T.; Wittenborn, T.

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) can be used as contrast-enhancing agents to visualize tumors by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Here we describe an easy synthesis method of magnetic nanoparticles coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and demonstrate size-dependent accumulation in murine tumors...... following intravenous injection. Biocompatible iron oxide MNPs coated with PEG were prepared by replacing oleic acid with a biocompatible and commercially available silane-PEG to provide an easy and effective method for chemical coating. The colloidal stable PEGylated MNPs were magnetically separated...... into two distinct size subpopulations of 20 and 40 nm mean diameters with increased phagocytic uptake observed for the 40 nm size range in vitro. MRI detection revealed greater iron accumulation in murine tumors for 40 nm nanoparticles after intravenous injection. The enhanced MRI contrast of the larger...

  2. Morphology and size dependence of silver microstructures in fatty salts-assisted multiphoton photoreduction microfabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Yao-Yu.; Dong, Xian-Zi [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Laboratory of Organic NanoPhotonics and Key Laboratory of Photochemical Conversion and Functional Materials, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Beijing (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Takeyasu, Nobuyuki [RIKEN (Institute of Physical and Chemical Research), Nanophotonics Laboratory, Wako, Saitama (Japan); Tanaka, Takuo [RIKEN (Institute of Physical and Chemical Research), Metamaterials Laboratory, Wako, Saitama (Japan); Zhao, Zhen-Sheng; Duan, Xuan-Ming [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Laboratory of Organic NanoPhotonics and Key Laboratory of Photochemical Conversion and Functional Materials, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Beijing (China); Kawata, Satoshi [RIKEN (Institute of Physical and Chemical Research), Nanophotonics Laboratory, Wako, Saitama (Japan); Osaka University, Department of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, Suita, Osaka (Japan)

    2009-08-15

    The morphology and size dependence of silver microstructures in a novel microfabrication process, fatty salts-assisted multiphoton photoreduction (MPR), were investigated by using the fatty salts with different carbon chain lengths (C{sub n}:n=4,5,7,9) under varied powers and irradiation times of a femtosecond near-infrared laser with the wavelength of 800 nm. Not only the feature size of the silver structures was reduced but also the surface smoothness was improved by increasing the chain length of the fatty salts. The highest resolution of a silver line was obtained to be 285 nm, which exceeded the diffraction limit. The fatty salts-assisted MPR microfabrication approach would provide an efficient protocol for fabricating metallic micro/nanostructures with fine morphology and size and could play an important role in the fabrication of the metallic micro/nanostructures for applications in photonics and electronics as well as in sensors. (orig.)

  3. Large Time Asymptotics for a Continuous Coagulation-Fragmentation Model with Degenerate Size-Dependent Diffusion

    KAUST Repository

    Desvillettes, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    We study a continuous coagulation-fragmentation model with constant kernels for reacting polymers (see [M. Aizenman and T. Bak, Comm. Math. Phys., 65 (1979), pp. 203-230]). The polymers are set to diffuse within a smooth bounded one-dimensional domain with no-flux boundary conditions. In particular, we consider size-dependent diffusion coefficients, which may degenerate for small and large cluster-sizes. We prove that the entropy-entropy dissipation method applies directly in this inhomogeneous setting. We first show the necessary basic a priori estimates in dimension one, and second we show faster-than-polynomial convergence toward global equilibria for diffusion coefficients which vanish not faster than linearly for large sizes. This extends the previous results of [J.A. Carrillo, L. Desvillettes, and K. Fellner, Comm. Math. Phys., 278 (2008), pp. 433-451], which assumes that the diffusion coefficients are bounded below. © 2009 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  4. Direct observation of hierarchical nucleation of martensite and size-dependent superelasticity in shape memory alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lifeng; Ding, Xiangdong; Li, Ju; Lookman, Turab; Sun, Jun

    2014-02-21

    Martensitic transformation usually creates hierarchical internal structures beyond mere change of the atomic crystal structure. Multi-stage nucleation is thus required, where nucleation (level-1) of the underlying atomic crystal lattice does not have to be immediately followed by the nucleation of higher-order superstructures (level-2 and above), such as polysynthetic laths. Using in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM), we directly observe the nucleation of the level-2 superstructure in a Cu-Al-Ni single crystal under compression, with critical super-nuclei size L2c around 500 nm. When the sample size D decreases below L2c, the superelasticity behavior changes from a flat stress plateau to a continuously rising stress-strain curve. Such size dependence definitely would impact the application of shape memory alloys in miniaturized MEMS/NEMS devices.

  5. Size-dependent characteristics of ultra-fine oxygen-enriched nanoparticles in austenitic steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yinbin; Mo, Kun; Zhou, Zhangjian; Liu, Xiang; Lan, Kuan-Che; Zhang, Guangming; Miller, Michael K.; Powers, Kathy A.; Stubbins, James F.

    2016-11-01

    Here, a coordinated investigation of the elemental composition and morphology of ultra-fine-scale nanoparticles as a function of size within a variety of austenitic oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) steels is reported. Atom probe tomography was utilized to evaluate the elemental composition of these nanoparticles. Meanwhile, the crystal structures and orientation relationships were determined by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The nanoparticles with sufficient size (>4 nm) to maintain a Y2Ti2-xO7-2x stoichiometry were found to have a pyrochlore structure, whereas smaller YxTiyOz nanoparticles lacked a well-defined structure. The size-dependent characteristics of the nanoparticles in austenitic ODS steels differ from those in ferritic/martensitic ODS steels.

  6. Contact Graph Routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    Contact Graph Routing (CGR) is a dynamic routing system that computes routes through a time-varying topology of scheduled communication contacts in a network based on the DTN (Delay-Tolerant Networking) architecture. It is designed to enable dynamic selection of data transmission routes in a space network based on DTN. This dynamic responsiveness in route computation should be significantly more effective and less expensive than static routing, increasing total data return while at the same time reducing mission operations cost and risk. The basic strategy of CGR is to take advantage of the fact that, since flight mission communication operations are planned in detail, the communication routes between any pair of bundle agents in a population of nodes that have all been informed of one another's plans can be inferred from those plans rather than discovered via dialogue (which is impractical over long one-way-light-time space links). Messages that convey this planning information are used to construct contact graphs (time-varying models of network connectivity) from which CGR automatically computes efficient routes for bundles. Automatic route selection increases the flexibility and resilience of the space network, simplifying cross-support and reducing mission management costs. Note that there are no routing tables in Contact Graph Routing. The best route for a bundle destined for a given node may routinely be different from the best route for a different bundle destined for the same node, depending on bundle priority, bundle expiration time, and changes in the current lengths of transmission queues for neighboring nodes; routes must be computed individually for each bundle, from the Bundle Protocol agent's current network connectivity model for the bundle s destination node (the contact graph). Clearly this places a premium on optimizing the implementation of the route computation algorithm. The scalability of CGR to very large networks remains a research topic

  7. Quantum Size- Dependent Third- Order Nonlinear Optical Susceptibility in Semiconductor Quantum Dots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Ting; XIONG Gui-guang

    2005-01-01

    The density matrix approach has been employed to investigate the optical nonlinear polarization in a single semiconductor quantum dot(QD). Electron states are considered to be confined within a quantum dot with infinite potential barriers. It is shown, by numerical calculation, that the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities for a typical Si quantum dot is dependent on the quantum size of the quantum dot and the frequency of incident light.

  8. Iris Matching Based On a Stack Like Structure Graph Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roushdi Mohamed FAROUK

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the elastic bunch graph matching as a new approach for iris recognition. The task is difficult because of iris variation in terms of position, size, and partial occlusion. We have used the circular Hough transform to determine the iris boundaries. Individual segmented irises are represented as labeled graphs. We have combined a representative set of individual model graphs into a stack like structure called an iris bunch graph (IBG. Finally, a bunch graph similarity function is proposed to compare a test graph with the IBG. Recognition results are given for galleries of irises from CASIA version and UBIRIS databases. The numerical results show that, the elastic bunch graph matching is an effective technique for iris matching. We also compare our results with previous results and find that, the elastic bunch graph matching is an effective matching performance.

  9. Size-dependent structure and magnetocaloric properties of Fe-based glass-forming alloy powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Luo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the influence of particle size on the microstructure and magnetocaloric effect of Fe-based alloy powders (11 μm to 100 μm in diameter. The degree of structure order varies with the powder size. The 11 μm to 18 μm powders show the largest peak magnetic entropy change (MEC. Increasing the degree of structure order tends to decrease the maximum MEC. Nevertheless, enhancement of refrigerant capacity and MEC (above 70 K is achieved when the crystalline phase content is ∼50% (above 75 μm in the 75 μm to 100 μm powders. Exponent n of the field dependence of MEC increases with the decrease in powder size above 22.5 K. The size dependence of the structure and properties is associated with the fact that a larger particle has a slower cooling rate and takes a longer time to form medium-to-long range ordered structures.

  10. Blood Oxygen Level-Dependent Activation of the Primary Visual Cortex Predicts Size Adaptation Illusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooresmaeili, Arezoo; Arrighi, Roberto; Biagi, Laura; Morrone, Maria Concetta

    2016-01-01

    In natural scenes, objects rarely occur in isolation but appear within a spatiotemporal context. Here, we show that the perceived size of a stimulus is significantly affected by the context of the scene: brief previous presentation of larger or smaller adapting stimuli at the same region of space changes the perceived size of a test stimulus, with larger adapting stimuli causing the test to appear smaller than veridical and vice versa. In a human fMRI study, we measured the blood oxygen level-dependent activation (BOLD) responses of the primary visual cortex (V1) to the contours of large-diameter stimuli and found that activation closely matched the perceptual rather than the retinal stimulus size: the activated area of V1 increased or decreased, depending on the size of the preceding stimulus. A model based on local inhibitory V1 mechanisms simulated the inward or outward shifts of the stimulus contours and hence the perceptual effects. Our findings suggest that area V1 is actively involved in reshaping our perception to match the short-term statistics of the visual scene. PMID:24089504

  11. Size-dependent and tunable crystallization of GeSbTe phase-change nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Ten Brink, Gert H.; Palasantzas, George; Kooi, Bart J.

    2016-12-01

    Chalcogenide-based nanostructured phase-change materials (PCMs) are considered promising building blocks for non-volatile memory due to their high write and read speeds, high data-storage density, and low power consumption. Top-down fabrication of PCM nanoparticles (NPs), however, often results in damage and deterioration of their useful properties. Gas-phase condensation based on magnetron sputtering offers an attractive and straightforward solution to continuously down-scale the PCMs into sub-lithographic sizes. Here we unprecedentedly present the size dependence of crystallization for Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) NPs, whose production is currently highly challenging for chemical synthesis or top-down fabrication. Both amorphous and crystalline NPs have been produced with excellent size and composition control with average diameters varying between 8 and 17 nm. The size-dependent crystallization of these NPs was carefully analyzed through in-situ heating in a transmission electron microscope, where the crystallization temperatures (Tc) decrease when the NPs become smaller. Moreover, methane incorporation has been observed as an effective method to enhance the amorphous phase stability of the NPs. This work therefore elucidates that GST NPs synthesized by gas-phase condensation with tailored properties are promising alternatives in designing phase-change memories constrained by optical lithography limitations.

  12. Microfiberoptic fluorescence photobleaching reveals size-dependent macromolecule diffusion in extracellular space deep in brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zador, Zsolt; Magzoub, Mazin; Jin, Songwan; Manley, Geoffrey T; Papadopoulos, Marios C; Verkman, A S

    2008-03-01

    Diffusion in brain extracellular space (ECS) is important for nonsynaptic intercellular communication, extracellular ionic buffering, and delivery of drugs and metabolites. We measured macromolecular diffusion in normally light-inaccessible regions of mouse brain by microfiberoptic epifluorescence photobleaching, in which a fiberoptic with a micron-size tip is introduced deep in brain tissue. In brain cortex, the diffusion of a noninteracting molecule [fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran, 70 kDa] was slowed 4.5 +/- 0.5-fold compared with its diffusion in water (D(o)/D), and was depth-independent down to 800 microm from the brain surface. Diffusion was significantly accelerated (D(o)/D of 2.9+/-0.3) in mice lacking the glial water channel aquaporin-4. FITC-dextran diffusion varied greatly in different regions of brain, with D(o)/D of 3.5 +/- 0.3 in hippocampus and 7.4 +/- 0.3 in thalamus. Remarkably, D(o)/D in deep brain was strongly dependent on solute size, whereas diffusion in cortex changed little with solute size. Mathematical modeling of ECS diffusion required nonuniform ECS dimensions in deep brain, which we call "heterometricity," to account for the size-dependent diffusion. Our results provide the first data on molecular diffusion in ECS deep in brain in vivo and demonstrate previously unrecognized hindrance and heterometricity for diffusion of large macromolecules in deep brain.

  13. Size-dependent crystalline fluctuation and growth mechanism of bismuth nanoparticles under electron beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sujuan; Jiang, Yi; Hu, Lijun; Sun, Jianguo; Wan, Piaopiao; Sun, Lidong

    2016-06-01

    Advanced nanofabrication requires accurate tailoring of various nanostructures with the assistance of electron or ion beam irradiation. However, evolution of the nanostructures under the beam irradiation significantly affects the fabrication process. It is thus of paramount importance to study the evolution behaviors and growth mechanism of the nanostructures. In this study, bismuth nanoparticles were selected to investigate crystalline fluctuation under electron beam irradiation via transmission electron microscopy. The results disclose size-dependent crystalline fluctuation of the nanoparticles. The particles exhibit crystalline and non-crystalline features for sizes of above 15 and below 4 nm, respectively, while a mixture of the two states is observed with sizes in between. The crystalline fluctuation facilitates the growth process of the particles when a crystalline particle is in contact with another non-crystalline one. This is promising for applications in nanofabrication where high quality interfaces are desired between two joining parts.Advanced nanofabrication requires accurate tailoring of various nanostructures with the assistance of electron or ion beam irradiation. However, evolution of the nanostructures under the beam irradiation significantly affects the fabrication process. It is thus of paramount importance to study the evolution behaviors and growth mechanism of the nanostructures. In this study, bismuth nanoparticles were selected to investigate crystalline fluctuation under electron beam irradiation via transmission electron microscopy. The results disclose size-dependent crystalline fluctuation of the nanoparticles. The particles exhibit crystalline and non-crystalline features for sizes of above 15 and below 4 nm, respectively, while a mixture of the two states is observed with sizes in between. The crystalline fluctuation facilitates the growth process of the particles when a crystalline particle is in contact with another non

  14. Chitin particles induce size-dependent but carbohydrate-independent innate eosinophilia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogiso, Mari; Nishiyama, Akihito; Shinohara, Tsutomu; Nakamura, Masataka; Mizoguchi, Emiko; Misawa, Yoshinori; Guinet, Elisabeth; Nouri-Shirazi, Mahyar; Dorey, C. Kathleen; Henriksen, Ruth Ann; Shibata, Yoshimi

    2011-01-01

    Murine Mφ that phagocytose CMP develop into M1; this response depends on the size and the chemical composition of the particles. In contrast, recent studies concluded that chitin particles induce M2 and eosinophil migration, promoting acquired Th2 immune responses against chitin-containing microbes or allergens. This study examined whether these apparently inconsistent responses to chitin could be induced by variation in the size and chemical composition of the chitin particles. We compared the responses of Mφ with CMP, LCB, and Sephadex G-100 beads (>40 μm). Beads were given i.p. to WT mice and to mice deficient in a CRTH2, a receptor for the eosinophil chemoattractant PGD2. In contrast to the M1 activation induced by CMP, i.p. administration of LCB or Sephadex beads induced within 24 h a CRTH2-dependent peritoneal eosinophilia, as well as CRTH2-independent activation of peritoneal Mφ that expressed Arg I, an M2 phenotype. LCB-induced Mφ exhibited elevated Arg I and a surface MR, reduced surface TLR2 levels, and no change in the levels of CHI3L1 or IL-10 production. Our results indicate that the effects of chitin in vivo are highly dependent on particle size and that large, nonphagocytosable beads, independent of their chemical composition, induce innate eosinophilia and activate Mφ expressing several M2, but not M1, phenotypes. PMID:21447645

  15. Direct and accurate measurement of size dependent wetting behaviors for sessile water droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jimin; Han, Hyung-Seop; Kim, Yu-Chan; Ahn, Jae-Pyeong; Ok, Myoung-Ryul; Lee, Kyung Eun; Lee, Jee-Wook; Cha, Pil-Ryung; Seok, Hyun-Kwang; Jeon, Hojeong

    2015-12-01

    The size-dependent wettability of sessile water droplets is an important matter in wetting science. Although extensive studies have explored this problem, it has been difficult to obtain empirical data for microscale sessile droplets at a wide range of diameters because of the flaws resulting from evaporation and insufficient imaging resolution. Herein, we present the size-dependent quantitative change of wettability by directly visualizing the three phase interfaces of droplets using a cryogenic-focused ion beam milling and SEM-imaging technique. With the fundamental understanding of the formation pathway, evaporation, freezing, and contact angle hysteresis for sessile droplets, microdroplets with diameters spanning more than three orders of magnitude on various metal substrates were examined. Wetting nature can gradually change from hydrophobic at the hundreds-of-microns scale to super-hydrophobic at the sub-μm scale, and a nonlinear relationship between the cosine of the contact angle and contact line curvature in microscale water droplets was demonstrated. We also showed that the wettability could be further tuned in a size-dependent manner by introducing regular heterogeneities to the substrate.

  16. Random rectangular Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Estrada, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    A generalization of the random geometric graph (RGG) model is proposed by considering a set of points uniformly and independently distributed on a rectangle of unit area instead of on a unit square \\left[0,1\\right]^{2}. The topological properties, such as connectivity, average degree, average path length and clustering, of the random rectangular graphs (RRGs) generated by this model are then studied as a function of the rectangle sides lengths a and b=1/a, and the radius r used to connect the nodes. When a=1 we recover the RGG, and when a\\rightarrow\\infty the very elongated rectangle generated resembles a one-dimensional RGG. We provided computational and analytical evidence that the topological properties of the RRG differ significantly from those of the RGG. The connectivity of the RRG depends not only on the number of nodes as in the case of the RGG, but also on the side length of the rectangle. As the rectangle is more elongated the critical radius for connectivity increases following first a power-law an...

  17. Graphing with "LogoWriter."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Sharon K.

    This book discusses four kinds of graphs that are taught in mathematics at the middle school level: pictographs, bar graphs, line graphs, and circle graphs. The chapters on each of these types of graphs contain information such as starting, scaling, drawing, labeling, and finishing the graphs using "LogoWriter." The final chapter of the book…

  18. Enabling Graph Appliance for Genome Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Rina [ORNL; Graves, Jeffrey A [ORNL; Lee, Sangkeun (Matt) [ORNL; Sukumar, Sreenivas R [ORNL; Shankar, Mallikarjun [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a huge growth in the amount of genomic data available as reads generated from various genome sequencers. The number of reads generated can be huge, ranging from hundreds to billions of nucleotide, each varying in size. Assembling such large amounts of data is one of the challenging computational problems for both biomedical and data scientists. Most of the genome assemblers developed have used de Bruijn graph techniques. A de Bruijn graph represents a collection of read sequences by billions of vertices and edges, which require large amounts of memory and computational power to store and process. This is the major drawback to de Bruijn graph assembly. Massively parallel, multi-threaded, shared memory systems can be leveraged to overcome some of these issues. The objective of our research is to investigate the feasibility and scalability issues of de Bruijn graph assembly on Cray s Urika-GD system; Urika-GD is a high performance graph appliance with a large shared memory and massively multithreaded custom processor designed for executing SPARQL queries over large-scale RDF data sets. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no research on representing a de Bruijn graph as an RDF graph or finding Eulerian paths in RDF graphs using SPARQL for potential genome discovery. In this paper, we address the issues involved in representing a de Bruin graphs as RDF graphs and propose an iterative querying approach for finding Eulerian paths in large RDF graphs. We evaluate the performance of our implementation on real world ebola genome datasets and illustrate how genome assembly can be accomplished with Urika-GD using iterative SPARQL queries.

  19. Handbook of graph theory

    CERN Document Server

    Gross, Jonathan L

    2003-01-01

    The Handbook of Graph Theory is the most comprehensive single-source guide to graph theory ever published. Best-selling authors Jonathan Gross and Jay Yellen assembled an outstanding team of experts to contribute overviews of more than 50 of the most significant topics in graph theory-including those related to algorithmic and optimization approaches as well as ""pure"" graph theory. They then carefully edited the compilation to produce a unified, authoritative work ideal for ready reference.Designed and edited with non-experts in mind, the Handbook of Graph Theory makes information easy to fi

  20. Methods of visualizing graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Pak C.; Mackey, Patrick S.; Perrine, Kenneth A.; Foote, Harlan P.; Thomas, James J.

    2008-12-23

    Methods for visualizing a graph by automatically drawing elements of the graph as labels are disclosed. In one embodiment, the method comprises receiving node information and edge information from an input device and/or communication interface, constructing a graph layout based at least in part on that information, wherein the edges are automatically drawn as labels, and displaying the graph on a display device according to the graph layout. In some embodiments, the nodes are automatically drawn as labels instead of, or in addition to, the label-edges.

  1. The maximal energy of classes of integral circulant graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Sander, Jürgen W

    2012-01-01

    The energy of a graph is the sum of the moduli of the eigenvalues of its adjacency matrix. We study the energy of integral circulant graphs, also called gcd graphs, which can be characterized by their vertex count $n$ and a set $\\cal D$ of divisors of $n$ in such a way that they have vertex set $\\mathbb{Z}_n$ and edge set ${{a,b}: a,b\\in\\mathbb{Z}_n, \\gcd(a-b,n)\\in {\\cal D}}$. For a fixed prime power $n=p^s$ and a fixed divisor set size $|{\\cal D}| =r$, we analyze the maximal energy among all matching integral circulant graphs. Let $p^{a_1} < p^{a_2} < ... < p^{a_r}$ be the elements of ${\\cal D}$. It turns out that the differences $d_i=a_{i+1}-a_{i}$ between the exponents of an energy maximal divisor set must satisfy certain balance conditions: (i) either all $d_i$ equal $q:=\\frac{s-1}{r-1}$, or at most the two differences $[q]$ and $[q+1]$ may occur; %(for a certain $d$ depending on $r$ and $s$) (ii) there are rules governing the sequence $d_1,...,d_{r-1}$ of consecutive differences. For particular ...

  2. Cascading Power Outages Propagate Locally in an Influence Graph that is not the Actual Grid Topology

    CERN Document Server

    Hines, Paul D H; Rezaei, Pooya

    2015-01-01

    In a cascading power transmission outage, component outages propagate non-locally; after one component outages, the next failure may be very distant, both topologically and geographically. As a result, simple models of topological contagion do not accurately represent the propagation of cascades in power systems. However, cascading power outages do follow patterns, some of which are useful in understanding and reducing blackout risk. This paper describes a method by which the data from many cascading failure simulations can be transformed into a graph-based model of influences that provides actionable information about the many ways that cascades propagate in a particular system. The resulting "influence graph" model is Markovian, since component outage probabilities depend only on the outages that occurred in the prior generation. To validate the model we compare the distribution of cascade sizes resulting from n-2 contingencies in a 2896 branch test case to cascade sizes in the influence graph. The two dist...

  3. Size-dependent mechanical behavior of nanoscale polymer particles through coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Junhua; Nagao, Shijo; Odegard, Gregory M; Zhang, Zhiliang; Kristiansen, Helge; He, Jianying

    2013-12-21

    Anisotropic conductive adhesives (ACAs) are promising materials used for producing ultra-thin liquid-crystal displays. Because the mechanical response of polymer particles can have a significant impact in the performance of ACAs, understanding of this apparent size effect is of fundamental importance in the electronics industry. The objective of this research is to use a coarse-grained molecular dynamics model to verify and gain physical insight into the observed size dependence effect in polymer particles. In agreement with experimental studies, the results of this study clearly indicate that there is a strong size effect in spherical polymer particles with diameters approaching the nanometer length scale. The results of the simulations also clearly indicate that the source for the increases in modulus is the increase in relative surface energy for decreasing particle sizes. Finally, the actual contact conditions at the surface of the polymer nanoparticles are shown to be similar to those predicted using Hertz and perfectly plastic contact theory. As ACA thicknesses are reduced in response to reductions in polymer particle size, it is expected that the overall compressive stiffness of the ACA will increase, thus influencing the manufacturing process.

  4. Experimental study on size-dependency of effective permittivity of particle-gas mixture with agglomeration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xiaomin; Xu Lijun; Li Songyun

    2007-01-01

    The effective medium approximation (EMA) theory is the basis of a capacitance sensor used for concentration measurement of a particulate solid flow, its measurement result is independent on particle size. In existence of particle agglomeration or aggradation, however, it is found that the effective permittivity of a gas/solid mixture is dependent on particle size. In this paper, a parallel plate, differential capacitance sensor is utilized to investigate the influence of particle size on the effective permittivity of the mixture in such a case. Static experiments using three materials including glass, limestone and quartz particles were carried out in an off-line manner. The volume fraction of particles being tested ranged from 20×10-6 to 600×10-6, while the particle size was between 3 and 100 μm. Experimental results show that the effective permittivity of a particle-gas mixture with particle agglomeration is larger than that predicted by EMA and the smaller the particle size, the larger the effective permittivity. The experiment process and analysis results are discussed in detail in the paper.

  5. Completely Described Undirected Graph Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Ivanova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objects of research are undirected graphs. The paper considers a problem of their isomorphism. A literature analysis of its solution, has shown that there is no way to define a complete graph invariant in the form of unique structural characteristics of each its vertex, which has a computational complexity of definition better than О (n 4 .The work objective is to provide the characteristics of the graph structure, which could be used to solve the problem of their isomorphism for a time better than О (n 4 . As such characteristics, the paper proposes to use the set of codes of tree roots of all the shortest - in terms of the number of edges - paths from each vertex to the others, uniquely defining the structure of each tree. It proves the theorem that it is possible to reduce the problem of isomorphism of the undirected graphs to the isomorphism problem of their splitting into the trees of all the shortest - in terms of the number of edges - paths of each vertex to the others. An algorithm to construct the shortest paths from each vertex to all others and to compute codes of their vertices has been developed. As the latter, are used Aho-codes, which find application in recognising the isomorphism of trees. The computational complexity to obtain structural characteristics of vertices has been estimated to be about О (n 3 .The pilot studies involved the full-scale experiment using the developed complex programmes to generate raw data, i.e. analytic representation of the graph with the number of vertices equal to 1200, and a programme to provide codes of the tree roots. To have an estimate of - "the worst" in terms of time - complexity of expansion algorithm of graphs into trees of the shortest paths and define the codes of their roots has been an experimentally studied how the number of tree vertices depends on the graph density. For the worst case was obtained a dependence of the number of tree vertices on the number of graph vertices

  6. Size and shape dependent deprotonation potential and proton affinity of nanodiamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Amanda S.; Per, Manolo C.

    2014-11-01

    Many important reactions in biology and medicine involve proton abstraction and transfer, and it is integral to applications such as drug delivery. Unlike electrons, which are quantum mechanically delocalized, protons are instantaneously localized on specific residues in these reactions, which can be a distinct advantage. However, the introduction of nanoparticles, such as non-toxic nanodiamonds, to this field complicates matters, as the number of possible sites increases as the inverse radius of the particle. In this paper we present \\gt {{10}4} simulations that map the size- and shape-dependence of the deprotonation potential and proton affinity of nanodiamonds in the range 1.8-2.7 nm in average diameter. We find that while the average deprotonation potential and proton affinities decrease with size, the site-specific values are inhomogeneous over the surface of the particles, exhibiting strong shape-dependence. The proton affinity is strongly facet-dependent, whereas the deprotonation potential is edge/corner-dependent, which creates a type of spatial hysteresis in the transfer of protons to and from the nanodiamond, and provides new opportunities for selective functionalization.

  7. Pattern vectors from algebraic graph theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Richard C; Hancock, Edwin R; Luo, Bin

    2005-07-01

    Graph structures have proven computationally cumbersome for pattern analysis. The reason for this is that, before graphs can be converted to pattern vectors, correspondences must be established between the nodes of structures which are potentially of different size. To overcome this problem, in this paper, we turn to the spectral decomposition of the Laplacian matrix. We show how the elements of the spectral matrix for the Laplacian can be used to construct symmetric polynomials that are permutation invariants. The coefficients of these polynomials can be used as graph features which can be encoded in a vectorial manner. We extend this representation to graphs in which there are unary attributes on the nodes and binary attributes on the edges by using the spectral decomposition of a Hermitian property matrix that can be viewed as a complex analogue of the Laplacian. To embed the graphs in a pattern space, we explore whether the vectors of invariants can be embedded in a low-dimensional space using a number of alternative strategies, including principal components analysis (PCA), multidimensional scaling (MDS), and locality preserving projection (LPP). Experimentally, we demonstrate that the embeddings result in well-defined graph clusters. Our experiments with the spectral representation involve both synthetic and real-world data. The experiments with synthetic data demonstrate that the distances between spectral feature vectors can be used to discriminate between graphs on the basis of their structure. The real-world experiments show that the method can be used to locate clusters of graphs.

  8. Size-dependent properties of silica nanoparticles for Pickering stabilization of emulsions and foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ijung; Worthen, Andrew J.; Johnston, Keith P.; DiCarlo, David A.; Huh, Chun

    2016-04-01

    Nanoparticles are a promising alternative to surfactants to stabilize emulsions or foams in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes due to their effectiveness in very harsh environments found in many of the oilfields around the world. While the size-dependent properties of nanoparticles have been extensively studied in the area of optics or cellular uptake, little is known on the effects of nanoparticle size on emulsion/foam generation, especially for EOR applications. In this study, silica nanoparticles with four different sizes (5, 12, 25, and 80 nm nominal diameter) but with the same surface treatment were employed to test their emulsion or foam generation behavior in high-salinity conditions. The decane-in-brine emulsion generated by sonication or flowing through sandpack showed smaller droplet size and higher apparent viscosity as the nanoparticle size decreased. Similarly, the CO2-in-brine foam generation in sandstone or sandpacks was also significantly affected by the nanoparticle size, exhibiting higher apparent foam viscosity as the nanoparticle size decreased. In case of foam generation in sandstone cores with 5 nm nanoparticles, a noticeable hysteresis occurred when the flow velocity was initially increased and then decreased, implying a strong foam generation initially; and then the trapping of the generated foam in the rock pores, as the flow velocity decreased. On the other hand, weak foams stabilized with larger nanoparticles indicated a rapid coalescence of bubbles which prevented foam generation. Overall, stable emulsions/foams were achievable by the smaller particles as a result of greater diffusivity and/or higher number concentration, thus allowing more nanoparticles with higher surface area to volume ratio to be adsorbed at the fluid/fluid interfaces of the emulsion/foam dispersion.

  9. Strong pore-size dependence of the optical properties in porous alumina membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, C. H.; Kim, D. H.; Lee, Y. S.; Han, J. K.; Choi, Y. C.; Bu, S. D.; Shin, H. Y.; Yoon, S.

    2013-11-01

    We report on the strong pore-size-dependent optical properties of porous alumina membranes (PAMs) by using the photoluminescence and the optical spectroscopic techniques. The pore diameters of our PAMs varied from 60 to 420 nm. All samples showed a sizable violet/blue emission with a strong temperature dependence. We found that the peak position of the emission shifted to higher energies with increasing pore diameter, which was in accord with the smaller binding energy extracted from the temperature dependence of the emission intensity. From the transmission spectra, we found that the effective bandgap of the PAMs shifted significantly to lower energies with increasing pore diameter, which indicated that the impurity states within the bandgap was affected strongly by the geometry of the PAM.

  10. The Size Effect on the Temperature Dependence of the Resistivity of Metal Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Odnodvorets

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the temperature dependences of the electrical conductivity of thin metal films is per-formed. It is shown that the size dependence of the effective parameter of the electron-phonon interaction is connected with amplification of high-temperature electron-phonon interaction at the decrease in the film thickness which appears as a result of the shift of the phonon spectrum to higher frequencies. We have found that the slope of the experimental temperature dependences of the resistance for Pd, Pt, and Sc films, as in the case of Mo, Cr, Ag, Au, and PdAu films, according to the data of other authors, increases with the decrease in the thickness. As the film thickness decreases the average phonon energy increases that leads to the increase in the efficiency of the electron-phonon scattering and, finally, to the increase in the resistivity.

  11. Learning Graph Matching

    CERN Document Server

    Caetano, Tiberio S; Cheng, Li; Le, Quoc V; Smola, Alex J

    2008-01-01

    As a fundamental problem in pattern recognition, graph matching has applications in a variety of fields, from computer vision to computational biology. In graph matching, patterns are modeled as graphs and pattern recognition amounts to finding a correspondence between the nodes of different graphs. Many formulations of this problem can be cast in general as a quadratic assignment problem, where a linear term in the objective function encodes node compatibility and a quadratic term encodes edge compatibility. The main research focus in this theme is about designing efficient algorithms for approximately solving the quadratic assignment problem, since it is NP-hard. In this paper we turn our attention to a different question: how to estimate compatibility functions such that the solution of the resulting graph matching problem best matches the expected solution that a human would manually provide. We present a method for learning graph matching: the training examples are pairs of graphs and the `labels' are ma...

  12. Quantum statistics on graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, JM; Robbins, JM; 10.1098/rspa.2010.0254

    2011-01-01

    Quantum graphs are commonly used as models of complex quantum systems, for example molecules, networks of wires, and states of condensed matter. We consider quantum statistics for indistinguishable spinless particles on a graph, concentrating on the simplest case of abelian statistics for two particles. In spite of the fact that graphs are locally one-dimensional, anyon statistics emerge in a generalized form. A given graph may support a family of independent anyon phases associated with topologically inequivalent exchange processes. In addition, for sufficiently complex graphs, there appear new discrete-valued phases. Our analysis is simplified by considering combinatorial rather than metric graphs -- equivalently, a many-particle tight-binding model. The results demonstrate that graphs provide an arena in which to study new manifestations of quantum statistics. Possible applications include topological quantum computing, topological insulators, the fractional quantum Hall effect, superconductivity and molec...

  13. Simplicial complexes of graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Jonsson, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    A graph complex is a finite family of graphs closed under deletion of edges. Graph complexes show up naturally in many different areas of mathematics, including commutative algebra, geometry, and knot theory. Identifying each graph with its edge set, one may view a graph complex as a simplicial complex and hence interpret it as a geometric object. This volume examines topological properties of graph complexes, focusing on homotopy type and homology. Many of the proofs are based on Robin Forman's discrete version of Morse theory. As a byproduct, this volume also provides a loosely defined toolbox for attacking problems in topological combinatorics via discrete Morse theory. In terms of simplicity and power, arguably the most efficient tool is Forman's divide and conquer approach via decision trees; it is successfully applied to a large number of graph and digraph complexes.

  14. Electrochemical charging of CdSe quantum dot films: dependence on void size and counterion proximity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehme, Simon C; Wang, Hai; Siebbeles, Laurens D A; Vanmaekelbergh, Daniel; Houtepen, Arjan J

    2013-03-26

    Films of colloidal quantum dots (QDs) show great promise for application in optoelectronic devices. Great advances have been made in recent years in designing efficient QD solar cells and LEDs. A very important aspect in the design of devices based on QD films is the knowledge of their absolute energy levels. Unfortunately, reported energy levels vary markedly depending on the employed measurement technique and the environment of the sample. In this report, we determine absolute energy levels of QD films by electrochemical charge injection. The concomitant change in optical absorption of the film allows quantification of the number of charges in quantum-confined levels and thereby their energetic position. We show here that the size of voids in the QD films (i.e., the space between the quantum dots) determines the amount of charges that may be injected into the films. This effect is attributed to size exclusion of countercharges from the electrolyte solution. Further, the energy of the QD levels depends on subtle changes in the QD film and the supporting electrolyte: the size of the cation and the QD ligand length. These nontrivial effects can be explained by the proximity of the cation to the QD surface and a concomitant lowering of the electrochemical potential. Our findings help explain the wide range of reported values for QD energy levels and redefine the limit of applicability of electrochemical measurements on QD films. Finally, the finding that the energy of QD levels depends on ligand length and counterion size may be exploited in optimized designs of QD sensitized solar cells.

  15. Conditional and Unique Coloring of Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, P Venkata Subba

    2011-01-01

    For integers $k, r > 0$, a conditional $(k,r)$-coloring of a graph $G$ is a proper $k$-coloring of the vertices of $G$ such that every vertex $v$ of degree $d(v)$ in $G$ is adjacent to at least $\\min\\{r, d(v)\\}$ differently colored vertices. Given $r$, the smallest integer $k$ for which $G$ has a conditional $(k,r)$-coloring is called the $r$th order conditional chromatic number $\\chi_r(G)$ of $G$. We give results (exact values or bounds for $\\chi_r(G)$, depending on $r$) related to the conditional coloring of some graphs. We introduce \\emph{unique conditional colorability} and give some related results. (Keywords. cartesian product of graphs; conditional chromatic number; gear graph; join of graphs.)

  16. Probability distributions with summary graph structure

    CERN Document Server

    Wermuth, Nanny

    2010-01-01

    A set of independence statements may define the independence structure of interest in a family of joint probability distributions. This structure is often captured by a graph that consists of nodes representing the random variables and of edges that couple node pairs. One important class are multivariate regression chain graphs. They describe the independences of stepwise processes, in which at each step single or joint responses are generated given the relevant explanatory variables in their past. For joint densities that then result after possible marginalising or conditioning, we use summary graphs. These graphs reflect the independence structure implied by the generating process for the reduced set of variables and they preserve the implied independences after additional marginalising and conditioning. They can identify generating dependences which remain unchanged and alert to possibly severe distortions due to direct and indirect confounding. Operators for matrix representations of graphs are used to de...

  17. Size-dependent error of the density functional theory ionization potential in vacuum and solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa Vazquez, Xochitl A; Isborn, Christine M

    2015-12-28

    Density functional theory is often the method of choice for modeling the energetics of large molecules and including explicit solvation effects. It is preferable to use a method that treats systems of different sizes and with different amounts of explicit solvent on equal footing. However, recent work suggests that approximate density functional theory has a size-dependent error in the computation of the ionization potential. We here investigate the lack of size-intensivity of the ionization potential computed with approximate density functionals in vacuum and solution. We show that local and semi-local approximations to exchange do not yield a constant ionization potential for an increasing number of identical isolated molecules in vacuum. Instead, as the number of molecules increases, the total energy required to ionize the system decreases. Rather surprisingly, we find that this is still the case in solution, whether using a polarizable continuum model or with explicit solvent that breaks the degeneracy of each solute, and we find that explicit solvent in the calculation can exacerbate the size-dependent delocalization error. We demonstrate that increasing the amount of exact exchange changes the character of the polarization of the solvent molecules; for small amounts of exact exchange the solvent molecules contribute a fraction of their electron density to the ionized electron, but for larger amounts of exact exchange they properly polarize in response to the cationic solute. In vacuum and explicit solvent, the ionization potential can be made size-intensive by optimally tuning a long-range corrected hybrid functional.

  18. Size-Dependent Photodynamic Anticancer Activity of Biocompatible Multifunctional Magnetic Submicron Particles in Prostate Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyong-Hoon Choi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, newly designed biocompatible multifunctional magnetic submicron particles (CoFe2O4-HPs-FAs of well-defined sizes (60, 133, 245, and 335 nm were fabricated for application as a photosensitizer delivery agent for photodynamic therapy in cancer cells. To provide selective targeting of cancer cells and destruction of cancer cell functionality, basic cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4 particles were covalently bonded with a photosensitizer (PS, which comprises hematoporphyrin (HP, and folic acid (FA molecules. The magnetic properties of the CoFe2O4 particles were finely adjusted by controlling the size of the primary CoFe2O4 nanograins, and secondary superstructured composite particles were formed by aggregation of the nanograins. The prepared CoFe2O4-HP-FA exhibited high water solubility, good MR-imaging capacity, and biocompatibility without any in vitro cytotoxicity. In particular, our CoFe2O4-HP-FA exhibited remarkable photodynamic anticancer efficiency via induction of apoptotic death in PC-3 prostate cancer cells in a particle size- and concentration-dependent manner. This size-dependent effect was determined by the specific surface area of the particles because the number of HP molecules increased with decreasing size and increasing surface area. These results indicate that our CoFe2O4-HP-FA may be applicable for photodynamic therapy (PDT as a PS delivery material and a therapeutic agent for MR-imaging based PDT owing to their high saturation value for magnetization and superparamagnetism.

  19. Copper nanoparticles exert size and concentration dependent toxicity on somatosensory neurons of rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    PRABHU, BADANAVALU M.; ALI, SYED F.; MURDOCK, RICHARD C.; HUSSAIN, SABER M.; SRIVATSAN, MALATHI

    2010-01-01

    Metal nanoparticles, due to their unique properties and important applications in optical, magnetic, thermal, electrical, sensor devices and cosmetics, are beginning to be widely manufactured and used. This new and rapidly growing field of technology warrants a thorough examination of the material’s bio-compatibility and safety. Ultra-small particles may adversely affect living cells and organisms since they can easily penetrate the body through skin contact, inhalation and ingestion. Retrograde transport of copper nanoparticles from nerve endings on the skin can reach the somatosensory neurons in dorsal root ganglion (DRG). Since copper nanoparticles have industrial and healthcare applications, we determined the concentration and size-dependant effects of their exposure on survival of DRG neurons of rat in cell culture. The neurons were exposed to copper nanoparticles of increasing concentrations (10–100 μM) and sizes (40, 60 and 80 nm) for 24 h. Light microscopy, histochemical staining for copper, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay for cell death, and MTS [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay for cell viability were performed to measure the resultant toxicity and cell survival. DRG neurons exposed to copper nanoparticles displayed vacuoles and detachment of some neurons from the substratum. Neurons also exhibited disrupted neurite network. LDH and MTS assays revealed that exposure to copper nanoparticles had significant toxic effect with all the sizes tested when compared to unexposed control cultures. Further analysis of the results showed that copper nanoparticles of smaller size and higher concentration exerted the maximum toxic effects. Rubeanic acid staining showed intracellular deposition of copper. These results demonstrate that copper nanoparticles are toxic in a size- and concentration-dependent manner to DRG neurons. PMID:20543894

  20. Size-dependent error of the density functional theory ionization potential in vacuum and solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosa Vazquez, Xochitl A.; Isborn, Christine M., E-mail: cisborn@ucmerced.edu [Chemistry and Chemical Biology, School of Natural Sciences, University of California, Merced, 5200 North Lake Road, Merced, California 95343 (United States)

    2015-12-28

    Density functional theory is often the method of choice for modeling the energetics of large molecules and including explicit solvation effects. It is preferable to use a method that treats systems of different sizes and with different amounts of explicit solvent on equal footing. However, recent work suggests that approximate density functional theory has a size-dependent error in the computation of the ionization potential. We here investigate the lack of size-intensivity of the ionization potential computed with approximate density functionals in vacuum and solution. We show that local and semi-local approximations to exchange do not yield a constant ionization potential for an increasing number of identical isolated molecules in vacuum. Instead, as the number of molecules increases, the total energy required to ionize the system decreases. Rather surprisingly, we find that this is still the case in solution, whether using a polarizable continuum model or with explicit solvent that breaks the degeneracy of each solute, and we find that explicit solvent in the calculation can exacerbate the size-dependent delocalization error. We demonstrate that increasing the amount of exact exchange changes the character of the polarization of the solvent molecules; for small amounts of exact exchange the solvent molecules contribute a fraction of their electron density to the ionized electron, but for larger amounts of exact exchange they properly polarize in response to the cationic solute. In vacuum and explicit solvent, the ionization potential can be made size-intensive by optimally tuning a long-range corrected hybrid functional.

  1. System-size dependence of the free energy of crystalline solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miguel, Enrique; Marguta, Ramona G; del Río, Elvira M

    2007-10-21

    We investigate the system-size dependence of the Helmholtz free energy of crystalline solids from computer simulation. We employ a standard thermodynamic integration technique along a reversible path that links the crystalline solid with a noninteracting Einstein crystal with the same structure. The key contribution to the free energy is computed by using the so-called expanded-ensemble technique and the results are compared with those obtained from conventional integration of the derivative of the free energy along the path using Gaussian-Legendre quadrature. We find that both methods yield fully consistent results. The free energy is found to exhibit a strong dependence with system size, in agreement with the behavior found by Polson et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 112, 5339 (2000)] but at variance with the dependence reported more recently by Chang and Sandler [J. Chem. Phys. 118, 8390 (2003)]. This has been tested for the face-centered cubic (fcc) and hexagonal close-packed phases of a crystal of hard spheres at a density close to the melting point. We also investigate any possible dependence of the free energy of the solid phase with the shape of the simulation box. We find that this contribution may not be as important as previous investigations suggest. The present results seem to indicate that there is a non-negligible contribution to the free energy arising from the orientation of the closed-packed crystal layers with respect to the simulation cell. This contribution is particularly noticeable for small system sizes and is believed to be an effect of the periodic boundary conditions used in the simulations. The results presented here corroborate the stability of the fcc phase of the hard-sphere solid close to melting.

  2. Size-dependent enrichment of waste slag aggregate fragments abraded from asphalt concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Fumitake; Shimaoka, Takayuki; Gardner, Kevin; Kida, Akiko

    2011-10-30

    Authors consider the environmental prospects of using melted waste slag as the aggregate for asphalt pavement. In particular, the enrichment of slag-derived fragments in fine abrasion dust particles originated from slag asphalt concrete and its size dependency were concerned. A series of surface abrasion tests for asphalt concrete specimens, containing only natural aggregates as reference or 30 wt% of substituted slag aggregates, were performed. Although two of three slag-asphalt concretes generated 1.5-3.0 times larger amount of abrasion dust than the reference asphalt concrete did, it could not be explained only by abrasion resistance of slag. The enrichment of slag-derived fragments in abrasion dust, estimated on the basis of the peak intensity of quartz and heavy metal concentrations, had size dependency for all slag-asphalt concretes. Slag-derived fragments were enriched in abrasion dust particles with diameters of 150-1000 μm. Enrichment factors were 1.4-2.1. In contrast, there was no enrichment in abrasion dust particles with diameter less than 75 μm. This suggests that prior airborne-size fragmentation of substituted slag aggregates does not need to be considered for tested slag aggregates when environmental risks of abrasion dust of slag-asphalt pavement are assessed.

  3. Size dependence study of the ordering temperature in the Fast Monte Carlo method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasquez, E. A., E-mail: eavelas@gmail.com [Universidad de San Buenaventura Seccional Medellin, Grupo de Investigacion en Modelamiento y Simulacion Computacional, Facultad de Ingenierias (Colombia); Mazo-Zuluaga, J., E-mail: johanmazo@gmail.com [Universidad de Antioquia, Grupo de Estado Solido, Grupo de Instrumentacion Cientifica y Microelectronica, Instituto de Fisica-FCEN (Colombia); Mejia-Lopez, J., E-mail: jmejia@puc.cl [Universidad de Antioquia, Instituto de Fisica-FCEN (Colombia)

    2013-02-15

    Based on the framework of the Fast Monte Carlo approach, we study the diameter dependence of the ordering temperature in magnetic nanostructures of cylindrical shape. For the purposes of this study, Fe cylindrical-shaped samples of different sizes (20 nm height, 30-100 nm in diameter) have been chosen, and their magnetic properties have been computed as functions of the scaled temperature. Two main set of results are concluded: (a) the ordering temperature of nanostructures follows a linear scaling relationship as a function of the scaling factor x, for all the studied sizes. This finding rules out a scaling relation T Prime {sub c} = x{sup 3{eta}}T{sub c} (where {eta} is a scaling exponent, and T Prime {sub c} and T{sub c} are the scaled and true ordering temperatures) that has been proposed in the literature, and suggests that temperature should scale linearly with the scaling factor x. (b) For the nanostructures, there are three different order-disorder magnetic transition modes depending on the system's size, in very good agreement with previous experimental reports.

  4. Mode- and size-dependent Landau-Lifshitz damping in magnetic nanostructures: evidence for nonlocal damping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nembach, Hans T; Shaw, Justin M; Boone, Carl T; Silva, T J

    2013-03-15

    We demonstrate a strong dependence of the effective damping on the nanomagnet size and the particular spin-wave mode that can be explained by the theory of intralayer transverse-spin pumping. The effective Landau-Lifshitz damping is measured optically in individual, isolated nanomagnets as small as 100 nm. The measurements are accomplished by use of a novel heterodyne magneto-optical microwave microscope with unprecedented sensitivity. Experimental data reveal multiple standing spin-wave modes that we identify by use of micromagnetic modeling as having either localized or delocalized character, described generically as end and center modes. The damping parameter of the two modes depends on both the size of the nanomagnet as well as the particular spin-wave mode that is excited, with values that are enhanced by as much as 40% relative to that measured for an extended film. Contrary to expectations based on the ad hoc consideration of lithography-induced edge damage, the damping for the end mode decreases as the size of the nanomagnet decreases. The data agree with the theory for damping caused by the flow of intralayer transverse spin currents driven by the magnetization curvature. These results have serious implications for the performance of nanoscale spintronic devices such as spin-torque-transfer magnetic random access memory.

  5. Size dependence of the magnetic relaxation and specific power absorption in iron oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, E. [CONICET and Instituto de Nanociencia y Nanotecnologia and Centro Atomico Bariloche (Argentina); Torres, T. E. [University of Zaragoza, Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragon (INA) and Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada and Laboratorio de Microscopias Avanzadas (LMA) (Spain); Rossi, L. M. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade de Sao Paulo (Brazil); Rechenberg, H. R. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo (Brazil); Berquo, T. S. [Institute of Rock Magnetism, University of Minnesota (United States); Ibarra, A. [University of Zaragoza, INA and LMA (Spain); Marquina, C. [CSIC, Universidad de Zaragoza, Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada and Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragon (ICMA) (Spain); Ibarra, M. R. [University of Zaragoza, INA and Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada and LMA (Spain); Goya, G. F., E-mail: goya@unizar.es [University of Zaragoza, INA and Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada (Spain)

    2013-05-15

    In this study, magnetic and power absorption properties of a series of iron oxide nanoparticles with average sizes Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket d Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket ranging from 3 to 23 nm were reported. The nanoparticles were prepared by thermal decomposition of Iron(III) acetylacetonate in organic media. From the careful characterization of the magnetic and physicochemical properties of these samples, the specific power absorption (SPA) values experimentally found were numerically reproduced, as well as their dependence with particle size, using a simple model of Brownian and Neel relaxation at room temperature. SPA experiments in ac magnetic fields (H{sub 0} = 13 kA/m and f = 250 kHz) indicated that the magnetic and rheological properties played a crucial role determining the heating efficiency at different conditions. A maximum SPA value of 344 W/g was obtained for a sample containing nanoparticles with Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket d Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket = 12 nm and dispersion {sigma} = 0.25. The observed SPA dependence with particle diameter and their magnetic parameters indicated that, for the size range and experimental conditions of f and H studied in this study, both Neel and Brown relaxation mechanisms are important to the heat generation observed.

  6. Particle Size-Dependent Antibacterial Activity and Murine Cell Cytotoxicity Induced by Graphene Oxide Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have indicated that graphene and its derivative graphene oxide (GO engage in a wide range of antibacterial activities with limited toxicity to human cells. Here, we systematically evaluate the dependence of GO toxicity on the size of the nanoparticles used in treatments: we compare the cytotoxic effects of graphene quantum dots (GQDs, <15 nm, small GOs (SGOs, 50–200 nm, and large GOs (LGOs, 0.5–3 μm. We synthesize the results of bacterial colony count assays and SEM-based observations of morphological changes to assess the antibacterial properties that these GOs bring into effect against E. coli. We also use Live/Dead assays and morphological analysis to investigate changes to mammalian (Murine macrophage-like Raw 264.7 cells induced by the presence of the various GO particle types. Our results demonstrate that LGOs, SGOs, and GQDs possess antibacterial activities and cause mammalian cell cytotoxicity at descending levels of potency. Placing our observations in the context of previous simulation results, we suggest that both the lateral size and surface area of GO particles contribute to cytotoxic effects. We hope that the size dependence elucidated here provides a useful schematic for tuning GO-cell interactions in biomedical applications.

  7. Algorithms for Graph Rigidity and Scene Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Alex Rune; Jordán, Tibor

    2003-01-01

    We investigate algorithmic questions and structural problems concerning graph families defined by `edge-counts'. Motivated by recent developments in the unique realization problem of graphs, we give an efficient algorithm to compute the rigid, redundantly rigid, M-connected, and globally rigid...... by showing that 2d-connected bipartite graphs are d-tight. We give a new algorithm for finding a maximal d-sharp subgraph. We also answer a question of Imai and show that finding a maximum size d-sharp subgraph is NP-hard....

  8. The evolution of random reversal graph

    CERN Document Server

    Jin, Emma Y

    2010-01-01

    The random reversal graph offers new perspectives, allowing to study the connectivity of genomes as well as their most likely distance as a function of the reversal rate. Our main result shows that the structure of the random reversal graph changes dramatically at $\\lambda_n=1/\\binom{n+1}{2}$. For $\\lambda_n=(1-\\epsilon)/\\binom{n+1}{2}$, the random graph consists of components of size at most $O(n\\ln(n))$ a.s. and for $(1+\\epsilon)/\\binom{n+1}{2}$, there emerges a unique largest component of size $\\sim \\wp(\\epsilon) \\cdot 2^n\\cdot n$!$ a.s.. This "giant" component is furthermore dense in the reversal graph.

  9. Effects of nanoscale size dependent parameters on lattice thermal conductivity in Si nanowire

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M S Omar; H T Taha

    2010-04-01

    The effects of nanoscale size dependent parameters on lattice thermal conductivity are calculated using the Debye–Callaway model including transverse and longitudinal modes explicitly for Si nanowire with diameters of 115, 56, 37 and 22 nm. A direct method is used to calculate the group velocity for different size nanowire from their related calculated melting point. For all diameters considered, the effects of surface roughness, defects and transverse and longitudinal Gruneisen parameters are successfully used to correlate the calculated values of lattice thermal conductivity to that of the reported experimental curve. The obtained fitting value for mean Gruneisen parameter has a systematic dependence on all Si nanowire diameters changing from 0·791 for 115 nm diameter to 1·515 for the 22 nm nanowire diameter. The dependence also gave a suggested surface thickness of about 5–6 nm. The other two parameters were found to have partially systematic dependence for diameters 115, 56, and 37 nm for defects and 56, 37 and 22 nm for the roughness. When the diameters go down from 115 to 22 nm, the concentration of dislocation increased from 1·16 × 1019cm-3 to 5·20 × 1019cm-3 while the surface roughness found to increase from 0·475 to 0·130 and the rms height deviation from the surface changes by about 1·66 in this range of diameter. The diameter dependence also indicates a strong control of surface effect in surface to bulk ratio for the 22 nm wire diameter.

  10. System size, energy and centrality dependence of strange hadron elliptic flow at STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masui, Hiroshi

    2008-12-21

    The elliptic flow (v{sub 2}) pattern in terms of hadron mass and transverse momentum p{sub T} is qualitatively described for p{sub T} < 2 GeV/c by ideal hydrodynamics in Au + Au collisions at RHIC. In addition, for p{sub T} = 2-6 GeV/c the measured v{sub 2} follow a universal scaling by the number of quarks explained by quark coalescence/recombination models. These observations suggest that a partonic collectivity develops in the matter in early stage of heavy ion collisions. Centrality as well as system size and energy dependence of the v{sub 2} is important to shed light on the underlying collision dynamics in heavy ion collisions. We present the measurements of centrality dependence of v{sub 2} at {radical}s{sub NN} = 200 and 62.4 GeV in Au + Au and Cu + Cu collisions for K{sub S}{sup 0}, {phi}, {Lambda}, {Xi} and {Omega} at STAR experiment. We focus on the recent Cu + Cu results and discuss the centrality dependence of v{sub 2} as well as the number of quark scaling as a function of transverse kinetic energy at different system size and energies. We also discuss the eccentricity scaled v{sub 2} for identified hadrons and implications that ideal hydrodynamical limit has not been reached at RHIC.

  11. System size dependence of intermediate mass fragments in heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Kaur, Sukhjit

    2011-01-01

    We simulate the central reactions of $^{20}$Ne+$^{20}$Ne, $^{40}$Ar+$^{45}$Sc, $^{58}$Ni+$^{58}$Ni, $^{86}$Kr+$^{93}$Nb, $^{129}$Xe+$^{118}$Sn, $^{86}$Kr+$^{197}$Au and $^{197}$Au+$^{197}$Au at different incident energies for different equations of state (EOS), binary cross sections and different widths of Gaussians. A rise and fall behaviour of the multiplicity of intermediate mass fragments (IMFs) is observed. The system size dependence of peak center-of-mass energy E$_{c.m.} ^{max}$ and peak IMF multiplicity $^{max}$ is also studied, where it is observed that E$_{c.m.}^{max}$ follows a linear behaviour and $^{max}$ shows a power law dependence. A comparison between two clusterization methods, the minimum spanning tree and the minimum spanning tree method with binding energy check (MSTB) is also made. We find that MSTB method reduces the $^{max}$ especially in heavy systems. The power law dependence is also observed for fragments of different sizes at E$_{c.m.} ^{max}$ and power law parameter $\\tau$ is foun...

  12. Right Hemisphere Remapping of Naming Functions Depends on Lesion Size and Location in Poststroke Aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M. Skipper-Kallal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of language network plasticity following left hemisphere stroke is foundational to the understanding of aphasia recovery and neural plasticity in general. Damage in different language nodes may influence whether local plasticity is possible and whether right hemisphere recruitment is beneficial. However, the relationships of both lesion size and location to patterns of remapping are poorly understood. In the context of a picture naming fMRI task, we tested whether lesion size and location relate to activity in surviving left hemisphere language nodes, as well as homotopic activity in the right hemisphere during covert name retrieval and overt name production. We found that lesion size was positively associated with greater right hemisphere activity during both phases of naming, a pattern that has frequently been suggested but has not previously been clearly demonstrated. During overt naming, lesions in the inferior frontal gyrus led to deactivation of contralateral frontal areas, while lesions in motor cortex led to increased right motor cortex activity. Furthermore, increased right motor activity related to better naming performance only when left motor cortex was lesioned, suggesting compensatory takeover of speech or language function by the homotopic node. These findings demonstrate that reorganization of language function, and the degree to which reorganization facilitates aphasia recovery, is dependent on the size and site of the lesion.

  13. Right Hemisphere Remapping of Naming Functions Depends on Lesion Size and Location in Poststroke Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipper-Kallal, Laura M.; Lacey, Elizabeth H.; Xing, Shihui

    2017-01-01

    The study of language network plasticity following left hemisphere stroke is foundational to the understanding of aphasia recovery and neural plasticity in general. Damage in different language nodes may influence whether local plasticity is possible and whether right hemisphere recruitment is beneficial. However, the relationships of both lesion size and location to patterns of remapping are poorly understood. In the context of a picture naming fMRI task, we tested whether lesion size and location relate to activity in surviving left hemisphere language nodes, as well as homotopic activity in the right hemisphere during covert name retrieval and overt name production. We found that lesion size was positively associated with greater right hemisphere activity during both phases of naming, a pattern that has frequently been suggested but has not previously been clearly demonstrated. During overt naming, lesions in the inferior frontal gyrus led to deactivation of contralateral frontal areas, while lesions in motor cortex led to increased right motor cortex activity. Furthermore, increased right motor activity related to better naming performance only when left motor cortex was lesioned, suggesting compensatory takeover of speech or language function by the homotopic node. These findings demonstrate that reorganization of language function, and the degree to which reorganization facilitates aphasia recovery, is dependent on the size and site of the lesion. PMID:28168061

  14. Simultaneous Interval Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Jampani, Krishnam Raju

    2010-01-01

    In a recent paper, we introduced the simultaneous representation problem (defined for any graph class C) and studied the problem for chordal, comparability and permutation graphs. For interval graphs, the problem is defined as follows. Two interval graphs G_1 and G_2, sharing some vertices I (and the corresponding induced edges), are said to be `simultaneous interval graphs' if there exist interval representations R_1 and R_2 of G_1 and G_2, such that any vertex of I is mapped to the same interval in both R_1 and R_2. Equivalently, G_1 and G_2 are simultaneous interval graphs if there exist edges E' between G_1-I and G_2-I such that G_1 \\cup G_2 \\cup E' is an interval graph. Simultaneous representation problems are related to simultaneous planar embeddings, and have applications in any situation where it is desirable to consistently represent two related graphs, for example: interval graphs capturing overlaps of DNA fragments of two similar organisms; or graphs connected in time, where one is an updated versi...

  15. Size dependence of volume and surface nucleation rates for homogeneous freezing of supercooled water droplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kuhn

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the relative roles of volume and surface nucleation in the freezing of water droplets. Nucleation experiments were carried out in a cryogenic laminar aerosol flow tube using supercooled liquid water aerosols with radii between about 1 and 3 μ m. Temperature- and size-dependent values of volume- and surface-based homogeneous nucleation rate between 234.8 and 236.2 K are derived with help of a microphysical model from aerosol compositions and size distributions based on infrared extinction measurements in the aerosol flow tube. The results show that the contribution from nucleation at the droplet surface increases with decreasing droplet radius and dominates over nucleation in the bulk droplet volume for droplets with radii smaller than approximately 5 μm. This is interpreted in terms of a lowered free energy of ice germ formation in the surface-based process and has implications for the parameterization of homogeneous ice nucleation in numerical models.

  16. Age- and size-dependent mating performance and fertility in a pelagic copepod, Temora longicornis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sichlau, Mie Hylstofte; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Prepress abstract: In many species, size and age have been shown to be strong determinants of the reproductive success for both sexes. Here we examine age- and size dependent reproductive performance (egg- and sperm production, mating success) in a pelagic copepod. Compared to smaller males, larger...... males produce larger spermatophores containing more spermatozoa, and fertilize a larger fraction of available females. Females mating with large males produce more offspring than those mating with small males. Similarly, large females have higher egg production rates as well as a higher life-time egg...... production than small females. Ageing effects are evident in this species: Mortality rate increases and fertility decreases rapidly with age. The average adult longevity under optimal laboratory conditions was 30 days in both males and females, but females produce eggs for only 18 days, and males can...

  17. Size Dependent Optical Nonlinearity and Optical Limiting Properties of Water Soluble CdSe Quantum Dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju K. Augustine

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present third-order optical nonlinear absorption in CdSe quantum dots (QDs with particle sizes in the range of 4.16–5.25 nm which has been evaluated by the Z-scan technique. At an excitation irradiance of 0.54 GW/cm2 the CdSe QDs exhibit reverse saturation indicating a clear nonlinear behavior. Nonlinearity increases with particle size in CdSe QDs within the range of our investigations which in turn depends on the optical band gap. The optical limiting threshold of the QDs varies from 0.35 GW/cm2 to 0.57 GW/cm2 which makes CdSe QDs a promising candidate for reverse-saturable absorption based devices at high laser intensities such as optical limiters.

  18. Size-dependent nonlinear absorption and refraction of Ag nanoparticles excited by femtosecond lasers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Guang-Hua; Qu Shi-Liang; Guo Zhong-Yi; Wang Qiang; Li Zhong-Guo

    2012-01-01

    Silver (Ag) nanoparticles with different average sizes are prepared,and the nonlinear absorption and refraction of these nanoparticles are investigated with femtosecond laser pulses at 800 nm.The smallest Ag nanoparticles show insignificant nonlinear absorption,whereas the larger ones show saturable absorption.By considering the previously reported positive nonlinear absorption of 9 nm Ag nanoparticles,the nonlinear absorptions of Ag nanoparticles are found to be size-dependent.All these nonlinear absorptions can be compatibly explained from the viewpoints of electronic transitions,energy bands and electronic structures in the conduction band of Ag nanoparticles.The nonlinear refraction is attributed to the effect of hot electrons arising from the intraband transition in the s-p conduction band of Ag nanoparticles.

  19. Size-dependent Fano Interaction in the Laser-etched Silicon Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Rajesh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPhoto-excitation and size-dependent Raman scattering studies on the silicon (Si nanostructures (NSs prepared by laser-induced etching are presented here. Asymmetric and red-shifted Raman line-shapes are observed due to photo-excited Fano interaction in the quantum confined nanoparticles. The Fano interaction is observed between photo-excited electronic transitions and discrete phonons in Si NSs. Photo-excited Fano studies on different Si NSs show that the Fano interaction is high for smaller size of Si NSs. Higher Fano interaction for smaller Si NSs is attributed to the enhanced interference between photo-excited electronic Raman scattering and phonon Raman scattering.

  20. Sensor Selection from Independence Graphs using Submodularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    but for reasonable graph sizes (a hundred vertices), the algorithm runs fairly quickly. For example, if the graph meets certain conditions, i.e. if the...algorithm from the SFO toolbox to solve the above optimization problem [10]. This submodular objective function is monotonic non-decreasing and subject...to a matroid constraint. Submodular maximization for functions of this form have been studied and have certain performance guarantees. For a monotonic

  1. The hull number of an oriented graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Chartrand

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We present characterizations of connected graphs G of order n≥2 for which h+(G=n. It is shown that for every two integers n and m with 1≤n−1≤m≤(n2, there exists a connected graph G of order n and size m such that for each integer k with 2≤k≤n, there exists an orientation of G with hull number G.

  2. Enrichment and particle size dependence of polonium and other naturally occurring radionuclides in coal ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, S K; Tiwari, M; Bhangare, R C; Pandit, G G

    2014-12-01

    Coal fired thermal power contributes 70% of power in India. Coal fired power generation results in huge amounts of fly ash and bottom ash of varying properties. Coal, which contains the naturally occurring radionuclides, on burning results in enrichment of these radionuclides in the ashes. In the present study, coal, bottom ash and fly ash samples collected from six coal-fired power plants in India were measured for (210)Po using alpha spectrometry and for natural U, (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K by an HPGe γ-ray spectrometer. (210)Po in fly ash ranged from 25.7 to 70 Bq/kg with a mean value of 40.5 Bq/kg. The range and mean activities of (238)U, (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K in fly ash were 38.5-101 (78.1), 60-105.7 (79), 20-125 (61.7) and 43.6-200 (100) Bq/kg respectively. Fly ash and bottom ash contains two to five times more natural radionuclides than feed coal. The results were compared with the available data from earlier studies in other countries. The effect of particle size on enrichment factor of the nuclides in fly ash was studied. (210)Po showed the largest size dependence with its concentration favoring the smaller particle size while (232)Th showed least size dependence. (238)U and (226)Ra showed behavior intermediate to that of (210)Po and (232)Th. Also the correlation between sulfur content of the feed coal and activity of (210)Po was investigated. Increased sulfur content in feed coal enhanced enrichment of (210)Po in ash. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Paths of specified length in random k-partite graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Subramanian

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Fix positive integers k and l. Consider a random k-partite graph on n vertices obtained by partitioning the vertex set into V i, (i=1, …,k each having size Ω(n and choosing each possible edge with probability p. Consider any vertex x in any V i and any vertex y. We show that the expected number of simple paths of even length l between x and y differ significantly depending on whether y belongs to the same V i (as x does or not. A similar phenomenon occurs when l is odd. This result holds even when k,l vary slowly with n. This fact has implications to coloring random graphs. The proof is based on establishing bijections between sets of paths.

  4. Size-dependent interaction of silica nanoparticles with lysozyme and bovine serum albumin proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Indresh; Aswal, Vinod K.; Kohlbrecher, Joachim

    2016-05-01

    The interaction of three different sized (diameter 10, 18, and 28 nm) anionic silica nanoparticles with two model proteins—cationic lysozyme [molecular weight (MW) 14.7 kDa)] and anionic bovine serum albumin (BSA) (MW 66.4 kDa) has been studied by UV-vis spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The adsorption behavior of proteins on the nanoparticles, measured by UV-vis spectroscopy, is found to be very different for lysozyme and BSA. Lysozyme adsorbs strongly on the nanoparticles and shows exponential behavior as a function of lysozyme concentration irrespective of the nanoparticle size. The total amount of adsorbed lysozyme, as governed by the surface-to-volume ratio, increases on lowering the size of the nanoparticles for a fixed volume fraction of the nanoparticles. On the other hand, BSA does not show any adsorption for all the different sizes of the nanoparticles. Despite having different interactions, both proteins induce similar phase behavior where the nanoparticle-protein system transforms from one phase (clear) to two phase (turbid) as a function of protein concentration. The phase behavior is modified towards the lower concentrations for both proteins with increasing the nanoparticle size. DLS suggests that the phase behavior arises as a result of the nanoparticles' aggregation on the addition of proteins. The size-dependent modifications in the interaction potential, responsible for the phase behavior, have been determined by SANS data as modeled using the two-Yukawa potential accounting for the repulsive and attractive interactions in the systems. The protein-induced interaction between the nanoparticles is found to be short-range attraction for lysozyme and long-range attraction for BSA. The magnitude of attractive interaction irrespective of protein type is enhanced with increase in the size of the nanoparticles. The total (attractive+repulsive) potential leading to two-phase formation is found to be

  5. Grain size dependent optical band gap of CdI2 films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pankaj Tyagi; A G Vedeshwar

    2001-06-01

    The thermally evaporated stoichiometric CdI2 films show good -axis alignment normal to substrate plane for film thickness up to 200 nm. The optical absorption data indicate an allowed direct interband transition across a gap of 3.6 eV in confirmation with earlier band structure calculations. However, part of the absorption data near band edge can be fitted to an indirect band gap of 3 eV. The dependence of band gap on film thickness (> 200 nm) can be explained qualitatively in terms of decreasing grain boundary barrier height with grain size.

  6. Fabrication of CuCl quantum dots and the size dependence of the biexciton binding energy

    CERN Document Server

    Park, S T; Kim, H Y; Kim, I G

    2000-01-01

    We fabricated CuCl quantum dots (QDs) in an aluminoborosilicate glass matrix. The photoluminescence of the CuCl QDs was surveyed by using the band-to-band excitation and the site selective luminescence methods. The excitation density dependence of the exciton and the biexciton luminescence was measured, and the saturation effects of the luminescence intensities were observed. The biexciton binding energies measured using the site selective luminescence method increased with decreasing QD size. The data were well fitted by a function resulting from the numerical matrix-diagonalization method.

  7. Magnetic field effects on nonlocal wave dispersion characteristics of size-dependent nanobeams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Farzad; Barati, Mohammad Reza

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, wave propagation analysis of functionally graded size-dependent nanobeams embedded in elastic foundation exposed to a longitudinal magnetic field is conducted based on nonlocal elasticity theory. Material properties of nanobeam change gradually according to the sigmoid function. Applying an analytical solution, the acoustical and optical dispersion relations are explored for various wave number, nonlocality parameter, material composition, elastic foundation constants and magnetic field intensity. It is found that frequency and phase velocity of waves propagating in S-FGM nanobeam are significantly affected by these parameters. Also the presence of cutoff and escape frequencies in wave propagation analysis of embedded S-FGM nanobeams is investigated.

  8. Ion-Size-Dependent Formation of Mixed Titanium/Lanthanide Oxo Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artner, Christine; Kronister, Stefan; Czakler, Matthias; Schubert, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    The mixed-metal oxo clusters LnTi4O3(OiPr)2(OMc)11 (Ln = La, Ce; OMc = methacrylate), Ln2Ti6O6(OMc)18(HOiPr) (Ln = La, Ce, Nd, Sm) and Ln2Ti4O4(OMc)14(HOMc)2 (Ln = Sm, Eu, Gd, Ho) have been synthesized from titanium isopropoxide, the corresponding lanthanide acetate and methacrylic acid. The type of cluster obtained strongly depends on the size of the lanthanide ion. PMID:25866471

  9. Experimental investigation of dynamic effects in capillary pressure: Grain size dependency and upscaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps-Roach, Geremy; O'Carroll, Denis M.; Newson, Timothy A.; Sakaki, Toshihiro; Illangasekare, Tissa H.

    2010-08-01

    The macroscopic flow equations used to predict two-phase flow typically utilizes a capillary pressure-saturation relationship determined under equilibrium conditions. Theoretical reasoning, experimental evidence, and numerical modeling results have indicated that when one fluid phase replaces another fluid, this relationship may not be unique but may depend on the rate at which the phase saturations change in response to changes in phase pressures. This nonuniqueness likely depends on a variety of factors including soil-fluid properties and possibly physical scale. To quantify this dependency experimentally, direct measurements of equilibrium and dynamic capillary pressure-saturation relationships were developed for two Ottawa sands with different grain sizes using a 20 cm long column. A number of replicate air-water experiments were conducted to facilitate statistical comparison of capillary pressure-saturation relationships. Water and air pressures and phase saturations were measured at three different vertical locations in the sand column under different desaturation rates (1) to measure local capillary pressure-saturation relationships (static and dynamic); (2) to quantify the dynamic coefficient τ, a measure of the magnitude of observed dynamic effects, as a function of water saturation for different grain sizes and desaturation rates; (3) to investigate the importance of grain size on measured dynamic effects; and (4) to assess the importance of sample scale on the magnitude of dynamic effects in capillary pressure. A comparison of the static and dynamic Pc-Sw relationships showed that at a given water saturation, capillary pressure measured under transient water drainage conditions is statistically larger than capillary pressure measured under equilibrium or static conditions, consistent with thermodynamic theory. The dynamic coefficient τ, used in the expression relating the static and dynamic capillary pressures to the desaturation rate was dependant on

  10. Interface failure modes explain non-monotonic size-dependent mechanical properties in bioinspired nanolaminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Z. Q.; Ni, Y.; Peng, L. M.; Liang, H. Y.; He, L. H.

    2016-03-01

    Bioinspired discontinuous nanolaminate design becomes an efficient way to mitigate the strength-ductility tradeoff in brittle materials via arresting the crack at the interface followed by controllable interface failure. The analytical solution and numerical simulation based on the nonlinear shear-lag model indicates that propagation of the interface failure can be unstable or stable when the interfacial shear stress between laminae is uniform or highly localized, respectively. A dimensionless key parameter defined by the ratio of two characteristic lengths governs the transition between the two interface-failure modes, which can explain the non-monotonic size-dependent mechanical properties observed in various laminate composites.

  11. Percolation critical polynomial as a graph invariant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scullard, Christian R.

    2012-10-01

    Every lattice for which the bond percolation critical probability can be found exactly possesses a critical polynomial, with the root in [0,1] providing the threshold. Recent work has demonstrated that this polynomial may be generalized through a definition that can be applied on any periodic lattice. The polynomial depends on the lattice and on its decomposition into identical finite subgraphs, but once these are specified, the polynomial is essentially unique. On lattices for which the exact percolation threshold is unknown, the polynomials provide approximations for the critical probability with the estimates appearing to converge to the exact answer with increasing subgraph size. In this paper, I show how this generalized critical polynomial can be viewed as a graph invariant, similar to the Tutte polynomial. In particular, the critical polynomial is computed on a finite graph and may be found using the recursive deletion-contraction algorithm. This allows calculation on a computer, and I present such results for the kagome lattice using subgraphs of up to 36 bonds. For one of these, I find the prediction pc=0.52440572⋯, which differs from the numerical value, pc=0.52440503(5), by only 6.9×10-7.

  12. Absorbing Aerosol in Asian Outflow: Size Dependent Properties, Links to Chemistry, and Humidity Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, A.; Howell, S.; Kapustin, V.; Masonis, S.; Anderson, T.; Weber, R.; McNaughton, C.; Moore, K.

    2002-12-01

    During spring of 2001 we participated in two aircraft experiments as part of NASA TRACE-P and ACE-ASIA studying the properties of Asian aerosol advected over the North Pacific. These sequential experiments with nearly identical instrumentation provided a unique opportunity to investigate outflow from East Asia between 5°N and 50°N during the same season. Continuous size distributions were obtained from a radial differential mobility analyzer (RDMA) and a laser optical particle counter (OPC). The RDMA and OPC were operated with thermal aerosol volatilization on order to infer size dependent volatility and refractory properties. Aerosol number concentrations were also measured with both an Ultrafine Condensation Nuclei counter (UCN) and CN counters operated at 40° and 360°C. Light scattering from nephelometers and light absorption from a Particle Soot Absorption Photometers (PSAP) established coarse and fine aerosol single scatter albedo. On the ACE-Asia aircraft we also operated a dry and humidified nephelometer to reveal humidity dependence of aerosol light scattering, f(RH). Volatility measurements upon optically effective sizes provided resolution of the size-distributions for soot and Black Carbon (BC) components and the coarse dust aerosol. Fast ion-chromatography (Particle Into Liquid Sampler -PILS) was also employed and compared with aerosol volatility to resolved variations in soluble [eg. sulfate, nitrate] and refractory species [eg. dust, soot] that could influence f(RH) with about 1 minute (5km) horizontal resolution. These combined data establish links between measured aerosol light scattering and absorption, f(RH), mixing state and aerosol chemistry for the diverse environments encountered. Refractory size-distributions for soot free cases provided a means of characterizing details of the dust coarse and fine component. Subtracting the submicrometer dust component from mixed refractory distributions allowed isolation of the soot size distributions

  13. Recognition of Graphs with Convex Quadratic Stability Number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Maria F.; Cardoso, Domingos M.

    2009-09-01

    A stable set of a graph is a set of mutually non-adjacent vertices. The determination of a maximum size stable set, which is called maximum stable set, and the determination of its size, which is called stability number, are central combinatorial optimization problems. However, given a nonnegative integer k, to determine if a graph G has a stable set of size k is NP-complete. In this paper we deal with graphs for which the stability number can be determined by solving a convex quadratic programming problem. Such graphs were introduced in [13] and are called graphs with convex-QP stability number. A few algorithmic techniques for the recognition of this type of graphs in particular families are presented.

  14. Concentration-dependent, size-independent toxicity of citrate capped AuNPs in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Vecchio

    Full Text Available The expected potential benefits promised by nanotechnology in various fields have led to a rapid increase of the presence of engineered nanomaterials in a high number of commercial goods. This is generating increasing questions about possible risks for human health and environment, due to the lack of an in-depth assessment of the physical/chemical factors responsible for their toxic effects. In this work, we evaluated the toxicity of monodisperse citrate-capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs of different sizes (5, 15, 40, and 80 nm in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster, upon ingestion. To properly evaluate and distinguish the possible dose- and/or size-dependent toxicity of the AuNPs, we performed a thorough assessment of their biological effects, using two different dose-metrics. In the first approach, we kept constant the total surface area of the differently sized AuNPs (Total Exposed Surface area approach, TES, while, in the second approach, we used the same number concentration of the four different sizes of AuNPs (Total Number of Nanoparticles approach, TNN. We observed a significant AuNPs-induced toxicity in vivo, namely a strong reduction of Drosophila lifespan and fertility performance, presence of DNA fragmentation, as well as a significant modification in the expression levels of genes involved in stress responses, DNA damage recognition and apoptosis pathway. Interestingly, we found that, within the investigated experimental conditions, the toxic effects in the exposed organisms were directly related to the concentration of the AuNPs administered, irrespective of their size.

  15. Size-dependent chemical ageing of oleic acid aerosol under dry and humidified conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kindi, Suad S.; Pope, Francis D.; Beddows, David C.; Bloss, William J.; Harrison, Roy M.

    2016-12-01

    A chemical reaction chamber system has been developed for the processing of oleic acid aerosol particles with ozone under two relative humidity conditions: dry and humidified to 65 %. The apparatus consists of an aerosol flow tube, in which the ozonolysis occurs, coupled to a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) which measure the evolving particle size and composition. Under both relative humidity conditions, ozonolysis results in a significant decrease in particle size and mass which is consistent with the formation of volatile products that partition from the particle to the gas phase. Mass spectra derived from the ATOFMS reveal the presence of the typically observed reaction products: azelaic acid, nonanal, oxononanoic acid and nonanoic acid, as well as a range of higher molecular weight products deriving from the reactions of reaction intermediates with oleic acid and its oxidation products. These include octanoic acid and 9- and 10-oxooctadecanoic acid, as well as products of considerably higher molecular weight. Quantitative evaluation of product yields with the ATOFMS shows a marked dependence upon both particle size association (from 0.3 to 2.1 µm diameter) and relative humidity. Under both relative humidity conditions, the percentage residual of oleic acid increases with increasing particle size and the main lower molecular weight products are nonanal and oxononanoic acid. Under dry conditions, the percentage of higher molecular weight products increases with increasing particle size due to the poorer internal mixing of the larger particles. Under humidified conditions, the percentage of unreacted oleic acid is greater, except in the smallest particle fraction, with little formation of high molecular weight products relative to the dry particles. It is postulated that water reacts with reactive intermediates, competing with the processes which produce high molecular weight products. Whilst the

  16. Size Dependence of Atomically Precise Gold Nanoclusters in Chemoselective Hydrogenation and Active Site Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Gao [Carnegie Mellon University (CMU); Jiang, Deen [ORNL; Kumar, Santosh [Carnegie Mellon University (CMU); Chen, Yuxiang [Carnegie Mellon University (CMU); Jin, Rongchao [Carnegie Mellon University (CMU)

    2014-01-01

    We here investigate the catalytic properties of water-soluble Aun(SG)m nanocluster catalysts (H-SG = glutathione) of different sizes, including Au15(SG)13, Au18(SG)14, Au25(SG)18, Au38(SG)24, and captopril-capped Au25(Capt)18 nanoclusters. These Aun(SR)m nanoclusters (-SR represents thiolate generally) are used as homogeneous catalysts (i.e., without supports) in the chemoselective hydrogenation of 4-nitrobenzaldehyde (4-NO2PhCHO) to 4-nitrobenzyl alcohol (4-NO2PhCH2OH) in water with H2 gas (20 bar) as the hydrogen source. These nanocluster catalysts, except Au18(SG)14, remain intact after the catalytic reaction, evidenced by UV-vis spectra which are characteristic of each sized nanoclusters and thus serve as spectroscopic fingerprints . We observe a drastic size-dependence and steric effect of protecting ligands on the gold nanocluster catalysts in the hydrogenation reaction. Density functional theory (DFT) modeling of the 4-nitrobenzaldehyde adsorption shows that both the CHO and NO2 groups are in close interact with the S-Au-S staples on the gold nanocluster surface; the adsorption of the 4-nitrobenzaldehyde molecule on the four different sized Aun(SR)m nanoclusters are moderately strong and similar in strength. The DFT results suggest that the catalytic activity of the Aun(SR)m nanoclusters is primarily determined by the surface area of the Au nanocluster, consistent with the observed trend of the conversion of 4-nitrobenzaldehyde versus the cluster size. Overall, this work offers the molecular insight into the hydrogenation of 4-nitrobenzaldehyde and the catalytically active site structure on gold nanocluster catalysts.

  17. Size and temperature dependence of the line shape of ESR spectra of the XXZ antiferromagnetic chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeuchi, Hiroki; De Raedt, Hans; Bertaina, Sylvain; Miyashita, Seiji

    2017-01-01

    The electron spin resonance spectrum of the XXZ spin chain with finite length shows a double-peak structure at high temperatures around the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) frequency. This fact has been pointed out by direct numerical methods [S. El Shawish, O. Cépas, and S. Miyashita, Phys. Rev. B 81, 224421 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevB.81.224421; H. Ikeuchi, H. De Raedt, S. Bertaina, and S. Miyashita, Phys. Rev. B 92, 214431 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevB.92.214431]. The question of whether the double-peak structure survives in the thermodynamics is of particular interest. We study the size dependence of the line shape, including the even-odd effect. It is found that the peaks forming the double-peak structure are assigned to individual resonances, each of which is specified by the magnetizations of the resonating states (M ,M -1 ) . To understand dependences, we decompose the spectrum into contributions from transitions specified by the magnetization, and we characterize the structure of the spectrum by individual contributions. We analyze the size dependence of each contribution individually by extending the moment method introduced by M. Brockman et al. to each component, and we find that the mean of each peak approaches the paramagnetic resonance point with 1 /N (where N is the length of the chain), which indicates that the separation of the peaks of the double-peak structure also vanishes inversely with the system size. We also study the temperature dependence of the structure. At low temperatures, the spectrum has a single peak with a finite width at a position with a finite shift from the frequency of EPR, as pointed out by the analysis of field-theoretical works [M. Oshikawa and I. Affleck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5136 (1999), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.82.5136]. The study of the temperature dependence of the spectrum shows how the high-temperature spectrum changes to the low-temperature one with a drastic broadening of the spectrum.

  18. Covering walks in graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Fujie, Futaba

    2014-01-01

    Covering Walks  in Graphs is aimed at researchers and graduate students in the graph theory community and provides a comprehensive treatment on measures of two well studied graphical properties, namely Hamiltonicity and traversability in graphs. This text looks into the famous Kӧnigsberg Bridge Problem, the Chinese Postman Problem, the Icosian Game and the Traveling Salesman Problem as well as well-known mathematicians who were involved in these problems. The concepts of different spanning walks with examples and present classical results on Hamiltonian numbers and upper Hamiltonian numbers of graphs are described; in some cases, the authors provide proofs of these results to illustrate the beauty and complexity of this area of research. Two new concepts of traceable numbers of graphs and traceable numbers of vertices of a graph which were inspired by and closely related to Hamiltonian numbers are introduced. Results are illustrated on these two concepts and the relationship between traceable concepts and...

  19. Graphs of Plural Cuts

    CERN Document Server

    Dosen, K

    2011-01-01

    Plural (or multiple-conclusion) cuts are inferences made by applying a structural rule introduced by Gentzen for his sequent formulation of classical logic. As singular (single-conclusion) cuts yield trees, which underlie ordinary natural deduction derivations, so plural cuts yield graphs of a more complicated kind, related to trees, which this paper defines. Besides the inductive definition of these oriented graphs, which is based on sequent systems, a non-inductive, graph-theoretical, combinatorial, definition is given, and to reach that other definition is the main goal of the paper. As trees underlie multicategories, so the graphs of plural cuts underlie polycategories. The graphs of plural cuts are interesting in particular when the plural cuts are appropriate for sequent systems without the structural rule of permutation, and the main body of the paper deals with that matter. It gives a combinatorial characterization of the planarity of the graphs involved.

  20. Matrix Graph Grammars

    CERN Document Server

    Velasco, Pedro Pablo Perez

    2008-01-01

    This book objective is to develop an algebraization of graph grammars. Equivalently, we study graph dynamics. From the point of view of a computer scientist, graph grammars are a natural generalization of Chomsky grammars for which a purely algebraic approach does not exist up to now. A Chomsky (or string) grammar is, roughly speaking, a precise description of a formal language (which in essence is a set of strings). On a more discrete mathematical style, it can be said that graph grammars -- Matrix Graph Grammars in particular -- study dynamics of graphs. Ideally, this algebraization would enforce our understanding of grammars in general, providing new analysis techniques and generalizations of concepts, problems and results known so far.

  1. Causal graph dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Arrighi, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    We generalize the theory of Cellular Automata to arbitrary, time-varying graphs. In other words we formalize, and prove theorems about, the intuitive idea of a labelled graph which evolves in time - but under the natural constraint that information can only ever be transmitted at a bounded speed, with respect to the distance given by the graph. The notion of translation-invariance is also generalized. The definition we provide for these `causal graph dynamics' is simple and axiomatic. The theorems we provide also show that it is robust. For instance, causal graph dynamics are stable under composition and under restriction to radius one. In the finite case some fundamental facts of Cellular Automata theory carry through: causal graph dynamics admit a characterization as continuous functions and they are stable under inversion. The provided examples suggest a wide range of applications of this mathematical object, from complex systems science to theoretical physics. Keywords: Dynamical networks, Boolean network...

  2. Toric models of graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Buczyńska, Weronika

    2010-01-01

    We define toric projective model of a trivalent graph as a generalization of a binary symmetric model of a trivalent phylogenetic tree. Generators of the projective coordinate ring of the models of graphs with one cycle are explicitly described. The models of graphs with the same topological invariants are deformation equivalent and share the same Hilbert function. We also provide an algorithm to compute the Hilbert function.

  3. Introductory graph theory

    CERN Document Server

    Chartrand, Gary

    1984-01-01

    Graph theory is used today in the physical sciences, social sciences, computer science, and other areas. Introductory Graph Theory presents a nontechnical introduction to this exciting field in a clear, lively, and informative style. Author Gary Chartrand covers the important elementary topics of graph theory and its applications. In addition, he presents a large variety of proofs designed to strengthen mathematical techniques and offers challenging opportunities to have fun with mathematics. Ten major topics - profusely illustrated - include: Mathematical Models, Elementary Concepts of Grap

  4. Loops in Reeb Graphs of 2-Manifolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole-McLaughlin, K; Edelsbrunner, H; Harer, J; Natarajan, V; Pascucci, V

    2004-12-16

    Given a Morse function f over a 2-manifold with or without boundary, the Reeb graph is obtained by contracting the connected components of the level sets to points. We prove tight upper and lower bounds on the number of loops in the Reeb graph that depend on the genus, the number of boundary components, and whether or not the 2-manifold is orientable. We also give an algorithm that constructs the Reeb graph in time O(n log n), where n is the number of edges in the triangulation used to represent the 2-manifold and the Morse function.

  5. Loops in Reeb Graphs of 2-Manifolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole-McLaughlin, K; Edelsbrunner, H; Harer, J; Natarajan, V; Pascucci, V

    2003-02-11

    Given a Morse function f over a 2-manifold with or without boundary, the Reeb graph is obtained by contracting the connected components of the level sets to points. We prove tight upper and lower bounds on the number of loops in the Reeb graph that depend on the genus, the number of boundary components, and whether or not the 2-manifold is orientable. We also give an algorithm that constructs the Reeb graph in time O(n log n), where n is the number of edges in the triangulation used to represent the 2-manifold and the Morse function.

  6. Time dependence of immersion freezing: an experimental study on size selected kaolinite particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Welti

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The time dependence of immersion freezing was studied for temperatures between 236 K and 243 K. Droplets with single immersed, size-selected 400 nm and 800 nm kaolinite particles were produced at 300 K, cooled down to supercooled temperatures, and the fraction of frozen droplets with increasing residence time was detected. To simulate the conditions of immersion freezing in mixed-phase clouds we used the Zurich Ice Nucleation Chamber (ZINC and its vertical extension, the Immersion Mode Cooling chAmber (IMCA. We observed that the frozen fraction of droplets increased with increasing residence time in the chamber. This suggests that there is a time dependence of immersion freezing and supports the importance of a stochastic component in the ice nucleation process. The rate at which droplets freeze was observed to decrease towards higher temperatures and smaller particle sizes. Comparison of the laboratory data with four different ice nucleation models, three based on classical nucleation theory with different representations of the particle surface properties and one singular, suggest that the classical, stochastic approach combined with a distribution of contact angles is able to reproduce the ice nucleation observed in these experiments most accurately. Using the models to calculate the increase in frozen fraction at typical mixed-phase cloud temperatures over an extended period of time, yields an equivalent effect of −1 K temperature shift for an increase in times scale by one order of magnitude. This suggests that temperature is more important than time.

  7. Size-dependent hardness of five-fold twin structured Ag nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Joo Young; Qaiser, Nadeem; Feng, Gang; Hwang, Byung-Il; Kim, Taegeon; Kim, Jae Hyun; Han, Seung Min

    2017-01-04

    In this study, the size dependent hardness of silver nanowires with a five-fold twin structure was examined using nanoindentation. As the diameter of the nanowires is reduced, the five-fold twin boundaries restrict the dislocation motion, and therefore a size dependent plasticity is expected for these uniquely structured nanowires. The polyol reduction method with modifications was used to synthesize silver nanowires with different diameters in the range of 70 nm to 144 nm. The nanoindentation experiments were performed on silver nanowires deposited on a stiff MgO substrate, and the resulting h, P, and S data were analyzed using the analytical double contact model for nanowire indentation. The hardness of the nanowires determined using the double contact model showed an increase in the hardness with reduction in the diameter of the nanowires, as expected due to the presence of the twin boundaries. The hardness values determined using the analytical double contact model compared favorably to the hardness values calculated from the contact areas that were extracted from finite element method simulations of an elastic indentation into the silver nanowires on the MgO substrate.

  8. Surface Energy in Nanocrystalline Carbon Thin Films: Effect of Size Dependence and Atmospheric Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manish; Javid, Amjed; Han, Jeon Geon

    2017-03-14

    Surface energy (SE) is the most sensitive and fundamental parameter for governing the interfacial interactions in nanoscale carbon materials. However, on account of the complexities involved of hybridization states and surface bonds, achieved SE values are often less in comparison with their theoretical counterparts and strongly influenced by stability aspects. Here, an advanced facing-target pulsed dc unbalanced magnetron-sputtering process is presented for the synthesis of undoped and H/N-doped nanocrystalline carbon thin films. The time-dependent surface properties of the undoped and H/N-doped nanocrystalline carbon thin films are systematically studied. The advanced plasma process induced the dominant deposition of high-energy neutral carbon species, consequently controlling the intercolumnar spacing of nanodomain morphology and surface anisotropy of electron density. As a result, significantly higher SE values (maximum = 79.24 mJ/m(2)) are achieved, with a possible window of 79.24-66.5 mJ/m(2) by controlling the experimental conditions. The intrinsic (size effects and functionality) and extrinsic factors (atmospheric exposure) are resolved and explained on the basis of size-dependent cohesive energy model and long-range van der Waals interactions between hydrocarbon molecules and the carbon surface. The findings anticipate the enhanced functionality of nanocrystalline carbon thin films in terms of selectivity, sensitivity, and stability.

  9. Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles with Buffer-Dependent Variations of Size and Morphology in Biological Buffers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Syed Rahin; Oh, Sangjin; Baba, Rina; Zhou, Hongjian; Hwang, Sungu; Lee, Jaebeom; Park, Enoch Y

    2016-12-01

    The demand for biologically compatible and stable noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) has increased in recent years due to their inert nature and unique optical properties. In this article, we present 11 different synthetic methods for obtaining gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) through the use of common biological buffers. The results demonstrate that the sizes, shapes, and monodispersity of the NPs could be varied depending on the type of buffer used, as these buffers acted as both a reducing agent and a stabilizer in each synthesis. Theoretical simulations and electrochemical experiments were performed to understand the buffer-dependent variations of size and morphology exhibited by these Au NPs, which revealed that surface interactions and the electrostatic energy on the (111) surface of Au were the determining factors. The long-term stability of the synthesized NPs in buffer solution was also investigated. Most NPs synthesized using buffers showed a uniquely wide range of pH stability and excellent cell viability without the need for further modifications.

  10. A Nonlinear Size-Dependent Equivalent Circuit Model for Single-Cell Electroporation on Microfluidic Chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shagoshtasbi, Hooman; Deng, Peigang; Lee, Yi-Kuen

    2015-08-01

    Electroporation (EP) is a process of applying a pulsed intense electric field on the cell membrane to temporarily induce nanoscale electropores on the plasma membrane of biological cells. A nonlinear size-dependent equivalent circuit model of a single-cell electroporation system is proposed to investigate dynamic electromechanical behavior of cells on microfluidic chips during EP. This model consists of size-dependent electromechanical components of a cell, electrical components of poration media, and a microfluidic chip. A single-cell microfluidic EP chip with 3D microelectrode arrays along a microchannel is designed and fabricated to experimentally analyze the permeabilization of a cell. Predicted electrical current responses of the model are in good agreement (average error of 6%) with that of single-cell EP. The proposed model can successfully predict the time responses of transmembrane voltage, pore diameter, and pore density at four different stages of permeabilization. These stages are categorized based on electromechanical changes of the lipid membrane. The current-voltage characteristic curve of the cell membrane during EP is also investigated at different EP stages in detail. The model can precisely predict the electric breakdown of different cell lines at a specific critical cell membrane voltage of the target cell lines.

  11. Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles with Buffer-Dependent Variations of Size and Morphology in Biological Buffers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Syed Rahin; Oh, Sangjin; Baba, Rina; Zhou, Hongjian; Hwang, Sungu; Lee, Jaebeom; Park, Enoch Y.

    2016-02-01

    The demand for biologically compatible and stable noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) has increased in recent years due to their inert nature and unique optical properties. In this article, we present 11 different synthetic methods for obtaining gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) through the use of common biological buffers. The results demonstrate that the sizes, shapes, and monodispersity of the NPs could be varied depending on the type of buffer used, as these buffers acted as both a reducing agent and a stabilizer in each synthesis. Theoretical simulations and electrochemical experiments were performed to understand the buffer-dependent variations of size and morphology exhibited by these Au NPs, which revealed that surface interactions and the electrostatic energy on the (111) surface of Au were the determining factors. The long-term stability of the synthesized NPs in buffer solution was also investigated. Most NPs synthesized using buffers showed a uniquely wide range of pH stability and excellent cell viability without the need for further modifications.

  12. Creating more effective graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Robbins, Naomi B

    2012-01-01

    A succinct and highly readable guide to creating effective graphs The right graph can be a powerful tool for communicating information, improving a presentation, or conveying your point in print. If your professional endeavors call for you to present data graphically, here's a book that can help you do it more effectively. Creating More Effective Graphs gives you the basic knowledge and techniques required to choose and create appropriate graphs for a broad range of applications. Using real-world examples everyone can relate to, the author draws on her years of experience in gr

  13. Graph Generator Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lothian, Josh [ORNL; Powers, Sarah S [ORNL; Sullivan, Blair D [ORNL; Baker, Matthew B [ORNL; Schrock, Jonathan [ORNL; Poole, Stephen W [ORNL

    2013-12-01

    The benchmarking effort within the Extreme Scale Systems Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory seeks to provide High Performance Computing benchmarks and test suites of interest to the DoD sponsor. The work described in this report is a part of the effort focusing on graph generation. A previously developed benchmark, SystemBurn, allowed the emulation of dierent application behavior profiles within a single framework. To complement this effort, similar capabilities are desired for graph-centric problems. This report examines existing synthetic graph generator implementations in preparation for further study on the properties of their generated synthetic graphs.

  14. Graph factors modulo k

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    We prove a general result on graph factors modulo k . A special case says that, for each natural number k , every (12k−7)-edge-connected graph with an even number of vertices contains a spanning subgraph in which each vertex has degree congruent to k modulo 2k.......We prove a general result on graph factors modulo k . A special case says that, for each natural number k , every (12k−7)-edge-connected graph with an even number of vertices contains a spanning subgraph in which each vertex has degree congruent to k modulo 2k....

  15. Functions and graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Gelfand, I M; Shnol, E E

    2002-01-01

    The second in a series of systematic studies by a celebrated mathematician I. M. Gelfand and colleagues, this volume presents students with a well-illustrated sequence of problems and exercises designed to illuminate the properties of functions and graphs. Since readers do not have the benefit of a blackboard on which a teacher constructs a graph, the authors abandoned the customary use of diagrams in which only the final form of the graph appears; instead, the book's margins feature step-by-step diagrams for the complete construction of each graph. The first part of the book employs simple fu

  16. Arrow ribbon graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Bradford, Robert; Chmutov, Sergei

    2011-01-01

    We introduce an additional structure on ribbon graphs, arrow structure. We extend the Bollob\\'as-Riordan polynomial to ribbon graph with this structure. The extended polynomial satisfies the contraction-deletion relations and naturally behaves with respect to the partial duality of ribbon graphs. We construct an arrow ribbon graph from a virtual link whose extended Bollob\\'as-Riordan polynomial specializes to the arrow polynomial of the virtual link recently introduced by H.Dye and L.Kauffman. This result generalizes the classical Thistlethwaite theorem to the arrow polynomial of virtual links.

  17. Graph Compression by BFS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Apostolico

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The Web Graph is a large-scale graph that does not fit in main memory, so that lossless compression methods have been proposed for it. This paper introduces a compression scheme that combines efficient storage with fast retrieval for the information in a node. The scheme exploits the properties of the Web Graph without assuming an ordering of the URLs, so that it may be applied to more general graphs. Tests on some datasets of use achieve space savings of about 10% over existing methods.

  18. On Compact Graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping WANG; Jiong Sheng LI

    2005-01-01

    Let G be a finite simple graph with adjacency matrix A, and let P(A) be the convex closure of the set of all permutation matrices commuting with A. G is said to be compact if every doubly stochastic matrix which commutes with A is in P(A). In this paper, we characterize 3-regular compact graphs and prove that if G is a connected regular compact graph, G - v is also compact, and give a family of almost regular compact connected graphs.

  19. Framings for graph hypersurfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Francis

    2013-01-01

    We present a method for computing the framing on the cohomology of graph hypersurfaces defined by the Feynman differential form. This answers a question of Bloch, Esnault and Kreimer in the affirmative for an infinite class of graphs for which the framings are Tate motives. Applying this method to the modular graphs of Brown and Schnetz, we find that the Feynman differential form is not of Tate type in general. This finally disproves a folklore conjecture stating that the periods of Feynman integrals of primitive graphs in phi^4 theory factorise through a category of mixed Tate motives.

  20. Size and Charge Dependence of Ion Transport in Human Nail Plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baswan, Sudhir M; Li, S Kevin; LaCount, Terri D; Kasting, Gerald B

    2016-03-01

    The electrical properties of human nail plate are poorly characterized yet are a key determinate of the potential to treat nail diseases, such as onychomycosis, using iontophoresis. To address this deficiency, molar conductivities of 17 electrolytes comprising 12 ionic species were determined in hydrated human nail plate in vitro. Cation transport numbers across the nail for 11 of these electrolytes were determined by the electromotive force method. Effective ionic mobilities and diffusivities at infinite dilution for all ionic species were determined by regression analysis. The ratios of diffusivities in nail to those in solution were found to correlate inversely with the hydrodynamic radii of the ions according to a power law relationship having an exponent of -1.75 ± 0.27, a substantially steeper size dependence than observed for similar experiments in skin. Effective diffusivities of cations in nail were 3-fold higher than those of comparably sized anions. These results reflect the strong size and charge selectivity of the nail plate for ionic conduction and diffusion. The analysis implies that efficient transungual iontophoretic delivery of ionized drugs having radii upward of 5 Å (molecular weight, ca. ≥ 340 Da) will require chemical or mechanical alteration of the nail plate. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Stable fluorescence conjugation of ZnO nanoparticles and their size dependent cellular uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Min; Kim, Min-Kyu; Paek, Hee-Jeong; Choi, Soo-Jin; Oh, Jae-Min

    2016-09-01

    We evaluated size dependent cellular uptake of ZnO nanoparticles utilizing stably introduced Cy5.5, which emits long-wavelength fluorescence. Through (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane modification, ZnO nanoparticles of different sizes (20 and 70nm) were functionalized with amine moiety, which was further reacted with Cy5.5-N-hydroxylsuccinimide ester to make covalently conjugated Cy5.5 dye on ZnO nanoparticles. Field emission-scanning electron microscopic images revealed that average particle size as well as particle morphology of ZnO nanoparticles were not altered by Cy5.5 conjugation. Zeta potential measurement confirmed that the positive surface charge of ZnO nanoparticles was well preserved after successive conjugation reactions. Based on infrared, ultraviolet-visible light and photoluminescence spectroscopies, we verify that the Cy5.5 was stably introduced to ZnO nanoparticles without serious aggregation. Surface conjugated Cy5.5 showed high stability in deionized water, phosphate buffered saline and cell culture medium, showing less than 2% of release during 85h. Confocal microscopy and fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis demonstrated that smaller ZnO nanoparticles were more taken up in greater quantities by HaCaT cells. Moreover, systematic study on cellular uptake pathway showed that smaller ZnO nanoparticles were internalized into cells mainly by clathrin-mediated endocytosis, while larger ZnO nanoparticles entered cells via several pathways.

  2. Size-dependent regulation of synchronized activity in living neuronal networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hideaki; Kubota, Shigeru; Chida, Yudai; Morita, Mayu; Moriya, Satoshi; Akima, Hisanao; Sato, Shigeo; Hirano-Iwata, Ayumi; Tanii, Takashi; Niwano, Michio

    2016-07-01

    We study the effect of network size on synchronized activity in living neuronal networks. Dissociated cortical neurons form synaptic connections in culture and generate synchronized spontaneous activity within 10 days in vitro. Using micropatterned surfaces to extrinsically control the size of neuronal networks, we show that synchronized activity can emerge in a network as small as 12 cells. Furthermore, a detailed comparison of small (˜20 cells), medium (˜100 cells), and large (˜400 cells) networks reveal that synchronized activity becomes destabilized in the small networks. A computational modeling of neural activity is then employed to explore the underlying mechanism responsible for the size effect. We find that the generation and maintenance of the synchronized activity can be minimally described by: (1) the stochastic firing of each neuron in the network, (2) enhancement in the network activity in a positive feedback loop of excitatory synapses, and (3) Ca-dependent suppression of bursting activity. The model further shows that the decrease in total synaptic input to a neuron that drives the positive feedback amplification of correlated activity is a key factor underlying the destabilization of synchrony in smaller networks. Spontaneous neural activity plays a critical role in cortical information processing, and our work constructively clarifies an aspect of the structural basis behind this.

  3. A REVIEW OF CURRENT KNOWLEDGE CONCERNING SIZE-DEPENDENT AEROSOL REMOVAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Leiming Zhang; Robert Vet

    2006-01-01

    The status of current knowledge on size-dependent aerosol removal by dry and wet processes, including dry deposition and impaction and nucleation scavenging, is reviewed. The largest discrepancies between theoretical estimations and measurement data on dry deposition and below-cloud scavenging are for submicron particles. Early dry deposition models, which developed based on chamber and wind tunnel measurements, tended to underestimate dry deposition velocity (Vd) for submicron particles by around one order of magnitude compared to recent field measurements. Recently developed models are able to predict reasonable Vd values for submicron particles but shift unrealistically the predicted minimum Vd to larger particle sizes. Theoretical studies of impaction scavenging of aerosol particles by falling liquid drops also substantially underestimate the scavenging coefficients for submicron particles. Empirical formulas based on field measurements can serve as an alternative to the theoretical scavenging models. Future development of size-resolved impaction scavenging models needs to include more precipitation properties (e.g., droplet surface area) and to be evaluated by detailed cloud microphysical models and available measurements. Several recently developed nucleation scavenging parameterizations for in-cloud removal of interstitial aerosol give comparable results when evaluated against parcel models; however, they need to be verified once suitable field measurements are available.More theoretical and field studies are also needed in order to better understand the role of organic aerosols in the nucleation scavenging process.

  4. Assessment of Size-Dependent Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Properties of Silver Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoscale silver has been increasingly applied to commercial products for their antimicrobial function as antibiotics and disinfectants. In this work, the different sizes of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs were studied not only in Methylobacterium spp. for their antimicrobial potential but also in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs for their cytotoxicity in order to determine responses dependent on their particle size. Size controlled silver particles were prepared by chemical reduction of silver cations (Ag+ and then dispersed in water for their physicochemical characterization using transmission electron microscopy (TEM, dynamic light scattering (DLS, and zeta potential measurements. To ascertain antimicrobial response, water-soluble silver nanoparticles were mixed into Methylobacterium spp. cultured for two days and the sample from the broth was spread on the agar plate for colony counting. 10 nm nanoparticles showed more antimicrobial activity than 100 nm particles at which concentrations were equivalently controlled. Increased cytotoxic effect of smaller silver nanoparticles was also observed in PBMCs cocultured with particles. Silver ions released from 10 nm particles might be correlated with upregulated antimicrobial and cytotoxic properties of AgNPs.

  5. Size Dependence of Doping by a Vacancy Formation Reaction in Copper Sulfide Nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elimelech, Orian [The Institute of Chemistry and The Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 Israel; Liu, Jing [Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook NY 11794 USA; Plonka, Anna M. [Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook NY 11794 USA; Frenkel, Anatoly I. [Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook NY 11794 USA; Banin, Uri [The Institute of Chemistry and The Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 Israel

    2017-07-19

    Doping of nanocrystals (NCs) is a key, yet underexplored, approach for tuning of the electronic properties of semiconductors. An important route for doping of NCs is by vacancy formation. The size and concentration dependence of doping was studied in copper(I) sulfide (Cu2S) NCs through a redox reaction with iodine molecules (I2), which formed vacancies accompanied by a localized surface plasmon response. X-ray spectroscopy and diffraction reveal transformation from Cu2S to Cu-depleted phases, along with CuI formation. Greater reaction efficiency was observed for larger NCs. This behavior is attributed to interplay of the vacancy formation energy, which decreases for smaller sized NCs, and the growth of CuI on the NC surface, which is favored on well-defined facets of larger NCs. This doping process allows tuning of the plasmonic properties of a semiconductor across a wide range of plasmonic frequencies by varying the size of NCs and the concentration of iodine. Controlled vacancy doping of NCs may be used to tune and tailor semiconductors for use in optoelectronic applications.

  6. Functional unit size of the neurotoxin receptors on the voltage-dependent sodium channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelides, K J; Nutter, T J; Elmer, L W; Kempner, E S

    1985-03-25

    Radiation inactivation was used in situ to determine the functional unit sizes of the neurotoxin receptors of the voltage-dependent sodium channel from rat brain. Frozen or lyophilized synaptosomes were irradiated with high energy electrons generated by a linear accelerator and assayed for [3H]saxitoxin, 125I-Leiurus quinquestriatus quinquestriatus (alpha-scorpion toxin), 125I-Centruroides suffusus suffusus (beta-scorpion toxin), and batrachotoxinin-A 20 alpha-[3H]benzoate binding activity. The functional unit size of the neurotoxin receptors determined in situ by target analysis are 220,000 for saxitoxin, 263,000 for alpha-scorpion toxin, and 45,000 for beta-scorpion toxin. Analysis of the inactivation curve for batrachotoxinin-A 20 alpha-benzoate binding to the channel yields two target sizes of Mr approximately 287,000 (50%) and approximately 51,000 (50%). The results are independent of the purity of the membrane preparation. Comparison of the radiation inactivation data with the protein composition of the rat brain sodium channel indicates that there are at least two functional components.

  7. Core-size-dependent catalytic properties of bimetallic Au/Ag core-shell nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldar, Krishna Kanta; Kundu, Simanta; Patra, Amitava

    2014-12-24

    Bimetallic core-shell nanoparticles have recently emerged as a new class of functional materials because of their potential applications in catalysis, surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate and photonics etc. Here, we have synthesized Au/Ag bimetallic core-shell nanoparticles with varying the core diameter. The red-shifting of the both plasmonic peaks of Ag and Au confirms the core-shell structure of the nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis, line scan EDS measurement and UV-vis study confirm the formation of core-shell nanoparticles. We have examined the catalytic activity of these core-shell nanostructures in the reaction between 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) and NaBH4 to form 4-aminophenol (4-AP) and the efficiency of the catalytic reaction is found to be increased with increasing the core size of Au/Ag core-shell nanocrystals. The catalytic efficiency varies from 41.8 to 96.5% with varying core size from 10 to 100 nm of Au/Ag core-shell nanoparticles, and the Au100/Ag bimetallic core-shell nanoparticle is found to be 12-fold more active than that of the pure Au nanoparticles with 100 nm diameter. Thus, the catalytic properties of the metal nanoparticles are significantly enhanced because of the Au/Ag core-shell structure, and the rate is dependent on the size of the core of the nanoparticles.

  8. Size-dependent structural properties of quasi-one-dimensional silicon clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umarova, F.T.; Normurodov, A.B. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Academy of Sciences, Ulughbek, 102132 Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Turaeva, N.N. [Institute of Polymer Chemistry and Physics, Academy of Sciences, A. Kadyiri str. 7b, 100128 Tashkent (Uzbekistan)

    2012-10-15

    The family of quasi-one-dimensional silicon clusters of regular hexagonal prism form with the layer number n = 2-4 is investigated by the new quantum-chemical tight-binding method. The structural properties of the pristine and hydrogen-passivated clusters are studied as function of cluster sizes. The optimized geometries of clusters show that the layer sizes change with increasing the number of its. The middle layers widen in comparison to the top and bottom layers. The cluster Si{sub 18} trends to the fullerene-like form. Analysis of the quantum-chemical calculation results has been conducted in framework of the correlative approach of Wigner and virial theorem. Electron properties are studied separately for each layer. It has been shown that a distinction in radial compressing forces in different layers and dependence of the distinction values from the layer number (i.e. from cluster size) exist (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. Size-dependent regulation of synchronized activity in living neuronal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hideaki; Kubota, Shigeru; Chida, Yudai; Morita, Mayu; Moriya, Satoshi; Akima, Hisanao; Sato, Shigeo; Hirano-Iwata, Ayumi; Tanii, Takashi; Niwano, Michio

    2016-07-01

    We study the effect of network size on synchronized activity in living neuronal networks. Dissociated cortical neurons form synaptic connections in culture and generate synchronized spontaneous activity within 10 days in vitro. Using micropatterned surfaces to extrinsically control the size of neuronal networks, we show that synchronized activity can emerge in a network as small as 12 cells. Furthermore, a detailed comparison of small (∼20 cells), medium (∼100 cells), and large (∼400 cells) networks reveal that synchronized activity becomes destabilized in the small networks. A computational modeling of neural activity is then employed to explore the underlying mechanism responsible for the size effect. We find that the generation and maintenance of the synchronized activity can be minimally described by: (1) the stochastic firing of each neuron in the network, (2) enhancement in the network activity in a positive feedback loop of excitatory synapses, and (3) Ca-dependent suppression of bursting activity. The model further shows that the decrease in total synaptic input to a neuron that drives the positive feedback amplification of correlated activity is a key factor underlying the destabilization of synchrony in smaller networks. Spontaneous neural activity plays a critical role in cortical information processing, and our work constructively clarifies an aspect of the structural basis behind this.

  10. Matrix Completions and Chordal Graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kenneth John HARRISON

    2003-01-01

    In a matrix-completion problem the aim is to specifiy the missing entries of a matrix inorder to produce a matrix with particular properties. In this paper we survey results concerning matrix-completion problems where we look for completions of various types for partial matrices supported ona given pattern. We see that thc existence of completions of the required type often depends on thechordal properties of graphs associated with the pattern.

  11. Massive graph visualization : LDRD final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wylie, Brian Neil; Moreland, Kenneth D.

    2007-10-01

    Graphs are a vital way of organizing data with complex correlations. A good visualization of a graph can fundamentally change human understanding of the data. Consequently, there is a rich body of work on graph visualization. Although there are many techniques that are effective on small to medium sized graphs (tens of thousands of nodes), there is a void in the research for visualizing massive graphs containing millions of nodes. Sandia is one of the few entities in the world that has the means and motivation to handle data on such a massive scale. For example, homeland security generates graphs from prolific media sources such as television, telephone, and the Internet. The purpose of this project is to provide the groundwork for visualizing such massive graphs. The research provides for two major feature gaps: a parallel, interactive visualization framework and scalable algorithms to make the framework usable to a practical application. Both the frameworks and algorithms are designed to run on distributed parallel computers, which are already available at Sandia. Some features are integrated into the ThreatView{trademark} application and future work will integrate further parallel algorithms.

  12. SPEED DEPENDENCE OF ACOUSTIC VIBRATION PROPAGATION FROM THE FERRITIC GRAIN SIZE IN LOW-CARBON STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Vakulenko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. It is determining the nature of the ferrite grain size influence of low-carbon alloy steel on the speed propagation of acoustic vibrations. Methodology. The material for the research served a steel sheet of thickness 1.4 mm. Steel type H18T1 had a content of chemical elements within grade composition: 0, 12 % C, 17, 5 % Cr, 1 % Mn, 1, 1 % Ni, 0, 85 % Si, 0, 9 % Ti. The specified steel belongs to the semiferritic class of the accepted classification. The structural state of the metal for the study was obtained by cold plastic deformation by rolling at a reduction in the size range of 20-30 % and subsequent recrystallization annealing at 740 – 750 ° C. Different degrees of cold plastic deformation was obtained by pre-selection of the initial strip thickness so that after a desired amount of rolling reduction receives the same final thickness. The microstructure was observed under a light microscope, the ferrite grain size was determined using a quantitative metallographic technique. The using of X-ray structural analysis techniques allowed determining the level of second-order distortion of the crystal latitude of the ferrite. The speed propagation of acoustic vibrations was measured using a special device such as an ISP-12 with a working frequency of pulses 1.024 kHz. As the characteristic of strength used the hardness was evaluated by the Brinell’s method. Findings. With increasing of ferrite grain size the hardness of the steel is reduced. In the case of constant structural state of metal, reducing the size of the ferrite grains is accompanied by a natural increasing of the phase distortion. The dependence of the speed propagation of acoustic vibrations up and down the rolling direction of the ferrite grain size remained unchanged and reports directly proportional correlation. Originality. On the basis of studies to determine the direct impact of the proportional nature of the ferrite grain size on the rate of propagation of sound

  13. Topological structure of dictionary graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukś, Henryk; Krzemiński, Mark

    2009-09-01

    We investigate the topological structure of the subgraphs of dictionary graphs constructed from WordNet and Moby thesaurus data. In the process of learning a foreign language, the learner knows only a subset of all words of the language, corresponding to a subgraph of a dictionary graph. When this subgraph grows with time, its topological properties change. We introduce the notion of the pseudocore and argue that the growth of the vocabulary roughly follows decreasing pseudocore numbers—that is, one first learns words with a high pseudocore number followed by smaller pseudocores. We also propose an alternative strategy for vocabulary growth, involving decreasing core numbers as opposed to pseudocore numbers. We find that as the core or pseudocore grows in size, the clustering coefficient first decreases, then reaches a minimum and starts increasing again. The minimum occurs when the vocabulary reaches a size between 103 and 104. A simple model exhibiting similar behavior is proposed. The model is based on a generalized geometric random graph. Possible implications for language learning are discussed.

  14. Spanners for geometric intersection graphs with applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Fürer

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A ball graph is an intersection graph of a set of balls with arbitrary radii. Given a real numbert>1, we say that a subgraph G' of a graph G is a t-spanner of G, if for every pair of verticesu,v in G, there exists a path in G' of length at most t times the distance between u and v inG. In this paper, we consider the problem of efficiently constructing sparse spanners of ball graphs which supports fast shortest path distance queries.We present the first algorithm for constructing spanners of ball graphs. For a ball graph in Rk, we construct a (1+ε-spanner for any ε>0 with O(nε-k+1 edges in O(n2ℓ+δε-k logℓ S time, using an efficient partitioning of space into hypercubes and solving intersection problems. Here ℓ=1-1/(⌊k/2⌋+2, δ is any positive constant, and S is the ratio between the largest and smallest radius. For the special case when the balls all have unit size, we show that the complexity of constructing a (1+ε-spanner is almost equal to the complexity of constructing a Euclidean minimum spanning tree. The algorithm extends naturally to other disk-likeobjects, also in higher dimensions.The algorithm uses an efficient subdivision of space to construct a sparse graph having many of the same distance properties as the input ball graph. Additionally, the constructed spanners have a small vertex separator decomposition (hereditary. In dimension k=2, the disk graph spanner has an O(n1/2ε-3/2+ε-3log S separator. The presence of a small separator is then exploited to obtain very efficient data structures for approximate distance queries. The results on geometric graph separators might be of independent interest. For example, since complete Euclidean graphs are just a special case of (unit ball graphs, our results also provide a new approach for constructing spanners with small separators in these graphs.

  15. System size dependence of nuclear modification and azimuthal anisotropy of jet quenching

    CERN Document Server

    De, Somnath

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the system size dependence of jet-quenching by analyzing transverse momentum spectra of neutral pions in Au+Au and Cu+Cu collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\textrm{NN}}}$ =200 GeV for different centralities. The fast partons are assumed to lose energy by radiating gluons as they traverse the plasma and undergo multiple collisions. The energy loss per collision, $\\epsilon$, is taken as proportional $E$ (where $E$ is the energy of the parton), proportional to $\\sqrt{E}$, or a constant depending on whether the formation time of the gluon is less than the mean path, greater than the mean free path but less than the path length, or greater than the path length of the partons, respectively. NLO pQCD is used to evaluate pion production by modifying the fragmentation function to account for the energy loss. We reproduce the nuclear modification factor $R_\\textrm{AA}$ by treating $\\epsilon$ as the only free parameter, depending on the centrality and the mechanism of energy loss. These values are seen to provide nu...

  16. Centrality and system size dependence of multiplicity fluctuations in nuclear collisions at 158 AGeV

    CERN Document Server

    Alt, C; Baatar, B; Barna, D; Bartke, J; Betev, L; Bialkowska, H; Blume, C; Boimska, B; Botje, M; Bracinik, J; Bramm, R; Buncic, P; Cerny, V; Christakoglou, P; Chvala, O; Cramer, J G; Csató, P; Dinkelaker, P; Eckardt, V; Flierl, D; Fodor, Z; Foka, P; Friese, V; Gazdzicki, M; Georgopoulos, G; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Grebieszkow, K; Gál, J; Hegyi, S; Höhne, C; Kadija, K; Karev, A; Kliemant, M; Kniege, S; Kolesnikov, V I; Kornas, E; Korus, R; Kowalski, M; Kraus, I; Kreps, M; Laszlo, A; Litov, L; Lungwitz, B; Lévai, Peter; Makariev, M; Malakhov, A I; Mateev, M; Melkumov, G L; Mischke, A; Mitrovski, M; Molnár, J; Mrówczynski, S; Nicolic, V; Panagiotou, A D; Panayotov, D; Petridis, A; Pikna, M; Prindle, D; Pálla, G; Pühlhofer, F; Renfordt, R; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rybczynski, M; Rybicki, A; Sandoval, A; Schmitz, N; Schuster, T; Seyboth, P; Siklér, F; Sitár, B; Skrzypczak, E; Stefanek, G; Stock, R; Strabel, C; Ströbele, H; Susa, T; Szentpétery, I; Sziklai, J; Szymanski, P; Trubnikov, V; Van Leeuwen, M; Varga, D; Vassiliou, M; Veres, G I; Vesztergombi, G; Vranic, D; Wetzler, A; Wlodarczyk, Z; Yoo, I K; Zimányi, J

    2007-01-01

    The centrality and system size dependence of multiplicity fluctuations of charged particles produced in nuclear collisions at 158 AGeV was studied by the NA49 collaboration. Centrality selected Pb+Pb collisions, semi-central C+C and Si+Si collisions as well as inelastic p+p interactions were analyzed. The number of projectile participants determined on event-by-event basis was used to characterize the collision centrality. The scaled variance of the multiplicity distribution obtained in the forward rapidity region (1.1 dependence on centrality with a maximum for semi-peripheral Pb+Pb interactions of about 30 projectile participants. The results are similar for negatively and positively charged particles and about 50% larger for all charged particles. String-hadronic models of nuclear reactions without the fusion process do not reproduce the rise of fluctuations from central towards peripheral collisions. The measured centrality dependence can be reproduced in superpos...

  17. Graphs obtained from collections of blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colton Magnant

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Given a collection of $d$-dimensional rectangular solids called blocks, no two of which sharing interior points, construct a block graph by adding a vertex for each block and an edge if the faces of the two corresponding blocks intersect nontrivially.  It is known that if $d \\geq 3$, such block graphs can have arbitrarily large chromatic number.  We prove that the chromatic number can be bounded with only a mild restriction on the sizes of the blocks.  We also show that block graphs of block configurations arising from partitions of $d$-dimensional hypercubes into sub-hypercubes are at least $d$-connected.  Bounds on the diameter and the hamiltonicity of such block graphs are also discussed.

  18. Encoding the core electrons with graph concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogliani, Lionello

    2004-01-01

    The core electron problem of atoms in chemical graph studies has always been considered as a minor problem. Usually, chemical graphs had to encode just a small set of second row atoms, i.e., C, N, O, and F, thus, graph and, in some cases, pseudograph concepts were enough to "graph" encode the molecules at hand. Molecular connectivity theory, together with its side-branch the electrotopological state, introduced two "ad hoc" algorithms for the core electrons of higher-row atoms based, mainly, on quantum concepts alike. Recently, complete graphs, and, especially, odd complete graphs have been introduced to encode the core electrons of higher-row atoms. By the aid of these types of graphs a double-valued algorithm has been proposed for the valence delta, deltav, of any type of atoms of the periodic table with a principal quantum number n > or =2. The new algorithm is centered on an invariant suggested by the hand-shaking theorem, and the values it gives rise to parallel in some way the values derived by the aid of the two old "quantum" algorithms. A thorough comparative analysis of the newly proposed algorithms has been undertaken for atoms of the group 1A-7A of the periodic table. This comparative study includes the electronegativity, the size of the atoms, the first ionization energy, and the electron affinity. The given algorithm has also been tested with sequential complete graphs, while the even complete graphs give rise to conceptual difficulties. QSAR/QSPR studies do not show a clear-cut preference for any of the two values the algorithm gives rise to, even if recent results seem to prefer one of the two values.

  19. Learning graph matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Tibério S; McAuley, Julian J; Cheng, Li; Le, Quoc V; Smola, Alex J

    2009-06-01

    As a fundamental problem in pattern recognition, graph matching has applications in a variety of fields, from computer vision to computational biology. In graph matching, patterns are modeled as graphs and pattern recognition amounts to finding a correspondence between the nodes of different graphs. Many formulations of this problem can be cast in general as a quadratic assignment problem, where a linear term in the objective function encodes node compatibility and a quadratic term encodes edge compatibility. The main research focus in this theme is about designing efficient algorithms for approximately solving the quadratic assignment problem, since it is NP-hard. In this paper we turn our attention to a different question: how to estimate compatibility functions such that the solution of the resulting graph matching problem best matches the expected solution that a human would manually provide. We present a method for learning graph matching: the training examples are pairs of graphs and the 'labels' are matches between them. Our experimental results reveal that learning can substantially improve the performance of standard graph matching algorithms. In particular, we find that simple linear assignment with such a learning scheme outperforms Graduated Assignment with bistochastic normalisation, a state-of-the-art quadratic assignment relaxation algorithm.

  20. Abstract graph transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensink, Arend; Distefano, Dino

    2005-01-01

    Graphs may be used as representations of system states in operational semantics and model checking; in the latter context, they are being investigated as an alternative to bit vectors. The corresponding transitions are obtained as derivations from graph production rules. In this paper we propose an

  1. Abstract Graph Transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensink, Arend; Distefano, Dino; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Roychoudhury, A.; Yang, Z.

    2006-01-01

    Graphs may be used as representations of system states in operational semantics and model checking; in the latter context, they are being investigated as an alternative to bit vectors. The corresponding transitions are obtained as derivations from graph production rules. In this paper we propose an

  2. Moment graphs and representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Jens Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Moment graphs and sheaves on moment graphs are basically combinatorial objects that have be used to describe equivariant intersectiion cohomology. In these lectures we are going to show that they can be used to provide a direct link from this cohomology to the representation theory of simple Lie...

  3. Graph Colouring Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husfeldt, Thore

    2015-01-01

    This chapter presents an introduction to graph colouring algorithms. The focus is on vertex-colouring algorithms that work for general classes of graphs with worst-case performance guarantees in a sequential model of computation. The presentation aims to demonstrate the breadth of available...

  4. The stable subgroup graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnaz Tolue

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce stable subgroup graph associated to the group $G$. It is a graph with vertex set all subgroups of $G$ and two distinct subgroups $H_1$ and $H_2$ are adjacent if $St_{G}(H_1\\cap H_2\

  5. Graph Transforming Java Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, de Maarten; Rensink, Arend; Hunt, James J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces an approach for adding graph transformation-based functionality to existing JAVA programs. The approach relies on a set of annotations to identify the intended graph structure, as well as on user methods to manipulate that structure, within the user’s own JAVA class declaration

  6. Graph colouring algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Husfeldt, Thore

    2015-01-01

    This chapter presents an introduction to graph colouring algorithms. The focus is on vertex-colouring algorithms that work for general classes of graphs with worst-case performance guarantees in a sequential model of computation. The presentation aims to demonstrate the breadth of available techniques and is organized by algorithmic paradigm.

  7. Recognition of fractal graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perepelitsa, VA; Sergienko, [No Value; Kochkarov, AM

    1999-01-01

    Definitions of prefractal and fractal graphs are introduced, and they are used to formulate mathematical models in different fields of knowledge. The topicality of fractal-graph recognition from the point of view, of fundamental improvement in the efficiency of the solution of algorithmic problems i

  8. Les graphes (-1)-critiques

    CERN Document Server

    Belkhechine, Houmem; Elayech, Mohamed Baka

    2010-01-01

    Given a (directed) graph G=(V,A), a subset X of V is an interval of G provided that for any a, b\\in X and x\\in V-X, (a,x)\\in A if and only if (b,x)\\in A and (x,a)\\in A if and only if (x,b)\\in A. For example, \\emptyset, \\{x\\} (x \\in V) and V are intervals of G, called trivial intervals. A graph, all the intervals of which are trivial, is indecomposable; otherwise, it is decomposable. A vertex x of an indecomposable graph is critical if G-x is decomposable. In 1993, J.H. Schmerl and W.T. Trotter characterized the indecomposable graphs, all the vertices of which are critical, called critical graphs. In this article, we characterize the indecomposable graphs which admit a single non critical vertex, that we call (-1)-critical graphs.} This gives an answer to a question asked by Y. Boudabbous and P. Ille in a recent article studying the critical vertices in an indecomposable graph.

  9. Graphs Generated by Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Assari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a graph is assigned to any probability measure on the σ-algebra of Borel sets of a topological space. Using this construction, it is proved that given any number n (finite or infinite there exists a nonregular graph such that its clique, chromatic, and dominating number equals n.

  10. Moment graphs and representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Jens Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Moment graphs and sheaves on moment graphs are basically combinatorial objects that have be used to describe equivariant intersectiion cohomology. In these lectures we are going to show that they can be used to provide a direct link from this cohomology to the representation theory of simple Lie...... algebras and of simple algebraic groups. The first section contains some background on equivariant cohomology....

  11. Graphs: Associated Markov Chains

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    In this research paper, weighted / unweighted, directed / undirected graphs are associated with interesting Discrete Time Markov Chains (DTMCs) as well as Continuous Time Markov Chains (CTMCs). The equilibrium / transient behaviour of such Markov chains is studied. Also entropy dynamics (Shannon entropy) of certain structured Markov chains is investigated. Finally certain structured graphs and the associated Markov chains are studied.

  12. Competitively tight graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Suh-Ryung; Park, Boram; Sano, Yoshio

    2011-01-01

    The competition graph of a digraph $D$ is a (simple undirected) graph which has the same vertex set as $D$ and has an edge between $x$ and $y$ if and only if there exists a vertex $v$ in $D$ such that $(x,v)$ and $(y,v)$ are arcs of $D$. For any graph $G$, $G$ together with sufficiently many isolated vertices is the competition graph of some acyclic digraph. The competition number $k(G)$ of $G$ is the smallest number of such isolated vertices. In general, it is hard to compute the competition number $k(G)$ for a graph $G$ and it has been one of the important research problems in the study of competition graphs. Opsut~[1982] suggested that the edge clique cover number $\\theta_E(G)$ should be closely related to $k(G)$ by showing $\\theta_E(G)-|V(G)|+2 \\leq k(G) \\leq \\theta_E(G)$. In this note, we study on these inequalities. We first show that for any positive integer $m$ satisfying $2 \\leq m \\leq |V(G)|$, there is a graph $G$ satisfying $k(G)=\\theta_E(G)-|V(G)|+m$ and characterize a graph $G$ satisfying $k(G)=\\...

  13. Nonlocal superelastic model of size-dependent hardening and dissipation in single crystal Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Lei; Rimoli, Julian J; Chen, Ying; Schuh, Christopher A; Radovitzky, Raul

    2011-02-25

    We propose a nonlocal continuum model to describe the size-dependent superelastic effect observed in recent experiments of single crystal Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloys. The model introduces two length scales, one in the free energy and one in the dissipation, which account for the size-dependent hardening and dissipation in the loading and unloading response of micro- and nanopillars subject to compression tests. The information provided by the model suggests that the size dependence observed in the dissipation is likely to be associated with a nonuniform evolution of the distribution of the austenitic and martensitic phases during the loading cycle.

  14. Generalized connectivity of graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xueliang

    2016-01-01

    Noteworthy results, proof techniques, open problems and conjectures in generalized (edge-) connectivity are discussed in this book. Both theoretical and practical analyses for generalized (edge-) connectivity of graphs are provided. Topics covered in this book include: generalized (edge-) connectivity of graph classes, algorithms, computational complexity, sharp bounds, Nordhaus-Gaddum-type results, maximum generalized local connectivity, extremal problems, random graphs, multigraphs, relations with the Steiner tree packing problem and generalizations of connectivity. This book enables graduate students to understand and master a segment of graph theory and combinatorial optimization. Researchers in graph theory, combinatorics, combinatorial optimization, probability, computer science, discrete algorithms, complexity analysis, network design, and the information transferring models will find this book useful in their studies.

  15. Size dependency and potential field influence on deriving mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes using molecular dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.G.S. Dilrukshi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A thorough understanding on the mechanical properties of carbon nanotube (CNT is essential in extending the advanced applications of CNT based systems. However, conducting experiments to estimate mechanical properties at this scale is extremely challenging. Therefore, development of mechanistic models to estimate the mechanical properties of CNTs along with the integration of existing continuum mechanics concepts is critically important. This paper presents a comprehensive molecular dynamics simulation study on the size dependency and potential function influence of mechanical properties of CNT. Commonly used reactive bond order (REBO and adaptive intermolecular reactive bond order (AIREBO potential functions were considered in this regard. Young’s modulus and shear modulus of CNTs are derived by integrating classical continuum mechanics concepts with molecular dynamics simulations. The results indicate that the potential function has a significant influence on the estimated mechanical properties of CNTs, and the influence of potential field is much higher when studying the torsional behaviour of CNTs than the tensile behaviour.

  16. Size scale dependence of compressive instabilities in layered composites in the presence of stress gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulios, Konstantinos; Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2016-01-01

    The compressive strength of unidirectionally or layer-wise reinforced composite materials in direction parallel to their reinforcement is limited by micro-buckling instabilities. Although the inherent compressive strength of a given material micro-structure can easily be determined by assessing its...... compressive stress but also on spatial stress or strain gradients, rendering failure initiation size scale dependent. The present work demonstrates and investigates the aforementioned effect through numerical simulations of periodically layered structures withnotches and holes under bending and compressive...... loads, respectively. The presented results emphasize the importance of the reinforcing layer thickness on the load carrying capacity of the investigated structures, at a constant volumetric fraction of the reinforcement. The observed strengthening at higher values of the relative layer thickness...

  17. Particle size dependence of the Pr2Fe17 nitrogenation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persiano, A. I. C.; Ardisson, J. D.; Mansur, R. A.; Colucci, C. C.; Gama, S.

    1994-12-01

    The particle size dependence of the Pr2Fe17 nitrogenation process at 400°C is determined by the Mössbauer method. The experimental data are described in terms of a particle model consisting of spherical concentrical shells containing: (i) an expanded central core saturated with 2+ɛ atoms N per formula unit; (ii) an intermediate unnitrided shell with a volume larger than the core by a factor of about 2.4 and accommodating a stress/strain field produced by the expanded core, and (iii) an unnitrogenated undeformed external shell. We observed that small particles ( d ≤ 10 ώm and most probably lower) tend to absorb higher nitrogen contents than the large ones. Our results also indicate that some small particles, most probably single crystals, do not nitrogenate.

  18. A statistical mechanical model for drug release: Investigations on size and porosity dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes Filho, Márcio Sampaio; Oliveira, Fernando Albuquerque; Barbosa, Marco Aurélio Alves

    2016-10-01

    A lattice gas model is proposed for investigating the release of drug molecules in capsules covered with semi-permeable membranes. Release patterns in one and two dimensional systems are obtained with Monte Carlo simulations and adjusted to the semi-empirical Weibull distribution function. An analytical solution to the diffusion equation is used to complement and guide simulations in one dimension. Size and porosity dependence analysis was made on the two semi-empirical parameters of the Weibull function, which are related to characteristic time and release mechanism, and our results indicate that a simple scaling law occurs only for systems with almost impermeable membranes, represented in our model by capsules with a single leaking site.

  19. Dependence of exponents on text length versus finite-size scaling for word-frequency distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral, Álvaro; Font-Clos, Francesc

    2017-08-01

    Some authors have recently argued that a finite-size scaling law for the text-length dependence of word-frequency distributions cannot be conceptually valid. Here we give solid quantitative evidence for the validity of this scaling law, using both careful statistical tests and analytical arguments based on the generalized central-limit theorem applied to the moments of the distribution (and obtaining a novel derivation of Heaps' law as a by-product). We also find that the picture of word-frequency distributions with power-law exponents that decrease with text length [X. Yan and P. Minnhagen, Physica A 444, 828 (2016), 10.1016/j.physa.2015.10.082] does not stand with rigorous statistical analysis. Instead, we show that the distributions are perfectly described by power-law tails with stable exponents, whose values are close to 2, in agreement with the classical Zipf's law. Some misconceptions about scaling are also clarified.

  20. Size-dependent thermal buckling of heated nanowires with ends axially restrained

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Wang, Zhi-Qiao; Lv, Jian-Guo

    2014-02-01

    Nanowires (NWs) are being actively explored for applications as nanoscale building blocks of sensors, actuators and nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). Temperature changes can induce an axial force within NWs due to the thermal expansion and may lead to buckling. The thermal buckling behaviors of ends-axially-restrained nanowires, subjected to a uniform temperature rise, are studied based on Bernoulli-Euler beam theory including the surface thermoelastic effects. Besides the surface elastic modulus, the influences of surface thermal expansion coefficient are incorporated into the model presented herein to describe size-dependent thermoelastic behaviors of nanowires. The results show that the critical buckling temperature and postbuckling deflection are significantly affected by surface thermoelastic effects and the influences become more prominent as the thickness of nanowire decreases. The corresponding influences of the slenderness ratio are also discussed. This research is helpful not only in understanding the thermal buckling properties of nanowires but also in designing the nanowire-based sensor and thermal actuator.

  1. Dependence of reproductive rate on cell size and temperature in freshwater ciliated protozoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finlay, B.J.

    1977-01-01

    Reproductive rates have been calculated for ten species of ciliated protozoa in defined conditions. Interspecific double log regressions of generation time vs. cell volume have been computed at each of three temperatures (8.5/sup 0/C, 15/sup 0/C, and 20/sup 0/C) indicating a significant dependence of reproductive rate on cell size. Recorded generation times varied from 6.38 h in Vorticella microstoma at 20/sup 0/C to 1004 h in Spirostomum teres at 8.5/sup 0/C. These values correspond to a range in r/sub m/ (day)/sup -1/ of 2.607 to 0.017 and lambda (day)/sup -1/ of 13.554 to 1.017. The relationship between these data and similar published data for marine ciliates is examined and the value of such regressions in ecological studies of the protozoa is discussed.

  2. Size-dependent thermal buckling of heated nanowires with ends axially restrained

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yu [School of Engineering and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Key Laboratory on Deep GeoDrilling Technology, Ministry of Land and Resources, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Wang, Zhi-Qiao, E-mail: zqwang@cugb.edu.cn [School of Engineering and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Key Laboratory on Deep GeoDrilling Technology, Ministry of Land and Resources, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Lv, Jian-Guo [School of Engineering and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Key Laboratory on Deep GeoDrilling Technology, Ministry of Land and Resources, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2014-02-01

    Nanowires (NWs) are being actively explored for applications as nanoscale building blocks of sensors, actuators and nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). Temperature changes can induce an axial force within NWs due to the thermal expansion and may lead to buckling. The thermal buckling behaviors of ends-axially-restrained nanowires, subjected to a uniform temperature rise, are studied based on Bernoulli–Euler beam theory including the surface thermoelastic effects. Besides the surface elastic modulus, the influences of surface thermal expansion coefficient are incorporated into the model presented herein to describe size-dependent thermoelastic behaviors of nanowires. The results show that the critical buckling temperature and postbuckling deflection are significantly affected by surface thermoelastic effects and the influences become more prominent as the thickness of nanowire decreases. The corresponding influences of the slenderness ratio are also discussed. This research is helpful not only in understanding the thermal buckling properties of nanowires but also in designing the nanowire-based sensor and thermal actuator.

  3. Temperature Dependence of Particle Size Distribution in Transformer Oil-Based Ferrofluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Józefczak, Arkadiusz; Hornowski, Tomasz; Skumiel, Andrzej

    2011-04-01

    The temperature dependence of the particle size distribution (PSD) of a transformer oil-based ferrofluid was studied using an ultrasound method. The measurements of the ultrasound velocity and attenuation were carried out in the absence of an external magnetic field as a function of the volume concentration of magnetite particles at temperatures ranging from 10 °C to 80 °C. The experimental results of ultrasound measurements were analyzed within the framework of the Vinogradov-Isakovich theory which takes into account contributions to acoustical parameters due to friction and heat exchange between magnetic particles and the surrounding carrier liquid. From the best fit of the experimental results and theoretical predictions, the parameters characterizing the PSD at different temperatures were determined. In order to analyze ultrasonic data, the density and viscosity of ferrofluid samples and the transformer oil were also measured.

  4. Bipartite-Oriented Distributed Graph Partitioning for Big Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈榕; 陈海波; 臧斌宇; 施佳鑫

    2015-01-01

    Many machine learning and data mining (MLDM) problems like recommendation, topic modeling, and medical diagnosis can be modeled as computing on bipartite graphs. However, most distributed graph-parallel systems are oblivious to the unique characteristics in such graphs and existing online graph partitioning algorithms usually cause excessive repli-cation of vertices as well as significant pressure on network communication. This article identifies the challenges and oppor-tunities of partitioning bipartite graphs for distributed MLDM processing and proposes BiGraph, a set of bipartite-oriented graph partitioning algorithms. BiGraph leverages observations such as the skewed distribution of vertices, discriminated computation load and imbalanced data sizes between the two subsets of vertices to derive a set of optimal graph partition-ing algorithms that result in minimal vertex replication and network communication. BiGraph has been implemented on PowerGraph and is shown to have a performance boost up to 17.75X (from 1.16X) for four typical MLDM algorithms, due to reducing up to 80%vertex replication, and up to 96%network traffic.

  5. Production of male flowers does not decrease with plant size in insect-pollinated Sagittaria trifolia, contrary to predictions of size-dependent sex allocation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing HAN; Xiao-Fan WANG; Shuang-Quan HUANG

    2011-01-01

    It has been proposed that relative allocation to female function increases with plant size in animalpollinated species.Previous investigations in several monoecious Sagittaria species seem to run contrary to the prediction of size-dependent sex allocation (SDS),throwing doubt on the generalization of SDS.Plant size,phenotypic gender,and flower production were measured in experimental populations of an aquatic,insect-pollinated herb Sagittaria trifolia (Alismataceae) under highly different densities.The comparison of ramets produced clonally can reduce confounding effects from genetic and environmental factors.In the high-density population,48% of ramets were male without female flowers,but in the low-density population all ramets were monoecious.We observed allometric growth in reproductive allocation with ramet size,as evident in biomass of reproductive structures and number of flowers.However,within both populations female and male flower production were isometric with ramet size,in contrast to an allometric growth in femaleness as predicted by SDS.Phenotypic gender was not related to ramet size in either population.The results indicated that large plants may increase both female and male function even in animal-pollinated plants,pointing towards further studies to test the hypothesis of size-dependent sex allocation using different allocation currencies.

  6. Graphs having many holes but with small competition numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Jung Yeun; Kim, Seog-Jin; Sano, Yoshio

    2009-01-01

    The competition number k(G) of a graph G is the smallest number k such that G together with k isolated vertices added is the competition graph of an acyclic digraph. A chordless cycle of length at least 4 of a graph is called a hole of the graph. The number of holes of a graph is closely related to its competition number as the competition number of a chordal graph which does not contain a hole is at most one and the competition number of a complete bipartite graph $K_{\\lfloor n/2 \\rfloor, \\lceil n/2 \\rceil}$ which has so many holes that no more holes can be added is the largest among those of graphs with n vertices. In this paper, we show that even if a graph G has many holes, as long as just one maximal clique of size one more than the number of holes is allowed, k(G) can be as small as 2. In addition, we show that if a graph G has h holes and just one maximal clique of size $\\omega$, and all the holes of G are edge-disjoint, then the competition number is at most $h - \\omega + 3$.

  7. Size-dependent release of fluorescent macromolecules and nanoparticles from radically cross-linked hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henke, Matthias; Brandl, Ferdinand; Goepferich, Achim M; Tessmar, Joerg K

    2010-02-01

    Hydrogels play an important role in drug delivery and tissue engineering applications due to their excellent biocompatibility and their variable mechanical and physical properties, which allow their optimization for many different aspects of the intended use. In this study, we examined the suitability of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based hydrogels as release systems for nanometer-sized drugs or drug carriers, like nanoparticles, using the radically cross-linkable oligo(poly(ethylene glycol)fumarate) (OPF) together with two cross-linking agents. Different fluorescent nanoparticulate probes with respect to size and physical structure were incorporated in the cross-linked hydrogels, and the obtained release profiles were correlated with the physical properties and the chemical structure of the gels, indicating a strong dependence of the release on the chosen PEG prepolymers. The prepared hydrogels were characterized by oscillatory rheometry and swelling experiments. Release experiments as well as diffusion measurements using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching showed the great potential of this type of hydrogels for the preparation of adjustable release systems by altering the molecular weights of the used PEG molecules.

  8. Size dependence of volume and surface nucleation rates for homogeneous freezing of supercooled water droplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kuhn

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The relative roles of volume and surface nucleation were investigated for the homogeneous freezing of pure water droplets. Experiments were carried out in a cryogenic laminar aerosol flow tube using supercooled water aerosols with maximum volume densities at radii between 1 and 3 μm. Temperature- and size-dependent values of volume- and surface-based homogeneous nucleation rates between 234.8 and 236.2 K were derived using a microphysical model and aerosol phase compositions and size distributions determined from infrared extinction measurements in the flow tube. The results show that the contribution from nucleation at the droplet surface increases with decreasing droplet radius and dominates over nucleation in the bulk droplet volume for droplets with radii smaller than approximately 5 μm. This is interpreted in terms of a lowered free energy of ice germ formation in the surface-based process. The implications of surface nucleation for the parameterization of homogeneous ice nucleation in numerical models are considered.

  9. The pressure-induced, lactose-dependent changes in the composition and size of casein micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengjie; Jin, Shaoming; Guo, Huiyuan; Zhao, Liang; Ren, Fazheng

    2015-04-15

    The effects of lactose on the changes in the composition and size of casein micelles induced by high-pressure treatment and the related mechanism of action were investigated. Dispersions of ultracentrifuged casein micelle pellets with 0-10% (w/v) lactose were subjected to high pressure (400 MPa) at 20 °C for 40 min. The results indicated that the level of non-sedimentable caseins was positively related to the amount of lactose added prior to pressure treatment, and negatively correlated to the size. A mechanism for the pressure-induced, lactose-dependent changes in the casein micelles is proposed. Lactose inhibits the hydrophobic interactions between the micellar fragments during or after pressure release, through the hydrophilic layer formed by their hydrogen bonds around the micellar fragments. In addition, lactose does not favour the association between calcium and the casein aggregates after pressure release. Due to these two functions, lactose inhibited the formation of larger micelles after pressure treatment.

  10. Ion-size dependent electroosmosis of viscoelastic fluids in microfluidic channels with interfacial slip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Siddhartha; Goswami, Prakash; Dhar, Jayabrata; Dasgupta, Sunando; Chakraborty, Suman

    2017-07-01

    We report a study on the ion-size dependent electroosmosis of viscoelastic fluids in microfluidic channels with interfacial slip. Here, we derive an analytical solution for the potential distribution in a parallel plate microchannel, where the effects of finite sized ionic species are taken into account by invoking the free energy formalism. Following this, a purely electroosmotic flow of a simplified Phan-Thien-Tanner (sPTT) fluid is considered. For the sPTT model, linear, quadratic, and exponential kernels are chosen for the stress coefficient function describing its viscoelastic nature across various ranges of Deborah number. The theoretical framework presented in our analysis has been successfully compared with experimental results available in the literature. We believe that the implications of the considered effects on the net volumetric throughput will not only provide a deeper theoretical insight to interpret the electrokinetic data in the presence of ionic species but also serve as a fundamental design tool for novel electrokinetically driven lab-on-a-chip biofluidic devices.

  11. The conformation of double-stranded DNA inside bacteriophages depends on capsid size and shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Anton S; Boz, Mustafa Burak; Harvey, Stephen C

    2007-11-01

    The packaging of double-stranded DNA into bacteriophages leads to the arrangement of the genetic material into highly-packed and ordered structures. Although modern experimental techniques reveal the most probable location of DNA inside viral capsids, the individual conformations of DNA are yet to be determined. In the current study we present the results of molecular dynamics simulations of the DNA packaging into several bacteriophages performed within the framework of a coarse-grained model. The final DNA conformations depend on the size and shape of the capsid, as well as the size of the protein portal, if any. In particular, isometric capsids with small or absent portals tend to form concentric spools, whereas the presence of a large portal favors coaxial spooling; slightly and highly elongated capsids result in folded and twisted toroidal conformations, respectively. The results of the simulations also suggest that the predominant factor in defining the global DNA arrangement inside bacteriophages is the minimization of the bending stress upon packaging.

  12. Size dependent microbial oxidation and reduction of magnetite nano- and micro-particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, James M.; van der Laan, Gerrit; Figueroa, Adriana I.; Qafoku, Odeta; Wang, Chongmin; Pearce, Carolyn I.; Jackson, Michael; Feinberg, Joshua; Rosso, Kevin M.; Kappler, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    The ability for magnetite to act as a recyclable electron donor and acceptor for Fe-metabolizing bacteria has recently been shown. However, it remains poorly understood whether microbe-mineral interfacial electron transfer processes are limited by the redox capacity of the magnetite surface or that of whole particles. Here we examine this issue for the phototrophic Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria Rhodopseudomonas palustris TIE-1 and the Fe(III)-reducing bacteria Geobacter sulfurreducens, comparing magnetite nanoparticles (d ≈ 12 nm) against microparticles (d ≈ 100-200 nm). By integrating surface-sensitive and bulk-sensitive measurement techniques we observed a particle surface that was enriched in Fe(II) with respect to a more oxidized core. This enables microbial Fe(II) oxidation to occur relatively easily at the surface of the mineral suggesting that the electron transfer is dependent upon particle size. However, microbial Fe(III) reduction proceeds via conduction of electrons into the particle interior, i.e. it can be considered as more of a bulk electron transfer process that is independent of particle size. The finding has potential implications on the ability of magnetite to be used for long range electron transport in soils and sediments.

  13. The dependence of the measured surface energy of graphene on nanosheet size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Auren; Harvey, Andrew; Godwin, Ian J.; Bergin, Shane D.; Coleman, Jonathan N.

    2017-03-01

    The surface energy of graphene nanosheets is surprisingly poorly known, probably due to size effects and energetic heterogeneities. Here we use finite-dilution inverse gas chromatography to measure the surface energy of liquid-exfoliated, few-layer graphene nanosheets of different sizes as a function of probe coverage. In all cases, the surface energy falls with probe coverage from a defect-controlled, low-coverage value to a value that approaches the basal plane surface energy at high coverage. We find an intrinsic basal plane dispersive surface energy of 61 ± 4 mJ m-2, close to the value of 63 mJ m-2 found for graphite. By comparison with similar data measured on graphite and using simple models, we can use the length dependence of the low coverage surface energy to differentiate between the effects of edge and basal plane defects, finding these to contribute ˜130 and 180 mJ m-2 to the surface energy respectively. From this data, we estimate a basal plane defect content of ˜6 × 1014 defects m-2 for both graphite and graphene in reasonable agreement with Raman data. This work shows that, in terms of surface energetics, few-layer graphene nanosheets behave exactly like graphite with the only differences associated with platelet dimensions.

  14. Rigorous buckling analysis of size-dependent functionally graded cylindrical nanoshells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiabin; Lim, C. W.; Zhou, Zhenhuan; Xu, Xinsheng; Sun, Wei

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents new analytical solutions for buckling of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and functionally graded (FG) cylindrical nanoshells subjected to compressive and thermal loads. The model applies Eringen's nonlocal differential constitutive relation to describe the size-dependence of nanoshells. Based on Reddy's higher-order shear deformation theory, governing equations are established and solved by separating the variables. The analysis first re-examines the classical buckling of single-walled CNTs. Accurate solutions are established, and it is found that the buckling stress decreases drastically when the nonlocal parameter reaches a certain value. For CNTs with constant wall-thickness, the buckling stress eventually decreases with enhanced size effect. By comparing with CNTs molecular dynamic simulations, the obtained nonlocal parameters are much smaller than those proposed previously. Subsequently, FG cylindrical nanoshells are analyzed, and it is concluded that similar behavior that has been observed for CNTs is also valid for FG cylindrical nanoshells. The paper further discusses in detail the effects of different geometric parameters, material distribution, and temperature field.

  15. Superparamagnetic La doped Mn-Zn nano ferrites: dependence on dopant content and crystallite size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Prashant; Sharma, Rohit; Kumar, Manoj; Katyal, S. C.; Negi, N. S.; Thakur, Nagesh; Sharma, Vineet; Sharma, Pankaj

    2016-07-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles are found to exhibit exciting and substantially distinct magnetic properties due to high surface-to-volume ratio and several crystal structures in comparison to those discovered in their bulk counterparts. The properties of nanoparticles also largely depend on the route of their synthesis. In the present work, we report the synthesis of superparamagnetic nanoparticles of Mn0.5Zn0.5La x Fe2-x O4 (x = 0, 0.025, 0.050, 0.075, 0.1) ferrites by co-precipitation method. Structural, morphological and elemental study has been performed using x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), FESEM and EDS. Different structural parameters (crystallite size, interplanar spacing and lattice constant) have been calculated from XRD. Formation of cubical spinel structure has been confirmed from XRD and FTIR. Cation distribution for all the samples has been proposed and used for calculation of various theoretical parameters. Magnetic properties have been investigated using vibrating sample magnetometer at room temperature and show transition between paramagnetic and superparamagnetic behavior. Maximum saturation magnetization and magnetic moment have been obtained at x = 0.050. The results are attributed to the solubility of La in Mn-Zn ferrite and the size of nanoparticles. The samples have also been analyzed for dielectric, electric and optical properties. For x ≤ 0.050, a blue shift in absorbance and photoluminescence measurements has been observed due to quantum confinement.

  16. Particle size dependent isothermal crystallization kinetics in a Se–Te glassy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svoboda, Roman, E-mail: roman.svoboda@upce.cz; Málek, Jiří

    2015-06-20

    Highlights: • Influence of particle size on isothermal crystallization of Se–Te glasses was studied by DSC. • Nature of the crystallization complexity was revealed by deconvolution procedure. • Overlapping competing surface and bulk nucleation-growth mechanisms were identified. • Presence of the A and B types of spherulitic crystallites was confirmed by DSC. • Increasing tellurium content leads to an increase of the apparent activation energy. - Abstract: Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to study the crystallization behaviour in a selenium–tellurium (Se–Te) glassy system under isothermal conditions. The particle-size-dependent isothermal crystallization kinetics were described in terms of the Johnson–Mehl–Avrami (JMA) nucleation-growth model. The complexity of the crystallization process was found to be represented by overlapping competing surface and bulk nucleation-growth mechanisms. Based on the deconvolution in terms of the JMA model, the particular crystal growth processes were identified, and the interpretation of their physical origins was performed. Presence of the A and B types of spherulitic crystallites was confirmed; the temperature range of the transition in-between these two spherulitic forms was determined to be similar as for pure selenium. Increasing tellurium content was found to cause an increase of the apparent activation energy of the overall crystallization process as well as a gradual increase of the dominance of the CNT (classical nucleation theory)-based volume-located crystal growth over the surface crystallization, which originates from mechanically induced heterogeneities.

  17. Pore-size-dependent calcium carbonate precipitation controlled by surface chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, Andrew G; Fernandez-Martinez, Alejandro; Allard, Lawrence F; Bañuelos, José L; Rother, Gernot; Anovitz, Lawrence M; Cole, David R; Waychunas, Glenn A

    2014-06-03

    Induced mineral precipitation is potentially important for the remediation of contaminants, such as during mineral trapping during carbon or toxic metal sequestration. The prediction of precipitation reactions is complicated by the porous nature of rocks and soils and their interaction with the precipitate, introducing transport and confinement effects. Here X-ray scattering measurements, modeling, and electron microscopies were used to measure the kinetics of calcium carbonate precipitation in a porous amorphous silica (CPG) that contained two discrete distributions of pore sizes: nanopores and macropores. To examine the role of the favorability of interaction between the substrate and precipitate, some of the CPG was functionalized with a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) similar to those known to enhance nucleation densities on planar substrates. Precipitation was found to occur exclusively in macropores in the native CPG, while simultaneous precipitation in nanopores and macropores was observed in the functionalized CPG. The rate of precipitation in the nanopores estimated from the model of the X-ray scattering matched that measured on calcite single crystals. These results suggest that the pore-size distribution in which a precipitation reaction preferentially occurs depends on the favorability of interaction between substrate and precipitate, something not considered in most studies of precipitation in porous media.

  18. Systematic effects on the size-luminosity relation: dependence on model fitting and morphology

    CERN Document Server

    Bernardi, M; Vikram, V; Huertas-Company, M; Mei, S; Shankar, F; Sheth, R K

    2012-01-01

    We quantify the systematics in the size-luminosity relation of galaxies in the SDSS main sample which arise from fitting different 1- and 2-component model profiles to the images. In objects brighter than L*, fitting a single Sersic profile to what is really a two-component SerExp system leads to biases: the half-light radius is increasingly overestimated as n of the fitted single component increases; it is also overestimated at B/T ~ 0.6. However, the net effect on the R-L relation is small, except for the most luminous tail, where it curves upwards towards larger sizes. We also study how this relation depends on morphological type. Our analysis is one of the first to use Bayesian-classifier derived weights, rather than hard cuts, to define morphology. Crudely, there appear to be only two relations: one for early-types (Es, S0s and Sa's) and another for late-types (Sbs and Scds). However, closer inspection shows that within the early-type sample S0s tend to be 15% smaller than Es of the same luminosity, and,...

  19. Size dependent electronic and magnetic properties of ultra thin graphene nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Meenakshi; Sharma, Hitesh

    2016-09-01

    We present the results of systematic investigation into size dependent electronic and magnetic properties of ultra thin graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) of finite and infinite length using spin polarized density functional calculation. The rectangular GNRs with width up to 1.40 nm with finite (2.50 nm) and infinite length were investigated. The ultra thin GNRs are found less stable in comparison to larger GNRs with binding energy increasing with increase in the size. All GNRs have shown finite HOMO-LUMO gap which decreases oscillatory as a function of width. HOMO-LUMO gap in the Finite length armchair GNRs is in range of 0.01-0.36 eV, where as in infinite length GNR the energy gap is in the range of 0.30-1.41 eV. Zigzag GNRs have shown very small HOMO-LUMO gap in the range 50-80 meV. The zigzag GNR have shown opening of energy band gap. However, for N = 8 and 10 layers, GNRs with zigzag edges are found to be ferromagnetic. The edge C atom on zigzag edges contribute magnetic moment of 0.94 {μ }B per C atom with total magnetic moment remaining constant with increase in the width. The energy difference between ferromagnetic and anti-ferromagnetic state decreases sharply with the increase in GNR width suggesting iso-energetic behavior in larger GNRs. The results are consistent with the reported experimental results.

  20. Composition and size dependent brittle-to-malleable transitions of Mg-based bulk metallic glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Jian, E-mail: yinjiandonic@yahoo.com; Ma, Xiujun; Zhou, Zhijian

    2014-05-01

    Mg-based bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) were often treated as brittle materials. However, some Mg-based BMGs were recently reported to show malleability. In order to identify the reasons for the achievement of the brittle-to-malleable transitions in the Mg-based BMGs, we systematically investigated the mechanical properties of four Mg-based BMGs (Mg{sub 65}Cu{sub 25}Gd{sub 10}, Mg{sub 65}Cu{sub 20}Ni{sub 5}Gd{sub 10}, Mg{sub 75}Ni{sub 15}Gd{sub 10}, and Mg{sub 75}Ni{sub 15}Gd{sub 5}Nd{sub 5} BMGs) using the uniaxial compression tests on the samples with sizes of ∅1×2 mm{sup 2} and ∅2×4 mm{sup 2}. The corresponding fracture morphology was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These Mg-based BMGs displayed the composition or size dependent brittle-to-malleable transitions, accompanied by the fracture mode transition from the cleavage fracture to the shear fracture. It appeared that the Mg-based BMGs were sensitive to cleavage cracks upon loading. The brittle-to-malleable transitions of the Mg-based BMGs were related to not only the stability of shear banding but also the nucleation and propagation of cleavage cracks. It was demonstrated that the suppression of the nucleation and propagation of cleavage cracks could favor the transition from the cleavage fracture to the shear fracture and encourage the brittle-to-malleable transition for the Mg-based BMGs. The underlying mechanism for the brittle-to-malleable transitions of the Mg-based BMGs was discussed with respect to both the composition and size effects.

  1. Interactions of gold nanoparticles with freshwater aquatic macrophytes are size and species dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, J Brad; White, Sarah A; Klaine, Stephen J

    2012-01-01

    The partitioning of 4- and 18-nm gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to aquatic macrophytes was investigated in vivo with exposure suspension in well water. Three morphologically distinct aquatic macrophytes were studied. Myriophyllum simulans Orch. and Egeria densa Planch. are submerged aquatic vascular plants, whereas Azolla caroliniana Willd. is a free-floating aquatic fern. Because aquatic plants absorb the majority of their nutrients from the water column, it is logical to hypothesize that they may absorb nanomaterials in suspension, potentially facilitating trophic transfer. Each plant was exposed to two different-sized gold nanospheres at a nominal concentration of 250 µg/L AuNPs for 24 h. Macrophytes were harvested at six time points (1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h), dried, and then analyzed for gold concentration via inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Concentrations were normalized to whole-plant dry tissue mass. The present study shows that absorption of AuNPs through root uptake was size and species dependent. Electron microscopy revealed that 4- and 18-nm AuNPs adsorbed to the roots of each species. Root tissue was sectioned, and transmission electron microscopy indicated that 4-nm and 18-nm AuNPs were absorbed by A. caroliniana, whereas only 4-nm AuNPs were absorbed by M. simulans. Egeria densa did not absorb AuNPs of either size. Gold nanoparticles were confirmed in tissue by using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Absorption of AuNPs by plants may be a function of the salinity tolerance of each species.

  2. Patient-size-dependent radiation dose optimisation technique for abdominal CT examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngaile, J E; Msaki, P; Kazema, R

    2012-01-01

    Since patient doses from computed tomography (CT) are relatively high, risk-benefit analysis requires dose to patients and image quality be optimised. The aim of this study was to develop a patient-dependent optimisation technique that uses patient diameter to select a combination of CT scanning parameters that minimise dose delivered to patients undergoing abdominal CT examinations. The study was performed using cylindrical phantoms of diameters ranging from 16 to 40 cm in order to establish the relationship between image degradation, CT scanning techniques, patient dose and patient size from two CT scanners. These relationships were established by scanning the phantoms using standard scanning technique followed by selected combinations of scanning parameters. The image noises through phantom images were determined using region of interest software available in both scanners. The energy depositions to the X-ray detector through phantoms were determined from measurements of CT dose index in air corrected for attenuation of the phantom materials. The results demonstrate that exposure settings (milliampere seconds) could be reduced by up to 82 % for smaller phantom relative to standard milliampere seconds, while detector signal could be reduced by up to 93 % for smaller phantom relative to energy depositions required when scanned using standard scanning protocols. It was further revealed that the use of the object-specific scanning parameters on studies performed with phantom of different diameters could reduce the incident radiation to small size object by up to 86 % to obtain the same image quality required for standard adult object. In view of the earlier mentioned fact, substantial dose saving from small-sized adults and children patients undergoing abdomen CT examinations could be achieved through optimal adjustment of CT scanning technique based on the patient transverse diameter.

  3. The protein corona protects against size- and dose-dependent toxicity of amorphous silica nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Docter

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Besides the lung and skin, the gastrointestinal (GI tract is one of the main targets for accidental exposure or biomedical applications of nanoparticles (NP. Biological responses to NP, including nanotoxicology, are caused by the interaction of the NP with cellular membranes and/or cellular entry. Here, the physico-chemical characteristics of NP are widely discussed as critical determinants, albeit the exact mechanisms remain to be resolved. Moreover, proteins associate with NP in physiological fluids, forming the protein corona potentially transforming the biological identity of the particle and thus, adding an additional level of complexity for the bio–nano responses.Here, we employed amorphous silica nanoparticles (ASP and epithelial GI tract Caco-2 cells as a model to study the biological impact of particle size as well as of the protein corona. Caco-2 or mucus-producing HT-29 cells were exposed to thoroughly characterized, negatively charged ASP of different size in the absence or presence of proteins. Comprehensive experimental approaches, such as quantifying cellular metabolic activity, microscopic observation of cell morphology, and high-throughput cell analysis revealed a dose- and time-dependent toxicity primarily upon exposure with ASP30 (Ø = 30 nm. Albeit smaller (ASP20, Ø = 20 nm or larger particles (ASP100; Ø = 100 nm showed a similar zeta potential, they both displayed only low toxicity. Importantly, the adverse effects triggered by ASP30/ASP30L were significantly ameliorated upon formation of the protein corona, which we found was efficiently established on all ASP studied. As a potential explanation, corona formation reduced ASP30 cellular uptake, which was however not significantly affected by ASP surface charge in our model. Collectively, our study uncovers an impact of ASP size as well as of the protein corona on cellular toxicity, which might be relevant for processes at the nano–bio interface in general.

  4. Subgraph detection using graph signals

    KAUST Repository

    Chepuri, Sundeep Prabhakar

    2017-03-06

    In this paper we develop statistical detection theory for graph signals. In particular, given two graphs, namely, a background graph that represents an usual activity and an alternative graph that represents some unusual activity, we are interested in answering the following question: To which of the two graphs does the observed graph signal fit the best? To begin with, we assume both the graphs are known, and derive an optimal Neyman-Pearson detector. Next, we derive a suboptimal detector for the case when the alternative graph is not known. The developed theory is illustrated with numerical experiments.

  5. Color-induced graph colorings

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive treatment of color-induced graph colorings is presented in this book, emphasizing vertex colorings induced by edge colorings. The coloring concepts described in this book depend not only on the property required of the initial edge coloring and the kind of objects serving as colors, but also on the property demanded of the vertex coloring produced. For each edge coloring introduced, background for the concept is provided, followed by a presentation of results and open questions dealing with this topic. While the edge colorings discussed can be either proper or unrestricted, the resulting vertex colorings are either proper colorings or rainbow colorings. This gives rise to a discussion of irregular colorings, strong colorings, modular colorings, edge-graceful colorings, twin edge colorings and binomial colorings. Since many of the concepts described in this book are relatively recent, the audience for this book is primarily mathematicians interested in learning some new areas of graph colorings...

  6. Line graphs as social networks

    CERN Document Server

    Krawczyk, Malgorzata; Mańka-Krasoń, Anna; Kułakowski, Krzysztof

    2010-01-01

    The line graphs are clustered and assortative. They share these topological features with some social networks. We argue that this similarity reveals the cliquey character of the social networks. In the model proposed here, a social network is the line graph of an initial network of families, communities, interest groups, school classes and small companies. These groups play the role of nodes, and individuals are represented by links between these nodes. The picture is supported by the data on the LiveJournal network of about 8 x 10^6 people. In particular, sharp maxima of the observed data of the degree dependence of the clustering coefficient C(k) are associated with cliques in the social network.

  7. Size-dependent spinodal and miscibility gaps for intercalation in nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, Damian; Bazant, Martin Z

    2009-11-01

    Using a recently proposed mathematical model for intercalation dynamics in phase-separating materials ( Singh , G. K. , Ceder , G. and Bazant , M. Z. Electrochimica Acta 2008 , 53 , 7599. ), we show that the spinodal and miscibility gaps generally shrink as the host particle size decreases to the nanoscale. Our work is motivated by recent experiments on the high-rate Li-ion battery material LiFePO(4); this serves as the basis for our examples, but our analysis and conclusions apply to any intercalation material. We describe two general mechanisms for the suppression of phase separation in nanoparticles, (i) a classical bulk effect, predicted by the Cahn-Hilliard equation in which the diffuse phase boundary becomes confined by the particle geometry; and (ii) a novel surface effect, predicted by chemical-potential-dependent reaction kinetics, in which insertion/extraction reactions stabilize composition gradients near surfaces in equilibrium with the local environment. Composition-dependent surface energy and (especially) elastic strain can contribute to these effects but are not required to predict decreased spinodal and miscibility gaps at the nanoscale.

  8. Hybrid Motion Graphs for Character Animation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalouache Saida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many works in the literature have improved the performance of motion graphs for synthesis the humanlike results in limited domains that necessity few constraints like dance, navigation in small game like environments or in games by the gesture of feedback on a snowboard tutorial. The humanlike cannot exist in an environment without interacting with the world surrounding them; the naturalness of the entire motion extremely depends on the animation of the walking character, the chosen path and the interaction motions. Addressing exact position of end-effectors is the main disadvantage of motion graphs which cause less importance expended to the search for motions with no collision in complex environments or manipulating motions. This fact motivates this approach which is the proposition of an hybrid motion graphs taking advantages of motion graphs to synthesis a natural locomotion and overcoming their limitations in synthesis manipulation motions by combined it with an inverse kinematic method for synthesis the upper-body motions.

  9. System size dependence of the structure and rheology in a sheared lamellar liquid crystalline medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaju, S. J.; Kumaran, V.

    2016-12-01

    The structural and rheological evolution of an initially disordered lamellar phase system under a shear flow is examined using a mesoscale model based on a free energy functional for the concentration field, which is the scaled difference in the concentration between the hydrophilic and hydrophobic components. The dimensionless numbers which affect the shear evolution are the Reynolds number (γ ˙ ¯ L2 /ν ) , the Schmidt number (ν /D ) , a dimensionless parameter Σ =(A λ2 /ρ ν2 ) , a parameter μr which represents the viscosity contrast between the hydrophilic and hydrophobic components, and (L /λ ) , the ratio of system size and layer spacing. Here, ρ, ν, and D are the density, kinematic viscosity (ratio of viscosity and density), and the mass diffusivity, and A is the energy density in the free energy functional which is proportional to the compression modulus. Two distinct modes of structural evolution are observed for moderate values of the parameter Σ depending only on the combination ScΣ and independent of system size. For ScΣ less than about 10, the layers tend to form before they are deformed by the mean shear, and layered but misaligned domains are initially formed, and these are deformed and rotated by the flow. In this case, the excess viscosity (difference between the viscosity and that for an aligned state) does not decrease to zero even after 1000 strain units, but appears to plateau to a steady state value. For ScΣ greater than about 10, layers are deformed by the mean shear before they are fully formed, and a well aligned lamellar phase with edge dislocation orders completely due to the cancellation of dislocations. The excess viscosity scales as t-1 in the long time limit. The maximum macroscopic viscosity (ratio of total stress and average strain rate over the entire sample) during the alignment process increases with the system size proportional to (L/λ ) 3 /2. For large values of Σ, there is localisation of shear at the walls

  10. DEPENDENCE OF GRAIN SIZE OF AUSTENITE STEEL OF RAILWAY WHEEL FROM PARAMETERS OF HOT DEFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Vakulenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The estimation of heat temperature influence and degree of hot reduction of carbon steel on the size of grain аustenite at making of railway wheels. Methodology. The material for research was carbon steel, mark 60 with carbon content of 0,55 and 0,65 %, selected from the fragments of railway wheels. The size of grain аustenite depending on a temperature (from 800 to 1 150 ºC and degrees of hot deformation (10−50 % was determined. The size of grain was determined under a light microscope with the use of quantitative metallography methods. Findings. The use of cooling in the process of hot reduction of the railway wheel will allow dispergating the structure of аustenite on large distances from the surface of the rim. The reason for this is that the volumes of metal after cooling have an increased strength and will be exposed in less degree to the plastic deformation. To compare the cooling layers near-by with the surface of rim, they are more warmed-up in internal volumes of metal. In the conditions of continuity of plastic deformation distribution, having a high temperature, they will be exposed to the reduction on the large total degree of deformation. In consequence of the resulted decisions more even austenitic structure must be formed on the section of rim of railway wheel. To obtain the effect of disperse grain of аustenite at making of the whole-rolled railway wheels it is necessary to decrease the heat temperature of billet under rolling or increase the degree of reduction on the lasts stages of shape-generating deformation. The pause by duration of 1,5 min. after reduction of 20 % at a temperature 950 ºC is sufficiently for processes completion of dynamic and static recrystalization of аustenite carbon steel of the railway wheel. Originality. Increase of plastic deformation degree, especially in the central volumes of rim is accompanied by the decrease of heterogeneity of austenitic structure on his section. The

  11. Knowledge Representation Issues in Semantic Graphs for Relationship Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthelemy, M; Chow, E; Eliassi-Rad, T

    2005-02-02

    An important task for Homeland Security is the prediction of threat vulnerabilities, such as through the detection of relationships between seemingly disjoint entities. A structure used for this task is a ''semantic graph'', also known as a ''relational data graph'' or an ''attributed relational graph''. These graphs encode relationships as typed links between a pair of typed nodes. Indeed, semantic graphs are very similar to semantic networks used in AI. The node and link types are related through an ontology graph (also known as a schema). Furthermore, each node has a set of attributes associated with it (e.g., ''age'' may be an attribute of a node of type ''person''). Unfortunately, the selection of types and attributes for both nodes and links depends on human expertise and is somewhat subjective and even arbitrary. This subjectiveness introduces biases into any algorithm that operates on semantic graphs. Here, we raise some knowledge representation issues for semantic graphs and provide some possible solutions using recently developed ideas in the field of complex networks. In particular, we use the concept of transitivity to evaluate the relevance of individual links in the semantic graph for detecting relationships. We also propose new statistical measures for semantic graphs and illustrate these semantic measures on graphs constructed from movies and terrorism data.

  12. Graph processing platforms at scale: practices and experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Seung-Hwan [ORNL; Lee, Sangkeun (Matt) [ORNL; Brown, Tyler C [ORNL; Sukumar, Sreenivas R [ORNL; Ganesh, Gautam [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Graph analysis unveils hidden associations of data in many phenomena and artifacts, such as road network, social networks, genomic information, and scientific collaboration. Unfortunately, a wide diversity in the characteristics of graphs and graph operations make it challenging to find a right combination of tools and implementation of algorithms to discover desired knowledge from the target data set. This study presents an extensive empirical study of three representative graph processing platforms: Pegasus, GraphX, and Urika. Each system represents a combination of options in data model, processing paradigm, and infrastructure. We benchmarked each platform using three popular graph operations, degree distribution, connected components, and PageRank over a variety of real-world graphs. Our experiments show that each graph processing platform shows different strength, depending the type of graph operations. While Urika performs the best in non-iterative operations like degree distribution, GraphX outputforms iterative operations like connected components and PageRank. In addition, we discuss challenges to optimize the performance of each platform over large scale real world graphs.

  13. Radio Graceful Hamming Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niedzialomski Amanda

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available For k ∈ ℤ+ and G a simple, connected graph, a k-radio labeling f : V (G → ℤ+ of G requires all pairs of distinct vertices u and v to satisfy |f(u − f(v| ≥ k + 1 − d(u, v. We consider k-radio labelings of G when k = diam(G. In this setting, f is injective; if f is also surjective onto {1, 2, . . . , |V (G|}, then f is a consecutive radio labeling. Graphs that can be labeled with such a labeling are called radio graceful. In this paper, we give two results on the existence of radio graceful Hamming graphs. The main result shows that the Cartesian product of t copies of a complete graph is radio graceful for certain t. Graphs of this form provide infinitely many examples of radio graceful graphs of arbitrary diameter. We also show that these graphs are not radio graceful for large t.

  14. Bidimensionality and Geometric Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Fomin, Fedor V; Saurabh, Saket

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we use several of the key ideas from Bidimensionality to give a new generic approach to design EPTASs and subexponential time parameterized algorithms for problems on classes of graphs which are not minor closed, but instead exhibit a geometric structure. In particular we present EPTASs and subexponential time parameterized algorithms for Feedback Vertex Set, Vertex Cover, Connected Vertex Cover, Diamond Hitting Set, on map graphs and unit disk graphs, and for Cycle Packing and Minimum-Vertex Feedback Edge Set on unit disk graphs. Our results are based on the recent decomposition theorems proved by Fomin et al [SODA 2011], and our algorithms work directly on the input graph. Thus it is not necessary to compute the geometric representations of the input graph. To the best of our knowledge, these results are previously unknown, with the exception of the EPTAS and a subexponential time parameterized algorithm on unit disk graphs for Vertex Cover, which were obtained by Marx [ESA 2005] and Alber and...

  15. Growth and size-dependent loss of newly settled bivalves in two distant regions of the Wadden Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andresen, H.; Dorresteijn, I.; van der Meer, J.

    2013-01-01

    Individual growth and the timing of life history events determine the course of individual body sizes. Hence, these factors can influence size-dependent species interactions, such as predation. In the Wadden Sea, predation by crustaceans plays an important role in the survival of pre-recruit bivalve

  16. The many faces of graph dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignolet, Yvonne Anne; Roy, Matthieu; Schmid, Stefan; Tredan, Gilles

    2017-06-01

    The topological structure of complex networks has fascinated researchers for several decades, resulting in the discovery of many universal properties and reoccurring characteristics of different kinds of networks. However, much less is known today about the network dynamics: indeed, complex networks in reality are not static, but rather dynamically evolve over time. Our paper is motivated by the empirical observation that network evolution patterns seem far from random, but exhibit structure. Moreover, the specific patterns appear to depend on the network type, contradicting the existence of a ‘one fits it all’ model. However, we still lack observables to quantify these intuitions, as well as metrics to compare graph evolutions. Such observables and metrics are needed for extrapolating or predicting evolutions, as well as for interpolating graph evolutions. To explore the many faces of graph dynamics and to quantify temporal changes, this paper suggests to build upon the concept of centrality, a measure of node importance in a network. In particular, we introduce the notion of centrality distance, a natural similarity measure for two graphs which depends on a given centrality, characterizing the graph type. Intuitively, centrality distances reflect the extent to which (non-anonymous) node roles are different or, in case of dynamic graphs, have changed over time, between two graphs. We evaluate the centrality distance approach for five evolutionary models and seven real-world social and physical networks. Our results empirically show the usefulness of centrality distances for characterizing graph dynamics compared to a null-model of random evolution, and highlight the differences between the considered scenarios. Interestingly, our approach allows us to compare the dynamics of very different networks, in terms of scale and evolution speed.

  17. Chromatic functors of graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshinaga, Masahiko

    2015-01-01

    Finite graphs that have a common chromatic polynomial have the same number of regular $n$-colorings. A natural question is whether there exists a natural bijection between regular $n$-colorings. We address this question using a functorial formulation. Let $G$ be a simple graph. Then for each set $X$ we can associate a set of $X$-colorings. This defines a functor, "chromatic functor" from the category of sets with injections to itself. The first main result verifies that two finite graphs dete...

  18. Handbook of graph theory

    CERN Document Server

    Gross, Jonathan L; Zhang, Ping

    2013-01-01

    In the ten years since the publication of the best-selling first edition, more than 1,000 graph theory papers have been published each year. Reflecting these advances, Handbook of Graph Theory, Second Edition provides comprehensive coverage of the main topics in pure and applied graph theory. This second edition-over 400 pages longer than its predecessor-incorporates 14 new sections. Each chapter includes lists of essential definitions and facts, accompanied by examples, tables, remarks, and, in some cases, conjectures and open problems. A bibliography at the end of each chapter provides an ex

  19. Extremal graph theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bollobas, Bela

    2004-01-01

    The ever-expanding field of extremal graph theory encompasses a diverse array of problem-solving methods, including applications to economics, computer science, and optimization theory. This volume, based on a series of lectures delivered to graduate students at the University of Cambridge, presents a concise yet comprehensive treatment of extremal graph theory.Unlike most graph theory treatises, this text features complete proofs for almost all of its results. Further insights into theory are provided by the numerous exercises of varying degrees of difficulty that accompany each chapter. A

  20. Asymptote Misconception on Graphing Functions: Does Graphing Software Resolve It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öçal, Mehmet Fatih

    2017-01-01

    Graphing function is an important issue in mathematics education due to its use in various areas of mathematics and its potential roles for students to enhance learning mathematics. The use of some graphing software assists students' learning during graphing functions. However, the display of graphs of functions that students sketched by hand may…