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Sample records for deoxyuridine suppression test

  1. Dexamethasone suppression test

    Science.gov (United States)

    DST; ACTH suppression test; Cortisol suppression test ... During this test, you will receive dexamethasone. This is a strong man-made (synthetic) glucocorticoid medicine. Afterward, your blood is drawn ...

  2. Growth hormone suppression test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Acromegaly - blood test; Gigantism - blood test Images Blood test References Kaiser U, Ho KKY. Pituitary physiology and diagnostic evaluation. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology . 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; ...

  3. Thyroid suppression test with dextrothyroxine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, D.; Fridman, J.; Ribeiro, H.B.

    1978-01-01

    The classic thyroid suppression test with triiodothyronine (l-T 3 ) has been shown to be efficient as an auxiliary method in the diagnosis of thyroid diseases, but should not be performed on elderly patients or on those with heart disease or a tendency to tachycardia. Since these subjects seem able to support a short period of dextro-thyronine (d-T 4 ) feeding, we compared the effect of d-T 4 and l-T 3 on the 24 hours thyroid uptake in euthyroid and hyperthyroid subjects. After basal radio-iodine uptake determination, 99 patients without hyperthyroidism and 27 with Graves' disease were randomly divided in 2 groups; one received 100μg of l-T 3 per day and the other 4 mg of d-T 4 per day, both groups being treated for a period of 10 days. At the end of this suppression period the 24 hours radio-iodine uptake was measured again and the percentual suppression index (S.I.) calculated. Since the comparison of the two groups showed no difference between the suppressive effect of l-T 3 and d-T 4 in euthyroid subjects, while dextro-thyronine, as levo-triiodothyronine, did not suppress the 24 hours uptake of hyperthyroid patients, l-T 3 or d-T 4 can be used interchangeably to test thyroid suppressibility. In the euthyroid subjects the normal range for the post-suppression uptake was 0-17.1% and for the suppression index 54,7.100% [pt

  4. Screening for suppression in young children: the Polaroid Suppression test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pott, J.W.R.; Oosterveen, DK; Van Hof-van Duin, J

    1998-01-01

    Background: Assessment of monocular visual impairment during screening of young children is often hampered by lack of cooperation. Because strabismus, amblyopia, or anisometropia may lead to monocular suppression during binocular viewing conditions, a test was developed to screen far suppression in

  5. Direct preparation of 14C-labelled 5-allyl- and 5-propyl-2'-deoxyuridine from [2-14C]2'-deoxyuridine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruth, J.L.; White, S.K.; Bergstrom, D.E.

    1982-01-01

    [2- 14 C]5-Allyl-2'-deoxyuridine was synthesized directly from [2- 14 C]2'-deoxyuridine using mercury, palladium, and 3-chloropropene. [2- 14 C]5-Propyl-2'-deoxyuridine was obtained by hydrogenation of the [ 14 C]5-allyl-2'-deoxyuridine. Advantages of the synthetic method and its application to the preparation of other radiolabeled 5-alkyl/alkenyl-2'-deoxyuridines are discussed. (author)

  6. Benchmark enclosure fire suppression experiments - phase 1 test report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, Victor G.; Nichols, Robert Thomas; Blanchat, Thomas K.

    2007-06-01

    A series of fire benchmark water suppression tests were performed that may provide guidance for dispersal systems for the protection of high value assets. The test results provide boundary and temporal data necessary for water spray suppression model development and validation. A review of fire suppression in presented for both gaseous suppression and water mist fire suppression. The experimental setup and procedure for gathering water suppression performance data are shown. Characteristics of the nozzles used in the testing are presented. Results of the experiments are discussed.

  7. Overnight Dexamethasone Suppression Test in the Diagnosis of Cushing's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Esfahanian

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Realizing the cause of Cushing's Syndrome (CS is one of the most challenging processes in clinical endocrinology. The long high dose dexamethasone suppression test (standard test is costly and need an extended inpatient stay. In this study we want to show the clinical utility of the overnight 8 mg dexamethasone suppression test (DST for differential diagnosis of CS in a referral center. Retrospectively from 2002-2005 we selected the patients of endocrinology ward in Imam hospital who were admitted with the diagnosis of Cushing syndrome and had 8 mg DST (modified test along with classic DST. In modified test a decrease in an 8 AM serum cortisol level of 50% or more is thought to indicate suppression and we compared the results of modified test with standard test. This test had been done on 42 patients: 10 male (23% and 32 female (76%. The mean age of patients was 31.39 (15-63, 32 with proven pituitary Cushing's disease, 7 with primary adrnal tumors and 3 with ectopic ACTH syndrome. The standard test according to 50% suppression of UFC had 90.62% sensitivity, and according to 90% suppression had 43.75% sensitivity. The sensitivity of this test was 71.85% for serum cortisol suppression. The modified test (8 mg overnight DST had 78% sensitivity. All of these tests had 100% specificity for the diagnosis of Cushing's disease. The positive predictive vale (PPV of all of these tests was 100%. The negative predictive value (NPV of modified test for the diagnosis of Cushing's disease was 58.82%. In standard test the NPV of serum cortisol was 52.6%, UFC 50% had 76.9% NPV and UFC 90% had 35.7% NPV. The results of serum cortisol suppression in modified test is better than standard test. Although 50% suppression of UFC in standard test had greater sensitivity than modified test, collecting of urine is difficult, time consuming and needing hospitalization, so we advice modified test that is much simpler and more convenient instead of standard test in the first

  8. Multiple-vent programme to test the pressure suppression system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aust, E.; Schwan, H.; Vollbrandt, I.

    1979-01-01

    Three pre-tests with a multiple vent configuration have been performed at the GKSS pressure suppression test facility. First test results indicate significant chugging events with occur periodically with 0.4 to 0.2 Hz. These events appear simultaneously in less than 10 ms at the exit of the three vent pipes and cause pressure pulses in the range of 3 bar. This report gives a short description of the test facility and presents the boundary conditions of the test facility and presents the boundary conditions of the three pre-tests, test results and a first valuation of the experimental informations. (orig.) [de

  9. Materials Science Research Rack-1 Fire Suppressant Distribution Test Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, P. O.

    2002-01-01

    Fire suppressant distribution testing was performed on the Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1), a furnace facility payload that will be installed in the U.S. Lab module of the International Space Station. Unlike racks that were tested previously, the MSRR-1 uses the Active Rack Isolation System (ARIS) to reduce vibration on experiments, so the effects of ARIS on fire suppressant distribution were unknown. Two tests were performed to map the distribution of CO2 fire suppressant throughout a mockup of the MSRR-1 designed to have the same component volumes and flowpath restrictions as the flight rack. For the first test, the average maximum CO2 concentration for the rack was 60 percent, achieved within 45 s of discharge initiation, meeting the requirement to reach 50 percent throughout the rack within 1 min. For the second test, one of the experiment mockups was removed to provide a worst-case configuration, and the average maximum CO2 concentration for the rack was 58 percent. Comparing the results of this testing with results from previous testing leads to several general conclusions that can be used to evaluate future racks. The MSRR-1 will meet the requirements for fire suppressant distribution. Primary factors that affect the ability to meet the CO2 distribution requirements are the free air volume in the rack and the total area and distribution of openings in the rack shell. The length of the suppressant flowpath and degree of tortuousness has little correlation with CO2 concentration. The total area of holes in the rack shell could be significantly increased. The free air volume could be significantly increased. To ensure the highest maximum CO2 concentration, the PFE nozzle should be inserted to the stop on the nozzle.

  10. A practical dexamethasone suppression test to evaluate hirsute women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, C.H.

    1982-01-01

    Fifty-five hirsute women were subjected to a 2-week dexamethasone (DXM) suppression test. The pre- and post-DXM plasma dehydroepiandrosteronesulfate (DS) and testosterone (T) were measured by radioimmunoassay to define the source of androgen excess in hirsute women. Four patients (7%) failed to have adequate adrenal suppression due to failure in medication. Among the 51 patients with adequate adrenal suppression, the source of androgen excess was clearly defined in 48 patients (94%). Seventeen patients (33%) showed ovarian source, 13 patients (26%) had adrenal source, while 18 patients (35%) revealed a mixed adrenal and ovarian source. Normal baseline DS and T levels were noted in 22% of hirsute women and more than half (55%) of them had ovarian androgen excess. Even in 17 patients with normal DS and elevated T, 6 patients (36%) suggested adrenal androgen excess. The source of androgen excess in hirsute women seems evenly distributed among the ovarian, the adrenal, and the mixed group. (author)

  11. The dexametazone suppression test (DST) for diagnosing of depression syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rejopachi P, L.A.

    1984-09-01

    The dexametazone suppression test (DST) is a very valuable neuroendocrin assay as auxiliar method for diagnosing the depression. The serum cortisol levels of 20 patients of the Hospital de Salud Mental and of a control group were determined by radio-immunoassay technique. Normal concentration was defined as 5 micrograms per deciliter. Among depressed patients the average value was 9.8865 micro-grams per deciliter; having the test a 85% of positiveness. Among the control group the average value found was 1.167 micro-grams per deciliter, with a 20% of positiveness for the test. (author)

  12. A Deoxyuridine-Based Far-Red Emitting Viscosity Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mengyuan; Zhang, Yuanwei; Yue, Xiling; Yao, Sheng; Bondar, Mykhailo V; Belfield, Kevin D

    2016-05-30

    A novel deoxyuridine (dU) benzothiazolium (BZ) derivative, referred to as dU-BZ, is reported that was synthesized via Sonogashira coupling reaction methodology. The deoxyuridine building block was introduced to enhance hydrophilicity, while an alkynylated benzothiazolium dye was incorporated for long wavelength absorption to reduce potential phototoxicity that is characteristic of using UV light to excite common fluorphores, better discriminate from native autofluorescence, and potentially facilitate deep tissue imaging. An impressive 30-fold enhancement of fluorescence intensity of dU-BZ was achieved upon increasing viscosity. Fluorescence quantum yields in 99% glycerol/1% methanol (v/v) solution as a function of temperature (293-343 K), together with viscosity-dependent fluorescence lifetimes and radiative and non-radiative rate constants in glycerol/methanol solutions (ranging from 4.8 to 950 cP) were determined. Both fluorescence quantum yields and lifetimes increased with increased viscosity, consistent with results predicted by theory. This suggests that the newly-designed compound, dU-BZ, is capable of functioning as a probe of local microviscosity, an aspect examined by in vitro bioimaging experiments.

  13. A Deoxyuridine-Based Far-Red Emitting Viscosity Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengyuan Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A novel deoxyuridine (dU benzothiazolium (BZ derivative, referred to as dU-BZ, is reported that was synthesized via Sonogashira coupling reaction methodology. The deoxyuridine building block was introduced to enhance hydrophilicity, while an alkynylated benzothiazolium dye was incorporated for long wavelength absorption to reduce potential phototoxicity that is characteristic of using UV light to excite common fluorphores, better discriminate from native autofluorescence, and potentially facilitate deep tissue imaging. An impressive 30-fold enhancement of fluorescence intensity of dU-BZ was achieved upon increasing viscosity. Fluorescence quantum yields in 99% glycerol/1% methanol (v/v solution as a function of temperature (293–343 K, together with viscosity-dependent fluorescence lifetimes and radiative and non-radiative rate constants in glycerol/methanol solutions (ranging from 4.8 to 950 cP were determined. Both fluorescence quantum yields and lifetimes increased with increased viscosity, consistent with results predicted by theory. This suggests that the newly-designed compound, dU-BZ, is capable of functioning as a probe of local microviscosity, an aspect examined by in vitro bioimaging experiments.

  14. 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine impairs long-term food aversion memory in edible snail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efimova, O I; Anokhin, K V

    2012-09-01

    We studied the involvement of DNA synthesis into molecular mechanisms of long-term memory. Nucleoside analogue 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) is known to incorporate into synthesizing DNA and prevent subsequent DNA replication from this region. To investigate the effect of BrdU administration on long-term memory, terrestrial gastropods edible snails Helix lucorum were trained in the food aversion paradigm. Single-session training (carrot presentation combined with application of 10% quinine solution, three carrot presentations with 10-min intervals) resulted in the formation of long-term memory that persisted for at least 45° days. BrdU administration (250 mg/kg) 30 min before training impaired long-term memory tested 24 h later. Immunohistochemical study revealed BrdU incorporation in the nuclei of identified neurons of defensive behavior.

  15. The polaroid suppression test in a pediatric population with ophthalmologic disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pott, JWR; Kingma, C; Verhoeff, K; Grootendorst, RJ; de Faber, JTHN

    Purpose: The Polaroid suppression test (PST) is a new method for early detection of amblyogenic factors by screening for suppression. The apparatus can elicit suppression with the use of Polaroid filters. The aim of the present study was to examine a population of children with known ophthalmologic

  16. Identification of two alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases in extracts of Rhodotorula glutinis catalyzing deoxyuridine hydroxylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubbe, J.

    1985-01-01

    Attempts to isolate deoxyuridine 2'-hydroxylase from Rhodotorula glutinis J. Biol. Chem. 258, 10551-10557) have led to the identification and partial purification of a newly recognized alpha-ketoglutarate-requiring oxygenase. This activity, designated deoxyuridine (uridine) 1'-hydroxylase, in the presence of iron and ascorbate, catalyzes the conversion of deoxyuridine (uridine), O 2 , and alpha-ketoglutarate to uracil, deoxyribonolactone (ribonolactone), CO 2 , and succinate. Incubation of [1'- 3 H]uridine with this activity results in time-dependent formation of uracil concomitant with production of CO 2 and 3H 2 O. Also reported in this paper is the partial purification and characterization of the alpha-ketoglutarate-requiring enzyme, deoxyuridine 2'-hydroxylase. Incubation of [2'-alpha- 3 H]deoxyuridine with this activity results in concomitant production of uridine and 3H 2 O. Incubation with [2'-beta- 3 H] deoxyuridine results in the production of uridine whose specific activity is identical to that of the starting material. This enzyme catalyzes the conversion of deoxyuridine to uridine with retention of configuration. No isotope effect is observed on this transformation

  17. Vibration phenomena in large scale pressure suppression tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aust, E.; Boettcher, G.; Kolb, M.; Sattler, P.; Vollbrandt, J.

    1982-01-01

    Structure und fluid vibration phenomena (acceleration, strain; pressure, level) were observed during blow-down experiments simulating a LOCA in the GKSS full scale multivent pressure suppression test facility. The paper describes first the source related excitations during the two regimes of condensation oscillation and of chugging, and deals then with the response vibrations of the facility's wetwell. Modal analyses of the wetwell were run using excitation by hammer and by shaker in order to separate phenomena that are particular to the GKSS facility from more general ones, i.e. phenomena specific to the fluid related parameters of blowdown and to the geometry of the vent pipes only. The lowest periodicities at about 12 and 16 Hz stem from the vent acoustics. A frequency of about 36 to 38 Hz prominent during chugging seems to result from the lowest local models of two of the wetwell's walls when coupled by the wetwell pool. Further peaks found during blowdown in the spectra of signals at higher frequencies correspond to global vibration modes of the wetwell. (orig.)

  18. Poppers: large cancer increase and immune suppression in animal tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, J S

    1999-04-16

    A study on mice injected with cancer cells and then exposed to isobutyl nitrite (poppers) revealed that inhalant-treated mice developed tumors more readily and rapidly than control mice. The control mice were also injected with cancer cells, but only breathed air. Related studies found that poppers suppress certain immune functions involved in killing tumor cells. These studies suggest that further research of persons with HIV/AIDS who use poppers is needed to determine if they are at a high risk for developing malignancies.

  19. Bromovinyl-deoxyuridine: A selective substrate for mitochondrial thymidine kinase in cell extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzolin, Elisa; Rampazzo, Chiara; Perez-Perez, Maria-Jesus; Hernandez, Ana-Isabel; Balzarini, Jan; Bianchi, Vera

    2006-01-01

    Cellular models of mitochondrial thymidine kinase (TK2) deficiency require a reliable method to measure TK2 activity in whole cell extracts containing two interfering deoxyribonucleoside kinases, thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) and deoxycytidine kinase. We tested the value of the thymidine analog (E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (BVDU) as a TK2-specific substrate. With extracts of OSTTK1 - cells containing TK2 as the only thymidine kinase and a highly specific TK2 inhibitor we established conditions to detect the low TK2 activity commonly present in cells. With extracts of TK1-proficient osteosarcoma cells and normal human fibroblasts we showed that BVDU, but not 1-(β-D-arabinofuranosyl)thymine (Ara-T), discriminates TK2 activity even in the presence of 100-fold excess TK1. A comparison with current procedures based on TK2 inhibition demonstrated the better performance of the new TK2 assay. When cultured human fibroblasts passed from proliferation to quiescence TK2 activity increased by 3-fold, stressing the importance of TK2 function in the absence of TK1

  20. Bromovinyl-deoxyuridine: A selective substrate for mitochondrial thymidine kinase in cell extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzolin, Elisa; Rampazzo, Chiara; Pérez-Pérez, María-Jesús; Hernández, Ana-Isabel; Balzarini, Jan; Bianchi, Vera

    2006-05-26

    Cellular models of mitochondrial thymidine kinase (TK2) deficiency require a reliable method to measure TK2 activity in whole cell extracts containing two interfering deoxyribonucleoside kinases, thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) and deoxycytidine kinase. We tested the value of the thymidine analog (E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (BVDU) as a TK2-specific substrate. With extracts of OSTTK1- cells containing TK2 as the only thymidine kinase and a highly specific TK2 inhibitor we established conditions to detect the low TK2 activity commonly present in cells. With extracts of TK1-proficient osteosarcoma cells and normal human fibroblasts we showed that BVDU, but not 1-(beta-d-arabinofuranosyl)thymine (Ara-T), discriminates TK2 activity even in the presence of 100-fold excess TK1. A comparison with current procedures based on TK2 inhibition demonstrated the better performance of the new TK2 assay. When cultured human fibroblasts passed from proliferation to quiescence TK2 activity increased by 3-fold, stressing the importance of TK2 function in the absence of TK1.

  1. INVIVO DISTRIBUTION AND ANTITUMOR-ACTIVITY OF LIPOSOMAL 3',5'-O-DIPALMITOYL-5-FLUORO-2'-DEOXYURIDINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WAALKES, MV; FICHTNER, [No Value; DONTJE, B; LEMM, M; BECKER, M; ARNDT, D; SCHERPHOF, GL

    1992-01-01

    3',5'-O-dipalmitoyl-5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine (FUdR-dipalmitate), a lipophilic prodrug of 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine (FUdR), was incorporated in different types of liposomes. The in vivo distribution and intrahepatic deacylation of liposomal FUdR-dipalmitate was found to be strongly dependent on

  2. Development of the Military Women's Attitudes Toward Menstrual Suppression Scale: from construct definition to pilot testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trego, Lori L

    2009-01-01

    The Military Women's Attitudes Toward Menstrual Suppression scale (MWATMS) was created to measure attitudes toward menstrual suppression during deployment. The human health and social ecology theories were integrated to conceptualize an instrument that accounts for military-unique aspects of the environment on attitudes toward suppression. A three-step instrument development process was followed to develop the MWATMS. The instrument was pilot tested on a convenience sample of 206 military women with deployment experience. Reliability was tested with measures of internal consistency (alpha = .97); validity was tested with principal components analysis with varimax rotation. Four components accounted for 65% of variance: Benefits/Interest, Hygiene, Convenience, and Soldier/Stress. The pilot test of the MWATMS supported its reliability and validity. Further testing is warranted for validation of this instrument.

  3. Toxicity of liposomal 3 '-5 '-O-dipalmitoyl-5-fluoro-2 '-deoxyuridine in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waalkes, MV; Goris, H; Dontje, BHJ; Schwendener, RA; Scherphof, G; Nijhof, W

    Toxicities of 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine (FUdR) and its liposome-incorporated dipalmitoyl derivative (FUdR-dipalmitate) to mouse bone marrow, spleen, liver and ileum were compared after treatment for 6 consecutive days. The applied doses of the two formulations, which were shown earlier to have equal

  4. The polaroid suppression test in a pediatric population with ophthalmologic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pott, Jan Willem R; Kingma, C; Verhoeff, K; Grootendorst, R J; de Faber, J T H N

    2003-04-01

    The Polaroid suppression test (PST) is a new method for early detection of amblyogenic factors by screening for suppression. The apparatus can elicit suppression with the use of Polaroid filters. The aim of the present study was to examine a population of children with known ophthalmologic disorders using the PST to determine the rate of false-negative results of the PST. Six hundred four children, varying in age between 3 and 15 years (mean, 7.9) were examined using the PST. Ophthalmologic disorders ranged from strabismus and amblyopia to refractive disorders. Mean testing time for the PST was 43 seconds. The PST could not be administered to 34 children (5.6%); 443 children (73.3%) had abnormal results; and 127 children (22.2%) showed no suppression. The suppression in constant strabismus was detected in almost all cases. The sensitivity for accommodative forms of strabismus was lower, but amblyopia was never missed in these cases. In children with normal eye alignment, only 2.7% with an interocular acuity difference of more than 0.1 logMAR had no suppression. Of all 119 children with clinical defined amblyopia, only 1 (0.8%) did not have suppression. Overall sensitivity of the PST for strabismus and/or abnormal interocular acuity difference was 96.2% and specificity was 41.1%. The PST has great potential as a visual screening tool in young children. Only few children with amblyogenic factors were missed. Thus, the test can differentiate those children at risk for amblyopia from normally sighted children. Because specificity is lower, all children showing suppression with the PST in a screening situation should have further examination by the health care worker before being referred to the ophthalmologist.

  5. [Contributions of cortisol suppression tests to understanding of psychiatric disorders: a narrative review of literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima-Pozo, Kazuhiro; Montes-Montero, Ana; Güemes, Itziar; González-Vives, Sara; Díaz-Marsá, Marina; Carrasco, José Luis

    2013-01-01

    Activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis had been studied for the past half century, when some researchers noted that some patients with Cushing's syndrome and severe mood disorders had high baseline cortisol levels, which resulted in an inhibited response in the 1mg dexamethasone suppression test. Altered dexamethasone suppression test results were subsequently found in many psychiatric diseases, including anorexia nervosa, obsessive-compulsive disorder, degenerative dementia, bipolar disorders, and schizophrenia. The relationship between high baseline cortisol levels and stress has also been studied. Some researches on the genesis of borderline personality disorder focused on traumatic childhood backgrounds. Other investigations aimed at elucidating the relationship between traumatic backgrounds and some psychiatric disorders noted that patients with post-traumatic stress disorder and borderline personality disorder showed an enhanced cortisol suppression with low cortisol doses (0.5 mg). Recent studies showed that use of an ultra-low dose of cortisol during the dexamethasone suppression test may be helpful for detecting disorders with hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Recent advances in neuroimaging support the existence of hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in patients with borderline personality disorder, relating a decreased pituitary gland volume to major traumatic backgrounds and suicidal attempts. The purpose of this paper is to make a narrative review of research using dexamethasone suppression test in psychiatric disorders, in order to ascertain its value as a supplemental diagnostic test or as a prognostic marker. Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Ionizing radiation and 5-brom-2'-deoxyuridine as tools for analysis of fundamental mechanism of aging in animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akif'ev, A.P.; Potapenbko, A.I.; Rudakovskaya, E.G.

    1997-01-01

    The influence of gamma-irradiation and 5-brom-2'-deoxyuridine (BUDR) on the life span and behaviour (in photoactivity test) of D.melanogaster was studied. It was found that gamma-irradiation resulted in decrease of life span. However the form of surveys changed only under exposure to doses higher than 500 Gy. Treatment with BUDR distorted the form of survival curves and caused death of insects immediately after exclusion. It also caused abrupt decrease in photoactivity of insects, while irradiation even with very high doses did not affect this feature. It is proposed that initiating substrate in drosophila aging is DNA of nerve cells. The possible relationship between aging regularities and evolutional extinction of eukaryotic species in discussed

  7. Mark II containment 1/6-scale pressure suppression test program: data report no. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukita, Yutaka; Okazaki, Motoaki; Namatame, Ken; Shiba, Masayoshi

    1979-08-01

    This report documents experimental data from the first test phase of the Mark II Containment 1/6-Scale Pressure Suppression Test. The 1/6-Scale Test was initiated in December, 1976, to investigate the thermohydraulic responses of a BWR Mark II pressure suppression system to a postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA), by means of scale model experiments. From January to June, 1977, a series of tests were performed for the Japanese BWR Owners' Group. These tests consisted of eight air-blowdown pool swell tests, three steam-blowdown pool swell tests, and twelve steam condensation tests. The dynamic responses of pressure and pool water level during the blowdown, pressure oscillation and chugging phenomena associated with unsteady condensation of steam were measured. (author)

  8. Test facility of the VVER-440 condensation-type pressure suppression system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, H.; Arndt, S.

    2004-01-01

    Since the early nineties, GRS has supported regulatory authorities in Central and Eastern Europe in performing safety assessments of nuclear power plants. Especially studies of the condensation-type pressure suppression system of VVER-440/V-213-type plants have been important in this respect. Major steps in demonstrating complete functioning of the condensation-type pressure suppression system under accident conditions by experiments run in the Russian large scale test facility, BC V-213, have been completed in the past two years within the framework of various international experimental programs. The test results were used to validate specifically for power plants with VVER-400/V-213 reactors the COCOSYS GRS computer code, which is used in the safety assessments. The results of recalculations of the C02 EREC test, which simulates a break of a main steam pipe, demonstrate the present state of validation of COCOSYS for VVER condensation-type pressure suppression systems. (orig.) [de

  9. TRH and T3 suppression tests after 131I therapy of thyrotoxicosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamai, Hajime; Tsushimi, Takashi; Shizume, Kazuo; Kuma, Kanji; Suematsu, Hiroyuki.

    1976-01-01

    TRH and T 3 suppression tests were performed on patients (124 cases) with Graves' disease who underwent radiotherapy. TRH test was performed at 4 - 6 months (Group I), 6 - 12 months (Group II), 12 - 24 months (Group III) and 24 - 50 months (Group IV) after final radiotherapy, and T 3 suppression test was performed just after each TRH test. Among 124 patients in Group I to IV who were clinically euthyroid and whose T 3 -RU and T 4 values were normal, compared with other groups, Group IV (2 - 4.2 Y) showed a significantly higher percentage of positive responses to both TRH and T 3 suppression tests. However, among 49 of 124 patients whose T 3 was also normal, there were no significant differences between the groups. The value of triiodothyronine was above the normal range in many cases up to 2 years after radiotherapy (in Group I, II, III). There were no significant differences in the percentage of hyperresponses between any of the four groups. Half of the patients who showed positive responses to TRH test showed exaggerated responses. In all cases when the responses to TRH and T 3 suppression tests changed from negative to positive, thyroxine and triiodothyronine concentrations must be within the normal range. In particular, the major determinant seems to be the value of triiodothyronine. As in more than 30% of cases TRH and T 3 suppression tests remained negative even though their T 3 -RU, T 4 , T 3 , values became normal after radiotherapy, the regulation of hypothalamo-hypophyseal thyroid axis do not always return to normal even though circulating thyroidal hormone level return to an euthyroid state. (J.P.N.)

  10. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of deoxyuridine triphosphate nucleotidohydrolase from Arabidopsis thaliana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajaj, Mamta; Moriyama, Hideaki

    2007-01-01

    The first crystallization of deoxyuridine triphosphate nucleotidohydrolase from plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, has been performed. An additive, taurine, was effective in producing the single crystal. The deoxyuridine triphosphate nucleotidohydrolase gene from Arabidopsis thaliana was expressed and the gene product was purified. Crystallization was performed by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 298 K using 2 M ammonium sulfate as the precipitant. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.2 Å resolution using Cu Kα radiation. The crystal belongs to the orthorhombic space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 69.90, b = 70.86 Å, c = 75.55 Å. Assuming the presence of a trimer in the asymmetric unit, the solvent content was 30%, with a V M of 1.8 Å 3 Da −1

  11. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of deoxyuridine triphosphate nucleotidohydrolase from Arabidopsis thaliana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajaj, Mamta [School of Biological Sciences, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Manter Hall, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588-0304 (United States); Moriyama, Hideaki, E-mail: hmoriyama2@unl.edu [Department of Chemistry, e-Toxicology and Biotechnology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Hamilton Hall, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588-0304 (United States); School of Biological Sciences, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Manter Hall, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588-0304 (United States)

    2007-05-01

    The first crystallization of deoxyuridine triphosphate nucleotidohydrolase from plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, has been performed. An additive, taurine, was effective in producing the single crystal. The deoxyuridine triphosphate nucleotidohydrolase gene from Arabidopsis thaliana was expressed and the gene product was purified. Crystallization was performed by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 298 K using 2 M ammonium sulfate as the precipitant. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.2 Å resolution using Cu Kα radiation. The crystal belongs to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 69.90, b = 70.86 Å, c = 75.55 Å. Assuming the presence of a trimer in the asymmetric unit, the solvent content was 30%, with a V{sub M} of 1.8 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1}.

  12. Uptake of iodinated deoxyuridine in a murine melonama following multiple-day intravenous infusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laster, B.H.; Popenoe, E.; Commerford, S.L.; Matsui, K.; Coderre, J.; Fand, I.; Fairchild, R.

    1985-01-01

    Techniques are described for multi-day intravenous (i.v.) infusions of iodinated deoxyuridine (IdUrd) into mice. Percent incorporation into DNA as a thymidine (Thd) analog is reported, as measured by radioactive tag ( 125 IdUrd) and by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Quantitative measurements of IdUrd incorporation in DNA are requisite for meaningful evaluation of the effects of radiation enhancement resulting from radiation sensitization and the stimulation of Auger cascades (photon activation)

  13. Comparison of analysis and flight test data for a drone aircraft with active flutter suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsom, J. R.; Pototzky, A. S.

    1981-01-01

    A drone aircraft equipped with an active flutter suppression system is considered with emphasis on the comparison of modal dampings and frequencies as a function of Mach number. Results are presented for both symmetric and antisymmetric motion with flutter suppression off. Only symmetric results are given for flutter suppression on. Frequency response functions of the vehicle are presented from both flight test data and analysis. The analysis correlation is improved by using an empirical aerodynamic correction factor which is proportional to the ratio of experimental to analytical steady-state lift curve slope. The mathematical models are included and existing analytical techniques are described as well as an alternative analytical technique for obtaining closed-loop results.

  14. Suppression pool testing at the SIET laboratory. Experimental investigation of critical phenomena expected in the Fukushima Daiichi suppression chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellegrini, Marco; Naitoh, Masanori; Araneo, Lucio; Ninokata, Hisashi; Ricotti, Marco; Achilli, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    In the unlikely event of a nuclear power plant long duration station black-out, as in the Fukushima Daiichi (1F) severe accident (SA), it was recognized that the suppression chamber (S/C) functions of heat sink and fission product (FP) scrubbing will degrade, resulting in the S/C pressure increase, reduction of the scrubbing efficiency and subsequent necessity of venting operations. Consequently, a relatively large amount of FPs, in particular highly volatile elements (e.g. CH_3I), is likely to be dispersed into the environment. As a method to evaluate the degradation of the pool characteristics under discharge of steam and non-condensable gases through vent pipes and steam through different quencher geometries of make-up systems, an experimental campaign was recently started at the SIET research laboratory in Italy. Two different quencher geometries, representing vent pipes and the reactor core isolation cooling (RCIC) exhaust pipes in 1F2 and 1F3, were adopted. Several combinations of steam and air mass flow rates were tested to scale down the main conditions occurred during the 1F SA. Measurements of pool water temperature in different locations and visualization with high-speed camera represent the main outcome of the experimental activity. The preliminary results have demonstrated that a relatively small concentration of air in the steam flow is able to suppress the occurrence of chugging of the steam, with reduced mixing in the pool. Both RCIC quenchers adopted induced large chugging at the bottom of the pool which are effective to avoid temperature stratification, thanks to the large water recirculation and vertical mixing within the pool. At decreased subcooling, mixing in the pool ceases and the quenchers with holes disposed in the vertical direction, as in the RCIC exhaust pipe of the 1F unit 3, introduce intense stratification that drastically reduces the condensation efficiency of the S/C pool. Quencher of 1F2 RCIC does not present stratification

  15. Pressure suppression experiments in the PSS test rig of the GKSS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aust, E.

    1975-01-01

    A pressure suppression system has been developed for the advanced pressurized water reactor. Due to its compact layout, this system enables the reactor plant to be installed in the ship in a volume and weight saving manner. Because of significant differences in design and construction of this system as compared to similar systems for land based nuclear power plants, a test facility was built to experimentally demonstrate the effectiveness and the functioning of this system. The test facility will be described and a program of the major experimental tests will be given. Finally, some preliminary results of tests with air carry over in the wet well will be presented. (orig.) [de

  16. Comparison of 1 mg and 2 mg overnight dexamethasone suppression tests for the screening of Cushing's syndrome in obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Mustafa; Kebapcilar, Levent; Taslipinar, Abdullah; Azal, Omer; Ozgurtas, Taner; Corakci, Ahmet; Akgul, Emin Ozgur; Taslipinar, Mine Yavuz; Yazici, Mahmut; Kutlu, Mustafa

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is currently a major public health problem and one of the potential underlying causes of obesity in a minority of patients is Cushing's syndrome (CS). Traditionally, the gold standard screening test for CS is 1 mg dexamethasone overnight suppression test. However, it is known that obese subjects have high false positive results with this test. We have therefore compared the 1 mg and 2 mg overnight dexamethasone suppression tests in obese subjects. Patients whose serum cortisol after ODST was >50 nM underwent and a low-dose dexamethasone suppression test (LDDST); 24-hour urine cortisol was collected for basal urinary free cortisol (UFC). For positive results after overnight 1-mg dexamethasone suppression test we also performed the overnight 2-mg dexamethasone suppression test. We prospectively evaluated 100 patients (22 men and 78 women, ranging in age from 17 to 73 years with a body mass index (BMI) >30 kg/m2 who had been referred to our hospital-affiliated endocrine clinic because of simple obesity. Suppression of serum cortisol to suppression. Thyroid function tests, lipid profiles, homocysteine, antithyroglobulin, anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody levels, vitamin B12, folate levels, insulin resistance [by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA)] and 1.0 mg postdexamethasone (postdex) suppression cortisol levels were measured. We found an 8% false-positive rate in 1 mg overnight test and 2% in 2 mg overnight test (p=0.001). There was no correlation between the cortisol levels after ODST and other parameters. Our results indicate that the 2 mg overnight dexamethasone suppression test (ODST) is more convenient and accurate than 1-mg ODST as a screening test for excluding CS in subjects with simple obesity.

  17. Performance standard-based validation study for local lymph node assay: 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine-flow cytometry method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Ilyoung; Kim, Tae-Sung; Jung, Eun-Sun; Yi, Jung-Sun; Jang, Won-Hee; Jung, Kyoung-Mi; Park, Miyoung; Jung, Mi-Sook; Jeon, Eun-Young; Yeo, Kyeong-Uk; Jo, Ji-Hoon; Park, Jung-Eun; Kim, Chang-Yul; Park, Yeong-Chul; Seong, Won-Keun; Lee, Ai-Young; Chun, Young Jin; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Jeung, Eui Bae; Lim, Kyung-Min; Bae, SeungJin; Sohn, Soojung; Heo, Yong

    2016-10-01

    Local lymph node assay: 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine-flow cytometry method (LLNA: BrdU-FCM) is a modified non-radioisotopic technique with the additional advantages of accommodating multiple endpoints with the introduction of FCM, and refinement and reduction of animal use by using a sophisticated prescreening scheme. Reliability and accuracy of the LLNA: BrdU-FCM was determined according to OECD Test Guideline (TG) No. 429 (Skin Sensitization: Local Lymph Node Assay) performance standards (PS), with the participation of four laboratories. Transferability was demonstrated through successfully producing stimulation index (SI) values for 25% hexyl cinnamic aldehyde (HCA) consistently greater than 3, a predetermined threshold, by all participating laboratories. Within- and between-laboratory reproducibility was shown using HCA and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene, in which EC2.7 values (the estimated concentrations eliciting an SI of 2.7, the threshold for LLNA: BrdU-FCM) fell consistently within the acceptance ranges, 0.025-0.1% and 5-20%, respectively. Predictive capacity was tested using the final protocol version 1.3 for the 18 reference chemicals listed in OECD TG 429, of which results showed 84.6% sensitivity, 100% specificity, and 88.9% accuracy compared with the original LLNA. The data presented are considered to meet the performance criteria for the PS, and its predictive capacity was also sufficiently validated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Suppression of background noise in a transonic wind-tunnel test section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutzenhofer, L. A.; Howard, P. W.

    1975-01-01

    Some exploratory tests were recently performed in the transonic test section of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center 14-in. wind tunnel to suppress the background noise. In these tests, the perforated walls of the test section were covered with fine wire screens. The screens eliminated the edge tones generated by the holes in the perforated walls and significantly reduced the tunnel background noise. The tunnel noise levels were reduced to such a degree by this simple modification at Mach numbers 0.75, 0.9, 1.1, 1.2, and 1.46 that the fluctuating pressure levels of a turbulent boundary layer could be measured on a 5-deg half-angle cone.

  19. Experimental test of a new technique of background suppression in digital mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisogni, M.G.; Bottari, S.; Ciocci, M.A.; Fantacci, M.E.; Maestro, P.; Malakhov, N.; Marrocchesi, P.S. E-mail: marrocchesi@pi.infn.it; Novelli, M.; Quattrocchi, M.; Pilo, F.; Rosso, V.; Turini, N.; Zucca, S

    2002-02-01

    A multiple-exposure technique in digital mammography has been developed to suppress the physical background in the image due to Compton scattering in the body. A pair of X-ray masks, shaped in a projective geometry and positioned upstream and downstream the patient, are coupled mechanically and moved in four steps along a square pattern in order to irradiate the full area in four consecutive short exposures. A proof-of-principle apparatus is under test with a breast phantom and a standard mammographic X-ray unit. Results are reported.

  20. Experimental test of a new technique of background suppression in digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisogni, M.G.; Bottari, S.; Ciocci, M.A.; Fantacci, M.E.; Maestro, P.; Malakhov, N.; Marrocchesi, P.S.; Novelli, M.; Quattrocchi, M.; Pilo, F.; Rosso, V.; Turini, N.; Zucca, S.

    2002-01-01

    A multiple-exposure technique in digital mammography has been developed to suppress the physical background in the image due to Compton scattering in the body. A pair of X-ray masks, shaped in a projective geometry and positioned upstream and downstream the patient, are coupled mechanically and moved in four steps along a square pattern in order to irradiate the full area in four consecutive short exposures. A proof-of-principle apparatus is under test with a breast phantom and a standard mammographic X-ray unit. Results are reported

  1. Effect of immunomodulators and cytostatics in 125I-deoxyuridine and tumor catabolism (a rapid method of antitumour immunomodulators screening)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obernikhin, S.S.; Fuks, B.B.

    1992-01-01

    E1-4 and P-815 murine tumor cells labelled by 125 I-deoxyuridine or 51 Cr were administered in 7-day subcutaneous syngeneic tumors or subcutaneosly. At the same time different groups of mice were treated by immunomodulators and cytostatics. It was shown that cytostatics and immunomodulators significantly delayed catabolism and withdrawing of 125 I-deoxyuridine (that has not been incorporated in DNA) from tumor cells. This delay was correlated with the inhibition of tumor nodes growth rate. It is concluded that influence of cytostatics and immunomodulators on catabolism and withdrawing rate of 125 I-deoxyuridine from tumor cells relates to their cytostatic effect and may be used at the earliest screening step of immunomodulator analysis

  2. Enhancement of fluorescence quenching and exciplex formation in DNA major groove by double incorporation of modified fluorescent deoxyuridines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Makiko; Oguma, Kazuhiro; Saito, Yoshio; Saito, Isao

    2012-06-15

    5-(1-Naphthalenylethynyl)-2'-deoxyuridine ((N)U) and 5-[(4-cyano-1-naphthalenyl)ethynyl]-2'-deoxyuridine ((CN)U) were synthesized and incorporated into oligodeoxynucleotides. Fluorescence emissions of modified duplexes containing double (N)U were efficiently quenched depending upon the sequence pattern of the naphthalenes in DNA major groove, as compared to the duplex possessing single (N)U. When one of the naphthalene moieties has a cyano substituent, the exciplex emission from the chromophores in DNA major groove was observed at longer wavelength. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Suppressing Unwanted Autobiographical Memories Reduces Their Automatic Influences: Evidence From Electrophysiology and an Implicit Autobiographical Memory Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoqing; Bergström, Zara M; Bodenhausen, Galen V; Rosenfeld, J Peter

    2015-07-01

    The present study investigated the extent to which people can suppress unwanted autobiographical memories in a memory-detection context involving a mock crime. Participants encoded sensorimotor-rich memories by enacting a lab-based crime (stealing a ring) and received instructions to suppress memory of the crime in order to evade guilt detection in a brain-wave-based concealed-information test. Aftereffects of suppression on automatic memory processes were measured in an autobiographical Implicit Association Test. Results showed that suppression attenuated brain-wave activity (the P300) associated with crime-relevant memory retrieval, which rendered waveforms from innocent and guilty participants indistinguishable. However, the two groups could nevertheless be discriminated via the late-posterior-negative slow wave, which may reflect the need to monitor response conflict arising between voluntary suppression and automatic recognition processes. Finally, extending recent findings that suppression can impair implicit memory processes, we provide novel evidence that suppression reduces automatic cognitive biases often associated with actual autobiographical memories. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Extended low-dose dexamethasone suppression test for diagnosis of atypical Cushing's syndrome in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, K M; Frank, L A; Morandi, F; Whittemore, J C

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate extension of the low-dose dexamethasone suppression (LDDS) test from 8 h to 12 h to detect possible hypercortisolemia associated with atypical hyperadrenocorticism (AHAC). Twelve client-owned dogs were enrolled in the study: 6 healthy dogs (group 1) and 6 dogs with suspected AHAC (group 2). Baseline EDTA plasma samples were collected for endogenous ACTH determination using an immunoradiometric assay. Serum samples were collected before and at 4, 8, 10, and 12 h post-administration of 0.01 mg/kg dexamethasone IV for cortisol concentration determination via chemiluminescent assay. Mean endogenous ACTH concentration did not differ between groups (group 1: 22.4 pg/mL, group 2: 20.0 pg/mL; P > 0.2). Mean baseline cortisol concentration also did not differ significantly between groups (group 1: 3.03 μg/dL, group 2: 4.95 μg/dL; P > 0.2) nor was there any difference in mean cortisol concentration between the groups at any other time point (P > 0.2). The cortisol concentration from 1 dog in group 2 suppressed to 0.7 μg/dL at 8 h but increased to 1.5 μg/dL at 10 h and 3.7 μg/dL at 12 h post-dexamethasone. Based on results of this study, use of an extended LDDS test could not differentiate between healthy dogs and dogs with AHAC. Diagnosis of AHAC should continue to be based on prior established criteria until new testing has been identified. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Revisiting the Dexamethasone Suppression Test in unipolar major depression: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rihmer Zoltan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Important methodological questions still exist concerning the Dexamethasone Suppression Test (DST, including the possibility of a better way of interpreting it. The aim of the present study was to explore the feasibility of an alternative way of interpreting DST results. Methods A total of 50 patients with major depression aged 41.0 ± 11.4 years old participated in the study. Past and present suicide attempts were recorded. Psychometric assessment included the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS, the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAS, the Newcastle Depression Diagnostic Scale (NDDS, the Diagnostic Melancholia Scale (DMS and the General Assessment of Functioning (GAF scale. The 1 mg DST protocol was used. Analysis methods included the chi square test and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA with Fisher least significant difference (LSD as post hoc tests. Results In all, 34 patients (68% were suppressors, 16 (32% were non-suppressors and 14 patients had cortisol values above 5 μg/dl at baseline. Baseline cortisol level did not influence the classical DST interpretation. A total of 18 patients (36% showed an increase of their cortisol levels after dexamethasone administration and 32 patients (64% showed a decrease. Reducers had less melancholic features, similar levels of depression, better sleep and less suicidal thoughts in comparison to increasers. No relationship of DST to suicidality was found. Discussion The present study explored the pattern of cortisol response to dexamethasone suppression and suggested an alternative way of coding and interpreting the DST on the basis of whether the cortisol levels remain stable or increase vs decrease after the administration of cortisol. The results put forward a complex way of understanding the relationship of the DST results with clinical symptoms.

  6. Systemic 5-Bromo-2-Deoxyuridine Induces Conditioned Flavor Aversion and C-Fos in the Visceral Neuraxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbrough, Adam; Kwon, Bumsup; Eckel, Lisa A.; Houpt, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) is often used in studies of adult neurogenesis and olfactory learning, but it can also have toxic effects on highly proliferative tissue. We found that pairing Kool-Aid flavors with acute systemic injections of BrdU induced strong conditioned flavor aversions. Intermittent injections during Kool-Aid-glucose…

  7. Carborane-linked 2'-deoxyuridine 5'-O-triphosphate as building block for polymerase synthesis of carborane-modified DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balintová, Jana; Simonova, Anna; Białek-Pietras, Magdalena; Olejniczak, Agnieszka; Lesnikowski, Zbigniew J; Hocek, Michal

    2017-11-01

    5-[(p-Carborane-2-yl)ethynyl]-2'-deoxyuridine 5'-O-triphosphate was synthesized and used as a good substrate in enzymatic construction of carborane-modified DNA or oligonucleotides containing up to 21 carborane moieties in primer extension reactions by DNA polymerases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Inter-laboratory validation of the modified murine local lymph node assay based on 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Hajime; Takeyoshi, Masahiro; Sozu, Takashi; Awogi, Takumi; Arima, Kazunori; Idehara, Kenji; Ikarashi, Yoshiaki; Kanazawa, Yukiko; Maki, Eiji; Omori, Takashi; Yuasa, Atsuko; Yoshimura, Isao

    2011-01-01

    The murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) is a well-established alternative to the guinea pig maximization test (GPMT) or Buehler test (BT) for the assessment of the skin sensitizing ability of a drug, cosmetic material, pesticide or industrial chemical. Instead of radioisotope using in this method, Takeyoshi M. et al. (2001) has developed a modified LLNA based on the 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation (LLNA:BrdU-ELISA). The LLNA:BrdU-ELISA is practically identical to the LLNA methodology excluding the use of BrdU, for which a single intraperitoneal injection of BrdU is made on day 4, and colorimetric detection of cell turnover. We conducted the validation study to evaluate the reliability and relevance of LLNA:BrdU-ELISA. The experiment involved 7 laboratories, wherein 10 chemicals were examined under blinded conditions. In this study, 3 chemicals were examined in all laboratories and the remaining 7 were examined in 3 laboratories. The data were expressed as the BrdU incorporation using an ELISA method for each group, and the stimulation index (SI) for each chemical-treated group was determined as the increase in the BrdU incorporation relative to the concurrent vehicle control group. An SI of 2 was set as the cut-off value for exhibiting skin sensitization activity. The results obtained in the experiments conducted for all 10 chemicals were sufficiently consistent with small variations in their SI values. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of LLNA:BrdU-ELISA against those of GPMT/BT were 7/7 (100%), 3/3 (100%), and 10/10 (100%), respectively. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Test and performance of a BGO Compton-suppression shield for GAMMASPHERE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, M.P.; Khoo, T.L.; Ahmad, I.

    1994-01-01

    Bismuth germanate (BGO) compton-suppression shields have been constructed to surround the Ge detectors of the GAMMASPHERE array. A shield consists of six hexagonal tapered BGO elements, each coupled to two 1-inch x 1-inch photomultiplier tubes. In addition, a cylindrical BGO detector is placed behind the Ge detector to intercept the forward scattered gamma rays. One hundred ten such shields are planned for the GAMMASPHERE array. Procedures for measuring the performance of these shields have been developed. Large (70 %) Ge detectors when used with these shields give a peak-to-total ratio of better tan 0.60. To date more than 85 shield have been tested and approved for use in GAMMASPHERE

  10. An Experimental Test of a Biodynamic Method of Weed Suppression: The Biodynamic Seed Peppers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Kenneth Kirchoff

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available An experimental test of a biodynamic agriculture method of weed suppression was carried out in growth chambers to establish the feasibility of the method as a preliminary to field trials. Four generations of Brassica rapa plants were used in a randomized block design. Treated flats received ashed seeds prepared according to biodynamic indications. Seed weight and counts were measured at the end of each generation, and germination of the control and experimental seed was investigated at the end of generation four. The biodynamic seed peppers, created and applied as described here, had no effect on seed production or viability, and did not effectively inhibit reproduction of the targeted species over the course of four consecutive treatments.

  11. Effectiveness of anticancer drugs determined in nude mice inoculated with [125I]5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine-prelabeled human melanoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockshin, A.; Giovanella, B.C.; Vardeman, D.M.; Mendoza, J.T.; Quian, C.; Kozielski, T.; Stehlin, J.S. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Anticancer drugs were tested on NIH-2 nude mice inoculated ip with BRO human melanoma cells, which are rapidly lethal for these hosts. Criteria for drug activity were a) increased host survival and b) an increased rate of radioactivity loss from mice bearing BRO cells prelabeled with [ 125 I]5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine. Diphtheria toxin, which is selectively toxic to human cells compared to mouse cells, prolonged host survival and accelerated 125 I elimination in a dose-dependent manner. Drugs that increased the rate of 125 I loss compared to the rate of untreated mice also prolonged the lives of treated mice. With one exception, drugs that did not accelerate 125 I elimination had little or no effect on the length of survival

  12. Pressure suppression system (PSS) for nuclear ships. Experimental results obtained at the GKSS PSS-test-facillity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aust, E.; Niemann, H.R.; Schwan, H.; Vollbrandt, J.

    1978-01-01

    The PSS-test facility is shortly presented which was designed to show experimentally the operation of the pressure suppression containment for the NCS 80 concept. The results of the experimental LOCA-simulation tests in the PSS-test facility are illustrated by diagrams. The observed phenomena as chugging and pessure oscillations immediately after vent clearing are reported as well as the thermohydraulic loadings of the total system. Finally a short view is given on the future test program

  13. Vestibulo-ocular reflex gain values in the suppression head impulse test of healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey-Martinez, Jorge; Thomas-Arrizabalaga, Izaskun; Espinosa-Sanchez, Juan Manuel; Batuecas-Caletrio, Angel; Trinidad-Ruiz, Gabriel; Matiño-Soler, Eusebi; Perez-Fernandez, Nicolas

    2018-02-15

    To assess whether there are differences in vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) gain for suppression head impulse (SHIMP) and head impulse (HIMP) video head impulse test paradigms, and if so, what are their causes. Prospective multicenter observational double-blind nonrandomized clinical study was performed by collecting 80 healthy subjects from four reference hospitals. SHIMP data was postprocessed to eliminate impulses in which early SHIMP saccades were detected. Differences between HIMP and SHIMP VOR gain values were statistically evaluated. Head impulse maximum velocity, gender, age, direction of impulse, and hospital center were considered as possible influential factors. A small significant statistical difference between HIMP and SHIMP VOR gain values was found on repeated measures analysis of variance (-0.05 ± 0.006, P gain values and did not find influence between gain values differences and maximum head impulse velocity. Both HIMP and SHIMP VOR gain values were significant lower (-0.09, P gain values not adequately explained by known gain modification factors. The persistence of this slight but significant difference indicates that there are more factors causing lower SHIMP VOR gain values. This difference must to be considered in further studies as well as in the clinical SHIMP testing protocols. We hypothesized that VOR phasic response inhibition could be the underlying cause of this difference. IIb. Laryngoscope, 2018. © 2018 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  14. Instructions to suppress semantic memory enhances or has no effect on P300 in a concealed information test (CIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, J Peter; Ward, Anne; Drapekin, Jesse; Labkovsky, Elena; Tullman, Samuel

    2017-03-01

    The present study investigated the extent to which people can suppress semantic memory as indexed with the P300 ERP and the autobiographical implicit association test (aIAT). In EXP 1, participants (22) were run in a counterbalanced repeated measures study in both simply knowledgeable (SK) and knowledgeable with suppression (SP) conditions. A P300-based, concealed information test ("Complex Trial Protocol"; CTP) with a 50/50 Target/Nontarget (T/NT) ratio was given both with and without instructions to suppress semantic memories. The results showed increased P300s to probe name stimuli, reduced (but still high positive) aIAT d-scores, and increased simple reaction times to all stimuli used in ERP tests in the SP condition. EXP 2 was similar, but with SP and SK in two separate groups, and a 20/80 T/NT ratio. Again, ERP and aIAT results failed to show a suppression effect for semantic memory. The behavioral data suggest some task demand effects under suppression instructions, and that EXP 1 was more demanding than EXP 2. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Wwww... - Test Method for Determining Vapor Suppressant Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... premise of this method is to compare laminate samples made with vapor suppressant additive and made... additives. The effectiveness of a specific vapor suppressant and resin mixture is determined by comparing... ±.01g with digital output, such as an RS-232 bi-directional interface 13 for use with automatic data...

  16. [Value of desmopressin stimulation test and high dose dexamethasone suppression testin the etiologic diagnosis of ACTH dependent Cushing's syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Yu, Yerong; Tan, Huiwen; Wang, Chun; Li, Jianwei; An, Zhenmei; Liu, Yuping

    2016-03-22

    To investigate the value of desmopressin (DDAVP) stimulation test and high dose dexamethasone suppression test (HDDST) in establishing the cause of ACTH dependent Cushing's syndrome. The clinical data of patients with ACTH dependent Cushing's syndrome at West China Hospital from January 1, 2010 to September 30, 2015 was analyzed. The sensitivity and specificity of DDAVP stimulation test, HDDST, and the diagnostic accordance rate when the two tests were combined, were evaluated based on the diagnostic gold standard. A total of 85 patients with Cushing's disease and 10 patients with ectopic ACTH syndrome were included. The sensitivity and specificity of DDAVP stimulation test were 87% and 5/5, respectively, whereas those of HDDST were 79% and 8/10, respectively. The standard high dose dexamethasone suppression test showed a higher sensitivity than overnight 8 mg dexamethasone suppression test. When the two tests had consistent results, the diagnostic accordance rate was 100%. DDAVP stimulation test and HDDST are both efficient modalities for the diagnosis of Cushing's Disease and ectopic ACTH syndrome. The accuracy of diagnosis can be further improved by combining the two tests.

  17. Season of birth, clinical manifestations and Dexamethasone Suppression Test in unipolar major depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaprinis George S

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reports in the literature suggest that the season of birth might constitute a risk factor for the development of a major psychiatric disorder, possibly because of the effect environmental factors have during the second trimester of gestation. The aim of the current paper was to study the possible relationship of the season of birth and current clinical symptoms in unipolar major depression. Methods The study sample included 45 DSM-IV major depressive patients and 90 matched controls. The SCAN v. 2.0, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS and Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAS were used to assess symptomatology, and the 1 mg Dexamethasone Suppression Test (DST was used to subcategorize patients. Results Depressed patients as a whole did not show differences in birth season from controls. However, those patients born during the spring manifested higher HDRS while those born during the summer manifested the lowest HAS scores. DST non-suppressors were almost exclusively (90% likely to be born during autumn and winter. No effect from the season of birth was found concerning the current severity of suicidal ideation or attempts. Discussion The current study is the first in this area of research using modern and rigid diagnostic methodology and a biological marker (DST to categorize patients. Its disadvantages are the lack of data concerning DST in controls and a relatively small size of patient sample. The results confirm the effect of seasonality of birth on patients suffering from specific types of depression.

  18. Photon activation therapy with 127I-deoxyuridine: measurement of dose enhancement in cultured mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairchild, R.G.; Laster, B.H.; Commerford, S.L.; Furcinitti, P.S.; Sylvester, B.; Gabel, D.; Popenoe, E.; Foster, S.

    1985-01-01

    A technique for radiation enhancement of conventional photon radiotherapy is outlined which has been called photon activation therapy (PAT) (6). High linear energy transfer (LET) radiations in the form of Auger electron distributions are generated by photons of appropriate energies, through photon activation of stable iodine incorporated as an analog of thymidine (Tyd) in DNA. Of the several halogenated deoxyribonucleosides evaluated, iodinated deoxyuridine (IdUrd) has been chosen as the only Tyd analog providing effective photon activation. This mechanism is combined with radiation sensitization produced by IdUrd to produce an overall radiation enhancement. Calculations show that at 5% replacement (IdUrd for Tyd) therapeutic (TG) will vary from ∼2 (single acute dose) to ∼17 (low dose rates associated with permanent implant brachytherapy). Parameters used in the calculation of TG have been evaluated in cell culture; dose enhancements obtained with x-rays (including photon activation) were found to be significantly higher than values measured with γ-rays (no photon activation). Comparison is made between theoretical and measured values. Because of the evident lack of repair of damage produced by both sensitization and photon activation, significant gains are expected to be realized following protracted irradiations. Exchanges (IdUrd for Tyd) for 105 have been obtained in vivo (murine tumors). The authors believe that the application of PAT would be most advantageous in the treatment of brain tumors (grade IV astrocytomas) with implanted 145 Sm sources

  19. Replication Banding Patterns in Human Chromosomes Detected Using 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine Incorporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshi, Osamu; Ushiki, Tatsuo

    2011-01-01

    A novel technique using the incorporation of 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) into replicating DNA is described for the analysis of replicating banding patterns of human metaphase chromosomes. Human lymphocytes were synchronized with excess thymidine and treated with EdU during the late S phase of the cell cycle. The incorporated EdU was then detected in metaphase chromosomes using Alexa Fluor® 488 azides, through the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction of organic azides with the terminal acetylene group of EdU. Chromosomes with incorporated EdU showed a banding pattern similar to G-banding of normal human chromosomes. Imaging by atomic force microscopy (AFM) in liquid conditions showed that the structure of the chromosomes was well preserved even after EdU treatment. Comparison between fluorescence microscopy and AFM images of the same chromosome 1 indicated the presence of ridges and grooves in the chromatid arm, features that have been previously reported in relation to G-banding. These results suggest an intimate relationship between EdU-induced replication bands and G- or R-bands in human chromosomes. This technique is thus useful for analyzing the structure of chromosomes in relation to their banding patterns following DNA replication in the S phase

  20. BWR Mark I pressure suppression study: characterization of the vertical load function utilizing bench top model tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCauley, E.W.; Lai, W.

    1977-02-01

    A study was conducted to characterize the mechanisms which give rise to observed oscillations in the vertical load function (VLF) of bench top pool dynamics tests. This is part of a continuing investigation at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory of the General Electric Mark I Nuclear Reactor pressure suppression system

  1. Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde: a strange case of 5-ethynyl-2 '-deoxyuridine and 5-ethynyl-2 '- deoxycytidine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ligasová, A.; Liboska, Radek; Friedecký, D.; Mičová, K.; Adam, T.; Oždian, T.; Rosenberg, Ivan; Koberna, K.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 1 (2016), č. článku 150172. ISSN 2046-2441 R&D Projects: GA MZd NV15-31604A Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : cytidine deaminase * dCMP deaminase * 5-ethynyl-2 '-deoxyuridine * 5-ethynyl-2 '-deoxycytidine * DNA replication Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.481, year: 2016 http://rsob.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/6/1/150172

  2. Studies on the T3 suppression test with reference to the thyrodial 123I uptake in Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Takahiko; Kobayashi, Isao; Yamaguchi, Yoshiyuki; Iwashita, Akira; Inukai, Toshihiko; Ohshima, Kihachi; Shimomura, Yohnosuke; Kobayashi, Setsuo

    1990-01-01

    Eighty-three patients with Graves' disease had been treated with methylmercaptoimidazole (MMI). They were prescribed a maintenance dose of antithyroid drug (MMI, 5 mg/day) at the time of a T 3 suppression test. The 3-hour and 24-hour thyroidal 123 I uptake after T 3 administration (75 μg/day, 2 weeks) were measured (post T 3 uptake). In 38 patients whose post T 3 uptake was below 35% in post T 3 24-hour uptake, treatment was stopped. The T 3 suppression test was then repeated 1 and 3 months later. During a one-year follow up, 26 remained well, while 12 relapsed within 6 to 12 months. We have observed a good correlation between 3-hour uptake and 24-hour uptake of 123 I after T 3 administration (r=0.847, p 3 suppression, most patients with MMI withdrawal produced a marked overshoot of post T 3 3-hour and 24-hour uptake at one month. Retrospective analysis indicated that there was no significant difference in circulating thyroid hormone levels between remission and relapse groups. The present study provides evidence that 3-hour uptake values are able to be substituted for 24-hour uptake values during a T 3 suppression test. In addition, overshoot of thyroidal uptake after antithyroid drug withdrawal was observed in 3-hour values, similar to 24-hour values. (author)

  3. Cortisol responses on the dexamethasone suppression test among women with Bulimia-spectrum eating disorders: associations with clinical symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Kenneth R; Steiger, Howard; Israël, Mimi; Groleau, Patricia; Ng Ying Kin, N M K; Ouellette, Anne-Sophie; Sycz, Lindsay; Badawi, Ghislaine

    2012-08-07

    Evidence associates Bulimia Nervosa (BN) with altered functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, but the clinical implications of such alterations need to be better understood. We contrasted cortisol responses to the dexamethasone suppression test (DST) in bulimic and non-eating disordered women and examined relationships among DST cortisol responses, eating symptoms and co-morbid disturbances. Sixty women with Bulimia Spectrum (BS) Disorders (either BN or normal weight Eating Disorder NOS with regular binge eating or purging) and 54 non-eating disordered women of similar age and body mass index participated in a 0.5 mg DST, and completed interviews and questionnaires assessing eating symptoms and co-morbid psychopathology. Compared with the normal-eater group, the BS women demonstrated significantly less DST suppression. Among BS women, DST non-suppression was associated with more severe depression, anxiety and eating preoccupations. Our findings show BS women to show less DST suppression compared to normal eater women, and results link extent of non-suppression, in BS individuals, to severity of depression, anxiety and eating preoccupations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Compton suppression tests on Ge and BGO prototype detectors for GAMMASPHERE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, A M [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia); Khoo, T L; Bleich, M E; Carpenter, M P; Ahmad, I; Janssens, R V.F.; Moore, E F [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Bearden, I G [Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States); Beene, J R; Lee, I Y [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1992-08-01

    In this paper, we report on measurements of the Compton suppression and overall P/T ratio of two Ge detectors in a BGO shield of the honeycomb pattern. These were the first prototype CSG detector assemblies for GAMMASPHERE. A more detailed description of these results will be published later. (author). 4 refs., 3 figs.

  5. The Design, Construction and Test of stray light suppression baffles for the CHAMP satellite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif

    1997-01-01

    The Advanced Stellar Compass, to be delivered from IAU to the CHAMP project, requires some kind of stray-light suppressing shade to be mounted in front of the lens, in order to minimize the thermal impact and to maximize the performance envelope when subjected to non-stellar external light sources...

  6. Impact of maternal melatonin suppression on forced swim and tail suspension behavioral despair tests in adult offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voiculescu, S E; Rosca, A E; Zeca, V; Zagrean, L; Zagrean, A M

    2015-01-01

    Melatonin is an essential hormone, which regulates circadian rhythms and has antioxidative and anticarcinogenic effects. As melatonin secretion is suppressed by light, this effect was examined on the offspring of the Wistar rat females exposed to continuous light (500 lux) during the second half of the pregnancy (day 12 to 21). Control rats were kept under a 12:12 light-dark cycle. The resulted male offspring have been behaviorally assessed for depression after postnatal day 60 by using Forced Swim Test (FST) and Tail Suspension Test (TST). Animals resulted from the melatonin deprived pregnancies have developed an abnormal response in the TST, but a normal FST behavior. Also, TST active movement was different in the melatonin suppression group compared to the control group. These findings suggest that intrauterine melatonin deprivation might be linked to the depressive like behavior in adult male offspring.

  7. Synthesis and Cellular Uptake of Radioiodine labeled 2{sup '}-deoxyuridine derivatives with HSV1-TK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Ah; Lee, Kyo Chul; Hong, Su Hee; Kim, Eun Jung; Lee, Jong Chan; An, Gwang Il; Choi, Tae Hyun; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Chun, Kwon Soo [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    Several different radiolabeled probes have been developed to image Herpes Simplex Virus Type-1 thyrimidine kinase gene (HSV1-TK) expression. The nucleoside prodrugs under investigation for HSV1-TK imaging generally fall into two main chemical and radioisotope categories: the pyrimidine nucleosides, primarily radioiodinated, and the purin nucleosides, primarily radiofluorinated, and their respective analogues. In non-invasive imaging of the HSV1-TK system, many nucleoside derivatives have been recommended as HSV1-TK substrates. Most of these nucleoside derivatives have been developed as prodrugs for tumor proliferation imaging or as anti-viral drugs. For example, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and IUdR have been used as tumor agents and acyclovir (ACV), ganciclovir (GCV) and (E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2{sup '}- deoxyuridine (BVDU) as an anti-viral agents for virus infection several 5-substituted uracil nucleoside derivatives have been identified to have high sensitivity and selective accumulation in HSV1-TK expressing cells. Of those, IVDU was shown to be rapidly accumulated in HSV1- TK expressing cells in vitro. Imaging of the HSV1-TK reporter gene along with various reporter probes is of current interest. In contrast to the mammalian kinase, which phosphorylates thymidine preferentially, HSV1-TK is less discriminative and phosphorylates a wide range of nucleoside analogues such as acycloguanosines and 2{sup '}-fluoro-2{sup '}-deoxyuridine derivatives that are not phosphorylated efficiently by the native enzyme. More specifically, 5-substituted 2{sup '}-fluoro-2{sup '}-deoxyarabinofuranosyluracil nucleosides are efficiently phosphorylated by HSV- TK. This property, together with the presence of fluorine in the 2{sup '}-arabino-position, endows the 2{sup '}-fluoro-2{sup '}-deoxyuridines with antiviral activity against HSV.

  8. Atomic Scissors: A New Method of Tracking the 5-Bromo-2′-Deoxyuridine-Labeled DNA In Situ

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ligasová, Anna; Strunin, Dmytro; Liboska, Radek; Rosenberg, Ivan; Koberna, Karel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 12 (2012), e52584/1-e52584/11 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200520801 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA204/09/0973 Program:GA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50520514; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : DNA replication * light microscopy detection * 5-bromo-2´-deoxyuridine * copper ions * oxidative DNA cleavage Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.730, year: 2012

  9. Assay for inhibitors of nucleoside transport based upon the use of 5-125I]Iodo-2-deoxyuridine as permeant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahony, W.B.; Zimmerman, T.P.

    1986-01-01

    5[ 125 I]Iodo-2-deoxyuridine (IdUrd) has been shown to serve as a permeant for the nucleoside transport system of human erythrocytes and to be metabolically inert in these cells. Linear initial velocities were obtained at 20 0 C for 125 IdUrd transport, yielding a K/sub m/ of 73 +/- 18 μM (n = 6). Low-affinity inhibitors of 125 IdUrd transport, such as adenosine (K/sub i/ = 32 +/- 2 μM, n = 2), could be characterized by Michaelis-Menten kinetics. However, high-affinity inhibitors, such as 6-[4-nitrobenzyl)thio]9-β-D-ribofuranosylpurine, caused nonlinear initial velocities when added to the cells simultaneously with 125 IdUrd. Conditions were defined (viz., 20-min pretreatment of cells with test compound followed by 5.0-min incubation with 1.0 μM 125 IdUrd, all at 20 0 C) whereby high-affinity inhibitors of IdUrd transport can be identified and evaluated according to their 50% inhibitory concentrations. The use of 125 IdUrd as permeant greatly expedites the testing of compounds as inhibitors of nucleoside transport by allowing the cell pellets generated in these assays to be monitored directly in a gamma spectrometer, thereby circumventing the solubilization and decolorization of cell pellets required by assays that use 3 H- or 14 C-labeled nucleoside permeants

  10. Detecting DNA synthesis of neointimal formation after catheter balloon injury in GK and in Wistar rats: using 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Jingsheng

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neointimal formation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of coronary restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI, especially in patients with diabetes mellitus. Recently, some studies have shown that 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU incorporation can serve as a novel alternative to the 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU antibody detection method for detection of DNA synthesis in regenerating avian cochlea, chick embryo and the adult nervous system. However, few studies have been performed to assess the suitability of EdU for detecting DNA synthesis in vascular neointima. Methods The carotid artery balloon injury model was established in Goto-Kakizaki (GK and Wistar rats. A Cell-LightTM EdU Kit was used to detect EdU-labeled cell nuclei of common carotid arteries at day 7 after catheter balloon injury. Different methods of injecting EdU were tested. The protein levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA and p-Akt (Ser473, as well as the mRNA levels of PCNA were evaluated by Western blotting and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR, respectively. Immunohistochemical staining was also employed to visualize PCNA-positive cells. Results At day 7 after catheter balloon injury, far more EdU-positive and PCNA-positive cells were observed in GK rats. When comparing groups that received different EdU doses, it was found that the percentage of EdU-positive cells at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight was than at doses of 25 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg. The number of positive cells was significantly higher in the repeated injection group compared to the single injection group. Further, after balloon injury DNA synthesis in GK rats was more notable than in Wistar rats. Neointimal formation in GK rats was more obvious than in Wistar rats. The protein levels of PCNA and p-Akt (Ser473 and the mRNA levels of PCNA were increased in injured rats as compared to uninjured rats, and were significantly higher in GK rats than in Wistar rats

  11. Structural test and analysis of a model of a BWR suppression chamber support in the plastic regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumer, U.R.; Klaeui, E.; Bosshard, E.P.

    1991-01-01

    A BWR Mark I suppression pool support has been analysed and tested in the laboratory. The aim was the demonstration of the acceptability of hypothetical dynamic loadings resulting from simultaneous steam blowdown through all safety relief valves. The analysis has shown that plastic deformation will locally occur, which is difficult to assess purely theoretical. Therefore tests in reduced scale were performed that show the amount and distribution of plastic flow in the supports. The paper describes the elastic analysis, the theory of the scaling laws for the reduced scale test, the test and its results. It also shows the thermographical method that has been used to determine the plastic material flow in the support structure. (author)

  12. Quantitative uptake studies of 131I-labeled (E)-5-(2-iodovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine in herpes simplex virus-infected cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, M.J.; Samuel, J.; Wiebe, L.I.; Knaus, E.E.; Tyrrell, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    We have synthesized a 131 I-radiolabeled antiviral compound (E)-5-(2-iodovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (IVdU) and shown that this agent was selectively trapped within rabbit kidney cells, infected in vitro by thymidine kinase-positive (TK+) herpes simplex virus (HSV). The uptake of 131 I-labeled IVdU was specific, as it was not concentrated within either HSV (TK-) or mock-infected cells. In certain conditions, over 40% of the radiolabel was selectively trapped within HSV (TK+)-infected cells. This was a 20- to 30-fold increase over the uptake of 131 I-labeled IVdU by HSV (TK-) or mock-infected cells. The uptake of 131 I-labeled IVdU varied directly with (i) the dose of the virus used to infect the rabbit kidney cells; (ii) the concentration of radiolabeled IVdU added to the system; and (iii) the time of exposure of IVdU to infected cells. The ability of this agent to be trapped within HSV (TK+)-infected cells merits further evaluation in animal models as it has potential as a noninvasive, herpes-specific diagnostic test, in particular for HSV encephalitis

  13. Atomic scissors: a new method of tracking the 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine-labeled DNA in situ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ligasová

    Full Text Available A new method of the light microscopy detection of BrdU-labeled DNA in situ is described. It is based on the oxidative attack at the deoxyribose moiety by copper(I in the presence of oxygen, which leads to the abstraction of hydrogen atom from deoxyribose culminating in the elimination of the nucleobase, scission of the nucleic-acid strand and formation of frequent gaps. The gaps allow the reaction of the antibodies with the commonly used markers of replication (e.g. 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine, which are otherwise masked. The method developed makes it possible to detect nuclear and mitochondrial DNA replication efficiently. In most cases, it does not inhibit effective protein detections and in addition enables simultaneous localization of newly-synthesized RNA. The alternative presently-used methods result in protein denaturation and/or extensive DNA cleavage followed by the DNA-bound proteins peeling off.

  14. Effect of 5-bromouracil and 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine in combination with 8-azaadenine on UV sensitivity of bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, H.E. (Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Jena. Zentralinstitut fuer Mikrobiologie und Experimentelle Therapie); Golovinsky, E. (Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia)

    1983-01-01

    The presence of 5-bromouracil (BU) as well as 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BUdR) in the cultivation media of bacteria results in the distinct increase of UV sensitivity. With the nucleic acid base analogue 8-azaadenine (8-AA) a similar effect was confirmed, however, not so pronounced. The combined action of BU or BUdR and 8-AA on Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus was investigated. The sensitization effect of BUdR does not increase if 8-AA is present additionally during cultivation. On the contrary, a decrease of sensibilization occurs. This may be caused by the protective effect of the adenine derivative against UV irradiation, if it is present in the cell, but not incorporated into the DNA.

  15. Effect of 5-bromouracil and 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine in combination with 8-azaadenine on UV sensitivity of bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, H.E.; Golovinsky, E.

    1983-01-01

    The presence of 5-bromouracil (BU) as well as 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BUdR) in the cultivation media of bacteria results in the distinct increase of UV sensitivity. With the nucleic acid base analogue 8-azaadenine (8-AA) a similar effect was confirmed, however, not so pronounced. The combined action of BU or BUdR and 8-AA on Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus was investigated. The sensitization effect of BUdR does not increase if 8-AA is present additionally during cultivation. On the contrary, a decrease of sensibilization occurs. This may be caused by the protective effect of the adenine derivative against UV irradiation, if it is present in the cell, but not incorporated into the DNA. (author)

  16. Development and characteristics of a subline of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells persistently resistant to 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastreboff, M M; Zielińska, Z M

    1983-01-01

    A subline of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells resistant to 5-fluoro-2'-deoxy-uridine (FdUrd) was developed by continuous exposure to progressively increasing concentrations of the drug (35-75 mg/kg per day) during 15 passages through mice. Since then, the EAC cells have been retransplanted more than 80 times through drug-untreated mice and continue to be resistant. After adaptation to growth in suspension culture the drug-adapted cells were 1000 times more resistant to FdUrd in comparison with parental ones, and remained near-tetraploid with doubling time longer than in parental line. The activity of thymidine kinase was deeply depressed (100-fold) whereas that of thymidylate synthetase several-fold increased in the resistant EAC cells, both grown in vivo and in vitro.

  17. Simple detection of hepatitis C virus using {sup 125}I-2'-deoxyuridine triphosphate and gamma counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Soo Jin; Ahn, S. H.; Chung, W. S.; Woo, K. S.; Lim, S. J.; Choi, C. W.; Lim, S. M. [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-07-01

    Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) is the major cause of post transfusion and sporadic non A, non B hepatitis. Current infection of HCV can be detected by PCR method. Using PCR, it has been possible to detect HCV viremia prior to immunological sero-conversion and to detect fluctuation of viremia in antibody-positive chronic HCV patients undergoing therapy with interferon. In this study, we established the simple method to detect HCV DNA by incorporation of {sup 125}I-deoxyuridine triphosphate(dUTP) into DNA during the PCR, and counted the radioactivity of PCR product by gamma counter. {sup 125}I-2'-deoxyuridine 5'-triphosphate was prepared, and incorporated into DNA during PCR. dUTP was radiolabeled by the iododemercuration of 5-mercuri intermediate. Iododemercuration labeling was completed with 98% yield and the obtained product was incorporated into DNA without further purification. After incorporation, covalently bonded radioiodine substituent was remained stable during PCR procedure HCV positive standard and positive patient sera in immunological assay were centrifuged. HCV RNA is isolated from by GTC(Guanidine Thiocyanate) and phenol/chloroform extraction method and synthesized complementary DNA by using reverse transcriptase. The '1{sup 25}I-dUTP was incorporated into HCV C DNA during PCR. PCR product purified by fiber matrix column and counted by gamma counter. PCR products were electrophoresized, and autoradiography image obtained. Amplified HCV DNA by {sup 125}I-dUTP PCR obtained the band on the gel by electrophoresis and autoradiography at the same position. In patient sera, radioactivity of HCV positive sample was 8 times higher than HCV negative viremia sample. We established HCV detection method using {sup 125}I-dUTP. {sup 125}I-dUTP PCR detection of HCV is convenient and reporducible.

  18. Pilot testing and protocol development of giant applesnail suppression at Mandalay National Wildlife Refuge, Louisiana—July–October 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jacoby; Merino, Sergio

    2018-03-19

    This report provides an overview of the pilot study and description of the techniques developed for a future mitigation study of Pomacea maculata (giant applesnail) at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Mandalay National Wildlife Refuge, Louisiana (MNWR). Egg mass suppression is a potential strategy for the mitigation of the invasive giant applesnail. In previous studies at Langan Municipal Park in Mobile, Alabama (LMP), and National Park Service Jean Lafitte National Park-Barataria Unit, Louisiana (JLNP), we determined that spraying food-grade oil (coconut oil or Pam™ spray) on egg masses significantly reduced egg hatching. At JLNP we also developed methods to estimate snail population size. The purpose of this pilot study was to adapt techniques developed for previous studies to the circumstances of MNWR in preparation for a larger experiment whereby we will test the effectiveness of egg mass suppression as an applesnail mitigation tool. We selected four canals that will be used as treatment and control sites for the experiment (two each). We established that an efficient way to destroy egg masses is to knock them down with a high-velocity stream of water pumped directly from the canal. The traps used at JLNP had to be modified to accommodate the greater range of water-level fluctuation at MNWR. One of the three marking methods used at JLNP was selected for use at MNWR.

  19. Development of a testing system for the documentation and evaluation of the weed-suppressing ability of blue lupins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Böhm, Herwart

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of a joint research project for breeding advancement of blue and yellow lupins, which is being conducted in cooperation with the Julius Kühn-Institute, Institute for Breeding Research on Agricultural Crops (coordinator, Saatzucht Steinach and the IPK Gatersleben, in a sub-project at the Thünen-Institute of Organic Farming 1. a test system for detection and assessment of weed-suppressing effect of blue lupins will be developed, and 2. this test system will be tested to pre-breeding lines of blue lupin. In the first year of the project, plot trials were conducted in 3-fold field repetition with two phenological widely differing varieties (cv. Boruta [terminated type], cv. Boregine [branched type] in combination with selected partners with four different seed rates. As partners, monocotyledonous species (e.g., cereals and dicotyledonous species (false flax or resp., a mixture of oil seed rape, phacelia and buckwheat, are used. Twice during the growing season and at harvest, the aboveground biomass, separated by lupin, partners and weeds, were recorded. The results of the first project year show that all the partner plants which should serve as artificial weeds were successfully established. False flax leads to the strongest effect on the development of lupins, which showed the lowest biomass production in these variants. In comparison to the sown partners, the false flax variants also showed the highest biomass production, while the lowest biomass production was recorded for the natural weeds occurring at the site. The species mixture of oil seed rape, phacelia and buckwheat, however, led to the lowest biomass production; contemporaneously the biomass production of lupins in these variants was only affected slightly. Comparing the two cultivated lupin varieties, Boruta showed a better weed suppressive effect.

  20. Development and applications of Bacillus subtilis test systems for mutagens, involving DNA-repair deficiency and suppressible auxotrophic mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanooka, H.

    1977-01-01

    A mutagen-tester of Bacillus subtilis was constructed and tested with known carcinogens. The parental strain HA101 of Okubo and Yanagida carrying suppressible nonsense mutations in his and met genes was transformed to carry an excision-repair deficiency mutation. The constructed strain TKJ5211 showed a 20-30-fold higher sensitivity for His + reversion than the parental strain when treated with UV and UV-mimetic chemicals but unchanged mutation frequency with X-rays and methyl methanesulfonate. The tester strain was used in a spot test of 30 selected chemicals and also for testing with liver homogenate activation. The results showed an almost equivalent but somewhat broader detection spectrum than the Salmonella typhimurium TA100 system. Another test method used a pair of B. subtilis strains differing in their DNA-repair capacity, i.e. the most UV-sensitive mutant HJ-15 and a wild-type strain, to detect repair-dependent DNA damage produced by chemicals. Spores could be used in either test

  1. Experimental determination of the drywell volume: 1/5 scale pressure suppression test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitts, J.H.

    1977-01-01

    The BWR Mk 1 1/5 scale drywell volume, including space in all ports up to the first flange, was experimentally determined to be 10.01 m 3 with an uncertainty of +- 0.03 m 3 . The method of measurement used a 0.040879 m 3 calibrated volume that was initially filled with helium to 36.5 MPa. The calibrated volume was then connected to the drywell and the pressures equalized. The volumes of the vent pipes, instrumentation ports, and either the steam inlet or nitrogen inlet were subtracted from the measured drywell volume to obtain the net active drywell volume. The net active drywell volume is 9.87 m 3 for air tests and 9.85 m 3 for steam tests

  2. Testing tic suppression: comparing the effects of dexmethylphenidate to no medication in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and Tourette's disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Gholson J; Samar, Stephanie M; Conelea, Christine; Trujillo, Marcel R; Lipinski, Christina M; Bauer, Christopher C; Brandt, Bryan C; Kemp, Joshua J; Lawrence, Zoe E; Howard, Jonathan; Castellanos, F Xavier; Woods, Douglas; Coffey, Barbara J

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a pilot study testing whether single-dose, immediate-release dexmethylphenidate (dMPH) can facilitate tic suppression in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and Tourette's disorder (TD) or chronic tic disorders. The primary hypothesis is that dMPH will improve behaviorally reinforced tic suppression in a standard tic suppression paradigm (TSP). Ten children with ADHD and TD were given dMPH on one visit and no medication on another, using a random crossover design. On both days, following a baseline period, subjects were reinforced for suppressing tics using a standard TSP. Thirteen subjects were enrolled; 10 subjects (mean age 12.7 +/- 2.6; 90% male) completed all study procedures. Relative to the no-medication condition, tics were reduced when children were given a single dose of dMPH. Behavioral reinforcement of tic suppression resulted in lower rates of tics compared to baseline, but dMPH did not enhance this suppression. Preliminary results indicate replication of prior studies of behavioral tic suppression in youths with TD and without ADHD. In addition, our findings indicate tic reduction (and not tic exacerbation) with acute dMPH challenge in children and adolescents with ADHD and TD.

  3. Determination of the source of androgen excess in functionally atypical polycystic ovary syndrome by a short dexamethasone androgen-suppression test and a low-dose ACTH test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, Robert L; Mortensen, Monica; Wroblewski, Kristen; Littlejohn, Elizabeth; Ehrmann, David A

    2011-11-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients typically have 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP) hyperresponsiveness to GnRH agonist (GnRHa) (PCOS-T). The objective of this study was to determine the source of androgen excess in the one-third of PCOS patients who atypically lack this type of ovarian dysfunction (PCOS-A). Aged-matched PCOS-T (n= 40), PCOS-A (n= 20) and controls (n= 39) were studied prospectively in a General Clinical Research Center. Short (4 h) and long (4-7 day) dexamethasone androgen-suppression tests (SDAST and LDAST, respectively) were compared in subsets of subjects. Responses to SDAST and low-dose adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) were then evaluated in all. Testosterone post-SDAST correlated significantly with testosterone post-LDAST and 17OHP post-GnRHa (r = 0.671-0.672), indicating that all detect related aspects of ovarian dysfunction. An elevated dehydroepiandrosterone peak in response to ACTH, which defined functional adrenal hyperandrogenism, was similarly prevalent in PCOS-T (27.5%) and PCOS-A (30%) and correlated significantly with baseline dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) (r = 0.708). Functional ovarian hyperandrogenism was detected by subnormal testosterone suppression by SDAST in most (92.5%) PCOS-T, but significantly fewer PCOS-A (60%, PPCOS-A, but present in 30% of PCOS-T (P PCOS-A cases with normal testosterone suppression in response to SDAST (5/8) lacked evidence of adrenal hyperandrogenism and were obese. Functional ovarian hyperandrogenism was not demonstrable by SDAST in 40% of PCOS-A. Most of these cases had no evidence of adrenal hyperandrogenism. Obesity may account for most hyperandrogenemic anovulation that lacks a glandular source of excess androgen, and the SDAST seems useful in making this distinction.

  4. The predictive value of an acute octreotide suppression test in patients with acromegaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Strinović

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Acromegaly is a rare chronic disorder that is in 95% of cases caused by growth hormone (GH secreting pituitary tumors. Endonasal transphenoidal surgery is usually considered the first line of treatment, followed by medical therapy for residual disease. The long-acting somatostatin (SA analogues have an important role in the medical treatment of these patients. SA exert their biological effects by activating somatostatin receptors (SSTR. The predominant types of SSTR receptors in GH-secreting pituitary tumors are subtypes 2 (SSTR2 and 5 (SSTR5. The efficacy of somatostatin analog therapy (SAT is determined by its effect on tumor shrinkage which is reported to be between 20 and 50%. Approximately 10-30% of GH-secreting pituitary tumors are resistant to SA because of variable or reduced tumoral expression of SSTR2 or SSTR5. In many centres a test dose (TD of octreotide is administered before commencing SAT in order to predict the long term response to treatment. There has been a great interest in identifying factors that predict a good response to SAT. To date, several studies that have examined the relationship between the TD of octreotide and SAT. It is crucial how we define response during the OST. Nadir of GH to 5mU/l or less during the OST has an excelent predictive value for evaluation of long-term response to SAT. On the other hand, if we define response as percentage of change of GH from it’s baseline values, then the OST is not usefull diagnostic test.

  5. Lorentz-Symmetry Test at Planck-Scale Suppression With a Spin-Polarized 133Cs Cold Atom Clock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihan-Le Bars, H; Guerlin, C; Lasseri, R-D; Ebran, J-P; Bailey, Q G; Bize, S; Khan, E; Wolf, P

    2018-06-01

    We present the results of a local Lorentz invariance (LLI) test performed with the 133 Cs cold atom clock FO2, hosted at SYRTE. Such a test, relating the frequency shift between 133 Cs hyperfine Zeeman substates with the Lorentz violating coefficients of the standard model extension (SME), has already been realized by Wolf et al. and led to state-of-the-art constraints on several SME proton coefficients. In this second analysis, we used an improved model, based on a second-order Lorentz transformation and a self-consistent relativistic mean field nuclear model, which enables us to extend the scope of the analysis from purely proton to both proton and neutron coefficients. We have also become sensitive to the isotropic coefficient , another SME coefficient that was not constrained by Wolf et al. The resulting limits on SME coefficients improve by up to 13 orders of magnitude the present maximal sensitivities for laboratory tests and reach the generally expected suppression scales at which signatures of Lorentz violation could appear.

  6. Optimal Control Allocation with Load Sensor Feedback for Active Load Suppression, Flight-Test Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Christopher J.; Goodrick, Dan

    2017-01-01

    The problem of control command and maneuver induced structural loads is an important aspect of any control system design. The aircraft structure and the control architecture must be designed to achieve desired piloted control responses while limiting the imparted structural loads. The classical approach is to utilize high structural margins, restrict control surface commands to a limited set of analyzed combinations, and train pilots to follow procedural maneuvering limitations. With recent advances in structural sensing and the continued desire to improve safety and vehicle fuel efficiency, it is both possible and desirable to develop control architectures that enable lighter vehicle weights while maintaining and improving protection against structural damage. An optimal control technique has been explored and shown to achieve desirable vehicle control performance while limiting sensed structural loads to specified values. This technique has been implemented and flown on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Full-scale Advanced Systems Testbed aircraft. The flight tests illustrate that the approach achieves the desired performance and show promising potential benefits. The flights also uncovered some important issues that will need to be addressed for production application.

  7. Final air test results for the 1/5-scale Mark I boiling water reactor pressure suppression experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, E.K.; Lai, W.

    1977-01-01

    A loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) in a boiling-water reactor (BWR) power plant has never occurred. However, because this type of accident is particularly severe, it is used as a principal basis for design. During a hypothetical LOCA in a Mark I BWR, air followed by steam is injected from a drywell into a toroidal wetwell about half-filled with water. A series of consistent, versatile, and accurate air-water tests simulating LOCA conditions was completed in the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory 1/5-Scale Mark I BWR Pressure Suppression Experimental Facility. Results from this test series were used to quantify the vertical loading function and to study the associated fluid dynamic phenomena. Detailed histories of vertical loads on the wetwell are shown. In particular, variations of hydrodynamic-generated vertical loads with changes in drywell pressurization rate, downcomer submergence, and the vent-line loss coefficient are established. Initial drywell overpressure, which partially preclears the downcomers of water, substantially reduces the peak vertical loads. Scaling relationships, developed from dimensional analysis and verified by bench-top experiments, allow the 1/5-scale results to be applied to a full-scale BWR power plant. This analysis leads to dimensionless groupings which are invariant. These groupongs show that if water is used as the working fluid, the magnitude of the forces in a scaled facility is reduced by the cube of the scale factor; the time when these forces occur is reduced by the square root of the scale factor

  8. Experimental and computational study on molecular structure and vibrational analysis of a modified biomolecule: 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çırak, Çağrı; Sert, Yusuf; Ucun, Fatih

    In the present study, the experimental and theoretical vibrational spectra of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine were investigated. The experimental FT-IR (400-4000 cm-1) and μ-Raman spectra (100-4000 cm-1) of the molecule in the solid phase were recorded. Theoretical vibrational frequencies and geometric parameters (bond lengths and bond angles) were calculated using ab initio Hartree Fock (HF) and density functional B3LYP method with 6-31G(d), 6-31G(d,p), 6-311++G(d) and 6-311++G(d,p) basis sets by Gaussian program, for the first time. The assignments of vibrational frequencies were performed by potential energy distribution by using VEDA 4 program. The optimized geometric parameters and theoretical vibrational frequencies are compared with the corresponding experimental data and they were seen to be in a good agreement with the each other. Also, the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energies were found.

  9. MicroRNA-351 Regulates Two-Types of Cell Death, Necrosis and Apoptosis, Induced by 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Sato

    Full Text Available Cell-death can be necrosis and apoptosis. We are investigating the mechanisms regulating the cell death that occurs on treatment of mouse cancer cell-line FM3A with antitumor 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine (FUdR: necrosis occurs for the original clone F28-7, and apoptosis for its variant F28-7-A. Here we report that a microRNA (miR-351 regulates the cell death pattern. The miR-351 is expressed strongly in F28-7-A but only weakly in F28-7. Induction of a higher expression of miR-351 in F28-7 by transfecting an miRNA mimic into F28-7 resulted in a change of the death mode; necrosis to apoptosis. Furthermore, transfection of an miR-351 inhibitor into F28-7-A resulted in the morphology change, apoptosis to necrosis, in this death-by-FUdR. Possible mechanism involving lamin B1 in this miR-351's regulatory action is discussed.

  10. Modifying effect of 5-fluoro-2-deoxyuridine and thymidine at G1 phase on radiation and chemically induced chromosome rearrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azatyan, R.A.; Voskanyan, A.Z.; Avakyan, V.A.; Akif'ev, A.P.

    1978-01-01

    The yield of structural chromosome mutations induced in Crepis capillaris seeds by X-rays and nitrogen mustard was studied as a function of treatment (at G 1 phase) with an inhibitor of unscheduled DNA synthesis, 5-fluoro-2-deoxyuridine (FdU), and its antagonist, thymidine. Air-dry seeds were irradiated at 10 krad and immediately placed in aqueous solutions of FdU, thymidine, or FdU + thymidine. Ionizing radiation induced only chromosome exchanges in the seeds. When EdU was used, the number of chromosome exchanges was the same although the fraction of simple and isolocus deletions was significantly greater than additive. The effect of FdU was manifested only after 10-hour incubation of the cells. Thymidine alone did not appreciably alter the frequency of radiation-induced aberrations. At the same time, the FdU + thymidine combination decreased the mutation yield i.e. was protective. Frequencies of the chromosome aberration in this experiment were the same as in the control

  11. [In vitro study on intrathecal application of 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine (FdUrd) for meningeal dissemination of malignant tumor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, H; Yamada, M; Fukushima, M; Shimizu, K; Ikenaka, K

    1998-09-01

    To evaluate the possible clinical intrathecal use of 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine (FdUrd) for malignant brain tumors, its anti-tumor activity and neurotoxicity were compared with that of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and 5-fluorouridine (FUrd) in vitro. FdUrd showed good tumoricidal activity against cultured mouse 203 glioma cells and rat Walker 256 carcinoma cells as well as A172 human glioblastoma cells. Daoy human medulloblastoma cells and CADO-LC4 human lung cancer cells. It also showed less toxicity for primary cultures of neurons from C57/BL6 mouse and human embryo compared to 5-FU and FUrd. Thymidine phosphorylase (TPase) and thymidine kinase (TK), key enzymes for metabolism of 5-FU derivatives, were measured in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). TPase or TK activity was detected in the CSF of hardly any patients with malignant brain tumors including meningeal carcinomatosis. These data indicated that the CSF is a favorable site for FdUrd chemotherapy, because the rate of conversion of FdUrd injected to 5-FU would be minimal. In conclusion, FdUrd may be potentially useful for intrathecal treatment of meningeal carcinomatosis.

  12. Performance of the 4-mg intravenous dexamethasone suppression test in differentiating Cushing disease from pseudo-Cushing syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouvel, Migueline; Rabilloud, Muriel; Raverot, Véronique; Subtil, Fabien; Vouillarmet, Julien; Thivolet, Charles; Jouanneau, Emmanuel; Borson-Chazot, Françoise; Pugeat, Michel; Raverot, Gérald

    2016-02-01

    Discriminating Cushing disease (CD) from pseudo-Cushing syndrome (PCS) is a challenging task that may be overcome with the 4-mg intravenous (IV) dexamethasone suppression test (DST). Assess the performance of the 4-mg IV DST in the differential diagnosis between CD and PCS in well-characterized patients. Retrospective comparative study of subjects seen in a tertiary care unit (November 2008 to July 2011). Thirty-six patients with PCS and 32 patients with CD underwent 4-mg IV dexamethasone infusions from 11 am to 3 pm. Areas Under ROC Curves (AUCs) were estimated and compared for ACTH and cortisol measured at 4 pm the same day (day 1) and 8 am the next day (day 2). The ROC curve of the marker with the highest AUC was used to determine the threshold with the highest specificity for 100% sensitivity. The AUC of ACTH at 8 am on day 2 was estimated at 98.4% (95% CI: [92.1-100]), which is significantly greater than that of ACTH at 4 pm on day 1 (P=0.04) and that of cortisol at 8 am on day 2 (P=0.05). For ACTH at 8 am on day 2, the threshold with the highest specificity for 100% sensitivity was estimated at 14.8 ng/L. At this threshold, the sensitivity was estimated at 100% [89-100] and the specificity at 83.3% [67-94]. The 4-mg IV DST is an easy and accurate tool in distinguishing CD from PCS. It deserves thus a better place in establishing the diagnosis of CD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Mathematical model of 5-[125I]iodo-2'-deoxyuridine treatment: continuous infusion regimens for hepatic metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sgouros, George; O'Donoghue, Joseph A.; Larson, Steven M.; Macapinlac, Homer; Larson, Justine J.; Kemeny, Nancy

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: Due to the cytotoxicity of DNA-bound iodine-125, 5-[ 125 I]Iodo-2'-deoxyuridine ([ 125 I]IUdR), an analog of thymidine, has long been recognized as possessing therapeutic potential. In this work, the feasibility and potential effectiveness of hepatic artery infusion of [ 125 I]IUdR is examined. Methods: A mathematical model has been developed that simulates tumor growth and response to [ 125 I]IUdR treatment. The model is used to examine the efficacy and potential toxicity of prolonged infusion therapy. Treatment of kinetically homogeneous tumors with potential doubling times of either 4, 5, or 6 days is simulated. Assuming uniformly distributed activity, absorbed dose estimates to the red marrow, liver and whole-body are calculated to assess the potential toxicity of treatment. Results: Nine to 10 logs of tumor-cell kill over a 7- to 20-day period are predicted by the various simulations examined. The most slowly proliferating tumor was also the most difficult to eradicate. During the infusion time, tumor-cell loss consisted of two components: A plateau phase, beginning at the start of infusion and ending once the infusion time exceeded the potential doubling time of the tumor; and a rapid cell-reduction phase that was close to log-linear. Beyond the plateau phase, treatment efficacy was highly sensitive to tumor activity concentration. Conclusions: Model predictions suggest that [ 125 I]IUdR will be highly dependent upon the potential doubling time of the tumor. Significant tumor cell kill will require infusion durations that exceed the longest potential doubling time in the tumor-cell population

  14. Diurnal Cortisol Patterns and Dexamethasone Suppression Test Responses in Healthy Young Adults Born Preterm at Very Low Birth Weight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Kaseva

    Full Text Available Early life stress, such as painful and stressful procedures during neonatal intensive care after preterm birth, can permanently affect physiological, hormonal and neurobiological systems. This may contribute to altered programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA and provoke changes in HPAA function with long-term health impacts. Previous studies suggest a lower HPAA response to stress in young adults born preterm compared with controls born at term. We assessed whether these differences in HPAA stress responsiveness are reflected in everyday life HPAA functioning, i.e. in diurnal salivary cortisol patterns, and reactivity to a low-dose dexamethasone suppression test (DST, in unimpaired young adults born preterm at very low birth weight (VLBW; <1500 g.The participants were recruited from the Helsinki Study of Very Low Birth Weight Adults cohort study. At mean age 23.3 years (2.1 SD, 49 VLBW and 36 controls born at term participated in the study. For cortisol analyzes, saliva samples were collected on two consecutive days at 0, 15, 30 and 60 min after wake-up, at 12:00 h, 17:00 h and 22:00 h. After the last salivary sample of the first study day the participants were instructed to take a 0.5 mg dexamethasone tablet.With mixed-effects model no difference was seen in overall diurnal salivary cortisol between VLBW and control groups [13.9% (95% CI: -11.6, 47.0, P = 0.31]. Salivary cortisol increased similarly after awakening in both VLBW and control participants [mean difference -2.9% (29.2, 33.0, P = 0.85]. Also reactivity to the low-dose DST (awakening cortisol ratio day2/day1 was similar between VLBW and control groups [-1.1% (-53.5, 103.8, P = 0.97].Diurnal cortisol patterns and reactivity to a low-dose DST in young adulthood were not associated with preterm birth.

  15. Association of Implementation of a Universal Testing and Treatment Intervention With HIV Diagnosis, Receipt of Antiretroviral Therapy, and Viral Suppression in East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Maya; Balzer, Laura; Kwarsiima, Dalsone; Sang, Norton; Chamie, Gabriel; Ayieko, James; Kabami, Jane; Owaraganise, Asiphas; Liegler, Teri; Mwangwa, Florence; Kadede, Kevin; Jain, Vivek; Plenty, Albert; Brown, Lillian; Lavoy, Geoff; Schwab, Joshua; Black, Douglas; van der Laan, Mark; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Cohen, Craig R; Clark, Tamara D; Charlebois, Edwin; Kamya, Moses; Havlir, Diane

    2017-06-06

    Antiretroviral treatment (ART) is now recommended for all HIV-positive persons. UNAIDS has set global targets to diagnose 90% of HIV-positive individuals, treat 90% of diagnosed individuals with ART, and suppress viral replication among 90% of treated individuals, for a population-level target of 73% of all HIV-positive persons with HIV viral suppression. To describe changes in the proportions of HIV-positive individuals with HIV viral suppression, HIV-positive individuals who had received a diagnosis, diagnosed individuals treated with ART, and treated individuals with HIV viral suppression, following implementation of a community-based testing and treatment program in rural East Africa. Observational analysis based on interim data from 16 rural Kenyan (n = 6) and Ugandan (n = 10) intervention communities in the SEARCH Study, an ongoing cluster randomized trial. Community residents who were 15 years or older (N = 77 774) were followed up for 2 years (2013-2014 to 2015-2016). HIV serostatus and plasma HIV RNA level were measured annually at multidisease health campaigns followed by home-based testing for nonattendees. All HIV-positive individuals were offered ART using a streamlined delivery model designed to reduce structural barriers, improve patient-clinician relationships, and enhance patient knowledge and attitudes about HIV. Primary outcome was viral suppression (plasma HIV RNAHIV-positive individuals, assessed at baseline and after 1 and 2 years. Secondary outcomes included HIV diagnosis, ART among previously diagnosed individuals, and viral suppression among those who had initiated ART. Among 77 774 residents (male, 45.3%; age 15-24 years, 35.1%), baseline HIV prevalence was 10.3% (7108 of 69 283 residents). The proportion of HIV-positive individuals with HIV viral suppression at baseline was 44.7% (95% CI, 43.5%-45.9%; 3464 of 7745 residents) and after 2 years of intervention was 80.2% (95% CI, 79.1%-81.2%; 5666 of 7068 residents), an

  16. Suppressed Belief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komarine Romdenh-Romluc

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Moran’s revised conception of conscious belief requires us to reconceptualise suppressed belief. The work of Merleau-Ponty offers a way to do this. His account of motor-skills allows us to understand suppressed beliefs as pre-reflective ways of dealing with the world.

  17. Metabolism of the carbocyclic analogue of (E)-5-(2-iodovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine in herpes simplex virus-infected cells. Incorporation of C-IVDU into DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Clercq, E.; Bernaerts, R.; Balzarini, J.; Herdewijn, P.; Verbruggen, A.

    1985-01-01

    The carbocyclic analogues of (E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (BVDU) and (E)-5-(2-iodovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (IVDU), in which the sugar moiety is replaced by a cyclopentane ring and which have been designated as C-BVDU and C-IVDU, respectively, are, like their parent compounds BVDU and IVDU, potent and selective inhibitors of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and, to a lesser extent, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) replication. The authors have now synthesized the radiolabeled C-IVDU analogue, C-[ 125 I]IVDU, and determined its metabolism by HSV-infected and mock-infected Vero cells. C-[ 125 I]IVDU was effectively phosphorylated by HSV-1-infected cells and, to a lesser extent, HSV-2-infected cells. C-[ 125 I]IVDU was not phosphorylated to an appreciable extent by either mock-infected cells or cells that had been infected with a thymidine kinase-deficient mutant of HSV-1. Furthermore, C-[ 125 I]IVDU was incorporated into both viral and cellular DNA of HSV-1-infected Vero cells. This finding represents the first demonstration of the incorporation of a cyclopentylpyrimidine into DNA

  18. Daily oral intake of theanine prevents the decline of 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine incorporation in hippocampal dentate gyrus with concomitant alleviation of behavioral abnormalities in adult mice with severe traumatic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Takarada

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Posttraumatic stress disorder is a long-lasting psychiatric disease with the consequence of hippocampal atrophy in humans exposed to severe fatal stress. We demonstrated a positive correlation between the transient decline of 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU incorporation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG and long-lasting behavioral abnormalities in mice with traumatic stress. Here, we investigated pharmacological properties of theanine on the declined BrdU incorporation and abnormal behaviors in mice with traumatic stress. Prior daily oral administration of theanine at 50–500 mg/kg for 5 days significantly prevented the decline of BrdU incorporation, while theanine significantly prevented the decline in the DG even when administered for 5 days after stress. Consecutive daily administration of theanine significantly inhibited the prolonged immobility in mice with stress in forced swimming test seen 14 days later. Although traumatic stress significantly increased spontaneous locomotor activity over 30 min even when determined 14 days later, the increased total locomotion was significantly ameliorated following the administration of theanine at 50 mg/kg for 14 days after stress. These results suggest that theanine alleviates behavioral abnormalities together with prevention of the transient decline of BrdU incorporation in the hippocampal DG in adult mice with severe traumatic stress.

  19. DAYCENT Simulations to Test the Influence of Fire Regime and Fire Suppression on Trace Gas Fluxes and Nitrogen Biogeochemistry of Colorado Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Gathany

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Biological activity and the physical environment regulate greenhouse gas fluxes (CH4, N2O and NO from upland soils. Wildfires are known to alter these factors such that we collected daily weather records, fire return intervals, or specific fire years, and soil data of four specific sites along the Colorado Front Range. These data were used as primary inputs into DAYCENT. In this paper we test the ability of DAYCENT to simulate four forested sites in this area and to address two objectives: (1 to evaluate the short-term influence of fire on trace gas fluxes from burned landscapes; and (2 to compare trace gas fluxes among locations and between pre-/post- fire suppression. The model simulations indicate that CH4 oxidation is relatively unaffected by wildfire. In contrast, gross nitrification rates were reduced by 13.5–37.1% during the fire suppression period. At two of the sites, we calculated increases in gross nitrification rates (>100%, and N2O and NO fluxes during the year of fire relative to the year before a fire. Simulated fire suppression exhibited decreased gross nitrification rates presumably as nitrogen is immobilized. This finding concurs with other studies that highlight the importance of forest fires to maintain soil nitrogen availability.

  20. Non-reactive HIV-1 Rapid Tests after Sustained Viral Suppression Following Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation During Primary Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefic, Karl; Novelli, Sophie; Mahjoub, Nadia; Seng, Remonie; Molina, Jean-Michel; Cheneau, Christine; Barin, Francis; Chaix, Marie-Laure; Meyer, Laurence; Delaugerre, Constance

    2018-03-02

    We assessed the impact of early antiretroviral treatment (ART) on HIV antibody detection by rapid tests in 44 individuals after several years of successful ART. HIV self-tests and point-of-care tests were negative in respectively 30% and 7-9% of cases. These data reinforce the message that patients should never be retested after entering HIV care.

  1. Efficacy of dexamethasone suppression test during the diagnosis of primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease in Chinese adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent Cushing syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shi; Li, Ran; Lu, Lin; Duan, Lian; Zhang, Xuebin; Tong, Anli; Pan, Hui; Zhu, Huijuan; Lu, Zhaolin

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the cut-off value of the ratio of 24 h urinary free cortisol (24 h UFC) levels post-dexamethasone to prior-dexamethasone in dexamethasone suppression test (DST) during the diagnosis of primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease in Chinese adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent Cushing syndrome. Retrospective study. The patients diagnosed with primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD, n = 25), bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (BMAH, n = 27), and adrenocortical adenoma (ADA, n = 84) were admitted to the Peking Union Medical College Hospital from 2001 to 2016. Serum cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and 24 h UFC were measured before and after low-dose dexamethasone suppression test (LDDST) and high-dose dexamethasone suppression test (HDDST). After LDDST and HDDST, 24 h UFC elevated in patients with PPNAD (paired t-test, P = 0.007 and P = 0.001), while it remained unchanged in the BMAH group (paired t-test, P = 0.471 and P = 0.414) and decreased in the ADA group (paired t-test, P = 0.002 and P = 0.004). The 24 h UFC level after LDDST was higher in PPNAD and BMAH as compared to ADA (P < 0.017), while no significant difference was observed between PPNAD and BMAH. After HDDST, 24 h UFC was higher in patients with PPNAD as compared to that of ADA and BMAH (P < 0.017). The cut-off value of 24 h UFC (Post-L-Dex)/(Pre-L-Dex) was 1.16 with 64.0% sensitivity and 77.9% specificity, and the cut-off value of 24 h UFC (Post-H-Dex)/(Pre-H-Dex) was 1.08 with 84.0% sensitivity and 75.6% specificity. The ratio of post-dexamethasone to prior-dexamethasone had a unique advantage in distinguishing PPNAD from BMAH and ADA.

  2. Interocular suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuna, Ana Rita; Almeida Neves Carrega, Filipa; Nunes, Amélia Fernandes

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this work is to quantify the suppressive imbalance, based on the manipulation of ocular luminance, between a group of subjects with normal binocular vision and a group of subjects with amblyopia. The result reveals that there are statistically significant differences in interocular dominance between two groups, evidencing a greater suppressive imbalance in amblyopic subjects. The technique used, proved to be a simple, easy to apply and economic method, for quantified ocular dominance. It is presented as a technique with the potential to accompany subjects with a marked dominance in one of the eyes that makes fusion difficult.

  3. Synthesis of {sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}-deoxyuridine derivatives as potential HSV1-tk gene expression imaging agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Young [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1 Pungnap-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Chemistry, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, Yongin 449-791 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Seung Jun [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1 Pungnap-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: sjoh@amc.seoul.kr; Ryu, Jin Sook [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1 Pungnap-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Seon-Joo [Division of Radioisotope Production and Application, Hanaro Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yusongku, Taejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Hyun-Joon [Department of Chemistry, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, Yongin 449-791 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Dae Hyuk [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1 Pungnap-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-04-15

    In this study, we synthesized {sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}-2'-aminomethylpyridyl-2'-deoxyuridine ({sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}-AMPDU) and {sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}-aminoethylpyridyl-2'-deoxyuridine ({sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}-AEPDU) as potential agents for imaging the expression of the non-invasive herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase. AMPDU and AEPDU were synthesized from uridine in five chemical steps and then labeled with [{sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}]{sup +} (370 MBq/0.5 mL) at 100 {sup o}C for 10 min. Under optimal conditions (0.5 and 1.0 mg for AMPDU and AEPDU and heating for 10 min), the labeling efficiency was 95.3{+-}2.8% for AMPDU and 94.2{+-}5.1% for AEPDU. To validate the chemical structure of {sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}-labeled compounds, we also synthesized ReBr(CO){sub 3}-AMPDU and ReBr(CO){sub 3}-AEPDU by reacting [Et{sub 4}N][ReBr{sub 3}(CO){sub 3}] and AMPDU or AEPDU in methanol at 25 {sup o}C for 6 h. {sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}-AMPDU and {sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}-AEPDU had the same retention time on HPLC analysis as ReBr(CO){sub 3}-AMPDU and ReBr(CO){sub 3}-AEPDU. {sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}-AMPDU and {sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}-AEPDU had high radiochemical stabilities of 98.1{+-}1.5% and 98.0{+-}1.7% for 6 h, respectively.

  4. Dietary thylakoids suppress blood glucose and modulate appetite-regulating hormones in pigs exposed to oral glucose tolerance test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montelius, Caroline; Szwiec, Katarzyna; Kardas, Marek

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Dietary chloroplast thylakoids have previously been found to reduce food intake and body weight in animal models, and to change metabolic profiles in humans in mixed-food meal studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the modulatory effects of thylakoids on glucose...... metabolism and appetite-regulating hormones during an oral glucose tolerance test in pigs fed a high fat diet. METHODS: Six pigs were fed a high fat diet (36 energy% fat) for one month before oral glucose tolerance test (1 g/kg d-glucose) was performed. The experiment was designed as a cross-over study......, either with or without addition of 0.5 g/kg body weight of thylakoid powder. RESULTS: The supplementation of thylakoids to the oral glucose tolerance test resulted in decreased blood glucose concentrations during the first hour, increased plasma cholecystokinin concentrations during the first two hours...

  5. Thyroxin hormone suppression treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    One of the important modalities of treatment of thyroid cancer (TC) after surgery is the administration of thyroxin as an adjuvant treatment. The analysis supports the theory that thyroid suppression plays an important role in patient management. 300 μg of thyroxin, as this is an adequate dose for suppression is given. Ideally the dose should be tailored by testing s-TSH levels. However, since a large number of the patients come from out station cities and villages this is impractical. We therefore depend on clinical criteria of hyperthyroid symptoms and adjust the dose. Very few patients need such adjustment

  6. Wind tunnel tests of biodegradable fugitive dust suppressants being considered to reduce soil erosion by wind at radioactive waste construction sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligotke, M.W.; Dennis, G.W.; Bushaw, L.L.

    1993-10-01

    Wind tunnel tests were performed of three fugitive dust control agents derived from potato and sugar beet products. These materials are being considered for use as dust suppressants to reduce the potential for transport of radioactive materials by wind from radioactive waste construction and remediation sites. Soil and dust control agent type, solution concentrations, application quantities, aging (or drying) conditions, surface disturbance, and wind and saltating sand eolian erosive stresses were selected and controlled to simulate application and exposure of excavated soil surfaces in the field. A description of the tests, results, conclusions, and recommendations are presented in this report. The results of this study indicate that all three dust control agents can protect exposed soil surfaces from extreme eolian stresses. It is also clear that the interaction and performance of each agent with various soil types may differ dramatically. Thus, soils similar to that received from ML should be best protected by high concentration (∼2.5%) solutions of potato starch at low water application levels (∼1 to 2 L/m 2 ). Because the effectiveness of PS on this soil type is degraded after a moderate amount of simulated rainfall, other options or additives should be considered if surfaces are to be protected for long intervals or during periods of intermittent rainfall and hot, windy conditions. On the other hand, XDCA should be considered when excavating sandy soils. It should be noted, however, that because the Hanford soil test results are based on a small number of tests, it would be prudent to perform additional tests prior to selecting a fugitive dust control agent for use at the Hanford Site. While fermented potato waste was not the best fixative used on either soil, it did perform reasonably well on both soil types (better than XDCA on Idaho soil and better than PS on Hanford soil)

  7. Intra-cerebral ventricular infusion of 5-iodo-2-deoxyuridine (IUDR) as a radiosensitizer in the treatment of a rat glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutsch, M.; Rewers, A.B.; Redgate, S.; Fisher, E.R.; Boggs, S.S.

    1990-01-01

    The efficacy of 5-iodo-2-deoxyuridine (IUDR) as a radiosensitizer when administered by continuous infusion into the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) of the lateral cerebral ventricle was evaluated in a 9L gliosarcoma rat brain tumor model. Stereotactic implantation of a 5 x 10(4) tumor cell suspension into the left caudate nucleus was carried out in four groups of 10 rats each. Control animals had a median survival of 16.9 days (range 16-21 days). IUDR, 8.4 mg over 7 days administered by continuous infusion into the left lateral ventricle produced a slight survival advantage (median survival 21.5 days, range 12-56). Irradiation of the entire brain, 8 Gy on days 4, 6 and 7 after tumor cell implantation also produced a slight improvement in survival (median 19.5 days, range 17-34). The combination of radiation and IUDR infusion into the CSF produced a marked survival advantage (median 30.5, range 22-54) compared to the control and single modality treatment groups. This is the first demonstration of the effectiveness of IUDR as a radiosensitizer when administered into the lateral cerebral ventricle in the treatment of an intraparenchymal brain tumor

  8. Focus formation and neoplastic transformation by herpes simplex virus type 2 inactivated intracellularly by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine and near UV light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manak, M.M.; Aurelian, L.; Ts'o, P.O.

    1981-01-01

    The induction of focus formation in low serum and of neoplastic transformation of Syrian hamster embryo cells was examined after the expression of herpes simplex virus type 2 functions. Syrian hamster embryo cells infected at a high multiplicity (5 PFU/cell) with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine-labeled herpes simplex virus type 2 (11% substitution of thymidine residues) were exposed to near UV light irradiation at various times postinfection. This procedure specifically inactivated the viral genome, while having little, if any, effect on the unlabeled cellular DNA. Focus formation in 1% serum and neoplastic transformation were observed in cells exposed to virus inactivated before infection, but the frequency was enhanced (15- to 27-fold) in cells in which the virus was inactivated at 4 to 8 h postinfection. Only 2 to 45 independently isolated foci were capable of establishing tumorigenic lines. The established lines exhibited phenotypic alterations characteristic of a transformed state, including reduced serum requirement, anchorage-independent growth, and tumorigenicity. They retained viral DNA sequences and, even at relatively late passage, expressed viral antigens, including ICP 10

  9. Distinguishing among potential mechanisms of singleton suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspelin, Nicholas; Luck, Steven J

    2018-04-01

    Previous research has revealed that people can suppress salient stimuli that might otherwise capture visual attention. The present study tests between 3 possible mechanisms of visual suppression. According to first-order feature suppression models , items are suppressed on the basis of simple feature values. According to second-order feature suppression models , items are suppressed on the basis of local discontinuities within a given feature dimension. According to global-salience suppression models , items are suppressed on the basis of their dimension-independent salience levels. The current study distinguished among these models by varying the predictability of the singleton color value. If items are suppressed by virtue of salience alone, then it should not matter whether the singleton color is predictable. However, evidence from probe processing and eye movements indicated that suppression is possible only when the color values are predictable. Moreover, the ability to suppress salient items developed gradually as participants gained experience with the feature that defined the salient distractor. These results are consistent with first-order feature suppression models, and are inconsistent with the other models of suppression. In other words, people primarily suppress salient distractors on the basis of their simple features and not on the basis of salience per se. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Recommendations for the Development of a Dust Suppressant Test Operations Procedure (TOP) Performed at the U.S. Army Yuma Proving Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    variety of bedrock types including: igneous ( basalt , granite, and rhyolite), metamorphic (schist and gneiss), and sedimentary rocks of Quaternary...TerraLOC® Standard formulation was applied. Chemical dust suppressant formulations vary widely, to include salts, oils, fiber mixtures and synthetic

  11. Military women's attitudes toward menstruation and menstrual suppression in relation to the deployed environment: development and testing of the MWATMS-9 (short form).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trego, Lori L; Jordan, Patricia J

    2010-01-01

    To determine military women's attitudes toward menstruation and menstrual suppression with oral contraceptives in the deployed environment. A cross-sectional descriptive design with the administration of the Menstrual Attitude Questionnaire (MAQ) and the 55-item Military Women's Attitudes Towards Menstrual Suppression Scale (MWATMS) to a convenience sample (n = 278) of women in the U.S. Army with deployment experience. The MAQ's five subscales' mean scores ranged from 3.4 (+/-1.11) to 5.1 (+/-1.06), indicating neutral to moderate attitudes toward menstruation. Measurement development on the MWATMS produced a nine-item scale with three components: stress effects, benefits to self, and environmental barriers. Menstrual attitudes were generally neutral in this sample; however, military women favor menstrual suppression during deployment owing to the effects of stress during deployment, benefits that suppression would provide, and the barriers to menstrual hygiene in the deployed environment. Women who perceived menstruation as bothersome and debilitating had positive attitudes toward menstrual suppression. These findings can contribute to appropriate predeployment women's health care and improve the readiness for deployment in female soldiers. Providers should educate women on the risks and benefits of menstrual suppression methods and provide guidance on impact that the deployed environment can have on their menstrual experiences.

  12. A human osteosarcoma cell line expressing herpes simplex type-1 thymidine kinase: studies with radiolabeled (E)-5-(2-iodovinyl)-2'-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morin, Kevin W.; Duan Weili; Knaus, Edward E.; McEwan, Alexander J.B.; Wiebe, Leonard I.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: (E)-5-(2-Iodovinyl)-2'-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine (IVFRU) is a pyrimidine nucleoside analogue that accumulates selectively in murine cells expressing herpes simplex type-1 thymidine kinase (HSV-1 TK). The uptake of [ 125 I]IVFRU in human 143B osteosarcoma cells transduced with a retroviral vector bearing the HSV-1 TK gene (143B-LTK cells) is now reported. Methods: HSV-1 TK gene expression in 143B-LTK cells was confirmed by Western blotting and reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR. Cell and subcellular uptake of [ 125 I]IVFRU was determined in cell culture, and whole body biodistribution after intravenous injection of [ 125 I]IVFRU was determined using nude mice bearing implanted 143B or 143B-LTK tumors. Results: Although IVFRU was less toxic to the human cell line expressing HSV-1 TK (143B-LTK) than ganciclovir, both IVFRU and ganciclovir were not toxic to the cell line not expressing HSV-1 TK (143B). When cells were exposed to [ 125 I]IVFRU in vitro, only the 143B-LTK cells accumulated radioactivity. The acid-soluble fraction from 143B-LTK cell lysates contained 8-fold greater activity than the acid-insoluble fraction after an 8-h exposure to [ 125 I]IVFRU. Biodistribution of [ 125 I]IVFRU in nude mice bearing subcutaneous 143B and 143B-LTK tumors revealed widespread distribution of the nucleoside in vivo but with specific localization in 143B-LTK tumors. Conclusion: The underlying biochemical process of metabolic entrapment of IVFRU in human osteosarcoma cells expressing HSV-1 TK is responsible for selective localization in these cells. The differences in subcellular distribution into the nucleic acid fraction, and in cytotoxicity, reflect the importance of cell type and lineage as determinants of the performance of gene imaging radiopharmaceuticals

  13. A human osteosarcoma cell line expressing herpes simplex type-1 thymidine kinase: studies with radiolabeled (E)-5-(2-iodovinyl)-2'-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morin, Kevin W. [Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, T6G 2N8 (Canada); Duan Weili [Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, T6G 2N8 (Canada); Knaus, Edward E. [Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, T6G 2N8 (Canada); McEwan, Alexander J.B. [Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, T6G 2N8 (Canada); Wiebe, Leonard I. [Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, T6G 2N8 (Canada)]. E-mail: leonard.wiebe@ualberta.ca

    2005-07-01

    Introduction: (E)-5-(2-Iodovinyl)-2'-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine (IVFRU) is a pyrimidine nucleoside analogue that accumulates selectively in murine cells expressing herpes simplex type-1 thymidine kinase (HSV-1 TK). The uptake of [{sup 125}I]IVFRU in human 143B osteosarcoma cells transduced with a retroviral vector bearing the HSV-1 TK gene (143B-LTK cells) is now reported. Methods: HSV-1 TK gene expression in 143B-LTK cells was confirmed by Western blotting and reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR. Cell and subcellular uptake of [{sup 125}I]IVFRU was determined in cell culture, and whole body biodistribution after intravenous injection of [{sup 125}I]IVFRU was determined using nude mice bearing implanted 143B or 143B-LTK tumors. Results: Although IVFRU was less toxic to the human cell line expressing HSV-1 TK (143B-LTK) than ganciclovir, both IVFRU and ganciclovir were not toxic to the cell line not expressing HSV-1 TK (143B). When cells were exposed to [{sup 125}I]IVFRU in vitro, only the 143B-LTK cells accumulated radioactivity. The acid-soluble fraction from 143B-LTK cell lysates contained 8-fold greater activity than the acid-insoluble fraction after an 8-h exposure to [{sup 125}I]IVFRU. Biodistribution of [{sup 125}I]IVFRU in nude mice bearing subcutaneous 143B and 143B-LTK tumors revealed widespread distribution of the nucleoside in vivo but with specific localization in 143B-LTK tumors. Conclusion: The underlying biochemical process of metabolic entrapment of IVFRU in human osteosarcoma cells expressing HSV-1 TK is responsible for selective localization in these cells. The differences in subcellular distribution into the nucleic acid fraction, and in cytotoxicity, reflect the importance of cell type and lineage as determinants of the performance of gene imaging radiopharmaceuticals.

  14. Combined effects of π-π stacking and hydrogen bonding on the (N1) acidity of uracil and hydrolysis of 2'-deoxyuridine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellie, Jennifer L; Navarro-Whyte, Lex; Carvey, Matthew T; Wetmore, Stacey D

    2012-03-01

    M06-2X/6-31+G(d,p) is used to study the simultaneous effects of π-π stacking interactions with phenylalanine (modeled as benzene) and hydrogen bonding with small molecules (HF, H(2)O, and NH(3)) on the N1 acidity of uracil and the hydrolytic deglycosylation of 2'-deoxyuridine (dU) (facilitated by fully (OH(-)) or partially (HCOO(-)···H(2)O) activated water). When phenylalanine is complexed with isolated uracil, the proton affinity of all acceptor sites significantly increases (by up to 28 kJ mol(-1)), while the N1 acidity slightly decreases (by ~6 kJ mol(-1)). When small molecules are hydrogen bound to uracil, addition of the phenylalanine ring can increase or decrease the acidity of uracil depending on the number and nature (acidity) of the molecules bound. Furthermore, a strong correlation between the effects of π-π stacking on the acidity of U and the dU deglycosylation reaction energetics is found, where the hydrolysis barrier can increase or decrease depending on the nature and number of small molecules bound, the nucleophile considered (which dictates the negative charge on U in the transition state), and the polarity of the (bulk) environment. These findings emphasize that the catalytic (or anticatalytic) role of the active-site aromatic amino acid residues is highly dependent on the situation under consideration. In the case of uracil-DNA glycosylase (UNG), which catalyzes the hydrolytic excision of uracil from DNA, the type of discrete hydrogen-bonding interactions with U, the nature of the nucleophile, and the anticipated weak, nonpolar environment in the active site suggest that phenylalanine will be slightly anticatalytic in the chemical step, and therefore experimentally observed contributions to catalysis may entirely result from associated structural changes that occur prior to deglycosylation.

  15. Defaulters from thyroid suppression tests - a study of non-compliers on the basis of statistical data collected over six years at the Policlinic of Nuclear Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beushausen, M.

    1983-01-01

    A total of 267 patients suspected of having autonomous adenomas were scheduled for control scintigrams to confirm the diagnosis, as a general rule after a 14-day suppression test using thyroxine. The fact that 381 patients failed to reappear at the determined date (non-compliers) prompted us to investigate the possible links between patient compliance and relevant medical, organisational and sociodemographical factors. There was no significant correlation between compliance and the anamnestic data or local findings of the individual patients. Factors surrounding medical organisation, however, were found to have a greater influence on patient behaviour. Thus, patients referred to us by other policlinics generally displayed an increased tendency to non-compliance than patients sent to us by general practitioners. Moreover, compliance was seen to be closely related to the circumstances under which the patients were requested to reappear for control examinations. From among the patients, who were given thyroxine and instructed to come for a second examination directly at the Polyclinic of Nuclear Medicine, as much as 95% complied as compared to only 81% of those, where the physician originally consulted by the patient was informed about the necessity of a further examination. This behaviour seemed to be independent of the practitioner who had referred the patient to us or the physician performing the first examinations at the Policlinic. Former contacts with the Policlinic of Nuclear Medicine and the season of the first visit showed no influence on later compliance or non-compliance of the patients, nor was the social background or distance of the clinic from the patient's home observed to be of any particular relevance here. A higher rate of defaulters was, however, determined for men between 30 and 49 years and women over 60 years of age. There was no increased tendency to default among country dwellers as compared to city dwellers. (TRV) [de

  16. A rapid non invasive L-DOPA-¹³C breath test for optimally suppressing extracerebral AADC enzyme activity - toward individualizing carbidopa therapy in Parkinson’s disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modak, Anil; Durso, Raymon; Josephs, Ephraim; Rosen, David

    2012-01-01

    Peripheral carbidopa (CD) levels directly impact on central dopamine (DA) production in Parkinson disease (PD) through extracerebral inhibition of dopa decarboxylase (AADC) resulting in an increase in levodopa (LD) bioavailability. Recent data suggests that higher CD doses than those presently used in PD treatment may result in improved clinical response. Optimizing CD doses in individual patients may, therefore, result in ideal individualized treatment. A single center, randomized, double-blind study was carried out recruiting 5 Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients already on LD/CD and 1 treatment näve PD patient using stable isotope labeled LD-1-¹³C as a substrate for a noninvasive breath test to evaluate individual AADC enzyme activity. Each patient was studied five times, receiving 200 mg LD-¹³C at each visit along with one of five randomized CD doses (0, 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg). The metabolite ¹³CO₂ in breath was measured for evaluating AADC enzyme activity and plasma metabolite levels for LD-¹³C and homovanillic acid (HVA) were measured for 4 hours. HVA in plasma and ¹³CO₂ in breath are metabolic products of LD. We found a significant positive correlation of ¹³CO₂ DOB AUC0-240 with serum HVA AUC0-240 following the oral dose of LD-1-¹³C for all 5 doses of CD (r² = 0.9378). With increasing inhibition of AADC enzyme activity with CD, we observed an increase in the plasma concentration of LD.We found an inverse correlation of the 13CO2 DOB AUC with serum LD-¹³C AUC. Our studies indicate the optimal dose of CD for maximal suppression of AADC enzyme activity can be determined for each individual from ¹³CO₂ generation in breath. The LD-breath test can be a useful noninvasive diagnostic tool for evaluation of AADC enzyme activity using the biomarker ¹³CO₂ in breath, a first step in personalizing CD doses for PD patients.

  17. Auger electron emitter against multiple myeloma - targeted endo-radio-therapy with 125I-labeled thymidine analogue 5-iodo-4'-thio-2'-deoxyuridine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgenroth, Agnieszka; Dinger, Cornelia; Zlatopolskiy, Boris D.; Al-Momani, Ehab; Glatting, Gerhard; Mottaghy, Felix M.; Reske, Sven N.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell malignancy characterized by accumulation of malignant, terminally differentiated B cells in the bone marrow. Despite advances in therapy, MM remains an incurable disease. Novel therapeutic approaches are, therefore, urgently needed. Auger electron-emitting radiopharmaceuticals are attractive for targeted nano-irradiation therapy, given that DNA of malignant cells is selectively addressed. Here we evaluated the antimyeloma potential of the Auger electron-emitting thymidine analogue 125 I-labeled 5-iodo-4'-thio-2'-deoxyuridine ([ 125 I]ITdU). Methods: Cellular uptake and DNA incorporation of [ 125 I]ITdU were determined in fluorodeoxyuridine-pretreated KMS12BM, U266, dexamethasone-sensitive MM1.S and -resistant MM1.R cell lines. The effect of stimulation with interleukin 6 (IL6) or insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) on the intracellular incorporation of [ 125 I]ITdU was investigated in cytokine-sensitive MM1.S and MM1.R cell lines. Apoptotic cells were identified using Annexin V. Cleavage of caspase 3 and PARP was visualized by Western blot. DNA fragmentation was investigated using laddering assay. Therapeutic efficiency of [ 125 I]ITdU was proven by clonogenic assay. Results: [ 125 I]ITdU was shown to be efficiently incorporated into DNA of malignant cells, providing a promising mechanism for delivering highly toxic Auger radiation emitters into tumor DNA. [ 125 I]ITdU had a potent antimyeloma effect in cell lines representing distinct disease stages and, importantly, in cell lines sensitive or resistant to the conventional therapeutic agent, but was not toxic for normal plasma and bone marrow stromal cells. Furthermore, [ 125 I]ITdU abrogated the protective actions of IL6 and IGF1 on MM cells. [ 125 I]ITdU induced massive damage in the DNA of malignant plasma cells, which resulted in efficient inhibition of clonogenic growth. Conclusion: These studies may provide a novel treatment strategy for overcoming

  18. Synthesis and biological properties of 5-azido-2'-deoxyuridine 5'-triphosphate, a photoactive nucleotide suitable for making light-sensitive DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, R.K.; Haley, B.E.

    1987-01-01

    A photoactive nucleotide analogue of dUTP, 5-azido-2'-deoxyuridine 5'-triphosphate (5-N 3 dUTP), was synthesized from dUMP in five steps. The key reaction in the synthesis of 5-N 3 dUTP is the nitration of dUMP in 98% yield in 5 min at 25 0 C using an excess of nitrosonium tetrafluoroborate in anhydrous dimethylformamide. Reduction of the resulting 5-nitro compound with zinc and 20 mM HCl gave 5-aminodeoxyuridine monophosphate (5-NH 2 dUMP). Diazotization of 5-NH 2 dUMP with HNO 2 followed by the addition NaN 3 to the acidic diazonium salt solution gave a photoactive nucleotide derivative in 80-90% yield. The monophosphate product was identified as 5-N 3 dUMP by proton NMR, UV, IR, and chromatographic analysis as well as by the mode of synthesis and its photosensitivity. After formation of 5-N 3 dUTP through a chemical coupling of pyrophosphate to 5-N 3 dUMP, the triphosphate form of the nucleotide was found to support DNA synthesis by Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I at a rate indistinguishable from that supported by dTTP. When UMP was used as the starting compound, 5-N 3 UTP was formed in an analogous fashion with similar yields and produced a photoactive nucleotide which is a substrate for E. coli RNA polymerase. To prepare [γ- 32 P]-5-N 3 dUTP for use as an active-site-directed photoaffinity labeling reagent, a simple method of preparing γ- 32 P-labeled pyrimidine nucleotides was developed. [γ- 32 P]-5-N 3 dUTP is an effective photoaffinity labeling reagent for DNA polymerase I and was found to bind to the active site with a 2-fold higher affinity than dTTP. The photoactivity of 5-N 3 dUMP is stable to extremes of pH, and [γ- 32 P]-5-N 3 dUTP was an effective photolabeling reagent even in the presence of 10 mM dithiothreitol

  19. Effects of leucovorin and methylcobalamin with N2O anesthesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kano, Y.; Sakamoto, S.; Sakuraya, K.; Kubota, T.; Taguchi, H.; Miura, Y.; Takaku, F.

    1984-01-01

    Results of the deoxyuridine suppression test, a good marker for defining biochemical megaloblastosis caused by deficiency of folate and vitamin B 12 , became abnormal (> 10%) after 6 hours of administration of nitrous oxide anesthesia. 5-Formyltetrahydrofolate and methylcobalamin administration during nitrous oxide anesthesia have no remarkable effect on the correction of deoxyuridine suppression test values. On the other hand, 5-formyltetrahydrofolate and methylcobalamin administrated at the end of nitrous oxide anesthesia corrected the abnormal deoxyuridine suppression test values nearly to normal range within 1 hour. 19 references, 4 figures, 3 tables

  20. Studies on the T sub 3 suppression test with reference to the thyrodial sup 123 I uptake in Graves' disease; Comparison of 24-hour and 3-hour uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Takahiko; Kobayashi, Isao; Yamaguchi, Yoshiyuki; Iwashita, Akira; Inukai, Toshihiko; Ohshima, Kihachi; Shimomura, Yohnosuke; Kobayashi, Setsuo (Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1990-06-01

    Eighty-three patients with Graves' disease had been treated with methylmercaptoimidazole (MMI). They were prescribed a maintenance dose of antithyroid drug (MMI, 5 mg/day) at the time of a T{sub 3} suppression test. The 3-hour and 24-hour thyroidal {sup 123}I uptake after T{sub 3} administration (75 {mu}g/day, 2 weeks) were measured (post T{sub 3} uptake). In 38 patients whose post T{sub 3} uptake was below 35% in post T{sub 3} 24-hour uptake, treatment was stopped. The T{sub 3} suppression test was then repeated 1 and 3 months later. During a one-year follow up, 26 remained well, while 12 relapsed within 6 to 12 months. We have observed a good correlation between 3-hour uptake and 24-hour uptake of {sup 123}I after T{sub 3} administration (r=0.847, p<0.001). In 38 patients who showed positive T{sub 3} suppression, most patients with MMI withdrawal produced a marked overshoot of post T{sub 3} 3-hour and 24-hour uptake at one month. Retrospective analysis indicated that there was no significant difference in circulating thyroid hormone levels between remission and relapse groups. The present study provides evidence that 3-hour uptake values are able to be substituted for 24-hour uptake values during a T{sub 3} suppression test. In addition, overshoot of thyroidal uptake after antithyroid drug withdrawal was observed in 3-hour values, similar to 24-hour values. (author).

  1. The role of suppression in amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingrong; Thompson, Benjamin; Lam, Carly S Y; Deng, Daming; Chan, Lily Y L; Maehara, Goro; Woo, George C; Yu, Minbin; Hess, Robert F

    2011-06-13

    This study had three main goals: to assess the degree of suppression in patients with strabismic, anisometropic, and mixed amblyopia; to establish the relationship between suppression and the degree of amblyopia; and to compare the degree of suppression across the clinical subgroups within the sample. Using both standard measures of suppression (Bagolini lenses and neutral density [ND] filters, Worth 4-Dot test) and a new approach involving the measurement of dichoptic motion thresholds under conditions of variable interocular contrast, the degree of suppression in 43 amblyopic patients with strabismus, anisometropia, or a combination of both was quantified. There was good agreement between the quantitative measures of suppression made with the new dichoptic motion threshold technique and measurements made with standard clinical techniques (Bagolini lenses and ND filters, Worth 4-Dot test). The degree of suppression was found to correlate directly with the degree of amblyopia within our clinical sample, whereby stronger suppression was associated with a greater difference in interocular acuity and poorer stereoacuity. Suppression was not related to the type or angle of strabismus when this was present or the previous treatment history. These results suggest that suppression may have a primary role in the amblyopia syndrome and therefore have implications for the treatment of amblyopia.

  2. Deconstructing continuous flash suppression

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Eunice; Blake, Randolph

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we asked to what extent the depth of interocular suppression engendered by continuous flash suppression (CFS) varies depending on spatiotemporal properties of the suppressed stimulus and CFS suppressor. An answer to this question could have implications for interpreting the results in which CFS influences the processing of different categories of stimuli to different extents. In a series of experiments, we measured the selectivity and depth of suppression (i.e., elevation in co...

  3. Deconstructing Interocular Suppression: Attention and Divisive Normalization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Hung Li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In interocular suppression, a suprathreshold monocular target can be rendered invisible by a salient competitor stimulus presented in the other eye. Despite decades of research on interocular suppression and related phenomena (e.g., binocular rivalry, flash suppression, continuous flash suppression, the neural processing underlying interocular suppression is still unknown. We developed and tested a computational model of interocular suppression. The model included two processes that contributed to the strength of interocular suppression: divisive normalization and attentional modulation. According to the model, the salient competitor induced a stimulus-driven attentional modulation selective for the location and orientation of the competitor, thereby increasing the gain of neural responses to the competitor and reducing the gain of neural responses to the target. Additional suppression was induced by divisive normalization in the model, similar to other forms of visual masking. To test the model, we conducted psychophysics experiments in which both the size and the eye-of-origin of the competitor were manipulated. For small and medium competitors, behavioral performance was consonant with a change in the response gain of neurons that responded to the target. But large competitors induced a contrast-gain change, even when the competitor was split between the two eyes. The model correctly predicted these results and outperformed an alternative model in which the attentional modulation was eye specific. We conclude that both stimulus-driven attention (selective for location and feature and divisive normalization contribute to interocular suppression.

  4. Deconstructing Interocular Suppression: Attention and Divisive Normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hsin-Hung; Carrasco, Marisa; Heeger, David J

    2015-10-01

    In interocular suppression, a suprathreshold monocular target can be rendered invisible by a salient competitor stimulus presented in the other eye. Despite decades of research on interocular suppression and related phenomena (e.g., binocular rivalry, flash suppression, continuous flash suppression), the neural processing underlying interocular suppression is still unknown. We developed and tested a computational model of interocular suppression. The model included two processes that contributed to the strength of interocular suppression: divisive normalization and attentional modulation. According to the model, the salient competitor induced a stimulus-driven attentional modulation selective for the location and orientation of the competitor, thereby increasing the gain of neural responses to the competitor and reducing the gain of neural responses to the target. Additional suppression was induced by divisive normalization in the model, similar to other forms of visual masking. To test the model, we conducted psychophysics experiments in which both the size and the eye-of-origin of the competitor were manipulated. For small and medium competitors, behavioral performance was consonant with a change in the response gain of neurons that responded to the target. But large competitors induced a contrast-gain change, even when the competitor was split between the two eyes. The model correctly predicted these results and outperformed an alternative model in which the attentional modulation was eye specific. We conclude that both stimulus-driven attention (selective for location and feature) and divisive normalization contribute to interocular suppression.

  5. Effect of Offering Same-Day ART vs Usual Health Facility Referral During Home-Based HIV Testing on Linkage to Care and Viral Suppression Among Adults With HIV in Lesotho: The CASCADE Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labhardt, Niklaus D; Ringera, Isaac; Lejone, Thabo I; Klimkait, Thomas; Muhairwe, Josephine; Amstutz, Alain; Glass, Tracy R

    2018-03-20

    Home-based HIV testing is a frequently used strategy to increase awareness of HIV status in sub-Saharan Africa. However, with referral to health facilities, less than half of those who test HIV positive link to care and initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART). To determine whether offering same-day home-based ART to patients with HIV improves linkage to care and viral suppression in a rural, high-prevalence setting in sub-Saharan Africa. Open-label, 2-group, randomized clinical trial (February 22, 2016-September 17, 2017), involving 6 health care facilities in northern Lesotho. During home-based HIV testing in 6655 households from 60 rural villages and 17 urban areas, 278 individuals aged 18 years or older who tested HIV positive and were ART naive from 268 households consented and enrolled. Individuals from the same household were randomized into the same group. Participants were randomly assigned to be offered same-day home-based ART initiation (n = 138) and subsequent follow-up intervals of 1.5, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after treatment initiation at the health facility or to receive usual care (n = 140) with referral to the nearest health facility for preparatory counseling followed by ART initiation and monthly follow-up visits thereafter. Primary end points were rates of linkage to care within 3 months (presenting at the health facility within 90 days after the home visit) and viral suppression at 12 months, defined as a viral load of less than 100 copies/mL from 11 through 14 months after enrollment. Among 278 randomized individuals (median age, 39 years [interquartile range, 28.0-52.0]; 180 women [65.7%]), 274 (98.6%) were included in the analysis (137 in the same-day group and 137 in the usual care group). In the same-day group, 134 (97.8%) indicated readiness to start ART that day and 2 (1.5%) within the next few days and were given a 1-month supply of ART. At 3 months, 68.6% (94) in same-day group vs 43.1% (59) in usual care group had linked to care

  6. Stem cell survival is severely compromised by the thymidineanalog EdU (5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine), an alternative to BrdU for proliferation assays and stem cell tracing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ditte C; Skovrind, Ida; Christensen, Marlene Louise

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell therapy has opened up the possibility of treating numerous degenerating diseases. However, we are still merely at the stage of identifying appropriate sources of stem cells and exploring their full differentiation potential. Thus, tracking the stem cells upon in vivo engraftment...... and during in vitro co-culture is very important and is an area of research embracing many pitfalls. 5-Ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU), a rather new thymidine analog incorporated into DNA, has recently been suggested to be a novel highly valid alternative to other dyes for labeling of stem cells and subsequent...... tracing of their proliferation and differentiation ability. However, our results herein do not at any stage support this recommendation, since EdU severely reduces the viability of stem cells. Accordingly, we found that transplanted EdU-labeled stem cells hardly survive upon in vivo transplantation...

  7. Deconstructing continuous flash suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eunice; Blake, Randolph

    2012-03-08

    In this paper, we asked to what extent the depth of interocular suppression engendered by continuous flash suppression (CFS) varies depending on spatiotemporal properties of the suppressed stimulus and CFS suppressor. An answer to this question could have implications for interpreting the results in which CFS influences the processing of different categories of stimuli to different extents. In a series of experiments, we measured the selectivity and depth of suppression (i.e., elevation in contrast detection thresholds) as a function of the visual features of the stimulus being suppressed and the stimulus evoking suppression, namely, the popular "Mondrian" CFS stimulus (N. Tsuchiya & C. Koch, 2005). First, we found that CFS differentially suppresses the spatial components of the suppressed stimulus: Observers' sensitivity for stimuli of relatively low spatial frequency or cardinally oriented features was more strongly impaired in comparison to high spatial frequency or obliquely oriented stimuli. Second, we discovered that this feature-selective bias primarily arises from the spatiotemporal structure of the CFS stimulus, particularly within information residing in the low spatial frequency range and within the smooth rather than abrupt luminance changes over time. These results imply that this CFS stimulus operates by selectively attenuating certain classes of low-level signals while leaving others to be potentially encoded during suppression. These findings underscore the importance of considering the contribution of low-level features in stimulus-driven effects that are reported under CFS.

  8. Atomic Beam Merging and Suppression of Alkali Contaminants in Multi Body High Power Targets: Design and Test of Target and Ion Source Prototypes at ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Bouquerel, Elian J A; Lettry, J; Stora, T

    2009-01-01

    The next generation of high power ISOL-facilities will deliver intense and pure radioactive ion beams. Two key issues of developments mandatory for the forthcoming generation of ISOL target-ion source units are assessed and demonstrated in this thesis. The design and production of target and ion-source prototypes is described and dedicated measurements at ISOLDE-CERN of their radioisotope yields are analyzed. The purity of short lived or rare radioisotopes suffer from isobaric contaminants, notably alkalis which are highly volatile and easily ionized elements. Therefore, relying on their chemical nature, temperature controlled transfer lines were equipped with a tube of quartz that aimed at trapping these unwanted elements before they reached the ion source. The successful application yields high alkali-suppression factors for several elements (ie: 80, 82mRb, 126, 142Cs, 8Li, 46K, 25Na, 114In, 77Ga, 95, 96Sr) for quartz temperatures between 300ºC and 1100ºC. The enthalpies of adsorption on quartz were measu...

  9. Suppression of pool fires with HRC-125 in a simulated engine nacelle.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyser, David R. (INS, Inc., Lexington Park, MD); Hewson, John C.

    2007-06-01

    CFD simulations are conducted to predict the distribution of fire suppressant in an engine nacelle and to predict the suppression of pool fires by the application of this suppressant. In the baseline configuration, which is based on an installed system, suppressant is injected through four nozzles at a rate fast enough to suppress all simulated pool fires. Variations that reduce the mass of the suppression system (reducing the impact of the suppression system on meeting mission needs) are considered, including a reduction in the rate of suppressant injection, a reduction in the mass of suppressant and a reduction in the number of nozzles. In general, these variations should work to reduce the effectiveness of the suppression system, but the CFD results point out certain changes that have negligible impact, at least for the range of phenomena considered here. The results are compared with measurements where available. Comparisons with suppressant measurements are reasonable. A series of twenty-three fire suppression tests were conducted to check the predictions. The pre-test predictions were generally successful in identifying the range of successful suppression tests. In two separate cases, each where one nozzle of the suppression system was capped, the simulation results did indicate a failure to suppress for a condition where the tests indicated successful suppression. When the test-suppressant discharge rate was reduced by roughly 25%, the tests were in agreement with the predictions. That is, the simulations predict a failure to suppress slightly before observed in these cases.

  10. A single CD4 test with 250 cells/mm3 threshold predicts viral suppression in HIV-infected adults failing first-line therapy by clinical criteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles F Gilks

    Full Text Available In low-income countries, viral load (VL monitoring of antiretroviral therapy (ART is rarely available in the public sector for HIV-infected adults or children. Using clinical failure alone to identify first-line ART failure and trigger regimen switch may result in unnecessary use of costly second-line therapy. Our objective was to identify CD4 threshold values to confirm clinically-determined ART failure when VL is unavailable.3316 HIV-infected Ugandan/Zimbabwean adults were randomised to first-line ART with Clinically-Driven (CDM, CD4s measured but blinded or routine Laboratory and Clinical Monitoring (LCM, 12-weekly CD4s in the DART trial. CD4 at switch and ART failure criteria (new/recurrent WHO 4, single/multiple WHO 3 event; LCM: CD4<100 cells/mm(3 were reviewed in 361 LCM, 314 CDM participants who switched over median 5 years follow-up. Retrospective VLs were available in 368 (55% participants.Overall, 265/361 (73% LCM participants failed with CD4<100 cells/mm(3; only 7 (2% switched with CD4≥250 cells/mm(3, four switches triggered by WHO events. Without CD4 monitoring, 207/314 (66% CDM participants failed with WHO 4 events, and 77(25%/30(10% with single/multiple WHO 3 events. Failure/switching with single WHO 3 events was more likely with CD4≥250 cells/mm(3 (28/77; 36% (p = 0.0002. CD4 monitoring reduced switching with viral suppression: 23/187 (12% LCM versus 49/181 (27% CDM had VL<400 copies/ml at failure/switch (p<0.0001. Amongst CDM participants with CD4<250 cells/mm(3 only 11/133 (8% had VL<400 copies/ml, compared with 38/48 (79% with CD4≥250 cells/mm(3 (p<0.0001.Multiple, but not single, WHO 3 events predicted first-line ART failure. A CD4 threshold 'tiebreaker' of ≥250 cells/mm(3 for clinically-monitored patients failing first-line could identify ∼80% with VL<400 copies/ml, who are unlikely to benefit from second-line. Targeting CD4s to single WHO stage 3 'clinical failures' would particularly avoid premature, costly

  11. High Velocity Jet Noise Source Location and Reduction. Task 3 - Experimental Investigation of Suppression Principles. Volume II - Parametric Testing and Source Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-12-01

    tested at typical dual-flow cycle conditions. B. Models 9, 10, and 12 are similar in geometry to Modelo 6, 7, and 8; however, inner flow was regulated to...Stream I.- Mt. Stf 2., drl 1 I Tl Vý v N.. (T/PO) t (’k) (it;=ecl (PT/Po), (*R) (W.-/2 1 (tc’eeo) 1 1.119 45 1000 6 l.$& 100 100 . 6 1.221 1SO0 1000 Xot

  12. Sodium fire suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malet, J C [DSN/SESTR, Centre de Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1979-03-01

    Ignition and combustion studies have provided valuable data and guidelines for sodium fire suppression research. The primary necessity is to isolate the oxidant from the fuel, rather than to attempt to cool the sodium below its ignition temperature. Work along these lines has led to the development of smothering tank systems and a dry extinguishing powder. Based on the results obtained, the implementation of these techniques is discussed with regard to sodium fire suppression in the Super-Phenix reactor. (author)

  13. Sodium fire suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    Ignition and combustion studies have provided valuable data and guidelines for sodium fire suppression research. The primary necessity is to isolate the oxidant from the fuel, rather than to attempt to cool the sodium below its ignition temperature. Work along these lines has led to the development of smothering tank systems and a dry extinguishing powder. Based on the results obtained, the implementation of these techniques is discussed with regard to sodium fire suppression in the Super-Phenix reactor. (author)

  14. Why expressive suppression does not pay? Cognitive costs of negative emotion suppression: The mediating role of subjective tense-arousal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szczygieł Dorota

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to contribute to a broader understanding of the cognitive consequences of expressive suppression. Specifically, we examined whether the deteriorating effect of expressive suppression on cognitive functioning is caused by tense arousal enhanced by suppression. Two experiments were performed in order to test this prediction. In both studies we tested the effect of expressive suppression on working memory, as measured with a backwards digit-span task (Study 1, N = 43 and anagram problem-solving task (Study 2, N = 60. In addition, in Study 2 we tested whether expressive suppression degrades memory of the events that emerged during the period of expressive suppression. Both studies were conducted in a similar design: Participants watched a film clip which evoked negative emotions (i.e. disgust in Study 1 and a combination of sadness and anxiety in Study 2 under the instruction to suppress those negative emotions or (in the control condition to simply watch the film. The results of these experiments lead to three conclusions. First, the results reveal that expressive suppression degrades memory of the events that emerged during the period of expressive suppression and leads to poorer performance on working memory tasks, as measured with a backwards digit-span task and anagram problem-solving task. Second, the results indicate that expressive suppression leads to a significant increase in subjective tense arousal. Third, the results support our prediction that expressive suppression decreases cognitive performance through its effects on subjective tense arousal. The results of the Study 1 show that tense arousal activated during expressive suppression of disgust fully mediates the negative effect of suppression on working memory as measured with a backwards digit-span task. The results of Study 2 reveal that subjective tense arousal elicited while suppressing sadness and anxiety mediates both the effect of suppression on

  15. Temporal suppression and augmentation of click-evoked otoacoustic emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verhulst, Sarah; Harte, James; Dau, Torsten

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates temporal suppression of click-evoked otoacoustic emissions (CEOAEs), occurring when a suppressor-click is presented close in time to a test-click (e.g. 0-8ms). Various temporal suppression methods for examining temporal changes in cochlear compression were evaluated and me...... under test. Temporal suppression was shown to be comparable for CEOAEs and SSOAEs, indicating similar underlying cochlear nonlinear mechanisms. This study contributes to a better understanding of the temporal properties of cochlear dynamics....

  16. The EGG 57-CO B-12 absorption test, in the evaluation of patients with low serum B-12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinow, R.M.; Carmel, R.; Siegel, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    The Schilling Test (ST) is the standard test for diagnosing vitamin B-12 malabsorption (MA). However, patients with subtle gastric dysfunction may have normal ST, but impaired absorption of B-12 given with food. The authors have adapted an Egg B-12 Absorption Test (EBAT) in which 57-Co cyanocobalamin (57-Co B-12) is mixed with scrambled egg to evaluate this phenomenon in patients with low serum B-12, normal ST and possible subtle MA. Lyophilized egg yolk is reconstituted and mixed with 57-Co- B-12 of equal dose to that of ST. The authors studied 46 individuals: 13 controls, 5 patients with known pernicious anemia (PA), in addition to 28 patients with low serum B-12 levels and normal ST. ST/EBAT ratios were calculated. Twenty-eight test patients excreted 13.3% on ST and 3.5% on EBAT. Mean ST/EBAT ratio was 8.2 (1.4-35.9). Five had EBAT results in the PA range (<1%) and ST/EBAT ratios (14.4-35.9) that were significantly elevated. This group is also evaluated with pepsinogen I/II ratios, gastric analysis, deoxyuridine suppression tests, anti intrinsic factor, and antiparietal cell antibodies. The authors' results indicate that the EBAT can differentiate between PA and non PA patients, and that some patients with low serum B-12 levels and normal ST may, in fact, have subtle MA. The EBAT, combined with ST/EBAT ratio, may provide a means for identifying this group of patients

  17. Pressure suppression device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumachi, Wataru; Fukuda, Akira; Kitaguchi, Hidemi; Shimizu, Toshiaki.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To relieve and absorb impact wave vibrations caused by steam and non-condensed gases releasing into the pressure suppression chamber at the time of an accident. Structure: The reactor container is filled with inert gases. A safety valve attached main steam pipe is provided to permit the excessive steam to escape, the valve being communicated with the pressure suppression chamber through an exhaust pipe. In the pressure suppression chamber, a doughnut-like cylindrical outer wall is filled at its bottom with pool water to condense the high temperature vapor released through the exhaust pipe. A head portion of a vent tube which leads the exhaust pipe is positioned at the top, and a down comer and an exhaust vent tube are locked by means of steady rests. At the bottom is mounted a pressure adsorber device which adsorbs a pressure from the pool water. (Kamimura, M.)

  18. Mark I 1/5-scale boiling water reactor pressure suppression experiment. Quick-look report for test numbers 1.0(a) and 1.0(b) performed on March 4 and 8, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCauley, E.W.; Pitts, J.H.

    1977-01-01

    The experimental results obtained from pressure suppression experiment numbers 1.0(a) and 1.0(b) that were performed on the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's 1 / 5 -scale boiling water reactor (BWR) Mark I pressure suppression experimental facility are summarized

  19. Pressure suppressing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, Makoto.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent the pressure in the reactor container from excessively increasing even when vapor leaks from the dry well to a space of the suppression chamber, without passing though the suppression pool at the time of loss of coolant accident. Constitution: When vapor of a high temperature and a high pressure at the time of loss of coolant accident flows from the dry well to the suppression chamber without passing through suppression pool water, vapor dose not condense with pool water, and therefore the pressure within the chamber abnormally increases. For this reason, this abnormal pressure is detected by a pressure detector thereby to start the operations of a blower and a pump. By starting the blower, the pressure in the dry well becomes lower than the pressure in the chamber, and vapor entirely passes through the pool water and entirely condenses with the pool water. By starting the pump, the pool water is sprayed over the space of the chamber, and vapor in the space is condensed. (Yoshino, Y.)

  20. Hangar Fire Suppression Utilizing Novec 1230

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    fuel fires in aircraft hangars. A 30×30×8-ft concrete-and-steel test structure was constructed for this test series. Four discharge assemblies...that agent concentration in the test structure exceeded the required extinguishing concentration for at least 5 min after discharge. Two fire ...involved suppression of a 4.6-gal, approximately 5-ft diameter, Jet-A pool fire . Both fires were successfully extinguished by the Novec 1230 discharge

  1. J/Ψ suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giubellino, P.; Abreu, M.C.; Alessandro, B.; Alexa, C.; Arnaldi, R.; Astruc, J.; Atayan, M.; Baglin, C.; Baldit, A.; Bedjidian, M.; Bellaiche, F.; Beole, S.; Boldea, V.; Bordalo, P.; Bussiere, A.; Capony, V.; Casagrande, L.; Castor, J.; Chambon, T.; Chaurand, B.; Chevrot, I.; Cheynis, B.; Chiavassa, E.; Cicalo, C.; Comets, M.P.; Constantinescu, S.; Cruz, J.; De Falco, A.; De Marco, N.; Dellacasa, G.; Devaux, A.; Dita, S.; Drapier, O.; Espagnon, B.; Fargeix, J.; Filippov, S.N.; Fleuret, F.; Force, P.; Gallio, M.; Gavrilov, Y.K.; Gerschel, C.; Giubellino, P.; Golubeva, M.B.; Gonin, M.; Grigorian, A.A.; Grossiord, J.Y.; Guber, F.F.; Guichard, A.; Gulkaninan, H.; Hakobyan, R.; Haroutunian, R.; Idzik, M.; Jouan, D.; Karavitcheva, T.L.; Kluberg, L.; Kurepin, A.B.; Le Bornec, Y.; Lourenco, C.; Mac Cormick, M.; Macciotta, P.; Marzari-Chiesa, A.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Mehrabyan, S.; Mourgues, S.; Musso, A.; Ohlsson-Malek, F.; Petiau, P.; Piccotti, A.; Pizzi, J.R.; Prado da Silva, W.L.; Puddu, G.; Quintans, C.; Racca, C.; Ramello, L.; Ramos, S.; Rato-Mendes, P.; Riccati, L.; Romana, A.; Sartori, S.; Saturnini, P.; Scomparin, E.; Serci, S.; Shahoyan, R.; Silva, S.; Soave, C.; Sonderegger, P.; Tarrago, X.; Temnikov, P.; Topilskaya, N.S.; Usai, G.; Vale, C.; Vercellin, E.; Willis, N.

    1999-01-01

    The cross section for J/Ψ production in Pb-Pb interactions at 158 GeV per nucleon is measured at the CERN SPS by the NA50 experiment. The final results from the 1995 run are presented here together with preliminary ones from the high-statistics 1996 run. An anomalous J/Ψ suppression is observed in Pb-Pb collisions as compared to extrapolations of the previous results obtained by the NA38 experiment with proton and lighter ion beams. The results of the two runs are in good agreement. The results from the 1996 run allow the study of the onset of the anomalous suppression within the same set of data, showing evidence of a sharp change of behaviour around a value of neutral transverse energy, as measured by our electromagnetic calorimeter, of about 50 GeV

  2. Imaging of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Thymidine Kinase Gene Expression with Radiolabeled 5-(2-iodovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (IVDU) in Liver by Hydrodynamic-based Procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, In Ho; Lee, Tae Sup; Kang, Joo Hyun; Lee, Yong Jin; Kim, Kwang Il; An, Gwang Il; Chung, Wee Sup; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, Sang Moo [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    Hydrodynamic-based procedure is a simple and effective gene delivery method to lead a high gene expression in liver tissue. Non-invasive imaging reporter gene system has been used widely with herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) and its various substrates. In the present study, we investigated to image the expression of HSV1-tk gene with 5-(2-iodovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (IVDU) in mouse liver by the hydrodynamicbased procedure. HSV1-tk or enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) encoded plasmid DNA was transferred into the mouse liver by hydrodynamic injection. At 24 h post-injection, RT-PCR, biodistribution, fluorescence imaging, nuclear imaging and digital wholebody autoradiography (DWBA) were performed to confirm transferred gene expression. In RT-PCR assay using mRNA from the mouse liver, specific bands of HSV1-tk and EGFP gene were observed in HSV1-tk and EGFP expressing plasmid injected mouse, respectively. Higher uptake of radiolabeled IVDU was exhibited in liver of HSV1-tk gene transferred mouse by biodistribution study. In fluorescence imaging, the liver showed specific fluorescence signal in EGFP gene transferred mouse. Gamma-camera image and DWBA results showed that radiolabeled IVDU was accumulated in the liver of HSV1-tk gene transferred mouse. In this study, hydrodynamic-based procedure was effective in liver-specific gene delivery and it could be quantified with molecular imaging methods. Therefore, co-expression of HSV1-tk reporter gene and target gene by hydrodynamic-based procedure is expected to be a useful method for the evaluation of the target gene expression level with radiolabeled IVDU.

  3. Measuring colour rivalry suppression in amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofeldt, T S; Hofeldt, A J

    1999-11-01

    To determine if the colour rivalry suppression is an index of the visual impairment in amblyopia and if the stereopsis and fusion evaluator (SAFE) instrument is a reliable indicator of the difference in visual input from the two eyes. To test the accuracy of the SAFE instrument for measuring the visual input from the two eyes, colour rivalry suppression was measured in six normal subjects. A test neutral density filter (NDF) was placed before one eye to induce a temporary relative afferent defect and the subject selected the NDF before the fellow eye to neutralise the test NDF. In a non-paediatric private practice, 24 consecutive patients diagnosed with unilateral amblyopia were tested with the SAFE. Of the 24 amblyopes, 14 qualified for the study because they were able to fuse images and had no comorbid disease. The relation between depth of colour rivalry suppression, stereoacuity, and interocular difference in logMAR acuity was analysed. In normal subjects, the SAFE instrument reversed temporary defects of 0.3 to 1. 8 log units to within 0.6 log units. In amblyopes, the NDF to reverse colour rivalry suppression was positively related to interocular difference in logMAR acuity (beta=1.21, psuppression as measured with the SAFE was found to agree closely with the degree of visual acuity impairment in non-paediatric patients with amblyopia.

  4. Suppressed Charmed B Decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snoek, Hella Leonie [Vrije Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-06-02

    This thesis describes the measurement of the branching fractions of the suppressed charmed B0 → D*- a0+ decays and the non-resonant B0 → D*- ηπ+ decays in approximately 230 million Υ(4S) → B$\\bar{B}$ events. The data have been collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II B factory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center in California. Theoretical predictions of the branching fraction of the B0 → D*- a{sub 0}+ decays show large QCD model dependent uncertainties. Non-factorizing terms, in the naive factorization model, that can be calculated by QCD factorizing models have a large impact on the branching fraction of these decay modes. The predictions of the branching fractions are of the order of 10-6. The measurement of the branching fraction gives more insight into the theoretical models. In general a better understanding of QCD models will be necessary to conduct weak interaction physics at the next level. The presence of CP violation in electroweak interactions allows the differentiation between matter and antimatter in the laws of physics. In the Standard Model, CP violation is incorporated in the CKM matrix that describes the weak interaction between quarks. Relations amongst the CKM matrix elements are used to present the two relevant parameters as the apex of a triangle (Unitarity Triangle) in a complex plane. The over-constraining of the CKM triangle by experimental measurements is an important test of the Standard Model. At this moment no stringent direct measurements of the CKM angle γ, one of the interior angles of the Unitarity Triangle, are available. The measurement of the angle γ can be performed using the decays of neutral B mesons. The B0 → D*- a0+ decay is sensitive to the angle γ and, in comparison to the current decays that are being employed, could significantly

  5. Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers.......Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers....

  6. Temporal suppression and augmentation of click-evoked otoacoustic emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verhulst, Sarah; Harte, James; Dau, Torsten

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates and models temporal suppression of click-evoked otoacoustic emissions (CEOAEs). This suppression-effect is created when a suppressor-click is presented close in time to a test-click. The analysis was carried out for short time-frames of short- and long-latency CEOAEs...... suppression is present in all CEOAEs for inter-click intervals (ICIs) less than 8 ms. The long-latency CEOAEs showed augmentation (i.e., negative suppression) for ICIs of 6-7 ms which was not reported for the short-latency CEOAE at these ICIs. A phenomenological approach is adopted here to explain both...

  7. Effects of thought suppression on episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassin, E; Merckelbach, H; Muris, P

    1997-11-01

    Subjects were shown a short film fragment. Following this, one group of subjects (n = 26) was instructed to suppress their thoughts about the film, while the other group (n = 24) received no instructions. After 5 hrs subjects returned to the laboratory and completed a questionnaire testing their memory about the film. Results showed that suppression subjects reported a higher frequency of thoughts about the film than control subjects. No evidence was obtained for Wegner, Quillian, and Houston's (1996; Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 680-691) claim that suppression has an undermining effect on memory for chronology. Possible causes for the differences between the results as obtained by Wegner et al., and those found in the present study are discussed. These causes may pertain to the experimental design, but also to differences in emotional impact of the stimulus material that was used in both studies.

  8. Wing rock suppression using forebody vortex control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, T. T.; Ong, L. Y.; Suarez, C. J.; Malcolm, G. N.

    1991-01-01

    Static and free-to-roll tests were conducted in a water tunnel with a configuration that consisted of a highly-slender forebody and 78-deg sweep delta wings. Flow visualization was performed and the roll angle histories were obtained. The fluid mechanisms governing the wing rock of this configuration were identified. Different means of suppressing wing rock by controlling the forebody vortices using small blowing jets were also explored. Steady blowing was found to be capable of suppressing wing rock, but significant vortex asymmetries had to be induced at the same time. On the other hand, alternating pulsed blowing on the left and right sides of the forebody was demonstrated to be potentially an effective means of suppressing wing rock and eliminating large asymmetric moments at high angles of attack.

  9. The pressure suppression system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aust, E.

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear plants with boiling water reactors have a safety containment with a pressure suppression system (PSS). Proceeding on significant self-developments, today the three PSS-lines of General Electric Co. (GE), Kraftwerk Union AG (KWU) and ASEA-ATOM are predominant, which are currently represented by the MARK III type, the KWU type 72 and the BWR 75 containment. In addition, there are special developments for the nuclear ship propulsion and for the pressurized water reactors in the Soviet Union. Key design values of the PSS allow a first valuation of its loads during a hypothetical loss-of-coolant accident. (orig.) [de

  10. Disease Suppressive Soils: New Insights from the Soil Microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlatter, Daniel; Kinkel, Linda; Thomashow, Linda; Weller, David; Paulitz, Timothy

    2017-11-01

    Soils suppressive to soilborne pathogens have been identified worldwide for almost 60 years and attributed mainly to suppressive or antagonistic microorganisms. Rather than identifying, testing and applying potential biocontrol agents in an inundative fashion, research into suppressive soils has attempted to understand how indigenous microbiomes can reduce disease, even in the presence of the pathogen, susceptible host, and favorable environment. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing of microbiomes have provided new tools to reexamine and further characterize the nature of these soils. Two general types of suppression have been described: specific and general suppression, and theories have been developed around these two models. In this review, we will present three examples of currently-studied model systems with features representative of specific and general suppressiveness: suppression to take-all (Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici), Rhizoctonia bare patch of wheat (Rhizoctonia solani AG-8), and Streptomyces. To compare and contrast the two models of general versus specific suppression, we propose a number of hypotheses about the nature and ecology of microbial populations and communities of suppressive soils. We outline the potential and limitations of new molecular techniques that can provide novel ways of testing these hypotheses. Finally, we consider how this greater understanding of the phytobiome can facilitate sustainable disease management in agriculture by harnessing the potential of indigenous soil microbes.

  11. Wortmannin efficiently suppresses the recovery from radiation-induced damage in pimonidazole-unlabeled quiescent tumor cell population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masunaga, Shin-ichiro; Suzuki, Minoru; Kondo, Natsuko; Narabayashi, Masaru; Ono, Koji; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Hiroki; Maruhashi, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Labeling of proliferating (P) cells in mice bearing EL4 tumors was achieved by continuous administration of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU). Tumors were irradiated with γ-rays at 1 h after pimonidazole administration followed by caffeine or wortmannin treatment. Twenty-four hours later, assessment of the responses of quiescent (Q) and total (=P+Q) cell populations were based on the frequencies of micronucleation and apoptosis using immunofluorescence staining for BrdU. The response of the pimonidazole-unlabeled tumor cell fractions was assessed by means of apoptosis frequency using immunofluorescence staining for pimonidazole. The pimonidazole-unlabeled cell fraction showed significantly enhanced radio-sensitivity compared with the whole cell fraction more remarkably in Q cells than total cells. However, a significantly greater decrease in radio-sensitivity in the pimonidazole-unlabeled than the whole cell fraction, evaluated using an assay performed 24 hours after irradiation, was more clearly observed in Q cells than total cells. In both the pimonidazole-unlabeled and the whole cell fractions, wortmannin efficiently suppressed the reduction in sensitivity due to delayed assay. Wortmannin combined with γ-ray irradiation is useful for suppressing the recovery from radiation-induced damage especially in the pimonidazole-unlabeled cell fraction within the total and Q tumor cell populations. (author)

  12. Dexamethasone-suppressed cortisol awakening response predicts treatment outcome in posttraumatic stress disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijdam, M. J.; van Amsterdam, J. G. C.; Gersons, B. P. R.; Olff, M.

    2015-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been associated with several alterations in the neuroendocrine system, including enhanced cortisol suppression in response to the dexamethasone suppression test. The aim of this study was to examine whether specific biomarkers of PTSD predict treatment

  13. Radiation effluent suppression system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Atsushi.

    1992-01-01

    In a radiation release suppression system upon accident, an electromotive valve, a pneumatic operation valve or a manual operation valve is disposed to gas ventilation pipelines which are extended from both of a dry well and a wet well of a reactor container to a stuck. In addition, a combination filter of a metal fiber filter made of stainless steel etc. and an activated carbon fiber filter is disposed in the midway of pipelines in a reactor building. With such a constitution, the inside of the container can be depressurized (prevention of ruptures) and the amount of radioactive substances released to circumstances is remarkably suppressed by the effect of radioactive substance capturing effect of the metal fiber filter made of stainless steel etc. disposed in the vent pipe in the container and a radioactive substance capturing effect by the combination filter of the metal fiber filter made of stainless steel, etc. and the activated carbon fiber filter disposed in the gas ventilation pipelines even upon occurrence of an accident exceeding design basis. Systems can be simplified and minimized, and cost down can also be attained. (N.H.)

  14. Planck-suppressed operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assassi, Valentin; Baumann, Daniel; Green, Daniel; McAllister, Liam

    2014-01-01

    We show that the recent Planck limits on primordial non-Gaussianity impose strong constraints on light hidden sector fields coupled to the inflaton via operators suppressed by a high mass scale Λ. We study a simple effective field theory in which a hidden sector field is coupled to a shift-symmetric inflaton via arbitrary operators up to dimension five. Self-interactions in the hidden sector lead to non-Gaussianity in the curvature perturbations. To be consistent with the Planck limit on local non-Gaussianity, the coupling to any hidden sector with light fields and natural cubic couplings must be suppressed by a very high scale Λ > 10 5 H. Even if the hidden sector has Gaussian correlations, nonlinearities in the mixing with the inflaton still lead to non-Gaussian curvature perturbations. In this case, the non-Gaussianity is of the equilateral or orthogonal type, and the Planck data requires Λ > 10 2 H

  15. Auger electron emitter against multiple myeloma - targeted endo-radio-therapy with {sup 125}I-labeled thymidine analogue 5-iodo-4'-thio-2'-deoxyuridine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgenroth, Agnieszka, E-mail: amorgenroth@ukaachen.de [Nuclear Medicine Clinic, University Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 23, D-89081 Ulm (Germany); Nuclear Medicine Clinic, University Aachen, RWTH, Pauwelsstrasse 30, D-52074 Aachen (Germany); Dinger, Cornelia; Zlatopolskiy, Boris D.; Al-Momani, Ehab; Glatting, Gerhard [Nuclear Medicine Clinic, University Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 23, D-89081 Ulm (Germany); Mottaghy, Felix M. [Nuclear Medicine Clinic, University Aachen, RWTH, Pauwelsstrasse 30, D-52074 Aachen (Germany); Reske, Sven N. [Nuclear Medicine Clinic, University Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 23, D-89081 Ulm (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Introduction: Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell malignancy characterized by accumulation of malignant, terminally differentiated B cells in the bone marrow. Despite advances in therapy, MM remains an incurable disease. Novel therapeutic approaches are, therefore, urgently needed. Auger electron-emitting radiopharmaceuticals are attractive for targeted nano-irradiation therapy, given that DNA of malignant cells is selectively addressed. Here we evaluated the antimyeloma potential of the Auger electron-emitting thymidine analogue {sup 125}I-labeled 5-iodo-4'-thio-2'-deoxyuridine ([{sup 125}I]ITdU). Methods: Cellular uptake and DNA incorporation of [{sup 125}I]ITdU were determined in fluorodeoxyuridine-pretreated KMS12BM, U266, dexamethasone-sensitive MM1.S and -resistant MM1.R cell lines. The effect of stimulation with interleukin 6 (IL6) or insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) on the intracellular incorporation of [{sup 125}I]ITdU was investigated in cytokine-sensitive MM1.S and MM1.R cell lines. Apoptotic cells were identified using Annexin V. Cleavage of caspase 3 and PARP was visualized by Western blot. DNA fragmentation was investigated using laddering assay. Therapeutic efficiency of [{sup 125}I]ITdU was proven by clonogenic assay. Results: [{sup 125}I]ITdU was shown to be efficiently incorporated into DNA of malignant cells, providing a promising mechanism for delivering highly toxic Auger radiation emitters into tumor DNA. [{sup 125}I]ITdU had a potent antimyeloma effect in cell lines representing distinct disease stages and, importantly, in cell lines sensitive or resistant to the conventional therapeutic agent, but was not toxic for normal plasma and bone marrow stromal cells. Furthermore, [{sup 125}I]ITdU abrogated the protective actions of IL6 and IGF1 on MM cells. [{sup 125}I]ITdU induced massive damage in the DNA of malignant plasma cells, which resulted in efficient inhibition of clonogenic growth. Conclusion: These studies may provide a

  16. Proton density-weighted MR imaging of the knee: fat suppression versus without fat suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, So-Yeon; Kim, Sun Ki; Jee, Won-Hee; Kim, Jung-Man

    2011-01-01

    To prospectively evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of proton density-weighted imaging with and without fat suppression for detecting meniscal tears. The study involved 48 patients who underwent arthroscopy less than 3 months after proton density-weighted imaging with and without fat suppression. Sagittal images were independently reviewed by two radiologists for the presence of meniscal tears. Medial and lateral menisci were separately analyzed in terms of anterior horn, body, and posterior horn. Interobserver agreement was assessed using κ coefficients. The McNemar test was used to determine any differences between the two methods in terms of sensitivity and specificity. Arthroscopy findings were used as the diagnostic reference standard. Arthroscopy revealed 71 tears involving 85 meniscal segments: 34 medial meniscal segments and 51 lateral meniscal segments. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of each radiologist were 95% (81/85), 92% (186/203), and 93% (267/288), and 93% (79/85), 93% (189/203), and 93% (268/288) when using fat-suppressed proton density-weighted imaging, and 91% (77/85), 93% (189/203), and 92% (266/288), and 91% (77/85), 93% (188/203), and 92% (265/288) when using proton density-weighted imaging without fat suppression, respectively. Interobserver agreement for meniscal tears was very high with proton-weighted imaging with (κ = 0.87) or without (κ = 0.86) fat suppression. There were no significant differences for detection of medial meniscal tears when using proton density-weighted imaging with or without fat suppression for both readers (p > 0.05). Fat-suppressed proton density-weighted imaging can replace proton density-weighted imaging without fat suppression for the detection of meniscal tears. (orig.)

  17. Proton density-weighted MR imaging of the knee: fat suppression versus without fat suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, So-Yeon; Kim, Sun Ki [Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jee, Won-Hee [Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Catholic University of Korea, Diagnostic Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung-Man [Catholic University of Korea, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    To prospectively evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of proton density-weighted imaging with and without fat suppression for detecting meniscal tears. The study involved 48 patients who underwent arthroscopy less than 3 months after proton density-weighted imaging with and without fat suppression. Sagittal images were independently reviewed by two radiologists for the presence of meniscal tears. Medial and lateral menisci were separately analyzed in terms of anterior horn, body, and posterior horn. Interobserver agreement was assessed using {kappa} coefficients. The McNemar test was used to determine any differences between the two methods in terms of sensitivity and specificity. Arthroscopy findings were used as the diagnostic reference standard. Arthroscopy revealed 71 tears involving 85 meniscal segments: 34 medial meniscal segments and 51 lateral meniscal segments. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of each radiologist were 95% (81/85), 92% (186/203), and 93% (267/288), and 93% (79/85), 93% (189/203), and 93% (268/288) when using fat-suppressed proton density-weighted imaging, and 91% (77/85), 93% (189/203), and 92% (266/288), and 91% (77/85), 93% (188/203), and 92% (265/288) when using proton density-weighted imaging without fat suppression, respectively. Interobserver agreement for meniscal tears was very high with proton-weighted imaging with ({kappa} = 0.87) or without ({kappa} = 0.86) fat suppression. There were no significant differences for detection of medial meniscal tears when using proton density-weighted imaging with or without fat suppression for both readers (p > 0.05). Fat-suppressed proton density-weighted imaging can replace proton density-weighted imaging without fat suppression for the detection of meniscal tears. (orig.)

  18. A pilot study examining density of suppression measurement in strabismus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piano, Marianne; Newsham, David

    2015-01-01

    Establish whether the Sbisa bar, Bagolini filter (BF) bar, and neutral density filter (NDF) bar, used to measure density of suppression, are equivalent and possess test-retest reliability. Determine whether density of suppression is altered when measurement equipment/testing conditions are changed. Our pilot study had 10 subjects aged ≥18 years with childhood-onset strabismus, no ocular pathologies, and no binocular vision when manifest. Density of suppression upon repeated testing, with clinic lights on/off, and using a full/reduced intensity light source, was investigated. Results were analysed for test-retest reliability, equivalence, and changes with alteration of testing conditions. Test-retest reliability issues were present for the BF bar (median 6 filter change from first to final test, p = 0.021) and NDF bar (median 5 filter change from first to final test, p = 0.002). Density of suppression was unaffected by environmental illumination or fixation light intensity variations. Density of suppression measurements were higher when measured with the NDF bar (e.g. NDF bar = 1.5, medium suppression, vs BF bar = 6.5, light suppression). Test-retest reliability issues may be present for the two filter bars currently still under manufacture. Changes in testing conditions do not significantly affect test results, provided the same filter bar is used consistently for testing. Further studies in children with strabismus having active amblyopia treatment would be of benefit. Despite extensive use of these tests in the UK, this is to our knowledge the first study evaluating filter bar equivalence/reliability.

  19. Patterns and Predictors of Tic Suppressibility in Youth With Tic Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conelea, Christine A; Wellen, Brianna; Woods, Douglas W; Greene, Deanna J; Black, Kevin J; Specht, Matthew; Himle, Michael B; Lee, Han-Joo; Capriotti, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Tic suppression is the primary target of tic disorder treatment, but factors that influence voluntary tic inhibition are not well understood. Several studies using the Tic Suppression Task have demonstrated significant inter-individual variability in tic suppressibility but have individually been underpowered to address correlates of tic suppression. The present study explored patterns and clinical correlates of reward-enhanced tic suppression in youth with tic disorders using a large, pooled dataset. Individual-level data from nine studies using the Tic Suppression Task were pooled, yielding a sample of 99 youth with tic disorders. Analyses examined patterns of tic suppressibility and the relationship between tic suppressibility and demographic and clinical characteristics. A large majority of youth demonstrated a high degree of tic suppression, but heterogeneous patterns of tic suppressibility were also observed. Better tic suppressibility was related to older age and more frequent tics but unrelated to other clinical variables, including presence of psychiatric comorbidity, psychotropic medication status, tic and premonitory urge severity, and self-rated tic suppressibility. The mechanisms underlying the observed heterogeneity in reward-enhanced tic suppressibility warrant further investigation. The Tic Suppression Task is a promising method for testing mechanistic hypotheses related to tic suppression.

  20. Suppress to feel and remember less: Neural correlates of explicit and implicit emotional suppression on perception and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsumi, Yuta; Dolcos, Sanda

    2018-02-09

    Available evidence suggests that emotion regulation can modulate both immediate (emotional experience) and long-term (episodic memory) effects of emotion, and that both explicit and implicit forms may be effective. However, neural mechanisms by which explicit and implicit emotional suppression affect these phenomena remain unclear, particularly regarding their effects on memory. In this study, participants rated the emotional content of negative and neutral images, following explicit (verbal instructions) or implicit (priming) induction of emotional suppression goals, during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants' memory for the images was tested one week later. Behaviorally, explicit suppression reduced emotional ratings of negative images, whereas both explicit and implicit suppression reduced subsequent memory. At the neural level, the engagement of explicit suppression was uniquely associated with decreased activity in the amygdala (AMY), during emotional ratings, and in the AMY and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), during successful encoding. Although both explicit and implicit suppression diminished functional connectivity between these regions and the hippocampus (HC) linked to successful encoding, explicit suppression was uniquely associated with interference with AMY-HC interactions, which no longer predicted subsequent memory for the explicitly-suppressed items. Overall, these findings advance our understanding of the common and dissociable mechanisms of explicit and implicit emotional suppression on perception and memory, and suggest their impact on both bottom-up and top-down mechanisms involved in emotion-cognition interactions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Overcoming fixation with repeated memory suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angello, Genna; Storm, Benjamin C; Smith, Steven M

    2015-01-01

    Fixation (blocks to memories or ideas) can be alleviated not only by encouraging productive work towards a solution, but, as the present experiments show, by reducing counterproductive work. Two experiments examined relief from fixation in a word-fragment completion task. Blockers, orthographically similar negative primes (e.g., ANALOGY), blocked solutions to word fragments (e.g., A_L_ _GY) in both experiments. After priming, but before the fragment completion test, participants repeatedly suppressed half of the blockers using the Think/No-Think paradigm, which results in memory inhibition. Inhibiting blockers did not alleviate fixation in Experiment 1 when conscious recollection of negative primes was not encouraged on the fragment completion test. In Experiment 2, however, when participants were encouraged to remember negative primes at fragment completion, relief from fixation was observed. Repeated suppression may nullify fixation effects, and promote creative thinking, particularly when fixation is caused by conscious recollection of counterproductive information.

  2. Pressure suppression device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Toyokazu.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a pressure suppression device for a gas cooled reactor wherein the coolant is discharged in a reactor building by a loss-of-coolant accident or the like, the increase in the pressure and temperature is controlled and thermal energy of the discharged coolant of high temperature and high pressure can be absorbed. Constitution: A low heat source unit is provided at the upper part in an inner space of a reactor building provided around the reactor, and at the upper part of the low heat source unit a stirring fan for mixing gas within the building, and a low heat source circulating the low heat source through a pipe is connected to the low heat source unit. The low heat source unit is provided with the pipe arranged in a spiral shape at the upper part of the space of the unit, and a large number of fins are provided at the outer surface of the pipe for increasing the transmission area and improve the heat exchange. When the coolant of high temperature and high pressure has been lost in the building, the thermal energy of the coolant is absorbed by the low heat source unit. (Aizawa, K.)

  3. Design and testing of a unique active Compton-suppressed LaBr3(Ce) detector system for improved sensitivity assays of TRU in remote-handled TRU wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. K. Hartwell; M. E. McIlwain; J. A. Kulisek

    2007-10-01

    The US Department of Energy’s transuranic (TRU) waste inventory includes about 4,500 m3 of remote-handled TRU (RH-TRU) wastes composed of a variety of containerized waste forms having a contact surface dose rate that exceeds 2 mSv/hr (200 mrem/hr) containing waste materials with a total TRU concentration greater than 3700 Bq/g (100 nCi/g). As part of a research project to investigate the use of active Compton-suppressed room-temperature gamma-ray detectors for direct non-destructive quantification of the TRU content of these RH-TRU wastes, we have designed and purchased a unique detector system using a LaBr3(Ce) primary detector and a NaI(Tl) suppression mantle. The LaBr3(Ce) primary detector is a cylindrical unit ~25 mm in diameter by 76 mm long viewed by a 38 mm diameter photomultiplier. The NaI(Tl) suppression mantle (secondary detector) is 175 mm by 175 mm with a center well that accommodates the primary detector. An important feature of this arrangement is the lack of any “can” between the primary and secondary detectors. These primary and secondary detectors are optically isolated by a thin layer (.003") of aluminized kapton, but the hermetic seal and thus the aluminum can surrounds the outer boundary of the detector system envelope. The hermetic seal at the primary detector PMT is at the PMT wall. This arrangement virtually eliminates the “dead” material between the primary and secondary detectors, a feature that preliminary modeling indicated would substantially improve the Compton suppression capability of this device. This paper presents both the expected performance of this unit determined from modeling with MCNPX, and the performance measured in our laboratory with radioactive sources.

  4. Ship Systems Survivability Test Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Area for testing survivability of shipboard systems to include electrical, communications, and fire suppression. Multipurpose test range for supporting gun firing,...

  5. Managing for soil health can suppress pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Hodson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A “healthy” soil can be thought of as one that functions well, both agronomically and ecologically, and one in which soil biodiversity and crop management work in synergy to suppress pests and diseases. UC researchers have pioneered many ways of managing soil biology for pest management, including strategies such as soil solarization, steam treatment and anaerobic soil disinfestation, as well as improvements on traditional methods, such as reducing tillage, amending soil with organic materials, and cover cropping. As managing for soil health becomes more of an explicit focus due to restrictions on the use of soil fumigants, integrated soil health tests will be needed that are validated for use in California. Other research needs include breeding crops for disease resistance and pest suppressive microbial communities as well as knowledge of how beneficial organisms influence plant health.

  6. Myc suppression of Nfkb2 accelerates lymphomagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, Ulrich; Huber, Jürgen; Nilsson, Jonas A; Fallahi, Mohammad; Hall, Mark A; Peschel, Christian; Cleveland, John L

    2010-01-01

    Deregulated c-Myc expression is a hallmark of several human cancers where it promotes proliferation and an aggressive tumour phenotype. Myc overexpression is associated with reduced activity of Rel/NF-κB, transcription factors that control the immune response, cell survival, and transformation, and that are frequently altered in cancer. The Rel/NF-κB family member NFKB2 is altered by chromosomal translocations or deletions in lymphoid malignancies and deletion of the C-terminal ankyrin domain of NF-κB2 augments lymphocyte proliferation. Precancerous Eμ-Myc-transgenic B cells, Eμ-Myc lymphomas and human Burkitt lymphoma samples were assessed for Nfkb2 expression. The contribution of Nfkb2 to Myc-driven apoptosis, proliferation, and lymphomagenesis was tested genetically in vivo. Here we report that the Myc oncoprotein suppresses Nfkb2 expression in vitro in primary mouse fibroblasts and B cells, and in vivo in the Eμ-Myc transgenic mouse model of human Burkitt lymphoma (BL). NFKB2 suppression by Myc was also confirmed in primary human BL. Promoter-reporter assays indicate that Myc-mediated suppression of Nfkb2 occurs at the level of transcription. The contribution of Nfkb2 to Myc-driven lymphomagenesis was tested in vivo, where Nfkb2 loss was shown to accelerate lymphoma development in Eμ-Myc transgenic mice, by impairing Myc's apoptotic response. Nfkb2 is suppressed by c-Myc and harnesses Myc-driven lymphomagenesis. These data thus link Myc-driven lymphomagenesis to the non-canonical NF-κB pathway

  7. Compton suppression gamma ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landsberger, S.; Iskander, F.Y.; Niset, M.; Heydorn, K.

    2002-01-01

    In the past decade there have been many studies to use Compton suppression methods in routine neutron activation analysis as well as in the traditional role of low level gamma ray counting of environmental samples. On a separate path there have been many new PC based software packages that have been developed to enhance photopeak fitting. Although the newer PC based algorithms have had significant improvements, they still suffer from being effectively used in weak gamma ray lines in natural samples or in neutron activated samples that have very high Compton backgrounds. We have completed a series of experiments to show the usefulness of Compton suppression. As well we have shown the pitfalls when using Compton suppression methods for high counting deadtimes as in the case of neutron activated samples. We have also investigated if counting statistics are the same both suppressed and normal modes. Results are presented in four separate experiments. (author)

  8. Hearing aid noise suppression and working memory function

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Rosa-Linde; Neher, Tobias; Wagener, Kirsten C.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Research findings concerning the relation between benefit from hearing aid (HA) noise suppression and working memory function are inconsistent. The current study thus investigated the effects of three noise suppression algorithms on auditory working memory and the relation with reading span.DESIGN: Using a computer simulation of bilaterally fitted HAs, four settings were tested: (1) unprocessed, (2) directional microphones, (3) single-channel noise reduction and (4) binaural cohere...

  9. Physical model of lean suppression pressure oscillation phenomena: steam condensation in the light water reactor pressure suppression system (PSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCauley, E.W.; Holman, G.S.; Aust, E.; Schwan, H.; Vollbrandt, J.

    1980-01-01

    Using the results of large scale multivent tests conducted by GKSS, a physical model of chugging is developed. The unique combination of accurate digital data and cinematic data has provided the derivation of a detailed, quantified correlation between the dynamic physical variables and the associated two-phase thermo-hydraulic phenomena occurring during lean suppression (chugging) phases of the loss-of-coolant accident in a boiling water reactor pressure suppression system

  10. Memory suppression is an active process that improves over childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro M Paz-Alonso

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We all have memories that we prefer not to think about. The ability to suppress retrieval of unwanted memories has been documented in behavioral and neuroimaging research using the Think/No-Think (TNT paradigm with adults. Attempts to stop memory retrieval are associated with increased activation of lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC and concomitant reduced activation in medial temporal lobe (MTL structures. However, the extent to which children have the ability to actively suppress their memories is unknown. This study investigated memory suppression in middle childhood using the TNT paradigm. Forty children aged 8 to 12 and 30 young adults were instructed either to remember (Think or suppress (No-Think the memory of the second word of previously studied word-pairs, when presented with the first member as a reminder. They then performed two different cued recall tasks, testing their memory for the second word in each pair after the Think/No-Think phase using the same first studied word within the pair as a cue (intra-list cue and also an independent cue (extra-list cue. Children exhibited age-related improvements in memory suppression from age 8 to 12 in both memory tests, against a backdrop of overall improvements in declarative memory over this age range. These findings suggest that memory suppression is an active process that develops during late childhood, likely due to an age-related refinement in the ability to engage PFC to down-regulate activity in areas involved in episodic retrieval.

  11. Beyond viral suppression of HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeffrey V.; Safreed-Harmon, Kelly; Barton, Simon E

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) adopted a new Global Health Sector Strategy on HIV for 2016-2021. It establishes 15 ambitious targets, including the '90-90-90' target calling on health systems to reduce under-diagnosis of HIV, treat a greater number of those diagnosed......, and ensure that those being treated achieve viral suppression. DISCUSSION: The WHO strategy calls for person-centered chronic care for people living with HIV (PLHIV), implicitly acknowledging that viral suppression is not the ultimate goal of treatment. However, it stops short of providing an explicit target...... for health-related quality of life. It thus fails to take into account the needs of PLHIV who have achieved viral suppression but still must contend with other intense challenges such as serious non-communicable diseases, depression, anxiety, financial stress, and experiences of or apprehension about HIV...

  12. Noise suppression in duct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, A.; Barfeh, M.A.G.

    2001-01-01

    In air-conditioning system the noise generated by supply fan is carried by conditioned air through the ductwork. The noise created in ductwork run may be transmission, regenerative and ductborne. Transmission noise is fan noise, regenerative noise is due to turbulence in flow and ductborne noise is the noise radiating from duct to surroundings. Some noise is attenuated in ducts also but if noise level is high then it needs to be attenuated. A simple mitre bend can attenuate-noise. This principle is extended to V and M-shape ducts with inside lining of fibreglass, which gave maximum attenuation of 77 dB and 62 dB respectively corresponding to 8 kHz frequency as compared to mitre, bend giving maximum 18 dB attenuation. Sound level meter measured sound levels with octave band filter and tests were conducted in anechoic room. A V-shape attenuator can be used at fan outlet and high frequency noise can be minimized greatly. (author)

  13. Aging and repeated thought suppression success.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann E Lambert

    Full Text Available Intrusive thoughts and attempts to suppress them are common, but while suppression may be effective in the short-term, it can increase thought recurrence in the long-term. Because intentional suppression involves controlled processing, and many aspects of controlled processing decline with age, age differences in thought suppression outcomes may emerge, especially over repeated thought suppression attempts as cognitive resources are expended. Using multilevel modeling, we examined age differences in reactions to thought suppression attempts across four thought suppression sequences in 40 older and 42 younger adults. As expected, age differences were more prevalent during suppression than during free monitoring periods, with younger adults indicating longer, more frequent thought recurrences and greater suppression difficulty. Further, younger adults' thought suppression outcomes changed over time, while trajectories for older adults' were relatively stable. Results are discussed in terms of older adults' reduced thought recurrence, which was potentially afforded by age-related changes in reactive control and distractibility.

  14. Accentuation-suppression and scaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik; Bundesen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    The limitations of the visual short-term memory (VSTM) system have become an increasingly popular field of study. One line of inquiry has focused on the way attention selects objects for encoding into VSTM. Using the framework of the Theory of Visual Attention (TVA; Bundesen, 1990 Psychological...... a scaling mechanism modulating the decision bias of the observer and also through an accentuation-suppression mechanism that modulates the degree of subjective relevance of objects, contracting attention around fewer, highly relevant objects while suppressing less relevant objects. These mechanisms may...

  15. Enhancement of soil suppressiveness against Rhizoctonia solani in sugar beet by organic amendments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, J.; Schilder, M.T.

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of different organic soil amendments on disease suppression to Rhizoctoniasolani AG 2-2IIIB was tested in a bio-assay with sugar beet as a test plant. Lysobacter populations in soil were quantified as a possible mechanism for disease suppression. Disease spread through the bio-assay

  16. Improved attractants for enhancing tsetse fly suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-09-01

    At the initiation of this co-ordinated research project (CRP), the available visually attractant devices and odours for entomological monitoring and for suppression of tsetse fly populations were not equally effective against all economically important tsetse fly species. For species like G. austeni, G. brevipalpis, G. swynnertoni and some species of the PALPALIS-group of tsetse flies no sufficiently effective combinations of visual or odour attractants were available for efficient suppression and standardized monitoring as part of an operational integrated intervention campaign against the tsetse and trypanosomosis (T and T) problem. The Co-ordinated Research Project on Improved Attractants for Enhancing the Efficiency of Tsetse Fly Suppression Operations and Barrier Systems used in Tsetse Control/Eradication Campaigns involved (a) the identification, synthesis and provision of candidate kairomones, their analogues and of dispensers; (b) laboratory screening of synthesised candidate kairomones through electrophysiological studies and wind tunnel experiments; (c) field tests of candidate kairomones alone or as part of odour blends, in combination with available and or new trap designs; and (d) analysis of hydrocarbons that influence tsetse sexual behaviour. The CRP accomplished several main objectives, namely: - The screening of new structurally related compounds, including specific stereoisomers, of known tsetse attractants resulted in the identification of several new candidate odour attractants with promising potential. - An efficient two-step synthetic method was developed for the pilot plant scale production of 3-n-propyphenol, synergistic tsetse kairomone component. - Electrophysiological experiments complemented with wind tunnel studies provided an efficient basis for the laboratory screening of candidate attractants prior to the initiation of laborious field tests. - New traps were identified and modifications of existing traps were tested for some species

  17. Consequences of stereotype suppression and internal suppression motivation : A self-regulation approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gordijn, Ernestine H; Hindriks, Inge; Koomen, W; Dijksterhuis, Ap; van Knipppenberg, A.

    The present research studied the effects of suppression of stereotypes on subsequent stereotyping. Moreover, the moderating influence of motivation to suppress stereotypes was examined. The first three experiments showed that suppression of stereotypes leads to the experience of engaging in

  18. Persistence and Suppressiveness of Pasteuria penetrans to Meloidogyne arenaria Race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetintas, R; Dickson, D W

    2004-12-01

    The long-term persistence and suppressiveness of Pasteuria penetrans against Meloidogyne arenaria race 1 were investigated in a formerly root-knot nematode suppressive site following 9 years of continuous cultivation of three treatments and 4 years of continuous peanut. The three treatments were two M. arenaria race 1 nonhost crops, bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum cv. Pensacola var. Tifton 9), rhizomal peanut (Arachis glabrata cv. Florigraze), and weed fallow. Two root-knot nematode susceptible weeds commonly observed in weed fallow plots were hairy indigo (Indigofera hirsuta) and alyce clover (Alysicarpus vaginalis). The percentage of J2 with endospores attached reached the highest level of 87% in 2000 in weed fallow, and 63% and 53% in 2002 in bahiagrass and rhizomal peanut, respectively. The percentage of endospore-filled females extracted from peanut roots grown in weed fallow plots increased from nondetectable in 1999 to 56% in 2002, whereas the percentages in bahiagrass and rhizomal peanut plots were 41% and 16%, respectively. Over 4 years, however, there was no strong evidence that endospores densities reached suppressive levels because peanut roots, pods, and pegs were heavily galled, and yields were suppressed. This might be attributed to the discovery of M. javanica infecting peanut in this field in early autumn 2001. A laboratory test confirmed that although the P. penetrans isolate specific to M. arenaria attached to M. javanica J2, no development occurred. In summary, P. penetrans increased on M. arenaria over a 4-year period, but apparently because of infection of M. javanica on peanut at the field site root-knot disease was not suppressed. This was confirmed by a suppressive soil test that showed a higher level of soil suppressiveness than occurred in the field (P

  19. Depth of suppression in anisometropic amblyopia (with or without microtropia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Alison Y; Stevenson, Clare

    2012-01-01

    There are conflicting reports concerning the relationship between depth of suppression and level of amblyopia in strabismics. Little attention has been given to anisometropes. This study examines the density of suppression in anisometropic amblyopes, with or without microtropia, and investigates whether there is a relationship with level of amblyopia. Patients with anisometropia (defined as a difference of 1D or 0.5 D cyl), binocular single vision and a difference in corrected visual acuity of at least 0.1 logMAR between eyes were recalled. The degree of amblyopia was expressed as the interocular difference using the Bailey-Lovie logMAR chart. Stereoacuity (Titmus test), binocular alignment and fixation were recorded. The depth of suppression was measured using the neutral density filter bar together with the Worth four dot test at 4.5m (subtending an angle of 0.5 degrees). Best spherical equivalent (BSE) was calculated to represent anisometropia. Thirteen participants aged 8.3 years to 12.1 years (mean 9.7 years) completed the study. No significant correlation was present (r=0.10, p=0.74) between the depth of suppression and degree of amblyopia. However, there was a correlation between depth of suppression and level of stereoacuity (r=0.59, p=0.03). Six participants had microtropia and showed stronger suppression (p=0.03) and worse stereoacuity (p=0.001) than the pure anisometropes. No evidence was found of a relationship between density of suppression and amblyopia in this cohort of anisometropic amblyopes.

  20. Suppression of stratified explosive interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeks, M.K.; Shamoun, B.I.; Bonazza, R.; Corradini, M.L. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics

    1998-01-01

    Stratified Fuel-Coolant Interaction (FCI) experiments with Refrigerant-134a and water were performed in a large-scale system. Air was uniformly injected into the coolant pool to establish a pre-existing void which could suppress the explosion. Two competing effects due to the variation of the air flow rate seem to influence the intensity of the explosion in this geometrical configuration. At low flow rates, although the injected air increases the void fraction, the concurrent agitation and mixing increases the intensity of the interaction. At higher flow rates, the increase in void fraction tends to attenuate the propagated pressure wave generated by the explosion. Experimental results show a complete suppression of the vapor explosion at high rates of air injection, corresponding to an average void fraction of larger than 30%. (author)

  1. Strangeness Suppression and Color Deconfinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satz, Helmut

    2018-02-01

    The relative multiplicities for hadron production in different high energy collisions are in general well described by an ideal gas of all hadronic resonances, except that under certain conditions, strange particle rates are systematically reduced. We show that the suppression factor γs, accounting for reduced strange particle rates in pp, pA and AA collisions at different collision energies, becomes a universal function when expressed in terms of the initial entropy density s0 or the initial temperature T of the produced thermal medium. It is found that γs increases from about 0.5 to 1.0 in a narrow temperature range around the quark-hadron transition temperature Tc ≃ 160 MeV. Strangeness suppression thus disappears with the onset of color deconfinement; subsequently, full equilibrium resonance gas behavior is attained.

  2. Chk1 suppressed cell death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meuth Mark

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The role of Chk1 in the cellular response to DNA replication stress is well established. However recent work indicates a novel role for Chk1 in the suppression of apoptosis following the disruption of DNA replication or DNA damage. This review will consider these findings in the context of known pathways of Chk1 signalling and potential applications of therapies that target Chk1.

  3. In-Flight Suppressant Deployment Temperatures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bein, Donald

    2006-01-01

    .... An assessment is made of the model output versus some aircraft measurement data, fire suppressant boiling point criterion, as well as the history of altitude/temperature at which fire suppressants have been deployed...

  4. HIV Care Saves Lives: Viral Suppression is Key PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the December 2014 Vital Signs. For people living with HIV, Viral suppression is critical. By getting tested and taking HIV medicines, individuals living with HIV can achieve very low levels of HIV in the body.

  5. Quantitative measurement of interocular suppression in anisometropic amblyopia: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinrong; Hess, Robert F; Chan, Lily Y L; Deng, Daming; Yang, Xiao; Chen, Xiang; Yu, Minbin; Thompson, Benjamin

    2013-08-01

    The aims of this study were to assess (1) the relationship between interocular suppression and visual function in patients with anisometropic amblyopia, (2) whether suppression can be simulated in matched controls using monocular defocus or neutral density filters, (3) the effects of spectacle or rigid gas-permeable contact lens correction on suppression in patients with anisometropic amblyopia, and (4) the relationship between interocular suppression and outcomes of occlusion therapy. Case-control study (aims 1-3) and cohort study (aim 4). Forty-five participants with anisometropic amblyopia and 45 matched controls (mean age, 8.8 years for both groups). Interocular suppression was assessed using Bagolini striated lenses, neutral density filters, and an objective psychophysical technique that measures the amount of contrast imbalance between the 2 eyes that is required to overcome suppression (dichoptic motion coherence thresholds). Visual acuity was assessed using a logarithm minimum angle of resolution tumbling E chart and stereopsis using the Randot preschool test. Interocular suppression assessed using dichoptic motion coherence thresholds. Patients exhibited significantly stronger suppression than controls, and stronger suppression was correlated significantly with poorer visual acuity in amblyopic eyes. Reducing monocular acuity in controls to match that of cases using neutral density filters (luminance reduction) resulted in levels of interocular suppression comparable with that in patients. This was not the case for monocular defocus (optical blur). Rigid gas-permeable contact lens correction resulted in less suppression than spectacle correction, and stronger suppression was associated with poorer outcomes after occlusion therapy. Interocular suppression plays a key role in the visual deficits associated with anisometropic amblyopia and can be simulated in controls by inducing a luminance difference between the eyes. Accurate quantification of suppression

  6. In the suppression of regge cut contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chia, S.P.

    1975-07-01

    It is shown that contributions of reggeon-pomeron cuts are suppressed in amplitudes with opposite natural to the reggeon. This suppression grows logarithmically with energy. The suppression in the πP cut is, however, found to be weak. Consequence on conspiracy is discussed

  7. The measurement and treatment of suppression in amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Joanna M; Hess, Robert F; Cooperstock, Jeremy R; To, Long; Thompson, Benjamin

    2012-12-14

    Amblyopia, a developmental disorder of the visual cortex, is one of the leading causes of visual dysfunction in the working age population. Current estimates put the prevalence of amblyopia at approximately 1-3%(1-3), the majority of cases being monocular(2). Amblyopia is most frequently caused by ocular misalignment (strabismus), blur induced by unequal refractive error (anisometropia), and in some cases by form deprivation. Although amblyopia is initially caused by abnormal visual input in infancy, once established, the visual deficit often remains when normal visual input has been restored using surgery and/or refractive correction. This is because amblyopia is the result of abnormal visual cortex development rather than a problem with the amblyopic eye itself(4,5) . Amblyopia is characterized by both monocular and binocular deficits(6,7) which include impaired visual acuity and poor or absent stereopsis respectively. The visual dysfunction in amblyopia is often associated with a strong suppression of the inputs from the amblyopic eye under binocular viewing conditions(8). Recent work has indicated that suppression may play a central role in both the monocular and binocular deficits associated with amblyopia(9,10) . Current clinical tests for suppression tend to verify the presence or absence of suppression rather than giving a quantitative measurement of the degree of suppression. Here we describe a technique for measuring amblyopic suppression with a compact, portable device(11,12) . The device consists of a laptop computer connected to a pair of virtual reality goggles. The novelty of the technique lies in the way we present visual stimuli to measure suppression. Stimuli are shown to the amblyopic eye at high contrast while the contrast of the stimuli shown to the non-amblyopic eye are varied. Patients perform a simple signal/noise task that allows for a precise measurement of the strength of excitatory binocular interactions. The contrast offset at which

  8. Chromatic induction from surrounding stimuli under perceptual suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Koji; Kuriki, Ichiro; Tokunaga, Rumi; Matsumiya, Kazumichi; Shioiri, Satoshi

    2014-11-01

    The appearance of colors can be affected by their spatiotemporal context. The shift in color appearance according to the surrounding colors is called color induction or chromatic induction; in particular, the shift in opponent color of the surround is called chromatic contrast. To investigate whether chromatic induction occurs even when the chromatic surround is imperceptible, we measured chromatic induction during interocular suppression. A multicolor or uniform color field was presented as the surround stimulus, and a colored continuous flash suppression (CFS) stimulus was presented to the dominant eye of each subject. The subjects were asked to report the appearance of the test field only when the stationary surround stimulus is invisible by interocular suppression with CFS. The resulting shifts in color appearance due to chromatic induction were significant even under the conditions of interocular suppression for all surround stimuli. The magnitude of chromatic induction differed with the surround conditions, and this difference was preserved regardless of the viewing conditions. The chromatic induction effect was reduced by CFS, in proportion to the magnitude of chromatic induction under natural (i.e., no-CFS) viewing conditions. According to an analysis with linear model fitting, we revealed the presence of at least two kinds of subprocesses for chromatic induction that reside at higher and lower levels than the site of interocular suppression. One mechanism yields different degrees of chromatic induction based on the complexity of the surround, which is unaffected by interocular suppression, while the other mechanism changes its output with interocular suppression acting as a gain control. Our results imply that the total chromatic induction effect is achieved via a linear summation of outputs from mechanisms that reside at different levels of visual processing.

  9. Testing Testing Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deville, Craig; O'Neill, Thomas; Wright, Benjamin D.; Woodcock, Richard W.; Munoz-Sandoval, Ana; Gershon, Richard C.; Bergstrom, Betty

    1998-01-01

    Articles in this special section consider (1) flow in test taking (Craig Deville); (2) testwiseness (Thomas O'Neill); (3) test length (Benjamin Wright); (4) cross-language test equating (Richard W. Woodcock and Ana Munoz-Sandoval); (5) computer-assisted testing and testwiseness (Richard Gershon and Betty Bergstrom); and (6) Web-enhanced testing…

  10. Overgeneral memory and suppression of trauma memories in post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönfeld, Sabine; Ehlers, Anke; Böllinghaus, Inga; Rief, Winfried

    2007-04-01

    The study investigated the relationship between the suppression of trauma memories and overgeneral memory in 42 assault survivors with and without PTSD. Overgeneral memory (OGM) was assessed with a standard autobiographical memory test (AMT). Participants completed two further AMTs under the instructions to either suppress or not suppress assault memories, in counterbalanced order. Participants with PTSD retrieved fewer and more general memories when following the suppression instruction than participants without PTSD, but not under the control instruction. OGM correlated with PTSD symptom severity, and measures of cognitive avoidance. The results are discussed with reference to current theories of overgeneral memory and its possible relationship with PTSD.

  11. Effect of mixed and single crops on disease suppressiveness of soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiddink, G.A.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Raaijmakers, J.M.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of mixed cropping on disease suppressiveness of soils was tested for two cropping systems, Brussels sprouts¿barley and triticale¿white clover. Disease suppressiveness of field soils was evaluated in bioassays for the soilborne pathogens Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lini,

  12. Cord blood mesenchymal stem cells suppress DC-T Cell proliferation via prostaglandin B2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berk, L.C.J. van den; Jansen, B.J.H.; Snowden, S.; Siebers-Vermeulen, K.G.C.; Gilissen, C.; Kogler, G.; Figdor, C.G.; Wheelock, C.E.; Torensma, R.

    2014-01-01

    Immune suppression is a very stable property of multipotent stromal cells also known as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). All cell lines tested showed robust immune suppression not affected by a long culture history. Several mechanisms were described to account for this capability. Since several of the

  13. Instrumenting a pressure suppression experiment for a MK I boiling water reactor: another measurements engineering challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shay, W.M.; Brough, W.G.; Miller, T.B.

    1977-01-01

    A scale test facility of a pressure suppression system from a boiling water reactor was instrumented with seven types of transducers to obtain high-accuracy experimental data during a hypothetical loss-of-coolant accident. The instrumentation verified the analysis of the dynamic loading of the pressure suppression system

  14. Suppressing a Sea of Starlight : enabling technology for the direct imaging of exoplanets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, G.P.P.L.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis we present multiple techniques to suppress starlight in order to better directly image planets around other stars. We propose a laboratory setup to test a new focal-plane wavefront sensing technique. We also show an optical device that suppresses starlight using liquid crystals (the

  15. Suppression induction in vivo by a T helper clone?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crispe, I N; Owens, T

    1985-01-01

    We have previously described a helper T cell clone which augments in vivo cytotoxic T cell responses when injected at 10(4) cells per mouse, but not at 10(5) per mouse (Crispe, I. N. et al., Immunology 1984. 52:55). To test whether this dose-response relationship was due to the induction...... of suppression, naive syngeneic mice were injected with 10(5) cloned T helper cells, and their spleen cells were subsequently assayed for suppressive activity in adoptive transfer experiments. Lymphocytes from such mice indeed suppressed an antigen-specific cytotoxic response, but only in the presence...... of the same T helper cell clone freshly added at the time of adoptive transfer. On this basis we argue that the distinction between T helper cell activity and T suppressor-inducer activity corresponds to differences in cell numbers, rather than to two separate cell lineages....

  16. Experience with IBS-suppression lattice in RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litvinenko, V.N.; Luo, Y.; Ptitsyn, V.; Satogata, T.; Tepikian, S.; Bai, M.; Bruno, D.; Cameron, P.; Connolly, R.; Della Penna, A.; Drees, A.; Fedotov, A.; Ganetis, G.; Hoff, L.; Louie, W.; Malitsky, N.; Marr, G.; Marusic, A.; Montag, C.; Pilat, F.; Roser, T.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.

    2008-01-01

    An intra-beam scattering (IBS) is the limiting factor of the luminosity lifetime for RHIC operating with heavy ions. In order to suppress the IBS we designed and implemented new lattice with higher betatron tunes. This lattice had been developed during last three years and had been used for gold ions in yellow ring of the RHIC during d-Au part of the RHIC Run-8. The use of this lattice allowed both significant increases in the luminosity lifetime and the luminosity levels via reduction of beta-stars in the IPS. In this paper we report on the development, the tests and the performance of IBS-suppression lattice in RHIC, including the resulting increases in the peak and the average luminosity. We also report on our plans for future steps with the IBS suppression

  17. Habitat Management to Suppress Pest Populations: Progress and Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurr, Geoff M; Wratten, Steve D; Landis, Douglas A; You, Minsheng

    2017-01-31

    Habitat management involving manipulation of farmland vegetation can exert direct suppressive effects on pests and promote natural enemies. Advances in theory and practical techniques have allowed habitat management to become an important subdiscipline of pest management. Improved understanding of biodiversity-ecosystem function relationships means that researchers now have a firmer theoretical foundation on which to design habitat management strategies for pest suppression in agricultural systems, including landscape-scale effects. Supporting natural enemies with shelter, nectar, alternative prey/hosts, and pollen (SNAP) has emerged as a major research topic and applied tactic with field tests and adoption often preceded by rigorous laboratory experimentation. As a result, the promise of habitat management is increasingly being realized in the form of practical worldwide implementation. Uptake is facilitated by farmer participation in research and is made more likely by the simultaneous delivery of ecosystem services other than pest suppression.

  18. Smiling on the Inside: The Social Benefits of Suppressing Positive Emotions in Outperformance Situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schall, Marina; Martiny, Sarah E; Goetz, Thomas; Hall, Nathan C

    2016-05-01

    Although expressing positive emotions is typically socially rewarded, in the present work, we predicted that people suppress positive emotions and thereby experience social benefits when outperformed others are present. We tested our predictions in three experimental studies with high school students. In Studies 1 and 2, we manipulated the type of social situation (outperformance vs. non-outperformance) and assessed suppression of positive emotions. In both studies, individuals reported suppressing positive emotions more in outperformance situations than in non-outperformance situations. In Study 3, we manipulated the social situation (outperformance vs. non-outperformance) as well as the videotaped person's expression of positive emotions (suppression vs. expression). The findings showed that when outperforming others, individuals were indeed evaluated more positively when they suppressed rather than expressed their positive emotions, and demonstrate the importance of the specific social situation with respect to the effects of suppression. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  19. Emotional suppression explains the link between early life stress and plasma oxytocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohiyeddini, Changiz; Opacka-Juffry, Jolanta; Gross, James J

    2014-01-01

    Early life stress (ELS) has been found to be associated with lower concentrations of plasma oxytocin (OT) in adulthood. It is not yet clear, however, what mechanisms underlie this association. The goal of the present study was to test the role of emotional suppression as an intervening variable between ELS in childhood and plasma OT. In a nonclinical sample of 90 men, ELS, emotional suppression, and plasma OT were assessed. Emotional suppression was positively associated with ELS (r = 0.37, p emotion regulation strategy - was not correlated with ELS or plasma OT concentrations. Cross-sectional regression analyses revealed that the ELS explained variance in plasma OT via emotional suppression. Moderation analyses revealed that the combination of high ELS and high emotional suppression was associated with the lowest concentrations of plasma oxytocin. These findings are consistent with the view that emotional suppression may be one pathway linking ELS and OT.

  20. Polypyrrole Actuators for Tremor Suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaarup, Steen; Mogensen, Naja; Bay, Lasse

    2003-01-01

    Neurological tremor affecting limbs can be divided into at least 6 different types with frequencies ranging from 2 to about 20 Hz. In order to alleviate the symptoms by suppressing the tremor, sensing and actuation systems able to perform at these frequencies are needed. Electroactive polymers...... exemplify 'soft actuator' technology that may be especially suitable for use in conjunction with human limbs. The electrochemical and mechanical properties of polypyrrole dodecyl benzene sulphonate actuator films have been studied with this application in mind. The results show that the time constants...

  1. Suppression effects on musical and verbal memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schendel, Zachary A; Palmer, Caroline

    2007-06-01

    Three experiments contrasted the effects of articulatory suppression on recognition memory for musical and verbal sequences. In Experiment 1, a standard/comparison task was employed, with digit or note sequences presented visually or auditorily while participants remained silent or produced intermittent verbal suppression (saying "the") or musical suppression (singing "la"). Both suppression types decreased performance by equivalent amounts, as compared with no suppression. Recognition accuracy was lower during suppression for visually presented digits than during that for auditorily presented digits (consistent with phonological loop predictions), whereas accuracy was equivalent for visually presented notes and auditory tones. When visual interference filled the retention interval in Experiment 2, performance with visually presented notes but not digits was impaired. Experiment 3 forced participants to translate visually presented music sequences by presenting comparison sequences auditorily. Suppression effects for visually presented music resembled those for digits only when the recognition task required sensory translation of cues.

  2. Quality Control Of Compton Suppression System As An Environmental Sample Counting System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siswohartoyo, Sudarti; Soepardi, Dewita

    1996-01-01

    Quality control on Compton Suppression System has been done, i.e : 1) testing of HPGe as the main detector (FWHM, P/C d c level /n oise ) , 2) the Nal(Tl) detector shielding characteristic, 3) timing spectrum (FWHM), and 4) suppression factor. From the collected data, the characteristic of HPGe were found to be in the same range as shown in the manual. From the Nal(Tl) testing, it was found that the resolution was about 9%. From the time spectrum testing, the resolution was about 12-13 ns, while the suppression factor measurement was found to be about 4 - 4.6

  3. Pressure suppression pool thermal mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, D.H.

    1984-01-01

    A model is developed and verified to describe the thermal mixing that occurs in the pressure suppression pool (PSP) of a commercial BWR. The model is designed specifically for a Mark-I containment and is intended for use in severe accident sequence analyses. The model produces space and time dependent temperature results throughout the PSP and is useful for evaluating the bulk PSP thermal mixing, the condensation effectiveness of the PSP, and the long-term containment integrity. The model is designed to accommodate single or multiple discharging T-quenchers, a PSP circumferential circulation induced by the residual heat removal system discharge, and the thermal stratification of the pool that occurs immediately after the relief valves close. The PSP thermal mixing model is verified by comparing the model predicted temperatures to experimental temperatures that were measured in an operating BWR suppression pool. The model is then used to investigate several PSP thermal mixing problems that include the time to saturate at full relief valve flow, the temperature response to a typical stuck open relief valve scenario, and the effect of operator rotation of the relief valve discharge point

  4. Mastication suppresses initial gastric emptying by modulating gastric activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmure, H; Takada, H; Nagayama, K; Sakiyama, T; Tsubouchi, H; Miyawaki, S

    2012-03-01

    Because various mastication-related factors influence gastric activity, the functional relationship between mastication and gastric function has not been fully elucidated. To investigate the influence of mastication on gastric emptying and motility, we conducted a randomized trial to compare the effects of mastication on gastric emptying and gastric myoelectrical activity under conditions that excluded the influences of food comminution, taste, and olfaction. A (13)C-acetate breath test with electrogastrography and electrocardiography was performed in 14 healthy men who ingested a test meal with or without chewing gum. Autonomic nerve activity was evaluated by fluctuation analysis of heart rate. Gastric emptying was significantly delayed in the 'ingestion with mastication' group. Gastric myoelectrical activity was significantly suppressed during mastication and increased gradually in the post-mastication phase. A decrease in the high-frequency power of heart rate variability was observed coincidentally with gastric myoelectrical activity suppression. These findings suggest that initial gastric emptying is suppressed by mastication, and that the suppression is caused by mastication-induced inhibition of gastric activity (UMIN Clinical Trial Registration no. UMIN000005351).

  5. Safety system for pressure suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, L.E.; Ludwig, G.J.; Tulsa, O.

    1975-01-01

    The rupture disk with rated breaking points is constrained by two supporting elements and has a convex-concave shape. For pressure suppression, it is reversable inversely to its bulging. Its surface has notches which are the rated breaking points and respond to higher pressures. The centre of the rupture disk contains an area of relatively smaller thickness that will burst at lower pressure and thus makes it applicable for lower pressures. For the response of the rupture disk centre, a thrust ring with a central opening may also be used. Its edge is formed into a convex-concave section supported on the edge of the rupture disk on the exit side. The free centre of the rupture disk is then the area of relative weakness. (RW/AK) [de

  6. MEK5 suppresses osteoblastic differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneshiro, Shoichi [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Japan Community Health Care Organization Osaka Hospital, 4-2-78 Fukushima, Fukushima Ward, Osaka City, Osaka 553-0003 (Japan); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Otsuki, Dai; Yoshida, Kiyoshi; Yoshikawa, Hideki [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Higuchi, Chikahisa, E-mail: c-higuchi@umin.ac.jp [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2015-07-31

    Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5) is a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family and is activated by its upstream kinase, MAPK kinase 5 (MEK5), which is a member of the MEK family. Although the role of MEK5 has been investigated in several fields, little is known about its role in osteoblastic differentiation. In this study, we have demonstrated the role of MEK5 in osteoblastic differentiation in mouse preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and bone marrow stromal ST2 cells. We found that treatment with BIX02189, an inhibitor of MEK5, increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the gene expression of ALP, osteocalcin (OCN) and osterix, as well as it enhanced the calcification of the extracellular matrix. Moreover, osteoblastic cell proliferation decreased at a concentration of greater than 0.5 μM. In addition, knockdown of MEK5 using siRNA induced an increase in ALP activity and in the gene expression of ALP, OCN, and osterix. In contrast, overexpression of wild-type MEK5 decreased ALP activity and attenuated osteoblastic differentiation markers including ALP, OCN and osterix, but promoted cell proliferation. In summary, our results indicated that MEK5 suppressed the osteoblastic differentiation, but promoted osteoblastic cell proliferation. These results implied that MEK5 may play a pivotal role in cell signaling to modulate the differentiation and proliferation of osteoblasts. Thus, inhibition of MEK5 signaling in osteoblasts may be of potential use in the treatment of osteoporosis. - Highlights: • MEK5 inhibitor BIX02189 suppresses proliferation of osteoblasts. • MEK5 knockdown and MEK5 inhibitor promote differentiation of osteoblasts. • MEK5 overexpression inhibits differentiation of osteoblasts.

  7. Regorafenib suppresses sinusoidal obstruction syndrome in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuno, Masayuki; Hatano, Etsuro; Nakamura, Kojiro; Miyagawa-Hayashino, Aya; Kasai, Yosuke; Nishio, Takahiro; Seo, Satoru; Taura, Kojiro; Uemoto, Shinji

    2015-02-01

    Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS), a form of drug-induced liver injury related to oxaliplatin treatment, is associated with postoperative morbidity after hepatectomy. This study aimed to examine the impact of regorafenib, the first small-molecule kinase inhibitor to show efficacy against metastatic colorectal cancer, on a rat model of SOS. Rats with monocrotaline (MCT)-induced SOS were divided into two groups according to treatment with either regorafenib (6 mg/kg) or vehicle alone, which were administered at 12 and 36 h, respectively, before MCT administration. Histopathologic examination and serum biochemistry tests were performed 48 h after MCT administration. Sinusoidal endothelial cells were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. To examine whether regorafenib preserved remnant liver function, a 30% hepatectomy was performed in each group. The rats in the vehicle group displayed typical SOS features, whereas these features were suppressed in the regorafenib group. The total SOS scores were significantly lower in the regorafenib group than in the vehicle group. Immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy showed that regorafenib had a protective effect on sinusoidal endothelial cells. The postoperative survival rate after 7 d was significantly better in the regorafenib group than that in the vehicle group (26.7% versus 6.7%, P Regorafenib reduced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, which induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activation and decreased the activity of MMP-9, one of the crucial mediators of SOS development. Regorafenib suppressed MCT-induced SOS, concomitant with attenuating extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation, and MMP-9 activation, suggesting that regorafenib may be a favorable agent for use in combination with oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Charmonium formation and suppression in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Jiajun; Wang Jia; Zhuang Chao; Zhuang Pengfei

    2005-01-01

    The coupling Schroedinger equations describing the evolution of cc-bar states in nuclear matter are analytically and systematically solved via perturbation method, and the correlation between charmonium formation and nuclear absorption is investigated. After calculating J/Ψ and Ψ' suppression in nucleon-nucleus collisions and comparing with experiment data, it is found that the formation time effect plays an important rule in charmonium suppression, especially in Ψ' suppression. (authors)

  9. Poppers: more evidence of suppressed immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, J S

    1999-08-20

    Evidence from studies in mice shows that exposure to isobutyl nitrite suppresses the immune system. This immune suppression allows for bacterial growth in the lungs and livers of infected mice and can inhibit the ability of mediastinal lymph nodes to respond to antigen-specific stimulation. The mechanism for immune suppression may be a reduction in CD4+ and CD8+ T cell populations in the mediastinal lymph nodes following pulmonary infection with Listeria monocytogenes.

  10. Estudo comparativo entre o aproveitamento escolar de alunos de escola de 1º grau e teste de inibição de emissões otoacústicas transientes Comparative study between school performance on first grade children and suppression of otoacoustic transient emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Luiz de Sant’Ana Angeli

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O processamento auditivo é fundamental para a cognição e pode ocasionar deficiência no aprendizado. Os portadores de sua deficiência podem ser habilitados, melhorando o desempenho escolar. É fundamental identificá-los. Dentre os que apresentam baixo custo e facilidade operacional está o exame de emissões otoacústicas. TIPO DE ESTUDO: Clínico e experimental. OBJETIVO: Estudar a relação do aproveitamento escolar com a inibição da emissão otoacústica transiente por estímulo auditivo contralateral. Material e Métodos: Foram avaliados 39 alunos, de sete a doze anos, sendo 19 (48,7% com bom aproveitamento escolar e 20 (51,3% com aproveitamento inadequado. Os exames emissão otoacústica com inibição contralateral foram comparados aos resultados de aproveitamento escolar. RESULTADOS: A falha da supressão da otoemissão transiente por estímulo acústico contralateral foi mais encontrada no grupo de crianças com mau aproveitamento escolar. Foi estabelecido um valor de corte de 1.6 dB SPL de redução da otoemissão que caracteriza a criança como pertencente ao grupo com mau aproveitamento com sensibilidade de 65,0%, especificidade de 72,2%, acurácia de 68,4% e valor preditivo positivo de 72,2%. CONCLUSÃO: O teste da falha da inibição contralateral da emissão otoacústica por estímulo auditivo contralateral é preditivo de transtorno do aproveitamento escolar em indivíduos de seis a doze anos de idade.School learning can be hampered if there are defects on the central auditory process. Since those with auditory deficiency can be rehabilitated, it is fundamental that we identify them. Otoacoustic emissions test has low cost and operational ease. Study design: clinical and experimental. AIM: to study the relationship between school learning and transient otoacoustic emission suppression by contralateral stimuli. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 39 individuals, from 7 to 12 years of age were evaluated, 19 (48.7% with good school

  11. Spatial and Global Sensory Suppression Mapping Encompassing the Central 10° Field in Anisometropic Amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingjing; Li, Jinrong; Chen, Zidong; Liu, Jing; Yuan, Junpeng; Cai, Xiaoxiao; Deng, Daming; Yu, Minbin

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the efficacy of a novel dichoptic mapping paradigm in evaluating visual function of anisometropic amblyopes. Using standard clinical measures of visual function (visual acuity, stereo acuity, Bagolini lenses, and neutral density filters) and a novel quantitative mapping technique, 26 patients with anisometropic amblyopia (mean age = 19.15 ± 4.42 years) were assessed. Two additional psychophysical interocular suppression measurements were tested with dichoptic global motion coherence and binocular phase combination tasks. Luminance reduction was achieved by placing neutral density filters in front of the normal eye. Our study revealed that suppression changes across the central 10° visual field by mean luminance modulation in amblyopes as well as normal controls. Using simulation and an elimination of interocular suppression, we identified a novel method to effectively reflect the distribution of suppression in anisometropic amblyopia. Additionally, the new quantitative mapping technique was in good agreement with conventional clinical measures, such as interocular acuity difference (P suppression with dichoptic mapping paradigm and the results of the other two psychophysical methods (suppression mapping versus binocular phase combination, P suppression mapping versus global motion coherence, P = 0.005). The dichoptic suppression mapping technique is an effective method to represent impaired visual function in patients with anisometropic amblyopia. It offers a potential in "micro-"antisuppression mapping tests and therapies for amblyopia.

  12. Serum thyrotropin (TSH) levels in patients with suppressed pituitary function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasavada, P.; Chen, I.; Maxon, H.; Barnes, E.; Sperling, M.

    1984-01-01

    The diagnosis of borderline hyperthyroidism is difficult. A sensitive radioimmunoassay capable of detecting subnormal levels of serum TSH may be of value in confirming this diagnosis because of the suppressed pituitary function in this disease state. This sensitive assay may also be useful in monitoring the suppression of pituitary function in thyroid cancer patients receiving thyroid hormone therapy. A sensitive radioimmunoassay capable of detecting serum TSH levels as low as 0.25 μU/m1 with coefficients of variation less than 17.2% was used to measure serum TSH levels in 80 healthy subjects, 44 hyperthyroid patients, and 25 athyrotic thyroid cancer patients on daily suppressive doses of thyroxine. All healthy subjects had detectable TSH levels with a mean value of 1.17 and two standard deviation ranges of 0.41 - 2.70 μU/m1 (lognormal distribution). Although the mean +-1 SEM value of 0.63 +- 0.003 μUm1 for hyperthyroid patients and 0.76 +- 0.08 μU/ml for thyroid cancer patients were significantly lower than that of healthy subjects (t-test, p<0.05), subnormal levels of serum TSH were found in only 28.6% (12/42) and 24% (6/25) of hyperthyroid and thyroid cancer patients, respectively. TSH stimulation tests performed in 6 of the cancer patients all gave suppressed responses. Because of considerable overlap, serum TSH levels alone cannot distinguish hyperthyroidsm from euthyroidism. However, a sensitive TSH radioimmunoassay such as the one described here may be of value in evaluating the extent of pituitary suppression in thyroid cancer therapy

  13. Adaptive Active Noise Suppression Using Multiple Model Switching Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanzhen Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Active noise suppression for applications where the system response varies with time is a difficult problem. The computation burden for the existing control algorithms with online identification is heavy and easy to cause control system instability. A new active noise control algorithm is proposed in this paper by employing multiple model switching strategy for secondary path varying. The computation is significantly reduced. Firstly, a noise control system modeling method is proposed for duct-like applications. Then a multiple model adaptive control algorithm is proposed with a new multiple model switching strategy based on filter-u least mean square (FULMS algorithm. Finally, the proposed algorithm was implemented on Texas Instruments digital signal processor (DSP TMS320F28335 and real time experiments were done to test the proposed algorithm and FULMS algorithm with online identification. Experimental verification tests show that the proposed algorithm is effective with good noise suppression performance.

  14. Development of Active Flutter Suppression Wind Tunnel Testing Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    inch stainless steel precision haft ng out to the aileron surfaces. Torque was then transmitted aft through another crank-pushrod linkage...NMMltetiM Clllir llllisi Sl> ptT »I»" CmrN StiiiH tli!ii<ti> »ir|wu ŗK kUfej •*! AFFDL-TR-74-126 o 00 DEVELOPMENT OF ACTIVE FLUTTER...Installations . . 28 14. Outboard Aileron Installation 30 15. Airplane FMCS Block Diagram 35 16. Model FMCS Block Diagram 36 17. Model FMCS

  15. Suppression of developmental anomalies by maternal macrophages in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, T.; Hata, S.; Kusafuka, T.

    1990-01-01

    We tested whether nonspecific tumoricidal immune cells can suppress congenital malformations by killing precursor cells destined to cause such defects. Pretreatment of pregnant ICR mice with synthetic (Pyran copolymer) and biological (Bacillus Calmette-Guerin) agents significantly suppressed radiation- and chemical-induced congenital malformations (cleft palate, digit anomalies, tail anomalies, etc.). Such suppressive effects were associated with the activation of maternal macrophages by these agents, but were lost either after the disruption of activated macrophages by supersonic waves or by inhibition of their lysosomal enzyme activity with trypan blue. These results indicate that a live activated macrophage with active lysosomal enzymes can be an effector cell to suppress maldevelopment. A similar reduction by activated macrophages was observed in strain CL/Fr, which has a high spontaneous frequency of cleft lips and palates. Furthermore, Pyran-activated maternal macrophages could pass through the placenta, and enhanced urethane-induced cell killing (but not somatic mutation) in the embryo. It is likely that a maternal immunosurveillance system eliminating preteratogenic cells allows for the replacement with normal totipotent blast cells during the pregnancy to protect abnormal development

  16. Regulatory Eosinophils Suppress T Cells Partly through Galectin-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingblom, Christine; Andersson, Jennie; Andersson, Kerstin; Wennerås, Christine

    2017-06-15

    Eosinophils have the capacity to regulate the function of T cell subsets. Our aim was to test the hypothesis of the existence of a regulatory subset of eosinophils. Human eosinophils were incubated with T cells that were stimulated with allogeneic leukocytes or CD3/CD28 cross-linking. After 2 d of coculture, 11% of the eosinophils gained CD16 expression. A CD16 hi subset of eosinophils, encompassing 1-5% of all eosinophils, was also identified in the blood of healthy subjects. FACS sorting showed that these CD16 hi eosinophils were significantly stronger suppressors of T cell proliferation than were conventional CD16 neg eosinophils. Human eosinophils contain stores of the immunoregulatory protein galectin-10. We found that Ab-mediated neutralization of galectin-10 partially abrogated the suppressive function of the eosinophils. Moreover, recombinant galectin-10 by itself was able to suppress T cell proliferation. Finally, we detected galectin-10-containing immune synapses between eosinophils and lymphocytes. To conclude, we describe a subset of suppressive eosinophils expressing CD16 that may escape detection because CD16-based negative selection is the standard procedure for the isolation of human eosinophils. Moreover, we show that galectin-10 functions as a T cell-suppressive molecule in eosinophils. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  17. HIV Care Saves Lives: Viral Suppression is Key PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-11-25

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the December 2014 Vital Signs. For people living with HIV, Viral suppression is critical. By getting tested and taking HIV medicines, individuals living with HIV can achieve very low levels of HIV in the body.  Created: 11/25/2014 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 11/25/2014.

  18. Testosterone Suppression of CRH-stimulated Cortisol in Men

    OpenAIRE

    Rubinow, David R.; Roca, Catherine A.; Schmidt, Peter J.; Danaceau, Merry A.; Putnam, Karen; Cizza, Giovanni; Chrousos, George; Nieman, Lynnette

    2005-01-01

    Despite observations of age-dependent sexual dimorphisms in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, the role of androgens in the regulation of HPA axis activity in men has not been examined. We assessed this role by performing CRH stimulation tests in ten men (ages 18–45) during gonadal suppression with leuprolide acetate and during testosterone addition to leuprolide. CRH-stimulated cortisol levels as well as peak cortisol and greatest cortisol excursion were significantly lower ...

  19. Boiling Suppression in Convective Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aounallah, Y.

    2004-01-01

    The development of convective boiling heat transfer correlations and analytical models has almost exclusively been based on measurements of the total heat flux, and therefore on the overall two-phase heat transfer coefficient, when the well-known heat transfer correlations have often assumed additive mechanisms, one for each mode of heat transfer, convection and boiling. While the global performance of such correlations can readily be assessed, the predictive capability of the individual components of the correlation has usually remained elusive. This becomes important when, for example, developing mechanistic models for subcooled void formation based on the partitioning of the wall heat flux into a boiling and a convective component, or when extending a correlation beyond its original range of applications where the preponderance of the heat transfer mechanisms involved can be significantly different. A new examination of existing experimental heat transfer data obtained under fixed hydrodynamic conditions, whereby the local flow conditions are decoupled from the local heat flux, has allowed the unequivocal isolation of the boiling contribution over a broad range of thermodynamic qualities (0 to 0.8) for water at 7 MPa. Boiling suppression, as the quality increases, has consequently been quantified, thus providing valuable new insights on the functionality and contribution of boiling in convective flows. (author)

  20. Suppress flashover of GRP fire with water mist inside ISO 9705 Room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Xu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Water mist suppression tests for glass-reinforced polyester (GRP panels were conducted in ISO 9705 room. GRP panels covered part of the room and a wood crib fire was used as fire source to ignite GRP fire. A four-nozzle water mist suppression equipment was used inside test room on the time of flashover. Heat release rate of the combustion inside the room, room temperature, surface temperature of GRP panels, total heat flux to wall, ceiling and floor in specific positions were measured. Gas concentration of O2, CO, and CO2 was also measured in the corner of the room at two different levels. A thermal image video was used to record the suppression procedure inside room. Test results show that the water mist system is efficient in suppressing the flashover of GRP fire and cooling the room within short time.

  1. Emotion regulation and culture: are the social consequences of emotion suppression culture-specific?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Emily A; Lee, Tiane L; Gross, James J

    2007-02-01

    Emotional suppression has been associated with generally negative social consequences (Butler et al., 2003; Gross & John, 2003). A cultural perspective suggests, however, that these consequences may be moderated by cultural values. We tested this hypothesis in a two-part study, and found that, for Americans holding Western-European values, habitual suppression was associated with self-protective goals and negative emotion. In addition, experimentally elicited suppression resulted in reduced interpersonal responsiveness during face-to-face interaction, along with negative partner-perceptions and hostile behavior. These deleterious effects were reduced when individuals with more Asian values suppressed, and these reductions were mediated by cultural differences in the responsiveness of the suppressors. These findings suggest that many of suppression's negative social impacts may be moderated by cultural values. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Implementation of non-condensable gases condensation suppression model into the WCOBRA/TRAC-TF2 LOCA safety evaluation code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, J.; Cao, L.; Ohkawa, K.; Frepoli, C. [LOCA Integrated Services I, Westinghouse Electric Company, 1000 Westinghouse Drive, Cranberry Township, PA 16066 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The non-condensable gases condensation suppression model is important for a realistic LOCA safety analysis code. A condensation suppression model for direct contact condensation was previously developed by Westinghouse using first principles. The model is believed to be an accurate description of the direct contact condensation process in the presence of non-condensable gases. The Westinghouse condensation suppression model is further revised by applying a more physical model. The revised condensation suppression model is thus implemented into the WCOBRA/TRAC-TF2 LOCA safety evaluation code for both 3-D module (COBRA-TF) and 1-D module (TRAC-PF1). Parametric study using the revised Westinghouse condensation suppression model is conducted. Additionally, the performance of non-condensable gases condensation suppression model is examined in the ACHILLES (ISP-25) separate effects test and LOFT L2-5 (ISP-13) integral effects test. (authors)

  3. Acid suppression therapy does not predispose to Clostridium difficile infection: the case of the potential bias.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Novack

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: An adverse effect of acid-suppression medications on the occurrence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI has been a common finding of many, but not all studies. We hypothesized that association between acid-suppression medications and CDI is due to the residual confounding in comparison between patients with infection to those without, predominantly from non-tested and less sick subjects. We aimed to evaluate the effect of acid suppression therapy on incidence of CDI by comparing patients with CDI to two control groups: not tested patients and patients suspected of having CDI, but with a negative test. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study of adult patients hospitalized in internal medicine department of tertiary teaching hospital between 2005-2010 for at least three days. Controls from each of two groups (negative for CDI and non-tested were individually matched (1:1 to cases by primary diagnosis, Charlson comorbidity index, year of hospitalization and gender. Primary outcomes were diagnoses of International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9-coded CDI occurring 72 hours or more after admission. RESULTS: Patients with CDI were similar to controls with a negative test, while controls without CDI testing had lower clinical severity. In multivariable analysis, treatment by acid suppression medications was associated with CDI compared to those who were not tested (OR = 1.88, p-value = 0.032. Conversely, use of acid suppression medications in those who tested negative for the infection was not associated with CDI risk as compared to the cases (OR = 0.66; p = 0.059. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the reported epidemiologic associations between use of acid suppression medications and CDI risk may be spurious. The control group choice has an important impact on the results. Clinical differences between the patients with CDI and those not tested and not suspected of having the infection may explain the different conclusions

  4. Burst suppression probability algorithms: state-space methods for tracking EEG burst suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemali, Jessica; Ching, ShiNung; Purdon, Patrick L.; Solt, Ken; Brown, Emery N.

    2013-10-01

    Objective. Burst suppression is an electroencephalogram pattern in which bursts of electrical activity alternate with an isoelectric state. This pattern is commonly seen in states of severely reduced brain activity such as profound general anesthesia, anoxic brain injuries, hypothermia and certain developmental disorders. Devising accurate, reliable ways to quantify burst suppression is an important clinical and research problem. Although thresholding and segmentation algorithms readily identify burst suppression periods, analysis algorithms require long intervals of data to characterize burst suppression at a given time and provide no framework for statistical inference. Approach. We introduce the concept of the burst suppression probability (BSP) to define the brain's instantaneous propensity of being in the suppressed state. To conduct dynamic analyses of burst suppression we propose a state-space model in which the observation process is a binomial model and the state equation is a Gaussian random walk. We estimate the model using an approximate expectation maximization algorithm and illustrate its application in the analysis of rodent burst suppression recordings under general anesthesia and a patient during induction of controlled hypothermia. Main result. The BSP algorithms track burst suppression on a second-to-second time scale, and make possible formal statistical comparisons of burst suppression at different times. Significance. The state-space approach suggests a principled and informative way to analyze burst suppression that can be used to monitor, and eventually to control, the brain states of patients in the operating room and in the intensive care unit.

  5. Degree of thyrotropin suppression as a prognostic determinant in differentiated thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol, P; Daures, J P; Nsakala, N; Baldet, L; Bringer, J; Jaffiol, C

    1996-12-01

    We investigate whether the prognosis of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer is improved by maintaining a greater level of TSH suppression. One hundred and forty-one patients who underwent hormone therapy after thyroidectomy were followed up from 1970 to 1993 (mean, 95 months). Patients received levothyroxine (L-T4; mean dose, 2.6 micrograms/kg-day). TSH suppression was evaluated by TRH stimulation test until 1986 and thereafter by a second generation immunoradiometric assay. As TSH underwent fluctuation over time in most patients, we focused on subgroups of patients with relatively constant TSH levels during the follow-up. The relapse-free survival (RFS) was longer in the group with constantly suppressed TSH (all TSH values, or = 1 mU/L; n = 15; P 90% of undetectable TSH values; n = 19) had a trend toward a longer RFS than the remaining population (n = 102; P = 0.14). The patients with a lesser degree of TSH suppression (< 10% of undetectable TSH values; n = 27) had a shorter RFS than the remaining patients (n = 94; P < 0.01). In multivariate analysis that included TSH suppression, age, sex, histology, and tumor node metastasis stage, the degree of TSH suppression predicted RFS independently of other factors (P = 0.02). This study shows that a lesser degree of TSH suppression is associated with an increased incidence of relapse, supporting the hypothesis that a high level of TSH suppression is required for the endocrine management of thyroid cancer.

  6. Is neutrinoless double beta decay suppressed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomoda, T.

    1989-01-01

    Much effort has been devoted to the study of nuclear double beta decay, since the observation of a neutrinoless double beta (OνΒΒ) decay would be clear evidence that the electron neutrino is a Majorana particle. The OνΒΒ decay is caused by a finite Majorana neutrino mass and/or an admixture of right-handed leptonic currents. In order to relate these quantities to OνΒΒ decay rates, we need nuclear matrix elements, which are model dependent. One of the possibilities of testing nuclear models employed in such analysis is to calculate the experimentally known rates of ΒΒ decay with emission of two neutrinos (2νΒΒ decay) which occurs independently of the nature of the neutrino. There was a long-standing difficulty in such attempts that the calculated 2νΒΒ decay rates turned out to be always too large by one to two orders of magnitude. Trying to overcome such difficulty, Klapdor and Grotz as well as Vogel and Zirnbauer showed in their calculation using schematic effective interactions such that 2νΒΒ decay rates can get reduced considerably due to the nuclear ground state correlations. This paper reports that the suppression is ascribed to that of the virtual Gamow-Teller transitions from the excited 1 + states of the intermediate odd-odd -even nucleus

  7. Psychopathology and Thought Suppression: A Quantitative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Joshua C.; Harden, K. Paige; Teachman, Bethany A.

    2012-01-01

    Recent theories of psychopathology have suggested that thought suppression intensifies the persistence of intrusive thoughts, and proposed that difficulty with thought suppression may differ between groups with and without psychopathology. The current meta-analytic review evaluates empirical evidence for difficulty with thought suppression as a function of the presence and specific type of psychopathology. Based on theoretical proposals from the psychopathology literature, diagnosed and analogue samples were expected to show greater recurrence of intrusive thoughts during thought suppression attempts than non-clinical samples. However, results showed no overall differences in the recurrence of thoughts due to thought suppression between groups with and without psychopathology. There was, nevertheless, variation in the recurrence of thoughts across different forms of psychopathology, including relatively less recurrence during thought suppression for samples with symptoms of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, compared to non-clinical samples. However, these differences were typically small and provided only mixed support for existing theories. Implications for cognitive theories of intrusive thoughts are discussed, including proposed mechanisms underlying thought suppression. PMID:22388007

  8. Volatile suppressing method for radioactive iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, Atsushi; Haruguchi, Keiko.

    1997-01-01

    In the present invention, a metal plate is disposed above the pool water surface of a suppression chamber disposed to a reactor container in order to reduce evaporation of radioactive iodine released from a suppression pool. A metal plate is disposed above the pool water surface of the suppression chamber disposed to the reactor container. In addition, a metal plate is disposed around the space connecting a bent tube extending from a dry well to underwater of suppression pool water and a gas bent tube extending from the suppression chamber to an emergency gas processing system. Spray water is supplied for cooling the suppression chamber d as a means for cooling the metal plate. Then, among iodine released to the suppression chamber, elemental iodine liberated from the pool water is deposited on the surface of the metal plate, and the amount of iodine to be flown into and processed by an emergency gas processing system or a filter bent system can be reduced. (T.M.)

  9. Regional Extent of Peripheral Suppression in Amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Raiju J; Clavagnier, Simon; Bobier, William R; Thompson, Benjamin; Hess, Robert F

    2017-04-01

    Previously, we have mapped amblyopic eye suppression within the central 20° of the visual field and observed a gradient of suppression that is strongest in central vision and weakens with increasing eccentricity. In this study, using a large dichoptic display, we extend our novel suppression mapping approach further into the periphery (from 20°-60°) to assess whether suppression continues to decline with eccentricity or plateaus. Sixteen participants with amblyopia (10 with strabismus, 6 with anisometropia without strabismus; mean age: 37.9 ± 11 years) and six normal observers (mean age: 28.3 ± 5 years) took part. The visual stimulus (60° diameter), viewed from 57 cm, was composed of four concentric annuli (5° radius) with alternate contrast polarities starting from an eccentricity of 10°. Each annulus was divided into eight sectors subtending 45° of visual angle. Participants adjusted the contrast of a single sector presented to the fellow eye to match the perceived contrast of the remaining stimulus elements that were presented to the amblyopic eye. A matching contrast that was lower in the fellow eye than the amblyopic eye indicated suppression. Patients with strabismus exhibited significantly stronger interocular suppression than controls across all eccentricities (P = 0.01). Patients with anisometropia did not differ from controls (P = 0.58). Suppression varied significantly with eccentricity (P = 0.005) but this effect did not differ between patient groups (P = 0.217). In amblyopia, suppression is present beyond the central 10° in patients with strabismus. Suppression becomes weaker at greater eccentricities and this may enable peripheral fusion that could be used by binocular treatment methods.

  10. Spironolactone induces apoptosis in human mononuclear cells. Association between apoptosis and cytokine suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Martin; Sønder, S U; Nersting, J

    2006-01-01

    preceding apoptosis. An association between the two effects was also seen when testing several SPIR analogues. Contrary to TNF-alpha, the levels of IL-1beta increased in SPIR-treated cultures. However, the amount of IL-1beta in the supernatants depended upon the order of SPIR and LPS addition, as IL-1beta....... In conclusion, suppression of cytokine production by SPIR may be associated with its apoptotic potential, either directly (apoptosis is a consequence of suppressed cytokine production, or vice-versa) or indirectly (suppressed cytokine production and apoptosis are parallel but otherwise unrelated phenomena)....

  11. Simplified slow anti-coincidence circuit for Compton suppression systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Azmi, Darwish

    2008-01-01

    Slow coincidence circuits for the anti-coincidence measurements have been considered for use in Compton suppression technique. The simplified version of the slow circuit has been found to be fast enough, satisfactory and allows an easy system setup, particularly with the advantage of the automatic threshold setting of the low-level discrimination. A well-type NaI detector as the main detector surrounded by plastic guard detector has been arranged to investigate the performance of the Compton suppression spectrometer using the simplified slow circuit. The system has been tested to observe the improvement in the energy spectra for medium to high-energy gamma-ray photons from terrestrial and environmental samples

  12. Hearing aid noise suppression and working memory function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neher, Tobias; Wagener, Kirsten C.; Fischer, Rosa-Linde

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Research findings concerning the relation between benefit from hearing aid (HA) noise suppression and working memory function are inconsistent. The current study thus investigated the effects of three noise suppression algorithms on auditory working memory and the relation with reading......-to-noise ratio (SNR) improvement. Auditory working memory was assessed at +6 dB SNR using listening span and N-back paradigms. STUDY SAMPLE: Twenty experienced HA users ages 55-80 with large differences in reading span. RESULTS: For the listening span measurements, there was an influence of HA setting...... on sentence-final word recognition and recall, with the directional microphones leading to ~6% better performance than the single-channel noise reduction. For the N-back measurements, there was substantial test-retest variability and no influence of HA setting. No interactions with reading span were found...

  13. Hearing aid noise suppression and working memory function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Rosa-Linde; Neher, Tobias; Wagener, Kirsten C.

    Research findings concerning the relation between outcome from hearing aid (HA) noise suppression and working memory function are unclear. The current study thus investigated the effects of three noise suppression algorithms on auditory working memory as well as the relation with reading span......) improvement. Auditory working memory was assessed at +6 dB SNR using a listening span and an N-back paradigm. Twenty experienced HA users aged 55-80 yr with large differences in reading span took part. For the listening span measurements, there was an influence of HA setting on final word recognition...... and recall, with the directional microphone setting leading to approx. 6% better performance than the single-channel noise reduction setting. For the N-back measurements, there was substantial test-retest variability and no influence of HA setting. No interactions with reading span were found. These results...

  14. Suppression of dust explosions and ignition spots in biomass-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C; Rautalin, A

    1996-12-31

    Dust explosion characteristics of forest residue dust both at normal pressure and at elevated initial pressure have been determined in previous studies. These indices give a good base for evaluating the usability of suppression systems to obtain a sufficient level of peritoneal safety in biomass fuel handling equipment. The objectives of this project were to evaluate the usability of suppression systems and to demonstrate dust explosion suppression at elevated initial pressure. Suppression tests at 1 - 20 bar pressure will be carried out in co-operation with CTDD of British Coal, Kiddy Fire Protection and Health and Safety Executive. The tests with coal and biomass dust are scheduled to be started in March 1996 in Great Britain. In the second task of the project, self-ignition properties of forest residue dust and straw dust have been measured in a flow-through system simulating slow drying of the fuel

  15. Suppression of dust explosions and ignition spots in biomass-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C.; Rautalin, A.

    1995-12-31

    Dust explosion characteristics of forest residue dust both at normal pressure and at elevated initial pressure have been determined in previous studies. These indices give a good base for evaluating the usability of suppression systems to obtain a sufficient level of peritoneal safety in biomass fuel handling equipment. The objectives of this project were to evaluate the usability of suppression systems and to demonstrate dust explosion suppression at elevated initial pressure. Suppression tests at 1 - 20 bar pressure will be carried out in co-operation with CTDD of British Coal, Kiddy Fire Protection and Health and Safety Executive. The tests with coal and biomass dust are scheduled to be started in March 1996 in Great Britain. In the second task of the project, self-ignition properties of forest residue dust and straw dust have been measured in a flow-through system simulating slow drying of the fuel

  16. Suppression of dust explosions and ignition spots in biomass- fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C; Rautalin, A [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    Dust explosion characteristics of forest residue dust both at normal pressure and at elevated initial pressure have been determined in previous studies. These indices give a good base for evaluating the usability of suppression systems to obtain a sufficient level of operational safety in biomass fuel handling equipment. The objectives of this project were to evaluate the usability of suppression systems and to demonstrate dust explosion suppression at elevated initial pressure. Suppression tests at 1 - 20 bar pressure will be carried out in co-operation with CTDD of British Coal, Kiddy Fire Protection and Health and Safety Executive. The tests with coal and biomass dust are scheduled to be started in March 1996 in Great Britain. In the second task of the project, self-ignition properties of forest residue dust and straw dust have been measured in a flow-through system simulating slow drying of the fuel

  17. Chondromalacia patellae: fat-suppressed MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, P M; Demlow, T A; Szumowski, J; Quinn, S F

    1994-11-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of fat-suppressed magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in diagnosing chondromalacia patellae. Seventy-one patients underwent fat-suppressed MR imaging and arthroscopy of the patellofemoral compartment. Findings were classified as early or advanced chondromalacia or as normal and were correlated with arthroscopic findings. Early and advanced stages of chondromalacia patellae were reliably detected, with positive predictive values of 85% and 92%, respectively. Specificity in early stages was 94% and in late stages was 98%. However, the overall accuracies did not differ substantially from those reported in studies that did not use fat-suppressed imaging. Axial, fat-suppressed MR imaging accurately depicts changes caused by chondromalacia patellae. Early stages can be seen as intrasubstance changes of increased signal intensity. Results of this study suggest a high degree of specificity in excluding both early and advanced changes.

  18. METHOD OF SUPPRESSING GASTROINTESTINAL UREASE ACTIVITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visek, W.J.

    1963-04-23

    This patent shows a method of increasing the growth rate of chicks. Certain diacyl substituted ureas such as alloxan, murexide, and barbituric acid are added to their feed, thereby suppressing gastrointestinal urease activity and thus promoting growth. (AEC)

  19. Suppression factors in diffractive photoproduction of dijets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klasen, Michael; Kramer, Gustav

    2010-06-01

    After new publications of H1 data for the diffractive photoproduction of dijets, which overlap with the earlier published H1 data and the recently published data of the ZEUS collaboration, have appeared, we have recalculated the cross sections for this process in next-to-leading order (NLO) of perturbative QCD to see whether they can be interpreted consistently. The results of these calculations are compared to the data of both collaborations. We find that the NLO cross sections disagree with the data, showing that factorization breaking occurs at that order. If direct and resolved contributions are both suppressed by the same amount, the global suppression factor depends on the transverse-energy cut. However, by suppressing only the resolved contribution, also reasonably good agreement with all the data is found with a suppression factor independent of the transverse-energy cut. (orig.)

  20. Attention modulates sensory suppression during back movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hulle, Lore; Juravle, Georgiana; Spence, Charles; Crombez, Geert; Van Damme, Stefaan

    2013-06-01

    Tactile perception is often impaired during movement. The present study investigated whether such sensory suppression also occurs during back movements, and whether this would be modulated by attention. In two tactile detection experiments, participants simultaneously engaged in a movement task, in which they executed a back-bending movement, and a perceptual task, consisting of the detection of subtle tactile stimuli administered to their upper or lower back. The focus of participants' attention was manipulated by raising the probability that one of the back locations would be stimulated. The results revealed that tactile detection was suppressed during the execution of the back movements. Furthermore, the results of Experiment 2 revealed that when the stimulus was always presented to the attended location, tactile suppression was substantially reduced, suggesting that sensory suppression can be modulated by top-down attentional processes. The potential of this paradigm for studying tactile information processing in clinical populations is discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Suppression of instability in rotatory hydromagnetic convection

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    first time by Lord Rayleigh [9] for the idealized case of two free boundaries. Rayleigh's theory shows that the gravity-dominated thermal instability in liquid layer ... suppressed for oscillatory perturbations by the simultaneous application of a ...

  2. Combustion suppressing device for leaked sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooto, Akihiro.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To suppress the atmospheric temperature to secure the building safety and shorten the recovery time after the leakage in a chamber for containing sodium leaked from coolant circuit equipments or pipeways of LMFBR type rector by suppressing the combustion of sodium contained in the chamber. Constitution: To the inner wall of a chamber for containing sodium handling equipments, are vertically disposed a panel having a coolant supply port at the upper portion and a coolant discharge port at the lower portion thereof and defined with a coolant flowing channel and a panel for sucking the coolant discharged from the abovementioned panel and exhausting the same externally. Further, a corrugated combustion suppressing plate having apertures for draining the condensated leaked sodium is disposed near the sodium handling equipments. If ruptures are resulted to the sodium handling equipments or pipeway, leaked sodium is passed through the drain apertures in the suppressing plate and stored at the bottom of the containing chamber. (Horiuchi, T.)

  3. Suppressing Tsetse Flies to Improve Lives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potterton, Louise; Pavlicek, Petr; Parker, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, the government-run Southern Tsetse Eradication Project (STEP) in Ethiopia, with the support of the IAEA, started to carry out intensive activities to suppress the fly population using insecticides. The fly population is now down by 90%. The benefits of tsetse suppression can be seen all over the region. Diary produce is now widely available at markets and healthy animals can be seen everywhere in farming and transport

  4. Gamma camera scatter suppression unit WAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishi, Haruo; Shibahara, Noriyuki; Hirose, Yoshiharu; Shimonishi, Yoshihiro; Oumura, Masahiro; Ikeda, Hozumi; Hamada, Kunio; Ochi, Hironobu; Itagane, Hiroshi.

    1990-01-01

    In gamma camera imaging, scattered radiation is one of big factors to decrease image contrast. Simply, scatter suppression makes signal to noise ratio larger, but it makes statistics error because of radionuclide injection limit to the human body. EWA is a new method that suppresses scattered radiation and improves image contrast. In this article, WAM which is commercialized EWA method by Siemens Gammasonics Inc. is presented. (author)

  5. Suppression sours sacrifice: emotional and relational costs of suppressing emotions in romantic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impett, Emily A; Kogan, Aleksandr; English, Tammy; John, Oliver; Oveis, Christopher; Gordon, Amie M; Keltner, Dacher

    2012-06-01

    What happens when people suppress their emotions when they sacrifice for a romantic partner? This multimethod study investigates how suppressing emotions during sacrifice shapes affective and relationship outcomes. In Part 1, dating couples came into the laboratory to discuss important romantic relationship sacrifices. Suppressing emotions was associated with emotional costs for the partner discussing his or her sacrifice. In Part 2, couples participated in a 14-day daily experience study. Within-person increases in emotional suppression during daily sacrifice were associated with decreases in emotional well-being and relationship quality as reported by both members of romantic dyads. In Part 3, suppression predicted decreases in relationship satisfaction and increases in thoughts about breaking up with a romantic partner 3 months later. In the first two parts of the study, authenticity mediated the costly effects of suppression. Implications for research on close relationships and emotion regulation are discussed.

  6. Intentional suppression can lead to a reduction of memory strength: Behavioral and electrophysiological findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerd Thomas Waldhauser

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that the intentional suppression of unwanted memories can lead to forgetting in later memory tests. However, the mechanisms underlying this effect remain unclear. This study employed recognition memory testing and event-related potentials (ERPs to investigate whether intentional suppression leads to the inhibition of memory representations at an item level. In a think/no-think experiment, participants were cued to either suppress (no-think condition or retrieve (think condition previously learned words, 18 or 0 times. Performance in a final recognition test was significantly reduced for repeatedly suppressed no-think items when compared to the baseline, zero-repetition condition. ERPs recorded during the suppression of no-think items were significantly more negative-going in a time-window around 300 ms when compared to ERPs in the think condition. This reduction correlated with later recognition memory impairment. Furthermore, ERPs to no-think items from 225-450 ms were more negative-going in later phases of the experiment, suggesting a gradual reduction of memory strength with repeated suppression attempts. These effects were dissociable from correlates of recollection (500-600 ms and inhibitory control (450-500 ms that did not vary over the time-course of the experiment and appeared to be under strategic control. Our results give strong evidence that the no-think manipulation involves inhibition of memory representations at an item level.

  7. Clean-up system for pool water in pressure suppression chamber and operation method therefor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirabayashi, Kentaro; Kinoshita, Shoichiro

    1996-09-17

    Pool water in a pressure suppression chamber of a BWR type reactor is sucked by a pump of an after-heat removing system. The pool water pressurized here is sent to the pressure suppression chamber by way of a heat exchanger and a test line backwarding pipeline to stir the pool water in the pressure suppression chamber. Further, the pool water pressurized by the pump is sent to the pressure suppression chamber by way of a filtration desalting device and an exit pipe to purify the pool water. Upon cleaning of pipelines before the start of a periodical test, the pool water sucked by the pump is sent to the filtration desalting device and recovered to the pressure suppression chamber. This can reduce the amount of impurities carried to the suppression chamber. After the cleaning of the pipelines, pool water is passed through the test line backwarding pipeline, so that the pool water can be stirred at the same time. (I.N.)

  8. Colon-specific prodrugs of 5-radioiodo-2'-deoxyuridine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranowska-Kortylewicz, J.; Kortylewicz, Z.P.; Hoffman, D.; Winoto, A.; Lai, J.; Dalrymple, G.V.

    1996-01-01

    Two glycoside-based prodrugs, 125 IUdR-5'-β-D-glucopyranoside and 125 IUdR-5'-β-D-galactopyranoside, were synthesized. This selection was dictated by the abundance of appropriate enzymes in the GI tract of mice and similar levels of β-D-glycosidases in human and rodent large intestine. Studies to establish the ability of colonic microflora to release 125 IUdR were conducted in vitro and in Swiss Webster mice. Both prodrugs released 125 IUdR in the presence of the corresponding enzymes or the GI content homogenates in vitro, and in vivo. Luminal enzymes in the proximal and distal small intestine in mice degraded less than 10% of each prodrug whereas enzymes from the colonic/caecal lumen of mice released nearly 100% of 125 IUdR. 125 IUdR freed by bacterial glycosidases was stable in the GI content. No significant amounts of other metabolites or deiodination products were observed. Total radioactivity recovered as by-products was less than 10%. The efflux of prodrugs from the GI tract after oral administration in mice was slow and limited. Unlike 125 IUdR, prodrugs were not dehalogenated in vivo as indicated by biodistribution and imaging studies. (orig.)

  9. Instrumenting a pressure suppression experiment for a Mark I boiling water reactor: another measurements engineering challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shay, W.M.; Brough, W.G.; Miller, T.B.

    1978-01-01

    A 1 / 5 -scale test facility of a pressure-suppression system from a Mark I boiling water reactor was instrumented with seven types of transducers to obtain high-accuracy, dynamic loading data during a hypothetical loss-of-coolant accident. A total of 27 air tests have been completed with an average of 175 transducers recorded for each test. An end-to-end calibration of the total measurement system was run to establish accuracy of the data. The instrumentation verified the analysis of the dynamic loading of the pressure-suppression system

  10. Suppression of radiation-induced in vitro carcinogenesis by ascorbic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauchi, Hiroshi; Sawada, Shozo

    1993-01-01

    The effects of ascorbic acid on radiation-induced in vitro carcinogenesis have been reported using neoplastic transformation system of C3H 10T1/2 cells. In these reports, no suppressive effect on X-ray-induced transformation was observed with 6 weeks' administration of ascorbic acid (daily addition for 5 days per week) by Kennedy (1984), whereas apparent suppression was observed with daily addition for 7 days by Yasukawa et al (1989). We have tested the effects of ascorbic acid on 60 Co gamma-ray or 252 Cf fission neutron-induced transformation in Balb/c 3T3 cells. The transformation induced by both types of radiations was markedly suppressed when ascorbic acid was daily added to the medium during first 8 days of the post-irradiation period. If ascorbic acid was added for a total of 8 days but with a day's interruption in the middle, the suppression of transformation was decreased. These results suggest that continuous presence of ascorbic acid for a certain number of days is needed to suppress radiation-induced transformation. Since ascorbic acid also suppressed the promotion of radiation-induced transformation by TPA when both chemicals were added together into the medium, ascorbic acid might act on the promotion stage of transformation. Therefore, the effect of ascorbic acid on the distribution of protein kinase C activity was also investigated, and possible mechanisms of suppression of radiation-induced transformation by ascorbic acid will be discussed. (author)

  11. Cue-independent forgetting by intentional suppression - Evidence for inhibition as the mechanism of intentional forgetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingying; Cao, Zhijun; Zhu, Zijian; Cai, Huaqian; Wu, Yanhong

    2015-10-01

    People are able to intentionally forget unwanted memories through voluntary suppression, as revealed by the Think/No-think (TNT) paradigm. However, the nature of intentional forgetting is controversial. Findings that forgetting is independent of retrieval cues suggest that inhibitory control underlies intentional forgetting, but this result is also in line with an interference account. To resolve this controversy, we have directly contrasted the cue-independent characteristic of suppression versus interference. A double-cue paradigm was used, in which two different cues were associated with the same target during initial memory formation. Only one cue-target association received further interference/suppression training. In the test phase, when both cues were used to retrieve the target, we found that interference caused memory impairment that was restricted to the trained cue-target association, while suppression induced forgetting that generalized to the independent cue-target association. Therefore, the effect of suppression differs from that of interference. The cue-independent forgetting by voluntary suppression indicates that the target memory itself is inhibited, providing evidence that the underlying mechanism of suppression-induced forgetting is inhibitory control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Fire Source Accessibility of Water Mist Fire Suppression Improvement through Flow Method Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jun Ho; Kim, Hyeong Taek; Kim, Yun Jung; Park, Mun Hee [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Recently, nuclear power plants set CO{sub 2} fire suppression system. However it is hard to establish and to maintain and it also has difficulties performing function test. Therefore, it needs to develop a new fire suppression system to replace the existing CO{sub 2} fire suppression systems in nuclear power plant. In fact, already, there exist alternatives - gas fire suppression system or clean fire extinguishing agent, but it is hard to apply because it requires a highly complicated plan. However, water mist fire suppression system which has both water system and gas system uses small amount of water and droplet, so it is excellent at oxygen displacement and more suitable for nuclear power plant because it can avoid second damage caused by fire fighting water. This paper explains about enclosure effect of water mist fire suppression. And it suggests a study direction about water mist fire source approach improvement and enclosure effect improvement, using flow method control of ventilation system. Water mist fire suppression can be influenced by various variable. And flow and direction of ventilation system are important variable. Expectations of the plan for more fire source ventilation system is as in the following. It enhances enclosure effects of water mists, so it improves extinguish performance. Also the same effect as a inert gas injection causes can be achieved. Lastly, it is considered that combustible accessibility of water mists will increase because of descending air currents.

  13. Distracted by the Unthought – Suppression and Reappraisal of Mind Wandering under Stereotype Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Carolin; Martiny, Sarah E.; Schmader, Toni

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has found that subtle reminders of negative stereotypes about one’s group can lead individuals to underperform on stereotype-relevant tests (e.g., women in math, ethnic minorities on intelligence tests). This so called stereotype threat effect can contribute to systematic group differences in performance that can obscure the true abilities of certain social groups and thereby sustain social inequalities. In the present study, we examined processes underlying stereotype threat effects on women’s math performance, specifically focusing on the role of suppression of mind wandering (i.e., task-irrelevant thinking) in stereotype threat (ST) and no threat (NT) situations. Based on a process model of stereotype threat effects on performance, we hypothesized that women under stereotype threat spontaneously suppress mind wandering, and that this suppression impairs performance. An alternative regulation strategy that prevents suppression (i.e., reappraising task-irrelevant thoughts as normal) was predicted to prevent stereotype threat effects on performance. We manipulated stereotype threat (ST vs. NT) and cognitive regulation strategy (suppression, reappraisal, or no strategy) and measured women’s performance on a math and a concentration task (N = 113). We expected three groups to perform relatively more poorly: Those in ST with either no strategy or suppression and those in NT with a suppression strategy. We tested the performance of these groups against the remaining three groups hypothesized to perform relatively better: those in NT with no strategy or reappraisal and those in ST with reappraisal. The results showed the expected pattern for participants’ math performance, but not for concentration achievement. This pattern suggests that ineffective self-regulation by suppressing mind wandering can at least partly explain stereotype threat effects on performance, whereas a reappraisal strategy can prevent this impairment. We discuss

  14. Distracted by the Unthought - Suppression and Reappraisal of Mind Wandering under Stereotype Threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Carolin; Martiny, Sarah E; Schmader, Toni

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has found that subtle reminders of negative stereotypes about one's group can lead individuals to underperform on stereotype-relevant tests (e.g., women in math, ethnic minorities on intelligence tests). This so called stereotype threat effect can contribute to systematic group differences in performance that can obscure the true abilities of certain social groups and thereby sustain social inequalities. In the present study, we examined processes underlying stereotype threat effects on women's math performance, specifically focusing on the role of suppression of mind wandering (i.e., task-irrelevant thinking) in stereotype threat (ST) and no threat (NT) situations. Based on a process model of stereotype threat effects on performance, we hypothesized that women under stereotype threat spontaneously suppress mind wandering, and that this suppression impairs performance. An alternative regulation strategy that prevents suppression (i.e., reappraising task-irrelevant thoughts as normal) was predicted to prevent stereotype threat effects on performance. We manipulated stereotype threat (ST vs. NT) and cognitive regulation strategy (suppression, reappraisal, or no strategy) and measured women's performance on a math and a concentration task (N = 113). We expected three groups to perform relatively more poorly: Those in ST with either no strategy or suppression and those in NT with a suppression strategy. We tested the performance of these groups against the remaining three groups hypothesized to perform relatively better: those in NT with no strategy or reappraisal and those in ST with reappraisal. The results showed the expected pattern for participants' math performance, but not for concentration achievement. This pattern suggests that ineffective self-regulation by suppressing mind wandering can at least partly explain stereotype threat effects on performance, whereas a reappraisal strategy can prevent this impairment. We discuss implications for

  15. A compact clinical instrument for quantifying suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Joanne M; Thompson, Benjamin; Maehara, Goro; Hess, Robert F

    2011-02-01

    We describe a compact and convenient clinical apparatus for the measurement of suppression based on a previously reported laboratory-based approach. In addition, we report and validate a novel, rapid psychophysical method for measuring suppression using this apparatus, which makes the technique more applicable to clinical practice. By using a Z800 dual pro head-mounted display driven by a MAC laptop, we provide dichoptic stimulation. Global motion stimuli composed of arrays of moving dots are presented to each eye. One set of dots move in a coherent direction (termed signal) whereas another set of dots move in a random direction (termed noise). To quantify performance, we measure the signal/noise ratio corresponding to a direction-discrimination threshold. Suppression is quantified by assessing the extent to which it matters which eye sees the signal and which eye sees the noise. A space-saving, head-mounted display using current video technology offers an ideal solution for clinical practice. In addition, our optimized psychophysical method provided results that were in agreement with those produced using the original technique. We made measures of suppression on a group of nine adult amblyopic participants using this apparatus with both the original and new psychophysical paradigms. All participants had measurable suppression ranging from mild to severe. The two different psychophysical methods gave a strong correlation for the strength of suppression (rho = -0.83, p = 0.006). Combining the new apparatus and new psychophysical method creates a convenient and rapid technique for parametric measurement of interocular suppression. In addition, this apparatus constitutes the ideal platform for suppressors to combine information between their eyes in a similar way to binocularly normal people. This provides a convenient way for clinicians to implement the newly proposed binocular treatment of amblyopia that is based on antisuppression training.

  16. Functional imaging correlates of impaired distractor suppression following sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Danyang; Soon, Chun Siong; Chee, Michael W L

    2012-05-15

    Sleep deprivation (SD) has been shown to affect selective attention but it is not known how two of its component processes: target enhancement and distractor suppression, are affected. To investigate, young volunteers either attended to houses or were obliged to ignore them (when attending to faces) while viewing superimposed face-house pictures. MR signal enhancement and suppression in the parahippocampal place area (PPA) were determined relative to a passive viewing control condition. Sleep deprivation was associated with lower PPA activation across conditions. Critically SD specifically impaired distractor suppression in selective attention, leaving target enhancement relatively preserved. These findings parallel some observations in cognitive aging. Additionally, following SD, attended houses were not significantly better recognized than ignored houses in a post-experiment test of recognition memory contrasting with the finding of superior recognition of attended houses in the well-rested state. These results provide evidence for co-encoding of distracting information with targets into memory when one is sleep deprived. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Minoxidil may suppress androgen receptor-related functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Cheng-Lung; Liu, Jai-Shin; Lin, An-Chi; Yang, Chih-Hsun; Chung, Wen-Hung; Wu, Wen-Guey

    2014-04-30

    Although minoxidil has been used for more than two decades to treat androgenetic alopecia (AGA), an androgen-androgen receptor (AR) pathway-dominant disease, its precise mechanism of action remains elusive. We hypothesized that minoxidil may influence the AR or its downstream signaling. These tests revealed that minoxidil suppressed AR-related functions, decreasing AR transcriptional activity in reporter assays, reducing expression of AR targets at the protein level, and suppressing AR-positive LNCaP cell growth. Dissecting the underlying mechanisms, we found that minoxidil interfered with AR-peptide, AR-coregulator, and AR N/C-terminal interactions, as well as AR protein stability. Furthermore, a crystallographic analysis using the AR ligand-binding domain (LBD) revealed direct binding of minoxidil to the AR in a minoxidil-AR-LBD co-crystal model, and surface plasmon resonance assays demonstrated that minoxidil directly bound the AR with a K(d) value of 2.6 µM. Minoxidil also suppressed AR-responsive reporter activity and decreased AR protein stability in human hair dermal papilla cells. The current findings provide evidence that minoxidil could be used to treat both cancer and age-related disease, and open a new avenue for applications of minoxidil in treating androgen-AR pathway-related diseases.

  18. Application of Composite Materials in the Fire Explosion Suppression System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Shah

    2012-01-01

    In order to lighten the weight of the special vehicles and improve their mobility and flexibility, the weight of all subsystems of the whole vehicle must be reduced in the general planning. A fire explosion suppression system is an important subsystem for the self-protection of vehicle, protection of crews and safety of a vehicle. The performances of the special vehicles determine their survival ability and combat capability. The composite bottle is made of aluminum alloy with externally wrapped carbon fiber ; it has been proven by a large number of tests that the new type explosion suppression fire distinguisher made of such composite materials applied in the special vehicle has reliable performance, each of its technical indexes is higher or equal to that of a steel distinguisher, and the composites can also optimize the assembly structure of the bottle, and improve the reliability and corrosion resistance. Most important is that the composite materials can effectively lighten the weight of the fire explosion suppression system to reach the target of weight reduction of the subsystem in general planning.

  19. Fatal attraction? Intraguild facilitation and suppression among predators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivy, Kelly J.; Pozzanghera, Casey B.; Grace, James B.; Prugh, Laura R.

    2017-01-01

    Competition and suppression are recognized as dominant forces that structure predator communities. Facilitation via carrion provisioning, however, is a ubiquitous interaction among predators that could offset the strength of suppression. Understanding the relative importance of these positive and negative interactions is necessary to anticipate community-wide responses to apex predator declines and recoveries worldwide. Using state-sponsored wolf (Canis lupus) control in Alaska as a quasi experiment, we conducted snow track surveys of apex, meso-, and small predators to test for evidence of carnivore cascades (e.g., mesopredator release). We analyzed survey data using an integrative occupancy and structural equation modeling framework to quantify the strengths of hypothesized interaction pathways, and we evaluated fine-scale spatiotemporal responses of nonapex predators to wolf activity clusters identified from radio-collar data. Contrary to the carnivore cascade hypothesis, both meso- and small predator occupancy patterns indicated guild-wide, negative responses of nonapex predators to wolf abundance variations at the landscape scale. At the local scale, however, we observed a near guild-wide, positive response of nonapex predators to localized wolf activity. Local-scale association with apex predators due to scavenging could lead to landscape patterns of mesopredator suppression, suggesting a key link between occupancy patterns and the structure of predator communities at different spatial scales.

  20. Fatal Attraction? Intraguild Facilitation and Suppression among Predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivy, Kelly J; Pozzanghera, Casey B; Grace, James B; Prugh, Laura R

    2017-11-01

    Competition and suppression are recognized as dominant forces that structure predator communities. Facilitation via carrion provisioning, however, is a ubiquitous interaction among predators that could offset the strength of suppression. Understanding the relative importance of these positive and negative interactions is necessary to anticipate community-wide responses to apex predator declines and recoveries worldwide. Using state-sponsored wolf (Canis lupus) control in Alaska as a quasi experiment, we conducted snow track surveys of apex, meso-, and small predators to test for evidence of carnivore cascades (e.g., mesopredator release). We analyzed survey data using an integrative occupancy and structural equation modeling framework to quantify the strengths of hypothesized interaction pathways, and we evaluated fine-scale spatiotemporal responses of nonapex predators to wolf activity clusters identified from radio-collar data. Contrary to the carnivore cascade hypothesis, both meso- and small predator occupancy patterns indicated guild-wide, negative responses of nonapex predators to wolf abundance variations at the landscape scale. At the local scale, however, we observed a near guild-wide, positive response of nonapex predators to localized wolf activity. Local-scale association with apex predators due to scavenging could lead to landscape patterns of mesopredator suppression, suggesting a key link between occupancy patterns and the structure of predator communities at different spatial scales.

  1. A Bridging Water Anchors the Tethered 5-(3-Aminopropyl)-2′-deoxyuridine Amine in the DNA Major Groove Proximate to the N+2 C·G Base Pair: Implications for Formation of Interstrand 5′-GNC-3′ Cross-Links by Nitrogen Mustards‡

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Li, Feng; Ganguly, Manjori; Marky, Luis A.; Gold, Barry; Egli, Martin; Stone, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    Site-specific insertion of 5-(3-aminopropyl)-2′-deoxyuridine (Z3dU) and 7-deaza-dG into the Dickerson-Drew dodecamers 5′-d(C1G2C3G4A5A6T7T8C9Z10C11G12)-3′ · 5′-d(C13G14C15G16A17A18T19T20-C21Z22C23G24)-3′ (named DDDZ10) and 5′-d(C1G2C3G4A5A6T7X8C9Z10C11G12)-3′ · 5′-d(C13G14C15G16A17A18-T19X20C21Z22C23G24)-3′ (named DDD2+Z10)(X = Z3dU; Z = 7-deaza-dG) suggests a mechanism underlying the formation of interstrand N+2 DNA cross-links by nitrogen mustards, e.g., melphalan and mechlorethamine. Analysis of the DDD2+Z10 duplex reveals that the tethered cations at base pairs A5 · X20 and X8 · A17 extend within the major groove in the 3′-direction, toward conserved Mg2+ binding sites located adjacent to N+2 base pairs C3 · Z22 and Z10 · C15. Bridging waters located between the tethered amines and either Z10 or Z22 O6 stabilize the tethered cations and allow interactions with the N + 2 base pairs without DNA bending. Incorporation of 7-deaza-dG into the DDD2+Z10 duplex weakens but does not eliminate electrostatic interactions between tethered amines and Z10 O6 and Z22 O6. The results suggest a mechanism by which tethered N7-dG aziridinium ions, the active species involved in formation of interstrand 5′-GNC-3′ cross-links by nitrogen mustards, modify the electrostatics of the major groove and position the aziridinium ions proximate to the major groove edge of the N+2 C · G base pair, facilitating interstrand cross-linking. PMID:18549246

  2. Dim light adaptation attenuates acute melatonin suppression in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasser, Samar A; Hanifin, John P; Rollag, Mark D; Brainard, George C

    2006-10-01

    Abstract Studies in rodents with retinal degeneration indicated that neither the rod nor the cone photoreceptors obligatorily participate in circadian responses to light, including melatonin suppression and photoperiodic response. Yet there is a residual phase-shifting response in melanopsin knockout mice, which suggests an alternate or redundant means for light input to the SCN of the hypothalamus. The findings of Aggelopoulos and Meissl suggest a complex, dynamic interrelationship between the classic visual photoreceptors and SCN cell sensitivity to light stimuli, relative to various adaptive lighting conditions. These studies raised the possibility that the phototransductive physiology of the retinohypothalamic tract in humans might be modulated by the visual rod and cone photoreceptors. The aim of the following two-part study was to test the hypothesis that dim light adaptation will dampen the subsequent suppression of melatonin by monochromatic light in healthy human subjects. Each experiment included 5 female and 3 male human subjects between the ages of 18 and 30 years, with normal color vision. Dim white light and darkness adaptation exposures occurred between midnight and 0200 h, and a full-field 460-nm light exposure subsequently occurred between 0200 and 0330-h for each adaptation condition, at 2 different intensities. Plasma samples were drawn following the 2-h adaptation, as well as after the 460-nm monochromatic light exposure, and melatonin was measured by radioimmunoassay. Comparison of melatonin suppression responses to monochromatic light in both studies revealed a loss of significant suppression after dim white light adaptation compared with dark adaptation (p light exposure, varying with the conditions of light adaptation prior to exposure.

  3. Quantitative Compton suppression spectrometry at elevated counting rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westphal, G.P.; Joestl, K.; Schroeder, P.; Lauster, R.; Hausch, E.

    1999-01-01

    For quantitative Compton suppression spectrometry the decrease of coincidence efficiency with counting rate should be made negligible to avoid a virtual increase of relative peak areas of coincident isomeric transitions with counting rate. To that aim, a separate amplifier and discriminator has been used for each of the eight segments of the active shield of a new well-type Compton suppression spectrometer, together with an optimized, minimum dead-time design of the anticoincidence logic circuitry. Chance coincidence losses in the Compton suppression spectrometer are corrected instrumentally by comparing the chance coincidence rate to the counting rate of the germanium detector in a pulse-counting Busy circuit (G.P. Westphal, J. Rad. Chem. 179 (1994) 55) which is combined with the spectrometer's LFC counting loss correction system. The normally not observable chance coincidence rate is reconstructed from the rates of germanium detector and scintillation detector in an auxiliary coincidence unit, after the destruction of true coincidence by delaying one of the coincidence partners. Quantitative system response has been tested in two-source measurements with a fixed reference source of 60 Co of 14 kc/s, and various samples of 137 Cs, up to aggregate counting rates of 180 kc/s for the well-type detector, and more than 1400 kc/s for the BGO shield. In these measurements, the net peak areas of the 1173.3 keV line of 60 Co remained constant at typical values of 37 000 with and 95 000 without Compton suppression, with maximum deviations from the average of less than 1.5%

  4. MiR-30e suppresses proliferation of hepatoma cells via targeting prolyl 4-hydroxylase subunit alpha-1 (P4HA1) mRNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Guoxing [State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, Department of Cancer Research, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin (China); Shi, Hui [State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, Department of Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin (China); Li, Jiong; Yang, Zhe [State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, Department of Cancer Research, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin (China); Fang, Runping; Ye, Lihong [State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, Department of Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin (China); Zhang, Weiying, E-mail: zhwybao@nankai.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, Department of Cancer Research, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin (China); Zhang, Xiaodong, E-mail: zhangxd@nankai.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, Department of Cancer Research, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin (China)

    2016-04-08

    Aberrant microRNA expression has been shown to be characteristic of many cancers. It has been reported that the expression levels of miR-30e are decreased in liver cancer tissues. However, the role of miR-30e in hepatocellular carcinoma remains poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the significance of miR-30e in hepatocarcinogenesis. Bioinformatics analysis reveals a putative target site of miR-30e in the 3′-untranslated region (3′UTR) of prolyl 4-hydroxylase subunit alpha-1 (P4HA1) mRNA. Moreover, luciferase reporter gene assays verified that miR-30e directly targeted 3′UTR of P4HA1 mRNA. Then, we demonstrated that miR-30e was able to reduce the expression of P4HA1 at the levels of mRNA and protein using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. Enforced expression of miR-30e suppressed proliferation of HepG2 cells by 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine (EdU) assay and reduced colony formation of these cells by colony formation analysis. Conversely, anti-miR-30e enhanced the proliferation of hepatoma cells in vitro. Interestingly, the ectopic expression of P4HA1 could efficiently rescue the inhibition of cell proliferation mediated by miR-30e in HepG2 cells. Meanwhile, silencing of P4HA1 abolished the anti-miR-30e-induced proliferation of cells. Clinically, quantitative real-time PCR showed that miR-30e was down-regulated in liver tumor tissues relative to their peritumor tissues. The expression levels of miR-30e were negatively correlated to those of P4HA1 mRNA in clinical liver tumor tissues. Thus, we conclude that miR-30e suppresses proliferation of hepatoma cells through targeting P4HA1 mRNA. Our finding provides new insights into the mechanism of hepatocarcinogenesis. - Highlights: • P4HA1 is a novel target gene of miR-30e. • P4HA1 is increased in clinical HCC tissues. • MiR-30e is negatively correlated with P4HA1 in clinical HCC tissues. • MiR-30e suppresses the proliferation of HCC cells through

  5. CONDITIONS FOR CSR MICROBUNCHING GAIN SUPPRESSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Cheng Ying [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Douglas, David R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Li, Rui [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Tennant, Christopher D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); di Mitri, Simone [Elettra–Sincrotrone Trieste, 34149 Basovizza, Trieste, Italy

    2016-05-01

    The coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) of a high brightness electron beam traversing a series of dipoles, such as transport arcs, may result in phase space degradation. On one hand, the CSR can perturb electron transverse motion in dispersive regions along the beamline, causing emittance growth. On the other hand, the CSR effect on the longitudinal beam dynamics could result in microbunching gain enhancement. For transport arcs, several schemes have been proposed* to suppress the CSR-induced emittance growth. Similarly, several scenarios have been introduced** to suppress CSR-induced microbunching gain, which however mostly aim for linac-based machines. In this paper we try to provide sufficient conditions for suppression of CSR-induced microbunching gain along a transport arc, analogous to*. Several example lattices are presented, with the relevant microbunching analyses carried out by our semi-analytical Vlasov solver***. The simulation results show that lattices satisfying the proposed conditions indeed have microbunching gain suppressed. We expect this analysis can shed light on lattice design approach that could suppress the CSR-induced microbunching gain.

  6. Interocular suppression in children with deprivation amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Lisa; Chen, Zidong; Li, Jinrong; Black, Joanna; Dai, Shuan; Yuan, Junpeng; Yu, Minbin; Thompson, Benjamin

    2017-04-01

    In patients with anisometropic or strabismic amblyopia, interocular suppression can be minimized by presenting high contrast stimulus elements to the amblyopic eye and lower contrast elements to the fellow eye. This suggests a structurally intact binocular visual system that is functionally suppressed. We investigated whether suppression can also be overcome by contrast balancing in children with deprivation amblyopia due to childhood cataracts. To quantify interocular contrast balance, contrast interference thresholds were measured using an established dichoptic global motion technique for 21 children with deprivation amblyopia, 14 with anisometropic or mixed strabismic/anisometropic amblyopia and 10 visually normal children (mean age mean=9.9years, range 5-16years). We found that interocular suppression could be overcome by contrast balancing in most children with deprivation amblyopia, at least intermittently, and all children with anisometropic or mixed anisometropic/strabismic amblyopia. However, children with deprivation amblyopia due to early unilateral or bilateral cataracts could tolerate only very low contrast levels to the stronger eye indicating strong suppression. Our results suggest that treatment options reliant on contrast balanced dichoptic presentation could be attempted in a subset of children with deprivation amblyopia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Smoke suppression properties of ferrite yellow on flame retardant thermoplastic polyurethane based on ammonium polyphosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xilei; Jiang, Yufeng; Jiao, Chuanmei

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Smoke suppression of FeOOH on flame retardant TPU composites has been investigated. • FeOOH has excellent smoke suppression abilities for flame retardant TPU composites. • FeOOH has good ability of char formation, hence improved smoke suppression property. -- Abstract: This article mainly studies smoke suppression properties and synergistic flame retardant effect of ferrite yellow (FeOOH) on flame retardant thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) composites using ammonium polyphosphate (APP) as a flame retardant agent. Smoke suppression properties and synergistic flame retardant effect of FeOOH on flame retardant TPU composites were intensively investigated by smoke density test (SDT), cone calorimeter test (CCT), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and thermal-gravimetric analysis (TGA). Remarkably, the SDT results show that FeOOH can effectively decrease the amount of smoke production with or without flame. On the other hand, the CCT data reveal that the addition of FeOOH can apparently reduce heat release rate (HRR), total heat release (THR), and total smoke release (TSR), etc. Here, FeOOH is considered to be an effective smoke suppression agent and a good synergism with APP in flame retardant TPU composites, which can greatly improve the structure of char residue realized by TGA and SEM results

  8. Components of Streptococcus pneumoniae suppress allergic airways disease and NKT cells by inducing regulatory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorburn, Alison N; Foster, Paul S; Gibson, Peter G; Hansbro, Philip M

    2012-05-01

    Asthma is an allergic airways disease (AAD) caused by dysregulated immune responses and characterized by eosinophilic inflammation, mucus hypersecretion, and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). NKT cells have been shown to contribute to AHR in some mouse models. Conversely, regulatory T cells (Tregs) control aberrant immune responses and maintain homeostasis. Recent evidence suggests that Streptococcus pneumoniae induces Tregs that have potential to be harnessed therapeutically for asthma. In this study, mouse models of AAD were used to identify the S. pneumoniae components that have suppressive properties, and the mechanisms underlying suppression were investigated. We tested the suppressive capacity of type-3-polysaccharide (T3P), isolated cell walls, pneumolysoid (Ply) and CpG. When coadministered, T3P + Ply suppressed the development of: eosinophilic inflammation, Th2 cytokine release, mucus hypersecretion, and AHR. Importantly, T3P + Ply also attenuated features of AAD when administered during established disease. We show that NKT cells contributed to the development of AAD and also were suppressed by T3P + Ply treatment. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of NKT cells induced AHR, which also could be reversed by T3P + Ply. T3P + Ply-induced Tregs were essential for the suppression of NKT cells and AAD, which was demonstrated by Treg depletion. Collectively, our results show that the S. pneumoniae components T3P + Ply suppress AAD through the induction of Tregs that blocked the activity of NKT cells. These data suggest that S. pneumoniae components may have potential as a therapeutic strategy for the suppression of allergic asthma through the induction of Tregs and suppression of NKT cells.

  9. Platelet activating factor receptor binding plays a critical role in jet fuel-induced immune suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Gerardo; Kazimi, Nasser; Nghiem, Dat X.; Walterscheid, Jeffrey P.; Ullrich, Stephen E.

    2004-01-01

    Applying military jet fuel (JP-8) or commercial jet fuel (Jet-A) to the skin of mice suppresses the immune response in a dose-dependant manner. The release of biological response modifiers, particularly prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ), is a critical step in activating immune suppression. Previous studies have shown that injecting selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors into jet fuel-treated mice blocks immune suppression. Because the inflammatory phospholipid mediator, platelet-activating factor (PAF), up-regulates cyclooxygenase-2 production and PGE 2 synthesis by keratinocytes, we tested the hypothesis that PAF-receptor binding plays a role in jet fuel-induced immune suppression. Treating keratinocyte cultures with PAF and/or jet fuel (JP-8 and Jet-A) stimulates PGE 2 secretion. Jet fuel-induced PGE 2 production was suppressed by treating the keratinocytes with specific PAF-receptor antagonists. Injecting mice with PAF, or treating the skin of the mice with JP-8, or Jet-A, induced immune suppression. Jet fuel-induced immune suppression was blocked when the jet fuel-treated mice were injected with PAF-receptor antagonists before treatment. Jet fuel treatment has been reported to activate oxidative stress and treating the mice with anti-oxidants (Vitamins C, or E or beta-hydroxy toluene), before jet fuel application, interfered with immune suppression. These findings confirm previous studies showing that PAF-receptor binding can modulate immune function. Furthermore, they suggest that PAF-receptor binding may be an early event in the induction of immune suppression by immunotoxic environmental agents that target the skin

  10. Purulent pericarditis in a dog administered immune-suppressing drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohri, T.; Takashima, K.; Yamane, T.; Sato, H.; Yamane, Y.

    2009-01-01

    A 5-year-old castrated mongrel dog was brought to our hospital with anorexia and vomiting. Laboratory testing revealed immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA), and so treatment was initiated with multiple immune-suppressing drugs, achieving partial remission from IMHA. However, cardiac tamponade due to purulent pericarditis was identified as a secondary disease. Culture of pericardial fluid yielded numerous Candida albicans and multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter sp. Pericardiocentesis was performed, and the condition of the dog improved. However, the dog died the next day

  11. Quantum-mechanical suppression of bremsstrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker-Szendy, R.; Keller, L.; Niemi, G.; Perl, M.; Rochester, L. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Anthony, P. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)]|[Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Bosted, P. [American Univ., Washington, DC (United States); Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Kelley, L.; Klein, S. [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-12-01

    The authors have studied quantum-mechanical suppression of bremsstrahlung of low-energy 1-500 MeV photons from high-energy 25 GeV electrons. They have measured the LPM effect, where multiple scattering of the radiating electron destroys coherence required for the emission of low-energy photons, and the dielectric effect, where the emitted photon traveling in the radiator medium interferes with itself. For the experiment, the collaboration developed a novel method of extracting a parasitic low-intensity high-energy electron beam into the fixed target area during normal SLC operation of the accelerator. The results agree quantitatively with Migdal`s calculation of the LPM effect. Surface effects, for which there is no satisfactory theoretical prediction, are visible at low photon energies. For very thin targets, the suppression disappears, as expected. Preliminary results on dielectric suppression of bremsstrahlung are in qualitative agreement with the expectation.

  12. Shielding design of ITER pressure suppression system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, Michinori; Sato, Satoshi; Nishitani, Takeo; Kawasaki, Hiromitsu

    2006-01-01

    The duct shield from streaming D-T neutrons has been designed for the ITER pressure suppression system. Streaming calculations are performed with the DUCT-III code for the region from the inlet of the pressure relief line to the rupture disk. Next, the neutron permeation through the shield is studied by Monte Carlo calculations with the MCNP code. It is found that 0.15 m thick iron shield is enough to suppress the permeating component from the outside. In addition, it is suggested that the volume of the shield can be reduced by about 30% if the optimized iron shield structure having localized thickness across intense permeation paths is employed to shield the pressure suppression line. (T.I.)

  13. Pressure suppression pool mixing in passive advanced BWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamble, Robert E.; Nguyen, Thuy T.; Shiralkar, Bharat S.; Peterson, Per F.; Greif, Ralph; Tabata, H.

    2001-01-01

    In the SBWR passive boiling water reactor, the long-term post-accident containment pressure is determined by the combination of noncondensible gas pressure and steam pressure in the wetwell gas space. The suppression pool (SP) surface temperature, which determines the vapor partial pressure, is very important to overall containment performance. Therefore, the thermal stratification of the SP due to blowdown is of primary importance. This work looks at the various phases and phenomena present during the blowdown event and identifies those that are important to thermal stratification, and the scaling necessary to model them in reduced size tests. This is important in determining which of the large body of blowdown to SP data is adequate for application to the stratification problem. The mixing by jets from the main vents is identified as the key phenomena influencing the thermal response of the suppression pool and analytical models are developed to predict the jet influence on thermal stratification. The analytical models are implemented into a system simulation code, TRACG, and used to model thermal stratification behavior in a scaled test facility. The results show good general agreement with the test data

  14. Suppression of charmonium production in hadron gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faustov, R.N.; Vasilevskaya, I.G.

    1991-01-01

    The problem of J/ψ charmonium production suppression under heavy ion collisions is investigated. The processes of charmonium disintegration in hadron gas are considered: π+J/ψ → π+c+c-bar and ρ+J/ψ → D+D. Based on the results obtained one can assume that charmonium disintegration contribution to J/ψ production suppression under collisions with gas hadrons and the contribution conditioned by the production of quark-gluon plasma, appear to be the effects of similar order of magnitude

  15. Jet suppression measurement with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00443411; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    A hot medium with a high density of unscreened color charges is produced in relativistic heavy ion collisions. Jets are produced at the early stages of this collision and are known to become attenuated as they propagate through the hot matter. One manifestation of this energy loss is a lower yield of jets emerging from the medium than expected in the absence of medium effects. Another manifestation of the energy loss is the modification of the dijet balance and the modification of fragmentation functions. In these proceedings, the latest ATLAS results on single jet suppression, dijet suppression, and modification of the jet internal structure in \\PbPb~collisions are presented.

  16. Star formation suppression in compact group galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alatalo, K.; Appleton, P. N.; Lisenfeld, U.

    2015-01-01

    , bars, rings, tidal tails, and possibly nuclear outflows, though the molecular gas morphologies are more consistent with spirals and earlytype galaxies than mergers and interacting systems. Our CO-imaged HCG galaxies, when plotted on the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation, shows star formation (SF) suppression...... color space. This supports the idea that at least some galaxies in HCGs are transitioning objects, where a disruption of the existing molecular gas in the system suppresses SF by inhibiting the molecular gas from collapsing and forming stars efficiently. These observations, combined with recent work...

  17. Suppression of the initial transient in Monte Carlo criticality simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richet, Y.

    2006-12-01

    Criticality Monte Carlo calculations aim at estimating the effective multiplication factor (k-effective) for a fissile system through iterations simulating neutrons propagation (making a Markov chain). Arbitrary initialization of the neutron population can deeply bias the k-effective estimation, defined as the mean of the k-effective computed at each iteration. A simplified model of this cycle k-effective sequence is built, based on characteristics of industrial criticality Monte Carlo calculations. Statistical tests, inspired by Brownian bridge properties, are designed to discriminate stationarity of the cycle k-effective sequence. The initial detected transient is, then, suppressed in order to improve the estimation of the system k-effective. The different versions of this methodology are detailed and compared, firstly on a plan of numerical tests fitted on criticality Monte Carlo calculations, and, secondly on real criticality calculations. Eventually, the best methodologies observed in these tests are selected and allow to improve industrial Monte Carlo criticality calculations. (author)

  18. Inositol Hexaphosphate Inhibits Proliferation and Induces Apoptosis of Colon Cancer Cells by Suppressing the AKT/mTOR Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Kapral

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: AKT, a serine/threonine protein kinase and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR plays a critical role in the proliferation and resistance to apoptosis that are essential to the development and progression of colon cancer. Therefore, AKT/mTOR signaling pathway has been recognized as an attractive target for anticancer therapy. Inositol hexaphosphate (InsP6, a natural occurring phytochemical, has been shown to have both preventive and therapeutic effects against various cancers, however, its exact molecular mechanisms of action are not fully understood. The aim of the in vitro study was to investigate the anticancer activity of InsP6 on colon cancer with the focus on inhibiting the AKT1 kinase and p70S6K1 as mTOR effector, in relation to proliferation and apoptosis of cells. The colon cancer Caco-2 cells were cultured using standard techniques and exposed to InsP6 at different concentrations (1 mM, 2.5 mM and 5 mM. Cellular proliferative activity was monitored by 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU incorporation into cellular DNA. Flow cytometric analysis was performed for cell cycle progression and apoptosis studies. Real-time RT-qPCR was used to validate mRNA levels of CDNK1A, CDNK1B, CASP3, CASP9, AKT1 and S6K1 genes. The concentration of p21 protein as well as the activities of caspase 3, AKT1 and p70S6K1 were determined by the ELISA method. The results revealed that IP6 inhibited proliferation and stimulated apoptosis of colon cancer cells. This effect was mediated by an increase in the expression of genes encoding p21, p27, caspase 3, caspase 9 as well a decrease in transcription of AKT1 and S6K1. InsP6 suppressed phosphorylation of AKT1 and p70S6K1, downstream effector of mTOR. Based on these studies it may be concluded that InsP6 can reduce proliferation and induce apoptosis through inhibition of the AKT/mTOR pathway and mTOR effector followed by modulation of the expression and activity of several key components of these pathways in

  19. Different effects of high- and low-dose phenobarbital on post-stroke seizure suppression and recovery in immature CD1 mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, Geoffrey J.; Kadam, Shilpa D.; Smith, Dani R.; Johnston, Michael V.; Comi, Anne M.

    2011-01-01

    Neonatal stroke presents with seizures that are usually treated with phenobarbital. We hypothesized that anticonvulsants would attenuate ischemic injury, but that the dose-dependent effects of standard anticonvulsants would impact important age-dependent and injury-dependent consequences. In this study, ischemia induced by unilateral carotid ligation in postnatal day 12 (P12) CD1 mice was immediately followed by an i.p. dose of vehicle, low-dose or high-dose phenobarbital. Severity of acute behavioral seizures was scored. 5-bromo-2’-deoxyuridine (BrdU) was administered from P18-P20, behavioral testing performed, and mice perfused at P40. Atrophy quantification and counts of BrdU/NeuN-labeled cells in the dentate gyrus were performed. Blood phenobarbital concentrations were measured. 30 mg/kg phenobarbital reduced acute seizures and chronic brain injury, and restored normal weight gain and exploratory behavior. By comparison, 60 mg/kg was a less efficacious anticonvulsant, was not neuroprotective, did not restore normal weight gain, and impaired behavioral and cognitive recovery. Hippocampal neurogenesis was not different between treatment groups. These results suggest a protective effect of lower-dose phenobarbital, but a lack of this effect at higher concentrations after stroke in P12 mice. PMID:21481568

  20. Suppression Situations in Multiple Linear Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Gwowen

    2006-01-01

    This article proposes alternative expressions for the two most prevailing definitions of suppression without resorting to the standardized regression modeling. The formulation provides a simple basis for the examination of their relationship. For the two-predictor regression, the author demonstrates that the previous results in the literature are…

  1. Cortisol suppresses radiation transformation in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, A.R.

    1985-01-01

    It is reported that 10 -7 M cortisol has a significant suppressive effect on radiation-induced transformation in vitro in C3H10T 1/2 cells. Previously reported data showed a significant enhancing effect for similar experiments performed with cortisone. Thus, these two structurally similar glucocorticoid hormones have opposite effects on transformation induced by ionizing radiation. (author)

  2. Cooling device for reactor suppression pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togasaki, Susumu; Kato, Kiyoshi.

    1994-01-01

    In a cooling device of a reactor suppression pool, when a temperature of pool water is abnormally increased and a heat absorbing portion is heated by, for example, occurrence of an accident, coolants are sent to the outside of the reactor container to actuates a thermally operating portion by the heat energy of coolants and drive heat exchanging fluids of a secondary cooling system. If the heat exchanging fluids are sent to a cooling portion, the coolants are cooled and returned to the heat absorbing portion of the suppression pool water. If the heat absorbing portion is heat pipes, the coolants are evaporated by heat absorbed from the suppression pool water, steams are sent to the thermally operating portion, then coolants are liquefied and caused to return to the heat absorbing portion. If the thermal operation portion is a gas turbine, the gas turbine is operated by the coolants, and it is converted to a rotational force to drive heat exchanging fluids by pumps. By constituting the cooling portion with a condensator, the coolants are condensed and liquefied and returned to the heat absorbing portion of the suppression pool water. (N.H.)

  3. Efflux inhibitor suppresses Streptococcus mutans virulence properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huihui; Liu, Jia; Ling, Junqi

    2017-04-01

    It is well established that efflux pumps play important roles in bacterial pathogenicity and efflux inhibitors (EIs) have been proved to be effective in suppressing bacterial virulence properties. However, little is known regarding the EI of Streptococcus mutans, a well-known caries-inducing bacterium. In this study, we identified the EI of S. mutans through ethidium bromide efflux assay and investigated how EI affected S. mutans virulence regarding the cariogenicity and stress response. Results indicated that reserpine, the identified EI, suppressed acid tolerance, mutacin production and transformation efficiency of S. mutans, and modified biofilm architecture and extracellular polysaccharide distribution. Suppressed glycosyltransferase activity was also noted after reserpine exposure. The data from quantitative real-time-PCR demonstrated that reserpine significantly altered the expression profile of quorum-sensing and virulence-associated genes. These findings suggest that reserpine represents a promising adjunct anticariogenic agent in that it suppresses virulence properties of S. mutans. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Suppressive competition: how sounds may cheat sight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Christoph; Remedios, Ryan

    2012-02-23

    In this issue of Neuron, Iurilli et al. (2012) demonstrate that auditory cortex activation directly engages local GABAergic circuits in V1 to induce sound-driven hyperpolarizations in layer 2/3 and layer 6 pyramidal neurons. Thereby, sounds can directly suppress V1 activity and visual driven behavior. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Pressure suppression facility for reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Tadashi; Fukui, Toru; Kataoka, Yoshiyuki; Tominaga, Kenji.

    1993-01-01

    In a nuclear reactor comprising heat transfer surfaces from a pressure suppression pool at the inside to the outer circumferential pool at the outside, a means for supplying water from a water supply source at the outside of the container to the pools is disposed. Then, a heat transfer means is disposed between the pressure suppression chamber and the water cooling pool. The water supply means comprises a pressurization means for applying pressure to water of the water supply source and a water supply channel. Water is supplied into the pressure suppression pool and the outer circumferential pool to elevate the water level and extend the region of heat contact with the water cooling heat transfer means. In addition, since dynamic pressure is applied to the feedwater, for example, by pressurizing the water surface of the water supply source, water can be supplied without using dynamic equipments such as pumps. Then, since water-cooling heat transfer surface can be extended after occurrence of accident, enlargement of a reactor container and worsening of earthquake proofness can be avoided as much as possible, to improve function for suppressing the pressure in the container. Further, since water-cooling heat transfer region can be extended, the arrangement of the water source and the place to which water is supplied is made optional without considering the relative height therebetween, to improve earthquake proofness. (N.H.)

  6. Quarkonium suppression: Gluonic dissociation vs. colour screening

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mechanism comes into play for the initial conditions taken from the self screened parton cascade model in these studies. Keywords. Quark gluon plasma; J ψ; suppression; dissociation; colour screening. PACS No. 12.38.M. 1. Introduction. The last two decades have seen hectic activity towards identifying unique signatures ...

  7. Aralia elata (Miquel) Seemann Suppresses Inflammatory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISSN: 1596-5996 (print); 1596-9827 (electronic) ... The LPS-induced increase in the production of nitric oxide was concentration- dependently suppressed ... Aralia elata ethanol extract (AEE) exhibits protective ... temperature for 72 h and filtered. The filtered .... scavenging activity in a dose-dependent manner showing a ...

  8. Is expressive suppression always associated with poorer psychological functioning? A cross-cultural comparison between European Americans and Hong Kong Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, José A; Perez, Christopher R; Kim, Young-Hoon; Lee, Elizabeth A; Minnick, Mark R

    2011-12-01

    The habitual use of expressive suppression as an emotion regulation strategy has been consistently linked to adverse outcomes in a number of domains, including psychological functioning. The present study aimed to uncover whether the suppression-health relationship is dependent on cultural context, given differing cultural norms surrounding the value of suppressing emotional displays. We hypothesized that the negative associations between suppression and psychological functioning seen in European Americans would not be seen among members of East Asian cultures, in which emotional restraint is relatively encouraged over emotional expression. To test this hypothesis, we asked 71 European American students and 100 Chinese students from Hong Kong to report on their use of expressive suppression, life satisfaction, and depressed mood. A moderation analysis revealed that expressive suppression was associated with adverse psychological functioning for European Americans, but not for Chinese participants. These findings highlight the importance of context in understanding the suppression-health relationship. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Anger suppression, interdependent self-construal, and depression among Asian American and European American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Rebecca Y M; Park, Irene J K

    2010-10-01

    The present study tested a theoretical model of emotion regulation (Yap, Sheeber, & Allen, 2007) in a sample of Asian American and European American college students (N = 365). Specifically, the mediating role of anger suppression in the effect of temperament and family processes on depressive symptoms was tested across race and levels of interdependent self-construal (a culturally based self orientation emphasizing connectedness with others). Next, the moderation of the suppression-depression relation was tested by race and interdependent self-construal. Results indicated that the hypothesized model fit well across Asian American and European American students, as well as those with high versus low levels of interdependent self-construal. Anger suppression was a significant mediator of the hypothesized indirect effects on depressive symptoms. Moreover, race and interdependent self-construal moderated the suppression-depression link, such that Asian American status and a stronger interdependent self-construal attenuated the relation between anger suppression and depressive symptoms. Understanding both universal and culture-specific aspects of emotion regulation in the development of depressive symptoms will be essential for sound theory, future research, and effective prevention and intervention efforts across diverse populations. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Theoretical status of J/ψ suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavin, S.

    1993-03-01

    High energy heavy ion collisions are expected to produce hadron densities far beyond the density in nuclei, ρ 0 = 0.16 fm -3 . Remarkably, no single measurement from the AGS and SPS light ion programs with projectiles A ≤ 32 stands out as unambiguous evidence of these extreme densities. To separate the high density signals from the background effects that result, e.g. from scattering with primary nucleons, careful systematic studies of hadron-nucleus, hA, and nucleus-nucleus, AB, data are needed. In this talk the author surveys the ongoing systematic study of the most notorious case in point -- J/ψ suppression. In principle, measurements of J/ψ suppression provide a probe of the densities obtained in AB collisions that is also sensitive to quark gluon plasma production. The latest results from SPS experiment NA38 reported by A. Romana in these proceedings show that the ratio of cross sections in the dimuon channel B μμ σ ψ /σ cont is reduced by a factor 0.50 ± 0.05 in central S+U compared to minimum bias pU collisions at 200 AGeV. This is precisely the sort of suppression that one expects if high densities are obtained. On the other hand, a target-mass dependence suggestive of this suppression is found in hA collisions where high densities are not expected. At 200 GeV, NA38 finds that B μμ σ ψ /σ cont falls to 0.84 ± 0.08 in pU compared to pCu. The hA suppression in this kinematic regime is likely due to a combination of nuclear effects: nucleon absorption and shadowing

  11. The effect of titrated fentanyl on suppressed cough reflex in healthy adult volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, H E; Shaw, G M; Brett, C N; Greenwood, F M; Huckabee, M L

    2016-05-01

    Cough suppression is part of the pharmacodynamic profile of opioids. We investigated the impact of clinical doses of fentanyl on suppressing the cough reflex. Thirteen volunteers received 2 μg.kg(-1) of fentanyl in a divided administration protocol. Three minutes after each administration and at 10 min intervals during washout, suppressed cough reflex testing with nebulised citric acid was performed and compared with fentanyl effect-site concentration. Mean (SD) citric acid concentration provoking cough increased from 0.5 (0.28) mol.l(-1) at baseline to 1.2 (0.50) mol.l(-1) after 2 μg.kg(-1) of fentanyl (p = 0.01). Mean (SD) fentanyl effect-site concentration after the final dose of fentanyl was 1.89 (0.05) ng.ml(-1) . A strong positive correlation was found between suppressed cough reflex thresholds and fentanyl effect-site concentrations during both fentanyl administration and washout phases of the study (r(2) = 0.79, p = 0.01). The mean (SD) length of time for return of suppressed cough response was 44.6 (18.8) min. Clinically relevant doses of fentanyl produced cough reflex suppression in healthy volunteers. © 2016 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  12. Access to Awareness for Faces during Continuous Flash Suppression Is Not Modulated by Affective Knowledge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Rabovsky

    Full Text Available It is a controversially debated topic whether stimuli can be analyzed up to the semantic level when they are suppressed from visual awareness during continuous flash suppression (CFS. Here, we investigated whether affective knowledge, i.e., affective biographical information about faces, influences the time it takes for initially invisible faces with neutral expressions to overcome suppression and break into consciousness. To test this, we used negative, positive, and neutral famous faces as well as initially unfamiliar faces, which were associated with negative, positive or neutral biographical information. Affective knowledge influenced ratings of facial expressions, corroborating recent evidence and indicating the success of our affective learning paradigm. Furthermore, we replicated shorter suppression durations for upright than for inverted faces, demonstrating the suitability of our CFS paradigm. However, affective biographical information did not modulate suppression durations for newly learned faces, and even though suppression durations for famous faces were influenced by affective knowledge, these effects did not differ between upright and inverted faces, indicating that they might have been due to low-level visual differences. Thus, we did not obtain unequivocal evidence for genuine influences of affective biographical information on access to visual awareness for faces during CFS.

  13. On the Relationship Between Musicianship and Contralateral Suppression of Transient-Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Andrew; Daughtrey, Emma R

    2016-04-01

    The medial olivocochlear (MOC) efferent reflex that modulates outer hair cell function has been shown to be more robust in musicians versus nonmusicians as evidenced in greater contralateral suppression of transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs). All previous research comparing musical ability and MOC efferent strength has defined musicianship dichotomously (i.e., high-level music students or professional classical musicians versus nonmusicians). The objective of the study was to further explore contralateral suppression of TEOAEs among adults with a full spectrum of musicianship ranging from no history of musicianship to professional musicians. Musicianship was defined by both self-report and with an objective test to quantify individual differences in perceptual music skills. A single-factor between-subjects and correlational research designs were employed. Forty-five normal-hearing young adults participated. Participants completed a questionnaire concerning their music experience and completed the Brief Profile of Music Perception Skills (PROMS) to quantify perceptual musical skills across multiple musical domains (i.e., accent, melody, tempo, and tuning). TEOAEs were evaluated with 60 dB peak equivalent sound pressure level click stimuli with and without a contralateral 65 dB sound pressure level white noise suppressor. TEOAE suppression was expressed in two ways, absolute TEOAE suppression in dB and a normalized index of TEOAE suppression (i.e., percentage of suppression). Participants who considered themselves musicians scored significantly higher on all subscales and total Brief PROMS score (p 0.05). There were no statistically significant correlations or linear predictive relationships between subscale or total Brief PROMS scores with absolute and percentage of TEOAE suppression (p > 0.05). The findings do not support the notion of a graded enhancement of MOC efferent suppression among adults with varied degrees of musicianship from nonmusicians to

  14. How fire history, fire suppression practices and climate change affect wildfire regimes in Mediterranean landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluís Brotons

    Full Text Available Available data show that future changes in global change drivers may lead to an increasing impact of fires on terrestrial ecosystems worldwide. Yet, fire regime changes in highly humanised fire-prone regions are difficult to predict because fire effects may be heavily mediated by human activities We investigated the role of fire suppression strategies in synergy with climate change on the resulting fire regimes in Catalonia (north-eastern Spain. We used a spatially-explicit fire-succession model at the landscape level to test whether the use of different firefighting opportunities related to observed reductions in fire spread rates and effective fire sizes, and hence changes in the fire regime. We calibrated this model with data from a period with weak firefighting and later assess the potential for suppression strategies to modify fire regimes expected under different levels of climate change. When comparing simulations with observed fire statistics from an eleven-year period with firefighting strategies in place, our results showed that, at least in two of the three sub-regions analysed, the observed fire regime could not be reproduced unless taking into account the effects of fire suppression. Fire regime descriptors were highly dependent on climate change scenarios, with a general trend, under baseline scenarios without fire suppression, to large-scale increases in area burnt. Fire suppression strategies had a strong capacity to compensate for climate change effects. However, strong active fire suppression was necessary to accomplish such compensation, while more opportunistic fire suppression strategies derived from recent fire history only had a variable, but generally weak, potential for compensation of enhanced fire impacts under climate change. The concept of fire regime in the Mediterranean is probably better interpreted as a highly dynamic process in which the main determinants of fire are rapidly modified by changes in landscape

  15. How fire history, fire suppression practices and climate change affect wildfire regimes in Mediterranean landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotons, Lluís; Aquilué, Núria; de Cáceres, Miquel; Fortin, Marie-Josée; Fall, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Available data show that future changes in global change drivers may lead to an increasing impact of fires on terrestrial ecosystems worldwide. Yet, fire regime changes in highly humanised fire-prone regions are difficult to predict because fire effects may be heavily mediated by human activities We investigated the role of fire suppression strategies in synergy with climate change on the resulting fire regimes in Catalonia (north-eastern Spain). We used a spatially-explicit fire-succession model at the landscape level to test whether the use of different firefighting opportunities related to observed reductions in fire spread rates and effective fire sizes, and hence changes in the fire regime. We calibrated this model with data from a period with weak firefighting and later assess the potential for suppression strategies to modify fire regimes expected under different levels of climate change. When comparing simulations with observed fire statistics from an eleven-year period with firefighting strategies in place, our results showed that, at least in two of the three sub-regions analysed, the observed fire regime could not be reproduced unless taking into account the effects of fire suppression. Fire regime descriptors were highly dependent on climate change scenarios, with a general trend, under baseline scenarios without fire suppression, to large-scale increases in area burnt. Fire suppression strategies had a strong capacity to compensate for climate change effects. However, strong active fire suppression was necessary to accomplish such compensation, while more opportunistic fire suppression strategies derived from recent fire history only had a variable, but generally weak, potential for compensation of enhanced fire impacts under climate change. The concept of fire regime in the Mediterranean is probably better interpreted as a highly dynamic process in which the main determinants of fire are rapidly modified by changes in landscape, climate and

  16. How Fire History, Fire Suppression Practices and Climate Change Affect Wildfire Regimes in Mediterranean Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotons, Lluís; Aquilué, Núria; de Cáceres, Miquel; Fortin, Marie-Josée; Fall, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Available data show that future changes in global change drivers may lead to an increasing impact of fires on terrestrial ecosystems worldwide. Yet, fire regime changes in highly humanised fire-prone regions are difficult to predict because fire effects may be heavily mediated by human activities We investigated the role of fire suppression strategies in synergy with climate change on the resulting fire regimes in Catalonia (north-eastern Spain). We used a spatially-explicit fire-succession model at the landscape level to test whether the use of different firefighting opportunities related to observed reductions in fire spread rates and effective fire sizes, and hence changes in the fire regime. We calibrated this model with data from a period with weak firefighting and later assess the potential for suppression strategies to modify fire regimes expected under different levels of climate change. When comparing simulations with observed fire statistics from an eleven-year period with firefighting strategies in place, our results showed that, at least in two of the three sub-regions analysed, the observed fire regime could not be reproduced unless taking into account the effects of fire suppression. Fire regime descriptors were highly dependent on climate change scenarios, with a general trend, under baseline scenarios without fire suppression, to large-scale increases in area burnt. Fire suppression strategies had a strong capacity to compensate for climate change effects. However, strong active fire suppression was necessary to accomplish such compensation, while more opportunistic fire suppression strategies derived from recent fire history only had a variable, but generally weak, potential for compensation of enhanced fire impacts under climate change. The concept of fire regime in the Mediterranean is probably better interpreted as a highly dynamic process in which the main determinants of fire are rapidly modified by changes in landscape, climate and

  17. Suppressed visual looming stimuli are not integrated with auditory looming signals: Evidence from continuous flash suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moors, Pieter; Huygelier, Hanne; Wagemans, Johan; de-Wit, Lee; van Ee, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies using binocular rivalry have shown that signals in a modality other than the visual can bias dominance durations depending on their congruency with the rivaling stimuli. More recently, studies using continuous flash suppression (CFS) have reported that multisensory integration influences how long visual stimuli remain suppressed. In this study, using CFS, we examined whether the contrast thresholds for detecting visual looming stimuli are influenced by a congruent auditory stimulus. In Experiment 1, we show that a looming visual stimulus can result in lower detection thresholds compared to a static concentric grating, but that auditory tone pips congruent with the looming stimulus did not lower suppression thresholds any further. In Experiments 2, 3, and 4, we again observed no advantage for congruent multisensory stimuli. These results add to our understanding of the conditions under which multisensory integration is possible, and suggest that certain forms of multisensory integration are not evident when the visual stimulus is suppressed from awareness using CFS.

  18. [The advances of suppression in research of amblyopia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S; Liu, H

    2016-04-11

    Suppression that is the result of interocular competition is an important machanism of amblyopia. The imbalance of suppression may lead the consequence to amblyopia. In the early study, researchers had raised the theory of II. Quadratic Summation which had revealed the relationship of interocular interaction and suppression. In some basic researches, other studies had showed the most possible anatomic location of suppression. Recently, researchers found a new method to quantify the interocular suppression named the noise model. Further studies found a novel disinhibition therapy to treat amblyopia. We summarized the research advances in suppression and disinhibition treatment in amblyopia. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2016, 52: 305-308).

  19. Intact suppression of increased false recognition in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Anthony P; Dodson, Chad S; Goff, Donald C; Schacter, Daniel L; Heckers, Stephan

    2002-09-01

    Recognition memory is impaired in patients with schizophrenia, as they rely largely on item familiarity, rather than conscious recollection, to make mnemonic decisions. False recognition of novel items (foils) is increased in schizophrenia and may relate to this deficit in conscious recollection. By studying pictures of the target word during encoding, healthy adults can suppress false recognition. This study examined the effect of pictorial encoding on subsequent recognition of repeated foils in patients with schizophrenia. The study included 40 patients with schizophrenia and 32 healthy comparison subjects. After incidental encoding of 60 words or pictures, subjects were tested for recognition of target items intermixed with 60 new foils. These new foils were subsequently repeated following either a two- or 24-word delay. Subjects were instructed to label these repeated foils as new and not to mistake them for old target words. Schizophrenic patients showed greater overall false recognition of repeated foils. The rate of false recognition of repeated foils was lower after picture encoding than after word encoding. Despite higher levels of false recognition of repeated new items, patients and comparison subjects demonstrated a similar degree of false recognition suppression after picture, as compared to word, encoding. Patients with schizophrenia displayed greater false recognition of repeated foils than comparison subjects, suggesting both a decrement of item- (or source-) specific recollection and a consequent reliance on familiarity in schizophrenia. Despite these deficits, presenting pictorial information at encoding allowed schizophrenic subjects to suppress false recognition to a similar degree as the comparison group, implying the intact use of a high-level cognitive strategy in this population.

  20. Initialization bias suppression in iterative Monte Carlo calculations: benchmarks on criticality calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richet, Y.; Jacquet, O.; Bay, X.

    2005-01-01

    The accuracy of an Iterative Monte Carlo calculation requires the convergence of the simulation output process. The present paper deals with a post processing algorithm to suppress the transient due to initialization applied on criticality calculations. It should be noticed that this initial transient suppression aims only at obtaining a stationary output series, then the convergence of the calculation needs to be guaranteed independently. The transient suppression algorithm consists in a repeated truncation of the first observations of the output process. The truncation of the first observations is performed as long as a steadiness test based on Brownian bridge theory is negative. This transient suppression method was previously tuned for a simplified model of criticality calculations, although this paper focuses on the efficiency on real criticality calculations. The efficiency test is based on four benchmarks with strong source convergence problems: 1) a checkerboard storage of fuel assemblies, 2) a pin cell array with irradiated fuel, 3) 3 one-dimensional thick slabs, and 4) an array of interacting fuel spheres. It appears that the transient suppression method needs to be more widely validated on real criticality calculations before any blind using as a post processing in criticality codes

  1. Magnetic fusion development for global warming suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jiangang; Zhang Jie; Duan Xuru

    2010-01-01

    Energy shortage and environmental pollution are two critical issues for human beings in the 21st century. There is an urgent need for new sustainable energy to meet the fast growing demand for clean energy. Fusion is one of the few options which may be able to satisfy the requirement for large scale sustainable energy generation and global warming suppression and therefore must be developed as quickly as possible. Fusion research has been carried out for the past 50 years. It is too long to wait for another 50 years to generate electricity by fusion. A much more aggressive approach should be taken with international collaboration towards the early use of fusion energy to meet the urgent needs for energy and global warming suppression.

  2. Suppression of Rabi oscillations for moving atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, B.; Egusquiza, I. L.; Muga, J. G.; Hegerfeldt, G. C.

    2003-01-01

    The well-known laser-induced Rabi oscillations of a two-level atom are shown to be suppressed under certain conditions when the atom is entering a laser-illuminated region. For temporal Rabi oscillations the effect has two regimes: a first classical-like one, taking place at intermediate atomic velocities, and a second purely quantum case at low velocities. The classical regime is associated with the formation of incoherent internal states of the atom in the laser region, whereas in the quantum, low velocity regime the laser projects the atom onto a pure internal state that can be controlled by detuning. Spatial Rabi oscillations are only suppressed in this low velocity, quantum regime

  3. Sleep deprivation suppresses aggression in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Matthew S; Mainwaring, Benjamin; Yue, Zhifeng; Sehgal, Amita

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbances negatively impact numerous functions and have been linked to aggression and violence. However, a clear effect of sleep deprivation on aggressive behaviors remains unclear. We find that acute sleep deprivation profoundly suppresses aggressive behaviors in the fruit fly, while other social behaviors are unaffected. This suppression is recovered following post-deprivation sleep rebound, and occurs regardless of the approach to achieve sleep loss. Genetic and pharmacologic approaches suggest octopamine signaling transmits changes in aggression upon sleep deprivation, and reduced aggression places sleep-deprived flies at a competitive disadvantage for obtaining a reproductive partner. These findings demonstrate an interaction between two phylogenetically conserved behaviors, and suggest that previous sleep experiences strongly modulate aggression with consequences for reproductive fitness. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07643.001 PMID:26216041

  4. Suppression of Poxvirus Replication by Resveratrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shuai; Realegeno, Susan; Pant, Anil; Satheshkumar, Panayampalli S; Yang, Zhilong

    2017-01-01

    Poxviruses continue to cause serious diseases even after eradication of the historically deadly infectious human disease, smallpox. Poxviruses are currently being developed as vaccine vectors and cancer therapeutic agents. Resveratrol is a natural polyphenol stilbenoid found in plants that has been shown to inhibit or enhance replication of a number of viruses, but the effect of resveratrol on poxvirus replication is unknown. In the present study, we found that resveratrol dramatically suppressed the replication of vaccinia virus (VACV), the prototypic member of poxviruses, in various cell types. Resveratrol also significantly reduced the replication of monkeypox virus, a zoonotic virus that is endemic in Western and Central Africa and causes human mortality. The inhibitory effect of resveratrol on poxviruses is independent of VACV N1 protein, a potential resveratrol binding target. Further experiments demonstrated that resveratrol had little effect on VACV early gene expression, while it suppressed VACV DNA synthesis, and subsequently post-replicative gene expression.

  5. Suppression of Poxvirus Replication by Resveratrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Cao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Poxviruses continue to cause serious diseases even after eradication of the historically deadly infectious human disease, smallpox. Poxviruses are currently being developed as vaccine vectors and cancer therapeutic agents. Resveratrol is a natural polyphenol stilbenoid found in plants that has been shown to inhibit or enhance replication of a number of viruses, but the effect of resveratrol on poxvirus replication is unknown. In the present study, we found that resveratrol dramatically suppressed the replication of vaccinia virus (VACV, the prototypic member of poxviruses, in various cell types. Resveratrol also significantly reduced the replication of monkeypox virus, a zoonotic virus that is endemic in Western and Central Africa and causes human mortality. The inhibitory effect of resveratrol on poxviruses is independent of VACV N1 protein, a potential resveratrol binding target. Further experiments demonstrated that resveratrol had little effect on VACV early gene expression, while it suppressed VACV DNA synthesis, and subsequently post-replicative gene expression.

  6. Prevention and suppression of metal packing fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Mark; Rogers, William J; Sam Mannan, M; Ostrowski, Scott W

    2003-11-14

    Structured packing has been widely used because of large surface area that makes possible columns with high capacity and efficiency. The large surface area also contributes to fire hazards because of hydrocarbon deposits that can easily combust and promote combustion of the thin metal packing materials. Materials of high surface area that can fuel fires include reactive metals, such as titanium, and materials that are not considered combustible, such as stainless steel. Column design and material selection for packing construction is discussed together with employee training and practices for safe column maintenance and operations. Presented also are methods and agents for suppression of metal fires. Guidance for prevention and suppression of metal fires is related to incidents involving packing fires in columns.

  7. Compton suppression through rise-time analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvi, S.; Celiktas, C.

    2007-01-01

    We studied Compton suppression for 60 Co and 137 Cs radioisotopes using a signal selection criterion based on contrasting the fall time of the signals composing the photo peak with those composing the Compton continuum. The fall time criterion is employed by using the pulse shape analysis observing the change in the fall times of the gamma-ray pulses. This change is determined by measuring the changes in the rise times related to the fall time of the scintillator and the timing signals related to the fall time of the input signals. We showed that Compton continuum suppression is achieved best via the precise timing adjustment of an analog rise-time analyzer connected to a NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer

  8. Abnormal Grain Growth Suppression in Aluminum Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Stephen J. (Inventor); Claytor, Harold Dale (Inventor); Alexa, Joel A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention provides a process for suppressing abnormal grain growth in friction stir welded aluminum alloys by inserting an intermediate annealing treatment ("IAT") after the welding step on the article. The IAT may be followed by a solution heat treatment (SHT) on the article under effectively high solution heat treatment conditions. In at least some embodiments, a deformation step is conducted on the article under effective spin-forming deformation conditions or under effective superplastic deformation conditions. The invention further provides a welded article having suppressed abnormal grain growth, prepared by the process above. Preferably the article is characterized with greater than about 90% reduction in area fraction abnormal grain growth in any friction-stir-welded nugget.

  9. Pressure suppression device for a reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Toshiaki

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent damages in drain pipes or the likes upon the water level increase due to blowing of incompressible gases. Constitution: An exhaust pipe for guiding escaping steams is connected to a main steam releaf valve. The exhaust pipe is guided into pressure-suppression-chamber water through the inside of a dry-well and by way of a vent pipe, a vent header and a drain pipe or a downcomer. Since the exhaust pipe is not exposed to the water surface inside the pressure suppression chamber, even if steams blow out into the dry-well by the rapture of pipeways or the likes to rapidly increase the water level, the water surface does not hit on the exhaust pipe, whereby the damages for the exhaust pipe and support members can be prevented to improve the reliability. (Seki, T.)

  10. Thought Suppression in Patients With Bipolar Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Miklowitz, David J.; Alatiq, Yousra; Geddes, John R.; Goodwin, Guy M.; Williams, J. Mark G.

    2010-01-01

    Suppression of negative thoughts has been observed under experimental conditions among patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) but has never been examined among patients with bipolar disorder (BD). Patients with BD (n = 36), patients with MDD (n = 20), and healthy controls (n = 20) completed a task that required unscrambling 6-word strings into 5-word sentences, leaving out 1 word. The extra word allowed the sentences to be completed in a negative, neutral, or ?hyperpositive? (manic/goa...

  11. Mechanisms underlying UV-induced immune suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullrich, Stephen E.

    2005-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most prevalent form of human neoplasia. Estimates suggest that in excess of one million new cases of skin cancer will be diagnosed this year alone in the United States (www.cancer.org/statistics). Fortunately, because of their highly visible location, skin cancers are more rapidly diagnosed and more easily treated than other types of cancer. Be that as it may, approximately 10,000 Americans a year die from skin cancer. The cost of treating non-melanoma skin cancer is estimated to be in excess of US$ 650 million a year [J.G. Chen, A.B. Fleischer, E.D. Smith, C. Kancler, N.D. Goldman, P.M. Williford, S.R. Feldman, Cost of non-melanoma skin cancer treatment in the United States, Dermatol. Surg. 27 (2001) 1035-1038], and when melanoma is included, the estimated cost of treating skin cancer in the United States is estimated to rise to US$ 2.9 billion annually (www.cancer.org/statistics). Because the morbidity and mortality associated with skin cancer is a major public health problem, it is important to understand the mechanisms underlying skin cancer development. The primary cause of skin cancer is the ultraviolet (UV) radiation found in sunlight. In addition to its carcinogenic potential, UV radiation is also immune suppressive. In fact, data from studies with both experimental animals and biopsy proven skin cancer patients suggest that there is an association between the immune suppressive effects of UV radiation and its carcinogenic potential. The focus of this manuscript will be to review the mechanisms underlying the induction of immune suppression following UV exposure. Particular attention will be directed to the role of soluble mediators in activating immune suppression

  12. Suppression of radiation excitation in focusing environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Z.; Ruth, R.D.

    1996-12-01

    Radiation damping and quantum excitation in an electron damping ring and a straight focusing channel are reviewed. They are found to be the two limiting cases in the study of a general bending and focusing combined system. In the intermediate regime where the radiation formation length is comparable to the betatron wavelength, quantum excitation can be exponentially suppressed by focusing field. This new regime may have interesting applications in the generation of ultra-low emittance beams

  13. Suppressing bullfrog larvae with carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Jackson A.; Ray, Andrew; Sepulveda, Adam J.; Watten, Barnaby J.; Densmore, Christine L.; Layhee, Megan J.; Mark Abbey-Lambert,; ,

    2014-01-01

    Current management strategies for the control and suppression of the American Bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus = Rana catesbeiana Shaw) and other invasive amphibians have had minimal effect on their abundance and distribution. This study evaluates the effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) on pre- and prometamorphic Bullfrog larvae. Bullfrogs are a model organism for evaluating potential suppression agents because they are a successful invader worldwide. From experimental trials we estimated that the 24-h 50% and 99% lethal concentration (LC50 and LC99) values for Bullfrog larvae were 371 and 549 mg CO2/L, respectively. Overall, larvae that succumbed to experimental conditions had a lower body condition index than those that survived. We also documented sublethal changes in blood chemistry during prolonged exposure to elevated CO2. Specifically, blood pH decreased by more than 0.5 pH units after 9 h of exposure and both blood partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) and blood glucose increased. These findings suggest that CO2 treatments can be lethal to Bullfrog larvae under controlled laboratory conditions. We believe this work represents the necessary foundation for further consideration of CO2 as a potential suppression agent for one of the most harmful invaders to freshwater ecosystems.

  14. Subjective duration distortions mirror neural repetition suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pariyadath, Vani; Eagleman, David M

    2012-01-01

    Subjective duration is strongly influenced by repetition and novelty, such that an oddball stimulus in a stream of repeated stimuli appears to last longer in duration in comparison. We hypothesize that this duration illusion, called the temporal oddball effect, is a result of the difference in expectation between the oddball and the repeated stimuli. Specifically, we conjecture that the repeated stimuli contract in duration as a result of increased predictability; these duration contractions, we suggest, result from decreased neural response amplitude with repetition, known as repetition suppression. Participants viewed trials consisting of lines presented at a particular orientation (standard stimuli) followed by a line presented at a different orientation (oddball stimulus). We found that the size of the oddball effect correlates with the number of repetitions of the standard stimulus as well as the amount of deviance from the oddball stimulus; both of these results are consistent with a repetition suppression hypothesis. Further, we find that the temporal oddball effect is sensitive to experimental context--that is, the size of the oddball effect for a particular experimental trial is influenced by the range of duration distortions seen in preceding trials. Our data suggest that the repetition-related duration contractions causing the oddball effect are a result of neural repetition suppression. More generally, subjective duration may reflect the prediction error associated with a stimulus and, consequently, the efficiency of encoding that stimulus. Additionally, we emphasize that experimental context effects need to be taken into consideration when designing duration-related tasks.

  15. Variation in plant defense suppresses herbivore performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, Ian; Paul, Ryan; Ode, Paul J.

    2018-01-01

    Defensive variability of crops and natural systems can alter herbivore communities and reduce herbivory. However, it is still unknown how defense variability translates into herbivore suppression. Nonlinear averaging and constraints in physiological tracking (also more generally called time-dependent effects) are the two mechanisms by which defense variability might impact herbivores. We conducted a set of experiments manipulating the mean and variability of a plant defense, showing that defense variability does suppress herbivore performance and that it does so through physiological tracking effects that cannot be explained by nonlinear averaging. While nonlinear averaging predicted higher or the same herbivore performance on a variable defense than on an invariable defense, we show that variability actually decreased herbivore performance and population growth rate. Defense variability reduces herbivore performance in a way that is more than the average of its parts. This is consistent with constraints in physiological matching of detoxification systems for herbivores experiencing variable toxin levels in their diet and represents a more generalizable way of understanding the impacts of variability on herbivory. Increasing defense variability in croplands at a scale encountered by individual herbivores can suppress herbivory, even if that is not anticipated by nonlinear averaging.

  16. Abscopal suppression of bone marrow erythropoiesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werts, E.D.; Johnson, M.J.; DeGowin, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    Abscopal responses of hemopoietic tissue, which we noted in preliminary studies of mice receiving partial-body irradiation, led us to clarify these effects. In studies reported here, one hind leg of CF-1 female mice received 1000, 5000, or 10,000 rad of x radiation. We found a persistent shift from medullary to splenic erythropoiesis preventing anemia in mice receiving 5000 or 10,000 rad. Splenectomy prior to 5000-rad irradiation resulted in anemia, which was not ameliorated by exposure to intermittent hypoxia. Despite evidence for increased levels of erythropoietin in the animals, namely, a reticulocytosis and increased erythrocyte radioiron incorporation, both 59 Fe uptake and erythroblast counts in shielded marrow remained below normal. We found 50 to 90% suppression of the growth of marrow stromal colonies (MSC) from bone marrow aspirates of the shielded and irradiated femoral marrow at 1 month and at least 20% depression of MSC at 1 year, with each dose. We conclude that: (i) high doses of x radiation to one leg of mice caused prolonged suppression of medullary erythropoiesis with splenic compensation to prevent anemia; (ii) splenectomy, anemia, and hypoxia prevented the severe abscopal depression of medullary erythropoiesis; and (iii) suppressed medullary erythropoiesis with decreased growth of MSC suggested a change in the hemopoietic microenvironment of the bone marrow

  17. Adaptive Filtering for Aeroservoelastic Response Suppression, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CSA Engineering proposes the design of an adaptive aeroelastic mode suppression for advanced fly-by-wire aircraft, which will partition the modal suppression...

  18. The Suppression of Internal Unrest in South West Africa (Namibia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AM Fokkens

    suppression of the Bondelswarts and the actions against Chief Ipumbu. This article .... firepower was an appropriate response to suppress the uprising of local ..... Morris accompanied by Beukes and a commando of 50 men, moved east.

  19. Vital Signs-HIV Care Saves Lives: Viral Suppression is Key

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the December 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. For people living with HIV, Viral suppression is critical. By getting tested and taking HIV medicines, individuals living with HIV can achieve very low levels of HIV in the body.

  20. 30 CFR 75.1912 - Fire suppression systems for permanent underground diesel fuel storage facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1912 Fire suppression systems for permanent underground diesel fuel storage... system by a nationally recognized independent testing laboratory and appropriate for installation at a... recommended inspection and maintenance program and as required by the nationally recognized independent...

  1. Exploring Genetic Suppression Interactions on a Global Scale

    OpenAIRE

    van Leeuwen, Jolanda; Pons, Carles; Mellor, Joseph C.; Yamaguchi, Takafumi N.; Friesen, Helena; Koschwanez, John; Ušaj, Mojca Mattiazzi; Pechlaner, Maria; Takar, Mehmet; Ušaj, Matej; VanderSluis, Benjamin; Andrusiak, Kerry; Bansal, Pritpal; Baryshnikova, Anastasia; Boone, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Genetic suppression occurs when the phenotypic defects caused by a mutation in a particular gene are rescued by a mutation in a second gene. To explore the principles of genetic suppression, we examined both literature-curated and unbiased experimental data, involving systematic genetic mapping and whole-genome sequencing, to generate a large-scale suppression network among yeast genes. Most suppression pairs identified novel relationships among functionally related genes, providing new insig...

  2. Suppression and control of leakage field in electromagnetic helical microwiggler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohigashi, N. [Kansai Univ., Osaka (Japan); Tsunawaki, Y. [Osaka Sangyo Univ. (Japan); Imasaki, K. [Institute for Laser Technology, Osaka (Japan)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Shortening the period of electromagnetic wiggler introduces both the radical increase of the leakage field and the decrease of the field in the gap region. The leakage field is severer problem in planar electromagnetic wiggler than in helical wiggler. Hence, in order to develop a short period electromagnetic wiggler, we have adopted {open_quotes}three poles per period{close_quotes} type electromagnetic helical microwiggler. In this work, we inserted the permanent magnet (PM) blocks with specific magnetized directions in the space between magnetic poles, for suppressing the leakage field flowing out from a pole face to the neighboring pole face. These PM-blocks must have higher intrinsic coersive force than saturation field of pole material. The gap field due to each pole is adjustable by controlling the leakage fields, that is, controlling the position of each iron screw set in each retainer fixing the PM-blocks. At present time, a test wiggler with period 7.8mm, periodical number 10 and gap length 4.6mm has been manufactured. Because the ratio of PM-block aperture to gap length is important parameter to suppress the leakage field, the parameter has been surveyed experimentally for PM-blocks with several dimensions of aperture. The field strength of 3-5kG (K=0.2-0.4) would be expected in the wiggler.

  3. Nuclear EMP: key suppression device parameters for EMP hardening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durgin, D.L.; Brown, R.M.

    1975-03-01

    The electrical transients induced by EMP exhibit unique characteristics which differ considerably from transients associated with other phenomena such as lightning, switching, and circuit malfunctions. The suppression techniques developed to handle more common transients, though not necessarily the same devices, can be used for EMP damage protection. The suppression devices used for circuit level EMP protection are referred to as Terminal Protection Devices (TPD). Little detailed data describing the response of TPD's to EMP-related transients have been published. While most vendors publish specifications for TPD performance, there is little standardization of parameters and TPD response models are not available. This lack of parameter standardization has resulted in a proliferation of test data that is sometimes conflicting and often not directly comparable. This paper derives and/or defines a consistent set of parameters based on EMP circuit hardening requirements and on measurable component parameters and is concerned only with use of TPD's to prevent permanent damage. Three sets of parameters pertaining to pertinent TPD functional characteristics were defined as follows: standby parameters, protection parameters, and failure parameters. These parameters are used to evaluate a representative sample of TPD's and the results are presented in matrix form to facilitate the selection of devices for specific hardening problems

  4. Suppression of Fatigue Crack Propagation of Duralumin by Cavitation Peening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitoshi Soyama

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available It was demonstrated in the present paper that cavitation peening which is one of the mechanical surface modification technique can suppress fatigue crack propagation in duralumin. The impacts produced when cavitation bubble collapses can be utilised for the mechanical surface modification technique in the same way as laser peening and shot peening, which is called “cavitation peening”. Cavitation peening employing a cavitating jet in water was used to treat the specimen made of duralumin Japanese Industrial Standards JIS A2017-T3. After introducing a notch, fatigue test was conducted by a load-controlled plate bending fatigue tester, which has been originally developed. The fatigue crack propagation behavior was evaluated and the relationship between the fatigue crack propagation rate versus stress intensity factor range was obtained. From the results, the fatigue crack propagation rate was drastically reduced by cavitation peening and the fatigue life of duralumin plate was extended 4.2 times by cavitation peening. In addition, the fatigue crack propagation can be suppressed by 88% in the stable crack propagation stage by cavitation peening.

  5. Testosterone suppression of CRH-stimulated cortisol in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinow, David R; Roca, Catherine A; Schmidt, Peter J; Danaceau, Merry A; Putnam, Karen; Cizza, Giovanni; Chrousos, George; Nieman, Lynnette

    2005-10-01

    Despite observations of age-dependent sexual dimorphisms in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, the role of androgens in the regulation of HPA axis activity in men has not been examined. We assessed this role by performing CRH stimulation tests in 10 men (ages 18-45 years) during gonadal suppression with leuprolide acetate and during testosterone addition to leuprolide. CRH-stimulated cortisol levels as well as peak cortisol and greatest cortisol excursion were significantly lower (pcortisol area under the curve was lower at a trend level (pcortisol : ACTH ratio, a measure of adrenal sensitivity, was lower during testosterone replacement (pcortisol. These data demonstrate that testosterone regulates CRH-stimulated HPA axis activity in men, with the divergent effects on ACTH and cortisol suggesting a peripheral (adrenal) locus for the suppressive effects on cortisol. Our results further demonstrate that the enhanced stimulated HPA axis activity previously described in young men compared with young women cannot be ascribed to an activational upregulation of the axis by testosterone.

  6. GPK heading machines with noise suppression means. [USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geshlin, L.A.; Anenberg, G.I.

    1981-11-01

    Chain conveyor is the main noise pollution source of the GPK heading machine. When the conveyor forms a straight line its noise level ranges from 100 to 106 dB and when bent at a 30 degree angle the noise level is from 102 to 107 dB. The mean noise level in the two positions is 103 and 105 dB respectively. The Donetsk Research Scientific Institute for Occupational Hygiene has developed a system for noise suppression using rubber elements which are particularly efficient when the conveyor is bent. Rubber elements also reduce mechanical vibrations of the chain. Design of the modernized conveyors is shown in three schemes. Operational tests show that use of rubber suppresses noise by 5 to 10 dB, and on the average by 8 dB. Noise level measured at the operator's working place amounts to 89 dB. The noise pollution control measures developed by the Institute are economical and do not exceed 1% of the conveyor price.

  7. When remembering the past suppresses memory for future actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsumi, Kenta; Saito, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    Remembering planned actions at the correct time in the future is an integral component of prospective cognition. Recent studies on future remembering have led to suggestions that prospective cognition might be based on past experience. To test this hypothesis, we focused on retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF), which usually indicates that remembering past events suppresses memory for related but different past events. The current study assessed RIF in two kinds of event-based prospective memory (PM) tasks using either focal or non-focal cues for ongoing tasks. Participants studied six members from each of eight taxonomic categories and then practiced recalling three of the six members from four of the eight categories using category-stem cues. This retrieval practice suppressed the detection of non-practiced members of the practiced categories during the PM task with non-focal cues (Experiment 1) but not with focal cues (Experiment 2). The results suggest that recall of certain items inhibits the function of the others as PM cues, but only if the PM task does not largely share its processing with the ongoing task.

  8. Tagging and suppression of pileup jets with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The suppression of pileup jets has been a crucial component of many physics analyses using 2012 LHC proton-proton collisions. In ATLAS, tracking information has been used to calculate a variable called the jet-vertex-fraction, which is the fraction of the total momentum of tracks in the jet which is associated with the primary vertex. Imposing a lower limit on this variable rejects the majority of pileup jets, but leads to hard-scatter jet efficiencies that depend on the number of reconstructed primary vertices in the event (NVtx). In this note, new track-based variables to suppress pileup jets are developed in such a way that the resulting hard-scatter jet efficiency is stable as a function of NVtx. A multivariate combination of two such variables called the jet-vertex-tagger (JVT) is constructed. The modeling of JVT is tested in Z(→ μμ)+jets as well as in semileptonic ttbar events. The efficiencies of different JVT criteria are measured in data and compared to simulation. In addition, it is shown that j...

  9. Compost made of organic wastes suppresses fusariosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuryntseva, Polina; Galitskaya, Polina; Biktasheva, Liliya; Selivanovkaya, Svetlana

    2017-04-01

    Fungal plant diseases cause dramatic yield losses worldwide. Usually, pesticides are used for soil sanitation, and it results in practically pest-free soils, although pesticides cause a biological vacuum, which present many horticultural disadvantages. Suppressive composts, which possess both fertilizing properties for plants and inhibiting properties for plant pathogens, represent an effective and environmentally friendly alternative to conventional pesticides. In this study, composts obtained from agricultural organic wastes were applied to suppress Fusarium oxysporum of tomato plants in model experiments. Composts were made of mixtures of the widespread organic wastes sampled in Tatarstan (Russia): straw (SW), corn wastes (CW), chicken manure (ChM), cattle manure (CM) and swine manure (SM). 11 two- and three-component mixtures were prepared to obtain the optimal carbon-nitrogen, moisture and pH balances, and composted for 210 days. It was found that the thermophilic phase of composting in all the mixtures lasted from 2 to 35 days, and was characterized by significant fluctuations in temperature, i.e. from 27°C to 59°C. In the initial mixtures, the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content was between 10 and 62 mg kg-1; it fell significantly on day 13, and then continuously decreased up to day 102, and subsequently remained low. For all the mixtures, maximal respiration activity was observed in the beginning of composting (231.9 mg CO2-C g-1 day-1). After 23 days, this parameter decreased significantly, and fluctuations subsided. The phytotoxicity of the initial compost mixtures varied from 18% (SW+SM) to 100% (CW+ChM+SM, CW+ChM); however, the trends in the dynamics were similar. After 120 days of composting, 5 of 11 samples were not phytotoxic. After 120 days of composting, each mixture was divided into two parts; one was inoculated with a biopreparation consisting of four microbial strains (Trichoderma asperellum, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas fluorescens and

  10. One-tone suppression in the frog auditory nerve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Jørgensen, M B

    1996-01-01

    Sixty-seven fibers of a sample of 401 in the auditory nerve of grassfrogs (Rana temporaria) showed one-tone suppression, i.e., their spontaneous activity was suppressed by tones. All fibers were afferents from the amphibian papilla with best frequencies between 100 and 400 Hz. Best suppression...

  11. Venture capital: States suffer as suppression expenses climb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krista Gebert

    2008-01-01

    The high cost of suppressing wildfires is taking a toll on federal and state agencies alike. Large wildland fires are complex, costly events influenced by a vast array of physical, climatic, and social factors. During five of the last eight years, the Forest Services' wildfire suppression expenditures have topped $1 billion, and total federal wildland suppression...

  12. Microbial enrichment to enhance the disease suppressive activity of compost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, J.; Montenari, M.; Boogert, van den P.H.J.F.

    2003-01-01

    Compost amended soil has been found to be suppressive against plant diseases in various cropping systems. The level and reproducibility of disease suppressive properties of compost might be increased by the addition of antagonists. In the present study, the establishment and suppressive activity of

  13. Observation of the Cabibbo-suppressed charmed baryon decay Λc+→pφ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, J.P.; Bebek, C.; Berger, B.E.; Berkelman, K.; Bloom, K.; Browder, T.E.; Cassel, D.G.; Cho, H.A.; Coffman, D.M.; Crowcroft, D.S.; Dickson, M.; Drell, P.S.; Dumas, D.J.; Ehrlich, R.; Elia, R.; Gaidarev, P.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Gittelman, B.; Gray, S.W.; Hartill, D.L.; Heltsley, B.K.; Henderson, S.; Jones, C.D.; Jones, S.L.; Kandaswamy, J.; Katayama, N.; Kim, P.C.; Kreinick, D.L.; Lee, T.; Liu, Y.; Ludwig, G.S.; Masui, J.; Mevissen, J.; Mistry, N.B.; Ng, C.R.; Nordberg, E.; Patterson, J.R.; Peterson, D.; Riley, D.; Soffer, A.; Avery, P.; Freyberger, A.; Lingel, K.; Prescott, C.; Rodriguez, J.; Yang, S.; Yelton, J.; Brandenburg, G.; Cinabro, D.; Liu, T.; Saulnier, M.; Wilson, R.; Yamamoto, H.; Bergfeld, T.; Eisenstein, B.I.; Ernst, J.; Gladding, G.E.; Gollin, G.D.; Palmer, M.; Selen, M.; Thaler, J.J.; Edwards, K.W.; McLean, K.W.; Ogg, M.; Bellerive, A.; Britton, D.I.; Hyatt, E.R.; Janicek, R.; MacFarlane, D.B.; Patel, P.M.; Spaan, B.; Sadoff, A.J.; Ammar, R.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Besson, D.; Coppage, D.; Copty, N.; Davis, R.; Hancock, N.; Kotov, S.; Kravchenko, I.; Kwak, N.; Kubota, Y.; Lattery, M.; Momayezi, M.; Nelson, J.K.; Patton, S.; Poling, R.; Savinov, V.; Schrenk, S.; Wang, R.; Alam, M.S.; Kim, I.J.; Ling, Z.; Mahmood, A.H.; ONeill, J.J.; Severini, H.; Sun, C.R.; Wappler, F.; Crawford, G.; Fulton, R.; Fujino, D.; Gan, K.K.; Honscheid, K.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Lee, J.; Sung, M.; White, C.; Wolf, A.; Zoeller, M.M.; Fu, X.; Nemati, B.; Ross, W.R.; Skubic, P.; Wood, M.; Bishai, M.; Fast, J.; Gerndt, E.; Hinson, J.W.; Miao, T.; Miller, D.H.; Modesitt, M.; Shibata, E.I.; Shipsey, I.P.; Wang, P.N.; Gibbons, L.; Johnson, S.D.; Kwon, Y.; Roberts, S.; Thorndike, E.H.; Coan, T.E.; Dominick, J.; Fadeyev, V.; Korolkov, I.; Lambrecht, M.; Sanghera, S.; Shelkov, V.; Skwarnicki, T.; Stroynowski, R.; Volobouev, I.; Wei, G.; Artuso, M.; Gao, M.; Goldberg, M.; He, D.; Horwitz, N.; Kopp, S.; Moneti, G.C.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Mukhin, Y.; Playfer, S.

    1996-01-01

    We report the observation of the Cabibbo-suppressed decays Λ c + →pK - K + and Λ c + →pφ using data collected with the CLEO II detector at CESR. The latter mode, observed for the first time with significant statistics, is of interest as a test of color suppression in charm decays. We have determined the branching ratios for these modes relative to Λ c + →pK - π + and compared our results with theory. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  14. Time from HIV infection to virological suppression: dramatic fall from 2007 to 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medland, Nicholas A; Nicholson, Suellen; Chow, Eric P F; Read, Timothy R H; Bradshaw, Catriona S; Denham, Ian; Fairley, Christopher K

    2017-11-13

    Time from HIV infection to virological suppression: dramatic fall from 2007 to 2016. We examined the time from HIV infection to virological suppression in MSM who were first diagnosed at Melbourne Sexual Health Centre between 2007 and 2016. Retrospective cohort. Date of infection was imputed from the testing history or serological evidence of recent infection (negative or indeterminate western blot) or baseline CD4 cell count. Date of virological suppression was determined using clinical viral load data. We analysed predictors of diagnosis with serological evidence of recent infection (logistic regression) and time from diagnosis to suppression and from infection to suppression (Cox regression) using demographic, clinical, and behavioral covariates. Between 2007 and 2016, the median time from HIV infection to diagnosis fell from 6.8 to 4.3 months (P = 0.001), from diagnosis to suppression fell from 22.7 to 3.2 months (P < 0.0001), and from infection to suppression fell from 49.0 to 9.6 months (P < 0.0001). Serological evidence of recent infection increased from 15.6 to 34.3% (P < 0.0001) of diagnoses. In the multivariate analyses, age, being recently arrived from a non-English speaking country, history of IDU, other sexually transmitted infections, and sexual risk were not associated with any of these measures. The duration of infectiousness in MSM diagnosed with HIV infection at Melbourne Sexual Health Centre in Victoria has fallen dramatically between 2007 and 2016 and the proportion diagnosed with serological evidence of recent infection has increased. This effect is observed across all population subgroups and marks a positive milestone for the treatment as prevention paradigm.

  15. GNOSIS: THE FIRST INSTRUMENT TO USE FIBER BRAGG GRATINGS FOR OH SUPPRESSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trinh, Christopher Q.; Ellis, Simon C.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Bryant, Julia; O' Byrne, John [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Lawrence, Jon S.; Horton, Anthony J.; Shortridge, Keith; Case, Scott; Colless, Matthew; Gers, Luke; Lee, Steve; Miziarski, Stan [Australian Astronomical Observatory, 105 Delhi Road, North Ryde, P.O. Box 915, NSW 1670 (Australia); Leon-Saval, Sergio G. [Institute of Photonics and Optical Science, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Couch, Warrick; Glazebrook, Karl [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Freeman, Kenneth [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Loehmannsroeben, Hans-Gerd [innoFSPEC-Institut fuer Chemie/Physikalische Chemie, Universitaet Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Strasse 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam-Golm (Germany); Haynes, Roger; Roth, Martin M., E-mail: c.trinh@physics.usyd.edu.au [innoFSPEC-Leibniz-Institut fuer Astrophysik Potsdam, An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); and others

    2013-02-01

    The near-infrared is an important part of the spectrum in astronomy, especially in cosmology because the light from objects in the early universe is redshifted to these wavelengths. However, deep near-infrared observations are extremely difficult to make from ground-based telescopes due to the bright background from the atmosphere. Nearly all of this background comes from the bright and narrow emission lines of atmospheric hydroxyl (OH) molecules. The atmospheric background cannot be easily removed from data because the brightness fluctuates unpredictably on short timescales. The sensitivity of ground-based optical astronomy far exceeds that of near-infrared astronomy because of this long-standing problem. GNOSIS is a prototype astrophotonic instrument that utilizes 'OH suppression fibers' consisting of fiber Bragg gratings and photonic lanterns to suppress the 103 brightest atmospheric emission doublets between 1.47 and 1.7 {mu}m. GNOSIS was commissioned at the 3.9 m Anglo-Australian Telescope with the IRIS2 spectrograph to demonstrate the potential of OH suppression fibers, but may be potentially used with any telescope and spectrograph combination. Unlike previous atmospheric suppression techniques GNOSIS suppresses the lines before dispersion and in a manner that depends purely on wavelength. We present the instrument design and report the results of laboratory and on-sky tests from commissioning. While these tests demonstrated high throughput ( Almost-Equal-To 60%) and excellent suppression of the skylines by the OH suppression fibers, surprisingly GNOSIS produced no significant reduction in the interline background and the sensitivity of GNOSIS+IRIS2 is about the same as IRIS2. It is unclear whether the lack of reduction in the interline background is due to physical sources or systematic errors as the observations are detector noise dominated. OH suppression fibers could potentially impact ground-based astronomy at the level of adaptive optics or

  16. GNOSIS: THE FIRST INSTRUMENT TO USE FIBER BRAGG GRATINGS FOR OH SUPPRESSION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinh, Christopher Q.; Ellis, Simon C.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Bryant, Julia; O'Byrne, John; Lawrence, Jon S.; Horton, Anthony J.; Shortridge, Keith; Case, Scott; Colless, Matthew; Gers, Luke; Lee, Steve; Miziarski, Stan; Leon-Saval, Sergio G.; Couch, Warrick; Glazebrook, Karl; Freeman, Kenneth; Löhmannsröben, Hans-Gerd; Haynes, Roger; Roth, Martin M.

    2013-01-01

    The near-infrared is an important part of the spectrum in astronomy, especially in cosmology because the light from objects in the early universe is redshifted to these wavelengths. However, deep near-infrared observations are extremely difficult to make from ground-based telescopes due to the bright background from the atmosphere. Nearly all of this background comes from the bright and narrow emission lines of atmospheric hydroxyl (OH) molecules. The atmospheric background cannot be easily removed from data because the brightness fluctuates unpredictably on short timescales. The sensitivity of ground-based optical astronomy far exceeds that of near-infrared astronomy because of this long-standing problem. GNOSIS is a prototype astrophotonic instrument that utilizes 'OH suppression fibers' consisting of fiber Bragg gratings and photonic lanterns to suppress the 103 brightest atmospheric emission doublets between 1.47 and 1.7 μm. GNOSIS was commissioned at the 3.9 m Anglo-Australian Telescope with the IRIS2 spectrograph to demonstrate the potential of OH suppression fibers, but may be potentially used with any telescope and spectrograph combination. Unlike previous atmospheric suppression techniques GNOSIS suppresses the lines before dispersion and in a manner that depends purely on wavelength. We present the instrument design and report the results of laboratory and on-sky tests from commissioning. While these tests demonstrated high throughput (≈60%) and excellent suppression of the skylines by the OH suppression fibers, surprisingly GNOSIS produced no significant reduction in the interline background and the sensitivity of GNOSIS+IRIS2 is about the same as IRIS2. It is unclear whether the lack of reduction in the interline background is due to physical sources or systematic errors as the observations are detector noise dominated. OH suppression fibers could potentially impact ground-based astronomy at the level of adaptive optics or greater. However, until a

  17. Psychophysical research progress of interocular suppression in amblyopic visual system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Jing Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Some recent animal experiments and psychophysical studies indicate that patients with amblyopia have a structurally intact binocular visual system that is rendered functionally monocular due to suppression, and interocular suppression is a key mechanism in visual deficits experienced by patients with amblyopia. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of recent psychophysical findings that have investigated the important role of interocular suppression in amblyopia, the measurement and modulation of suppression, and new dichoptic treatment intervention that directly target suppression.

  18. Numerical modeling of water spray suppression of conveyor belt fires in a large-scale tunnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Liming; Smith, Alex C

    2015-05-01

    Conveyor belt fires in an underground mine pose a serious life threat to miners. Water sprinkler systems are usually used to extinguish underground conveyor belt fires, but because of the complex interaction between conveyor belt fires and mine ventilation airflow, more effective engineering designs are needed for the installation of water sprinkler systems. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed to simulate the interaction between the ventilation airflow, the belt flame spread, and the water spray system in a mine entry. The CFD model was calibrated using test results from a large-scale conveyor belt fire suppression experiment. Simulations were conducted using the calibrated CFD model to investigate the effects of sprinkler location, water flow rate, and sprinkler activation temperature on the suppression of conveyor belt fires. The sprinkler location and the activation temperature were found to have a major effect on the suppression of the belt fire, while the water flow rate had a minor effect.

  19. Spironolactone induces apoptosis in human mononuclear cells. Association between apoptosis and cytokine suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Martin; Sønder, S U; Nersting, J

    2006-01-01

    Spironolactone (SPIR) has been described to suppress accumulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Here, the suppression of TNF-alpha in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mononuclear cell cultures was confirmed. However, SPIR was also found to induce apoptosis, prompting the investigations...... of a possible association between the two effects: The apoptosis-inducing and the cytokine-suppressive effects of SPIR correlated with regard to the effective concentration range. Also, pre-incubation experiments demonstrated a temporal separation of the two effects of ... preceding apoptosis. An association between the two effects was also seen when testing several SPIR analogues. Contrary to TNF-alpha, the levels of IL-1beta increased in SPIR-treated cultures. However, the amount of IL-1beta in the supernatants depended upon the order of SPIR and LPS addition, as IL-1beta...

  20. Numerical modeling of water spray suppression of conveyor belt fires in a large-scale tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Liming; Smith, Alex C.

    2015-01-01

    Conveyor belt fires in an underground mine pose a serious life threat to miners. Water sprinkler systems are usually used to extinguish underground conveyor belt fires, but because of the complex interaction between conveyor belt fires and mine ventilation airflow, more effective engineering designs are needed for the installation of water sprinkler systems. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed to simulate the interaction between the ventilation airflow, the belt flame spread, and the water spray system in a mine entry. The CFD model was calibrated using test results from a large-scale conveyor belt fire suppression experiment. Simulations were conducted using the calibrated CFD model to investigate the effects of sprinkler location, water flow rate, and sprinkler activation temperature on the suppression of conveyor belt fires. The sprinkler location and the activation temperature were found to have a major effect on the suppression of the belt fire, while the water flow rate had a minor effect. PMID:26190905

  1. Suppression of SOS-inducing activity of chemical mutagens by metabolites from microbial transformation of (-)-isolongifolene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Kazuki; Oda, Yoshimitsu; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2010-02-24

    In this study, biotransformation of (-)-isolongifolene (1) by Glomerella cingulata and suppressive effect on umuC gene expression by chemical mutagens 2-(2-furyl)-3-(5-nitro-2-furyl)acrylamide (furylfuramide) and aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) of the SOS response in Salmonella typhimurium TA1535/pSK1002 were investigated. Initially, 1 was carried out the microbial transformation by G. cingulata. The result found that 1 was converted into (-)-isolongifolen-9-one (2), (-)-(2S)-13-hydroxy-isolongifolen-9-one (3), and (-)-(4R)-4-hydroxy-isolongifolen-9-one (4) by G. cingulata, and their conversion rates were 60, 25, and 15%, respectively. The metabolites suppressed the SOS-inducing activity of furylfuramid and AFB(1) in the umu test. Comound 2 showed gene expression by chemical mutagens furylfuramide and AFB(1) was suppressed 54 and 50% at <0.5 mM, respectively. Compound 2 is the most effective compound in this experiment.

  2. The flavonol epicatechin reverses the suppressive effects of a stressor on long-term memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knezevic, Bogdan; Lukowiak, Ken

    2014-11-15

    Learning and subsequent memory formation are influenced by both environmental and lifestyle factors, such as stress and diet. Epicatechin, a plant flavonol found in cocoa, red wine and green tea enhances long-term memory (LTM) formation in Lymnaea. By contrast, an ecologically relevant stressor, low-calcium pond water, suppresses LTM formation. We tested the hypothesis that epicatechin overcomes the suppressive effects of the stressor on LTM formation in the continued presence of the stressor. Snails trained in low-calcium pond water exhibit learning but not LTM. Epicatechin (15 mg l(-1)) in control pond water enhances LTM formation. When epicatechin was added to the low-calcium pond water an enhanced LTM similar to that seen in control pond water was observed. Thus, a naturally occurring bioactive plant compound was able to overcome the suppressive effects of an ecologically relevant stressor on LTM formation. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Magnetohydrodynamic implosion symmetry and suppression of Richtmyer-Meshkov instability in an octahedrally symmetric field

    KAUST Repository

    Mostert, W.; Pullin, D. I.; Wheatley, V.; Samtaney, Ravi

    2017-01-01

    We present numerical simulations of ideal magnetohydrodynamics showing suppression of the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability in spherical implosions in the presence of an octahedrally symmetric magnetic field. This field configuration is of interest owing to its high degree of spherical symmetry in comparison with previously considered dihedrally symmetric fields. The simulations indicate that the octahedral field suppresses the instability comparably to the other previously considered candidate fields for light-heavy interface accelerations while retaining a highly symmetric underlying flow even at high field strengths. With this field, there is a reduction in the root-mean-square perturbation amplitude of up to approximately 50% at representative time under the strongest field tested while maintaining a homogeneous suppression pattern compared to the other candidate fields.

  4. Magnetohydrodynamic implosion symmetry and suppression of Richtmyer-Meshkov instability in an octahedrally symmetric field

    KAUST Repository

    Mostert, W.

    2017-01-27

    We present numerical simulations of ideal magnetohydrodynamics showing suppression of the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability in spherical implosions in the presence of an octahedrally symmetric magnetic field. This field configuration is of interest owing to its high degree of spherical symmetry in comparison with previously considered dihedrally symmetric fields. The simulations indicate that the octahedral field suppresses the instability comparably to the other previously considered candidate fields for light-heavy interface accelerations while retaining a highly symmetric underlying flow even at high field strengths. With this field, there is a reduction in the root-mean-square perturbation amplitude of up to approximately 50% at representative time under the strongest field tested while maintaining a homogeneous suppression pattern compared to the other candidate fields.

  5. Subjective duration distortions mirror neural repetition suppression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vani Pariyadath

    Full Text Available Subjective duration is strongly influenced by repetition and novelty, such that an oddball stimulus in a stream of repeated stimuli appears to last longer in duration in comparison. We hypothesize that this duration illusion, called the temporal oddball effect, is a result of the difference in expectation between the oddball and the repeated stimuli. Specifically, we conjecture that the repeated stimuli contract in duration as a result of increased predictability; these duration contractions, we suggest, result from decreased neural response amplitude with repetition, known as repetition suppression.Participants viewed trials consisting of lines presented at a particular orientation (standard stimuli followed by a line presented at a different orientation (oddball stimulus. We found that the size of the oddball effect correlates with the number of repetitions of the standard stimulus as well as the amount of deviance from the oddball stimulus; both of these results are consistent with a repetition suppression hypothesis. Further, we find that the temporal oddball effect is sensitive to experimental context--that is, the size of the oddball effect for a particular experimental trial is influenced by the range of duration distortions seen in preceding trials.Our data suggest that the repetition-related duration contractions causing the oddball effect are a result of neural repetition suppression. More generally, subjective duration may reflect the prediction error associated with a stimulus and, consequently, the efficiency of encoding that stimulus. Additionally, we emphasize that experimental context effects need to be taken into consideration when designing duration-related tasks.

  6. Bone-suppressed radiography using machine learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jun Beom; Kim, Dae Cheon; Kim, Ho Kyung [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The single-shot dual-energy imaging suffers from reduced contrast-to-noise ratio performance due to poor spectral separation. Tomosynthesis requires more complex motion equipment and may require higher patient dose. An alternative tissue-specific imaging technique was introduced. This alternative technique usually possesses a filter to generate bone-only images for given digital radiographs. Therefore, it provides soft-tissue-enhanced images from the subtraction of given radiographs and filtered bone-only images. Only bone-suppressed imaging capability is a limitation of the method. The filter can be obtained from a machine-learning algorithm, e.g. artificial neural network (ANN), with the dual-energy bone-only images (called 'teaching' images). We suspect the robustness of the filter may be dependent upon the number of teaching images and the number of patients from whose radiographs we obtain the teaching images. In this study, we design an ANN to obtain a bone-extracting filter from a radiograph, and investigate the filter properties with respect to various ANN parameters. Preliminary results are summarized in Fig. 3. We extracted 5,000 subregions in a 21x21 pixel format from the lung region in the bone-enhanced dual-energy image and we used them for teaching images during training the ANN. The resultant bone-enhanced image from the ANN nonlinear filter is shown in Fig. 3 (a). From the weighted logarithmic subtraction between Fig. 2 (a) and Fig. 3 (a), we could obtain the bone-suppressed image as shown in Fig. 3 (b). The quality of the bone-suppressed image is comparable to the ground truth Fig. 2 (c).

  7. Glechoma hederacea Suppresses RANKL-mediated Osteoclastogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, J K; Erkhembaatar, M; Gu, D R; Lee, S H; Lee, C H; Shin, D M; Lee, Y R; Kim, M S

    2014-07-01

    Glechoma hederacea (GH), commonly known as ground-ivy or gill-over-the-ground, has been extensively used in folk remedies for relieving symptoms of inflammatory disorders. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the therapeutic action of GH are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that GH constituents inhibit osteoclastogenesis by abrogating receptor activator of nuclear κ-B ligand (RANKL)-induced free cytosolic Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) oscillations. To evaluate the effect of GH on osteoclastogenesis, we assessed the formation of multi-nucleated cells (MNCs), enzymatic activity of tartrate-resistant acidic phosphatase (TRAP), expression of nuclear factor of activated T-cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), and [Ca(2+)]i alterations in response to treatment with GH ethanol extract (GHE) in primarily cultured bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs). Treatment of RANKL-stimulated or non-stimulated BMMs with GHE markedly suppressed MNC formation, TRAP activity, and NFATc1 expression in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, GHE treatment induced a large transient elevation in [Ca(2+)]i while suppressing RANKL-induced [Ca(2+)]i oscillations, which are essential for NFATc1 activation. GHE-evoked increase in [Ca(2+)]i was dependent on extracellular Ca(2+) and was inhibited by 1,4-dihydropyridine (DHP), inhibitor of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (VGCCs), but was independent of store-operated Ca(2+) channels. Notably, after transient [Ca(2+)] elevation, treatment with GHE desensitized the VGCCs, resulting in an abrogation of RANKL-induced [Ca(2+)]i oscillations and MNC formation. These findings demonstrate that treatment of BMMs with GHE suppresses RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis by activating and then desensitizing DHP-sensitive VGCCs, suggesting potential applications of GH in the treatment of bone disorders, such as periodontitis, osteoporosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. © International & American Associations for Dental Research.

  8. Bone-suppressed radiography using machine learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jun Beom; Kim, Dae Cheon; Kim, Ho Kyung

    2016-01-01

    The single-shot dual-energy imaging suffers from reduced contrast-to-noise ratio performance due to poor spectral separation. Tomosynthesis requires more complex motion equipment and may require higher patient dose. An alternative tissue-specific imaging technique was introduced. This alternative technique usually possesses a filter to generate bone-only images for given digital radiographs. Therefore, it provides soft-tissue-enhanced images from the subtraction of given radiographs and filtered bone-only images. Only bone-suppressed imaging capability is a limitation of the method. The filter can be obtained from a machine-learning algorithm, e.g. artificial neural network (ANN), with the dual-energy bone-only images (called 'teaching' images). We suspect the robustness of the filter may be dependent upon the number of teaching images and the number of patients from whose radiographs we obtain the teaching images. In this study, we design an ANN to obtain a bone-extracting filter from a radiograph, and investigate the filter properties with respect to various ANN parameters. Preliminary results are summarized in Fig. 3. We extracted 5,000 subregions in a 21x21 pixel format from the lung region in the bone-enhanced dual-energy image and we used them for teaching images during training the ANN. The resultant bone-enhanced image from the ANN nonlinear filter is shown in Fig. 3 (a). From the weighted logarithmic subtraction between Fig. 2 (a) and Fig. 3 (a), we could obtain the bone-suppressed image as shown in Fig. 3 (b). The quality of the bone-suppressed image is comparable to the ground truth Fig. 2 (c).

  9. Highly porous nanoberyllium for X-ray beam speckle suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goikhman, Alexander, E-mail: agoikhman@ymail.com; Lyatun, Ivan; Ershov, Petr [Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, Nevskogo str. 14, Kaliningrad 236041 (Russian Federation); Snigireva, Irina [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble (France); Wojda, Pawel [Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, Nevskogo str. 14, Kaliningrad 236041 (Russian Federation); Gdańsk University of Technology, 11/12 G. Narutowicza, Gdańsk 80-233 (Poland); Gorlevsky, Vladimir; Semenov, Alexander; Sheverdyaev, Maksim; Koletskiy, Viktor [A. A. Bochvar High-Technology Scientific Research Institute for Inorganic Materials, Rogova str. 5a, Moscow 123098 (Russian Federation); Snigirev, Anatoly [Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, Nevskogo str. 14, Kaliningrad 236041 (Russian Federation); European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble (France)

    2015-04-09

    A speckle suppression device containing highly porous nanoberyllium is proposed for manipulating the spatial coherence length and removing undesirable speckle structure during imaging experiments. This paper reports a special device called a ‘speckle suppressor’, which contains a highly porous nanoberyllium plate squeezed between two beryllium windows. The insertion of the speckle suppressor in an X-ray beam allows manipulation of the spatial coherence length, thus changing the effective source size and removing the undesirable speckle structure in X-ray imaging experiments almost without beam attenuation. The absorption of the nanoberyllium plate is below 1% for 1 mm thickness at 12 keV. The speckle suppressor was tested on the ID06 ESRF beamline with X-rays in the energy range from 9 to 15 keV. It was applied for the transformation of the phase–amplitude contrast to the pure amplitude contrast in full-field microscopy.

  10. Computer calculations of air and steam blowdown suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, D.M. Jr.; McMaster, W.H.; Landram, C.S.; Quinones, D.F.; Gong, E.Y.; Macken, N.A.

    1980-01-01

    We describe a computer code that combines an Eulerian incompressible-fluid algorithm (SOLA) with a Lagrangian finite-element shell algorithm. The former models the fluid and the latter models the containing structure in an analysis of pressure suppression in boiling-water reactors. The code (PELE-IC) calculates loads and structural response from air blow-down and from the oscillatory condensation of steam bubbles in a water pool. The fluid, structure, and coupling algorithms are tested by recalculating problems that have known analytical solutions, including tank drainage, spherical bubble growth, coupling for circular plates, and submerged cylinder vibration. Code calculations are also compared with the results of small-scale blowdown experiments. (orig.)

  11. Highly porous nanoberyllium for X-ray beam speckle suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goikhman, Alexander; Lyatun, Ivan; Ershov, Petr; Snigireva, Irina; Wojda, Pawel; Gorlevsky, Vladimir; Semenov, Alexander; Sheverdyaev, Maksim; Koletskiy, Viktor; Snigirev, Anatoly

    2015-01-01

    A speckle suppression device containing highly porous nanoberyllium is proposed for manipulating the spatial coherence length and removing undesirable speckle structure during imaging experiments. This paper reports a special device called a ‘speckle suppressor’, which contains a highly porous nanoberyllium plate squeezed between two beryllium windows. The insertion of the speckle suppressor in an X-ray beam allows manipulation of the spatial coherence length, thus changing the effective source size and removing the undesirable speckle structure in X-ray imaging experiments almost without beam attenuation. The absorption of the nanoberyllium plate is below 1% for 1 mm thickness at 12 keV. The speckle suppressor was tested on the ID06 ESRF beamline with X-rays in the energy range from 9 to 15 keV. It was applied for the transformation of the phase–amplitude contrast to the pure amplitude contrast in full-field microscopy

  12. New hybrid technique for impulsive noise suppression in OFDM systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, A.; Zeb, A.; Sheikh, S.A.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a new hybrid technique employing RS (Reed Solomon) coding and adaptive filter for impulsive noise suppression in OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) systems is presented. Adaptive filter creates a more accurate estimate of the original OFDM signal after impulsive noise cancellation. The residual impulsive noise is further mitigated by RS decoder in the second stage of proposed technique. Three members of adaptive filters family i.e. NLMS (Normalized Least Mean Square) algorithm, RLS (Recursive Least Square) algorithm and Bhagyashri algorithm are tested with RS decoder in the proposed hybrid technique. Furthermore, the results in terms of steady state MSE (Mean Square Error) reduction, BER (Bit Error Rate) improvement and SNR (Signal to Noise Ratio) enhancement confirm the effectiveness of the proposed dual faceted technique when compared with the recently reported techniques in literature. (author)

  13. Short wavelength limits of current shot noise suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nause, Ariel; Dyunin, Egor; Gover, Avraham

    2014-01-01

    Shot noise in electron beam was assumed to be one of the features beyond control of accelerator physics. Current results attained in experiments at Accelerator Test Facility in Brookhaven and Linac Coherent Light Source in Stanford suggest that the control of the shot noise in electron beam (and therefore of spontaneous radiation and Self Amplified Spontaneous Emission of Free Electron Lasers) is feasible at least in the visible range of the spectrum. Here, we present a general linear formulation for collective micro-dynamics of e-beam noise and its control. Specifically, we compare two schemes for current noise suppression: a quarter plasma wavelength drift section and a combined drift/dispersive (transverse magnetic field) section. We examine and compare their limits of applicability at short wavelengths via considerations of electron phase-spread and the related Landau damping effect

  14. Short wavelength limits of current shot noise suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nause, Ariel, E-mail: arielnau@post.tau.ac.il [Faculty of Exact Sciences, Department of Physics, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Dyunin, Egor; Gover, Avraham [Faculty of Engineering, Department of Physical Electronics, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2014-08-15

    Shot noise in electron beam was assumed to be one of the features beyond control of accelerator physics. Current results attained in experiments at Accelerator Test Facility in Brookhaven and Linac Coherent Light Source in Stanford suggest that the control of the shot noise in electron beam (and therefore of spontaneous radiation and Self Amplified Spontaneous Emission of Free Electron Lasers) is feasible at least in the visible range of the spectrum. Here, we present a general linear formulation for collective micro-dynamics of e-beam noise and its control. Specifically, we compare two schemes for current noise suppression: a quarter plasma wavelength drift section and a combined drift/dispersive (transverse magnetic field) section. We examine and compare their limits of applicability at short wavelengths via considerations of electron phase-spread and the related Landau damping effect.

  15. Experimental study on parasitic mode suppression using FeSiAl in relativistic klystron amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zehai [College of Basic Education, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, Hunan 410072 (China)

    2015-03-15

    Experimental study of parasitic mode suppression using electromagnetic attenuate material FeSiAl in an S-band Relativistic Klystron Amplifier (RKA) is presented in this paper. The FeSiAl powder is coated and sintered onto the inner surface of a drift tube which locates between the input and the middle cavity of the RKA. Cold tests show that the attenuate rate of the tube against parasitic mode TE{sub 11} is about 50%. Experiments carried out on the Torch-01 accelerator present that the tube is effective in suppressing the parasitic mode. Two typical outputs are obtained. When the diode voltage is on a moderate level, the RKA operates well and the parasitic mode is totally suppressed. The pulse length of the High Power Microwave (HPM) almost equals the electron beam pulse length and the HPM average output power is about 300 MW, with a power efficiency of 10%. When the diode voltage is on a higher level, the output power and efficiency rise but the parasitic mode oscillation occurred and the pulse length is shortened. By contrast, the parasitic mode oscillation is too strong for the RKA to operate normally with un-sintered drift tube. The experimental study implies that FeSiAl is effective in suppressing the parasitic mode oscillation in a certain extent. However, total suppression needs a deeper attenuate rate and further investigation.

  16. Experimental study on parasitic mode suppression using FeSiAl in relativistic klystron amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zehai

    2015-03-01

    Experimental study of parasitic mode suppression using electromagnetic attenuate material FeSiAl in an S-band Relativistic Klystron Amplifier (RKA) is presented in this paper. The FeSiAl powder is coated and sintered onto the inner surface of a drift tube which locates between the input and the middle cavity of the RKA. Cold tests show that the attenuate rate of the tube against parasitic mode TE11 is about 50%. Experiments carried out on the Torch-01 accelerator present that the tube is effective in suppressing the parasitic mode. Two typical outputs are obtained. When the diode voltage is on a moderate level, the RKA operates well and the parasitic mode is totally suppressed. The pulse length of the High Power Microwave (HPM) almost equals the electron beam pulse length and the HPM average output power is about 300 MW, with a power efficiency of 10%. When the diode voltage is on a higher level, the output power and efficiency rise but the parasitic mode oscillation occurred and the pulse length is shortened. By contrast, the parasitic mode oscillation is too strong for the RKA to operate normally with un-sintered drift tube. The experimental study implies that FeSiAl is effective in suppressing the parasitic mode oscillation in a certain extent. However, total suppression needs a deeper attenuate rate and further investigation.

  17. Suppression of the cutaneous immune response following topical application of the prostaglandin PGE2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rheins, L.A.; Barnes, L.; Amornsiripanitch, S.; Collins, C.E.; Nordlund, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    UVB irradiation (290-320 nm) and topical applications of arachidonic acid (AA) in mice decrease the number of identifiable Langerhans cells and alter the cutaneous immune response. Application of contact allergens such as dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) to irradiated or AA-treated skin induces antigen-specific tolerance. Indomethacin (IM), a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, administered orally to mice prior to UVB irradiation or prior to the topical application of arachidonic acid, abrogates suppression of contact hypersensitivity (CHS) to DNFB. This suggests a byproduct of arachidonic acid generated through the cyclooxygenase pathway may be involved in the immune suppression. Topical application of various prostaglandins (PGE2, PGD2, PGF2 alpha, and CTXA2) did not cause alterations in the population density of the identifiable Ia+ dendritic Langerhans cells. PGE2, but no other tested agent, produced a suppression of the CHS response to DNFB. These observations suggests that of the various prostaglandins, PGE2 might be one of several biochemical signals which mediate the suppression of contact hypersensitivity reactions following ultraviolet radiation exposure. However, the mechanisms by which PGE2 produces its suppressive effects have not been identified

  18. Experimental study on parasitic mode suppression using FeSiAl in relativistic klystron amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zehai

    2015-01-01

    Experimental study of parasitic mode suppression using electromagnetic attenuate material FeSiAl in an S-band Relativistic Klystron Amplifier (RKA) is presented in this paper. The FeSiAl powder is coated and sintered onto the inner surface of a drift tube which locates between the input and the middle cavity of the RKA. Cold tests show that the attenuate rate of the tube against parasitic mode TE 11 is about 50%. Experiments carried out on the Torch-01 accelerator present that the tube is effective in suppressing the parasitic mode. Two typical outputs are obtained. When the diode voltage is on a moderate level, the RKA operates well and the parasitic mode is totally suppressed. The pulse length of the High Power Microwave (HPM) almost equals the electron beam pulse length and the HPM average output power is about 300 MW, with a power efficiency of 10%. When the diode voltage is on a higher level, the output power and efficiency rise but the parasitic mode oscillation occurred and the pulse length is shortened. By contrast, the parasitic mode oscillation is too strong for the RKA to operate normally with un-sintered drift tube. The experimental study implies that FeSiAl is effective in suppressing the parasitic mode oscillation in a certain extent. However, total suppression needs a deeper attenuate rate and further investigation

  19. Prediction suppression in monkey inferotemporal cortex depends on the conditional probability between images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Suchitra; Meyer, Travis; Olson, Carl R

    2016-01-01

    When monkeys view two images in fixed sequence repeatedly over days and weeks, neurons in area TE of the inferotemporal cortex come to exhibit prediction suppression. The trailing image elicits only a weak response when presented following the leading image that preceded it during training. Induction of prediction suppression might depend either on the contiguity of the images, as determined by their co-occurrence and captured in the measure of joint probability P(A,B), or on their contingency, as determined by their correlation and as captured in the measures of conditional probability P(A|B) and P(B|A). To distinguish between these possibilities, we measured prediction suppression after imposing training regimens that held P(A,B) constant but varied P(A|B) and P(B|A). We found that reducing either P(A|B) or P(B|A) during training attenuated prediction suppression as measured during subsequent testing. We conclude that prediction suppression depends on contingency, as embodied in the predictive relations between the images, and not just on contiguity, as embodied in their co-occurrence. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Suppression of Plant Defenses by Herbivorous Mites Is Not Associated with Adaptation to Host Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica T. Paulo

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Some herbivores suppress plant defenses, which may be viewed as a result of the coevolutionary arms race between plants and herbivores. However, this ability is usually studied in a one-herbivore-one-plant system, which hampers comparative studies that could corroborate this hypothesis. Here, we extend this paradigm and ask whether the herbivorous spider-mite Tetranychus evansi, which suppresses the jasmonic-acid pathway in tomato plants, is also able to suppress defenses in other host plants at different phylogenetic distances from tomatoes. We test this using different plants from the Solanales order, namely tomato, jimsonweed, tobacco, and morning glory (three Solanaceae and one Convolvulaceae, and bean plants (Fabales. First, we compare the performance of T. evansi to that of the other two most-commonly found species of the same genus, T. urticae and T. ludeni, on several plants. We found that the performance of T. evansi is higher than that of the other species only on tomato plants. We then showed, by measuring trypsin inhibitor activity and life history traits of conspecific mites on either clean or pre-infested plants, that T. evansi can suppress plant defenses on all plants except tobacco. This study suggests that the suppression of plant defenses may occur on host plants other than those to which herbivores are adapted.

  1. Anger Suppression, Interdependent Self-Construal, and Depression among Asian American and European American College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Rebecca Y. M.; Park, Irene J. K.

    2010-01-01

    The present study tested a theoretical model of emotion regulation (Yap, Sheeber, & Allen, 2007) in a sample of Asian American and European American college students (N = 365). Specifically, the mediating role of anger suppression in the effect of temperament and family processes on depressive symptoms was tested across race and levels of interdependent self-construal (a culturally based self orientation emphasizing connectedness with others). Next, the moderation of the suppression—depressio...

  2. Fire suppression as a thermal implosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novozhilov, Vasily

    2017-01-01

    The present paper discusses the possibility of the thermal implosion scenario. This process would be a reverse of the well known thermal explosion (autoignition) phenomenon. The mechanism for thermal implosion scenario is proposed which involves quick suppression of the turbulent diffusion flame. Classical concept of the thermal explosion is discussed first. Then a possible scenario for the reverse process (thermal implosion) is discussed and illustrated by a relevant mathematical model. Based on the arguments presented in the paper, thermal implosion may be observed as an unstable equilibrium point on the generalized Semenov diagram for turbulent flame, however this hypothesis requires ultimate experimental confirmation.

  3. Applications of zero-suppressed decision diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Sasao, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    A zero-suppressed decision diagram (ZDD) is a data structure to represent objects that typically contain many zeros. Applications include combinatorial problems, such as graphs, circuits, faults, and data mining. This book consists of four chapters on the applications of ZDDs. The first chapter by Alan Mishchenko introduces the ZDD. It compares ZDDs to BDDs, showing why a more compact representation is usually achieved in a ZDD. The focus is on sets of subsets and on sum-of-products (SOP) expressions. Methods to generate all the prime implicants (PIs), and to generate irredundant SOPs are show

  4. Experimental Status Of $J/\\psi$ Suppression

    CERN Document Server

    Kluberg, L; Alessandro, B; Alexa, C; Arnaldi, R; Astruc, J; Atayan, M; Baglin, C; Baldit, A; Bedjidian, M; Bellaiche, F; Beolè, S; Boldea, V; Bordalo, P; Bussière, A; Capelli,L; Capony, V; Casagrande, L; Castor, J; Chambon, T; Chaurand, B; Chevrot, I; Cheynis, B; Chiavassa, E; Cicalò, C; Comets, M P; Constans, N; Constantinescu, S; Cruz, J; De Falco, A; De Marco, N; Dellacasa, G; Devaux, A; Dita, S; Drapier, O; Ducroux, L; Espagnon, B; Fargeix, J; Filippov, S N; Fleuret, F; Force, P; Gallio, M; Gavrilov, Y K; Gerschel, C; Giubellino, P; Golubeva, M B; Gonin, M; Grigorian, A A; Grossiord, J Y; Guber, F F; Guichard, A; Gulkanyan, H; Hakobyan, R; Haroutunian, R; Idzik, M; Jouan, D; Karavitcheva, T L; Kurepin, A B; Le Bornec, Y; Lourenrço, C; Macciotta, P; Mac Cormick, M; Marzari- Chiesa, A; Masera, M; Masoni, A; Mehrabyan, S; Monteno, M; Mourgues, S; Musso, A; Ohlsson-Malek, F; Petiau, P; Piccotti, A; Pizzi, J R; Prado da Silva, W L; Puddu, G; Quintans, C; Racca, C; Ramello, L; Ramos, S; Rato-Mendes, P; Riccati, L; Romana, A; Ropotar, I; Saturnini, P; Scomparin, E; Serci, S; Shahoyan, R; Silva, S; Sitta, M; Soave, C; Sonderegger, P; Tarrago, X; Topilskaya, N S; Usai, G L; Vercellin, E; Villatte, L; Willis, N

    2001-01-01

    The most recent results obtained by experiment NA50 show that the $J /\\psi$ cross-section per nucleon-nucleon collision in semi-peripheral Pb-Pb reactions is "normally" suppressed in the sense that it follows the trend already observed from p-p and up to the most central S-U reactions. A clear change of behaviour is observed for more central Pb-Pb collisions which could be due to the transition of normal nuclear matter to its predicted Quark-Gluon Plasma state

  5. Pressure suppression system for a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jost, N.

    1977-01-01

    The invention pertains to a pressure suppression system for PWR reactors where the parts enclosing the primary coolant are contained in two pressure-tight separate chambers. According to the invention, these chambers are partly filled with water and are connected with each other below the water surface. This way, gases cannot escape from the containment, not even if a valve and a line are damaged at the same time, as the vapours released condensate in the water of at least one of the other chambers. (HP) [de

  6. Fractional order absolute vibration suppression (AVS) controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halevi, Yoram

    2017-04-01

    Absolute vibration suppression (AVS) is a control method for flexible structures. The first step is an accurate, infinite dimension, transfer function (TF), from actuation to measurement. This leads to the collocated, rate feedback AVS controller that in some cases completely eliminates the vibration. In case of the 1D wave equation, the TF consists of pure time delays and low order rational terms, and the AVS controller is rational. In all other cases, the TF and consequently the controller are fractional order in both the delays and the "rational parts". The paper considers stability, performance and actual implementation in such cases.

  7. The relation of weight suppression and BMI to bulimic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butryn, Meghan L; Juarascio, Adrienne; Lowe, Michael R

    2011-11-01

    High levels of weight suppression have been associated with greater binge eating and weight gain as well as poorer treatment outcome in bulimia nervosa. This study examined the relationship between weight suppression and bulimia nervosa symptoms and explored how weight suppression might interact with body mass index (BMI) in accounting for level of symptomatology at presentation for treatment. Participants were 64 women with threshold or sub-threshold bulimia nervosa. A clinical interview assessed binge eating and purging. Weight suppression and the interaction between BMI and weight suppression predicted frequency of binge eating such that participants with low BMI and high weight suppression engaged in the most binge eating. High levels of weight suppression also predicted more frequent purging. Additional research is warranted to examine mediators of these relationships. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Dysfunction of the Human Mirror Neuron System in Ideomotor Apraxia: Evidence from Mu Suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel-Toledo, Silvi; Liebermann, Dario G; Bentin, Shlomo; Soroker, Nachum

    2016-06-01

    Stroke patients with ideomotor apraxia (IMA) have difficulties controlling voluntary motor actions, as clearly seen when asked to imitate simple gestures performed by the examiner. Despite extensive research, the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying failure to imitate gestures in IMA remain controversial. The aim of the current study was to explore the relationship between imitation failure in IMA and mirror neuron system (MNS) functioning. Mirror neurons were found to play a crucial role in movement imitation and in imitation-based motor learning. Their recruitment during movement observation and execution is signaled in EEG recordings by suppression of the lower (8-10 Hz) mu range. We examined the modulation of EEG in this range in stroke patients with left (n = 21) and right (n = 15) hemisphere damage during observation of video clips showing different manual movements. IMA severity was assessed by the DeRenzi standardized diagnostic test. Results showed that failure to imitate observed manual movements correlated with diminished mu suppression in patients with damage to the right inferior parietal lobule and in patients with damage to the right inferior frontal gyrus pars opercularis-areas where major components of the human MNS are assumed to reside. Voxel-based lesion symptom mapping revealed a significant impact on imitation capacity for the left inferior and superior parietal lobules and the left post central gyrus. Both left and right hemisphere damages were associated with imitation failure typical of IMA, yet a clear demonstration of relationship to the MNS was obtained only in the right hemisphere damage group. Suppression of the 8-10 Hz range was stronger in central compared with occipital sites, pointing to a dominant implication of mu rather than alpha rhythms. However, the suppression correlated with De Renzi's apraxia test scores not only in central but also in occipital sites, suggesting a multifactorial mechanism for IMA, with a possible

  9. Experimental investigation on the behaviour of pressure suppression containment systems by the SOPRE-1 facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerullo, N.; Delli Gatti, A.; Marinelli, M.; Mazzini, M.; Mazzoni, A.; Sbrana, A.; Todisco, P.

    1977-01-01

    The SOPRE-1 test facility is an integral model (scale 1:13) of a MARK II pressure suppression containment system. It was set up at the University of Pisa in order to study the pressure-temperature transient in pressure suppression containment systems during LOCAs. Knowledge of this transient is necessary to perform a correct structural analysis of reactor containment. The containment system behaviour is studied by changing the principal parameters which affect the transient (blow-down mass and energy release, suppression pool water temperature, vent pipe number and submergence heat transfer coefficients). The first series of tests involved: A) 13 tests with break area of 1.8 cm 2 , B) 8 tests with break area of 20.0 cm 2 . The following experimental conditions were changed: - position of the simulated break (from liquid or steam zone), - water pressure (20-85 Kgsub(p)/cm 2 ) and mass (45-70Kg) in the vessel model. Tests A): the CONTEMPT codes correctly forecast the pressure-temperature history, both in dry- and in wet-well. Tests B): the experimental runs have shown that increasing of blow-down flowrate produces dry-well pressure spatial differences and anomalous vent pipe behaviour. This results in damped oscillations of dry- and wet-well pressure, probably due to alterbating air bubble over-expansion and collapse, and in vent pipe opening and reclosing. (Auth.)

  10. 'Isn't it ironic?' Beliefs about the unacceptability of emotions and emotional suppression relate to worse outcomes in fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Hannah; Wroe, Abigail L; Pincus, Tamar

    2017-05-01

    Beliefs about the unacceptability of experiencing and expressing emotions have been found to be related to worse outcomes in people with persistent physical symptoms. The current study tested mediation models regarding emotional suppression, beliefs about emotions, support-seeking and global impact in fibromyalgia. One hundred eighty-two participants took part in an online questionnaire testing potential mechanisms of this relationship using mediation analysis. The model tested emotional suppression and affective distress as serial mediators of the relationship between beliefs about emotions and global impact. In parallel paths, two forms of support-seeking were tested (personal/emotional and symptom-related support-seeking) as mediators. Emotional suppression and affective distress significantly serially mediated the relationship between beliefs about emotions and global impact. Neither support-seeking variable significantly mediated this relationship. Results indicate a potential mechanism through which beliefs about emotions and global impact might relate which might provide a theoretical basis for future research on treatments for fibromyalgia.

  11. Objective assessment of subjective tinnitus through contralateral suppression of otoacoustic emissions by white noise; suggested cut-off points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riga, M; Komis, A; Maragkoudakis, P; Korres, G; Danielides, V

    2016-12-01

    Normative otoacoustic emission (OAE) suppression values are currently lacking and the role of cochlear efferent innervation in tinnitus is controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between tinnitus and medial olivocochlear bundle (MOCB) malfunction. Potential suppression amplitude cut-off criteria that could differentiate participants with tinnitus from those without were sought. Mean suppression amplitudes of transient evoked OAEs and distortion product OAEs by contralateral white noise (50 dBSL) were recorded. Six mean suppression amplitudes criteria were validated as possible cut-off points. The population consisted of normal hearing (n = 78) or presbycusic adults (n = 19) with tinnitus or without (n = 28 and 13, respectively) chronic tinnitus (in total, n = 138 78 females/60males, aged 49 ± 14 years). Participants with mean suppression values lower than 0.5-1 dBSPL seem to present a high probability to report tinnitus (specificity 88-97%). On the other hand, participants with mean suppression values larger than 2-2.5dBSPL seem to present a high probability of the absence of tinnitus (sensitivity 87-99%). Correlations were stronger among participants with bilateral presence or absence of tinnitus. This study seem to confirm an association between tinnitus and low suppression amplitudes (<1 dBSPL), which might evolve into an objective examination tool, supplementary to conventional audiological testing.

  12. Reinstatement of Conditioned Suppression in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trinette Dirikx

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Return of fear after successful exposure therapy calls for a better understanding of the mechanisms of relapse. Classical conditioning research provides a useful framework for conceptualising the acquisition, extinction and reappearance of fear. The present paper focuses on reinstatement, the return of extinguished conditioned responses due to the experience of one or more unconditioned stimuli (USs after extinction. This phenomenon illustrates that unpredictable USs can lead to a return of fear after successful exposure. The data we present is one of the first demonstrations that conditioned suppression of instrumental behaviour can be used as an index of classical conditioning in laboratory mice. The procedure proves to be a promising instrument for assessing fear in mice, both in the context of research aimed at unravelling the functional characteristics of learning and memory in healthy mice and in the context of research aimed at unravelling the neurobiological substrate of psychiatric disorders, e.g., in studies with transgenic and knockout mice. Using this procedure, we report the first observation of reinstatement of conditioned suppression in this species.

  13. Suppressive and immunoprotective functions of Tregs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpa ePandiyan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T lymphocytes, known as regulatory T cells or Tregs, have been proposed to be a lineage of professional immune suppressive cells that exclusively counteract the effects of the immunoprotective "helper" and "cytotoxic" lineages of T lymphocytes. Here we discuss new concepts on the mechanisms and functions of Tregs. There are several key points we emphasize: 1. Tregs exert suppressive effects both directly on effector T cells and indirectly through antigen-presenting cells (APCs; 2. Regulation can occur through a novel mechanism of cytokine consumption to regulate as opposed to the usual mechanism of cytokine/chemokine production; 3. In cases where CD4+ effector T cells are directly inhibited by Tregs, it is chiefly through a mechanism of lymphokine withdrawal apoptosis leading to polyclonal deletion (PCD; and 4. Contrary to the current view, we discuss new evidence that Tregs, similar to other T cells lineages, can promote protective immune responses in certain infectious contexts (Pandiyan et al. 2011; Chen et al 2011. Although these points are at variance to varying degrees with the standard model of Treg behavior, we will recount developing findings that support these new concepts.

  14. Suppression of Coronavirus Replication by Cyclophilin Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Sasaki

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Coronaviruses infect a variety of mammalian and avian species and cause serious diseases in humans, cats, mice, and birds in the form of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS, feline infectious peritonitis (FIP, mouse hepatitis, and avian infectious bronchitis, respectively. No effective vaccine or treatment has been developed for SARS-coronavirus or FIP virus, both of which cause lethal diseases. It has been reported that a cyclophilin inhibitor, cyclosporin A (CsA, could inhibit the replication of coronaviruses. CsA is a well-known immunosuppressive drug that binds to cellular cyclophilins to inhibit calcineurin, a calcium-calmodulin-activated serine/threonine-specific phosphatase. The inhibition of calcineurin blocks the translocation of nuclear factor of activated T cells from the cytosol into the nucleus, thus preventing the transcription of genes encoding cytokines such as interleukin-2. Cyclophilins are peptidyl-prolyl isomerases with physiological functions that have been described for many years to include chaperone and foldase activities. Also, many viruses require cyclophilins for replication; these include human immunodeficiency virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, and hepatitis C virus. However, the molecular mechanisms leading to the suppression of viral replication differ for different viruses. This review describes the suppressive effects of CsA on coronavirus replication.

  15. Optimal digital filtering for tremor suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, J G; Heredia, E A; Rahman, T; Barner, K E; Arce, G R

    2000-05-01

    Remote manually operated tasks such as those found in teleoperation, virtual reality, or joystick-based computer access, require the generation of an intermediate electrical signal which is transmitted to the controlled subsystem (robot arm, virtual environment, or a cursor in a computer screen). When human movements are distorted, for instance, by tremor, performance can be improved by digitally filtering the intermediate signal before it reaches the controlled device. This paper introduces a novel tremor filtering framework in which digital equalizers are optimally designed through pursuit tracking task experiments. Due to inherent properties of the man-machine system, the design of tremor suppression equalizers presents two serious problems: 1) performance criteria leading to optimizations that minimize mean-squared error are not efficient for tremor elimination and 2) movement signals show ill-conditioned autocorrelation matrices, which often result in useless or unstable solutions. To address these problems, a new performance indicator in the context of tremor is introduced, and the optimal equalizer according to this new criterion is developed. Ill-conditioning of the autocorrelation matrix is overcome using a novel method which we call pulled-optimization. Experiments performed with artificially induced vibrations and a subject with Parkinson's disease show significant improvement in performance. Additional results, along with MATLAB source code of the algorithms, and a customizable demo for PC joysticks, are available on the Internet at http:¿tremor-suppression.com.

  16. Tagging and suppression of pileup jets

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The suppression of pileup jets has been a crucial component of many physics analyses using 2012 LHC proton-proton collisions. In ATLAS, tracking information has been used to calculate a variable called the jet-vertex-fraction, which is the fraction of the total mo- mentum of tracks in the jet which is associated to the primary vertex. Imposing a minimum on this variable rejects the majority of pileup jets, but leads to hard-scatter jet efficiencies that depend on the number of reconstructed primary vertices in the event ($N_{Vtx}$). In this note, new track-based variables to suppress pileup jets are developed in such a way that the resulting hard-scatter jet efficiency is stable as a function of $N_{Vtx}$. A multivariate combina- tion of two such variables called the jet-vertex-tagger is constructed. In addition, it is shown that jet-vertex association can be applied to large-R jets, providing a track-based grooming technique that is as powerful as calorimeter-based trimming but based on complementary trackin...

  17. Wireless Inductive Power Device Suppresses Blade Vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Carlos R.; Provenza, Andrew J.; Choi, Benjamin B.; Bakhle, Milind A.; Min, James B.; Stefko, George L.; Duffy, Kirsten P.; Fougers, Alan J.

    2011-01-01

    Vibration in turbomachinery can cause blade failures and leads to the use of heavier, thicker blades that result in lower aerodynamic efficiency and increased noise. Metal and/or composite fatigue in the blades of jet engines has resulted in blade destruction and loss of lives. Techniques for suppressing low-frequency blade vibration, such as gtuned circuit resistive dissipation of vibratory energy, h or simply "passive damping," can require electronics incorporating coils of unwieldy dimensions and adding unwanted weight to the rotor. Other approaches, using vibration-dampening devices or damping material, could add undesirable weight to the blades or hub, making them less efficient. A wireless inductive power device (WIPD) was designed, fabricated, and developed for use in the NASA Glenn's "Dynamic Spin Rig" (DSR) facility. The DSR is used to simulate the functionality of turbomachinery. The relatively small and lightweight device [10 lb (approx.=4.5 kg)] replaces the existing venerable and bulky slip-ring. The goal is the eventual integration of this technology into actual turbomachinery such as jet engines or electric power generators, wherein the device will facilitate the suppression of potentially destructive vibrations in fan blades. This technology obviates slip rings, which require cooling and can prove unreliable or be problematic over time. The WIPD consists of two parts: a remote element, which is positioned on the rotor and provides up to 100 W of electrical power to thin, lightweight piezoelectric patches strategically placed on/in fan blades; and a stationary base unit that wirelessly communicates with the remote unit. The base unit supplies inductive power, and also acts as an input and output corridor for wireless measurement, and active control command to the remote unit. Efficient engine operation necessitates minimal disturbance to the gas flow across the turbine blades in any effort to moderate blade vibration. This innovation makes it

  18. Experimental investigation on the behavior of pressure suppression containment systems by the SOPRE-1 facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerullo, N.; Delli Gatti, A.; Marinelli, M.; Mazzini, M.; Mazzoni, A.; Sbrana, A.; Todisco, P.

    1977-01-01

    The SOPRE-1 test facility is an integral model (scale 1:13) of a MARK II pressure suppression containment system. It was set up at the University of Pisa in order to study the pressure-temperature transient in pressure suppression containment systems during LOCAs. Knowledge of this transient is necessary to perform a correct structural analysis of reactor containment. The containment system behavior is studied by changing the principal parameters which affect the transient (blow-down mass and energy release, suppression pool water temperature, vent pipe number and submergence, heat transfer coefficients). The first series of tests involved: A) 13 tests with break area of 1.8 cm 2 , B) 8 tests with break area of 20.0 cm 2 . The following experimental conditions were changed: position of the simulated break (from liquid or steam zone), water pressure (20-85 Kg/cm 2 ) and mass (45-70 Kg) in the vessel model. Tests A): the CONTEMPT codes correctly forecast the pressure-temperature history, both in dry- and in wet-well. Tests B): the experimental runs have shown that increasing of blow-down flowrate produces dry-well pressure spatial differences and anomalous vent pipe behavior. This results in damped oscillations of dry- and wet-well pressure, probably due to alternating air bubble over-expansion and collapse, and in vent pipe opening and reclosing. Dry-well pressure maxima at the end of blow-down are greater than those forecasted by currently applied codes: these codes use an homogeneous model, and do not take into account the above mentioned dynamic phenomena. In some tests other interesting phenomena were observed, such as some local pressure peaks in the suppression pool greater than dry-well pessure maxima at the end of blow-down. At present, all these phenomena are under study; they could be important for the structural analysis of containment systems

  19. Contribution of suppression difficulty and lessons learned in forecasting fire suppression operations productivity: A methodological approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco Rodríguez y Silva; Armando González-Cabán

    2016-01-01

    We propose an economic analysis using utility and productivity, and efficiency theories to provide fire managers a decision support tool to determine the most efficient fire management programs levels. By incorporating managers’ accumulated fire suppression experiences (capitalized experience) in the analysis we help fire managers...

  20. Eddy current testing device using unbalance bridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshikawa, H.; Koido, J.; Ishibashi, Y.

    1976-01-01

    An easily readjustable unbalance bridge has been invented and in utilizing the same, an eddy current testing equipment excellent in suppression of the lift-off effect and high in the detection sensitivity has been developed

  1. Suppression pool dynamics. Annual report, 1 July 1976--30 June 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, C.K.; Chiou, H.H.; Lee, B.K.C.; Dhir, V.K.; Liu, C.Y.; Catton, I.

    1978-02-01

    The work performed at UCLA to study the transient thermal-hydraulic phenomena induced by the motion of submerged air and steam bubbles in a boiling water reactor (BWR) pressure suppression pool, following a loss-of-coolant accident is described. The air transients, which include vent clearing, bubble growth, and pool swelling, were investigated by a series of air-water tests. These tests were performed in a cylindrical plexiglas test chamber. Gas was injected downward through different-diameter pipes, placed in the middle of the test chamber, which was filled with water at room temperature

  2. Boiling characteristics of dilute polymer solutions and implications for the suppression of vapor explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, K.H.; Kim, M.H. [Univ. of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-09-01

    Quenching experiments of hot solid spheres in dilute aqueous solutions of polyethylene oxide polymer have been conducted for the purpose of investigating the physical mechanisms of the suppression of vapor explosions in this polymer solutions. Two spheres of 22.2mm and 9.5mm-diameter were tested in the polymer solutions of various concentrations at 30{degrees}C. Minimum film boiling temperature ({Delta}T{sub MFB}) in this highly-subcooled liquid rapidly decreased from over 700{degrees}c for pure water to about 150{degrees}C as the polymer concentration was increased up to 300ppm for 22.2mm sphere, and it decreased to 350{degrees}C for 9.5mm sphere. This rapid reduction of minimum film boiling temperature in the PEO aqueous solutions can explain its ability of the suppression of spontaneous vapor explosions. The ability of suppression of vapor explosions by dilute polyethylene oxide solutions against an external trigger pressure was tested by dropping molten tin into the polymer solutions at 25{degrees}C. It was observed that in 50ppm solutions more mass fragmented than in pure water, but produced weaker explosion pressures. The explosion was completely suppressed in 300ppm solutions with the external trigger. The debris size distributions of fine fragments smaller than 0.7mm were shown almost identical regardless of the polymer concentrations.

  3. Orientation-specific surround suppression in the primary visual cortex varies as a function of autistic tendency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia V Flevaris

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD exhibit superior performance on tasks that rely on local details in an image, and they exhibit deficits in tasks that require integration of local elements into a unified whole. These perceptual abnormalities have been proposed to underlie many of the characteristic features of ASD, but the underlying neural mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the degree to which orientation-specific surround suppression, a well-known form of contextual modulation in visual cortex, is associated with autistic tendency in neurotypical individuals. Surround suppression refers to the phenomenon that the response to a stimulus in the receptive field of a neuron is suppressed when it is surrounded by stimuli just outside the receptive field. The suppression is greatest when the center and surrounding stimuli share perceptual features such as orientation. Surround suppression underlies a number of fundamental perceptual processes that are known to be atypical in individuals with ASD, including perceptual grouping and perceptual pop-out. However, whether surround suppression in the primary visual cortex (V1 is related to autistic traits has not been directly tested before. We used fMRI to measure the neural response to a center Gabor when it was surrounded by Gabors having the same or orthogonal orientation, and calculated a suppression index (SI for each participant that denoted the magnitude of suppression in the same versus orthogonal conditions. SI was positively correlated with degree of autistic tendency in each individual, as measured by the Autism Quotient (AQ scale, a questionnaire designed to assess autistic traits in the general population. Age also correlated with SI and with autistic tendency in our sample, but did not account for the correlation between SI and autistic tendency. These results suggest a reduction in orientation-specific surround suppression in V1 with increasing autistic

  4. Noise suppressed partial volume correction for cardiac SPECT/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Chung; Liu, Chi, E-mail: chi.liu@yale.edu [Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Liu, Hui [Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 and Key Laboratory of Particle and Radiation Imaging (Tsinghua University), Ministry of Education, Beijing 100084 (China); Grobshtein, Yariv [GE Healthcare, Haifa 3910101 (Israel); Stacy, Mitchel R. [Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Sinusas, Albert J. [Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 and Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    tested on low-count data. AMAP effectively suppressed noise and reduced the spill-in effect in the low activity regions. However it was unable to reduce the spill-out effect in high activity regions. NS-PVC yielded superior performance in terms of both quantitative assessment and visual image quality while improving reproducibility. Conclusions: The results suggest that NS-PVC may be a promising PVC algorithm for application in low-dose protocols, and in gated and dynamic cardiac studies with low counts.

  5. Area-wide population suppression of codling moth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calkins, C.O.; Knight, A.L.; Richardson, G.; Bloem, K.A.

    2000-01-01

    The area-wide pest population control concept began with E.F. Knipling (1979) in the 1970s. Control of a pest population on individual fields does little to control the overall pest population because only a portion of the population is being affected. Expanding control tactics beyond individual farms tends to suppress the population on a wider scale and frequently results in suppression of the population for more than one year. The Agriculture Research Service (ARS) believes that this concept has not been addressed with the focus and support that it deserves. The ARS Administration made a conscious decision in 1994 to create a series of area-wide programmes funded out of ARS-based funds that had previously been used for pilot tests. These programmes involve a coordinated effort among ARS and university scientists, growers, and fieldmen for agriculture supply centres and fruit packing houses. The first area-wide programme supported by ARS was the codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) suppression programme. The codling moth is the key pest of pome fruit throughout the western United States (Beers et al. 1993). About half of the insecticides applied on these crops are directed toward this pest. A non-insecticidal control technique, mating disruption (MD), is available to replace the organophosphates. Removal of the hard pesticides directed against this pest would do the most to allow natural enemies to survive and reproduce in the orchards, which in turn would have the effect of reducing secondary pests. Elimination of the pesticides would also remove much of the health risks to workers and would minimise buildup of pesticide resistance. The objectives of the Codling Moth Area-wide Program are to enhance the efficacy of the non-pesticide approach, to demonstrate that mating disruption will work if conducted properly, to develop biological technology to lower costs of control that complement mating disruption, to implement effective

  6. Experimental verification of integrated pressure suppression systems in fusion reactors at in-vessel loss-of-coolant events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takase, K.; Akimoto, H.

    2001-01-01

    An integrated ICE (Ingress-of-Coolant Event) test facility was constructed to demonstrate that the ITER safety design approach and design parameters for the ICE events are adequate. Major objectives of the integrated ICE test facility are: to estimate the performance of an integrated pressure suppression system; to obtain the validation data for safety analysis codes; and to clarify the effects of two-phase pressure drop at a divertor and the direct-contact condensation in a suppression tank. A scaling factor between the test facility and ITER-FEAT is around 1/1600. The integrated ICE test facility simulates the ITER pressure suppression system and mainly consists of a plasma chamber, vacuum vessel, simulated divertor, relief pipe and suppression tank. From the experimental results it was found quantitatively that the ITER pressure suppression system is very effective to reduce the pressurization due to the ICE event. Furthermore, it was confirmed that the analytical results of the TRAC-PF1 code can simulate the experimental results with high accuracy. (author)

  7. The generation and suppression of synchrotron sidebands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, R.W.; Goldstein, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    Computer simulations of FEL lasing differ in the degree to which they approximate real experiments. One of the FEL codes used extensively at Los Alamos takes account of the features of each electron micropulse and follows the growth and saturation of the optical micropulse. With no additional adjustments, this code displays the development of sidebands and demonstrates their control when optical filters of various kinds are used. Other codes that do not include a description of the micropulse do not automatically display sidebands but need to have artificial noise of some kind added. This is not unexpected because sidebands are generated by an FEL instability; instabilities, in general, need some kind of initiating disturbance. In this paper we: identify the disturbance that triggers the instability in the pulse code; discuss a practical way to suppress the instability without using filters; compare these results with experiments; and discuss these findings. 22 refs., 9 figs

  8. Probe suppression in conformal phased array

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Hema; Neethu, P S

    2017-01-01

    This book considers a cylindrical phased array with microstrip patch antenna elements and half-wavelength dipole antenna elements. The effect of platform and mutual coupling effect is included in the analysis. The non-planar geometry is tackled by using Euler's transformation towards the calculation of array manifold. Results are presented for both conducting and dielectric cylinder. The optimal weights obtained are used to generate adapted pattern according to a given signal scenario. It is shown that array along with adaptive algorithm is able to cater to an arbitrary signal environment even when the platform effect and mutual coupling is taken into account. This book provides a step-by-step approach for analyzing the probe suppression in non-planar geometry. Its detailed illustrations and analysis will be a useful text for graduate and research students, scientists and engineers working in the area of phased arrays, low-observables and stealth technology.

  9. Obtuse triangle suppression in anisotropic meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Feng; Choi, Yi King; Wang, Wen Ping; Yan, Dongming; Liu, Yang; Lé vy, Bruno L.

    2011-01-01

    Anisotropic triangle meshes are used for efficient approximation of surfaces and flow data in finite element analysis, and in these applications it is desirable to have as few obtuse triangles as possible to reduce the discretization error. We present a variational approach to suppressing obtuse triangles in anisotropic meshes. Specifically, we introduce a hexagonal Minkowski metric, which is sensitive to triangle orientation, to give a new formulation of the centroidal Voronoi tessellation (CVT) method. Furthermore, we prove several relevant properties of the CVT method with the newly introduced metric. Experiments show that our algorithm produces anisotropic meshes with much fewer obtuse triangles than using existing methods while maintaining mesh anisotropy. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Void growth suppression by dislocation impurity atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weertman, J.; Green, W.V.

    1976-01-01

    A detailed calculation is given of the effect of an impurity atmosphere on void growth under irradiation damage conditions. Norris has proposed that such an atmosphere can suppress void growth. The hydrostatic stress field of a dislocation that is surrounded by an impurity atmosphere was found and used to calculate the change in the effective radius of a dislocation line as a sink for interstitials and vacancies. The calculation of the impurity concentration in a Cottrell cloud takes into account the change in hydrostatic pressure produced by the presence of the cloud itself. It is found that void growth is eliminated whenever dislocations are surrounded by a condensed atmosphere of either oversized substitutional impurity atoms or interstitial impurity atoms. A condensed atmosphere will form whenever the average impurity concentration is larger than a critical concentration

  11. In-beam background suppression shield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santoro, V.; Cai, Xiao Xiao; DiJulio, D. D.

    2015-01-01

    The long (3 ms) proton pulse of the European Spallation Source (ESS) gives rise to unique and potentially high backgrounds for the instrument suite. In such a source an instrument's capabilities will be limited by its Signal to Noise (S/N) ratio. The instruments with a direct view of the moderator......, which do not use a bender to help mitigate the fast neutron background, are the most challenging. For these beam lines we propose the innovative shielding of placing blocks of material directly into the guide system, which allow a minimum attenuation of the cold and thermal fluxes relative...... to the background suppression. This shielding configuration has been worked into a beam line model using Geant4. We study particularly the advantages of single crystal sapphire and silicon blocks....

  12. Suppression of fertility in adult cats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goericke-Pesch, Sandra Kathrin; Wehrend, A.; Georgiev, P.

    2014-01-01

    /needed? (iii) sex of the animal? New effective and available methods for hormonal contraception include melatonin implants for short-term post ponement of oestrus in adult queens and slow-release GnRH-agonist implants containing deslorelin (Suprelorin®) for short- and long-term contraception in male and female......Contents: Cats are animals with highly efficient reproduction, clearly pointing to a need for suppression of fertility. Although surgical contraception is highly effective, it is not always the method of choice. This is predominantly because it is cost-intensive, time-consuming and irreversible......, with the latter being of major importance for cat breeders. This article reviews the use of progestins, scleroting agents, immunocontraception, melatonin, GnRH antagonists and finally, GnRH agonists, in adult male and female cats in detail, according to the present state of the art. By now, various scientific...

  13. Suppression of coffee ring: (Particle) size matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Lalit; Seth, Pranjal; Murugappan, Bhubesh; Basu, Saptarshi

    2018-05-01

    Coffee ring patterns in drying sessile droplets are undesirable in various practical applications. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that on hydrophobic substrates, the coffee ring can be suppressed just by increasing the particle diameter. Particles with larger size flocculate within the evaporation timescale, leading to a significant gravimetric settling (for Pe > 1) triggering a uniform deposit. Interestingly, the transition to a uniform deposit is found to be independent of the internal flow field and substrate properties. Flocculation of particles also alters the particle packing at the nanoscale resulting in order to disorder transitions. In this letter, we exhibit a physical exposition on how particle size affects morphodynamics of the droplet drying at macro-nano length scales.

  14. Obtuse triangle suppression in anisotropic meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Feng

    2011-12-01

    Anisotropic triangle meshes are used for efficient approximation of surfaces and flow data in finite element analysis, and in these applications it is desirable to have as few obtuse triangles as possible to reduce the discretization error. We present a variational approach to suppressing obtuse triangles in anisotropic meshes. Specifically, we introduce a hexagonal Minkowski metric, which is sensitive to triangle orientation, to give a new formulation of the centroidal Voronoi tessellation (CVT) method. Furthermore, we prove several relevant properties of the CVT method with the newly introduced metric. Experiments show that our algorithm produces anisotropic meshes with much fewer obtuse triangles than using existing methods while maintaining mesh anisotropy. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Are Patents used to Suppress Useful Technology?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John

    2006-01-01

    of innovation, other than in the trivial sense of excluding third parties from the right to develop the technology covered by the patent? There are many references to this possibility in the management, economic and legal literatures, but two highly-cited papers stand out for grounding their claims of corporate......This article examines the evidence behind claims that innovation is hindered or blocked (termed technology suppression) by corporations' use of patents. In other words, are there ways in which the exploitation of the exclusive development right of the patent can be shown to retard the process...... and the difference between economic monopoly and an exclusive right. It is argued here that what is at issue in this work is the proper function of the patent institution. It is shown early in this paper that the understanding of the patent institution as a system of development prospects makes better sense...

  16. Active vibration suppression of helicopter horizontal stabilizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinquemani, Simone; Cazzulani, Gabriele; Resta, Ferruccio

    2017-04-01

    Helicopters are among the most complex machines ever made. While ensuring high performance from the aeronautical point of view, they are not very comfortable due to vibration mainly created by the main rotor and by the interaction with the surrounding air. One of the most solicited structural elements of the vehicle are the horizontal stabilizers. These elements are particularly stressed because of their composite structure which, while guaranteeing lightness and strength, is characterized by a low damping. This work makes a preliminary analysis on the dynamics of the structure and proposes different solutions to actively suppress vibrations. Among them, the best in terms of the relationship between performance and weight / complexity of the system is that based on inertial actuators mounted on the inside of the horizontal stabilizers. The work addresses the issue of the design of the device and its use in the stabilizer from both the numerical and the experimental points of view.

  17. Ion suppression from blood collection devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselstrøm, Jørgen Bo; Sejr Gothelf, Aase

    The aim of the study was to examine the variation in ion suppression in ultra high pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS-MS) methods when using different blood collection devices. Three different methods measuring 18 antidepressants and antipsychotics in total were...... Terumo, S-monovette from Sarstedt, Vacuette from Greiner Bio-One and three BD Vacutainer serum tubes from BD. These seven different blood collection devices were used to withdraw blood from five healthy drug free donors (n=35) in random order. The samples were centrifuged and serum from each sample...... by UHPLC-MS-MS using three different gradients (Group I, II and III). The analytes in group I was measured on an Agilent 6460 mass spectrometer and group II and III were measured on an Agilent 6410 mass spectrometer both utilizing positive electrospray ionization. The experiments demonstrated significant...

  18. Neutrino wave function and oscillation suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgov, A.D.; Lychkovskiy, O.V.; Mamonov, A.A.; Okun, L.B.; Schepkin, M.G.

    2005-01-01

    We consider a thought experiment, in which a neutrino is produced by an electron on a nucleus in a crystal. The wave function of the oscillating neutrino is calculated assuming that the electron is described by a wave packet. If the electron is relativistic and the spatial size of its wave packet is much larger than the size of the crystal cell, then the wave packet of the produced neutrino has essentially the same size as the wave packet of the electron. We investigate the suppression of neutrino oscillations at large distances caused by two mechanisms: (1) spatial separation of wave packets corresponding to different neutrino masses; (2) neutrino energy dispersion for given neutrino mass eigenstates. We resolve the contributions of these two mechanisms. (orig.)

  19. Thought Suppression Research Methods: Paradigms, Theories, Methodological Concerns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niczyporuk Aneta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It is hard to provide an unequivocal answer to the question of whether or not thought suppression is effective. Two thought suppression paradigms - the “white bear” paradigm and the think/no-think paradigm - give mixed results. Generally, “white bear” experiments indicate that thought suppression is counterproductive, while experiments in the think/no-think paradigm suggest that it is possible to effectively suppress a thought. There are also alternative methods used to study thought suppression, for instance the directed forgetting paradigm or the Stroop task. In the article, I describe the research methods used to explore thought suppression efficacy. I focus on the “white bear” and the think/no-think paradigms and discuss theories proposed to explain the results obtained. I also consider the internal and external validity of the methods used.

  20. Suppressive effects of ketamine on macrophage functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Yi; Chen, T.-L.; Sheu, J.-R.; Chen, R.-M.

    2005-01-01

    Ketamine is an intravenous anesthetic agent. Clinically, induction of anesthesia with ketamine can cause immunosuppression. Macrophages play important roles in host defense. In this study, we attempted to evaluate the effects of ketamine on macrophage functions and its possible mechanism using mouse macrophage-like Raw 264.7 cells as the experimental model. Exposure of macrophages to 10 and 100 μM ketamine, which correspond to 0.1 and 1 times the clinically relevant concentration, for 1, 6, and 24 h had no effect on cell viability or lactate dehydrogenase release. When the administered concentration reached 1000 μM, ketamine caused a release of lactate dehydrogenase and cell death. Ketamine, at 10 and 100 μM, did not affect the chemotactic activity of macrophages. Administration of 1000 μM ketamine in macrophages resulted in a decrease in cell migration. Treatment of macrophages with ketamine reduced phagocytic activities. The oxidative ability of macrophages was suppressed by ketamine. Treatment with lipopolysaccharide induced TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 mRNA in macrophages. Administration of ketamine alone did not influence TNF-α, IL-1β, or IL-6 mRNA production. Meanwhile, cotreatment with ketamine and lipopolysaccharide significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 mRNA levels. Exposure to ketamine led to a decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential. However, the activity of mitochondrial complex I NADH dehydrogenase was not affected by ketamine. This study shows that a clinically relevant concentration of ketamine (100 μM) can suppress macrophage function of phagocytosis, its oxidative ability, and inflammatory cytokine production possibly via reduction of the mitochondrial membrane potential instead of direct cellular toxicity

  1. Rituximab selectively suppresses specific islet antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Liping; Herold, Kevan; Krause-Steinrauf, Heidi; McGee, Paula L; Bundy, Brian; Pugliese, Alberto; Krischer, Jeff; Eisenbarth, George S

    2011-10-01

    The TrialNet Study Group evaluated rituximab, a B-cell-depleting monoclonal antibody, for its effect in new-onset patients with type 1A diabetes. Rituximab decreased the loss of C-peptide over the first year of follow-up and markedly depleted B lymphocytes for 6 months after administration. This article analyzes the specific effect of rituximab on multiple islet autoantibodies. A total of 87 patients between the ages of 8 and 40 years received either rituximab or a placebo infusion weekly for four doses close to the onset of diabetes. Autoantibodies to insulin (IAAs), GAD65 (GADAs), insulinoma-associated protein 2 (IA2As), and ZnT8 (ZnT8As) were measured with radioimmunoassays. The primary outcome for this autoantibody analysis was the mean level of autoantibodies during follow-up. Rituximab markedly suppressed IAAs compared with the placebo injection but had a much smaller effect on GADAs, IA2As, and ZnT8As. A total of 40% (19 of 48) of rituximab-treated patients who were IAA positive became IAA negative versus 0 of 29 placebo-treated patients (P 1 year in insulin-treated patients. For the patients receiving insulin for >2 weeks prior to rituximab administration, we cannot assess whether rituximab not only blocks the acquisition of insulin antibodies induced by insulin administration and/or also suppresses preformed insulin autoantibodies. Studies in prediabetic non-insulin-treated patients will likely be needed to evaluate the specific effects of rituximab on levels of IAAs.

  2. Suppression of soil nitrification by plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbarao, Guntur Venkata; Yoshihashi, Tadashi; Worthington, Margaret; Nakahara, Kazuhiko; Ando, Yasuo; Sahrawat, Kanwar Lal; Rao, Idupulapati Madhusudhana; Lata, Jean-Christophe; Kishii, Masahiro; Braun, Hans-Joachim

    2015-04-01

    Nitrification, the biological oxidation of ammonium to nitrate, weakens the soil's ability to retain N and facilitates N-losses from production agriculture through nitrate-leaching and denitrification. This process has a profound influence on what form of mineral-N is absorbed, used by plants, and retained in the soil, or lost to the environment, which in turn affects N-cycling, N-use efficiency (NUE) and ecosystem health and services. As reactive-N is often the most limiting in natural ecosystems, plants have acquired a range of mechanisms that suppress soil-nitrifier activity to limit N-losses via N-leaching and denitrification. Plants' ability to produce and release nitrification inhibitors from roots and suppress soil-nitrifier activity is termed 'biological nitrification inhibition' (BNI). With recent developments in methodology for in-situ measurement of nitrification inhibition, it is now possible to characterize BNI function in plants. This review assesses the current status of our understanding of the production and release of biological nitrification inhibitors (BNIs) and their potential in improving NUE in agriculture. A suite of genetic, soil and environmental factors regulate BNI activity in plants. BNI-function can be genetically exploited to improve the BNI-capacity of major food- and feed-crops to develop next-generation production systems with reduced nitrification and N2O emission rates to benefit both agriculture and the environment. The feasibility of such an approach is discussed based on the progresses made. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Are Claims of Global Warming Being Suppressed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Thomas J.

    2006-02-01

    Over the last few years, I have heard many rumors that climate science relevant to the global warming discussion is being suppressed by the Bush Administration. One cannot do much about third-hand information. However, on 29 January, the New York Times published a front page article on NASA efforts to suppress statements about global warming by James Hansen, director of the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies. A claim by one government scientist, though, no matter how distinguished, still requires examples from other scientists before a general conclusion can be drawn about the overall scope of the problem. But if the charges are more widespread, then some government scientists might be reluctant to make such claims, because they might feel that their positions were jeopardized. Therefore, an alternate way may be needed to determine the scope of the issue, while still safeguarding government workers from possible retaliation. -On 30 January, Rep. Sherwood Boehlert (R-N.Y.), chairman of the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Science, wrote a letter to NASA Administrator Michael Griffin addressing many of the concerns Crowley has raised. Boehlert wrote,``It ought to go without saying that government scientists must be free to describe their scientific conclusions and the implications of those conclusions to their fellow scientists, policymakers and the general public.'' He continued,``Good science cannot long persist in an atmosphere of intimidation. Political figures ought to be reviewing their public statements to make sure they are consistent with the best available science; scientists should not be reviewing their statements to make sure they are consistent with the current political orthodoxy.'' I commend Rep. Boehlert for his quick and clear statement of the importance of unfettered communication of science. -FRED SPILHAUS, Editor

  4. SUPPRESSION OF STAR FORMATION IN NGC 1266

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alatalo, Katherine; Lanz, Lauranne; Bitsakis, Theodoros; Appleton, Philip N.; Ogle, Patrick M. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Lacy, Mark; Lonsdale, Carol J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Nyland, Kristina; Meier, David S. [Physics Department, New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Cales, Sabrina L. [Department of Astronomy, Faculty of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Chang, Philip [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin—Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53201 (United States); Davis, Timothy A.; De Zeeuw, P. T. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Martín, Sergio, E-mail: kalatalo@ipac.caltech.edu [Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique, 300 Rue de la Piscine, Domaine Universitaire, F-38406 Saint Martin d' Hères (France)

    2015-01-01

    NGC 1266 is a nearby lenticular galaxy that harbors a massive outflow of molecular gas powered by the mechanical energy of an active galactic nucleus (AGN). It has been speculated that such outflows hinder star formation (SF) in their host galaxies, providing a form of feedback to the process of galaxy formation. Previous studies, however, indicated that only jets from extremely rare, high-power quasars or radio galaxies could impart significant feedback on their hosts. Here we present detailed observations of the gas and dust continuum of NGC 1266 at millimeter wavelengths. Our observations show that molecular gas is being driven out of the nuclear region at M-dot {sub out}≈110 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup –1}, of which the vast majority cannot escape the nucleus. Only 2 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} is actually capable of escaping the galaxy. Most of the molecular gas that remains is very inefficient at forming stars. The far-infrared emission is dominated by an ultra-compact (≲ 50 pc) source that could either be powered by an AGN or by an ultra-compact starburst. The ratio of the SF surface density (Σ{sub SFR}) to the gas surface density (Σ{sub H{sub 2}}) indicates that SF is suppressed by a factor of ≈50 compared to normal star-forming galaxies if all gas is forming stars, and ≈150 for the outskirt (98%) dense molecular gas if the central region is powered by an ultra-compact starburst. The AGN-driven bulk outflow could account for this extreme suppression by hindering the fragmentation and gravitational collapse necessary to form stars through a process of turbulent injection. This result suggests that even relatively common, low-power AGNs are able to alter the evolution of their host galaxies as their black holes grow onto the M-σ relation.

  5. Sunspot Light Walls Suppressed by Nearby Brightenings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Shuhong; Zhang, Jun; Hou, Yijun; Li, Xiaohong [CAS Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Erdélyi, Robertus [Solar Physics and Space Plasma Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sheffield, Hicks Building, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Yan, Limei, E-mail: shuhongyang@nao.cas.cn [Key Laboratory of Earth and Planetary Physics, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2017-07-01

    Light walls, as ensembles of oscillating bright structures rooted in sunspot light bridges, have not been well studied, although they are important for understanding sunspot properties. Using the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph and Solar Dynamics Observatory observations, here we study the evolution of two oscillating light walls each within its own active region (AR). The emission of each light wall decays greatly after the appearance of adjacent brightenings. For the first light wall, rooted within AR 12565, the average height, amplitude, and oscillation period significantly decrease from 3.5 Mm, 1.7 Mm, and 8.5 minutes to 1.6 Mm, 0.4 Mm, and 3.0 minutes, respectively. For the second light wall, rooted within AR 12597, the mean height, amplitude, and oscillation period of the light wall decrease from 2.1 Mm, 0.5 Mm, and 3.0 minutes to 1.5 Mm, 0.2 Mm, and 2.1 minutes, respectively. Particularly, a part of the second light wall even becomes invisible after the influence of a nearby brightening. These results reveal that the light walls are suppressed by nearby brightenings. Considering the complex magnetic topology in light bridges, we conjecture that the fading of light walls may be caused by a drop in the magnetic pressure, where the flux is canceled by magnetic reconnection at the site of the nearby brightening. Another hypothesis is that the wall fading is due to the suppression of driver source ( p -mode oscillation), resulting from the nearby avalanche of downward particles along reconnected brightening loops.

  6. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor suppression of HIV infectivity and replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Tami; Lynch, Kevin; Dubé, Benoit; Gettes, David R; Tustin, Nancy B; Ping Lai, Jian; Metzger, David S; Blume, Joshua; Douglas, Steven D; Evans, Dwight L

    2010-11-01

    To test the hypothesis that the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram would down-regulate human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infectivity and that the greatest effects would be seen in people with depression. Depression is a risk factor for morbidity and mortality in HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission has been implicated in the pathobiology of depression, and pharmacologic therapies for depression target this system. The 5-HT transporter and 5-HT receptors are widely distributed throughout the central nervous and immune systems. Depression has been associated with suppression of natural killer cells and CD8(+) lymphocytes, key regulators of HIV infection. Ex vivo models for acute and chronic HIV infection were used to study the effects of citalopram on HIV viral infection and replication in 48 depressed and nondepressed women. For both the acute and chronic infection models, HIV reverse transcriptase activity was measured in the citalopram treatment condition and the control condition. The SSRI significantly down-regulated the reverse transcriptase response in both the acute and chronic infection models. Specifically, citalopram significantly decreased the acute HIV infectivity of macrophages. Citalopram also significantly decreased HIV viral replication in the latently infected T-cell line and in the latently infected macrophage cell line. There was no difference in down-regulation by depression status. These studies suggest that an SSRI enhances natural killer/CD8 noncytolytic HIV suppression in HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome and decreases HIV viral infectivity of macrophages, ex vivo, suggesting the need for in vivo studies to determine a potential role for agents targeting serotonin in the host defense against HIV.

  7. Suppressive therapy for radiation-associated nodular thyroid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Kazuo; Shimaoka, Katsutaro; Tsukada, Yoshiaki; Razack, M.S.; Sciasicia, Michael.

    1981-01-01

    A thyroid screening program for individuals who had irradiation to the head and neck areas was started at Roswell Park Memorial Institute in February 1977 and by June 1979, 1,071 patients were seen in the clinic. Three hundred and ninety-six patients were found to have palpable abnormalities of the thyroid, and following pretreatment evaluation, suppressive therapy with triiodothyronine (T3) (50 μg/day) or DT (desiccated thyroid) (120 mg/day) was administered in a double-blind fashion. Two hundred fifty patients with nodular disease completed 6 mo of treatment and are analyzed in this paper. Pretreatment thyroid function tests showed that two patients had hypothyroidism with a high thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and a low thyroxine level. A high incidence of thyroid autoantibodies was also noted and surgical findings confirmed a high incidence of chronic thyroiditis. Complete disappearance of the nodules was seen in 29% of the patients, and in addition, 38% of the patients were seen to have significant shrinkage of the nodules, indicating that radiation-associated thyroid nodules were as sensitive to the thyroactive agents as nonirradiated nodular thyroid disease. There was little difference in the response rate between T3 and DT. Both agents suppressed circulating TSH levels to an unmeasurable level in 76% of the patients. There was no correlation between scan findings and response rates. Thyroid carcinoma was found in 19% of the patients who underwent surgery; although all were well-differentiated carcinomas, two-thirds of the patients already had evidence of dissemination and/or invasion suggesting the aggressive nature of postirradiation thyroid carcinoma. (author)

  8. Variable impact of CSF flow suppression on quantitative 3.0T intracranial vessel wall measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogswell, Petrice M; Siero, Jeroen C W; Lants, Sarah K; Waddle, Spencer; Davis, L Taylor; Gilbert, Guillaume; Hendrikse, Jeroen; Donahue, Manus J

    2018-03-31

    Flow suppression techniques have been developed for intracranial (IC) vessel wall imaging (VWI) and optimized using simulations; however, simulation results may not translate in vivo. To evaluate experimentally how IC vessel wall and lumen measurements change in identical subjects when evaluated using the most commonly available blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow suppression modules and VWI sequences. Prospective. Healthy adults (n = 13; age = 37 ± 15 years) were enrolled. A 3.0T 3D T 1 /proton density (PD)-weighted turbo-spin-echo (TSE) acquisition with post-readout anti-driven equilibrium module, with and without Delay-Alternating-with-Nutation-for-Tailored-Excitation (DANTE) was applied. DANTE flip angle (8-12°) and TSE refocusing angle (sweep = 40-120° or 50-120°) were varied. Basilar artery and internal carotid artery (ICA) wall thicknesses, CSF signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and signal ratio (SR) were assessed. Measurements were made by two readers (radiology resident and board-certified neuroradiologist). A Wilcoxon signed-rank test was applied with corrected two-sided P CSF suppression. Addition of the DANTE preparation reduced CSF SNR from 17.4 to 6.7, thereby providing significant (P CSF suppression. The DANTE preparation also resulted in a significant (P CSF CNR improvement (P = 0.87). There was a trend for a difference in blood SNR with vs. without DANTE (P = 0.05). The outer vessel wall diameter and wall thickness values were lower (P CSF suppression and CNR of the approaches evaluated. However, improvements are heterogeneous, likely owing to intersubject vessel pulsatility and CSF flow variations, which can lead to variable flow suppression efficacy in these velocity-dependent modules. 2 Technical Efficacy: Stage 1 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2018. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  9. Modic Type 1 Changes: Detection Performance of Fat-Suppressed Fluid-Sensitive MRI Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkenstaedt, Tim; Del Grande, Filippo; Bolog, Nicolae; Ulrich, Nils; Tok, Sina; Kolokythas, Orpheus; Steurer, Johann; Andreisek, Gustav; Winklhofer, Sebastian

    2018-02-01

     To assess the performance of fat-suppressed fluid-sensitive MRI sequences compared to T1-weighted (T1w) / T2w sequences for the detection of Modic 1 end-plate changes on lumbar spine MRI.  Sagittal T1w, T2w, and fat-suppressed fluid-sensitive MRI images of 100 consecutive patients (consequently 500 vertebral segments; 52 female, mean age 74 ± 7.4 years; 48 male, mean age 71 ± 6.3 years) were retrospectively evaluated. We recorded the presence (yes/no) and extension (i. e., Likert-scale of height, volume, and end-plate extension) of Modic I changes in T1w/T2w sequences and compared the results to fat-suppressed fluid-sensitive sequences (McNemar/Wilcoxon-signed-rank test).  Fat-suppressed fluid-sensitive sequences revealed significantly more Modic I changes compared to T1w/T2w sequences (156 vs. 93 segments, respectively; p definition of Modic I changes is not fully applicable anymore.. · Fat-suppressed fluid-sensitive MRI sequences revealed more/greater extent of Modic I changes.. · Finkenstaedt T, Del Grande F, Bolog N et al. Modic Type 1 Changes: Detection Performance of Fat-Suppressed Fluid-Sensitive MRI Sequences. Fortschr Röntgenstr 2018; 190: 152 - 160. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Training-dependent cognitive advantage is suppressed at high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Zhang, Gang; You, Hai-Yan; Zheng, Ran; Gao, Yu-Qi

    2012-06-25

    Ascent to high altitude is associated with decreases in cognitive function and work performance as a result of hypoxia. Some workers with special jobs typically undergo intensive mental training because they are expected to be agile, stable and error-free in their job performance. The purpose of this study was to determine the risk to cognitive function acquired from training following hypoxic exposure. The results of WHO neurobehavioral core tests battery (WHO-NCTB) and Raven's standard progressive matrices (RSPM) tests of a group of 54 highly trained military operators were compared with those of 51 non-trained ordinary people and were investigated at sea level and on the fifth day after arrival at high altitudes (3900m). Meanwhile, the plasma levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were examined. The result showed that at sea level, the trained group exhibited significantly better performance on neurobehavioral and RSPM tests. At high altitude, both groups had decreased accuracy in most cognitive tests and took longer to finish them. More importantly, the highly trained subjects showed more substantial declines than the non-trained subjects in visual reaction accuracy, auditory reaction speed, digit symbol scores, ability to report correct dots in a pursuit aiming test and total RSPM scores. This means that the training-dependent cognitive advantages in these areas were suppressed at high altitudes. The above phenomenon maybe associated with decreased BDNF and elevated inflammatory factor during hypoxia, and other mechanisms could not be excluded. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Fat suppression with short inversion time inversion-recovery and chemical-shift selective saturation: a dual STIR-CHESS combination prepulse for turbo spin echo pulse sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Koji; Nishikawa, Keiichi; Sano, Tsukasa; Sakai, Osamu; Jara, Hernán

    2010-05-01

    To test a newly developed fat suppression magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) prepulse that synergistically uses the principles of fat suppression via inversion recovery (STIR) and spectral fat saturation (CHESS), relative to pure CHESS and STIR. This new technique is termed dual fat suppression (Dual-FS). To determine if Dual-FS could be chemically specific for fat, the phantom consisted of the fat-mimicking NiCl(2) aqueous solution, porcine fat, porcine muscle, and water was imaged with the three fat-suppression techniques. For Dual-FS and STIR, several inversion times were used. Signal intensities of each image obtained with each technique were compared. To determine if Dual-FS could be robust to magnetic field inhomogeneities, the phantom consisting of different NiCl(2) aqueous solutions, porcine fat, porcine muscle, and water was imaged with Dual-FS and CHESS at the several off-resonance frequencies. To compare fat suppression efficiency in vivo, 10 volunteer subjects were also imaged with the three fat-suppression techniques. Dual-FS could suppress fat sufficiently within the inversion time of 110-140 msec, thus enabling differentiation between fat and fat-mimicking aqueous structures. Dual-FS was as robust to magnetic field inhomogeneities as STIR and less vulnerable than CHESS. The same results for fat suppression were obtained in volunteers. The Dual-FS-STIR-CHESS is an alternative and promising fat suppression technique for turbo spin echo MRI. Copyright 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Social Hierarchy and Depression: The Role of Emotion Suppression

    OpenAIRE

    Langner, Carrie A.; Epel, Elissa; Matthews, Karen; Moskowitz, Judith T.; Adler, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Position in the social hierarchy is a major determinant of health outcomes. We examined the associations between aspects of social hierarchy and depressive symptoms with a specific focus on one potential psychological mechanism: emotion suppression. Suppressing negative emotion has mental health costs, but individuals with low social power and low social status may use these strategies to avoid conflict. Study 1 assessed perceived social power, tendency to suppress negative emotion, and depre...

  13. Psychophysical research progress of interocular suppression in amblyopic visual system

    OpenAIRE

    Jing-Jing Li; Yi Huang

    2016-01-01

    Some recent animal experiments and psychophysical studies indicate that patients with amblyopia have a structurally intact binocular visual system that is rendered functionally monocular due to suppression, and interocular suppression is a key mechanism in visual deficits experienced by patients with amblyopia. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of recent psychophysical findings that have investigated the important role of interocular suppression in amblyopia, the measurement an...

  14. Binocular vision in amblyopia : structure, suppression and plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Hess, Robert F; Thompson, Benjamin; Baker, Daniel Hart

    2014-01-01

    The amblyopic visual system was once considered to be structurally monocular. However, it now evident that the capacity for binocular vision is present in many observers with amblyopia. This has led to new techniques for quantifying suppression that have provided insights into the relationship between suppression and the monocular and binocular visual deficits experienced by amblyopes. Furthermore, new treatments are emerging that directly target suppressive interactions within the visual cor...

  15. Characterization of Soil Suppressiveness to Root-Knot Nematodes in Organic Horticulture in Plastic Greenhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giné, Ariadna; Carrasquilla, Marc; Martínez-Alonso, Maira; Gaju, Núria; Sorribas, Francisco J

    2016-01-01

    The fluctuation of Meloidogyne population density and the percentage of fungal egg parasitism were determined from July 2011 to July 2013 in two commercial organic vegetable production sites (M10.23 and M10.55) in plastic greenhouses, located in northeastern Spain, in order to know the level of soil suppressiveness. Fungal parasites were identified by molecular methods. In parallel, pot tests characterized the level of soil suppressiveness and the fungal species growing from the eggs. In addition, the egg parasitic ability of 10 fungal isolates per site was also assessed. The genetic profiles of fungal and bacterial populations from M10.23 and M10.55 soils were obtained by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE), and compared with a non-suppressive soil (M10.33). In M10.23, Meloidogyne population in soil decreased progressively throughout the rotation zucchini, tomato, and radish or spinach. The percentage of egg parasitism was 54.7% in zucchini crop, the only one in which eggs were detected. Pochonia chlamydosporia was the only fungal species isolated. In M10.55, nematode densities peaked at the end of the spring-summer crops (tomato, zucchini, and cucumber), but disease severity was lower than expected (0.2-6.3). The percentage of fungal egg parasitism ranged from 3 to 84.5% in these crops. The results in pot tests confirmed the suppressiveness of the M10.23 and M10.55 soils against Meloidogyne. The number of eggs per plant and the reproduction factor of the population were reduced (P < 0.05) in both non-sterilized soils compared to the sterilized ones after one nematode generation. P. chlamydosporia was the only fungus isolated from Meloidogyne eggs. In in vitro tests, P. chlamydosporia isolates were able to parasitize Meloidogyne eggs from 50 to 97% irrespective of the site. DGGE fingerprints revealed a high diversity in the microbial populations analyzed. Furthermore, both bacterial and fungal genetic patterns differentiated suppressive from non-suppressive

  16. Characterization of soil suppressiveness to root-knot nematodes in organic horticulture in plastic greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariadna eGiné

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The fluctuation of Meloidogyne population density and the percentage of fungal egg parasitism were determined from July 2011 to July 2013 in two commercial organic vegetable production sites (M10.23 and M10.55 in plastic greenhouses, located in northeastern Spain, in order to know the level of soil suppressiveness. Fungal parasites were identified by molecular methods. In parallel, pot tests characterized the level of soil suppressiveness and the fungal species growing from the eggs. In addition, the egg parasitic ability of ten fungal isolates per site was also assessed. The genetic profiles of fungal and bacterial populations from M10.23 and M10.55 soils were obtained by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE, and compared with a non-suppressive soil (M10.33. In M10.23, Meloidogyne population in soil decreased progressively throughout the rotation zucchini, tomato, and radish or spinach. The percentage of egg parasitism was 54.7% in zucchini crop, the only one in which eggs were detected. Pochonia chlamydosporia was the only fungal species isolated. In M10.55, nematode densities peaked at the end of the spring-summer crops (tomato, zucchini, and cucumber, but disease severity was lower than expected (0.2 to 6.3. The percentage of fungal egg parasitism ranged from 3 to 84.5% in these crops. The results in pot tests confirmed the suppressiveness of the M10.23 and M10.55 soils against Meloidogyne. The number of eggs per plant and the reproduction factor of the population were reduced (P < 0.05 in both non-sterilized soils compared to the sterilized ones after one nematode generation. Pochonia chlamydosporia was the only fungus isolated from Meloidogyne eggs. In in vitro tests, P. chlamydosporia isolates were able to parasitize Meloidogyne eggs from 50 to 97% irrespective of the site. DGGE fingerprints revealed a high diversity in the microbial populations analyzed. Furthermore, both bacterial and fungal genetic patterns differentiated

  17. Electronic Warfare: Comprehensive Strategy Needed for Suppressing Enemy Air Defenses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    .... To achieve this suppression, the services use specialized aircraft designed to neutralize, destroy, or temporarily degrade enemy air defense systems through either physical attack or electronic warfare...

  18. Double suppression of FCNCs in a supersymmetric model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajiyama, Yuji

    2004-01-01

    A concrete model which can suppress FCNCs and CP violating phenomena is suggested. It is S 3 symmetric extension of MSSM in extra dimensions where only SU(2) and SU(3) gauge multiplet are assumed to propagate in the bulk. They are suppressed due to S 3 flavor symmetry at M SUSY , and the infrared attractive force of gauge interaction in extra dimensions are used to suppress them at the compactification scale. We find that O(1) disorders of the soft parameters are allowed at the cut-off scale to suppress FCNCs and CP violating phenomena. (author)

  19. Double suppression of FCNCs in a supersymmetric model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajiyama, Yuji [Kanazawa Univ., Dept. of Physics, Kanazawa, Ishikawa (Japan)

    2004-12-01

    A concrete model which can suppress FCNCs and CP violating phenomena is suggested. It is S{sub 3} symmetric extension of MSSM in extra dimensions where only SU(2) and SU(3) gauge multiplet are assumed to propagate in the bulk. They are suppressed due to S{sub 3} flavor symmetry at M{sub SUSY}, and the infrared attractive force of gauge interaction in extra dimensions are used to suppress them at the compactification scale. We find that O(1) disorders of the soft parameters are allowed at the cut-off scale to suppress FCNCs and CP violating phenomena. (author)

  20. The regional extent of suppression: strabismics versus nonstrabismics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Raiju Jacob; Clavagnier, Simon R; Bobier, William; Thompson, Benjamin; Hess, Robert F

    2013-10-09

    Evidence is accumulating that suppression may be the cause of amblyopia rather than a secondary consequence of mismatched retinal images. For example, treatment interventions that target suppression may lead to better binocular and monocular outcomes. Furthermore, it has recently been demonstrated that the measurement of suppression may have prognostic value for patching therapy. For these reasons, the measurement of suppression in the clinic needs to be improved beyond the methods that are currently available, which provide a binary outcome. We describe a novel quantitative method for measuring the regional extent of suppression that is suitable for clinical use. The method involves a dichoptic perceptual matching procedure at multiple visual field locations. We compare a group of normal controls (mean age: 28 ± 5 years); a group with strabismic amblyopia (four with microesotropia, five with esotropia, and one with exotropia; mean age: 35 ± 10 years); and a group with nonstrabismic anisometropic amblyopia (mean age: 33 ± 12 years). The extent and magnitude of suppression was similar for observers with strabismic and nonstrabismic amblyopia. Suppression was strongest within the central field and extended throughout the 20° field that we measured. Suppression extends throughout the central visual field in both strabismic and anisometropic forms of amblyopia. The strongest suppression occurs within the region of the visual field corresponding to the fovea of the fixing eye.

  1. MiR-520b suppresses proliferation of hepatoma cells through targeting ten-eleven translocation 1 (TET1) mRNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Weiying; Lu, Zhanping; Gao, Yuen [State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, Department of Cancer Research, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin (China); Ye, Lihong [State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, Department of Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin (China); Song, Tianqiang, E-mail: tjchi@hotmai.com [Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, National Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Tianjin (China); Zhang, Xiaodong, E-mail: zhangxd@nankai.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, Department of Cancer Research, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin (China)

    2015-05-08

    Accumulating evidence indicates that microRNAs are able to act as oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes in human cancer. We previously reported that miR-520b was down-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its deregulation was involved in hepatocarcinogenesis. In the present study, we report that miR-520b suppresses cell proliferation in HCC through targeting the ten-eleven translocation 1 (TET1) mRNA. Notably, we identified that miR-520b was able to target 3′-untranslated region (3′UTR) of TET1 mRNA by luciferase reporter gene assays. Then, we revealed that miR-520b was able to reduce the expression of TET1 at the levels of mRNA and protein using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting analysis. In terms of function, 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine (EdU) incorporation and colony formation assays demonstrated that the forced miR-520b expression remarkably inhibited proliferation of hepatoma cells, but TET1 overexpression could rescue the inhibition of cell proliferation mediated by miR-520b. Furthermore, anti-miR-520b enhanced proliferation of hepatoma cells, whereas silencing of TET1 abolished anti-miR-520b-induced acceleration of cell proliferation. Then, we validated that the expression levels of miR-520b were negatively related to those of TET1 mRNA in clinical HCC tissues. Thus, we conclude that miR-520b depresses proliferation of liver cancer cells through targeting 3′UTR of TET1 mRNA. Our finding provides new insights into the mechanism of hepatocarcinogenesis. - Highlights: • TET1 is a novel target gene of miR-520b. • TET1 is upregulated in clinical HCC tissues. • MiR-520b is negatively correlated with TET1 in clinical HCC tissues. • MiR-520b depresses the proliferation of HCC cells through targeting TET1 mRNA.

  2. Influence of Particle Size in Talc Suppression by a Galactomannan Depressant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixiang Chen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Flotation behavior of different sizes of particles may follow different trends. The influence of particle size in talc suppression by a depressant galactomannan was studied in this research. The flotation response and mechanism were examined by flotation tests, modified flotation rate constant and entrainment recovery calculation, laser particle size experiments, adsorption tests, and advancing contact angle measurement as well as scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS. The maximum recovery increased with particle size increases in the absence of galactomannan FPY (Fenugreek polysaccharide. The obviously suppressed effect was observed for the size fraction of −74 + 38 μm after reacting with FPY, but low efficiency was received for −38 μm and −10 μm, respectively. Laser particle size analysis indicated that the FPY has a certain function for the flocculation of fine particles. It is beneficial for reducing recovery by entrainment. EDS and advancing contact angle test results showed that the difference in contact angles probably is a result of genuine differences in the quantity of O and Mg bearing surface species, while the contact angle varied with particle size fraction in the absence of FPY. Adsorption and SEM test results demonstrated that in the case of −74 + 38 μm, the depressant adsorption density on the mineral surface is higher than the other two size fractions. On the whole, FPY probably is not enough of a depressant for talc suppression.

  3. Breaking continuous flash suppression: A new measure of unconscious processing during interocular suppression?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo eStein

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, it has been thought that under interocular suppression high-level visual processing is strongly inhibited if not abolished. With the development of continuous flash suppression (CFS, a variant of binocular rivalry, this notion has now been challenged by a number of reports showing that even high-level aspects of visual stimuli, such as familiarity, affect the time stimuli need to overcome CFS and emerge into awareness. In this breaking CFS (b-CFS paradigm, differential unconscious processing during suppression is inferred when (a speeded detection responses to initially invisible stimuli differ, and (b no comparable differences are found in non-rivalrous control conditions supposed to measure general threshold differences between stimuli. To critically evaluate these assumptions was the aim of the present study. In six experiments we compared the time upright and inverted faces needed to be detected. We found that not only under CFS, but also in control conditions upright faces were detected faster and more accurately than inverted faces, although the effect was larger during CFS. However, reaction time (RT distributions indicated critical differences between the CFS and the control condition. When RT distributions were matched, similar effect sizes were obtained in both conditions. Moreover, subjective ratings revealed that CFS and control conditions are not perceptually comparable. These findings cast doubt on the usefulness of non-rivalrous control conditions to rule out mere detection threshold differences as a cause of shorter detection latencies during CFS. In conclusion, we acknowledge that the b-CFS paradigm can be fruitfully applied as a highly sensitive device to probe differences between stimuli in their potency to gain access to awareness. However, our current findings suggest that such differences can not unequivocally be attributed to differential unconscious processing under interocular suppression.

  4. Thin Film Coatings for Suppressing Electron Multipacting in Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Costa Pinto, P; Chiggiato, P; Neupert, H; Shaposhnikova, E N; Taborelli, M; Vollenberg, W; Yin Vallgren, C

    2011-01-01

    Thin film coatings are an effective way for suppressing electron multipacting in particle accelerators. For bakeable beam pipes, the TiZrV Non Evaporable Getter (NEG) developed at CERN can provide a Secondary Electron Yield (SEY) of 1.1 after activation at 180oC (24h). The coating process was implemented in large scale to coat the long straight sections and the experimental beam pipes for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). For non bakeable beam pipes, as those of the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS), CERN started a campaign to develop a coating having a low SEY without need of in situ heating. Magnetron sputtered carbon thin films have shown SEY of 1 with marginal deterioration when exposed in air for months. This material is now being tested in both laboratory and accelerator environment. At CERN’s SPS, tests with electron cloud monitors attached to carbon coated chambers show no degradation of the coating after two years of operation interleaved with a total of 3 months of air exposure during shutdown periods...

  5. Suppression of vegetation in LANDSAT ETM+ remote sensing images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Le; Porwal, Alok; Holden, Eun-Jung; Dentith, Michael

    2010-05-01

    Vegetation cover is an impediment to the interpretation of multispectral remote sensing images for geological applications, especially in densely vegetated terrains. In order to enhance the underlying geological information in such terrains, it is desirable to suppress the reflectance component of vegetation. One form of spectral unmixing that has been successfully used for vegetation reflectance suppression in multispectral images is called "forced invariance". It is based on segregating components of the reflectance spectrum that are invariant with respect to a specific spectral index such as the NDVI. The forced invariance method uses algorithms such as software defoliation. However, the outputs of software defoliation are single channel data, which are not amenable to geological interpretations. Crippen and Blom (2001) proposed a new forced invariance algorithm that utilizes band statistics, rather than band ratios. The authors demonstrated the effectiveness of their algorithms on a LANDSAT TM scene from Nevada, USA, especially in open canopy areas in mixed and semi-arid terrains. In this presentation, we report the results of our experimentation with this algorithm on a densely to sparsely vegetated Landsat ETM+ scene. We selected a scene (Path 119, Row 39) acquired on 18th July, 2004. Two study areas located around the city of Hangzhou, eastern China were tested. One of them covers uninhabited hilly terrain characterized by low rugged topography, parts of the hills are densely vegetated; another one covers both inhabited urban areas and uninhabited hilly terrain, which is densely vegetated. Crippen and Blom's algorithm is implemented in the following sequential steps: (1) dark pixel correction; (2) vegetation index calculation; (3) estimation of statistical relationship between vegetation index and digital number (DN) values for each band; (4) calculation of a smooth best-fit curve for the above relationships; and finally, (5) selection of a target average DN

  6. Rice (Oryza sativa japonica) Albumin Suppresses the Elevation of Blood Glucose and Plasma Insulin Levels after Oral Glucose Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ina, Shigenobu; Ninomiya, Kazumi; Mogi, Takashi; Hase, Ayumu; Ando, Toshiki; Matsukaze, Narumi; Ogihara, Jun; Akao, Makoto; Kumagai, Hitoshi; Kumagai, Hitomi

    2016-06-22

    The suppressive effect of rice albumin (RA) of 16 kDa on elevation of blood glucose level after oral loading of starch or glucose and its possible mechanism were examined. RA suppressed the increase in blood glucose levels in both the oral starch tolerance test and the oral glucose tolerance test. The blood glucose concentrations 15 min after the oral administration of starch were 144 ± 6 mg/dL for control group and 127 ± 4 mg/dL for RA 200 mg/kg BW group, while those after the oral administration of glucose were 157 ± 7 mg/dL for control group and 137 ± 4 mg/dL for RA 200 mg/kg BW group. However, in the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, no significant differences in blood glucose level were observed between RA and the control groups, indicating that RA suppresses the glucose absorption from the small intestine. However, RA did not inhibit the activity of mammalian α-amylase. RA was hydrolyzed to an indigestible high-molecular-weight peptide (HMP) of 14 kDa and low-molecular-weight peptides by pepsin and pancreatin. Furthermore, RA suppressed the glucose diffusion rate through a semipermeable membrane like dietary fibers in vitro. Therefore, the indigestible HMP may adsorb glucose and suppress its absorption from the small intestine.

  7. SURFACE FILMS TO SUPPRESS FIELD EMISSION IN HIGH-POWER MICROWAVE COMPONENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirshfield, Jay l

    2014-02-07

    Results are reported on attempts to reduce the RF breakdown probability on copper accelerator structures by applying thin surface films that could suppress field emission of electrons. Techniques for application and testing of copper samples with films of metals with work functions higher than copper are described, principally for application of platinum films, since platinum has the second highest work function of any metal. Techniques for application of insulating films are also described, since these can suppress field emission and damage on account of dielectric shielding of fields at the copper surface, and on account of the greater hardness of insulating films, as compared with copper. In particular, application of zirconium oxide films on high-field portions of a 11.424 GHz SLAC cavity structure for breakdown tests are described.

  8. The effect of articulatory suppression on implicit and explicit false memory in the DRM paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, Ilse; Menten, Jan; d'Ydewalle, Gery

    2010-11-01

    Several studies have shown that reliable implicit false memory can be obtained in the DRM paradigm. There has been considerable debate, however, about whether or not conscious activation of critical lures during study is a necessary condition for this. Recent findings have revealed that articulatory suppression prevents subsequent false priming in an anagram task (Lovden & Johansson, 2003). The present experiment sought to replicate and extend these findings to an implicit word stem completion task, and to additionally investigate the effect of articulatory suppression on explicit false memory. Results showed an inhibitory effect of articulatory suppression on veridical memory, as well as on implicit false memory, whereas the level of explicit false memory was heightened. This suggests that articulatory suppression did not merely eliminate conscious lure activation, but had a more general capacity-delimiting effect. The drop in veridical memory can be attributed to diminished encoding of item-specific information. Superficial encoding also limited the spreading of semantic activation during study, which inhibited later false priming. In addition, the lack of item-specific and phenomenological details caused impaired source monitoring at test, resulting in heightened explicit false memory.

  9. Complex suppression patterns distinguish between major energy loss effects in Quark–Gluon Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djordjevic, Magdalena, E-mail: magda@ipb.ac.rs

    2016-12-10

    Interactions of high momentum partons with Quark–Gluon Plasma created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions provide an excellent tomography tool for this new form of matter. Recent measurements for charged hadrons and unidentified jets at the LHC show an unexpected flattening of the suppression curves at high momentum, exhibited when either momentum or the collision centrality is changed. Furthermore, a limited data available for B probes indicate a qualitatively different pattern, as nearly the same flattening is exhibited for the curves corresponding to two opposite momentum ranges. We here show that the experimentally measured suppression curves are well reproduced by our theoretical predictions, and that the complex suppression patterns are due to an interplay of collisional, radiative energy loss and the dead-cone effect. Furthermore, for B mesons, we predict that the uniform flattening of the suppression indicated by the limited dataset is in fact valid across the entire span of the momentum ranges, which will be tested by the upcoming experiments. Overall, the study presented here, provides a rare opportunity for pQCD theory to qualitatively distinguish between the major energy loss mechanisms at the same (nonintuitive) dataset.

  10. X-ray CT high-density artefact suppression in cryosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Jikun; Sandison, George A; Chen Laigao; Liang Yun; Xu, Lisa X

    2002-01-01

    Advantages of x-ray CT for imaging guidance of cryosurgery include 3D visualization of frozen and unfrozen tissue and calibration of temperature in the tissue water-ice interface (0-10 deg. C) to Hounsfield units. However, use of x-ray CT images and their thermal calibration can be compromised by the cryoprobes generating high-density streak artefacts. A new subtraction technique for artefact suppression is proposed and tested in prostate cryosurgery simulations. By subtracting the measured CT x-ray projection profile without cryoprobes from the profile with cryoprobes plus iceballs, one obtains the combined profile of the cryoprobes and a low value background. Polynomial interpolation to obtain the background profile allows its addition to the original profile without probes. The result may then be fed to a conventional filtered back-projection routine to reconstruct the probe-free image. Finally the cryoprobe pixels in the originally constructed image with probes and iceballs are added back to the probe-free image to get the final artefact-suppressed image. The major advantage of this subtraction technique is that it can successfully suppress the high-density artefacts in bone-abundant body regions such as the pelvis. X-ray CT images of cryoprobe arrays in a homogeneous gelatin phantom and the pelvic region of an anthropomorphic Rando phantom containing a human skeleton were generated. After suppression, cryoprobe metal artefact streaks are reduced and visualization of the positions and dimensions of the cryoprobes are well preserved. (note)

  11. Caffeine-Induced Suppression of GABAergic Inhibition and Calcium-Independent Metaplasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masako Isokawa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available GABAergic inhibition plays a critical role in the regulation of neuron excitability; thus, it is subject to modulations by many factors. Recent evidence suggests the elevation of intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i and calcium-dependent signaling molecules underlie the modulations. Caffeine induces a release of calcium from intracellular stores. We tested whether caffeine modulated GABAergic transmission by increasing [Ca2+]i. A brief local puff-application of caffeine to hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells transiently suppressed GABAergic inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs by 73.2 ± 6.98%. Time course of suppression and the subsequent recovery of IPSCs resembled DSI (depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition, mediated by endogenous cannabinoids that require a [Ca2+]i rise. However, unlike DSI, caffeine-induced suppression of IPSCs (CSI persisted in the absence of a [Ca2+]i rise. Intracellular applications of BAPTA and ryanodine (which blocks caffeine-induced calcium release from intracellular stores failed to prevent the generation of CSI. Surprisingly, ruthenium red, an inhibitor of multiple calcium permeable/release channels including those of stores, induced metaplasticity by amplifying the magnitude of CSI independently of calcium. This metaplasticity was accompanied with the generation of a large inward current. Although ionic basis of this inward current is undetermined, the present result demonstrates that caffeine has a robust Ca2+-independent inhibitory action on GABAergic inhibition and causes metaplasticity by opening plasma membrane channels.

  12. Pharmacologic suppression of target cell recognition by engineered T cells expressing chimeric T-cell receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Vallina, L; Yañez, R; Blanco, B; Gil, M; Russell, S J

    2000-04-01

    Adoptive therapy with autologous T cells expressing chimeric T-cell receptors (chTCRs) is of potential interest for the treatment of malignancy. To limit possible T-cell-mediated damage to normal tissues that weakly express the targeted tumor antigen (Ag), we have tested a strategy for the suppression of target cell recognition by engineered T cells. Jurkat T cells were transduced with an anti-hapten chTCR tinder the control of a tetracycline-suppressible promoter and were shown to respond to Ag-positive (hapten-coated) but not to Ag-negative target cells. The engineered T cells were then reacted with hapten-coated target cells at different effector to target cell ratios before and after exposure to tetracycline. When the engineered T cells were treated with tetracycline, expression of the chTCR was greatly decreased and recognition of the hapten-coated target cells was completely suppressed. Tetracycline-mediated suppression of target cell recognition by engineered T cells may be a useful strategy to limit the toxicity of the approach to cancer gene therapy.

  13. Reduced herbicide doses in combination with allelopathic plant extracts suppress weeds in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afridi, R.A.; Khan, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Allelopathy is gaining popularity worldwide probably for decreasing the cost of production and environment friendly weed suppressing approach. Repeated field studies conducted during 2011-12 and 2012-13 at Agricutural Research Institute Tarnab, Peshawar, Pakistan where allelopathic water extracts of Oryza sativa, Parthenium hysterophorus, Phragmites australis and Datura alba along with reduced doses of phenoxaprop-p-ethyl and bromoxinil+MCPA were tested for controlling weeds in wheat. It was observed that weed density was encouragly suppressed whereas spike length (cm), number of spikelets spike-1 and 1000 grain weight (g) of the wheat were improved when the allelopathic plant water extracts were used in combination with lower doses of herbicides. Thus, allelochemicals provide weed suppressing option in wheat. However, more studies are required to fully explore the possibility of weed management and isolation of the chemicals involved in weed suppression for environment friendly weed management in wheat. Such studies may decrease the cost of crop production and total use of herbicides. (author)

  14. Limited role of murine ATM in oncogene-induced senescence and p53-dependent tumor suppression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejo Efeyan

    Full Text Available Recent studies in human fibroblasts have provided a new general paradigm of tumor suppression according to which oncogenic signaling produces DNA damage and this, in turn, results in ATM/p53-dependent cellular senescence. Here, we have tested this model in a variety of murine experimental systems. Overexpression of oncogenic Ras in murine fibroblasts efficiently induced senescence but this occurred in the absence of detectable DNA damage signaling, thus suggesting a fundamental difference between human and murine cells. Moreover, lung adenomas initiated by endogenous levels of oncogenic K-Ras presented abundant senescent cells, but undetectable DNA damage signaling. Accordingly, K-Ras-driven adenomas were also senescent in Atm-null mice, and the tumorigenic progression of these lesions was only modestly accelerated by Atm-deficiency. Finally, we have examined chemically-induced fibrosarcomas, which possess a persistently activated DNA damage response and are highly sensitive to the activity of p53. We found that the absence of Atm favored genomic instability in the resulting tumors, but did not affect the persistent DNA damage response and did not impair p53-dependent tumor suppression. All together, we conclude that oncogene-induced senescence in mice may occur in the absence of a detectable DNA damage response. Regarding murine Atm, our data suggest that it plays a minor role in oncogene-induced senescence or in p53-dependent tumor suppression, being its tumor suppressive activity probably limited to the maintenance of genomic stability.

  15. PSEPLOT: a controller for plotting data from the Mark I Boiling Water Reactor Pressure Suppression Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holman, G.S.

    1978-01-01

    PSEPLOT is a computer routine that was developed for the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Octopus computer system to generate several thousand plots of engineering data in a consistent format for referencing and comparison. The time-dependent engineering data were recorded during each of 25 tests of the Mark I Pressure Suppression Experiment (PSE). Although PSEPLOT is restricted to PSE, its concept is applicable to any similar data management task

  16. Vital Signs-HIV Care Saves Lives: Viral Suppression is Key

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-11-25

    This podcast is based on the December 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. For people living with HIV, Viral suppression is critical. By getting tested and taking HIV medicines, individuals living with HIV can achieve very low levels of HIV in the body.  Created: 11/25/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 11/25/2014.

  17. Targeting acceptance in the management of food craving: The mediating roles of eating styles and thought suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffino, Jaime A; Heiss, Sydney; Hormes, Julia M

    2018-04-01

    Food craving is now widely considered to be a cognitively motivated state. Acceptance-based treatments are effective in reducing the adverse impact of food cravings on consumption, via a hypothesized decrease in experiential avoidance. The mechanisms that drive the success of acceptance-based management of craving remain to be empirically tested. This study examined the role of eating styles and thought suppression as mediators in the relationship between experiential avoidance and craving. Participants (n = 298, 51.5% female) completed the Food Craving Acceptance and Awareness Questionnaire (FAAQ), the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ), the White Bear Suppression Inventory (WBSI; a measure of thought suppression), and the reduced version of the Food Craving Questionnaire- Trait (FCQ-T-r). Scores on the FAAQ were inversely associated with scores on the FCQ-T-r, DEBQ, and WBSI; FCQ-T-r scores were positively correlated with scores on the DEBQ and WBSI (all p styles and thought suppression, acceptance remained a significant predictor of craving. Results thus provide initial evidence that eating styles and thought suppression mediate the relationship between food-specific experiential avoidance and food craving. Findings lay the foundation for future study of the proximal antecedents of food cravings and lend preliminary support for targeting thought suppression and eating styles in acceptance-based approaches to the management of craving. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Agmatine suppresses peripheral sympathetic tone by inhibiting N-type Ca(2+) channel activity via imidazoline I2 receptor activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Hwan; Jeong, Ji-Hyun; Ahn, Duck-Sun; Chung, Seungsoo

    2016-08-26

    Agmatine, a putative endogenous ligand of imidazoline receptors, suppresses cardiovascular function by inhibiting peripheral sympathetic tone. However, the molecular identity of imidazoline receptor subtypes and its cellular mechanism underlying the agmatine-induced sympathetic suppression remains unknown. Meanwhile, N-type Ca(2+) channels are important for the regulation of NA release in the peripheral sympathetic nervous system. Therefore, it is possible that agmatine suppresses NA release in peripheral sympathetic nerve terminals by inhibiting Ca(2+) influx through N-type Ca(2+) channels. We tested this hypothesis by investigating agmatine effect on electrical field stimulation (EFS)-evoked contraction and NA release in endothelium-denuded rat superior mesenteric arterial strips. We also investigated the effect of agmatine on the N-type Ca(2+) current in superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons in rats. Our study demonstrates that agmatine suppresses peripheral sympathetic outflow via the imidazoline I2 receptor in rat mesenteric arteries. In addition, the agmatine-induced suppression of peripheral vascular sympathetic tone is mediated by modulating voltage-dependent N-type Ca(2+) channels in sympathetic nerve terminals. These results suggest a potential cellular mechanism for the agmatine-induced suppression of peripheral sympathetic tone. Furthermore, they provide basic and theoretical information regarding the development of new agents to treat hypertension. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A new phase modulated binomial-like selective-inversion sequence for solvent signal suppression in NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Johnny; Zheng, Gang; Price, William S

    2017-02-01

    A new 8-pulse Phase Modulated binomial-like selective inversion pulse sequence, dubbed '8PM', was developed by optimizing the nutation and phase angles of the constituent radio-frequency pulses so that the inversion profile resembled a target profile. Suppression profiles were obtained for both the 8PM and W5 based excitation sculpting sequences with equal inter-pulse delays. Significant distortions were observed in both profiles because of the offset effect of the radio frequency pulses. These distortions were successfully reduced by adjusting the inter-pulse delays. With adjusted inter-pulse delays, the 8PM and W5 based excitation sculpting sequences were tested on an aqueous lysozyme solution. The 8 PM based sequence provided higher suppression selectivity than the W5 based sequence. Two-dimensional nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy experiments were also performed on the lysozyme sample with 8PM and W5 based water signal suppression. The 8PM based suppression provided a spectrum with significantly increased (~ doubled) cross-peak intensity around the suppressed water resonance compared to the W5 based suppression. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Behavioral performance follows the time course of neural facilitation and suppression during cued shifts of feature-selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, S K; Müller, M M

    2010-08-03

    A central question in the field of attention is whether visual processing is a strictly limited resource, which must be allocated by selective attention. If this were the case, attentional enhancement of one stimulus should invariably lead to suppression of unattended distracter stimuli. Here we examine voluntary cued shifts of feature-selective attention to either one of two superimposed red or blue random dot kinematograms (RDKs) to test whether such a reciprocal relationship between enhancement of an attended and suppression of an unattended stimulus can be observed. The steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP), an oscillatory brain response elicited by the flickering RDKs, was measured in human EEG. Supporting limited resources, we observed both an enhancement of the attended and a suppression of the unattended RDK, but this observed reciprocity did not occur concurrently: enhancement of the attended RDK started at 220 ms after cue onset and preceded suppression of the unattended RDK by about 130 ms. Furthermore, we found that behavior was significantly correlated with the SSVEP time course of a measure of selectivity (attended minus unattended) but not with a measure of total activity (attended plus unattended). The significant deviations from a temporally synchronized reciprocity between enhancement and suppression suggest that the enhancement of the attended stimulus may cause the suppression of the unattended stimulus in the present experiment.

  1. High rate of virological re-suppression among patients failing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results. Of 69 patients enrolled in the programme, 40 had at least one follow-up VL and no known drug resistance at enrolment; 27 (68%) of these re-suppressed while remaining on second-line ART following enhanced adherence support. The majority (18/27; 67%) achieved re-suppression within the first 3 months in the ...

  2. Thought Suppression and Meaning in Life: A Longitudinal Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Neal

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to see if older adults who experience problems with thought suppression tend to encounter greater difficulty deriving a sense of meaning in life. Data from a longitudinal nationwide survey of older people (N = 988) indicate that greater difficulty with thought suppression is associated with a decline in meaning over…

  3. Dynamic interactions of the cortical networks during thought suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aso, Toshihiko; Nishimura, Kazuo; Kiyonaka, Takashi; Aoki, Takaaki; Inagawa, Michiyo; Matsuhashi, Masao; Tobinaga, Yoshikazu; Fukuyama, Hidenao

    2016-08-01

    Thought suppression has spurred extensive research in clinical and preclinical fields, particularly with regard to the paradoxical aspects of this behavior. However, the involvement of the brain's inhibitory system in the dynamics underlying the continuous effort to suppress thoughts has yet to be clarified. This study aims to provide a unified perspective for the volitional suppression of internal events incorporating the current understanding of the brain's inhibitory system. Twenty healthy volunteers underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while they performed thought suppression blocks alternating with visual imagery blocks. The whole dataset was decomposed by group-independent component analysis into 30 components. After discarding noise components, the 20 valid components were subjected to further analysis of their temporal properties including task-relatedness and between-component residual correlation. Combining a long task period and a data-driven approach, we observed a right-side-dominant, lateral frontoparietal network to be strongly suppression related. This network exhibited increased fluctuation during suppression, which is compatible with the well-known difficulty of suppression maintenance. Between-network correlation provided further insight into the coordinated engagement of the executive control and dorsal attention networks, as well as the reciprocal activation of imagery-related components, thus revealing neural substrates associated with the rivalry between intrusive thoughts and the suppression process.

  4. Suppressive mechanisms in visual motion processing: From perception to intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadin, Duje

    2015-10-01

    Perception operates on an immense amount of incoming information that greatly exceeds the brain's processing capacity. Because of this fundamental limitation, the ability to suppress irrelevant information is a key determinant of perceptual efficiency. Here, I will review a series of studies investigating suppressive mechanisms in visual motion processing, namely perceptual suppression of large, background-like motions. These spatial suppression mechanisms are adaptive, operating only when sensory inputs are sufficiently robust to guarantee visibility. Converging correlational and causal evidence links these behavioral results with inhibitory center-surround mechanisms, namely those in cortical area MT. Spatial suppression is abnormally weak in several special populations, including the elderly and individuals with schizophrenia-a deficit that is evidenced by better-than-normal direction discriminations of large moving stimuli. Theoretical work shows that this abnormal weakening of spatial suppression should result in motion segregation deficits, but direct behavioral support of this hypothesis is lacking. Finally, I will argue that the ability to suppress information is a fundamental neural process that applies not only to perception but also to cognition in general. Supporting this argument, I will discuss recent research that shows individual differences in spatial suppression of motion signals strongly predict individual variations in IQ scores. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Burst-Suppression Ratio on Electrocorticography Depends on Interelectrode Distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moldovan, Mihai; Calin, Alexandru; Kumaraswamy, Vishakhadatta M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: With deepening of anesthesia-induced comatose states, the EEG becomes fragmented by increasing periods of suppression. When measured from conventional EEG recordings, the binary burst-suppression signal (BS) appears similar across the scalp. As such, the BS ratio (BSR), quantifying...

  6. Regularized Adaptive Notch Filters for Acoustic Howling Suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gil-Cacho, Pepe; van Waterschoot, Toon; Moonen, Marc

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a method for the suppression of acoustic howling is developed, based on adaptive notch filters (ANF) with regularization (RANF). The method features three RANFs working in parallel to achieve frequency tracking, howling detection and suppression. The ANF-based approach to howling...

  7. Social hierarchy and depression: the role of emotion suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langner, Carrie A; Epel, Elissa S; Matthews, Karen A; Moskowitz, Judith T; Adler, Nancy E

    2012-01-01

    Position in the social hierarchy is a major determinant of health outcomes. We examined the associations between aspects of social hierarchy and depressive symptoms with a specific focus on one potential psychological mechanism: emotion suppression. Suppressing negative emotion has mental health costs, but individuals with low social power and low social status may use these strategies to avoid conflict. Study 1 assessed perceived social power, tendency to suppress negative emotion, and depressive symptoms in a community sample of women. Low social power was related to greater depressive symptoms, and this relationship was partially mediated by emotion suppression. Study 2 examined education as a proxy for social hierarchy position, anger suppression, and depressive symptoms in a national, longitudinal cohort study (The coronary artery risk development in young adults [CARDIA] study; Cutter et al., 1991). Much as in study 1, low education levels were correlated with greater depressive symptoms, and this relationship was partially mediated by anger suppression. Further, suppression mediated the relationship between low education and subsequent depression up to 15 years later. These findings support the theory that social hierarchy affects mental health in part through a process of emotion suppression.

  8. Suppression of mouse-killing in rats following irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Boyle, M.

    1976-01-01

    Suppression of mouse-killing was produced following pairings of mouse-presentations (CS) with 96 roentgens of ionizing radiation (US) at 0 (less than 2 min.) and 30 min. US-CS interstimulus intervals. No suppression was found at CS-US intervals of 30 min., 1 hr., and 2 hr., or at US-CS intervals of 1 hr. and 2 hr

  9. How best to assess suppression in patients with high anisometropia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinrong; Hess, Robert F; Chan, Lily Y L; Deng, Daming; Chen, Xiang; Yu, Minbin; Thompson, Benjamin S

    2013-02-01

    We have recently described a rapid technique for measuring suppression using a dichoptic signal/noise task. Here, we report a modification of this technique that allows for accurate measurements to be made in amblyopic patients with high levels of anisometropia. This was necessary because aniseikonic image size differences between the two eyes can provide a cue for signal/noise segregation and, therefore, influence suppression measurement in these patients. Suppression was measured using our original technique and with a modified technique whereby the size of the signal and noise elements was randomized across the stimulus to eliminate size differences as a cue for task performance. Eleven patients with anisometropic amblyopia, five with more than 5 diopters (D) spherical equivalent difference (SED), six with less than 5 D SED between the eyes, and 10 control observers completed suppression measurements using both techniques. Suppression measurements in controls and patients with less than 5 D SED were constant across the two techniques; however, patients with more than 5 D SED showed significantly stronger suppression on the modified technique with randomized element size. Measurements made with the modified technique correlated with the loss of visual acuity in the amblyopic eye and were in good agreement with previous reports using detailed psychophysical measurements. The signal/noise technique for measuring suppression can be applied to patients with high levels of anisometropia and aniseikonia if element size is randomized. In addition, deeper suppression is associated with a greater loss of visual acuity in patients with anisometropic amblyopia.

  10. Improved fat suppression of the breast using discretized frequency shimming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velden, Tijl A.; Luijten, Peter R.; Klomp, DWJ

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Robust fat suppression is essential in bilateral breast MRI at 7 Tesla. The lack of good fat suppression can result in errors when calculating the enhancement curve from dynamic contrast-enhanced acquisitions. In this work we propose discretized frequency shimming to improve the quality of

  11. Continuous Flash Suppression: Stimulus Fractionation rather than Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moors, Pieter; Hesselmann, Guido; Wagemans, Johan; van Ee, Raymond

    2017-10-01

    Recent studies using continuous flash suppression suggest that invisible stimuli are processed as integrated, semantic entities. We challenge the viability of this account, given recent findings on the neural basis of interocular suppression and replication failures of high-profile CFS studies. We conclude that CFS reveals stimulus fractionation in visual cortex. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Eye Contact Facilitates Awareness of Faces during Interocular Suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Timo; Senju, Atsushi; Peelen, Marius V.; Sterzer, Philipp

    2011-01-01

    Eye contact captures attention and receives prioritized visual processing. Here we asked whether eye contact might be processed outside conscious awareness. Faces with direct and averted gaze were rendered invisible using interocular suppression. In two experiments we found that faces with direct gaze overcame such suppression more rapidly than…

  13. Nature of dynamical suppressions in the generalized Veneziano model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odorico, R.

    1976-05-01

    It is shown by explicit numerical calculations that of a class of coupling suppressions existing in the generalized Veneziano model, which have been recently used to interpret the psi data and other related phenomena, only a part can be attributed to the exponential growth with energy of the number of levels in the model. The remaining suppressions have a more direct dual origin

  14. A dual purpose Compton suppression spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Parus, J; Raab, W; Donohue, D

    2003-01-01

    A gamma-ray spectrometer with a passive and an active shield is described. It consists of a HPGe coaxial detector of 42% efficiency and 4 NaI(Tl) detectors. The energy output pulses of the Ge detector are delivered into the 3 spectrometry chains giving the normal, anti- and coincidence spectra. From the spectra of a number of sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs and sup 6 sup 0 Co sources a Compton suppression factor, SF and a Compton reduction factor, RF, as the parameters characterizing the system performance, were calculated as a function of energy and source activity and compared with those given in literature. The natural background is reduced about 8 times in the anticoincidence mode of operation, compared to the normal spectrum which results in decreasing the detection limits for non-coincident gamma-rays up to a factor of 3. In the presence of other gamma-ray activities, in the range from 5 to 11 kBq, non- and coincident, the detection limits can be decreased for some nuclides by a factor of 3 to 5.7.

  15. Myeloma cells suppress osteoblasts through sclerostin secretion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colucci, S; Brunetti, G; Oranger, A [Department of Human Anatomy and Histology, University of Bari Medical School, Bari (Italy); Mori, G [Department of Biomedical Science, University of Foggia, Foggia (Italy); Sardone, F [Department of Human Anatomy and Histology, University of Bari Medical School, Bari (Italy); Specchia, G; Rinaldi, E; Curci, P; Liso, V [Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation, Hematology Section, Bari University Medical School, Bari (Italy); Passeri, G [Department of Internal Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Center for Metabolic Bone Diseases, University of Parma, Parma (Italy); Zallone, A [Department of Human Anatomy and Histology, University of Bari Medical School, Bari (Italy); Rizzi, R [Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation, Hematology Section, Bari University Medical School, Bari (Italy); Grano, M [Department of Human Anatomy and Histology, University of Bari Medical School, Bari (Italy)

    2011-06-01

    Wingless-type (Wnt) signaling through the secretion of Wnt inhibitors Dickkopf1, soluble frizzled-related protein-2 and -3 has a key role in the decreased osteoblast (OB) activity associated with multiple myeloma (MM) bone disease. We provide evidence that another Wnt antagonist, sclerostin, an osteocyte-expressed negative regulator of bone formation, is expressed by myeloma cells, that is, human myeloma cell lines (HMCLs) and plasma cells (CD138+ cells) obtained from the bone marrow (BM) of a large number of MM patients with bone disease. We demonstrated that BM stromal cells (BMSCs), differentiated into OBs and co-cultured with HMCLs showed, compared with BMSCs alone, reduced expression of major osteoblastic-specific proteins, decreased mineralized nodule formation and attenuated the expression of members of the activator protein 1 transcription factor family (Fra-1, Fra-2 and Jun-D). Moreover, in the same co-culture system, the addition of neutralizing anti-sclerostin antibodies restored OB functions by inducing nuclear accumulation of β-catenin. We further demonstrated that the upregulation of receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand and the downregulation of osteoprotegerin in OBs were also sclerostin mediated. Our data indicated that sclerostin secretion by myeloma cells contribute to the suppression of bone formation in the osteolytic bone disease associated to MM.

  16. Glutamine supplementation suppresses herpes simplex virus reactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kening; Hoshino, Yo; Dowdell, Kennichi; Bosch-Marce, Marta; Myers, Timothy G; Sarmiento, Mayra; Pesnicak, Lesley; Krause, Philip R; Cohen, Jeffrey I

    2017-06-30

    Chronic viral infections are difficult to treat, and new approaches are needed, particularly those aimed at reducing reactivation by enhancing immune responses. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) establishes latency and reactivates frequently, and breakthrough reactivation can occur despite suppressive antiviral therapy. Virus-specific T cells are important to control HSV, and proliferation of activated T cells requires increased metabolism of glutamine. Here, we found that supplementation with oral glutamine reduced virus reactivation in latently HSV-1-infected mice and HSV-2-infected guinea pigs. Transcriptome analysis of trigeminal ganglia from latently HSV-1-infected, glutamine-treated WT mice showed upregulation of several IFN-γ-inducible genes. In contrast to WT mice, supplemental glutamine was ineffective in reducing the rate of HSV-1 reactivation in latently HSV-1-infected IFN-γ-KO mice. Mice treated with glutamine also had higher numbers of HSV-specific IFN-γ-producing CD8 T cells in latently infected ganglia. Thus, glutamine may enhance the IFN-γ-associated immune response and reduce the rate of reactivation of latent virus infection.

  17. Installation for the suppression of sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, R.N.; Payne, J.F.B.; Lee, C.J.; Rowe, D.M.J.

    1979-01-01

    The basic operating principles are discussed of a passive baffle-catch tray fire suppression system for sodium fires. A new design is described incorporating increased compartmentalization of the collecting and drainage parts of the device. The burning and smoke generation rates from trays with varying aperture sizes were measured. From the experiments it was found that the burning rate and smoke generation rates could be related satisfactorily to the aperture areas. For the smallest aperture size ( 2 ) it was found that the smoke release was considerably less than that from a fire of the same area, because the smoke deposited on the underside of the baffle. A re-ignition problem was found, where pillars of sodium oxide (wicks) grow upward from the surface of the drained sodium and begin to burn when level with the baffle aperature. From a knowledge of the rate of growth of the wicks, trays may be made sufficiently deep to avoid the problem. Self acting valves were developed which allow the passage of sodium through the aperture and close when drainage is complete. These devices were shown to effect complete extinction of the drained sodium. Using the designs proposed it is possible to construct a system that will reduce the smoke emission from the drained sodium by a factor approaching 10 3 , without the use of valves, or with the self acting valves developed, reduce the emission from the drained sodium to approximately zero. (author)

  18. Rotator cuff injury: fat suppression MR image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Jong Yoon; Suh, Jin Suck; Park, Chang Yun; Lee, Yeon Hee; Kim, Yong Soo

    1994-01-01

    We performed the study prospectively to evaluate the advantage of fat suppression MR in the diagnosis of rotator cuff injury. Ten symptomatic patients were studied with both conventional T2WI and FST2WI using chemical shift technique. Each image was analyzed for the assessment of injuries, conspicuity of the lesion, the presence of effusion in subacromical bursae and joint space, and presence of humeral head injury. Arthroscopy was done in 4 patients following MRI. We could made presumptive diagnoses on FSMR as identical as on conventional MR in six cases(1 normal, 2 tendinitis, 2 partial thickness tear, 1 full thickness tear), two of them were confirmed by arthroscopic procedures. Two cases of partial thickness tear proved by arthroscopy were detected on FST2WI, whereas they were considered tendinitis on conventional T2WI. There were another 2 cases who showed tendinitis on FSMR, but normal on conventional T2WI. They, however, were not confirmed by either arthroscopy or surgical procedure. We found the FSMR were superior to conventional T2WI in the conspicuity of lesions and detection of joint effusion and abnormalities on the humeral head. We think FSMR of the shoulder could have significant diagnostic advantages over the conventional spin-echo MR imaging

  19. Probiotics-mediated suppression of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Stephanie S Y; Wan, Murphy L Y; El-Nezami, Hani

    2017-01-01

    Probiotics can be used as an adjuvant for cancer prevention or/and treatment through their abilities to modulate intestinal microbiota and host immune response. Although most of the recent reviews have focused on the potential role of probiotics against colon cancer, only few of them include the probiotic effect on extraintestinal cancers. The present review covers the most important findings from the literature published during the past 20 months (from January 2015 to August 2016) regarding the probiotics-mediated suppression of both gastrointestinal and extraintestinal cancers and the underlying mechanisms. A comprehensive literature search in Pubmed, Science direct and Google scholar databases was conducted to locate all relevant articles that investigated the effect of probiotics on prevention/treatment of both gastrointestinal and extraintestinal cancers. Different mechanisms for the beneficial effects of probiotics against cancer were also discussed, mainly via modulation of gut microbiota which thereby influences host metabolism and immunity. Despite laboratory-based studies having demonstrated encouraging outcomes that probiotics possess antitumor effects, the benefits should not be exaggerated before we get more results from human clinical trials. These are very important before the medical community can accept the use of probiotics as an alternative therapy for cancer control.

  20. Rotator cuff injury: fat suppression MR image

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Jong Yoon; Suh, Jin Suck; Park, Chang Yun; Lee, Yeon Hee [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Soo [Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-04-15

    We performed the study prospectively to evaluate the advantage of fat suppression MR in the diagnosis of rotator cuff injury. Ten symptomatic patients were studied with both conventional T2WI and FST2WI using chemical shift technique. Each image was analyzed for the assessment of injuries, conspicuity of the lesion, the presence of effusion in subacromical bursae and joint space, and presence of humeral head injury. Arthroscopy was done in 4 patients following MRI. We could made presumptive diagnoses on FSMR as identical as on conventional MR in six cases(1 normal, 2 tendinitis, 2 partial thickness tear, 1 full thickness tear), two of them were confirmed by arthroscopic procedures. Two cases of partial thickness tear proved by arthroscopy were detected on FST2WI, whereas they were considered tendinitis on conventional T2WI. There were another 2 cases who showed tendinitis on FSMR, but normal on conventional T2WI. They, however, were not confirmed by either arthroscopy or surgical procedure. We found the FSMR were superior to conventional T2WI in the conspicuity of lesions and detection of joint effusion and abnormalities on the humeral head. We think FSMR of the shoulder could have significant diagnostic advantages over the conventional spin-echo MR imaging.

  1. Suppression of PTEN transcription by UVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Baozhong; Ming, Mei; He, Yu-Ying

    2012-01-01

    Although UVA has different physical and biological targets than UVB, the contribution of UVA to skin cancer susceptibility and its molecular basis remain largely unknown. Here we show that chronic UVA radiation suppresses PTEN expression at the mRNA level. Subchronic and acute UVA radiation also down-regulated PTEN in normal human epidermal keratinocytes, skin culture and mouse skin. At the molecular level, chronic UVA radiation decreased the transcriptional activity of the PTEN promoter in a methylation-independent manner, while it had no effect on the protein stability or mRNA stability of PTEN. In contrast, we found that UVA-induced activation of the Ras/ERK/AKT and NF-κB pathways plays an important role in UV-induced PTEN down-regulation. Inhibiting ERK or AKT increases PTEN expression. Our findings may provide unique insights into PTEN down-regulation as a critical component of UVA’s molecular impact during keratinocyte transformation. PMID:23129115

  2. Pressure suppression device for nuclear reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikegame, Noboru.

    1992-01-01

    In a nuclear reactor building, there are disposed cooling coils connected to an air supply duct at the outside of the building, an air supply blower, an air supply duct having the top end opened, an exhaustion duct having the top end opened and a bypassing pipeline interposed between the exhaustion duct and the air supply duct on the side of the inlet of the cooling coils. In the reactor building, when a radioactive material leakage accident should occur, an isolation valve is closed to isolate the building from the outside. Further, bypassing isolation valve is opened to form a closed cooling circuit by the cooling coils, the air supply blower and the air supply duct, the exhaustion duct and the bypassing pipeline in the reactor building. With such a constitution, since air as the atmosphere in the building is circulated through the closed cooling circuit and cooled by the cooling coils, the temperature is not elevated. Accordingly, since the pressure elevation of the atmosphere in the building is suppressed, the atmosphere containing radioactive materials do not flow out of the building. (I.N.)

  3. Exploring genetic suppression interactions on a global scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Jolanda; Pons, Carles; Mellor, Joseph C; Yamaguchi, Takafumi N; Friesen, Helena; Koschwanez, John; Ušaj, Mojca Mattiazzi; Pechlaner, Maria; Takar, Mehmet; Ušaj, Matej; VanderSluis, Benjamin; Andrusiak, Kerry; Bansal, Pritpal; Baryshnikova, Anastasia; Boone, Claire E; Cao, Jessica; Cote, Atina; Gebbia, Marinella; Horecka, Gene; Horecka, Ira; Kuzmin, Elena; Legro, Nicole; Liang, Wendy; van Lieshout, Natascha; McNee, Margaret; San Luis, Bryan-Joseph; Shaeri, Fatemeh; Shuteriqi, Ermira; Sun, Song; Yang, Lu; Youn, Ji-Young; Yuen, Michael; Costanzo, Michael; Gingras, Anne-Claude; Aloy, Patrick; Oostenbrink, Chris; Murray, Andrew; Graham, Todd R; Myers, Chad L; Andrews, Brenda J; Roth, Frederick P; Boone, Charles

    2016-11-04

    Genetic suppression occurs when the phenotypic defects caused by a mutation in a particular gene are rescued by a mutation in a second gene. To explore the principles of genetic suppression, we examined both literature-curated and unbiased experimental data, involving systematic genetic mapping and whole-genome sequencing, to generate a large-scale suppression network among yeast genes. Most suppression pairs identified novel relationships among functionally related genes, providing new insights into the functional wiring diagram of the cell. In addition to suppressor mutations, we identified frequent secondary mutations,in a subset of genes, that likely cause a delay in the onset of stationary phase, which appears to promote their enrichment within a propagating population. These findings allow us to formulate and quantify general mechanisms of genetic suppression. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  4. Anger Suppression, Interdependent Self-Construal, and Depression among Asian American and European American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Rebecca Y. M.; Park, Irene J. K.

    2010-01-01

    The present study tested a theoretical model of emotion regulation (Yap, Sheeber, & Allen, 2007) in a sample of Asian American and European American college students (N = 365). Specifically, the mediating role of anger suppression in the effect of temperament and family processes on depressive symptoms was tested across race and levels of interdependent self-construal (a culturally based self orientation emphasizing connectedness with others). Next, the moderation of the suppression—depression relation was tested by race and interdependent self-construal. Results indicated that the hypothesized model fit well across Asian American and European American students as well as those with high vs. low levels of interdependent self-construal. Anger suppression was a significant mediator of the hypothesized indirect effects on depressive symptoms. Moreover, race and interdependent self-construal moderated the suppression—depression link, such that Asian American status and a stronger interdependent self-construal attenuated the relation between anger suppression and depressive symptoms. Understanding both universal and culture-specific aspects of emotion regulation in the development of depressive symptoms will be essential for sound theory, future research, and effective prevention and intervention efforts across diverse populations. PMID:21058815

  5. Dynamic load in suppression pool during BWR main steam safety relief valve actuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukada, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Hirokatsu; Morita, Terumichi

    1979-01-01

    BWRs are so designed that the exhaust steam from main steam safety relief valves is led to pressure suppression pools, and the steam is condensed in pool water, but at this time, dynamic load seems to arise in the pool water. In Tokai No. 2 Power Station, a Mark-2 containment vessel was adopted to improve the reliability as much as possible and to obtain the design with margin. In this report, the result of actual machine test in Tokai No. 2 Power Station and the method of reducing the load are described. When a relief valve works, the discharge of water in exhaust pipes into a suppression pool, the exhaust of air in exhaust pipes and repeated expansion and contraction of bubbles in pool water, and the exhaust of steam and condensation occur. As for the construction of the suppression pool in Tokai No. 2 Power Station, cross-shaped quencher and the structure with jet deflector were installed. The test plan and the test result with an actual machine are reported. The soundness of the Mark-2 containment vessel and the structures in the pool was proved. The differential pressure acting on the structures was negligibly small. The measured pulsating pressure was in the range from 0.84 to -0.39 kg/cm 2 . (Kako, I.)

  6. High Velocity Jet Noise Source Location and Reduction. Task 3 - Experimental Investigation of Suppression Principles. Volume I. Suppressor Concepts Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-12-01

    25. Predicted Vs. Measured PNL Directivity for an 8-Lobe Daisy Suppressor ( Aerotrain ); Va = 0. 168 4-26. Predicted Vs. Measured PNL Directivity for...of Configurations for Verification of Suppression Principles. 137 4-2. PNL Data/Theory Comparison for Bertin Aerotrain Test Series; 400-ft Sideline...obtained from the scale-model tests con- ducted in Task 3 and from the Aerotrain tests conducted in Task 4 of the present program. Comparisons were

  7. HIV care visits and time to viral suppression, 19 U.S. jurisdictions, and implications for treatment, prevention and the national HIV/AIDS strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Irene Hall

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Early and regular care and treatment for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection are associated with viral suppression, reductions in transmission risk and improved health outcomes for persons with HIV. We determined, on a population level, the association of care visits with time from HIV diagnosis to viral suppression. METHODS: Using data from 19 areas reporting HIV-related tests to national HIV surveillance, we determined time from diagnosis to viral suppression among 17,028 persons diagnosed with HIV during 2009, followed through December 2011, using data reported through December 2012. Using Cox proportional hazards models, we assessed factors associated with viral suppression, including linkage to care within 3 months of diagnosis, a goal set forth by the National HIV/AIDS Strategy, and number of HIV care visits as determined by CD4 and viral load test results, while controlling for demographic, clinical, and risk characteristics. RESULTS: Of 17,028 persons diagnosed with HIV during 2009 in the 19 areas, 76.6% were linked to care within 3 months of diagnosis and 57.0% had a suppressed viral load during the observation period. Median time from diagnosis to viral suppression was 19 months overall, and 8 months among persons with an initial CD4 count ≤ 350 cells/µL. During the first 12 months after diagnosis, persons linked to care within 3 months experienced shorter times to viral suppression (higher rate of viral suppression per unit time, hazard ratio [HR] = 4.84 versus not linked within 3 months; 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.27, 5.48. Persons with a higher number of time-updated care visits also experienced a shorter time to viral suppression (HR = 1.51 per additional visit, 95% CI 1.49, 1.52. CONCLUSIONS: Timely linkage to care and greater frequency of care visits were associated with faster time to viral suppression with implications for individual health outcomes and for secondary prevention.

  8. Using Correlated Photons to Suppress Background Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Deborah; Hockney, George; Dowling, Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    A proposed method of suppressing the effect of background noise in an optical communication system would exploit the transmission and reception of correlated photons at the receiver. The method would not afford any advantage in a system in which performance is limited by shot noise. However, if the performance of the system is limited by background noise (e.g., sunlight in the case of a free-space optical communication system or incoherently scattered in-band photons in the case of a fiber-optic communication system), then the proposed method could offer an advantage: the proposed method would make it possible to achieve a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) significantly greater than that of an otherwise equivalent background- noise-limited optical communication system based on the classical transmission and reception of uncorrelated photons. The figure schematically depicts a classical optical-communication system and a system according to the proposed method. In the classical system, a modulated laser beam is transmitted along an optical path to a receiver, the optics of which include a narrow-band-pass filter that suppresses some of the background noise. A photodetector in the receiver detects the laser-beam and background photons, most or all of which are uncorrelated. In the proposed system, correlated photons would be generated at the transmitter by making a modulated laser beam pass through a nonlinear parametric down-conversion crystal. The sum of frequencies of the correlated photons in each pair would equal the frequency of the incident photon from which they were generated. As in the classical system, the correlated photons would travel along an optical path to a receiver, where they would be band-pass filtered and detected. Unlike in the classical system, the photodetector in the receiver in this system would be one that intrinsically favors the detection of pairs of correlated photons over the detection of uncorrelated photons. Even though there would be no

  9. Suitable level of suppression in Pinus sylvestris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagner, Mats

    1999-10-01

    It is `well known` among Swedish foresters that pine trees need light and cannot grow suppressed. It is also `well known` that old trees that have grown slowly are unable to react with good growth. However, these facts can be questioned in the light of new research as it has been found that thinning reaction is not correlated with age. It is also well known that the commercial value of a pine is closely related to the growth at young age. If the first 20 annual rings close to pith are wide (>3 mm) the log cannot be accepted as first class. This is related to number and size of branches on the young tree and to the features of the juvenile wood. This is to say that a pine must not grow fast when it is small and if this has happened it cannot be cured by artificial debranching or by growing the tree slowly at higher age. Accordingly, young pines should be grown under bigger trees that in their young age were grown under big trees, and so on. Today, when clear cutting is the dominating forest management system, the only way to obtain high quality pine trees is to start the rotation age with stands of very high density. This is of course a very expensive way as dense planting, followed by intensive thinning requires a lot of input. However, if pine is a pioneer species and cannot be grown in multistoried stands, then the economic solution is not present. This was the reason why the annual increment of three pines was measured. They were selected because their different growth pattern showed that old `well known facts` should be revised Working papers 139. 3 refs, 7 figs, 1 tab

  10. Pocket Proteins Suppress Head and Neck Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Myeong-Kyun; Pitot, Henry C.; Lambert, Paul F.

    2012-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) is a common cancer in humans long known to be caused by tobacco and alcohol use, but now an increasing percentage of HNSCC is recognized to be caused by the same human papillomaviruses (HPVs) that cause cervical and other anogenital cancers. HPV-positive HNSCCs differ remarkably from HPV-negative HNSCCs in their clinical response and molecular properties. From studies in mice, we know that E7 is the dominant HPV oncoprotein in head and neck cancer. E7 is best known for its ability to inactivate pRb, the product of the retinoblastoma tumor susceptibility gene. However loss of pRb function does not fully account for E7’s potency in causing head and neck cancer. In this study, we characterized the cancer susceptibility of mice deficient in the expression of pRb and either of two related “pocket” proteins, p107 and p130, that are also inactivated by E7. pRb/p107 deficient mice developed head and neck cancer as frequently as do HPV16 E7 transgenic mice. The head and neck epithelia of the pRb/p107 deficient mice also displayed the same acute phenotypes and biomarker readouts as observed in the epithelia of E7 transgenic mice. Mice deficient for pRb and p130 in their head and neck epithelia showed intermediate acute and tumor phenotypes. We conclude that pRb and p107 act together to efficiently suppress head and neck cancer, and are therefore highly relevant targets of HPV16 E7 in its contribution to HPV-positive HNSCC. PMID:22237625

  11. Long noncoding RNA AK126698 inhibits proliferation and migration of non-small cell lung cancer cells by targeting Frizzled-8 and suppressing Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu X

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Xiao Fu,1 Hui Li,1 Chunxiao Liu,2 Bin Hu,1 Tong Li,1 Yang Wang1 1Department of Thoracic Surgery, Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 2Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, People’s Republic of China Background: Recent studies indicate that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs play a key role in the control of cellular processes such as proliferation, metastasis, and differentiation. The lncRNA dysregulation has been identified in all types of cancer. We previously found that lncRNA AK126698 suppresses cisplatin resistance in A549 cells through the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. However, the clinical significance of lncRNA AK126698 and the molecular mechanisms through which it regulates cancer cell proliferation and migration are largely unknown. Methods: We examined the expression of lncRNA AK126698 in 56 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC tissue samples and three NSCLC cell lines using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Gain and loss of function approaches were used to evaluate the biological function of AK126698 in NSCLC cells. The effects of lncRNA AK126698 on cell proliferation were investigated using cell counting kit-8 and 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine assays, and apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry. Protein levels of AK126698 targets were evaluated by Western blotting. Results: Our results showed that lncRNA AK126698 was significantly downregulated in NSCLC tissues, compared with paired adjacent nontumor tissue samples. Furthermore, lower AK126698 expression was associated with larger tumor size and advanced tumor stage. Ectopic AK126698 expression inhibited cell proliferation and migration and induced apoptosis. Conversely, decreased AK126698 expression promoted cell proliferation and migration and inhibited cell apoptosis. Importantly, we demonstrated that Frizzled-8, a receptor of Wnt/β-catenin pathway, was a target of AK126698. Furthermore

  12. Suppression of the background coming from {sup 42}Ar in the GERDA experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubashevskiy, Alexey [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The GERDA experiment aims at the 0νββ search in {sup 76}Ge. The search is performed with high purity germanium detectors operated in liquid argon. One of the most dangerous backgrounds in GERDA is the background from {sup 42}K which is a daughter isotope of cosmogenically produced {sup 42}Ar, presented in natural argon. {sup 42}K ions collect on the surface of the detector and increase its background level. Several ways to suppress such background has been investigated. The tests were performed at LArGe low-background test facility, which gives a possibility to operate bare detectors in about 1m{sup 3} of LAr. It is equipped with a scintillation veto, so particles which deposit part of their energy in LAr can be detected by PMTs. The experimental setup is located at LNGS underground laboratory close to GERDA experiment location. Different experimental techniques were tested together with pulse shape discrimination (PSD) method in order to suppress {sup 42}K background. The chosen solution for GERDA Phase II is so called ''nylon mini-shroud'' (NMS). It is made from nylon foil and covered with wavelength shifter from both sides. NMS allows to suppress collection of {sup 42}K ions towards to the surface significantly. It was demonstrated in LArGe that together with PSD and scintillation veto the {sup 42}K background can be suppressed in more than 1000 times. The results obtained during commissioning runs in GERDA Phase II are also presented.

  13. Suppression of in vitro cell-mediated lympholysis generation by alloactivated lymphocytes. Examination of radioresistant suppressive activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orosz, C.G.; Ferguson, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    We investigated the radioresistant (1000 rads) suppression of CML generation mediated by alloactivated murine splenocytes. Suppressive cells were generated in MLCs by stimulation of (A X 6R)F1 splenocytes with irradiated C57BL/10 splenocytes. Suppressive cells could lyse targets bearing H-2b alloantigens, but would not lyse parental B10.T(6R) or B10.A targets. Suppressive activity was detected by including the alloactivated (A X 6R)F1 cells in B10.T(6R) anti-B10.A(1R) MLCs. Relative to the suppressive (A X 6R)F1 cells, the B10.A(1R) lymphocytes display both parental and suppressor-inducing alloantigens. In the absence of a suppressive population, B10.A(1R) stimulators cause B10.T(6R) splenocytes to generate cytolytic activity specific for both H-2Db (suppressor-inducing) and H-2Kk (suppressor-borne) target determinants. The irradiated, alloactivated (A X 6R)F1 cells decrease the H-2Db-specific CML generated in this system, thus mediating apparent antigen-specific suppression. However, cytolytic activity concomitantly generated in the same culture against the unrelated H-2Kk target determinants is similarly reduced by the (A X 6R)F1 cells. Thus, radioresistant suppression by alloactivated splenocytes is not necessarily antigen-specific. The irradiated (A X 6R)F1 cells would not suppress the generation of H-2Kk-specific CTL in B10.T(6R) anti-B10.A MLCs. Hence, the irradiated (A X 6R)F1 cells can impede CML generation against third-party alloantigens if, and only if, those alloantigens are coexpressed with suppressor-inducing alloantigens on the stimulator cells in suppressed MLCs. Similar results were also obtained using a different histoincompatible lymphocyte combination

  14. The Effect of Learning Disability on Contralateral Suppression of Otoacoustic Emissions in Primary Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Sarough Farahani

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: One of the most significant complaints of children with learning disability (LD is difficulty in understanding speech in the presence of background noise. Different studies have shown that the medial olivocochlear bundle(MOCB may play a role in hearing in noise. The MOCB function can be evaluated by the contralateral suppression of tone burst evoked otoacoustic emissions (TBEOAEs.The aim of the present study was to evaluate frequency specifications of MOCB by the contralateral suppression of TBEOAEs at 1,2,3 and 4 KHz in response to contralateral white noise in LD students. Materials and Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 34 LD students aged 7-11 years and 31 normal students matched for age.The contralateral suppression of TBEOAEs was evaluated by comparing TBEOAEs amplitudes with and without contralateral white noise. Results: In the absence of noise there was no significant difference between TBEOAEs amplitudes of two groups. In the presence of noise significant decrease was seen in TBEOAEs amplitudes at 1,2,3 and 4 KHz in both groups. In LD students the amount of this decrement at 1,2 and 4 KHz was lower than in the normal students. Conclusion: A significant diminished suppression effect at 1,2 and 4 KHz in LD students indicates that at these frequency regions MOCB function was reduced. Therefore it suggests that the assessment of MOCB by evaluating the suppression effect of TBEOAEs included in the test battery approach used in the diagnostic of LD students.

  15. Transient improvements in fixational stability in strabismic amblyopes following bifoveal fixation and reduced interocular suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raveendran, Rajkumar Nallour; Babu, Raiju J; Hess, Robert F; Bobier, William R

    2014-03-01

    To test the hypothesis that fixational stability of the amblyopic eye in strabismics will improve when viewing provides both bifoveal fixation and reduced inter-ocular suppression by reducing the contrast to the fellow eye. Seven strabismic amblyopes (Age: 29.2 ± 9 years; five esotropes and two exotropes) showing clinical characteristics of central suppression were recruited. Interocular suppression was measured by a global motion task. For each participant, a balance point was determined which defined contrast levels for each eye where binocular combination was optimal (interocular suppression minimal). When the balance point could not be determined, this participant was excluded. Bifoveal fixation was established by ocular alignment using a haploscope. Participants dichoptically viewed similar targets (a cross of 2.3° surrounded by a square of 11.3°) at 40 cm. Target contrasts presented to each eye were either high contrast (100% to both eyes) or balanced contrast (attenuated contrast in the fellow fixing eye). Fixation stability was measured over a 5 min period and quantified using bivariate contour ellipse areas in four different binocular conditions; unaligned/high contrast, unaligned/balance point, aligned/high contrast and aligned/balance point. Fixation stability was also measured in six control subjects (Age: 25.3 ± 4 years). Bifoveal fixation in the strabismics was transient (58.15 ± 15.7 s). Accordingly, fixational stability was analysed over the first 30 s using repeated measures anova. Post hoc analysis revealed that for the amblyopic subjects, the fixational stability of the amblyopic eye was significantly improved in aligned/high contrast (p = 0.01) and aligned/balance point (p suppression. However, once initiated, bifoveal fixation is transient with the strabismic eye drifting away from foveal alignment, thereby increasing the angle of strabismus. © 2014 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2014 The College of Optometrists.

  16. Multirate flutter suppression system design for the Benchmark Active Controls Technology Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Martin C.; Mason, Gregory S.

    1994-01-01

    To study the effectiveness of various control system design methodologies, the NASA Langley Research Center initiated the Benchmark Active Controls Project. In this project, the various methodologies will be applied to design a flutter suppression system for the Benchmark Active Controls Technology (BACT) Wing (also called the PAPA wing). Eventually, the designs will be implemented in hardware and tested on the BACT wing in a wind tunnel. This report describes a project at the University of Washington to design a multirate flutter suppression system for the BACT wing. The objective of the project was two fold. First, to develop a methodology for designing robust multirate compensators, and second, to demonstrate the methodology by applying it to the design of a multirate flutter suppression system for the BACT wing. The contributions of this project are (1) development of an algorithm for synthesizing robust low order multirate control laws (the algorithm is capable of synthesizing a single compensator which stabilizes both the nominal plant and multiple plant perturbations; (2) development of a multirate design methodology, and supporting software, for modeling, analyzing and synthesizing multirate compensators; and (3) design of a multirate flutter suppression system for NASA's BACT wing which satisfies the specified design criteria. This report describes each of these contributions in detail. Section 2.0 discusses our design methodology. Section 3.0 details the results of our multirate flutter suppression system design for the BACT wing. Finally, Section 4.0 presents our conclusions and suggestions for future research. The body of the report focuses primarily on the results. The associated theoretical background appears in the three technical papers that are included as Attachments 1-3. Attachment 4 is a user's manual for the software that is key to our design methodology.

  17. Suppressed neural complexity during ketamine- and propofol-induced unconsciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jisung; Noh, Gyu-Jeong; Choi, Byung-Moon; Ku, Seung-Woo; Joo, Pangyu; Jung, Woo-Sung; Kim, Seunghwan; Lee, Heonsoo

    2017-07-13

    Ketamine and propofol have distinctively different molecular mechanisms of action and neurophysiological features, although both induce loss of consciousness. Therefore, identifying a common feature of ketamine- and propofol-induced unconsciousness would provide insight into the underlying mechanism of losing consciousness. In this study we search for a common feature by applying the concept of type-II complexity, and argue that neural complexity is essential for a brain to maintain consciousness. To test this hypothesis, we show that complexity is suppressed during loss of consciousness induced by ketamine or propofol. We analyzed the randomness (type-I complexity) and complexity (type-II complexity) of electroencephalogram (EEG) signals before and after bolus injection of ketamine or propofol. For the analysis, we use Mean Information Gain (MIG) and Fluctuation Complexity (FC), which are information-theory-based measures that quantify disorder and complexity of dynamics respectively. Both ketamine and propofol reduced the complexity of the EEG signal, but ketamine increased the randomness of the signal and propofol decreased it. The finding supports our claim and suggests EEG complexity as a candidate for a consciousness indicator. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Ways to suppress click and pop for class D amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Haishi; Zhang Bo; Sun Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Undesirable audio click and pop may be generated in a speaker or headphone. Compared to linear (class A/B/AB) amplifiers, class D amplifiers that comprise of an input stage and a modulation stage are more prone to producing click and pop. This article analyzes sources that generate click and pop in class D amplifiers, and corresponding ways to suppress them. For a class D amplifier with a single-ended input, click and pop is likely to be due to two factors. One is from a voltage difference (V DIF ) between the voltage of an input capacitance (V CIN ) and a reference voltage (V REF ) of the input stage, and the other one is from the non-linear switching during the setting up of the bias and feedback voltages/currents (BFVC) of the modulation stage. In this article, a fast charging loop is introduced into the input stage to charge V CIN to roughly near V REF . Then a correction loop further charges or discharges V CIN , substantially equalizing it with V REF . Dummy switches are introduced into the modulation stage to provide switching signals for setting up BFVC, and the power switches are disabled until the BFVC are set up successfully. A two channel single-ended class D amplifier with the above features is fabricated with 0.5 μm Bi-CMOS process. Road test and fast Fourier transform analysis indicate that there is no noticeable click and pop. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  19. Flour pads: devices to improve CHESS fat suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Susumu; Miki, Yukio; Miyati, Tosiaki; Kanagaki, Mitsunori; Yokobayashi, Tsuneo

    2014-01-01

    We compared the suppression of lingering fat signals in chemical shift selective (CHESS) images by pads filled with flour and pads filled with rice in a phantom and human subjects. First, we prepared a phantom by creating an empty space in a mass of lard and filling the space with air, rice, or flour. Then, we obtained MR images of the phantoms in the center of the magnetic field and at a position 8 cm to the left (off-center) to compare lingering fat signals. MR images of the knee were obtained in 10 healthy volunteers using CHESS after placing a polyurethane sponge pillow, rice pad, or flour pad in the popliteal space under the flexed knee. We visually assessed the number of areas with lingering fat signals and the statistical differences among the groups were assessed using Tukey's test. Similarly to rice, flour clearly decreased lingering fat signals in the phantom study. A similar effect was obtained in the off-center images. In the volunteer study, the mean number of areas with lingering fat signals was 2.5 with a sponge pillow, 0.5 with the rice pad, and 0.3 with the flour pad. Those numbers were significantly different using flour pad and rice pad compared with sponge pillow (P CHESS images.

  20. Working memory contents revive the neglected, but suppress the inhibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Suk Won

    2015-12-01

    It is well known that attention is biased toward a stimulus matching working memory contents. However, it remains unknown whether the maintenance of information in working memory by itself is sufficient to create memory-driven attentional capture. Notably, in many previous studies showing the memory-driven attentional capture, the task settings might have explicitly or implicitly incentivized participants to strategically attend to a memory-matching stimulus. By innovating an experimental paradigm, the present study overcame this challenge and directly tested whether working memory contents capture attention in the absence of task-level attentional bias toward a memory-matching stimulus. I found that a stimulus that is usually outside the focus of attention, powerfully captured attention when it matched working memory contents, whereas a match between working memory and an inhibited stimulus suppressed attentional allocation toward the memory-matching stimulus. These findings suggest that in the absence of any task-level attentional bias toward memory-matching stimuli, attention is biased toward a memory-matching stimulus, but this memory-driven attentional capture is diminished when top-down inhibition is imposed on the stimulus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Active Suppression of Drilling System Vibrations For Deep Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond, David W.; Blankenship, Douglas A.; Buerger, Stephen; Mesh, Mikhail; Radigan, William Thomas; Su, Jiann-Cherng

    2015-10-01

    The dynamic stability of deep drillstrings is challenged by an inability to impart controllability with ever-changing conditions introduced by geology, depth, structural dynamic properties and operating conditions. A multi-organizational LDRD project team at Sandia National Laboratories successfully demonstrated advanced technologies for mitigating drillstring vibrations to improve the reliability of drilling systems used for construction of deep, high-value wells. Using computational modeling and dynamic substructuring techniques, the benefit of controllable actuators at discrete locations in the drillstring is determined. Prototype downhole tools were developed and evaluated in laboratory test fixtures simulating the structural dynamic response of a deep drillstring. A laboratory-based drilling applicability demonstration was conducted to demonstrate the benefit available from deployment of an autonomous, downhole tool with self-actuation capabilities in response to the dynamic response of the host drillstring. A concept is presented for a prototype drilling tool based upon the technical advances. The technology described herein is the subject of U.S. Patent Application No. 62219481, entitled "DRILLING SYSTEM VIBRATION SUPPRESSION SYSTEMS AND METHODS", filed September 16, 2015.

  2. Stress-induced suppression of testosterone secretion in male alligators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, V A; Elsey, R M

    1986-08-01

    In order to test the effect of acute stress on gonadal hormone secretion in reptiles, six mature male alligators were captured, and a blood sample was taken within 5 min of capture. Additional blood samples were taken at timed intervals for up to 41 hr, and plasma testosterone and corticosterone were measured by radioimmunoassay. Plasma testosterone declined to 50% of the initial value by 4 hr and dropped to less than 10% of initial by 24 hr. Plasma corticosterone increased during the first 12 hr, declined at 24 hr, and rose again at 40 hr. Blood samples from male alligators collected in North and South Carolina, south Florida, and in south Louisiana in two consecutive breeding seasons were also assayed for testosterone and corticosterone. In these populations there were significant differences in mean plasma testosterone and corticosterone levels. Elevated corticosterone levels were consistently seen in alligators caught in traps and from which a blood sample was taken several hours later. Plasma testosterone, although consistently lower in trapped alligators, did not show a negative correlation with plasma corticosterone. Farm-reared alligators bled once, released, and bled again at 24 hr also showed a highly significant suppression of testosterone secretion. These results demonstrate that stress has a rapid and dramatic effect on testicular steroid secretion in both farm-reared and wild alligators.

  3. Solar glint suppression in compact planetary ultraviolet spectrographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Michael W.; Cook, Jason C.; Grava, Cesare; Greathouse, Thomas K.; Gladstone, G. Randall; Retherford, Kurt D.

    2015-08-01

    Solar glint suppression is an important consideration in the design of compact photon-counting ultraviolet spectrographs. Southwest Research Institute developed the Lyman Alpha Mapping Project for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (launch in 2009), and the Ultraviolet Spectrograph on Juno (Juno-UVS, launch in 2011). Both of these compact spectrographs revealed minor solar glints in flight that did not appear in pre-launch analyses. These glints only appeared when their respective spacecraft were operating outside primary science mission parameters. Post-facto scattered light analysis verifies the geometries at which these glints occurred and why they were not caught during ground testing or nominal mission operations. The limitations of standard baffle design at near-grazing angles are discussed, as well as the importance of including surface scatter properties in standard stray light analyses when determining solar keep-out efficiency. In particular, the scattered light analysis of these two instruments shows that standard "one bounce" assumptions in baffle design are not always enough to prevent scattered sunlight from reaching the instrument focal plane. Future builds, such as JUICE-UVS, will implement improved scattered and stray light modeling early in the design phase to enhance capabilities in extended mission science phases, as well as optimize solar keep out volume.

  4. Recombinant adenovirus-mediated gene transfer suppresses experimental arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Quattrocchi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Collagen Induced Arthritis (CIA is a widely studied animal model to develop and test novel therapeutic approaches for treating Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA in humans. Soluble Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Antigen 4 (CTLA4-Ig, which binds B7 molecule on antigen presenting cells and blocks CD28 mediated T-lymphocyte activation, has been shown to ameliorate experimental autoimmune diseases such as lupus, diabetes and CIA. Objective of our research was to investigate in vivo the effectiveness of blocking the B7/CD28 T-lymphocyte co-stimulatory pathway, utilizing a gene transfer technology, as a therapeutic strategy against CIA. Replication-deficient adenoviruses encoding a chimeric CTLA4-Ig fusion protein, or β-galactosidase as control, have been injected intravenously once at arthritis onset. Disease activity has been monitored by the assessment of clinical score, paw thickness and type II collagen (CII specific cellular and humoral immune responses for 21 days. The adenovirally delivered CTLA4-Ig fusion protein at a dose of 2×108 pfu suppressed established CIA, whereas the control β-galactosidase did not significantly affect the disease course. CII-specific lymphocyte proliferation, IFNg production and anti-CII antibodies were significantly reduced by CTLA4-Ig treatment. Our results demonstrate that blockade of the B7/CD28 co-stimulatory pathway by adenovirus-mediated CTLA4-Ig gene transfer is effective in treating established CIA suggesting its potential in treating RA.

  5. Ways to suppress click and pop for class D amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haishi, Wang; Bo, Zhang; Jiang, Sun

    2012-08-01

    Undesirable audio click and pop may be generated in a speaker or headphone. Compared to linear (class A/B/AB) amplifiers, class D amplifiers that comprise of an input stage and a modulation stage are more prone to producing click and pop. This article analyzes sources that generate click and pop in class D amplifiers, and corresponding ways to suppress them. For a class D amplifier with a single-ended input, click and pop is likely to be due to two factors. One is from a voltage difference (VDIF) between the voltage of an input capacitance (VCIN) and a reference voltage (VREF) of the input stage, and the other one is from the non-linear switching during the setting up of the bias and feedback voltages/currents (BFVC) of the modulation stage. In this article, a fast charging loop is introduced into the input stage to charge VCIN to roughly near VREF. Then a correction loop further charges or discharges VCIN, substantially equalizing it with VREF. Dummy switches are introduced into the modulation stage to provide switching signals for setting up BFVC, and the power switches are disabled until the BFVC are set up successfully. A two channel single-ended class D amplifier with the above features is fabricated with 0.5 μm Bi-CMOS process. Road test and fast Fourier transform analysis indicate that there is no noticeable click and pop.

  6. Modic type 1 changes. Detection performance of fat-suppressed fluid-sensitive MRI sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finkenstaedt, Tim; Andreisek, Gustav [University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland). Inst. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Del Grande, Filippo [Ospedale Regionale di Lugano (Switzerland). Inst. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Bolog, Nicolae [Phoenix Diagnostic Clinic, Bucharest (Romania); Ulrich, Nils; Tok, Sina [Schulthess Clinic, Zurich (Switzerland). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Kolokythas, Orpheus [Kantonsspital Winterthur (Switzerland). Inst. for Radiology and Nuclear Medicine; Steurer, Johann [University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland). Horten Center for Patient Oriented Research and Knowledge Transfer; Winklhofer, Sebastian [University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland). Inst. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland). Dept. of Neuroradiology; Collaboration: LSOS Study Group

    2018-02-15

    To assess the performance of fat-suppressed fluid-sensitive MRI sequences compared to T1-weighted (T1w) / T2w sequences for the detection of Modic 1 end-plate changes on lumbar spine MRI. Sagittal T1w, T2w, and fat-suppressed fluid-sensitive MRI images of 100 consecutive patients (consequently 500 vertebral segments; 52 female, mean age 74 ± 7.4 years; 48 male, mean age 71 ± 6.3 years) were retrospectively evaluated. We recorded the presence (yes/no) and extension (i.e., Likert-scale of height, volume, and end-plate extension) of Modic I changes in T1w/T2w sequences and compared the results to fat-suppressed fluid-sensitive sequences (McNemar/Wilcoxon-signed-rank test). Fat-suppressed fluid-sensitive sequences revealed significantly more Modic I changes compared to T1w/T2w sequences (156 vs. 93 segments, respectively; p < 0.001). The extension of Modic I changes in fat-suppressed fluid-sensitive sequences was significantly larger compared to T1w/T2w sequences (height: 2.53 ± 0.82 vs. 2.27 ± 0.79, volume: 2.35 ± 0.76 vs. 2.1 ± 0.65, end-plate: 2.46 ± 0.76 vs. 2.19 ± 0.81), (p < 0.05). Modic I changes that were only visible in fat-suppressed fluid-sensitive sequences but not in T1w/T2w sequences were significantly smaller compared to Modic I changes that were also visible in T1w/T2w sequences (p < 0.05). In conclusion, fat-suppressed fluid-sensitive MRI sequences revealed significantly more Modic I end-plate changes and demonstrated a greater extent compared to standard T1w/T2w imaging.

  7. Cross-cultural differences in emotion suppression in everyday interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huwaë, Sylvia; Schaafsma, Juliette

    2016-05-11

    Previous research suggests that in collectivistic cultures, people tend to suppress their emotions more than in individualistic cultures. Little research, however, has explored cross-cultural differences in emotion regulation in everyday interactions. Using a daily social interaction method, we examined whether people from collectivistic backgrounds (Chinese exchange students and immigrants from the Moluccas, Indonesia) living in the Netherlands differed from those from individualistic backgrounds (Dutch natives) in emotion suppression during everyday interactions. We also examined whether this depended on their relationship with the interaction partner(s). We found that Chinese participants suppressed positive and negative emotions more than Dutch and Moluccan participants and that this was related to differences in interdependent and independent self-construal across the samples. We also found that Chinese participants suppressed positive emotions less in interactions with close others, whereas Dutch participants suppressed negative emotions more with non-close others. No such differences were found for Moluccans. Our findings support the idea that people from collectivistic cultures suppress emotions more than those from individualistic cultures, but they also suggest that this depends on who the interaction partner is. Furthermore, they suggest that emotion suppression may change when people with collectivistic backgrounds have been raised in individualistic cultures. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  8. Cold suppresses agonist-induced activation of TRPV1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, M-K; Wang, S

    2011-09-01

    Cold therapy is frequently used to reduce pain and edema following acute injury or surgery such as tooth extraction. However, the neurobiological mechanisms of cold therapy are not completely understood. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a capsaicin- and heat-gated nociceptive ion channel implicated in thermosensation and pathological pain under conditions of inflammation or injury. Although capsaicin-induced nociception, neuropeptide release, and ionic currents are suppressed by cold, it is not known if cold suppresses agonist-induced activation of recombinant TRPV1. We demonstrate that cold strongly suppressed the activation of recombinant TRPV1 by multiple agonists and capsaicin-evoked currents in trigeminal ganglia neurons under normal and phosphorylated conditions. Cold-induced suppression was partially impaired in a TRPV1 mutant that lacked heat-mediated activation and potentiation. These results suggest that cold-induced suppression of TRPV1 may share a common molecular basis with heat-induced potentiation, and that allosteric inhibition may contribute, in part, to the cold-induced suppression. We also show that combination of cold and a specific antagonist of TRPV1 can produce an additive suppression. Our results provide a mechanistic basis for cold therapy and may enhance anti-nociceptive approaches that target TRPV1 for managing pain under inflammation and tissue injury, including that from tooth extraction.

  9. Compton suppression naa in the analysis of food and beverages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Y.A.; Ewa, I.O.B.; Umar, I.M.; Funtua, I.I.; Lanberger, S.; O'kelly, D.J.; Braisted, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    Applicability and performance of Compton suppression method in the analysis of food and beverages was re-established in this study. Using ''1''3''7Cs and ''6''0Co point sources Compton Suppression Factors (SF), Compton Reduction Factors (RF), Peak-to-Compton ratio (P/C), Compton Plateau (C p l), and Compton Edge (C e ) were determined for each of the two sources. The natural background reduction factors in the anticoincidence mode compared to the normal mode were evaluated. The reported R.F. values of the various Compton spectrometers for ''6''0Co source at energy 50-210 keV (backscattering region), 600 keV (Compton edge corresponding to 1173.2 keV gamma-ray) and 1110 keV (Compton edge corresponding to 1332.5 keV gamma-ray) were compared with that of the present work. Similarly the S.F. values of the spectrometers for ''1''3''7Cs source were compared at the backscattered energy region (S.F. b = 191-210 keV), Compton Plateau (S.F. p l = 350-370 keV), and Compton Edge (S.F. e = 471-470 keV) and all were found to follow a similar trend. We also compared peak reduction ratios for the two cobalt energies (1173.2 and 1332.5) with the ones reported in literature and two results agree well. Applicability of the method to food and beverages was put to test for twenty one major, minor, and trace elements (Ba, Sr, I, Br, Cu, V, Mg, Na, Cl, Mn, Ca, Sn,K, Cd, Zn, As, Sb, Ni, Cs, Fe, and Co) commonly found in food, milk, tea and tobacco. The elements were assayed using five National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) certified reference materials (Non-fat powdered milk, Apple leaves, Tomato leaves, and Citrus leaves). The results obtained shows good agreement with NIST certified values, indicating that the method is suitable for simultaneous determination of micro-nutrients, macro-nutrients and heavy elements in food and beverages without undue interference problems

  10. Comparative Metatranscriptomics of Wheat Rhizosphere Microbiomes in Disease Suppressive and Non-suppressive Soils for Rhizoctonia solani AG8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen L. Hayden

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The soilborne fungus Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group (AG 8 is a major pathogen of grain crops resulting in substantial production losses. In the absence of resistant cultivars of wheat or barley, a sustainable and enduring method for disease control may lie in the enhancement of biological disease suppression. Evidence of effective biological control of R. solani AG8 through disease suppression has been well documented at our study site in Avon, South Australia. A comparative metatranscriptomic approach was applied to assess the taxonomic and functional characteristics of the rhizosphere microbiome of wheat plants grown in adjacent fields which are suppressive and non-suppressive to the plant pathogen R. solani AG8. Analysis of 12 rhizosphere metatranscriptomes (six per field was undertaken using two bioinformatic approaches involving unassembled and assembled reads. Differential expression analysis showed the dominant taxa in the rhizosphere based on mRNA annotation were Arthrobacter spp. and Pseudomonas spp. for non-suppressive samples and Stenotrophomonas spp. and Buttiauxella spp. for the suppressive samples. The assembled metatranscriptome analysis identified more differentially expressed genes than the unassembled analysis in the comparison of suppressive and non-suppressive samples. Suppressive samples showed greater expression of a polyketide cyclase, a terpenoid biosynthesis backbone gene (dxs and many cold shock proteins (csp. Non-suppressive samples were characterised by greater expression of antibiotic genes such as non-heme chloroperoxidase (cpo which is involved in pyrrolnitrin synthesis, and phenazine biosynthesis family protein F (phzF and its transcriptional activator protein (phzR. A large number of genes involved in detoxifying reactive oxygen species (ROS and superoxide radicals (sod, cat, ahp, bcp, gpx1, trx were also expressed in the non-suppressive rhizosphere samples most likely in response to the infection of wheat

  11. Suppressing voltage transients in high voltage power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lickel, K.F.; Stonebank, R.

    1979-01-01

    A high voltage power supply for an X-ray tubes includes voltage adjusting means, a high voltage transformer, switch means connected to make and interrupt the primary current of the transformer, and over-voltage suppression means to suppress the voltage transient produced when the current is switched on. In order to reduce the power losses in the suppression means, an impedance is connected in the transformer primary circuit on operation of the switch means and is subsequently short-circuited by a switch controlled by a timer after a period which is automatically adjusted to the duration of the transient overvoltage. (U.K.)

  12. Analysis of Globodera rostochiensis effectors reveals conserved functions of SPRYSEC proteins in suppressing and eliciting plant immune responses

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Shawkat; Magne, Maxime; Chen, Shiyan; Obradovic, Natasa; Jamshaid, Lubna; Wang, Xiaohong; Bé lair, Guy; Moffett, Peter

    2015-01-01

    in Nicotiana benthamiana and N. tabacum. We have found that all SPRYSEC proteins tested are able to suppress defense responses induced by NB-LRR proteins as well as cell death induced by elicitors, suggesting that defense repression is a common characteristic

  13. Suppression of the immune response to ovalbumin in vivo by anti-idiotypic antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinevich, A.S.; Pinegin, B.V.

    1986-01-01

    Conditions of suppression of the immune response to a food allergin (ovalbumin) were studied with the aid of anti-idiotypic (AID) antibodies. Hen ovalbumin was used and the experiments were performed on mice. Antibodies were isolated from the resulting protein fractions and tested for inhibitor activity by the method of direct radioimmunologic analysis. The test system consisted of the reaction of binding the globulin fraction to the total preparation of antibodies to ovalbumin from mice and a 125 I-labeled total preparation of antibodies to ovalbumin of the same animals

  14. Statistical evaluation of steam condensation loads in pressure suppression pool, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukita, Yutaka; Takeshita, Isao; Namatame, Ken; Shiba, Masayoshi; Kato, Masami; Moriya, Kumiaki.

    1981-10-01

    The LOCA steam condensation loads in the BWR pressure suppression pool was evaluated with use of the test data obtained in the first eight tests of the JAERI Full-Scale Mark II CRT Program. Through this evaluation, finite desynchronization between the vent pressures during the chugging and the condensation oscillation phases was identified and quantified. The characteristics of the pressure oscillation propagation through the vent pipe and in the pool water, the fluid-structure-interaction (FSI) effects on the pool pressure loads, and the characteristics of the vent lateral loads were also investigated. (author)

  15. Gender Difference in TEOAEs and Contralateral Suppression of TEOAEs in Normal Hearing Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Zamiri Abdollahi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Otoacoustic emissions (OAEs are sounds that originate in cochlea and are measured in external auditory canal and provide a simple, efficient and non-invasive objective indicator of healthy cochlear function. Olivo cochlear bundle (OCB or auditory efferent system is a neural feedback pathway which originated from brain stem and terminated in the inner ear and can be evaluated non-invasively by applying a contralateral acoustic stimulus and simultaneously measuring reduction of OAEs amplitude. In this study gender differences in TEOAE amplitude and suppression of TEOAE were investigated. Methods: This study was performed at Akhavan rehabilitation centre belonging to the University of Social welfare and rehabilitation sciences, Tehran, Iran in 2011. 60 young adults (30 female and 30 male between 21 and 27 years old (mean=24 years old, SD=1.661 with normal hearing criteria were selected. Right ear of all cases were tested to neutralize side effect if there is any. Results: According to Independent t-test, TEOAE amplitude was significantly greater in females with mean value of 24.98 dB (P<0.001 and TEOAE suppression was significantly greater in males with mean value of 2.07 dB (P<0.001. Discussion: This study shows that there is a significant gender difference in adult’s TEOAE (cochlear mechanisms and TEOAE suppression (auditory efferent system. The exact reason for these results is not clear. According to this study different norms for males and females might be necessary.

  16. Host DNA synthesis-suppressing factor in culture fluid of tissue cultures infected with measles virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minagawa, T.; Nakaya, C.; Iida, H.

    1974-01-01

    Host DNA synthesis is suppressed by the culture fluid of cell cultures infected with measles virus. This activity in the culture fluid is initiated somewhat later than the growth of infectious virus. Ninety percent of host DNA synthesis in HeLa cells is inhibited by culture fluid of 3-day-old cell cultures of Vero or HeLa cells infected with measles virus. This suppressing activity is not a property of the virion, but is due to nonvirion-associated componentnent which shows none of the activities of measles virus such as hemagglutination, hemolysis, or cell fusion nor does it have the antigenicity of measles virus as tested by complement-fixation or hemagglutination-inhibiting antibody blocking tests. Neutralization of the activity of this component is not attained with the pooled sera of convalescent measles patients. This component has molecular weights of about 45,000, 20,000, and 3,000 and appears to be a heat-stable protein. The production of host DNA suppressing factor (DSF) is blocked by cycloheximide. Neither uv-inactivated nor antiserum-neutralized measles virus produce DSF. Furthermore, such activity of nonvirion-associated component is not detected in the culture fluid of cultures infected with other RNA viruses such as poliovirus, vesicular stomatitis virus, or Sindbis virus. (auth)

  17. Emotional memory can be persistently weakened by suppressing cortisol during retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimmele, Ulrike; Besedovsky, Luciana; Lange, Tanja; Born, Jan

    2015-03-01

    Cortisol's effects on memory follow an inverted U-shaped function such that memory retrieval is impaired with very low concentrations, presumably due to insufficient activation of high-affine mineralocorticoid receptors (MR), or with very high concentrations, due to predominant low-affine glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activation. Through corresponding changes in re-encoding, the retrieval effect of cortisol might translate into a persistent change of the retrieved memory. We tested whether partial suppression of morning cortisol synthesis by metyrapone, leading to intermediate, circadian nadir-like levels with presumed predominant MR activation, improves retrieval, particularly of emotional memory, and persistently changes the memory. In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, within-subject cross-over design, 18 men were orally administered metyrapone (1g) vs. placebo at 4:00 AM to suppress the morning cortisol rise. Retrieval of emotional and neutral texts and pictures (learned 3 days earlier) was assessed 4h after substance administration and a second time one week later. Metyrapone suppressed endogenous cortisol release to circadian nadir-equivalent levels at the time of retrieval testing. Contrary to our expectations, metyrapone significantly impaired free recall of emotional texts (ppictures remained unaffected. One week later, participants still showed lower memory for emotional texts in the metyrapone than placebo condition (pmemories corroborates the concept that retrieval effects of cortisol produce persistent memory changes, possibly by affecting re-encoding. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Vibration isolation/suppression: research experience for undergraduates in mechatronics and smart structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonda, James; Rao, Vittal S.; Sana, Sridhar

    2001-08-01

    This paper provides an account of a student research project conducted under the sponsoring of the National Science Foundation (NSF) program on Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) in Mechatronics and Smart Strictures in the summer of 2000. The objective of the research is to design and test a stand-alone controller for a vibration isolation/suppression system. The design specification for the control system is to suppress the vibrations induced by the external disturbances by at least fiver times and hence to achieve vibration isolation. Piezo-electric sensors and actuators are utilized for suppression of unwanted vibrations. Various steps such as modeling of the system, controller design, simulation, closed-loop testing using d- Space rapid prototyping system, and analog control implementation are discussed in the paper. Procedures for data collection, the trade-offs carried out in the design, and analog controller implementation issues are also presented in the paper. The performances of various controllers are compared. The experiences of an undergraduate student are summarized in the conclusion of the paper.

  19. Cloud Processed CCN Suppress Stratus Cloud Drizzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, J. G.; Noble, S. R., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Conversion of sulfur dioxide to sulfate within cloud droplets increases the sizes and decreases the critical supersaturation, Sc, of cloud residual particles that had nucleated the droplets. Since other particles remain at the same sizes and Sc a size and Sc gap is often observed. Hudson et al. (2015) showed higher cloud droplet concentrations (Nc) in stratus clouds associated with bimodal high-resolution CCN spectra from the DRI CCN spectrometer compared to clouds associated with unimodal CCN spectra (not cloud processed). Here we show that CCN spectral shape (bimodal or unimodal) affects all aspects of stratus cloud microphysics and drizzle. Panel A shows mean differential cloud droplet spectra that have been divided according to traditional slopes, k, of the 131 measured CCN spectra in the Marine Stratus/Stratocumulus Experiment (MASE) off the Central California coast. K is generally high within the supersaturation, S, range of stratus clouds (< 0.5%). Because cloud processing decreases Sc of some particles, it reduces k. Panel A shows higher concentrations of small cloud droplets apparently grown on lower k CCN than clouds grown on higher k CCN. At small droplet sizes the concentrations follow the k order of the legend, black, red, green, blue (lowest to highest k). Above 13 µm diameter the lines cross and the hierarchy reverses so that blue (highest k) has the highest concentrations followed by green, red and black (lowest k). This reversed hierarchy continues into the drizzle size range (panel B) where the most drizzle drops, Nd, are in clouds grown on the least cloud-processed CCN (blue), while clouds grown on the most processed CCN (black) have the lowest Nd. Suppression of stratus cloud drizzle by cloud processing is an additional 2nd indirect aerosol effect (IAE) that along with the enhancement of 1st IAE by higher Nc (panel A) are above and beyond original IAE. However, further similar analysis is needed in other cloud regimes to determine if MASE was

  20. Suppression of the dayside magnetopause surface modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilipenko V.A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnetopause surface eigenmodes were suggested as a potential source of dayside high-latitude broadband pulsations in the Pc5-6 band (frequency about 1–2 mHz. However, the search for a ground signature of these modes has not provided encouraging results. The comparison of multi-instrument data from Svalbard with the latitudinal structure of Pc5-6 pulsations, recorded by magnetometers covering near-cusp latitudes, has shown that often the latitudinal maximum of pulsation power occurs about 2–3° deeper in the magnetosphere than the dayside open-closed field line boundary (OCB. The OCB proxy was determined from SuperDARN radar data as the equatorward boundary of enhanced width of a return radio signal. The OCB-ULF correspondence is further examined by comparing the latitudinal profile of the near-noon pulsation power with the equatorward edge of the auroral red emission from the meridian scanning photometer. In most analyzed events, the “epicenter” of Pc5-6 power is at 1–2° lower latitude than the optical OCB proxy. Therefore, the dayside Pc5-6 pulsations cannot be associated with the ground image of the magnetopause surface modes or with oscillations of the last field line. A lack of ground response to these modes beneath the ionospheric projection of OCB seems puzzling. As a possible explanation, we suggest that a high variability of the outer magnetosphere near the magnetopause region may suppress the excitation efficiency. To quantify this hypothesis, we consider a driven field line resonator terminated by conjugate ionospheres with stochastic fluctuations of its eigenfrequency. A solution of this problem predicts a substantial deterioration of resonant properties of MHD resonator even under a relatively low level of background fluctuations. This effect may explain why there is no ground response to magnetopause surface modes or oscillations of the last field line at the OCB latitude, but it can be seen at somewhat lower latitudes